WorldWideScience
1

The unit cost factors and calculation methods for decommissioning - Cost estimation of nuclear research facilities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: The uncertainties of decommissioning costs increase high due to several conditions. Decommissioning cost estimation depends on the complexity of nuclear installations, its site-specific physical and radiological inventories. Therefore, the decommissioning costs of nuclear research facilities must be estimated in accordance with the detailed sub-tasks and resources by the tasks of decommissioning activities. By selecting the classified activities and resources, costs are calculated by the items and then the total costs of all decommissioning activities are reshuffled to match with its usage and objectives. And the decommissioning cost of nuclear research facilities is calculated by applying a unit cost factor method on which classification of decommissioning works fitted with the features and specifications of decommissioning objects and establishment of composition factors are based. Decommissioning costs of nuclear research facilities are composed of labor cost, equipment and materials cost. Of these three categorical costs, the calculation of labor costs are very important because decommissioning activities mainly depend on labor force. Labor costs in decommissioning activities are calculated on the basis of working time consumed in decommissioning objects and works. The working times are figured out of unit cost factors and work difficulty factors. Finally, labor costs are figured out by using theselabor costs are figured out by using these factors as parameters of calculation. The accuracy of decommissioning cost estimation results is much higher compared to the real decommissioning works. (authors)

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Cost Analysis in Hospitals and Calculation of Unit Costs in Medical Rehabilitation Services  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to demonstrate that actual cost values of medical rehabilitation services and cost functions could be estimated by using cost analysis in a physical and rehabilitation medicine (PMR clinic of a third-level hospital. This, in turn, could guide the hospital administrators in their financial planning, performance audit, and quality development issues.Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective study which was conducted by investigating and evaluating the medical, administrative, financial, and technical data. The true population of the study consisted of medical rehabilitation services provided in a PMR clinic of a third-level hospital in 2010. Since sampling was not done, all treatment sessions of outpatients and inpatients done in the PMR unit were included in the study. Results: After analysis, the cost for an outpatient was found to be 72.02 TL, for an inpatient 7.825.54 TL, for patient day 221.05 TL and for a PMR session 49.38 TL. These values were higher than the values paid to medical care providers by the Social Security Institution. Conclusion: Reimbursement institutions need to take cost analysis data into consideration when determining the rates of repayment for medical care providers. Turk J Phys Med Re­hab 2012;58:103-8.

?smail A??rba?

2012-06-01

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Adaptation of activity-based-costing (ABC) to calculate unit costs in Mental Health Care in Spain  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: English Abstract in english Background: To date, numerous cost-of-illness studies have been using methodologies that don't provide trustworthy results for decision making in mental health care. Objectives: The aims of this paper are design and implement a cost methodology by process of patient's care to calculate unit costs in [...] mental health in Spain in 2005 and compare the results with the reached ones by traditional methods. Methods: We adapted Activity-Based-Costing to this field analyzing the organizational and management structure of Mental Health's public services in a region of Spain, Navarre, describing the processes of care to patient in each resource and calculating their cost. Results: We implemented this methodology in all resources and obtained unit cost per service. There are great differences between our results and the ones calculated by traditional systems. We display one example of these disparities contrasting our cost with the reached one by the methodology of Diagnostic Related Group (DRG). Conclusions: This cost methodology offers more advantages for management than traditional methods provide.

Karen, Moreno.

2007-06-01

4

REVIEW OF METHODOLOGIES FOR COSTS CALCULATING OF RUMINANTS IN SLOVAKIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this work was to synthesise and analyse the methodologies and the biological aspects of the costs calculation in ruminants in Slovakia. According to literature, the account classification of cost items is most often considered for construction of costing formula. The costs are mostly divided into fixed (costs independent from volume of herd’s production and variable ones (costs connected with improvement of breeding conditions. Cost for feeds and beddings, labour costs, other direct costs and depreciations were found as the most important cost items in ruminants. It can be assumed that including the depreciations into costs of the basic herd takes into consideration the real costs simultaneously invested into raising of young animals in the given period. Costs are calculated for the unit of the main and by-products and their classification is influenced mainly by the type of livestock and production system. In dairy cows is usually milk defined as the main product, and by- products are live born calf and manure. The base calculation unit is kilogram of milk (basic herd of cows and kilogram of gain and kilogram of live weight (young breeding cattle. In suckler cows is a live-born calf the main product and manure is the by-product. The costs are mostly calculated per suckler cow, live-born calf and per kilogram of live weight of weaned calf. Similar division of products into main and by-products is also in cost calculation for sheep categories. The difference is that clotted cheese is also considered as the main product of basic herd in dairy sheep and greasy wool as the by-products in all categories. Definition of the base calculation units in sheep categories followed the mentioned classification. The value of a by-product in cattle and sheep is usually set according to its quantity and intra- plant price of the by-product. In the calculation of the costs for sheep and cattle the “structural ewe” and “structural cow” proportionally integrate the costs of other categories of the herd into the costs of the basic herd. Subtraction, allocation and combined calculation methods of costs are the most used in breeding of ruminants. It is recommended to consider specific breeding conditions and objective calculation of costs for the relevant category, when picking out the method of calculation.

Zuzana KRUPOVÁ

2012-09-01

5

Calculate your steam generation costs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This cost estimation method for planning or evaluating steam stimulation includes all of the principal items upstream of the wellhead. The method brings all upstream costs together on a standard basis and separates these into fixed and variable expenses. Fixed expenses are those not directly related to the volumes of steam injected. These include such items as move-in and rig-up, water supply and storage, housing, fuel supply and storage, surface equipment, and tear-down and move-out. Variable expenses are those which vary according to the volume of steam generated. Examples of these are water treatment, fuel cost, labor, equipment rentals, purchases, and auxiliary power. Cost estimating methods are included for such water treatments as water softening, oxygen removal, pH control, and filtration.

Bullen, R.S.; Bartley, L.R.

1967-08-01

6

PROSPECTS OF MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING AND COST CALCULATION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Progress in improving production technology requires appropriate measures to achieve an efficient management of costs. This raises the need for continuous improvement of management accounting and cost calculation. Accounting information in general, and management accounting information in particular, have gained importance in the current economic conditions, which are characterized by risk and uncertainty. The future development of management accounting and cost calculation is essential to meet the information needs of management.

Marian ?AICU

2014-11-01

7

Cost calculation in agricultural enterprises in theory and practice  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article is dedicated to evolution of the production costs calculation theory in agriculture from the second half of XVIII century till present times. The author emphasized long lasting dispute among the economists about usefulness of the full account of unit costs of production in evaluation of production profitability. Moreover, utility of the part-costs account in evaluation of production competitiveness, as well as their value in evaluation of the production processes and structure (using optimisation methods was analysed. Additionally article describes current problems of cost calculation in agriculture.

Wojciech Zi?tara

2009-01-01

8

Applying Activity Based Costing (ABC Method to Calculate Cost Price in Hospital and Remedy Services  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Activity Based Costing (ABC is one of the new methods began appearing as a costing methodology in the 1990. It calculates cost price by determining the usage of resources. In this study, ABC method was used for calculating cost price of remedial services in hospitals.Methods: To apply ABC method, Shahid Faghihi Hospital was selected. First, hospital units were divided into three main departments: administrative, diagnostic, and hospitalized. Second, activity centers were defined by the activity analysis method. Third, costs of administrative activity centers were allocated into diagnostic and operational departments based on the cost driver. Finally, with regard to the usage of cost objectives from services of activity centers, the cost price of medical services was calculated.Results: The cost price from ABC method significantly differs from tariff method. In addition, high amount of indirect costs in the hospital indicates that capacities of resources are not used properly.Conclusion: Cost price of remedial services with tariff method is not properly calculated when compared with ABC method. ABC calculates cost price by applying suitable mechanisms but tariff method is based on the fixed price. In addition, ABC represents useful information about the amount and combination of cost price services.

A Dabiri

2012-04-01

9

United States gas industry and cost of services  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An overview of the United States Gas industry includes the role of industry participants by segment: producer, pipeline and distributor. A scheme of Industry transactions in 1995 shows the connection between the participants. Gross cost of service includes: operation and maintenance; administrative depreciation, non-income taxes, income taxes and return. Other revenues are subtracted to obtain net cost of service. Detailed scheme is shown for calculating the rate base of a single company with the method for calculation of return

10

Low-cost inertial measurement unit.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Sandia National Laboratories performs many expensive tests using inertial measurement units (IMUs)--systems that use accelerometers, gyroscopes, and other sensors to measure flight dynamics in three dimensions. For the purpose of this report, the metrics used to evaluate an IMU are cost, size, performance, resolution, upgradeability and testing. The cost of a precision IMU is very high and can cost hundreds of thousands of dollars. Thus the goals and results of this project are as follows: (1) Examine the data flow in an IMU and determine a generic IMU design. (2) Discuss a high cost IMU implementation and its theoretically achievable results. (3) Discuss design modifications that would save money for suited applications. (4) Design and implement a low cost IMU and discuss its theoretically achievable results. (5) Test the low cost IMU and compare theoretical results with empirical results. (6) Construct a more streamlined printed circuit board design reducing noise, increasing capabilities, and constructing a self-contained unit. Using these results, we can compare a high cost IMU versus a low cost IMU using the metrics from above. Further, we can examine and suggest situations where a low cost IMU could be used instead of a high cost IMU for saving cost, size, or both.

Deyle, Travis Jay

2005-03-01

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Cost estimating for CERCLA remedial alternatives a unit cost methodology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Guidance for Conducting Remedial Investigations and Feasibility Studies Under CERCLA, Interim Final, dated October 1988 (EPA 1988) requires a detailed analysis be conducted of the most promising remedial alternatives against several evaluation criteria, including cost. To complete the detailed analysis, order-of-magnitude cost estimates (having an accuracy of +50 percent to -30 percent) must be developed for each remedial alternative. This paper presents a methodology for developing cost estimates of remedial alternatives comprised of various technology and process options with a wide range of estimated contaminated media quantities. In addition, the cost estimating methodology provides flexibility for incorporating revisions to remedial alternatives and achieves the desired range of accuracy. It is important to note that the cost estimating methodology presented here was developed as a concurrent path to the development of contaminated media quantity estimates. This methodology can be initiated before contaminated media quantities are estimated. As a result, this methodology is useful in developing cost estimates for use in screening and evaluating remedial technologies and process options. However, remedial alternative cost estimates cannot be prepared without the contaminated media quantity estimates. In the conduct of the feasibility study for Operable Unit 5 at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), fourteen remedial alternatives were retained for detailed analysis. Each remedial alternative was composed of combinations of remedial technologies and processes which were earlier determined to be best suited for addressing the media-specific contaminants found at the FEMP site, and achieving desired remedial action objectives

12

COMPUTER PROGRAM FOR CALCULATING THE COST OF DRINKING WATER TREATMENT SYSTEMS  

Science.gov (United States)

This FORTRAN computer program calculates the construction and operation/maintenance costs for 45 centralized unit treatment processes for water supply. The calculated costs are based on various design parameters and raw water quality. These cost data are applicable to small size ...

13

Computer Program Development for House Cost Calculation  

OpenAIRE

The main purpose of this project was to develop a program, which can calculate the cost of houses. This program should accelerate a matching process between a company and users. Also the program should contain a database of building materials. The program language is PHP. PHP is a modern computer language for the development of web programs. The writing of a program code was based on the official PHP manual and a little support from a programmer in the company. For making the database of...

Korablev, Maxim

2010-01-01

14

Method development concerning cost calculations for the programme for decommissioning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this analysis is to provide an estimated total Net Present Value of the future authorities' costs for the planned decommissioning programme, cf. the Swedish decommissioning legislation. The estimated total shall be usable as part of the calculations of the following year's unit fee and the related safety allowances for nuclear generated electricity to be paid by the owners of the Swedish nuclear power plants. These calculations are conducted by the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, SKI. The calculations in this analysis take account of the recommendations in respect of fees and safety allowances which will come into force in 2004. In addition, the uncertainty associated with the Net Present Value of the authorities' costs and the principal sources of uncertainty are assessed. In the course of two analysis sessions held between May and August 2003, a broad based analysis group examined the existing calculations and their references and preconditions. The group then identified and assessed the potential sources of uncertainty; and finally assessed the impact of these sources of uncertainty on the reference costs and incorporated the corresponding corrections in the analysis. The Successive Principle was used to optimise the quality of the result. Amongst other techniques, this involves using special processes for identifying and handling the sources of uncertainty. These processes allow neutral numerical evaluation results and correct statistical calculations to be obtained. The result includes the probable impact of external developments on the costs in future, albeit excluding any serious force majeure events. Future changes to the current fixed real interest rate are similarly excluded. Given clearly defined preconditions, with allowance being made inter alia for the current fixed real interest rate, the mean value result relating to the Net Present Value of the authorities' costs is 2,487 MSEK (about 350 MUSD) with an uncertainty of ± 674 MSEK, expressed as a standard deviation

15

THE COST CALCULATION AND ANALYSIS BY MEANS OF THE STANDARD COST METHOD  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Originally known as the Estimated Cost System, it has evolved, nowadays being called Standard Cost Accounting. Standard cost calculation method is based on scheduled cost, pre-calculated, set before the start of the manufacturing process itself. This method allows the determination of the elements that influence the amount of costs and their deviations from the predetermined costs.

ADRIANA MONICA?EGLEDI

2014-05-01

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10 CFR 950.25 - Calculation of covered costs.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Calculation of covered costs. 950.25 Section...Administration Process § 950.25 Calculation of covered costs. (a) The Claims...the debt obligation was included in the calculation of the loan cost; and (2)...

2010-01-01

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49 CFR 1152.32 - Calculation of avoidable costs.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01false Calculation of avoidable costs.1152.32 ...and Return on Value§ 1152.32 Calculation of avoidable costs. This section...elements are eligible for inclusion in the calculation of avoidable costs; the...

2010-10-01

18

Calculating the true cost of robotic hysterectomy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although robotic hysterectomy does not produce significantly better outcomes than laparoscopic hysterectomy, hospitals may feel pressure from patients and clinicians to use the robotic procedure. Hospitals that opt for robotic hysterectomy over laparoscopic hysterectomy face not only higher variable costs, but also an opportunity cost in the form of lost surgical capacity. Estimating the opportunity cost of performing robotic hysterectomy provides crucial data for hospital executives in deciding whether to invest in the procedure. PMID:25145035

Tiwari, Vikram

2014-08-01

19

Recursive delay calculation unit for parametric beamformer  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents a recursive approach for parametric delay calculations for a beamformer. The suggested calculation procedure is capable of calculating the delays for any image line defined by an origin and arbitrary direction. It involves only add and shift operations making it suitable for hardware implementation. One delaycalculation unit (DCU) needs 4 parameters, and all operations can be implemented using fixed-point arithmetics. An N-channel system needs N+ 1 DCUs per line - one for the distance from the transmit origin to the image point and N for the distances from the image point to each of the receivers. Each DCU recursively calculates the square of the distance between a transducer element and a point on the beamformed line. Then it finds the approximate square root. The distance to point i is used as an initial guess for point i + 1. Using fixed-point calculations with 36-bit precision gives an error in the delay calculations on the order of 1/64 samples, at a sampling frequency of f s = 40 MHz. The circuit has been synthesized for a Virtex II Pro device speed grade 6 in two versions - a pipelined and a non-pipelined producing 150 and 30 million delays per second, respectively. The non-pipelined circuit occupies about 0.5 % of the FPGA resources and the pipelined one about 1 %. When the square root is found with a pipelined CORDIC processor, 2 % of the FPGA slices are used to deliver 150 million delays per second.

Nikolov, Svetoslav I.; Jensen, Jørgen A.; Tomov, Borislav

2006-03-01

20

The cost of nuclear electricity: economic values and political calculations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The subject is covered in sections: introduction (monetary inflation; US-style rate-base formula; cost escalation); electricity generation costs (rate-base calculation formula; regulatory versus economic costs; inflationary case; cost-of-service rates versus inflation; first year electricity costs); rate shock (A. comparison with oil; B. nuclear case; C. comparison with coal/nuclear system; vintaged electricity costs versus growth and inflation); conclusions. (U.K.)

21

31 CFR 205.27 - How are Interest Calculation Costs calculated?  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 false How are Interest Calculation Costs calculated? 205.27 Section...Agreement § 205.27 How are Interest Calculation Costs calculated? (a) We will...clearance patterns in support of interest calculations, pursuant to this subpart A,...

2010-07-01

22

Cost effectiveness in the intensive care unit.  

Science.gov (United States)

Effective policies to reduce true costs will require integrated information systems and demand behavioral changes from providers. A congenial environment must be created among medical educators, providers, vendors, and consumers if cost reduction is to be accomplished without compromising quality or access to critical care services. Physicians should do everything they believe may be of benefit for their patients, but we have an obligation to educate the public about the limitations of our art and the fact that "doing everything" is not always best for the patient or the grieving family. A significant method of controlling ICU costs is closely monitoring which patients are admitted and when they are discharged. Laboratory tests represent a source of cost reduction, and physicians must learn to order specific tests and not simply a battery of tests which includes the actual test desired. Limits should be placed on the tests that are ordered in terms of number and frequency. Improved efficiency of the utilization of resources should improve the care of our patients. The largest budget item of any or most critical care units is nursing; it is paramount that this essential and invaluable resource be utilized in a cost-effective manner. Diminishing unnecessary activity will both decrease complications and have salutary effects. Having more time to be with patients and their families will decrease our sense of failure and fulfill the important goal of caring. Physicians and nurses can return to thinking, assessing, and decision making instead of frenetically ordering, reacting, and intervening, which, we believe, accurately describes informational overload created by undue emphasis on high technology. In this way, we can respond to Fuch's exhortation that "physicians consider the possibility of contributing more by doing less." In responding, however, we must never forget that the societal, not merely the economic impact of medical care, is our principal consideration. We must first contribute more by achieving a greater understanding of the medical care process. Only then can we know how to do less at the bedside. We can and must distinguish between costly and high-quality care--they are not necessarily synonymous. PMID:8629199

Kirton, O C; Civetta, J M; Hudson-Civetta, J

1996-02-01

23

Cost Calculation and Cost Management of Multinational Research Projects.  

Science.gov (United States)

Discussion of cost management in international research projects looks at research activities supported by the European Community (EC) and their mechanisms for support, model interinstitutional contracts, and the difficulties encountered by institutions, and comments on the vital continued EC participation by universities in research and…

Hurst, Roderick E.

1991-01-01

24

Recursive Delay Calculation Unit for Parametric Beamformer  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper presents a recursive approach for parametric delay calculations for a beamformer. The suggested calculation procedure is capable of calculating the delays for any image line defined by an origin and arbitrary direction. It involves only add and shift operations making it suitable for hardware implementation. One delaycalculation unit (DCU) needs 4 parameters, and all operations can be implemented using fixed-point arithmetics. An N -channel system needs N + 1 DCUs per line - one for the distance from the transmit origin to the image point and N for the distances from the image point to each of the receivers. Each DCU recursively calculates the square of the distance between a transducer element and a point on the beamformed line. Then it finds the approximate square root. The distance to point i is used as an initial guess for point i + 1. Using fixed-point calculations with 36-bit precision gives an error in the delay calculations on the order of 1/64 samples, at a sampling frequency of f s = 40 MHz. The circuit has been synthesized for a Virtex II Pro device speed grade 6 in two versions - a pipelined and a non-pipelined producing 150 and 30 million delays per second, respectively. The non-pipelined circuit occupies about 0.5 % of the FPGA resources and the pipelined one about 1 %. When the square root is found with a pipelined CORDIC processor, 2 % of the FPGA slices are used to deliver 150 million delays per second. © (2006) COPYRIGHT SPIE--The International Society for Optical Engineering.

Nikolov, Svetoslav; Jensen, JØrgen Arendt

2006-01-01

25

Calculating the Social Cost of Carbon  

OpenAIRE

The paper1 discusses the determination of the social cost of carbon (SCC) using the PAGE2002 model used in the Stern Review. The SCC depends sensitively on assumptions about future economic development, the range and likelihood of economic and social damage arising from climate change at future dates and the discount rate to apply to that damage. The paper critically examines the choice of pure time preference and the weight to place on damage experienced by other countries in the distant fut...

Hope, Chris

2007-01-01

26

Using Work Breakdown Structure Models to Develop Unit Treatment Costs  

Science.gov (United States)

This article presents a new cost modeling approach called work breakdown structure (WBS), designed to develop unit costs for drinking water technologies. WBS involves breaking the technology into its discrete components for the purposes of estimating unit costs. The article dem...

27

Unit costs of waste management operations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report provides estimates of generic costs for the management, disposal, and surveillance of various waste types, from the time they are generated to the end of their institutional control. Costs include monitoring and surveillance costs required after waste disposal. Available data on costs for the treatment, storage, disposal, and transportation of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive, low-level radioactive, transuranic radioactive, hazardous, mixed (low-level radioactive plus hazardous), and sanitary wastes are presented. The costs cover all major elements that contribute to the total system life-cycle (i.e., ''cradle to grave'') cost for each waste type. This total cost is the sum of fixed and variable cost components. Variable costs are affected by operating rates and throughput capacities and vary in direct proportion to changes in the level of activity. Fixed costs remain constant regardless of changes in the amount of waste, operating rates, or throughput capacities. Key factors that influence cost, such as the size and throughput capacity of facilities, are identified. In many cases, ranges of values for the key variables are presented. For some waste types, the planned or estimated costs for storage and disposal, projected to the year 2000, are presented as graphics

28

Unit costs of waste management operations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report provides estimates of generic costs for the management, disposal, and surveillance of various waste types, from the time they are generated to the end of their institutional control. Costs include monitoring and surveillance costs required after waste disposal. Available data on costs for the treatment, storage, disposal, and transportation of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive, low-level radioactive, transuranic radioactive, hazardous, mixed (low-level radioactive plus hazardous), and sanitary wastes are presented. The costs cover all major elements that contribute to the total system life-cycle (i.e., ``cradle to grave``) cost for each waste type. This total cost is the sum of fixed and variable cost components. Variable costs are affected by operating rates and throughput capacities and vary in direct proportion to changes in the level of activity. Fixed costs remain constant regardless of changes in the amount of waste, operating rates, or throughput capacities. Key factors that influence cost, such as the size and throughput capacity of facilities, are identified. In many cases, ranges of values for the key variables are presented. For some waste types, the planned or estimated costs for storage and disposal, projected to the year 2000, are presented as graphics.

Kisieleski, W.E.; Folga, S.M.; Gillette, J.L.; Buehring, W.A.

1994-04-01

29

Aspects of Costs Calculation in a Vegetable Production Farm  

OpenAIRE

This paper deals with the aspects of the issue of costs calculation for a vegetable production farm in terms of theory and practice. Aspects of the active accounting regulations, applicable to vegetable production farms, are presented in the content. Features of the vegetable production are detailed, and the applicability of costs calculation methods is shown by the example of the “to order” method. In terms of accounting, there are presented the records made in the management accounting...

Hada, Teodor

2012-01-01

30

Patient experience – the ingredient missing from cost-effectiveness calculations  

OpenAIRE

Standard cost-effectiveness calculations as used by the UK National Institute of Clinical Excellence compare the net benefit of an intervention with the financial costs to the health service. Debates about public health interventions also focus on these factors. The subjective experience of the patient, including financial costs and also transient pain, distress, and indignity, is routinely ignored. I carried out an Internet survey which showed that members of the public assign a high financi...

Curtis, David

2011-01-01

31

External Costs Of Electricity Generation, A Proximate Calculation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Electricity generation cost of a fossil power plant includes capital cost, operation and maintenance costs and fuel cost. For a nuclear power plant the generation cost includes also a post-operation cost (decommissioning cost). The awareness of public health and environmental protection have recently urged to elaborately incorporate those costs borne by the public due to the pollution and negative effects resulting from the Electricity generation, which are called external costs. Methods and computer programs of such calculation have been published and being developed, for example the one that is being developed and promoted by the IAEA, the B-Glad computation program. The method calculates dispersion of emitted pollution to public and environment, assess the doses received and damages thereafter, and then evaluate the damages in monetary quantities. This paper illustrates calculation using the B-Glad taking the input data of nuclear power plant (NPP) of 2 x 900 MWe at the Ujung Lemah Abang site, and two kinds of coal power plants (CPP) of 3 x 600 MWe at the Tanjung Jati site, both sites are located at the coast of the Muria peninsular. The CPPs with Flue Gas Desulphurization (FGD)and without FGD are compared, whereas the NPP eternality assessment includes considerations of risk aversion and accident condition. Calculation results show that external costs amount to 0,9094 mills/KWh for cpr without FGD, 0,8156 mills/KWh for cpr with FGD, and 0,0083 mills/KWh for the NP with FGD, and 0,0083 mills/KWh for the NPP, or two to four orders of magnitude less than respective generation costs. Compared to studies for European countries, their figures are smaller, but to the Thailand study these figures are within their lower-upper range

32

Cost calculation model concerning small-scale production of chips and split firewood  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The TTS-Institute's Forestry Department has developed a computer-based cost calculation model for the production of wood chips and split firewood. This development work was carried out in conjunction with the nation-wide BIOENERGY -research programme. The said calculation model eases and speeds up the calculation of unit costs and resource needs in harvesting systems for wood chips and split firewood. The model also enables the user to find out how changes in the productivity and costs bases of different harvesting chains influences the unit costs of the system as a whole. The undertaking was composed of the following parts: clarification and modification of productivity bases for application in the model as mathematical models, clarification of machine and device costs bases, designing of the structure and functions of the calculation model, construction and testing of the model's 0-version, model calculations concerning typical chains, review of calculation bases, and charting of development needs focusing on the model. The calculation model was developed to serve research needs, but with further development it could be useful as a tool in forestry and agricultural extension work, related schools and colleges, and in the hands of firewood producers. (author)

33

Use of a database for calculating nuclear power plant decommissioning costs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A description is given of a computer code for computing the decommissioning costs of nuclear power plants. The code was written in the dBase IV language. Input data is information on the equipment of the decommissioned power plant and on the costs of decommissioning procedures. Output data include total costs, numbers of workers and devices needed, the collective doses to be expected, the quantity and the contamination of waste, the quantity of necessary materials, and the duration of the decommissioning work. The method of unit decommissioning cost factors was used for the calculation. (author) 1 tab., 5 refs

34

Spreadsheets simplify oil field unitization calculations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Linear programming, now available with most spreadsheet programs, allows companies involved in unitizing oil producing properties to determine their minimum and maximum interest. With spreadsheets, even the smallest companies can do linear programming or optimization techniques without having to know much about the process involved. If each company can easily determine its and the competition's optimum parameter weight, then reasonable compromise and unitization are more likely. When suspicion and lack of knowledge prevail, parties are less likely to cooperate and form production units. Unit participation formulas vary greatly, even if units have similar reservoir characteristics. This paper reviews an example of linear programming to determine the interests of four different oil companies operating in the same production zones

35

Cost-benefit of computed tomography application in dosimetry calculations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The cost-benefit analysis of CT-assisted radiation therapy treatment planning is incomplete at the moment. In fact, there are those who argue that the analysis will never be completed and cite the failure to obtain comparable data relative to previous technical innovations, e.g., megavoltage radiation (especially very high energy photon beam machines), computerized treatment planning units, and simulators

36

Cost calculations for decommissioning and dismantling of nuclear research facilities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Today, it is recommended that planning of decommission should form an integral part of the activities over the life cycle of a nuclear facility (planning, building and operation), but it was only in the nineteen seventies that the waste issue really surface. Actually, the IAEA guidelines on decommissioning have been issued as recently as over the last ten years, and international advice on finance of decommissioning is even younger. No general international guideline on cost calculations exists at present. This implies that cost calculations cannot be performed with any accuracy or credibility without a relatively detailed consideration of the radiological prerequisites. Consequently, any cost estimates based mainly on the particulars of the building structures and installations are likely to be gross underestimations. The present study has come about on initiative by the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI) and is based on a common need in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. The content of the report may be briefly summarised as follows. The background covers design and operation prerequisites as well as an overview of the various nuclear research facilities in the four participating countries: Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. The purpose of the work has been to identify, compile and exchange information on facilities and on methodologies for cost calculation with the aim of achieving an 80 % level of confidence. The scope has been as follows: 1) to establish a Nordic network 2) to compile dedicated guidance documents on radiological surveying, technical planning and financial risk identification and assessment 3) to compile and describe techniques for precise cost calculations at early stages 4) to compile plant and other relevant data A separate section is devoted in the report to good practice for the specific purpose of early but precise cost calculations for research facilities, and a separate section is devoted to techniques for assessment of cost. Examples are provided for each of the countries of relevant projects. They are as follows: 5) Research reactor DR1 in Denmark 6) The TRIGA research reactor in Finland 7) The uranium reprocessing plant in Norway 8) Research reactor R1 in Sweden The following conclusions were made: 9) IAEA and OECD/NEA documents provide invaluable advice for pertinent approaches. 10) Adequate radiological surveying is needed before precise cost calculations can be made. 11) The same can be said about technical planning including selection of techniques to be used. 12) It is proposed that separate analyses be made regarding the probabilities for conceivable features and events which could lead to significantly higher costs than expected. 13) It is expected that the need for precise cost estimates will dictate the pace of the radiological surveying and technical planning, at least in the early stages. 14) It is important that the validity structure for early cost estimates with regard to type of facility be fully appreciated. E g, the precision is usually less for research facilities. 15) The summation method is treacherous and leads to systematical underestimations in early stages unless compensation is made for the fact that not all items are included. 16) Comparison between different facilities can be made when there is access to information from plants at different stages of planning and when accommodation can be made with regard to differences in features. 17) A simple approach is presented for 'calibration' of a cost estimate against one or more completed projects. 18) Information exchange and co-operations between different plant owners is highly desirable. (au)

37

45 CFR 1309.34 - Costs of installation of modular unit.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-10-01 false Costs of installation of modular unit. 1309.34 Section 1309.34...PURCHASE, MAJOR RENOVATION AND CONSTRUCTION Modular Units § 1309.34 Costs of installation of modular unit. Consistent with the cost...

2010-10-01

38

STUDY ON UNIT COST OF CERTIFICATE-TYPE BROILERS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A production cost means all costs for inputs consumption performed by the enterprise for goods and services produced and offered. Production costs are very meaningful about business quality and it is a decision-making condition for every producer; lowest cost level is the standard in choosing the right option. These researches were intended to give an overview about these problems. Objectives were first to find unit costs for feeds and kg live weight to broilers type Certificate and second to reduce unit costs by changing energy and protein content of feeds for these broilers. Experiment was performed with Ross 308 chickens, raised according to the technology to produce ecological poultry meat type Certificate. Three experimental variants were used; respectively three treatments/each variant and experiment design was in pens. Experimental period was of 56 days of age; feeding technology used was bi-phase, as following: group CM, with constant energy and protein level, group C1, with constant energy and variable protein level and group C2, with variable energy and constant protein level. Major production performances were checked and slaughtering was followed by cutting and finally all data were processed and read statistically. Finally unit costs per kg processed feed (1,308 – 1,362 lei and per kg live weight (5,532 – 5,667 lei were analyzed.

Minodora TUDORACHE

2012-01-01

39

Patterns of costs and spending among orthopedic surgeons across the United States: a national survey.  

Science.gov (United States)

Due to rising medical costs, the purpose of this study was to investigate the spending patterns of orthopedic surgeons across the United States and the financial implications of such behavior. Overall, 2,000 randomly chosen orthopedic surgeons from the American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons (AAOS) were invited to answer web-based surveys on their utilization of healthcare resources; 1,214 (61%) completed the survey. There was a significant difference (P < .001) in monthly expenditure based on 8 domains of orthopedic care for the average orthopedist: x-ray costs were $7,536, computed tomography costs were $2,340, magnetic resonance imaging costs were $14,975, ultrasound costs were $686, laboratory test costs were $969, specialty referral costs were $1,389, biopsy costs were $1,314, and hospital admission costs were $6,808. Significant differences in monthly expenditure existed based on orthopedist practice setting (P < .001), subspecialty (P < .001), gender (P < .001), and age (P < .001). Demographics with the highest monthly spending included orthopedic private group setting ($36,278), orthopedic oncology subspecialty ($41,795), male gender ($33,843), and age 50 to 59 ($35,559). The average monthly expenditure for orthopedists nationally was calculated to be $33,436 per physician. Given there are approximately 20,400 practicing orthopedists, the annual United States expenditure in orthopedic surgery was calculated to be $8.2 billion. Orthopedic spending is a significant component of national healthcare expenditure. PMID:24490192

Sathiyakumar, Vasanth; Jahangir, A Alex; Mir, Hassan R; Obremskey, William T; Lee, Young M; Thakore, Rachel V; Sethi, Manish K

2014-01-01

40

THE USE OF CALCULATION OF COSTS FOR ACTIVITIES TO IMPROVE COST MANAGEMENT AND PROFITABILITY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Dissatisfaction with the classical systems of managerial accounting has led to global acceptance of the ABC, as a result of the many theoretical and applied works, which had as its objective the creation of a system for calculating relevant costs, adapted to the needs of information, in the new context of production organization. Under this method, the task, allowing a new vision in the company and cut cross vision, becomes the Centre of representation and modeling of enterprise and serves as an interface between the resources consumed and cost bearers whose cost you want to measure it. In this way you get a real cost, on the basis of which the strategic decisions by removing non-creative activities and using as the basis for apportionment of costs it generates activity.

BU?AN GABRIELA

2012-11-01

41

Cost Effectiveness of Contraceptives in the United States  

Science.gov (United States)

Background The study was conducted to estimate the relative cost effectiveness of contraceptives in the United States from a payer’s perspective. Methods A Markov model was constructed to simulate costs for 16 contraceptive methods and no method over a 5-year period. Failure rates, adverse event rates, and resource utilization were derived from the literature. Sensitivity analyses were performed on costs and failure rates. Results Any contraceptive method is superior to “no method”. The three least expensive methods were the copper-T IUD ($647), vasectomy ($713) and LNG-20 IUS ($930). Results were sensitive to the cost of contraceptive methods, the cost of an unintended pregnancy, and plan disenrollment rates. Conclusion The copper-T IUD, vasectomy, and the LNG-20 IUS are the most cost-effective contraceptive methods available in the United States. Differences in method costs, the cost of an unintended pregnancy, and time horizon are influential factors that determine the overall value of a contraceptive method. PMID:19041435

Trussell, James; Lalla, Anjana M.; Doan, Quan V.; Reyes, Eileen; Pinto, Lionel; Gricar, Joseph

2013-01-01

42

47 CFR 65.305 - Calculation of the weighted average cost of capital.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-10-01 false Calculation of the weighted average cost of capital. 65.305...Carriers § 65.305 Calculation of the weighted average cost of capital. (a) The composite weighted average cost of capital is the sum...

2010-10-01

43

Improvement of Cost Calculation in Constructions – Application of the Standard Cost Method  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Grace to the analysis of several commercial companies effectively performed “on the field”, we could remark the necessity to change the method of cost calculation, our motivation being related to the simplification of calculations and the reduction of the labour volume, but especially the necessity to know in due time the deviations occurred as well as the causes having led to their apparition. The importance of knowing the deviations in due time results from the very basic characteristics of the constructions execution, i.e. the performance of works during several budgetary years, which leads to the modifications of prices and materials, the introduction of new technologies, and to the performance of open air activities, making the execution of constructions works be influenced by the atmospheric condition. But the most important aspect of knowing the deviations is the correct determination of expenses and their inscribing in the corresponding period, in view of determining the result of the budgetary year. Our proposal for the enhancement of the method of cost calculation in constructions is the application of the standard cost method in the variant “single standard cost”.

Adela Breuer

2010-12-01

44

Costos reales de tratamientos intensivos por paciente y día cama Real daily costs of patients admitted to public intensive care units  

OpenAIRE

Background: Patient care costs in intensive care units are high and should be considered in medical decision making. Aim: To calculate the real disease related costs for patients admitted to intensive care units of public hospitals. Material and Methods: Using an activity associated costs analysis, the expenses of 716 patients with a mean age of 56 years, mean APACHE score of20 (56% males), admitted to intensive care units of two regional public hospitals, were calcul...

Sandra Alvear; Jorge Canteros; Juan Jara; Patricia Rodríguez

2013-01-01

45

Kawasaki syndrome hospitalizations and associated costs in the United States.  

OpenAIRE

OBJECTIVES: To describe the epidemiologic characteristics of patients hospitalized with Kawasaki syndrome (KS) and estimate associated costs in the United States, using a large national hospital discharge dataset. METHODS: Hospitalization discharge records with KS for 1997 through 1999 for U.S. residents <18 years of age were selected from Solucient's hospital discharge records. These records are collected from most of the self-governing children's hospitals and approximately one-third of sho...

Belay, Ermias D.; Holman, Robert C.; Maddox, Ryan A.; Foster, David A.; Schonberger, Lawrence B.

2003-01-01

46

Costs of Crashes to Government, United States, 2008  

OpenAIRE

We estimated how much the Federal government and state/local government pay for different kinds of crashes in the United States. Government costs include reductions in an array of public services (emergency, incident management, vocational rehabilitation, coroner court processing of liability litigation), medical payments, social safety net assistance to the injured and their families, and taxes foregone because victims miss work. Government also pays when its employees crash while working an...

Miller, Ted R.; Bhattacharya, Soma; Zaloshnja, Eduard; Taylor, Dexter; Bahar, Geni; David, Iuliana

2011-01-01

47

HOW TO CALCULATE THE ENVIRONMENTAL COSTS? CASE COMPANY GRAFICA CIENFUEGOS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The world urgently needs to protect the environment, many companies and organizations devote huge resources to reach that goal and achieve sustainable development as the highest standard of achievement for any country or organization. It then becomes imperative to determine how much the companies spend on the environment, taking into account that the Entities have an implicit contract with society and the environment, the product of the resources used and waste and waste pouring, which is why one needs to calculate and record the environmental costs of products to enhance the environmental management of the entity and thus promote an excellent decision-making. The following research seeks a procedure which allows solving this problem, making its composition with the use of various techniques within which highlights the environmental checklists and product life cycle, which also allows knowing separately as each process and product impacts the environment.

Keitel, Becerra

2011-01-01

48

47 CFR 65.305 - Calculation of the weighted average cost of capital.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Calculation of the weighted average cost of capital. (a) The composite weighted average cost of capital is the sum of the cost of debt, the...each weighted by its proportion in the capital structure of the telephone companies....

2010-10-01

49

16 CFR Appendix K to Part 305 - Representative Average Unit Energy Costs  

Science.gov (United States)

...Average Unit Energy Costs K Appendix K to Part 305 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION...CONSERVATION ACT (âAPPLIANCE LABELING RULEâ) Pt. 305, App. K Appendix K to Part 305—Representative Average Unit Energy Costs...

2010-01-01

50

Monitor unit calculation for Monte Carlo treatment planning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this work, we investigate a formalism for monitor unit (MU) calculation in Monte Carlo based treatment planning. By relating MU to dose measured under reference calibration conditions (central axis, depth of dose maximum in water, 10 cm x 10 cm field defined at 100 cm source-to-surface distance) our formalism determines the MU required for a treatment plan based on the prescription dose and Monte Carlo calculated dose distribution. Detailed descriptions and formulae are given for various clinical situations including conventional treatments and advanced techniques such as intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and modulated electron radiotherapy (MERT). Analysis is made of the effects of source modelling, beam modifier simulation and patient dose calculation accuracy, all of which are important factors for absolute dose calculations using Monte Carlo simulations. We have tested the formalism through phantom measurements and the predicted MU values were consistent with measured values to within 2%. The formalism has been used for MU calculation and plan comparison for advanced treatment techniques such as MERT, extracranial stereotactic IMRT, MRI-based treatment planning and intensity-modulated laser-proton therapy studies. It is also used for absolute dose calculations using Monte Carlo simulations for treatment verification, which has become part of our comprehensive IMRT quality assurance programme

51

10 CFR 503.6 - Cost calculations for new powerplants and installations.  

Science.gov (United States)

...asset is placed in service. (5) The...Compute the cost of using an alternate...oil or natural gas (COST(OIL...capitalized engineering costs, land, construction...fuel inventory, transmission facilities...the unit; sunk costs must not be included...using natural gas shall be: (a)...

2010-01-01

52

Calculation of costs of pregnancy- and puerperium-related care: experience from a hospital in a low-income country.  

Science.gov (United States)

Calculation of costs of different medical and surgical services has numerous uses, which include monitoring the performance of service-delivery, setting the efficiency target, benchmarking of services across all sectors, considering investment decisions, commissioning to meet health needs, and negotiating revised levels of funding. The role of private-sector healthcare facilities has been increasing rapidly over the last decade. Despite the overall improvement in the public and private healthcare sectors in Bangladesh, lack of price benchmarking leads to patients facing unexplained price discrimination when receiving healthcare services. The aim of the study was to calculate the hospital-care cost of disease-specific cases, specifically pregnancy- and puerperium-related cases, and to indentify the practical challenges of conducting costing studies in the hospital setting in Bangladesh. A combination of micro-costing and step-down cost allocation was used for collecting information on the cost items and, ultimately, for calculating the unit cost for each diagnostic case. Data were collected from the hospital records of 162 patients having 11 different clinical diagnoses. Caesarean section due to maternal and foetal complications was the most expensive type of case whereas the length of stay due to complications was the major driver of cost. Some constraints in keeping hospital medical records and accounting practices were observed. Despite these constraints, the findings of the study indicate that it is feasible to carry out a large-scale study to further explore the costs of different hospital-care services. PMID:20635637

Sarowar, M G; Medin, E; Gazi, R; Koehlmoos, T P; Rehnberg, C; Saifi, R; Bhuiya, A; Khan, J

2010-06-01

53

Quality and Growth Implications of Incremental Costing Models for Distance Education Units  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this article is to explore quality and growth implications emergent from various incremental costing models applied to distance education units. Prior research relative to costing models and three competing costing models useful in the current distance education environment are discussed. Specifically, the simple costing model, unit

Crawford, C. B.; Gould, Lawrence V.; King, Dennis; Parker, Carl

2010-01-01

54

Low finding costs calculated in Mississippi's Tuscaloosa, Frio  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports on a recent study conducted by the Mississippi Office of Geology which examined oil and gas finding costs in southwestern Mississippi for the period from 1986 through 1990. The formations of interest were the Upper Cretaceous Lower Tuscaloosa formation and the Oligocene Frio formation. The model incorporated the following financial considerations for exploratory activity: seismic data acquisition, geologic expenses, leasing and legal fees, and drilling costs. Average drilling and completion costs were also assigned to the development wells. The finding cost formula divided the total exploration and development costs by the recoverable reserves. Reserves were multiplied by a 75% net revenue for the Tuscaloosa and 80% for the Frio leases to account for royalty interests and severance taxes. No field operating expenses were included

55

Monitor unit calculations for wedged asymmetric photon beams  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Algorithms for calculating monitor units (MUs) in wedged asymmetric high-energy photon beams as implemented in treatment planning systems have their limitations. Therefore an independent method for MU calculation is necessary. The aim of this study was to develop an empirical method to determine MUs for points at the centre of wedged fields, asymmetric in two directions. The method is based on the determination of an off-axis factor (OAF) that corrects for the difference in dose between wedged asymmetric and wedged symmetric beams with the same field size. Measurements were performed in a water phantom irradiated with 6 and 18 MV photon beams produced by Elekta accelerators, which are fitted with an internal motorized wedge that has a complex shape. The OAF perpendicular to the wedge direction changed significantly with depth for the 18 MV beam. Dose values measured for a set of 18 test cases were compared with those calculated with our method. The maximum difference found was 6.5% and in 15 cases this figure was smaller than 2.0%. The analytical method of Khan and the empirical method of Georg were also tested and showed errors up to 12.8%. It can be concluded that our simple formalism is able to calculate MUs in wedged asymmetric fields with an acceptable accuracy in most clinical situations. (author)

56

19 CFR 351.407 - Calculation of constructed value and cost of production.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calculation of constructed value and cost of production...ANTIDUMPING AND COUNTERVAILING DUTIES Calculation of Export Price, Constructed Export...Value, and Normal Value § 351.407 Calculation of constructed value and cost of...

2010-04-01

57

Thermal analysis of Malaysian double storey housing - low/medium cost unit  

Science.gov (United States)

Almost half of the total energy used today is consumed in buildings. In the tropical climate, air-conditioning a housing unit takes much of the energy bill. Malaysia is no exception. Malaysian double storey terrace housing is popular among developers and buyers. Surveys have shown that housing occupants are much dissatisfied with the thermal comfort and artificial cooling is often sought. The objective of this study is to assess the thermal comfort of the low and medium-cost double storey housing in the area surrounding Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. A simulation program using the Weighting Factor Method calculates the heat transfer interaction, temperature distribution, and PMV level in three types of housing units in relation to the size. Fanger's PMV model based on ISO Standard 7730 is used here because it accounts for all parameters that affect the thermal sensation of a human within its equation. Results showed that both the low and medium-cost housing units studied are out of the comfortable range described by ASHRAE Standard 55 with the units all complied with the local bylaws. In view of the uncertainties in energy supply, future housing units should consider natural ventilation as part of the passive energy management.

Normah, M. G.; Lau, K. Y.; Yusoff, S. Mohd.

2012-06-01

58

Exploring the cost-effectiveness of unit-based health promotion activities for nurses.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Stepping Stones to Wellness program, offered on one hospital unit by the organization's wellness team and nurse practitioner students, was evaluated for its return on investment (ROI), level of participation, and satisfaction among staff and students. Interventions included (1) biometric screening, (2) participation incentives, and (3) education delivered by staff and nurse practitioner students on the unit. Using the hours of unscheduled absence as a proxy for staff wellness, ROI was calculated using 75% of the difference between the mean hours of unscheduled absence during the intervention compared to the previous 3 years. Average hourly rate (including benefits) was multiplied by unscheduled absence ($11,409.17). The total cost of program delivery ($7,662.50) for 80 employees yielded an ROI of $3,746.67. Participation improved and satisfaction increased. Graduate nursing students and an employer wellness team can deliver a successful unit-based health promotion program and possibly affect absenteeism. PMID:24400378

Val Palumbo, Mary; Sikorski, Evelyn A; Liberty, Barbara C

2013-12-01

59

H2POWER: Development of a methodology to calculate life cycle cost of small and medium-scale hydrogen systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

At this time, hydrogen-based power plants and large hydrogen production facilities are capital intensive and unable to compete financially against hydrocarbon-based energy production facilities. An option to overcome this problem and foster the introduction of hydrogen technology is to introduce small and medium-scale applications such as residential and community hydrogen refueling units. Such units could potentially be used to generate both electricity and heat for the home, as well as hydrogen fuel for the automobile. Cost modeling for the integration of these three forms of energy presents several methodological challenges. This is particularly true since the technology is still in the development phase and both the financial and the environmental cost must be calculated using mainly secondary sources. In order to address these issues and aid in the design of small and medium-scale hydrogen systems, this study presents a computer model to calculate financial and environmental costs of this technology using different hydrogen pathways. The model can design and compare hydrogen refueling units against hydrocarbon-based technologies, including the 'gap' between financial and economic costs. Using the methodology, various penalties and incentives that can foster the introduction of hydrogen-based technologies can be added to the analysis to study their impact on financial cost

60

UET calculation for Kori Units 3 and 4 Power Uprate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Unfavorable Exposure Time (UET) refers to the portion of the operating cycle for which the natural reactivity feedback mechanisms of the reactor core are insufficient to ensure that peak system pressures are less than 3200 psig during an Anticipated Transient Without Scram (ATWS). In an ATWS, a heatup of the primary system occurs due to loss of normal feedwater or loss of load. It is assumed that reactor trip does not occur. As a result, the coolant inlet temperature increases and reactor power drops due to negative moderator feedback. In a core with a sufficient negative moderator temperature coefficient, the core power will decrease enough to ensure that the primary system limiting pressure of 3200 psig is not reached. In this study, the UET was calculated for Kori units 3, 4 assuming 4.5% power uprate

61

49 CFR 1152.32 - Calculation of avoidable costs.  

Science.gov (United States)

...The current value for each type of...applied to the average number of...The current value developed...multiplied by the nominal rate of return...return on value-freight cars...applied to the average total...the use of the nominal cost of...

2010-10-01

62

Nuclear power and global warming: a first cost-benefit calculation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper investigates the costs and benefits of a modest nuclear power programme in the European Union to combat the threat of global warming. The nuclear programme is found to bring a double benefit. The first and more obvious benefit is that the economic impacts of global warming are reduced. The second benefit is counter-intuitive; most people would expect it to be a cost. It comes from the stimulus to the economy from the construction of the nuclear plant, which, with the recycling of carbon tax revenues, offsets its construction and operating costs, and may even cause consumers' expenditure to rise. Calculations in this paper show that over the period to 2100 the mean net present value of the first benefit is 6 billion European Currency Units (ECU; 1 ECU is about Dollars 1), while the second benefit has a mean net present value of 159 billion ECU. However both benefits, particularly the second, are still very uncertain, to the extent that even their sign is not yet definitely established. (author)

63

49 CFR 1152.32 - Calculation of avoidable costs.  

Science.gov (United States)

...61-13-20 Do.Electric power systems Salaries...buildings—freight carsSalaries and wages...61-32-67Do. Electric power purchased or produced...wages 11-32-68Electric locomotive unit hours...operations common: Cleaning car...

2010-10-01

64

Caveat Emptor: Calculating All the Costs of Energy.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper examines the energy problem. Specific topics discussed include the recent history of oil and gas consumption in the United States, conservation, coal, solar energy, and nuclear energy. While solutions to the energy problem differ, there is an urgent need for broad, public debate. Ultimately, the decisions made regarding energy will be…

Zinberg, Dorothy S.

65

47 CFR 65.300 - Calculations of the components and weights of the cost of capital.  

Science.gov (United States)

...weights of the cost of capital. 65.300 Section...weights of the cost of capital. (a) Sections...stock, and financial structure weights for prescription...composite financial structure for all local exchange...Excluded from cost of capital calculations...

2010-10-01

66

Forecasting the Unit Cost of a Product with Some Linear Fuzzy Collaborative Forecasting Models  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Forecasting the unit cost of every product type in a factory is an important task. However, it is not easy to deal with the uncertainty of the unit cost. Fuzzy collaborative forecasting is a very effective treatment of the uncertainty in the distributed environment. This paper presents some linear fuzzy collaborative forecasting models to predict the unit cost of a product. In these models, the experts’ forecasts differ and therefore need to be aggregated through collaboration. According to the experimental results, the effectiveness of forecasting the unit cost was considerably improved through collaboration.

Toly Chen

2012-10-01

67

42 CFR 447.206 - Cost limit for providers operated by units of government.  

Science.gov (United States)

...limit for providers operated by units of government. 447.206 Section 447.206 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID...SERVICES Payment Methods: General Provisions § 447.206 Cost limit for providers operated by units...

2010-10-01

68

48 CFR 9904.410 - Allocation of business unit general and administrative expenses to final cost objectives.  

Science.gov (United States)

...false Allocation of business unit general and administrative...Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD...PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.410 Allocation of business unit general and...

2010-10-01

69

Impact of pharmacist’s interventions on cost of drug therapy in intensive care unit. Pharmacy  

OpenAIRE

Pharmacist participation in patient care team has been shown to reduce incidence of adverse drug events, and overall drug costs. However, impact of pharmacist participation in the multidisciplinary intensive care team on cost saving and cost avoidance has little been studied in Thailand.Objective: To describe the characteristics of the interventions and to determine pharmacist’s interventions led to change in cost saving and cost avoidance in intensive care unit (ICU). Methods: A Prospectiv...

