WorldWideScience
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The unit cost factors and calculation methods for decommissioning - Cost estimation of nuclear research facilities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: The uncertainties of decommissioning costs increase high due to several conditions. Decommissioning cost estimation depends on the complexity of nuclear installations, its site-specific physical and radiological inventories. Therefore, the decommissioning costs of nuclear research facilities must be estimated in accordance with the detailed sub-tasks and resources by the tasks of decommissioning activities. By selecting the classified activities and resources, costs are calculated by the items and then the total costs of all decommissioning activities are reshuffled to match with its usage and objectives. And the decommissioning cost of nuclear research facilities is calculated by applying a unit cost factor method on which classification of decommissioning works fitted with the features and specifications of decommissioning objects and establishment of composition factors are based. Decommissioning costs of nuclear research facilities are composed of labor cost, equipment and materials cost. Of these three categorical costs, the calculation of labor costs are very important because decommissioning activities mainly depend on labor force. Labor costs in decommissioning activities are calculated on the basis of working time consumed in decommissioning objects and works. The working times are figured out of unit cost factors and work difficulty factors. Finally, labor costs are figured out by using theselabor costs are figured out by using these factors as parameters of calculation. The accuracy of decommissioning cost estimation results is much higher compared to the real decommissioning works. (authors)

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Environmental remediation cost in Fukushima area. Trial calculation using the unit cost factor method  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to perform environmental remediation in Fukushima area in a swift and adequate way, it is necessary to obtain perspective of total cost and allocate resources adequately. At present such had not been fixed as what decontamination method should be applied to relevant contaminated places in Fukushima area or what disposition and processing process should be applied to radioactive soils and wastes produced by decontamination, it would be difficult to assess the cost exactly. But it would be better to calculate rough cost on trial and then upgrade the accuracy of the cost gradually based on latest knowledge. Cleanup subcommittee of AESJ utilized published process flow and unit cost and based on original proposed scenario: soils produced by decontamination were classified into intermediate storage facility and controllable processing place based on their contamination concentration and with limited reuse, rough estimated cost was obtained as 6 - 9 trillion yen for basic case. (T. Tanaka)

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Cost Analysis in Hospitals and Calculation of Unit Costs in Medical Rehabilitation Services  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to demonstrate that actual cost values of medical rehabilitation services and cost functions could be estimated by using cost analysis in a physical and rehabilitation medicine (PMR clinic of a third-level hospital. This, in turn, could guide the hospital administrators in their financial planning, performance audit, and quality development issues.Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective study which was conducted by investigating and evaluating the medical, administrative, financial, and technical data. The true population of the study consisted of medical rehabilitation services provided in a PMR clinic of a third-level hospital in 2010. Since sampling was not done, all treatment sessions of outpatients and inpatients done in the PMR unit were included in the study. Results: After analysis, the cost for an outpatient was found to be 72.02 TL, for an inpatient 7.825.54 TL, for patient day 221.05 TL and for a PMR session 49.38 TL. These values were higher than the values paid to medical care providers by the Social Security Institution. Conclusion: Reimbursement institutions need to take cost analysis data into consideration when determining the rates of repayment for medical care providers. Turk J Phys Med Re­hab 2012;58:103-8.

?smail A??rba?

2012-06-01

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Cost Analysis in Hospitals and Calculation of Unit Costs in Medical Rehabilitation Services  

OpenAIRE

Objective: The aim of this study was to demonstrate that actual cost values of medical rehabilitation services and cost functions could be estimated by using cost analysis in a physical and rehabilitation medicine (PMR) clinic of a third-level hospital. This, in turn, could guide the hospital administrators in their financial planning, performance audit, and quality development issues.Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective study which was conducted by investigating and evaluating the ...

?smail A??rba?; Haydar Gök; Yasemin Akbulut; Ömer R?fk? Önder

2012-01-01

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Nuclear fuel cycle cost and cost calculation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Four different methods of calculating the cost of the fuel cycle are explained, starting from the individual cost components with their specific input data. The results (for LWRs) are presented in tabular form and in the form of diagrams. (RB)

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Decommissioning Unit Cost Data  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Rocky Flats Closure Site (Site) is in the process of stabilizing residual nuclear materials, decommissioning nuclear facilities, and remediating environmental media. A number of contaminated facilities have been decommissioned, including one building, Building 779, that contained gloveboxes used for plutonium process development but did little actual plutonium processing. The actual costs incurred to decommission this facility formed much of the basis or standards used to estimate the decommissioning of the remaining plutonium-processing buildings. Recent decommissioning activities in the first actual production facility, Building 771, implemented a number of process and procedural improvements. These include methods for handling plutonium contaminated equipment, including size reduction, decontamination, and waste packaging, as well as management improvements to streamline planning and work control. These improvements resulted in a safer working environment and reduced project cost, as demonstrated in the overall project efficiency. The topic of this paper is the analysis of how this improved efficiency is reflected in recent unit costs for activities specific to the decommissioning of plutonium facilities. This analysis will allow the Site to quantify the impacts on future Rocky Flats decommissioning activities, and to develop data for planning and cost estimating the decommissioning of future facilities. The paper discusses the methods used to collect and arransses the methods used to collect and arrange the project data from the individual work areas within Building 771. Regression and data correlation techniques were used to quantify values for different types of decommissioning activities. The discussion includes the approach to identify and allocate overall project support, waste management, and Site support costs based on the overall Site and project costs to provide a ''burdened'' unit cost. The paper ultimately provides a unit cost basis that can be used to support cost estimates for decommissioning at other facilities with similar equipment and labor costs. It also provides techniques for extracting information from limited data using extrapolation and interpolation techniques

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Estudio retrospectivo de costos de tratamientos intensivos por paciente y día cama Calculation of costs per inpatient day in an intensive care unit  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Intensive medicine is especially expensive and requires an efficient management. Aim: To measure the real costs of diseases treated in an intensive care unit and compare them with the costs assigned by the Chilean National Health Fund (FONASA for 2008. Material and Methods: Retrospective review of 225 patients, representing 82% of discharges from an intensive care unit during 2008. Patients were classified according to their medical conditions as having sepsis, trauma, cardiovascular, respiratory or neurological diseases. Costs were calculated using the cost per activity system. Results: Trauma, sepsis and cardiovascular diseases had the greatest cost per inpatient day, corresponding to 294,779; 253,513 and 244,713 Chilean pesos, respectively. Seventy percent of costs correspond to human resources followed by complementary examinations, that represent up to 15% of costs. Patients with sepsis and cardiovascular diseases absorbed 28 and 26% of intensive care unit resources, respectively. Patients who died with these diseases absorbed 35 and 16% of resources, respectively. Conclusions: All diseases studied had significantly higher costs than those assigned by the National Health Fund.

SANDRA ALVEAR V

2010-05-01

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Estudio retrospectivo de costos de tratamientos intensivos por paciente y día cama / Calculation of costs per inpatient day in an intensive care unit  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish [...] Abstract in english Background: Intensive medicine is especially expensive and requires an efficient management. Aim: To measure the real costs of diseases treated in an intensive care unit and compare them with the costs assigned by the Chilean National Health Fund (FONASA) for 2008. Material and Methods: Retrospectiv [...] e review of 225 patients, representing 82% of discharges from an intensive care unit during 2008. Patients were classified according to their medical conditions as having sepsis, trauma, cardiovascular, respiratory or neurological diseases. Costs were calculated using the cost per activity system. Results: Trauma, sepsis and cardiovascular diseases had the greatest cost per inpatient day, corresponding to 294,779; 253,513 and 244,713 Chilean pesos, respectively. Seventy percent of costs correspond to human resources followed by complementary examinations, that represent up to 15% of costs. Patients with sepsis and cardiovascular diseases absorbed 28 and 26% of intensive care unit resources, respectively. Patients who died with these diseases absorbed 35 and 16% of resources, respectively. Conclusions: All diseases studied had significantly higher costs than those assigned by the National Health Fund.

SANDRA, ALVEAR V; JORGE, CANTEROS G; PATRICIA, RODRÍGUEZ C.

2010-05-01

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SEC Mutual Fund Cost Calculator  

Science.gov (United States)

Because "every investor should know what he or she is paying for a mutual fund," the US Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) provides this cost calculator. Two versions in Windows 3.1/95/98/NT or JavaScript format allow investors to easily estimate and compare mutual fund costs, and the SEC hopes this information will reveal "how costs add up over time."

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Calculating utility prudency issue costs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The nuclear industry, particularly utilities and their construction, engineering and vendor agents, is faced with a surging increase in prudency management audits. What started as primarily a nuclear project-oriented requirement has spread to encompass most significant utility capital construction projects. Such audits are often a precedent condition to commencement of rate hearings. The cost engineer, a primary major capital construction project participant, is required to develop or critique ''prudency issue'' costs as part of such audits. Although utility costs in the broadest sense are potentially at issue, this paper concentrates on the typical project/construction management costs. The costs of design, procurement and construction are all subject to the calculation process

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REVIEW OF METHODOLOGIES FOR COSTS CALCULATING OF RUMINANTS IN SLOVAKIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this work was to synthesise and analyse the methodologies and the biological aspects of the costs calculation in ruminants in Slovakia. According to literature, the account classification of cost items is most often considered for construction of costing formula. The costs are mostly divided into fixed (costs independent from volume of herd’s production and variable ones (costs connected with improvement of breeding conditions. Cost for feeds and beddings, labour costs, other direct costs and depreciations were found as the most important cost items in ruminants. It can be assumed that including the depreciations into costs of the basic herd takes into consideration the real costs simultaneously invested into raising of young animals in the given period. Costs are calculated for the unit of the main and by-products and their classification is influenced mainly by the type of livestock and production system. In dairy cows is usually milk defined as the main product, and by- products are live born calf and manure. The base calculation unit is kilogram of milk (basic herd of cows and kilogram of gain and kilogram of live weight (young breeding cattle. In suckler cows is a live-born calf the main product and manure is the by-product. The costs are mostly calculated per suckler cow, live-born calf and per kilogram of live weight of weaned calf. Similar division of products into main and by-products is also in cost calculation for sheep categories. The difference is that clotted cheese is also considered as the main product of basic herd in dairy sheep and greasy wool as the by-products in all categories. Definition of the base calculation units in sheep categories followed the mentioned classification. The value of a by-product in cattle and sheep is usually set according to its quantity and intra- plant price of the by-product. In the calculation of the costs for sheep and cattle the “structural ewe” and “structural cow” proportionally integrate the costs of other categories of the herd into the costs of the basic herd. Subtraction, allocation and combined calculation methods of costs are the most used in breeding of ruminants. It is recommended to consider specific breeding conditions and objective calculation of costs for the relevant category, when picking out the method of calculation.

Zuzana KRUPOVÁ

2012-09-01

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PROSPECTS OF MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING AND COST CALCULATION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Progress in improving production technology requires appropriate measures to achieve an efficient management of costs. This raises the need for continuous improvement of management accounting and cost calculation. Accounting information in general, and management accounting information in particular, have gained importance in the current economic conditions, which are characterized by risk and uncertainty. The future development of management accounting and cost calculation is essential to meet the information needs of management.

Marian ?AICU

2014-11-01

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10 CFR 950.25 - Calculation of covered costs.  

Science.gov (United States)

...calculation of the loan cost; and (2) Costs covered by Grant Account. The incremental costs calculated for the duration of the covered delay. In calculating the incremental cost of power, the Claims Administrator...

2010-01-01

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Petroleum Refinery Hydrogen Production Unit: Exergy and Production Cost Evaluation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Some specific processes are required to obtain pure hydrogen and the most usual one is natural gas reforming, where natural gas reacts with superheated steam producing H2, CO, CO2 and H2O. This paper presents the exergy and production costs evaluation of a complete hydrogen production unit of a petroleum refinery. The hydrogen production unit analysed in this paper has to supply 550,000 Nm3 of hydrogen per day to purify diesel oil. Based on a synthesis plant of the hydrogen production unit, the exergy efficiency of each component and of the overall plant are calculated. The hydrogen production cost is determined by means of a thermoeconomic analysis in which the equality cost partition method is employed, including capital and operational costs, in order to determine the production cost of hydrogen and other products of the plant.

Silvio de Oliveira Júnior

2008-12-01

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Low-cost inertial measurement unit.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Sandia National Laboratories performs many expensive tests using inertial measurement units (IMUs)--systems that use accelerometers, gyroscopes, and other sensors to measure flight dynamics in three dimensions. For the purpose of this report, the metrics used to evaluate an IMU are cost, size, performance, resolution, upgradeability and testing. The cost of a precision IMU is very high and can cost hundreds of thousands of dollars. Thus the goals and results of this project are as follows: (1) Examine the data flow in an IMU and determine a generic IMU design. (2) Discuss a high cost IMU implementation and its theoretically achievable results. (3) Discuss design modifications that would save money for suited applications. (4) Design and implement a low cost IMU and discuss its theoretically achievable results. (5) Test the low cost IMU and compare theoretical results with empirical results. (6) Construct a more streamlined printed circuit board design reducing noise, increasing capabilities, and constructing a self-contained unit. Using these results, we can compare a high cost IMU versus a low cost IMU using the metrics from above. Further, we can examine and suggest situations where a low cost IMU could be used instead of a high cost IMU for saving cost, size, or both.

Deyle, Travis Jay

2005-03-01

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Indian experience in investment cost in small size nuclear power reactor units  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes the Indian situation and experience in relation to the investment in Small Size Nuclear Power Reactor Units. Data are given on nuclear power investment costs. The characteristics of the Indian experience are also given in detail. Nuclear power generation costs and pricing are discussed. Important parameters used for calculating unit energy cost from nuclear power plants are listed. Nuclear and thermal power costs are compared. The variation of unit energy cost with change in various parameters is explained

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Cost estimating for CERCLA remedial alternatives a unit cost methodology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Guidance for Conducting Remedial Investigations and Feasibility Studies Under CERCLA, Interim Final, dated October 1988 (EPA 1988) requires a detailed analysis be conducted of the most promising remedial alternatives against several evaluation criteria, including cost. To complete the detailed analysis, order-of-magnitude cost estimates (having an accuracy of +50 percent to -30 percent) must be developed for each remedial alternative. This paper presents a methodology for developing cost estimates of remedial alternatives comprised of various technology and process options with a wide range of estimated contaminated media quantities. In addition, the cost estimating methodology provides flexibility for incorporating revisions to remedial alternatives and achieves the desired range of accuracy. It is important to note that the cost estimating methodology presented here was developed as a concurrent path to the development of contaminated media quantity estimates. This methodology can be initiated before contaminated media quantities are estimated. As a result, this methodology is useful in developing cost estimates for use in screening and evaluating remedial technologies and process options. However, remedial alternative cost estimates cannot be prepared without the contaminated media quantity estimates. In the conduct of the feasibility study for Operable Unit 5 at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), fourteen remedial alternatives were retained for detailed analysis. Each remedial alternative was composed of combinations of remedial technologies and processes which were earlier determined to be best suited for addressing the media-specific contaminants found at the FEMP site, and achieving desired remedial action objectives

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Method development concerning cost calculations for the programme for decommissioning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this analysis is to provide an estimated total Net Present Value of the future authorities' costs for the planned decommissioning programme, cf. the Swedish decommissioning legislation. The estimated total shall be usable as part of the calculations of the following year's unit fee and the related safety allowances for nuclear generated electricity to be paid by the owners of the Swedish nuclear power plants. These calculations are conducted by the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, SKI. The calculations in this analysis take account of the recommendations in respect of fees and safety allowances which will come into force in 2004. In addition, the uncertainty associated with the Net Present Value of the authorities' costs and the principal sources of uncertainty are assessed. In the course of two analysis sessions held between May and August 2003, a broad based analysis group examined the existing calculations and their references and preconditions. The group then identified and assessed the potential sources of uncertainty; and finally assessed the impact of these sources of uncertainty on the reference costs and incorporated the corresponding corrections in the analysis. The Successive Principle was used to optimise the quality of the result. Amongst other techniques, this involves using special processes for identifying and handling the sources of uncertainty. These processes allow neutral numerical evaluation results and correct statistical calculations to be obtained. The result includes the probable impact of external developments on the costs in future, albeit excluding any serious force majeure events. Future changes to the current fixed real interest rate are similarly excluded. Given clearly defined preconditions, with allowance being made inter alia for the current fixed real interest rate, the mean value result relating to the Net Present Value of the authorities' costs is 2,487 MSEK (about 350 MUSD) with an uncertainty of ± 674 MSEK, expressed as a standard deviation

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THE COST CALCULATION AND ANALYSIS BY MEANS OF THE STANDARD COST METHOD  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Originally known as the Estimated Cost System, it has evolved, nowadays being called Standard Cost Accounting. Standard cost calculation method is based on scheduled cost, pre-calculated, set before the start of the manufacturing process itself. This method allows the determination of the elements that influence the amount of costs and their deviations from the predetermined costs.

ADRIANA MONICA?EGLEDI

2014-05-01

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Cost unit accounting for power supply companies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cost unit accounting was introduced to the power supply company Energie-Versorgung Schwaben AG (EVS) in the Seventies. The initial method of peak load proportioning was later modified to the so-called VDEW method and further improved in consecutive steps through specific measurements. Here EVS focussed particularly on collecting data in the separate-contract sector. The authors describe the procedure adopted and results obtained. (orig.)

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Calculating cost savings in utilization management.  

Science.gov (United States)

A major motivation for managing the utilization of laboratory testing is to reduce the cost of medical care. For this reason it is important to understand the basic principles of cost accounting in the clinical laboratory. The process of laboratory testing includes three distinct components termed the pre-analytic, analytic and post-analytic phases. Utilization management efforts may impact the cost structure of these three phases in different ways depending on the specific details of the initiative. Estimates of cost savings resulting from utilization management programs reported in the literature have often been fundamentally flawed due to a failure to understand basic concepts such as the difference between laboratory costs versus charges and the impact of reducing laboratory test volumes on the average versus marginal cost structure in the laboratory. This article will provide an overview of basic cost accounting principles in the clinical laboratory including both job order and process cost accounting. Specific examples will be presented to illustrate these concepts in various different scenarios. PMID:24084505

MacMillan, Donna

2014-01-01

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Recursive delay calculation unit for parametric beamformer  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents a recursive approach for parametric delay calculations for a beamformer. The suggested calculation procedure is capable of calculating the delays for any image line defined by an origin and arbitrary direction. It involves only add and shift operations making it suitable for hardware implementation. One delaycalculation unit (DCU) needs 4 parameters, and all operations can be implemented using fixed-point arithmetics. An N-channel system needs N+ 1 DCUs per line - one for the distance from the transmit origin to the image point and N for the distances from the image point to each of the receivers. Each DCU recursively calculates the square of the distance between a transducer element and a point on the beamformed line. Then it finds the approximate square root. The distance to point i is used as an initial guess for point i + 1. Using fixed-point calculations with 36-bit precision gives an error in the delay calculations on the order of 1/64 samples, at a sampling frequency of f s = 40 MHz. The circuit has been synthesized for a Virtex II Pro device speed grade 6 in two versions - a pipelined and a non-pipelined producing 150 and 30 million delays per second, respectively. The non-pipelined circuit occupies about 0.5 % of the FPGA resources and the pipelined one about 1 %. When the square root is found with a pipelined CORDIC processor, 2 % of the FPGA slices are used to deliver 150 million delays per second.

Nikolov, Svetoslav I.; Jensen, Jørgen A.; Tomov, Borislav

2006-03-01

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49 CFR 639.25 - Calculation of lease cost.  

Science.gov (United States)

... Calculation of lease cost. 639.25 Section 639.25 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CAPITAL LEASES Cost-Effectiveness §...

2010-10-01

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Calculating tragedy : assessing the costs of terrorism  

OpenAIRE

The trends and consequences of terrorist activities are often captured by counting the number of incidents and casualties. More recently, the effects of terrorist acts on various aspects of the economy have been analyzed. These costs are surveyed and put in perspective. As economic consequences are only a part of the overall costs of terrorism, possible approaches for estimating the utility losses of the people affected are discussed. Results using the life satisfaction approach, in which ind...

Frey, Bruno S.; Luechinger, Simon; Stutzer, Alois

2004-01-01

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Calculating tragedy: Assessing the costs of terrorism  

OpenAIRE

"The trends and consequences of terrorist activities are often captured by counting the number of incidents and casualties. More recently, the effects of terrorist acts on various aspects of the economy have been analyzed. These costs are surveyed and put in perspective. As economic consequences are only a part of the overall costsnof terrorism, possible approaches for estimating the utility losses of the people affected are discussed. Results using the life satisfaction approach, in which in...

Frey, Bruno S.; Luechinger, Simon; Stutzer, Alois

2007-01-01

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Inbound Logistics Cost and CO2 Calculations  

OpenAIRE

Business has globalized rapidly during the last decades. Distances between point of origin and point of consumption have increased as a result of globalization. Today’s increased distances mean that companies require faster logistic responses. Air transportation is preferred because it’s worldwide lead-time, of just 1-2 day, fulfill business expectations. However, transportation operation costs have risen dramatically and there are growing concerns about the high CO2 emission levels assoc...

Ko?kler, Cihan

2010-01-01

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COSTING OF QUALITY IN BUSINESS BASE UNIT SEVERAL PRODUCTIONS, CIENFUEGOS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The calculation of quality costs as a component of the System of Quality Management, is a must for Cuban business managers, to provide a technique identified as an advanced instrument of management, which will lead to improved competitiveness and serve as an informative source. Identify and calculate the costs of quality, as well as propose measured plans, to promote a decrease in operating expenses, which can be used as a tool to improve processes. The Business Unit of Several Base Productions of Cienfuegos presents the fault to give way to Business Improvement and certification of its Quality Management System, according to the norm ISO 9001:2008 and the decree law 281, so that the objective research was to estimate the costs of quality processes in the company. To achieve this level were used empirical methods and techniques such as direct observation, document review and work in groups, which allowed to calculate the costs of quality in all processes. The results obtained are applicable to companies that operate in the Cuban economy and according to the Cuban economic model implemented from the year 2011.

Gómez Alfonso, Elizabeth

2013-01-01

28

Fusion reactor design studies: standard unit costs and cost scaling rules  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report establishes standard unit costs and scaling rules for estimating costs of material, equipment, land, and labor components used in magnetic confinement fusion reactor plant construction and operation. Use of the standard unit costs and scaling rules will add uniformity to cost estimates, and thus allow valid comparison of the economic characteristics of various reactor concepts

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Calculating the marginal costs of a district-heating utility  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

District heating plays an important role in the Swedish heat-market. At the same time, the price of district heating varies considerably among different district-heating utilities. A case study is performed here in which a Swedish utility is analysed using three different methods for calculating the marginal costs of heat supply: a manual spreadsheet method, an optimising linear-programming model, and a least-cost dispatch simulation model. Calculated marginal-costs, obtained with the three methods, turn out to be similar. The calculated marginal-costs are also compared to the actual heat tariff in use by the utility. Using prices based on marginal costs should be able to bring about an efficient resource-allocation. It is found that the fixed rate the utility uses today should be replaced by a time-of-use rate, which would give a more accurate signal for customers to change their heat consumptions. (Author)

30

External Costs Of Electricity Generation, A Proximate Calculation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Electricity generation cost of a fossil power plant includes capital cost, operation and maintenance costs and fuel cost. For a nuclear power plant the generation cost includes also a post-operation cost (decommissioning cost). The awareness of public health and environmental protection have recently urged to elaborately incorporate those costs borne by the public due to the pollution and negative effects resulting from the Electricity generation, which are called external costs. Methods and computer programs of such calculation have been published and being developed, for example the one that is being developed and promoted by the IAEA, the B-Glad computation program. The method calculates dispersion of emitted pollution to public and environment, assess the doses received and damages thereafter, and then evaluate the damages in monetary quantities. This paper illustrates calculation using the B-Glad taking the input data of nuclear power plant (NPP) of 2 x 900 MWe at the Ujung Lemah Abang site, and two kinds of coal power plants (CPP) of 3 x 600 MWe at the Tanjung Jati site, both sites are located at the coast of the Muria peninsular. The CPPs with Flue Gas Desulphurization (FGD)and without FGD are compared, whereas the NPP eternality assessment includes considerations of risk aversion and accident condition. Calculation results show that external costs amount to 0,9094 mills/KWh for cpr without FGD, 0,8156 mills/KWh for cpr with FGD, and 0,0083 mills/KWh for the NP with FGD, and 0,0083 mills/KWh for the NPP, or two to four orders of magnitude less than respective generation costs. Compared to studies for European countries, their figures are smaller, but to the Thailand study these figures are within their lower-upper range

31

Cost calculations for agricultural machinery; Konetyoen kustannukset ja tilastolliset urakointihinnat  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

TTS-institute has since the 1960ies drawn up cost calculations for various types of agricultural machinery. Using the model calculation provided by TTS, the farmer is in a good position to make a more accurate calculation corresponding to his situation. Determining of costs is important both when planning investments and when defining the rates to be charged in connection with contract work and when hiring equipment. The current regulations pertaining to competition prohibit the publication of general hire tariffs. Therefore, the charges to be made must be agreed upon by the parties between themselves. The demand and supply in the machine sector are reflected in local price levels. The parties involved are therefore well advised to spend some time in planning and making calculations so as to have a realistic base for their decisions. Advance agreement on the rates to be charged is the means to avoiding disagreements. Farm-specific calculation connected to machine costs are easy to do when using TTS-kone, TTS's machine calculation program. TTS-kone helps both the farmer and the contractor to determine the costs of machines and machine combinations. The program can be used to calculate cost in terms of the farm's utilisation capacity or in terms of how much outside contract work is required to make the acquisition of the machine profitable. The influence of the calculation factors (e.g. write-off period, interest rate, utilisation capacity) on machine costs can be quickly solved when using the program. In addition, the program provides the user with a summary of the costs for a specified chain of machines or for the farm's entire stock of machines. (orig.)

Pentti, S.; Laaksonen, K.

2005-07-01

32

Unit cost analysis in a university hospital: an example from Srinagarind Hospital, Khon Kaen.  

Science.gov (United States)

This is the first analytic study to identify the unit cost in the University Hospital using the standard method of analysis in health economics. The unit costs in the report can be used to calculate the cost of each service for any disease. The costs of the hospital administration cost center and the supportive cost center were both allocated to the patient care service center by the simultaneous allocation method. The cost of teaching personnel was excluded from the analysis because it is quite difficult to estimate and differentiate the ratio of teaching costs to service costs. The hotel cost of the inpatient ward varied from 77.81 baht to 604.7 baht per day. The unit cost per service per day is different from the charge which is presently used at Srinagarind Hospital. Some services, such as in-house transportation are not included in the charge. This study was conducted to identify the unit cost of each service. The decision to establish charges can depend partly on this data and partly on the administrator's judgement. Other factors, such as patient poverty can dictate the final decision. In any case, the hospital and health service center should identify their own unit costs to be able to plan for effective budget management. PMID:7798815

Vatanasapt, V; Kosuwon, W; Pengsaa, P

1993-12-01

33

Cost and sensitivity exercises with a pocket calculator  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There are a lot of comprehensive programmes and methods to calculate costs and to simulate mining and processing operations. Sometimes they are not available to the whole people. In this paper it is shown how it is possible, with a pocket programmable calculator less than US $ 200 price, to do exercises in order to estimate the magnitude of investment and operation costs and also their ranges for different practical situations. So, geologists and metallurgists could decide either to spend more money or which aspects need more research. Several examples are developed in order to show how to use a type of these small calculators

34

Economic analysis of the cost of Intensive Care Units  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The cost of Intensive Care Units has the greatest impact on overall medical costs and the overall cost for the health of a country and an increasing number of studies from around the world presenting the quantification of these costs. Aim: Review of the Economic Analysis of the Cost of Intensive Care Units. Method: Search was made in the SCOPUS, MEDLINE and CINAHL databases using the key-words “Intensive Care Units (ICU”, “Cost”, “Cost Analysis”, “Health Care Costs”, “Health Resources”, “ICU resources”. The study was based on articles published in English from 2000 to 2011 investigating the Economic Analysis of the Cost of Intensive Care Units. Results: The cost of ICU is a significant percentage of gross domestic product in developed countries. Most cost analysis studies that relate to plans that include the study of staff costs, duration of stay in the ICU, the clinical situations of hospitalized patients, engineering support, medications and diagnostic tests costing scales and in relation to the diagnostic criteria. Conclusions: most studies conclude that the remuneration of staff, particularly nurses, in the ICU is the largest cost of ICU, while for the duration of stay in the ICU results are conflicting. The analysis on the cost-effectiveness of ICU can help to better apply these findings to the therapeutic context of ICU.

Mazetas D.

2014-04-01

35

Patient experience – the ingredient missing from cost-effectiveness calculations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available David CurtisCentre for Psychiatry, Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, London, UKAbstract: Standard cost-effectiveness calculations as used by the UK National Institute of Clinical Excellence compare the net benefit of an intervention with the financial costs to the health service. Debates about public health interventions also focus on these factors. The subjective experience of the patient, including financial costs and also transient pain, distress, and indignity, is routinely ignored. I carried out an Internet survey which showed that members of the public assign a high financial cost to routine medical interventions such as taking a tablet regularly or attending a clinic for an injection. It is wrong to ignore such costs when attempting to obtain an overall evaluation of the benefit of medical interventions.Keywords: screening, prevention, financial cost, medical interventions

Curtis D

2011-05-01

36

STUDY ON UNIT COST OF CERTIFICATE-TYPE BROILERS  

OpenAIRE

A production cost means all costs for inputs consumption performed by the enterprise for goods and services produced and offered. Production costs are very meaningful about business quality and it is a decision-making condition for every producer; lowest cost level is the standard in choosing the right option. These researches were intended to give an overview about these problems. Objectives were first to find unit costs for feeds and kg live weight to broilers type Certificate and second to...

Tudorache, Minodora; Ilie VAN; Custura?, Ioan; Popescu-miclos?anu, Elena; Popa, Antoaneta

2012-01-01

37

Calculating communication costs with Sessions Types and Sizes  

OpenAIRE

We present a small object-oriented language with communication primitives. The language allows the assignment of binary session types to communication channels in order to govern the interaction between different objects and to statically calculate communication costs. Class declarations are annotated with size information in order to determine the cost of sending and receiving objects. This paper describes our first steps in the creation of a session-based, object-oriented language for co...

Franco, Juliana; Drossopoulou, Sophia; Yoshida, Nobuko

2014-01-01

38

Comparison of methods to calculate electricity generating costs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Some of the methods used to compare electricity generating costs are ill-adapted to the task. In the following a dynamic cost accounting method is described which can be used to make an informative cost comparison of various electricity generating technologies, in particular nuclear and coal-fired power stations, with differing periods of operation and differing cost structures. The reference power stations assumed for the comparison for basic, medium and peak loads are all regarded as part of a stock of power stations built up over a relatively long period of time. The comparison is based on discounted cash values for dynamic investments and operating costs. The accounting process, which involves complex calculations, is performed with the aid of EDP. (orig.)

39

Unit decontamination and dismantlement (D ampersand D) costs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A series of relationships have been developed for estimating unit decontamination and dismantlement (D ampersand D) costs for a number of building types which may be applied in the absence of other data to obtain rough order-of-magnitude (ROM) cost estimates for D ampersand D activities. The relationships were developed using unit D ampersand D costs for a number of building structure types at the Department of Energy Fernald site. These unit costs into account the level of radioactive contamination as well as the, building size

40

Commerical electric power cost studies. Capital cost addendum multi-unit coal and nuclear stations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report is the culmination of a study performed to develop designs and associated capital cost estimates for multi-unit nuclear and coal commercial electric power stations, and to determine the distribution of these costs among the individual units. This report addresses six different types of 2400 MWe (nominal) multi-unit stations as follows: Two Unit PWR Station-1139 MWe Each, Two Unit BWR Station-1190 MWe Each, Two Unit High Sulfur Coal-Fired Station-1232 MWe Each, Two Unit Low Sulfur Coal-Fired Station-1243 MWe Each, Three Unit High Sulfur Coal-Fired Station-794 MWe Each, Three Unit Low Sulfur Coal-Fired Station-801 MWe Each. Recent capital cost studies performed for ERDA/NRC of single unit nuclear and coal stations are used as the basis for developing the designs and costs of the multi-unit stations. This report includes the major study groundrules, a summary of single and multi-unit stations total base cost estimates, details of cost estimates at the three digit account level and plot plan drawings for each multi-unit station identified

41

Cost calculations for decommissioning and dismantling of nuclear research facilities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Today, it is recommended that planning of decommission should form an integral part of the activities over the life cycle of a nuclear facility (planning, building and operation), but it was only in the nineteen seventies that the waste issue really surface. Actually, the IAEA guidelines on decommissioning have been issued as recently as over the last ten years, and international advice on finance of decommissioning is even younger. No general international guideline on cost calculations exists at present. This implies that cost calculations cannot be performed with any accuracy or credibility without a relatively detailed consideration of the radiological prerequisites. Consequently, any cost estimates based mainly on the particulars of the building structures and installations are likely to be gross underestimations. The present study has come about on initiative by the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI) and is based on a common need in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. The content of the report may be briefly summarised as follows. The background covers design and operation prerequisites as well as an overview of the various nuclear research facilities in the four participating countries: Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. The purpose of the work has been to identify, compile and exchange information on facilities and on methodologies for cost calculation with the aim of achieving an 80 % level of confidence. The scope has been as follows: 1) to establish a Nordic network 2) to compile dedicated guidance documents on radiological surveying, technical planning and financial risk identification and assessment 3) to compile and describe techniques for precise cost calculations at early stages 4) to compile plant and other relevant data A separate section is devoted in the report to good practice for the specific purpose of early but precise cost calculations for research facilities, and a separate section is devoted to techniques for assessment of cost. Examples are provided for each of the countries of relevant projects. They are as follows: 5) Research reactor DR1 in Denmark 6) The TRIGA research reactor in Finland 7) The uranium reprocessing plant in Norway 8) Research reactor R1 in Sweden The following conclusions were made: 9) IAEA and OECD/NEA documents provide invaluable advice for pertinent approaches. 10) Adequate radiological surveying is needed before precise cost calculations can be made. 11) The same can be said about technical planning including selection of techniques to be used. 12) It is proposed that separate analyses be made regarding the probabilities for conceivable features and events which could lead to significantly higher costs than expected. 13) It is expected that the need for precise cost estimates will dictate the pace of the radiological surveying and technical planning, at least in the early stages. 14) It is important that the validity structure for early cost estimates with regard to type of facility be fully appreciated. E g, the precision is usually less for research facilities. 15) The summation method is treacherous and leads to systematical underestimations in early stages unless compensation is made for the fact that not all items are included. 16) Comparison between different facilities can be made when there is access to information from plants at different stages of planning and when accommodation can be made with regard to differences in features. 17) A simple approach is presented for 'calibration' of a cost estimate against one or more completed projects. 18) Information exchange and co-operations between different plant owners is highly desirable. (au)

42

Cost calculations for decommissioning and dismantling of nuclear research facilities  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Today, it is recommended that planning of decommission should form an integral part of the activities over the life cycle of a nuclear facility (planning, building and operation), but it was only in the nineteen seventies that the waste issue really surface. Actually, the IAEA guidelines on decommissioning have been issued as recently as over the last ten years, and international advice on finance of decommissioning is even younger. No general international guideline on cost calculations exists at present. This implies that cost calculations cannot be performed with any accuracy or credibility without a relatively detailed consideration of the radiological prerequisites. Consequently, any cost estimates based mainly on the particulars of the building structures and installations are likely to be gross underestimations. The present study has come about on initiative by the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI) and is based on a common need in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. The content of the report may be briefly summarised as follows. The background covers design and operation prerequisites as well as an overview of the various nuclear research facilities in the four participating countries: Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. The purpose of the work has been to identify, compile and exchange information on facilities and on methodologies for cost calculation with the aim of achieving an 80 % level of confidence. The scope has been as follows: 1) to establish a Nordic network 2) to compile dedicated guidance documents on radiological surveying, technical planning and financial risk identification and assessment 3) to compile and describe techniques for precise cost calculations at early stages 4) to compile plant and other relevant data A separate section is devoted in the report to good practice for the specific purpose of early but precise cost calculations for research facilities, and a separate section is devoted to techniques for assessment of cost. Examples are provided for each of the countries of relevant projects. They are as follows: 5) Research reactor DR1 in Denmark 6) The TRIGA research reactor in Finland 7) The uranium reprocessing plant in Norway 8) Research reactor R1 in Sweden The following conclusions were made: 9) IAEA and OECD/NEA documents provide invaluable advice for pertinent approaches. 10) Adequate radiological surveying is needed before precise cost calculations can be made. 11) The same can be said about technical planning including selection of techniques to be used. 12) It is proposed that separate analyses be made regarding the probabilities for conceivable features and events which could lead to significantly higher costs than expected. 13) It is expected that the need for precise cost estimates will dictate the pace of the radiological surveying and technical planning, at least in the early stages. 14) It is important that the validity structure for early cost estimates with regard to type of facility be fully appreciated. E g, the precision is usually less for research facilities. 15) The summation method is treacherous and leads to systematical underestimations in early stages unless compensation is made for the fact that not all items are included. 16) Comparison between different facilities can be made when there is access to information from plants at different stages of planning and when accommodation can be made with regard to differences in features. 17) A simple approach is presented for 'calibration' of a cost estimate against one or more completed projects. 18) Information exchange and co-operations between different plant owners is highly desirable. (au)

Andersson, I. (Studsvik Nuclear AB (Sweden)); Backe, S. (Institute for Energy Technology (Norway)); Cato, A.; Lindskog, S. (Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (Sweden)); Efraimsson, H. (Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (Sweden)); Iversen, Klaus (Danish Decommissioning (Denmark)); Salmenhaara, S. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland (Finland)); Sjoeblom, R. (Tekedo AB, (Sweden))

2008-07-15

43

Composite Cost Function Based Solution to the Unit Commitment Problem  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents a new approach via composite cost function to solve the unit commitment problem. The unit com-mitment problem involves determining the start-up and shut-down schedules for generating units to meet the fore-casted demand at the minimum cost. The commitment schedule must satisfy the other constraints such as the generating limits, spinning reserve, minimum up and down time, ramp level and individual units. The proposed algorithm gives the committed units and economic load dispatch for each specific hour of operation. Numerical simulations were carried out using three cases: four-generator, seven-generator, and ten-generator thermal unit power systems over a 24 h period. The produced schedule was compared with several other methods, such as Dynamic programming, Branch and bound, Ant colony system, and traditional Tabu search. The result demonstrated the accuracy of the proposed method.

Srikrishna Subramanian

2010-08-01

44

20 CFR 404.275 - How is an automatic cost-of-living increase calculated?  

Science.gov (United States)

...How is an automatic cost-of-living increase calculated? 404.275 Section 404...Insurance Amounts Cost-Of-Living Increases § 404.275 How is an automatic cost-of-living increase calculated? (a) Increase based...

2010-04-01

45

PACTOLUS, Nuclear Power Plant Cost and Economics by Discounted Cash Flow Method. CLOTHO, Mass Flow Data Calculation for Program PACTOLUS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

1 - Description of problem or function: PACTOLUS is a code for computing nuclear power costs using the discounted cash flow method. The cash flows are generated from input unit costs, time schedules and burnup data. CLOTHO calculates and communicates to PACTOLUS mass flow data to match a specified load factor history. 2 - Method of solution: Plant lifetime power costs are calculated using the discounted cash flow method. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem - Maxima of: 40 annual time periods into which all costs and mass flows are accumulated, 20 isotopic mass flows charged into and discharged from the reactor model

46

STUDY ON UNIT COST OF CERTIFICATE-TYPE BROILERS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A production cost means all costs for inputs consumption performed by the enterprise for goods and services produced and offered. Production costs are very meaningful about business quality and it is a decision-making condition for every producer; lowest cost level is the standard in choosing the right option. These researches were intended to give an overview about these problems. Objectives were first to find unit costs for feeds and kg live weight to broilers type Certificate and second to reduce unit costs by changing energy and protein content of feeds for these broilers. Experiment was performed with Ross 308 chickens, raised according to the technology to produce ecological poultry meat type Certificate. Three experimental variants were used; respectively three treatments/each variant and experiment design was in pens. Experimental period was of 56 days of age; feeding technology used was bi-phase, as following: group CM, with constant energy and protein level, group C1, with constant energy and variable protein level and group C2, with variable energy and constant protein level. Major production performances were checked and slaughtering was followed by cutting and finally all data were processed and read statistically. Finally unit costs per kg processed feed (1,308 – 1,362 lei and per kg live weight (5,532 – 5,667 lei were analyzed.

Minodora TUDORACHE

2012-01-01

47

10 CFR 503.6 - Cost calculations for new powerplants and installations.  

Science.gov (United States)

...capitalized engineering costs, land, construction, environmental offsets, fuel inventory...build the unit; sunk costs must not be included...generally accepted accounting principles consistently...estimates of relevant costs (as discussed...

2010-01-01

48

THE USE OF CALCULATION OF COSTS FOR ACTIVITIES TO IMPROVE COST MANAGEMENT AND PROFITABILITY  

OpenAIRE

Dissatisfaction with the classical systems of managerial accounting has led to global acceptance of the ABC, as a result of the many theoretical and applied works, which had as its objective the creation of a system for calculating relevant costs, adapted to the needs of information, in the new context of production organization. Under this method, the task, allowing a new vision in the company and cut cross vision, becomes the Centre of representation and modeling of enterprise and serves as...

BU?AN GABRIELA; CIURL?U LOREDANA

2012-01-01

49

Petroleum Refinery Hydrogen Production Unit: Exergy and Production Cost Evaluation  

OpenAIRE

Some specific processes are required to obtain pure hydrogen and the most usual one is natural gas reforming, where natural gas reacts with superheated steam producing H2, CO, CO2 and H2O. This paper presents the exergy and production costs evaluation of a complete hydrogen production unit of a petroleum refinery. The hydrogen production unit analysed in this paper has to supply 550,000 Nm3 of hydrogen per day to purify diesel oil. Based on a synthesis plant of the hydrogen production unit, t...

Silvio Oliveira Júnior; Cruz, Fla?vio E.

2008-01-01

50

COSTS AND PROFITABILITY IN FOOD PROCESSING: PASTRY TYPE UNITS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available For each company, profitability, products quality and customer satisfaction are the most importanttargets. To attaint these targets, managers need to know all about costs that are used in decision making. Whatkind of costs? How these costs are calculated for a specific sector such as food processing? These are only a fewquestions with answers in our paper. We consider that a case study for this sector may be relevant for all peoplethat are interested to increase the profitability of this specific activity sector.

DUMITRANA MIHAELA

2013-08-01

51

Accelerating Correlated Quantum Chemistry Calculations Using Graphical Processing Units  

OpenAIRE

Graphical processing units are now being used with dramatic effect to accelerate quantum chemistry calculations. However, early work exposed challenges involving memory bottlenecks and insufficient numerical precision. This research effort addresses those issues, proposing two new tools for accelerating matrix multiplications of arbitrary size where single-precision accuracy is not enough.

Watson, Mark A.; Olivares-amaya, Roberto; Edgar, Richard G.; Arias, Toma?s; Aspuru-guzik, Ala?n

2010-01-01

52

Genomewide selection in oil palm: increasing selection gain per unit time and cost with small populations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) requires 19 years per cycle of phenotypic selection. The use of molecular markers may reduce the generation interval and the cost of oil-palm breeding. Our objectives were to compare, by simulation, the response to phenotypic selection, marker-assisted recurrent selection (MARS), and genomewide selection with small population sizes in oil palm, and assess the efficiency of each method in terms of years and cost per unit gain. Markers significantly associated with the trait were used to calculate the marker scores in MARS, whereas all markers were used (without significance tests) to calculate the marker scores in genomewide selection. Responses to phenotypic selection and genomewide selection were consistently greater than the response to MARS. With population sizes of N = 50 or 70, responses to genomewide selection were 4-25% larger than the corresponding responses to phenotypic selection, depending on the heritability and number of quantitative trait loci. Cost per unit gain was 26-57% lower with genomewide selection than with phenotypic selection when markers cost US $1.50 per data point, and 35-65% lower when markers cost $0.15 per data point. With population sizes of N = 50 or 70, time per unit gain was 11-23 years with genomewide selection and 14-25 years with phenotypic selection. We conclude that for a realistic yet relatively small population size of N = 50 in oil palm, genomewide selection is superior to MARS and phenotypic selection in terms of gain per unit cost and time. Our results should be generally applicable to other tree species that are characterized by long generation intervals, high costs of maintaining breeding plantations, and small population sizes in selection programs. PMID:18219476

Wong, C K; Bernardo, R

2008-04-01

53

Costs of Crashes to Government, United States, 2008  

OpenAIRE

We estimated how much the Federal government and state/local government pay for different kinds of crashes in the United States. Government costs include reductions in an array of public services (emergency, incident management, vocational rehabilitation, coroner court processing of liability litigation), medical payments, social safety net assistance to the injured and their families, and taxes foregone because victims miss work. Government also pays when its employees crash while working an...

Miller, Ted R.; Bhattacharya, Soma; Zaloshnja, Eduard; Taylor, Dexter; Bahar, Geni; David, Iuliana

2011-01-01

54

Foundations of Financial Accounting Organization and Cost Calculation using Activity-Based Costing Method in Romanian Textile Industry  

OpenAIRE

The purpose of first part of this article consists in attempting to establish the management accounting and cost calculation basis of the ABC method in Romania. After general characterization of the ABC method and origin establishment of the ABC method the premises analysis are treated which are the basis of management accounting and cost calculation through ABC method in Romania. There are established the role and implications of the processes, activities and cost objects on management accou...

Sorinel Capusneanu

2006-01-01

55

Using Standard-Sole Cost Method for Performance Gestion Accounting and Calculation Cost in the Machine Building Industry  

OpenAIRE

The main purpose of improving and varying cost calculation methods in the machine building industry is to make them more operational and efficient in supplying the information necessary to the management in taking its decisions. The present cost calculation methods used in the machine building plants – global method and the method per orders – by which a historical cost is determined a posteriori used in deducting and post factum justification of manufacturing expenses does not offer the ...

Aureliana Geta Roman; Cleopatra Sendroiu; Costantin Roman

2006-01-01

56

Nuclear power generation costs in the United States of America  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Increasing world energy prices and shortages of fuel resources make the utilization of nuclear power extremely important. The United States nuclear power industry represents the largest body of nuclear power experience in the world. Analysis of the recent United States experience of substantial increases in the cost of nuclear power generation provides good insight into the interdependence of technological, financial, and institutional influences and their combined impact on the economic viability of nuclear power generation. The various factors influencing ultimate generation costs, including construction cost, fuel cost, regulatory reviews, and siting considerations are discussed, and their relative impacts are explored, including discussion of design complexity and related regulatory response. A closer look into the recent relatively high escalation of nuclear plant construction costs shows how differing economic conditions can affect the relative cost effectiveness of various methods of power generation. The vulnerability of capital-intensive, long-lead-time projects to changes in economic conditions and uncertainty in future power demands is discussed. Likewise, the pitfalls of new designs and increased sophistication are contrasted to the advantages which result from proven designs, reliable engineering, and shorter lead times. The value of reliable architect-engineers experienced in the design and construction of the plant is discussed. A discussion is presenteant is discussed. A discussion is presented of additional regulatory requirements stemming from public safety aspects of nuclear power. These include recognition of requirements for the very large effort for quality assurance of materials and workmanship during plant construction and operation. Likewise, a discussion is included of the demanding nature of operations, maintenance, and modification of plants during the operational phase because of the need for highly qualified operations and maintenance personnel and strict quality assurance procedures. (author)

57

Monetary Costs of Dementia in the United States  

Science.gov (United States)

BACKGROUND Dementia affects a large and growing number of older adults in the United States. The monetary costs attributable to dementia are likely to be similarly large and to continue to increase. METHODS In a subsample (856 persons) of the population in the Health and Retirement Study (HRS), a nationally representative longitudinal study of older adults, the diagnosis of dementia was determined with the use of a detailed in-home cognitive assessment that was 3 to 4 hours in duration and a review by an expert panel. We then imputed cognitive status to the full HRS sample (10,903 persons, 31,936 person-years) on the basis of measures of cognitive and functional status available for all HRS respondents, thereby identifying persons in the larger sample with a high probability of dementia. The market costs associated with care for persons with dementia were determined on the basis of self-reported out-of-pocket spending and the utilization of nursing home care; Medicare claims data were used to identify costs paid by Medicare. Hours of informal (unpaid) care were valued either as the cost of equivalent formal (paid) care or as the estimated wages forgone by informal caregivers. RESULTS The estimated prevalence of dementia among persons older than 70 years of age in the United States in 2010 was 14.7%. The yearly monetary cost per person that was attributable to dementia was either $56,290 (95% confidence interval [CI], $42,746 to $69,834) or $41,689 (95% CI, $31,017 to $52,362), depending on the method used to value informal care. These individual costs suggest that the total monetary cost of dementia in 2010 was between $157 billion and $215 billion. Medicare paid approximately $11 billion of this cost. CONCLUSIONS Dementia represents a substantial financial burden on society, one that is similar to the financial burden of heart disease and cancer. (Funded by the National Institute on Aging.) PMID:23550670

Hurd, Michael D.; Martorell, Paco; Delavande, Adeline; Mullen, Kathleen J.; Langa, Kenneth M.

2013-01-01

58

Application of the Bn theory to unit cell calculations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The integral transport equation is solved in square unit cells by assuming the existence of a fundamental mode. The equations governing the Bn method are given without making the small buckling approximation. First, the angular flux is factorized into two parts: a periodic microscopic fine-structure flux and a macroscopic form with no angular dependence. The macroscopic form only depends on a buckling vector with a given orientation. The critical buckling norm, along with the corresponding fine-structure flux, is obtained using collision probability calculations that are repeated until criticality is achieved. The procedure allows the periodic or reflective boundary conditions of the unit cell to be taken into account using closed-form contributions obtained from the cyclic tracking technique. Numerical results are presented for one-group heterogeneous cell problems with isotropic and linearly anisotropic scattering kernels, some of which include void regions

59

Application of the Bn theory to unit cell calculations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The integral transport equation will be solved in square unit cells by assuming the existence of a fundamental mode. The equations governing the Bn method are given without making the small buckling approximation. First, the angular flux is factorized into two parts: a periodic microscopic fine structure flux, and a macroscopic form with no angular dependence. The macroscopic form only depends on a buckling vector with a given orientation. The critical buckling norm along with the corresponding fine structure flux are obtained using collision probability (CP) calculations which are repeated until criticality is achieved. This procedure allows the boundary conditions of the unit cell to be taken into account using closed-form contributions obtained from the cyclic tracking technique. Numerical results are presented for heterogeneous problems with isotropic scattering kernels. The applicability of this heterogeneous Bn model to accurately follow voiding effects is also considered

60

An integrated approach to calculate life cycle costs of arms and military equipment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available INTRODUCTION In a situation when government expenditures for defense are more restrictive, any investment in the acquisition of arms and military equipment (AME is a question that does not allow errors in decisions. Accordingly, the economic analysis of the investment must be detailed and unavoidable. In the past, the initial cost of procurement of AME was often the primary, and sometimes the only one criterion in decision-making. Neglecting the analysis of costs throughout the life of assets in prefeasibility studies is the main cause of unplanned investment in the later stages of the life cycle of investment, and also of a number of problems in the functioning and unfulfilling or partially fulfilling the goals of the system. PROCESS OF EQUIPPING THE MoD AND THE SAF WITH AME Legislation governing the process of equipping the Ministry of Defence (MoD and the Serbian Armed Forces (SAF with AME is based on the Regulation on equipping the Yugoslav Army with weapons and military equipment in peacetime, from 1996, and on several Standards of National Defense (SNO 0477/83, SNO 1096/85, SNO 8196/92, SNO 9000/97, etc.. Due to a number of social and organizational changes in the defense system, this regulation is not in full compliance with real-time requirements. The analysis of legal regulations and activities in the process of equipping the MoD and the SAF with AME in practice indicates dominance of technical - technological aspects of the equipping analysis, while the economic aspect (primarily aspect of costs is present, but not detailed enough. At best, there is only a static approach to the analysis and evaluation of investment projects, while a dynamic aspect and the aspect of the total cost over the life of assets are not taken into account. ANALYSIS OF COSTS IN THE LIFETIME OF ASSETS Given the non-profit character of military organizations and the possibility to express explicit costs, but not the benefits of investment in equipping with AME , costs are one of the most dominant parameters in decision-making. Modern trends in this area comprehensively perceive all costs during the life cycle of assets.In general, in the analysis of costs in the life cycle of AME there are two sets of costs: visible and invisible (hidden costs. The visible part of the costs is mainly present in decision-making and usually includes the cost of equipping units or purchase of assets. The invisible part of the costs is far more significant. Although it is larger than the visible part and covers more groups of costs, decision-makers often do not take it into account. The hidden costs include: distribution costs, operating costs, maintenance costs, training costs, inventory costs, information systems costs, the cost of disposal and write-offs, etc. The decision making problem about investment in the AME purchase and equipping is obviously of  multicriteria nature, whether an optimum combination of costs for one  technical system (AME is in question, or whether it is a choice of a system of AME among many offered. COST ANALYSIS OF A PARTICULAR  ASSET For the illustration of an integrated approach to the analysis of the cost of assets in their life-cycle, a model from the US Naval Postgraduate School, was adjusted and applied on an example of a real asset. The model is applied to the case of two  squadrons of identical aircraft based at different airports. With regard to the availability, confidentiality, and the variability of costs and reliability of the elements of AME, the calculations in the model are implemented on the basis of the estimated or orientation parameters. Essentially, the goal is to demonstrate the interdependence, mutual relations and influences of parameters and their ultimate impact on the overall cost of military assets. Applying the model to a particular example points to the fact that, in the first years of asset life, the dominant cost is that of asset procurement (cost of acquisition, cost of assets themselves, the price of equipment for service and maintenance, the costs of initial training of a

Vlada S. Sokolovi?

2013-12-01

61

Fast calculation of HELAS amplitudes using graphics processing unit (GPU)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We use the graphics processing unit (GPU) for fast calculations of helicity amplitudes of physics processes. As our first attempt, we compute uu?n? (n=2 to 8) processes in pp collisions at ?(s)=14 TeV by transferring the MadGraph generated HELAS amplitudes (FORTRAN) into newly developed HEGET (HELAS Evaluation with GPU Enhanced Technology) codes written in CUDA, a C-platform developed by NVIDIA for general purpose computing on the GPU. Compared with the usual CPU programs, we obtain a 40-150 times better performance on the GPU. (orig.)

62

Some Problems of Calculation and Design of High-Activity Gamma Units  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report describes the principal requirements for gamma units intended for various purposes. Several methods of calculating the dose fields for various forms of irradiators are given, as well as graphs, nomograms and formulae to estimate the amount of gamma-ray dose absorbed by the irradiated object from cobalt-60 and caesium-137. Some of the calculated data have been confirmed by experiment. The advantages of irradiators of various geometry employed in experimental and commercial units are discussed. The irradiation technique for various objects is analyzed and the optimum irradiation conditions (radiation utilization factor, dose field homogeneity, etc.) are discussed. Several rational shielding systems are suggested to simplify irradiation process and recharging, and to reduce the cost of design and operation. (author)

63

Quality and Growth Implications of Incremental Costing Models for Distance Education Units  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this article is to explore quality and growth implications emergent from various incremental costing models applied to distance education units. Prior research relative to costing models and three competing costing models useful in the current distance education environment are discussed. Specifically, the simple costing model, unit

Crawford, C. B.; Gould, Lawrence V.; King, Dennis; Parker, Carl

2010-01-01

64

Calculating Cost-Return for Investments in Student Success  

Science.gov (United States)

In late 2007, Jobs for the Future (JFF), working with the Delta Project on Postsecondary Costs, Productivity and Accountability, launched "Investing in Student Success", a one-year pilot program. The pilot, conceived of as part of the "Making Opportunity Affordable" initiative and funded by Walmart Foundation and Lumina Foundation for Education,…

Lumina Foundation for Education, 2010

2010-01-01

65

Nuclear power and global warming: a first cost-benefit calculation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper investigates the costs and benefits of a modest nuclear power programme in the European Union to combat the threat of global warming. The nuclear programme is found to bring a double benefit. The first and more obvious benefit is that the economic impacts of global warming are reduced. The second benefit is counter-intuitive; most people would expect it to be a cost. It comes from the stimulus to the economy from the construction of the nuclear plant, which, with the recycling of carbon tax revenues, offsets its construction and operating costs, and may even cause consumers' expenditure to rise. Calculations in this paper show that over the period to 2100 the mean net present value of the first benefit is 6 billion European Currency Units (ECU; 1 ECU is about Dollars 1), while the second benefit has a mean net present value of 159 billion ECU. However both benefits, particularly the second, are still very uncertain, to the extent that even their sign is not yet definitely established. (author)

66

Thermal analysis of Malaysian double storey housing - low/medium cost unit  

Science.gov (United States)

Almost half of the total energy used today is consumed in buildings. In the tropical climate, air-conditioning a housing unit takes much of the energy bill. Malaysia is no exception. Malaysian double storey terrace housing is popular among developers and buyers. Surveys have shown that housing occupants are much dissatisfied with the thermal comfort and artificial cooling is often sought. The objective of this study is to assess the thermal comfort of the low and medium-cost double storey housing in the area surrounding Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. A simulation program using the Weighting Factor Method calculates the heat transfer interaction, temperature distribution, and PMV level in three types of housing units in relation to the size. Fanger's PMV model based on ISO Standard 7730 is used here because it accounts for all parameters that affect the thermal sensation of a human within its equation. Results showed that both the low and medium-cost housing units studied are out of the comfortable range described by ASHRAE Standard 55 with the units all complied with the local bylaws. In view of the uncertainties in energy supply, future housing units should consider natural ventilation as part of the passive energy management.

Normah, M. G.; Lau, K. Y.; Yusoff, S. Mohd.

2012-06-01

67

Burden of disease and costs of aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (aSAH in the United Kingdom  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background To estimate life years and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs lost and the economic burden of aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (aSAH in the United Kingdom including healthcare and non-healthcare costs from a societal perspective. Methods All UK residents in 2005 with aSAH (International Classification of Diseases 10th revision (ICD-10 code I60. Sex and age-specific abridged life tables were generated for a general population and aSAH cohorts. QALYs in each cohort were calculated adjusting the life tables with health-related quality of life (HRQL data. Healthcare costs included hospital expenditure, cerebrovascular rehabilitation, primary care and community health and social services. Non-healthcare costs included informal care and productivity losses arising from morbidity and premature death. Results A total of 80,356 life years and 74,807 quality-adjusted life years were estimated to be lost due to aSAH in the UK in 2005. aSAH costs the National Health Service (NHS £168.2 million annually with hospital inpatient admissions accounting for 59%, community health and social services for 18%, aSAH-related operations for 15% and cerebrovascular rehabilitation for 6% of the total NHS estimated costs. The average per patient cost for the NHS was estimated to be £23,294. The total economic burden (including informal care and using the human capital method to estimate production losses of a SAH in the United Kingdom was estimated to be £510 million annually. Conclusion The economic and disease burden of aSAH in the United Kingdom is reported in this study. Decision-makers can use these results to complement other information when informing prevention policies in this field and to relate health care expenditures to disease categories.

Gray Alastair

2010-04-01

68

Estimating nuclear fuel cycle cost using a hand-held programmable calculator  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A program has been developed by which average fuel cycle cost for a single reload batch can be calculated in a few minutes using a hand-held programmable calculator. The program described uses a modification of the so-called seven-page method, wherein the method was expanded to calculate mixed oxide fuel cycle cost, and to calculate the cost of off-site spent fuel storage prior to reprocessing or final spent fuel disposal; a fuel fabrication loss factor was added for plutonium and/or uranium fuel fabrication; and a single payment was used for fuel fabrication instead of several monthly payments

69

Monte Carlo calculation of monitor unit for electron arc therapy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: Monitor unit (MU) calculations for electron arc therapy were carried out using Monte Carlo simulations and verified by measurements. Variations in the dwell factor (DF), source-to-surface distance (SSD), and treatment arc angle (?) were studied. Moreover, the possibility of measuring the DF, which requires gantry rotation, using a solid water rectangular, instead of cylindrical, phantom was investigated. Methods: A phase space file based on the 9 MeV electron beam with rectangular cutout (physical size=2.6x21 cm2) attached to the block tray holder of a Varian 21 EX linear accelerator (linac) was generated using the EGSnrc-based Monte Carlo code and verified by measurement. The relative output factor (ROF), SSD offset, and DF, needed in the MU calculation, were determined using measurements and Monte Carlo simulations. An ionization chamber, a radiographic film, a solid water rectangular phantom, and a cylindrical phantom made of polystyrene were used in dosimetry measurements. Results: Percentage deviations of ROF, SSD offset, and DF between measured and Monte Carlo results were 1.2%, 0.18%, and 1.5%, respectively. It was found that the DF decreased with an increase in ?, and such a decrease in DF was more significant in the ? range of 0 deg. - 60 deg. than 60 deg. - 120 deg. Moreover, for a fixed ?, the DF increased with an increase in SSD. Comparing the DF determined using the rectangular and cylindrical phantom through measurements and Montephantom through measurements and Monte Carlo simulations, it was found that the DF determined by the rectangular phantom agreed well with that by the cylindrical one within ±1.2%. It shows that a simple setup of a solid water rectangular phantom was sufficient to replace the cylindrical phantom using our specific cutout to determine the DF associated with the electron arc. Conclusions: By verifying using dosimetry measurements, Monte Carlo simulations proved to be an alternative way to perform MU calculations effectively for electron arc therapy. Since Monte Carlo simulations can generate a precalculated database of ROF, SSD offset, and DF for the MU calculation, with a reduction in human effort and linac beam-on time, it is recommended that Monte Carlo simulations be partially or completely integrated into the commissioning of electron arc therapy.

70

Manual of Nucost 1.0 - code for calculation of nuclear power generation costs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nucost is a computer code developed at CDTN to perform cost calculation of electric power generated in PWR nuclear power plants, based on present worth cost method. The Nucost version 1.0 performs calculations of nuclear fuel cost cycle by cycle during the time life of the power plant. That calculation is performed with enough details permitting optimization and minimization. The code is also a tool to aid reload projects and economic operation of PWR reactors. This manual presents a description of Nucost version 1.0, instruction to enter data preparation and description of the Nucost output. (M.I.)

71

A practical approach for electron monitor unit calculation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Electron monitor unit (MU) calculation requires measured beam data such as the relative output factor (ROF) of a cone, insert correction factor (ICF) and effective source-to-surface distance (ESD). Measuring the beam data to cover all possible clinical cases is not practical for a busy clinic because it takes tremendous time and labor. In this study, we propose a practical approach to reduce the number of data measurements without affecting accuracy. It is based on two findings of dosimetric properties of electron beams. One is that the output ratio of two inserts is independent of the cone used, and the other is that ESD is a function of field size but independent of cone and jaw opening. For the measurements to prove the findings, a parallel plate ion chamber (Markus, PTW 23343) with an electrometer (Cardinal Health 35040) was used. We measured the outputs to determine ROF, ICF and ESD of different energies (5-21 MeV). Measurements were made in a Plastic Water(TM) phantom or in water. Three linear accelerators were used: Siemens MD2 (S/N 2689), Siemens Primus (S/N 3305) and Varian Clinic 21-EX (S/N 1495). With these findings, the number of data set to be measured can be reduced to less than 20% of the data points. (note)

72

Calculation of Total Cost, Tolerance Based on Taguchi?s, Asymmetric Quality Loss Function Approach  

OpenAIRE

Problem statement: Current world market force the manufacturing sectors to develop high quality product and process design with minimum possible cost. About 80% of problems in production units may be attributed to 20% of design tolerance causes. While design typically represents the smallest actual cost elements in products (around 5%), it leverages the largest cost influence (around 70%). So design engineers continuously stumble upon problem of design for high quality performance with lower ...

Kumar, R. S.; Alagumurthi, N.; Ramesh, R.

2009-01-01

73

ANALISA COST SHARING PERHITUNGAN TARIF HEMODIALISIS (HD MASYARAKAT MISKIN DI RUMAH SAKIT UMUM PKU MUHAMMADIYAH UNIT I YOGYAKARTA  

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Full Text Available Background: Growing and expanding hopital may be efficiently and effectively managed, it is requiredto be conducted to face the tight competition in world of health service. If the hospital wish to survive in the competition, they need to recount the existing hospital tariff previously, that is by using competitive tariff model calculation. Hospital of PKU Muhammadiyah Unit I Yogyakarta divides HD tariff into two parts, these are Single Use and Re Use tariff. There are cost sharing differences between HD tariff in hospital and government. In this research, the reseacher only focuses on HD tariff of Re Use in order to reduce cost sharing. All this time, the hospital has never counted different cost. It can create lose for the hospital. th s researcher interest to analyze the cost sharing of hemodialisis tariff calculation for poor in public hospital of PKU Muhammadiyah Unit I Yogyakarta. Methode: This research type is descriptive research qualitative which analyzed real expense by using real cost methode and difference which is burdened by patien toward real tariff, meanwhile opinion about cost sharing is taken by interview with superintendent finance and superintendent of hemodialisis unit using interview method. Resulth: this research show the real tariff equal to Rp.912.571 while tariff released by hospital equal to Rp.575.000, and difference between second tariff is Rp.337.751, while tariff given by government is Rp.528.067 and difference with the real tariff equal to Rp.384.684. Conclusion: that unit based cost tariff higher than tariff given by hospital at this time, the biggest expense is component for examines or substance used up wear. The hospital should determine the strategy to decrease the difference. Key Words: cost sharing, real cost method, tariff packet, hemodialisis, poor, society

. Primandita

2013-04-01

74

Benefit/cost analysis of plutonium recycle options in the United States  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Predictable effects of the recycle of plutonium and uranium recovered from spent LWR fuels were assessed in a final environmental statement (GESMO). Five alternative dispositions of LWR-produced plutonium ranging from prompt recycle of recovered plutonium and uranium to no recovery and no recycle are compared. The assessments consider cumulative effects for the period 1975 through 2000, and are centered on a conservative low growth rate resulting in about 500 LWR's in the U.S. in 2000. A more optimistic growth projection resulting in about 800 LWR's in 2000 is also analyzed in order to assess the effects of industry size upon the impacts. Demands for fuel cycle services were calculated with an ERDA program, NUFUEL, which was modified to include penalties for 236U and 242Pu. Unit cost data, including a simulation of market place reaction to supply-demand functions for uranium costs, were combined with the NUFUEL demand data in an economics code, NUCOST. Environmental impacts were also based upon NUFUEL demand data and were developed using a model plant industry concept. Using the most likely unit costs with a 10% discount rate, present worth incentives for prompt recycle over no recycle of $3.2 billion for the lower growth and about $6 billion for the higher growth were indicated. Present worth costs of delays in recycle of up to 5 years were less than $1 billion. Sensitivity of the economic assessments to unit cost variations and discount rates were also evaluated. Environmental impacts other than radiological were lowest for prompt Pu recycle and highest for no recycle. Radiological impacts for the total world wide total body exposure from U.S. industry for the 26 year period were estimated to be: - No recycle-8.2 million person-rem; U only recycle-9.5 million person-rem; Pu and U recycle-8.8 million person-rem. Comparison of the decreased radiological impact of the no recycle option with its increased costs relative to prompt plutonium recycle resulted in a cost/benefit ratio of 0.04. Thus, the benefits of prompt plutonium recycle appear to far outweigh its costs

75

CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF THE MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING SYSTEM AND OF THE COST CALCULATION IN THE ELECTROTECHNICAL INDUSTRY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The contemporary scientific and technical revolution has brought into view the increasingcomplexity of the economic activity in all departments whose current and future management mustnecessarily involve taking into account the efficiency criterion, the economic optimum displaying bothquantitative and qualitative forms. The company is placed in a competitive environment, within a valuechain of providers, on the one hand and suppliers or customers on the other hand. In order to becompetitive, the companies increasingly allocate more resources to doing researches, their target being tomake very good quality products at competitive prices. The methods of cost calculation have seen acontinuous evolution generated by the new problems that cost calculation had to respond to. The decisionon the organization and adoption of either one cost calculation method or another, involves the analysis ofthe main factors that determine the organization of cost calculation.

POPESCU (Costache LUMINITA NICOLETA

2013-08-01

76

Using Standard-Sole Cost Method for Performance Gestion Accounting and Calculation Cost in the Machine Building Industry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The main purpose of improving and varying cost calculation methods in the machine building industry is to make them more operational and efficient in supplying the information necessary to the management in taking its decisions. The present cost calculation methods used in the machine building plants – global method and the method per orders – by which a historical cost is determined a posteriori used in deducting and post factum justification of manufacturing expenses does not offer the management the possibility to fully satisfy its need for information. We are talking about a change of conception in applying certain systems, methods and work techniques, according to the needs of efficient administration of production and the plant seen as a whole. The standard-cost method best answers to the needs of the effective management of the value side of the manufacturing process and raising economic efficiency. We consider that, in the machine building industry, these objectives can be achieved by using the standard - sole cost alternative of the standard-cost method.

Aureliana Geta Roman

2006-09-01

77

Costs of Occupational Injuries in Construction in the United States  

OpenAIRE

This paper presents costs of fatal and non-fatal injuries for the construction industry using 2002 national incidence data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics and a comprehensive cost model that includes direct medical costs, indirect losses in wage and household productivity, as well as an estimate of the quality of life costs due to injury. Costs are presented at the three-digit industry level, by worker characteristics, and by detailed source and event of injury. The total costs of fatal a...

Waehrer, Geetha M.; Dong, Xiuwen S.; Miller, Ted; Haile, Elizabeth; Men, Yurong

2007-01-01

78

Marginal cost calculation of energy production in hydro thermoelectric systems considering the transmission system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The alternatives for calculation of energy marginal cost in hydroelectric systems, considering the transmission one, was analysed, including fundamental concepts; generation/transmission systems, represented by linear power flow model; production marginal costs in hydrothermal systems and computation aspects. (C.G.C.). 11 refs, 5 figs

79

Assessing DRG cost accounting with respect to resource allocation and tariff calculation: The case of Germany  

OpenAIRE

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the German diagnosis related groups (G-DRG) cost accounting scheme by assessing its resource allocation at hospital level and its tariff calculation at national level. First, the paper reviews and assesses the three steps in the G-DRG resource allocation scheme at hospital level: (1) the groundwork; (2) cost-center accounting; and (3) patient-level costing. Second, the paper reviews and assesses the three steps in G-DRG national tariff calculation: (1) ...

Vogl, Matthias

2012-01-01

80

Calculation of Complexity Costs – An Approach for Rationalizing a Product Program  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper proposes an operational method for rationalizing a product program based on the calculation of complexity costs. The method takes its starting point in the calculation of complexity costs on a product program level. This is done throughout the value chain ranging from component inventories at the factory sites, all the way to the distribution of finished goods from distribution centers to the customers. The method proposes a step-wise approach including the analysis, quantification and allocation of product program complexity costs by the means of identifying of a number of suggested Life Cycle Complexity Factors (LCCFs). The suggested method has been tested in an action based research study with promising results. The case study shows how the allocation of complexity costs on individual product variants provides previously unknown insights into the true cost structure of a product program. These findings represent an improved decision basis for the planning of reactive and proactive initiatives ofrationalizing a product program.

Hansen, Christian Lindschou; Mortensen, Niels Henrik

2012-01-01

81

Development of radiological concentrations and unit liter doses for TWRS FSAR radiological consequence calculations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The analysis described in this report develops the Unit Liter Doses for use in the TWRS FSAR. The Unit Liter Doses provide a practical way to calculate conservative radiological consequences for a variety of potential accidents for the tank farms.

Cowley, W.L.

1996-04-25

82

Development of radiological concentrations and unit liter doses for TWRS FSAR radiological consequence calculations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The analysis described in this report develops the Unit Liter Doses for use in the TWRS FSAR. The Unit Liter Doses provide a practical way to calculate conservative radiological consequences for a variety of potential accidents for the tank farms

83

Consideration concerning the costs of the 300 kW wind units developed in Romania  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A demonstrative wind farm with four research units, 300 kW each, is in developing stage in Romania. The article shows economic analysis of these experimental wind units and their cost structure focusing in component costs, performance, manufacturing technology and installing work. (author)

84

Consideration concerning the costs of the 300 kW wind units developed in Romania  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A demonstrative wind farm with four research units, 300 kW each, is in developing stage in Romania. The article shows economic analysis of these experimental wind units and their cost structure focusing in component costs, performance, manufacturing technology and installing work. (author)

Gyulai, F.; Bej, A. [Technical Univ. of Timisoara (Romania). Wind Energy Research Center

1995-12-31

85

Life cycle costing of waste management systems: Overview, calculation principles and case studies  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper provides a detailed and comprehensive cost model for the economic assessment of solid waste management systems. The model was based on the principles of Life Cycle Costing (LCC) and followed a bottom-up calculation approach providing detailed cost items for all key technologies within modern waste systems. All technologies were defined per tonne of waste input, and each cost item within a technology was characterised by both a technical and an economic parameter (for example amount and cost of fuel related to waste collection), to ensure transparency, applicability and reproducibility. Cost items were classified as: (1) budget costs, (2) transfers (for example taxes, subsidies and fees) and (3) externality costs (for example damage or abatement costs related to emissions and disamenities). Technology costs were obtained as the sum of all cost items (of the same type) within a specific technology, while scenario costs were the sum of all technologies involved in a scenario. The cost model allows forthe completion of three types of LCC: a Conventional LCC, for the assessment of financial costs, an Environmental LCC, for the assessment of financial costs whose results are complemented by a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) for the same system, and a Societal LCC, for socio-economic assessments. Conventional and Environmental LCCs includes budget costs and transfers, while Societal LCCs includes budget and externality costs. Critical aspects were found in the existing literature regarding the cost assessment of waste management, namely system boundary equivalency, accounting for temporally distributed emissions and impacts, inclusions of transfers, the internalisation of environmental impacts and the coverage of shadow prices, and there was also significant confusion regarding terminology. The presented cost model was implemented in two case study scenarios assessing the costs involved in the source segregation of organic waste from 100,000 Danish households and the subsequent co-digestion of organic waste withanimal manure. Overall, source segregation resulted in higher financial costs than the alternative of incinerating the organic waste with the residual waste: 1.6. M€/year, of which 0.9. M€/year was costs for extra bins and bags used by the households, 1.0. M€/year for extra collections and -0.3. M€/year saved on incineration.

Martinez-Sanchez, Veronica; Kromann, Mikkel A.

2015-01-01

86

Life cycle costing of waste management systems: overview, calculation principles and case studies.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper provides a detailed and comprehensive cost model for the economic assessment of solid waste management systems. The model was based on the principles of Life Cycle Costing (LCC) and followed a bottom-up calculation approach providing detailed cost items for all key technologies within modern waste systems. All technologies were defined per tonne of waste input, and each cost item within a technology was characterised by both a technical and an economic parameter (for example amount and cost of fuel related to waste collection), to ensure transparency, applicability and reproducibility. Cost items were classified as: (1) budget costs, (2) transfers (for example taxes, subsidies and fees) and (3) externality costs (for example damage or abatement costs related to emissions and disamenities). Technology costs were obtained as the sum of all cost items (of the same type) within a specific technology, while scenario costs were the sum of all technologies involved in a scenario. The cost model allows for the completion of three types of LCC: a Conventional LCC, for the assessment of financial costs, an Environmental LCC, for the assessment of financial costs whose results are complemented by a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) for the same system, and a Societal LCC, for socio-economic assessments. Conventional and Environmental LCCs includes budget costs and transfers, while Societal LCCs includes budget and externality costs. Critical aspects were found in the existing literature regarding the cost assessment of waste management, namely system boundary equivalency, accounting for temporally distributed emissions and impacts, inclusions of transfers, the internalisation of environmental impacts and the coverage of shadow prices, and there was also significant confusion regarding terminology. The presented cost model was implemented in two case study scenarios assessing the costs involved in the source segregation of organic waste from 100,000 Danish households and the subsequent co-digestion of organic waste with animal manure. Overall, source segregation resulted in higher financial costs than the alternative of incinerating the organic waste with the residual waste: 1.6 M€/year, of which 0.9 M€/year was costs for extra bins and bags used by the households, 1.0 M€/year for extra collections and -0.3 M€/year saved on incineration. PMID:25524749

Martinez-Sanchez, Veronica; Kromann, Mikkel A; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

2015-02-01

87

[Cost analysis of hospital care for newborns at risk: comparison of an Intermediate Neonatal Care Unit and a Kangaroo Unit].  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to compare the direct costs of implementation of the Kangaroo Method and an Intermediate Neonatal Care Unit, from the perspective of the Brazilian Unified National Health System (SUS) in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Newborns were eligible for inclusion if they were clinically stable and were able to receive care in those two modalities. A decision tree model was developed that incorporated baseline variables and costs into a hypothetical cohort of 1,000 newborns, according to the literature and expert opinions. Daily cost was BR$343.53 for the second stage of the Kangaroo Unit and BR$394.22 for the Intermediate Neonatal Care Unit. The total cost for the hypothetical cohort was BR$5,710,281.66 for the second and third stages of the Kangaroo Unit and R$7,119,865.61 for the Intermediate Neonatal Care Unit. The Intermediate Neonatal Care Unit cost 25% more than the Kangaroo Unit. The study can contribute to decision-making in health, in addition to providing support for studies related to economic evaluation in neonatal health. PMID:23778552

Entringer, Aline Piovezan; Gomes, Maria Auxiliadora de Sousa Mendes; Pinto, Márcia; Caetano, Rosângela; Magluta, Cynthia; Lamy, Zeni Carvalho

2013-06-01

88

Unite code system for cost/schedule integration control of nuclear power project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cost code system of nuclear power project of International Atom Energy Agency (IAEA) and American Energy Economic Date Base (EEDB) are introduced. Based on them, unite code system is designed for cost/schedule integration system of nuclear power project. The application of the unite code system to the estimation control system and the cost-schedule integration control system for 200 MW nuclear heat reactor, which had been developed by ourselves, showed that the unite code system is feasible and efficient. The unite code system would be used in architect/engineer, equipment and material management, document management, and so on

89

48 CFR 1845.7101-3 - Unit acquisition cost.  

Science.gov (United States)

...portion of fees, paid by NASA to the contractor. Situations...fees in the acquisition cost would be appropriate...purchases property for NASA and part of the fees paid to the contractor by NASA are related to that effort. (c) Acquisition cost shall be developed...

2010-10-01

90

COST MODELING FOR DRINKING WATER UNIT TREATMENT PROCESSES  

Science.gov (United States)

Current U.S. EPA research is underway to improve and expand upon a cost data base for use in estimating the economics of building and operating drinking water treatment facilities. his cost data is important to the EPA decision making process when formulating new regulations and ...

91

Analysis of a Production Order Quantity Model With Declining Unit Cost  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper improves upon the existing literature surrounding the production order quantity inventory model in which unit cost and daily production are assumed to be constant. By including economies of scale into the model, we examine its impact on production order quantity and total cost. The results suggest that the minimal cost solution derived from the production order quantity model needs to balance out holding, setup and production costs. As a result, a smaller inventory level corresponding to a minimum unit production cost is found to be preferred.

Rod D. Raehsler

2012-05-01

92

Health care costs attributable to overweight calculated in a standardized way for three European countries.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article presents a tool to calculate health care costs attributable to overweight in a comparable and standardized way. The purpose is to describe the methodological principles of the tool and to put it into use by calculating and comparing the costs attributable to overweight for The Netherlands, Germany and Czech Republic. The tool uses a top-down and prevalence-based approach, consisting of five steps. Step one identifies overweight-related diseases and age- and gender-specific relative risks. Included diseases are ischemic heart disease, stroke, hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, colorectal cancer, postmenopausal breast cancer, endometrial cancer, kidney cancer and osteoarthritis. Step two consists of collecting data on the age- and gender-specific prevalence of these diseases. Step three uses the population-attributable prevalence to determine the part of the prevalence of these diseases that is attributable to overweight. Step four calculates the health care costs associated with these diseases. Step five calculates the costs of these diseases that are attributable to overweight. Overweight is responsible for 20-26 % of the direct costs of included diseases, with sensitivity analyses varying this percentage between 15-31 %. Percentage of costs attributable to obesity and preobesity is about the same. Diseases with the highest percentage of costs due to overweight are diabetes, endometrial cancer and osteoarthritis. Disease costs attributable to overweight as a percentage of total health care expenditures range from 2 to 4 %. Data are consistent for all three countries, resulting in roughly a quarter of costs of included diseases being attributable to overweight. PMID:25432787

Lette, M; Bemelmans, W J E; Breda, J; Slobbe, L C J; Dias, J; Boshuizen, H C

2014-11-29

93

Use of an expert system for energy cost calculations in the pulp and paper industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper, an application for the calculation of energy prices and product energy costs in the pulp and paper industry by using the Xi Plus expert system is presented. The use of expert systems in the energy field and also the Xi Plus expert system and its general features are also discussed. The application has been made after collecting data from several sources. It runs in an IBM AT compatible microcomputer therefore being easily used in mills. The name of the application is PRODUCT ENERGY COST. It has a three level structure: the mill level, the department level and the main equipment level. Currently, the mill level and, in the energy production area, the department level (power plant) and the equipment level (boilers, turbines) are used. The application consists of four knowledge base groups. Altogether there are 52 separate knowledge bases having 534 rules or demons. The knowledge base groups are: BASIC DATA, ENERGY USE, ENERGY PRODUCTION and ENERGY COSTS. The application can be used for various heat and electrical energy price calculations or for energy cost calculations for different pulp and paper products. In this study, the energy prices for kraft pulp, TMP, newsprint and fine paper in different operating conditions and the associated energy costs of the products are calculated. Also, in some cases a sensitivity analysis is done. The expert system is quite suitable for this type of calculation and the method could be further developed for specific industrial needs, e.g. to enhance the energy management systems

94

Hospital costs of central line-associated bloodstream infections and cost-effectiveness of closed vs. open infusion containers. The case of Intensive Care Units in Italy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Objectives The aim was to evaluate direct health care costs of central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSI and to calculate the cost-effectiveness ratio of closed fully collapsible plastic intravenous infusion containers vs. open (glass infusion containers. Methods A two-year, prospective case-control study was undertaken in four intensive care units in an Italian teaching hospital. Patients with CLABSI (cases and patients without CLABSI (controls were matched for admission departments, gender, age, and average severity of illness score. Costs were estimated according to micro-costing approach. In the cost effectiveness analysis, the cost component was assessed as the difference between production costs while effectiveness was measured by CLABSI rate (number of CLABSI per 1000 central line days associated with the two infusion containers. Results A total of 43 cases of CLABSI were compared with 97 matched controls. The mean age of cases and controls was 62.1 and 66.6 years, respectively (p = 0.143; 56% of the cases and 57% of the controls were females (p = 0.922. The mean length of stay of cases and controls was 17.41 and 8.55 days, respectively (p Conclusions CLABSI results in considerable and significant increase in utilization of hospital resources. Use of innovative technologies such as closed infusion containers can significantly reduce the incidence of healthcare acquired infection without posing additional burden on hospital budgets.

Torbica Aleksandra

2010-05-01

95

A systematic review of the unit costs of allied health and community services used by older people in Australia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background An economic evaluation of interventions for older people requires accurate assessment of costing and consideration of both acute and long-term services. Accurate information on the unit cost of allied health and community services is not readily available in Australia however. This systematic review therefore aims to synthesise information available in the literature on the unit costs of allied health and community services that may be utilised by an older person living in Australia. Method A comprehensive search of Medline, Embase, CINAHL, Google Scholar and Google was undertaken. Specialised economic databases were also reviewed. In addition Australian Government Department websites were inspected. The search identified the cost of specified allied health services including: physiotherapy, occupational therapy, dietetics, podiatry, counselling and home nursing. The range of community services included: personal care, meals on wheels, transport costs and domestic services. Where the information was not available, direct contact with service providers was made. Results The number of eligible studies included in the qualitative synthesis was fourty-nine. Calculated hourly rates for Australian allied health services were adjusted to be in equivalent currency and were as follows as follows: physiotherapy $157.75, occupational therapy $150.77, dietetics $163.11, psychological services $165.77, community nursing $105.76 and podiatry $129.72. Conclusions Utilisation of the Medicare Benefits Scheduled fee as a broad indicator of the costs of services, may lead to underestimation of the real costs of services and therefore to inaccuracies in economic evaluation.

Farag Inez

2013-02-01

96

A simulation model to calculate costs and benefits of dry period  

OpenAIRE

Abstract An existing dynamic and stochastic bio-economic model of intramammary infection (IMI) caused by Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus uberis, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, and Escherichia coli was extended to model the dynamics of IMI during the dry period. These dynamics were modeled on the basis of a Greenwood model. The extended model was used to calculate the cost-effectiveness of different dry period interventions in relation to the annual net costs of IMI in a herd of 100 dairy co...

Halasa, T.; Nielen, M.; Werven, T.; Hogeveen, H.

2010-01-01

97

Cost Analysis of an Open Low-Field (0.23T) MRI Unit: Effect of Procedure Shares in Combined Imaging, Interventional, and Neurosurgical Use  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To analyze the cost structure of procedures performed in a multipurpose interventional magnetic resonance imaging (IMRI) unit and to analyze the effect of procedure shares on cost structure. Material and Methods: During a 1-year period, 691 procedures were performed in the IMRI unit, of which 563 were diagnostic MRI examinations, 89 MRI-guided interventions, and 39 MRI-guided neurosurgical operations. Three alternative utilization models of IMRI were created to simulate different local institutions by adjusting the proportions of different procedures. The costs of procedures were calculated by activity-based cost analysis. Results: The cost of the main procedure (imaging, biopsy, injection, or operation) was the most significant item in all procedures, accounting for 66-89% of the total costs. The volume of imaging has a major effect on unit costs. Volume is not such a deterministic factor in interventions due to the high material costs. The volume of neurosurgical use of IMRI has a major effect on the costs of radiological procedures due to the long operation times. Conclusion: The volumes of different procedures done on an IMRI unit have significant effects on the unit costs of the procedures

98

Analysis of a Production Order Quantity Model With Declining Unit Cost  

OpenAIRE

This paper improves upon the existing literature surrounding the production order quantity inventory model in which unit cost and daily production are assumed to be constant. By including economies of scale into the model, we examine its impact on production order quantity and total cost. The results suggest that the minimal cost solution derived from the production order quantity model needs to balance out holding, setup and production costs. As a result, a smaller inventory level correspond...

Raehsler, Rod D.; Yifan Zhao; Sohng, Soong N.; Yang, Chin W.; Paul Kim; Ken Hung

2012-01-01

99

Costs and outcomes in a regional neonatal intensive care unit.  

Science.gov (United States)

At the Birmingham Maternity Hospital the mean cost of caring for surviving infants who require neonatal intensive care ranges from approximately pounds 2500 (for infants above 1500 g birthweight), to pounds 5500 (for infants 1000 to 1499 g birthweight), to pounds 10 000 (for infants less than 1000 g birthweight). The mean cost of caring for non-survivors is pounds 1000 or less, with little difference between the birthweight groups. These figures are based on the lengths of stay in three treatment regimens-intensive care, high dependency care, and special care-the average daily costs of which are estimated to be pounds 235, pounds 122, and pounds 43 respectively. The survival of very low birthweight infants (less than 1500 g) at this hospital has improved from 42% to 73% since the introduction of regional funding for neonatal intensive care. This increase in survival has been brought about without undue disability in the survivors. PMID:6508340

Newns, B; Drummond, M F; Durbin, G M; Culley, P

1984-11-01

100

MONNIE 2000: A description of a model to calculate environmental costs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new model (MONNIE 2000) was developed by the RIVM in the Netherlands in 2000 to calculate environmental costs on a macro level. The model, it's theoretical backgrounds and the technical aspects are described, making it attractive to both the user and the designer of the model. A user manual on how to calculate with the model is included. The basic principle of the model is the use of a harmonised method for calculating environmental costs, which provides the user with an output that can easily be compared with and used in other economic statistics and macro-economic models in the Netherlands. Input for the model are yearly figures on operational costs, investments and savings from environmental measures. With MONNIE 2000 calculated environmental costs per policy target group, economic sector and theme can be shown, With this model the burden of environmental measures on the economic sectors and the environmental expenditures of the government can be presented as well. MONNIE 2000 is developed in Visual Basic and by using Excel as input and output a user-friendly data exchange is realised. 12 refs

101

Renewable Energy Cost Modeling: A Toolkit for Establishing Cost-Based Incentives in the United States; March 2010 -- March 2011  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report is intended to serve as a resource for policymakers who wish to learn more about establishing cost-based incentives. The report will identify key renewable energy cost modeling options, highlight the policy implications of choosing one approach over the other, and present recommendations on the optimal characteristics of a model to calculate rates for cost-based incentives, feed-in tariffs (FITs), or similar policies. These recommendations will be utilized in designing the Cost of Renewable Energy Spreadsheet Tool (CREST). Three CREST models will be publicly available and capable of analyzing the cost of energy associated with solar, wind, and geothermal electricity generators. The CREST models will be developed for use by state policymakers, regulators, utilities, developers, and other stakeholders to assist them in current and future rate-setting processes for both FIT and other renewable energy incentive payment structures and policy analyses.

Gifford, J. S.; Grace, R. C.; Rickerson, W. H.

2011-05-01

102

Extension of the COSYMA-ECONOMICS module - cost calculations based on different economic sectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The COSYMA program system for evaluating the off-site consequences of accidental releases of radioactive material to the atmosphere includes an ECONOMICS module for assessing economic consequences. The aim of this module is to convert various consequences (radiation-induced health effects and impacts resulting from countermeasures) caused by an accident into the common framework of economic costs; this allows different effects to be expressed in the same terms and thus to make these effects comparable. With respect to the countermeasure 'movement of people', the dominant cost categories are 'loss-of-income costs' and 'costs of lost capital services'. In the original version of the ECONOMICS module these costs are calculated on the basis of the total number of people moved. In order to take into account also regional or local economic peculiarities of a nuclear site, the ECONOMICS module has been extended: Calculation of the above mentioned cost categories is now based on the number of employees in different economic sectors in the affected area. This extension of the COSYMA ECONOMICS module is described in more detail. (orig.)

103

Calculation Of Recycle And Open Cycle Nuclear Fuel Cost Using Lagistase Method  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

. To be presented the calculation of recycle and open cycle nuclear fuel cost for LWR type that have net power of 600 MWe. This calculation using LEGECOST method developed by IAEA which have characteristics,where i.e. money is stated in constant money (no inflation),discount rate is equalized with interest rate and not consider tax and depreciation.As a conclusion is that open cycle nuclear fuel cost more advantage because it is cheaper than recycle nuclear fuel cost. This is caused that at present, reprocessing process disadvantage because it has not found yet more efficient and cheaper method, besides price of fresh uranium is still cheap. In future, the cost of recycle nuclear fuel cycle will be more competitive toward the cost of open nuclear fuel cycle if is found technology of reprocessing process that more advance, efficient and cheap. Increase of Pu use for reactor fuel especially MOX type will rise Pu price that finally will decrease the cost of recycle nuclear fuel cycle

104

Asset management and the calculation of capital costs for mains-usage fees  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article discusses the requirements stipulated in the Swiss Electricity Supply Law that capital costs for all mains-levels must be declared on a yearly basis. The costs are calculated from current market value and depreciation according to technical lifetime. The authors examine the requirements placed on the declaration of capital costs and how they are calculated. The detailed book-keeping needed is discussed as is the large volume of data involved. The role of existing mains information systems is looked at, as are methods of assessing current assets. Experience gained in practice is discussed: This is taken as the basis for future processes. Utilities participating in the project and a number of solutions available are noted

105

Study on the calculation methods and computer program development for disposal costs of L/IL solid radwaste  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

By using engineering investment economics and levelized cost calculation method, the disposal cost of low- and intermediate-level (L/IL) solid radwastes is divided into capital investment cost, fixed disposal operation cost, variable disposal operation cost, repository closing cost and cost for monitoring closed repository within 300 years. The calculation method and program development have been studied on the basis of the repository capital investment plants, different quantities and intensities of solid radwastes annually produced in the high, medium and low scenarios of nuclear power development in China

106

About real cost calculations for biogas from vinasse biodigestion and its energy utilization  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The sharp increase in ethanol production has drawn attention to the increase in the production of n residues, mainly stillage, a by-product from the ethanol agro-industry. As it is a highly polluting effluent that is generated in great volumes, its transport and disposal is not simple. Stillage Is a product that results from the distillation and fermentation of the sugarcane in the process of ethanol production. Today there are new environmental standards that restrict the disposal of the stillage in the soil. The anaerobic biodigestion comes as an alternative treatment for the stillage. One of the advantages of the biodigestion is that the stillage fertilization potential continues to be the same after the process and, this way, the effluent can be taken to the fields through fertirrigation. The main advantages are the conservation of the nutrients, mainly phosphor and nitrogen contents, and the increase in the pH for the application in the soil. This paper presents a methodology for the calculation of the biogas cost obtained from stillage biodigestion, considering the benefits of the fertirrigation with the effluent generated in the digester. Later an analysis of the economical feasibility of the use of the biogas obtained from the stillage anaerobic digestion in different scenarios is carried out, among them there are: electric power generation with alternative internal combustion, with gas turbines and micro-turbines, with the 'substituted' bagasse burned together with the biogas in the boilers, with the sales of the substituted bagasse (for electric power generation in another unit) and with the use of the biogas in spray dryers with the subsequent sales of dried yeasts. It is also considered an analysis under an environmental point of view of the use of the biogas that includes the possibility of selling the certificates of avoided emissions (carbon credits) due to the use of the biogas in substitution to fossil fuels. The most important results are presented in a comparative table. (author)

Salomon, K.R. [Universidade Federal de Alagoas (UFAL), Maceio, AL (Brazil)]. E-mail: kaka_salomon@yahoo.com.br; Lora , E.E.S.; Rocha, M.H. [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil). Thermal Systems Study Group]. E-mails: electo@unifei.edu.br; mateus.rocha@unifei.edu.br

2008-07-01

107

Ammonia emission controls as a cost-effective strategy for reducing atmospheric particulate matter in the Eastern United States.  

Science.gov (United States)

Current regulation aimed at reducing inorganic atmospheric fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is focused on reductions in sulfur dioxide (SO2) and oxides of nitrogen (NO(x) = NO + NO2); however, controls on these pollutants are likely to increase in cost and decrease in effectiveness in the future. A supplementary strategy is reduction in ammonia (NH3) emissions, yet an evaluation of controls on ammonia has been limited by uncertainties in emission levels and in the cost of control technologies. We use state of the science emission inventories, an emission-based regional air quality model, and an explicit treatment of uncertainty to estimate the cost-effectiveness and uncertainty of ammonia emission reductions on inorganic particulate matter in the Eastern United States. Since a paucity of data on agricultural operations precludes a direct calculation of the costs of ammonia control, we calculate the "ammonia savings potential", defined as the minimum cost of applying SO2 and NO(x) emission controls in order to achieve the same reduction in ambient inorganic PM2.5 concentration as obtained from a 1 ton decrease in ammonia emissions. Using 250 scenarios of NH3, SO2, and NO(x) emission reductions, we calculate the least-cost SO2 and NO(x) control scenarios that achieve the same reduction in ambient inorganic PM2.5 concentration as a decrease in ammonia emissions. We find that the lower-bound ammonia savings potential in the winter is $8,000 per ton NH3; therefore, many currently available ammonia control technologies are cost-effective compared to current controls on SO2 and NO(x) sources. Larger reductions in winter inorganic particulate matter are available at lower cost through controls on ammonia emissions. PMID:17310695

Pinder, Robert W; Adams, Peter J; Pandis, Spyros N

2007-01-15

108

Comparison of unit commitment schedules based on fuel cost and emission minimisation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents a comparative analysis of unit commitment schedule based on minimization of fuel cost and emission separately. The studies have been carried out using dynamic programming approach considering system equality and inequality constraints. The method and comparison are illustrated through a sample system. Comparison shows that the unit commitment schedule for a particular load profile over 24 hours are different in both the cases. Further it has been observed that minimization of fuel cost over entire scheduling period does not minimise emission from the committed units and vice-versa. Therefore attention needs to be paid to solve the unit commitment problem having a dual objective functions considering both fuel cost/operating cost and emission minimization. (author). 9 refs., 7 tabs., 1 fig., 1 ill

109

Study on the Development of Methodology for Cost Calculations and Financial Planning of Decommissioning Operations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The following study deals with the development of methodology for cost calculations and financial planning of decommissioning operations. It has been carried out by EDF / FRAMATOME / VUJE / SCK-CEN in the frame of the contract B7-032/2000/291058/MAR/C2 awarded by the European Commission. This study consists of 4 parts. The first task objective is to develop a reliable and transparent methodology for cost assessment and financial planning sufficient precise but without long and in depth investigations and studies. This methodology mainly contains: Calculation methods and algorithms for the elaboration of costs items making up the whole decommissioning cost. Estimated or standard values for the parameters and for the cost factors to be used in the above-mentioned algorithms Financial mechanism to be applied as to establish a financial planning. The second part task is the provision of standard values for the different parameters and costs factors described in the above-mentioned algorithms. This provision of data is based on the own various experience acquired by the members of the working team and on existing international references (databases, publications and reports). As decommissioning operations are spreading over several dozens of years, the scope of this task the description of the financial mechanisms to be applied to the different cost items as to establish a complete financial cost. It takes into account the financial schedule issued in task 1. The scope of this task consists in bringing together in a guideline all the information collected before: algorithms, data and financial mechanisms. (A.L.B.)

110

Accelerating VASP electronic structure calculations using graphic processing units.  

Science.gov (United States)

We present a way to improve the performance of the electronic structure Vienna Ab initio Simulation Package (VASP) program. We show that high-performance computers equipped with graphics processing units (GPUs) as accelerators may reduce drastically the computation time when offloading these sections to the graphic chips. The procedure consists of (i) profiling the performance of the code to isolate the time-consuming parts, (ii) rewriting these so that the algorithms become better-suited for the chosen graphic accelerator, and (iii) optimizing memory traffic between the host computer and the GPU accelerator. We chose to accelerate VASP with NVIDIA GPU using CUDA. We compare the GPU and original versions of VASP by evaluating the Davidson and RMM-DIIS algorithms on chemical systems of up to 1100 atoms. In these tests, the total time is reduced by a factor between 3 and 8 when running on n (CPU core + GPU) compared to n CPU cores only, without any accuracy loss. PMID:22903247

Hacene, Mohamed; Anciaux-Sedrakian, Ani; Rozanska, Xavier; Klahr, Diego; Guignon, Thomas; Fleurat-Lessard, Paul

2012-12-15

111

Replacement energy costs for nuclear electricity-generating units in the United States: 1997--2001. Volume 4  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report updates previous estimates of replacement energy costs for potential short-term shutdowns of 109 US nuclear electricity-generating units. This information was developed to assist the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in its regulatory impact analyses, specifically those that examine the impacts of proposed regulations requiring retrofitting of or safety modifications to nuclear reactors. Such actions might necessitate shutdowns of nuclear power plants while these changes are being implemented. The change in energy cost represents one factor that the NRC must consider when deciding to require a particular modification. Cost estimates were derived from probabilistic production cost simulations of pooled utility system operations. Factors affecting replacement energy costs, such as random unit failures, maintenance and refueling requirements, and load variations, are treated in the analysis. This report describes an abbreviated analytical approach as it was adopted to update the cost estimates published in NUREG/CR-4012, Vol. 3. The updates were made to extend the time frame of cost estimates and to account for recent changes in utility system conditions, such as change in fuel prices, construction and retirement schedules, and system demand projects

112

A Cost Model for E-learning projects in the United Kingdom  

OpenAIRE

This research aims to address the problems of estimating e-Leaming development costs particularly within the United Kingdom. Hundreds of managers with no prior experience of managing e-Learning development often find themselves needing to produce cost estimations for e-Learning development and rely on structured expert judgement to produce accurate cost estimates. The lack of prior experience in e-Learning development means that these managers will not be able to apply structured expert ju...