Saokaew S; Maphanta S; Thangsomboon P

2009-01-01

70

Calculation of Total Cost, Tolerance Based on Taguchi?s, Asymmetric Quality Loss Function Approach  

OpenAIRE

Problem statement: Current world market force the manufacturing sectors to develop high quality product and process design with minimum possible cost. About 80% of problems in production units may be attributed to 20% of design tolerance causes. While design typically represents the smallest actual cost elements in products (around 5%), it leverages the largest cost influence (around 70%). So design engineers continuously stumble upon problem of design for high quality performance with...

Kumar, R. S.; Alagumurthi, N.; Ramesh, R.

2009-01-01

71

Consideration concerning the costs of the 300 kW wind units developed in Romania  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A demonstrative wind farm with four research units, 300 kW each, is in developing stage in Romania. The article shows economic analysis of these experimental wind units and their cost structure focusing in component costs, performance, manufacturing technology and installing work. (author)

72

Consideration concerning the costs of the 300 kW wind units developed in Romania  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A demonstrative wind farm with four research units, 300 kW each, is in developing stage in Romania. The article shows economic analysis of these experimental wind units and their cost structure focusing in component costs, performance, manufacturing technology and installing work. (author)

Gyulai, F.; Bej, A. [Technical Univ. of Timisoara (Romania). Wind Energy Research Center

1995-12-31

73

CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF THE MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING SYSTEM AND OF THE COST CALCULATION IN THE ELECTROTECHNICAL INDUSTRY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The contemporary scientific and technical revolution has brought into view the increasingcomplexity of the economic activity in all departments whose current and future management mustnecessarily involve taking into account the efficiency criterion, the economic optimum displaying bothquantitative and qualitative forms. The company is placed in a competitive environment, within a valuechain of providers, on the one hand and suppliers or customers on the other hand. In order to becompetitive, the companies increasingly allocate more resources to doing researches, their target being tomake very good quality products at competitive prices. The methods of cost calculation have seen acontinuous evolution generated by the new problems that cost calculation had to respond to. The decisionon the organization and adoption of either one cost calculation method or another, involves the analysis ofthe main factors that determine the organization of cost calculation.

POPESCU (Costache LUMINITA NICOLETA

2013-08-01

74

Analysis of a Production Order Quantity Model With Declining Unit Cost  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper improves upon the existing literature surrounding the production order quantity inventory model in which unit cost and daily production are assumed to be constant. By including economies of scale into the model, we examine its impact on production order quantity and total cost. The results suggest that the minimal cost solution derived from the production order quantity model needs to balance out holding, setup and production costs. As a result, a smaller inventory level corresponding to a minimum unit production cost is found to be preferred.

Rod D. Raehsler

2012-05-01

75

Marginal cost calculation of energy production in hydro thermoelectric systems considering the transmission system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The alternatives for calculation of energy marginal cost in hydroelectric systems, considering the transmission one, was analysed, including fundamental concepts; generation/transmission systems, represented by linear power flow model; production marginal costs in hydrothermal systems and computation aspects. (C.G.C.). 11 refs, 5 figs

76

Health costs from electricity generation in the United States  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The attempt in this paper is to assess the health costs associated with electricity generation in the US general population. Health risk figures are used to estimate the total number of persons subjected to pollutant-induced mortality and mobility due to operation of fossil-fuel, nuclear energy, and renewable energy cycles. Health costs for different fuel-cycles are given for the census-divided regions of the US. Total national health costs are estimated to be between $8.7 and $69.4 billion annually for 1989 electricity generation level. Of these, about 95% to 99% are from fossil-fuel cycles. 65 refs., 4 tabs

77

Drug Prohibition in the United States: Costs, Consequences, and Alternatives  

Science.gov (United States)

``Drug legalization'' increasingly merits serious consideration as both an analytical model and a policy option for addressing the ``drug problem.'' Criminal justice approaches to the drug problem have proven limited in their capacity to curtail drug abuse. They also have proven increasingly costly and counterproductive. Drug legalization policies that are wisely implemented can minimize the risks of legalization, dramatically reduce the costs of current policies, and directly address the problems of drug abuse.

Nadelmann, Ethan A.

1989-09-01

78

Incremental cost of treating hypertension in the United States  

OpenAIRE

The objective of this study was to determine incremental direct cost of treating hypertension in the U.S. population using an incremental cost approach. Analysis of the 2001 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS), a national probability survey containing data for healthcare utilization, expenditures, payment sources, and insurance coverage for the civilian non-institutionalized U.S. population, was conducted. Hypertensive patients were identified as those with a medical diagnosis for hyperte...

Balu, Sanjeev

2005-01-01

79

Development of radiological concentrations and unit liter doses for TWRS FSAR radiological consequence calculations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The analysis described in this report develops the Unit Liter Doses for use in the TWRS FSAR. The Unit Liter Doses provide a practical way to calculate conservative radiological consequences for a variety of potential accidents for the tank farms

80

Hospital costs of central line-associated bloodstream infections and cost-effectiveness of closed vs. open infusion containers. The case of Intensive Care Units in Italy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Objectives The aim was to evaluate direct health care costs of central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSI and to calculate the cost-effectiveness ratio of closed fully collapsible plastic intravenous infusion containers vs. open (glass infusion containers. Methods A two-year, prospective case-control study was undertaken in four intensive care units in an Italian teaching hospital. Patients with CLABSI (cases and patients without CLABSI (controls were matched for admission departments, gender, age, and average severity of illness score. Costs were estimated according to micro-costing approach. In the cost effectiveness analysis, the cost component was assessed as the difference between production costs while effectiveness was measured by CLABSI rate (number of CLABSI per 1000 central line days associated with the two infusion containers. Results A total of 43 cases of CLABSI were compared with 97 matched controls. The mean age of cases and controls was 62.1 and 66.6 years, respectively (p = 0.143; 56% of the cases and 57% of the controls were females (p = 0.922. The mean length of stay of cases and controls was 17.41 and 8.55 days, respectively (p Conclusions CLABSI results in considerable and significant increase in utilization of hospital resources. Use of innovative technologies such as closed infusion containers can significantly reduce the incidence of healthcare acquired infection without posing additional burden on hospital budgets.

Torbica Aleksandra

2010-05-01

81

Unit cost of CT scan and MRI at a large tertiary care teaching hospital in North India  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Imaging department is an important department of a hospital contributing directly to patient care, providing diagnostic support to all specialties which cannot practice efficiently without their support. Hospital administrators are looking for newer tools to control costs without affecting the quality of patient care. It is well known that the escalation of costs for advanced technology has been dramatic and it has been labeled as one of the culprits for great increase in healthcare costs. A prospective study for a period of six months was carried out for calculation of unit cost of radiological investigations CT head, CT chest, CT abdomen and MRI. Unit costs were computed under direct and indirect costs. The actual cost incurred by the hospital on CT head was Rupees 581.40 (US $10.89, CT abdomen Rupees 2339.20 (US $43.83, CT chest Rupees 2339.20 (US $43.83, and MRI Rupees 4497.50 (US $84.28. However, in the hospital patients are charged Rupees 900 (US $16.86 for CT head, Rupees 1200 (US $22.48 for CT abdomen, Rupees 1200 (US $22.48 for CT chest and Rupees 2500 (US $46.85 for MRI. There is a substantial loss of revenue because of subsidies provided to patients in a tertiary care teaching hospital which needs revision of charges.  

Khurshid Rehana

2013-12-01

82

A systematic review of the unit costs of allied health and community services used by older people in Australia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background An economic evaluation of interventions for older people requires accurate assessment of costing and consideration of both acute and long-term services. Accurate information on the unit cost of allied health and community services is not readily available in Australia however. This systematic review therefore aims to synthesise information available in the literature on the unit costs of allied health and community services that may be utilised by an older person living in Australia. Method A comprehensive search of Medline, Embase, CINAHL, Google Scholar and Google was undertaken. Specialised economic databases were also reviewed. In addition Australian Government Department websites were inspected. The search identified the cost of specified allied health services including: physiotherapy, occupational therapy, dietetics, podiatry, counselling and home nursing. The range of community services included: personal care, meals on wheels, transport costs and domestic services. Where the information was not available, direct contact with service providers was made. Results The number of eligible studies included in the qualitative synthesis was fourty-nine. Calculated hourly rates for Australian allied health services were adjusted to be in equivalent currency and were as follows as follows: physiotherapy $157.75, occupational therapy $150.77, dietetics $163.11, psychological services $165.77, community nursing $105.76 and podiatry $129.72. Conclusions Utilisation of the Medicare Benefits Scheduled fee as a broad indicator of the costs of services, may lead to underestimation of the real costs of services and therefore to inaccuracies in economic evaluation.

Farag Inez

2013-02-01

83

Implementation of Cost Calculation Model in Forest Evaluation of Požega Forest Administration  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The specific nature of forestry as an economic activity generates problems in realizing the set business plans and executing commercial operations. Business analysis deals with concepts and methods of perceiving the degree of development, as well as with unrealized possibilities of a business entity. The particular character of analyzing business operations of entities dealing with forest management arises, among other things, from the need to assure forest sustainability. In managing forests and forestland, it is not always possible to obey the principle of operational profitability, as the lack of any silvicultural treatments jeopardizes future increment of wood biomass and leads to the decline in the general forest value. Furthermore, the specificity of forest management is particularly evident in a long term cycle of biomass production, and extensive period of time between initial activities and the achieved economic effects, and in investments into forests which frequently exceed the financial possibilities of forest owners. The achieved degree and the unrealized possibilities of developing the forest potential are conditioned by biological factors and by economic and technical treatments. To measure and evaluate the effects of these factors on forest sustainability, specific knowledge is required combined with specific criteria for analytical assessment of the success of business entities dealing with forest management.This paper discusses economic and business analysis in forestry. It presents the results of the research project conducted by the state forest company »Hrvatske šume« d.o.o. and Faculty of Forestry University of Zagreb over a 5 year period. The data regarding the economic value of the forest, annual cut value, biological regeneration costs for all forest management units in Požega Forest Administration, including incomes and costs of forest harvesting have been analyzed together with the data regarding profitability and economic indicators. The actual cutting value method has been used for the analyses of the stand value. The Activity Based Cost Method has been used for the cost analysis. The cost-effectiveness and profitability in forestry have also been calculated.Požega Forest Administration manages the area of 52,025 ha, mainly productive forests in the Municipality of Slavonia and Požega. The total annual cut is 140,991 m3 on the area of 3,615 ha. The total growing stock of the state forests is 9,744,426 m3, which includes 9,200,025 m3 of even-aged forests and 544,401 m³ of uneven aged forests. The annual wood volume increment is 253,947 m3. The average forest stand value is 46,871 HRK/ha, or 54,723 HRK/ha without first age class (see Fig. 1 Forest value per management unit.The total costs of biological regeneration are 1,529 HRK/ha, and without forest management, silviculture, forest protection and wood construction it is 7,029 HRK/ha. The costs of the biological regeneration are shown in Fig. 2. The value of the annual cut for Požega Forest Administration is 10,214 HRK/ha (see Table 1.The costs of forest harvesting in 2007 are 8,460 HRK/ha on average, and 8,659 HRK/ha in 2008. Expenditures and revenues of forest harvesting in Požega Forest Administration 2007/2008 are shown in Fig. 4. If the costs of biological regeneration are included, the cost-effectiveness ratio is less than one (e<1, meaning that the management of the selected forest administration is not cost-effective. However, according to the presented negative economic indicators, profitability in forestry has shown positive forest management results. The possible measures that could lead to the increase in profitability are those affecting the company income. To achieve this goal it is necessary to lower the forest biological regeneration costs, to lower the market sale price, to increase the engaged resources, and to improve the capacity utilization.This research has shown that specific understanding and measuring of forest potentials are conditioned by biological factors and by economic and technical t

Stjepan Posavec

2011-04-01

84

Life cycle costing of waste management systems: Overview, calculation principles and case studies  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper provides a detailed and comprehensive cost model for the economic assessment of solid waste management systems. The model was based on the principles of Life Cycle Costing (LCC) and followed a bottom-up calculation approach providing detailed cost items for all key technologies within modern waste systems. All technologies were defined per tonne of waste input, and each cost item within a technology was characterised by both a technical and an economic parameter (for example amount and cost of fuel related to waste collection), to ensure transparency, applicability and reproducibility. Cost items were classified as: (1) budget costs, (2) transfers (for example taxes, subsidies and fees) and (3) externality costs (for example damage or abatement costs related to emissions and disamenities). Technology costs were obtained as the sum of all cost items (of the same type) within a specific technology, while scenario costs were the sum of all technologies involved in a scenario. The cost model allows forthe completion of three types of LCC: a Conventional LCC, for the assessment of financial costs, an Environmental LCC, for the assessment of financial costs whose results are complemented by a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) for the same system, and a Societal LCC, for socio-economic assessments. Conventional and Environmental LCCs includes budget costs and transfers, while Societal LCCs includes budget and externality costs. Critical aspects were found in the existing literature regarding the cost assessment of waste management, namely system boundary equivalency, accounting for temporally distributed emissions and impacts, inclusions of transfers, the internalisation of environmental impacts and the coverage of shadow prices, and there was also significant confusion regarding terminology. The presented cost model was implemented in two case study scenarios assessing the costs involved in the source segregation of organic waste from 100,000 Danish households and the subsequent co-digestion of organic waste withanimal manure. Overall, source segregation resulted in higher financial costs than the alternative of incinerating the organic waste with the residual waste: 1.6. M€/year, of which 0.9. M€/year was costs for extra bins and bags used by the households, 1.0. M€/year for extra collections and -0.3. M€/year saved on incineration.

Martinez-Sanchez, Veronica; Kromann, Mikkel A.

2014-01-01

85

Life cycle costing of waste management systems: Overview, calculation principles and case studies.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper provides a detailed and comprehensive cost model for the economic assessment of solid waste management systems. The model was based on the principles of Life Cycle Costing (LCC) and followed a bottom-up calculation approach providing detailed cost items for all key technologies within modern waste systems. All technologies were defined per tonne of waste input, and each cost item within a technology was characterised by both a technical and an economic parameter (for example amount and cost of fuel related to waste collection), to ensure transparency, applicability and reproducibility. Cost items were classified as: (1) budget costs, (2) transfers (for example taxes, subsidies and fees) and (3) externality costs (for example damage or abatement costs related to emissions and disamenities). Technology costs were obtained as the sum of all cost items (of the same type) within a specific technology, while scenario costs were the sum of all technologies involved in a scenario. The cost model allows for the completion of three types of LCC: a Conventional LCC, for the assessment of financial costs, an Environmental LCC, for the assessment of financial costs whose results are complemented by a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) for the same system, and a Societal LCC, for socio-economic assessments. Conventional and Environmental LCCs includes budget costs and transfers, while Societal LCCs includes budget and externality costs. Critical aspects were found in the existing literature regarding the cost assessment of waste management, namely system boundary equivalency, accounting for temporally distributed emissions and impacts, inclusions of transfers, the internalisation of environmental impacts and the coverage of shadow prices, and there was also significant confusion regarding terminology. The presented cost model was implemented in two case study scenarios assessing the costs involved in the source segregation of organic waste from 100,000 Danish households and the subsequent co-digestion of organic waste with animal manure. Overall, source segregation resulted in higher financial costs than the alternative of incinerating the organic waste with the residual waste: 1.6M€/year, of which 0.9M€/year was costs for extra bins and bags used by the households, 1.0M€/year for extra collections and -0.3M€/year saved on incineration. PMID:25524749

Martinez-Sanchez, Veronica; Kromann, Mikkel A; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

2015-02-01

86

Use of an expert system for energy cost calculations in the pulp and paper industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper, an application for the calculation of energy prices and product energy costs in the pulp and paper industry by using the Xi Plus expert system is presented. The use of expert systems in the energy field and also the Xi Plus expert system and its general features are also discussed. The application has been made after collecting data from several sources. It runs in an IBM AT compatible microcomputer therefore being easily used in mills. The name of the application is PRODUCT ENERGY COST. It has a three level structure: the mill level, the department level and the main equipment level. Currently, the mill level and, in the energy production area, the department level (power plant) and the equipment level (boilers, turbines) are used. The application consists of four knowledge base groups. Altogether there are 52 separate knowledge bases having 534 rules or demons. The knowledge base groups are: BASIC DATA, ENERGY USE, ENERGY PRODUCTION and ENERGY COSTS. The application can be used for various heat and electrical energy price calculations or for energy cost calculations for different pulp and paper products. In this study, the energy prices for kraft pulp, TMP, newsprint and fine paper in different operating conditions and the associated energy costs of the products are calculated. Also, in some cases a sensitivity analysis is done. The expert system is quite suitable for this type of calculation and the method could be further developed for specific industrial needs, e.g. to enhance the energy management systems

87

Calculation of Total Cost, Tolerance Based on Taguchi?s, Asymmetric Quality Loss Function Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: Current world market force the manufacturing sectors to develop high quality product and process design with minimum possible cost. About 80% of problems in production units may be attributed to 20% of design tolerance causes. While design typically represents the smallest actual cost elements in products (around 5%, it leverages the largest cost influence (around 70%. So design engineers continuously stumble upon problem of design for high quality performance with lower cost. Objectives of this study where to: (i simultaneous selection of design and manufacturing tolerance (ii minimization of total cost (sum of the manufacturing cost and Taguchi?s asymmetric quality cost (iii minimum cost and its machining tolerance. Approach: Rotor key base assembly was considered as case study to optimize the minimization of assembly total cost and machining tolerance. New global nonlinear optimization techniques called pattern search algorithm had been implemented to find optimal tolerance allocation and total cost. Results: In this study minimum cost arrived was 45.15 Cr and its corresponding tolerances for machining process turning, drilling, face milling, face milling and drilling where 0.063, 0.0508, 0.2127, 0.2127, 0.2540 mm respectively at worst case conditions. Conclusion: Results indicated that optimization by integer programming, sequential quadratic programming and exhaustive search, nonlinear programming, genetic algorithm, simulated annealing, fuzzy logic, number set theory and Monte Carlo simulation did not give much least total cost and also predicted that pattern search algorithm was robust method. Second the method, generally termed as concurrent tolerance synthesis was well suited for engineering environment, where high quality products with low total cost were designed and manufactured.

R. S. Kumar

2009-01-01

88

Cost of illness of hyponatremia in the United States  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Hyponatremia is a disorder of fluid and electrolyte balance characterized by a relative excess of body water relative to body sodium content. It is the most common electrolyte disorder encountered in clinical medicine and is associated with negative outcomes in many chronic diseases. However, there is limited information in the literature about health care resource use and costs attributable to the effects of the condition. The purpose of this analysis was...

Paramore Clark; Boscoe Audra; Verbalis Joseph G

2006-01-01

89

A simulation model to calculate costs and benefits of dry period  

OpenAIRE

Abstract An existing dynamic and stochastic bio-economic model of intramammary infection (IMI) caused by Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus uberis, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, and Escherichia coli was extended to model the dynamics of IMI during the dry period. These dynamics were modeled on the basis of a Greenwood model. The extended model was used to calculate the cost-effectiveness of different dry period interventions in relation to the annual net costs of IMI in a herd of 100 dairy co...

Halasa, T.; Nielen, M.; Werven, T.; Hogeveen, H.

2010-01-01

90

A simulation model to calculate costs and benefits of dry period interventions in dairy cattle  

OpenAIRE

An existing dynamic and stochastic bio-economic model of intramammary infection (IMI) caused by Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus uberis, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, and Escherichia coli was extended to model the dynamics of IMI during the dry period. These dynamics were modeled on the basis of a Greenwood model. The extended model was used to calculate the cost-effectiveness of different dry period interventions in relation to the annual net costs of IMI in a herd of 100 da...

Halasa, T. H. B.; Nielen, M.; Werven, T.; Hogeveen, H.

2010-01-01

91

Sample size calculation in cost-effectiveness cluster randomized trials: optimal and maximin approaches.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, the optimal sample sizes at the cluster and person levels for each of two treatment arms are obtained for cluster randomized trials where the cost-effectiveness of treatments on a continuous scale is studied. The optimal sample sizes maximize the efficiency or power for a given budget or minimize the budget for a given efficiency or power. Optimal sample sizes require information on the intra-cluster correlations (ICCs) for effects and costs, the correlations between costs and effects at individual and cluster levels, the ratio of the variance of effects translated into costs to the variance of the costs (the variance ratio), sampling and measuring costs, and the budget. When planning, a study information on the model parameters usually is not available. To overcome this local optimality problem, the current paper also presents maximin sample sizes. The maximin sample sizes turn out to be rather robust against misspecifying the correlation between costs and effects at the cluster and individual levels but may lose much efficiency when misspecifying the variance ratio. The robustness of the maximin sample sizes against misspecifying the ICCs depends on the variance ratio. The maximin sample sizes are robust under misspecification of the ICC for costs for realistic values of the variance ratio greater than one but not robust under misspecification of the ICC for effects. Finally, we show how to calculate optimal or maximin sample sizes that yield sufficient power for a test on the cost-effectiveness of an intervention. PMID:25019136

Manju, Md Abu; Candel, Math J J M; Berger, Martijn P F

2014-07-10

92

Economic impacts of oil spills: Spill unit costs for tankers, pipelines, refineries, and offshore facilities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The impacts of oil spills -- ranging from the large, widely publicized Exxon Valdez tanker incident to smaller pipeline and refinery spills -- have been costly to both the oil industry and the public. For example, the estimated costs to Exxon of the Valdez tanker spill are on the order of $4 billion, including $2.8 billion (in 1993 dollars) for direct cleanup costs and $1.125 billion (in 1992 dollars) for settlement of damages claims caused by the spill. Application of contingent valuation costs and civil lawsuits pending in the State of Alaska could raise these costs appreciably. Even the costs of the much smaller 1991 oil spill at Texaco's refinery near Anacortes, Washington led to costs of $8 to 9 million. As a result, inexpensive waming, response and remediation technologies could lower oil spin costs, helping both the oil industry, the associated marine industries, and the environment. One means for reducing the impact and costs of oil spills is to undertake research and development on key aspects of the oil spill prevention, warming, and response and remediation systems. To target these funds to their best use, it is important to have sound data on the nature and size of spills, their likely occurrence and their unit costs. This information could then allow scarce R ampersand D dollars to be spent on areas and activities having the largest impact. This report is intended to provide the ''unit cost'' portion of this crucial information. The report examines the three key components of the US oil supply system, namely, tankers and barges; pipelines and refineries; and offshore production facilities. The specific purpose of the study was to establish the unit costs of oil spills. By manipulating this key information into a larger matrix that includes the size and frequency of occurrence of oil spills, it will be possible' to estimate the likely future impacts, costs, and sources of oil spills

93

Simple calculation measures NH3 slip for cogeneration units  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports that government regulations restricting NOx emissions for New Stationary Sources have brought about an increased demand for deNOx systems. One such system is selective catalytic reduction (SCR). It uses ammonia in the presence of a catalyst to selectively reduce NOx emissions. Because of inherent inefficiencies in the SCR design, a small amount of NH3 slip becomes an additional exhaust stream pollutant discharged into the atmosphere. This discharge requires monitoring. Normally, ammonia is listed as a pollutant in the environmental permit to construct when an SCR system is specified for NOx reduction. Therefore, a method to report NH3 slip also will be required. Although the Code of Federal Regulations 40 CRF 60 does not specifically addressed NH3 slip, state agencies usually require reporting of NH3 emissions. An ammonia analyzer usually is installed for the measurement. However, other methods to monitor NH3 slip should be considered. One alternative is to calculate it. A cogeneration plant equipped with SCR using a specific configuration of instrumentation hardware and software will allow the NH3 slip to be calculated accurately

94

Costos reales de tratamientos intensivos por paciente y día cama / Real daily costs of patients admitted to public intensive care units  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish [...] Abstract in english Background: Patient care costs in intensive care units are high and should be considered in medical decision making. Aim: To calculate the real disease related costs for patients admitted to intensive care units of public hospitals. Material and Methods: Using an activity associated costs analysis, [...] the expenses of 716 patients with a mean age of 56 years, mean APACHE score of20 (56% males), admitted to intensive care units of two regional public hospitals, were calculated. Patients were classified according to their underlying disease. Results: The costs per day of hospital stay, in Chilean pesos, were $ 426,265for sepsis, $ 423,300for cardiovascular diseases, $ 418,329 for kidney diseases, $ 404,873 for trauma, $ 398,913 for respiratory diseases, $ 379,455for digestive diseases and $ 371,801 for neurologic disease. Human resources and medications determined up to 85 and 12% of costs, respectively. Patients with sepsis and trauma use 32 and 19% of intensive care unit resources, respectively. Twenty seven percent of resources are invested in patients that eventually died. Conclusions: A real cost benefit analysis should be performed to optimize resource allocation in intensive care units.

Sandra, Alvear; Jorge, Canteros; Juan, Jara; Patricia, Rodríguez.

2013-02-01

95

Extension of the COSYMA-ECONOMICS module - cost calculations based on different economic sectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The COSYMA program system for evaluating the off-site consequences of accidental releases of radioactive material to the atmosphere includes an ECONOMICS module for assessing economic consequences. The aim of this module is to convert various consequences (radiation-induced health effects and impacts resulting from countermeasures) caused by an accident into the common framework of economic costs; this allows different effects to be expressed in the same terms and thus to make these effects comparable. With respect to the countermeasure 'movement of people', the dominant cost categories are 'loss-of-income costs' and 'costs of lost capital services'. In the original version of the ECONOMICS module these costs are calculated on the basis of the total number of people moved. In order to take into account also regional or local economic peculiarities of a nuclear site, the ECONOMICS module has been extended: Calculation of the above mentioned cost categories is now based on the number of employees in different economic sectors in the affected area. This extension of the COSYMA ECONOMICS module is described in more detail. (orig.)

96

[Costs and consumption of material resources in pediatric intensive and semi-intensive care units].  

Science.gov (United States)

Cost management of hospital material resources is a trendy research topic, especially in specialized health units. Nurses are pointed out as the main managers for costs and consumption of hospital materials resources. This study aimed to characterize Pediatric Intensive and Semi-Intensive Care Units of a teaching hospital and investigate costs and consumption of material resources used to treat patients admitted to these units. This is a descriptive exploratory study with retrospective data and quantitative approach. Data were obtained from a Hospital Information System and analyzed according to the ABC classification. The average expenditures were similar in both the neonatal and cardiac units, and lower in Pediatric Intensive and Semi-Intensive care units. There was a significant variation in the monthly consumption of materials. Higher cost materials had a greater impact on the budget of the studied units. The data revealed the importance of using a systematic method for the analysis of materials consumption and expenditure in pediatric units. They subsidize administrative and economic actions. PMID:23559176

Zuliani, Larissa Lenotti; Jericó, Marli de Carvalho; de Castro, Liliana Cristina; Soler, Zaida Aurora Sperli Geraldes

2012-01-01

97

About real cost calculations for biogas from vinasse biodigestion and its energy utilization  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The sharp increase in ethanol production has drawn attention to the increase in the production of n residues, mainly stillage, a by-product from the ethanol agro-industry. As it is a highly polluting effluent that is generated in great volumes, its transport and disposal is not simple. Stillage Is a product that results from the distillation and fermentation of the sugarcane in the process of ethanol production. Today there are new environmental standards that restrict the disposal of the stillage in the soil. The anaerobic biodigestion comes as an alternative treatment for the stillage. One of the advantages of the biodigestion is that the stillage fertilization potential continues to be the same after the process and, this way, the effluent can be taken to the fields through fertirrigation. The main advantages are the conservation of the nutrients, mainly phosphor and nitrogen contents, and the increase in the pH for the application in the soil. This paper presents a methodology for the calculation of the biogas cost obtained from stillage biodigestion, considering the benefits of the fertirrigation with the effluent generated in the digester. Later an analysis of the economical feasibility of the use of the biogas obtained from the stillage anaerobic digestion in different scenarios is carried out, among them there are: electric power generation with alternative internal combustion, with gas turbines and micro-turbines, with the 'substituted' bagasse burned together with the biogas in the boilers, with the sales of the substituted bagasse (for electric power generation in another unit) and with the use of the biogas in spray dryers with the subsequent sales of dried yeasts. It is also considered an analysis under an environmental point of view of the use of the biogas that includes the possibility of selling the certificates of avoided emissions (carbon credits) due to the use of the biogas in substitution to fossil fuels. The most important results are presented in a comparative table. (author)

Salomon, K.R. [Universidade Federal de Alagoas (UFAL), Maceio, AL (Brazil)]. E-mail: kaka_salomon@yahoo.com.br; Lora , E.E.S.; Rocha, M.H. [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil). Thermal Systems Study Group]. E-mails: electo@unifei.edu.br; mateus.rocha@unifei.edu.br

2008-07-01

98

Comparative costs of coal and nuclear-generated electricity in the united states  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper compares the future first-year operating costs and lifetime levelized costs of producing baseload coal- and nuclear-generated electricity under schedules shorter than those recently experienced at U.S. plants. Nuclear appears to have a clear economic advantage. Coal is favorable only when it is assumed that the units will operate at very low capacity factors and/or when the capital cost differential between nuclear and coal is increased far above the recent historical level. Nuclear is therefore a cost-competitive electric energy option for utilities and should be considered as an alternative to coal when large baseload capacity is required. (author)

99

Study on the Development of Methodology for Cost Calculations and Financial Planning of Decommissioning Operations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The following study deals with the development of methodology for cost calculations and financial planning of decommissioning operations. It has been carried out by EDF / FRAMATOME / VUJE / SCK-CEN in the frame of the contract B7-032/2000/291058/MAR/C2 awarded by the European Commission. This study consists of 4 parts. The first task objective is to develop a reliable and transparent methodology for cost assessment and financial planning sufficient precise but without long and in depth investigations and studies. This methodology mainly contains: Calculation methods and algorithms for the elaboration of costs items making up the whole decommissioning cost. Estimated or standard values for the parameters and for the cost factors to be used in the above-mentioned algorithms Financial mechanism to be applied as to establish a financial planning. The second part task is the provision of standard values for the different parameters and costs factors described in the above-mentioned algorithms. This provision of data is based on the own various experience acquired by the members of the working team and on existing international references (databases, publications and reports). As decommissioning operations are spreading over several dozens of years, the scope of this task the description of the financial mechanisms to be applied to the different cost items as to establish a complete financial cost. It takes into account the financial schedule issued in task 1. The scope of this task consists in bringing together in a guideline all the information collected before: algorithms, data and financial mechanisms. (A.L.B.)

100

Criticality safety calculations for Region B of the Millstone Unit No. 2 Spent Fuel Pool  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) staff performed criticality safety calculations documented herein for the fresh fuel region (Region B) of the Northeast Nuclear Energy Company (NNECO) Millstone Unit No. 2 Spent Fuel Pool. The purpose of these calculations was to verify the results reported by NNECO in their application for revision to the Millstone Unit No. 2 technical specifications. All calculations were performed with the SCALE-4.1 code system developed at ORNL. Specifically, the CSAS25 criticality control sequence, which executes the BONAMI, NITAWL-II, and YENO V.a codes, was used to perform all keff calculations

101

Cost–Benefit Analyses of Mitigation Measures Aimed at Reducing Collisions with Large Ungulates in the United States and Canada: a Decision Support Tool  

OpenAIRE

Wildlife–vehicle collisions, especially with deer (Odocoileus spp.), elk (Cervus elaphus), and moose (Alces alces) are numerous and have shown an increasing trend over the last several decades in the United States and Canada. We calculated the costs associated with the average deer–, elk–, and moose–vehicle collision, including vehicle repair costs, human injuries and fatalities, towing, accident attendance and investigation, monetary value to hunters of the animal kil...

Ament, Robert J.; Clevenger, Anthony P.; Duffield, John W.; Huijser, Marcel P.; Mcgowen, Pat T.

2009-01-01

102

Conventional method for the calculation of the global energy cost of buildings; Methode conventionnelle de calcul du cout global energetique des batiments  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A working group driven by Electricite de France (EdF), Chauffage Fioul and Gaz de France (GdF) companies has been built with the sustain of several building engineering companies in order to clarify the use of the method of calculation of the global energy cost of buildings. This global cost is an economical decision help criterion among others. This press kit presents, first, the content of the method (input data, calculation of annual expenses, calculation of the global energy cost, display of results and limitations of the method). Then it fully describes the method and its appendixes necessary for its implementation: economical and financial context, general data of the project in progress, environmental data, occupation and comfort level, variants, investment cost of energy systems, investment cost for the structure linked with the energy system, investment cost for other invariant elements of the structure, calculation of consumptions (space heating, hot water, ventilation), maintenance costs (energy systems, structure), operation and exploitation costs, tariffs and consumption costs and taxes, actualized global cost, annualized global cost, comparison between variants. The method is applied to a council building of 23 flats taken as an example. (J.S.)

NONE

2002-05-01

103

Methodology for Calculating Cost-per-Mile for Current and Future Vehicle Powertrain Technologies, with Projections to 2024: Preprint  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Currently, several cost-per-mile calculators exist that can provide estimates of acquisition and operating costs for consumers and fleets. However, these calculators are limited in their ability to determine the difference in cost per mile for consumer versus fleet ownership, to calculate the costs beyond one ownership period, to show the sensitivity of the cost per mile to the annual vehicle miles traveled (VMT), and to estimate future increases in operating and ownership costs. Oftentimes, these tools apply a constant percentage increase over the time period of vehicle operation, or in some cases, no increase in direct costs at all over time. A more accurate cost-per-mile calculator has been developed that allows the user to analyze these costs for both consumers and fleets. The calculator was developed to allow simultaneous comparisons of conventional light-duty internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles, mild and full hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), and fuel cell vehicles (FCVs). This paper is a summary of the development by the authors of a more accurate cost-per-mile calculator that allows the user to analyze vehicle acquisition and operating costs for both consumer and fleets. Cost-per-mile results are reported for consumer-operated vehicles travelling 15,000 miles per year and for fleets travelling 25,000 miles per year.

Ruth, M.; Timbario, T. A.; Timbario, T. J.; Laffen, M.

2011-01-01

104

A calculation program for harvesting and transportation costs of energy wood; Energiapuun korjuun ja kuljetuksen kustannuslaskentaohjelmisto  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

VTT Energy is compiling a large and versatile calculation program for harvesting and transportation costs of energy wood. The work has been designed and will be carried out in cooperation with Metsaeteho and Finntech Ltd. The program has been realised in Windows surroundings using SQLWindows graphical database application development system, using the SQLBase relational database management system. The objective of the research is to intensify and create new possibilities for comparison of the utilization costs and the profitability of integrated energy wood production chains with each other inside the chains

Kuitto, P.J.

1996-12-31

105

Cost calculations for decommissioning and dismantling of nuclear research facilities, Phase 1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Today, it is recommended that planning of decommission should form an integral part of the activities over the life cycle of a nuclear facility. However, no actual international guideline on cost calculations exists at present. Intuitively, it might be tempting to regard costs for decommissioning of a nuclear facility as similar to those of any other plant. However, the presence of radionuclide contamination may imply that the cost is one or more orders of magnitude higher as compared to a corresponding inactive situation, the actual ratio being highly dependent on the level of contamination as well as design features and use of the facility in question. Moreover, the variations in such prerequisites are much larger than for nuclear power plants. This implies that cost calculations cannot be performed with any accuracy or credibility without a relatively detailed consideration of the radiological and other prerequisites. Application of inadequate methodologies especially at early stages has often lead to large underestimations. The goals of the project and the achievements described in the report are as follows: 1) Advice on good practice with regard to: 1a) Strategy and planning; 1b) Methodology selection; 1c) Radiological surveying; 1d) Uncertainty analysis; 2) Techniques for assessment of costs: 2a) Cost structuring; 2b) Cost estimation methodologies; 3) Compilation of data for plants, state of planning, organisations, etc.; 3a) General descriptions of relevant features of the nuclear research facilities; 3b) General plant specific data; 3c) Example of the decommissioning of the R1 research reactor in Sweden; 3d) Example of the decommissioning of the DR1 research reactor in Denmark. In addition, but not described in the present report, is the establishment of a Nordic network in the area including an internet based expert system. It should be noted that the project is planned to exist for at least three years and that the present report is an interim one covering the work for approximately the first 16 months. (au)

106

Cost calculations for decommissioning and dismantling of nuclear research facilities, Phase 1  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Today, it is recommended that planning of decommission should form an integral part of the activities over the life cycle of a nuclear facility. However, no actual international guideline on cost calculations exists at present. Intuitively, it might be tempting to regard costs for decommissioning of a nuclear facility as similar to those of any other plant. However, the presence of radionuclide contamination may imply that the cost is one or more orders of magnitude higher as compared to a corresponding inactive situation, the actual ratio being highly dependent on the level of contamination as well as design features and use of the facility in question. Moreover, the variations in such prerequisites are much larger than for nuclear power plants. This implies that cost calculations cannot be performed with any accuracy or credibility without a relatively detailed consideration of the radiological and other prerequisites. Application of inadequate methodologies especially at early stages has often lead to large underestimations. The goals of the project and the achievements described in the report are as follows: 1) Advice on good practice with regard to: 1a) Strategy and planning; 1b) Methodology selection; 1c) Radiological surveying; 1d) Uncertainty analysis; 2) Techniques for assessment of costs: 2a) Cost structuring; 2b) Cost estimation methodologies; 3) Compilation of data for plants, state of planning, organisations, etc.; 3a) General descriptions of relevant features of the nuclear research facilities; 3b) General plant specific data; 3c) Example of the decommissioning of the R1 research reactor in Sweden; 3d) Example of the decommissioning of the DR1 research reactor in Denmark. In addition, but not described in the present report, is the establishment of a Nordic network in the area including an internet based expert system. It should be noted that the project is planned to exist for at least three years and that the present report is an interim one covering the work for approximately the first 16 months. (au)

Andersson, Inga [StudsvikNuclear AB (Sweden); Backe, S. [Institute for Energy Technology (Norway); Iversen, Klaus [Danish Decommissioning (Denmark); Lindskog, S [Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (Sweden); Salmenhaara, S. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland (Finland); Sjoeblom, R. [Tekedo AB (Sweden)

2006-11-15

107

Comparison of costs of brick construction and concrete structure based on functional units  

OpenAIRE

In the context of economic sustainability of building construction, it is an issue to decide which constructive solution is more reasonable without loosing quality. This study is about the comparison of the costs of construction of structural walls; conventional reticulated reinforced concrete structure filled with ceramic blocks versus unreinforced masonry with ceramic blocks. Functional units are defined as inner and outer walls to enable a further specification of the costs in order to per...

Sazedj, Soheyl; Morais, Anto?nio; Jalali, Said

2013-01-01

108

Cost-effectiveness of climate change policies for the United States  

OpenAIRE

This research project applies a hybrid energy-economy model to compare the cost-effectiveness of different climate change mitigation policies for the United States. Five policies are compared: (1) a technology regulation phasing out coal and natural gas generation, (2) Clean Electricity Standard, (3) Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standard, (4) Vehicles Emissions Standard, (5) economy-wide GHG tax. The cost of these policies is estimated using three different methodologies. The first methodol...

Rudd, Anne Elizabeth Sally

2012-01-01

109

Evaluation of syngas production unit cost of bio-gasification facility using regression analysis techniques  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Evaluation of economic feasibility of a bio-gasification facility needs understanding of its unit cost under different production capacities. The objective of this study was to evaluate the unit cost of syngas production at capacities from 60 through 1800Nm 3/h using an economic model with three regression analysis techniques (simple regression, reciprocal regression, and log-log regression). The preliminary result of this study showed that reciprocal regression analysis technique had the best fit curve between per unit cost and production capacity, with sum of error squares (SES) lower than 0.001 and coefficient of determination of (R 2) 0.996. The regression analysis techniques determined the minimum unit cost of syngas production for micro-scale bio-gasification facilities of $0.052/Nm 3, under the capacity of 2,880 Nm 3/h. The results of this study suggest that to reduce cost, facilities should run at a high production capacity. In addition, the contribution of this technique could be the new categorical criterion to evaluate micro-scale bio-gasification facility from the perspective of economic analysis.

Deng, Yangyang; Parajuli, Prem B.

2011-08-10

110

A Functional Optimization based Calculation Scheme for Dynamic Economic Load Dispatch Considering Ramp Rate of Thermal Units Output  

Science.gov (United States)

Economic load dispatch among thermal units has been one of the most important problems in the field of power systems operation. Usually so called equal marginal cost criterion is adopted to this calculation. Recently global trend of utilizing more and more renewable energy makes this problem more important than ever. In case of large penetration of fluctuating power sources such as PV or wind, thermal units are more often required to change their prescheduled operation pattern because the outputs from PV and wind power generators are affected by uncertain change of weather condition. In a sense the large scale utilization of natural energy depends on the flexible and adaptive operation of the thermal units. In such a situation it is easily imagined that thermal units would be required to change their output faster than before sometimes violating the limitation due to the physical constraints of the plant including boilers. We will need a load dispatch calculation method which maximally utilizes their output change capability within the upper limits of the ramp rate. Dynamic economic load dispatch has been studied for a long time to give appropriate load dispatch among generators considering the above stated constraints. However the existing methods are not enough in case of the scenario of very steep demand change. Some more sophisticated calculation scheme is highly needed today which gives us feasible solution in severer situations. This paper proposes a new calculation scheme for the above stated dynamic economic load dispatch problem based on functional optimization which numerically solves Euler's differential equation in the field of calculus of variations. The constraints related to units output and output ramp rate are readily considered by the logarithmic penalty function terms in the objective function together with the equality constraint regarding the total demand balance. Numerical examples show that the proposed method can solve the above stated severe situation which has been difficult to treat by the existing methods. Convergence performance is also discussed.

Kumano, Teruhisa

111

HEPAFIL - a program for the calculation of the fluid dynamics of high efficiency particulate air filter units  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

With HEPAFIL, LAF II provides a FORTRAN program for the calculation of various parameters associated with the fluid dynamics of high efficiency particulate air filter units. Most of the currently available commercial deep pleat designs have been taken into consideration, e.g., high strength nuclear grade units employing separators with inclined corrugations, units for clean room applications, as well as low and medium efficiency EU 6 and EU 8 types having very low pressure drops. The flow resistance curves obtained from HEPAFIL could be verified in extensive experimental test. A user-friendly PC version with the integrated program library HEPAGAS can serve as a useful tool to the researcher in filter development as well as to the filter manufacturer for cost reduction analyses. Knowledge of the distributions of airstream, pressures and velocities within the flow channels of the filter pack allows more precise investigations of failure mechanisms and filtration characteristics for a wide range of flow conditions. The newest scientific application involves fundamental investigations into the cleanability of HEPA filter units. HEPAFIL offers filter manufacturers the opportunity to improve and optimize filter performance with respect to pressure drop, burst strength, and material costs, with a minimum of prototype fabrication and testing. (orig.)

112

Critical Analysis of the Cost Calculation System Used in Iron and Steel Industry in Libya  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Phased calculation method applied by industrial enterprises with mass production as in the case of companies in the iron and steel industry, characterized by a simple technological process, conducted in successive stages of processing raw materials and materials from which finished product is resulted. Despite the advantages offered, the phases method has several disadvantages indisputable that require improvement of cost calculation in the iron and steel industry enterprises. This paper aims at presenting the inconvenience that the phase method involves and providing solutions for improvement

ABDELKARIM Abdelali

2013-05-01

113

Using a pocket computer to calculate monitor units--outline of a program in BASIC.  

Science.gov (United States)

A pocket computer was programmed in BASIC to calculate monitor units for a dual energy linear accelerator. Because of the relatively large RAM memory, it was possible to input the TMR (or the PDD) tables for both energies as DATA. The program was written with the intention of providing a back-up check of the hand calculations. PMID:2073333

Ali, M M; Chin, S; Rey, F

1990-12-01

114

Using a pocket computer to calculate monitor units--outline of a program in BASIC  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A pocket computer was programmed in BASIC to calculate monitor units for a dual energy linear accelerator. Because of the relatively large RAM memory, it was possible to input the TMR (or the PDD) tables for both energies as DATA. The program was written with the intention of providing a back-up check of the hand calculations

115

POPCYCLE: a computer code for calculating nuclear and fossil plant levelized life-cycle power costs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

POPCYCLE, a computer code designed to calculate levelized life-cycle power costs for nuclear and fossil electrical generating plants is described. Included are (1) derivations of the equations and a discussion of the methodology used by POPCYCLE, (2) a description of the input required by the code, (3) a listing of the input for a sample case, and (4) the output for a sample case

116

A model for calculating costs of hospital-acquired infections: an Italian experience  

OpenAIRE

PURPOSE: Many approaches on the economic aspect of hospital acquired infections (HAIs) have two major limitations: first, the lack of distinction between resources attributable to the management of HAI and resources absorbed by the main clinical problem for which the patient was hospitalized, and second, the lack of an adequate method for calculating the relative costs. These assume that the resources used by HAI can be determined by measuring the extra days of length of days (LOS) of infecte...

Zotti, Carla Maria; Gianino, Maria Michela

2007-01-01

117

A Geographical-Origin–Destination Model for Calculating the Cost of Multimodal Forest-Fuel Transportation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As a consequence of increasing demand for wood fuels, the management of forest-fuel production chains has become an important logistics issue in FinlandandSweden. Truck-based transportation has been the dominant method in fuel supply from the areas around power plants. However, increasing demand has led to enlargement of supply areas and greater variety in supply methods, including also railway and waterway transportation. This study presents a GIS-based calculation model suitable for cost calculations for power plants’ forest-fuel supply chains. The model has multimodal properties—i.e., it provides transfer of forest-fuel loads between transportation modes—and enables case-specific adjustment of transportation and material-handling cost parameters. The functionality of the model is examined with a case study focusing on a region of intense forest-fuel use. The results indicate that truck transportation is competitive with railway transportation also for long transport distances. However, increasing the proportion of multimodal transportation for other than economic reasons (e.g., for supply security could be reasonable, since the impact on total supply costs is marginal. In addition to honing of the parameters related to biomass availability and transport costs, the model should be developed through inclusion of other means of transportation, such as roundwood carriers.

Tapio Ranta

2013-02-01

118

UNITBURN: a computer code for burnup calculation of a unit fuel cell  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A computer code UNITBURN has been developed for performing burnup calculation of a unit fuel cell. This code calculates neutron flux distribution in a cell by SN-PL method with Multi Group Constants Library (MGCL) and estimates buildup and depletion of nuclides in a fuel pellet. It also calculates nuclear few group constants averaged over a cell for calculation of fuel bundle or whole reactor core, and one group neutron cross sections at each burnup for nuclide generation and decay calculation code COMRAD. This report is a user's manual for UNITBURN. (author)

119

A Realistic Approach for Phasor Measurement Unit Placement : Consideration of Hidden Practical Costs  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper presents a realistic cost-effectivemodel for optimal placement of phasor measurement units (PMUs) for complete observability of a power system considering practical cost implications. The proposed model considers hidden or otherwise unaccounted practical costs involved in PMU installation. Consideration of these hidden but significant and integral part of total PMU installation costs was inspired from practical experience on a real-life project. The proposedmodel focuses on the minimization of total realistic costs instead of a widely used theoretical concept of a minimal number of PMUs. The proposed model has been applied to IEEE 14-bus, IEEE 24-bus, IEEE 30-bus, New England 39-bus, and large power system of 300 buses and real life Danish grid. A comparison of the presented results with those reported by traditionalmethods has also been shown to justify the effectiveness of the proposed model with regard to its realistic and practical nature.

Rather, Zakir Hussain; Chen, Zhe

2014-01-01

120

Cost-effectiveness of pazopanib in advanced soft tissue sarcoma in the United kingdom.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the phase III PALETTE trial, pazopanib improved progression-free survival (PFS) compared with placebo in patients with advanced/metastatic soft tissue sarcomas (mSTS) who had received prior chemotherapy. We used a multistate model to estimate expected PFS, overall survival (OS), lifetime STS treatment costs, and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) for patients receiving pazopanib, placebo, trabectedin, ifosfamide, or gemcitabine plus docetaxel as second-line mSTS therapies. The cost-effectiveness of pazopanib was expressed as the incremental costs per QALY gained. Estimates of PFS/OS, adverse events, and utilities for pazopanib and placebo were from the PALETTE trial. Estimates of relative effectiveness of the other comparators were from an unadjusted indirect comparison versus pazopanib. Costs were from published sources. Pazopanib is estimated to increase QALYs by 0.128 and costs by £7,976 versus placebo; cost per QALY gained with pazopanib versus placebo is estimated to be £62,000. Compared with the other chemotherapies, pazopanib provides similar QALYs at a lower cost. Pazopanib may not be cost-effective versus placebo but may be cost-effective versus the most commonly used active treatments, although this conclusion is uncertain. Given the unmet need for effective treatments for mSTS, pazopanib may be an appropriate alternative to some currently used medications in the United Kingdom. PMID:25024640

Amdahl, Jordan; Manson, Stephanie C; Isbell, Robert; Chit, Ayman; Diaz, Jose; Lewis, Lily; Delea, Thomas E

2014-01-01

121

Financial Aspects of Interinstitutional Cooperation: Unit Costs in Cluster and Non-Cluster Colleges.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Claremont Colleges started the first US cluster experiment in 1925. Through the cluster concept, the personal values of the small college have been preserved while it secured facilities of the university. What is not known is whether educational resources have been enriched at a faster rate than the rise in unit cost. The purpose of this study…

Claremont Graduate School and Univ. Center, CA.

122

Audit Calculations of LBLOCA for Ulchin Unit 1 and 2 Power Up rate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The KINS-Realistic Evaluation Model (KINS-REM) was developed for the independent audit calculation in 1991, and the code accuracy and statistical method have been improved. To support the licensing review and to confirm the validity of licensee's calculation, regulatory auditing calculations have been also conducted. Currently, the modification of Ulchin 1 and 2 operating license for 4.5% power up rate is under review. In this study, the regulatory audit calculation for LBLOCA of Ulchin Unit 1 and 2 with 4.5% power up rate was performed by applying KINS-REM. In this study, the regulatory audit calculation for LBLOCA of Ulchin Unit 1 and 2 with 4.5% power up rate was performed by applying KINS-REM. It is confirmed that the analysis results of LBLOCA for Ulchin 1 and 2 power up rate meets the PCT acceptance criteria

123

Neutron spectrum calculation in containment building of KORI unit 1 using Monte Carlo simulation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is requested basically to make certain safety information about distribution of radiation field in nuclear power plant. Especially, the containment building is concerned with evaluation of neutron exposure for high- level radiation field. In this study, it is performed modeling of containment building and neutron spectrum calculation in it using MCNP code of Monte Carlo Method for Kori unit 1 cycle 20. The calculated neutron spectrum is compared with measurements which was performed by Nuclear Environment Technology Institution. The calculated neutron spectra are similar with measurements below 1 MeV. The model of containment building and calculation of neutron spectrum is verified by this compare results

124

"Cost creep due to age creep" phenomenon: pattern analyses of in-patient hospitalization costs for various age brackets in the United States.  

Science.gov (United States)

The expectation that aging leads to a progressive deterioration of biological functions leading to higher healthcare costs is known as the healthcare cost creep due to age creep phenomenon. The authors empirically test the validity of this phenomenon in the context of hospitalization costs based on more than 8 million hospital inpatient records from 1,056 hospitals in the United States. The results question the existence of cost creep due to age creep after the age of 65 years as far as average hospitalization costs are concerned. The authors discuss implications for potential knowledge transfer for cost minimization and medical tourism. PMID:24255935

Chinta, Ravi; Burns, David J; Manolis, Chris; Nighswander, Tristan

2013-01-01

125

Estimating unit costs for dental service delivery in institutional and community-based settings in southern Thailand.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this cross-sectional study, the cost of different dental services was estimated and the unit costs of dental services for schoolchildren were compared between 2 settings: hospital-based and community-based mobile dental clinics. Heads of all departments in a selected community hospital were invited to attend 2 workshops to collect relevant data. Unit costs of different dental services varied from 41 to 2693 baht, with services falling into 4 unit cost groups: very high, high, moderate, and low. The very-high-unit-cost services included rehabilitative dental services. The high-unit-cost services covered removal of an impacted tooth, root canal treatment, and tooth-color fillings. The moderate-unit-cost group included a wide range of other dental services, with screening and oral hygiene instruction in community-based dental clinics falling into the low-unit-cost group. Generally, services provided in the community-based mobile clinic had lower unit costs than the same services provided in the hospital dental clinic. PMID:19124339

Tianviwat, Sukanya; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi; Birch, Stephen

2009-01-01

126

Target costing in the sales area of an energy supplier. market-oriented calculation of services; Target Costing im Vertriebsbereich von EVU. Marktorientierte Kalkulation von Dienst- und Serviceleistungen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The targeted steering of cost positions is becoming an increasingly decisive success factor for companies of the energy sector. However the traditional method of cost accounting and result accounts for merely operative purposes is not or only insufficiently able to generate the information required for this. Of greater service here are methods of strategic cost management which are aimed at shaping potentials, processes and products on the basis of cost criteria. Using this as a basis the present article documents the essential results of an empirical study carried out at the chair for business administration, in particular environmental management and controlling, of Duisburg-Essen University on the state of application of cost calculation systems and cost management methods among German energy supply companies. The article also presents conceptual deliberations on the use of target costing in the sales area.

Held, Stephan [Duisburg-Essen Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Betriebswirtschaftslehre, insb. Umweltwirtschaft und Controlling; Bucksteeg, Michael [Duisburg-Essen Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Energiewirtschaft

2010-06-15

127

System incremental cost calculations using the participation factor load-flow formulation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The load-flow problem is reformulated such that the use of a slack-bus generator is included only as a special case. This reformulation, known as the participation factor load-flow, includes a total mismatch variable and a defined participation vector, which, in general, distributes this mismatch to all system buses. The slack-bus constraint can still be obtained by defining a particular participation vector. In using the participation factor load-flow in the transpose Jacobian approach to the economic optimal dispatch problem, the paper shows that the value of the system-? can be controlled such that this value represents the minimal incremental change in generation costs per unit change in system total demand with this demand distributed according to the specified participation vector. Methods using the conventional B-coefficient loss formulas or slack-bus load-flows give system-? values whereby the unit change in demand must be placed on a fictitious single load-bus or on the slack-bus, respectively. Having a system-? value which more accurately represents a proposed energy interchange between interconnected systems is very important in developing valid costs for each system. An extensive 28-bus, 8-generator system is included to illustrate these results

128

Cost of wind energy: comparing distant wind resources to local resources in the midwestern United States.  

Science.gov (United States)

The best wind sites in the United States are often located far from electricity demand centers and lack transmission access. Local sites that have lower quality wind resources but do not require as much power transmission capacity are an alternative to distant wind resources. In this paper, we explore the trade-offs between developing new wind generation at local sites and installing wind farms at remote sites. We first examine the general relationship between the high capital costs required for local wind development and the relatively lower capital costs required to install a wind farm capable of generating the same electrical output at a remote site,with the results representing the maximum amount an investor should be willing to pay for transmission access. We suggest that this analysis can be used as a first step in comparing potential wind resources to meet a state renewable portfolio standard (RPS). To illustrate, we compare the cost of local wind (?50 km from the load) to the cost of distant wind requiring new transmission (?550-750 km from the load) to meet the Illinois RPS. We find that local, lower capacity factor wind sites are the lowest cost option for meeting the Illinois RPS if new long distance transmission is required to access distant, higher capacity factor wind resources. If higher capacity wind sites can be connected to the existing grid at minimal cost, in many cases they will have lower costs. PMID:20931984

Hoppock, David C; Patiño-Echeverri, Dalia

2010-11-15

129

16 CFR Appendix K to Part 305 - Representative Average Unit Energy Costs  

Science.gov (United States)

...CONCERNING DISCLOSURES REGARDING ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND WATER USE OF CERTAIN HOME APPLIANCES...must be utilized to calculate estimated annual operating cost disclosures required...procedure Dollars per million Btu 1 Electricity 10.65¢/kWh 2,3...

2010-01-01

130

Cost–Benefit Analyses of Mitigation Measures Aimed at Reducing Collisions with Large Ungulates in the United States and Canada: a Decision Support Tool  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Wildlife–vehicle collisions, especially with deer (Odocoileus spp., elk (Cervus elaphus, and moose (Alces alces are numerous and have shown an increasing trend over the last several decades in the United States and Canada. We calculated the costs associated with the average deer–, elk–, and moose–vehicle collision, including vehicle repair costs, human injuries and fatalities, towing, accident attendance and investigation, monetary value to hunters of the animal killed in the collision, and cost of disposal of the animal carcass. In addition, we reviewed the effectiveness and costs of 13 mitigation measures considered effective in reducing collisions with large ungulates. We conducted cost–benefit analyses over a 75-year period using discount rates of 1%, 3%, and 7% to identify the threshold values (in 2007 U.S. dollars above which individual mitigation measures start generating benefits in excess of costs. These threshold values were translated into the number of deer–, elk–, or moose–vehicle collisions that need to occur per kilometer per year for a mitigation measure to start generating economic benefits in excess of costs. In addition, we calculated the costs associated with large ungulate–vehicle collisions on 10 road sections throughout the United States and Canada and compared these to the threshold values. Finally, we conducted a more detailed cost analysis for one of these road sections to illustrate that even though the average costs for large ungulate–vehicle collisions per kilometer per year may not meet the thresholds of many of the mitigation measures, specific locations on a road section can still exceed thresholds. We believe the cost–benefit model presented in this paper can be a valuable decision support tool for determining mitigation measures to reduce ungulate–vehicle collisions.

Robert J. Ament

2009-12-01

131

Sea-level change: the expected economic cost of protection or abandonment in the United States  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Three distinct models from earlier work are combined to: (1) produce probabilistically weighted scenarios of greenhouse-gas-induced sea-level rise; (2) support estimates of the expected discounted value of the cost of sea-level rise to the developed coastline of the United States, and (3) develop reduced-form estimates of the functional relationship between those costs to anticipated sea-level rise, the cost of protection, and the anticipated rate of property-value appreciation. Four alternative representations of future sulfate emissions, each tied consistently to the forces that drive the initial trajectories of the greenhouse gases, are considered. Sea-level rise has a nonlinear effect on expected cost in all cases, but the estimated sensitivity falls short of being quadratic. The mean estimate for the expected discounted cost across the United States is approximately 2 billion dollars (with a 3% real discount rate), but the range of uncertainty around that estimate is enormous; indeed, the 10th and 90th percentile estimates run from less than 0.2 billion dollars up to more than 4.6 billion dollars. In addition, the mean estimate is very sensitive to associated sulfate emissions; it is specifically, diminished by nearly 25% when base-case sulfate emission trajectories are considered and by more than 55% when high-sulfur trajectories are allowed. 37 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

Yohe, G.W.; Schlesinger, M.E. [Wesleyan University, Middletown, CT (United States). Dept. of Economics

1998-04-01

132

Correction of manucal monitor unit calculation for asymmetric fields using varian enhanced dynamic wedge  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To investigate the correction of manual monitor unit calculation for asymmetric fields using the Varian enhanced dynamic wedge. Methods: Monitor unit (MU) was calculated when the field sizes ranged from 6 cm x 6 cm to 20 cm x 20 cm at a depth of 5 cm using Varian Eclipse and both 6 MV and 10 MV X-rays data from Varian Clinac 23EX for all seven available EDW angles, including 10 degree 15 degree, 20 degree, 25 degree, 30 degree, 45 degree and 60 degree The field size was kept fixed, and the distance between geometry center of field and isocenter was increased in increments of 1 cm, ranging from -9 cm to 4 cm. When the field size was the same, the correction factor was defined as the ratio of MU calculated for asymmetric field to monitor unit calculated for symmetric field. To ensure the correction factors obtained above could be used in routine manual calculation for EDW fields, measurements were made at a depth of 5 cm for 30 degree and 45 degree EDW with field size of 10 cm x 10 cm using 6 MV X-rays. Results: The correction factor was independent of field dimensions, so the average value was adopted to make practical calculation. Without correction, the maximum error was 18% for 30 degree, and 30% for 45. After the results of monitor unit calculation were corrected, the largest error was - 1.8% and - 1.7% for 30 degree and 45 degree EDW, respectively. The magnitude of errors was within the clinical tolerance limits. Conclusions: For asymmetric EDW fields, . Conclusions: For asymmetric EDW fields, there is very large difference between the prescribed dose by manual calculation using EDW factors measured for symmetric fields and that delivered during treatment in order to obtain correct dose to reference point. The errors are decreased to be acceptable after correction. The method of correction is simple and independent of machine specific beam parameters. (authors)

133

47 CFR 36.603 - Calculation of rural incumbent local exchange carrier portion of nationwide loop cost expense...  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Calculation of rural incumbent local exchange carrier...Service Fund General § 36.603 Calculation of rural incumbent local exchange carrier...transferred high-cost support and safety valve support calculated pursuant to §...

2010-10-01

134

Levelised unit electricity cost comparison of alternate technologies for baseload generation in Ontario  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report provides a comparison of the lifetime cost of constructing, operating and decommissioning new generation suitable for supplying baseload power by early in the next decade. New baseload generation options in Ontario are nuclear, coal-fired steam turbines or combined cycle gas turbines (CCGT). Nuclear and coal-fired units are characterised by high capital costs and low operating costs. As such, they are candidates for baseload operation only. Gas-fired generation is characterised by lower capital costs and higher operating costs and thus may meet the requirements for operation as peaking and/or baseload generation. The comparison of baseload generating technologies is made by reference to the estimated levelised unit electricity cost (LUEC). The LUEC can be thought of as a 'supply cost', where the unit cost is the price needed to recover all costs over the period. It is determined by finding the price that sets the sum of all future discounted cash flows (net present value, or NPV) to zero. It can also be thought of as representing the constant real wholesale price of electricity that meets the financing cost, debt repayment, income tax and cash flow constraints associated with the construction operation and decommissioning of a generating plant. Levelised unit cost comparisons are usually made with different sets of financing assumptions. This report considers two base cases, which we describe as 'merchant' and 'public' financing. The term 'merchant plant' is used to refer to ones that are built and operated by private investors. These investors pay for their capital through debt and by raising equity, and thus pay return on equity and interest on debt throughout their lifetime. These projects include income taxes, both provincial and federal. Publicly financed projects typically are not subject to income taxes or to the same constraints on raising finance through issuing debt and equity. However, they are constrained to provide a rate of return. The rate of return required for projects is subject to some uncertainty. For a merchant project the higher the perceived risk the higher the required return. Publicly financed projects may be evaluated on the basis of a given discount rate or may be able to access funds at lower rates, but the risk of cost overruns is implicitly borne by the taxpayer. There is a third possibility, a public/private partnership. A number of partnership arrangements are possible, for example, public financing of construction and leasing to private owners for operation. All partnership arrangements represent a sharing of risk between the public and private sector. Public/private partnership may provide an attractive model for building new generation in Ontario. This report considers each of the generation options under both merchant and public financing. The base case merchant financing scenario is consistent with one where risk is relatively low, and consequently the real return on equity required by private investors is 12%. We believe a comparison between merchant and public financing to be important in that it shows the effect of taxes and financing assumptions on the economics of a generation project. Since the pure economic assessment of projects does not normally consider financing or tax costs, these being transfer payments not essential to the project itself, the public financing version of our assessments can be interpreted as the underlying economics of different technologies. This report does not include a detailed modelling of financing arrangements that could occur under a public/private partnership. However, we do consider how the cost of generation options compares under a wide range of illustrative assumptions on the required return on equity, debt and the debt/equity ratio. (author)

135

Levelised unit electricity cost comparison of alternate technologies for baseload generation in Ontario  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report provides a comparison of the lifetime cost of constructing, operating and decommissioning new generation suitable for supplying baseload power by early in the next decade. New baseload generation options in Ontario are nuclear, coal-fired steam turbines or combined cycle gas turbines (CCGT). Nuclear and coal-fired units are characterised by high capital costs and low operating costs. As such, they are candidates for baseload operation only. Gas-fired generation is characterised by lower capital costs and higher operating costs and thus may meet the requirements for operation as peaking and/or baseload generation. The comparison of baseload generating technologies is made by reference to the estimated levelised unit electricity cost (LUEC). The LUEC can be thought of as a 'supply cost', where the unit cost is the price needed to recover all costs over the period. It is determined by finding the price that sets the sum of all future discounted cash flows (net present value, or NPV) to zero. It can also be thought of as representing the constant real wholesale price of electricity that meets the financing cost, debt repayment, income tax and cash flow constraints associated with the construction operation and decommissioning of a generating plant. Levelised unit cost comparisons are usually made with different sets of financing assumptions. This report considers two base cases, which we describe as 'merchant' and 'public' financing. The term 'merchant plant' is used to refer to ones that are built and operated by private investors. These investors pay for their capital through debt and by raising equity, and thus pay return on equity and interest on debt throughout their lifetime. These projects include income taxes, both provincial and federal. Publicly financed projects typically are not subject to income taxes or to the same constraints on raising finance through issuing debt and equity. However, they are constrained to provide a rate of return. The rate of return required for projects is subject to some uncertainty. For a merchant project the higher the perceived risk the higher the required return. Publicly financed projects may be evaluated on the basis of a given discount rate or may be able to access funds at lower rates, but the risk of cost overruns is implicitly borne by the taxpayer. There is a third possibility, a public/private partnership. A number of partnership arrangements are possible, for example, public financing of construction and leasing to private owners for operation. All partnership arrangements represent a sharing of risk between the public and private sector. Public/private partnership may provide an attractive model for building new generation in Ontario. This report considers each of the generation options under both merchant and public financing. The base case merchant financing scenario is consistent with one where risk is relatively low, and consequently the real return on equity required by private investors is 12%. We believe a comparison between merchant and public financing to be important in that it shows the effect of taxes and financing assumptions on the economics of a generation project. Since the pure economic assessment of projects does not normally consider financing or tax costs, these being transfer payments not essential to the project itself, the public financing version of our assessments can be interpreted as the underlying economics of different technologies. This report does not include a detailed modelling of financing arrangements that could occur under a public/private partnership. However, we do consider how the cost of generation options compares under a wide range of illustrative assumptions on the required return on equity, debt and the debt/equity ratio. (author)

Ayres, M.; McRae, M.; Stogran, M.

2004-08-15

136

GEOCOST-BC, Geothermal Power Plant Electricity Generator Cost, Thermodynamics Calculation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

1 - Description of problem or function: GEOCOST calculates the cost of generating electricity from geothermal energy. The version of GEOCOST in this release, GEOCOST-BC, simulates the production of electricity using a binary fluid cycle based upon a hydrothermal resource. 2 - Method of solution: GEOCOST is a simulation model which combines both technical processes and economic factors into one systematic framework. The simulation is composed of two principal parts: a reservoir model which simulates the exploration, development, and operation of a geothermal reservoir, and a power plant model which simulates the design, construction, and operation of the power plant. Each of these parts is composed of several submodels which treat fluid transmission and disposal, geothermal fluid/working fluid heat exchangers, turbine, generators, working fluid condenser, pumps, heat rejection, and calculation of thermodynamic state points in basic subcritical and supercritical Rankine cycles for a variety of working fluids. Working fluids which are now in the model include isobutane, n-butane, R-ll, R-12, R-22, R-113, R-114, and ammonia. Thermodynamic properties of the working fluids at the state points are calculated using empirical equations of state. The Starling equation of state is used for hydrocarbons and the Martin-Hou equation of state is used for fluorocarbons and ammonia. A wide variety of financial and tax structures can be simulated through varying the rates of return on ed through varying the rates of return on equity and debt, the debt-equity ratio, and tax rates. Using discounted cash flow analyses, GEOCOST calculates the cost of energy by equating the present worth of the revenues and expenses over the economic life of the reservoir and plant. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Current array dimensions provide for a maximum well field size of 625 wells and maximum operating period of 50 years from reservoir exploration through the economic life of the power plant

137

Health-resource use and costs associated with fibromyalgia in France, Germany, and the United States  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Tyler Knight,1 Caroline Schaefer,1 Arthi Chandran,2 Gergana Zlateva,2 Andreas Winkelmann,3 Serge Perrot4 1Health Economics and Outcomes Research, Covance Market Access Services, Gaithersburg, MD, USA; 2Primary Care Health Economics and Outcomes Research, Pfizer Global Health Economics, New York, NY, USA; 3Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University Hospital Munich, Munich, Germany; 4Service de Médecine Interne et Thérapeutique, Université Paris Descartes, Paris, France Background: Fibromyalgia (FM is a chronic disorder characterized by widespread, persistent pain. Prospective and retrospective studies have demonstrated substantial health-care costs associated with FM in a number of countries. This study evaluated and compared health-resource use (HRU and associated costs related to FM in routine clinical practice across the US, France, and Germany. Methods: Two separate, cross-sectional, observational studies of subjects with FM were conducted: one in the US and one in France and Germany. HRU related to prescription medication, physician office visits, diagnostic tests, and hospitalizations was abstracted from chart review; patient out-of-pocket costs and lost productivity were collected via subject self-report. Costs were assigned to HRU based on standard algorithms. Direct and indirect costs were evaluated and compared by simple linear regression. Results: A total of 442 subjects (203 US, 70 France, 169 Germany with FM were analyzed. The mean (standard deviation age in the US, France, and Germany was 47.9 (10.9, 51.2 (9.5, and 49.2 (9.8, respectively (P = 0.085. Most subjects were female (95% US, 83% France, 80% Germany (P < 0.001. Adjusted annual direct costs per subject for FM were significantly higher in the US ($7087 than in France ($481, P < 0.001 or Germany ($2417, P < 0.001. Adjusted mean annual indirect costs per subject for FM were lower in the US ($6431 than in France ($8718 or Germany ($10,001, but represented a significant proportion of total costs in all countries. Conclusion: The significant HRU and costs associated with FM in the US, France, and Germany documented in this study highlight the substantial global economic burden of FM. Indirect costs represented a significant proportion of the total costs, particularly in Europe. Comparisons between the three countries show differences in HRU, with significantly higher direct costs in the US compared with France and Germany. Keywords: fibromyalgia, cost, burden of illness, United States, France, Germany

Chandran A

2013-04-01

138

Calculation method for the seasonal performance of heat pump compact units and validation. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This comprehensive final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at compact heat pump units that have been developed for the heating of low energy consumption houses built to MINERGIE or MINERGIE-P standards. These units, which combine the functions of space heating, domestic hot water preparation and ventilation in one unit are described. A testing procedure developed at the University of Applied Science in Lucerne, Switzerland, using a test rig for the measurement of the seasonal performance factor (SPF) is described. A calculation method based on temperature classes for the calculation of the SPF of combined heat pump systems for space heating and domestic hot water preparation that was developed by the Institute of Energy in Buildings at the University of Applied Sciences Northwestern Switzerland is examined. Two pilot plants allowing detailed field monitoring of two compact units are described. One pilot plant installed in a single-family house built to MINERGIE standard in Gelterkinden, Switzerland, provided data on a compact unit. These results of measurements made on this and a further installation in a MINERGIE-P ultra-low energy consumption house in Zeiningen, Switzerland, are presented and discussed. Calculation methods, including exergy considerations are reviewed and their validation is discussed.

Wemhoener, C.; Dott, R.; Afjei, Th. [University of Applied Sciences Northwestern Switzerland, Institute of Energy in Buildings, Muttenz (Switzerland); Huber, H.; Helfenfinger, D.; Keller, P.; Furter, R. [University of Applied Sciences Lucerne (HTA), Test center HLKS, Horw (Switzerland)

2007-02-15

139

Independent calculation of the monitor units and times of treatment in radiotherapy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this work, an independent verification system of calculations in radiotherapy was developed and applied, using Visual BasicTM programming language. The computational program performs calculations of monitor units and treatment time, based on the algorithm of manual calculation. The calculations executed for the independent system had initially been compared with the manual calculations performed by the medical physicists of the Institute of Radiotherapy of the Hospital das Clinicas da Universidade de Sao Paulo. In this step, the results found for more than two hundred fields studied were similar to those found in the literature; deviations larger than +- 1% were found only in five cases involving errors in manual calculation. The application of the independent system, in this stage, could have identified errors up to +- 2,4%. Based on these data, the system was validated for use in clinical routine. In a second step, calculations were compared with calculations realized by the treatment computerized planning system CadPIanTM. When, again, the results were similar to those published in other works allowing to obtain levels of acceptance of the discrepancies between the calculations executed for the independent system and the calculations developed from the planning system, separated by anatomical region, as recommended according by the recent literature. For beams of 6 MV, the levels of acceptance for deviations between the calculations of monitor units, separated by treatment region were the following; breast +- 1.7%, head and neck +2%; hypophysis +- 2.2%; pelvis +- 4 . 1% and thorax +- 1.5%. For beams of 15 MV, the level suggested for pelvis was of +- 4.5%. (author)

140

19 CFR 351.407 - Calculation of constructed value and cost of production.  

Science.gov (United States)

...costs. In determining the appropriate method for allocating costs among products...sales values, and other quantitative and qualitative factors associated with the manufacture...non-production costs (such as general research and development costs), as...

2010-04-01

141

CALCULATION OF POWER AND CHOICE OF BASIC FUNCTIONAL UNITS OF WIND POWER ELECTRIC-INSTALLATION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article discusses the basic analytical expressions for the calculation of power generators and select features basic functional units of wind turbines, allowing the design phase to conduct a preliminary assessment of the effectiveness of wind power stations, which supplies specific consumers of electric power

Kvitko A. V.

2014-04-01

142

CALCULATION OF POWER AND CHOICE OF BASIC FUNCTIONAL UNITS OF WIND POWER ELECTRIC-INSTALLATION  

OpenAIRE

This article discusses the basic analytical expressions for the calculation of power generators and select features basic functional units of wind turbines, allowing the design phase to conduct a preliminary assessment of the effectiveness of wind power stations, which supplies specific consumers of electric power

Kvitko A. V.; Goncharov A. Y.

2014-01-01

143

Re-circulating power, unit costs and thermal pollution of fusion power stations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The fraction epsilon of electrical power re-circulated is shown to be of crucial importance in assessing the credibility of fusion systems as commercial reactors, and it is advocated that epsilon should replace the more commonly used criterion Q, the energy amplification in the fusion reactor itself. Both unit costs and thermal pollution are shown to scale as (constant+epsilon)/(1-epsilon) and the dire consequences of high epsilon-values are quantitatively demonstrated. (author)

144

Efficiency-optimized low-cost TDPAC spectrometer using a versatile routing/coincidence unit  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A highly efficient, reliable, and low-cost ?-? TDPAC spectrometer, PACAr, optimized for 181Hf-implanted low-activity samples, is presented. A versatile EPROM-based routing/coincidence unit was developed and implemented to be use with the memory-card-based multichannel analyzer hosted in a personal computer. The excellent energy resolution and very good overall resolution and efficiency of PACAr are analyzed and compare with advanced and already tested fast-fast and slow-fast PAC spectrometers.

145

Preoperative calculation of risk for prolonged intensive care unit stay following coronary artery bypass grafting  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Objective Patients who have prolonged stay in intensive care unit (ICU) are associated with adverse outcomes. Such patients have cost implications and can lead to shortage of ICU beds. We aimed to develop a preoperative risk prediction tool for prolonged ICU stay following coronary artery surgery (CABG). Methods 5,186 patients who underwent CABG between 1st April 1997 and 31st March 2002 were analysed in a development dataset. Logistic regression was us...

Dihmis Walid C; Fabri Brian M; Grayson Antony D; Ghotkar Sanjay V; Mark, Pullan D.

2006-01-01

146

Physician response to the United Mine Workers' cost-sharing program: the other side of the coin.  

OpenAIRE

The effect of cost sharing on health services utilization is analyzed from a new perspective, that is, its effects on physician response to cost sharing. A primary data set was constructed using medical records and billing files from a large multispecialty group practice during the three-year period surrounding the introduction of cost sharing to the United Mine Workers Health and Retirement Fund. This same group practice also served an equally large number of patients covered by United Steel...

Fahs, M. C.

1992-01-01

147

PRECISE CALCULATION UNIT BASED ON A HARDWARE IMPLEMENTATION OF A FORMAL NEURON IN A FPGA PLATFORM  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The formal neuron is a processing unit that performs a number of complex mathematical operations on real format data. These calculation units require hardware’s architectures capable providing extremely accurate calculations treatments. To arrive upon more accurate hardware architecture in terms of the calculation, the new proposed method uses data coding in single precision floating point. This allows handling of infinitely small and infinitely large data and; consequently, a diverse field of application. The formal neuron implementation requires an embedded platform whose implementation must be flexible, efficient and fast. This article aims at presenting in detail a new precise method to implement this calculation unit. It uses a number of specific blocks described in VHDL hardware description language in an embedded FPGA platform. The data handled by these blocks are coded in 32-bit floating point. The implementation of this new method has been developed and tested on an embedded FPGA platform of Altera DE2-70. The calculation results on the platform and those obtained by simulation are very conclusive.

Mohamed ATIBI

2014-07-01

148

Calculation of the Cost of an Adequate Education in Kentucky: A Professional Judgment Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available What is an adequate education and how much does it cost? In 1989, Kentucky’s State Supreme Court found the entire system of education unconstitutional-“all of its parts and parcels”. The Court called for all children to have access to an adequate education, one that is uniform and has as its goal the development of seven capacities, including: (i “sufficient oral and written communication skills to enable students to function in a complex and rapidly changing civilization . . . .and (vii sufficient levels of academic or vocational skills to enable public school students to compete favorably with their counterparts in surrounding states, in academics or in the job market”. Now, over a decade later, key questions remain regarding whether these objectives have been fulfilled. This research is designed to calculate the cost of an adequate education by aligning resources to State standards, laws and objectives, using a professional judgment approach. Seven focus groups were convened for this purpose and the scholarly literature was reviewed to provide multiple inputs into study findings. The study produced a per pupil base cost for each of three prototype school districts and an total statewide cost, with the funding gap between existing revenue and the revenue needed for current operations of $1.097 billion per year (2001-02. Additional key resource requirements needed to achieve an adequate education, identified by professional judgment panels, include: (1 extending the school year for students and teachers, (2 adding voluntary half-day preschool for three and four year olds, and (3 raising teacher salaries. This increases the funding gap to $1.23 billion and suggests that significant new funding is required over time if the Commonwealth of Kentucky is to provide an adequate and equitable education of high quality for all children and youth as directed by the State Supreme Court.

Deborah A. Verstegen

2004-02-01

149

COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS OF A SINGLE UNIT SYSTEM WITH SCHEDULED MAINTENANCE AND VARIATION IN DEMAND  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present paper analyses the reliability and cost-benefit for a single unit system with scheduled maintenance and variation in demand. As Change in demand affects the production of system also, hence sometimes, the system needs to be shut down when the number of produces are in excess as compared to those demanded. Revenue in case of both types of up states i.e., when demand is greater than or equal to production and when demand is less than production have also been taken under consideration while carrying out the cost-benefit analysis. The loss incurred to the system when it is kept shut down due to less demand has also been taken into account. Optimized reliability indices of the system effectiveness are estimated numerically using semi-Markov processes and regenerative point technique. Expression for the expected profit is obtained after obtaining various measures of system effectiveness. We can conclude that cut off points for various rates/probabilities/revenue per unit up time/costs can be obtained which help in deciding the upper/lower acceptable values of rates/costs so that the system is profitable.

Gulshan Taneja

2013-01-01

150

Cost effective interprofessional training : an evaluation of a training unit in Denmark  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In 2004, the first Danish undergraduate interprofessional training unit (ITU) was established at the Regional Hospital Holstebro, inspired by experiences from Sweden. In this unit, medical, nursing, occupational therapy and physiotherapy students are given responsibility, under supervision by trained and motivated personnel, for rehabilitation and care of patients in a subunit of an orthopaedic department. The aim of this study was to see whether the ITU was cost effective in treating patients compared with a conventional orthopaedic ward. One-hundred and thirty-four patients admitted for primary hip or knee replacement surgery were included in the study. All costs were recorded in the ITU and in the conventional ward. Follow-up was done by a quality of life questionnaire three months after the operation. Comparison was done by univariable and multivariable testing of costs and effect. In both, the ITU was more cost effective than the conventional ward. No difference was found in complications and patient-reported quality of life. In conclusion, clinical training can be given to students in an ITU without reducing productivity in a hospital environment if pedagogic principles, clinical tutors and patient logistics all adapt to the challenge of the teaching environment.

Hansen, Torben Bæk; Jakobsen, Flemming Bandholm

2009-01-01

151

Experience with the core protection calculator system at Arkansas Nuclear One - Unit 2  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The first digital reactor reactor protection system installed in a US commercial nuclear power plant has now been operating for 5 years. This system, called the Core Protection Calculator System (CPCS) at Arkansas Nuclear One - Unit 2 (ANO-2) provides automatic reactor shutdown for protection of fuel cladding (departure from nucleate boiling) and protection against fuel center line melting (linear heat rate) for design basis events and anticipated operational occurrences. There are now three other such systems in operation: at Southern California Edison's San-Onofre Units 2 and 3 and at Louisiana Power and Light's Waterford Unit 3. The three nuclear units at Arizona Public Service's Palo-Verde station also employ a functionally identical design utilizing different hardware. The major difficulties encountered in licensing this system with The Nuclear Regulatory Commission are discussed and Arkansas Power and Light Company's experience associated with the installation, operation, modification and maintenance of the CPCS at ANO-2 is highlighted

152

Decommissioning cost recovery in the United States: lessons learned from Connecticut Yankee NPP  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The international audience at ICONE-7 is already familiar with the roles of the owner and the NRC in ensuring the technical and safety performance goals of nuclear plant decommissioning. This paper addresses the role of the economic regulator since the pursuit of technical and safety goals must necessarily carry with them -a price tag- and owners must be concerned with the recovery of those costs. Answers to questions about how to pay and who should pay for decommissioning can very often influence nuclear power plant owner's decision-making. In the United States, most nuclear power plants are privately owned. Nevertheless, their owners are not totally free to determine the plant's economics or profitability. Instead, plant owners must sell their electricity to consumers in a regulated market wherein the price of electricity and terms of sale are controlled by the government. Under this regulatory regime, utilities are generally allowed to recover their investment costs -including decommissioning costs- provided that such costs are prudently, incurred. However, when an owner retires the plant prematurely, the prudence of his actions -up to and including the shutdown- are likely to be challenged. In 1997, for example, the owners of the Connecticut Yankee reactor faced a stiff challenge to the recovery of decommissioning costs when they shut down the plant ten years before license expiration. The Connecticut Yankee case thus provides valuable insights into the role of ecides valuable insights into the role of economic regulation on a nuclear plant's decommissioning strategy. (author)

153

Innovative global approach for high-performance low-cost integral field unit (IFU)  

Science.gov (United States)

The current Integral Field Units (IFUs) are limited either by their cost/risk or by their performance. In particular, standard glass manufacturing techniques allow reaching high level of performances: accurate roughness (high throughput), sharp edges (about 1 micron), surface form (image quality), etc. in spite of their reputation to be costly and risky. Combining high performances and low costs is challenging. By coupling fast tools specifically developed at LAM to design IFU, and innovative low-cost and low-risk methods of manufacturing, we are able to reach high performances while saving costs and time by an order of magnitude. We have developed a demonstrator which validates our tools and manufacturing methods in terms of optical image quality, slice edges quality and decentring errors. We will present these results and an example of IFU designed with our tools. All these processes of optimization between manufacturing techniques and design can be applied for future ground-based instruments (MUSE, KMOS for the VTL; MOMFIS of the ELT) or into future space instruments (SNAP).

Vivès, Sébastien; Prieto, Eric; Salaun, Yves

2007-09-01

154

IBFCYC-A computer program for levelized individual batch fuel cycle cost calculations for uranium fuelled pressurized light water reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The work presented is a part of an integrated calculation scheme for fuel cycle material accountability and cost analysis. The survey-type computer program IBFCYC aims at the calculation of the levelized individual batch fuel cycle cost for pressurized light water reactors. It gives as output the flow material requirements for each component of the fuel cycle. It gives also the component direct, indirect, and present worth costs. It helps well in sensitivity analysis and fuel cycle optimization calculations. The computer program is so flexible that it allows the user a variety of choices for the type of calculations he needs. An example for the application of IBFCYC computer program is given through the solution of a sample problem. Among the results obtained, the saving in feed material and separative work requirements due to reprocessing is calculated for the sample problem. It is concluded that reprocessing results in savings of about 20% and 4% in respectively feed material and separative work requirements

155

Monitor unit calculation for large wedged high-energy photon beams  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

With modern high-energy linear accelerators, the following beam characteristics have to be taken into account in the monitor unit (MU) calculation of a wedged treatment: (i) the field size dependence of wedge factors; (ii) the changes in depth dose and maximum build-up depth (dmax) induced by wedges; and (iii) the field size dependence of dmax. The incorporation of a field size specific wedge factor in an MU calculation is straightforward. Effects (ii) and (iii) however, often cause confusion and inconsistency in the choices of the reference depth for wedge factors and the normalization depth for wedged depth dose, and consequently can lead to inconsistent MU calculation formalism with additional errors of up to 7% in the delivered dose. In this note, we illustrate a derivation of an exact central axis MU calculation for wedged treatments, which correctly accounts for the effects mentioned above. (author)

156

Fast Calculation of the Lomb-Scargle Periodogram Using Graphics Processing Units  

CERN Document Server

I introduce a new code for fast calculation of the Lomb-Scargle periodogram, that leverages the computing power of graphics processing units (GPUs). After establishing a background to the newly emergent field of GPU computing, I discuss the code design and narrate the key parts of the source. Benchmarking calculations indicate no significant differences in accuracy compared to an equivalent CPU-based code; however, the code is up to 200 times faster than the CPU equivalent. Possible applications include spectral analysis of long photometric time series obtained by ongoing satellite missions; and Monte-Carlo simulation of periodogram statistical properties.

Townsend, R H D

2010-01-01

157

Monitor unit calculations using a 3D computerised treatment planning system: verification in an anthropomorphic phantom  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this work was to assess the monitor unit calculation accuracy of a new 3D computer planning system in a volume containing significant lung heterogeneity. An anthropomorphic phantom drilled to accommodate a cylindrical ionisation chamber was used for measurements. Results were also compared to an older 2D system and a manual calculation method. Only a slight improvement was achieved with the new system and an energy dependence was evident. This type of test is recommended before implementing a new 3D planning system. Copyright (1999) Australasian Physical and Engineering Sciences in Medicine and the College of Biomedical Engineers

158

Applying graphics processor units to Monte Carlo dose calculation in radiation therapy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We investigate the potential in using of using a graphics processor unit (GPU for Monte-Carlo (MC-based radiation dose calculations. The percent depth dose (PDD of photons in a medium with known absorption and scattering coefficients is computed using a MC simulation running on both a standard CPU and a GPU. We demonstrate that the GPU?s capability for massive parallel processing provides a significant acceleration in the MC calculation, and offers a significant advantage for distributed stochastic simulations on a single computer. Harnessing this potential of GPUs will help in the early adoption of MC for routine planning in a clinical environment.

Bakhtiari M

2010-01-01

159

CNSS plant concept, capital cost, and multi-unit station economics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

United Engineers and Constructors (UE and C) and the Babcock and Wilcox Company (B and W) have performed several studies over the last eight years related to small integral pressurized water reactors. These reactors include the 365 MWt (100 MWe) Consolidated Nuclear Steam Generator (CNSG) and the 1200 MWt Consolidated Nuclear Steam System (CNSS). The studies, mostly performed under contract to the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, have led to a 1250 MWt (400 MWe) Consolidated Nuclear Steam System (CNSS) plant concept, with unique design and cost features. This report contains an update of earlier studies of the CNSS reactor and balance-of-plant concept design, capital costs, and multi-unit plant economics incorporating recent design developments, improvements, and post-TMI-2 upgrades. The economic evaluation compares the total system economic impact of a phased, three stage 400 MWe CNSS implementation program, i.e., a three-unit station, to the installation of a single 1200 MWe Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) into a typical USA utility system

160

X/Qs and unit dose calculations for Central Waste Complex interim safety basis effort  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective for this problem is to calculate the ground-level release dispersion factors (X/Q) and unit doses for onsite facility and offsite receptors at the site boundary and at Highway 240 for plume meander, building wake effect, plume rise, and the combined effect. The release location is at Central Waste Complex Building P4 in the 200 West Area. The onsite facility is located at Building P7. Acute ground level release 99.5 percentile dispersion factors (X/Q) were generated using the GXQ. The unit doses were calculated using the GENII code. The dimensions of Building P4 are 15 m in W x 24 m in L x 6 m in H

161

Speeding up plane-wave electronic-structure calculations using graphics-processing units  

Science.gov (United States)

We report on a source-code modification of the density-functional program suite VASP which benefits from the use of graphics-processing units (GPUs). For the electronic minimization needed to achieve the ground state using an implementation of the blocked Davidson iteration scheme (EDDAV), speed-ups of up to 3.39 on S1070 devices or 6.97 on a C2050 device were observed when calculating an ion-conductor system of actual research interest. Concerning the GPU specialty - memory throughput - the low double-precision performance forms the bottleneck on the S1070, whereas on Fermi cards the code reaches 61.7% efficiency while not suffering from any accuracy losses compared to well-established calculations performed on a central processing unit (CPU). The algorithmic bottleneck was found to be the multiplication of rectangular matrices. An initial idea to solve this problem is given.

Maintz, Stefan; Eck, Bernhard; Dronskowski, Richard

2011-07-01

162

The economic costs and benefits of potassium iodide prophylaxis for a reference LWR facility in the United States  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Policy decisions relating to radiation protection are commonly based on an evaluation in which the benefits of exposure reduction are compared to the economic costs of the protective measure. A generic difficulty countered in cost-benefit analyses, however, is the quantification of major elements that define the costs and the benefits in commensurate units. In this study, the costs of making KI (potassium iodine) available for public use and the avoidance of thyroidal health effects (i.e., the benefit) in the event of nuclear emergency are defined in the commensurate units of dollars. (Authors). 11 refs., 15 tabs

163

Calculation of flexural strength of a unitized post-tensioned concrete masonry wall system  

OpenAIRE

Bolt-A-Blok system is a unitized, post-tensioned, structural system comprised of concrete blocks, tensioned steel bolts, and bars, eliminating the need for traditional mortar. This thesis presents a refined procedure to calculate the flexural capacity of the Blot-A-Blok wall system based on results of construction tests. The objective is to develop an analysis procedure to determine strain in the bolts, and as a result, the stress in bolts at failure. Flexural capacities computed using the as...

Yang, Yuxing

2012-01-01

164

Calculation method for the seasonal performance of heat pump compact units and validation. Appendix  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This appendix to a comprehensive final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of tests made on compact heat pump units that have been developed for the heating of low energy consumption houses built to MINERGIE or MINERGIE-P standards. The tests on these units, which combine the functions of space heating, domestic hot water preparation and ventilation in one unit are presented and discussed. Test conditions are described; these cover ventilation, acoustic, hygiene and safety aspects. Detailed results from the two test objects - buildings built to MINERGIE and MINERGIE-P low energy consumption standards - are presented and discussed. The calculation methods used are examined and discussed.

Wemhoener, C.; Dott, R.; Afjei, Th. [University of Applied Sciences Northwestern Switzerland, Institute of Energy in Buildings, Muttenz (Switzerland); Huber, H.; Helfenfinger, D.; Keller, P.; Furter, R. [University of Applied Sciences Lucerne (HTA), Test center HLKS, Horw (Switzerland)

2007-02-15

165

Optimal Multi Server Using Time Based Cost Calculation in Cloud Computing?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As cloud computing becomes additional and additional standard, understanding the economic science of cloud computing becomes critically necessary. To maximize the profit, a service supplier ought to perceive each charge and business prices, and the way they're determined by the characteristics of the applications and also the configuration of a multi server system. The matter of best multi server configuration for profit maximization in an exceedingly cloud computing setting is studied. Our valuation model takes such factors into concerns because the quantity of a service, the work of AN application setting, the configuration of a multi server system, the service-level agreement, the satisfaction of a shopper, the standard of a service, the penalty of a low-quality service, the value of dealing, the value of energy consumption, and a service provider’s margin and profit. Our approach is to treat a multi server system as AN M/M/m queuing model, such our improvement downside are often developed and resolved analytically. 2 server speed and power consumption models square measure thought-about, namely, the idle-speed model and also the constant-speed model. The likelihood density operate of the waiting time of a freshly arrived service request comes. The expected charge to a service request is calculated. The expected web business gain in one unit of your time is obtained. Numerical calculations of the best server size and also the best server speed square measure incontestable.

Kattera Srinivasa Rao

2014-09-01

166

Preliminary regulatory audit calculation for Shinkori Units 3 and 4 LBLOCA  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this study is to perform a preliminary evaluation for Shinkori Units 3 and 4 LBLOCA by applying KINS Realistic Evaluation Methodology (REM). The following results were obtained: (1) From the evaluation for Shinkori Units 3 and 4 LBLOCA, the peak cladding temperature was evaluated to meet the regulatory requirement and the feasibility of the KINS-REM was identified. (2) The input decks that were developed in the previous studies, were reviewed and the evaluation model of the fluidic device was developed and applied for the audit calculation. (3) The treating method for the uncertainty of the gap conductance was developed and applied for the audit calculation. (4) The pre- and post-processing programs were developed for this study. (5) For the more detailed assessments, the information for the gap conductance, etc. should be improved and the effects of coolant bypass during blowdown, steam binding and so on were not sufficiently evaluated. KINS-REM should be advanced to evaluate these effects properly. The KINS methodology that was used in this study, can be further applied for independent regulatory audit calculations related to the licensing application on LOCA best estimate calculation

167

Lessons learnt from application of the standardized cost calculation code OMEGA in decision making processes and planning in decommissioning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Implementation of the standardised cost structure, as defined in 'A Proposed Standardised List of Costs Items for Decommissioning Purposes' (OECD/NEA, IAEA, EC, 1999), into the decommissioning costing, supports the harmonisation of decommissioning costs. The decision making processes in decommissioning planning can be more effective if there is the possibility to compare the calculated data with the data of other projects, structured in standardised cost structure. The results of the decision making process should be based on evaluation of such a set of decommissioning options which covers the methods of decommissioning, the selected strategy and existing or planned decommissioning infrastructure. Aspects such as impact of time, waste management scenarios, uncertainties of input data and other aspects should be also evaluated. These issues of decision making process were implemented into the decommissioning costing code OMEGA. All activities of a decommissioning project are involved within single compact standardised calculation structure including waste management. The resulting costs have standardised format and no additional data conversion is needed. The calculation process is nuclide resolved and internally linked in such a way that it models the material and radioactivity flow in the decommissioning process. The effect of decay of radioactivity is considered. The options are optimised in the standard MS-Project software as Gantt charts. The bi-directional data las Gantt charts. The bi-directional data link between the standardised calculation structure and the Gantt chart supports the on-line optimisation of the Gantt chart structure. Multi-option work is applied, i.e. decommissioning options, which cover all decommissioning scenarios to be considered, are evaluated individually and multi-attribute analysis is applied for selecting the optimal one. Methods of sensitivity analysis and evaluation of uncertainties of calculated costs were developed for support the decision making process and for definition of contingencies. (author)

168

Market value calculation and the solution of circularity between value and the weighted average cost of capital WACC  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Most finance textbooks present the Weighted Average Cost of Capital (WACC calculation as: WACC = Kd×(1-T×D% + Ke×E%, where Kd is the cost of debt before taxes, T is the tax rate, D% is the percentage of debt on total value, Ke is the cost of equity and E% is the percentage of equity on total value. All of them precise (but not with enough emphasis that the values to calculate D% y E% are market values. Although they devote special space and thought to calculate Kd and Ke, little effort is made to the correct calculation of market values. This means that there are several points that are not sufficiently dealt with: Market values, location in time, occurrence of tax payments, WACC changes in time and the circularity in calculating WACC. The purpose of this note is to clear up these ideas, solve the circularity problem and emphasize in some ideas that usually are looked over. Also, some suggestions are presented on how to calculate, or estimate, the equity cost of capital.

Ignacio Vélez-Pareja

2009-12-01

169

Multi-Item EOQ Model with Both Demand-Dependent Unit Cost and Varying Leading Time via Geometric Programming  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to derive the analytical solution of the EOQ model of multiple items with both demand-dependent unit cost and leading time using geometric programming approach. The varying purchase and leading time crashing costs are considered to be continuous functions of demand rate and leading time, respectively. The researchers deduce the optimal order quantity, the demand rate and the leading time as decision variables then the optimal total cost is obtained.

Hala A. Fergany

2011-05-01

170

Spend Less, Get More? Using Low-Cost Accelerometers to Calculate Building Responses  

Science.gov (United States)

We present a new technique for predicting the earthquake responses of various structures, and we demonstrate its effectiveness by applying the method to several buildings, including several newly instrumented buildings around the Stanford University campus. While the use of ambient noise recordings to determine structural qualities of buildings is not new, our technique produces robust results that are independent of the noise sources. The process of averaging 10-minute inter-station transfer functions for a long duration (approximately 14 days) generates robust building responses comparable to those generated with earthquake data. The method allows us to employ large volumes of data recorded from low-gain accelerometers such as those currently used by the Quake-Catcher Network. Furthermore, as we can obtain the phase information, we can Fourier transform the transfer functions into the time domain to calculate the Impulse Response Function (IRF). The IRF can then be used to approximate a building’s response to a moderate earthquake. Using small, inexpensive accelerometers means that there is the exciting potential of being able to perform minimally invasive campaign-style state-of-health monitoring for many buildings at low cost. The increased data volume will provide useful and dependable results for many structures, thereby improving our understanding of building responses.

Chung, A. I.; Lawrence, J. F.; Prieto, G.; Kohler, M. D.; Cochran, E. S.

2009-12-01

171

Cost-income analysis of oral health units of health care centers in Yazd city  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background and Aims: Increasing demands for health care's services on one hand and limited resources on the other hand brings about pressure over governments to find out a mechanism for fair and appropriate distribution of resources. Economic analysis is one of the appropriate tools for policy making on this priority. The aim of this study was to assess capital and consumption of oral health units of health care centers in Yazd city and comparing it with revenue of these centers and determining of cost effectiveness.Materials and Methods: In this descriptive cross sectional study, all health care centers of Yazd city with active dentistry department were evaluated. The data has been extracted from current documents in health care center of county based issued receipts and daily information registers.Results: Expended cost for providing of oral hygiene services in second half of 2008 in 13 medical health centers of Yazd included active dentistry section was 557.887.500 Rials and revenue to cost ratio was about 34%. The most provided service was related to tooth extraction and the average of tooth restoration in each working day was 0.48.Conclusion: With attention to low tariffs of dentistry services in medical health centers and paying subsidy to target groups, expenses of oral hygiene are always more than its revenue.

Hosein Fallahzadeh

2012-01-01

172

Accelerated molecular dynamics force evaluation on graphics processing units for thermal conductivity calculations  

Science.gov (United States)

Thermal conductivity is a very important property of a material both for testing theoretical models and for designing better practical devices such as more efficient thermoelectrics, and accurate and efficient calculations of thermal conductivity are very desirable. In this paper, we develop a highly efficient molecular dynamics code fully implemented on graphics processing units for thermal conductivity calculations using the Green-Kubo formula. We compare two different schemes for force evaluation, a previously used thread-scheme, where a single thread is used for one particle and each thread calculates the total force for the corresponding particle, and a new block-scheme, where a whole block is used for one particle and each thread in the block calculates one or several pair forces between the particle associated with the given block and its neighbor particle(s) associated with the given thread. For both schemes, two different classical potentials, namely, the Lennard-Jones potential and the rigid-ion potential are implemented. While the thread-scheme performs a little better for relatively large systems, the block-scheme performs much better for relatively small systems. The relative performance of the block-scheme over the thread-scheme also increases with the increasing cutoff radius. We validate the implementation by calculating lattice thermal conductivities of solid argon and lead telluride. The efficiency of our code makes it very promising to study thermal conductivity properties of more complicated materials, especially, materials with interesting nanostructures.

Fan, Zheyong; Siro, Topi; Harju, Ari

2013-05-01

173

HTR-PROTEUS benchmark calculations. Pt. 1. Unit cell results LEUPRO-1 and LEUPRO-2  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the framework of the IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) on 'Validation of Safety Related Physics Calculations for Low-Enriched (LEU) HTGRs' calculational benchmarks are performed on the basis of LEU-HTR pebble-bed critical experiments carried out in the PROTEUS facility at PSI, Switzerland. Of special interest is the treatment of the double heterogeneity of the fuel and the spherical fuel elements of these pebble bed core configurations. Also of interest is the proper calculation of the safety related physics parameters like the effect of water ingress and control rod worth. This document describes the ECN results of the LEUPRO-1 and LEUPRO-2 unitcell calculations performed with the codes WIMS-E, SCALE-4 and MCNP4A. Results of the LEUPRO-1 unit cell with 20% water ingress in the void is also reported for both the single and the double heterogeneous case. Emphasis is put on the intercomparison of the results obtained by the deterministic codes WIMS-E and SCALE-4, and the Monte Carlo code MCNP4A. The LEUPRO whole core calculations will be reported later. (orig.)