Moseley, Sue; Valverde, Raul

2014-01-01

113

Electronic structure calculations of ESR parameters of melanin units.  

Science.gov (United States)

Melanins represent an important class of natural pigments present in plants and animals that are currently considered to be promising materials for applications in optic and electronic devices. Despite their interesting properties, some of the basic features of melanins are not satisfactorily understood, including the origin of their intrinsic paramagnetism. A number of experiments have been performed to investigate the electron spin resonance (ESR) response of melanin derivatives, but until now, there has been no consensus regarding the real structure of the paramagnetic centers involved. In this work, we have employed electronic structure calculations to evaluate the ESR parameters of distinct melanin monomers and dimers in order to identify the possible structures associated with unpaired spins in this biopolymer. The g-factors and hyperfine constants of the cationic, anionic and radicalar structures were investigated. The results confirm the existence of at least two distinct paramagnetic centers in melanin structure, identifying the chemical species associated with them and their roles in electrical conductivity. PMID:25693464

Batagin-Neto, Augusto; Bronze-Uhle, Erika Soares; Graeff, Carlos Frederico de Oliveira

2015-03-21

114

Methodology for Calculating Cost-per-Mile for Current and Future Vehicle Powertrain Technologies, with Projections to 2024: Preprint  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Currently, several cost-per-mile calculators exist that can provide estimates of acquisition and operating costs for consumers and fleets. However, these calculators are limited in their ability to determine the difference in cost per mile for consumer versus fleet ownership, to calculate the costs beyond one ownership period, to show the sensitivity of the cost per mile to the annual vehicle miles traveled (VMT), and to estimate future increases in operating and ownership costs. Oftentimes, these tools apply a constant percentage increase over the time period of vehicle operation, or in some cases, no increase in direct costs at all over time. A more accurate cost-per-mile calculator has been developed that allows the user to analyze these costs for both consumers and fleets. The calculator was developed to allow simultaneous comparisons of conventional light-duty internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles, mild and full hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), and fuel cell vehicles (FCVs). This paper is a summary of the development by the authors of a more accurate cost-per-mile calculator that allows the user to analyze vehicle acquisition and operating costs for both consumer and fleets. Cost-per-mile results are reported for consumer-operated vehicles travelling 15,000 miles per year and for fleets travelling 25,000 miles per year.

Ruth, M.; Timbario, T. A.; Timbario, T. J.; Laffen, M.

2011-01-01

115

A calculation program for harvesting and transportation costs of energy wood; Energiapuun korjuun ja kuljetuksen kustannuslaskentaohjelmisto  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

VTT Energy is compiling a large and versatile calculation program for harvesting and transportation costs of energy wood. The work has been designed and will be carried out in cooperation with Metsaeteho and Finntech Ltd. The program has been realised in Windows surroundings using SQLWindows graphical database application development system, using the SQLBase relational database management system. The objective of the research is to intensify and create new possibilities for comparison of the utilization costs and the profitability of integrated energy wood production chains with each other inside the chains

Kuitto, P.J.

1996-12-31

116

Cost calculations for decommissioning and dismantling of nuclear research facilities, Phase 1  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Today, it is recommended that planning of decommission should form an integral part of the activities over the life cycle of a nuclear facility. However, no actual international guideline on cost calculations exists at present. Intuitively, it might be tempting to regard costs for decommissioning of a nuclear facility as similar to those of any other plant. However, the presence of radionuclide contamination may imply that the cost is one or more orders of magnitude higher as compared to a corresponding inactive situation, the actual ratio being highly dependent on the level of contamination as well as design features and use of the facility in question. Moreover, the variations in such prerequisites are much larger than for nuclear power plants. This implies that cost calculations cannot be performed with any accuracy or credibility without a relatively detailed consideration of the radiological and other prerequisites. Application of inadequate methodologies especially at early stages has often lead to large underestimations. The goals of the project and the achievements described in the report are as follows: 1) Advice on good practice with regard to: 1a) Strategy and planning; 1b) Methodology selection; 1c) Radiological surveying; 1d) Uncertainty analysis; 2) Techniques for assessment of costs: 2a) Cost structuring; 2b) Cost estimation methodologies; 3) Compilation of data for plants, state of planning, organisations, etc.; 3a) General descriptions of relevant features of the nuclear research facilities; 3b) General plant specific data; 3c) Example of the decommissioning of the R1 research reactor in Sweden; 3d) Example of the decommissioning of the DR1 research reactor in Denmark. In addition, but not described in the present report, is the establishment of a Nordic network in the area including an internet based expert system. It should be noted that the project is planned to exist for at least three years and that the present report is an interim one covering the work for approximately the first 16 months. (au)

Andersson, Inga [StudsvikNuclear AB (Sweden); Backe, S. [Institute for Energy Technology (Norway); Iversen, Klaus [Danish Decommissioning (Denmark); Lindskog, S [Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (Sweden); Salmenhaara, S. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland (Finland); Sjoeblom, R. [Tekedo AB (Sweden)

2006-11-15

117

Economic impacts of oil spills: Spill unit costs for tankers, pipelines, refineries, and offshore facilities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The impacts of oil spills -- ranging from the large, widely publicized Exxon Valdez tanker incident to smaller pipeline and refinery spills -- have been costly to both the oil industry and the public. For example, the estimated costs to Exxon of the Valdez tanker spill are on the order of $4 billion, including $2.8 billion (in 1993 dollars) for direct cleanup costs and $1.125 billion (in 1992 dollars) for settlement of damages claims caused by the spill. Application of contingent valuation costs and civil lawsuits pending in the State of Alaska could raise these costs appreciably. Even the costs of the much smaller 1991 oil spill at Texaco's refinery near Anacortes, Washington led to costs of $8 to 9 million. As a result, inexpensive waming, response and remediation technologies could lower oil spin costs, helping both the oil industry, the associated marine industries, and the environment. One means for reducing the impact and costs of oil spills is to undertake research and development on key aspects of the oil spill prevention, warming, and response and remediation systems. To target these funds to their best use, it is important to have sound data on the nature and size of spills, their likely occurrence and their unit costs. This information could then allow scarce R ampersand D dollars to be spent on areas and activities having the largest impact. This report is intended to provide the ''unit cost'' portion of this crucial information. The report examines the three key components of the US oil supply system, namely, tankers and barges; pipelines and refineries; and offshore production facilities. The specific purpose of the study was to establish the unit costs of oil spills. By manipulating this key information into a larger matrix that includes the size and frequency of occurrence of oil spills, it will be possible' to estimate the likely future impacts, costs, and sources of oil spills

118

Costos reales de tratamientos intensivos por paciente y día cama / Real daily costs of patients admitted to public intensive care units  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish [...] Abstract in english Background: Patient care costs in intensive care units are high and should be considered in medical decision making. Aim: To calculate the real disease related costs for patients admitted to intensive care units of public hospitals. Material and Methods: Using an activity associated costs analysis, [...] the expenses of 716 patients with a mean age of 56 years, mean APACHE score of20 (56% males), admitted to intensive care units of two regional public hospitals, were calculated. Patients were classified according to their underlying disease. Results: The costs per day of hospital stay, in Chilean pesos, were $ 426,265for sepsis, $ 423,300for cardiovascular diseases, $ 418,329 for kidney diseases, $ 404,873 for trauma, $ 398,913 for respiratory diseases, $ 379,455for digestive diseases and $ 371,801 for neurologic disease. Human resources and medications determined up to 85 and 12% of costs, respectively. Patients with sepsis and trauma use 32 and 19% of intensive care unit resources, respectively. Twenty seven percent of resources are invested in patients that eventually died. Conclusions: A real cost benefit analysis should be performed to optimize resource allocation in intensive care units.

Sandra, Alvear; Jorge, Canteros; Juan, Jara; Patricia, Rodríguez.

2013-02-01

119

Economics of immunization information systems in the United States: assessing costs and efficiency  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the United States' national health objectives for 2010 is that 95% of children aged Methods Data were collected from a national sampling frame of the 56 states/cities that received federal immunization grants under U.S. Public Health Service Act 317b and completed the federal 1999 Immunization Registry Annual Report. The sampling frame was stratified by IIS functional status, children's enrollment in the IIS, and whether the IIS had been developed as an independent system or was integrated into a larger system. These sites self-reported IIS developmental and operational program costs for calendar years 1998–2002 using a standardized data collection tool and underwent on-site interviews to verify reported data with information from the state/city financial management system and other financial records. A parametric cost-per-patient-record (CPR model was estimated. The model assessed the impact of labor and non-labor resources used in development and operations tasks, as well as the impact of information technology, local providers' participation and compliance with federal IIS performance standards (e.g., ensuring the confidentiality and security of information, ensure timely vaccination data at the time of patient encounter, and produce official immunization records. Given the number of records minimizing CPR, the additional amount of resources needed to meet national health goals for the year 2010 was also calculated. Results Estimated CPR was as high as $10.30 and as low as $0.09 in operating IIS. About 20% of IIS had between 2.9 to 3.2 million records and showed CPR estimates of $0.09. Overall, CPR was highly sensitive to local providers' participation. To achieve the 2010 goals, additional aggregated costs were estimated to be $75.6 million nationwide. Conclusion Efficiently increasing the number of records in IIS would require additional resources and careful consideration of various strategies to minimize CPR, such as boosting providers' participation.

Urquhart Gary A

2006-08-01

120

FAPMAN-IC: a program module calculating the incremental fuel cost of LWR power stations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The fuel loading and operation planning code FAPMAN-8 has been simplified as an independent subroutine module FAPMAN-IC, that is callable from the more overall system integration model like ORSIM. The module calculates the fuel and associated incremental fuel cost for LWR stations, given the cycle operation schedule, cycle energy demand and plant thermal efficiency. Summary of the problem to be solved and interface to ORSIM were presented with sample input and printout. (author)

121

A Geographical-Origin–Destination Model for Calculating the Cost of Multimodal Forest-Fuel Transportation  

OpenAIRE

As a consequence of increasing demand for wood fuels, the management of forest-fuel production chains has become an important logistics issue in FinlandandSweden. Truck-based transportation has been the dominant method in fuel supply from the areas around power plants. However, increasing demand has led to enlargement of supply areas and greater variety in supply methods, including also railway and waterway transportation. This study presents a GIS-based calculation model suitable for cost c...

Tapio Ranta; Eero Jäppinen; Olli-Jussi Korpinen

2013-01-01

122

A Geographical-Origin–Destination Model for Calculating the Cost of Multimodal Forest-Fuel Transportation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As a consequence of increasing demand for wood fuels, the management of forest-fuel production chains has become an important logistics issue in FinlandandSweden. Truck-based transportation has been the dominant method in fuel supply from the areas around power plants. However, increasing demand has led to enlargement of supply areas and greater variety in supply methods, including also railway and waterway transportation. This study presents a GIS-based calculation model suitable for cost calculations for power plants’ forest-fuel supply chains. The model has multimodal properties—i.e., it provides transfer of forest-fuel loads between transportation modes—and enables case-specific adjustment of transportation and material-handling cost parameters. The functionality of the model is examined with a case study focusing on a region of intense forest-fuel use. The results indicate that truck transportation is competitive with railway transportation also for long transport distances. However, increasing the proportion of multimodal transportation for other than economic reasons (e.g., for supply security could be reasonable, since the impact on total supply costs is marginal. In addition to honing of the parameters related to biomass availability and transport costs, the model should be developed through inclusion of other means of transportation, such as roundwood carriers.

Tapio Ranta

2013-02-01

123

Comparative costs of coal and nuclear-generated electricity in the United States  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper compares the future first-year operating costs and lifetime levelized costs of producing baseload coal- and nuclear-generated electricity under schedules shorter than those recently experienced at US plants. Nuclear appears to have a clear economic advantage. Coal is favorable only when it is assumed that the units will operate at very low capacity factors and/or when the capital cost differential between nuclear and coal is increased far above the recent historical level. Nuclear is therefore a cost-competitive electric energy option for utilities and should be considered as an alternative to coal when large baseload capacity is required

124

Comparative costs of coal and nuclear-generated electricity in the united states  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper compares the future first-year operating costs and lifetime levelized costs of producing baseload coal- and nuclear-generated electricity under schedules shorter than those recently experienced at U.S. plants. Nuclear appears to have a clear economic advantage. Coal is favorable only when it is assumed that the units will operate at very low capacity factors and/or when the capital cost differential between nuclear and coal is increased far above the recent historical level. Nuclear is therefore a cost-competitive electric energy option for utilities and should be considered as an alternative to coal when large baseload capacity is required. (author)

125

A Functional Optimization based Calculation Scheme for Dynamic Economic Load Dispatch Considering Ramp Rate of Thermal Units Output  

Science.gov (United States)

Economic load dispatch among thermal units has been one of the most important problems in the field of power systems operation. Usually so called equal marginal cost criterion is adopted to this calculation. Recently global trend of utilizing more and more renewable energy makes this problem more important than ever. In case of large penetration of fluctuating power sources such as PV or wind, thermal units are more often required to change their prescheduled operation pattern because the outputs from PV and wind power generators are affected by uncertain change of weather condition. In a sense the large scale utilization of natural energy depends on the flexible and adaptive operation of the thermal units. In such a situation it is easily imagined that thermal units would be required to change their output faster than before sometimes violating the limitation due to the physical constraints of the plant including boilers. We will need a load dispatch calculation method which maximally utilizes their output change capability within the upper limits of the ramp rate. Dynamic economic load dispatch has been studied for a long time to give appropriate load dispatch among generators considering the above stated constraints. However the existing methods are not enough in case of the scenario of very steep demand change. Some more sophisticated calculation scheme is highly needed today which gives us feasible solution in severer situations. This paper proposes a new calculation scheme for the above stated dynamic economic load dispatch problem based on functional optimization which numerically solves Euler's differential equation in the field of calculus of variations. The constraints related to units output and output ramp rate are readily considered by the logarithmic penalty function terms in the objective function together with the equality constraint regarding the total demand balance. Numerical examples show that the proposed method can solve the above stated severe situation which has been difficult to treat by the existing methods. Convergence performance is also discussed.

Kumano, Teruhisa

126

Statistical models for predicting coal-fired generating unit costs and performance  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

There are a multitude of factors that affect the efficient operation of electric generating units. Some examples of such factors are design parameters, operating practices, and the quality of the boiler fuel. This paper discusses statistical models which quantify the effects of many of these factors on generating unit costs and performance. The statistical models are based on a data-base which contains over five thousand unit- years of data for coal-fired generating units. The information for the data-base was provided by the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) and the Utility Data Institute (UDI).

Behnam-Guilani, K.; Hickey, G.L.; Hipple, M.J. (Illinois Power Co., Decatur, IL (United States))

1991-01-01

127

Audit Calculations of LBLOCA for Ulchin Unit 1 and 2 Power Up rate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The KINS-Realistic Evaluation Model (KINS-REM) was developed for the independent audit calculation in 1991, and the code accuracy and statistical method have been improved. To support the licensing review and to confirm the validity of licensee's calculation, regulatory auditing calculations have been also conducted. Currently, the modification of Ulchin 1 and 2 operating license for 4.5% power up rate is under review. In this study, the regulatory audit calculation for LBLOCA of Ulchin Unit 1 and 2 with 4.5% power up rate was performed by applying KINS-REM. In this study, the regulatory audit calculation for LBLOCA of Ulchin Unit 1 and 2 with 4.5% power up rate was performed by applying KINS-REM. It is confirmed that the analysis results of LBLOCA for Ulchin 1 and 2 power up rate meets the PCT acceptance criteria

128

The economic cost of senile dementia in the United States, 1985.  

OpenAIRE

Senile dementia is a progressive and irreversible decline of mental functions. The symptoms are mental confusion, memory loss, disorientation, cognitive decline, and inappropriate social behavior. It is one of the most common, costly, and distressful diseases among the elderly in the United States. Information on the economic costs of senile dementia is essential for determining research priorities and the allocation of resources to support aging and medical research. Economic consequences, s...

Huang, L. F.; Cartwright, W. S.; Hu, T. W.

1988-01-01

129

Evaluation of syngas production unit cost of bio-gasification facility using regression analysis techniques  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Evaluation of economic feasibility of a bio-gasification facility needs understanding of its unit cost under different production capacities. The objective of this study was to evaluate the unit cost of syngas production at capacities from 60 through 1800Nm 3/h using an economic model with three regression analysis techniques (simple regression, reciprocal regression, and log-log regression). The preliminary result of this study showed that reciprocal regression analysis technique had the best fit curve between per unit cost and production capacity, with sum of error squares (SES) lower than 0.001 and coefficient of determination of (R 2) 0.996. The regression analysis techniques determined the minimum unit cost of syngas production for micro-scale bio-gasification facilities of $0.052/Nm 3, under the capacity of 2,880 Nm 3/h. The results of this study suggest that to reduce cost, facilities should run at a high production capacity. In addition, the contribution of this technique could be the new categorical criterion to evaluate micro-scale bio-gasification facility from the perspective of economic analysis.

Deng, Yangyang; Parajuli, Prem B.

2011-08-10

130

Thermal state of SNPS ''Topaz'' units: Calculation basing and experimental confirmation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ensuring thermal state parameters of thermionic space nuclear power system (SNPS) units in required limits on all operating regimes is a factor which determines SNPSs lifetime. The requirements to unit thermal state are distinguished to a marked degree, and both the corresponding units arragement in SNPS power generating module and the use of definite control algorithms, special thermal regulation and protection are neccessary for its provision. The computer codes which permit to define the thermal transient performances of liquid metal loop and main units had been elaborated for calculation basis of required SNPS ''Topaz'' unit thermal state. The conformity of these parameters to a given requirements are confirmed by results of autonomous unit tests, tests of mock-ups, power tests of ground SNPS prototypes and flight tests of two SNPS ''Topaz''

131

Literature review of United States utilities computer codes for calculating actinide isotope content in irradiated fuel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reviews the accuracy and precision of methods used by United States electric utilities to determine the actinide isotopic and element content of irradiated fuel. After an extensive literature search, three key code suites were selected for review. Two suites of computer codes, CASMO and ARMP, are used for reactor physics calculations; the ORIGEN code is used for spent fuel calculations. They are also the most widely used codes in the nuclear industry throughout the world. Although none of these codes calculate actinide isotopics as their primary variables intended for safeguards applications, accurate calculation of actinide isotopic content is necessary to fulfill their function

132

Economic and social costs of coal and nuclear electric generation, a framework for assessment and illustrative calculations for the coal and nuclear fuel cycles. Discussion paper  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A method is presented for extending economic comparisons of nuclear and coal-fired electric power to include health, safety, and environmental impacts in the same quantitative framework. The method is illustrated by considering the decision between a light water nuclear reactor and a conventional coal-fired power plant to satisfy a 1000 MWe increase in electrical demand in the northeastern United States. For both alternatives, preliminary calculations of the economic and social costs expressed in mills per kilowatt-hour are reported. Economic costs consist of those faced by the utility, including capital charges, operating expenses, and fuel cycle costs. Social costs for each plant and its associated fuel cycle include routine environmental impacts such as air pollution as well as risk to the public from reactor accidents or sabotage

133

Cost savings of unit-based pricing of household waste; the case of the Netherlands  

OpenAIRE

Using a panel data set for Dutch municipalities we estimate effects for weight-based, bag-based, frequency-based and volume-based pricing of household waste collection. Unit-based pricing shows to be effective in reducing solid and compostable and increasing recyclable waste. Pricing has no effect on the waste collected in surrounding municipalities (waste tourism). However, unit-based pricing may lead to illegal dumping. While empirical evidence is scarce, a social cost-benefit analysis show...

Dijkgraaf, E.; Gradus, R. H. J. M.

2003-01-01

134

Cost implications of African swine fever in smallholder farrow-to-finish units: economic benefits of disease prevention through biosecurity.  

Science.gov (United States)

African swine fever remains the greatest limitation to the development of the pig industry in Africa, and parts of Asia and Europe. It is especially important in West and Central African countries where the disease has become endemic. Biosecurity is the implementation of a set of measures that reduce the risk of infection through segregation, cleaning and disinfection. Using a 122-sow piggery unit, a financial model and costing were used to estimate the economic benefits of effective biosecurity against African swine fever. The outcomes suggest that pig production is a profitable venture that can generate a profit of approximately US$109,637.40 per annum and that an outbreak of African swine fever (ASF) has the potential to cause losses of up to US$910,836.70 in a single year. The implementation of biosecurity and its effective monitoring can prevent losses owing to ASF and is calculated to give a benefit-cost ratio of 29. A full implementation of biosecurity will result in a 9.70% reduction in total annual profit, but is justified in view of the substantial costs incurred in the event of an ASF outbreak. Biosecurity implementation is robust and capable of withstanding changes in input costs including moderate feed price increases, higher management costs and marginal reductions in total outputs. It is concluded that biosecurity is a key to successful pig production in an endemic situation. PMID:21929615

Fasina, F O; Lazarus, D D; Spencer, B T; Makinde, A A; Bastos, A D S

2012-06-01

135

System incremental cost calculations using the participation factor load-flow formulation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The load-flow problem is reformulated such that the use of a slack-bus generator is included only as a special case. This reformulation, known as the participation factor load-flow, includes a total mismatch variable and a defined participation vector, which, in general, distributes this mismatch to all system buses. The slack-bus constraint can still be obtained by defining a particular participation vector. In using the participation factor load-flow in the transpose Jacobian approach to the economic optimal dispatch problem, the paper shows that the value of the system-? can be controlled such that this value represents the minimal incremental change in generation costs per unit change in system total demand with this demand distributed according to the specified participation vector. Methods using the conventional B-coefficient loss formulas or slack-bus load-flows give system-? values whereby the unit change in demand must be placed on a fictitious single load-bus or on the slack-bus, respectively. Having a system-? value which more accurately represents a proposed energy interchange between interconnected systems is very important in developing valid costs for each system. An extensive 28-bus, 8-generator system is included to illustrate these results

136

GEOCOST-BC, Geothermal Power Plant Electricity Generator Cost, Thermodynamics Calculation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

1 - Description of problem or function: GEOCOST calculates the cost of generating electricity from geothermal energy. The version of GEOCOST in this release, GEOCOST-BC, simulates the production of electricity using a binary fluid cycle based upon a hydrothermal resource. 2 - Method of solution: GEOCOST is a simulation model which combines both technical processes and economic factors into one systematic framework. The simulation is composed of two principal parts: a reservoir model which simulates the exploration, development, and operation of a geothermal reservoir, and a power plant model which simulates the design, construction, and operation of the power plant. Each of these parts is composed of several submodels which treat fluid transmission and disposal, geothermal fluid/working fluid heat exchangers, turbine, generators, working fluid condenser, pumps, heat rejection, and calculation of thermodynamic state points in basic subcritical and supercritical Rankine cycles for a variety of working fluids. Working fluids which are now in the model include isobutane, n-butane, R-ll, R-12, R-22, R-113, R-114, and ammonia. Thermodynamic properties of the working fluids at the state points are calculated using empirical equations of state. The Starling equation of state is used for hydrocarbons and the Martin-Hou equation of state is used for fluorocarbons and ammonia. A wide variety of financial and tax structures can be simulated through varying the rates of return on ed through varying the rates of return on equity and debt, the debt-equity ratio, and tax rates. Using discounted cash flow analyses, GEOCOST calculates the cost of energy by equating the present worth of the revenues and expenses over the economic life of the reservoir and plant. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Current array dimensions provide for a maximum well field size of 625 wells and maximum operating period of 50 years from reservoir exploration through the economic life of the power plant

137

How can activity-based costing methodology be performed as a powerful tool to calculate costs and secure appropriate patient care?  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous studies have shown the advantages of using activity-based costing (ABC) methodology in the health care industry. The potential values of ABC methodology in health care are derived from the more accurate cost calculation compared to the traditional step-down costing, and the potentials to evaluate quality or effectiveness of health care based on health care activities. This project used ABC methodology to profile the cost structure of inpatients with surgical procedures at the Department of Colorectal Surgery in a public teaching hospital, and to identify the missing or inappropriate clinical procedures. We found that ABC methodology was able to accurately calculate costs and to identify several missing pre- and post-surgical nursing education activities in the course of treatment. PMID:17489499

Lin, Blossom Yen-Ju; Chao, Te-Hsin; Yao, Yuh; Tu, Shu-Min; Wu, Chun-Ching; Chern, Jin-Yuan; Chao, Shiu-Hsiung; Shaw, Keh-Yuong

2007-04-01

138

Cost of Wind Energy in the United States: Trends from 2007 to 2012 (Presentation)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This presentation provides an overview of recent technology trends observed in the United States including project size, turbine size, rotor diameter, hub height, annual average wind speed, and annual energy production. It also highlights area where system analysis is required to fully understand how these technology trends relate to the cost of wind energy.

Hand, M.

2015-01-01

139

Simulation analysis of Shadow Factor and unit cost in the booster mirror arrangement for a solar panel  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A simulation and experimental study was attempted to increase the power output from a 75 W mono and multi crystalline solar panel using V Trough solar concentrators, thus estimating its ideal concentration ratio for domestic applications in the absence of automatic tracking. The net radiation falling on the panel due to reflection from concentrators and the shading caused by the reflectors was simulated using TRACE PRO and PV Syst Software, calculating the net power output, losses and output energy. Through the simulated values, the calculated unit cost of energy for the concentrator arrangement with 1 X, 2 X, 3 X and 4 X configurations are found to be 0.81, 0.70, 0.74 and 0.75 $/kWh respectively for the 1st year. It is estimated that 2 X configuration having a surface temperature of less than 70°C, CO2 savings of 28 % higher than the reference model and a unit cost of 0.7 $/kWh is the optimum concentration ratio for a solar V Trough concentrator.

Nivas.V

2013-10-01

140

Intelligent unit commitment with vehicle-to-grid - A cost-emission optimization  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A gridable vehicle (GV) can be used as a small portable power plant (S3P) to enhance the security and reliability of utility grids. Vehicle-to-grid (V2G) technology has drawn great interest in the recent years and its success depends on intelligent scheduling of GVs or S3Ps in constrained parking lots. V2G can reduce dependencies on small expensive units in existing power systems, resulting in reduced operation cost and emissions. It can also increase reserve and reliability of existing power systems. Intelligent unit commitment (UC) with V2G for cost and emission optimization in power system is presented in this paper. As number of gridable vehicles in V2G is much higher than small units of existing systems, UC with V2G is more complex than basic UC for only thermal units. Particle swarm optimization (PSO) is proposed to balance between cost and emission reductions for UC with V2G. PSO can reliably and accurately solve this complex constrained optimization problem easily and quickly. In the proposed solution model, binary PSO optimizes on/off states of power generating units easily. Vehicles are presented by integer numbers instead of zeros and ones to reduce the dimension of the problem. Balanced hybrid PSO optimizes the number of gridable vehicles of V2G in the constrained parking lots. Balanced PSO provides a balance between local and global searching abilities, and finds a balance in reducing both operation cost and emission. Results show a considerable amount of cost and emission reduction with intelligent UC with V2G. Finally, the practicality of UC with V2G is discussed for real-world applications. (author)

Saber, Ahmed Yousuf; Venayagamoorthy, Ganesh Kumar [Real-Time Power and Intelligent Systems Laboratory, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO 65409-0040 (United States)

2010-02-01

141

Calculation of the Cost of an Adequate Education in Kentucky: A Professional Judgment Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available What is an adequate education and how much does it cost? In 1989, Kentucky’s State Supreme Court found the entire system of education unconstitutional-“all of its parts and parcels”. The Court called for all children to have access to an adequate education, one that is uniform and has as its goal the development of seven capacities, including: (i “sufficient oral and written communication skills to enable students to function in a complex and rapidly changing civilization . . . .and (vii sufficient levels of academic or vocational skills to enable public school students to compete favorably with their counterparts in surrounding states, in academics or in the job market”. Now, over a decade later, key questions remain regarding whether these objectives have been fulfilled. This research is designed to calculate the cost of an adequate education by aligning resources to State standards, laws and objectives, using a professional judgment approach. Seven focus groups were convened for this purpose and the scholarly literature was reviewed to provide multiple inputs into study findings. The study produced a per pupil base cost for each of three prototype school districts and an total statewide cost, with the funding gap between existing revenue and the revenue needed for current operations of $1.097 billion per year (2001-02. Additional key resource requirements needed to achieve an adequate education, identified by professional judgment panels, include: (1 extending the school year for students and teachers, (2 adding voluntary half-day preschool for three and four year olds, and (3 raising teacher salaries. This increases the funding gap to $1.23 billion and suggests that significant new funding is required over time if the Commonwealth of Kentucky is to provide an adequate and equitable education of high quality for all children and youth as directed by the State Supreme Court.

Deborah A. Verstegen

2004-02-01

142

Independent calculation of the monitor units and times of treatment in radiotherapy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this work, an independent verification system of calculations in radiotherapy was developed and applied, using Visual BasicTM programming language. The computational program performs calculations of monitor units and treatment time, based on the algorithm of manual calculation. The calculations executed for the independent system had initially been compared with the manual calculations performed by the medical physicists of the Institute of Radiotherapy of the Hospital das Clinicas da Universidade de Sao Paulo. In this step, the results found for more than two hundred fields studied were similar to those found in the literature; deviations larger than +- 1% were found only in five cases involving errors in manual calculation. The application of the independent system, in this stage, could have identified errors up to +- 2,4%. Based on these data, the system was validated for use in clinical routine. In a second step, calculations were compared with calculations realized by the treatment computerized planning system CadPIanTM. When, again, the results were similar to those published in other works allowing to obtain levels of acceptance of the discrepancies between the calculations executed for the independent system and the calculations developed from the planning system, separated by anatomical region, as recommended according by the recent literature. For beams of 6 MV, the levels of acceptance for deviations between the calculations of monitor units, separated by treatment region were the following; breast +- 1.7%, head and neck +2%; hypophysis +- 2.2%; pelvis +- 4 . 1% and thorax +- 1.5%. For beams of 15 MV, the level suggested for pelvis was of +- 4.5%. (author)

143

Checking the reliability of nuclear power unit subsystems by probability calculations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The system of emergency core cooling is used to demonstrate the approach to checking the reliability of similar complex nuclear power unit subsystems using probability calculations. The analysis is made using the fault tree method based on logic models. These models differ for different scales of reactor accident, and for availability calculations of the emergency core cooling system in the period of ''waiting'' or reliability calculations in active operation. Basic logical relations of major failure events are given in the analysis of system availability for cases of large and small loss of coolant accidents. (Z.M.)

144

Calculation method for the seasonal performance of heat pump compact units and validation. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This comprehensive final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at compact heat pump units that have been developed for the heating of low energy consumption houses built to MINERGIE or MINERGIE-P standards. These units, which combine the functions of space heating, domestic hot water preparation and ventilation in one unit are described. A testing procedure developed at the University of Applied Science in Lucerne, Switzerland, using a test rig for the measurement of the seasonal performance factor (SPF) is described. A calculation method based on temperature classes for the calculation of the SPF of combined heat pump systems for space heating and domestic hot water preparation that was developed by the Institute of Energy in Buildings at the University of Applied Sciences Northwestern Switzerland is examined. Two pilot plants allowing detailed field monitoring of two compact units are described. One pilot plant installed in a single-family house built to MINERGIE standard in Gelterkinden, Switzerland, provided data on a compact unit. These results of measurements made on this and a further installation in a MINERGIE-P ultra-low energy consumption house in Zeiningen, Switzerland, are presented and discussed. Calculation methods, including exergy considerations are reviewed and their validation is discussed.

Wemhoener, C.; Dott, R.; Afjei, Th. [University of Applied Sciences Northwestern Switzerland, Institute of Energy in Buildings, Muttenz (Switzerland); Huber, H.; Helfenfinger, D.; Keller, P.; Furter, R. [University of Applied Sciences Lucerne (HTA), Test center HLKS, Horw (Switzerland)

2007-02-15

145

CALCULATION OF POWER AND CHOICE OF BASIC FUNCTIONAL UNITS OF WIND POWER ELECTRIC-INSTALLATION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article discusses the basic analytical expressions for the calculation of power generators and select features basic functional units of wind turbines, allowing the design phase to conduct a preliminary assessment of the effectiveness of wind power stations, which supplies specific consumers of electric power

Kvitko A. V.

2014-04-01

146

A Probability analysis of the Generating Cost of APR+ Dual Unit  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes the probabilistic analysis of generating cost results in the final of the process of the APR+ standard detailed design. In this simulation, the results of the generating cost (COE, Cost of Electricity) of APR+ dual unit were determined using the probability cost analysis technique, the COE range was shown to be 39.60 won/kWh?52.82 won/kWh. As a part of a national long-term R and D program, the Advanced Power Reactor plus (APR+) project was launched in 2007. The APR+ project consists of three phases. In the first phase, the basic design was developed. the second phase involves the development of the standard detailed design and the submittal of the request for Standard Design Approval (SDA) to the Korean nuclear regulatory body. The third phase is the completion of the APR+ design optimizing core part

147

The benefits and costs of new fuels and engines for light-duty vehicles in the United States.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rising oil prices and concerns about energy security and climate change are spurring reconsideration of both automobile propulsion systems and the fuels that supply energy to them. In addition to the gasoline internal combustion engine, recent years have seen alternatives develop in the automotive marketplace. Currently, hybrid-electric vehicles, advanced diesels, and flex-fuel vehicles running on a high percentage mixture of ethanol and gasoline (E85) are appearing at auto shows and in driveways. We conduct a rigorous benefit-cost analysis from both the private and societal perspective of the marginal benefits and costs of each technology--using the conventional gasoline engine as a baseline. The private perspective considers only those factors that influence the decisions of individual consumers, while the societal perspective accounts for environmental, energy, and congestion externalities as well. Our analysis illustrates that both hybrids and diesels show promise for particular light-duty applications (sport utility vehicles and pickup trucks), but that vehicles running continuously on E85 consistently have greater costs than benefits. The results for diesels were particularly robust over a wide range of sensitivity analyses. The results from the societal analysis are qualitatively similar to the private analysis, demonstrating that the most relevant factors to the benefit-cost calculations are the factors that drive the individual consumer's decision. We conclude with a brief discussion of marketplace and public policy trends that will both illustrate and influence the relative adoption of these alternative technologies in the United States in the coming decade. PMID:18684162

Keefe, Ryan; Griffin, James P; Graham, John D

2008-10-01

148

Preoperative calculation of risk for prolonged intensive care unit stay following coronary artery bypass grafting  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Objective Patients who have prolonged stay in intensive care unit (ICU) are associated with adverse outcomes. Such patients have cost implications and can lead to shortage of ICU beds. We aimed to develop a preoperative risk prediction tool for prolonged ICU stay following coronary artery surgery (CABG). Methods 5,186 patients who underwent CABG between 1st April 1997 and 31st March 2002 were analysed in a development dataset. Logistic regression was used with forward stepwise techni...

Dihmis Walid C; Fabri Brian M; Grayson Antony D; Ghotkar Sanjay V; Mark, Pullan D.

2006-01-01

149

Experience with the core protection calculator system at Arkansas Nuclear One - Unit 2  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The first digital reactor reactor protection system installed in a US commercial nuclear power plant has now been operating for 5 years. This system, called the Core Protection Calculator System (CPCS) at Arkansas Nuclear One - Unit 2 (ANO-2) provides automatic reactor shutdown for protection of fuel cladding (departure from nucleate boiling) and protection against fuel center line melting (linear heat rate) for design basis events and anticipated operational occurrences. There are now three other such systems in operation: at Southern California Edison's San-Onofre Units 2 and 3 and at Louisiana Power and Light's Waterford Unit 3. The three nuclear units at Arizona Public Service's Palo-Verde station also employ a functionally identical design utilizing different hardware. The major difficulties encountered in licensing this system with The Nuclear Regulatory Commission are discussed and Arkansas Power and Light Company's experience associated with the installation, operation, modification and maintenance of the CPCS at ANO-2 is highlighted

150

Levelised unit electricity cost comparison of alternate technologies for baseload generation in Ontario  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report provides a comparison of the lifetime cost of constructing, operating and decommissioning new generation suitable for supplying baseload power by early in the next decade. New baseload generation options in Ontario are nuclear, coal-fired steam turbines or combined cycle gas turbines (CCGT). Nuclear and coal-fired units are characterised by high capital costs and low operating costs. As such, they are candidates for baseload operation only. Gas-fired generation is characterised by lower capital costs and higher operating costs and thus may meet the requirements for operation as peaking and/or baseload generation. The comparison of baseload generating technologies is made by reference to the estimated levelised unit electricity cost (LUEC). The LUEC can be thought of as a 'supply cost', where the unit cost is the price needed to recover all costs over the period. It is determined by finding the price that sets the sum of all future discounted cash flows (net present value, or NPV) to zero. It can also be thought of as representing the constant real wholesale price of electricity that meets the financing cost, debt repayment, income tax and cash flow constraints associated with the construction operation and decommissioning of a generating plant. Levelised unit cost comparisons are usually made with different sets of financing assumptions. This report considers two base cases, which we describe as 'merchant' and 'public' financing. The term 'merchant plant' is used to refer to ones that are built and operated by private investors. These investors pay for their capital through debt and by raising equity, and thus pay return on equity and interest on debt throughout their lifetime. These projects include income taxes, both provincial and federal. Publicly financed projects typically are not subject to income taxes or to the same constraints on raising finance through issuing debt and equity. However, they are constrained to provide a rate of return. The rate of return required for projects is subject to some uncertainty. For a merchant project the higher the perceived risk the higher the required return. Publicly financed projects may be evaluated on the basis of a given discount rate or may be able to access funds at lower rates, but the risk of cost overruns is implicitly borne by the taxpayer. There is a third possibility, a public/private partnership. A number of partnership arrangements are possible, for example, public financing of construction and leasing to private owners for operation. All partnership arrangements represent a sharing of risk between the public and private sector. Public/private partnership may provide an attractive model for building new generation in Ontario. This report considers each of the generation options under both merchant and public financing. The base case merchant financing scenario is consistent with one where risk is relatively low, and consequently the real return on equity required by private investors is 12%. We believe a comparison between merchant and public financing to be important in that it shows the effect of taxes and financing assumptions on the economics of a generation project. Since the pure economic assessment of projects does not normally consider financing or tax costs, these being transfer payments not essential to the project itself, the public financing version of our assessments can be interpreted as the underlying economics of different technologies. This report does not include a detailed modelling of financing arrangements that could occur under a public/private partnership. However, we do consider how the cost of generation options compares under a wide range of illustrative assumptions on the required return on equity, debt and the debt/equity ratio. (author)

151

Density functional theory calculation on many-cores hybrid central processing unit-graphic processing unit architectures.  

Science.gov (United States)

We present the implementation of a full electronic structure calculation code on a hybrid parallel architecture with graphic processing units (GPUs). This implementation is performed on a free software code based on Daubechies wavelets. Such code shows very good performances, systematic convergence properties, and an excellent efficiency on parallel computers. Our GPU-based acceleration fully preserves all these properties. In particular, the code is able to run on many cores which may or may not have a GPU associated, and thus on parallel and massive parallel hybrid machines. With double precision calculations, we may achieve considerable speedup, between a factor of 20 for some operations and a factor of 6 for the whole density functional theory code. PMID:19624177

Genovese, Luigi; Ospici, Matthieu; Deutsch, Thierry; Méhaut, Jean-François; Neelov, Alexey; Goedecker, Stefan

2009-07-21

152

Synthesis of the public opinion on the calculation methods of avoided costs; Synthese de la consultation publique sur les methodes de calcul des couts evites  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The CRE began the 22 october 2001 a public opinion on the avoided costs calculation methods, to determine the charges amount of the electric utilities. The main questions dealt with the general position of the actors towards the two calculation methods proposed by the CRE; the modalities of these methods implementing; the alternative and possible methods; the case of the non national distributors. The answers are detailed and analyzed. (A.L.B.)

NONE

2002-05-01

153

49 CFR 639.23 - Calculation of purchase or construction cost.  

Science.gov (United States)

...construction cost. 639.23...Section 639.23 Transportation Other Regulations...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CAPITAL LEASES Cost-Effectiveness...lease in mass transportation service for...the purchase cost, the...

2010-10-01

154

What Does It Cost to Prevent On-Duty Firefighter Cardiac Events? A Content Valid Method for Calculating Costs  

OpenAIRE

Cardiac arrest is a leading cause of mortality among firefighters. We sought to develop a valid method for determining the costs of a workplace prevention program for firefighters. In 2012, we developed a draft framework using human resource accounting and in-depth interviews with experts in the firefighting and insurance industries. The interviews produced a draft cost model with 6 components and 26 subcomponents. In 2013, we randomly sampled 100 fire chiefs out of >7,400 affiliated with the...

Daniel Patterson, P.; Joe Suyama; Reis, Steven E.; Weaver, Matthew D.; David Hostler

2013-01-01

155

25 CFR 1000.141 - Is there a predetermined cap or limit on indirect cost rates or a fixed formula for calculating...  

Science.gov (United States)

...indirect cost rates or a fixed formula for calculating indirect cost rates? 1000.141...ANNUAL FUNDING AGREEMENTS UNDER THE TRIBAL...Compacts and Funding Agreements Funding ...cap or limit on indirect cost rates or a fixed...

2010-04-01

156

Health-resource use and costs associated with fibromyalgia in France, Germany, and the United States  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Tyler Knight,1 Caroline Schaefer,1 Arthi Chandran,2 Gergana Zlateva,2 Andreas Winkelmann,3 Serge Perrot4 1Health Economics and Outcomes Research, Covance Market Access Services, Gaithersburg, MD, USA; 2Primary Care Health Economics and Outcomes Research, Pfizer Global Health Economics, New York, NY, USA; 3Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University Hospital Munich, Munich, Germany; 4Service de Médecine Interne et Thérapeutique, Université Paris Descartes, Paris, France Background: Fibromyalgia (FM is a chronic disorder characterized by widespread, persistent pain. Prospective and retrospective studies have demonstrated substantial health-care costs associated with FM in a number of countries. This study evaluated and compared health-resource use (HRU and associated costs related to FM in routine clinical practice across the US, France, and Germany. Methods: Two separate, cross-sectional, observational studies of subjects with FM were conducted: one in the US and one in France and Germany. HRU related to prescription medication, physician office visits, diagnostic tests, and hospitalizations was abstracted from chart review; patient out-of-pocket costs and lost productivity were collected via subject self-report. Costs were assigned to HRU based on standard algorithms. Direct and indirect costs were evaluated and compared by simple linear regression. Results: A total of 442 subjects (203 US, 70 France, 169 Germany with FM were analyzed. The mean (standard deviation age in the US, France, and Germany was 47.9 (10.9, 51.2 (9.5, and 49.2 (9.8, respectively (P = 0.085. Most subjects were female (95% US, 83% France, 80% Germany (P < 0.001. Adjusted annual direct costs per subject for FM were significantly higher in the US ($7087 than in France ($481, P < 0.001 or Germany ($2417, P < 0.001. Adjusted mean annual indirect costs per subject for FM were lower in the US ($6431 than in France ($8718 or Germany ($10,001, but represented a significant proportion of total costs in all countries. Conclusion: The significant HRU and costs associated with FM in the US, France, and Germany documented in this study highlight the substantial global economic burden of FM. Indirect costs represented a significant proportion of the total costs, particularly in Europe. Comparisons between the three countries show differences in HRU, with significantly higher direct costs in the US compared with France and Germany. Keywords: fibromyalgia, cost, burden of illness, United States, France, Germany

Chandran A

2013-04-01

157

The cost-effectiveness of supported employment for adults with autism in the United Kingdom  

OpenAIRE

Adults with autism face high rates of unemployment. Supported employment enables individuals with autism to secure and maintain a paid job in a regular work environment. The objective of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of supported employment compared with standard care (day services) for adults with autism in the United Kingdom. Thus, a decision-analytic economic model was developed, which used outcome data from the only trial that has evaluated supported employment for adult...

Mavranezouli, Ifigeneia; Megnin-viggars, Odette; Cheema, Nadir; Howlin, Patricia; Baron-cohen, Simon; Pilling, Stephen

2014-01-01

158

Screening, isolation, and decolonisation strategies in the control of meticillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus in intensive care units: cost effectiveness evaluation.  

OpenAIRE

OBJECTIVE: To assess the cost effectiveness of screening, isolation, and decolonisation strategies in the control of meticillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in intensive care units. DESIGN: Economic evaluation based on a dynamic transmission model. SETTING: England and Wales. Population Theoretical population of patients on an intensive care unit. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Infections, deaths, costs, quality adjusted life years (QALYs), incremental cost effectiveness ratios for alternat...

Robotham, Jv; Graves, N.; Cookson, Bd; Barnett, Ag; Wilson, Ja; Edgeworth, Jd; Batra, R.; Cuthbertson, Bh; Cooper, Bs

2011-01-01

159

Monitor unit calculations using a 3D computerised treatment planning system: verification in an anthropomorphic phantom  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this work was to assess the monitor unit calculation accuracy of a new 3D computer planning system in a volume containing significant lung heterogeneity. An anthropomorphic phantom drilled to accommodate a cylindrical ionisation chamber was used for measurements. Results were also compared to an older 2D system and a manual calculation method. Only a slight improvement was achieved with the new system and an energy dependence was evident. This type of test is recommended before implementing a new 3D planning system. Copyright (1999) Australasian Physical and Engineering Sciences in Medicine and the College of Biomedical Engineers

160

Applying graphics processor units to Monte Carlo dose calculation in radiation therapy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We investigate the potential in using of using a graphics processor unit (GPU for Monte-Carlo (MC-based radiation dose calculations. The percent depth dose (PDD of photons in a medium with known absorption and scattering coefficients is computed using a MC simulation running on both a standard CPU and a GPU. We demonstrate that the GPU?s capability for massive parallel processing provides a significant acceleration in the MC calculation, and offers a significant advantage for distributed stochastic simulations on a single computer. Harnessing this potential of GPUs will help in the early adoption of MC for routine planning in a clinical environment.

Bakhtiari M

2010-01-01

161

United States cost of military force projection in the Persian Gulf, 1976-2007  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents the first estimate of United States military cost for Persian Gulf force (CPGfp) derived entirely by a quantitative method. An activity-based cost (ABC) model uses geographic distribution of aircraft carriers as a proxy allocator of Department of Defense (DoD) baseline cost to regional operations. Allocation follows simply from DoD data that since 1990 no less than one aircraft carrier has been continuously on-station in the Persian Gulf; that eight are required to keep one on-station there; that the Navy has had eleven-fifteen carriers since 1990; and that Army and Air Force units are virtually never deployed to combat operations without Navy units. For 1976-2007 CPGfp is estimated to be $6.8 x 1012 and for 2007 $0.5 x 1012 (2008$). This substantial military investment is not a remedy for the market failure at the heart of regional security problem, which is oil market power. When CPGfp is added to economic losses attributed to market power in another recent study, the severity of this market failure becomes more apparent. (author)

162

Cost effective interprofessional training : an evaluation of a training unit in Denmark  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In 2004, the first Danish undergraduate interprofessional training unit (ITU) was established at the Regional Hospital Holstebro, inspired by experiences from Sweden. In this unit, medical, nursing, occupational therapy and physiotherapy students are given responsibility, under supervision by trained and motivated personnel, for rehabilitation and care of patients in a subunit of an orthopaedic department. The aim of this study was to see whether the ITU was cost effective in treating patients compared with a conventional orthopaedic ward. One-hundred and thirty-four patients admitted for primary hip or knee replacement surgery were included in the study. All costs were recorded in the ITU and in the conventional ward. Follow-up was done by a quality of life questionnaire three months after the operation. Comparison was done by univariable and multivariable testing of costs and effect. In both, the ITU was more cost effective than the conventional ward. No difference was found in complications and patient-reported quality of life. In conclusion, clinical training can be given to students in an ITU without reducing productivity in a hospital environment if pedagogic principles, clinical tutors and patient logistics all adapt to the challenge of the teaching environment.

Hansen, Torben Bæk; Jakobsen, Flemming Bandholm

2009-01-01

163

X/Qs and unit dose calculations for Central Waste Complex interim safety basis effort  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective for this problem is to calculate the ground-level release dispersion factors (X/Q) and unit doses for onsite facility and offsite receptors at the site boundary and at Highway 240 for plume meander, building wake effect, plume rise, and the combined effect. The release location is at Central Waste Complex Building P4 in the 200 West Area. The onsite facility is located at Building P7. Acute ground level release 99.5 percentile dispersion factors (X/Q) were generated using the GXQ. The unit doses were calculated using the GENII code. The dimensions of Building P4 are 15 m in W x 24 m in L x 6 m in H.

Huang, C.H.

1996-04-03

164

Calculation method for the seasonal performance of heat pump compact units and validation. Appendix  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This appendix to a comprehensive final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of tests made on compact heat pump units that have been developed for the heating of low energy consumption houses built to MINERGIE or MINERGIE-P standards. The tests on these units, which combine the functions of space heating, domestic hot water preparation and ventilation in one unit are presented and discussed. Test conditions are described; these cover ventilation, acoustic, hygiene and safety aspects. Detailed results from the two test objects - buildings built to MINERGIE and MINERGIE-P low energy consumption standards - are presented and discussed. The calculation methods used are examined and discussed.