174

Development and implementation of a software for assessment of calculations in radiotherapy monitor units  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To develop and implement a software based on the manual calculation algorithm for verification of the calculations in radiotherapy monitor units and to establish acceptance levels as a mechanism of quality assurance. Materials and methods: Data were obtained from Clinac 600C and 2100C Varian linear accelerators and the computerized treatment planning system used was CadPlanTM. Results: For the 6 MV beams the acceptance levels for deviations among the calculations of monitor units, divided by treatment area, were the following: breast (0.0%±1.7%), head and neck (1.5%±0.5%), hypophysis (-1.7%±0.5%), pelvis (2.1%±2.1%) and thorax (0.2%±1.3%). For the 15 MV beams the suggested level for pelvis in all the treatment techniques was (3.2%±1.3%). Conclusion: The present data are sufficient to justify the use of the software in the clinical practice as a tool for the quality assurance program. (author)

175

REFLOS, Fuel Loading and Cost from Burnup and Heavy Atomic Mass Flow Calculation in HWR  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

1 - Nature of physical problem solved: REFLOS is a programme for the evaluation of fuel-loading schemes in heavy water moderated reactors. The problems involved in this study are: a) Burn-up calculation for the reactor cell. b) Determination of reactivity behaviour, power distribution, attainable burn-up for both the running-in period and the equilibrium of a 3-dimensional heterogeneous reactor model; investigation of radial fuel movement schemes. c) Evaluation of mass flows of heavy atoms through the reactor and fuel cycle costs for the running-in, the equilibrium, and the shut down of a power reactor. If the subroutine for treating the reactor cell were replaced by a suitable routine, other reactors with weakly absorbing moderators could be analyzed. 2 - Method of solution: Nuclear constants and isotopic compositions of the different fuels in the reactor are calculated by the cell-burn-up programme and tabulated as functions of the burn-up rate (MWD/T). Starting from a known state of the reactor, the 3-dimensional heterogeneous reactor programme (applying an extension of the technique of Feinberg and Galanin) calculates reactivity and neutron flux distribution using one thermal and one or two fast neutron groups. After a given irradiation time, the new state of the reactor is determined, and new nuclear constants are assigned to the various defined locations in the reactor. Reloading of fuel may occur if the prescribed life of the reactor is reached or if the effectof the reactor is reached or if the effective multiplication factor or the power form factor falls below a specified level. The scheme of reloading to be carried out is specified by a load vector, giving the number of channels to be discharged, the kind of movement from one to another channel and the type of fresh fuel to be charged for each single reloading event. After having determined the core states characterizing the equilibrium period, and having decided the fuel reloading scheme for the running-in period of the reactor life, the fuel cycle costs are evaluated following proposals of the EURATOM Economic Handbook. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Maximum number of groups of channels having rotation symmetry is 60. Maximum Number of groups of channels having specular symmetry is 120. Maximum number of harmonics for the approximation of the axial flux distribution is 19. Highest order of Bessel functions for the approximation of the radial flux distribution is 12. Maximum number of axial pieces of a channel with possibly different neutronic properties is 20. Maximum number of neutron groups: two fast, one thermal. Maximum number of different types of channels in the reactor is 10. Maximum number of burn-up steps characterizing one type of channel is 50

176

Independent monitor unit calculation for intensity modulated radiotherapy using the MIMiC multileaf collimator  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A self-consistent monitor unit (MU) and isocenter point-dose calculation method has been developed that provides an independent verification of the MU for intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) using the MIMiC (Nomos Corporation) multileaf collimator. The method takes into account two unique features of IMRT using the MIMiC: namely the gantry-dynamic arc delivery of intensity modulated photon beams and the slice-by-slice dose delivery for large tumor volumes. The method converts the nonuniform beam intensity planned at discrete gantry angles of 5 deg. or 10 deg. into conventional nonmodulated beam intensity apertures of elemental arc segments of 1 deg. This approach more closely simulates the actual gantry-dynamic arc delivery by MIMiC. Because each elemental arc segment is of uniform intensity, the MU calculation for an IMRT arc is made equivalent to a conventional arc with gantry-angle dependent beam apertures. The dose to the isocenter from each 1 deg. elemental arc segment is calculated by using the Clarkson scatter summation technique based on measured tissue-maximum-ratio and output factors, independent of the dose calculation model used in the IMRT planning system. For treatments requiring multiple treatment slices, the MU for the arc at each treatment slice takes into account the MU, leakage and scatter doses from other slices. This is achieved by solving a set of coupled linear equations for the MUs of all involved treatment slices. All input dosimetry data reatment slices. All input dosimetry data for the independent MU/isocenter point-dose calculation are measured directly. Comparison of the MU and isocenter point dose calculated by the independent program to those calculated by the Corvus planning system and to direct measurements has shown good agreement with relative difference less than ±3%. The program can be used as an independent initial MU verification for IMRT plans using the MIMiC multileaf collimators

177

Low-cost general purpose spectral display unit using an IBM PC  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Many physics experiments require acquisition and analysis of spectral data. commercial minicomputer-based multichannel analyzers collect detected counts at various energies, create a histogram of the counts in memory, and display the resultant spectra. They acquire data and provide the user-to-display interface. The system discussed separates functions into the three modular components of data acquisition, storage, and display. This decoupling of functions allows the experimenter to use any number of detectors for data collection before forwarding up to 64 spectra to the display unit, thereby increasing data throughput over that available with commercial systems. An IBM PC was chosen for the low-cost, general purpose display unit. Up to four spectra may be displayed simultaneously in different colors. The histogram saves 1024 channels per detector, 640 of which may be distinctly displayed per spectra. The IEEE-488 standard provides the data path between the IBM PC and the data collection unit. Data is sent to the PC under interrupt control, using direct memory access. Display manipulations available via keyboard are also discussed

178

Economic impacts of oil spills: Spill unit costs for tankers, pipelines, refineries, and offshore facilities. [Task 1, Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The impacts of oil spills -- ranging from the large, widely publicized Exxon Valdez tanker incident to smaller pipeline and refinery spills -- have been costly to both the oil industry and the public. For example, the estimated costs to Exxon of the Valdez tanker spill are on the order of $4 billion, including $2.8 billion (in 1993 dollars) for direct cleanup costs and $1.125 billion (in 1992 dollars) for settlement of damages claims caused by the spill. Application of contingent valuation costs and civil lawsuits pending in the State of Alaska could raise these costs appreciably. Even the costs of the much smaller 1991 oil spill at Texaco`s refinery near Anacortes, Washington led to costs of $8 to 9 million. As a result, inexpensive waming, response and remediation technologies could lower oil spin costs, helping both the oil industry, the associated marine industries, and the environment. One means for reducing the impact and costs of oil spills is to undertake research and development on key aspects of the oil spill prevention, warming, and response and remediation systems. To target these funds to their best use, it is important to have sound data on the nature and size of spills, their likely occurrence and their unit costs. This information could then allow scarce R&D dollars to be spent on areas and activities having the largest impact. This report is intended to provide the ``unit cost`` portion of this crucial information. The report examines the three key components of the US oil supply system, namely, tankers and barges; pipelines and refineries; and offshore production facilities. The specific purpose of the study was to establish the unit costs of oil spills. By manipulating this key information into a larger matrix that includes the size and frequency of occurrence of oil spills, it will be possible` to estimate the likely future impacts, costs, and sources of oil spills.

1993-10-15

179

Calculation of an advanced ultra-supercritical power unit with CO2 capture installation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: • The subject of the analysis was a conceptual 900 MW coal-fired unit with single and double reheat. • Post-combustion CO2 capture by chemical absorption was considered. • Steam to CCU is extracted from IP/LP crossover pipe. Crossover pressure has significant impact on the unit efficiency. • Reduction of the CCU specific heat duty is very important for the power unit efficiency improvement. • Part of the waste heat from the overhead condenser can be use it in the feed water preheating system. - Abstract: An efficiency enhancement of coal-fired power units becomes a basis for the reduction in the consumption of primary fuels and as a result in CO2 emissions. Steam parameters increasing is an effective way to improve the efficiency of electricity generation. The progress in materials engineering has led to the more and more common implementation of the technology of power units for ultra-supercritical parameters. The next generation of this technology – the advanced ultra-supercritical parameters A-USC – opens new perspectives. Obtaining a higher efficiency of electricity generation and exceeding the 50% net efficiency barrier, apart from the increase in the steam parameters, requires an optimisation of the thermodynamic cycle, together with the modernisation of the flow system of steam, condensers, regenerative water heaters. The development of the advanced ultra-supercritical technologies is the subject of European, Japanese, American and Chinese projects, which aims at the completion of a power unit with the live steam parameters of 700 °C and 35 MPa and the net efficiency exceeding 50%. The paper presents the results of the calculations which were performed for a conceptual power unit in two configurations – with single and double steam reheat. The CCS Directive contains a clause providing for the new construction of power installations as “capture ready”. Newly built power unit gives possibility of optimized integration with CO2 capture installation. The power and efficiency loss related with the integration with CO2 capture process can be reduce. Due to the state of knowledge of CO2 capture methods and the ability of its application into the high power unit only the chemical absorption was considered in the paper. The CO2 capture installation requires large amount of heat to solvent regeneration in appropriate quantity and quality, cooling system to discharge waste heat and power to drive CO2 compressor and auxiliary equipment (pump, fans). In the paper the steam to CCU is extracted from IP/LP crossover pipe. The design IP/LP crossover pressure has very significant impact on the power unit efficiency. Its reduction to the level which is required by the CCU can improve power unit efficiency. However, lower crossover pressure results in efficiency looses in part-load operation. Therefore, the analysis of power unit operation with partial load for various design crossover pressure was considered. The slight improvement of power unit efficiency can be gained also through the recovery of waste heat from the overhead condenser and CO2 compressor intercoolers in the feed water preheating system

180

Calculations of the radiological impact of disposal of unit activity of selected radionuclides  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of the work described is to provide estimates of the radiological impact following disposal of unit activity via each of several options, including disposal on the deep ocean bed, shallow burial, engineered trench disposal, disposal in a geologic repository and disposal in off-shore boreholes. Results are presented for a range of important representative radionuclides. In the course of the calculations it was necessary to make a number of simplifying assumptions. The implications of these are discussed in the context of use of the results for comparative assessments of waste management options. (author)

181

Calculation of radiation quantities for the medical products sterilization unit by gamma ray  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Medical products sterilization unit using 60Co will be in operation starting from in 1991, at the Atomic Energy Commission of Syria. The irradiator produced by USSR and exported by Technoexport. Intial activity of the 6OCo source is 100 Kci. In order to calculate the utilization factor, non-homogeneity factor, shielding, activity and exposure, a computure program written in BASIC language is used. The programe operates on version 3.2 MS DOS using IBM compatable microcomputers. 6 refs., 7 figs. (author)

182

Antibiotic prescription and cost patterns in a general intensive care unit  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: English Abstract in spanish Se analizaron los hábitos de prescripción de antibióticos, el modelo de costes, y las intervenciones prospectivas en una Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos. Métodos: Se recogieron prospectivamente datos sobre utilización y costes de antibióticos de los registros electrónicos individuales desde agosto de [...] 2003 a enero de 2004, y retrospectivamente hasta diciembre 2002. Resultados: Se investigó un total de 180 y 107 pacientes en 2002 y 2003. En 2002, la Piperacilina-Tazobactam (13,8%) y el Imipenem/Cilastina (11,2%) fue los más prescritos, mientras que en 2003, se prescribieron vancomicina (12,%) e Imipenem/Cilastina (11,3%). Las dosis diarias definidas (DDD) totales y el índice utilización 90% (DU90%) para 2002 y 2003 fueron 2031,15 y 2325,90 DDD (p>0,1). La mediana de coste total /100 días de internamiento (IC95%) fue 13.310NIS (11.110;18.420) y 13.860NIS (6.710;18.020) (p=0,66), respectivamente. Conclusiones: Los programas de intervención deberían enfocarse en promover el control de las infecciones con una prescripción racional de antibióticos centrada en minimizar las futuras apariciones de resistencia bacteriana y los gastos inútiles. Abstract in english Antibiotic prescription habits, cost pattern, and the prospective intervention in an Intensive Care Unit were analyzed. Methods: Data on antibiotic utilization and costs were collected prospectively from individual electronic charts from August 2003 to January 2004, and retrospectively from August t [...] o December 2002. Results: A total of 180 and 107 patients were surveyed in 2002 and 2003. In 2002, Piperacillin-Tazobactam (13.8%) and Imipenem/Cilastin (11.2%) were the most prescribed medications; while, in 2003, Vancomycin (12.6%) and Imipenem/Cilastin (11.3%) were prescribed, respectively. Total defined daily dose (DDD) and Drug Utilization 90% (DU90%) index for 2002 and 2003 were 2031.15 and 2325.90 DDDs (p>0.1) and 1777.57 and 2079.61 DU90%, respectively (p>0.1). The Median Total Cost /100 admission days (CI 95%) were NIS13,310 (11,110;18,420) and NIS13,860 (6,710;18,020) (p=0.66), respectively. Conclusions: Interventional programs should focus on promoting infectious control with rational antibiotic prescription aimed at minimizing the future emergence of bacterial resistance and futile expenses.

Norberto, Krivoy; Wissam, Abed El-Ahal; Yaron, Bar-Lavie; Salim, Haddad.

2007-06-01

183

CULSP: Fast Calculation of the Lomb-Scargle Periodogram Using Graphics Processing Units  

Science.gov (United States)

I introduce a new code for fast calculation of the Lomb-Scargle periodogram, that leverages the computing power of graphics processing units (GPUs). After establishing a background to the newly emergent field of GPU computing, I discuss the code design and narrate key parts of its source. Benchmarking calculations indicate no significant differences in accuracy compared to an equivalent CPU-based code. However, the differences in performance are pronounced; running on a low-end GPU, the code can match 8 CPU cores, and on a high-end GPU it is faster by a factor approaching thirty. Applications of the code include analysis of long photometric time series obtained by ongoing satellite missions and upcoming ground-based monitoring facilities; and Monte-Carlo simulation of periodogram statistical properties.

Townsend, R. H. D.

2011-09-01

184

Fast Calculation of the Lomb-Scargle Periodogram Using Graphics Processing Units  

Science.gov (United States)

I introduce a new code for fast calculation of the Lomb-Scargle periodogram that leverages the computing power of graphics processing units (GPUs). After establishing a background to the newly emergent field of GPU computing, I discuss the code design and narrate key parts of its source. Benchmarking calculations indicate no significant differences in accuracy compared to an equivalent CPU-based code. However, the differences in performance are pronounced; running on a low-end GPU, the code can match eight CPU cores, and on a high-end GPU it is faster by a factor approaching 30. Applications of the code include analysis of long photometric time series obtained by ongoing satellite missions and upcoming ground-based monitoring facilities, and Monte Carlo simulation of periodogram statistical properties.

Townsend, R. H. D.

2010-12-01

185

FAST CALCULATION OF THE LOMB-SCARGLE PERIODOGRAM USING GRAPHICS PROCESSING UNITS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

I introduce a new code for fast calculation of the Lomb-Scargle periodogram that leverages the computing power of graphics processing units (GPUs). After establishing a background to the newly emergent field of GPU computing, I discuss the code design and narrate key parts of its source. Benchmarking calculations indicate no significant differences in accuracy compared to an equivalent CPU-based code. However, the differences in performance are pronounced; running on a low-end GPU, the code can match eight CPU cores, and on a high-end GPU it is faster by a factor approaching 30. Applications of the code include analysis of long photometric time series obtained by ongoing satellite missions and upcoming ground-based monitoring facilities, and Monte Carlo simulation of periodogram statistical properties.

186

Graphics processing unit-assisted density profile calculations in the KSTAR reflectometera)  

Science.gov (United States)

Wavelet transform (WT) is widely used in signal processing. The frequency modulation reflectometer in the KSTAR applies this technique to get the phase information from the mixer output measurements. Since WT is a time consuming process, it is difficult to calculate the density profile in real time. The data analysis time, however, can be significantly reduced by the use of the Graphics Processing Unit (GPU), with its powerful computing capability, in WT. A bottle neck in the KSTAR data processing exists in the data input and output (IO) process between the CPU and its peripheral devices. In this paper, the details of the WT implementation assisted by a GPU in the KSTAR reflectometer are presented and the consequent performance improvement is reported. The real time density profile calculation from the reflectometer measurements is also discussed.

Seo, Seong-Heon; Oh, Dong Keun

2014-11-01

187

Costos directos de la hemodiálisis en unidades públicas y privadas / Direct cost analysis of hemodialysis units  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO. Estimar y comparar el costo por sesión de hemodiálisis dentro del sector público y privado en la Ciudad de México. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS. Se calcularon los costos de los insumos utilizados en las hemodiálisis de cuatro hospitales públicos y dos privados de la Ciudad de México, mediante la est [...] rategia de micro-costeo denominada PAATI. Para la obtención de los datos se utilizó el método de sombra; además, se empleó Excel para elaborar cédulas en las que se determina el PAATI para cada sesión. RESULTADOS. El costo anual promedio directo en el sector público por el tratamiento de un individuo en hemodiálisis es de $158 964.00 M. N., y el costo de atender a la población que podría demandar terapia de reemplazo renal se estima en $10 921 788 072.00 M. N. CONCLUSIÓN. La disponibilidad de recursos humanos e infraestructura en el país es muy limitada para el campo de la nefrología en general y, en particular, para ofrecer servicios de hemodiálisis, por lo que sería necesario inyectar más recursos para poder responder ante la demanda por insuficiencia renal terminal. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE. To estimate and compare direct costs per hemodialysis session in public and private units in Mexico City. MATERIAL AND METHODS. PAATI, a microcosting strategy, was used to determine total costs of four public and two private health hospitals in Mexico City. A "shadow study" approach was e [...] mployed to collect the needed data. Charts containing the "PAATI" information for each session were developed in Microsoft Excel. RESULTS. The average annual cost per patient undergoing hemodialysis in public units is $158 964.00 MX. The estimated cost for the care of all population estimated in need of renal replacement therapy (via hemodialysis) was estimated to be $10 921 788 072.00 MX. CONCLUSION. Human resources and infrastructure availability in México are very limited for nephrology, and in consequence for offering hemodialysis services.

Luis, Durán-Arenas; Paula D, Ávila-Palomares; Rodrigo, Zendejas-Villanueva; María Magaly, Vargas-Ruiz; Laura L, Tirado-Gómez; Malaquías, López-Cervantes.

188

Costos directos de la hemodiálisis en unidades públicas y privadas / Direct cost analysis of hemodialysis units  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO. Estimar y comparar el costo por sesión de hemodiálisis dentro del sector público y privado en la Ciudad de México. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS. Se calcularon los costos de los insumos utilizados en las hemodiálisis de cuatro hospitales públicos y dos privados de la Ciudad de México, mediante la est [...] rategia de micro-costeo denominada PAATI. Para la obtención de los datos se utilizó el método de sombra; además, se empleó Excel para elaborar cédulas en las que se determina el PAATI para cada sesión. RESULTADOS. El costo anual promedio directo en el sector público por el tratamiento de un individuo en hemodiálisis es de $158 964.00 M. N., y el costo de atender a la población que podría demandar terapia de reemplazo renal se estima en $10 921 788 072.00 M. N. CONCLUSIÓN. La disponibilidad de recursos humanos e infraestructura en el país es muy limitada para el campo de la nefrología en general y, en particular, para ofrecer servicios de hemodiálisis, por lo que sería necesario inyectar más recursos para poder responder ante la demanda por insuficiencia renal terminal. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE. To estimate and compare direct costs per hemodialysis session in public and private units in Mexico City. MATERIAL AND METHODS. PAATI, a microcosting strategy, was used to determine total costs of four public and two private health hospitals in Mexico City. A "shadow study" approach was e [...] mployed to collect the needed data. Charts containing the "PAATI" information for each session were developed in Microsoft Excel. RESULTS. The average annual cost per patient undergoing hemodialysis in public units is $158 964.00 MX. The estimated cost for the care of all population estimated in need of renal replacement therapy (via hemodialysis) was estimated to be $10 921 788 072.00 MX. CONCLUSION. Human resources and infrastructure availability in México are very limited for nephrology, and in consequence for offering hemodialysis services.

Luis, Durán-Arenas; Paula D, Ávila-Palomares; Rodrigo, Zendejas-Villanueva; María Magaly, Vargas-Ruiz; Laura L, Tirado-Gómez; Malaquías, López-Cervantes.

189

Intoxicated children at an intensive care unit: popular medicine risks, complications and costs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: The Hospital Universitario del Valle (HUV at the Pediatrics Intensive Care Unit (PICU admits intoxicated patients, erroneously medicated by «teguas» or family members with serious aggravation of basic diseases or generating severe intoxications. Absent reports of these practices in Colombia motivated the publication of this case seriesObjective: To report a series of pediatric intoxication cases secondary to oral or dermatological application of varied substances by healers («teguas» or family members, leading to admission at the PICU, and to describe complications and hospital costs of these events.Methodology: Clinical charts of patients admitted to the PICU with diagnosis of exogenous intoxication during May 2001 to September 2004, were reviewed. Of 28 registered cases during that time, only 14 clinical charts were recovered. Variables evaluated included: age, gender, proceeding, administered substance, person responsible for the administration, complications, days of mechanical ventilation, total days at the intensive care unit and average costs. Of the 14 medical records with exogenous intoxications only 5 cases were involuntary and 9 were related to the administration of substances by quacks or family members; these are the ones reported in this series.Results: We report a total of 9 intoxicated patients, 5 girls and 4 boys, with an age range from 1 to 24 months, all from Cali. Topical administered substances: alcohol 6/9, vinegar 1/9; oral: aspirin 2/9, paico 1/9, and unidentified herbs 1/9. Administered substances by teguas: 6 patients; 3 by family members. All patients had metabolic acidosis with an increased anion gap: 27 in average (range from 21 to 32. All required mechanical ventilation (2 to 32 day range. Average hospital day costs were $6’657,800 pesos (around U$3,000.oo. Three patients died and 4 presented acute renal failure, 2 convulsions, 2 nosocomial infections, 1 subglotic stenosis.Conclusions and recommendations: Those practices are a high risk for children and have high health costs. Mortality and severe complications are high. Educational campaigns should be started in the community to prevent these cases.

Consuelo de Rovetto

2009-09-01

190

A procedure for calculation of monitor units for passively scattered proton radiotherapy beams  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this study is to validate a monitor unit (MU) calculation procedure for passively scattered proton therapy beams. The output dose per MU (d/MU) of a therapeutic radiation beam is traditionally calibrated under specific reference conditions. These conditions include beam energy, field size, suitable depth in water or water equivalent phantom in a low dose gradient region with known relative depth dose, and source to point of calibration distance. Treatment field settings usually differ from these reference conditions leading to a different d/MU that needs to be determined for delivering the prescribed dose. For passively scattered proton beams, the proton specific parameters, which need to be defined, are related to the energy, lateral scatterers, range modulating wheel, spread out Bragg peak (SOBP) width, thickness of any range shifter, the depth dose value relative to the normalization point in the SOBP, and scatter both from the range compensator and inhomogeneity in the patient. Following the custom for photons or electrons, a set of proton dosimetry factors, representing the changes in the d/MU relative to a reference condition, can be defined as the relative output factor (ROF), SOBP factor (SOBPF), range shifter factor (RSF), SOBP off-center factor (SOBPOCF), off-center ratio (OCR), inverse square factor (ISF), field size factor (FSF), and compensator and patient scatter factor (CPSF). The ROF, SOBPF, and RSF are the major contributors to the d/MURSF are the major contributors to the d/MU and were measured using an ion chamber in water tank during the clinical commissioning of each beam to create a dosimetry beam data table to be used for calculating the monitor units. The following simple formula is found to provide an independent method to determine the d/MU at the point of interest (POI) in the patient, namely, (d/MU)=ROF·SOBPF·RSF·SOBPOCF·OCR·FSF·ISF·CPSF. The monitor units for delivering the intended dose (D) to the POI can be obtained from MU=D divide (d/MU). The accuracy and robustness of the above formula were validated by calculating the d/MU in water for many different combinations of beam parameters and comparing it with the corresponding measured d/MU by an ion chamber in a water or water/plastic phantom. This procedure has been in use for MU calculation for patient treatment fields at our facility since May 2006. The differences in the calculated and measured values of the d/MU for 623 distinct fields used for patient treatment during the period of May 2006 to February 2007 are within 2% for 99% of these fields. The authors conclude that an intuitive formula similar to the one used for monitor unit calculation of therapeutic photon beams can be used to compute the monitor units of passively scattered proton therapy beams.

191

Linear-scaling self-consistent field calculations based on divide-and-conquer method using resolution-of-identity approximation on graphical processing units.  

Science.gov (United States)

Graphical processing units (GPUs) are emerging in computational chemistry to include Hartree-Fock (HF) methods and electron-correlation theories. However, ab initio calculations of large molecules face technical difficulties such as slow memory access between central processing unit and GPU and other shortfalls of GPU memory. The divide-and-conquer (DC) method, which is a linear-scaling scheme that divides a total system into several fragments, could avoid these bottlenecks by separately solving local equations in individual fragments. In addition, the resolution-of-the-identity (RI) approximation enables an effective reduction in computational cost with respect to the GPU memory. The present study implemented the DC-RI-HF code on GPUs using math libraries, which guarantee compatibility with future development of the GPU architecture. Numerical applications confirmed that the present code using GPUs significantly accelerated the HF calculations while maintaining accuracy. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25392975

Yoshikawa, Takeshi; Nakai, Hiromi

2015-01-30

192

Comparison of geothermal, solar, and conventional space heating costs in the United States  

Science.gov (United States)

The costs of residential heating throughout the United States using conventional, solar, and geothermal energy were determined under current and projected conditions. Geothermal district heating systems will become economically feasible in most urban centers north of a line extending roughly from Los Angeles to Baltimore. Solar heating systems, with conventional heating backup, will become economically feasible throughout the country. The most economical applications will be in suburban and rural areas in the intermountain West and into the Great Plains region. Conventional heating will remain most economic: (1) in urban centers in the South (where annual heat demand is low0; (2) in Northern urban centers which are too distant from geothermal resources; and (3) in suburban and rural areas with low solar insolation. Conventional energy will supplement solar energy in most locations.

Bloomster, C. H.; Price, B. A.; Fassbender, L. L.

193

Entry Deterrence and the Calculation of the Net Cost of Universal Service Obligations  

OpenAIRE

This paper relates to the current discussion about how to measure the net cost and the unfair burden of universal service provision in network industries. The established profitability cost approach compares the profit of a universal service provider (USP) with and without a universal service obligation (USO). This paper argues that the net cost of universal service provision critically depends on the regulatory counterfactual and hence the USP’s strategy space without USO. On the one hand,...

Christian Jaag

2011-01-01

194

Weather data for simplified energy calculation methods. Volume II. Middle United States: TRY data  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of this report is to provide a source of weather data for direct use with a number of simplified energy calculation methods available today. Complete weather data for a number of cities in the United States are provided for use in the following methods: degree hour, modified degree hour, bin, modified bin, and variable degree day. This report contains sets of weather data for 22 cities in the continental United States using Test Reference Year (TRY) source weather data. The weather data at each city has been summarized in a number of ways to provide differing levels of detail necessary for alternative simplified energy calculation methods. Weather variables summarized include dry bulb and wet bulb temperature, percent relative humidity, humidity ratio, wind speed, percent possible sunshine, percent diffuse solar radiation, total solar radiation on horizontal and vertical surfaces, and solar heat gain through standard DSA glass. Monthly and annual summaries, in some cases by time of day, are available. These summaries are produced in a series of nine computer generated tables.

Olsen, A.R.; Moreno, S.; Deringer, J.; Watson, C.R.

1984-08-01

195

Weather data for simplified energy calculation methods. Volume III. Western United States: TRY data  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective is to provide a source of weather data for direct use with a number of simplified energy calculation methods available today. Complete weather data for a number of cities in the United States are provided for use in the following methods: degree hour, modified degree hour, bin, modified bin, and variable degree day. This report contains sets of weather data for 24 cities in the continental United States using Test Reference Year (TRY) source weather data. The weather data at each city has been summarized in a number of ways to provide differing levels of detail necessary for alternative simplified energy calculation methods. Weather variables summarized include dry bulb and wet bulb temperature, percent relative humidity, humidity ratio, wind speed, percent possible sunshine, percent diffuse solar radiation, total solar radiation on horizontal and vertical surfaces, and solar heat gain through standard DSA glass. Monthly and annual summaries, in some cases by time of day, are available. These summaries are produced in a series of nine computer generated tables.

Olsen, A.R.; Moreno, S.; Deringer, J.; Watson, C.R.

1984-08-01

196

Comminution of logging residues with a tub grinder: Calculation of productivity and procurement cost of wood chips  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An experiment on comminution of logging residues with a tub grinder was carried out in order to calculate the productivity and procurement cost of wood chips. At the investigated site, the tub grinder had a hammer mill crusher at the bottom of the tub, and a grapple loaderand a bucket loader worked as auxiliary machines for the grinder. As a result, the productivity of the tub grinder was 60.0 loose m3/PMH0, and the total comminuting cost was calculated as 5.637 US$/m3, indicating that the comminuting cost of a large-sized crusher waslower than that of a small-sized chipper. The percentage of the cost of loaders, that of carrying in, installing, and carrying out the machines, and that of constructing a landing was 53% of the total comminuting cost. When a truck with the capacity of 40 m3 transported wood chips three times a day, the costs of comminution and transportation were71.2 US$/t (DM1, which is almost on a par with those of European countries in which the energy utilization of logging residues is making steady progress. As a result of the discussion about the balance between the processing capacity of the tub grinder and that of othermachines, it seemed reasonable for Japanese forestry to consider the use of one tub grinder at several logging sites.

Takuyuki Yoshioka

2006-12-01

197

Audit Calculations of ATWS for Ulchin Unit 1 and 2 Power Uprate  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this study, the regulatory audit calculation for ATWS of Ulchin Unit 1 and 2 with 4.5% power uprate was performed to support the licensing review and to confirm the validity of licensee's calculation. In order to simulate the transient behavior of ATWS initiated by a loss of feed water, the systems of Ulchin Unit 1 and 2 was modeled with MARS-KS 1.3. In this study, the regulatory audit calculation of ATWS for Ulchin 1 and 2 with 4.5% power uprating and 99% MTC in the specific cycle designs was performed. It is conformed that the analysis results of ATWS for Ulchin 1 and 2 power uprate meets the RCS pressure acceptance criteria. An anticipated transient accompanied by a failure in the Reactor Trip System (RTS) to shut down the reactor is defined as an Anticipated Transient Without Scram (ATWS). Under certain postulated conditions, the ATWS could lead to Reactor Coolant system (RCS) pressure boundary fracture and/or core damage. For a conventional pressurized water reactor (PWR), the temperature corresponding to the NSSC notice No.2013.09(Performance Criteria for ECCS of the Pressurized Water Reactor Nuclear Power Plants), 1204 .deg. C and the pressure corresponding to the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code service level C stress, 221.5 bar is assumed to be an unacceptable plant condition against ATWS, above which the RCS pressure boundary could deform to the point of inoperability and the safe shutdown by injection of borated water could be challenged. Such potentially excessive RCS overpressure may occur in the ATWS initiated from a loss of heat sink. Currently, the modification of Ulchin 1 and 2 operating license for 4.5% power uprate is under review.

Lee, Jun Soo; Huh, Byung Gil; Choi, Yong Seog; Seul, Kwang Won [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

2013-10-15

198

Cost-Effectiveness of Uterine-Preserving Procedures for the Treatment of Uterine Fibroid Symptoms in the United States  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective To evaluate cost-effectiveness of the following three treatments of uterine fibroids in a population of premenopausal women who wish to preserve their uteri: myomectomy, MR-guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) and uterine artery embolization (UAE). Methods A decision analytic Markov model was constructed. Cost-effectiveness was calculated in terms of U.S. dollars per quality adjusted life year (QALY) over five years. Two types of costs were calculated: direct costs only, and the sum of direct and indirect (productivity) costs. Women in the hypothetical cohort were assessed for treatment type eligibility, were treated based on eligibility, and experienced adequate or inadequate symptom relief. Additional treatment (myomectomy) occurred for inadequate symptom relief or recurrence. Sensitivity analysis was conducted to evaluate uncertainty in the model parameters. Results In the base-case, myomectomy, MRgFUS and UAE had the following combinations of mean cost and mean QALYs, respectively: ($15,459, 3.957), ($15,274, 3.953) and ($18,653, 3.943). When incorporating productivity costs, MRgFUS incurred mean cost of $21,232; myomectomy $22,599; and UAE $22,819. Using probabilistic sensitivity analysis (PSA) and excluding productivity costs, myomectomy was cost-effective at almost every decision threshold. Using PSA and incorporating productivity costs, myomectomy was cost-effective at decision thresholds above $105,000/QALY; MRgFUS between $30,000-$105,000/QALY; and UAE below $30,000/QALY. Conclusions Myomectomy, MRgFUS, and UAE were similarly effective in terms of QALYs gained. Depending on assumptions about costs and willingness-to-pay for additional QALYs, all three treatments can be deemed cost-effective in a five year time frame. PMID:24878319

Cain-Nielsen, Anne H.; Moriarty, James P.; Stewart, Elizabeth A.; Borah, Bijan J.

2014-01-01

199

Accelerated molecular dynamics force evaluation on graphics processing units for thermal conductivity calculations  

CERN Document Server

In this paper, we develop a highly efficient molecular dynamics code fully implemented on graphics processing units for thermal conductivity calculations using the Green-Kubo formula. We compare two different schemes for force evaluation, a previously used thread-scheme where a single thread is used for one particle and each thread calculates the total force for the corresponding particle, and a new block-scheme where a whole block is used for one particle and each thread in the block calculates one or several pair forces between the particle associated with the given block and its neighbor particle(s) associated with the given thread. For both schemes, two different classical potentials, namely, the Lennard-Jones potential and the rigid-ion potential are implemented. While the thread-scheme performs a little better for relatively large systems, the block-scheme performs much better for relatively small systems. The relative performance of the block-scheme over the thread-scheme also increases with the increa...

Fan, Zheyong; Harju, Ari

2012-01-01

200

Weather data for simplified energy calculation methods. Volume IV. United States: WYEC data  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of this report is to provide a source of weather data for direct use with a number of simplified energy calculation methods available today. Complete weather data for a number of cities in the United States are provided for use in the following methods: degree hour, modified degree hour, bin, modified bin, and variable degree day. This report contains sets of weather data for 23 cities using Weather Year for Energy Calculations (WYEC) source weather data. Considerable overlap is present in cities (21) covered by both the TRY and WYEC data. The weather data at each city has been summarized in a number of ways to provide differing levels of detail necessary for alternative simplified energy calculation methods. Weather variables summarized include dry bulb and wet bulb temperature, percent relative humidity, humidity ratio, wind speed, percent possible sunshine, percent diffuse solar radiation, total solar radiation on horizontal and vertical surfaces, and solar heat gain through standard DSA glass. Monthly and annual summaries, in some cases by time of day, are available. These summaries are produced in a series of nine computer generated tables.

Olsen, A.R.; Moreno, S.; Deringer, J.; Watson, C.R.

1984-08-01

201

Initial Assessment of Parallelization of Monte Carlo Calculation using Graphics Processing Units  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Monte Carlo (MC) simulation is an effective tool for calculating neutron transports in complex geometry. However, because Monte Carlo simulates each neutron behavior one by one, it takes a very long computing time if enough neutrons are used for high precision of calculation. Accordingly, methods that reduce the computing time are required. In a Monte Carlo code, parallel calculation is well-suited since it simulates the behavior of each neutron independently and thus parallel computation is natural. The parallelization of the Monte Carlo codes, however, was done using multi CPUs. By the global demand for high quality 3D graphics, the Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) has developed into a highly parallel, multi-core processor. This parallel processing capability of GPUs can be available to engineering computing once a suitable interface is provided. Recently, NVIDIA introduced CUDATM, a general purpose parallel computing architecture. CUDA is a software environment that allows developers to manage GPU using C/C++ or other languages. In this work, a GPU-based Monte Carlo is developed and the initial assessment of it parallel performance is investigated

202

Break-Even Cost for Residential Solar Water Heating in the United States: Key Drivers and Sensitivities  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper examines the break-even cost for residential rooftop solar water heating (SWH) technology, defined as the point where the cost of the energy saved with a SWH system equals the cost of a conventional heating fuel purchased from the grid (either electricity or natural gas). We examine the break-even cost for the largest 1,000 electric and natural gas utilities serving residential customers in the United States as of 2008. Currently, the break-even cost of SWH in the United States varies by more than a factor of five for both electricity and natural gas, despite a much smaller variation in the amount of energy saved by the systems (a factor of approximately one and a half). The break-even price for natural gas is lower than that for electricity due to a lower fuel cost. We also consider the relationship between SWH price and solar fraction and examine the key drivers behind break-even costs. Overall, the key drivers of the break-even cost of SWH are a combination of fuel price, local incentives, and technical factors including the solar resource location, system size, and hot water draw.

Cassard, H.; Denholm, P.; Ong, S.

2011-02-01

203

Calculation of economic viability of alternative energy sources considering its environmental costs for small communities of Northeast Brazil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There has been an increasing concern about current environmental issues caused by human activity, as the world searches for development. The production of electricity is an extremely relevant factor in this scenario since it is responsible for a large portion of the emissions that cause the greenhouse effect. Due to this fact, a sustainable development with alternative energy sources, which are attractive for such purpose, must be proposed, especially in places that are not supplied by the conventional electricity grid such as many communities in the Northeast Brazil. This work aims to calculate the environmental cost for the alternative sources of energy - solar, wind and biomass - during electricity generation, and to estimate the economic feasibility of those sources in small communities of Northeast Brazil, considering the avoided costs. The externalities must be properly identified and valued so the costs or benefits can be internalized and reflect accurately the economic feasibility or infeasibility of those sources. For this, the method of avoided costs was adopted for the calculation of externalities. This variable was included in the equation developed for all considered alternative energy sources. The calculations of economic feasibility were performed taking the new configurations in consideration, and the new equation was reprogrammed in the Programa de Calculo de Custos de Energias Alternativas, Solar, Eolica e Biomassa (PEASEB). The results demonstrated that the solar photovoltaic energy in isolated systems is the most feasible and broadly applicable source for small communities of Northeast Brazil. (author)

204

A Cost-Benefit Calculator for RFID Implementations in the Apparel Retail Industry  

OpenAIRE

The apparel retail industry is on the one hand facing challenges from increasing competition, consolidations, and thus increasing pressure to reduce costs. On the other hand, customers are getting more demanding, resulting in shorter fashion cycles, and demands for new customer experience. RFID technology is supposed to raise efficiency and to enable innovative customer service offerings. Besides cost savings, benefits are expected to arise from newly designed RFID applications and customer i...

Jasser Al-Kassab; Nezar Mahmoud; Frederic Thiesse; Elgar Fleisch

2009-01-01

205

Microelectromechnical Systems Inertial Measurement Unit Error Modelling and Error Analysis for Low-cost Strapdown Inertial Navigation System  

OpenAIRE

This paper presents error modelling and error analysis of microelectromechnical systems (MEMS) inertial measurement unit (IMU) for a low-cost strapdown inertial navigation system (INS). The INS consists of IMU and navigation processor. The IMU provides acceleration and angular rate of the vehicle in all the three axes. In this paper, errors that affect the MEMS IMU, which is of low cost and less volume, are stochastically modelled and analysed using Allan variance. Wavelet decomposition has b...

Ramalingam, R.; Anitha, G.; Shanmugam, J.

2009-01-01

206

Evaluation of targeted mass cholera vaccination strategies in bangladesh: a demonstration of a new cost-effectiveness calculator.  

Science.gov (United States)

Growing interest in mass vaccination with oral cholera vaccine in endemic and epidemic settings will require policymakers to evaluate how to allocate these vaccines in the most efficient manner. Because cholera, when treated properly, has a low case fatality rate, it may not be economically feasible to vaccinate an entire population. Using a new publicly available calculator for estimating the cost-effectiveness of mass vaccination, we show how targeting high-risk subpopulations for vaccination could be cost-effective in Bangladesh. The approach described here is general enough to adapt to different settings or to other vaccine-preventable diseases. PMID:25294614

Troeger, Christopher; Sack, David A; Chao, Dennis L

2014-12-01

207

Review of RELAP5 calculations for H.B. Robinson Unit 2 pressurized thermal shock study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) used the RELAP5/MOD1.6 code to simulate a number of transient scenarios for the USNRC PTS study of the H.B. Robinson Unit-2 PWR plant. Eleven of these scenarios were reviewed at BNL on the basis of information received before September 30, 1984. Six of these eleven scenarios were selected for an in-depth quantitative analysis performed on the basis of a simple method developed at BNL. However, the detailed analysis of two of these transients, namely transients 1 and 4 are not presented here as they have since been recalculated by INEL and the new calculations could not be reviewed at BNL due to budgetary constraints. The simple method uses the mass and energy balance equations to predict the temperature and pressure of the reactor system. The results of these calculations were compared to the RELAP5 results and the INEL extrapolations. In general, the RELAP5 and INEL results appear to be reasonable

208

Estimates of the direct and indirect costs of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in the United States, 1985, 1986, and 1991.  

OpenAIRE

This study presents three estimates--ranging from low to high--of the direct and indirect costs of the AIDS epidemic in the United States in 1985, 1986, and 1991, based on prevalence estimates provided by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC). According to what the authors consider their best estimates, personal medical care costs of AIDS in current dollars will rise from $630 million in 1985 to $1.1 billion in 1986 to $8.5 billion in 1991. Nonpersonal costs (for research, screening, educatio...

Scitovsky, A. A.; Rice, D. P.

1987-01-01

209

Calculation of effective material parameters by field averaging over lattices with non-negligible unit cell size  

Science.gov (United States)

The Pendry et al. field averaging method for calculation of effective material parameters is reviewed and its limits explored. The method is then extended so that it can accurately calculate the effective material parameters of lattices where the unit cell size is appreciable but still quasistatic ( d˜0.1 ? 0). The new algorithm is verified by calculating the effective material properties of periodically placed particles suspended in free space, as the unit cell size becomes appreciable. Results of our proposed formulation are then compared with the Pendry et al. and conventional volumetric averaging algorithms.

Amert, Anthony K.; Gozhenko, Victor V.; Whites, Keith W.

2012-12-01

210

Cost optimal building performance requirements. Calculation methodology for reporting on national energy performance requirements on the basis of cost optimality within the framework of the EPBD  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

On the European level, the principles for the requirements for the energy performance of buildings are set by the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD). Dating from December 2002, the EPBD has set a common framework from which the individual Member States in the EU developed or adapted their individual national regulations. The EPBD in 2008 and 2009 underwent a recast procedure, with final political agreement having been reached in November 2009. The new Directive was then formally adopted on May 19, 2010. Among other clarifications and new provisions, the EPBD recast introduces a benchmarking mechanism for national energy performance requirements for the purpose of determining cost-optimal levels to be used by Member States for comparing and setting these requirements. The previous EPBD set out a general framework to assess the energy performance of buildings and required Member States to define maximum values for energy delivered to meet the energy demand associated with the standardised use of the building. However it did not contain requirements or guidance related to the ambition level of such requirements. As a consequence, building regulations in the various Member States have been developed by the use of different approaches (influenced by different building traditions, political processes and individual market conditions) and resulted in different ambition levels where in many cases cost optimality principles could justify higher ambitions. The EPBD recast now requests that Member States shall ensure that minimum energy performance requirements for buildings are set 'with a view to achieving cost-optimal levels'. The cost optimum level shall be calculated in accordance with a comparative methodology. The objective of this report is to contribute to the ongoing discussion in Europe around the details of such a methodology by describing possible details on how to calculate cost optimal levels and pointing towards important factors and effects. The methodology described in this report is consistent with the description of the process as presented in the study 'Cost Optimality - Discussing methodology and challenges within the recast Energy Performance of Buildings Directive' published in September 2010 by the Buildings Performance Institute Europe (BPIE). The present document provides additional insights and details.

Boermans, T.; Bettgenhaeuser, K.; Hermelink, A.; Schimschar, S. [Ecofys, Utrecht (Netherlands)

2011-05-15

211

User's guide to SERICPAC: A computer program for calculating electric-utility avoided costs rates  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

SERICPAC is a computer program developed to calculate average avoided cost rates for decentralized power producers and cogenerators that sell electricity to electric utilities. SERICPAC works in tandem with SERICOST, a program to calculate avoided costs, and determines the appropriate rates for buying and selling of electricity from electric utilities to qualifying facilities (QF) as stipulated under Section 210 of PURA. SERICPAC contains simulation models for eight technologies including wind, hydro, biogas, and cogeneration. The simulations are converted in a diversified utility production which can be either gross production or net production, which accounts for an internal electricity usage by the QF. The program allows for adjustments to the production to be made for scheduled and forced outages. The final output of the model is a technology-specific average annual rate. The report contains a description of the technologies and the simulations as well as complete user's guide to SERICPAC.

Wirtshafter, R.; Abrash, M.; Koved, M.; Feldman, S.

1982-05-01

212

Costes del dolor neuropático según etiología en las Unidades del Dolor en España Neurohatic pain costs according it´s etiology the Spanish Pain Units  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objetivo: Realizar un registro etiológico y de costes de pacientes con Dolor Neuropático (DN en Unidades del Dolor (UD en España. Métodos: Estudio transversal retrospectivo realizado entre abril y diciembre de 2004 en UDs. Se recogieron datos demográficos, tipo y causa del DN, origen de la derivación y la utilización de recursos sanitarios (tratamientos, visitas médicas, hospitalizaciones, etc., y se computaron los costes médicos directos en el año 2004. Se utilizó estadística descriptiva y modelos ANCOVA. Resultados: Se incluyeron 504 pacientes con DN de etiología variada (44% radiculopatía, 21% neuralgias, 11% neuropatías, 7% atrapamientos, 5% SDRC, 4% dolor central, con una edad de 57,8±0,7 años (Media±EE, 57,6% mujeres, y 29,6±2,2 meses de evolución. El coste medio mensual ajustado fue de 403€ (IC 95%: 333€-473€. Las neuropatías presentaron un coste medio mensual ajustado mayor que la media (580+90€, p=0,011, debido a un mayor número mensual de días de hospitalización (0,6±0,1, p=0,021 y mayor coste farmacológico (162+17€, p=0,001. Las radiculopatías mostraron menor coste que la media; 287+46€, p=0,026, particularmente por un menor coste de hospitalización; 79+38€, p=0,027. Conclusiones: El DN ocasiona una considerable utilización de recursos sanitarios con un coste sustancial para el Sistema Nacional de Salud. La neuropatía es el síndrome etiológico que tiene un mayor coste mensual por paciente, mientras que las radiculopatías muestran un coste significativamente inferior al promedio.Objective: To realize a registry about aetology and costs of patients with Neuropathic Pain (NeP in Pain Clinics (PC in Spain. Methods: Retrospective, cross-ssectional study performed between april and december 2004 in PC. Demographic data, NeP type and cause, origin of the derivation, and health resources consumption (treatments, medical visits, hospitalizations, etc were collected and direct medical costs were calculated in year 2004. A descriptive statistic and ANCOVA models were applied. Results: 504 NeP patients of broad aetiology (44% radiculophaty, 21% neuralgias, 11% neurophaties, 7% entrapment syndromes, 5% CRPS, 4% central pain, 57.8±0.7 years (Mean±SE, 57.6% women, and 29.6±2.2 months of evolution, were enrolled in the study. Adjusted monthly average cost was 403€ (95% CI: 333€-473€. Neuropathies present an adjusted monthly cost significantly higher than average (580+90€, p=0.011, because of the higher number of hospitalization days (0.6+0.1, p=0.021 and the higher pharmacologic cost (162+17€, p=0.001. Radiculophaties showed lower adjusted cost than the average; 287+46€, p=0.026, because of the lower cost of hospitalization; 79+38€, p=0.027. Conclusions: NeP causes a considerable utilization of health resources with a substantial cost for the National Health Service. Neurophaties are the aetiology syndrome which showed the higher monthly cost per patient, while radiculophaties showed a cost significantly lower than the average.

M. J. Rodríguez

2007-08-01

213

Costes del dolor neuropático según etiología en las Unidades del Dolor en España / Neurohatic pain costs according it´s etiology the Spanish Pain Units  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo: Realizar un registro etiológico y de costes de pacientes con Dolor Neuropático (DN) en Unidades del Dolor (UD) en España. Métodos: Estudio transversal retrospectivo realizado entre abril y diciembre de 2004 en UDs. Se recogieron datos demográficos, tipo y causa del DN, origen de la derivac [...] ión y la utilización de recursos sanitarios (tratamientos, visitas médicas, hospitalizaciones, etc.), y se computaron los costes médicos directos en el año 2004. Se utilizó estadística descriptiva y modelos ANCOVA. Resultados: Se incluyeron 504 pacientes con DN de etiología variada (44% radiculopatía, 21% neuralgias, 11% neuropatías, 7% atrapamientos, 5% SDRC, 4% dolor central), con una edad de 57,8±0,7 años (Media±EE), 57,6% mujeres, y 29,6±2,2 meses de evolución. El coste medio mensual ajustado fue de 403€ (IC 95%: 333€-473€). Las neuropatías presentaron un coste medio mensual ajustado mayor que la media (580+90€, p=0,011), debido a un mayor número mensual de días de hospitalización (0,6±0,1, p=0,021) y mayor coste farmacológico (162+17€, p=0,001). Las radiculopatías mostraron menor coste que la media; 287+46€, p=0,026, particularmente por un menor coste de hospitalización; 79+38€, p=0,027. Conclusiones: El DN ocasiona una considerable utilización de recursos sanitarios con un coste sustancial para el Sistema Nacional de Salud. La neuropatía es el síndrome etiológico que tiene un mayor coste mensual por paciente, mientras que las radiculopatías muestran un coste significativamente inferior al promedio. Abstract in english Objective: To realize a registry about aetology and costs of patients with Neuropathic Pain (NeP) in Pain Clinics (PC) in Spain. Methods: Retrospective, cross-ssectional study performed between april and december 2004 in PC. Demographic data, NeP type and cause, origin of the derivation, and health [...] resources consumption (treatments, medical visits, hospitalizations, etc) were collected and direct medical costs were calculated in year 2004. A descriptive statistic and ANCOVA models were applied. Results: 504 NeP patients of broad aetiology (44% radiculophaty, 21% neuralgias, 11% neurophaties, 7% entrapment syndromes, 5% CRPS, 4% central pain), 57.8±0.7 years (Mean±SE), 57.6% women, and 29.6±2.2 months of evolution, were enrolled in the study. Adjusted monthly average cost was 403€ (95% CI: 333€-473€). Neuropathies present an adjusted monthly cost significantly higher than average (580+90€, p=0.011), because of the higher number of hospitalization days (0.6+0.1, p=0.021) and the higher pharmacologic cost (162+17€, p=0.001). Radiculophaties showed lower adjusted cost than the average; 287+46€, p=0.026, because of the lower cost of hospitalization; 79+38€, p=0.027. Conclusions: NeP causes a considerable utilization of health resources with a substantial cost for the National Health Service. Neurophaties are the aetiology syndrome which showed the higher monthly cost per patient, while radiculophaties showed a cost significantly lower than the average.

M. J., Rodríguez; A. J., García.

2007-08-01

214

Calculation of Costs of Pregnancy- and Puerperium-related Care: Experience from a Hospital in a Low-income Country  

OpenAIRE

Calculation of costs of different medical and surgical services has numerous uses, which include monitoring the performance of service-delivery, setting the efficiency target, benchmarking of services across all sectors, considering investment decisions, commissioning to meet health needs, and negotiating revised levels of funding. The role of private-sector healthcare facilities has been increasing rapidly over the last decade. Despite the overall improvement in the public and private health...

Sarowar, M. G.; Medin, E.; Gazi, R.; Koehlmoos, T. P.; Rehnberg, C.; Saifi, R.; Bhuiya, A.; Khan, J.

2010-01-01

215

A calculation program for harvesting and transportation costs of energy and industrial wood; Energiapuun korjuun ja kuljetuksen kustannuslaskentaohjelmisto  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A computer based model has been developed for calculating the production costs of industrial wood and wood fuel. Several calculation situations, which might be useful for decision-making in energy wood supply, are included into this software. The model will be easy to use for practical purposes and flexible so that different new model and changes in the basis of calculations are easy to implement. Model will offer open interfaces for importing and exporting information. Model includes selected wood delivery chains and open interfaces for adding data from different procurement sources. The cost analysis model is built on Windows-based software, SQLWindows, using different sources of data (ODBC). With the model it is possible to manage these SQLBase databases with SQL-queries. The data included in the databases origins from various energy wood sources (local communities or part of them, forestry boards planning areas or even stands ready for cutting). By knowing the planned share of first thinnings, final cuttings and other harvesting operations it is possible to estimate the potential amount of wood fuel from each area. Also databases from energy wood users, forest and transportation machinery and distances are available in the system. Using the information it is possible to find out the fuel demand of power and heating plants in each moment (e.g., amount and quality), costs of various machines (harvesters, forwarders, trucks) as well as distances between energy wood sources and users. (orig.)

Ranta, T. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

1997-12-01

216

En plena crisis económica: coste y efectividad de las unidades de estancia corta hospitalarias / Economic crisis: cost and effectiveness of short stay hospital units  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Fundamento. La duración de la estancia es el principal determinante del coste de una hospitalización, por lo que se deben implementar estrategias para reducir la estancia hospitalaria convencional manteniéndose los niveles de calidad. Las Unidades de Estancia Corta (UEC) nacen con el objetivo de dis [...] minuir la estancia hospitalaria en un grupo de patologias y pacientes determinados. El objetivo de este original es evaluar la bibliografía existente sobre la evidencia de la disminución del periodo de estancia, eficiencia, reconsultas en los servicios de urgencias, coste-efectividad, y mortalidad de estas unidades. Método. Se realizó una revisión sistemática de las publicaciones que aparecen en la literatura, utilizando los términos MeSH "Observation Unit", "Short-Stay Ward", "Monday to Friday Clinic", "Monaday to Friday Surgery Ward", "Short Stay Hospitalization", "Alternative to Convencional Hospitalization", "Alternative Admissions" en la base de datos MEDLINE, Web of Knowledge y la Cochrane Library desde el 1 de enero de 1960 al 1 de enero del 2012. Los estudios revisados se seleccionaron según la US Preventive Services Task Force Protocol. Resultados. Las UEC permiten en grupos determinados de pacientes, disminuir el periodo de estancia, mantener la eficiencia, no mostrando incrementos de los reingresos por urgencias, ni la mortalidad. Conclusiones. Las UEC pueden ser un instrumento para disminuir el coste del proceso sanitario en un grupo de patologias determinadas. Abstract in english Background. Length of stay is the main determinant of the cost of hospitalization, which is why strategies must be implemented to reduce conventional hospital stays while maintaining quality levels. Short Stay Units (SSU) were created with the aim of reducing hospital stays in a certain group of pat [...] ients and pathologies. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the literature on the evidence of decreased length of stay, efficiency, readmissions in the emergency department, cost-effectiveness, and mortality of these units. Methods. We made a systematic review of the literature, using the MeSH terms "Observation Unit", "Short-Stay Ward", "Monday to Friday Clinic", "Monday to Friday Surgery Ward", "Short Stay Hospitalization", "Alternative to Conventional Hospitalization", "Alternative Admissions" in the MEDLINE database, Web of Knowledge and the Cochrane Library from January 1 1960 to January 1 2012. The studies reviewed were selected according to the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Protocol. Results. The SSU made it possible in certain groups of patients to reduce the period of stay and maintain efficiency, showing no increases in emergency readmissions or mortality. Conclusions. The SSU can be an instrument to reduce the cost of the health process in a certain group of pathologies.

F., Epelde; M.L., Iglesias-Lepine; L., Anarte.

2012-12-01

217

En plena crisis económica: coste y efectividad de las unidades de estancia corta hospitalarias Economic crisis: cost and effectiveness of short stay hospital units  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fundamento. La duración de la estancia es el principal determinante del coste de una hospitalización, por lo que se deben implementar estrategias para reducir la estancia hospitalaria convencional manteniéndose los niveles de calidad. Las Unidades de Estancia Corta (UEC nacen con el objetivo de disminuir la estancia hospitalaria en un grupo de patologias y pacientes determinados. El objetivo de este original es evaluar la bibliografía existente sobre la evidencia de la disminución del periodo de estancia, eficiencia, reconsultas en los servicios de urgencias, coste-efectividad, y mortalidad de estas unidades. Método. Se realizó una revisión sistemática de las publicaciones que aparecen en la literatura, utilizando los términos MeSH "Observation Unit", "Short-Stay Ward", "Monday to Friday Clinic", "Monaday to Friday Surgery Ward", "Short Stay Hospitalization", "Alternative to Convencional Hospitalization", "Alternative Admissions" en la base de datos MEDLINE, Web of Knowledge y la Cochrane Library desde el 1 de enero de 1960 al 1 de enero del 2012. Los estudios revisados se seleccionaron según la US Preventive Services Task Force Protocol. Resultados. Las UEC permiten en grupos determinados de pacientes, disminuir el periodo de estancia, mantener la eficiencia, no mostrando incrementos de los reingresos por urgencias, ni la mortalidad. Conclusiones. Las UEC pueden ser un instrumento para disminuir el coste del proceso sanitario en un grupo de patologias determinadas.Background. Length of stay is the main determinant of the cost of hospitalization, which is why strategies must be implemented to reduce conventional hospital stays while maintaining quality levels. Short Stay Units (SSU were created with the aim of reducing hospital stays in a certain group of patients and pathologies. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the literature on the evidence of decreased length of stay, efficiency, readmissions in the emergency department, cost-effectiveness, and mortality of these units. Methods. We made a systematic review of the literature, using the MeSH terms "Observation Unit", "Short-Stay Ward", "Monday to Friday Clinic", "Monday to Friday Surgery Ward", "Short Stay Hospitalization", "Alternative to Conventional Hospitalization", "Alternative Admissions" in the MEDLINE database, Web of Knowledge and the Cochrane Library from January 1 1960 to January 1 2012. The studies reviewed were selected according to the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Protocol. Results. The SSU made it possible in certain groups of patients to reduce the period of stay and maintain efficiency, showing no increases in emergency readmissions or mortality. Conclusions. The SSU can be an instrument to reduce the cost of the health process in a certain group of pathologies.

F. Epelde

2012-12-01

218

Range and modulation dependencies for proton beam dose per monitor unit calculations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Calculations of dose per monitor unit (D/MU) are required in addition to measurements to increase patient safety in the clinical practice of proton radiotherapy. As in conventional photon and electron therapy, the D/MU depends on several factors. This study focused on obtaining range and modulation dependence factors used in D/MU calculations for the double scattered proton beam line at the Midwest Proton Radiotherapy Institute. Three dependencies on range and one dependency on modulation were found. A carefully selected set of measurements was performed to discern these individual dependencies. Dependencies on range were due to: (1) the stopping power of the protons passing through the monitor chamber; (2) the reduction of proton fluence due to nuclear interactions within the patient; and (3) the variation of proton fluence passing through the monitor chamber due to different source-to-axis distances (SADs) for different beam ranges. Different SADs are produced by reconfigurations of beamline elements to provide different field sizes and ranges. The SAD effect on the D/MU varies smoothly as the beam range is varied, except at the beam range for which the first scatterers are exchanged and relocated to accommodate low and high beam ranges. A geometry factor was devised to model the SAD variation effect on the D/MU. The measured D/MU variation as a function of range can be predicted within 1% using the three modeled dependencies on range. Investigation of modulated beams showed that an analytical formula can predict the D/MU dependency as a function of modulation to within 1.5%. Special attention must be applied when measuring the D/MU dependence on modulation to avoid interplay between range and SAD effects.

Hsi, Wen C.; Schreuder, Andries N.; Moyers, Michael F.; Allgower, Chris E.; Farr, Jonathan B.; Mascia, Anthony E. [Midwest Proton Radiotherapy Institute, Bloomington, Indiana 47408 and University Florida Proton Therapy Institute, Jacksonville, Florida 32206 (United States); ProCure Treatment Centers, Inc., Bloomington, Indiana 47404 (United States); Proton Therapy, Inc., Colton, California 92324 (United States); Midwest Proton Radiotherapy Institute, Bloomington, Indiana 47408 (United States); Midwest Proton Radiotherapy Institute, Bloomington, Indiana 47408 and Westdeutsches Protonentherapiezentrum, Universitaetsklinikum, Hufelandstrasse 55, 45147 Essen (Germany); Midwest Proton Radiotherapy Institute, Bloomington, Indiana 47408 (United States)

2009-02-15

219

Calculation of economic viability and environmental costs of photovoltaic solar energy for the Brazilian Northeast region  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The availability of energy resources is a central point to economic development. The energy matrix of most countries is based on the consumption of fossil fuels, which adds annually over 5 billion tons of carbon into the atmosphere. The energy consumption in developing countries has quadrupled since the 60s further aggravating global environmental conditions. The need to implement alternative energy sources to the energy matrix was proved. In addition, Brazil has a large number of people without access to electricity, which affects the quality of life of these populations. In this context, it is necessary to think in economic development way, and then the sustainable and alternative sources appear as an option for its features and its availability in Brazil. The solar energy captured by photovoltaic cells can be highlighted in the Brazilian scenario because of its wide availability, especially in the Northeast. The aim of this paper is to estimate the economic feasibility of insertion of solar systems in small communities in the Brazilian Northeast, considering environmental costs involved in electricity generation. The methodology is based on economic concepts and economic valuation of environmental resources. The results shows that solar power is becoming increasingly competitive due to reduced costs of components and due to the environmental costs reduced when compared with fossil fuels. (author)

220

39 CFR 3050.24 - Documentation supporting estimates of costs avoided by worksharing and other mail characteristics...  

Science.gov (United States)

...mail; (j) Mail processing unit costs by shape and cost pool for each product and benchmark category; (k) Delivery...compatibility, and machinability, including Detached Address Label cost calculations; and (l) Dropship cost avoidance...

2010-07-01

221

Calculation of HELAS amplitudes for QCD processes using graphics processing unit (GPU)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We use a graphics processing unit (GPU) for fast calculations of helicity amplitudes of quark and gluon scattering processes in massless QCD. New HEGET (HELAS Evaluation with GPU Enhanced Technology) codes for gluon self-interactions are introduced, and a C++ program to convert the MadGraph generated FORTRAN codes into HEGET codes in CUDA (a C-platform for general purpose computing on GPU) is created. Because of the proliferation of the number of Feynman diagrams and the number of independent color amplitudes, the maximum number of final state jets we can evaluate on a GPU is limited to 4 for pure gluon processes (gg?4g), or 5 for processes with one or more quark lines such as q anti q? 5g and qq?qq+3g. Compared with the usual CPU-based programs, we obtain 60-100 times better performance on the GPU, except for 5-jet production processes and the gg?4g processes for which the GPU gain over the CPU is about 20. (orig.)

222

ORGANIZATION OF MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING AND COST CALCULATION OF MINING IN JIU VALLEY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The scientific approach taken, due to the fact that a nationally more acute problem arises regarding mining restructuring, namely the closure of uneconomic mines, in this paper I want to report my finding on how management accounting is organized and which is the costing method currently applied by the seven mines in the Jiu Valley, which are currently functional, as well as to identify their limitations and advantages for improving them and identifying financial and economic solutions, demonstrating that in fact these are viable economic entities.

ILEANA-SORINA BOCA (RAKOS

2011-01-01

223

Energy savings estimates and cost benefit calculations for high performance relocatable classrooms  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report addresses the results of detailed monitoring completed under Program Element 6 of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's High Performance Commercial Building Systems (HPCBS) PIER program. The purpose of the Energy Simulations and Projected State-Wide Energy Savings project is to develop reasonable energy performance and cost models for high performance relocatable classrooms (RCs) across California climates. A key objective of the energy monitoring was to validate DOE2 simulations for comparison to initial DOE2 performance projections. The validated DOE2 model was then used to develop statewide savings projections by modeling base case and high performance RC operation in the 16 California climate zones. The primary objective of this phase of work was to utilize detailed field monitoring data to modify DOE2 inputs and generate performance projections based on a validated simulation model. Additional objectives include the following: (1) Obtain comparative performance data on base case and high performance HVAC systems to determine how they are operated, how they perform, and how the occupants respond to the advanced systems. This was accomplished by installing both HVAC systems side-by-side (i.e., one per module of a standard two module, 24 ft by 40 ft RC) on the study RCs and switching HVAC operating modes on a weekly basis. (2) Develop projected statewide energy and demand impacts based on the validated DOE2 model. (3) Develop cost effectiveness projections for the high performance HVAC system in the 16 California climate zones.

Rainer, Leo I.; Hoeschele, Marc A.; Apte, Michael G.; Shendell, Derek G.; Fisk, Wlliam J.

2003-12-01

224

On tentative decommissioning cost analysis with specific authentic cost calculations with the application of the Omega code on a case linked to the Intermediate storage facility for spent fuel in Sweden  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The presented report is focused on tentative calculations of basic decommissioning parameters such as costs, manpower and exposure of personnel for activities of older nuclear facility decommissioning in Sweden represented by Intermediate storage facility for spent fuel in Studsvik, by means of calculation code OMEGA. This report continuously follows up two previous projects, which described methodology of cost estimates of decommissioning with an emphasis to derive cost functions for alpha contaminated material and implementation of the advanced decommissioning costing methodology for Intermediate Storage facility for Spent Fuel in Studsvik. The main purpose of the presented study is to demonstrate the trial application of the advanced costing methodology using OMEGA code for Intermediate Storage Facility for Spent Fuel in Studsvik. Basic work packages presented in report are as follows: 1. Analysis and validation input data on Intermediate Storage Facility for Spent Fuel and assemble a database suitable for standardised decommissioning cost calculations including radiological parameters, 2. Proposal of range of decommissioning calculations and define an extent of decommissioning activities, 3. Defining waste management scenarios for particular material waste streams from Intermediate Storage Facility for Spent Fuel, 4. Developing standardised cost calculation structure applied for Intermediate Storage Facility for Spent Fuel decommissioning calculation and 5. Performing tentative decommissioning calculations for Intermediate Storage Facility for Spent Fuel by OMEGA code. Calculated parameters of decommissioning are presented in structure according to Proposed Standardized List of Items for Costing Purposes. All parameters are documented and summed up in both table and graphic forms in text and Annexes. The presented report documents availability and applicability of methodology for evaluation of costs and other parameters of decommissioning in a form implemented within calculation code OMEGA for calculations of Intermediate Storage for Spent Fuel in Studsvik.

Vasko, Marek; Daniska, Vladimir; Ondra, Frantisek; Bezak, Peter; Kristofova, Kristina; Tatransky, Peter; Zachar, Matej [DECOM Slovakia, spol. s.r.o., J. Bottu 2, SK-917 01 Trnava (Slovakia); Lindskog, Staffan [Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, Stockholm (Sweden)

2007-03-15

225

On tentative decommissioning cost analysis with specific authentic cost calculations with the application of the Omega code on a case linked to the Intermediate storage facility for spent fuel in Sweden  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The presented report is focused on tentative calculations of basic decommissioning parameters such as costs, manpower and exposure of personnel for activities of older nuclear facility decommissioning in Sweden represented by Intermediate storage facility for spent fuel in Studsvik, by means of calculation code OMEGA. This report continuously follows up two previous projects, which described methodology of cost estimates of decommissioning with an emphasis to derive cost functions for alpha contaminated material and implementation of the advanced decommissioning costing methodology for Intermediate Storage facility for Spent Fuel in Studsvik. The main purpose of the presented study is to demonstrate the trial application of the advanced costing methodology using OMEGA code for Intermediate Storage Facility for Spent Fuel in Studsvik. Basic work packages presented in report are as follows: 1. Analysis and validation input data on Intermediate Storage Facility for Spent Fuel and assemble a database suitable for standardised decommissioning cost calculations including radiological parameters, 2. Proposal of range of decommissioning calculations and define an extent of decommissioning activities, 3. Defining waste management scenarios for particular material waste streams from Intermediate Storage Facility for Spent Fuel, 4. Developing standardised cost calculation structure applied for Intermediate Storage Facility for Spent Fuel decommissioning calculation and 5. Performing tentative decommissioning calculations for Intermediate Storage Facility for Spent Fuel by OMEGA code. Calculated parameters of decommissioning are presented in structure according to Proposed Standardized List of Items for Costing Purposes. All parameters are documented and summed up in both table and graphic forms in text and Annexes. The presented report documents availability and applicability of methodology for evaluation of costs and other parameters of decommissioning in a form implemented within calculation code OMEGA for calculations of Intermediate Storage for Spent Fuel in Studsvik

226

Health Care Use and Costs for Participants in a Diabetes Disease Management Program, United States, 2007-2008  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available IntroductionThe Disease Management Association of America identifies diabetes as one of the chronic conditions with the greatest potential for management. TRICARE Management Activity, which administers health care benefits for US military service personnel, retirees, and their dependents, created a disease management program for beneficiaries with diabetes. The objective of this study was to determine whether participation intensity and prior indication of uncontrolled diabetes were associated with health care use and costs for participants enrolled in TRICARE’s diabetes management program.MethodsThis ongoing, opt-out study used a quasi-experimental approach to assess program impact for beneficiaries (n = 37,370 aged 18 to 64 living in the United States. Inclusion criteria were any diabetes-related emergency department visits or hospitalizations, more than 10 diabetes-related ambulatory visits, or more than twenty 30-day prescriptions for diabetes drugs in the previous year. Beginning in June 2007, all participants received educational mailings. Participants who agreed to receive a baseline telephone assessment and telephone counseling once per month in addition to educational mailings were considered active, and those who did not complete at least the baseline telephone assessment were considered passive. We categorized the diabetes status of each participant as “uncontrolled” or “controlled” on the basis of medical claims containing diagnosis codes for uncontrolled diabetes in the year preceding program eligibility. We compared observed outcomes to outcomes predicted in the absence of diabetes management. Prediction equations were based on regression analysis of medical claims for a historical control group (n = 23,818 that in October 2004 met the eligibility criteria for TRICARE’s program implemented June 2007. We conducted regression analysis comparing historical control group patient outcomes after October 2004 with these baseline characteristics.ResultsPer-person total annual medical savings for program participants, calculated as the difference between observed and predicted outcomes, averaged $783. Active participants had larger reductions in inpatient days and emergency department visits, larger increases in ambulatory visits, and larger increases in receiving retinal examinations, hemoglobin A1c tests, and urine microalbumin tests compared with passive participants. Participants with prior indication of uncontrolled diabetes had higher per-person total annual medical savings, larger reduction in inpatient days, and larger increases in ambulatory visits than did participants with controlled diabetes.ConclusionGreater intensity of participation in TRICARE’s diabetes management program was associated with lower medical costs and improved receipt of recommended testing. That patients who were categorized as having uncontrolled diabetes realized greater program benefits suggests diabetes management programs should consider indication of uncontrolled diabetes in their program candidate identification criteria.

Timothy M. Dall, MS

2011-05-01

227

Health care costs before and after diagnosis of depression in patients with unexplained pain: a retrospective cohort study using the United Kingdom General Practice Research Database  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Catherine Reed,1 Jihyung Hong,2 Diego Novick,1 Alan Lenox-Smith,3 Michael Happich41Global Health Outcomes, Eli Lilly and Company, Windlesham, Surrey, UK; 2Personal Social Services Research Unit, London School of Economics and Political Science, London, UK; 3Eli Lilly UK, Basingstoke, UK; 4Eli Lilly and Company, Bad Homburg, GermanyPurpose: To assess the impact of pain severity and time to diagnosis of depression on health care costs for primary care patients with pre-existing unexplained pain symptoms who subsequently received a diagnosis of depression.Patients and methods: This retrospective cohort study analyzed 4000 adults with unexplained pain (defined as painful physical symptoms [PPS] without any probable organic cause and a subsequent diagnosis of depression, identified from the UK General Practice Research Database using diagnostic codes. Patients were categorized into four groups based on pain severity (milder or more severe; based on number of pain-relief medications and use of opioids and time to diagnosis of depression (?1 year or >1 year from PPS index date. Annual health care costs were calculated (2009 values and included general practitioner (GP consultations, secondary care referrals, and prescriptions for pain-relief medications for the 12 months before depression diagnosis and in the subsequent 2 years. Multivariate models of cost included time period as a main independent variable, and adjusted for age, gender, and comorbidities.Results: Total annual health care costs before and after depression diagnosis for the four patient groups were higher for the groups with more severe pain (£819–£988 versus £565–£628; P < 0.001 for all pairwise comparisons and highest for the group with more severe pain and longer time to depression diagnosis in the subsequent 2 years (P < 0.05. Total GP costs were highest in the group with more severe pain and longer time to depression diagnosis both before and after depression diagnosis (P < 0.05. In the second year following depression diagnosis, this group also had the highest secondary care referral costs (P < 0.01. The highest drug costs were in the groups with more severe pain (P < 0.001, although costs within each group were similar before and after depression diagnosis.Conclusion: Among patients with unexplained pain symptoms, significant pain in combination with longer time from pain symptoms to depression diagnosis contribute to higher costs for the UK health care system.Keywords: depression, pain, cost, GPRD, UK

Reed C

2013-01-01

228

Benchmarking Soft Costs for PV Systems in the United States (Presentation)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents results from the first U.S. based data collection effort to quantify non-hardware, business process costs for PV systems at the residential and commercial scales, using a bottom-up approach. Annual expenditure and labor hour productivity data are analyzed to benchmark business process costs in the specific areas of: (1) customer acquisition; (2) permitting, inspection, and interconnection; (3) labor costs of third party financing; and (4) installation labor.

Ardani, K.

2012-06-01

229

Calculating Optimal Cost of Using DGs in Micro Grids by Using Imperialistic Competitive Algorithm (ICA?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available How to use renewable sources has been a great problem for many years. Researchers haveinvented and developed Microgrids, flexible networks with a central control system; nevertheless, forinstalling renewable sources on them there is still questions. As a result, researchers started to use differentalgorithms in order to solve problems and find best answers for electrical functions. One of the most novelalgorithms for this purpose is Imperialistic Competitive Algorithm (ICA. It is based on historical events andprovides marvelous results and speed in comparison with similar algorithms such as Genetic Algorithm orPSO. In this paper we will investigate best answers for cost function in a 14-Bus Microgrid by using ICAalgorithm. Finally answers will be compared with GA and PSO so that it can be shown that proposedalgorithm is more efficient than its counterparts.

Navid Javidtash

2013-10-01

230

Design of Optimized Decimator for Distortion Removal in Wireless Communication & Calculation of Cost Function  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In digital signal processing, decimation is a technique for reducing the number of samples in discrete-time signal used for multi-rate signal processing in wireless communication systems. In this paper optimized decimator has been presented to improve the implementation complexity. The proposed decimator is implemented using MATLAB as standard FIR, Half Band FIR and Nyquist FIR by using the multistage design techniques. The performance of different decimator designs is compared in terms of error and hardware requirements. The results show that the performance of all designs is almost identical but their implementation cost varies greatly in terms of hardware requirements. The hardware saving of 80% to 90% can be achieved by using multistage Nyquist decimator design.

Manpreet kaur, Mandeep Singh Saini

2012-10-01

231

Review of cost estimates and the calculation of the 2014 Act (1988:1597) on the financing of the management of certain radioactive waste, etc  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation Safety Authority (SSM) has based on the licensee's submitted cost estimates for 2013 and SSM cost-adjustments to those rates calculated under the Act (1988:1597) on the financing of the management of certain radioactive waste, etc. (Studsvik Act) to 0.12 SEK per kWh delivered nuclear electricity for the period 2014 to 2017. The fee calculation has not taken into account the remaining uncertainties in the data. SSM's calculations show that the net present value for measures under Studsvik Act amounts to 1743 million Swedish kronor. This amount is in turn composed of two subtotals. The first installment amounting to 1512 million Swedish kronor and indicates the present value of the costs that have been submitted by the licensee in their cost estimates for 2013. The second partial sum represents the present value of the adjusted cost of 231 million Swedish kronor that SSM chosen to add to the submitted cost estimates

232

Verification of monitor unit calculations for non-IMRT clinical radiotherapy: Report of AAPM Task Group 114  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The requirement of an independent verification of the monitor units (MU) or time calculated to deliver the prescribed dose to a patient has been a mainstay of radiation oncology quality assurance. The need for and value of such a verification was obvious when calculations were performed by hand using look-up tables, and the verification was achieved by a second person independently repeating the calculation. However, in a modern clinic using CT/MR/PET simulation, computerized 3D treatment planning, heterogeneity corrections, and complex calculation algorithms such as convolution/superposition and Monte Carlo, the purpose of and methodology for the MU verification have come into question. In addition, since the verification is often performed using a simpler geometrical model and calculation algorithm than the primary calculation, exact or almost exact agreement between the two can no longer be expected. Guidelines are needed to help the physicist set clinically reasonable action levels for agreement. This report addresses the following charges of the task group: (1) To re-evaluate the purpose and methods of the ''independent second check'' for monitor unit calculations for non-IMRT radiation treatment in light of the complexities of modern-day treatment planning. (2) To present recommendations on how to perform verification of monitor unit calculations in a modern clinic. (3) To provide recommendations on establishing action levels for agreement between primary calculevels for agreement between primary calculations and verification, and to provide guidance in addressing discrepancies outside the action levels. These recommendations are to be used as guidelines only and shall not be interpreted as requirements.

233

Calculational results using a survey type code system for the analysis of the Almaraz Unit 2 PWR benchmark  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The calculations performed for the Almaraz Unit 2 PWR using the code packages of the Atomic Energy Corporation of South Africa Ltd. are summarized. These calculations were done as part of the IAEA Coordinated Research Programme on In-Core Fuel Management Code Package Validation for LWRs. A brief description of the one-dimensional cross section generation package as well as of the Level II (scoping type) global core calculational package which was used is given. Detailed results are presented in several appendices. 29 figs., 20 tabs., 10 refs

234

Exploring the cost effectiveness of an immunization programme for rotavirus gastroenteritis in the United Kingdom.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rotavirus is the most common cause of gastroenteritis in children aged <5 years old, two new vaccines have recently been developed which can prevent associated morbidity and mortality. While apparently safe and efficacious, it is also important to establish whether rotavirus immunization is cost effective. A decision analytical model which employs data from a review of published evidence is used to determine the cost effectiveness of a rotavirus vaccine. The results suggest that some of the health sector costs, and all of the societal costs, of rotavirus gastroenteritis in children can be avoided by an immunization programme. The additional cost to the health sector may be considered worthwhile if there is a sufficient improvement in the quality-of-life of children and parents affected by gastroenteritis; this study did not find any evidence of research which has measured the utility gains from vaccination. PMID:17335631

Lorgelly, P K; Joshi, D; Iturriza Gómara, M; Gray, J; Mugford, M

2008-01-01

235

Tracking the Sun III; The Installed Cost of Photovoltaics in the United States from 1998-2009  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Installations of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems have been growing at a rapid pace in recent years. In 2009, approximately 7,500 megawatts (MW) of PV were installed globally, up from approximately 6,000 MW in 2008, consisting primarily of grid-connected applications. With 335 MW of grid-connected PV capacity added in 2009, the United States was the world's fourth largest PV market in 2009, behind Germany, Italy, and Japan. The market for PV in the United States is driven by national, state, and local government incentives, including up-front cash rebates, production-based incentives, requirements that electricity suppliers purchase a certain amount of solar energy, and federal and state tax benefits. These programs are, in part, motivated by the popular appeal of solar energy, and by the positive attributes of PV - modest environmental impacts, avoidance of fuel price risks, coincidence with peak electrical demand, and the possible deployment of PV at the point of use. Given the relatively high cost of PV, however, a key goal of these policies is to encourage cost reductions over time. Therefore, as policy incentives have become more significant and as PV deployment has accelerated, so too has the desire to track the installed cost of PV systems over time, by system characteristics, by system location, and by component. Despite the significant year-on-year growth, however, the share of global and U.S. electricity supply met with PV remains small, and annual PV additions are currently modest in the context of the overall electric system. To address this need, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory initiated a report series focused on describing trends in the installed cost of grid-connected PV systems in the United States. The present report, the third in the series, describes installed cost trends from 1998 through 2009, and provides preliminary cost data for systems installed in 2010. The analysis is based on project-level cost data from approximately 78,000 residential and non-residential PV systems in the U.S., all of which are installed at end-use customer facilities (herein referred to as 'customer-sited' systems). The combined capacity of systems in the data sample totals 874 MW, equal to 70% of all grid-connected PV capacity installed in the United States through 2009 and representing one of the most comprehensive sources of installed PV cost data for the U.S. The report also briefly compares recent PV installed costs in the United States to those in Germany and Japan. Finally, it should be noted that the analysis presented here focuses on descriptive trends in the underlying data, serving primarily to summarize the data in tabular and graphical form; later analysis may explore some of these trends with more-sophisticated statistical techniques. The report begins with a summary of the data collection methodology and resultant dataset (Section 2). The primary findings of the analysis are presented in Section 3, which describes trends in installed costs prior to receipt of any financial incentives: over time and by system size, component, state, system ownership type (customer-owned vs. third party-owned), host customer segment (residential vs. commercial vs. public-sector vs. non-profit), application (new construction vs. retrofit), and technology type (building-integrated vs. rack-mounted, crystalline silicon vs. thin-film, and tracking vs. fixed-axis). Section 4 presents additional findings related to trends in PV incentive levels over time and among states (focusing specifically on state and utility incentive programs as well as state and federal tax credits), and trends in the net installed cost paid by system owners after receipt of such incentives. Brief conclusions are offered in the final section, and several appendices provide additional details on the analysis methodology and additional tabular summaries of the data.

Barbose, Galen; Darghouth, Naim; Wiser, Ryan

2010-12-13

236

Unit Labor Cost Growth Differentials in the Euro Area, Germany, and the US: Lessons from PANIC and Cluster Analysis  

OpenAIRE

Inflation differentials in the Euro area are mainly due to a sustained divergence of wage developments across the Euro area, and narrower differences in labour productivity growth (Alvarez et al., 2006). We investigate convergence of inflation using unit labour cost (ULC) growth and applying PANIC (Bai and Ng, 2002, 2004) and cluster procedures (Hobijn and Franses, 2000, Busetti et al., 2006) to Euro area countries as well as US States, US Census Regions and German Laender. Euro area differs ...

Fritsche, Ulrich; Kuzin, Vladimir

2007-01-01

237

Cost-effectiveness of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor prophylaxis for febrile neutropenia in breast cancer in the United Kingdom  

OpenAIRE

Introduction: We report a cost-effectiveness evaluation of granulocyte colony–stimulating factors (G-CSFs) for the prevention of febrile neutropenia (FN) after chemotherapy in the United Kingdom (UK). Methods: A mathematical model was constructed simulating the experience of women with breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy. Three strategies were modelled: primary prophylaxis (G-CSFs administered in all cycles), secondary prophylaxis (G-CSFs administered in all cycles after an FN event),...

Whyte, S.; Cooper, Kl; Stevenson, Md; Madan, J.; Akehurst, R.

2011-01-01

238

INTEGRATION OF THE ACTIVITY BASED COSTING AND THE UNITS OF PRODUCTION METHOD: A CASE STUDY INTEGRAÇÃO DO CUSTEIO ABC COM O MÉTODO UP: UM ESTUDO DE CASO  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A competitive environment suggests changes in the form of costs management to able the company to remain in the market. Within this perspective, the objective of this article is to describe the integration of the activity based costing (ABC and the units of production (UP method in a food plant. The former is used for an appropriation of administrative and commercial expenses as a perfected form of allocating operational expenses; the latter, for the allocation of production variable expenses, marginal cost and fixed costs of production. This research methodology consists of an exploratory study, accomplished through a case study with a quantitative approach. The results of the research have demonstrated that the UP method considers a single measure to calculate production efforts, contemplating exclusively the transformation costs. In turn, by the application of the ABC to allocate operational expenses, the vision of processes and activities expands. It has been concluded that, in spite of different degrees of emphasis, the integration of the two costing methodologies increases quality of information, providing subsidies to the management to improve the classification of activities and the measurement of productivity. Keywords: Integration. The Activity Based Costing. The Units of Production Method. O ambiente competitivo sugere mudanças na forma de administrar os custos para possibilitar a continuidade da empresa no mercado. Nesta perspectiva, o objetivo deste artigo é descrever a integração do custeio baseado em atividades com o método das unidades de produção em uma indústria do setor de alimentos. O primeiro, usado para apropriação das despesas administrativas e despesas comerciais, como uma forma mais acurada de alocar as despesas operacionais. O segundo, para alocação dos gastos variáveis de fabricação, custo marginal e custos fixos de fabricação. A metodologia da pesquisa consubstancia-se de um estudo exploratório, realizado por meio de um estudo de caso, com abordagem quantitativa. Os resultados da pesquisa evidenciam que o método das unidades de produção considera uma única medida para mensurar os esforços de produção, contemplando exclusivamente os custos de transformação. Por sua vez, a aplicação do custeio baseado em atividades para alocação das despesas operacionais expande a visão de processos e atividades. Concluiu-se que, mesmo com diferentes ênfases, a integração das duas metodologias de custeio adicionam maior qualidade na informação, fornecendo subsídios à gestão para melhorar a classificação das atividades e a medição de produtividade. Palavras chave: Integração. Custeio baseado em atividades. Método das unidades de produção.

Anderson Léo Sabadin

2007-07-01

239

Ab initio large unit cell calculations of the electronic structure of diamond nanocrystals  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to reduce computational efforts, and separate surface and core properties, diamond nanocrystals in the present model is represented by a heterojunction between the surface and the core in which the surface represents the outer most four layers and the core by the rest of the internal region of nanocrystal. Ab initio restricted Hartree-Fock (RHF) method coupled with the large unit cell method (LUC) is used to determine the electronic structure and physical properties of diamond nanocrystals core part with different sizes. The use of STO-3G basis choice is made to be able to compare to semiempirical methods using the complete neglect of differential overlap (CNDO) that uses Slater type orbitals (STO). The oxygenated (001)-(1 × 1) facet that expands with larger sizes of nanocrystals is also investigated to determine the rule of the surface in nanocrystals electronic structure. The results show that the present method agrees with semiempirical method contraction of lattice constant with increasing nanocrystal size but disagrees with energy gap variation with nanocrystal size in some regions. After nearly 1.4 nm the energy gap which is controlled by surface states begins to rise. The lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) is attributed to surface states that largely reduce the value of energy gap. The sources of disagreement between semiempirical and ab initio results are discussed. The present method shows a maximum increment of the lattice constant by 3.3% over the calculated bulk for the smallest diamond nanocrystals. The surface states are found mostly non-degenerated because of the effect of surface discontinuity and oxygen atoms. Valance and conduction bands are wider on the surface due to splitting and oxygen atoms. The method also shows fluctuations in the converged energy gap, valence band width and cohesive energy of the core part of nanocrystal. These fluctuations might partially explain the controversial experimental results for diamond nanocrystals greater than 1.4 nm in size. The method of the present model has threefold results; it can be used to obtain the electronic structure of bulk, surface, and nanocrystals.

Abdulsattar, Mudar A.

2011-05-01

240

EconoMe-Develop - a calculation tool for multi-risk assessment and benefit-cost-analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

Public money is used to finance the protection of human life, material assets and the environment against natural hazards. This limited resource should be used in a way that it achieves the maximum possible effect by minimizing as many risks as possible. Hence, decision-makers are facing the question which mitigation measures should be prioritised. Benefit-Cost-Analysis (BCA) is a recognized method for determining the economic efficiency of investments in mitigation measures. In Switzerland, the Federal Office for the Environment (FOEN) judges the benefit-cost-ratio of mitigation projects on the base of the results of the calculation tool "EconoMe" [1]. The check of the economic efficiency of mitigation projects with an investment of more than 1 million CHF (800,000 EUR) by using "EconoMe" is mandatory since 2008 in Switzerland. Within "EconoMe", most calculation parameters cannot be changed by the user allowing for comparable results. Based on the risk guideline "RIKO" [2] an extended version of the operational version of "EconoMe", called "EconoMe-Develop" was developed. "EconoMe-Develop" is able to deal with various natural hazard processes and thus allows multi-risk assessments, since all restrictions of the operational version of "EconoMe" like e.g. the number of scenarios and expositions, vulnerability, spatial probability of processes and probability of presence of objects, are not existing. Additionally, the influences of uncertainty of calculation factors, like e.g. vulnerability, on the final results can be determined. "EconoMe-Develop" offers import and export of data, e.g. results of GIS-analysis. The possibility for adapting the tool to user specific requirements makes EconoMe-Develop an easy-to-use tool for risk assessment and assessment of economic efficiency of mitigation projects for risk experts. In the paper we will present the most important features of the tool and we will illustrate the application by a practical example.

Bründl, M.

2012-04-01

241

Predictors of healthcare outcomes and costs related to medication use in patients with acne in the United States.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated the relationship among health status, costs linked with the treatment of acne in the United States, and other aspects related to medication use. The US Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) database was analyzed for a cohort of people with acne. This cross-sectional study obtained costs, demographics, healthcare service utilization, and clinical patient variables from the MEPS database. The EuroQol Group's EQ-5D scores available in MEPS were used for health status information. Multivariate weighted analysis was performed for data for approximately 5 million patients (weighted sample size). Nearly 70% of the patients used some type of medication for acne. Acne-related medication accounted for approximately 36% of the total acne-related annual healthcare costs, with an average of 2 annual acne prescription refills per patient. Increased number of refills of acne-related medications was associated with an improvement in health status (P<.05). Increased physician office-based visits were the only predictors of higher acne-related annual healthcare costs (P<.01). Adherence to acne medications is an important component of better health status. Pharmacologic treatment of acne does not significantly add to acne-related annual healthcare costs. PMID:16706243

Balkrishnan, Rajesh; Kulkarni, Amit S; Cayce, Kimberly; Feldman, Steven R

2006-04-01

242

Benchmark calculations of WIMS/(MULTICELL)/RFSP code using phase-B physics test at Wolsong unit 4  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The validation of the WIMS-AECL lattice code were performed with the results of the Phase-B physics test at Wolsong unit 4 in order to use a physics design code of CANDU reactor. The calculations were carried out for critical boron concentration, boron worth, calibration of liquid zone level, reactivity worths of various control devices, heat transport temperature reactivity coefficient and moderator temperature reactivity coefficient, and flux scan. Reactivity of AVZL (Average Zone Level) of Wolsong unit 4 has relatively small value compared with those of Wolsong units 2 and 3. All reactivity worths of reactor control devices of Wolsong unit 4 were estimated to be relatively lower values compared with those of Wolsong units 2 and 3. Since reactivity of AVZL affects all reactor control devices worths, the discrepancy between measured and calculated values of the moderator temperature reactivity coefficients is especially large for all temperature range. But the discrepancy of the moderator temperature reactivity coefficients could be reduced by the adjustment of boron concentration. To elaborate the causes for these differences, further studies need to be made

243

Dynamic cost-effective reduction strategies for acidification in Europe : An application to Ireland and the United Kingdom  

OpenAIRE

This paper describes the application of an optimisation model for calculating cost-effective abatement strategies for the reduction of acidification in Europe while taking into account the dynamic character of soil acidification in a number of countries. Environmental constraints are defined in terms of soil quality indicators, e.g., pH, base saturation or the aluminium ion concentration in the soil solution within an optimisation model for transboundary air pollution. We present a case study...

Schmieman, E.; Vries, W.; Hordijk, L.; Kroeze, C.; Posch, M.; Reinds, G. J.; Ierland, E.

2002-01-01

244

Audit calculations of accidents analysis for second unit of Ignalina NPP with CORETRAN code  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

RBMK-1500 accident analysis with CORETRAN code was considered. The general survey of the model, assumptions and results was presented. The results of the analysis were used in Ignalina NPP Unit-2 safety report review conclusions. (author)

245

40 CFR 1065.20 - Units of measure and overview of calculations.  

Science.gov (United States)

...contents.html . Note the following exceptions: (1) We designate rotational frequency, f n , of an engine's crankshaft in revolutions per minute (rev/min), rather than the SI unit of reciprocal seconds (1/s). This is based on...

2010-07-01

246

An unit cost adjusting heuristic algorithm for the integrated planning and scheduling of a two-stage supply chain  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose: The stable relationship of one-supplier-one-customer is replaced by a dynamic relationship of multi-supplier-multi-customer in current market gradually, and efficient scheduling techniques are important tools of the dynamic supply chain relationship establishing process. This paper studies the optimization of the integrated planning and scheduling problem of a two-stage supply chain with multiple manufacturers and multiple retailers to obtain a minimum supply chain operating cost, whose manufacturers have different production capacities, holding and producing cost rates, transportation costs to retailers.Design/methodology/approach: As a complex task allocation and scheduling problem, this paper sets up an INLP model for it and designs a Unit Cost Adjusting (UCA heuristic algorithm that adjust the suppliers’ supplying quantity according to their unit costs step by step to solve the model.Findings: Relying on the contrasting analysis between the UCA and the Lingo solvers for optimizing many numerical experiments, results show that the INLP model and the UCA algorithm can obtain its near optimal solution of the two-stage supply chain’s planning and scheduling problem within very short CPU time.Research limitations/implications: The proposed UCA heuristic can easily help managers to optimizing the two-stage supply chain scheduling problems which doesn’t include the delivery time and batch of orders. For two-stage supply chains are the most common form of actual commercial relationships, so to make some modification and study on the UCA heuristic should be able to optimize the integrated planning and scheduling problems of a supply chain with more reality constraints.Originality/value: This research proposes an innovative UCA heuristic for optimizing the integrated planning and scheduling problem of two-stage supply chains with the constraints of suppliers’ production capacity and the orders’ delivering time, and has a great practical significance to the dynamic relationship establishment of multi-supplier-multi-customer in current market.

Jianhua Wang

2014-10-01

247

Audit calculations of accidents analysis for second unit of Ignalina NPP with ATHLET code  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Background of thermo hydraulic processes audit calculations in the frame of RSR-2 project is presented. Assumptions for the design based accident - RBMK-1500 group distributor header break analysis and modeling are presented. Audit calculations by ATHLET code and evaluation of results were provided. (author)

248

Calculation of shielding needed at the wall where cobalt therapy unit Alcyon II is installed  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Calculations of shielding at the wall to avoid scattering radiation for the personnel and population were performed. The position of the shielding door was corrected because before it had been placed in front of the beams, thus producing excessive radiation to the operator and personnel and patients. The calculations were based on the German standard (DIN)

249

RELAP5/MOD3.3 code calculation for preoperational tests of safety injection tanks in SKN unit 3  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Shin Kori nuclear power plant (SKN) unit 3 and 4 are now being constructed as a first plant of APR1400. APR1400 has adopted a new design feature, called fluidic device (FD), in safety injection tanks (SITs) to optimize the emergency core cooling (ECC) flow rate. Before starting the commercial operation, the safety systems have to be tested to ensure their performances of safety functions. The object of preoperational tests for SITs is to confirm whether the performance of SITs satisfies the design requirement which is defined by a design basis accidents analysis. The design requirement can be expressed as pressure loss coefficient, called K factor, which can convert to discharge flow rate of SITs from a certain pressure condition of SITs. Preoperational tests of four SITs were performed in March 2012. To evaluate the K factor, the pressure and water level of SITs are measured. The results of evaluated K factor are bounded at the lowest value of the design requirement due to measurement uncertainty. Therefore, KHNP expanded the design requirement to embrace the measurement uncertainty. A consistency between the evaluated K factor and code calculation results has to be verified through code calculation although KINS agrees with validity of expanded requirement. This paper deals with benchmark calculations of preoperational tests for SITs in SKN unit 3 using RELAP5/MOD3.3 code. Calculation results are compared with measured data and show a consistency between the calculaand show a consistency between the calculation data and measured data

250

RELAP5/MOD3.3 code calculation for preoperational tests of safety injection tanks in SKN unit 3  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Shin Kori nuclear power plant (SKN) unit 3 and 4 are now being constructed as a first plant of APR1400. APR1400 has adopted a new design feature, called fluidic device (FD), in safety injection tanks (SITs) to optimize the emergency core cooling (ECC) flow rate. Before starting the commercial operation, the safety systems have to be tested to ensure their performances of safety functions. The object of preoperational tests for SITs is to confirm whether the performance of SITs satisfies the design requirement which is defined by a design basis accidents analysis. The design requirement can be expressed as pressure loss coefficient, called K factor, which can convert to discharge flow rate of SITs from a certain pressure condition of SITs. Preoperational tests of four SITs were performed in March 2012. To evaluate the K factor, the pressure and water level of SITs are measured. The results of evaluated K factor are bounded at the lowest value of the design requirement due to measurement uncertainty. Therefore, KHNP expanded the design requirement to embrace the measurement uncertainty. A consistency between the evaluated K factor and code calculation results has to be verified through code calculation although KINS agrees with validity of expanded requirement. This paper deals with benchmark calculations of preoperational tests for SITs in SKN unit 3 using RELAP5/MOD3.3 code. Calculation results are compared with measured data and show a consistency between the calculation data and measured data.

Lim, Sang Gyu [KHNP, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

2012-10-15

251

Arsenic in the Shallow Ground Waters of Conterminous United States: Assessment, Health Risks, and Costs for MCL Compliance  

Science.gov (United States)

A methodology consisting of ordinal logistic regression (OLR) is used to predict the probability of occurrence of arsenic concentrations in different threshold limits in shallow ground waters of the conterminous United States (CONUS) subject to a set of influencing variables. The analysis considered a number of maximum contaminant level (MCL) options as threshold values to estimate the probabilities of occurrence of arsenic in ranges defined by a given MCL of 3, 5, 10, 20, and 50 µg/l and a detection limit of 1 µg/l. The fit between the observed and predicted probability of occurrence was around 83 percent for all MCL options. The estimated probabilities were used to estimate the median background concentration of arsenic in the CONUS. The shallow ground water of the western United States is more vulnerable than the eastern United States. Arizona, Utah, Nevada, and California in particular are hotspots for arsenic contamination. The risk assessment showed that counties in southern California, Arizona, Florida, and Washington and a few others scattered throughout the CONUS face a high risk from arsenic exposure through untreated ground water consumption. A simple cost effectiveness analysis was performed to understand the household costs for MCL compliance in using arsenic contaminated ground water. The results showed that the current MCL of 10 µg/l is a good compromise based on existing treatment technologies.

Twarakavi, Navin Kumar C.; Kaluarachchi, Jagath J.

2006-04-01

252

Total-energy calculations for crystalline approximants of quasicrystalline structures: Occupation of the centers of the icosahedral units  

Science.gov (United States)

Motivated by recent positron-annihilation experiments on quasicrystalline materials, we have investigated whether the centers of packing units [of Mackay's icosahedron for the Al-Mn system and cuboctahedron for the Mg-Zn (Al) system] are empty or filled. Our pseudopotential-based total-energy calculations suggest that the centers are occupied, in agreement with experimental positron-annihilation results. Possible reasons for discrepancies with the diffraction results are discussed.

Sikka, S. K.; Sharma, Surinder M.; Chidambaram, R.

1993-02-01

253

Cost-Effectiveness of Strategies to Prevent Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Transmission and Infection in an Intensive Care Unit.  

Science.gov (United States)

OBJECTIVE To create a national policy model to evaluate the projected cost-effectiveness of multiple hospital-based strategies to prevent methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) transmission and infection. DESIGN Cost-effectiveness analysis using a Markov microsimulation model that simulates the natural history of MRSA acquisition and infection. PATIENTS AND SETTING Hypothetical cohort of 10,000 adult patients admitted to a US intensive care unit. METHODS We compared 7 strategies to standard precautions using a hospital perspective: (1) active surveillance cultures; (2) active surveillance cultures plus selective decolonization; (3) universal contact precautions (UCP); (4) universal chlorhexidine gluconate baths; (5) universal decolonization; (6) UCP + chlorhexidine gluconate baths; and (7) UCP+decolonization. For each strategy, both efficacy and compliance were considered. Outcomes of interest were: (1) MRSA colonization averted; (2) MRSA infection averted; (3) incremental cost per colonization averted; (4) incremental cost per infection averted. RESULTS A total of 1989 cases of colonization and 544 MRSA invasive infections occurred under standard precautions per 10,000 patients. Universal decolonization was the least expensive strategy and was more effective compared with all strategies except UCP+decolonization and UCP+chlorhexidine gluconate. UCP+decolonization was more effective than universal decolonization but would cost $2469 per colonization averted and $9007 per infection averted. If MRSA colonization prevalence decreases from 12% to 5%, active surveillance cultures plus selective decolonization becomes the least expensive strategy. CONCLUSIONS Universal decolonization is cost-saving, preventing 44% of cases of MRSA colonization and 45% of cases of MRSA infection. Our model provides useful guidance for decision makers choosing between multiple available hospital-based strategies to prevent MRSA transmission. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2015;36(1): 17-27. PMID:25627757

Gidengil, Courtney A; Gay, Charlene; Huang, Susan S; Platt, Richard; Yokoe, Deborah; Lee, Grace M

2015-01-01

254

Development of DUST: A computer code that calculates release rates from a LLW disposal unit  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Performance assessment of a Low-Level Waste (LLW) disposal facility begins with an estimation of the rate at which radionuclides migrate out of the facility (i.e., the disposal unit source term). The major physical processes that influence the source term are water flow, container degradation, waste form leaching, and radionuclide transport. A computer code, DUST (Disposal Unit Source Term) has been developed which incorporates these processes in a unified manner. The DUST code improves upon existing codes as it has the capability to model multiple container failure times, multiple waste form release properties, and radionuclide specific transport properties. Verification studies performed on the code are discussed

255

Feasibility Analysis of Low Cost Graphical Processing Units for Electromagnetic Field Simulations by Finite Difference Time Domain Method  

CERN Document Server

Among several techniques available for solving Computational Electromagnetics (CEM) problems, the Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method is one of the best suited approaches when a parallelized hardware platform is used. In this paper we investigate the feasibility of implementing the FDTD method using the NVIDIA GT 520, a low cost Graphical Processing Unit (GPU), for solving the differential form of Maxwell's equation in time domain. Initially a generalized benchmarking problem of bandwidth test and another benchmarking problem of 'matrix left division is discussed for understanding the correlation between the problem size and the performance on the CPU and the GPU respectively. This is further followed by the discussion of the FDTD method, again implemented on both, the CPU and the GT520 GPU. For both of the above comparisons, the CPU used is Intel E5300, a low cost dual core CPU.

Choudhari, A V; Gupta, M R

2013-01-01

256

Variación del Costo Unitario en una Institución de Seguridad Social en Querétaro, México Unit cost variation in a social security company in Querétaro, México  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objetivo Estimar e identificar la variación del costo unitario por departamento final y motivo de atención, en unidades de medicina familiar de una institución de seguridad social en Querétaro, México. Métodos Se trata de un estudio de costo (dólares americanos $US en unidades de medicina familiar para el año 2004. El costo unitario fijo se estimó utilizando la departamentalización ajustada por productividad para un año, se identificaron departamentos finales y generales. Se incluyeron recursos materiales, físicos y de consumo, se construyeron ponderadores para asignar los recursos invertidos en los departamentos generales a cada uno de los finales. La estimación del costo unitario variable se realizó mediante la técnica de micro-costeo apoyado por grupos de expertos, se consideraron como insumos variables los medicamentos, el material de curación y los reactivos. El costo unitario se integró con la suma del costo unitario fijo y el costo unitario variable correspondiente para el motivo de atención. El análisis contempló la comparación de los costos unitarios entre las unidades médicas. Resultados El costo unitario para un mes de manejo del diabético varió entre $US 34,8, $US 32,2 y $US 34,0; el costo de la detección de cáncer cervicouterino se encontró entre $US 7,2, $US 8,7 y $US 7,3; y el costo unitario de la atención de la caries fluctuó entre $US 27,0, $US 33,6 y $US 28,7. Conclusión La variación del costo unitario es más importante en el departamento de urgencias y dental.Objective Comparing unit cost variation between departments and reasons for consultation in outpatient health services provided by a social security company from Querétaro, México. Methods A study of costs (in US$ was carried out in outpatient health service units during 2004. Fixed unit costs were estimated per department and adjusted for one year’s productivity. Material, physical and consumer resources were included. Weighting was assigned to resources invested in each department. Unit cost was estimated by using the micro cost technique; medicaments, materials used during treatment and reagents were considered to be consumer items. Unit cost resulted from adding fixed unit cost to the variable unit cost corresponding to the reason for consulting. Units costs were then compared between the medical units. Results Unit cost per month for diabetic treatment varied from US$ 34.8, US$ 32,2 to US$ 34, pap smear screening test costs were US$ 7,2, US$ 8,7 and $US 7,3 and dental treatment US$ 27, US$ 33,6 and US$ 28,7. Conclusion Unit cost variation was more important in the emergency room and the dental service.