Wemhoener, C.; Dott, R.; Afjei, Th. [University of Applied Sciences Northwestern Switzerland, Institute of Energy in Buildings, Muttenz (Switzerland); Huber, H.; Helfenfinger, D.; Keller, P.; Furter, R. [University of Applied Sciences Lucerne (HTA), Test center HLKS, Horw (Switzerland)

2007-02-15

165

Lessons learnt from application of the standardized cost calculation code OMEGA in decision making processes and planning in decommissioning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Implementation of the standardised cost structure, as defined in 'A Proposed Standardised List of Costs Items for Decommissioning Purposes' (OECD/NEA, IAEA, EC, 1999), into the decommissioning costing, supports the harmonisation of decommissioning costs. The decision making processes in decommissioning planning can be more effective if there is the possibility to compare the calculated data with the data of other projects, structured in standardised cost structure. The results of the decision making process should be based on evaluation of such a set of decommissioning options which covers the methods of decommissioning, the selected strategy and existing or planned decommissioning infrastructure. Aspects such as impact of time, waste management scenarios, uncertainties of input data and other aspects should be also evaluated. These issues of decision making process were implemented into the decommissioning costing code OMEGA. All activities of a decommissioning project are involved within single compact standardised calculation structure including waste management. The resulting costs have standardised format and no additional data conversion is needed. The calculation process is nuclide resolved and internally linked in such a way that it models the material and radioactivity flow in the decommissioning process. The effect of decay of radioactivity is considered. The options are optimised in the standard MS-Project software as Gantt charts. The bi-directional data las Gantt charts. The bi-directional data link between the standardised calculation structure and the Gantt chart supports the on-line optimisation of the Gantt chart structure. Multi-option work is applied, i.e. decommissioning options, which cover all decommissioning scenarios to be considered, are evaluated individually and multi-attribute analysis is applied for selecting the optimal one. Methods of sensitivity analysis and evaluation of uncertainties of calculated costs were developed for support the decision making process and for definition of contingencies. (author)

166

Preliminary regulatory audit calculation for Shinkori Units 3 and 4 LBLOCA  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this study is to perform a preliminary evaluation for Shinkori Units 3 and 4 LBLOCA by applying KINS Realistic Evaluation Methodology (REM). The following results were obtained: (1) From the evaluation for Shinkori Units 3 and 4 LBLOCA, the peak cladding temperature was evaluated to meet the regulatory requirement and the feasibility of the KINS-REM was identified. (2) The input decks that were developed in the previous studies, were reviewed and the evaluation model of the fluidic device was developed and applied for the audit calculation. (3) The treating method for the uncertainty of the gap conductance was developed and applied for the audit calculation. (4) The pre- and post-processing programs were developed for this study. (5) For the more detailed assessments, the information for the gap conductance, etc. should be improved and the effects of coolant bypass during blowdown, steam binding and so on were not sufficiently evaluated. KINS-REM should be advanced to evaluate these effects properly. The KINS methodology that was used in this study, can be further applied for independent regulatory audit calculations related to the licensing application on LOCA best estimate calculation

167

Acceleration of orbital-free first principles calculation with graphics processing unit GPU  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Computational material design requires efficient algorithms and high-speed computers for calculating and predicting material properties. The orbital-free first principles calculation (OF-FPC) method, which is a tool for calculating and designing material properties, is an O(N) method and is suitable for large-scaled systems. The stagnation in the development of CPU devices with high mobility of electron carriers has driven the development of parallel computing and the production of CPU devices with finer spaced wiring. We, for the first time, propose another method to accelerate the computation using Graphics Processing Unit (GPU). The implementation of the Fast Fourier Transform (CUFFT) library that uses GPU, into our in-house OF-FPC code, reduces the computation time to half of that of the CPU.

168

Nemo X: Freeware independent monitor units calculation for external beam radiotherapy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In External Beam Radiotherapy (EBRT) the check of dosimetric calculations is a major concern in the quality assurance of the treatment. This is true not only for conventional conformal techniques but also for special techniques including Intraoperative Radiotherapy (IORT), Total Body Irradiation (TBI) and Intensity Modulation (IMRT). As evidenced by primary international organizations dealing with radiation dosimetry and quality assurance (ESTRO, ICRP, IAEA), a fundamental aspect of the treatment planning process is the independent verification of Monitor Units (MU). Moreover in some situations (backup of commercial planning systems, urgent palliations, TBI and IORT treatments) there is a concrete need for a system of dosimetric calculation alternative to Treatment Planning Systems (TPS). To address this kind of exigency the National Cancer Research Institute of Genova started in year 2000 a research project which put as its main objective the development of a software application (Nemo X) for the independent dosimetric calculation and verification of the MU with the following features: Running on Windows platform; Management of all dosimetric data through graphical user interface; MU calculation for EBRT with photon and electron beams including IMRT; TBI calculations for anterior-posterior and lateral-lateral techniques; MU calculation for IORT treatments; Data interface to commercial Treatment Planning and Record and Verify systems with automatic import of Multileafsystems with automatic import of Multileaf Collimator (MLC) shape; Print out of treatment and QA data

169

Market value calculation and the solution of circularity between value and the weighted average cost of capital WACC  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Most finance textbooks present the Weighted Average Cost of Capital (WACC calculation as: WACC = Kd×(1-T×D% + Ke×E%, where Kd is the cost of debt before taxes, T is the tax rate, D% is the percentage of debt on total value, Ke is the cost of equity and E% is the percentage of equity on total value. All of them precise (but not with enough emphasis that the values to calculate D% y E% are market values. Although they devote special space and thought to calculate Kd and Ke, little effort is made to the correct calculation of market values. This means that there are several points that are not sufficiently dealt with: Market values, location in time, occurrence of tax payments, WACC changes in time and the circularity in calculating WACC. The purpose of this note is to clear up these ideas, solve the circularity problem and emphasize in some ideas that usually are looked over. Also, some suggestions are presented on how to calculate, or estimate, the equity cost of capital.

Ignacio Vélez-Pareja

2009-12-01

170

5 CFR 591.220 - How does OPM calculate energy utility cost indexes?  

Science.gov (United States)

...SERVICE REGULATIONS ALLOWANCES AND DIFFERENTIALS Cost-of-Living Allowance and Post Differential-Nonforeign Areas Cost-Of-Living...use of energy types in other household operations (e.g., hot water, cooking,...

2010-01-01

171

REFLOS, Fuel Loading and Cost from Burnup and Heavy Atomic Mass Flow Calculation in HWR  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

1 - Nature of physical problem solved: REFLOS is a programme for the evaluation of fuel-loading schemes in heavy water moderated reactors. The problems involved in this study are: a) Burn-up calculation for the reactor cell. b) Determination of reactivity behaviour, power distribution, attainable burn-up for both the running-in period and the equilibrium of a 3-dimensional heterogeneous reactor model; investigation of radial fuel movement schemes. c) Evaluation of mass flows of heavy atoms through the reactor and fuel cycle costs for the running-in, the equilibrium, and the shut down of a power reactor. If the subroutine for treating the reactor cell were replaced by a suitable routine, other reactors with weakly absorbing moderators could be analyzed. 2 - Method of solution: Nuclear constants and isotopic compositions of the different fuels in the reactor are calculated by the cell-burn-up programme and tabulated as functions of the burn-up rate (MWD/T). Starting from a known state of the reactor, the 3-dimensional heterogeneous reactor programme (applying an extension of the technique of Feinberg and Galanin) calculates reactivity and neutron flux distribution using one thermal and one or two fast neutron groups. After a given irradiation time, the new state of the reactor is determined, and new nuclear constants are assigned to the various defined locations in the reactor. Reloading of fuel may occur if the prescribed life of the reactor is reached or if the effectof the reactor is reached or if the effective multiplication factor or the power form factor falls below a specified level. The scheme of reloading to be carried out is specified by a load vector, giving the number of channels to be discharged, the kind of movement from one to another channel and the type of fresh fuel to be charged for each single reloading event. After having determined the core states characterizing the equilibrium period, and having decided the fuel reloading scheme for the running-in period of the reactor life, the fuel cycle costs are evaluated following proposals of the EURATOM Economic Handbook. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Maximum number of groups of channels having rotation symmetry is 60. Maximum Number of groups of channels having specular symmetry is 120. Maximum number of harmonics for the approximation of the axial flux distribution is 19. Highest order of Bessel functions for the approximation of the radial flux distribution is 12. Maximum number of axial pieces of a channel with possibly different neutronic properties is 20. Maximum number of neutron groups: two fast, one thermal. Maximum number of different types of channels in the reactor is 10. Maximum number of burn-up steps characterizing one type of channel is 50

172

CNSS plant concept, capital cost, and multi-unit station economics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

United Engineers and Constructors (UE and C) and the Babcock and Wilcox Company (B and W) have performed several studies over the last eight years related to small integral pressurized water reactors. These reactors include the 365 MWt (100 MWe) Consolidated Nuclear Steam Generator (CNSG) and the 1200 MWt Consolidated Nuclear Steam System (CNSS). The studies, mostly performed under contract to the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, have led to a 1250 MWt (400 MWe) Consolidated Nuclear Steam System (CNSS) plant concept, with unique design and cost features. This report contains an update of earlier studies of the CNSS reactor and balance-of-plant concept design, capital costs, and multi-unit plant economics incorporating recent design developments, improvements, and post-TMI-2 upgrades. The economic evaluation compares the total system economic impact of a phased, three stage 400 MWe CNSS implementation program, i.e., a three-unit station, to the installation of a single 1200 MWe Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) into a typical USA utility system

173

Calculation of additional costs in 2011 - for the demolition of the Swedish nuclear power plants and disposal of residues  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report describes the SSM's estimates of future costs for the fee proposal for 2012-2014. The calculation is made according to the Financing Act and includes all additional costs until the residues from the Swedish nuclear power plants are finally stored. According to current estimates, this is assumed to be 2069. The estimation of such a long time is a major uncertainty and SSM uses, like SKB, the successive calculation method to estimate an expected value and the uncertainty of the estimate

174

Economic costs of the foot and mouth disease outbreak in the United Kingdom in 2001.  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors present estimates of the economic costs to agriculture and industries affected by tourism of the outbreak of foot and mouth disease (FMD) in the United Kingdom (UK) in 2001. The losses to agriculture and the food chain amount to about Pound Sterling3.1 billion. The majority of the costs to agriculture have been met by the Government through compensation for slaughter and disposal as well as clean-up costs. Nonetheless, agricultural producers will have suffered losses, estimated at Pound Sterling355 million, which represents about 20% of the estimated total income from farming in 2001. Based on data from surveys of tourism, businesses directly affected by tourist expenditure are estimated to have lost a similar total amount (between Pound Sterling2.7 and Pound Sterling3.2 billion) as a result of reduced numbers of people visiting the countryside. The industries which supply agriculture, the food industries and tourist-related businesses will also have suffered losses. However, the overall costs to the UK economy are substantially less than the sum of these components, as much of the expenditure by tourists was not lost, but merely displaced to other sectors of the economy. Overall, the net effect of FMD is estimated to have reduced the gross domestic product in the UK by less than 0.2% in 2001. PMID:12523706

Thompson, D; Muriel, P; Russell, D; Osborne, P; Bromley, A; Rowland, M; Creigh-Tyte, S; Brown, C

2002-12-01

175

Admission clinicopathological data, length of stay, cost and mortality in an equine neonatal intensive care unit  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Veterinary internists need to prognosticate patients quickly and accurately in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU. This may depend on laboratory data collected on admission, the cost of hospitalisation, length of stay (LOS and mortality rate experienced in the NICU. Therefore, we conducted a retrospective study of 62 equine neonates admitted to a NICU of a private equine referral hospital to determine the prognostic value of venous clinicopathological data collected on admission before therapy, the cost of hospitalisation, LOS and mortality rate. The WBC count, total CO2 (TCO2 and alkaline phosphatase (ALP were significantly higher (P < 0.05 and anion gap lower in survivors compared with nonsurvivors. A logistic regression model that included WBC count, hematocrit, albumin / globulin ratio, ALP, TCO2, potassium, sodium and lactate, was able to correctly predict mortality in 84 % of cases. Only anion gap proved to be an independent predictor of neonatal mortality in this study. In the study population, the overall mortality rate was 34 % with greatest mortality rates reported in the first 48 hours and again on day 6 of hospitalisation. Amongst the various clinical diagnoses, mortality was highest in foals after forced extraction during correction of dystocia. Median cost per day was higher for nonsurvivors while total cost was higher in survivors.

F.T. Bain

2012-06-01

176

Synthesis of the public expression of opinion about the calculation methods of the saved costs; Synthese de la consultation publique sur les methodes de calcul des couts evites  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The French commission of electricity regulation (CRE) has launched a public inquiry on October 22, 2001 about the methods used for the calculation of the saved costs, which are used to determine the charges amount of the power generation public utility. The main questions submitted to the public were dealing with: the general positioning of the concerned parties with respect to the two types of calculation methods proposed by the CRE; the concrete modalities of implementation of each method; the possible alternative methods; the case of the non-nationalized distributors. This document analyzes in details the answers received. (J.S.)

NONE

2002-05-01

177

Costos directos de la hemodiálisis en unidades públicas y privadas / Direct cost analysis of hemodialysis units  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO. Estimar y comparar el costo por sesión de hemodiálisis dentro del sector público y privado en la Ciudad de México. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS. Se calcularon los costos de los insumos utilizados en las hemodiálisis de cuatro hospitales públicos y dos privados de la Ciudad de México, mediante la est [...] rategia de micro-costeo denominada PAATI. Para la obtención de los datos se utilizó el método de sombra; además, se empleó Excel para elaborar cédulas en las que se determina el PAATI para cada sesión. RESULTADOS. El costo anual promedio directo en el sector público por el tratamiento de un individuo en hemodiálisis es de $158 964.00 M. N., y el costo de atender a la población que podría demandar terapia de reemplazo renal se estima en $10 921 788 072.00 M. N. CONCLUSIÓN. La disponibilidad de recursos humanos e infraestructura en el país es muy limitada para el campo de la nefrología en general y, en particular, para ofrecer servicios de hemodiálisis, por lo que sería necesario inyectar más recursos para poder responder ante la demanda por insuficiencia renal terminal. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE. To estimate and compare direct costs per hemodialysis session in public and private units in Mexico City. MATERIAL AND METHODS. PAATI, a microcosting strategy, was used to determine total costs of four public and two private health hospitals in Mexico City. A "shadow study" approach was e [...] mployed to collect the needed data. Charts containing the "PAATI" information for each session were developed in Microsoft Excel. RESULTS. The average annual cost per patient undergoing hemodialysis in public units is $158 964.00 MX. The estimated cost for the care of all population estimated in need of renal replacement therapy (via hemodialysis) was estimated to be $10 921 788 072.00 MX. CONCLUSION. Human resources and infrastructure availability in México are very limited for nephrology, and in consequence for offering hemodialysis services.

Luis, Durán-Arenas; Paula D, Ávila-Palomares; Rodrigo, Zendejas-Villanueva; María Magaly, Vargas-Ruiz; Laura L, Tirado-Gómez; Malaquías, López-Cervantes.

178

Calculation of unit tensor operators using a restricted set of Slater determinants  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper we present a new result involving the properties of the Clebsch-Gordan coefficients well-used in atomic physics. We also demonstrate a practical use of this result: a new and simple method of calculation of unit tensor operators of multi-electron atoms while working within the Slater-Condon scheme. This results in a significant increase in the ease of implementation of multi-electron atomic physics models, and we discuss the computational complexity of the resulting algorithm.

Hill, E. G.

2014-06-01

179

Graphics processing unit-assisted density profile calculations in the KSTAR reflectometer.  

Science.gov (United States)

Wavelet transform (WT) is widely used in signal processing. The frequency modulation reflectometer in the KSTAR applies this technique to get the phase information from the mixer output measurements. Since WT is a time consuming process, it is difficult to calculate the density profile in real time. The data analysis time, however, can be significantly reduced by the use of the Graphics Processing Unit (GPU), with its powerful computing capability, in WT. A bottle neck in the KSTAR data processing exists in the data input and output (IO) process between the CPU and its peripheral devices. In this paper, the details of the WT implementation assisted by a GPU in the KSTAR reflectometer are presented and the consequent performance improvement is reported. The real time density profile calculation from the reflectometer measurements is also discussed. PMID:25430234

Seo, Seong-Heon; Oh, Dong Keun

2014-11-01

180

Calculation of unit tensor operators using a restricted set of Slater determinants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper we present a new result involving the properties of the Clebsch–Gordan coefficients well-used in atomic physics. We also demonstrate a practical use of this result: a new and simple method of calculation of unit tensor operators of multi-electron atoms while working within the Slater–Condon scheme. This results in a significant increase in the ease of implementation of multi-electron atomic physics models, and we discuss the computational complexity of the resulting algorithm. - Highlights: • We demonstrate a new, simple, and robust method to calculate atomic data. • We show that the Wigner–Eckart theorem can be used to obtain reduced matrix elements from a small set of magnetic sublevels. • We describe the implementation of this method in the code ALICE II

181

FAST CALCULATION OF THE LOMB-SCARGLE PERIODOGRAM USING GRAPHICS PROCESSING UNITS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

I introduce a new code for fast calculation of the Lomb-Scargle periodogram that leverages the computing power of graphics processing units (GPUs). After establishing a background to the newly emergent field of GPU computing, I discuss the code design and narrate key parts of its source. Benchmarking calculations indicate no significant differences in accuracy compared to an equivalent CPU-based code. However, the differences in performance are pronounced; running on a low-end GPU, the code can match eight CPU cores, and on a high-end GPU it is faster by a factor approaching 30. Applications of the code include analysis of long photometric time series obtained by ongoing satellite missions and upcoming ground-based monitoring facilities, and Monte Carlo simulation of periodogram statistical properties.

182

Graphics processing unit-assisted density profile calculations in the KSTAR reflectometer  

Science.gov (United States)

Wavelet transform (WT) is widely used in signal processing. The frequency modulation reflectometer in the KSTAR applies this technique to get the phase information from the mixer output measurements. Since WT is a time consuming process, it is difficult to calculate the density profile in real time. The data analysis time, however, can be significantly reduced by the use of the Graphics Processing Unit (GPU), with its powerful computing capability, in WT. A bottle neck in the KSTAR data processing exists in the data input and output (IO) process between the CPU and its peripheral devices. In this paper, the details of the WT implementation assisted by a GPU in the KSTAR reflectometer are presented and the consequent performance improvement is reported. The real time density profile calculation from the reflectometer measurements is also discussed.

Seo, Seong-Heon; Oh, Dong Keun

2014-11-01

183

Statin cost effectiveness in primary prevention: A systematic review of the recent cost-effectiveness literature in the United States  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background The literature on the cost-effectiveness of statin drugs in primary prevention of coronary heart disease is complex. The objective of this study is to compare the disparate results of recent cost-effectiveness analyses of statins. Findings We conducted a systematic review of the literature on statin cost-effectiveness. The four studies that met inclusion criteria reported varying conclusions about the cost-effectiveness of statin treatment, without a clear consensus as to ...

Mitchell Aaron P; Simpson Ross J

2012-01-01

184

Improving Accuracy and Efficiency of Start-up Cost Formulations in MIP Unit Commitment by Modeling Power Plant Temperatures  

OpenAIRE

This paper presents an improved mixed-integer model for the Thermal Unit Commitment Problem. By introducing new variables for the temperature of each thermal unit, the off-time-dependent start-up costs are modeled accurately while using fewer inequalities than state-of-the-art formulations. This new approach significantly improves computational efficiency, even compared to existing formulations which only roughly approximate start-up costs. Our findings were validated on rea...

Silbernagl, Matthias; Huber, Matthias; Brandenberg, Rene?

2014-01-01

185

The Estimation of an Average Cost Frontier to Calculate Benchmark Tariffs for Electricity Distribution  

OpenAIRE

In this paper we have examined the scale and cost inefficiency of a sample of Swiss electricity distribution utilities. To do so, we have considered estimation of a stochastic frontier average cost model using the approach suggested by Schmidt and Sickles (1984) for panel data. A translog cost function was estimated using panel data for a sample of 30 municipal utilities over the period 1992-1996. The results indicate the existence of economies of output and customer density and economies of ...

Filippini, Massimo; Wild, Jo?rg

1998-01-01

186

A procedure for calculation of monitor units for passively scattered proton radiotherapy beams  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this study is to validate a monitor unit (MU) calculation procedure for passively scattered proton therapy beams. The output dose per MU (d/MU) of a therapeutic radiation beam is traditionally calibrated under specific reference conditions. These conditions include beam energy, field size, suitable depth in water or water equivalent phantom in a low dose gradient region with known relative depth dose, and source to point of calibration distance. Treatment field settings usually differ from these reference conditions leading to a different d/MU that needs to be determined for delivering the prescribed dose. For passively scattered proton beams, the proton specific parameters, which need to be defined, are related to the energy, lateral scatterers, range modulating wheel, spread out Bragg peak (SOBP) width, thickness of any range shifter, the depth dose value relative to the normalization point in the SOBP, and scatter both from the range compensator and inhomogeneity in the patient. Following the custom for photons or electrons, a set of proton dosimetry factors, representing the changes in the d/MU relative to a reference condition, can be defined as the relative output factor (ROF), SOBP factor (SOBPF), range shifter factor (RSF), SOBP off-center factor (SOBPOCF), off-center ratio (OCR), inverse square factor (ISF), field size factor (FSF), and compensator and patient scatter factor (CPSF). The ROF, SOBPF, and RSF are the major contributors to the d/MURSF are the major contributors to the d/MU and were measured using an ion chamber in water tank during the clinical commissioning of each beam to create a dosimetry beam data table to be used for calculating the monitor units. The following simple formula is found to provide an independent method to determine the d/MU at the point of interest (POI) in the patient, namely, (d/MU)=ROF·SOBPF·RSF·SOBPOCF·OCR·FSF·ISF·CPSF. The monitor units for delivering the intended dose (D) to the POI can be obtained from MU=D divide (d/MU). The accuracy and robustness of the above formula were validated by calculating the d/MU in water for many different combinations of beam parameters and comparing it with the corresponding measured d/MU by an ion chamber in a water or water/plastic phantom. This procedure has been in use for MU calculation for patient treatment fields at our facility since May 2006. The differences in the calculated and measured values of the d/MU for 623 distinct fields used for patient treatment during the period of May 2006 to February 2007 are within 2% for 99% of these fields. The authors conclude that an intuitive formula similar to the one used for monitor unit calculation of therapeutic photon beams can be used to compute the monitor units of passively scattered proton therapy beams.

187

Linear-scaling self-consistent field calculations based on divide-and-conquer method using resolution-of-identity approximation on graphical processing units.  

Science.gov (United States)

Graphical processing units (GPUs) are emerging in computational chemistry to include Hartree-Fock (HF) methods and electron-correlation theories. However, ab initio calculations of large molecules face technical difficulties such as slow memory access between central processing unit and GPU and other shortfalls of GPU memory. The divide-and-conquer (DC) method, which is a linear-scaling scheme that divides a total system into several fragments, could avoid these bottlenecks by separately solving local equations in individual fragments. In addition, the resolution-of-the-identity (RI) approximation enables an effective reduction in computational cost with respect to the GPU memory. The present study implemented the DC-RI-HF code on GPUs using math libraries, which guarantee compatibility with future development of the GPU architecture. Numerical applications confirmed that the present code using GPUs significantly accelerated the HF calculations while maintaining accuracy. PMID:25392975

Yoshikawa, Takeshi; Nakai, Hiromi

2015-01-30

188

Analysis of Unit Costs in a University. The Fribourg Example. Program on Institutional Management in Higher Education.  

Science.gov (United States)

Costing principles are applied to a university by estimating unit costs and their component factors for the university's different inputs, activities, and outputs. The information system used is designed for Fribourg University but could be applicable to other Swiss universities and could serve Switzerland's universities policy. In general, it…

Pasquier, Jacques; Sachse, Matthias

189

Marketing techniques and cost calculations of radiation vulcanised natural rubber latex (RVNRL)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes how RVNRL is promoted to the latex based industries locally and abroad. RVNRL promotion requires patience and very challenging. This is a fact since the product is new to the market. Cost is important in deciding its market and potential usage. The elements that contribute to the cost is described in this paper. (Author)

190

Weather data for simplified energy calculation methods. Volume I. Eastern United States: TRY data  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of this report is to provide a source of weather data for direct use with a number of simplified energy calculation methods available today. Complete weather data for a number of cities in the United States are provided for use in the following methods: degree hour, modified degree hour, bin, modified bin, and variable degree day. This report contains sets of weather data for 23 cities in the continental United States using Test Reference Year (TRY) source weather data. The weather data at each city has been summarized in a number of ways to provide differing levels of detail necessary for alternative simplified energy calculation methods. Weather variables summarized include dry bulb and wet bulb temperature, percent relative humidity, humidity ratio, wind speed, percent possible sunshine, percent diffuse solar radiation, total solar radiation on horizontal and vertical surfaces, and solar heat gain through standard DSA glass. Monthly and annual summaries, in some cases by time of day, are available. These summaries are produced in a series of nine computer generated tables.

Olsen, A.R.; Moreno, S.; Deringer, J.; Watson, C.R.

1984-08-01

191

Calculator.  

Science.gov (United States)

Five activities are presented in this student workbook on using the electronic calculator. Following the directions for using the machine, problems are given on multiplying and dividing, finding percentages, calculating the area of assorted polygons, changing fractions to decimals, and finding squares and square roots. (JH)

Parma City School District, OH.

192

Cost-income analysis of oral health units of health care centers in Yazd city  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background and Aims: Increasing demands for health care's services on one hand and limited resources on the other hand brings about pressure over governments to find out a mechanism for fair and appropriate distribution of resources. Economic analysis is one of the appropriate tools for policy making on this priority. The aim of this study was to assess capital and consumption of oral health units of health care centers in Yazd city and comparing it with revenue of these centers and determining of cost effectiveness.Materials and Methods: In this descriptive cross sectional study, all health care centers of Yazd city with active dentistry department were evaluated. The data has been extracted from current documents in health care center of county based issued receipts and daily information registers.Results: Expended cost for providing of oral hygiene services in second half of 2008 in 13 medical health centers of Yazd included active dentistry section was 557.887.500 Rials and revenue to cost ratio was about 34%. The most provided service was related to tooth extraction and the average of tooth restoration in each working day was 0.48.Conclusion: With attention to low tariffs of dentistry services in medical health centers and paying subsidy to target groups, expenses of oral hygiene are always more than its revenue.

Hosein Fallahzadeh

2012-01-01

193

Antibiotic prescription and cost patterns in a general intensive care unit  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Antibiotic prescription habits, cost pattern, and the prospective intervention in an Intensive Care Unit were analyzed. Methods: Data on antibiotic utilization and costs were collected prospectively from individual electronic charts from August 2003 to January 2004, and retrospectively from August to December 2002. Results: A total of 180 and 107 patients were surveyed in 2002 and 2003. In 2002, Piperacillin-Tazobactam (13.8% and Imipenem/Cilastin (11.2% were the most prescribed medications; while, in 2003, Vancomycin (12.6% and Imipenem/Cilastin (11.3% were prescribed, respectively. Total defined daily dose (DDD and Drug Utilization 90% (DU90% index for 2002 and 2003 were 2031.15 and 2325.90 DDDs (p>0.1 and 1777.57 and 2079.61 DU90%, respectively (p>0.1. The Median Total Cost /100 admission days (CI 95% were NIS13,310 (11,110;18,420 and NIS13,860 (6,710;18,020 (p=0.66, respectively. Conclusions: Interventional programs should focus on promoting infectious control with rational antibiotic prescription aimed at minimizing the future emergence of bacterial resistance and futile expenses.

Krivoy N

2007-06-01

194

Evaluation of a rapid LMP-based approach for calculating marginal unit emissions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • Pollutant emissions estimated based on locational marginal price and eGRID data. • Stochastic model using IEEE RTS-96 system used to evaluate LMP approach. • Incorporating membership function enhanced reliability of pollutant estimate. • Error in pollutant estimate typically 2 and X and SO2. - Abstract: To evaluate the sustainability of systems that draw power from electrical grids there is a need to rapidly and accurately quantify pollutant emissions associated with power generation. Air emissions resulting from electricity generation vary widely among power plants based on the types of fuel consumed, the efficiency of the plant, and the type of pollution control systems in service. To address this need, methods for estimating real-time air emissions from power generation based on locational marginal prices (LMPs) have been developed. Based on LMPs the type of the marginal generating unit can be identified and pollutant emissions are estimated. While conceptually demonstrated, this LMP approach has not been rigorously tested. The purpose of this paper is to (1) improve the LMP method for predicting pollutant emissions and (2) evaluate the reliability of this technique through power system simulations. Previous LMP methods were expanded to include marginal emissions estimates using an LMP Emissions Estimation Method (LEEM). The accuracy of emission estimates was further improved by incorporating a probability distribution function that characterize generator fuel costs and a membership function (MF) capable of accounting for multiple marginal generation units. Emission estimates were compared to those predicted from power flow simulations. The improved LEEM was found to predict the marginal generation type approximately 70% of the time based on typical system conditions (e.g. loads and fuel costs) without the use of a MF. With the addition of a MF, the LEEM was found to provide emission estimates with errors typically less than 25% for CO2, and less than 50% for SO2 and NOX. Overall, the LEEM presented provides a means of incorporating pollutant emissions into demand side decisions

195

Benefit/cost analysis of plutonium recycle options in the United States of America  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Beginning in 1973, the USAEC started the analysis of the benefit/cost balance of Pu recycling in light-water reactors and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission has continued this effort to the present time. A study of the United States nuclear industry from 1975 until 2000 was summarized in a final environmental statement called GESMO - Generic Environmental Statement on Mixed Oxide, NUREG-0002. Cumulative environmental and economic effects for several industry growth patterns were determined. Five alternatives were evaluated, covering the basic options of recycling uranium and plutonium; recycling uranium; and no recycling. The NRC findings, excluding consideration of proliferation and safeguards questions, are: the safety of reactors and fuel-cycle facilities are not significantly affected by recycle; excluding consideration of radiological effects, the environmental effects of recycle are slightly less than those from a non-recycle system; plutonium recycling extends uranium resources and reduces environmental impacts at the same time requiring reprocessing and Pu-handling facilities; despite uncertainties, recycling has probable economic advantages over other fuel concepts; differences in health effects attributable to recycling provide no basis for selecting a particular fuel-cycle option; no waste-management considerations appear that could be a basis for the selection of any particular option. The NRC studies on health, safety and environmental considerations ofsafety and environmental considerations of Pu recycling in the United States of America show that the differences in benefits/costs between the alternative fuel cycles are small and hence do not provide a clear basis for a decision on Pu recycle at this time. Safeguards and international proliferation implications appear to be the controlling factors in reaching a decision. President Carter's statement indefinitely deferring reprocessing and Pu recycle in the United States of America has resulted in a re-evaluation by NRC of its programme to reach a decision on whether or not to authorize Pu recycling. (author)

196

Audit Calculations of ATWS for Ulchin Unit 1 and 2 Power Uprate  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this study, the regulatory audit calculation for ATWS of Ulchin Unit 1 and 2 with 4.5% power uprate was performed to support the licensing review and to confirm the validity of licensee's calculation. In order to simulate the transient behavior of ATWS initiated by a loss of feed water, the systems of Ulchin Unit 1 and 2 was modeled with MARS-KS 1.3. In this study, the regulatory audit calculation of ATWS for Ulchin 1 and 2 with 4.5% power uprating and 99% MTC in the specific cycle designs was performed. It is conformed that the analysis results of ATWS for Ulchin 1 and 2 power uprate meets the RCS pressure acceptance criteria. An anticipated transient accompanied by a failure in the Reactor Trip System (RTS) to shut down the reactor is defined as an Anticipated Transient Without Scram (ATWS). Under certain postulated conditions, the ATWS could lead to Reactor Coolant system (RCS) pressure boundary fracture and/or core damage. For a conventional pressurized water reactor (PWR), the temperature corresponding to the NSSC notice No.2013.09(Performance Criteria for ECCS of the Pressurized Water Reactor Nuclear Power Plants), 1204 .deg. C and the pressure corresponding to the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code service level C stress, 221.5 bar is assumed to be an unacceptable plant condition against ATWS, above which the RCS pressure boundary could deform to the point of inoperability and the safe shutdown by injection of borated water could be challenged. Such potentially excessive RCS overpressure may occur in the ATWS initiated from a loss of heat sink. Currently, the modification of Ulchin 1 and 2 operating license for 4.5% power uprate is under review.

Lee, Jun Soo; Huh, Byung Gil; Choi, Yong Seog; Seul, Kwang Won [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

2013-10-15

197

Audit Calculations of ATWS for Ulchin Unit 1 and 2 Power Uprate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this study, the regulatory audit calculation for ATWS of Ulchin Unit 1 and 2 with 4.5% power uprate was performed to support the licensing review and to confirm the validity of licensee's calculation. In order to simulate the transient behavior of ATWS initiated by a loss of feed water, the systems of Ulchin Unit 1 and 2 was modeled with MARS-KS 1.3. In this study, the regulatory audit calculation of ATWS for Ulchin 1 and 2 with 4.5% power uprating and 99% MTC in the specific cycle designs was performed. It is conformed that the analysis results of ATWS for Ulchin 1 and 2 power uprate meets the RCS pressure acceptance criteria. An anticipated transient accompanied by a failure in the Reactor Trip System (RTS) to shut down the reactor is defined as an Anticipated Transient Without Scram (ATWS). Under certain postulated conditions, the ATWS could lead to Reactor Coolant system (RCS) pressure boundary fracture and/or core damage. For a conventional pressurized water reactor (PWR), the temperature corresponding to the NSSC notice No.2013.09(Performance Criteria for ECCS of the Pressurized Water Reactor Nuclear Power Plants), 1204 .deg. C and the pressure corresponding to the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code service level C stress, 221.5 bar is assumed to be an unacceptable plant condition against ATWS, above which the RCS pressure boundary could deform to the point of inoperability and the safe shutdown by injection of borated water could be challenged. Such potentially excessive RCS overpressure may occur in the ATWS initiated from a loss of heat sink. Currently, the modification of Ulchin 1 and 2 operating license for 4.5% power uprate is under review

198

Low-cost general purpose spectral display unit using an IBM PC  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Many physics experiments require acquisition and analysis of spectral data. commercial minicomputer-based multichannel analyzers collect detected counts at various energies, create a histogram of the counts in memory, and display the resultant spectra. They acquire data and provide the user-to-display interface. The system discussed separates functions into the three modular components of data acquisition, storage, and display. This decoupling of functions allows the experimenter to use any number of detectors for data collection before forwarding up to 64 spectra to the display unit, thereby increasing data throughput over that available with commercial systems. An IBM PC was chosen for the low-cost, general purpose display unit. Up to four spectra may be displayed simultaneously in different colors. The histogram saves 1024 channels per detector, 640 of which may be distinctly displayed per spectra. The IEEE-488 standard provides the data path between the IBM PC and the data collection unit. Data is sent to the PC under interrupt control, using direct memory access. Display manipulations available via keyboard are also discussed

199

A cost description of an adult cystic fibrosis unit and cost analyses of different categories of patients.  

OpenAIRE

BACKGROUND: There is little information on the costs of running an adult cystic fibrosis centre. The aim of this study was to provide detailed costs to assist funding and planning for these patients. METHODS: The cost of a regional adult cystic fibrosis centre serving 119 cystic fibrosis patients, categorised according to four treatment regimens, was determined. District health authority, family health service authority, and voluntary resources used from April 1989 to March 1990 were determin...

Robson, M.; Abbott, J.; Webb, K.; Dodd, M.; Walsworth-bell, J.

1992-01-01

200

Initial Assessment of Parallelization of Monte Carlo Calculation using Graphics Processing Units  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Monte Carlo (MC) simulation is an effective tool for calculating neutron transports in complex geometry. However, because Monte Carlo simulates each neutron behavior one by one, it takes a very long computing time if enough neutrons are used for high precision of calculation. Accordingly, methods that reduce the computing time are required. In a Monte Carlo code, parallel calculation is well-suited since it simulates the behavior of each neutron independently and thus parallel computation is natural. The parallelization of the Monte Carlo codes, however, was done using multi CPUs. By the global demand for high quality 3D graphics, the Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) has developed into a highly parallel, multi-core processor. This parallel processing capability of GPUs can be available to engineering computing once a suitable interface is provided. Recently, NVIDIA introduced CUDATM, a general purpose parallel computing architecture. CUDA is a software environment that allows developers to manage GPU using C/C++ or other languages. In this work, a GPU-based Monte Carlo is developed and the initial assessment of it parallel performance is investigated

201

Weather data for simplified energy calculation methods. Volume IV. United States: WYEC data  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of this report is to provide a source of weather data for direct use with a number of simplified energy calculation methods available today. Complete weather data for a number of cities in the United States are provided for use in the following methods: degree hour, modified degree hour, bin, modified bin, and variable degree day. This report contains sets of weather data for 23 cities using Weather Year for Energy Calculations (WYEC) source weather data. Considerable overlap is present in cities (21) covered by both the TRY and WYEC data. The weather data at each city has been summarized in a number of ways to provide differing levels of detail necessary for alternative simplified energy calculation methods. Weather variables summarized include dry bulb and wet bulb temperature, percent relative humidity, humidity ratio, wind speed, percent possible sunshine, percent diffuse solar radiation, total solar radiation on horizontal and vertical surfaces, and solar heat gain through standard DSA glass. Monthly and annual summaries, in some cases by time of day, are available. These summaries are produced in a series of nine computer generated tables.

Olsen, A.R.; Moreno, S.; Deringer, J.; Watson, C.R.

1984-08-01

202

Calculation of economic viability of alternative energy sources considering its environmental costs for small communities of Northeast Brazil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There has been an increasing concern about current environmental issues caused by human activity, as the world searches for development. The production of electricity is an extremely relevant factor in this scenario since it is responsible for a large portion of the emissions that cause the greenhouse effect. Due to this fact, a sustainable development with alternative energy sources, which are attractive for such purpose, must be proposed, especially in places that are not supplied by the conventional electricity grid such as many communities in the Northeast Brazil. This work aims to calculate the environmental cost for the alternative sources of energy - solar, wind and biomass - during electricity generation, and to estimate the economic feasibility of those sources in small communities of Northeast Brazil, considering the avoided costs. The externalities must be properly identified and valued so the costs or benefits can be internalized and reflect accurately the economic feasibility or infeasibility of those sources. For this, the method of avoided costs was adopted for the calculation of externalities. This variable was included in the equation developed for all considered alternative energy sources. The calculations of economic feasibility were performed taking the new configurations in consideration, and the new equation was reprogrammed in the Programa de Calculo de Custos de Energias Alternativas, Solar, Eolica e Biomassa (PEASEB). The results demonstrated that the solar photovoltaic energy in isolated systems is the most feasible and broadly applicable source for small communities of Northeast Brazil. (author)

203

Antibiotic prescription and cost patterns in a general intensive care unit  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: English Abstract in spanish Se analizaron los hábitos de prescripción de antibióticos, el modelo de costes, y las intervenciones prospectivas en una Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos. Métodos: Se recogieron prospectivamente datos sobre utilización y costes de antibióticos de los registros electrónicos individuales desde agosto de [...] 2003 a enero de 2004, y retrospectivamente hasta diciembre 2002. Resultados: Se investigó un total de 180 y 107 pacientes en 2002 y 2003. En 2002, la Piperacilina-Tazobactam (13,8%) y el Imipenem/Cilastina (11,2%) fue los más prescritos, mientras que en 2003, se prescribieron vancomicina (12,%) e Imipenem/Cilastina (11,3%). Las dosis diarias definidas (DDD) totales y el índice utilización 90% (DU90%) para 2002 y 2003 fueron 2031,15 y 2325,90 DDD (p>0,1). La mediana de coste total /100 días de internamiento (IC95%) fue 13.310NIS (11.110;18.420) y 13.860NIS (6.710;18.020) (p=0,66), respectivamente. Conclusiones: Los programas de intervención deberían enfocarse en promover el control de las infecciones con una prescripción racional de antibióticos centrada en minimizar las futuras apariciones de resistencia bacteriana y los gastos inútiles. Abstract in english Antibiotic prescription habits, cost pattern, and the prospective intervention in an Intensive Care Unit were analyzed. Methods: Data on antibiotic utilization and costs were collected prospectively from individual electronic charts from August 2003 to January 2004, and retrospectively from August t [...] o December 2002. Results: A total of 180 and 107 patients were surveyed in 2002 and 2003. In 2002, Piperacillin-Tazobactam (13.8%) and Imipenem/Cilastin (11.2%) were the most prescribed medications; while, in 2003, Vancomycin (12.6%) and Imipenem/Cilastin (11.3%) were prescribed, respectively. Total defined daily dose (DDD) and Drug Utilization 90% (DU90%) index for 2002 and 2003 were 2031.15 and 2325.90 DDDs (p>0.1) and 1777.57 and 2079.61 DU90%, respectively (p>0.1). The Median Total Cost /100 admission days (CI 95%) were NIS13,310 (11,110;18,420) and NIS13,860 (6,710;18,020) (p=0.66), respectively. Conclusions: Interventional programs should focus on promoting infectious control with rational antibiotic prescription aimed at minimizing the future emergence of bacterial resistance and futile expenses.

Norberto, Krivoy; Wissam, Abed El-Ahal; Yaron, Bar-Lavie; Salim, Haddad.

2007-06-01

204

A Cost-Benefit Calculator for RFID Implementations in the Apparel Retail Industry  

OpenAIRE

The apparel retail industry is on the one hand facing challenges from increasing competition, consolidations, and thus increasing pressure to reduce costs. On the other hand, customers are getting more demanding, resulting in shorter fashion cycles, and demands for new customer experience. RFID technology is supposed to raise efficiency and to enable innovative customer service offerings. Besides cost savings, benefits are expected to arise from newly designed RFID applications and customer i...

Jasser Al-Kassab; Nezar Mahmoud; Frederic Thiesse; Elgar Fleisch

2009-01-01

205

Does the Dispersion of Unit Labor Cost Dynamics in the EMU Imply Long-run Divergence? Results from a Comparison with the United States of America and Germany  

OpenAIRE

Using unit labor cost (ULC) data from Euro area countries as well as US States and German L¨ander we investigate inflation convergence using different approaches, namely panel unit root tests, cointegration tests and error-correction models. All in all we cannot reject convergence of ULC growth in EMU, however, country-specific deviations from the rest of the currency union are much more pronounced and much more persistent in Europe. This holds before and after the introduction of the common...

Dullien, Sebastian; Fritsche, Ulrich

2007-01-01

206

Calculation of radioactive inventory of activated parts for nuclear power unit and analysis of influence factors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Based on the operation characteristics of the nuclear power unit, the radioactive inventory of activated parts was calculated by ORIGEN2, and the effects of bum-up, operation mode and power change on the radioactive inventory for activated parts were analyzed. The results indicated that the radioactive inventory grew with the increasing of burn-up, and when the actual operation time was longer than the effective operation time, the increasing rate of nuclide activity approximated the burn-up increasing; Radioactive inventory of activated parts was influenced directly by the operation modes of the nuclear power unit, and under same reactor load, operation power and bum-up, the radioactive inventory for non-continuous operation mode is less than that for the continuous operation mode. Effects of operation modes on radioactive inventory reversed with half life of nuclides. Under same bum-up and longer operation time, the effect of operation power change on the radioactive inventory is not obvious, (authors)

207

Cost accounting in ECN  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A five year planning is made in which the available money is distributed to the expected programmes. This five year plan is used as basis for working plan and budget for the next year. In the working plan all financial means are divided into kinds of costs, cost centres and cost units. Based on this working plan and the relevant budgets the tariffs are calculated per working centre (cost centre). The tariffs are fixed for a whole year. Up till now these tariffs are also basis for the cost unit accounting at the end of the year together with the results of the time registration. The estimated work shop services for the working centres are included in the tariffs. For the allocation of overhead costs ECN uses dynamic keys. Depreciation costs with respect to instruments, investments etc. are determined per working centre according to a computer programme. The cost unit related costs are charged directly to cost unit. This implies that project related in instruments are looked upon as running costs. In the future we will try to refine the present cost accounting system still further in this way that we will look upon a cost centre as a profit centre. Furthermore we will try to analyse the tariff and calculation deviations and under/over occupation deviations afterwards (post calculation). The information provided to the management knows a hierachic construction: project information to projectleader, programme (compound projects) information to programme coordinator, cost nformation to programme coordinator, cost centre summary to department heads, attention area (compound programme) information to programme coordinator and managing director, ECN research (compound attention areas) information to general management, information re kind of costs to relevant persons, f.e. surveys of expenditure for part time personnel to personnel bureau. The information is provided by the department of Finance and Administrative Organisation. The entire scope of cost accounting is the responsibility of the head of the department of Finance and Administrative Organisation. (author)

208

User's guide to SERICPAC: A computer program for calculating electric-utility avoided costs rates  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

SERICPAC is a computer program developed to calculate average avoided cost rates for decentralized power producers and cogenerators that sell electricity to electric utilities. SERICPAC works in tandem with SERICOST, a program to calculate avoided costs, and determines the appropriate rates for buying and selling of electricity from electric utilities to qualifying facilities (QF) as stipulated under Section 210 of PURA. SERICPAC contains simulation models for eight technologies including wind, hydro, biogas, and cogeneration. The simulations are converted in a diversified utility production which can be either gross production or net production, which accounts for an internal electricity usage by the QF. The program allows for adjustments to the production to be made for scheduled and forced outages. The final output of the model is a technology-specific average annual rate. The report contains a description of the technologies and the simulations as well as complete user's guide to SERICPAC.

Wirtshafter, R.; Abrash, M.; Koved, M.; Feldman, S.

1982-05-01

209

A cost effective model for appropriate administration of red cell units and salvaging un-transfused red cell units by using temperature sensitive indicators for blood component transportation in a hospital setting  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: A rule called “30-min rule” defines that red cell unit cannot be used if it has been out of blood bank refrigerator for over 30 min. This rule is useful to guide initiation of transfusion, but is inadequate for deciding whether to reuse or discard units received-back at blood transfusion services (BTS). A simple cost-effective temperature-sensitive indicator was evaluated to decide upon reuse (cold chain was uninterrupted) or discard (where cold chain was interrupted) in a simulation exercise. Materials and Methods: Temperature-sensitive indicators TH-F™ that irreversibly changed color from white to red demonstrated that heat excursion has occurred and the cumulative temperature has exceeded 10°C for over 30 min, were used in outdated red cells for simulating units, which are not used and received-back. These units were also tagged with a standard temperature monitoring device, which was a re-usable credit card sized device, which would log the actual time and temperature. In few units percent hemolysis was also calculated. Results: Statistically insignificant elevation in average temperature was noted in 102 simulated units at the time of return to BTS (? 0.04°C), despite the fact that these units were in the transport box for over 4 h. The average supernatant hemoglobin in these units was 0.24%, much below the prescribed threshold. Conclusion: Transportation of blood in controlled conditions with temperature-sensitive indicator is a cost-effective model to save blood, a precious human resource. PMID:25722571

Tiwari, Aseem K.; Sharma, Pooja; Pandey, Prashant K.; Rawat, Ganesh S.; Dixit, Surbhi; Raina, Vimarsh; Bhargava, Richa

2015-01-01

210

Real time economic dispatch and marginal costs calculation in CFE's northeast system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents a real time model developed to solve a constrained economic dispatch using the cost curve for an equivalent generator. The approach includes constraints such as reserve, transmission power interchanges, ramp rates and generator limits. The formulation combines the solution of coordination equations and a fast decoupled load flow (FDLF) is used to determine penalty factors and bus marginal costs. A model for a combined cycle power plant is described and included in the dispatch. Results on various test systems and study cases are presented using this formulation. (author)

211

Cost optimal building performance requirements. Calculation methodology for reporting on national energy performance requirements on the basis of cost optimality within the framework of the EPBD  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

On the European level, the principles for the requirements for the energy performance of buildings are set by the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD). Dating from December 2002, the EPBD has set a common framework from which the individual Member States in the EU developed or adapted their individual national regulations. The EPBD in 2008 and 2009 underwent a recast procedure, with final political agreement having been reached in November 2009. The new Directive was then formally adopted on May 19, 2010. Among other clarifications and new provisions, the EPBD recast introduces a benchmarking mechanism for national energy performance requirements for the purpose of determining cost-optimal levels to be used by Member States for comparing and setting these requirements. The previous EPBD set out a general framework to assess the energy performance of buildings and required Member States to define maximum values for energy delivered to meet the energy demand associated with the standardised use of the building. However it did not contain requirements or guidance related to the ambition level of such requirements. As a consequence, building regulations in the various Member States have been developed by the use of different approaches (influenced by different building traditions, political processes and individual market conditions) and resulted in different ambition levels where in many cases cost optimality principles could justify higher ambitions. The EPBD recast now requests that Member States shall ensure that minimum energy performance requirements for buildings are set 'with a view to achieving cost-optimal levels'. The cost optimum level shall be calculated in accordance with a comparative methodology. The objective of this report is to contribute to the ongoing discussion in Europe around the details of such a methodology by describing possible details on how to calculate cost optimal levels and pointing towards important factors and effects. The methodology described in this report is consistent with the description of the process as presented in the study 'Cost Optimality - Discussing methodology and challenges within the recast Energy Performance of Buildings Directive' published in September 2010 by the Buildings Performance Institute Europe (BPIE). The present document provides additional insights and details.

Boermans, T.; Bettgenhaeuser, K.; Hermelink, A.; Schimschar, S. [Ecofys, Utrecht (Netherlands)

2011-05-15

212

Calculation of Costs of Pregnancy- and Puerperium-related Care: Experience from a Hospital in a Low-income Country  

OpenAIRE

Calculation of costs of different medical and surgical services has numerous uses, which include monitoring the performance of service-delivery, setting the efficiency target, benchmarking of services across all sectors, considering investment decisions, commissioning to meet health needs, and negotiating revised levels of funding. The role of private-sector healthcare facilities has been increasing rapidly over the last decade. Despite the overall improvement in the public and private health...

Sarowar, M. G.; Medin, E.; Gazi, R.; Koehlmoos, T. P.; Rehnberg, C.; Saifi, R.; Bhuiya, A.; Khan, J.