Enrique Villarreal-Ríos

257

Clinical Effectiveness and Cost-Effectiveness of HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis in Men Who Have Sex with Men: Risk Calculators for Real-World Decision-Making  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) can be clinically effective and cost-effective for HIV prevention in high-risk men who have sex with men (MSM). However, individual patients have different risk profiles, real-world populations vary, and no practical tools exist to guide clinical decisions or public health strategies. We introduce a practical model of HIV acquisition, including both a personalized risk calculator for clinical management and a cost-effectiveness calculator for population-level decisions. Methods We developed a decision-analytic model of PrEP for MSM. The primary clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness outcomes were the number needed to treat (NNT) to prevent one HIV infection, and the cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained. We characterized patients according to risk factors including PrEP adherence, condom use, sexual frequency, background HIV prevalence and antiretroviral therapy use. Results With standard PrEP adherence and national epidemiologic parameters, the estimated NNT was 64 (95% uncertainty range: 26, 176) at a cost of $160,000 (cost saving, $740,000) per QALY – comparable to other published models. With high (35%) HIV prevalence, the NNT was 35 (21, 57), and cost per QALY was $27,000 (cost saving, $160,000), and with high PrEP adherence, the NNT was 30 (14, 69), and cost per QALY was $3,000 (cost saving, $200,000). In contrast, for monogamous, serodiscordant relationships with partner antiretroviral therapy use, the NNT was 90 (39, 157) and cost per QALY was $280,000 ($14,000, $670,000). Conclusions PrEP results vary widely across individuals and populations. Risk calculators may aid in patient education, clinical decision-making, and cost-effectiveness evaluation. PMID:25285793

Chen, Anders; Dowdy, David W.

2014-01-01

258

Coverage Range and Cost Comparison of Remote Antenna Unit Designs for In-building Radio over Fiber Technology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Future communication needs to be ubiquitous, broadband, convergent, and seamless. Radio over fiber (RoF technology is one of the most important enabler in access network for the technologies. Adoption of RoF faces bottleneck in optoelectronics, that they are still expensive, high power consumption, and limited in bandwidth. To solve the problem, transceiver in remote antenna unit (RAU is developed, i.e. electroabsorption transceiver (EAT and asymmetric Fabry-Perot modulator (AFPM. This paper compares their coverage range and cost in providing WCDMA and WLAN services. Needed gain of RF amplifier for supporting picocell is also discussed.

Razali Ngah

2008-05-01

259

Internalizing social costs in power plant siting: some examples for coal and nuclear plants in the United States  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Selected aspects of the United States experience in one particular type of energy development project, the siting of nuclear and fossil fueled power generating facilities, are examined in terms of how well community-level impacts are internalized. New institutional arrangements being devised and new requirements being made at local, state, regional, and federal levels in response to these dissociations of cost and benefits from large energy development projects are discussed. Selected examples of these new institutional responses are analyzed for adequacy and significance

260

Effect of PACS/CR on cost of care and length of stay in a medical intensive care unit  

Science.gov (United States)

Our purpose was to determine the economic effects associated with the introduction of PACS and computed radiology (CR) in a medical intensive care unit (MICU). Clinical and financial data were collected over a period of 6 months, both before and after the introduction of PACS/CR in our medical intensive care unit. Administrative claims data resulting from the MICU stay of each patient enrolled in our study were transferred online to our research database from the administrative databases of our hospital and its affiliated clinical practices. These data included all charge entries, sociodemographic data, admissions/discharge/transfer chronologies, ICD9 diagnostic and procedure codes, and diagnostic related groups. APACHE III scores and other case mix adjusters were computed from the diagnostic codes, and from the contemporaneous medical record. Departmental charge to cost ratios and the Medicare Resource-Based Relative Value Scale fee schedule were used to estimate costs from hospital and professional charges. Data were analyzed using both the patient and the exam as the unit of analysis. Univariate analyses by patient show that patients enrolled during the PACS periods were similar to those enrolled during the Film periods in age, sex, APACHE III score, and other measures of case mix. No significant differences in unadjusted median length of stay between the two Film and two PACS periods were detected. Likewise, no significant differences in unadjusted total hospital and professional costs were found between the Film and PACS periods. In our univariate analyses by exam, we focused on the subgroup of exams that had triggered primary clinical actions in any period. Those action-triggering exams were divided into two groups according to whether the referring clinician elected to obtain imaging results from the workstation or from the usual channels. Patients whose imaging results were obtain from the workstation had significantly lower professional costs in the 7 days following the action-triggering exam compared with patients whose exam information was obtained through the usual channels. No significant differences in patient age or APACHE score were noted between these two groups. Our preliminary results show possible evidence of a reduction in unadjusted cost of care for the subgroup of patients whose action-triggering exams were first encountered on the PACS workstation. Whether these results represent clinicians' differential workstation utilization patterns or true effects of PACS/CR will be determined by further data analysis, including case mix adjustment, subgroup analysis, and multivariate modeling.

Langlotz, Curtis P.; Kundel, Harold L.; Brikman, Inna; Pratt, Hugh M.; Redfern, Regina O.; Horii, Steven C.; Schwartz, J. Sanford

1996-05-01

261

CRC DEPLETION CALCULATIONS FOR THE RODDED ASSEMBLIES IN BATCHES 1, 2, 3, AND 1X OF CRYSTAL RIVER UNIT 3  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this design analysis is to document the SAS2H depletion calculations of certain rodded fuel assemblies from batches 1, 2, 3, and 1X of the Crystal River Unit 3 pressurized water reactor (PWR) that are required for Commercial Reactor Critical (CRC) evaluations to support the development of the disposal criticality methodology. A rodded assembly is one that contains a control rod assembly (CRA) or an axial power shaping rod assembly (APSRA) for some period of time during its irradiation history. The objective of this analysis is to provide SAS2H calculated isotopic compositions of depleted fuel and depleted burnable poison for each fuel assembly to be used in subsequent CRC reactivity calculations containing the fuel assemblies

262

CRC DEPLETION CALCULATIONS FOR THE RODDED ASSEMBLIES IN BATCHES 1, 2, 3, AND 1X OF CRYSTAL RIVER UNIT 3  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this design analysis is to document the SAS2H depletion calculations of certain rodded fuel assemblies from batches 1, 2, 3, and 1X of the Crystal River Unit 3 pressurized water reactor (PWR) that are required for Commercial Reactor Critical (CRC) evaluations to support the development of the disposal criticality methodology. A rodded assembly is one that contains a control rod assembly (CRA) or an axial power shaping rod assembly (APSRA) for some period of time during its irradiation history. The objective of this analysis is to provide SAS2H calculated isotopic compositions of depleted fuel and depleted burnable poison for each fuel assembly to be used in subsequent CRC reactivity calculations containing the fuel assemblies.

Kenneth D. Wright

1997-09-03

263

Levelized nuclear fueling cost in Israel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Basic nuclear fuel cycle mode options are discussed as they apply to PWR-type reactors. Forecast fueling costs have been computed and are reported for the two main choices - basic front-end cost supplemented by either a throw- away mode option or a reprocessing mode option. It is concluded that reprocessing could result in total unit fueling costs ranging from a minimum slightly lower, through a maximum about 30% higher than the total unit fueling cost using the throw-away mode option. Moreover, in massive breeder development the total unit fueling cost can extend even below the numerically calculated limit. (H.K.)

264

Evaluation of plug-in electric vehicles impact on cost-based unit commitment  

Science.gov (United States)

Incorporating plug in electric vehicles (PEVs) to power systems may address both additional demand as well as mobile storage to support electric grid spatially. Better utilization of such potential depends on the optimal scheduling of charging and discharging PEVs. Charging management malfunction of PEVs may increase the peak load which leads to additional generation. Therefore, charging and discharging of PEVs must be scheduled intelligently to prevent overloading of the network at peak hours, take advantages of off peak charging benefits and delaying any load shedding. A charging and discharging schedule of PEVs with respect to load curve variations is proposed in this paper. The proposed methodology incorporates integrated PEVs; the so-called parking lots; into the unit commitment problem. An IEEE 10-unit test system is employed to investigate the impacts of PEVs on generation scheduling. The results obtained from simulation analysis show a significant techno-economic saving.

Talebizadeh, Ehsan; Rashidinejad, Masoud; Abdollahi, Amir

2014-02-01

265

A high efficiency, low cost, permanent magnet generator for an electric vehicle auxiliary power unit  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Although electric vehicles offer the most potential to reduce environmental pollution, their limited range of 70-100 km remains a major obstacle. The situation is aggravated by unpredictable reductions in range, as a consequence of severe ambient conditions (e.g. low temperature) or incomplete charging of the batteries. To overcome these problems, and improve consumer acceptance of electric vehicles, a small lightweight auxiliary power unit (APU), consisting of an electric generator and its associated power electronics, driven by a compact internal combustion engine operating at optimum conditions to minimise emissions, is being developed. This paper will concentrate on the design synthesis and electromagnetic analysis of a 3-phase, buried permanent magnet generator and will present preliminary experimental results obtained from a prototype unit. (author)

Mitchell, J.K.; Jewell, G.W.; Howe, D. [University of Sheffield (United Kingdom)

1999-07-01

266

LIFE Cost of Electricity, Capital and Operating Costs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Successful commercialization of fusion energy requires economic viability as well as technical and scientific feasibility. To assess economic viability, we have conducted a pre-conceptual level evaluation of LIFE economics. Unit costs are estimated from a combination of bottom-up costs estimates, working with representative vendors, and scaled results from previous studies of fission and fusion plants. An integrated process model of a LIFE power plant was developed to integrate and optimize unit costs and calculate top level metrics such as cost of electricity and power plant capital cost. The scope of this activity was the entire power plant site. Separately, a development program to deliver the required specialized equipment has been assembled. Results show that LIFE power plant cost of electricity and plant capital cost compare favorably to estimates for new-build LWR's, coal and gas - particularly if indicative costs of carbon capture and sequestration are accounted for.

267

Cálculo del Costo Comparativo de la Obtención de Concentrados de Boratos / Comparative Cost Calculation in the Obtaining of Borate Concentrates  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Este trabajo muestra la similitud existente entre los diagramas de flujo, balances de materia y equipos empleados en la concentración de boratos para obtener refinados y boratos de alto valor agregado. Se usa una planilla de cálculo para determinar el costo de producción para distintas condiciones d [...] e operación, a fin de determinar la oportunidad y conveniencia de cambiar el producto final, empleando la misma planta productora. Se analiza un caso particular que compara la producción de 10 tn/hr de concentrado de ulexita o de hidroboracita. Se obtiene un costo de producción por tonelada de B2O3 de 94.3 US dólares para la concentración de ulexita, que se reduce a 67.5 US dólares para la concentración de hidroboracita. Se concluye que el método propuesto es una herramienta que facilita el análisis económico del proceso productivo estudiado. Abstract in english This paper presents the similitude found between flow sheets, material balances and equipments employed in the concentration of borates, to obtain base refined borates and to obtain high added value borates. Spread sheet calculations are used to determine the production costs for different operating [...] conditions and to analyze the opportunity and convenience of changing the final product, using the same process plant. A study case is considered in which 10 tn/hr of ulexite concentrate or the same amount of hydroboracite are produced. The cost per ton of B2O3 was 94.3 US dollars for the concentrated ulexite and 67.5 US dollars for concentrated hydroboracite. It is concluded that the proposed method is an useful tool for the economic analysis of the productive process considered in this study.

Horacio R, Flores; María de los Á, Tinte.

268

More money, fewer lives: the cost effectiveness of welfare reform in the United States.  

Science.gov (United States)

Objectives. We evaluated the economic benefits of Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF) relative to the previous program, Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC). Methods. We used pooled mortality hazard ratios from 2 randomized controlled trials-Connecticut Jobs First and the Florida Transition Program, which had follow-up from the early and mid-1990s through December 2011-and previous estimates of health and economic benefits of TANF and AFDC. We entered them into a Markov model to evaluate TANF's economic benefits relative to AFDC and weigh them against the potential health threats of TANF. Results. Over the working life of the average cash assistance recipient, AFDC would cost approximately $28?000 more than TANF from the societal perspective. However, it would also bring 0.44 additional years of life. The incremental cost effectiveness of AFDC would be approximately $64?000 per life-year saved relative to TANF. Conclusions. AFDC may provide more value as a health investment than TANF. Additional attention given to the neediest US families denied cash assistance could improve the value of TANF. PMID:25521891

Muennig, Peter; Caleyachetty, Rishi; Rosen, Zohn; Korotzer, Andrew

2015-02-01

269

Cost and benefit including value of life, health and environmental damage measured in time units  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Key elements of the authors' work on money equivalent time allocation to costs and benefits in risk analysis are put together as an entity. This includes the data supported dimensionless analysis of an equilibrium relation between total population work time and gross domestic product leading to the definition of the life quality time allocation index (LQTAI). On the basis of a postulate of invariance of the LQTAI, a rule is obtained for allocating societal value in terms of time to avoid life shortening fatalities as well as serious injuries that shorten the life in good health. The excess of this societal value over the actual costs, used by the owner for economically optimizing an activity, motivates a simple risk accept criterion suited to be imposed on the owner by the public. An illustration is given concerning allocation of economical means for mitigation of loss of life and health on a ferry in fire. Finally a definition is suggested for a nature preservation willingness index, which by an invariance postulate leads to a rational format for allocating means to avoid pollution accidents.

Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager; Friis-Hansen, Peter

2009-01-01

270

Simulation and calculation of ferrotantalumniobium chlorination in a shaft type unit  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Physicochemical and technological aspects of ferroalloy chlorination in fixed bed are observed. Compositions of liquid and gas phases forming in chlorination process are determined on the base of material balance and phase equilibrium conditions. Estimation of chlorination time for particles of rare metal raw material in piled layer was calculated and productivity of continuously operating reactor for ferrotantalumniobium was determined. The stated shaft type chlorinator makes it possible to solve the problem of processing 1000 t ferroalloy a year with 20 % productivity

271

Fresnel-region fields and antenna noise-temperature calculations for advanced microwave sounding units  

Science.gov (United States)

A transition from the antenna noise temperature formulation for extended noise sources in the far-field or Fraunhofer-region of an antenna to one of the intermediate near field or Fresnel-region is discussed. The effort is directed toward microwave antenna simulations and high-speed digital computer analysis of radiometric sounding units used to obtain water vapor and temperature profiles of the atmosphere. Fresnel-region fields are compared at various distances from the aperture. The antenna noise temperature contribution of an annular noise source is computed in the Fresnel-region (D squared/16 lambda) for a 13.2 cm diameter offset-paraboloid aperture at 60 GHz. The time-average Poynting vector is used to effect the computation.

Schmidt, R. F.

1982-01-01

272

Screening-constant-by-unit-nuclear-charge calculations of high lying (P and (P states of the B ion  

Science.gov (United States)

We report in this paper energy positions of the (P and (P Rydberg states (n=3-60) and resonance widths of the (P and (P (n=20) members of these series of the B ion. Calculations are performed in the framework of the screening-constant-by-unit-nuclear-charge method. Along all the series investigated, the quantum defect is almost constant up to n=60. The present results compare very well to available theoretical and experimental literature values up to n=20. The data presented in this work may be a useful guideline for investigators considering the photoionization spectrum of the B ion.

Sakho, I.; Diop, B.; Faye, M.; Sène, A.; Guèye, M.; Ndao, A. S.; Biaye, M.; Wagué, A.

2013-07-01

273

A simplified method for multi-batch PWR core analysis based on SAS2H unit cell calculations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A procedure was developed for estimating the discharge burnup as well as the burnup dependent soluble boron concentration and reactivity coefficients for multi-batch PWR cores. This procedure is based on a SAS2H single-batch unit cell calculations and can account for nonlinearity in k? evolution with burnup. It is useful for scoping studies of new core designs. The procedure is illustrated for the analysis of a standard low-enrichment uranium dioxide fueled 3-batch PWR core and of a PWR core having hydride fuel with Erbium burnable poison that features strong non-linearity in burnup-dependent neutronic characteristics. (authors)

274

A simplified method for multi-batch PWR core analysis based on SAS2H unit cell calculations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A procedure was developed for estimating the discharge burnup as well as the burnup dependent soluble boron concentration and reactivity coefficients for multi-batch PWR cores. This procedure is based on a SAS2H single-batch unit cell calculations and can account for nonlinearity in k{sub {infinity}} evolution with burnup. It is useful for scoping studies of new core designs. The procedure is illustrated for the analysis of a standard low-enrichment uranium dioxide fueled 3-batch PWR core and of a PWR core having hydride fuel with Erbium burnable poison that features strong non-linearity in burnup-dependent neutronic characteristics. (authors)

Ganda, F.; Greenspan, A. [University of California, Berkeley, Dept. of Nuclear Engineering (United States)

2005-07-01

275

CRC DEPLETION CALCULATIONS FOR THE NON-RODDED ASSEMBLIES IN BATCHES 1, 2, AND 3 OF CRYSTAL RIVER UNIT 3  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this design analysis is to document the SAS2H depletion calculations of certain non-rodded fuel assemblies from batches 1, 2, and 3 of the Crystal River Unit 3 pressurized water reactor (PWR) that are required for Commercial Reactor Critical (CRC) evaluations to support development of the disposal criticality methodology. A non-rodded assembly is one which never contains a control rod assembly (CRA) or an axial power shaping rod assembly (APSRA) during its irradiation history. The objective of this analysis is to provide SAS2H generated isotopic compositions for each fuel assembly's depleted fuel and depleted burnable poison materials. These SAS2H generated isotopic compositions are acceptable for use in CRC benchmark reactivity calculations containing the various fuel assemblies.

Kenneth D. Wright

1997-07-29

276

CRC DEPLETION CALCULATIONS FOR THE NON-RODDED ASSEMBLIES IN BATCHES 4 AND 5 OF CRYSTAL RIVER UNIT 3  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this design analysis is to document the SAS2H depletion calculations of certain non-rodded fuel assemblies from batches 4 and 5 of the Crystal River Unit 3 pressurized water reactor (PWR) that are required for commercial Reactor Critical (CRC) evaluations to support the development of the disposal criticality methodology. A non-rodded assembly is one which never contains a control rod assembly (CRA) or an axial power shaping rod assembly (APSRA) during its irradiation history. The objective of this analysis is to provide SAS2H generated isotopic compositions for each fuel assembly's depleted fuel and depleted burnable poison materials. These SAS2H generated isotopic compositions are acceptable for use in CRC benchmark reactivity calculations containing the various fuel assemblies.

Kenneth D. Wright

1997-07-30

277

Water use for electricity in the United States: an analysis of reported and calculated water use information for 2008  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Water use by the electricity sector represents a significant portion of the United States water budget (41% of total freshwater withdrawals; 3% consumed). Sustainable management of water resources necessitates an accurate accounting of all water demands, including water use for generation of electricity. Since 1985, the Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Information Administration (EIA) has collected self-reported data on water consumption and withdrawals from individual power generators. These data represent the only annual collection of water consumption and withdrawals by the electricity sector. Here, we compile publically available information into a comprehensive database and then calculate water withdrawals and consumptive use for power plants in the US. In effect, we evaluate the quality of water use data reported by EIA for the year 2008. Significant differences between reported and calculated water data are evident, yet no consistent reason for the discrepancies emerges. (letter)

278

CRC DEPLETION CALCULATIONS FOR THE NON-RODDED ASSEMBLIES IN BATCHES 4 AND 5 OF CRYSTAL RIVER UNIT 3  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this design analysis is to document the SAS2H depletion calculations of certain non-rodded fuel assemblies from batches 4 and 5 of the Crystal River Unit 3 pressurized water reactor (PWR) that are required for commercial Reactor Critical (CRC) evaluations to support the development of the disposal criticality methodology. A non-rodded assembly is one which never contains a control rod assembly (CRA) or an axial power shaping rod assembly (APSRA) during its irradiation history. The objective of this analysis is to provide SAS2H generated isotopic compositions for each fuel assembly's depleted fuel and depleted burnable poison materials. These SAS2H generated isotopic compositions are acceptable for use in CRC benchmark reactivity calculations containing the various fuel assemblies

279

CRC DEPLETION CALCULATIONS FOR THE NON-RODDED ASSEMBLIES IN BATCHES 8 AND 9 CRYSTAL RIVER UNIT 3  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this design analysis is to document the SAS2H depletion calculations of certain non-rodded fuel assemblies from batches 8 and 9 of the Crystal River Unit 3 pressurized water reactor (PWR) that are required for Commercial Reactor Critical (CRC) evaluations to support the development of the disposal criticality methodology. A non-rodded assembly is one which never contains a control rod assembly (CRA) or an axial power shaping rod assembly (APSRA) during its irradiation history. The objective of this analysis is to provide SAS2H generated isotopic compositions for each fuel assembly's depleted fuel and depleted burnable poison materials. These SAS2H generated isotopic compositions are acceptable for use in CRC benchmark reactivity calculations containing the various fuel assemblies.

Michael L. Wilson

2001-02-08

280

CRC DEPLETION CALCULATIONS FOR THE NON-RODDED ASSEMBLIES IN BATCHES 1, 2, AND 3 OF CRYSTAL RIVER UNIT 3  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this design analysis is to document the SAS2H depletion calculations of certain non-rodded fuel assemblies from batches 1, 2, and 3 of the Crystal River Unit 3 pressurized water reactor (PWR) that are required for Commercial Reactor Critical (CRC) evaluations to support development of the disposal criticality methodology. A non-rodded assembly is one which never contains a control rod assembly (CRA) or an axial power shaping rod assembly (APSRA) during its irradiation history. The objective of this analysis is to provide SAS2H generated isotopic compositions for each fuel assembly's depleted fuel and depleted burnable poison materials. These SAS2H generated isotopic compositions are acceptable for use in CRC benchmark reactivity calculations containing the various fuel assemblies

281

Unit Sizing and Cost Analysis of Renewable Energy based Hybrid Power Generation System - A Case Study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A simulation model is developed for optimal sizing and analysis of a PV-diesel-battery based hybrid power generation system with the objectives to minimize life cycle cost and CO2 emission, while maintaining the desired system autonomy. A case study of a boy’s hostel in Moradabad district is taken for analysis purposes. It has 91 rooms with a capacity of 3 boys in each room. The decision variables included in the optimization methodology are total PV area, number of PV modules of 600 Wp, diesel generator power, fuel consumption per year and number of 24 V and 150 Ah batteries. The simulation result shows that the PV percentage of 86 % and diesel penetration of 14 % gives the most optimized solution with minimum LCC of $110,547 and average CO2 emission of 28 kg/day. The developed model has been validated by comparing its results with earlier research work.doi:10.14456/WJST.2014.24

Nitin AGARWAL

2014-01-01

282

Monitor unit calculations for external photon and electron beams: Report of the AAPM Therapy Physics Committee Task Group No. 71  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A protocol is presented for the calculation of monitor units (MU) for photon and electron beams, delivered with and without beam modifiers, for constant source-surface distance (SSD) and source-axis distance (SAD) setups. This protocol was written by Task Group 71 of the Therapy Physics Committee of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) and has been formally approved by the AAPM for clinical use. The protocol defines the nomenclature for the dosimetric quantities used in these calculations, along with instructions for their determination and measurement. Calculations are made using the dose per MU under normalization conditions, D{sub 0}{sup ?}, that is determined for each user's photon and electron beams. For electron beams, the depth of normalization is taken to be the depth of maximum dose along the central axis for the same field incident on a water phantom at the same SSD, where D{sub 0}{sup ?} = 1 cGy/MU. For photon beams, this task group recommends that a normalization depth of 10 cm be selected, where an energy-dependent D{sub 0}{sup ?} ? 1 cGy/MU is required. This recommendation differs from the more common approach of a normalization depth of d{sub m}, with D{sub 0}{sup ?} = 1 cGy/MU, although both systems are acceptable within the current protocol. For photon beams, the formalism includes the use of blocked fields, physical or dynamic wedges, and (static) multileaf collimation. No formalism is provided for intensity modulated radiation therapy calculations, although some general considerations and a review of current calculation techniques are included. For electron beams, the formalism provides for calculations at the standard and extended SSDs using either an effective SSD or an air-gap correction factor. Example tables and problems are included to illustrate the basic concepts within the presented formalism.

Gibbons, John P., E-mail: john.gibbons@marybird.com [Department of Physics, Mary Bird Perkins Cancer Center, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70809 (United States); Antolak, John A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota 55905 (United States); Followill, David S. [Department of Radiation Physics, UT M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Huq, M. Saiful [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15232 (United States); Klein, Eric E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri 63110 (United States); Lam, Kwok L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Palta, Jatinder R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23298 (United States); Roback, Donald M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Centers of North Carolina, Raleigh, North Carolina 27607 (United States); Reid, Mark [Department of Medical Physics, Fletcher-Allen Health Care, Burlington, Vermont 05401 (United States); Khan, Faiz M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States)

2014-03-15

283

Monitor unit calculations for external photon and electron beams: Report of the AAPM Therapy Physics Committee Task Group No. 71  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A protocol is presented for the calculation of monitor units (MU) for photon and electron beams, delivered with and without beam modifiers, for constant source-surface distance (SSD) and source-axis distance (SAD) setups. This protocol was written by Task Group 71 of the Therapy Physics Committee of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) and has been formally approved by the AAPM for clinical use. The protocol defines the nomenclature for the dosimetric quantities used in these calculations, along with instructions for their determination and measurement. Calculations are made using the dose per MU under normalization conditions, D0?, that is determined for each user's photon and electron beams. For electron beams, the depth of normalization is taken to be the depth of maximum dose along the central axis for the same field incident on a water phantom at the same SSD, where D0? = 1 cGy/MU. For photon beams, this task group recommends that a normalization depth of 10 cm be selected, where an energy-dependent D0? ? 1 cGy/MU is required. This recommendation differs from the more common approach of a normalization depth of dm, with D0? = 1 cGy/MU, although both systems are acceptable within the current protocol. For photon beams, the formalism includes the use of blocked fields, physical or dynamic wedges, and (static) multileaf collimation. No formalism is provided for intensity modulated radiation therapy calculations, although some general considerations and a review of current calculation techniques are included. For electron beams, the formalism provides for calculations at the standard and extended SSDs using either an effective SSD or an air-gap correction factor. Example tables and problems are included to illustrate the basic concepts within the presented formalism

284

The technology of calculation and manufacturing of units for formation of proton beam in radiotherapy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

At the real irradiation of patients, the therapeutic proton beam is formed with the help of an individual collimator made of Cerrobend. To make the dose distribution of the proton beam conformal to the distal edge of the target, a bolus - a range shifter of complex shape - is calculated and then manufactured. The shape of the bolus takes into account the heterogeneous structures of the patient's tissue and organs that are located at the beam pass. This article describes the main stages of verification of a technology of boluses manufacture developed at the Medical-Technical Complex of the DLNP, JINR. It is performed by comparing the spatial distributions of the dose field received by the computer simulation of proton irradiation and actually measured in the experiment

285

Multi-sphere unit cell model to calculate the effective thermal conductivity in pebble bed reactors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A proper understanding of the mechanisms of heat transfer, fluid flow and pressure drop through a packed bed of spheres is of utmost importance in the design of a high temperature Pebble Bed Reactor (PBR). While the gas flows predominantly in the axial direction through the bed, the total effective thermal conductivity is a lumped parameter that characterises the total heat transfer in the radial direction through the packed bed. The study of the effective thermal conductivity is important because it forms an intricate part of the self-acting decay heat removal chain, which is directly related to the PBR safety case. The effective thermal conductivity is the summation of various heat transport phenomena. These are the enhanced thermal conductivity due to turbulent mixing as the fluid passes through the voids between pebbles, heat transfer due to the movement of the solid spheres and thermal conduction and thermal radiation between the spheres in a stagnant fluid environment. In this study, the conduction and radiation between the spheres are investigated. Firstly, existing correlations for the effective thermal conductivity are investigated, with particular attention given to its applicability in the near-wall region. Several phenomena in particular are examined namely: conduction through the spheres, conduction through the contact area between the spheres, conduction through the gas phase and radiation between solid surfaces. A new approach to simulate the effective thermal conductivity for randomly packed beds is then presented, namely the so-called Multi-sphere Unit Cell Model. The model is validated by comparing the results with that obtained in experiments. (authors)

Van Antwerpen, W.; Rousseau, P.G. [Post-Graduate School of Nuclear Science and Engineering, North-West University, Private Bag X6001, Potchefstroom, 2520 (South Africa); Du Toit, C.G. [School of Mechanical Engineering, North-West University, Private Bag X6001, Potchefstroom, 2520 (South Africa)

2010-07-01

286

Multi-sphere unit cell model to calculate the effective thermal conductivity in pebble bed reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A proper understanding of the mechanisms of heat transfer, fluid flow and pressure drop through a packed bed of spheres is of utmost importance in the design of a high temperature Pebble Bed Reactor (PBR). While the gas flows predominantly in the axial direction through the bed, the total effective thermal conductivity is a lumped parameter that characterises the total heat transfer in the radial direction through the packed bed. The study of the effective thermal conductivity is important because it forms an intricate part of the self-acting decay heat removal chain, which is directly related to the PBR safety case. The effective thermal conductivity is the summation of various heat transport phenomena. These are the enhanced thermal conductivity due to turbulent mixing as the fluid passes through the voids between pebbles, heat transfer due to the movement of the solid spheres and thermal conduction and thermal radiation between the spheres in a stagnant fluid environment. In this study, the conduction and radiation between the spheres are investigated. Firstly, existing correlations for the effective thermal conductivity are investigated, with particular attention given to its applicability in the near-wall region. Several phenomena in particular are examined namely: conduction through the spheres, conduction through the contact area between the spheres, conduction through the gas phase and radiation between solid surfaces. A new approach to simulate the effective A new approach to simulate the effective thermal conductivity for randomly packed beds is then presented, namely the so-called Multi-sphere Unit Cell Model. The model is validated by comparing the results with that obtained in experiments. (authors)

287

Monte Carlo calculated output factors of a Leksell Gamma Knife unit  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Leksell Gamma Knife is a standard radiosurgical tool for treating brain lesions by directing beams of gamma radiation to a specific region. The diameter of the gamma beams is confined by collimator systems and available collimator sizes are 4, 8, 14 and 18 mm. The reduction in dose rate for each collimator helmet is called the output factor (OPF). Experimental determination of OPFs is difficult due to the extremely narrow beams for which the dose is determined. In the present work, the PRESTA version of the EGS4 Monte Carlo code was used to obtain relative OPFs for the Leksell Gamma Knife for collimator sizes of 14, 8 and 4 mm (relative to that of the 18 mm collimator). A spherical probe with a radius of 1 mm was utilized in this computer experiment. Our Monte Carlo results gave OPFs of 0.974, 0.951 and 0.872 for the 14 mm, 8 mm and 4 mm collimators respectively, relative to the 18 mm collimator. Our calculated OPF for the 4 mm collimator helmet was more than 8% higher than the value currently used, but in good agreement with the average of experimental values obtained by various Gamma Knife centres throughout the world and with the value now recommended by the manufacturer, Elekta (Elekta Instrument AB, Skeppargatan 8, S-114 52 Stockholm, Sweden). (author)

288

Unit dose calculation methods and summary of facility effluent monitoring plan determinations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In accordance with the Westinghouse Hanford Company guidance document, WHC-EP-0438, all Hanford Site facilities were evaluated for the need to prepare a facility effluent monitoring plan. A facility effluent monitoring plan determination was performed for 138 individual Westinghouse Hanford facilities (including auxiliary and operations support buildings). Twenty-four individual facilities require an actual facility effluent monitoring plan (FEMP) and are documented in 15 reports. The determinations and the subsequent preparation of actual facility effluent monitoring plans will identify deficiencies and aid in achieving compliance with the US Department of Energy orders and Clean Air Act of 1977 final rule on National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for radionuclides (Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations Part 61, Subpart H, US Environmental Protection Agency). Pacific Northwest Laboratories (PNL) was contracted to provide dose conversion factors, for both airborne and liquid pathways, for all Hanford facilities. Atmospheric releases were modeled using the CAP-88 (Beres 1990) EPA approved code package, and confirming calculations were performed with the GENII (Napier et. al 1988) code as required by the Hanford Environmental Dose Overview Panel. The liquid releases were modeled using the GENII package, specific to Hanford, and the offsite dose is determined to be what is discharged directly to the Columbia River. Liquid effluent releases are describeder. Liquid effluent releases are described in the FEMP determinations and actual FEMPs and were compared to the drinking water standards and DOE Order 5400.5, which requires monitoring if radionuclide constituents exist in the liquid discharges

289

Suitable methods for calculating the costs for the back-end of the nuclear fuel-cycle; Laempliga metoder foer att beraekna kostnaderna foer kaernkraftens slutsteg  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present report is devoted to a discussion of what kind of cost calculations the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate should demand from the owners of the Swedish nuclear power plants in order to make a proposal to the Swedish government on a suitable annual fee and a suitable supplementary amount for contingency allowance to cover the future costs of decommissioning the power plants and disposing of the waste. The report was commissioned by the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI) because SKI wanted an independent review of the probabilistic method for cost calculations used by the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co (SKB) since 1996. This method was introduced as a response to some changes of the Swedish legal system regulating the financing of the future costs of decommissioning the nuclear power plants and disposing of the waste. The most important change was that the annual fee paid by the reactor owners should only cover the costs of a certain basic scenario and that the annual fee should be supplemented by a suitable guarantee to cover the occurrence of cost driving unforeseen events. The method used by SKB has been considered feasible for determining a suitable annual fee and suitable guarantees by SKI but SKI has also asked for more information on important matters such as the bases for various calculations and the rationale behind certain probability distributions assumed. The point of departure for the review performed by Alkestis Co is that the basic material employed for the cost calculations should meet a high standard and that the logical and mathematical arguments leading from the basic material to proposals of a certain annual fee and certain amount of guarantees must be transparent. Chapter 1 and appendix A mainly consist of material collected to enable a non-specialist to follow the account in the following sections. However, chapter 1 also contains a general discussion on suitable approaches to handle the problem of calculating the annual fee and the various guarantees. The conclusion reached there is that already quite general considerations cast some doubts on the suitability of using a probabilistic approach in this context. Chapter 2 in conjunction with appendices C and D is devoted to a detailed examination of the method used by SKB to calculate the annual fee and the various guarantees. The conclusion reached there is that both the method itself as well as the present application made of it can be challenged. Hence the introduction of an alternative approach to cost calculations should be considered. A first attempt to provide an alternative approach is therefore presented in chapter 3.

Malmnaes, P.E.; Thorbioernson, Johan [Alkestis AB (Sweden)

2000-06-15

290

¿Cómo calcular los Costos Medioambientales?: Caso: Empresa Gráfica de Cienfuegos / How to Calculate the Environmental Costs?: Case Company Grafica Cienfuegos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El mundo necesita urgentemente que se proteja el medio ambiente, muchas empresas y organizaciones destinan grandes recursos para lograr ese fin y lograr un Desarrollo Sostenible como máxima a alcanzar por cualquier país u organización. Se hace entonces imprescindible determinar cuánto le dedican las [...] Empresas al medio ambiente, teniendo en cuenta que las Entidades tienen un contrato implícito con la sociedad y el medio, producto de los recursos que utiliza y los desechos y desperdicios que vierte, es por eso que se necesitan calcular y registrar los costos medioambientales por productos, para enriquecer la gestión medioambiental de la entidad y favorecer de esta manera una excelente toma de decisiones. La siguiente investigación busca un procedimiento que permita dar solución a esta problemática, logrando su conformación con el uso de diversas técnicas dentro de las que se destacan las listas de chequeos medioambientales y el ciclo de vida del producto, que permite además poder conocer por separado como cada proceso y producto impacta en el medioambiente. Abstract in english The world urgently needs to protect the environment, many companies and organizations devote huge resources to reach that goal and achieve sustainable development as the highest standard of achievement for any country or organization. It then becomes imperative to determine how much the companies sp [...] end on the environment, taking into account that the Entities have an implicit contract with society and the environment, the product of the resources used and waste and waste pouring, which is why one needs to calculate and record the environmental costs of products to enhance the environmental management of the entity and thus promote an excellent decision-making. The following research seeks a procedure which allows solving this problem, making its composition with the use of various techniques within which highlights the environmental checklists and product life cycle, which also allows knowing separately as each process and product impacts the environment.

Keitel, Becerra; Elizabeth, Gómez; Grisel, Pérez; Reynier, Reyes.

2011-12-01

291

A novel methodology for calculating large numbers of symmetrical matrices on a graphics processing unit: Towards efficient, real-time hyperspectral image processing  

Science.gov (United States)

Hyperspectral imagery (HSI) is often processed to identify targets of interest. Many of the quantitative analysis techniques developed for this purpose mathematically manipulate the data to derive information about the target of interest based on local spectral covariance matrices. The calculation of a local spectral covariance matrix for every pixel in a given hyperspectral data scene is so computationally intensive that real-time processing with these algorithms is not feasible with today's general purpose processing solutions. Specialized solutions are cost prohibitive, inflexible, inaccessible, or not feasible for on-board applications. Advances in graphics processing unit (GPU) capabilities and programmability offer an opportunity for general purpose computing with access to hundreds of processing cores in a system that is affordable and accessible. The GPU also offers flexibility, accessibility and feasibility that other specialized solutions do not offer. The architecture for the NVIDIA GPU used in this research is significantly different from the architecture of other parallel computing solutions. With such a substantial change in architecture it follows that the paradigm for programming graphics hardware is significantly different from traditional serial and parallel software development paradigms. In this research a methodology for mapping an HSI target detection algorithm to the NVIDIA GPU hardware and Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA) Application Programming Interface (API) is developed. The RX algorithm is chosen as a representative stochastic HSI algorithm that requires the calculation of a spectral covariance matrix. The developed methodology is designed to calculate a local covariance matrix for every pixel in the input HSI data scene. A characterization of the limitations imposed by the chosen GPU is given and a path forward toward optimization of a GPU-based method for real-time HSI data processing is defined.

Runnels, Denise Renee

292

Costo-beneficio en una unidad de cuidados intensivos neonatales / The cost-benefit in a neonatal intensive care unit  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish INTRODUCCIÓN. El Sistema Nacional de Salud de Cuba ha desarrollado un conjunto de reformas encaminadas a lograr una mayor eficiencia en la prestación de servicios, para preservar logros como la efectividad y la accesibilidad. El objetivo de esta investigación fue identificar los costos en la Unidad [...] de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal del Hospital Ginecoobstétrico de Guanabacoa en el período de un año. MÉTODOS. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo prospectivo del período de enero a diciembre del 2009. La muestra quedo constituida por 65 recién nacidos graves y críticos. Las variables independientes estudiadas fueron: antibióticos, inmunomoduladores, fármacos vasoactivos, soluciones para hidratación, yodo, peróxido de hidrógeno, vitaminas y minerales, oxígeno, material desechable, material de oficina y medios diagnósticos. La información recogida se introdujo en una base de datos, y se procesó con el programa Epidat 3.0. RESULTADOS. Existió un costo total de 70 605,83 CU, que representó unos 2 824,23 CUC, con costo total por paciente de 74,32 CUC. El mayor gasto correspondió al uso de materiales desechables, las soluciones para hidratación y los antibióticos. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION. The Cuban National Health System has developed a series of reforms aimed to achieve a great efficiency in services provision to protect achievements as effectiveness and accessibility. The aim of present research was to identify the costs in the Neonatal Intensive Therapy Unit of the G [...] ynecology and Obstetrics Hospital of Guanabacoa municipality within one year. METHODS. A prospective and descriptive study was conducted from January to December, 2009. Sample included 65 severe and critically ill newborns. The independent study variables were: antibiotics, immunological therapy, vasoactive drugs, solutions for hydration, iodine, hydrogen peroxide, vitamins and minerals, oxygen, waste material, office stationery and diagnostic means. Information capture was entered in a database and processed with Epidat 3.0 program. RESULTS. The total cost of 70 605,83 Currency Unit (CU) accounted for 2 824,23 Cuban Convertible Pesos (CUC) with a total cost by patient of 74,32 CUC. The great expense was for waste materials, solutions for hydration and antibiotics use.

Rafael, Amador Morán; Alberto, Labrada Despaigne; Ana, Campo González; Rosa, Díaz Aguilar.

2011-06-01

293

Conceptual design and cost analysis of hydraulic output unit for 15 kW free-piston Stirling engine  

Science.gov (United States)

A long-life hydraulic converter with unique features was conceptually designed to interface with a specified 15 kW(e) free-piston Stirling engine in a solar thermal dish application. Hydraulic fluid at 34.5 MPa (5000 psi) is produced to drive a conventional hydraulic motor and rotary alternator. Efficiency of the low-maintenance converter design was calculated at 93.5% for a counterbalanced version and 97.0% without the counterbalance feature. If the converter were coupled to a Stirling engine with design parameters more typcial of high-technology Stirling engines, counterbalanced converter efficiency could be increased to 99.6%. Dynamic computer simulation studies were conducted to evaluate performance and system sensitivities. Production costs of the complete Stirling hydraulic/electric power system were evaluated at $6506 which compared with $8746 for an alternative Stirling engine/linear alternator system.

White, M. A.

1982-01-01

294

A case study using the United Republic of Tanzania: costing nationwide HPV vaccine delivery using the WHO Cervical Cancer Prevention and Control Costing Tool  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose, methods, data sources and assumptions behind the World Health Organization (WHO Cervical Cancer Prevention and Control Costing (C4P tool that was developed to assist low- and middle-income countries (LMICs with planning and costing their nationwide human papillomavirus (HPV vaccination program are presented. Tanzania is presented as a case study where the WHO C4P tool was used to cost and plan the roll-out of HPV vaccines nationwide as part of the national comprehensive cervical cancer prevention and control strategy. Methods The WHO C4P tool focuses on estimating the incremental costs to the health system of vaccinating adolescent girls through school-, health facility- and/or outreach-based strategies. No costs to the user (school girls, parents or caregivers are included. Both financial (or costs to the Ministry of Health and economic costs are estimated. The cost components for service delivery include training, vaccination (health personnel time and transport, stationery for tally sheets and vaccination cards, and so on, social mobilization/IEC (information, education and communication, supervision, and monitoring and evaluation (M&E. The costs of all the resources used for HPV vaccination are totaled and shown with and without the estimated cost of the vaccine. The total cost is also divided by the number of doses administered and number of fully immunized girls (FIGs to estimate the cost per dose and cost per FIG. Results Over five years (2011 to 2015, the cost of establishing an HPV vaccine program that delivers three doses of vaccine to girls at schools via phased national introduction (three regions in year 1, ten regions in year 2 and all 26 regions in years 3 to 5 in Tanzania is estimated to be US$9.2 million (excluding vaccine costs and US$31.5 million (with vaccine assuming a vaccine price of US$5 (GAVI 2011, formerly the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunizations. This is equivalent to a financial cost of US$5.77 per FIG, excluding the vaccine cost. The most important costs of service delivery are social mobilization/IEC and service delivery operational costs. Conclusions When countries expand their immunization schedules with new vaccines such as the HPV vaccine, they face initial costs to fund critical pre-introduction activities, as well as incremental system costs to deliver the vaccines on an ongoing basis. In anticipation, governments need to plan ahead for non-vaccine costs so they will be financed adequately. Existing human resources need to be re-allocated or new staff need to be recruited for the program to be implemented successfully in a sustainable and long-term manner. Reaching a target group not routinely served by national immunization programs previously with three doses of vaccine requires new delivery strategies, more transport of vaccines and health workers and more intensive IEC activities leading to new delivery costs for the immunization program that are greater than the costs incurred when a new infant vaccine is added to the existing infant immunization schedule. The WHO C4P tool is intended to help LMICs to plan ahead and estimate the programmatic and operational costs of HPV vaccination.

Hutubessy Raymond

2012-11-01

295

A case study using the United Republic of Tanzania: costing nationwide HPV vaccine delivery using the WHO Cervical Cancer Prevention and Control Costing Tool  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background The purpose, methods, data sources and assumptions behind the World Health Organization (WHO) Cervical Cancer Prevention and Control Costing (C4P) tool that was developed to assist low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) with planning and costing their nationwide human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination program are presented. Tanzania is presented as a case study where the WHO C4P tool was used to cost and plan the roll-out of HPV vaccines nationwide as par...

Hutubessy Raymond; Levin Ann; Wang Susan; Morgan Winthrop; Ally Mariam; John Theopista; Broutet Nathalie

2012-01-01

296

19 CFR 351.406 - Calculation of normal value if sales are made at less than cost of production.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calculation of normal value if sales are made at...ANTIDUMPING AND COUNTERVAILING DUTIES Calculation of Export Price, Constructed Export...Value, and Normal Value § 351.406 Calculation of normal value if sales are made...

2010-04-01

297

Monte Carlo calculations and measurements of absorbed dose per monitor unit for the treatment of uveal melanoma with proton therapy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The treatment of uveal melanoma with proton radiotherapy has provided excellent clinical outcomes. However, contemporary treatment planning systems use simplistic dose algorithms that limit the accuracy of relative dose distributions. Further, absolute predictions of absorbed dose per monitor unit are not yet available in these systems. The purpose of this study was to determine if Monte Carlo methods could predict dose per monitor unit (D/MU) value at the center of a proton spread-out Bragg peak (SOBP) to within 1% on measured values for a variety of treatment fields relevant to ocular proton therapy. The MCNPX Monte Carlo transport code, in combination with realistic models for the ocular beam delivery apparatus and a water phantom, was used to calculate dose distributions and D/MU values, which were verified by the measurements. Measured proton beam data included central-axis depth dose profiles, relative cross-field profiles and absolute D/MU measurements under several combinations of beam penetration ranges and range-modulation widths. The Monte Carlo method predicted D/MU values that agreed with measurement to within 1% and dose profiles that agreed with measurement to within 3% of peak dose or within 0.5 mm distance-to-agreement. Lastly, a demonstration of the clinical utility of this technique included calculations of dose distributions and D/MU values in a realistic model of the human eye. It is possible to predict D/MU values accurately for clinical relevantMU values accurately for clinical relevant range-modulated proton beams for ocular therapy using the Monte Carlo method. It is thus feasible to use the Monte Carlo method as a routine absolute dose algorithm for ocular proton therapy

298

Monte Carlo calculations and measurements of absorbed dose per monitor unit for the treatment of uveal melanoma with proton therapy  

Science.gov (United States)

The treatment of uveal melanoma with proton radiotherapy has provided excellent clinical outcomes. However, contemporary treatment planning systems use simplistic dose algorithms that limit the accuracy of relative dose distributions. Further, absolute predictions of absorbed dose per monitor unit are not yet available in these systems. The purpose of this study was to determine if Monte Carlo methods could predict dose per monitor unit (D/MU) value at the center of a proton spread-out Bragg peak (SOBP) to within 1% on measured values for a variety of treatment fields relevant to ocular proton therapy. The MCNPX Monte Carlo transport code, in combination with realistic models for the ocular beam delivery apparatus and a water phantom, was used to calculate dose distributions and D/MU values, which were verified by the measurements. Measured proton beam data included central-axis depth dose profiles, relative cross-field profiles and absolute D/MU measurements under several combinations of beam penetration ranges and range-modulation widths. The Monte Carlo method predicted D/MU values that agreed with measurement to within 1% and dose profiles that agreed with measurement to within 3% of peak dose or within 0.5 mm distance-to-agreement. Lastly, a demonstration of the clinical utility of this technique included calculations of dose distributions and D/MU values in a realistic model of the human eye. It is possible to predict D/MU values accurately for clinical relevant range-modulated proton beams for ocular therapy using the Monte Carlo method. It is thus feasible to use the Monte Carlo method as a routine absolute dose algorithm for ocular proton therapy.

Koch, Nicholas; Newhauser, Wayne D.; Titt, Uwe; Gombos, Dan; Coombes, Kevin; Starkschall, George

2008-03-01

299

Monte Carlo calculations and measurements of absorbed dose per monitor unit for the treatment of uveal melanoma with proton therapy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The treatment of uveal melanoma with proton radiotherapy has provided excellent clinical outcomes. However, contemporary treatment planning systems use simplistic dose algorithms that limit the accuracy of relative dose distributions. Further, absolute predictions of absorbed dose per monitor unit are not yet available in these systems. The purpose of this study was to determine if Monte Carlo methods could predict dose per monitor unit (D/MU) value at the center of a proton spread-out Bragg peak (SOBP) to within 1% on measured values for a variety of treatment fields relevant to ocular proton therapy. The MCNPX Monte Carlo transport code, in combination with realistic models for the ocular beam delivery apparatus and a water phantom, was used to calculate dose distributions and D/MU values, which were verified by the measurements. Measured proton beam data included central-axis depth dose profiles, relative cross-field profiles and absolute D/MU measurements under several combinations of beam penetration ranges and range-modulation widths. The Monte Carlo method predicted D/MU values that agreed with measurement to within 1% and dose profiles that agreed with measurement to within 3% of peak dose or within 0.5 mm distance-to-agreement. Lastly, a demonstration of the clinical utility of this technique included calculations of dose distributions and D/MU values in a realistic model of the human eye. It is possible to predict D/MU values accurately for clinical relevant range-modulated proton beams for ocular therapy using the Monte Carlo method. It is thus feasible to use the Monte Carlo method as a routine absolute dose algorithm for ocular proton therapy.

Koch, Nicholas; Newhauser, Wayne D; Titt, Uwe; Starkschall, George [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Blvd, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Gombos, Dan [Section of Ophthalmology, Department of Head and Neck Surgery MDACC Unit 441 (United States); Coombes, Kevin [Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Texas Health Science Center, 6767 Bertner Avenue, Houston, TX 77030 (United States)], E-mail: kochn@musc.edu

2008-03-21

300

Tracking the Sun IV: An Historical Summary of the Installed Cost of Photovoltaics in the United States from 1998 to 2010  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present report describes installed cost trends for grid-connected PV projects installed from 1998 through 2010 (with some limited and preliminary results presented for projects installed in the first six months of 2011). The analysis is based on project-level cost data from approximately 116,500 residential, non-residential, and utility-sector PV systems in the United States. The inclusion of utility-sector PV is a new element in this year’s report. The combined capacity of all systems in the data sample totals 1,685 MW, equal to 79% of all grid-connected PV capacity installed in the United States through 2010 and representing one of the most comprehensive sources of installed PV cost data for the U.S. Based on this dataset, the report describes historical installed cost trends over time, and by location, market segment, technology type, and component. The report also briefly compares recent PV installed costs in the United States to those in Germany and Japan, and describes trends in customer incentives for PV installations and net installed costs after receipt of such incentives. The analysis presented here focuses on descriptive trends in the underlying data, serving primarily to summarize the data in tabular and graphical form.