2010-01-01

213

Review of RELAP5 calculations for H.B. Robinson Unit 2 pressurized thermal shock study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) used the RELAP5/MOD1.6 code to simulate a number of transient scenarios for the USNRC PTS study of the H.B. Robinson Unit-2 PWR plant. Eleven of these scenarios were reviewed at BNL on the basis of information received before September 30, 1984. Six of these eleven scenarios were selected for an in-depth quantitative analysis performed on the basis of a simple method developed at BNL. However, the detailed analysis of two of these transients, namely transients 1 and 4 are not presented here as they have since been recalculated by INEL and the new calculations could not be reviewed at BNL due to budgetary constraints. The simple method uses the mass and energy balance equations to predict the temperature and pressure of the reactor system. The results of these calculations were compared to the RELAP5 results and the INEL extrapolations. In general, the RELAP5 and INEL results appear to be reasonable

214

Calculation of phase equilibria in Ti-Al-Cr-Mn quaternary system for developing lower cost titanium alloys  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? This paper is about the concept of designing the lower cost titanium alloy. ? The thermodynamic database of Ti-Al-Cr-Mn system is built up by Calphad method. ? The pseudobinary sections with Cr: Mn = 3:1 and Al = 3, 4.5 and 6.0 wt% are calculated. ? This may provide the theoretical support for designing the lower cost titanium alloy. - Abstract: The Ti-Al-Cr-Mn system is a potentially useful system for lower cost titanium alloy development; however, there are few reports about the experimental phase diagrams and the thermodynamical assessment for this system. In this study, the previous investigations for the thermodynamic descriptions of the sub-systems in the Ti-Al-Cr-Mn system are reviewed, our previous assessment for the related sub-systems in this quaternary system is summarized, the thermodynamical database of this quaternary system is built up by directly extrapolating from all sub-systems assessed by means of the Calphad method, then the pseudobinary sections with Cr:Mn = 3:1 and Al = 0.0, 3.0, 4.5 and 6.0 wt% are calculated, respectively. These pseudobinary phase diagrams may provide the theoretical support for designing the lower cost titanium alloys with different microstructures (?, ? + ?, and ? titanium alloy).

215

A New Improved Hybrid Meta-Heuristics Method for Unit Commitment with Nonlinear Fuel Cost Function  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, a new improved hybrid meta-heuristic method is proposed to solve the unit commitment problem effectively. The objective is to minimize operation cost while satisfying the power balance constraints and so on. It may be formulated as a nonlinear mixed-integer problem. In other words, the unit commitment problem is hard to solve. Therefore, this paper makes use of a hybrid meta-heuristic method with two layers. Layer 1 determines the on/off conditions of generators with tabu search (TS) while Layer 2 evaluates output of generators with evolutionary particle swarm optimization (EPSO). The construction phase of Greedy Randomized Adaptive Search Procedure (GRASP) is used to create initial feasible solutions efficiently. Three kinds of meta-heuristic methods such as TS, EPSO and GRASP are combined to solve the problem. In addition, a parallel scheme of EPSO is developed to improve the computational efficient as well as the accuracy. The effectiveness of the proposed method is tested in sample systems.

Okawa, Kenta; Mori, Hiroyuki

216

A calculation program for harvesting and transportation costs of energy and industrial wood; Energiapuun korjuun ja kuljetuksen kustannuslaskentaohjelmisto  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A computer based model has been developed for calculating the production costs of industrial wood and wood fuel. Several calculation situations, which might be useful for decision-making in energy wood supply, are included into this software. The model will be easy to use for practical purposes and flexible so that different new model and changes in the basis of calculations are easy to implement. Model will offer open interfaces for importing and exporting information. Model includes selected wood delivery chains and open interfaces for adding data from different procurement sources. The cost analysis model is built on Windows-based software, SQLWindows, using different sources of data (ODBC). With the model it is possible to manage these SQLBase databases with SQL-queries. The data included in the databases origins from various energy wood sources (local communities or part of them, forestry boards planning areas or even stands ready for cutting). By knowing the planned share of first thinnings, final cuttings and other harvesting operations it is possible to estimate the potential amount of wood fuel from each area. Also databases from energy wood users, forest and transportation machinery and distances are available in the system. Using the information it is possible to find out the fuel demand of power and heating plants in each moment (e.g., amount and quality), costs of various machines (harvesters, forwarders, trucks) as well as distances between energy wood sources and users. (orig.)

Ranta, T. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

1997-12-01

217

Costos unitarios laborales verticalmente integrados por rama en México y Estados Unidos, 1970-2000 / Vertically integrated unit labor costs by sector Mexico-USA, 1970-2000  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Los tipos de cambio reales efectivos, en términos de costos unitarios de trabajo, han sido calculados en la economía mundial siguiendo varios métodos. En este trabajo se desarrolla una metodología para estimar los costos unitarios laborales vertical-mente integrados por rama económica utilizando las [...] técnicas de insumo-producto. El modelo se aplica a las economías de México y de Estados Unidos para el periodo 1970-2000. Los resultados obtenidos se comparan con un coeficiente estimado de ventaja comparativa revelada por rama de la economía mexicana a fin de establecer si el comercio exterior de México está relacionado con los costos unitarios laborales relativos en este periodo. Para probar esta relación se utilizó el análisis econométrico para datos en panel. Abstract in english Real effective exchange rates have been calculated by relative unit labor costs for many countries in the world economy. In this work we develop a methodology to estimate vertically integrated unit labor costs by sector, using input-output techniques, for the Mexican and United States economies in t [...] he period 1970-2000. The results are then compared to a measurement of revealed comparative advantage by sector, of the Mexican economy, in order to establish whether Mexican foreign trade by sector was related to its relative labor costs during this period. To test this relationship econometric analysis for panel data is utilized.

Pablo, Ruiz Nápoles.

2010-09-01

218

Cancer in the oropharynx: Cost calculation of different treatment modalities for controlled primaries, relapses and grade III/IV complications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Background and purpose: This paper presents a model for cost calculation using the different treatment modalities for oropharyngeal (OPh) cancers used in our hospital. We compared full hospital costs, the associated costs of localregional relapses (LRR) and/or treatment related grade III/IV complications. Materials and methods: Patients with OPh cancer are treated in the Erasmus MC preferably by an organ function preservation protocol. That is, by external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) followed by a brachytherapy (BT) boost, and neck dissection in case of N+ disease (BT-group: 157 patients). If BT is not feasible, resection with postoperative EBRT (S-group [S=Surgery]: 110 patients) or EBRT-alone (EBRT-group: 77 patients) is being pursued. Actuarial localregional control (LRC), disease free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) at 5-years were calculated according to the Kaplan-Meier method. The mean costs per treatment group for diagnosis, primary Tx per se, follow-up, (salvage of) locoregional relapse (LRR), distant metastasis (DM), and/or grade III/IV complications needing clinical admission, were computed. Results: For the BT-, S-, or EBRT treatment groups, LRC rates at 5-years were 85, 82, and 55%, for the DFS, 61, 48, and 43%, and for the OS 65, 52, and 40%, respectively. The mean costs of primary Tx in case of the BT-group is EURO 13,466; for the S-group EURO 24,219, and EURO 12,502 for the EBRT-group. The mean costs of S (the main salvage modality) for a LR of S (the main salvage modality) for a LRR of the BT group or EBRT-group, were EURO 17,861 and EURO 15,887, respectively. The mean costs of clinical management of Grade III/IV complications were EURO 7184 (BT-group), EURO 16,675 (S-group) and EURO 6437 (EBRT-group). Conclusion: The clinical outcome illustrates excellent LRC rates at 5-years for BT (85%), as well as for S (82%). The relatively low 55% LRC rate at 5-years for EBRT probably reflects a negative selection of patients. It is of interest that the total mean costs of patients alive with no evidence of disease is least for the BT-group: EURO 15,101 as opposed to EURO 25,288 (S) and EURO 18,674 (EBRT). Main underlying cause for the high costs with S as opposed to RT alone is the number of associated clinical admission days, not only during primary treatment, but also at relapse. This might be taken into consideration when treating these patients

219

19 CFR 351.407 - Calculation of constructed value and cost of production.  

Science.gov (United States)

...ANTIDUMPING AND COUNTERVAILING DUTIES Calculation of Export Price, Constructed Export Price, Fair Value, and Normal Value § 351...complete revamping or redesign of the product. Routine model year changes will not be considered a new...

2010-04-01

220

Carbon dioxide control costs for gasification combined-cycle plants in the United States  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study focused on evaluating the cost of recovering CO{sub 2} from coal gasification, combined-cycle (GCC) power plants and transporting the CO{sub 2} in pipelines for disposal in deep ocean water, depleted oil and gas reservoirs, or aquifers. Other fuels and conversion technologies were not evaluated. Technical feasibility, environmental acceptability, and other implementation issues were not addressed in detail. Ocean disposal of CO{sub 2} offers essentially unlimited capacity, but is distant from most US coal-fired power plants and presents environmental concerns at the disposal point. Depleted oil and gas reservoirs are also distant from most US coal-fired power plants and have a more limited disposal capacity,, but were calculated to have a potential capacity more than double that required to dispose of all CO{sub 2} from 830 GCC power plants (380-mwe each) for a period of 40 years. The existence of oil and gas reservoirs provides ``proof`` of the long-term CO{sub 2} confinement potential in these formations. In contrast, aquifer disposal is believed to be significantly riskier. Key concerns are lack of geologic knowledge at depths adequate for CO{sub 2} disposal; uncertainty about geochemical impacts from decreased water pH; and long-term confinement, which is unproven for non-petroleum formations. Carbon dioxide recovery at GCC plants increased the levelized energy cost (LEC) by about one third relative to a reference GCC plant without CO{sub 2} recovery. The transmission distance is the key factor affecting total CO{sub 2} control costs.

Brown, D.R.; Humphreys, K.K.; Vail, L.W.

1993-06-01

221

Break-Even Cost for Residential Solar Water Heating in the United States: Key Drivers and Sensitivities  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper examines the break-even cost for residential rooftop solar water heating (SWH) technology, defined as the point where the cost of the energy saved with a SWH system equals the cost of a conventional heating fuel purchased from the grid (either electricity or natural gas). We examine the break-even cost for the largest 1,000 electric and natural gas utilities serving residential customers in the United States as of 2008. Currently, the break-even cost of SWH in the United States varies by more than a factor of five for both electricity and natural gas, despite a much smaller variation in the amount of energy saved by the systems (a factor of approximately one and a half). The break-even price for natural gas is lower than that for electricity due to a lower fuel cost. We also consider the relationship between SWH price and solar fraction and examine the key drivers behind break-even costs. Overall, the key drivers of the break-even cost of SWH are a combination of fuel price, local incentives, and technical factors including the solar resource location, system size, and hot water draw.

Cassard, H.; Denholm, P.; Ong, S.

2011-02-01

222

42 CFR 447.206 - Cost limit for providers operated by units of government.  

Science.gov (United States)

...provider's Medicare cost report (or Medicaid cost report for intermediate nursing facility care and ICFs/MR consistent with Medicare cost reporting principles, and audited financial statements that will be used in conjunction with...

2010-10-01

223

The DRG Project of the German Transplant Society: 1. Improved Delineation of the Cost of Liver Transplantation under the G-DRG System through Cost Analysis and Calculation of New Cost Separators  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: The first calculation of the Diagnosis Related Groups (DRGs in Germany resulted in a drastic reduction of reimbursements for liver transplantations (LTX. While under the previous reimbursement system, a liver transplantation was calculated with approximately € 125.000, the newly introduced German DRG system calculated for a liver transplantation without complications for 2004 a case weight of 11,9 and hence, based on the base rate utilized a fee of € 35.000 - € 45.000. Since under these circumstances the financing for clinical liver transplantations seemed to be in jeopardy, the Deutsche Transplantationsgesellschaft (German Society for Organ Transplantation conducted an evaluation of the actual costs of liver transplantations. Materials and Methods: The data of 75 transplant admissions from five major transplant centres were collected and 177 cost parameters were captured each day. In addition, the data which is important for the classification of the DRGs (diagnosis, procedures, length of hospital stay and duration of ventilation were recorded and cost comparisons for single parameters were performed using the DKG-NT (Deutsche Krankenhausgesellschaft Normal-Tarif [German hospital association regular price] and Lauer-Tax (drugstore base buying price. With this method the total actual costs per case were determined and also which parameter could be useful as a cost separator. Results: Based on our data, our estimated cost for the DRG liver transplantation was much higher then the actual reimbursement under the new German DRG system. This led us to initiate a discussion with the InEK and subsequently the introduction of weighed hospital days for better allocation of the cost to the liver transplanted patient. Furthermore, based on our findings, additional split criteria were discussed with the InEK, which partially have been included into the DRG 2005 system. Conclusions: The investigation which was performed in cooperation with the InEK underlined that the actual reimbursement for liver transplantations does not mirror the actual cost, and the introduction of new cost separators, new ICD and procedure codes should enable the hospitals in the future to allocate the real cost of liver transplantations to the liver recipient. The changes already implemented have resulted in a significantly higher reimbursement for liver transplantation for 2005, and have reduced the financial gap for liver transplantations considerably.

R. Lohmann

2005-12-01

224

ORGANIZATION OF MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING AND COST CALCULATION OF MINING IN JIU VALLEY  

OpenAIRE

The scientific approach taken, due to the fact that a nationally more acute problem arises regarding mining restructuring, namely the closure of uneconomic mines, in this paper I want to report my finding on how management accounting is organized and which is the costing method currently applied by the seven mines in the Jiu Valley, which are currently functional, as well as to identify their limitations and advantages for improving them and identifying financial and economic solutions, demon...

ILEANA-SORINA BOCA (RAKOS)

2011-01-01

225

Reduced computational cost in the calculation of worst case response time for real time systems  

OpenAIRE

Modern Real Time Operating Systems require reducing computational costs even though the microprocessors become more powerful each day. It is usual that Real Time Operating Systems for embedded systems have advance features to administrate the resources of the applications that they support. In order to guarantee either the schedulability of the system or the schedulability of a new task in a dynamic Real Time System, it is necessary to know the Worst Case Response Time of the Real Time tasks ...

Urriza, Jose? M.; Schorb, Lucas; Orozco, Javier D.; Cayssials, Ricardo

2009-01-01

226

Calculation of economic viability and environmental costs of photovoltaic solar energy for the Brazilian Northeast region  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The availability of energy resources is a central point to economic development. The energy matrix of most countries is based on the consumption of fossil fuels, which adds annually over 5 billion tons of carbon into the atmosphere. The energy consumption in developing countries has quadrupled since the 60s further aggravating global environmental conditions. The need to implement alternative energy sources to the energy matrix was proved. In addition, Brazil has a large number of people without access to electricity, which affects the quality of life of these populations. In this context, it is necessary to think in economic development way, and then the sustainable and alternative sources appear as an option for its features and its availability in Brazil. The solar energy captured by photovoltaic cells can be highlighted in the Brazilian scenario because of its wide availability, especially in the Northeast. The aim of this paper is to estimate the economic feasibility of insertion of solar systems in small communities in the Brazilian Northeast, considering environmental costs involved in electricity generation. The methodology is based on economic concepts and economic valuation of environmental resources. The results shows that solar power is becoming increasingly competitive due to reduced costs of components and due to the environmental costs reduced when compared with fossil fuels. (author)

Stecher, Luiza C.; Sabundjian, Gaiane; Menzel, Francine, E-mail: luizastecher@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

2013-07-01

227

Calculation of economic viability and environmental costs of photovoltaic solar energy for the Brazilian Northeast region  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The availability of energy resources is a central point to economic development. The energy matrix of most countries is based on the consumption of fossil fuels, which adds annually over 5 billion tons of carbon into the atmosphere. The energy consumption in developing countries has quadrupled since the 60s further aggravating global environmental conditions. The need to implement alternative energy sources to the energy matrix was proved. In addition, Brazil has a large number of people without access to electricity, which affects the quality of life of these populations. In this context, it is necessary to think in economic development way, and then the sustainable and alternative sources appear as an option for its features and its availability in Brazil. The solar energy captured by photovoltaic cells can be highlighted in the Brazilian scenario because of its wide availability, especially in the Northeast. The aim of this paper is to estimate the economic feasibility of insertion of solar systems in small communities in the Brazilian Northeast, considering environmental costs involved in electricity generation. The methodology is based on economic concepts and economic valuation of environmental resources. The results shows that solar power is becoming increasingly competitive due to reduced costs of components and due to the environmental costs reduced when compared with fossil fuels. (author)

228

The EURISOL Multi-MW Target Unit: Neutronics, Dose Rate, Shielding and Activation Calculations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The EURISOL (The EURopean Isotope Separation On-Line Radioactive Ion Beam) project aims at designing a facility for producing high intensity radioactive ion beams, with unprecedented (two to three orders of magnitude higher) intensities, compared to the majority of the worldwide existing RIB facilities. For this purpose, a proton beam of energy 1 GeV and intensity up to 4 mA impinges on a liquid mercury target (the converter). The high neutron fluxes (in excess of 1015 n cm-2 s-1) produced by spallation nuclear reactions in the converter induce fission on 235U targets surrounding the liquid mercury converter. In order to attain the intended high intensity radioactive ion beams, the appropriate configuration (geometry and materials) of the target unit components (converter, fission targets, moderators, reflectors) must be determined, to attain the highest possible fission rates in the uranium targets (in excess of 1015 fissions per second). The extremely high neutron and photon fluxes resulting from the operation of the target unit impose, for radiological protection and safety purposes, a careful assessment of the dose rates in the surrounding areas. Activation of the structural components must be studied. Thick shielding barriers must be designed. In this work, the so-called MAFF inspired target configuration, allowing a versatile operation, maintenance, remote control and storage of the fission targets is considd storage of the fission targets is considered. The results obtained using the state-of-the-art Monte Carlo codes MCNPX and FLUKA are presented. The neutronics, dose rate, shielding and activation calculations, needed for radiological protection and safety assessment purposes are discussed.

229

DUCKS: Low cost thermal monitoring units for near-vent deployment  

Science.gov (United States)

During 1999 we designed and tested a thermal monitoring system to provide a cheap, robust, modular, real-time system capable of surviving the hostile conditions encountered proximal to active volcanic vents. In November 2000 the first system was deployed at Pu'u 'O'o (Kilauea, Hawai'i) to target persistently active vents. Aside from some minor problems, such as sensor damage due to tampering, this system remained operational until January 2004. The success of the prototype system led us to use the blueprint for a second installation at Stromboli (Aeolian Islands, Italy). This was deployed, dug into a bomb-proof bunker, during May 2002 and survived the April 2003 paroxysmal eruption despite being located just 250 m from the vent. In both cases, careful waterproofing of connectors and selection of suitable protection has prevented water damage and corrosion in the harsh atmosphere encountered at the crater rim. The Pu'u 'O'o system cost ???US$10,000 and comprises four modules: sensors, transmission and power hub, repeater station and reception site. The sensor component consists of three thermal infrared thermometers housed in Pelican??? cases fitted with Germanium-Arsenide-Selenium windows. Two 1?? field of view (FOV) sensors allow specific vents to be targeted and a 60?? FOV sensor provides a crater floor overview. A hard wire connection links to a Pelican???-case-housed microprocessor, modem and power module. From here data are transmitted, via a repeater site, to a dedicated PC at the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory. Here data are displayed with a delay of ???3 s between acquisition and display. The modular design allows for great flexibility. At Stromboli, 1?? and 15?? FOV sensor modules can be switched depending changes in activity style and crater geometry. In addition a direct line of site to the Stromboli reception center negates the repeater site requirement, reducing the cost to US$5500 for a single sensor system. We have also constructed self-contained units w ith internal data loggers for US$1500/unit. These have been tested at Kilauea, Stromboli, Etna, Masaya, Santiaguito, Fuego, Pacaya, Poas, Soufriere Hills, Villarrica and Erta Ale. These instruments have proved capable of detecting thermal signals associated with: (1) gas emission; (2) gas jetting events; (3) crater floor collapse; (4) lava effusion; (5) lava flow in tubes; (6) lava lake activity; (7) lava dome activity; and (8) crater lake skin temperature. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Harris, A.; Pirie, D.; Horton, K.; Garbeil, H.; Pilger, E.; Ramm, H.; Hoblitt, R.; Thornber, C.; Ripepe, M.; Marchetti, E.; Poggi, P.

2005-01-01

230

DUCKS: Low cost thermal monitoring units for near-vent deployment  

Science.gov (United States)

During 1999 we designed and tested a thermal monitoring system to provide a cheap, robust, modular, real-time system capable of surviving the hostile conditions encountered proximal to active volcanic vents. In November 2000 the first system was deployed at Pu'u 'O'o (Kilauea, Hawai'i) to target persistently active vents. Aside from some minor problems, such as sensor damage due to tampering, this system remained operational until January 2004. The success of the prototype system led us to use the blueprint for a second installation at Stromboli (Aeolian Islands, Italy). This was deployed, dug into a bomb-proof bunker, during May 2002 and survived the April 2003 paroxysmal eruption despite being located just 250 m from the vent. In both cases, careful waterproofing of connectors and selection of suitable protection has prevented water damage and corrosion in the harsh atmosphere encountered at the crater rim. The Pu'u 'O'o system cost ˜US10,000 and comprises four modules: sensors, transmission and power hub, repeater station and reception site. The sensor component consists of three thermal infrared thermometers housed in Pelican™ cases fitted with Germanium-Arsenide-Selenium windows. Two 1° field of view (FOV) sensors allow specific vents to be targeted and a 60° FOV sensor provides a crater floor overview. A hard wire connection links to a Pelican™-case-housed microprocessor, modem and power module. From here data are transmitted, via a repeater site, to a dedicated PC at the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory. Here data are displayed with a delay of ˜3 s between acquisition and display. The modular design allows for great flexibility. At Stromboli, 1° and 15° FOV sensor modules can be switched depending changes in activity style and crater geometry. In addition a direct line of site to the Stromboli reception center negates the repeater site requirement, reducing the cost to US5500 for a single sensor system. We have also constructed self-contained units with internal data loggers for US$1500/unit. These have been tested at Kilauea, Stromboli, Etna, Masaya, Santiaguito, Fuego, Pacaya, Poas, Soufriere Hills, Villarrica and Erta Ale. These instruments have proved capable of detecting thermal signals associated with: (1) gas emission; (2) gas jetting events; (3) crater floor collapse; (4) lava effusion; (5) lava flow in tubes; (6) lava lake activity; (7) lava dome activity; and (8) crater lake skin temperature.

Harris, Andrew; Pirie, Dawn; Horton, Keith; Garbeil, Harold; Pilger, Eric; Ramm, Hans; Hoblitt, Rick; Thornber, Carl; Ripepe, Maurizio; Marchetti, Emanuele; Poggi, Pasquale

2005-05-01

231

Calculation of HELAS amplitudes for QCD processes using graphics processing unit (GPU)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We use a graphics processing unit (GPU) for fast calculations of helicity amplitudes of quark and gluon scattering processes in massless QCD. New HEGET (HELAS Evaluation with GPU Enhanced Technology) codes for gluon self-interactions are introduced, and a C++ program to convert the MadGraph generated FORTRAN codes into HEGET codes in CUDA (a C-platform for general purpose computing on GPU) is created. Because of the proliferation of the number of Feynman diagrams and the number of independent color amplitudes, the maximum number of final state jets we can evaluate on a GPU is limited to 4 for pure gluon processes (gg?4g), or 5 for processes with one or more quark lines such as q anti q? 5g and qq?qq+3g. Compared with the usual CPU-based programs, we obtain 60-100 times better performance on the GPU, except for 5-jet production processes and the gg?4g processes for which the GPU gain over the CPU is about 20. (orig.)

232

On tentative decommissioning cost analysis with specific authentic cost calculations with the application of the Omega code on a case linked to the Intermediate storage facility for spent fuel in Sweden  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The presented report is focused on tentative calculations of basic decommissioning parameters such as costs, manpower and exposure of personnel for activities of older nuclear facility decommissioning in Sweden represented by Intermediate storage facility for spent fuel in Studsvik, by means of calculation code OMEGA. This report continuously follows up two previous projects, which described methodology of cost estimates of decommissioning with an emphasis to derive cost functions for alpha contaminated material and implementation of the advanced decommissioning costing methodology for Intermediate Storage facility for Spent Fuel in Studsvik. The main purpose of the presented study is to demonstrate the trial application of the advanced costing methodology using OMEGA code for Intermediate Storage Facility for Spent Fuel in Studsvik. Basic work packages presented in report are as follows: 1. Analysis and validation input data on Intermediate Storage Facility for Spent Fuel and assemble a database suitable for standardised decommissioning cost calculations including radiological parameters, 2. Proposal of range of decommissioning calculations and define an extent of decommissioning activities, 3. Defining waste management scenarios for particular material waste streams from Intermediate Storage Facility for Spent Fuel, 4. Developing standardised cost calculation structure applied for Intermediate Storage Facility for Spent Fuel decommissioning calculation and 5. Performing tentative decommissioning calculations for Intermediate Storage Facility for Spent Fuel by OMEGA code. Calculated parameters of decommissioning are presented in structure according to Proposed Standardized List of Items for Costing Purposes. All parameters are documented and summed up in both table and graphic forms in text and Annexes. The presented report documents availability and applicability of methodology for evaluation of costs and other parameters of decommissioning in a form implemented within calculation code OMEGA for calculations of Intermediate Storage for Spent Fuel in Studsvik

233

Calculating Optimal Cost of Using DGs in Micro Grids by Using Imperialistic Competitive Algorithm (ICA?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available How to use renewable sources has been a great problem for many years. Researchers haveinvented and developed Microgrids, flexible networks with a central control system; nevertheless, forinstalling renewable sources on them there is still questions. As a result, researchers started to use differentalgorithms in order to solve problems and find best answers for electrical functions. One of the most novelalgorithms for this purpose is Imperialistic Competitive Algorithm (ICA. It is based on historical events andprovides marvelous results and speed in comparison with similar algorithms such as Genetic Algorithm orPSO. In this paper we will investigate best answers for cost function in a 14-Bus Microgrid by using ICAalgorithm. Finally answers will be compared with GA and PSO so that it can be shown that proposedalgorithm is more efficient than its counterparts.

Navid Javidtash

2013-10-01

234

En plena crisis económica: coste y efectividad de las unidades de estancia corta hospitalarias / Economic crisis: cost and effectiveness of short stay hospital units  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Fundamento. La duración de la estancia es el principal determinante del coste de una hospitalización, por lo que se deben implementar estrategias para reducir la estancia hospitalaria convencional manteniéndose los niveles de calidad. Las Unidades de Estancia Corta (UEC) nacen con el objetivo de dis [...] minuir la estancia hospitalaria en un grupo de patologias y pacientes determinados. El objetivo de este original es evaluar la bibliografía existente sobre la evidencia de la disminución del periodo de estancia, eficiencia, reconsultas en los servicios de urgencias, coste-efectividad, y mortalidad de estas unidades. Método. Se realizó una revisión sistemática de las publicaciones que aparecen en la literatura, utilizando los términos MeSH "Observation Unit", "Short-Stay Ward", "Monday to Friday Clinic", "Monaday to Friday Surgery Ward", "Short Stay Hospitalization", "Alternative to Convencional Hospitalization", "Alternative Admissions" en la base de datos MEDLINE, Web of Knowledge y la Cochrane Library desde el 1 de enero de 1960 al 1 de enero del 2012. Los estudios revisados se seleccionaron según la US Preventive Services Task Force Protocol. Resultados. Las UEC permiten en grupos determinados de pacientes, disminuir el periodo de estancia, mantener la eficiencia, no mostrando incrementos de los reingresos por urgencias, ni la mortalidad. Conclusiones. Las UEC pueden ser un instrumento para disminuir el coste del proceso sanitario en un grupo de patologias determinadas. Abstract in english Background. Length of stay is the main determinant of the cost of hospitalization, which is why strategies must be implemented to reduce conventional hospital stays while maintaining quality levels. Short Stay Units (SSU) were created with the aim of reducing hospital stays in a certain group of pat [...] ients and pathologies. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the literature on the evidence of decreased length of stay, efficiency, readmissions in the emergency department, cost-effectiveness, and mortality of these units. Methods. We made a systematic review of the literature, using the MeSH terms "Observation Unit", "Short-Stay Ward", "Monday to Friday Clinic", "Monday to Friday Surgery Ward", "Short Stay Hospitalization", "Alternative to Conventional Hospitalization", "Alternative Admissions" in the MEDLINE database, Web of Knowledge and the Cochrane Library from January 1 1960 to January 1 2012. The studies reviewed were selected according to the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Protocol. Results. The SSU made it possible in certain groups of patients to reduce the period of stay and maintain efficiency, showing no increases in emergency readmissions or mortality. Conclusions. The SSU can be an instrument to reduce the cost of the health process in a certain group of pathologies.

F., Epelde; M.L., Iglesias-Lepine; L., Anarte.

2012-12-01

235

En plena crisis económica: coste y efectividad de las unidades de estancia corta hospitalarias Economic crisis: cost and effectiveness of short stay hospital units  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fundamento. La duración de la estancia es el principal determinante del coste de una hospitalización, por lo que se deben implementar estrategias para reducir la estancia hospitalaria convencional manteniéndose los niveles de calidad. Las Unidades de Estancia Corta (UEC nacen con el objetivo de disminuir la estancia hospitalaria en un grupo de patologias y pacientes determinados. El objetivo de este original es evaluar la bibliografía existente sobre la evidencia de la disminución del periodo de estancia, eficiencia, reconsultas en los servicios de urgencias, coste-efectividad, y mortalidad de estas unidades. Método. Se realizó una revisión sistemática de las publicaciones que aparecen en la literatura, utilizando los términos MeSH "Observation Unit", "Short-Stay Ward", "Monday to Friday Clinic", "Monaday to Friday Surgery Ward", "Short Stay Hospitalization", "Alternative to Convencional Hospitalization", "Alternative Admissions" en la base de datos MEDLINE, Web of Knowledge y la Cochrane Library desde el 1 de enero de 1960 al 1 de enero del 2012. Los estudios revisados se seleccionaron según la US Preventive Services Task Force Protocol. Resultados. Las UEC permiten en grupos determinados de pacientes, disminuir el periodo de estancia, mantener la eficiencia, no mostrando incrementos de los reingresos por urgencias, ni la mortalidad. Conclusiones. Las UEC pueden ser un instrumento para disminuir el coste del proceso sanitario en un grupo de patologias determinadas.Background. Length of stay is the main determinant of the cost of hospitalization, which is why strategies must be implemented to reduce conventional hospital stays while maintaining quality levels. Short Stay Units (SSU were created with the aim of reducing hospital stays in a certain group of patients and pathologies. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the literature on the evidence of decreased length of stay, efficiency, readmissions in the emergency department, cost-effectiveness, and mortality of these units. Methods. We made a systematic review of the literature, using the MeSH terms "Observation Unit", "Short-Stay Ward", "Monday to Friday Clinic", "Monday to Friday Surgery Ward", "Short Stay Hospitalization", "Alternative to Conventional Hospitalization", "Alternative Admissions" in the MEDLINE database, Web of Knowledge and the Cochrane Library from January 1 1960 to January 1 2012. The studies reviewed were selected according to the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Protocol. Results. The SSU made it possible in certain groups of patients to reduce the period of stay and maintain efficiency, showing no increases in emergency readmissions or mortality. Conclusions. The SSU can be an instrument to reduce the cost of the health process in a certain group of pathologies.

F. Epelde

2012-12-01

236

Low cost solar array project production process and equipment task. A Module Experimental Process System Development Unit (MEPSDU)  

Science.gov (United States)

Technical readiness for the production of photovoltaic modules using single crystal silicon dendritic web sheet material is demonstrated by: (1) selection, design and implementation of solar cell and photovoltaic module process sequence in a Module Experimental Process System Development Unit; (2) demonstration runs; (3) passing of acceptance and qualification tests; and (4) achievement of a cost effective module.

1981-01-01

237

Radioimmunoassay evaluation and quality control by use of a simple computer program for a low cost desk top calculator  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A simple computer program for the data processing and quality control of radioimmunoassays is presented. It is written for low cost programmable desk top calculator (Hewlett Packard 97), which can be afforded by smaller laboratories. The untreated counts from the scintillation spectrometer are entered manually; the printout gives the following results: initial data, logit-log transformed calibration points, parameters of goodness of fit and of the position of the standard curve, control and unknown samples dose estimates (mean value from single dose interpolations and scatter of replicates) together with the automatic calculation of within assay variance and, by use of magnetic cards holding the control parameters of all previous assays, between assay variance. (orig.)

238

Generation expansion planning and long run marginal cost calculations using the ENPEP-(WASP) computer package  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The association of the Electricity Authority of Cyprus (EAC) with the IAEA commenced with a training course on Electric System Expansion Planning and the use of WASP-III at Argonne National Laboratory, late in 1984. At that time, both the Government of Cyprus and EAC relied mostly on external Consultants for conduct of energy and electricity planning studies. A great effort was therefore required to establish this, new for Cyprus, planning methodology. The release of ENPEP which is an integrated PC-based Energy and Power Evaluation package made the use of WASP very much easier and accessible to power system planners. Through continuous efforts these computer models have now been established in the Planning Procedures of EAC and are sued extensively to a degree that it was difficult to imagine five years ago. This paper contains some of the experiences gained in the use of these models in electric system expansion planning and the long run marginal cost analysis. (author). Figs and tabs

239

Norwegian electricity market liberalisation: questions of cost calculation and price definition by grid operators  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a study carried out on the Norwegian electricity market 10 years after its liberalisation. The similarity of the Norwegian market to the Swiss electricity market is discussed. Similarly to the proposed situation in Switzerland, the liberalisation in Norway foresaw no privatisation of public utilities and a model for the regulation of grid access was introduced. The report describes and comments on the various phases in which the liberalisation occurred and examines the various instruments used, e.g. to ensure that individual grid operators did not make undue profits from their monopoly. The methods used for the monitoring of grid operators' costs are described and the mechanisms involved in the definition of prices for grid services are examined, including measures taken when profits were too high or too low. The report is concluded with a discussion of the conclusions that can be drawn from the Norwegian model for Swiss market opening efforts

240

Verification of monitor unit calculations for non-IMRT clinical radiotherapy: Report of AAPM Task Group 114  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The requirement of an independent verification of the monitor units (MU) or time calculated to deliver the prescribed dose to a patient has been a mainstay of radiation oncology quality assurance. The need for and value of such a verification was obvious when calculations were performed by hand using look-up tables, and the verification was achieved by a second person independently repeating the calculation. However, in a modern clinic using CT/MR/PET simulation, computerized 3D treatment planning, heterogeneity corrections, and complex calculation algorithms such as convolution/superposition and Monte Carlo, the purpose of and methodology for the MU verification have come into question. In addition, since the verification is often performed using a simpler geometrical model and calculation algorithm than the primary calculation, exact or almost exact agreement between the two can no longer be expected. Guidelines are needed to help the physicist set clinically reasonable action levels for agreement. This report addresses the following charges of the task group: (1) To re-evaluate the purpose and methods of the ''independent second check'' for monitor unit calculations for non-IMRT radiation treatment in light of the complexities of modern-day treatment planning. (2) To present recommendations on how to perform verification of monitor unit calculations in a modern clinic. (3) To provide recommendations on establishing action levels for agreement between primary calculevels for agreement between primary calculations and verification, and to provide guidance in addressing discrepancies outside the action levels. These recommendations are to be used as guidelines only and shall not be interpreted as requirements.

241

Chemical Equilibrium, Unit 3: Chemical Equilibrium Calculations. A Computer-Enriched Module for Introductory Chemistry. Student's Guide and Teacher's Guide.  

Science.gov (United States)

Presented are the teacher's guide and student materials for one of a series of self-instructional, computer-based learning modules for an introductory, undergraduate chemistry course. The student manual for this unit on chemical equilibrium calculations includes objectives, prerequisites, a discussion of the equilibrium constant (K), and ten…

Jameson, Cynthia J.

242

Life cycle assessment of renewables: present issues, future outlook and implications for the calculation of external costs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In principle, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is certainly appropriate for estimating external costs of renewables, since major environmental impacts of the latter are generated in phases of the life cycle other than use. In practice however, several issues still remain. They are related to the availability and quality of Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) data, to the frit technological development of renewable energy technologies (RET), to the existence of many different applications of the latter and to a strong dependency on local conditions. Moreover, a 'static' picture of present technologies is not enough for policy indications. Therefore some kind of dynamic LCA is needed. These LCA issues are reflected in the calculation of external costs. First, the paper discusses these issues on the examples of two main technologies, namely photovoltaic (PV) and wind. Second, it discusses the results of ExternE for these two specific technologies and gives an outlook for the future. Future needs for a better use of LCA as a support tool for the calcination of external costs are identified. Finally, a new research project funded by the European Commission focused on LCI of renewables is briefly introduced and presented. (author)

243

The pilot plant in Geiselbullach for the gamma irradiation of sewage sludge - design, operation experience and cost calculations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The pilot plant for sewage sludge irradiation in Geiselbullach near Munich has been in operation from July '73 to October '75 with a capacity of 30 m3 per day. Successful experiences during this period resulted in an increase of the installed radiation energy and in several improvements for the technique and the efficiency. From December 1975 on the plant has been operating with a daily capacity of 120 m3 of sludge per day. The experience with this plant brought several problems which caused interruptions of the continuous operation and that had to be solved with new measures. But although the facility at Geiselbullach is a pilot plant the availability was more than 350 days per year. Due to the simple design of the plant and of the fully automatic operation no special trained personal is necessary for the maintenance. Beside the effect of the hygienization the irradiation caused improved sedimentation properties of the sludge. Presently investigations are undertaken to prove better mechanical sludge dewatering properties. Cost calculations resulted in about DM 2.30 for operating expenses and DM 2.25 for capital costs per m3 of sludge for the fully charged plant. The capital costs will be less in commercial plants. The conditioning effect on the sludge by the irradiation means savings of about DM 1.00 per m3. The irradiation of sewage sludge proved to be possible at about equal costs compared to the wellknown heat treatment (pasteurization at 700C during 30 minutes.). Further investigations have to be done to overcome the contrary development of the plant capacity, limited by the decaying radiation energy and the normally rising sludge quantities of a sewage water treatment plant. (author)

244

77 FR 123 - Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; North Hollywood Operable Unit of the San...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Unit of the San Fernando Valley Area 1 Superfund Site AGENCY: Environmental...Unit of the San Fernando Valley Area 1 Superfund Site, located in the vicinity...Unit of the San Fernando Valley Area 1 Superfund Site, and EPA Docket No....

2012-01-03

245

76 FR 77528 - Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; North Hollywood Operable Unit of the San...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Unit of the San Fernando Valley Area 1 Superfund Site AGENCY: Environmental...Unit of the San Fernando Valley Area 1 Superfund Site, located in the vicinity...Unit of the San Fernando Valley Area 1 Superfund Site, and EPA Docket No....

2011-12-13

246

76 FR 79678 - Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; North Hollywood Operable Unit of the San...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Unit of the San Fernando Valley Area 1 Superfund Site AGENCY: Environmental...Unit of the San Fernando Valley Area 1 Superfund Site, located in the vicinity...Unit of the San Fernando Valley Area 1 Superfund Site, and EPA Docket No....

2011-12-22

247

Primer: The DOE Wind Energy Program's Approach to Calculating Cost of Energy: July 9, 2005 - July 8, 2006  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report details the methodology used by DOE to calculate levelized cost of wind energy and demonstrates the variation in COE estimates due to different financing assumptions independent of wind generation technology.

George, K.; Schweizer, T.

2008-01-01

248

On exergy costing in exergoeconomics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Existing methods of the exergoeconomic analysis and optimization of energy systems operate with single average or marginal cost values per exergy unit for each material stream in the system being considered. These costs do not contain detailed information on (a) how much exergy, and (b) at what cost the exergy was supplied in each of the previous process steps. The cost of supplying the same exergy form, however, might vary significantly from one step to the other. Knowledge of the exergy addition and the corresponding cost at each previous step can be used to improve the costing process. This paper presents a new approach to exergy costing in exergoeconomics. The monetary flow rate associated with the thermal, mechanical and chemical exergy of a material stream at a given state is calculated by considering the complete previous history of supplying and removing units of the corresponding exergy form to and from the stream being considered. When exergy is supplied to a stream, the cost of adding each exergy unit to the stream is calculated using the cost of product exergy unit for the process or device in which the exergy addition occurs. When exergy is supplied to a stream, the cost of adding each exergy unit to the stream is calculated using the cost of product exergy unit for the process or device in which the exergy addition occurs the stream being considered supplies exergy to another exergy carrier, the last-in-first-out principle of accounting is used for the s principle of accounting is used for the spent exergy units to calculate the cost of exergy supply to the carrier

249

Estimates of the direct and indirect costs of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in the United States, 1985, 1986, and 1991.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study presents three estimates ranging from low to high of the direct and indirect costs of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic in the United States in 1985, 1986, and 1991, based on prevalence estimates provided by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC). According to the author's best estimates, personal medical care costs of AIDS in current dollars will rise from $630 million in 1985 and $1.1 billion in 1986 and $8.5 billion in 1991. Nonpersonal costs (for research, screening, education, and general support services) are estimated to rise from $319 million in 1985 to $542 million in 1986 to $2.3 billion in 1991. Indirect costs attributable to loss of productivity resulting from morbidity and premature mortality are estimated to rise from $3.9 billion in 1985 to $7.0 billion in 1986 to $55.6 billion in 1991. While estimated personal medical care costs of AIDS in 1985 and 1986 represent only 0.2% and 0.3%, respectively, of such estimated expenditures for the U.S. population in these 2 years, they represent 1.4% of these estimated costs in 1991. Similarly, while estimated indirect costs of AIDS represent 1.2% in 1985 and 2.1% in 1986 of the estimated indirect costs of all illness, they are projected to rise to almost 12% in 1991. For estimating the indirect costs, the human capital method was used, and it was assumed that average wages and labor force participation rates of persons with AIDS were the same as those for the general population by age and sex. PMID:10314299

Scitovsky, A A; Rice, D P

1988-01-01

250

A program for monitor unit calculation for high energy photon beams in isocentric condition based on measured data  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this study is: 1) to propose a procedure and a program for monitor unit calculation for radiation therapy with high energy photon beams, based on data measured by author; 2) to compare this data with published one and 3) to evaluate the precision of the monitor unit calculation program. From this study it could be concluded that, we reproduced with a good agreement the published data, except the TPR values for dept up to 5 cm. The measured relative weight of upper and lower jaws - parameter A was dramatically different from the published data, but perfectly described the collimator exchange effect for our treatment machine. No difference was found between the head scatter ratios, measured in a mini phantom and those measured with a proper brass buildup cap. Our monitor unit calculation program was found to be reliable and it can be applied for check up of the patient's plans for irradiation with high energy photon beams and for some fast calculations. Because of the identity in the construction, design and characteristics of the Siemens accelerators, and the agreement with the published data for the same beam qualities, we hope that most of our experimental data and this program can be used after verification in other hospitals

251

Tracking the Sun III; The Installed Cost of Photovoltaics in the United States from 1998-2009  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Installations of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems have been growing at a rapid pace in recent years. In 2009, approximately 7,500 megawatts (MW) of PV were installed globally, up from approximately 6,000 MW in 2008, consisting primarily of grid-connected applications. With 335 MW of grid-connected PV capacity added in 2009, the United States was the world's fourth largest PV market in 2009, behind Germany, Italy, and Japan. The market for PV in the United States is driven by national, state, and local government incentives, including up-front cash rebates, production-based incentives, requirements that electricity suppliers purchase a certain amount of solar energy, and federal and state tax benefits. These programs are, in part, motivated by the popular appeal of solar energy, and by the positive attributes of PV - modest environmental impacts, avoidance of fuel price risks, coincidence with peak electrical demand, and the possible deployment of PV at the point of use. Given the relatively high cost of PV, however, a key goal of these policies is to encourage cost reductions over time. Therefore, as policy incentives have become more significant and as PV deployment has accelerated, so too has the desire to track the installed cost of PV systems over time, by system characteristics, by system location, and by component. Despite the significant year-on-year growth, however, the share of global and U.S. electricity supply met with PV remains small, and annual PV additions are currently modest in the context of the overall electric system. To address this need, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory initiated a report series focused on describing trends in the installed cost of grid-connected PV systems in the United States. The present report, the third in the series, describes installed cost trends from 1998 through 2009, and provides preliminary cost data for systems installed in 2010. The analysis is based on project-level cost data from approximately 78,000 residential and non-residential PV systems in the U.S., all of which are installed at end-use customer facilities (herein referred to as 'customer-sited' systems). The combined capacity of systems in the data sample totals 874 MW, equal to 70% of all grid-connected PV capacity installed in the United States through 2009 and representing one of the most comprehensive sources of installed PV cost data for the U.S. The report also briefly compares recent PV installed costs in the United States to those in Germany and Japan. Finally, it should be noted that the analysis presented here focuses on descriptive trends in the underlying data, serving primarily to summarize the data in tabular and graphical form; later analysis may explore some of these trends with more-sophisticated statistical techniques. The report begins with a summary of the data collection methodology and resultant dataset (Section 2). The primary findings of the analysis are presented in Section 3, which describes trends in installed costs prior to receipt of any financial incentives: over time and by system size, component, state, system ownership type (customer-owned vs. third party-owned), host customer segment (residential vs. commercial vs. public-sector vs. non-profit), application (new construction vs. retrofit), and technology type (building-integrated vs. rack-mounted, crystalline silicon vs. thin-film, and tracking vs. fixed-axis). Section 4 presents additional findings related to trends in PV incentive levels over time and among states (focusing specifically on state and utility incentive programs as well as state and federal tax credits), and trends in the net installed cost paid by system owners after receipt of such incentives. Brief conclusions are offered in the final section, and several appendices provide additional details on the analysis methodology and additional tabular summaries of the data.

Barbose, Galen; Darghouth, Naim; Wiser, Ryan

2010-12-13

252

Taxes, divorce-transactions costs, economic conditions, and divorce rates: an exploratory empirical inquiry for the United States.  

Science.gov (United States)

"This study argues that, given the tax deductibility of alimony payments in the United States, higher marginal federal income tax rates may reduce the expected transactions costs of divorce and act thereby to increase the divorce rate. After allowing for a variety of other factors, including inflation, female labor force participation, AIDS, the Vietnam War, age, the availability of legal assistance, and transfer payments, both first-differences estimates and Granger-causality tests strongly support the hypothesis." PMID:12178368

Cebula, R J; Belton, W J

1995-01-01

253

Calculation of shielding needed at the wall where cobalt therapy unit Alcyon II is installed  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Calculations of shielding at the wall to avoid scattering radiation for the personnel and population were performed. The position of the shielding door was corrected because before it had been placed in front of the beams, thus producing excessive radiation to the operator and personnel and patients. The calculations were based on the German standard (DIN)

254

Strict hand hygiene and other practices shortened stays and cut costs and mortality in a pediatric intensive care unit.  

Science.gov (United States)

Efforts to reduce infections acquired during a hospital stay through improvements in the quality of care have had measurable results in many hospital settings. In pediatric intensive care units, the right quality interventions can save lives and money. We found that improving practices of hand hygiene, oral care, and central-line catheter care reduced hospital-acquired infections and improved mortality rates among children admitted to a large pediatric intensive care unit in 2007-09. In addition, on average patients admitted after the quality interventions were fully implemented spent 2.3 fewer days in the hospital, their hospitalization cost $12,136 less, and mortality was 2.3 percentage points lower, compared to patients admitted before the interventions. The projected annual cost savings for the single pediatric intensive care unit studied was approximately $12 million. Given the modest expenses incurred for these improvements-which mainly consisted of posters for an educational campaign, a training "fair," roughly $21 per day for oral care kits, about $0.60 per day for chlorhexidine antiseptic patches, and hand sanitizers attached to the walls outside patients' rooms-this represents a significant return on investment. Used on a larger scale, these quality improvements could save lives and reduce costs for patients, hospitals, and payers around the country, provided that sustained efforts ensure compliance with new protocols and achieve long-lasting changes. PMID:21900667

Harris, Bradford D; Hanson, Cherissa; Christy, Claudia; Adams, Tina; Banks, Andrew; Willis, Tina Schade; Maciejewski, Matthew L

2011-09-01

255

RELAP5/MOD3.3 code calculation for preoperational tests of safety injection tanks in SKN unit 3  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Shin Kori nuclear power plant (SKN) unit 3 and 4 are now being constructed as a first plant of APR1400. APR1400 has adopted a new design feature, called fluidic device (FD), in safety injection tanks (SITs) to optimize the emergency core cooling (ECC) flow rate. Before starting the commercial operation, the safety systems have to be tested to ensure their performances of safety functions. The object of preoperational tests for SITs is to confirm whether the performance of SITs satisfies the design requirement which is defined by a design basis accidents analysis. The design requirement can be expressed as pressure loss coefficient, called K factor, which can convert to discharge flow rate of SITs from a certain pressure condition of SITs. Preoperational tests of four SITs were performed in March 2012. To evaluate the K factor, the pressure and water level of SITs are measured. The results of evaluated K factor are bounded at the lowest value of the design requirement due to measurement uncertainty. Therefore, KHNP expanded the design requirement to embrace the measurement uncertainty. A consistency between the evaluated K factor and code calculation results has to be verified through code calculation although KINS agrees with validity of expanded requirement. This paper deals with benchmark calculations of preoperational tests for SITs in SKN unit 3 using RELAP5/MOD3.3 code. Calculation results are compared with measured data and show a consistency between the calculaand show a consistency between the calculation data and measured data

256

19 CFR 351.406 - Calculation of normal value if sales are made at less than cost of production.  

Science.gov (United States)

...sales are made at less than cost of production. 351.406 Section 351...sales are made at less than cost of production. (a) Introduction. ...prices that are less than the cost of production of that product....

2010-04-01

257

Development of DUST: A computer code that calculates release rates from a LLW disposal unit  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Performance assessment of a Low-Level Waste (LLW) disposal facility begins with an estimation of the rate at which radionuclides migrate out of the facility (i.e., the disposal unit source term). The major physical processes that influence the source term are water flow, container degradation, waste form leaching, and radionuclide transport. A computer code, DUST (Disposal Unit Source Term) has been developed which incorporates these processes in a unified manner. The DUST code improves upon existing codes as it has the capability to model multiple container failure times, multiple waste form release properties, and radionuclide specific transport properties. Verification studies performed on the code are discussed.