Darghouth, Naim; Wiser, Ryan

2011-09-07

301

Cost evaluation of cardiovascular magnetic resonance versus coronary angiography for the diagnostic work-up of coronary artery disease: Application of the European Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance registry data to the German, United Kingdom, Swiss, and United States health care systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR has favorable characteristics for diagnostic evaluation and risk stratification of patients with known or suspected CAD. CMR utilization in CAD detection is growing fast. However, data on its cost-effectiveness are scarce. The goal of this study is to compare the costs of two strategies for detection of significant coronary artery stenoses in patients with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD: 1 Performing CMR first to assess myocardial ischemia and/or infarct scar before referring positive patients (defined as presence of ischemia and/or infarct scar to coronary angiography (CXA versus 2 a hypothetical CXA performed in all patients as a single test to detect CAD. Methods A subgroup of the European CMR pilot registry was used including 2,717 consecutive patients who underwent stress-CMR. From these patients, 21% were positive for CAD (ischemia and/or infarct scar, 73% negative, and 6% uncertain and underwent additional testing. The diagnostic costs were evaluated using invoicing costs of each test performed. Costs analysis was performed from a health care payer perspective in German, United Kingdom, Swiss, and United States health care settings. Results In the public sectors of the German, United Kingdom, and Swiss health care systems, cost savings from the CMR-driven strategy were 50%, 25% and 23%, respectively, versus outpatient CXA. If CXA was carried out as an inpatient procedure, cost savings were 46%, 50% and 48%, respectively. In the United States context, cost savings were 51% when compared with inpatient CXA, but higher for CMR by 8% versus outpatient CXA. Conclusion This analysis suggests that from an economic perspective, the use of CMR should be encouraged as a management option for patients with suspected CAD.

Moschetti Karine

2012-06-01

302

2 CFR Appendix B to Part 225 - Selected Items of Cost  

Science.gov (United States)

...cost. For cash flow calculations...on excess cash flows shall be the three-month Treasury...3) The past pattern of such costs...2) Unless a pattern of avoidance is...governmental unit's determinations that...

2010-01-01

303

CECP, Decommissioning Costs for PWR and BWR  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

1 - Description of program or function: The Cost Estimating Computer Program CECP, designed for use on an IBM personal computer or equivalent, was developed for estimating the cost of decommissioning boiling water reactor (BWR) and light-water reactor (PWR) power stations to the point of license termination. 2 - Method of solution: Cost estimates include component, piping, and equipment removal costs; packaging costs; decontamination costs; transportation costs; burial volume and costs; and manpower staffing costs. Using equipment and consumables costs and inventory data supplied by the user, CECP calculates unit cost factors and then combines these factors with transportation and burial cost algorithms to produce a complete report of decommissioning costs. In addition to costs, CECP also calculates person-hours, crew-hours, and exposure person-hours associated with decommissioning. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: The program is designed for a specific waste charge structure. The waste cost data structure cannot handle intermediate waste handlers or changes in the charge rate structures. The decommissioning of a reactor can be divided into 5 periods. 200 different items for special equipment costs are possible. The maximum amount for each special equipment item is 99,999,999$. You can support data for 10 buildings, 100 components each; ESTS1071/01: There are 65 components for 28 systems available to specify the contaminated systems costs (BWR). ESTSthe contaminated systems costs (BWR). ESTS1071/02: There are 75 components for 25 systems available to specify the contaminated systems costs (PWR)

304

Análisis de las obligaciones en materia de cálculo de costes en las administraciones públicas españolas / Analysis of Obligations Regarding Cost Calculation in Spanish Public Administrations / Análise das obrigações em matéria de cálculo de custos nas administrações públicas espanholas  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho é rever as tentativas legisladoras destinadas a estabelecer obrigatoriedade no custeio das administrações públicas. Apesar dos múltiplos esforços normativos, a aplicação da contabilidade de custos não é generalizada no campo do setor público, pois bem poucas instituições de [...] terminam seus custos. Na atualidade, está se produzindo grande impulso na aplicação desta ferramenta, devido à exigência de apresentar um resumo dos custos na memória das entidades do setor público administrativo. Abstract in spanish El objetivo de este trabajo es realizar una revisión de los intentos legisladores encaminados a establecer la obligatoriedad del cálculo de costes en las administraciones públicas. A pesar de los múltiples esfuerzos normativos, la aplicación de la contabilidad de costes no se ha generalizado en el á [...] mbito del sector público, pues muy pocas instituciones determinan sus costes. En la actualidad, se está produciendo un gran impulso en la aplicación de esta herramienta, debido a la exigencia de presentar un resumen de costes en la memoria de las entidades pertenecientes al sector público administrativo. Abstract in english The aim of this paper is to review the regulation attempts aimed at making cost calculation compulsory in public administrations. Despite many policy efforts, the application of cost accounting is not widespread in the public sector, for very few institutions determine their costs. Nowadays there is [...] a big boost for the application of this tool, due to the requirement to present a summary of costs in the memory of the entities belonging to the public administration sector.

María Beatriz, González-Sánchez; Ernesto, López-Valeiras Sampedro; Jacobo, Gómez-Conde; Estefanía, Rodríguez-González.

2012-06-01

305

Low-cost accelerograph units as earthquake alert devices for Mexico City: how well would they work?  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: English Abstract in spanish Recientemente se ha propuesto la utilización de unidades acelerográficas de bajo coste como dispositivo de alerta sísmica para la Ciudad de México. Este tipo de unidades dispararía la alarma cuando la aceleración del suelo alcanzara un nivel prefijado, en principio 4 gal, lo que para sismos importan [...] tes sucedería durante la onda P o en el inicio de su coda. En este trabajo se ha evaluado el desempeño de este tipo de unidades a partir de los acelerogramas registrados en el periodo 1985 - 2008 en las estaciones SCT y CDAO, ubicadas en la zona de lago de Ciudad de México. Como se preveía, el tiempo de alerta (la diferencia entre el tiempo de disparo del dispositivo y el de inicio de la parte intensa del movimiento), T A, aumenta, para sismos regionales, con la aceleración máxima, PGA. Para los registros analizados (con PGA > 4 gal) T A varía entre -20 y 45 s, correspondiendo el máximo T A al terremoto de Michoacán de 1985. Salvo algunas excepciones T A es superior a 15 s para todos aquellos sismos que produjeron PGA > 20 gal. Este dispositivo podría ser útil para mitigar los daños humanos de un sismo siempre y cuando un tiempo de alerta entre 15 y 45 s fuese suficiente para poner en práctica medidas de seguridad previamente establecidas, lo cual podría ser práctico para escuelas de una a tres plantas. Además el dispositivo podría utilizarse para detener y/o cerrar de forma segura instalaciones críticas antes de la llegada del movimiento sísmico de mayor amplitud. Abstract in english Recently, low-cost accelerograph units have been proposed as earthquake alert devices for Mexico City. These units would trigger when the acceleration reaches a pre-established level, presumably 4 gal. For significant earthquakes, this would occur during P wave or in the early part of its coda. We t [...] est the performance of such a unit on accelerograms recorded in the period 1985 - 2008 at SCT and CDAO, two lake-bed sites in Mexico City. As expected, the alert time (the time of arrival of intense ground motion minus the trigger time), T A, for regional earthquakes is found to increase with the PGA. T A of the recorded accelerograms (with PGA > 4 gal) ranges between about -20 and 45 sec; the largest values of T A correspond to the 1985 Michoacan earthquake. With some exceptions, T A is greater than 15 sec for earthquakes which produced PGA > 20 gal. The device may be useful in mitigating injuries and loss of lives if an alert time of 15 to 45 sec is sufficient to put in to effect pre-established safety measures. This may be practical for one- to three-storey public school buildings. The device would be useful for shutting critical facilities before the arrival of large-amplitude ground motion.

D., García; S. K., Singh; A., Iglesias; L., Quintanar; C., Valdés.

2009-06-01

306

A brief review of the estimated economic burden of sexually transmitted diseases in the United States: inflation-adjusted updates of previously published cost studies.  

Science.gov (United States)

We conducted a literature review of studies of the economic burden of sexually transmitted diseases in the United States. The annual direct medical cost of sexually transmitted diseases (including human immunodeficiency virus) has been estimated to be $16.9 billion (range: $13.9-$23.0 billion) in 2010 US dollars. PMID:21934557

Chesson, Harrell W; Gift, Thomas L; Owusu-Edusei, Kwame; Tao, Guoyu; Johnson, Ana P; Kent, Charlotte K

2011-10-01

307

Design and calculated performance and cost of the ECAS Phase II open cycle MHD power generation system  

Science.gov (United States)

A 2000 MWe MHD/steam plant for central station applications has been designed and costed as part of the Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS). This plant is fueled by Illinois No. 6 coal, rejects heat through mechanical draft wet cooling towers, and includes coal processing equipment, seed reprocessing, electrical inversion of the MHD generator output and emission controls to current EPA standards. It yields an estimated overall efficiency of 0.483 (7066 Btu/kWe-hr), a capital cost of $718 per kWe (1975 dollars), and a cost of electricity at 65% capacity factor of 32 mills per kWe-hr. If the assumed life and reliability could be achieved with these performance parameters, the MHD system should prove attractive.

Harris, L. P.

1977-01-01

308

Economical analysis and study on a solar desalination unit  

OpenAIRE

Based on the calculation of the single-factor impact values of the parameters of a triple tower-type solar desalination unit on the cost of fresh water production by utilizing a single-factor analyzing method, the influences of the cost of solar heating system, the cost of hot water tank, the costs of desalination unit and electrical power, the life time of solar desalination unit and the yearly yield of fresh water, on the cost of the fresh water production of the solar desalination unit ar...

Chen, Ziqian; He, Xiaorong; Wang, Tiezhu; Chen, Zhunling; Zheng, Hongfei

2011-01-01

309

Custo médio do Módulo de Coleta de sangue total pelo método ABC / The mean cost of collection of whole blood units by the ABC method  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Os procedimentos em hemoterapia são complexos e caros. Exigem processos controlados e validados, equipamentos calibrados e monitorados e insumos qualificados, validados e inspecionados antes e durante o uso. Isto acarreta, além dos gastos diretos, gastos indiretos especificamente relacionados à gara [...] ntia da qualidade e da segurança transfusionais, além dos gastos indiretos usuais de qualquer produto ou serviço. Procurando avaliar com maior aproximação estes custos e buscando evitar as distorções das apropriações de custos por rateios, o presente estudo utilizou o sistema de Custeio Baseado em Atividades - ABC, para apurar o custo médio do Módulo de Coleta de sangue total no Hemocentro de Ribeirão Preto - SP, unidade sede, no primeiro semestre de 2006. O maior impacto no custo médio apurado se deveu aos custos monetários diretos, entretanto os custos indiretos não foram desprezíveis. O custo médio obtido para desempenho das atividades que compõem o Módulo de Coleta foi de R$ 35,20, que é 68,75% superior ao valor pago na tabela SIA/SUS para este módulo. A metodologia desenvolvida pode ser aplicada aos outros procedimentos dos serviços de hemoterapia, permitindo a avaliação dos custos de seus processos, evitando desperdícios, aprimorando o seu funcionamento e gerando evidências objetivas que demonstrem os custos reais da hemoterapia de qualidade para as instâncias financiadoras públicas e privadas. Abstract in english The procedures in hemotherapy are complex and expensive. They demand a controlled and validated process. They also require calibrated and monitored equipment and qualified and validated materials, inspected before and during use. This causes, apart from direct expenses, indirect expenses related to [...] the guarantee of quality and transfusional safety, as well as the usual indirect costs of any product or service. The present study used the Activity-Based Costing system - ABC, to find the mean cost of collection of whole blood units in a Regional Blood Center in Ribeirão Preto, during the first semester of 2006, in order to assess these costs more carefully and to try to avoid the cost distortions due to separation of blood components. Although the indirect costs were not negligible, the major impact on the mean cost was related to direct monetary costs. The mean cost to perform the activities that compose the collection of blood units was R$ 35.20, which is 68.75% higher than the value paid by the Brazilian government for this unit. The developed methodology can be applied to other procedures of services in hemotherapy allowing the evaluation of process costs, avoiding waste, improving performance and generating objective evidence to demonstrate the real cost of quality hemotherapy activities for public and private fund source.

Eugênia M. A., Ubiali; Divaldo A., Sampaio; Patrícia F., Pinho; Dimas T., Covas.

310

Theoretical and scaling factors methods to calculate the radioactivity in operational waste streams from Unit 1 at Cernavoda NPP  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The main goal of this paper is to present a methodology for calculating the radioactivity in the moderator and heat transport systems of Cernavoda NPP Unit 1, with the intention to improve the knowledge on the radionuclides inventories in the operational waste streams, and to aid the licensing process of new near surface repository. In the present paper we describe our methodology for estimating H-3 and C-14 production rates in the heavy-water moderator and heat transport systems using the capacity factors from 1997 to 2007 years. The radioactivity of the difficult-to-measure nuclides is predicted by scaling method using measured concentration in reference CANDU 6 reactor Gentilly-2. The difficult-to-measure radionuclides of primary interest in this study were those with long half-lives which have a significant role for post-closure safety assessment. The equation used to scale fission products (parents and daughters) is based on the equilibrium solution of the time dependent equation governing the number of atoms of the fission products. The measured activity of Co-60 was used for scaling activities of the actinides. (authors)

311

Calculation of the Unit Normal Vector Using the Cross-Curve Moving Mask for Measurement Data Obtained from a Coordinate Measuring Machine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study presents a cross-curve moving mask method to calculate the unit normal vector based on 5 or 9 data points of a freeform surface measurement. The middle point and 4 or 8 neighboring points can be constructed as two crossed curves - longitude and latitude. The unit normal vector at the middle point can be determined by calculating the cross product of two tangent vectors along these 2 crossed curves. Different curve fitting methods passing 5 or 9 data points, such as Lagrange, parametric polynomial, Bezier and B-spline methodologies, are investigated. Two kinds of surfaces, namely, a sphere surface and a shoe-shaped geometric surface are selected for evaluating the accuracy of the calculated unit normal vectors

312

Residential, Commercial, and Utility-Scale Photovoltaic (PV) System Prices in the United States: Current Drivers and Cost-Reduction Opportunities  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The price of photovoltaic (PV) systems in the United States (i.e., the cost to the system owner) has dropped precipitously in recent years, led by substantial reductions in global PV module prices. However, system cost reductions are not necessarily realized or realized in a timely manner by many customers. Many reasons exist for the apparent disconnects between installation costs, component prices, and system prices; most notable is the impact of fair market value considerations on system prices. To guide policy and research and development strategy decisions, it is necessary to develop a granular perspective on the factors that underlie PV system prices and to eliminate subjective pricing parameters. This report's analysis of the overnight capital costs (cash purchase) paid for PV systems attempts to establish an objective methodology that most closely approximates the book value of PV system assets.

Goodrich, A.; James, T.; Woodhouse, M.

2012-02-01

313

Computer-aided design system for a complex of problems on calculation and analysis of engineering and economical indexes of NPP power units  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Computer-aided design system for a complex of problems concerning calculation and analysis of engineering and economical indices of NPP power units is described. In the system there are means for automated preparation and debugging of data base software complex, which realizes th plotted algorithm in the power unit control system. Besides, in the system there are devices for automated preparation and registration of technical documentation

314

Avoidable waste management costs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report describes the activity based costing method used to acquire variable (volume dependent or avoidable) waste management cost data for routine operations at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. Waste volumes from environmental restoration, facility stabilization activities, and legacy waste were specifically excluded from this effort. A core team consisting of Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, and Oak Ridge Reservation developed and piloted the methodology, which can be used to determine avoidable waste management costs. The method developed to gather information was based on activity based costing, which is a common industrial engineering technique. Sites submitted separate flow diagrams that showed the progression of work from activity to activity for each waste type or treatability group. Each activity on a flow diagram was described in a narrative, which detailed the scope of the activity. Labor and material costs based on a unit quantity of waste being processed were then summed to generate a total cost for that flow diagram. Cross-complex values were calculated by determining a weighted average for each waste type or treatability group based on the volume generated. This study will provide DOE and contractors with a better understanding of waste management processes and their associated costs. Other potential benefits include providing cost data for sites to perform consistent cost/benefit analysis of waste minimization and pollution prevention (WMIN/PP) options identified during pollution prevention opportunity assessments and providing a means for prioritizing and allocating limited resources for WMIN/PP

315

Avoidable waste management costs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report describes the activity based costing method used to acquire variable (volume dependent or avoidable) waste management cost data for routine operations at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. Waste volumes from environmental restoration, facility stabilization activities, and legacy waste were specifically excluded from this effort. A core team consisting of Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, and Oak Ridge Reservation developed and piloted the methodology, which can be used to determine avoidable waste management costs. The method developed to gather information was based on activity based costing, which is a common industrial engineering technique. Sites submitted separate flow diagrams that showed the progression of work from activity to activity for each waste type or treatability group. Each activity on a flow diagram was described in a narrative, which detailed the scope of the activity. Labor and material costs based on a unit quantity of waste being processed were then summed to generate a total cost for that flow diagram. Cross-complex values were calculated by determining a weighted average for each waste type or treatability group based on the volume generated. This study will provide DOE and contractors with a better understanding of waste management processes and their associated costs. Other potential benefits include providing cost data for sites to perform consistent cost/benefit analysis of waste minimization and pollution prevention (WMIN/PP) options identified during pollution prevention opportunity assessments and providing a means for prioritizing and allocating limited resources for WMIN/PP.

Hsu, K.; Burns, M.; Priebe, S.; Robinson, P.

1995-01-01

316

Survey of the costs of peripheric intravenous device in the composition of the values of the internment in pediatrics unit ? a quantitative study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Martins TSS. Survey of the costs of peripheric intravenous device in the composition of the values of the internment in pediatrics unit ? a quantitative study (dissertation. Rio de Janeiro (RJ: Mestrado Profissional de Enfermagem Assistencial, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Cfarma Serviços Farmacêuticos Ltda; 2007.The venous puncture in pediatrics is for the child a painful and strain procedure for the family companions. Observing in practical daily of the pediatric assistance the puncture of repetition for maintenance of a security access in the medicine administration with drawn out period and knowing that the system of payment to the hospital for the SUS (system of health financed by the government is for type of illness, it sharpened me the interest in developing a exploratory, descriptive research with quantitative boarding on the costs of Peripheral Intravenous Device (DIP in the internment in Pediatrics. Objectives: To raise the costs of DIP used during the internment in a pediatrics unit; To identify the causes of substitution of DIP in the venous accesses during the internment in a pediatrics unit and To correlate the cost of DIP in the composition of the final remuneration of the paid pediatrics internments for the SUS. The scene of the research was a Pediatric Infirmary of a University Hospital (HU. Sample: nineteen children interned in the period of October of 2006 the April of 2007. The research was approved by the Committee of Ethics of the Institution under nº. 071/2006. The date had been analyzed statistical and organized in three categories: I. Demographic profile and Epidemiologist of the Children interned in the Infirmary of Pediatrics of the HU; II The Costs of the DIP in the Process of Hospitalization in Pediatrics in the HU; e III. The Costs of the DIP in the composition of the final remuneration of the paid pediatrics internments for the SUS.

Tathiana Silva de Souza Martins, Zenith Rosa Silvino

2008-10-01

317

MODELS SELECTED FOR CALCULATION OF DOSES, HEALTH EFFECTS AND ECONOMIC COSTS DUE TO ACCIDENTAL RADIONUCLIDE RELEASES FROM NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Models are described for use in site-specific environmental consequence analysis of nuclear reactor accidents of Classes 3 through 9. The models presented relate radioactivity released to resulting doses, health effects, and costs of remedial actions. Specific models are presented for the major exposure pathways of airborne releases, waterborne releases and direct irradiation from activity within the facility buildings, such as the containment. Time-dependent atmospheric dispersion parameters, crop production parameters and other variable parameters are used in the models. The environmental effects are analyzed for several accident start times during the year.

Strenge, D L; Baker, D A; Droppo, J G; McPherson, R B; Napier, B A; Nieves, L A; Soldat, J K

1980-05-01

318

Deterministic Assessment of Future Costs for Dismantling (FA)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The main objective of the report is to provide an re-evaluation of cost calculations by OMEGA code for the Intermediate Storage for Spent Fuel in Studsvik (FA facility) using up-to-date Swedish labour cost unit factors and available up-to-date Swedish (or international) cost unit factors for consumables, materials and substances. Furthermore, evolution of other OMEGA database parameters concerning cost calculations e.g. manpower unit factors and workgroups parameters are taken into account. This report follows up former project which introduced tentative calculations of main decommissioning parameters such as costs, manpower and exposure of personnel for activities of older nuclear facility decommissioning in Sweden represented by FA Facility in Studsvik by means of calculation code OMEGA. The project demonstrated an implementation of advanced costing methodology based on PSL structure format to achieve transparent, traceable and comparable estimates even for older nuclear facilities like FA Facility in Studsvik. This former project used Slovak origin labour costs unit factors and other cost unit factors. After successful completion of this project, there was an intent of SSM to reevaluate calculations using an up-to-date Swedish labour cost data and also available Swedish consumables and materials cost data if available. Within this report re-calculations of main decommissioning parameters using available Swedish data are presented in structure according to Proposed Standardized List of Items for Costing Purposes. Calculations are made for decommissioning scenario with post-dismantling decontamination and steel radwaste melting technologies available at the site. All parameters are documented and summed up in both table and graphic forms in text and Annexes. Further, comparison of calculated results with previous calculations together with discussion is provided

319

Deterministic Assessment of Future Costs for Dismantling (FA)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The main objective of the report is to provide an re-evaluation of cost calculations by OMEGA code for the Intermediate Storage for Spent Fuel in Studsvik (FA facility) using up-to-date Swedish labour cost unit factors and available up-to-date Swedish (or international) cost unit factors for consumables, materials and substances. Furthermore, evolution of other OMEGA database parameters concerning cost calculations e.g. manpower unit factors and workgroups parameters are taken into account. This report follows up former project which introduced tentative calculations of main decommissioning parameters such as costs, manpower and exposure of personnel for activities of older nuclear facility decommissioning in Sweden represented by FA Facility in Studsvik by means of calculation code OMEGA. The project demonstrated an implementation of advanced costing methodology based on PSL structure format to achieve transparent, traceable and comparable estimates even for older nuclear facilities like FA Facility in Studsvik. This former project used Slovak origin labour costs unit factors and other cost unit factors. After successful completion of this project, there was an intent of SSM to reevaluate calculations using an up-to-date Swedish labour cost data and also available Swedish consumables and materials cost data if available. Within this report re-calculations of main decommissioning parameters using available Swedish data are presented in structure according to Proposed Standardized List of Items for Costing Purposes. Calculations are made for decommissioning scenario with post-dismantling decontamination and steel radwaste melting technologies available at the site. All parameters are documented and summed up in both table and graphic forms in text and Annexes. Further, comparison of calculated results with previous calculations together with discussion is provided.

Vasko, Marek [DECOM, Trnava (Slovakia)

2012-11-01

320

Impact of pharmacist's interventions on cost of drug therapy in intensive care unit / Impacto de las intervenciones de farmacéuticos en el coste del tratamiento farmacológico en una unidad de cuidados intensivos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: English Abstract in spanish La participación del farmacéutico en el equipo de cuidados del paciente ha demostrado reducir la incidencia de eventos adversos medicamentosos, y los costes totales de medicamentos. Sin embargo, el impacto de la participación del farmacéutico en equipos multidisciplinarios de cuidados intensivos sob [...] re el ahorro y la evitación de costes en Tailandia ha sido poco estudiado. Objetivo: Describir las características de las intervenciones y determinar si las intervenciones del farmacéutico condujeron a cambios en ahorro de costes o evitación de costes en una unidad de cuidados intensivos (UCI). Métodos: Se diseñó un estudio prospectivo controlado con cuidados usuales para comparar los ahorros de costes y las evitaciones de costes de pacientes recibiendo cuidados de un equipo de atención a paciente (que incluía un farmacéutico clínico) contra una atención normal (sin farmacéutico en el equipo). Todos los pacientes ingresados en las unidades 1 y 2 de cuidados intensivos médicos fueron incluidos en el estudio. Los resultados medidos eran coste total de medicamentos y duración de la estancia en la UCI. Se documentaron las intervenciones realizadas por el farmacéutico en el grupo de estudio. También se realizaron análisis de aceptación y ahorro de costes y/o evitación de costes. Resultados: Un total e 65 pacientes ingresaron en las UCI 1 o 2 durante las 5 semanas del estudio. El farmacéutico participó en la atención de pacientes y realizó 127 intervenciones para el equipo de la UCI 1. El 98% de las intervenciones fueron aceptadas e implantadas por los médicos. La diferencia del coste total de medicamentos por paciente entre los dos grupos fue de 182,01 USD (1.076,37 USD en el grupo estudio y 1.258,38 USD en el control, p=0.138). La media de duración de estancia entre grupo de estudio y control no fue significativamente diferente (7,16 días vs. 6,18 días, p=0.995). Se evaluaron los ahorros y evitaciones de costes de las 125 intervenciones aceptadas. Las intervenciones del farmacéutico llevaron a un total de 1.971,43 USD de ahorros y a 294,62 USD de coste de eventos adversos evitados. El coste neto ahorrado y evitado por las intervenciones del farmacéutico fue de 2.266,05 USD. Las intervenciones que involucraban el uso de antibióticos significaron el mayor impacto económico (1.958,61 USD). Conclusiones: Aunque, no fue estadísticamente significativo, el haber participado un farmacéutico en el equipo de cuidados de la UCI produjo una tendencia a la reducción global del coste de medicamentos, ahorro de costes y evitación de costes. El mayor impacto en los costes envolvió el uso de antibióticos. Abstract in english Pharmacist participation in patient care team has been shown to reduce incidence of adverse drug events, and overall drug costs. However, impact of pharmacist participation in the multidisciplinary intensive care team on cost saving and cost avoidance has little been studied in Thailand. Objective: [...] To describe the characteristics of the interventions and to determine pharmacist's interventions led to change in cost saving and cost avoidance in intensive care unit (ICU). Methods: A Prospective, standard care-controlled study design was used to compare cost saving and cost avoidance of patients receiving care from patient care team (including a clinical pharmacist) versus standard care (no pharmacist on team). All patients admitted to the medical intensive care unit 1 and 2 during the same period were included in the study. The outcome measures were overall drug cost and length of ICU stay. Interventions made by the pharmacist in the study group were documented. The analyses of acceptance and cost saving and/or cost avoidance were also performed. Results: A total of 65 patients were admitted to either ICU 1 or 2 during the 5 week- study period. The pharmacist participated in patient care and made total of 127 interventions for the ICU-1 team. Ninety-eight percent of the interventions were accepted and i

Surasak, Saokaew; Sirada, Maphanta; Pornchanok, Thangsomboon.

2009-06-01

321

The Social Cost of Trading: Measuring the Increased Damages from Sulfur Dioxide Trading in the United States  

Science.gov (United States)

The sulfur dioxide (SO[subscript 2]) cap and trade program established in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments is celebrated for reducing abatement costs ($0.7 to $2.1 billion per year) by allowing emissions allowances to be traded. Unfortunately, places with high marginal costs also tend to have high marginal damages. Ton-for-ton trading reduces…

Henry, David D., III; Muller, Nicholas Z.; Mendelsohn, Robert O.

2011-01-01

322

High-Resolution 27Al NMR Shift Calculation for Aluminosilicate Species Structural Units (Qn)/Q by Gaussian, Deconvolution and Resolution Enhancement Methods  

OpenAIRE

Hartree-Fock self-consistent-field (HF-SCF) theory and the Gauge-including atomic orbital (GIAO) methods are used in calculation of 27Al NMR chemical shifts for units of compounds of various aluminate species of precursors for zeolites. Calculations were performed at geometries optimized at AM1 semi-empirical method. The GIAO-HF-SCF calculations were carried out using three different basis sets: 6-31G*, 6-31+G** and 6-311+G(2d, p). The intensity of partially overlapping NMR peaks may be sepa...

Azizi, S. N.

2012-01-01

323

Cost-Effectiveness of Home Energy Retrofits in Pre-Code Vintage Homes in the United States  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This analytical study examines the opportunities for cost-effective energy efficiency and renewable energy retrofits in residential archetypes constructed prior to 1980 (Pre-Code) in fourteen U.S. cities. These fourteen cities are representative of each of the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) climate zones in the contiguous U.S. The analysis is conducted using an in-house version of EnergyGauge USA v.2.8.05 named CostOpt that has been programmed to perform iterative, incremental economic optimization on a large list of residential energy efficiency and renewable energy retrofit measures. The principle objectives of the study are as follows: to determine the opportunities for cost effective source energy reductions in this large cohort of existing residential building stock as a function of local climate and energy costs; and to examine how retrofit financing alternatives impact the source energy reductions that are cost effectively achievable.

Fairey, P.; Parker, D.

2012-11-01

324

The estimated economic burden of genital herpes in the United States. An analysis using two costing approaches  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Only limited data exist on the costs of genital herpes (GH in the USA. We estimated the economic burden of GH in the USA using two different costing approaches. Methods The first approach was a cross-sectional survey of a sample of primary and secondary care physicians, analyzing health care resource utilization. The second approach was based on the analysis of a large administrative claims data set. Both approaches were used to generate the number of patients with symptomatic GH seeking medical treatment, the average medical expenditures and estimated national costs. Costs were valued from a societal and a third party payer's perspective in 1996 US dollars. Results In the cross-sectional study, based on an estimated 3.1 million symptomatic episodes per year in the USA, the annual direct medical costs were estimated at a maximum of $984 million. Of these costs, 49.7% were caused by drug expenditures, 47.7% by outpatient medical care and 2.6% by hospital costs. Indirect costs accounted for further $214 million. The analysis of 1,565 GH cases from the claims database yielded a minimum national estimate of $283 million direct medical costs. Conclusions GH appears to be an important public health problem from the health economic point of view. The observed difference in direct medical costs may be explained with the influence of compliance to treatment and possible undersampling of subpopulations in the claims data set. The present study demonstrates the validity of using different approaches in estimating the economic burden of a specific disease to the health care system.

Fisman David N

2001-06-01

325

Cost-effectiveness of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor prophylaxis for febrile neutropenia in patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in the United Kingdom (UK)  

OpenAIRE

Introduction: We report a cost-effectiveness evaluation of granulocyte colony-stimulating factors (G-CSFs) for prevention of febrile neutropenia (FN) following chemotherapy for non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL) in the United Kingdom (UK). Methods: A mathematical model was constructed simulating the experience of patients with NHL undergoing chemotherapy. Three strategies were modelled: primary prophylaxis (G-CSFs administered in all cycles); secondary prophylaxis (G-CSFs administered in all ...

Whyte, S.; Cooper, K. L.; Stevenson, M. D.; Akehurst, R.

2011-01-01

326

The association of willingness-to-pay and patient attributes: a cost-volume-profit analysis of cardiac catheter unit services in Ramallah Hospital, Palestine.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study is to examine the association of willingness-to-pay and patient attributes in relation to the multi-service cost-volume-profit structure of a cardiac catheter unit in Ramallah Hospital. This article contributes to the literature by providing primary evidence on patient willingness-to-pay, by identifying the specific break-even parameters of three hospital cardiac catheter unit service types (diagnosis, balloon, and pacemaker), and by demonstrating the cross-subsidization of patient income groups that is inherent in the existing hospital rate structure. Our results provide information useful for (1) evidence-based policy making with respect to hospital rate setting and cross-subsidies of patient income groups; (2) the advancement of hospital management, by demonstrating the estimated variable and fixed cost parameters and the impact of patient revenue mix on the profitability of cardiac catheter unit services; and (3) the advancement of theory, by documenting the relationship of patient demand and the cost of supply in a multi-patient-group, multi-service hospital setting. PMID:19891208

Jabr, Samer F K; Younis, Mustafa Mike Z; Forgione, Dana A

2009-01-01

327

Typical structure of computerized calculation of the engineering-and-economical indices and of analysis of NPP unit economical operation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A set of problem for calculating technico-economical indices (TEI) and analizing NPP efficiency is briefly described. The set includes the problems of data collection, processing and input data reliability control TEI calculation and efficiency analysis at different stages of NPP operation. The proposed set of problems permits to create a typical algorithm for calculating and analyzing NPP TEI

328

Diagnostic accuracy and cost-effectiveness of contrast echocardiography on evaluation of cardiac function in technically very difficult patients in the intensive care unit.  

Science.gov (United States)

Echocardiographic assessment of cardiac function can be quite difficult in the intensive care unit and may require transesophageal echocardiography (TEE). We therefore compared harmonic imaging alone or in combination with contrast to TEE in 32 consecutive patients in the intensive care units who were considered technically very difficult (> or =50% of the 16 segments not visualized from any view). Excellent or adequate endocardial visualization was achieved in 13% of segments with fundamental imaging, 34% with harmonic imaging, and 87% with contrast (p wall motion increased from 48% for fundamental imaging to 58% with harmonic imaging, and reached 70% with contrast (p wall motion abnormalities. Estimation of ejection fraction was possible in 31% with fundamental imaging, 50% with harmonic imaging, and in 97% with contrast. Ejection fraction quantitated by contrast enhancement correlated best with TEE (r = 0.91). Cost-effectiveness analysis revealed that contrast echo was cost-effective compared with TEE in determining regional and global ventricular function, with a cost saving of 3% and 17%, respectively. Thus, contrast echocardiography provides an accurate, safe, and cost-effective alternative to TEE for evaluating ventricular function in technically very difficult studies. PMID:11897214

Yong, Yongqi; Wu, David; Fernandes, Valerian; Kopelen, Helen A; Shimoni, Sarah; Nagueh, Sherif F; Callahan, Janice D; Bruns, Denise E; Shaw, Leslee J; Quinones, Miguel A; Zoghbi, William A

2002-03-15

329

Efficiency of heat recovery units in ventilation  

OpenAIRE

The main aim of my bachelor thesis was to calculate the annual efficiency and the temperature ratios of the heat recovery unit and compare them with the manufacturer’s data and requirements of European standards. Another aim was to estimate the influence of using the heat recovery unit on heat energy consumption of the air handling unit. Furthermore, the aim was to compare real costs of heat energy for the air handling unit with the heat recovery unit with costs of heat energy which would b...

Koroleva, Anastasiia

2012-01-01

330

Cost-Effectiveness of Alternative Blood-Screening Strategies for West Nile Virus in the United States.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available BACKGROUND: West Nile virus (WNV is endemic in the US, varying seasonally and by geographic region. WNV can be transmitted by blood transfusion, and mandatory screening of blood for WNV was recently introduced throughout the US. Guidelines for selecting cost-effective strategies for screening blood for WNV do not exist. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a cost-effectiveness analysis for screening blood for WNV using a computer-based mathematical model, and using data from prospective studies, retrospective studies, and published literature. For three geographic areas with varying WNV-transmission intensity and length of transmission season, the model was used to estimate lifetime costs, quality-adjusted life expectancy, and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios associated with alternative screening strategies in a target population of blood-transfusion recipients. We compared the status quo (baseline screening using a donor questionnaire to several strategies which differed by nucleic acid testing of either pooled or individual samples, universal versus targeted screening of donations designated for immunocompromised patients, and seasonal versus year-long screening. In low-transmission areas with short WNV seasons, screening by questionnaire alone was the most cost-effective strategy. In areas with high levels of WNV transmission, seasonal screening of individual samples and restricting screening to blood donations designated for immunocompromised recipients was the most cost-effective strategy. Seasonal screening of the entire recipient pool added minimal clinical benefit, with incremental cost-effectiveness ratios exceeding US$1.7 million per quality-adjusted life-year gained. Year-round screening offered no additional benefit compared to seasonal screening in any of the transmission settings. CONCLUSIONS: In areas with high levels of WNV transmission, seasonal screening of individual samples and restricting screening to blood donations designated for immunocompromised recipients is cost saving. In areas with low levels of infection, a status-quo strategy using a standard questionnaire is cost-effective.

2006-01-01

331

LPGC, Levelized Steam Electric Power Generator Cost  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

1 - Description of program or function: LPGC is a set of nine microcomputer programs for estimating power generation costs for large steam-electric power plants. These programs permit rapid evaluation using various sets of economic and technical ground rules. The levelized power generation costs calculated may be used to compare the relative economics of nuclear and coal-fired plants based on life-cycle costs. Cost calculations include capital investment cost, operation and maintenance cost, fuel cycle cost, decommissioning cost, and total levelized power generation cost. These programs can be used for quick analyses of power generation costs using alternative economic parameters, such as interest rate, escalation rate, inflation rate, plant lead times, capacity factor, fuel prices, etc. The two major types of electric generating plants considered are pressurized-water reactor (PWR) and pulverized coal-fired plants. Data are also provided for the Large Scale Prototype Breeder (LSPB) type liquid metal reactor. Costs for plant having either one or two units may be obtained. 2 - Method of solution: LPGC consists of nine individual menu-driven programs controlled by a driver program, MAINPWR. The individual programs are PLANTCAP, for calculating capital investment costs; NUCLOM, for determining operation and maintenance (O and M) costs for nuclear plants; COALOM, for computing O and M costs for coal-fired plants; NFUEL, for calculating levelized fuel costs for nuclear plaating levelized fuel costs for nuclear plants; COALCOST, for determining levelized fuel costs for coal-fired plants; FCRATE, for computing the fixed charge rate on the capital investment; LEVEL, for calculating levelized power generation costs; CAPITAL, for determining capitalized cost from overnight cost; and MASSGEN, for generating, deleting, or changing fuel cycle mass balance data for use with NFUEL. LPGC has three modes of operation. In the first, each individual code can be executed independently to determine one aspect of the total levelized power cost, such as fuel or O and M cost. In the second, the integrated code can be run to calculate all aspects of the levelized power cost, and in the third, the integrated code can be used to access an individual code which calculates one aspect of the levelized power generation cost as in the first mode of operation

332

The cost of decommissioning uranium mill tailings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report identifies several key operations that are commonly carried out during decommissioning of tailings areas in the Canadian environment. These operations are unit costed for a generic site to provide a base reference case. The unit costs have also been scaled to the quantities required for the decommissioning of four Canadian sites and these scaled quantities compared with site-specific engineering cost estimates and actual costs incurred in carrying out the decommissioning activities. Variances in costing are discussed. The report also recommends a generic monitoring regime upon which both short- and longer-term environmental monitoring costs are calculated. Although every site must be addressed as a site-specific case, and monitoring programs must be tailored to fit a specific site, it would appear that for the conventional decommissioning and monitoring practices that have been employed to date, costs can be reasonably estimated when site-specific conditions are taken into account

333

40 CFR 75.19 - Optional SO2, NOX, and CO2 emissions calculation for low mass emissions (LME) units.  

Science.gov (United States)

...fuel-and-unit-specific CO2 emission rate for the fuel, as follows: (A) Derive a carbon-based F-factor for the fuel, using fuel sampling and analysis...emission units with steam or water injection, the steam-to-fuel or water-to-fuel ratio...

2010-07-01

334

A methodology for financial evaluation of biogas technology in India using cost functions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A methodology for financial evaluation of biogas technology for domestic use in India using recently developed cost functions is reported. Analytical expressions for the unit cost of biogas and cost per unit of useful energy delivered by a biogas plant in combination with other suitable technologies have been developed. Net present value and discounted pay-back period have been calculated. The sensitivity of the unit cost of biogas, the cost per unit of useful energy, and the net present value with respect to a number of variables is also reported. (author)

335

The estimated economic burden of genital herpes in the United States. An analysis using two costing approaches  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Only limited data exist on the costs of genital herpes (GH) in the USA. We estimated the economic burden of GH in the USA using two different costing approaches. Methods The first approach was a cross-sectional survey of a sample of primary and secondary care physicians, analyzing health care resource utilization. The second approach was based on the analysis of a large administrative claims data set. Both approaches were used to generate the...

Fisman David N; Berger Karin; Szucs Thomas D; Harbarth Stephan

2001-01-01

336

Pro/Con debate: Are barrier precautions cost-effective in improving patient outcomes in the intensive care unit?  

OpenAIRE

You are responsible for a large medical surgical ICU. Your hospital administration has been very focused on reducing rates of hospital-acquired infections particularly in the wake of increasing public attention. However, it is time for budget preparation and your financial officer is concerned about the escalating costs associated with patient isolation and barrier precautions/personal protective equipment. Having become aware of the high costs associated with these interventions, you start t...

Thampi, Nisha; Morris, Andrew M.

2012-01-01

337

Medicaid program; cost limit for providers operated by units of government and provisions to ensure the integrity of federal-state financial partnership. Final rule with comment period.  

Science.gov (United States)

This regulation clarifies that entities involved in the financing of the non-Federal share of Medicaid payments must be a unit of government; clarifies the documentation required to support a Medicaid certified public expenditure; limits Medicaid reimbursement for health care providers that are operated by units of government to an amount that does not exceed the health care provider's cost of providing services to Medicaid individuals; requires all health care providers to receive and retain the full amount of total computable payments for services furnished under the approved Medicaid State plan; and makes conforming changes to provisions governing the State Child Health Insurance Program (SCHIP) to make the same requirements applicable, with the exception of the cost limit on reimbursement. The Medicaid cost limit provision of this regulation does not apply to: Stand-alone SCHIP program payments made to governmentally-operated health care providers; Indian Health Service (IHS) facilities and tribal 638 facilities that are paid at the all-inclusive IHS rate; Medicaid Managed Care Organizations (MCOs), Prepaid Inpatient Health Plans (PIHPs), and Prepaid Ambulatory Health Plans (PAHPs); Federally Qualified Health Centers (FQHCs) and Rural Health Clinics (RHCs). Moreover, disproportionate share hospital (DSH) payments and payments authorized under Section 701(d) and Section 705 of the Benefits Improvement Protection Act of 2000 are not subject to the newly established Medicaid cost limit for governmentally-operated health care providers. Except as noted above, all Medicaid payments and SCHIP payments made under the authority of the State plan and under waiver and demonstration authorities, as well as associated State Medicaid and SCHIP financing arrangements, are subject to all provisions of this regulation. Finally, this regulation solicits comments from the public on issues related to the definition of the Unit of Government. PMID:17577965

2007-05-29

338

Comparison of prescribing unit with index including both age and sex in assessing general practice prescribing costs.  

OpenAIRE

OBJECTIVE--To examine and compare the prescribing unit and a new prescribing index adjusting for age and sex in assessing general practice prescribing. DESIGN--Analysis of all prescriptions issued by two practices in one year. Use of data to derive a prescribing index adjusting for age and sex. Comparison of effect of prescribing unit and new index on relation between 80 practices' prescribing data and family health services authority average. SETTING--Newcastle and Gateshead Family Health Se...

Purves, I. N.; Edwards, C.

1993-01-01

339

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Site Dose-per-Unit-Release Factors for Use in Calculating Radionuclide Air Emissions Potential-to-Emit Doses  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report documents assumptions and inputs used to prepare the dose-per-unit-release factors for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Site (including the buildings that make up the Physical Sciences Facility [PSF] as well as the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory [EMSL]) calculated using the EPA-approved Clean Air Act Assessment Package 1988–Personal Computer (CAP88-PC) Version 3 software package. The dose-per-unit-release factors are used to prepare dose estimates for a maximum public receptor (MPR) in support of Radioactive Air Pollutants Notice of Construction (NOC) applications for the PNNL Site.

Barnett, J. M.; Rhoads, Kathleen

2009-06-11

340

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Site Dose-per-Unit-Release Factors for Use in Calculating Radionuclide Air Emissions Potential-to-Emit Doses  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report documents assumptions and inputs used to prepare the dose-per-unit-release factors for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Site (including the buildings that make up the Physical Sciences Facility [PSF] as well as the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory [EMSL]) calculated using the EPA-approved Clean Air Act Assessment Package 1988–Personal Computer (CAP88-PC) Version 3 software package. The dose-per-unit-release factors are used to prepare dose estimates for a maximum public receptor (MPR) in support of Radioactive Air Pollutants Notice of Construction (NOC) applications for the PNNL Site.

Barnett, J. M.; Rhoads, Kathleen

2008-09-29

341

The costs of fluid overload in the adult intensive care unit: is a small-volume infusion model a proactive solution?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Debra L Child,1 Zhun Cao,2 Laura E Seiberlich,1 Harold Brown,2 Jordan Greenberg,1 Anne Swanson,1 Martha R Sewall,1 Scott B Robinson,2 1Smiths Medical, ASD, Inc., St Paul, MN, USA; 2Premier Inc., Charlotte, NC, USA Purpose: Fluid overload (FO in critically ill patients remains a challenging clinical dilemma, and many continuous intravenous (IV medications in the US are being delivered as a dilute solution, adding significantly to a patient's daily intake. This study describes the costs and outcomes of FO in patients receiving multiple continuous infusions. Materials and methods: A retrospective study was conducted using a hospital administrative database covering >500 US hospitals. An FO cohort included adult intensive care unit (ICU patients with a central line receiving IV loop diuretics and 2+ continuous IV infusions on 50%+ of their ICU days; a directly matched non-FO cohort included patients without IV diuretic use. The primary outcome of the study was total hospitalization costs per visit. Additional outcomes were ICU costs, mortality, total and ICU length of stay (LOS, 30-day readmission rates, and ventilator use. Unadjusted descriptive analysis was performed using chi-squared or paired t-tests to compare outcomes between the two cohorts. Results: A total of 63,974 patients were identified in each cohort. The total hospitalization cost per visit for the FO cohort was US$15,344 higher than the non-FO cohort (US$42,386 vs US$27,042, and the ICU cost for the FO cohort was US$5,243 higher than the non-FO cohort (US$10,902 vs US$5,659. FO patients had higher mortality (20% vs 16.8%, prolonged LOS (11.5 vs 8.0 days, longer ICU LOS (6.2 vs 3.6 days, higher risk of 30-day readmission (21.8% vs 21.3%, and ventilator usage (47.7% vs 28.3% than the non-FO cohort (all P<0.05. Conclusion: In patients receiving multiple continuous infusions, FO is associated with increased health care resources and costs. Maximally concentrating medications and proactively providing continuous medications in small-volume infusions (SVI could be a potential solution to prevent iatrogenic FO in critically ill patients. Further prospective research is warranted to assess the impact of the SVI dispensing model on patient outcomes and health care costs. Keywords: intensive care unit, conservative fluid management, hospital cost, length of stay

Child DL

2014-12-01

342

Evaluation of the cost effectiveness of exenatide versus insulin glargine in patients with sub-optimally controlled Type 2 diabetes in the United Kingdom  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Objective Exenatide belongs to a new therapeutic class in the treatment of diabetes (incretin mimetics, allowing glucose-dependent glycaemic control in Type 2 diabetes. Randomised controlled trial data suggest that exenatide is as effective as insulin glargine at reducing HbA1c in combination therapy with metformin and sulphonylureas; with reduced weight but higher incidence of adverse gastrointestinal events. The objective of this study is to evaluate the cost effectiveness of exenatide versus insulin glargine using RCT data and a previously published model of Type 2 diabetes disease progression that is based on the United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study; the perspective of the health-payer of the United Kingdom National Health Service. Methods The study used a discrete event simulation model designed to forecast the costs and health outcome of a cohort of 1,000 subjects aged over 40 years with sub-optimally-controlled Type 2 diabetes, following initiation of either exenatide, or insulin glargine, in addition to oral hypoglycaemic agents. Sensitivity analysis for a higher treatment discontinuation rate in exenatide patients was applied to the cohort in three different scenarios; (1 either ignored or (2 exenatide-failures excluded or (3 exenatide-failures switched to insulin glargine. Analyses were undertaken to evaluate the price sensitivity of exenatide in terms of relative cost effectiveness. Baseline cohort profiles and effectiveness data were taken from a published randomised controlled trial. Results The relative cost-effectiveness of exenatide and insulin glargine was tested under a variety of conditions, in which insulin glargine was dominant in all cases. Using the most conservative of assumptions, the cost-effectiveness ratio of exenatide vs. insulin glargine at the current UK NHS price was -£29,149/QALY (insulin glargine dominant and thus exenatide is not cost-effective when compared with insulin glargine, at the current UK NHS price. Conclusion This study evaluated the relative cost effectiveness of insulin glargine versus exenatide in the management of Type 2 diabetes using a published model. Given no significant difference in glycaemic control and applying the additional effectiveness of exenatide over insulin glargine, with respect to weight loss, and using the current UK NHS prices, insulin glargine was found to be dominant over exenatide in all modelled scenarios. With current clinical evidence, exenatide does not appear to represent a cost-effective treatment option for patients with Type 2 diabetes when compared to insulin glargine.

Tetlow Anthony P

2008-08-01

343

40 CFR 75.19 - Optional SO2, NOX, and CO2 emissions calculation for low mass emissions (LME) units.  

Science.gov (United States)

...compressor discharge pressure, fuel and air valve positions, dynamic pressure pulsations...For the purposes of the mass emission calculation methodology of paragraph (c)(3...the group (klb of steam/hr) (4) Calculation of SO 2 , NO X and CO 2...

2010-07-01

344

Talking About Health Care: News Framing of Who Is Responsible for Rising Health Care Costs in the United States.  

Science.gov (United States)

This content analysis examines how the American news media have presented the problem of high and rising health care costs, looking particularly at the question of who is responsible. More specifically, the authors examine how often the media have discussed the 5 major causes of the problem: (a) patients, (b) health care providers, (c) insurance companies, (d) the government, and (d) pharmaceutical companies. Results revealed that patients were most often mentioned as the cause of increasing health care costs. The authors also found that the media's attribution of responsibility to patients has increased over the years. Overall, media coverage of rising health care costs peaked in 1993, 2004, and 2009, suggesting that coverage was influenced by newsworthy events (e.g., the president endorsing legislation or signing a bill into law) that draw the public's attention. PMID:25116304

Kim, Sei-Hill; Tanner, Andrea H; Foster, Caroline B; Kim, Soo Yun

2014-08-12

345

Analysis of uncertainties of calculations of the loss-of-coolant accidents at the first power unit of the Kursk NPP  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A technique for statistical analysis of uncertainties of thermophysical calculations of the loss-of-coolant accidents is developed. The technique permits to determine with a given reliability the confidence interval for an estimated parameter and to estimate the extent of proximity of the variant calculations to the base (nondefected) one. This technique is tested within frameworks of a profound basis of the safety of the Kursk NPP first power unit during analysis by means of the RELAP5/MOD3.2 code for two types of accidents with rupture of a group collector

346

Real-space finite-difference calculation method of generalized Bloch wave functions and complex band structures with reduced computational cost  

Science.gov (United States)

Generalized Bloch wave functions of bulk structures, which are composed of not only propagating waves but also decaying and growing evanescent waves, are known to be essential for defining the open boundary conditions in the calculations of the electronic surface states and scattering wave functions of surface and junction structures. Electronic complex band structures being derived from the generalized Bloch wave functions are also essential for studying bound states of the surface and junction structures, which do not appear in conventional band structures. We present a novel calculation method to obtain the generalized Bloch wave functions of periodic bulk structures by solving a generalized eigenvalue problem, whose dimension is drastically reduced in comparison with the conventional generalized eigenvalue problem derived by Fujimoto and Hirose [Phys. Rev. B 67, 195315 (2003)], 10.1103/PhysRevB.67.195315. The generalized eigenvalue problem derived in this work is even mathematically equivalent to the conventional one, and, thus, we reduce computational cost for solving the eigenvalue problem considerably without any approximation and losing the strictness of the formulations. To exhibit the performance of the present method, we demonstrate practical calculations of electronic complex band structures and electron transport properties of Al and Cu nanoscale systems. Moreover, employing atom-structured electrodes and jellium-approximated ones for both of the Al and Si monatomic chains, we investigate how much the electron transport properties are unphysically affected by the jellium parts.