Sullivan, T.M.

1992-04-01

258

Development of DUST: A computer code that calculates release rates from a LLW disposal unit  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Performance assessment of a Low-Level Waste (LLW) disposal facility begins with an estimation of the rate at which radionuclides migrate out of the facility (i.e., the disposal unit source term). The major physical processes that influence the source term are water flow, container degradation, waste form leaching, and radionuclide transport. A computer code, DUST (Disposal Unit Source Term) has been developed which incorporates these processes in a unified manner. The DUST code improves upon existing codes as it has the capability to model multiple container failure times, multiple waste form release properties, and radionuclide specific transport properties. Verification studies performed on the code are discussed.

Sullivan, T.M.

1992-01-01

259

Development of DUST: A computer code that calculates release rates from a LLW disposal unit  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Performance assessment of a Low-Level Waste (LLW) disposal facility begins with an estimation of the rate at which radionuclides migrate out of the facility (i.e., the disposal unit source term). The major physical processes that influence the source term are water flow, container degradation, waste form leaching, and radionuclide transport. A computer code, DUST (Disposal Unit Source Term) has been developed which incorporates these processes in a unified manner. The DUST code improves upon existing codes as it has the capability to model multiple container failure times, multiple waste form release properties, and radionuclide specific transport properties. Verification studies performed on the code are discussed

260

Return to 1990: The cost of mitigating United States carbon emissions in the post-2000 period  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Second Generation Model (SGM) is employed to examine four hypothetical agreements to reduce emissions in Annex 1 nations (OECD nations plus most of the nations of Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union) to levels in the neighborhood of those which existed in 1990, with obligations taking effect in the year 2010. The authors estimate the cost to the US of complying with such agreements under three distinct conditions: no trading of emissions rights, trading of emissions rights only among Annex 1 nations, and a fully global trading regime. The authors find that the marginal cost of returning to 1990 emissions levels in the US in the absence of trading opportunities is approximately $108 per metric ton carbon in 2010. The total cost in that year is approximately 0.2% of GDP. International trade in emissions permits lowers the cost of achieving any mitigation objective by equalizing the marginal cost of carbon mitigation among countries. For the four mitigation scenarios in this study, economic costs to the US remain below 1% of GDP through at least the year 2020.

Edmonds, J.A.; Kim, S.H.; MacCracken, C.N.; Sands, R.D.; Wise, M.A.

1997-10-01

261

Research on MCNP4C2 Code for calculation of gamma dose distribution for Dalat Co-60 Unit  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper presents the results of Institutional R and D project ''Research on MCNP4C2 Code for calculation of gamma dose distribution for Dalat Co-60 Unit '' performed by Dalat Nuclear Research Institute (DNRI). In the field of irradiation, it has been special importance for an estimation of dose distribution since every point in chamber needs to be determined so as to apply for appropriate dose-level irradiation of particular objects. It is meaningful in case of irradiating for small-size samples. Several of methods used to determine dose distribution, among those the ways being carried out mainly are using TLD or Fricke dosimeter so far. These dosimeters were positioned at points of interest, from that referring gamma dose rate at certain position through some of calibrated and measured steps. The other effective-approved approach is doing by MCNP Code in replaceable for the above-mentioned classical ways. Results from MCNP calculation in comparison with Fricke experimental results (error about 11%) affirm the feasibility of using modern-calculated programme in dose distribution calculation for any irradiated unit. (author)

262

Stranded cost recovery: Reregulating the electricity markets in the United States  

Science.gov (United States)

For the past few years, Stranded Cost recovery has been one of the most contentious issues regarding the restructuring of electricity markets among the regulators, researchers, and the other interested parties. Among the states that have moved towards retail competition, some have already made decisions regarding the levels of the stranded cost recovery. So the question is: how have these states handled the "stranded cost problem"? Following the introduction and the historical perspective of the industry in the first chapter, the second chapter takes a broad view for understanding the overall process of deregulation. It attempts to analyze why some states have made a rapid transition to competition in the electric utility industry, while other states are just beginning to consider the issue. White (1996) and Ando & Palmer (1998) have conducted a similar exercise. We present a more comprehensive and theoretically informed econometric analysis that sheds light over some of the crucial issues involved in restructuring, such as, stranded cost recovery, regulation of transmission and distribution sectors, and establishment of Independent System Operator, etc. This chapter offers the rationale for alternative econometric techniques, and extends the political economy analysis to incorporate actual timings of retail competition. Once we have identified the role of stranded cost in restructuring and the theoretical foundations, we study empirically the political economy of states' decisions to grant stranded cost recovery. This constitutes the third chapter. Here, we concentrate on California and Pennsylvania, two states that are at the frontiers of deregulation, and compare their respective treatments of the stranded cost. We probe the reasons behind Pennsylvania's lead over California on the path towards deregulation.

Wagle, Pushkar Ghanashyam

2000-10-01

263

CRC DEPLETION CALCULATIONS FOR THE RODDED ASSEMBLIES IN BATCHES 1, 2, 3, AND 1X OF CRYSTAL RIVER UNIT 3  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this design analysis is to document the SAS2H depletion calculations of certain rodded fuel assemblies from batches 1, 2, 3, and 1X of the Crystal River Unit 3 pressurized water reactor (PWR) that are required for Commercial Reactor Critical (CRC) evaluations to support the development of the disposal criticality methodology. A rodded assembly is one that contains a control rod assembly (CRA) or an axial power shaping rod assembly (APSRA) for some period of time during its irradiation history. The objective of this analysis is to provide SAS2H calculated isotopic compositions of depleted fuel and depleted burnable poison for each fuel assembly to be used in subsequent CRC reactivity calculations containing the fuel assemblies.

Kenneth D. Wright

1997-09-03

264

CRC DEPLETION CALCULATIONS FOR THE RODDED ASSEMBLIES IN BATCHES 1, 2, 3, AND 1X OF CRYSTAL RIVER UNIT 3  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this design analysis is to document the SAS2H depletion calculations of certain rodded fuel assemblies from batches 1, 2, 3, and 1X of the Crystal River Unit 3 pressurized water reactor (PWR) that are required for Commercial Reactor Critical (CRC) evaluations to support the development of the disposal criticality methodology. A rodded assembly is one that contains a control rod assembly (CRA) or an axial power shaping rod assembly (APSRA) for some period of time during its irradiation history. The objective of this analysis is to provide SAS2H calculated isotopic compositions of depleted fuel and depleted burnable poison for each fuel assembly to be used in subsequent CRC reactivity calculations containing the fuel assemblies

265

An unit cost adjusting heuristic algorithm for the integrated planning and scheduling of a two-stage supply chain  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose: The stable relationship of one-supplier-one-customer is replaced by a dynamic relationship of multi-supplier-multi-customer in current market gradually, and efficient scheduling techniques are important tools of the dynamic supply chain relationship establishing process. This paper studies the optimization of the integrated planning and scheduling problem of a two-stage supply chain with multiple manufacturers and multiple retailers to obtain a minimum supply chain operating cost, whose manufacturers have different production capacities, holding and producing cost rates, transportation costs to retailers.Design/methodology/approach: As a complex task allocation and scheduling problem, this paper sets up an INLP model for it and designs a Unit Cost Adjusting (UCA heuristic algorithm that adjust the suppliers’ supplying quantity according to their unit costs step by step to solve the model.Findings: Relying on the contrasting analysis between the UCA and the Lingo solvers for optimizing many numerical experiments, results show that the INLP model and the UCA algorithm can obtain its near optimal solution of the two-stage supply chain’s planning and scheduling problem within very short CPU time.Research limitations/implications: The proposed UCA heuristic can easily help managers to optimizing the two-stage supply chain scheduling problems which doesn’t include the delivery time and batch of orders. For two-stage supply chains are the most common form of actual commercial relationships, so to make some modification and study on the UCA heuristic should be able to optimize the integrated planning and scheduling problems of a supply chain with more reality constraints.Originality/value: This research proposes an innovative UCA heuristic for optimizing the integrated planning and scheduling problem of two-stage supply chains with the constraints of suppliers’ production capacity and the orders’ delivering time, and has a great practical significance to the dynamic relationship establishment of multi-supplier-multi-customer in current market.

Jianhua Wang

2014-10-01

266

Capital and operating cost estimation for milling of uranium ores in United States  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The strategic importance of uranium as an energy source must be a major consideration in the formulation of a comprehensive energy policy by U.S. decision makers. Accurate cost estimating is an integral step in the evaluation process of a potential mineral deposit for the milling of uranium ores in the production of the uranium concentrate yellowcake. Capital and operating cost estimates were developed for conventional milling techniques between 500 and 8,000 tons of ore per day using standard engineering methods. The operating parameters of U.S. uranium mills were the basis for the findings in this study. To facilitate the application to site-specific situations, the cost estimates presented herein may be adjusted to include the site-specific parameters for four conventional milling methods

267

Woody biomass production costs in the United States: An economic summary of commercial Populus plantation systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Production costs for commercial-sized Populus plantations were developed from a series of research programs sponsored by the US Department of Energy's Short Rotation Woody Crops Program. Populus hybrid planted on good quality agricultural sites at a density of 2,100 cuttings ha-1 was projected to yield an average of 16 ovendry metric tons of biomass per hectare per year (Mg (OD) ha-1yr-1). A discounted cash flow analysis of multiple rotations showed production costs of $17 (US) Mg-1 (OD). Site preparation and planting were 30% of this cost, with annual management and maintenance contributing another 28%. Land rent and property taxes were major expenses, representing 42% of the total

268

Thermal state of SNPS TOPAZ units - calculation basing and experimental confirmation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The operational lifetime of thermionic space nuclear power systems (SNPSs) is determined by the thermal state parameters. An account is presently given of the computer codes used to define the thermal transient performance characteristics of the TOPAZ SNPS's liquid metal cooling loop. The conformity of these parameters to a given SNPS requirement are confirmed by the results of autonomous unit tests and test results from SNPS prototype ground and flight tests

269

Levelized nuclear fueling cost in Israel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Basic nuclear fuel cycle mode options are discussed as they apply to PWR-type reactors. Forecast fueling costs have been computed and are reported for the two main choices - basic front-end cost supplemented by either a throw- away mode option or a reprocessing mode option. It is concluded that reprocessing could result in total unit fueling costs ranging from a minimum slightly lower, through a maximum about 30% higher than the total unit fueling cost using the throw-away mode option. Moreover, in massive breeder development the total unit fueling cost can extend even below the numerically calculated limit. (H.K.)

270

Cost-effectiveness of strategies to prevent methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus transmission and infection in an intensive care unit.  

Science.gov (United States)

OBJECTIVE To create a national policy model to evaluate the projected cost-effectiveness of multiple hospital-based strategies to prevent methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) transmission and infection. DESIGN Cost-effectiveness analysis using a Markov microsimulation model that simulates the natural history of MRSA acquisition and infection. PATIENTS AND SETTING Hypothetical cohort of 10,000 adult patients admitted to a US intensive care unit. METHODS We compared 7 strategies to standard precautions using a hospital perspective: (1) active surveillance cultures; (2) active surveillance cultures plus selective decolonization; (3) universal contact precautions (UCP); (4) universal chlorhexidine gluconate baths; (5) universal decolonization; (6) UCP + chlorhexidine gluconate baths; and (7) UCP+decolonization. For each strategy, both efficacy and compliance were considered. Outcomes of interest were: (1) MRSA colonization averted; (2) MRSA infection averted; (3) incremental cost per colonization averted; (4) incremental cost per infection averted. RESULTS A total of 1989 cases of colonization and 544 MRSA invasive infections occurred under standard precautions per 10,000 patients. Universal decolonization was the least expensive strategy and was more effective compared with all strategies except UCP+decolonization and UCP+chlorhexidine gluconate. UCP+decolonization was more effective than universal decolonization but would cost $2469 per colonization averted and $9007 per infection averted. If MRSA colonization prevalence decreases from 12% to 5%, active surveillance cultures plus selective decolonization becomes the least expensive strategy. CONCLUSIONS Universal decolonization is cost-saving, preventing 44% of cases of MRSA colonization and 45% of cases of MRSA infection. Our model provides useful guidance for decision makers choosing between multiple available hospital-based strategies to prevent MRSA transmission. PMID:25627757

Gidengil, Courtney A; Gay, Charlene; Huang, Susan S; Platt, Richard; Yokoe, Deborah; Lee, Grace M

2015-01-01

271

International trade and air pollution: estimating the economic costs of air emissions from waterborne commerce vessels in the United States.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although there is a burgeoning literature on the effects of international trade on the environment, relatively little work has been done on where trade most directly effects the environment: the transportation sector. This article shows how international trade is affecting air pollution emissions in the United States' shipping sector. Recent work has shown that cargo ships have been long overlooked regarding their contribution to air pollution. Indeed, ship emissions have recently been deemed "the last unregulated source of traditional air pollutants". Air pollution from ships has a number of significant local, national, and global environmental effects. Building on past studies, we examine the economic costs of this increasing and unregulated form of environmental damage. We find that total emissions from ships are largely increasing due to the increase in foreign commerce (or international trade). The economic costs of SO2 pollution range from dollars 697 million to dollars 3.9 billion during the period examined, or dollars 77 to dollars 435 million on an annual basis. The bulk of the cost is from foreign commerce, where the annual costs average to dollars 42 to dollars 241 million. For NOx emissions the costs are dollars 3.7 billion over the entire period or dollars 412 million per year. Because foreign trade is driving the growth in US shipping, we also estimate the effect of the Uruguay Round on emissions. Separating out the effects of global trade agreements reveals that the trade agreement-led emissions amounted to dollars 96 to dollars 542 million for SO2 between 1993 and 2001, or dollars 10 to dollars 60 million per year. For NOx they were dollars 745 million for the whole period or dollars 82 million per year. Without adequate policy responses, we predict that these trends and costs will continue into the future. PMID:15992989

Gallagher, Kevin P

2005-10-01

272

Feasibility Analysis of Low Cost Graphical Processing Units for Electromagnetic Field Simulations by Finite Difference Time Domain Method  

CERN Document Server

Among several techniques available for solving Computational Electromagnetics (CEM) problems, the Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method is one of the best suited approaches when a parallelized hardware platform is used. In this paper we investigate the feasibility of implementing the FDTD method using the NVIDIA GT 520, a low cost Graphical Processing Unit (GPU), for solving the differential form of Maxwell's equation in time domain. Initially a generalized benchmarking problem of bandwidth test and another benchmarking problem of 'matrix left division is discussed for understanding the correlation between the problem size and the performance on the CPU and the GPU respectively. This is further followed by the discussion of the FDTD method, again implemented on both, the CPU and the GT520 GPU. For both of the above comparisons, the CPU used is Intel E5300, a low cost dual core CPU.

Choudhari, A V; Gupta, M R

2013-01-01

273

Internalizing social costs in power plant siting: some examples for coal and nuclear plants in the United States  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Selected aspects of the United States experience in one particular type of energy development project, the siting of nuclear and fossil fueled power generating facilities, are examined in terms of how well community-level impacts are internalized. New institutional arrangements being devised and new requirements being made at local, state, regional, and federal levels in response to these dissociations of cost and benefits from large energy development projects are discussed. Selected examples of these new institutional responses are analyzed for adequacy and significance

274

Catacol, a low cost reactive distillation technology for ether production and for revamping existing units  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper outlines the advantages of Catacol (tm) and describes this new technology. Some applications of Catacol (tm) such as debottlenecking of existing etherification units are developed. Technological considerations for the production of ETBE are also provided in this paper and the conversion of MTBE plants to ETBE manufacture is addressed. (author). 3 figs.

Nocca, J.L.; Travers, P.; Koskas, A.

1996-12-31

275

Consumption and Response Output as a Function of Unit Price: Manipulation of Cost and Benefit Components  

Science.gov (United States)

We conducted preference assessments with 4 typically developing children to identify potential reinforcers and assessed the reinforcing efficacy of those stimuli. Next, we tested two predictions of economic theory: that overall consumption (reinforcers obtained) would decrease as the unit price (response requirement per reinforcer) increased and…

Delmendo, Xeres; Borrero, John C.; Beauchamp, Kenneth L.; Francisco, Monica T.

2009-01-01

276

Economical analysis and study on a solar desalination unit  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Based on the calculation of the single-factor impact values of the parameters of a triple tower-type solar desalination unit on the cost of fresh water production by utilizing a single-factor analyzing method, the influences of the cost of solar heating system, the cost of hot water tank, the costs of desalination unit and electrical power, the life time of solar desalination unit and the yearly yield of fresh water, on the cost of the fresh water production of the solar desalination unit are studied. It is helpful for the further investigation of solar desalination and for reducing the cost of fresh water production for solar desalination units.

277

Dosimetric measurements and dose calculation in certain routine studies with different computed tomography units  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The European Commission recently published a White Paper proposing reference values of dosimetric magnitude for several types of CT studies. The objective of the present report is to characterize, in terms of dosimetry, a Ct unit and establish reference values for the doses used in CT in Spain. We took dosimetric measurements in 15 models of the CT Pace line, analyzing the data obtained in patients subjected to brain, chest, abdomen and lumbar spine CT with these units. The CT dose indices (CTDI) for theoretic thicknesses of 2 to 10 mm were 0.094 to 0.098 mGy/mA.s (body phantom) and 0.203 to 0.205 mGy/mA.s (head phantom), and the values for a 1 mm thickness were 0.134 mGy/mA.s (body) and 0.260 mGy/mA.s (head). In patient studies, the following values were found: the weighted CT dose (CTDIw) ranged from 44 to 74 mGy for brain, 27 to 48 mGy in chest, 19 to 33 mGy in lumbar spine and 21 to 33 mGy in abdomen: the dose-length product (DLP) was 499 to 918 mGy.cm in brain studies, 446 to 765 mGy.cm in chest, 188 to 333 mGy.cm in spine and 406 to 613 mGy.cm in abdomen. The effective dose (E) was 1.09 to 2.14 mSv in brain, 7.13 to 12 mSv in chest, 3.16 to 4.97 mSv in lumbar spine and 6.95 to 8.76 mSv in abdomen. The units analyzed processes similar dosimetric behaviors except for certain differences when 1 mm-thick sections were used. With respect to patient dose, the CTDIw, DLP and E obtained in our series were very similar, equal to or greater than the reference values propoor greater than the reference values proposed by the European paper. Thus, efforts should be made to optimize CT tests for the purpose of reducing the dose. According to our results, there is a lack of correlation between the values proposed in the document in question for CTDIw and the DLP, suggesting. (Author) 13 refs

278

CRC DEPLETION CALCULATIONS FOR THE NON-RODDED ASSEMBLIES IN BATCHES 1, 2, AND 3 OF CRYSTAL RIVER UNIT 3  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this design analysis is to document the SAS2H depletion calculations of certain non-rodded fuel assemblies from batches 1, 2, and 3 of the Crystal River Unit 3 pressurized water reactor (PWR) that are required for Commercial Reactor Critical (CRC) evaluations to support development of the disposal criticality methodology. A non-rodded assembly is one which never contains a control rod assembly (CRA) or an axial power shaping rod assembly (APSRA) during its irradiation history. The objective of this analysis is to provide SAS2H generated isotopic compositions for each fuel assembly's depleted fuel and depleted burnable poison materials. These SAS2H generated isotopic compositions are acceptable for use in CRC benchmark reactivity calculations containing the various fuel assemblies.

Kenneth D. Wright

1997-07-29

279

CRC DEPLETION CALCULATIONS FOR THE NON-RODDED ASSEMBLIES IN BATCHES 4 AND 5 OF CRYSTAL RIVER UNIT 3  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this design analysis is to document the SAS2H depletion calculations of certain non-rodded fuel assemblies from batches 4 and 5 of the Crystal River Unit 3 pressurized water reactor (PWR) that are required for commercial Reactor Critical (CRC) evaluations to support the development of the disposal criticality methodology. A non-rodded assembly is one which never contains a control rod assembly (CRA) or an axial power shaping rod assembly (APSRA) during its irradiation history. The objective of this analysis is to provide SAS2H generated isotopic compositions for each fuel assembly's depleted fuel and depleted burnable poison materials. These SAS2H generated isotopic compositions are acceptable for use in CRC benchmark reactivity calculations containing the various fuel assemblies.

Kenneth D. Wright

1997-07-30

280

CRC DEPLETION CALCULATIONS FOR THE NON-RODDED ASSEMBLIES IN BATCHES 8 AND 9 CRYSTAL RIVER UNIT 3  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this design analysis is to document the SAS2H depletion calculations of certain non-rodded fuel assemblies from batches 8 and 9 of the Crystal River Unit 3 pressurized water reactor (PWR) that are required for Commercial Reactor Critical (CRC) evaluations to support the development of the disposal criticality methodology. A non-rodded assembly is one which never contains a control rod assembly (CRA) or an axial power shaping rod assembly (APSRA) during its irradiation history. The objective of this analysis is to provide SAS2H generated isotopic compositions for each fuel assembly's depleted fuel and depleted burnable poison materials. These SAS2H generated isotopic compositions are acceptable for use in CRC benchmark reactivity calculations containing the various fuel assemblies.

Michael L. Wilson

2001-02-08

281

CRC DEPLETION CALCULATIONS FOR THE NON-RODDED ASSEMBLIES IN BATCHES 1, 2, AND 3 OF CRYSTAL RIVER UNIT 3  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this design analysis is to document the SAS2H depletion calculations of certain non-rodded fuel assemblies from batches 1, 2, and 3 of the Crystal River Unit 3 pressurized water reactor (PWR) that are required for Commercial Reactor Critical (CRC) evaluations to support development of the disposal criticality methodology. A non-rodded assembly is one which never contains a control rod assembly (CRA) or an axial power shaping rod assembly (APSRA) during its irradiation history. The objective of this analysis is to provide SAS2H generated isotopic compositions for each fuel assembly's depleted fuel and depleted burnable poison materials. These SAS2H generated isotopic compositions are acceptable for use in CRC benchmark reactivity calculations containing the various fuel assemblies

282

CRC DEPLETION CALCULATIONS FOR THE NON-RODDED ASSEMBLIES IN BATCHES 8 AND 9 CRYSTAL RIVER UNIT 3  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this design analysis is to document the SAS2H depletion calculations of certain non-rodded fuel assemblies from batches 8 and 9 of the Crystal River Unit 3 pressurized water reactor (PWR) that are required for Commercial Reactor Critical (CRC) evaluations to support the development of the disposal criticality methodology. A non-rodded assembly is one which never contains a control rod assembly (CRA) or an axial power shaping rod assembly (APSRA) during its irradiation history. The objective of this analysis is to provide SAS2H generated isotopic compositions for each fuel assembly's depleted fuel and depleted burnable poison materials. These SAS2H generated isotopic compositions are acceptable for use in CRC benchmark reactivity calculations containing the various fuel assemblies

283

Evaluation of plug-in electric vehicles impact on cost-based unit commitment  

Science.gov (United States)

Incorporating plug in electric vehicles (PEVs) to power systems may address both additional demand as well as mobile storage to support electric grid spatially. Better utilization of such potential depends on the optimal scheduling of charging and discharging PEVs. Charging management malfunction of PEVs may increase the peak load which leads to additional generation. Therefore, charging and discharging of PEVs must be scheduled intelligently to prevent overloading of the network at peak hours, take advantages of off peak charging benefits and delaying any load shedding. A charging and discharging schedule of PEVs with respect to load curve variations is proposed in this paper. The proposed methodology incorporates integrated PEVs; the so-called parking lots; into the unit commitment problem. An IEEE 10-unit test system is employed to investigate the impacts of PEVs on generation scheduling. The results obtained from simulation analysis show a significant techno-economic saving.

Talebizadeh, Ehsan; Rashidinejad, Masoud; Abdollahi, Amir

2014-02-01

284

Antibiotic surveillance on a paediatric intensive care unit: easy attainable strategy at low costs and resources  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Antibiotic surveillance is mandatory to optimise antibiotic therapy. Our objectives were to evaluate antibiotic use in our pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) and to implement a simple achievable intervention aimed at improving antibiotic therapy. Method Prospective, 3 months surveillance of antibiotic use on PICU (phase I) and evaluation according to the CDC 12-step campaign with development of an attainable intervention. 3 months surveillance (phase II) after implementa...

Stocker Martin; Ferrao Eduardo; Banya Winston; Cheong Jamie; Macrae Duncan; Furck Anke

2012-01-01

285

Monitor unit calculations for external photon and electron beams: Report of the AAPM Therapy Physics Committee Task Group No. 71  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A protocol is presented for the calculation of monitor units (MU) for photon and electron beams, delivered with and without beam modifiers, for constant source-surface distance (SSD) and source-axis distance (SAD) setups. This protocol was written by Task Group 71 of the Therapy Physics Committee of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) and has been formally approved by the AAPM for clinical use. The protocol defines the nomenclature for the dosimetric quantities used in these calculations, along with instructions for their determination and measurement. Calculations are made using the dose per MU under normalization conditions, D{sub 0}{sup ?}, that is determined for each user's photon and electron beams. For electron beams, the depth of normalization is taken to be the depth of maximum dose along the central axis for the same field incident on a water phantom at the same SSD, where D{sub 0}{sup ?} = 1 cGy/MU. For photon beams, this task group recommends that a normalization depth of 10 cm be selected, where an energy-dependent D{sub 0}{sup ?} ? 1 cGy/MU is required. This recommendation differs from the more common approach of a normalization depth of d{sub m}, with D{sub 0}{sup ?} = 1 cGy/MU, although both systems are acceptable within the current protocol. For photon beams, the formalism includes the use of blocked fields, physical or dynamic wedges, and (static) multileaf collimation. No formalism is provided for intensity modulated radiation therapy calculations, although some general considerations and a review of current calculation techniques are included. For electron beams, the formalism provides for calculations at the standard and extended SSDs using either an effective SSD or an air-gap correction factor. Example tables and problems are included to illustrate the basic concepts within the presented formalism.

Gibbons, John P., E-mail: john.gibbons@marybird.com [Department of Physics, Mary Bird Perkins Cancer Center, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70809 (United States); Antolak, John A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota 55905 (United States); Followill, David S. [Department of Radiation Physics, UT M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Huq, M. Saiful [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15232 (United States); Klein, Eric E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri 63110 (United States); Lam, Kwok L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Palta, Jatinder R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23298 (United States); Roback, Donald M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Centers of North Carolina, Raleigh, North Carolina 27607 (United States); Reid, Mark [Department of Medical Physics, Fletcher-Allen Health Care, Burlington, Vermont 05401 (United States); Khan, Faiz M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States)

2014-03-15

286

Monitor unit calculations for external photon and electron beams: Report of the AAPM Therapy Physics Committee Task Group No. 71  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A protocol is presented for the calculation of monitor units (MU) for photon and electron beams, delivered with and without beam modifiers, for constant source-surface distance (SSD) and source-axis distance (SAD) setups. This protocol was written by Task Group 71 of the Therapy Physics Committee of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) and has been formally approved by the AAPM for clinical use. The protocol defines the nomenclature for the dosimetric quantities used in these calculations, along with instructions for their determination and measurement. Calculations are made using the dose per MU under normalization conditions, D0?, that is determined for each user's photon and electron beams. For electron beams, the depth of normalization is taken to be the depth of maximum dose along the central axis for the same field incident on a water phantom at the same SSD, where D0? = 1 cGy/MU. For photon beams, this task group recommends that a normalization depth of 10 cm be selected, where an energy-dependent D0? ? 1 cGy/MU is required. This recommendation differs from the more common approach of a normalization depth of dm, with D0? = 1 cGy/MU, although both systems are acceptable within the current protocol. For photon beams, the formalism includes the use of blocked fields, physical or dynamic wedges, and (static) multileaf collimation. No formalism is provided for intensity modulated radiation therapy calculations, although some general considerations and a review of current calculation techniques are included. For electron beams, the formalism provides for calculations at the standard and extended SSDs using either an effective SSD or an air-gap correction factor. Example tables and problems are included to illustrate the basic concepts within the presented formalism

287

Statistically rigorous calculations do not support common input and long-term synchronization of motor-unit firings.  

Science.gov (United States)

Over the past four decades, various methods have been implemented to measure synchronization of motor-unit firings. In this work, we provide evidence that prior reports of the existence of universal common inputs to all motoneurons and the presence of long-term synchronization are misleading, because they did not use sufficiently rigorous statistical tests to detect synchronization. We developed a statistically based method (SigMax) for computing synchronization and tested it with data from 17,736 motor-unit pairs containing 1,035,225 firing instances from the first dorsal interosseous and vastus lateralis muscles--a data set one order of magnitude greater than that reported in previous studies. Only firing data, obtained from surface electromyographic signal decomposition with >95% accuracy, were used in the study. The data were not subjectively selected in any manner. Because of the size of our data set and the statistical rigor inherent to SigMax, we have confidence that the synchronization values that we calculated provide an improved estimate of physiologically driven synchronization. Compared with three other commonly used techniques, ours revealed three types of discrepancies that result from failing to use sufficient statistical tests necessary to detect synchronization. 1) On average, the z-score method falsely detected synchronization at 16 separate latencies in each motor-unit pair. 2) The cumulative sum method missed one out of every four synchronization identifications found by SigMax. 3) The common input assumption method identified synchronization from 100% of motor-unit pairs studied. SigMax revealed that only 50% of motor-unit pairs actually manifested synchronization. PMID:25210152

De Luca, Carlo J; Kline, Joshua C

2014-12-01

288

Efficiency in the United States electric industry: Transaction costs, deregulation, and governance structures  

Science.gov (United States)

Transaction costs economics (TCE) posits that firms have an incentive to bypass the market mechanisms in situations where the cost of using the market is prohibitive. Vertical integration, among other governance mechanisms, can be used to minimize the transactions costs associated with the market mechanism. The study analyses different governance mechanisms, which range from complete vertical integration to the use of market mechanisms, for firms in the US electric sector. This sector has undergone tremendous change in the past decade including the introduction of retail competition in some jurisdictions. As a result of the push toward deregulation of the industry, vertically integration, while still significant in the sector, has steadily been replaced by alternative governance structures. Using a sample of 136 investor-owned electric utilities that reported data the US Federal Energy Regulatory Commission between 1996 and 2002, this study estimates firm level efficiency using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) and relates these estimates to governance structure and public policies. The analysis finds that vertical integration is positively related to firm efficiency, although in a non-linear fashion suggesting that hybrid governance structures tend to be associated with lower efficiency scores. In addition, while some evidence is found for negative short-term effects on firm efficiency from the choice to deregulate, this result is sensitive to DEA model choice. Further, competition in retail markets is found to be positively related to firm level efficiency, but the retreat from deregulation, which occurred after 2000, is negatively associated with firm-level efficiency. These results are important in the ongoing academic and public policy debates concerning deregulation of the electric section and indicate that vertical economies remain in the industry, but that competition has provided incentives for improving firm level efficiency.

Peterson, Carl

289

Análisis de las obligaciones en materia de cálculo de costes en las administraciones públicas españolas / Analysis of Obligations Regarding Cost Calculation in Spanish Public Administrations / Análise das obrigações em matéria de cálculo de custos nas administrações públicas espanholas  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho é rever as tentativas legisladoras destinadas a estabelecer obrigatoriedade no custeio das administrações públicas. Apesar dos múltiplos esforços normativos, a aplicação da contabilidade de custos não é generalizada no campo do setor público, pois bem poucas instituições de [...] terminam seus custos. Na atualidade, está se produzindo grande impulso na aplicação desta ferramenta, devido à exigência de apresentar um resumo dos custos na memória das entidades do setor público administrativo. Abstract in spanish El objetivo de este trabajo es realizar una revisión de los intentos legisladores encaminados a establecer la obligatoriedad del cálculo de costes en las administraciones públicas. A pesar de los múltiples esfuerzos normativos, la aplicación de la contabilidad de costes no se ha generalizado en el á [...] mbito del sector público, pues muy pocas instituciones determinan sus costes. En la actualidad, se está produciendo un gran impulso en la aplicación de esta herramienta, debido a la exigencia de presentar un resumen de costes en la memoria de las entidades pertenecientes al sector público administrativo. Abstract in english The aim of this paper is to review the regulation attempts aimed at making cost calculation compulsory in public administrations. Despite many policy efforts, the application of cost accounting is not widespread in the public sector, for very few institutions determine their costs. Nowadays there is [...] a big boost for the application of this tool, due to the requirement to present a summary of costs in the memory of the entities belonging to the public administration sector.

María Beatriz, González-Sánchez; Ernesto, López-Valeiras Sampedro; Jacobo, Gómez-Conde; Estefanía, Rodríguez-González.

2012-06-01

290

Mapping water availability, projected use and cost in the western United States  

Science.gov (United States)

New demands for water can be satisfied through a variety of source options. In some basins surface and/or groundwater may be available through permitting with the state water management agency (termed unappropriated water), alternatively water might be purchased and transferred out of its current use to another (termed appropriated water), or non-traditional water sources can be captured and treated (e.g., wastewater). The relative availability and cost of each source are key factors in the development decision. Unfortunately, these measures are location dependent with no consistent or comparable set of data available for evaluating competing water sources. With the help of western water managers, water availability was mapped for over 1200 watersheds throughout the western US. Five water sources were individually examined, including unappropriated surface water, unappropriated groundwater, appropriated water, municipal wastewater and brackish groundwater. Also mapped was projected change in consumptive water use from 2010 to 2030. Associated costs to acquire, convey and treat the water, as necessary, for each of the five sources were estimated. These metrics were developed to support regional water planning and policy analysis with initial application to electric transmission planning in the western US.

Tidwell, Vincent C.; Moreland, Barbara D.; Zemlick, Katie M.; Roberts, Barry L.; Passell, Howard D.; Jensen, Daniel; Forsgren, Christopher; Sehlke, Gerald; Cook, Margaret A.; King, Carey W.; Larsen, Sara

2014-05-01

291

Cost and benefit including value of life, health and environmental damage measured in time units  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Key elements of the authors' work on money equivalent time allocation to costs and benefits in risk analysis are put together as an entity. This includes the data supported dimensionless analysis of an equilibrium relation between total population work time and gross domestic product leading to the definition of the life quality time allocation index (LQTAI). On the basis of a postulate of invariance of the LQTAI, a rule is obtained for allocating societal value in terms of time to avoid life shortening fatalities as well as serious injuries that shorten the life in good health. The excess of this societal value over the actual costs, used by the owner for economically optimizing an activity, motivates a simple risk accept criterion suited to be imposed on the owner by the public. An illustration is given concerning allocation of economical means for mitigation of loss of life and health on a ferry in fire. Finally a definition is suggested for a nature preservation willingness index, which by an invariance postulate leads to a rational format for allocating means to avoid pollution accidents.

Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager; Friis-Hansen, Peter

2009-01-01

292

Mapping water availability, projected use and cost in the western United States  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

New demands for water can be satisfied through a variety of source options. In some basins surface and/or groundwater may be available through permitting with the state water management agency (termed unappropriated water), alternatively water might be purchased and transferred out of its current use to another (termed appropriated water), or non-traditional water sources can be captured and treated (e.g., wastewater). The relative availability and cost of each source are key factors in the development decision. Unfortunately, these measures are location dependent with no consistent or comparable set of data available for evaluating competing water sources. With the help of western water managers, water availability was mapped for over 1200 watersheds throughout the western US. Five water sources were individually examined, including unappropriated surface water, unappropriated groundwater, appropriated water, municipal wastewater and brackish groundwater. Also mapped was projected change in consumptive water use from 2010 to 2030. Associated costs to acquire, convey and treat the water, as necessary, for each of the five sources were estimated. These metrics were developed to support regional water planning and policy analysis with initial application to electric transmission planning in the western US.

Vincent C. Tidwell; Barbara D. Moreland; Katie M. Zemlick; Barry L. Roberts; Howard D. Passell; Daniel Jensen; Christopher Forsgren; Gerald Sehlke; Margaret A. Cook; Carey W. King

2014-06-01

293

Methods for Calculating Salary and Fringe Benefit Cost Comparisons, 1985-86 to 1994-95. A Revision of the Commission's 1977 Methodology for Preparing Its Annual Reports on Faculty and Administrative Salaries and Fringe Benefit Costs.  

Science.gov (United States)

A revised methodology for calculating faculty salary and fringe benefit cost comparisons for California public higher education for 1985-1986 to 1994-1995 is discussed. The history of the California Postsecondary Education Commission's salary reports and the work of its Technical Advisory Committee is also traced. The following aspects of the…

California State Postsecondary Education Commission, Sacramento.

294

Multi-sphere unit cell model to calculate the effective thermal conductivity in pebble bed reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A proper understanding of the mechanisms of heat transfer, fluid flow and pressure drop through a packed bed of spheres is of utmost importance in the design of a high temperature Pebble Bed Reactor (PBR). While the gas flows predominantly in the axial direction through the bed, the total effective thermal conductivity is a lumped parameter that characterises the total heat transfer in the radial direction through the packed bed. The study of the effective thermal conductivity is important because it forms an intricate part of the self-acting decay heat removal chain, which is directly related to the PBR safety case. The effective thermal conductivity is the summation of various heat transport phenomena. These are the enhanced thermal conductivity due to turbulent mixing as the fluid passes through the voids between pebbles, heat transfer due to the movement of the solid spheres and thermal conduction and thermal radiation between the spheres in a stagnant fluid environment. In this study, the conduction and radiation between the spheres are investigated. Firstly, existing correlations for the effective thermal conductivity are investigated, with particular attention given to its applicability in the near-wall region. Several phenomena in particular are examined namely: conduction through the spheres, conduction through the contact area between the spheres, conduction through the gas phase and radiation between solid surfaces. A new approach to simulate the effective A new approach to simulate the effective thermal conductivity for randomly packed beds is then presented, namely the so-called Multi-sphere Unit Cell Model. The model is validated by comparing the results with that obtained in experiments. (authors)

295

Cálculo de los costos de calidad en la Unidad Empresarial de Base Producciones Varias, Cienfuegos / Costing of quality in Business Base Unit Several Productions, Cienfuegos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available El cálculo de los costos de calidad como elemento integrante del Sistema de Gestión de la Calidad, es una necesidad para los directivos de las empresas cubanas, al constituir una técnica identificada como instrumento avanzado de gestión, que permitirá mejorar la competitividad y servir de fuente inf [...] ormativa. Identificar y calcular los costos de calidad, así como proponer planes de medidas, que propicien una disminución de los gastos operativos, lo cual puede ser utilizado como herramienta para mejorar los procesos. La Unidad Empresarial de Base Producciones Varias de Cienfuegos presenta el diagnóstico para dar paso al Perfeccionamiento Empresarial y a la certificación de su Sistema de Gestión de la Calidad, según la Norma NC-ISO 9001:2008 y el decreto Ley 281, por lo que el objetivo de la investigación fue calcular los costos de calidad por procesos en dicha empresa. Para lograrlo se utilizaron métodos de nivel empírico y técnicas como la observación directa, revisión documental y el trabajo en grupos, lo cual permitió calcular los costos de calidad en todos los procesos. Los resultados alcanzados son aplicables a empresas que operan en la economía cubana y según el modelo económico cubano puesto en práctica a partir del año 2011. Abstract in english The calculation of quality costs as a component of the System of Quality Management, is a must for Cuban business managers, to provide a technique identified as an advanced instrument of management, which will lead to improved competitiveness and serve as an informative source. Identify and calculat [...] e the costs of quality, as well as propose measured plans, to promote a decrease in operating expenses, which can be used as a tool to improve processes. The Business Unit of Several Base Productions of Cienfuegos presents the fault to give way to Business Improvement and certification of its Quality Management System, according to the norm ISO 9001:2008 and the decree law 281, so that the objective research was to estimate the costs of quality processes in the company. To achieve this level were used empirical methods and techniques such as direct observation, document review and work in groups, which allowed to calculate the costs of quality in all processes. The results obtained are applicable to companies that operate in the Cuban economy and according to the Cuban economic model implemented from the year 2011.

Elizabeth, Gómez Alfonso.

2013-12-01

296

Using the WIMS-DIREN bigroup and multigroup methodology for Cernavoda Unit 1 and Unit 2 adjuster rods comparative reactivity calculations at Phase B commissioning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One of the most important CANDU reactor regulation system is the Adjuster Rods System (ADJ). The individual and bank calibration and performance evaluation of this system is carried out during the Phase B commissioning. The ADJ rods are grouped into seven banks based on full power reactivity control requirements. The Cernavoda Unit 2 adjuster rods characteristics were designed more than twenty years ago at INR Pitesti in the end of a fruitful collaboration between INR Pitesti (as designer) and Bristol Aerospace Limited (as manufacturer). In 1996, during the Phase B commissioning tests only AECL diffusion and Westcott approximation methodology was used. An alternative integral transport and high-modes diffusion approximation methodology was developed in INR Pitesti during the last years. As a result, the first collision probability code PIJXYZ was created and developed to carry out the supercell calculations as well as the code DIREN for 3D diffusion-based core simulations. The aim of this work was to evaluate comparatively the two adjuster rods systems (from Unit 1 and 2) in commissioning conditions. The concrete results will consist of individual, bank and total adjuster rods reactivity estimations with an emphasis on the differences and similarities between them. (authors)

297

The methodological steps in management accounting and cost calculation - A comparative analysis between the traditional methods used in Romania and the Activity-Based Costing (ABC) method  

OpenAIRE

In this article, I discuss the methodological steps taken in the Romanian management accounting, according to the specifics of the ABC method. I also make a comparative analysis between the custom (ordered-based) method and Activity-Based Costing (ABC) method. I bring my own comments on the similarities and differences between the custom method and the ABC method.

Ca?pus?neanu, Sorinel I.; Lepa?datu, Gheorghe V.

2008-01-01

298

Low-cost external reflection unit for rapid analysis of carbon-filled rubbers  

Science.gov (United States)

The analysis of carbon-filled composites used in the production of tires is a laborious, time consuming and polluting `wet chemistry' job. Infrared reflection techniques, internal as well as external, are excellent alternatives as sampling is simple and fast. The internal reflection technique (ATR) proves to be useful for samples with a carbon content up to 20% w/w, where absorption of radiation becomes too strong. We have constructed a low-cost large area horizontal specular reflection device which allows handling samples with carbon contents up to 50%. Although compared to transmission and ATR the reflectance spectra are rather complex, mathematical differentiation and application of partial least squares regression gives qualitative and quantitative results suited for production control, trouble shooting and fast product analysis in an industrial environment.

Lutz, Bert; Luinge, Hendrik J.; van der Maas, John H.; van Agen, Rob

1994-01-01

299

48 CFR 9904.410 - Allocation of business unit general and administrative expenses to final cost objectives.  

Science.gov (United States)

...administrative expenses to final cost objectives. 9904...Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE...PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST...

2010-10-01

300

Comparative study of the variables for determining unit processing cost of irradiated food products in developing countries : case study of Ghana  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A method for estimating unit cost of gamma treated food products in a developing country like Ghana is presented. The method employs the cost of cobalt source requirement, capital and operating costs, dose requirements etc. and relates these variables to various annual throughput at a gamma processing facility. In situations where the cost of foreign components or devices are required, the assumptions have been based on those of Kunstadt and Steeves. Otherwise, the prevailing conditions existing in Ghana have been used. The study reveals that the unit processing cost for gamma treatment foods in such a facility is between 8.0 to 147.2 US dollars per tonne. (author). 9 refs., 4 figs

301

The role of cost accounting in the university performance measurement in Portugal  

OpenAIRE

Cost accounting is aimed at emphasising those elements of costs and profits of original importance to the management board of an organizational unit. Therefore, cost accounting was initially understood as mere collector of costs and profits, using the traditional system of costing everything, a budget with a limited base. Originally, it was designed to calculate real costs with the aim to determine the results. In public organizations, the aim of cost accounting, costs or management, c...

Marques, Maria Da Conceic?a?o Da Costa

2010-01-01

302

Food costs, diet quality and energy balance in the United States.  

Science.gov (United States)

The high obesity rates and poor diet quality in the United States, particularly among low income populations, are often attributed to low income, low food access, and high food prices of healthy foods. This paper discusses these associations and questions some of the metrics used to measure food prices. The paper argues that 1. On average, Americans consume diets that need improvement and there is only a very limited relationship between income and diet quality; 2. The way the food price is measured makes a difference in the perception of how expensive healthy and less healthy food is; 3. The way Americans allocate their food budgets between healthy and less healthy foods is not in line with healthy diets; and 4. At any food spending level there are households that purchase healthy (and unhealthy) diets, including budgets at or below the maximum allotment for the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) which provides a means for low-income households to purchase food. Our key finding is that healthy foods and diets are affordable, but policy makers, nutrition educators, researchers and the media need to focus on promoting this message, and providing additional guidance on making the changes for Americans to switch to a healthy and affordable diet. PMID:24631301

Carlson, Andrea; Frazão, Elizabeth

2014-07-01

303

Restriction techniques for the unit-commitment problem with total procurement costs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Many discrete optimization problems may be solved much easier, if the solution space can be restricted in a convenient way. For a given specific problem, the restriction techniques can be helpful if an available optimization solver, perceived as a black box, is capable of solving quickly only reduced subproblems of a limited size. For the family of hard unit-commitment problems we investigate a hierarchical search algorithm, which is based on decomposition of the problem into two subproblems. The upper-level subproblem is a relatively small decision 'kernel' of the problem that can be solved approximately by a search algorithm. We define an appropriate restricted decision space for this subproblem. The lower-level subproblem is an appropriate restriction of the original problem that can be solved efficiently by a dedicated solver. Our approach was analyzed on a set of historical data from the Polish electrical balancing market and the best known solutions were improved by the average of about 2-5%

304

Restriction techniques for the unit-commitment problem with total procurement costs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Many discrete optimization problems may be solved much easier, if the solution space can be restricted in a convenient way. For a given specific problem, the restriction techniques can be helpful if an available optimization solver, perceived as a black box, is capable of solving quickly only reduced subproblems of a limited size. For the family of hard unit-commitment problems we investigate a hierarchical search algorithm, which is based on decomposition of the problem into two subproblems. The upper-level subproblem is a relatively small decision ''kernel'' of the problem that can be solved approximately by a search algorithm. We define an appropriate restricted decision space for this subproblem. The lower-level subproblem is an appropriate restriction of the original problem that can be solved efficiently by a dedicated solver. Our approach was analyzed on a set of historical data from the Polish electrical balancing market and the best known solutions were improved by the average of about 2-5%. (author)

305

Monte Carlo calculations and measurements of absorbed dose per monitor unit for the treatment of uveal melanoma with proton therapy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The treatment of uveal melanoma with proton radiotherapy has provided excellent clinical outcomes. However, contemporary treatment planning systems use simplistic dose algorithms that limit the accuracy of relative dose distributions. Further, absolute predictions of absorbed dose per monitor unit are not yet available in these systems. The purpose of this study was to determine if Monte Carlo methods could predict dose per monitor unit (D/MU) value at the center of a proton spread-out Bragg peak (SOBP) to within 1% on measured values for a variety of treatment fields relevant to ocular proton therapy. The MCNPX Monte Carlo transport code, in combination with realistic models for the ocular beam delivery apparatus and a water phantom, was used to calculate dose distributions and D/MU values, which were verified by the measurements. Measured proton beam data included central-axis depth dose profiles, relative cross-field profiles and absolute D/MU measurements under several combinations of beam penetration ranges and range-modulation widths. The Monte Carlo method predicted D/MU values that agreed with measurement to within 1% and dose profiles that agreed with measurement to within 3% of peak dose or within 0.5 mm distance-to-agreement. Lastly, a demonstration of the clinical utility of this technique included calculations of dose distributions and D/MU values in a realistic model of the human eye. It is possible to predict D/MU values accurately for clinical relevantMU values accurately for clinical relevant range-modulated proton beams for ocular therapy using the Monte Carlo method. It is thus feasible to use the Monte Carlo method as a routine absolute dose algorithm for ocular proton therapy

306

Monte Carlo calculations and measurements of absorbed dose per monitor unit for the treatment of uveal melanoma with proton therapy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The treatment of uveal melanoma with proton radiotherapy has provided excellent clinical outcomes. However, contemporary treatment planning systems use simplistic dose algorithms that limit the accuracy of relative dose distributions. Further, absolute predictions of absorbed dose per monitor unit are not yet available in these systems. The purpose of this study was to determine if Monte Carlo methods could predict dose per monitor unit (D/MU) value at the center of a proton spread-out Bragg peak (SOBP) to within 1% on measured values for a variety of treatment fields relevant to ocular proton therapy. The MCNPX Monte Carlo transport code, in combination with realistic models for the ocular beam delivery apparatus and a water phantom, was used to calculate dose distributions and D/MU values, which were verified by the measurements. Measured proton beam data included central-axis depth dose profiles, relative cross-field profiles and absolute D/MU measurements under several combinations of beam penetration ranges and range-modulation widths. The Monte Carlo method predicted D/MU values that agreed with measurement to within 1% and dose profiles that agreed with measurement to within 3% of peak dose or within 0.5 mm distance-to-agreement. Lastly, a demonstration of the clinical utility of this technique included calculations of dose distributions and D/MU values in a realistic model of the human eye. It is possible to predict D/MU values accurately for clinical relevant range-modulated proton beams for ocular therapy using the Monte Carlo method. It is thus feasible to use the Monte Carlo method as a routine absolute dose algorithm for ocular proton therapy.

Koch, Nicholas; Newhauser, Wayne D; Titt, Uwe; Starkschall, George [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Blvd, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Gombos, Dan [Section of Ophthalmology, Department of Head and Neck Surgery MDACC Unit 441 (United States); Coombes, Kevin [Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Texas Health Science Center, 6767 Bertner Avenue, Houston, TX 77030 (United States)], E-mail: kochn@musc.edu

2008-03-21

307

Monte Carlo calculations and measurements of absorbed dose per monitor unit for the treatment of uveal melanoma with proton therapy  

Science.gov (United States)

The treatment of uveal melanoma with proton radiotherapy has provided excellent clinical outcomes. However, contemporary treatment planning systems use simplistic dose algorithms that limit the accuracy of relative dose distributions. Further, absolute predictions of absorbed dose per monitor unit are not yet available in these systems. The purpose of this study was to determine if Monte Carlo methods could predict dose per monitor unit (D/MU) value at the center of a proton spread-out Bragg peak (SOBP) to within 1% on measured values for a variety of treatment fields relevant to ocular proton therapy. The MCNPX Monte Carlo transport code, in combination with realistic models for the ocular beam delivery apparatus and a water phantom, was used to calculate dose distributions and D/MU values, which were verified by the measurements. Measured proton beam data included central-axis depth dose profiles, relative cross-field profiles and absolute D/MU measurements under several combinations of beam penetration ranges and range-modulation widths. The Monte Carlo method predicted D/MU values that agreed with measurement to within 1% and dose profiles that agreed with measurement to within 3% of peak dose or within 0.5 mm distance-to-agreement. Lastly, a demonstration of the clinical utility of this technique included calculations of dose distributions and D/MU values in a realistic model of the human eye. It is possible to predict D/MU values accurately for clinical relevant range-modulated proton beams for ocular therapy using the Monte Carlo method. It is thus feasible to use the Monte Carlo method as a routine absolute dose algorithm for ocular proton therapy.

Koch, Nicholas; Newhauser, Wayne D.; Titt, Uwe; Gombos, Dan; Coombes, Kevin; Starkschall, George

2008-03-01

308

United States experience in environmental cost-benefit analysis for nuclear power plants with implications for developing countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Environmental cost-benefit analysis in the United States involves a comparison of diverse societal impacts of the proposed developments and its alternatives. Regarding nuclear power plant licensing actions, such analyses include the need for base-load electrical generating capacity versus the no-action alternative; alternative sources of energy; alternative sites for the proposed nuclear plants; and alternative technologies for mitigating environmental impacts. Many U.S. experiences and environmental assessment practices and comparative resource requirements presented in this report will not provide a wholly reliable reflection of the precise situation of each country. Nevertheless, the procedural and substantive issues encountered by the United States in nuclear power plant licensing may exhibit a number of important, if rough, parallelisms for other countries. Procedural issues dealt with include: the scoping of alternatives and impact issues; the problem of balancing incommensurable impacts; and treating uncertainty in measuring or forecasting certain kinds of environmental impacts. Although substantive environmental impact issues will vary appreciably among nations, it is to be expected that many of the substantive impact issues such as impacts on biota, community-related effects, and aesthetic impacts will also have some measure of universal interest to other countries

309

[Quality management (TQM) in public health-care (PHC): principles for cost-performance calculations and cost reductions with better quality].  

Science.gov (United States)

In many high-tech industries, quality management (QM) has enabled improvements of quality by a factor of 100 or more, in combination with significant cost reductions. Compared to this, the application of QM methods in health care is in its initial stages. It is anticipated that stringent process management, embedded in an effective QM system will lead to significant improvements in health care in general and in the German public health service in particular. Process management is an ideal platform for controlling in the health care sector, and it will significantly improve the leverage of controlling to bring down costs. Best practice sharing in industry has led to quantum leap improvements. Process management will enable best practice sharing also in the public health service, in spite of the highly diverse portfolio of services that the public health service offers in different German regions. Finally, it is emphasised that "technical" QM, e.g., on the basis of the ISO 9001 standard is not sufficient to reach excellence. It is necessary to integrate soft factors, such as patient or employee satisfaction, and leadership quality into the system. The EFQM model for excellence can serve as proven tool to reach this goal. PMID:19039720

Bergholz, W

2008-11-01

310

Cost and appropriateness of treating asthma with fixed-combination drugs in local health care units in Italy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Isabella Ruggeri,1 Donatello Bragato,2 Giorgio L Colombo,3,4 Emanuela Valla,3 Sergio Di Matteo41Servizio Governo Area Farmaceutica, Azienda Sanitaria Locale, Milano, Binasco, 2Data Solution Provider, Milan, 3University of Pavia, Department of Drug Sciences, School of Pharmacy, 4Studi Analisi Valutazioni Economiche, MilanBackground: Bronchial asthma is a chronic airways disease and is considered to be one of the major health problems in the Western world. During the last decade, a significant increase in the use of ?2-agonists in combination with inhaled corticosteroids has been observed. The aim of this study was to assess the appropriateness of expenditure on these agents in an asthmatic population treated in a real practice setting.Methods: This study used data for a resident population of 635,906 citizens in the integrated patient database (Banca Dati Assistito of a local health care unit (Milano 2 Azienda Sanitaria Locale in the Lombardy region over 3 years (2007–2009. The sample included 3787–4808 patients selected from all citizens aged ? 18 years entitled to social security benefits, having a prescription for a corticosteroid + ?2-agonist combination, and an ATC code corresponding to R03AK, divided into three groups, ie, pressurized (spray drugs, inhaled powders, and extrafine formulations. Patients with chronic obstructive lung disease were excluded. Indicators of appropriateness were 1–3 packs per year (underdosed, inappropriate, 4–12 packs per year (presumably appropriate, and ?13 packs per year (overtreatment, inappropriate.Results: The corticosteroid + ?2-agonist combination per treated asthmatic patient increased from 37% in 2007 to 45% in 2009 for the total of prescribed antiasthma drugs, and 28%–32% of patients used the drugs in an appropriate manner (4–12 packs per years. The cost of inappropriately used packs increased combination drug expenditure by about 40%, leading to inefficient use of health care resources. This trend improved during the 3-year observation period. The mean annual cost per patient was higher for powders (€223.95 and sprays (€224.83 than for extrafine formulation (€142.71.Conclusion: Based on this analysis, we suggest implementation of better health care planning and more appropriate prescription practices aimed at optimizing use of health care resources for the treatment of bronchial asthma. The results of our study should be extended to other regional/national reference local health care units, in order to define and compare average standard costs per pathology, and consolidated through the wide sample considered.Keywords: asthma, antiasthma drugs, general medicine, appropriateness, pharmacoeconomics, health economics

Ruggeri I

2012-12-01

311

Conceptual design and cost analysis of hydraulic output unit for 15 kW free-piston Stirling engine  

Science.gov (United States)

A long-life hydraulic converter with unique features was conceptually designed to interface with a specified 15 kW(e) free-piston Stirling engine in a solar thermal dish application. Hydraulic fluid at 34.5 MPa (5000 psi) is produced to drive a conventional hydraulic motor and rotary alternator. Efficiency of the low-maintenance converter design was calculated at 93.5% for a counterbalanced version and 97.0% without the counterbalance feature. If the converter were coupled to a Stirling engine with design parameters more typcial of high-technology Stirling engines, counterbalanced converter efficiency could be increased to 99.6%. Dynamic computer simulation studies were conducted to evaluate performance and system sensitivities. Production costs of the complete Stirling hydraulic/electric power system were evaluated at $6506 which compared with $8746 for an alternative Stirling engine/linear alternator system.

White, M. A.

1982-01-01

312

A case study using the United Republic of Tanzania: costing nationwide HPV vaccine delivery using the WHO Cervical Cancer Prevention and Control Costing Tool  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose, methods, data sources and assumptions behind the World Health Organization (WHO Cervical Cancer Prevention and Control Costing (C4P tool that was developed to assist low- and middle-income countries (LMICs with planning and costing their nationwide human papillomavirus (HPV vaccination program are presented. Tanzania is presented as a case study where the WHO C4P tool was used to cost and plan the roll-out of HPV vaccines nationwide as part of the national comprehensive cervical cancer prevention and control strategy. Methods The WHO C4P tool focuses on estimating the incremental costs to the health system of vaccinating adolescent girls through school-, health facility- and/or outreach-based strategies. No costs to the user (school girls, parents or caregivers are included. Both financial (or costs to the Ministry of Health and economic costs are estimated. The cost components for service delivery include training, vaccination (health personnel time and transport, stationery for tally sheets and vaccination cards, and so on, social mobilization/IEC (information, education and communication, supervision, and monitoring and evaluation (M&E. The costs of all the resources used for HPV vaccination are totaled and shown with and without the estimated cost of the vaccine. The total cost is also divided by the number of doses administered and number of fully immunized girls (FIGs to estimate the cost per dose and cost per FIG. Results Over five years (2011 to 2015, the cost of establishing an HPV vaccine program that delivers three doses of vaccine to girls at schools via phased national introduction (three regions in year 1, ten regions in year 2 and all 26 regions in years 3 to 5 in Tanzania is estimated to be US$9.2 million (excluding vaccine costs and US$31.5 million (with vaccine assuming a vaccine price of US$5 (GAVI 2011, formerly the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunizations. This is equivalent to a financial cost of US$5.77 per FIG, excluding the vaccine cost. The most important costs of service delivery are social mobilization/IEC and service delivery operational costs. Conclusions When countries expand their immunization schedules with new vaccines such as the HPV vaccine, they face initial costs to fund critical pre-introduction activities, as well as incremental system costs to deliver the vaccines on an ongoing basis. In anticipation, governments need to plan ahead for non-vaccine costs so they will be financed adequately. Existing human resources need to be re-allocated or new staff need to be recruited for the program to be implemented successfully in a sustainable and long-term manner. Reaching a target group not routinely served by national immunization programs previously with three doses of vaccine requires new delivery strategies, more transport of vaccines and health workers and more intensive IEC activities leading to new delivery costs for the immunization program that are greater than the costs incurred when a new infant vaccine is added to the existing infant immunization schedule. The WHO C4P tool is intended to help LMICs to plan ahead and estimate the programmatic and operational costs of HPV vaccination.

Hutubessy Raymond

2012-11-01

313

Determination of ideal blending for Tandem fuel cycle between Angra-1 reactor (Brazil) and Embalse reactor (Argentina) by fuel cycle cost calculation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this work is to determine by means of a fuel cycle cost calculation, the ideal percentage of natural uranium (blending) to be used with irradiated and decontaminated fuel of Angra-I reactor. This blending will be used in the argentinian reactor of Embalse (Tandem cycle). This work confirm previous study where an ideal percentage of natural uranium was determined by minimizing its use. (author)

314

A case study using the United Republic of Tanzania: costing nationwide HPV vaccine delivery using the WHO Cervical Cancer Prevention and Control Costing Tool  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background The purpose, methods, data sources and assumptions behind the World Health Organization (WHO) Cervical Cancer Prevention and Control Costing (C4P) tool that was developed to assist low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) with planning and costing their nationwide human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination program are presented. Tanzania is presented as a case study where the WHO C4P tool was used to cost and plan the roll-out of HPV vaccines nationwide as part of the national...

Hutubessy Raymond; Levin Ann; Wang Susan; Morgan Winthrop; Ally Mariam; John Theopista; Broutet Nathalie

2012-01-01

315

Tracking the Sun IV: An Historical Summary of the Installed Cost of Photovoltaics in the United States from 1998 to 2010  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present report describes installed cost trends for grid-connected PV projects installed from 1998 through 2010 (with some limited and preliminary results presented for projects installed in the first six months of 2011). The analysis is based on project-level cost data from approximately 116,500 residential, non-residential, and utility-sector PV systems in the United States. The inclusion of utility-sector PV is a new element in this year’s report. The combined capacity of all systems in the data sample totals 1,685 MW, equal to 79% of all grid-connected PV capacity installed in the United States through 2010 and representing one of the most comprehensive sources of installed PV cost data for the U.S. Based on this dataset, the report describes historical installed cost trends over time, and by location, market segment, technology type, and component. The report also briefly compares recent PV installed costs in the United States to those in Germany and Japan, and describes trends in customer incentives for PV installations and net installed costs after receipt of such incentives. The analysis presented here focuses on descriptive trends in the underlying data, serving primarily to summarize the data in tabular and graphical form.

Darghouth, Naim; Wiser, Ryan

2011-09-07

316

IMPROVING COST CALCULATION IN THE IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY IN LIBYA USING THE STANDARD COST METHOD ÎMBUN?T??IREA CALCULA?IEI COSTURILOR ÎN INDUSTRIA DE FIER ?I O?EL DIN LIBIA PRIN FOLOSIREA METODEI STANDARD COST  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The iron and steel industry has a strategic role in each country`s economy as there is a direct connection between its production level and economic development. In the countries with developed market economy, the standard cost reflects the efficiency of the production process. In this context, the use of the standard cost method represents an instrument for research and estimation. This paper`s intention is to present the advantages offered by the application of the standard cost method in the iron and steel industry.

Abdelkarim S.Mohmed Abdelali

2013-05-01

317

Calculation of the Unit Normal Vector Using the Cross-Curve Moving Mask for Measurement Data Obtained from a Coordinate Measuring Machine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study presents a cross-curve moving mask method to calculate the unit normal vector based on 5 or 9 data points of a freeform surface measurement. The middle point and 4 or 8 neighboring points can be constructed as two crossed curves - longitude and latitude. The unit normal vector at the middle point can be determined by calculating the cross product of two tangent vectors along these 2 crossed curves. Different curve fitting methods passing 5 or 9 data points, such as Lagrange, parametric polynomial, Bezier and B-spline methodologies, are investigated. Two kinds of surfaces, namely, a sphere surface and a shoe-shaped geometric surface are selected for evaluating the accuracy of the calculated unit normal vectors

318

Calculation of the Unit Normal Vector Using the Cross-Curve Moving Mask for Measurement Data Obtained from a Coordinate Measuring Machine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study presents a cross-curve moving mask method to calculate the unit normal vector based on 5 or 9 data points of a freeform surface measurement. The middle point and 4 or 8 neighboring points can be constructed as two crossed curves - longitude and latitude. The unit normal vector at the middle point can be determined by calculating the cross product of two tangent vectors along these 2 crossed curves. Different curve fitting methods passing 5 or 9 data points, such as Lagrange, parametric polynomial, Bezier and B-spline methodologies, are investigated. Two kinds of surfaces, namely, a sphere surface and a shoe-shaped geometric surface are selected for evaluating the accuracy of the calculated unit normal vectors.

Shiou, F-J; Lee, R-T [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, No. 43, Section 4, Keelung Rd. 106 Taipei, Taiwan (China)

2006-10-15

319

It is time to study the costs and benefits of regulating continuing medical education in the United States.  

Science.gov (United States)

There is a dual system of continuing medical education (CME) accreditation in the United States, with developmental milestones dating back four decades. The Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME) approves national providers of CME. State medical societies (SMS) approve intrastate providers. The ACCME recognizes SMS to approve intrastate providers of CME. Both types of accredited providers, national and intrastate, designate the same credit, American Medical Association, Physician Recognition Award Category 1 Credit, which is trademarked by the AMA. The ACCME collects data to help the AMA monitor use of AMA PRA Category 1 Credit. The AMA is a nationally accredited provider of the ACCME. The AMA retains the right to act unilaterally to remove the privilege of any organization to designate Category 1 Credit. Although intrastate providers typically are charged through SMS, both types of providers, national and intrastate, pay fees for accreditation services provided by the ACCME. Select fee increases of the ACCME for 2009 through 2011 are estimated at $4.3M. Actions taken in June 2009 by the AMA House of Delegates suggest the value of accreditation and credit systems in the US should be studied with regard to costs and benefits that might further align CME with patients' interests and physicians' incentives. PMID:19998479

Mazmanian, Paul E

2009-01-01

320

cost-benefit analysis of legumes irradiation processing in egypt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper discusses the economics of legumes irradiation such as Chickpea,Lupin,Kidny Bean and broad and the effect of various parameters on unit processing costs. It provides a model for calculating specific unit processing costs by correlating known capital costs with annual operation cost an annual throughputs. We analysed the cost-benefit of the proposed grain irradiation facility. We took into account the cost of the capital investment, operation and other additional parameters and then estimated the unit processing cost. The investment criteria utilized for commercial evaluation were internal rate of return (I.I.R), pay back period (P.B.P), and average rate of return (A.R.R). The irradiation cost and the additional income are also discussed. The results of this analysis showed that the installation of an irradiation unit for legumes processing in Egypt would be economically feasible

321

Avoidable waste management costs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report describes the activity based costing method used to acquire variable (volume dependent or avoidable) waste management cost data for routine operations at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. Waste volumes from environmental restoration, facility stabilization activities, and legacy waste were specifically excluded from this effort. A core team consisting of Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, and Oak Ridge Reservation developed and piloted the methodology, which can be used to determine avoidable waste management costs. The method developed to gather information was based on activity based costing, which is a common industrial engineering technique. Sites submitted separate flow diagrams that showed the progression of work from activity to activity for each waste type or treatability group. Each activity on a flow diagram was described in a narrative, which detailed the scope of the activity. Labor and material costs based on a unit quantity of waste being processed were then summed to generate a total cost for that flow diagram. Cross-complex values were calculated by determining a weighted average for each waste type or treatability group based on the volume generated. This study will provide DOE and contractors with a better understanding of waste management processes and their associated costs. Other potential benefits include providing cost data for sites to perform consistent cost/benefit analysis of waste minimization and pollution prevention (WMIN/PP) options identified during pollution prevention opportunity assessments and providing a means for prioritizing and allocating limited resources for WMIN/PP

322

Launch Vehicle Production and Operations Cost Metrics  

Science.gov (United States)

Traditionally, launch vehicle cost has been evaluated based on $/Kg to orbit. This metric is calculated based on assumptions not typically met by a specific mission. These assumptions include the specified orbit whether Low Earth Orbit (LEO), Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO), or both. The metric also assumes the payload utilizes the full lift mass of the launch vehicle, which is rarely true even with secondary payloads.1,2,3 Other approaches for cost metrics have been evaluated including unit cost of the launch vehicle and an approach to consider the full program production and operations costs.4 Unit cost considers the variable cost of the vehicle and the definition of variable costs are discussed. The full program production and operation costs include both the variable costs and the manufacturing base. This metric also distinguishes operations costs from production costs, including pre-flight operational testing. Operations costs also consider the costs of flight operations, including control center operation and maintenance. Each of these 3 cost metrics show different sensitivities to various aspects of launch vehicle cost drivers. The comparison of these metrics provides the strengths and weaknesses of each yielding an assessment useful for cost metric selection for launch vehicle programs.

Watson, Michael D.; Neeley, James R.; Blackburn, Ruby F.

2014-01-01

323

Deterministic Assessment of Future Costs for Dismantling (FA)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The main objective of the report is to provide an re-evaluation of cost calculations by OMEGA code for the Intermediate Storage for Spent Fuel in Studsvik (FA facility) using up-to-date Swedish labour cost unit factors and available up-to-date Swedish (or international) cost unit factors for consumables, materials and substances. Furthermore, evolution of other OMEGA database parameters concerning cost calculations e.g. manpower unit factors and workgroups parameters are taken into account. This report follows up former project which introduced tentative calculations of main decommissioning parameters such as costs, manpower and exposure of personnel for activities of older nuclear facility decommissioning in Sweden represented by FA Facility in Studsvik by means of calculation code OMEGA. The project demonstrated an implementation of advanced costing methodology based on PSL structure format to achieve transparent, traceable and comparable estimates even for older nuclear facilities like FA Facility in Studsvik. This former project used Slovak origin labour costs unit factors and other cost unit factors. After successful completion of this project, there was an intent of SSM to reevaluate calculations using an up-to-date Swedish labour cost data and also available Swedish consumables and materials cost data if available. Within this report re-calculations of main decommissioning parameters using available Swedish data are presented in structure according to Proposed Standardized List of Items for Costing Purposes. Calculations are made for decommissioning scenario with post-dismantling decontamination and steel radwaste melting technologies available at the site. All parameters are documented and summed up in both table and graphic forms in text and Annexes. Further, comparison of calculated results with previous calculations together with discussion is provided

324

Custo médio do Módulo de Coleta de sangue total pelo método ABC / The mean cost of collection of whole blood units by the ABC method  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Os procedimentos em hemoterapia são complexos e caros. Exigem processos controlados e validados, equipamentos calibrados e monitorados e insumos qualificados, validados e inspecionados antes e durante o uso. Isto acarreta, além dos gastos diretos, gastos indiretos especificamente relacionados à gara [...] ntia da qualidade e da segurança transfusionais, além dos gastos indiretos usuais de qualquer produto ou serviço. Procurando avaliar com maior aproximação estes custos e buscando evitar as distorções das apropriações de custos por rateios, o presente estudo utilizou o sistema de Custeio Baseado em Atividades - ABC, para apurar o custo médio do Módulo de Coleta de sangue total no Hemocentro de Ribeirão Preto - SP, unidade sede, no primeiro semestre de 2006. O maior impacto no custo médio apurado se deveu aos custos monetários diretos, entretanto os custos indiretos não foram desprezíveis. O custo médio obtido para desempenho das atividades que compõem o Módulo de Coleta foi de R$ 35,20, que é 68,75% superior ao valor pago na tabela SIA/SUS para este módulo. A metodologia desenvolvida pode ser aplicada aos outros procedimentos dos serviços de hemoterapia, permitindo a avaliação dos custos de seus processos, evitando desperdícios, aprimorando o seu funcionamento e gerando evidências objetivas que demonstrem os custos reais da hemoterapia de qualidade para as instâncias financiadoras públicas e privadas. Abstract in english The procedures in hemotherapy are complex and expensive. They demand a controlled and validated process. They also require calibrated and monitored equipment and qualified and validated materials, inspected before and during use. This causes, apart from direct expenses, indirect expenses related to [...] the guarantee of quality and transfusional safety, as well as the usual indirect costs of any product or service. The present study used the Activity-Based Costing system - ABC, to find the mean cost of collection of whole blood units in a Regional Blood Center in Ribeirão Preto, during the first semester of 2006, in order to assess these costs more carefully and to try to avoid the cost distortions due to separation of blood components. Although the indirect costs were not negligible, the major impact on the mean cost was related to direct monetary costs. The mean cost to perform the activities that compose the collection of blood units was R$ 35.20, which is 68.75% higher than the value paid by the Brazilian government for this unit. The developed methodology can be applied to other procedures of services in hemotherapy allowing the evaluation of process costs, avoiding waste, improving performance and generating objective evidence to demonstrate the real cost of quality hemotherapy activities for public and private fund source.

Eugênia M. A., Ubiali; Divaldo A., Sampaio; Patrícia F., Pinho; Dimas T., Covas.

325

Start up physics tests of units 5 and 6 (WWER 1000) at Kozloduy NPP by comparison with the calculated neutron physics characteristics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In conjunction with each refuelling shutdown of the reactor core, nuclear design calculations are performed to ensure that the reactor physics characteristics of the new core will be consistent with the safety limits. Prior to return to normal operation, a physics test program is required to determine if the operating characteristics of the core are consistent with the design predictions and to ensure that the core can be operated as designed. Successful completion of the physics test program is demonstrated when the test results agree with the predicted results within predetermined test criteria. Successful completion of the physics test program and successful completion of other tests, which are performed after each refuelling provides assurance that the plant can be operated as designed. The calculated neutron-physics characteristics values of Kozloduy NPP Unit 5 and Unit 6 (WWER 1000) obtained by the computer code package KASKAD are compared with the obtained results during the start up physics tests. The core fuel loading consists of 163 fuel assemblies (FAs). The calculated values are given according to actual experimental conditions of the reactor core during start up physics tests. The report includes comparisons between calculation results by code package KASKAD (BIPR7A) and experimental data values of main neutron-physics characteristics during start up physics tests in selected recent cycles of Kozloduy NPP Unit 5 and Unit 6. (authors)

326

Cost-Benefit Analysis of Nanoparticle Albumin-Bound Paclitaxel versus Solvent-Based Paclitaxel for the Treatment of Metastatic Breast Cancer in the United States  

Science.gov (United States)

Breast cancer is the second leading cause of death among women in the US. Although early detection and treatment help to increase survival rates, some unfortunate patients develop metastatic breast cancer that has no cure. Palliative treatment is the main objective in this group of patients in order to prolong life and reduce toxicities from interventions. In the advancement of treatment for metastatic breast cancer, solvent-based paclitaxel has been widely used. However, solvent-based paclitaxel often causes adverse reactions. Therefore, researchers have developed a new chemotherapy based on nanotechnology. One of these drugs is the Nanoparticle albumin-bound Paclitaxel. This nanodrug aims to increase therapeutic index by reducing adverse reactions from solvents and to improve efficacy of conventional cytotoxic chemotherapy. Breast cancer is a disease with high epidemiological and economic burden. The treatment of metastatic breast cancer has not only high direct costs but also high indirect costs. Breast cancer affects mass populations, especially women younger than 50 years of age. It relates to high indirect costs due to lost productivity and premature death because the majority of these patients are in the workforce. Because of the high cost of breast cancer therapies and short survival rates, the question is raised whether the costs and benefits are worth paying or not. Due to the rising costs in healthcare and new financing policies that have been developed to address this issue, economic evaluation is an important aspect of the development and use of any new interventions. To guide policy makers on how to allocate limited healthcare resources in the most efficient and effective manner, many economic evaluation methods can be used to measure the costs, benefits, and impacts of healthcare innovations. Currently, economic evaluation and health outcomes studies have focused greatly on cost-effectiveness and cost-utility analysis. However, the previous studies had some limitations because they were conducted from a narrow perspective such as payer and provider point of views. The studies also considered only direct costs in their analysis. In fact, conducting economic evaluations from a narrow perspective and leaving out indirect costs might undermine the true benefit of the interventions for society. A cost-benefit analysis measures all costs and benefits in monetary units. It incorporates both health outcomes gained from individuals and the value gained to society in order to maximize the usage of resources effectively. This thesis conducted a cost-benefit analysis to compare nab-paclitaxel and generic paclitaxel in treating metastatic breast cancer from a societal perspective in the United States. The results showed that nab-paclitaxel is a cost-benefit strategy regardless of the different costs and benefits due to the extra 3 years of living it provides. In all models, when nab-paclitaxel was compared to generic paclitaxel, nab-paclitaxel showed cost-benefit to society. However, the results of generic paclitaxel were dependent on the total medical costs. Performing a cost-benefit analysis of nab-paclitaxel from a societal perspective is important to understand the true benefit of interventions. Furthermore, considering both direct and indirect costs, as well as benefits, of this drug is vital because the economic profile of nab-paclitaxel would be improved.

Vichansavakul, Kittaya

327

LPGC, Levelized Steam Electric Power Generator Cost  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

1 - Description of program or function: LPGC is a set of nine microcomputer programs for estimating power generation costs for large steam-electric power plants. These programs permit rapid evaluation using various sets of economic and technical ground rules. The levelized power generation costs calculated may be used to compare the relative economics of nuclear and coal-fired plants based on life-cycle costs. Cost calculations include capital investment cost, operation and maintenance cost, fuel cycle cost, decommissioning cost, and total levelized power generation cost. These programs can be used for quick analyses of power generation costs using alternative economic parameters, such as interest rate, escalation rate, inflation rate, plant lead times, capacity factor, fuel prices, etc. The two major types of electric generating plants considered are pressurized-water reactor (PWR) and pulverized coal-fired plants. Data are also provided for the Large Scale Prototype Breeder (LSPB) type liquid metal reactor. Costs for plant having either one or two units may be obtained. 2 - Method of solution: LPGC consists of nine individual menu-driven programs controlled by a driver program, MAINPWR. The individual programs are PLANTCAP, for calculating capital investment costs; NUCLOM, for determining operation and maintenance (O and M) costs for nuclear plants; COALOM, for computing O and M costs for coal-fired plants; NFUEL, for calculating levelized fuel costs for nuclear plaating levelized fuel costs for nuclear plants; COALCOST, for determining levelized fuel costs for coal-fired plants; FCRATE, for computing the fixed charge rate on the capital investment; LEVEL, for calculating levelized power generation costs; CAPITAL, for determining capitalized cost from overnight cost; and MASSGEN, for generating, deleting, or changing fuel cycle mass balance data for use with NFUEL. LPGC has three modes of operation. In the first, each individual code can be executed independently to determine one aspect of the total levelized power cost, such as fuel or O and M cost. In the second, the integrated code can be run to calculate all aspects of the levelized power cost, and in the third, the integrated code can be used to access an individual code which calculates one aspect of the levelized power generation cost as in the first mode of operation

328

The cost of decommissioning uranium mill tailings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report identifies several key operations that are commonly carried out during decommissioning of tailings areas in the Canadian environment. These operations are unit costed for a generic site to provide a base reference case. The unit costs have also been scaled to the quantities required for the decommissioning of four Canadian sites and these scaled quantities compared with site-specific engineering cost estimates and actual costs incurred in carrying out the decommissioning activities. Variances in costing are discussed. The report also recommends a generic monitoring regime upon which both short- and longer-term environmental monitoring costs are calculated. Although every site must be addressed as a site-specific case, and monitoring programs must be tailored to fit a specific site, it would appear that for the conventional decommissioning and monitoring practices that have been employed to date, costs can be reasonably estimated when site-specific conditions are taken into account

329

RELAP5/MOD3.2 sensitivity calculations of loss-of-feed water (LOFW) transient at Unit 6 of Kozloduy NPP  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper provides a comparison between the real plant data obtained by Unit 6 of Kozloduy nuclear power plant (NPP) during the loss-of-feed water (LOFW) transient and the calculation results received by RELAP5/MOD3.2 computer model of the same NPP unit. RELAP5/MOD3.2 computer model of the VVER-1000 has been developed at the Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy-Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (INRNE-BAS) based on Unit 6 of Kozloduy NPP. This model has been used for simulation the behavior of the real VVER-1000 NPP during the LOFW transient. Several calculations have been provided to describe how the different boundary conditions reflect on the prediction of real plant parameters. This paper discusses the results of the thermal-hydraulic sensitivity calculations of loss-of-feed water transient for VVER-1000 reactor design. The report also contains a brief summary of the main NPP systems included in the RELAP5 VVER model and the LOFW transient sequences. This report was possible through the participation of leading specialists from Kozloduy NPP and with the assistance of Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) for the United States Department of Energy (US DOE), International Nuclear Safety Program (INSP)

330

On the contribution of external cost calculations to energy system governance: The case of a potential large-scale nuclear accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The contribution of nuclear power to a sustainable energy future is a contested issue. This paper presents a critical review of an attempt to objectify this debate through the calculation of the external costs of a potential large-scale nuclear accident in the ExternE project. A careful dissection of the ExternE approach resulted in a list of 30 calculation steps and assumptions, from which the 6 most contentious ones were selected through a stakeholder internet survey. The policy robustness and relevance of these key assumptions were then assessed in a workshop using the concept of a 'pedigree of knowledge'. Overall, the workshop outcomes revealed the stakeholder and expert panel's scepticism about the assumptions made: generally these were considered not very plausible, subjected to disagreement, and to a large extent inspired by contextual factors. Such criticism indicates a limited validity and useability of the calculated nuclear accident externality as a trustworthy sustainability indicator. Furthermore, it is our contention that the ExternE project could benefit greatly - in terms of gaining public trust - from employing highly visible procedures of extended peer review such as the pedigree assessment applied to our specific case of the external costs of a potential large-scale nuclear accident. - Highlights: ? Six most contentious assumptions were selected through a stakeholder internet survey. ? Policy robustness of these assumptions was assessed in a pedhese assumptions was assessed in a pedigree assessment workshop. ? Assumptions were considered implausible, controversial, and inspired by contextual factors. ? This indicates a limited validity and useability as a trustworthy sustainability indicator.

331

Efficiency of heat recovery units in ventilation  

OpenAIRE

The main aim of my bachelor thesis was to calculate the annual efficiency and the temperature ratios of the heat recovery unit and compare them with the manufacturer’s data and requirements of European standards. Another aim was to estimate the influence of using the heat recovery unit on heat energy consumption of the air handling unit. Furthermore, the aim was to compare real costs of heat energy for the air handling unit with the heat recovery unit with costs of heat energy which would b...

Koroleva, Anastasiia

2012-01-01

332

Cost-Effectiveness of Home Energy Retrofits in Pre-Code Vintage Homes in the United States  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This analytical study examines the opportunities for cost-effective energy efficiency and renewable energy retrofits in residential archetypes constructed prior to 1980 (Pre-Code) in fourteen U.S. cities. These fourteen cities are representative of each of the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) climate zones in the contiguous U.S. The analysis is conducted using an in-house version of EnergyGauge USA v.2.8.05 named CostOpt that has been programmed to perform iterative, incremental economic optimization on a large list of residential energy efficiency and renewable energy retrofit measures. The principle objectives of the study are as follows: to determine the opportunities for cost effective source energy reductions in this large cohort of existing residential building stock as a function of local climate and energy costs; and to examine how retrofit financing alternatives impact the source energy reductions that are cost effectively achievable.

Fairey, P.; Parker, D.

2012-11-01

333

Real-space finite-difference calculation method of generalized Bloch wave functions and complex band structures with reduced computational cost  

Science.gov (United States)

Generalized Bloch wave functions of bulk structures, which are composed of not only propagating waves but also decaying and growing evanescent waves, are known to be essential for defining the open boundary conditions in the calculations of the electronic surface states and scattering wave functions of surface and junction structures. Electronic complex band structures being derived from the generalized Bloch wave functions are also essential for studying bound states of the surface and junction structures, which do not appear in conventional band structures. We present a novel calculation method to obtain the generalized Bloch wave functions of periodic bulk structures by solving a generalized eigenvalue problem, whose dimension is drastically reduced in comparison with the conventional generalized eigenvalue problem derived by Fujimoto and Hirose [Phys. Rev. B 67, 195315 (2003)], 10.1103/PhysRevB.67.195315. The generalized eigenvalue problem derived in this work is even mathematically equivalent to the conventional one, and, thus, we reduce computational cost for solving the eigenvalue problem considerably without any approximation and losing the strictness of the formulations. To exhibit the performance of the present method, we demonstrate practical calculations of electronic complex band structures and electron transport properties of Al and Cu nanoscale systems. Moreover, employing atom-structured electrodes and jellium-approximated ones for both of the Al and Si monatomic chains, we investigate how much the electron transport properties are unphysically affected by the jellium parts.

Tsukamoto, Shigeru; Hirose, Kikuji; Blügel, Stefan

2014-07-01

334

Real-space finite-difference calculation method of generalized Bloch wave functions and complex band structures with reduced computational cost.  

Science.gov (United States)

Generalized Bloch wave functions of bulk structures, which are composed of not only propagating waves but also decaying and growing evanescent waves, are known to be essential for defining the open boundary conditions in the calculations of the electronic surface states and scattering wave functions of surface and junction structures. Electronic complex band structures being derived from the generalized Bloch wave functions are also essential for studying bound states of the surface and junction structures, which do not appear in conventional band structures. We present a novel calculation method to obtain the generalized Bloch wave functions of periodic bulk structures by solving a generalized eigenvalue problem, whose dimension is drastically reduced in comparison with the conventional generalized eigenvalue problem derived by Fujimoto and Hirose [Phys. Rev. B 67, 195315 (2003)]. The generalized eigenvalue problem derived in this work is even mathematically equivalent to the conventional one, and, thus, we reduce computational cost for solving the eigenvalue problem considerably without any approximation and losing the strictness of the formulations. To exhibit the performance of the present method, we demonstrate practical calculations of electronic complex band structures and electron transport properties of Al and Cu nanoscale systems. Moreover, employing atom-structured electrodes and jellium-approximated ones for both of the Al and Si monatomic chains, we investigate how much the electron transport properties are unphysically affected by the jellium parts. PMID:25122409

Tsukamoto, Shigeru; Hirose, Kikuji; Blügel, Stefan

2014-07-01

335

The estimated economic burden of genital herpes in the United States. An analysis using two costing approaches  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Only limited data exist on the costs of genital herpes (GH in the USA. We estimated the economic burden of GH in the USA using two different costing approaches. Methods The first approach was a cross-sectional survey of a sample of primary and secondary care physicians, analyzing health care resource utilization. The second approach was based on the analysis of a large administrative claims data set. Both approaches were used to generate the number of patients with symptomatic GH seeking medical treatment, the average medical expenditures and estimated national costs. Costs were valued from a societal and a third party payer's perspective in 1996 US dollars. Results In the cross-sectional study, based on an estimated 3.1 million symptomatic episodes per year in the USA, the annual direct medical costs were estimated at a maximum of $984 million. Of these costs, 49.7% were caused by drug expenditures, 47.7% by outpatient medical care and 2.6% by hospital costs. Indirect costs accounted for further $214 million. The analysis of 1,565 GH cases from the claims database yielded a minimum national estimate of $283 million direct medical costs. Conclusions GH appears to be an important public health problem from the health economic point of view. The observed difference in direct medical costs may be explained with the influence of compliance to treatment and possible undersampling of subpopulations in the claims data set. The present study demonstrates the validity of using different approaches in estimating the economic burden of a specific disease to the health care system.

Fisman David N

2001-06-01

336

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Site Dose-per-Unit-Release Factors for Use in Calculating Radionuclide Air Emissions Potential-to-Emit Doses  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report documents assumptions and inputs used to prepare the dose-per-unit-release factors for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Site (including the buildings that make up the Physical Sciences Facility [PSF] as well as the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory [EMSL]) calculated using the EPA-approved Clean Air Act Assessment Package 1988–Personal Computer (CAP88-PC) Version 3 software package. The dose-per-unit-release factors are used to prepare dose estimates for a maximum public receptor (MPR) in support of Radioactive Air Pollutants Notice of Construction (NOC) applications for the PNNL Site.

Barnett, J. M.; Rhoads, Kathleen

2008-09-29

337

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Site Dose-per-Unit-Release Factors for Use in Calculating Radionuclide Air Emissions Potential-to-Emit Doses  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report documents assumptions and inputs used to prepare the dose-per-unit-release factors for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Site (including the buildings that make up the Physical Sciences Facility [PSF] as well as the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory [EMSL]) calculated using the EPA-approved Clean Air Act Assessment Package 1988–Personal Computer (CAP88-PC) Version 3 software package. The dose-per-unit-release factors are used to prepare dose estimates for a maximum public receptor (MPR) in support of Radioactive Air Pollutants Notice of Construction (NOC) applications for the PNNL Site.

Barnett, J. M.; Rhoads, Kathleen

2009-06-11

338

Monte Carlo calculations and measurements of absorbed dose per monitor unit for the treatment of uveal melanoma with proton therapy  

OpenAIRE

The treatment of uveal melanoma with proton radiotherapy has provided excellent clinical outcomes. However, contemporary treatment planning systems use simplistic dose algorithms that limit the accuracy of relative dose distributions. Further, absolute predictions of absorbed dose per monitor unit are not yet available in these systems. The purpose of this study was to determine if Monte Carlo methods could predict dose per monitor unit (D/MU) value at the center of a proton spread-out Bragg ...

Koch, Nicholas; Newhauser, Wayne D.; Titt, Uwe; Gombos, Dan; Coombes, Kevin; Starkschall, George

2008-01-01

339

Treatment of paediatric burns with a nanocrystalline silver dressing compared with standard wound care in a burns unit: a cost analysis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Burns are a leading cause of non-natural death in South African infants and children. Conventional care of partial-thickness burns often requires painful, time consuming and costly twice-daily dressing changes to clean the wound and apply antimicrobial topical agents. A new topical nanocrystalline s [...] ilver-coated (NS) dressing (Acticoat; Smith & Nephew) has been developed and is the first-line treatment of choice in many burn centres. However, because of its cost the Department of Health has been reluctant to introduce it as a standard of care. We retrospectively studied 4 randomly selected paediatric burn patients, calculating the cost associated with the use of NS dressings and comparing this with the projected costs of three previously standard burn wound treatment regimens. NS dressings were changed every 3 days based on their sustained and slow release of silver ions over 72 hours. Using NS clearly saved costs compared with the three other regimens. The demonstrated cost savings resulted primarily from the decreased number of dressings, and the presumed shorter hospital stay.

S G, Cox; L, Cullingworth; H, Rode.

2011-10-01

340

Cost-Effectiveness Osteoporosis Treatment Thresholds: The United States Perspective from the National Osteoporosis Foundation Guide Committee  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction: Rapid growth of the elderly United States population will result in so many at risk of osteoporosis that economically efficient approaches to osteoporosis care warrant consideration.Methods: A Markov-cohort model of annual United States age-specific incidence of hip, wrist, clinical s...

341

Cost -Benefit Analysis of a Single-Unit System with Preventive Maintenance and Weibull Distribution for Failure and Repair Activities  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper deals with a reliability model developed for a single-unit system which goes for preventive maintenance after a pre-specific time ‘t’ up to which no failure occurs. There is a single server who takes some time to arrive at the system for doing repair activities. The unit does not work as new after repair at complete failure and so called the degraded unit. The degraded unit is replaced by new one after its failure with some replacement time. The failure time, preventive maintenance time, replacement time and repair time of the unit are taken as Weibull distributed with common shape parameter and different scale parameters. The switching devices are perfect. The system is observed at suitable regenerative epochs to obtain various measures of system effectiveness of interest to system designers and operation managers.

Kumar Ashish

2014-12-01

342

Preliminary UKAEA reactor physics calculations on CYCLE 1 and part of CYCLE 2 of Zion Unit 2 PWR  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Calculations were made using the UKAEA reactor physics code package LWRWIMS/JOSHUA, to provide comparisons with similar calculations on the first two cycles of Sizewell B. In Zion cycle 1, the channel power distributions agree quite well with measurement, but there is less good agreement for low burnups in cycle 2. Core axial power profile calculations for cycle 1 also agree quite well with measurement, although the agreement is less good at intermediate cycle burnups. In cycle 2, these do not show the same trends as the measured axial offset. (U.K.)

343

Measuring Transaction Costs in Plural Formed Marketing Channels:An empirical investigation of franchise units in the oil industry  

OpenAIRE

Previous empirical research has supported the predictions derived from transaction cost economics that asset specificity, uncertainty, frequency and complexity entail vertical integration (David and Han 2004). The underlying assumption is that integration creates the most efficient organizational formation. Given this assumption from transaction cost theory integration caused by market failures due to asset specificity lead to efficiency. This test focus on the ability of the principal compan...

Nygaard, Arne

2009-01-01

344

Inflation Calculator  

Science.gov (United States)

This simple inflation calculator uses the Consumer Price Index to adjust any given amount of money, from 1800 to 1998. Creator S. Morgan Friedman uses data from the Historical Statistics of the United States for statistics predating 1975 and the annual Statistics Abstracts of the United States for data from 1975 to 1998. Links to other online inflation information are also included.

Friedman, S. Morgan.

345

Use of synthetic series of monthly flows in calculating the marginal cost of energy of the national interconnected power system of Peru  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this research it was determined the feasibility of using synthetic series of monthly average flow for the determination of the average marginal cost of energy in the National Interconnected Electric System of Peru, SEIN, taking as a case study of implementing bar tariff setting in 2004, where it was used the PERSEO model for planning, simulation and optimization of the hydrothermal system in Peru. The model is currently used by the Deputy Manager of tariff regulation (GART) of the Agency for Supervision of Investment in Energy and Mining - OSINERGMIN. The model use as hydrological information the average monthly flow series of tributaries to the historical attractions of the 23 river basins of the SEIN, one of the main is the basin of the Junin Lake, whose water is used by the Mantaro and Restitution hydroelectric, generating almost 20% of the power of our country. With the HEC-4 program, developed by the Hydrological Engineering Center of the USA, from the time series of monthly historical flows tributary to the Junin Lake, 50 series were generated synthetic monthly flow, determined from them a dry series, a average series and a wet series, information that was used in the PERSEO model to calculate the average marginal cost of energy of SEIN for each case. The results obtained from the average marginal cost of energy with the use of synthetic series of monthly flows, for the dry case, average case and wet case, with the PERSEO model, compared to the historical eveRSEO model, compared to the historical event, are lower in order of 1.14, 1.55 and 0.87 US $/MWh, the results will determine a decline in energy prices for end users, such as the domestic, commercial, industrial and mining users. (author).

346

Model-based calculations of off-axis ratio of conic beams for a dedicated 6 MV radiosurgery unit  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: Because the small-radius photon beams shaped by cones in stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) lack lateral electronic equilibrium and a detector's finite cross section, direct experimental measurement of dosimetric data for these beams can be subject to large uncertainties. As the dose calculation accuracy of a treatment planning system largely depends on how well the dosimetric data are measured during the machine's commissioning, there is a critical need for an independent method to validate measured results. Therefore, the authors studied the model-based calculation as an approach to validate measured off-axis ratios (OARs). Methods: The authors previously used a two-component analytical model to calculate central axis dose and associated dosimetric data (e.g., scatter factors and tissue-maximum ratio) in a water phantom and found excellent agreement between the calculated and the measured central axis doses for small 6 MV SRS conic beams. The model was based on that of Nizin and Mooij [''An approximation of central-axis absorbed dose in narrow photon beams,'' Med. Phys. 24, 1775-1780 (1997)] but was extended to account for apparent attenuation, spectral differences between broad and narrow beams, and the need for stricter scatter dose calculations for clinical beams. In this study, the authors applied Clarkson integration to this model to calculate OARs for conic beams. OARs were calculated for selected cones with radii from 0.2 to 1.0 cm. To allow comparisonsi from 0.2 to 1.0 cm. To allow comparisons, the authors also directly measured OARs using stereotactic diode (SFD), microchamber, and film dosimetry techniques. The calculated results were machine-specific and independent of direct measurement data for these beams. Results: For these conic beams, the calculated OARs were in excellent agreement with the data measured using an SFD. The discrepancies in radii and in 80%-20% penumbra were within 0.01 cm, respectively. Using SFD-measured OARs as the reference data, the authors found that the calculated OARs were more accurate than those measured with a microchamber or film dosimetry. Conclusions: The model produces sufficiently accurate conic beam dosimetric data that can be used to validate direct measurement results for such beams.

347

Candidemia in the intensive care unit: analysis of direct treatment costs and clinical outcome in patients treated with echinocandins or fluconazole.  

Science.gov (United States)

Direct treatment costs caused by candidemia in German intensive care unit (ICU) patients are currently unknown. We analyzed treatment costs and the impact of antifungal drug choice. Comprehensive data of patients who had at least one episode of candidemia while staying in the ICU between 01/2005 and 12/2010 were documented in a database using the technology of the Cologne Cohort of Neutropenic Patients (CoCoNut). A detailed analysis of all disease-associated treatment costs was performed. Patients treated with echinocandins (i.e., anidulafungin, caspofungin, micafungin) or fluconazole were analyzed separately and compared. Forty-one and 64 patients received echinocandins and fluconazole, respectively. The mean Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) IV score was 114 (95 % confidence interval [CI]: 106-122) vs. 95 (95 % CI: 90-101, p?=?20,338 (95 % CI: 12,893-27,883) vs. 11,932 (95 % CI: 8,016-15,849, p?=?0.110), and the total direct treatment costs per patient were 37,995 (95 % CI: 26,614-49,376) vs. 22,305 (95 % CI: 16,817-27,793, p?=?0.012), resulting in daily costs per patient of 1,158 (95 % CI: 1,036-1,280) vs. 927 (95 % CI: 828-1,026, p?=?0.001). Our health economic analysis shows the high treatment costs of patients with candidemia in the ICU. Sicker patients had a prolonged hospitalization and were more likely to receive echinocandins, leading to higher treatment costs. Outcomes were comparable to those achieved in less sick patients with fluconazole. PMID:25213718

Heimann, S M; Cornely, O A; Wisplinghoff, H; Kochanek, M; Stippel, D; Padosch, S A; Langebartels, G; Reuter, H; Reiner, M; Vierzig, A; Seifert, H; Vehreschild, M J G T; Glossmann, J; Franke, B; Vehreschild, J J

2015-02-01

348

Evaluation of the cost effectiveness of exenatide versus insulin glargine in patients with sub-optimally controlled Type 2 diabetes in the United Kingdom  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Objective Exenatide belongs to a new therapeutic class in the treatment of diabetes (incretin mimetics, allowing glucose-dependent glycaemic control in Type 2 diabetes. Randomised controlled trial data suggest that exenatide is as effective as insulin glargine at reducing HbA1c in combination therapy with metformin and sulphonylureas; with reduced weight but higher incidence of adverse gastrointestinal events. The objective of this study is to evaluate the cost effectiveness of exenatide versus insulin glargine using RCT data and a previously published model of Type 2 diabetes disease progression that is based on the United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study; the perspective of the health-payer of the United Kingdom National Health Service. Methods The study used a discrete event simulation model designed to forecast the costs and health outcome of a cohort of 1,000 subjects aged over 40 years with sub-optimally-controlled Type 2 diabetes, following initiation of either exenatide, or insulin glargine, in addition to oral hypoglycaemic agents. Sensitivity analysis for a higher treatment discontinuation rate in exenatide patients was applied to the cohort in three different scenarios; (1 either ignored or (2 exenatide-failures excluded or (3 exenatide-failures switched to insulin glargine. Analyses were undertaken to evaluate the price sensitivity of exenatide in terms of relative cost effectiveness. Baseline cohort profiles and effectiveness data were taken from a published randomised controlled trial. Results The relative cost-effectiveness of exenatide and insulin glargine was tested under a variety of conditions, in which insulin glargine was dominant in all cases. Using the most conservative of assumptions, the cost-effectiveness ratio of exenatide vs. insulin glargine at the current UK NHS price was -£29,149/QALY (insulin glargine dominant and thus exenatide is not cost-effective when compared with insulin glargine, at the current UK NHS price. Conclusion This study evaluated the relative cost effectiveness of insulin glargine versus exenatide in the management of Type 2 diabetes using a published model. Given no significant difference in glycaemic control and applying the additional effectiveness of exenatide over insulin glargine, with respect to weight loss, and using the current UK NHS prices, insulin glargine was found to be dominant over exenatide in all modelled scenarios. With current clinical evidence, exenatide does not appear to represent a cost-effective treatment option for patients with Type 2 diabetes when compared to insulin glargine.