Tsukamoto, Shigeru; Hirose, Kikuji; Blügel, Stefan

2014-07-01

347

An evaluation of cost estimates of nuclear power reactor decommissioning in Sweden, Germany and the United States  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nominal base decommissioning cost estimates in Sweden, Germany and the US differ by large amounts. Even after adjustments to normalize the work scopes, significant cost differences remain. Variations in national cost structures, achievable productivity, the extent of preexisting infrastructure and institutional factors all contribute to make up the differences. Exchange rate aberrations are a complication for which appropriate adjustments have to be made in order to achieve a meaningful comparison. Our analyses demonstrate that virtually all these differences between the Swedish, German and US estimates can be explained by these factors. In terms of the overall reasonableness of the Swedish estimate as a basis for making financial provisions, there remain some issues that may warrant further investigation. One is the potential for and financial consequences of a serious interruption to the proposed sea transportation system. Secondly, the limited number of individual system analyses we have performed indicated some significant potential underestimates. For example, dismantling of the reactor pressure vessel costs appear to be underestimated by up to 70 MSEK (about 10 MUSD) per reactor, or up to 900 MSEK for the whole Swedish program of 12 reactors. Overall, the Swedish estimates appear to be built up in a logical and reasonable way. Our analyses indicate that some internal inconsistencies exist and that some specific input data assumptions may not be valid. In summary, the credibility of the estimates would benefit from further refinement of the scenarios and assumptions. 21 refs., 15 figs., 42 tabs

348

75 FR 73972 - Medicaid Program; Cost Limit for Providers Operated by Units of Government and Provisions To...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Federal-State Financial Partnership'' (72 FR 2236 through...Department of Human and Human Services (DHHS) published a...Federal-State Financial Partnership'' in the Federal Register...provider's cost of providing services to Medicaid individuals...receive and retain the full amount of total...

2010-11-30

349

75 FR 9102 - Recovery of Cost of Hospital and Medical Care and Treatment Furnished by the United States...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Recovery of Cost of Hospital and Medical Care...Authority AGENCY: Department of Justice. ACTION...delegated to heads of departments and agencies of...the furnishing of hospital, medical, surgical...delegated to the departments and agencies of...the furnishing of hospital, medical,...

2010-03-01

350

Calculation of a 900 MW conceptual 700/720ºC coal-fired power unit with an auxiliary extraction-backpressure turbine  

OpenAIRE

This paper presents the calculations for different configurations of a 900 MW power unit for advanced 700/720°C ultra-supercritical steam parameters with a single and double steam reheat. The use of such high parameters, especially the reheated steam temperature, involves thermodynamic and material problems related to high temperature differences in the feed water heaters. In relation to this, a concept of the modification of the feed water heaters system by using an auxiliary extraction-bac...

Katarzyna St?pczy?ska; ?ukasz Kowalczyk; S?awomir Dykas; Witold Elsner

2012-01-01

351

A study of the concept of non-radioactive unit-dosed reagent kits [cold unit doses (CUDs)] as an efficient and cost-saving method for 99mTc radiopharmaceutical preparation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of unit-dosing non-radioactive reagent kits and storing these cold unit doses (CUDs) for eventual labeling with 99m Tc. Unit doses were prepared from reagent kits of medronate (MDP) and pentetate (DTPA). The specific variables studied were the effects of storage time, storage temperature and reconstitution volume (dilution) on the unit doses. These effects were monitored by measuring the radiochemical and biodistribution properties of the unit doses following their final reconstitution with [99mTc] pertechnetate. The labelling efficiency was determined using instant thin layer chromatography (ITLC),and the biodistribution patterns of these radiolabeled CUDs were studied in mice. The results showed that MDP- and DTPA-CUDs stored at -18oC retained the properties which resulted in acceptable radiochemical purity and biodistribution in mice for as long as 30 days. On the other hand, the radiochemical purity of MDP and DTPA unit doses stored at 25oC deteriorated rapidly. Mean radiochemical purities as low as 0.58-19.4% were observed on day 30. Altered biodistributions were observed in a manner consistent with the decreased labeling efficiencies. The CUDs of lower dilution (3mL) appeared to be more stable than the CUDs of higher dilution (10 mL). However, the effect of reconstitution volume was much less significant than the temperature effect on the CUDs. In conclusion, tature effect on the CUDs. In conclusion, the concept of unit-dosing non-radioactive reagent kits appears to provide an efficient and cost-saving method for preparing infrequent and emergency radiopharmaceutical doses. (Author)

352

Living Wage Calculator  

Science.gov (United States)

In many parts of the United States, families working in low-wage jobs make insufficient income to live locally given the high cost of living. Some of this can be due to rising real estate costs and the like and a number of organizations have worked to craft living wage legislation in a number of cities. This Living Wage calculator helps visitors estimate the cost of living in their community or region. Visitors can get started by selecting a location from the list presented here. Additionally, they can also use the search engine to look for specific places. For each place, visitors can learn about the living wage, typical expenses, and so on. It's an interesting policy tool and it can be used to teach students about economics, the job market, and much more.

Glasmeier, Amy

353

Model-based calculations of off-axis ratio of conic beams for a dedicated 6 MV radiosurgery unit  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: Because the small-radius photon beams shaped by cones in stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) lack lateral electronic equilibrium and a detector's finite cross section, direct experimental measurement of dosimetric data for these beams can be subject to large uncertainties. As the dose calculation accuracy of a treatment planning system largely depends on how well the dosimetric data are measured during the machine's commissioning, there is a critical need for an independent method to validate measured results. Therefore, the authors studied the model-based calculation as an approach to validate measured off-axis ratios (OARs). Methods: The authors previously used a two-component analytical model to calculate central axis dose and associated dosimetric data (e.g., scatter factors and tissue-maximum ratio) in a water phantom and found excellent agreement between the calculated and the measured central axis doses for small 6 MV SRS conic beams. The model was based on that of Nizin and Mooij [''An approximation of central-axis absorbed dose in narrow photon beams,'' Med. Phys. 24, 1775-1780 (1997)] but was extended to account for apparent attenuation, spectral differences between broad and narrow beams, and the need for stricter scatter dose calculations for clinical beams. In this study, the authors applied Clarkson integration to this model to calculate OARs for conic beams. OARs were calculated for selected cones with radii from 0.2 to 1.0 cm. To allow comparisonsi from 0.2 to 1.0 cm. To allow comparisons, the authors also directly measured OARs using stereotactic diode (SFD), microchamber, and film dosimetry techniques. The calculated results were machine-specific and independent of direct measurement data for these beams. Results: For these conic beams, the calculated OARs were in excellent agreement with the data measured using an SFD. The discrepancies in radii and in 80%-20% penumbra were within 0.01 cm, respectively. Using SFD-measured OARs as the reference data, the authors found that the calculated OARs were more accurate than those measured with a microchamber or film dosimetry. Conclusions: The model produces sufficiently accurate conic beam dosimetric data that can be used to validate direct measurement results for such beams.

354

Cost-Efficiency of Indigenously Fabricated Mobile-Portable Dental Unit in Delivery of Primary Healthcare in Rural India  

OpenAIRE

Aim: Innovation in primary oral healthcare delivery is a potential yet relatively unexplored area in Dental literature. Aim of the present study was to assess the economic gains that can be made by designing and operating an indigenously fabricated portable dental unit in rural areas.

Goel, Pankaj; Goel, Ashok; Torwane, Nilesh Arjun

2014-01-01

355

A Bicultural Analysis of the Cost of Caring: Nursing Burnout in the United States and the Philippines.  

Science.gov (United States)

Questionnaires completed by 129 U.S. nurses and 71 from the Philippines revealed higher levels of emotional exhaustion and feelings of personal accomplishment in the United States. The Filipino work environment was rated higher for supervisor support, autonomy, control, and innovation. U.S. nurses reported greater work pressure. (SK)

Turnipseed, David L.; Turnipseed, Patricia H.

1997-01-01

356

40 CFR 75.19 - Optional SO2, NOX, and CO2 emissions calculation for low mass emissions (LME) units.  

Science.gov (United States)

...water- to-fuel or steam-to-fuel ratio...water-to-fuel or steam-to-fuel ratio...water-to-fuel or steam-to-fuel ratio...monitoring the appropriate turbine operating parameters...full load, turbine exhaust temperature...units with other types of add-on...

2010-07-01

357

40 CFR 75.19 - Optional SO2, NOX, and CO2 emissions calculation for low mass emissions (LME) units.  

Science.gov (United States)

...subject to a NOX mass reduction program under subpart...the unit combusts only natural gas and/or fuel oil, use...than pipeline natural gas or natural gas, the owner or operator...at the nearest weather station (e.g., a...

2010-07-01

358

Health care costs before and after diagnosis of depression in patients with unexplained pain: a retrospective cohort study using the United Kingdom General Practice Research Database  

OpenAIRE

Catherine Reed,1 Jihyung Hong,2 Diego Novick,1 Alan Lenox-Smith,3 Michael Happich41Global Health Outcomes, Eli Lilly and Company, Windlesham, Surrey, UK; 2Personal Social Services Research Unit, London School of Economics and Political Science, London, UK; 3Eli Lilly UK, Basingstoke, UK; 4Eli Lilly and Company, Bad Homburg, GermanyPurpose: To assess the impact of pain severity and time to diagnosis of depression on health care costs for primary care patients with pre-existing unexplained pain...

Reed C; Hong J; Novick D; Lenox-Smith A; Happich M

2013-01-01

359

Role of lignin in reducing life-cycle carbon emissions, water use, and cost for United States cellulosic biofuels.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cellulosic ethanol can achieve estimated greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reductions greater than 80% relative to gasoline, largely as a result of the combustion of lignin for process heat and electricity in biorefineries. Most studies assume lignin is combusted onsite, but exporting lignin to be cofired at coal power plants has the potential to substantially reduce biorefinery capital costs. We assess the life-cycle GHG emissions, water use, and capital costs associated with four representative biorefinery test cases. Each case is evaluated in the context of a U.S. national scenario in which corn stover, wheat straw, and Miscanthus are converted to 1.4 EJ (60 billion liters) of ethanol annually. Life-cycle GHG emissions range from 4.7 to 61 g CO2e/MJ of ethanol (compared with ? 95 g CO2e/MJ of gasoline), depending on biorefinery configurations and marginal electricity sources. Exporting lignin can achieve GHG emission reductions comparable to onsite combustion in some cases, reduce life-cycle water consumption by up to 40%, and reduce combined heat and power-related capital costs by up to 63%. However, nearly 50% of current U.S. coal-fired power generating capacity is expected to be retired by 2050, which will limit the capacity for lignin cofiring and may double transportation distances between biorefineries and coal power plants. PMID:24988448

Scown, Corinne D; Gokhale, Amit A; Willems, Paul A; Horvath, Arpad; McKone, Thomas E

2014-08-01

360

Modeling of the TMI-2 [Three Mile Island Unit-2] accident with MELPROG/TRAC and calculation results for Phases 1 and 2  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Work has been performed to develop a Three Mile Island Unit-2 (TMI-2) simulation model for MELPROG/TRAC capable of predicting the observed plant behavior that took place during the accident of March 1979. A description of the TMI-2 plant model is presented and calculation results through 174 min of the accident are discussed. Using the ICBC boundary conditions, the calculation predicts pressurizer draining and core recovering prior to fuel-rod damage. A parametric calculation (reduced makeup flow) is currently underway and is in better agreement with the observed plant behavior. Efforts are underway to resolve current discrepancies and proceed with an accurate simulation through Phases 3 and 4 of the accident (174-227 min and 227-300 min, respectively). 13 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs

361

Coverage Range and Cost Comparison of Remote Antenna Unit Designs for In-building Radio over Fiber Technology  

OpenAIRE

Future communication needs to be ubiquitous, broadband, convergent, and seamless. Radio over fiber (RoF) technology is one of the most important enabler in access network for the technologies. Adoption of RoF faces bottleneck in optoelectronics, that they are still expensive, high power consumption, and limited in bandwidth. To solve the problem, transceiver in remote antenna unit (RAU) is developed, i.e. electroabsorption transceiver (EAT) and asymmetric Fabry-Perot modulator (AFPM). This pa...

Razali Ngah; Teguh Prakoso; Tharek Abdul Rahman

2008-01-01

362

Reforming Cardiovascular Care in the United States towards High-Quality Care at Lower Cost with Examples from Model Programs in the State of Michigan.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite its status as a world leader in treatment innovation and medical education, a quality chasm exists in American health care. Care fragmentation and poor coordination contribute to expensive care with highly variable quality in the United States. The rising costs of health care since 1990 have had a huge impact on individuals, families, businesses, the federal and state governments, and the national budget deficit. The passage of the Affordable Care Act represents a large shift in how health care is financed and delivered in the United States. The objective of this review is to describe some of the economic and social forces driving health care reform, provide an overview of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA), and review model cardiovascular quality improvement programs underway in the state of Michigan. As health care reorganization occurs at the federal level, local and regional efforts can serve as models to accelerate improvement toward achieving better population health and better care at lower cost. Model programs in Michigan have achieved this goal in cardiovascular care through the systematic application of evidence-based care, the utilization of regional quality improvement collaboratives, community-based childhood wellness promotion, and medical device-based competitive bidding strategies. These efforts are examples of the direction cardiovascular care delivery will need to move in this era of the Affordable Care Act. PMID:25120917

Alyeshmerni, Daniel; Froehlich, James B; Lewin, Jack; Eagle, Kim A

2014-07-01

363

Cost Efficiency in the University: A Departmental Evaluation Model  

Science.gov (United States)

This article presents a model for the analysis of cost efficiency within the framework of data envelopment analysis models. It calculates the cost excess, separating a unit of production from its optimal or frontier levels, and, at the same time, breaks these excesses down into three explanatory factors: (a) technical inefficiency, which depends…

Gimenez, Victor M.; Martinez, Jose Luis

2006-01-01

364

Survey of the costs of Peripheric Intravenous Device in the composition of the values of the internment in pediatrics unit - a quantitative study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Observing in practical daily of the pediatric assistance the puncture of repetition1 for maintenance of a security access in the medicine administration with drawn out period and knowing that the system of payment to the hospital for the SUS (system of health financed by the government is for type of illness, it sharpened me the interest in developing a exploratory, descriptive research with quantitative boarding on the costs of Peripheral Intravenous Device (DIP in the internment in Pediatrics2. Objectives: To raise the costs of DIP used during the internment in a pediatrics unit; To identify the causes of substitution of DIP in the venous accesses during the internment in a pediatrics unit and To correlate the cost of DIP in the composition of the final remuneration of the paid pediatrics internments for the SUS. The scene of the research was a Pediatric Infirmary of a University Hospital (HU. Sample: nineteen children interned in the period of October of 2006 the April of 2007. The research was approved by the Committee of Ethics of the Institution under nº. 071/2006. The date had been analyzed statistical and organized in three categories: I. Demographic profile and Epidemiologist of the Children interned in the Infirmary of Pediatrics of the HU; II The Costs of the DIP in the Process of Hospitalization in Pediatrics in the HU; e III. The Costs of the DIP in the composition of the final remuneration of the paid pediatrics internments for the SUS. In the first category the characterization and the profile of the clientele interned in the Infirmary of Pediatrics had been presented. In the second category the main causes of the loss of a peripheral venous access had been presented, thus tracing a parallel with the average of time of duration of a venous access, the places of effective venous puncture and the deriving costs of the infusions imperfections. In the third category they had been presented the paid time of permanence for the SUS for each illness related to the real time of permanence of each customer, the costs of the venous accesses during the period of each internment and the costs of the DIP when compared with the costs of the internment. Age of preschool pertaining to school is concluded that the majority of the interned children was the masculine sort, resident it are of the city of localization of the HUAP, remaining interned in its majority for a period of 7 the 10 days or 21 the 30 days. Was used a average of 27,3 DIP for child, being the main cause of infusion imperfection the fleabite3;4. The average of permanence of the DIP was of 72 hours, evidencing that raised the quantitative expense of DIP directly was related to the inability and lack of technique of puncture of the nursing team. Had to the quantitative raised one of used DIP, the expenses of exactly in relation to the paid value of the internment for the SUS varied in 52% of the sample between R$25,00 the R$100, 00, many of the 19 times representing of up to 31% of the value received for the hospital for determined illness. Therefore, it urges to continue investigating in this line theoretician-methodological to favor the process of consolidation of the nursing as profession recognized and sanctioned by its components (the professionals and its dependents (the population.

Tathiana Martins

2008-08-01

365

The costs of fluid overload in the adult intensive care unit: is a small-volume infusion model a proactive solution?  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose Fluid overload (FO) in critically ill patients remains a challenging clinical dilemma, and many continuous intravenous (IV) medications in the US are being delivered as a dilute solution, adding significantly to a patient’s daily intake. This study describes the costs and outcomes of FO in patients receiving multiple continuous infusions. Materials and methods A retrospective study was conducted using a hospital administrative database covering >500 US hospitals. An FO cohort included adult intensive care unit (ICU) patients with a central line receiving IV loop diuretics and 2+ continuous IV infusions on 50%+ of their ICU days; a directly matched non-FO cohort included patients without IV diuretic use. The primary outcome of the study was total hospitalization costs per visit. Additional outcomes were ICU costs, mortality, total and ICU length of stay (LOS), 30-day readmission rates, and ventilator use. Unadjusted descriptive analysis was performed using chi-squared or paired t-tests to compare outcomes between the two cohorts. Results A total of 63,974 patients were identified in each cohort. The total hospitalization cost per visit for the FO cohort was US$15,344 higher than the non-FO cohort (US$42,386 vs US$27,042), and the ICU cost for the FO cohort was US$5,243 higher than the non-FO cohort (US$10,902 vs US$5,659). FO patients had higher mortality (20% vs 16.8%), prolonged LOS (11.5 vs 8.0 days), longer ICU LOS (6.2 vs 3.6 days), higher risk of 30-day readmission (21.8% vs 21.3%), and ventilator usage (47.7% vs 28.3%) than the non-FO cohort (all P<0.05). Conclusion In patients receiving multiple continuous infusions, FO is associated with increased health care resources and costs. Maximally concentrating medications and proactively providing continuous medications in small-volume infusions (SVI) could be a potential solution to prevent iatrogenic FO in critically ill patients. Further prospective research is warranted to assess the impact of the SVI dispensing model on patient outcomes and health care costs. PMID:25548524

Child, Debra L; Cao, Zhun; Seiberlich, Laura E; Brown, Harold; Greenberg, Jordan; Swanson, Anne; Sewall, Martha R; Robinson, Scott B

2015-01-01

366

Costos secundarios por infecciones nosocomiales en dos unidades pediátricas de cuidados intensivos / Secondary costs due to nosocomial infections in two pediatric intensive care units  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO. Estimar los costos asociados a infecciones nosocomiales en niños tratados en dos unidades de terapia intensiva. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS. Se realizó un estudio parcial de costos en la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos Neonatales (UCIN) y en la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos Pediátricos (UTIP) de un h [...] ospital infantil de tercer nivel de atención médica. Se investigaron los costos de las pruebas diagnósticas y de los recursos terapéuticos empleados, así como el exceso de estancia hospitalaria debida a la presencia de una infección nosocomial. RESULTADOS. Se detectaron 102 infecciones, 46 en UCIN y 56 en UTIP, en el lapso de un año, tiempo que duró el estudio. El costo promedio por infección fue de 91 698 pesos y el gasto global fue de 9.3 millones de pesos. Neumonía, flebitis y septicemia abarcaron 65% de los costos. En los niños infectados se registró una estancia hospitalaria extra de 9.6 días, 13.7 exámenes de laboratorio y 3.3 cultivos en promedio, debido a la presencia de una infección intrahospitalaria. La estancia hospitalaria representó 97% del gasto total. CONCLUSIONES. Esta evaluación representa una estimación de costos directos de infección. Los resultados justifican el establecimiento de programas preventivos agresivos para reducir las complicaciones dentro de los hospitales. Abstract in english OBJECTIVES. We estimated associated costs to nosocomial infections in two pediatric intensive care units in Mexico City. MATERIAL AND METHODS. A transversal study in the neonatal (NICU) and pediatric (PICU) intensive care units, was done. We reviewed use and cost of diagnostic procedures, medication [...] s, and excess of hospital stay. RESULTS. There were 102 infections, 46 in the NICU and 56 in the PICU. The average cost per infection was $11,682 USD and the overall expense was 1,184.71 USD. Infected children had an excess of hospital stay of 9.6 days, 13.7 more laboratory tests and 3.3 more cultures. Hospital stay represented 97% of the overall cost. CONCLUSIONS. This is one of the first estimations of nosocomial infections cost done in Mexico. These results justify the introduction of infection control programs to decrease these complications.

Susana, Navarrete-Navarro; Gerardo, Armengol-Sánchez.

367

Costs and risk factors for ventilator-associated pneumonia in a Turkish University Hospital's Intensive Care Unit: A case-control study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP which is an important part of all nosocomial infections in intensive care unit (ICU is a serious illness with substantial morbidity and mortality, and increases costs of hospital care. We aimed to evaluate costs and risk factors for VAP in adult ICU. Methods This is a-three year retrospective case-control study. The data were collected between 01 January 2000 and 31 December 2002. During the study period, 132 patients were diagnosed as nosocomial pneumonia of 731 adult medical-surgical ICU patients. Of these only 37 VAP patients were assessed, and multiple nosocomially infected patients were excluded from the study. Sixty non-infected ICU patients were chosen as control patients. Results Median length of stay in ICU in patients with VAP and without were 8.0 (IQR: 6.5 and 2.5 (IQR: 2.0 days respectively (P Conclusion Respiratory failure, coma, depressed consciousness, enteral feeding and length of stay are independent risk factors for developing VAP. The cost of VAP is approximately five-fold higher than non-infected patients.

Serin Simay

2004-04-01

368

Integrated Risk Assessment for the LaSalle Unit 2 Nuclear Power Plant, Phenomenology and Risk Uncertainty Evaluation Program (PRUEP), MELCOR code calculations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A Level III Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) has been performed for LaSalle Unit 2 under the Risk Methods Integration and Evaluation Program (RMIEP) and the Phenomenology and Risk Uncertainty Evaluation Program (PRUEP). This report documents the phenomenological calculations and sources of. uncertainty in the calculations performed with HELCOR in support of the Level II portion of the PRA. These calculations are an integral part of the Level II analysis since they provide quantitative input to the Accident Progression Event Tree (APET) and Source Term Model (LASSOR). However, the uncertainty associated with the code results must be considered in the use of the results. The MELCOR calculations performed include four integrated calculations: (1) a high-pressure short-term station blackout, (2) a low-pressure short-term station blackout, (3) an intermediate-term station blackout, and (4) a long-term station blackout. Several sensitivity studies investigating the effect of variations in containment failure size and location, as well as hydrogen ignition concentration are also documented

369

High-Resolution 27Al NMR Shift Calculation for Aluminosilicate Species Structural Units (Qn/Q by Gaussian, Deconvolution and Resolution Enhancement Methods  

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Full Text Available Hartree-Fock self-consistent-field (HF-SCF theory and the Gauge-including atomic orbital (GIAO methods are used in calculation of 27Al NMR chemical shifts for units of compounds of various aluminate species of precursors for zeolites. Calculations were performed at geometries optimized at AM1 semi-empirical method. The GIAO-HF-SCF calculations were carried out using three different basis sets: 6-31G*, 6-31+G** and 6-311+G(2d, p. The intensity of partially overlapping NMR peaks may be separated by deconvolution into individual Gaussian component peaks. The relative concentrations of aluminosilicate species present as q1, q2, q3 and q4 structural units, have been estimated from integrated intensities of the corresponding signals. It is pertinent to notice that the spectra in and the estimated data showed that the intensity of q4 (the band at lowest frequency, seems to increase as Si/Al mole ratio (at constant Si=0.875 and TMAOH=1 M decreases, i.e. with increasing aluminates concentration. However, the bands become broader as the concentration of Al increases, so that operation of backward linear prediction (BLP is of variable effect. From this study, one can expect that cage-like species might be dominant due to the stability of the corresponding silicate anions in TMAOH silicate solutions. The formation of three-member rings apparently causes some deshilding compared to chains or larger rings.

S.N. Azizi

2012-01-01

370

Efficient linear-scaling quantum transport calculations on graphics processing units and applications on electron transport in graphene  

CERN Document Server

We implement, optimize, and validate the linear-scaling Kubo-Greenwood quantum transport simulation on graphics processing units by examining resonant scattering in graphene. We consider two practical representations of the Kubo-Greenwood formula: a Green-Kubo formula based on the velocity auto-correlation and an Einstein formula based on the mean square displacement. The code is fully implemented on graphics processing units with a speedup factor of up to 16 (using double-precision) relative to our CPU implementation. We compare the kernel polynomial method and the Fourier transform method for the approximation of the Dirac delta function and conclude that the former is more efficient. In the ballistic regime, the Einstein formula can produce the correct quantized conductance of one-dimensional graphene nanoribbons except for an overshoot near the band edges. In the diffusive regime, the Green-Kubo and the Einstein formalisms are demonstrated to be equivalent. A comparison of the length-dependence of the con...

Fan, Zheyong; Siro, Topi; Harju, Ari

2013-01-01

371

Efficient linear-scaling quantum transport calculations on graphics processing units and applications on electron transport in graphene  

Science.gov (United States)

We implement, optimize, and validate the linear-scaling Kubo-Greenwood quantum transport simulation on graphics processing units by examining resonant scattering in graphene. We consider two practical representations of the Kubo-Greenwood formula: a Green-Kubo formula based on the velocity auto-correlation and an Einstein formula based on the mean square displacement. The code is fully implemented on graphics processing units with a speedup factor of up to 16 (using double-precision) relative to our CPU implementation. We compare the kernel polynomial method and the Fourier transform method for the approximation of the Dirac delta function and conclude that the former is more efficient. In the ballistic regime, the Einstein formula can produce the correct quantized conductance of one-dimensional graphene nanoribbons except for an overshoot near the band edges. In the diffusive regime, the Green-Kubo and the Einstein formalisms are demonstrated to be equivalent. A comparison of the length-dependence of the conductance in the localization regime obtained by the Einstein formula with that obtained by the non-equilibrium Green's function method reveals the challenges in defining the length in the Kubo-Greenwood formalism at the strongly localized regime.

Fan, Zheyong; Uppstu, Andreas; Siro, Topi; Harju, Ari

2014-01-01

372

Selective hydrolysis of wastewater sludge. Part 1, rev.. Model calculations and cost benefit analysis for Esbjerg West waste water treatment plant, Denmark  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This publication is a revised edition of 'Selective hydrolysis of wastewater sludge. Part 1. Model calculations and cost benefit analysis for Esbjerg West waste water treatment plant, Denmark' reporting on the project 'Selective hydrolysis of wastewater sludge' which investigates the possibilities of utilizing selective hydrolysis of sludge at waste water treatment plants to increase the production of biogas based power and heat, and at the same time reduce power consumption for handling and treatment of nitrogen and sludge as well as for disposal of the sludge. The selective hydrolysis system is based on the fact that an anaerobic digestion before a hydrolysis treatment increases the hydrolysis efficiency, as the production of volatile organic components, which might inhibit the hydrolysis efficiency, are not produced to the same extent as may be the case for a hydrolysis made on un-digested material. Furthermore it is possible to separate ammonia from the sludge without using chemicals; it has, however, proven difficult to treat wastewater sludge, as the sludge seems to be difficult to treat in the laboratory using simple equipment. Esbjerg Wastewater Treatment Plant West, Denmark, is used as model plant for the calculations of the benefits using selective hydrolysis of sludge as if established at the existing sludge digester system. The plant is a traditional build plant based on the activated sludge concept in addition to traditional digester technology. The plant treats combined household and factory wastewater with a considerable amount of the wastewater received from the industries. During the project period Esbjerg Treatment Plant West went through considerable process changes, thus the results presented in this report are based on historical plant characteristics and may be viewed as conservative relative to what actually may be obtainable. (BA)

OEstergaard, N. (Eurotec West A/S (Denmark)); Thomsen, Anne Belinda; Thygesen, Anders; Bangsoe Nielsen, H. (Risoe DTU, Roskilde (Denmark)); Rasmussen, Soeren (SamRas (Denmark))

2008-12-15

373

Management of sacroiliac joint disruption and degenerative sacroiliitis with nonoperative care is medical resource-intensive and costly in a United States commercial payer population  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Stacey J Ackerman,1 David W Polly Jr,2 Tyler Knight,3 Tim Holt,4 John Cummings5 1Covance Market Access Services Inc, San Diego, CA, USA; 2University of Minnesota, Orthopaedic Surgery, Minneapolis, MN, USA; 3Covance Market Access Services Inc, Gaithersburg, MD, USA; 4Montgomery Spine Center, Orthopaedic Surgery, Montgomery, AL, USA; 5Community Health Network, Neurosurgery, Indianapolis, IN, USA Introduction: Low back pain is common and originates in the sacroiliac (SI joint in 15%–30% of cases. Traditional SI joint disruption/degenerative sacroiliitis treatments include nonoperative care or open SI joint fusion. To evaluate the usefulness of newly developed minimally-invasive technologies, the costs of traditional treatments must be better understood. We assessed the costs of nonoperative care for SI joint disruption to commercial payers in the United States (US. Methods: A retrospective study of claim-level medical resource use and associated costs used the MarketScan® Commercial Claims and Encounters as well as Medicare Supplemental Databases of Truven Healthcare. Patients with a primary ICD-9-CM diagnosis code for SI joint disruption (720.2, 724.6, 739.4, 846.9, or 847.3, an initial date of diagnosis from January 1, 2005 to December 31, 2007 (index date, and continuous enrollment for ?1 year before and 3 years after the index date were included. Claims attributable to SI joint disruption with a primary or secondary ICD-9-CM diagnosis code of 71x.xx, 72x.xx, 73x.xx, or 84x.xx were identified; the 3-year medical resource use-associated reimbursement and outpatient pain medication costs (measured in 2011 US dollars were tabulated across practice settings. A subgroup analysis was performed among patients with lumbar spinal fusion. Results: The mean 3-year direct, attributable medical costs were $16,196 (standard deviation [SD] $28,592 per privately-insured patient (N=78,533. Among patients with lumbar spinal fusion (N=434, attributable 3-year mean costs were $91,720 (SD $75,502 per patient compared to $15,776 (SD $27,542 per patient among patients without lumbar spinal fusion (N=78,099. Overall, inpatient hospitalizations (19.4%, hospital outpatient visits and procedures (14.0%, and outpatient pain medications (9.6% accounted for the largest proportion of costs. The estimated 3-year insurance payments attributable to SI joint disruption were $1.6 billion per 100,000 commercial payer beneficiaries. Conclusion: The economic burden of SI joint disruption among privately-insured patients in the US is substantial, highlighting the need for more cost-effective therapies. Keywords: cost, epidural injection, lumbar spinal fusion surgery

Ackerman SJ

2014-02-01

374

Modified Arrington method for calculating reserve growth; a new model for United States oil and gas fields  

Science.gov (United States)

Reserve (or field) growth is an appreciation of total ultimate reserves through time and is observed throughout the productive lives of oil and gas fields in all petroleum provinces? but most especially in mature petroleum provinces (like many in the United States) when the rate of finding new discoveries reduces to a low level. The importance of forecasting reserve growth accurately in a mature petroleum province made it necessary to develop improved growth functions, and a critical review of the original Arrington method was undertaken. A modification of the pioneering Arrington (1960) method for estimating reserve growth suggests that, as a basis for optimum reserve growth functions, cumulative growth factor smoothing produces a better match with known volume data than does annual growth factor smoothing. Cumulative growth factor smoothing is thus the basis for the building of reserve growth functions in this study. Estimates of oil and gas growth during 1992?1996 based on the modified Arrington method are closer to the actual volumes than those based on the functions from 1995 National Assessment. The new growth functions predict an average annual reserve growth of 0.42 percent per year for oil and 0.90 percent per year for gas over a 30-year (1996?2026) period.

Verma, M.K.

2003-01-01

375

Advances and Challenges for Adoption of Activity Based Costing (ABC by Public Sector: A Comparative Study of Brazil, Colombia, Uruguay and United States  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article aims to evaluate the advances and challenges to the adoption of the activity based costing system (ABC by the public sector of countries like Colombia, Uruguay and Brazil, always keeping a comparative perspective with the historical experience of the United States. Considering the growing demand of citizens-users of public services in terms of quality, accountability and transparency, and also the convergence of international accounting and management practices, such as convergence on IPSAS by the public sector and the adoption of IFRS in the private sector, encouraged by economic globalization, the study in comparative perspective between different experiences  become relevant to public sector organizations, in order to inspire public policies in that direction. The results found by the present research reinforces the conclusions of previous papers (Nunes 1995, IFAC 2000, 2002, 2003, Duarte Martins Mauss and Souza 2008, reaffirming the relevance of the ABC system information for the decision-making process also in the public sector.

Luís Paulo F Carmo

2012-01-01

376

Data Qualification Report: Calculated Porosity and Porosity-Derived Values for Lithostratigraphic Units for use on the Yucca Mountain Project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The qualification is being completed in accordance with the Data Qualification Plan DQP-NBS-GS-000006, Rev. 00 (CRWMS M and O 2001). The purpose of this data qualification activity is to evaluate for qualification the unqualified developed input and porosity output included in Data Tracking Number (DTN) M09910POROCALC.000. The main output of the analyses documented in DTN M09910POROCALC.000 is the calculated total porosity and effective porosity for 40 Yucca Mountain Project boreholes. The porosity data are used as input to Analysis Model Report (AMR) 10040, ''Rock Properties Model'' (MDL-NBS-GS-000004, Rev. 00), Interim Change Notice [ICN] 02 (CRWMS M and O 2000b). The output from the rock properties model is used as input to numerical physical-process modeling within the context of a relationship developed in the AMR between hydraulic conductivity, bound water and zeolitic zones for use in the unsaturated zone model. In accordance with procedure AP-3.15Q, the porosity output is not used in the direct calculation of Principal Factors for post-closure safety or disruptive events. The original source for DTN M09910POROCALC.000 is a Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) Management and Operating Contractor (M and O) report, ''Combined Porosity from Geophysical Logs'' (CRWMS M and O 1999a and hereafter referred to as Rael 1999). That report recalculated porosity results for both the historical boreholes covered in Nelson (1996), and the modern boreholes reported in CRWMS M and O (1996a,b). The porosity computations in Rael (1999) are based on density-porosity mathematical relationships requiring various input parameters, including bulk density, matrix density and air and/or fluid density and volumetric water content. The main output is computed total porosity and effective porosity reported on a foot-by-foot basis for each borehole, although volumetric water content is derived from neutron data as an interim output. This qualification report uses technical assessment and corroboration to evaluate the original subject DTN. Rael (1999) provides many technical details of the technical assessment and corroboration methods and partially satisfies the intent of the qualification plan for this analysis. Rael presents a modified method based on Nelson (1996) to recompute porosity and porosity-derived values and uses some of the same inputs. Rael's (1999) intended purpose was to document porosity output relatively free of biases introduced by differing computational methods or parameter selections used for different boreholes. The qualification report necessarily evaluates the soundness of the pre-Process Validation and Re-engineering (PVAR) analyses and methodology, as reported in Rael (1999)

377

Data Qualification Report: Calculated Porosity and Porosity-Derived Values for Lithostratigraphic Units for use on the Yucca Mountain Project  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The qualification is being completed in accordance with the Data Qualification Plan DQP-NBS-GS-000006, Rev. 00 (CRWMS M&O 2001). The purpose of this data qualification activity is to evaluate for qualification the unqualified developed input and porosity output included in Data Tracking Number (DTN) M09910POROCALC.000. The main output of the analyses documented in DTN M09910POROCALC.000 is the calculated total porosity and effective porosity for 40 Yucca Mountain Project boreholes. The porosity data are used as input to Analysis Model Report (AMR) 10040, ''Rock Properties Model'' (MDL-NBS-GS-000004, Rev. 00), Interim Change Notice [ICN] 02 (CRWMS M&O 2000b). The output from the rock properties model is used as input to numerical physical-process modeling within the context of a relationship developed in the AMR between hydraulic conductivity, bound water and zeolitic zones for use in the unsaturated zone model. In accordance with procedure AP-3.15Q, the porosity output is not used in the direct calculation of Principal Factors for post-closure safety or disruptive events. The original source for DTN M09910POROCALC.000 is a Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) Management and Operating Contractor (M&O) report, ''Combined Porosity from Geophysical Logs'' (CRWMS M&O 1999a and hereafter referred to as Rael 1999). That report recalculated porosity results for both the historical boreholes covered in Nelson (1996), and the modern boreholes reported in CRWMS M&O (1996a,b). The porosity computations in Rael (1999) are based on density-porosity mathematical relationships requiring various input parameters, including bulk density, matrix density and air and/or fluid density and volumetric water content. The main output is computed total porosity and effective porosity reported on a foot-by-foot basis for each borehole, although volumetric water content is derived from neutron data as an interim output. This qualification report uses technical assessment and corroboration to evaluate the original subject DTN. Rael (1999) provides many technical details of the technical assessment and corroboration methods and partially satisfies the intent of the qualification plan for this analysis. Rael presents a modified method based on Nelson (1996) to recompute porosity and porosity-derived values and uses some of the same inputs. Rael's (1999) intended purpose was to document porosity output relatively free of biases introduced by differing computational methods or parameter selections used for different boreholes. The qualification report necessarily evaluates the soundness of the pre-Process Validation and Re-engineering (PVAR) analyses and methodology, as reported in Rael (1999).

P. Sanchez

2001-05-30

378

Systematic comparisons of various spectrophotometric and colorimetric methods to measure concentrations of protein, peptide and amino acid: detectable limits, linear dynamic ranges, interferences, practicality and unit costs.  

Science.gov (United States)

There is limited and inconclusive information regarding detectable limits and linear dynamic ranges of various quantitative protein assays. We thus performed systematic comparisons of seven commonly used methods, including direct spectrophotometric quantitation at ?205 and ?280 nm (A205 and A280, respectively), bicinchoninic acid (BCA), Biuret, Bradford, Lowry and Ninhydrin methods. Purified BSA, porcine kidney extract, tryptic digested peptides derived from purified BSA, and glycine, were used as representative purified protein, complex protein mixture, peptide and amino acid, respectively. Bradford method was the most sensitive assay (LOD=0.006 mg/ml) and had the widest range of detectability (LOD-UOD=0.006-100mg/ml) for purified protein and complex protein mixture. For peptide, A205, A280, Lowry and Ninhydrin methods had a comparable LOD (0.006 mg/ml), but Ninhydrin method had the widest detectability range (LOD-UOD=0.006-100mg/ml). For amino acid, A205 and Ninhydrin methods had a comparable LOD (0.006 mg/ml), but A205 had a wider detectability range (LOD-UOD=0.006-6.250 mg/ml). Biuret method offered the widest linear dynamic range for purified protein and complex protein mixture (0.391-100mg/ml), A280 offered the widest linear dynamic range for peptide (0.024-6.250 mg/ml), and Ninhydrin method offered the widest linear dynamic range for amino acid (0.024-0.195 mg/ml). Both Laemmli's and 2-D lysis buffers had dramatic interfering effects on all assays. Concerning the practicality and unit costs, A205 and A280 were the most favorable. Among the colorimetric methods, Bradford method consumed the least amount of samples and shortest analytical time with the lowest unit cost. These are the most extensive comparative data of commonly used quantitative protein assays that will be useful for selecting the most suitable method for each study. PMID:22939137

Chutipongtanate, Somchai; Watcharatanyatip, Kamolwan; Homvises, Teerada; Jaturongkakul, Kewalee; Thongboonkerd, Visith

2012-08-30

379

Density functional study of intramolecular ferromagnetic interaction through m-phenylene coupling unit (I): UBLYP, UB3LYP, and UHF calculations  

Science.gov (United States)

Polyradicals comprised of m-phenylene-bridged organic radicals are well known as building blocks of organic ferromagnets, in which radical groups are connected with each other at the meta position in the benzene ring, and the parallel-spin configurations between radical sites are more stabilized than the antiparallel ones. Topological rules for spin alignments enable us to design organic high-spin dendrimers and polymers with the ferromagnetic ground states by linking various radical species through an m-phenylene unit. However, no systematic ab initio treatment of such spin dendrimers and magnetic polymers has been reported until now, though experimental studies on these materials have been performed extensively in the past ten years. As a first step to examine the possibilities of ferromagnetic dendrimers and polymers constructed of m-phenylene units with organic radicals, we report density functional and molecular orbital calculations of six m-phenylene biradical units with radical substituents and polycarbenes linked with an m-phenylene-type network. The relative stability between the spin states and spin density population are estimated by BLYP or B3LYP and Hartree-Fock calculations in order to clarify their utility for constructions of large spin denderimers and periodic magnetic polymers, which are final targets in this series of papers. It is shown that neutral polyradicals with an m-phenylene bridge are predicted as high-spin ground-state molecules by the computations, while m-phenylene-bridged ion-radical species formed by doping may have the low-spin ground states if zwitterionic configurations play significant roles to stabilize low-spin states. Ab initio computations also show an important role of conformations of polyradicals for stabilization of their high-spin states. The computational results are applied to molecular design of high-spin dendrimers and polymers. Implications of them are also discussed in relation to recent experimental results for high-spin organic molecules.

Mitani, Masaki; Mori, Hiroki; Takano, Yu; Yamaki, Daisuke; Yoshioka, Yasunori; Yamaguchi, Kizashi

2000-09-01

380

A practical sequence and inhomogeneity correction method for use in blocked equivalent square calculations in consideration of reducing the discrepancy rates for 3d planning monitor unit checks  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: In 3D planning checks the BEQS (Blocked Equivalent Square) calculation is sometimes the most challenging part of the work, as geometric size estimation does not always reflect real tissue volume involved in a 3D treatment field. This is especially so for the tangent field with obliquity. This study attempts to develop a practical method in order to more easily handle the estimation for BEQS in 3D clinical planning checks to reduce the discrepancy caused by a simple geometric BEQS estimation. A combined BEQS estimation procedure involving Geometric + Inhomogeneity + Irregular Skin Surface correction is presented. This procedure is sequentially managed by an in-house developed software as: A blocked field shape (MLC or shielding blocks) is loaded from planning system export or directly drawn in the screen picture box by user; Clarkson calculation or Irregular Rectangular Shape estimation can be performed as an option by selecting the functions to receive the geometric BEQS for the shape; Inhomogeneity Correction for the tissues involved at the level of the beam weight point depth; Irregular Skin Surface correction is then processed for the surface level of the beam entry point. The BEQS calculated by this procedure sometimes shows a very different result compared with the BEQS simply calculated by geometric estimation, especially for the tangent beam entry fields or the field involved with significant inhomogeneity tissues. The different result causes differessues. The different result causes different TPR and Sp values to be selected in the planning monitor unit check. In comparison, by using this BEQS correcting sequence, the planning check result discrepancy could be reduced on average by 1.5% - 2.0% for the tangent beam entry fields such as breast or head and neck cases. The BEQS calculation in 3D planning is not a simple geometric size estimation but is an integration, voxel by voxel, for inhomogeneity tissues distributed in the field volume. If these corrections are incorporated into 3D monitor unit checking, then there will be reduction in discrepancy between simple geometric estimation methods and the method presented by this study. Copyright (2004) Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine

381

2011 Cost of Wind Energy Review  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report describes the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) for a typical land-based wind turbine installed in the United States in 2011, as well as the modeled LCOE for a fixed-bottom offshore wind turbine installed in the United States in 2011. Each of the four major components of the LCOE equation are explained in detail, such as installed capital cost, annual energy production, annual operating expenses, and financing, and including sensitivity ranges that show how each component can affect LCOE. These LCOE calculations are used for planning and other purposes by the U.S. Department of Energy's Wind Program.

Tegen, S.; Lantz, E.; Hand, M.; Maples, B.; Smith, A.; Schwabe, P.

2013-03-01

382

Réduire les coûts de la simulation informatique grâce aux plans d'expériences : un exemple en calcul de procédé Reducing Computer Simulation Costs with Factorial Designs: an Example of Process Calculation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cet article est destiné à montrer que la méthode des Plans d'Expériences utilisée dans les laboratoires et les unités de fabrication est également applicable au calcul scientifique et en particulier, à la simulation informatique. Son emploi permet de réduire, dans une forte proportion, le nombre de passages informatiques. Il permet également d'écrire des modèles mathématiques empiriques qui orientent les recherches vers la bonne solution et qui fournissent une bonne image du phénomène étudié. The aim of this article is to show that Factorial Design, which is a commonly used method in laboratories and production units, can also be very successful for designing and computerized simulations. Computer runs can be reduced by a factor as great as four to achieve a comprehensive understanding of how a plant or a process runs. Simple models can then be constructed to provide a good image of the investigated phenomenom. The example given here is that of a plant processing raw Natural Gas whose outputs are a Sales Gas and an NGL which must meet simultaneously five specifications. The operator in charge of the simulations begins by defining the Experimental Range of Investigation (Table 1. Calculations (Table 1, Fig. 2 are set in a pattern defined by Factorial Design (Table 2. These correspond to the apices of the Experimental cube (Fig. 2. Results of the simulations are then reported on Table 3. These require analysis, using Factorial Design Theory, in conjunction with each specification. A graphical approach is used to define the regions for which each specification is met: Fig. 3 shows the zone authorized for the first specification, the Wobbe Index and Fig. 4 gives the results for the outlet pressure of the Turbo-Expander. Figs. 5, 6 and 7 show the zones allowed for the CO2/C2 ratio, the TVP and the C2/C3 ratio. A satisfactory zone is found, for this last ratio, outside of the investigated range. The results acquired so far enable us to define a whole new area where all specifications should simultaneously be met. This area has been found with the help of empirical mathematical models derived from the theory of Factorial Design. An instruction point is proposed (Fig. 8 and a confirmation run for these conditions has been made to show the validity of the model. With the use of Factorial Design, the computing budget was controlled with a number of simulations reduced by a factor of four compared to the more traditionnal approach. In addition to these savings, the engineer in charge now has a clear view of how the plant runs. He can now deal with various related problems without having to re-run simulations.

Murray M.

2006-11-01

383

A study of the concept of non-radioactive unit-dosed reagent kits [cold unit doses (CUDs)] as an efficient and cost-saving method for 99mTc radiopharmaceutical preparation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Traditionally, when preparing 99mTc-labeled radiopharmaceuticals, [99mTc]pertechnetate is added to the entire contents of a vial of reagent kit, and patient doses are subsequently withdrawn from the vial. This technique of compounding can be potentially wasteful for two reasons: (1) once reconstituted with 99mTc, most reagent kits have a relatively short shelf-life, and thus the entire contents may not be used before expiration and (2) due to a need to conserve radioactivity in many hospitals, enough [99mTc]pertechnetate is added to the reagent kit in order to retrieve only 1-2 patient doses, even though adequate chemicals (ligand, reducing agent, etc.) are present in the reagent kit to supply as many as 5-10 doses. Hence, a method for optimizing the efficient use of reagent kits would be desirable. The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of unit-dosing non-radioactive reagent kits and storing these cold unit doses (CUDs) for eventual labeling with 99mTc. To evaluate this concept, unit doses were prepared from reagent kits of medronate (MDP) and pentetate (DTPA). The specific variables studied in this research were the effects of storage time, storage temperature and reconstitution volume (dilution) on the unit doses. These effects were monitored by measuring the radiochemical and biodistribution properties of the unit doses following their final reconstitution with [99mTc]pertechnetate. The labeling efficiency was determined using instant thin layer chromatograph (ITLC), and the biodistribution patterns of these radiolabeled CUDs were studied in mice. The results showed the MDP- and DTPA-CUDs stored at -18 degrees C retained the properties which resulted in acceptable radiochemical purity and biodistribution in mice for as long as 30 days. On the other hand, the radiochemical purity of MDP and DTPA unit doses stored at 25 degrees C deteriorated rapidly. Mean radiochemical purities as low as 0.58-19.4% were observed on day 30. Altered biodistributions were observed in a manner consistent with the decreased labeling efficiencies. The CUDs of lower dilution (3 mL) appeared to be more stable than the CUDs of higher dilution (10 mL). However, the effect of reconstitution volume was much less significant than the temperature effect on the CUDs. In conclusion, the concept of unit-dosing non-radioactive reagent kits appears to provide an efficient and cost-saving method for preparing infrequent and emergency radiopharmaceutical doses. The study also showed that the storage temperature of these unit doses is critical to the success of the procedure. The volume of reconstitution has a minimal impact on the stability of CUDs if stored at the appropriate temperature. PMID:1399692

Lerthirunwong, C; Cheng, K T; Hladik, W B

1992-10-01

384

Custos hospitalares das cefaléias agudas em uma unidade de emergência pública brasileira / Hospitalar costs of acute headaches in a Brazilian public emergency room unit  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Cefaléia é uma das queixas mais freqüentes na prática médica e causa bastante comum de atendimento em unidades de emergência, implicando custos consideravelmente altos. Foram estudados retrospectivamente os casos de cefaléia atendidos na Unidade de Emergência do Hospital das Clinicas de Ribeirão Pre [...] to (UE) no ano de 1996. Neste ano, 1254 pacientes procuraram a UE com queixa de cefaléia aguda, sendo que 64 necessitaram de internação. O custo estimado com o atendimento, investigação e tratamento clínico das cefaléias agudas foi da ordem de R$ 138,573.31 (US$ 76,985.17). Os gastos apenas com exames laboratoriais foram R$ 23,801.54 (US$ 13,223.07). Os custos cirúrgicos foram R$ 5,817.90 (US$ 3,232.17). Os custos totais foram RS$ 144,391.21 (US$ 80,217.34), o que equivale a R$ 115,14 (US$ 63.97) por paciente. Tais cálculos estimulam discussão adicional acerca de custos e eficácia do modelo de saúde vigente, em que os recursos financeiros são precários e as necessidades da população dependente do estado são proporcionalmente maiores. Abstract in english Headache is one of the most frequent complain in the medical practice and a very common cause of medical assistance searching in emergency rooms, leading to considerable high costs. The headache cases assisted during the year of 1996 of an emergency room unit (UE - USP) at Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil [...] , had been retrospectively studied. During that year a number of 1254 patients searched the UE - USP with major complain of acute headache, among which 64 needed hospitalization. The estimated costs due to consultation, investigation and clinical treatment of the acute headaches was in the order of R$ 138 573.31 (US$ 76 985.17). The expenses related only to laboratorial exams were R$ 23 801.54 (US$ 13 223.07). The surgical expenses were R$ 5 817.90 (US$ 3 232.17) . The total cost was R$ 144 391.21 (US$ 80 217.34) which corresponds to R$ 115.14 (US$ 63.97) per patient. This calculus instigates an additional discussion about the costs and effectiveness of the current public health policy, where the financial resources are less abundant than the State dependant population's needs.

MARCELO E., BIGAL; LUCIANA C., FERNANDES; CARLOS A., BORDINI; JOSÉ G., SPECIALI.

2000-09-01

385

CEEH's calculation of health costs from air pollution in the Danish Climate Commission's forecast; CEEH's beregning af sundhedsomkostninger (helbredsomkostninger) fra luftforurening i Klimakommissionens fremtidsforloeb. CEEH videnskabelig rapport no. 10  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Centre for Energy, Environment and Health (CEEH) has created a model system to assess the costs due to health effects from air pollution. This report assesses the health effects from the Danish Climate Commission's scenarios and is an example of how the system can be used. Calculations have been made of the health costs caused by energy consumption and production in the Danish Climate Commission's forecasts. The costs of emissions from various sectors differ, as they have different effects on health. The report shows how important it is to address health costs when evaluating and comparing