Tetlow Anthony P

2008-08-01

349

United States biomass energy: An assessment of costs and infrastructure for alternative uses of biomass energy crops as an energy feedstock  

Science.gov (United States)

Reduction of the negative environmental and human health externalities resulting from both the electricity and transportation sectors can be achieved through technologies such as clean coal, natural gas, nuclear, hydro, wind, and solar photovoltaic technologies for electricity; reformulated gasoline and other fossil fuels, hydrogen, and electrical options for transportation. Negative externalities can also be reduced through demand reductions and efficiency improvements in both sectors. However, most of these options come with cost increases for two primary reasons: (1) most environmental and human health consequences have historically been excluded from energy prices; (2) fossil energy markets have been optimizing costs for over 100 years and thus have achieved dramatic cost savings over time. Comparing the benefits and costs of alternatives requires understanding of the tradeoffs associated with competing technology and lifestyle choices. As bioenergy is proposed as a large-scale feedstock within the United States, a question of "best use" of bioenergy becomes important. Bioenergy advocates propose its use as an alternative energy resource for electricity generation and transportation fuel production, primarily focusing on ethanol. These advocates argue that bioenergy offers environmental and economic benefits over current fossil energy use in each of these two sectors as well as in the U.S. agriculture sector. Unfortunately, bioenergy research has offered very few comparisons of these two alternative uses. This thesis helps fill this gap. This thesis compares the economics of bioenergy utilization by a method for estimating total financial costs for each proposed bioenergy use. Locations for potential feedstocks and bio-processing facilities (co-firing switchgrass and coal in existing coal fired power plants and new ethanol refineries) are estimated and linear programs are developed to estimate large-scale transportation infrastructure costs for each sector. Each linear program minimizes required bioenergy distribution and infrastructure costs. Truck and rail are the only two transportation modes allowed as they are the most likely bioenergy transportation modes. Switchgrass is chosen as a single bioenergy feedstock. All resulting costs are presented in units which reflect current energy markets price norms (¢/kWh, $/gal). The use of a common metric, carbon-dioxide emissions, allows a comparison of the two proposed uses. Additional analysis is provided to address aspects of each proposed use which are not reflected by a carbon-dioxide reduction metric. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Morrow, William Russell, III

350

The costs of fluid overload in the adult intensive care unit: is a small-volume infusion model a proactive solution?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Debra L Child,1 Zhun Cao,2 Laura E Seiberlich,1 Harold Brown,2 Jordan Greenberg,1 Anne Swanson,1 Martha R Sewall,1 Scott B Robinson,2 1Smiths Medical, ASD, Inc., St Paul, MN, USA; 2Premier Inc., Charlotte, NC, USA Purpose: Fluid overload (FO in critically ill patients remains a challenging clinical dilemma, and many continuous intravenous (IV medications in the US are being delivered as a dilute solution, adding significantly to a patient's daily intake. This study describes the costs and outcomes of FO in patients receiving multiple continuous infusions. Materials and methods: A retrospective study was conducted using a hospital administrative database covering >500 US hospitals. An FO cohort included adult intensive care unit (ICU patients with a central line receiving IV loop diuretics and 2+ continuous IV infusions on 50%+ of their ICU days; a directly matched non-FO cohort included patients without IV diuretic use. The primary outcome of the study was total hospitalization costs per visit. Additional outcomes were ICU costs, mortality, total and ICU length of stay (LOS, 30-day readmission rates, and ventilator use. Unadjusted descriptive analysis was performed using chi-squared or paired t-tests to compare outcomes between the two cohorts. Results: A total of 63,974 patients were identified in each cohort. The total hospitalization cost per visit for the FO cohort was US$15,344 higher than the non-FO cohort (US$42,386 vs US$27,042, and the ICU cost for the FO cohort was US$5,243 higher than the non-FO cohort (US$10,902 vs US$5,659. FO patients had higher mortality (20% vs 16.8%, prolonged LOS (11.5 vs 8.0 days, longer ICU LOS (6.2 vs 3.6 days, higher risk of 30-day readmission (21.8% vs 21.3%, and ventilator usage (47.7% vs 28.3% than the non-FO cohort (all P<0.05. Conclusion: In patients receiving multiple continuous infusions, FO is associated with increased health care resources and costs. Maximally concentrating medications and proactively providing continuous medications in small-volume infusions (SVI could be a potential solution to prevent iatrogenic FO in critically ill patients. Further prospective research is warranted to assess the impact of the SVI dispensing model on patient outcomes and health care costs. Keywords: intensive care unit, conservative fluid management, hospital cost, length of stay

Child DL

2014-12-01

351

Talking about health care: news framing of who is responsible for rising health care costs in the United States.  

Science.gov (United States)

This content analysis examines how the American news media have presented the problem of high and rising health care costs, looking particularly at the question of who is responsible. More specifically, the authors examine how often the media have discussed the 5 major causes of the problem: (a) patients, (b) health care providers, (c) insurance companies, (d) the government, and (e) pharmaceutical companies. Results revealed that patients were most often mentioned as the cause of increasing health care costs. The authors also found that the media's attribution of responsibility to patients has increased over the years. Overall, media coverage of rising health care costs peaked in 1993, 2004, and 2009, suggesting that coverage was influenced by newsworthy events (e.g., the president endorsing legislation or signing a bill into law) that draw the public's attention. PMID:25116304

Kim, Sei-Hill; Tanner, Andrea H; Foster, Caroline B; Kim, Soo Yun

2015-02-01

352

Calculation of radioactive nuclei generation and radiation characteristics of various units of space NPS with the program complex KAMOD  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One describes briefly the CAMOD software and presents some examples of its application to tackle the space nuclear power industry problems. To calculate the radiation situation in the extended shielding medium one describes the elaborated CASCADE-CAMOD-CASCADE program interface

353

WIMS-IST/DRAGON-IST side-step calculation of reactivity device and structural material incremental cross sections for Wolsong NPP Unit 1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes the calculation of two-group incremental cross sections for all of the reactivity devices and incore structural materials for an RFSP-IST full-core model of Wolsong NPP Unit 1, in support of the conversion of the reference plant model to two energy groups. This is of particular interest since the calculation used the new standard 'side-step' approach, which is a three-dimensional supercell method that employs the Industry Standard Toolset (IST) codes DRAGON-IST and WIMS-IST with the ENDF/B-VI nuclear data library. In this technique, the macroscopic cross sections for the fuel regions and the device material specifications are first generated using the lattice code WIMS-IST with 89 energy groups. DRAGON-IST then uses this data with a standard supercell modelling approach for the three-dimensional calculations. Incremental cross sections are calculated for the stainless-steel adjuster rods (SS-ADJ), the liquid zone control units (LZCU), the shutoff rods (SOR), the mechanical control absorbers (MCA) and various structural materials, such as guide tubes, springs, locators, brackets, adjuster cables and support bars and the moderator inlet nozzle deflectors. Isotopic compositions of the Zircaloy-2, stainless steel and Inconel X-750 alloys in these items are derived from Wolsong NPP Unit 1 history dockets. Their geometrical layouts are based on applicable design drawings. Mid-burnup fuel with no moderator poison was assumed. The incremental cross sectio was assumed. The incremental cross sections and key aspects of the modelling are summarized in this paper. (author)

354

Vibrational models for a crystal with 36 water molecules in the unit cell: IR spectra from experiment and calculation.  

Science.gov (United States)

We present experimental and calculated IR spectra of the water molecules in crystalline aluminium nitrate nonahydrate and a method to generate a realistic and well resolved isotope-isolated spectrum from periodic DFT calculations. Our sample crystal contains 18 structurally different OH groups and is a perfect benchmark compound to validate vibrational models and the structure-property relationship of bound water molecules. FTIR spectra (ATR technique) were recorded for the Al(NO3)3·9H2O crystal at 138 and 298 K, and due to a multitude of OH contributions and couplings, they are naturally poorly resolved and yield a broad OH band in the range 3500 to 2700 cm(-1) at both temperatures. Isotope-isolated IR spectra have the clear advantage over non-deuterated spectra that they are better resolved and easier to interpret - here we have extended the experimental study by simulating the isotope-isolated IR spectrum, using PBE-D2 and auxiliary B3LYP calculations and an anharmonic OH vibrational model. We find excellent agreement between the shapes and frequency ranges of the experimental and calculated OH spectral bands. We make use of four different vibrational models: (i) a harmonic lattice-dynamical model for the isotope-isolated crystal with 1 H among 71 D, (ii) a harmonic lattice-dynamical model for the normal undeuterated crystal involving all the vibrational couplings, (iii) a harmonic 1-dimensional uncoupled OH vibrational model, and (iv) the anharmonic variant of the previous model, which yields the final spectrum. We also use the individual frequencies, resolved by the calculations, to quantify new or extended relationships involving OH frequencies versus local electric fields and H-bond distances. We explore the correlation between OH frequency and molecular dipole moment for bound water molecules. PMID:25805117

Mitev, Pavlin D; Eriksson, Anders; Boily, Jean-François; Hermansson, Kersti

2015-04-01

355

Integrating the Carbon and Water Footprints’ Costs in the Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC Full Water Cost Recovery Concept: Basic Principles Towards Their Reliable Calculation and Socially Just Allocation  

OpenAIRE

This paper presents the basic principles for the integration of the water and carbon footprints cost into the resource and environmental costs respectively, taking the suggestions set by the Water Framework Directive (WFD) 2000/60/EC one step forward. WFD states that full water cost recovery (FWCR) should be based on the estimation of the three sub-costs related: direct; environmental; and resource cost. It also strongly suggests the EU Member States develop and apply effective water pricing ...

Anastasia Papadopoulou; Stavroula Tsitsifli; Vasilis Kanakoudis

2012-01-01

356

An evaluation of cost estimates of nuclear power reactor decommissioning in Sweden, Germany and the United States  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Nominal base decommissioning cost estimates in Sweden, Germany and the US differ by large amounts. Even after adjustments to normalize the work scopes, significant cost differences remain. Variations in national cost structures, achievable productivity, the extent of preexisting infrastructure and institutional factors all contribute to make up the differences. Exchange rate aberrations are a complication for which appropriate adjustments have to be made in order to achieve a meaningful comparison. Our analyses demonstrate that virtually all these differences between the Swedish, German and US estimates can be explained by these factors. In terms of the overall reasonableness of the Swedish estimate as a basis for making financial provisions, there remain some issues that may warrant further investigation. One is the potential for and financial consequences of a serious interruption to the proposed sea transportation system. Secondly, the limited number of individual system analyses we have performed indicated some significant potential underestimates. For example, dismantling of the reactor pressure vessel costs appear to be underestimated by up to 70 MSEK (about 10 MUSD) per reactor, or up to 900 MSEK for the whole Swedish program of 12 reactors. Overall, the Swedish estimates appear to be built up in a logical and reasonable way. Our analyses indicate that some internal inconsistencies exist and that some specific input data assumptions may not be valid. In summary, the credibility of the estimates would benefit from further refinement of the scenarios and assumptions. 21 refs., 15 figs., 42 tabs.

Andersson, S.O.; Varley, G.; Heibel, R.; Rusch, C. [NAC International, Zurich (Switzerland)

1995-11-01

357

Food Assistance: Financial Information on WIC Nutrition Services and Administrative Costs. United States General Accounting Office Report to Congressional Committees.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) is a federally funded nutrition assistance program administered by the Department of Agriculture's (USDA) Food and Nutrition Service (FNS). Responding to Congressional requests for information regarding program costs, this report provides information on: (1) funding…

Robertson, Robert E.

358

GEOCITY: a computer model for systems analysis of geothermal district heating and cooling costs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

GEOCITY is a computer-simulation model developed to study the economics of district heating/cooling using geothermal energy. GEOCITY calculates the cost of district heating/cooling based on climate, population, resource characteristics, and financing conditions. The basis for our geothermal-energy cost analysis is the unit cost of energy which will recover all the costs of production. The calculation of the unit cost of energy is based on life-cycle costing and discounted-cash-flow analysis. A wide variation can be expected in the range of potential geothermal district heating and cooling costs. The range of costs is determined by the characteristics of the resource, the characteristics of the demand, and the distance separating the resource and the demand. GEOCITY is a useful tool for estimating costs for each of the main parts of the production process and for determining the sensitivity of these costs to several significant parameters under a consistent set of assumptions.

Fassbender, L.L.; Bloomster, C.H.

1981-06-01

359

A 3D superposition pencil beam dose calculation algorithm for a 60Co therapy unit and its verification by MC simulation  

Science.gov (United States)

The MCNP Monte Carlo code was used to simulate the collimating system of the 60Co therapy unit to calculate the primary and scattered photon fluences as well as the electron contamination incident to the isocentric plane as the functions of the irradiation field size. Furthermore, a Monte Carlo simulation for the polyenergetic Pencil Beam Kernels (PBKs) generation was performed using the calculated photon and electron spectra. The PBK was analytically fitted to speed up the dose calculation using the convolution technique in the homogeneous media. The quality of the PBK fit was verified by comparing the calculated and simulated 60Co broad beam profiles and depth dose curves in a homogeneous water medium. The inhomogeneity correction coefficients were derived from the PBK simulation of an inhomogeneous slab phantom consisting of various materials. The inhomogeneity calculation model is based on the changes in the PBK radial displacement and on the change of the forward and backward electron scattering. The inhomogeneity correction is derived from the electron density values gained from a complete 3D CT array and considers different electron densities through which the pencil beam is propagated as well as the electron density values located between the interaction point and the point of dose deposition. Important aspects and details of the algorithm implementation are also described in this study.

Koncek, O.; Krivonoska, J.

2014-11-01

360

Comparison of stratospheric air parcel trajectories calculated from SSU and LIMS satellite data. [Stratospheric Sounding Unit/Limb Infrared Monitor of Stratosphere  

Science.gov (United States)

Midstratospheric trajectories for February and March 1979 are calculated using geopotential analyses derived from limb infrared monitor of the stratosphere data. These trajectories are compared with the corresponding results using stratospheric sounding unit data. The trajectories are quasi-isentropic in that a radiation scheme is used to simply cross-isentrope flow. The results show that in disturbed conditions, quantitative agreement the trajectories, that is, within 25 great circle degrees (GCD) (one GCD about 110 km) may be valid for only 3 or 4 days, whereas during quiescent periods, quantitative agreement may last up to 10 days. By comparing trajectories calculated with different data some insight can be gained as to errors due to vertical resolution and horizontal resolution (due to infrequent sampling) in the analyzed geopotential height fields. For the disturbed trajectories described in this paper the horizontal resolution of the data was more important than vertical resolution; however, for the quiescent trajectories, which could be calculated accurately for a longer duration because of the absence of appreciable transients, the vertical resolution of the data was found to be more important than the horizontal resolution. It is speculated that these characteristics are also applicable to trajectories calculated during disturbed and quiescent periods in general. A review of some recently published trajectories shows that the qualitative conclusions of such works remains unaffected when the calculations are repeated using different data.

Austin, J.

1986-01-01

361

Calculation and analysis of environmental costs of the atmospheric pollution from brazilian oil refinery; Calculo e analise dos custos ambientais da poluicao atmosferica emitida por uma refinaria de petroleo brasileira  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present study presents a calculation of the environmental costs associated with the atmospheric pollution from a brazilian oil refinery and its analysis (the name of this oil refinery is confidential, for this reason it will not be mentioned). The calculation of the costs was based on a study of north-american researchers, about the environmental costs of five main atmospheric pollutants: particulate matter, sulphur oxides, nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds (VOC's) and carbon monoxide. The original American study offers an statistical analysis of several other American studies about environmental costs of atmospheric pollution, that present maximum, medium and minimum costs. Based on these values, the total environmental costs of the atmospheric pollution from the brazilian oil refinery were calculated, considering a fifty year operational time for the facility. The internalization of the atmospheric pollution environmental costs by the refiners is aligned with the world tendency of enforcement of the environmental limitations faced by the oil refining sector, and therefore, the adoption of a pro-active attitude is recommended by the present study. (author)

Mariano, Jacqueline [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Programa de Planejamento Energetico

2004-07-01

362

Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations Project: Unit evaluation at Yucca Mountain, Nevada Test Site: Near-field thermal and mechanical calculations using the SANDIA-ADINA code  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Presented in this report are the results of a comparative study of two candidate horizons, the welded, devitrified Topopah Spring Member ofthe Paintbrush Tuff, and the nonwelded, zeolitized Tuffaceous Beds of Calico Hills. The mechanical and thermomechanical response these two horizons was assessed by conducting thermal and thermomechanical calculations using a two-dimensional room and pillar geometry of the vertical waste emplacement option using average and limit properties for each. A modified version of the computer code ADINA (SANDIA-ADINA) containing a material model for rock masses with ubiquitous jointing was used in the calculations. Results of the calculations are presented as the units' capacity for storage of nuclear waste and stability of the emplacement room and pillar due to excavation and long-term heating. A comparison is made with a similar underground opening geometry sited in Grouse Canyon Tuff, using properties obtained from G-Tunnel - a horizon of known excavation characteristics. Long-term stability of the excavated rooms was predicted for all units, as determined by evaluating regions of predicted joint slip as the result of excavation and subsequent thermal loading, evaluating regions of predicted rock matrix failure as the result of excavation and subsequent thermal loading, and evaluating safety factors against rock matrix failure. These results were derived through considering a wide range in material properties and in situ stresses. 21 refal properties and in situ stresses. 21 refs., 21 figs., 5 tabs

363

The Japanese Labor Market in a Comparative Perspective with the United States. A Transaction-Cost Interpretation.  

Science.gov (United States)

A comparison is made of some of the notable features of the Japanese and U.S. labor markets. In Japan, as compared to the United States, for example, levels of employment tenure are higher, employer-employee attachment stronger, earnings-tenure profiles more steeply sloped, layoffs and dismissals much less frequent, and joint consultation and…

Hashimoto, Masanori

364

The use of the transition cost accounting system in health services research  

OpenAIRE

Abstract The Transition cost accounting system integrates clinical, resource utilization, and financial information and is currently being used by several hospitals in Canada and the United States to calculate the costs of patient care. Our objectives were to review the use of hospital-based cost accounting systems to measure costs of treatment and discuss potential use of the Transition cost accounting system in health services research. Such systems provide internal reports to administrator...

Pilote Louise; Caron Joanna; Filion Kristian B; Doris Nadine M; Azoulay Arik; Eisenberg Mark J

2007-01-01

365

Efficient linear-scaling quantum transport calculations on graphics processing units and applications on electron transport in graphene  

CERN Document Server

We implement, optimize, and validate the linear-scaling Kubo-Greenwood quantum transport simulation on graphics processing units by examining resonant scattering in graphene. We consider two practical representations of the Kubo-Greenwood formula: a Green-Kubo formula based on the velocity auto-correlation and an Einstein formula based on the mean square displacement. The code is fully implemented on graphics processing units with a speedup factor of up to 16 (using double-precision) relative to our CPU implementation. We compare the kernel polynomial method and the Fourier transform method for the approximation of the Dirac delta function and conclude that the former is more efficient. In the ballistic regime, the Einstein formula can produce the correct quantized conductance of one-dimensional graphene nanoribbons except for an overshoot near the band edges. In the diffusive regime, the Green-Kubo and the Einstein formalisms are demonstrated to be equivalent. A comparison of the length-dependence of the con...

Fan, Zheyong; Siro, Topi; Harju, Ari

2013-01-01

366

Role of lignin in reducing life-cycle carbon emissions, water use, and cost for United States cellulosic biofuels.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cellulosic ethanol can achieve estimated greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reductions greater than 80% relative to gasoline, largely as a result of the combustion of lignin for process heat and electricity in biorefineries. Most studies assume lignin is combusted onsite, but exporting lignin to be cofired at coal power plants has the potential to substantially reduce biorefinery capital costs. We assess the life-cycle GHG emissions, water use, and capital costs associated with four representative biorefinery test cases. Each case is evaluated in the context of a U.S. national scenario in which corn stover, wheat straw, and Miscanthus are converted to 1.4 EJ (60 billion liters) of ethanol annually. Life-cycle GHG emissions range from 4.7 to 61 g CO2e/MJ of ethanol (compared with ? 95 g CO2e/MJ of gasoline), depending on biorefinery configurations and marginal electricity sources. Exporting lignin can achieve GHG emission reductions comparable to onsite combustion in some cases, reduce life-cycle water consumption by up to 40%, and reduce combined heat and power-related capital costs by up to 63%. However, nearly 50% of current U.S. coal-fired power generating capacity is expected to be retired by 2050, which will limit the capacity for lignin cofiring and may double transportation distances between biorefineries and coal power plants. PMID:24988448

Scown, Corinne D; Gokhale, Amit A; Willems, Paul A; Horvath, Arpad; McKone, Thomas E

2014-08-01

367

Low cost solar array project production process and equipment task: A Module Experimental Process System Development Unit (MEPSDU)  

Science.gov (United States)

Several major modifications were made to the design presented at the PDR. The frame was deleted in favor of a "frameless" design which will provide a substantially improved cell packing factor. Potential shaded cell damage resulting from operation into a short circuit can be eliminated by a change in the cell series/parallel electrical interconnect configuration. The baseline process sequence defined for the MEPSON was refined and equipment design and specification work was completed. SAMICS cost analysis work accelerated, format A's were prepared and computer simulations completed. Design work on the automated cell interconnect station was focused on bond technique selection experiments.

1981-01-01

368

Costs and benefits or irradiation and other selected quarantine treatments for fruit and vegetable imports to the United States of America  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For plants and plant products considered potential conveyors of exotic pests, fumigation using methyl bromide (MB) is the principal method of import quarantine treatment approved in the United States of America. This and other uses of MB have come into question due to evidence that MB may contribute to ozone depletion in the upper atmosphere. The paper examines the economics costs and benefits of irradiation as an alternative import quarantine treatment to MB fumigation. Costs associated with temperature based methods that are used to treat certain US fruit and vegetable imports, namely, hot water immersion and cold treatment, are also examined. Considerable research on irradiation as a quarantine treatment has focused on determining appropriate dosage levels to ensure phytosanitary protection. Along with evaluating its technical efficacy, the relative costs of irradiation are central to assessing its potential as a treatment alternative. Analysis of selected fruits and vegetables in US markets indicates irradiation is an economically feasible alternative to MB fumigation. Irradiation as an import quarantine treatment can generate net US gains from trade with countries where exotic pests present a phytosanitary risk. These gains range from US $650 million to US $1100 million over the five year period analysed. (author). 8 refs, 5 figs, 6 tabs

369

Simulation analysis of Shadow Factor and unit cost in the booster mirror arrangement for a solar panel  

OpenAIRE

A simulation and experimental study was attempted to increase the power output from a 75 W mono and multi crystalline solar panel using V Trough solar concentrators, thus estimating its ideal concentration ratio for domestic applications in the absence of automatic tracking. The net radiation falling on the panel due to reflection from concentrators and the shading caused by the reflectors was simulated using TRACE PRO and PV Syst Software, calculating the net power output, losses and output ...

Nivas.V; Saravanan.R

2013-01-01

370

NNWSI unit evaluation at Yucca Mountain, Nevada Test Site: Near field mechanical calculations using a continuum jointed rock moel in the JAC code  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) Project, managed by the Nevada Operations Office of the US Department of Energy, is examining the feasibility of siting a repository for high level nuclear wastes at Yucca Mountain on and adjacent to the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The work reported herein was done to support the selection, on a technical basis, of a single target repository horizon upon which to concentrate future activities. Presented in this report are the results of a comparative study between two candidate horizons: the devitrified Topopah Spring member of the Paintbrush Tuff and the nonwelded, zeolitized Tuffaceous Beds of Calico Hills. Performance of a repository sited in each candidate horizon was assessed by conducting structural calculations using a two-dimensional room-and-pillar geometry and average and limit material properties. The computer code JAC, with a constitutive model for jointed rock masses, was used to make the calculations. Based on analyses of the confining pressures in the pillar and the joint movement near the room, it is concluded that the Topopah Spring unit is more suitable than the Calico Hills unit for the placement of a nuclear waste repository. Finally, a comparison is made with a similar mine geometry sited in the Grouse Canyon Tuff, a horizon of known performance characteristics, using properties from G-Tunnel at NTS

371

Data Qualification Report: Calculated Porosity and Porosity-Derived Values for Lithostratigraphic Units for use on the Yucca Mountain Project  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The qualification is being completed in accordance with the Data Qualification Plan DQP-NBS-GS-000006, Rev. 00 (CRWMS M&O 2001). The purpose of this data qualification activity is to evaluate for qualification the unqualified developed input and porosity output included in Data Tracking Number (DTN) M09910POROCALC.000. The main output of the analyses documented in DTN M09910POROCALC.000 is the calculated total porosity and effective porosity for 40 Yucca Mountain Project boreholes. The porosity data are used as input to Analysis Model Report (AMR) 10040, ''Rock Properties Model'' (MDL-NBS-GS-000004, Rev. 00), Interim Change Notice [ICN] 02 (CRWMS M&O 2000b). The output from the rock properties model is used as input to numerical physical-process modeling within the context of a relationship developed in the AMR between hydraulic conductivity, bound water and zeolitic zones for use in the unsaturated zone model. In accordance with procedure AP-3.15Q, the porosity output is not used in the direct calculation of Principal Factors for post-closure safety or disruptive events. The original source for DTN M09910POROCALC.000 is a Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) Management and Operating Contractor (M&O) report, ''Combined Porosity from Geophysical Logs'' (CRWMS M&O 1999a and hereafter referred to as Rael 1999). That report recalculated porosity results for both the historical boreholes covered in Nelson (1996), and the modern boreholes reported in CRWMS M&O (1996a,b). The porosity computations in Rael (1999) are based on density-porosity mathematical relationships requiring various input parameters, including bulk density, matrix density and air and/or fluid density and volumetric water content. The main output is computed total porosity and effective porosity reported on a foot-by-foot basis for each borehole, although volumetric water content is derived from neutron data as an interim output. This qualification report uses technical assessment and corroboration to evaluate the original subject DTN. Rael (1999) provides many technical details of the technical assessment and corroboration methods and partially satisfies the intent of the qualification plan for this analysis. Rael presents a modified method based on Nelson (1996) to recompute porosity and porosity-derived values and uses some of the same inputs. Rael's (1999) intended purpose was to document porosity output relatively free of biases introduced by differing computational methods or parameter selections used for different boreholes. The qualification report necessarily evaluates the soundness of the pre-Process Validation and Re-engineering (PVAR) analyses and methodology, as reported in Rael (1999).

P. Sanchez

2001-05-30

372

Data Qualification Report: Calculated Porosity and Porosity-Derived Values for Lithostratigraphic Units for use on the Yucca Mountain Project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The qualification is being completed in accordance with the Data Qualification Plan DQP-NBS-GS-000006, Rev. 00 (CRWMS M and O 2001). The purpose of this data qualification activity is to evaluate for qualification the unqualified developed input and porosity output included in Data Tracking Number (DTN) M09910POROCALC.000. The main output of the analyses documented in DTN M09910POROCALC.000 is the calculated total porosity and effective porosity for 40 Yucca Mountain Project boreholes. The porosity data are used as input to Analysis Model Report (AMR) 10040, ''Rock Properties Model'' (MDL-NBS-GS-000004, Rev. 00), Interim Change Notice [ICN] 02 (CRWMS M and O 2000b). The output from the rock properties model is used as input to numerical physical-process modeling within the context of a relationship developed in the AMR between hydraulic conductivity, bound water and zeolitic zones for use in the unsaturated zone model. In accordance with procedure AP-3.15Q, the porosity output is not used in the direct calculation of Principal Factors for post-closure safety or disruptive events. The original source for DTN M09910POROCALC.000 is a Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) Management and Operating Contractor (M and O) report, ''Combined Porosity from Geophysical Logs'' (CRWMS M and O 1999a and hereafter referred to as Rael 1999). That report recalculated porosity results for both the historical boreholes covered in Nelson (1996), and the modern boreholes reported in CRWMS M and O (1996a,b). The porosity computations in Rael (1999) are based on density-porosity mathematical relationships requiring various input parameters, including bulk density, matrix density and air and/or fluid density and volumetric water content. The main output is computed total porosity and effective porosity reported on a foot-by-foot basis for each borehole, although volumetric water content is derived from neutron data as an interim output. This qualification report uses technical assessment and corroboration to evaluate the original subject DTN. Rael (1999) provides many technical details of the technical assessment and corroboration methods and partially satisfies the intent of the qualification plan for this analysis. Rael presents a modified method based on Nelson (1996) to recompute porosity and porosity-derived values and uses some of the same inputs. Rael's (1999) intended purpose was to document porosity output relatively free of biases introduced by differing computational methods or parameter selections used for different boreholes. The qualification report necessarily evaluates the soundness of the pre-Process Validation and Re-engineering (PVAR) analyses and methodology, as reported in Rael (1999)

373

CHARACTERIZING COSTS, SAVINGS AND BENEFITS OF A SELECTION OF ENERGY EFFICIENT EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES IN THE UNITED STATES  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Implementation and adoption of efficient end-use technologies have proven to be one of the key measures for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions throughout the industries. In many cases, implementing energy efficiency measures is among one of the most cost effective investments that the industry could make in improving efficiency and productivity while reducing CO2 emissions. Over the years, there have been incentives to use resources and energy in a cleaner and more efficient way to create industries that are sustainable and more productive. With the working of energy programs and policies on GHG inventory and regulation, understanding and managing the costs associated with mitigation measures for GHG reductions is very important for the industry and policy makers around the world. Successful implementation of emerging technologies not only can help advance productivities and competitiveness but also can play a significant role in mitigation efforts by saving energy. Providing evaluation and estimation of the costs and energy savings potential of emerging technologies is the focus of our work in this project. The overall goal of the project is to identify and select emerging and under-utilized energy-efficient technologies and practices as they are important to reduce energy consumption in industry while maintaining economic growth. This report contains the results from performing Task 2"Technology evaluation" for the project titled"Research Opportunities in Emerging and Under-Utilized Energy-Efficient Industrial Technologies," which was sponsored by California Energy Commission and managed by CIEE. The project purpose is to analyze market status, market potential, and economic viability of selected technologies applicable to the U.S. In this report, LBNL first performed re-assessments of all of the 33 emerging energy-efficient industrial technologies, including re-evaluation of the 26 technologies that were previously identified by Martin et al. (2000) and their potential significance to energy use in the industries, and new evaluation of additional seven technologies. The re-assessments were essentially updated with recent information that we searched and collected from literature to the extent possible. The progress of selected technologies as they diffused into the marketplace from 2000 to 2010 was then discussed in this report. The report also includes updated detailed characterizations of 15 technologies studied in 2000, with comparisons noted.

Xu, T.; Slaa, J.W.; Sathaye, J.

2010-12-15

374

Density functional study of intramolecular ferromagnetic interaction through m-phenylene coupling unit (I): UBLYP, UB3LYP, and UHF calculations  

Science.gov (United States)

Polyradicals comprised of m-phenylene-bridged organic radicals are well known as building blocks of organic ferromagnets, in which radical groups are connected with each other at the meta position in the benzene ring, and the parallel-spin configurations between radical sites are more stabilized than the antiparallel ones. Topological rules for spin alignments enable us to design organic high-spin dendrimers and polymers with the ferromagnetic ground states by linking various radical species through an m-phenylene unit. However, no systematic ab initio treatment of such spin dendrimers and magnetic polymers has been reported until now, though experimental studies on these materials have been performed extensively in the past ten years. As a first step to examine the possibilities of ferromagnetic dendrimers and polymers constructed of m-phenylene units with organic radicals, we report density functional and molecular orbital calculations of six m-phenylene biradical units with radical substituents and polycarbenes linked with an m-phenylene-type network. The relative stability between the spin states and spin density population are estimated by BLYP or B3LYP and Hartree-Fock calculations in order to clarify their utility for constructions of large spin denderimers and periodic magnetic polymers, which are final targets in this series of papers. It is shown that neutral polyradicals with an m-phenylene bridge are predicted as high-spin ground-state molecules by the computations, while m-phenylene-bridged ion-radical species formed by doping may have the low-spin ground states if zwitterionic configurations play significant roles to stabilize low-spin states. Ab initio computations also show an important role of conformations of polyradicals for stabilization of their high-spin states. The computational results are applied to molecular design of high-spin dendrimers and polymers. Implications of them are also discussed in relation to recent experimental results for high-spin organic molecules.

Mitani, Masaki; Mori, Hiroki; Takano, Yu; Yamaki, Daisuke; Yoshioka, Yasunori; Yamaguchi, Kizashi

2000-09-01

375

Cost Comparisons  

Science.gov (United States)

Students learn about the many types of expenses associated with building a bridge. Working like engineers, they estimate the cost for materials for a bridge member of varying sizes. After making calculations, they graph their results to compare how costs change depending on the use of different materials (steel vs. concrete). They conclude by creating a proposal for a city bridge design based on their findings.

Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

376

A practical sequence and inhomogeneity correction method for use in blocked equivalent square calculations in consideration of reducing the discrepancy rates for 3d planning monitor unit checks  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: In 3D planning checks the BEQS (Blocked Equivalent Square) calculation is sometimes the most challenging part of the work, as geometric size estimation does not always reflect real tissue volume involved in a 3D treatment field. This is especially so for the tangent field with obliquity. This study attempts to develop a practical method in order to more easily handle the estimation for BEQS in 3D clinical planning checks to reduce the discrepancy caused by a simple geometric BEQS estimation. A combined BEQS estimation procedure involving Geometric + Inhomogeneity + Irregular Skin Surface correction is presented. This procedure is sequentially managed by an in-house developed software as: A blocked field shape (MLC or shielding blocks) is loaded from planning system export or directly drawn in the screen picture box by user; Clarkson calculation or Irregular Rectangular Shape estimation can be performed as an option by selecting the functions to receive the geometric BEQS for the shape; Inhomogeneity Correction for the tissues involved at the level of the beam weight point depth; Irregular Skin Surface correction is then processed for the surface level of the beam entry point. The BEQS calculated by this procedure sometimes shows a very different result compared with the BEQS simply calculated by geometric estimation, especially for the tangent beam entry fields or the field involved with significant inhomogeneity tissues. The different result causes differessues. The different result causes different TPR and Sp values to be selected in the planning monitor unit check. In comparison, by using this BEQS correcting sequence, the planning check result discrepancy could be reduced on average by 1.5% - 2.0% for the tangent beam entry fields such as breast or head and neck cases. The BEQS calculation in 3D planning is not a simple geometric size estimation but is an integration, voxel by voxel, for inhomogeneity tissues distributed in the field volume. If these corrections are incorporated into 3D monitor unit checking, then there will be reduction in discrepancy between simple geometric estimation methods and the method presented by this study. Copyright (2004) Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine

377

CEEH's calculation of health costs from air pollution in the Danish Climate Commission's forecast; CEEH's beregning af sundhedsomkostninger (helbredsomkostninger) fra luftforurening i Klimakommissionens fremtidsforloeb. CEEH videnskabelig rapport no. 10  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Centre for Energy, Environment and Health (CEEH) has created a model system to assess the costs due to health effects from air pollution. This report assesses the health effects from the Danish Climate Commission's scenarios and is an example of how the system can be used. Calculations have been made of the health costs caused by energy consumption and production in the Danish Climate Commission's forecasts. The costs of emissions from various sectors differ, as they have different effects on health. The report shows how important it is to address health costs when evaluating and comparing the total costs in various scenarios. If health costs are included in the socio-economic assessments of the climate commission, then the annual cost decreases with approx. 2 billion DKK. To this it should be mentioned that in addition to health effects, there are other externalities (such as effects on the environment and climate) that are not normally included in the socio-economic assessments, which means that the socio-economic costs of switching to cleaner sources of energy is often overestimated. Possible effects of reduced traffic noise by converting to electric vehicles and increased exposure to wind turbine noise is also omitted, although the noise impact of dwellings especially in the cities is believed to have significance for morbidity and thus the socio-economy. (LN).

Karlsson, K.; Ystanes Foeyn, T.H.; Gregg, J.S.; Kaspersen, P.S. (Danmarks Tekniske Univ. Risoe Nationallaboratoriet for Baeredygtig Energi, Roskilde (Denmark)); Brandt, J.; Frohn, L.M. (Aarhus Univ. Institut for Miljoevidenskab, Aarhus (Denmark)); Mathiesen, B.V. (Aalborg Univ., Aalborg (Denmark))

2011-11-15

378

Management of sacroiliac joint disruption and degenerative sacroiliitis with nonoperative care is medical resource-intensive and costly in a United States commercial payer population  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Stacey J Ackerman,1 David W Polly Jr,2 Tyler Knight,3 Tim Holt,4 John Cummings5 1Covance Market Access Services Inc, San Diego, CA, USA; 2University of Minnesota, Orthopaedic Surgery, Minneapolis, MN, USA; 3Covance Market Access Services Inc, Gaithersburg, MD, USA; 4Montgomery Spine Center, Orthopaedic Surgery, Montgomery, AL, USA; 5Community Health Network, Neurosurgery, Indianapolis, IN, USA Introduction: Low back pain is common and originates in the sacroiliac (SI joint in 15%–30% of cases. Traditional SI joint disruption/degenerative sacroiliitis treatments include nonoperative care or open SI joint fusion. To evaluate the usefulness of newly developed minimally-invasive technologies, the costs of traditional treatments must be better understood. We assessed the costs of nonoperative care for SI joint disruption to commercial payers in the United States (US. Methods: A retrospective study of claim-level medical resource use and associated costs used the MarketScan® Commercial Claims and Encounters as well as Medicare Supplemental Databases of Truven Healthcare. Patients with a primary ICD-9-CM diagnosis code for SI joint disruption (720.2, 724.6, 739.4, 846.9, or 847.3, an initial date of diagnosis from January 1, 2005 to December 31, 2007 (index date, and continuous enrollment for ?1 year before and 3 years after the index date were included. Claims attributable to SI joint disruption with a primary or secondary ICD-9-CM diagnosis code of 71x.xx, 72x.xx, 73x.xx, or 84x.xx were identified; the 3-year medical resource use-associated reimbursement and outpatient pain medication costs (measured in 2011 US dollars were tabulated across practice settings. A subgroup analysis was performed among patients with lumbar spinal fusion. Results: The mean 3-year direct, attributable medical costs were $16,196 (standard deviation [SD] $28,592 per privately-insured patient (N=78,533. Among patients with lumbar spinal fusion (N=434, attributable 3-year mean costs were $91,720 (SD $75,502 per patient compared to $15,776 (SD $27,542 per patient among patients without lumbar spinal fusion (N=78,099. Overall, inpatient hospitalizations (19.4%, hospital outpatient visits and procedures (14.0%, and outpatient pain medications (9.6% accounted for the largest proportion of costs. The estimated 3-year insurance payments attributable to SI joint disruption were $1.6 billion per 100,000 commercial payer beneficiaries. Conclusion: The economic burden of SI joint disruption among privately-insured patients in the US is substantial, highlighting the need for more cost-effective therapies. Keywords: cost, epidural injection, lumbar spinal fusion surgery

Ackerman SJ

2014-02-01

379

2011 Cost of Wind Energy Review  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report describes the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) for a typical land-based wind turbine installed in the United States in 2011, as well as the modeled LCOE for a fixed-bottom offshore wind turbine installed in the United States in 2011. Each of the four major components of the LCOE equation are explained in detail, such as installed capital cost, annual energy production, annual operating expenses, and financing, and including sensitivity ranges that show how each component can affect LCOE. These LCOE calculations are used for planning and other purposes by the U.S. Department of Energy's Wind Program.

Tegen, S.; Lantz, E.; Hand, M.; Maples, B.; Smith, A.; Schwabe, P.

2013-03-01

380

Advances and Challenges for Adoption of Activity Based Costing (ABC by Public Sector: A Comparative Study of Brazil, Colombia, Uruguay and United States  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article aims to evaluate the advances and challenges to the adoption of the activity based costing system (ABC by the public sector of countries like Colombia, Uruguay and Brazil, always keeping a comparative perspective with the historical experience of the United States. Considering the growing demand of citizens-users of public services in terms of quality, accountability and transparency, and also the convergence of international accounting and management practices, such as convergence on IPSAS by the public sector and the adoption of IFRS in the private sector, encouraged by economic globalization, the study in comparative perspective between different experiences  become relevant to public sector organizations, in order to inspire public policies in that direction. The results found by the present research reinforces the conclusions of previous papers (Nunes 1995, IFAC 2000, 2002, 2003, Duarte Martins Mauss and Souza 2008, reaffirming the relevance of the ABC system information for the decision-making process also in the public sector.

Luís Paulo F Carmo

2012-01-01

381

The cost of muscle power production: muscle oxygen consumption per unit work increases at low temperatures in Xenopus laevis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Metabolic energy (ATP) supply to muscle is essential to support activity and behaviour. It is expected, therefore, that there is strong selection to maximise muscle power output for a given rate of ATP use. However, the viscosity and stiffness of muscle increases with a decrease in temperature, which means that more ATP may be required to achieve a given work output. Here, we tested the hypothesis that ATP use increases at lower temperatures for a given power output in Xenopus laevis. To account for temperature variation at different time scales, we considered the interaction between acclimation for 4 weeks (to 15 or 25°C) and acute exposure to these temperatures. Cold-acclimated frogs had greater sprint speed at 15°C than warm-acclimated animals. However, acclimation temperature did not affect isolated gastrocnemius muscle biomechanics. Isolated muscle produced greater tetanus force, and faster isometric force generation and relaxation, and generated more work loop power at 25°C than at 15°C acute test temperature. Oxygen consumption of isolated muscle at rest did not change with test temperature, but oxygen consumption while muscle was performing work was significantly higher at 15°C than at 25°C, regardless of acclimation conditions. Muscle therefore consumed significantly more oxygen at 15°C for a given work output than at 25°C, and plastic responses did not modify this thermodynamic effect. The metabolic cost of muscle performance and activity therefore increased with a decrease in temperature. To maintain activity across a range of temperature, animals must increase ATP production or face an allocation trade-off at lower temperatures. Our data demonstrate the potential energetic benefits of warming up muscle before activity, which is seen in diverse groups of animals such as bees, which warm flight muscle before take-off, and humans performing warm ups before exercise. PMID:24625645

Seebacher, Frank; Tallis, Jason A; James, Rob S

2014-06-01

382

Cost of nuclear power generation judged by power rate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

According to estimation guidance, power rates in general are the proper cost plus the specific compensation and adjustment addition. However, the current system of power rates is of power-source development promotion type involving its tax. The structure of power rate determination must be restudied now especially in connection of nuclear power generation. The cost of nuclear power generation as viewed from power rate is discussed as follows: the fear of military application of power plants, rising plant construction costs, the loophole in fuel cost calculation, unreasonable unit power cost, depreciation and repair cost, business compensation, undue business compensation in nuclear power, the costs of nuclear waste management, doubt concerning nuclear power cost, personnel, pumping-up and power transmission costs in nuclear power, energy balance analysis, nuclear power viewed in entropy, the suppression of power consumption. (J.P.N.)

383

Comparison of the ESTRO formalism for monitor unit calculation with a Clarkson based algorithm of a treatment planning system and a traditional ''full-scatter'' methodology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ESTRO formalism for monitor unit (MU) calculations was evaluated and implemented to replace a previous methodology based on dosimetric data measured in a full-scatter phantom. This traditional method relies on data normalised at the depth of dose maximum (zm), as well as on the utilisation of the BJR 25 table for the conversion of rectangular fields into equivalent square fields. The treatment planning system (TPS) was subsequently updated to reflect the new beam data normalised at a depth zR of 10 cm. Comparisons were then carried out between the ESTRO formalism, the Clarkson-based dose calculation algorithm on the TPS (with beam data normalised at zm and zR), and the traditional ''full-scatter'' methodology. All methodologies, except for the ''full-scatter'' methodology, separated head-scatter from phantom-scatter effects and none of the methodologies; except for the ESTRO formalism, utilised wedge depth dose information for calculations. The accuracy of MU calculations was verified against measurements in a homogeneous phantom for square and rectangular open and wedged fields, as well as blocked open and wedged fields, at 5, 10, and 20 cm depths, under fixed SSD and isocentric geometries for 6 and 10 MV. Overall, the ESTRO Formalism showed the most accurate performance, with the root mean square (RMS) error with respect to measurements remaining below 1% even for the most complex beam set-ups investigated. The RMS errlex beam set-ups investigated. The RMS error for the TPS deteriorated with the introduction of a wedge, with a worse RMS error for the beam data normalised at zm (4% at 6 MV and 1.6% at 10 MV) than at zR (1.9% at 6 MV and 1.1% at 10 MV). The further addition of blocking had only a marginal impact on the accuracy of this methodology. The ''full-scatter'' methodology showed a loss in accuracy for calculations involving either wedges or blocking, and performed worst for blocked wedged fields (RMS errors of 7.1% at 6 MV and 5% at 10 MV). The origins of these discrepancies were quantified and the shortcomings of these MU calculation methodologies are discussed in the paper. (orig.)

384

Replacement Energy Cost Analysis Package (RECAP): User's guide. Revision 1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A microcomputer program called the Replacement Energy Cost Analysis Package (RECAP) has been developed to assist the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in determining the replacement energy costs associated with short-term shutdowns or deratings of one or more nuclear reactors. The calculations are based on the seasonal, unit-specific cost estimates for 1993--1996 previously published in NRC Report NUREG/CR--4012, Vol. 3 (1992), for all 112 US reactors. Because the RECAP program is menu-driven, the user can define specific case studies in terms of such parameters as the units to be included, the length and timing of the shutdown or derating period, the unit capacity factors, and the reference year for reporting cost results. In addition to simultaneous shutdown cases, more complicated situations, such as overlapping shutdown periods or shutdowns that occur in different years, can be examined through the use of a present-worth calculation option

385

Calculation of a 900 MW conceptual 700/720ºC coal-fired power unit with an auxiliary extraction-backpressure turbine  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents the calculations for different configurations of a 900 MW power unit for advanced 700/720°C ultra-supercritical steam parameters with a single and double steam reheat. The use of such high parameters, especially the reheated steam temperature, involves thermodynamic and material problems related to high temperature differences in the feed water heaters. In relation to this, a concept of the modification of the feed water heaters system by using an auxiliary extraction-backpressure turbine fed with steam from the cold reheat steam line is presented. The steam from the bleeds and the turbine outlet is directed to regenerative heaters fed in the classical system from the intermediate pressure turbine, which reduces the temperature differences in these exchangers and simplifies the main turbine IP part structure.

Katarzyna St?pczy?ska

2012-01-01

386

The use of the transition cost accounting system in health services research.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Transition cost accounting system integrates clinical, resource utilization, and financial information and is currently being used by several hospitals in Canada and the United States to calculate the costs of patient care. Our objectives were to review the use of hospital-based cost accounting systems to measure costs of treatment and discuss potential use of the Transition cost accounting system in health services research. Such systems provide internal reports to administrators for formulating major policies and strategic plans for future activities. Our review suggests that the Transition cost accounting information system may useful for estimating in-hospital costs of treatment. PMID:17686148

Azoulay, Arik; Doris, Nadine M; Filion, Kristian B; Caron, Joanna; Pilote, Louise; Eisenberg, Mark J

2007-01-01

387

Computerized cost model for pressurized water reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A computerized cost model has been developed in order to allow utility users to improve their familiarity with pressurized water reactor overnight capital costs and the various factors which influence them. This model organizes its cost data in the standard format of the Energy Economic Data Base (EEDB), and encapsulates simplified relationships between physical plant design information and capital cost information in a computer code. Model calculations are initiated from a base case, which was established using traditional cost calculation techniques. The user enters a set of plant design parameters, selected to allow consideration of plant models throughout the typical three- and four-loop PWR power range, and for plant sites in Japan, Europe, and the United States. Calculation of the new capital cost is then performed in a very brief time. The presentation of the program's output allows comparison of various cases with each other or with separately calculated baseline data. The user can start at a high level summary, and by selecting values of interest on a display grid show progressively more and more detailed information, including links to background information such as individual cost driver accounts and physical plant variables for each case. Graphical presentation of the comparison summaries is provided, and the numerical results may be exported to a spreadsheet for further processing. (author)

388

The model for the calculation of the dispersed iron ore resource purchase cost in the world class manufacturing (WCM logistics pillar context  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the blast-furnace production, raw materials may account for approx. 50 % of the pig-iron manufacture costs. Therefore, any, even small, saving in the sphere of raw material purchasing will translate into the reduction in the cost of the pig-iron manufacture. The selection of appropriate supply sources and the associated raw material quality influencing the economic viability of the charge blend constitutes a multi-faceted optimization task. The paper presents a modified model for production cost estimation at the moment of making raw material purchasing, which is possible to be used in the logistics pillar of the WCM concept.

M. Dudek

2014-10-01

389

Calculation of economic viability of alternative energy sources considering its environmental costs for small communities of Northeast Brazil; Calculo de viabilidade economica de fontes alternativas de energia considerando seus custos ambientais para pequenas comuidades da regiao nordeste brasileira  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

There has been an increasing concern about current environmental issues caused by human activity, as the world searches for development. The production of electricity is an extremely relevant factor in this scenario since it is responsible for a large portion of the emissions that cause the greenhouse effect. Due to this fact, a sustainable development with alternative energy sources, which are attractive for such purpose, must be proposed, especially in places that are not supplied by the conventional electricity grid such as many communities in the Northeast Brazil. This work aims to calculate the environmental cost for the alternative sources of energy - solar, wind and biomass - during electricity generation, and to estimate the economic feasibility of those sources in small communities of Northeast Brazil, considering the avoided costs. The externalities must be properly identified and valued so the costs or benefits can be internalized and reflect accurately the economic feasibility or infeasibility of those sources. For this, the method of avoided costs was adopted for the calculation of externalities. This variable was included in the equation developed for all considered alternative energy sources. The calculations of economic feasibility were performed taking the new configurations in consideration, and the new equation was reprogrammed in the Programa de Calculo de Custos de Energias Alternativas, Solar, Eolica e Biomassa (PEASEB). The results demonstrated that the solar photovoltaic energy in isolated systems is the most feasible and broadly applicable source for small communities of Northeast Brazil. (author)

Stecher, Luiza Chourkalo

2014-09-01

390

Integrating the Carbon and Water Footprints’ Costs in the Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC Full Water Cost Recovery Concept: Basic Principles Towards Their Reliable Calculation and Socially Just Allocation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents the basic principles for the integration of the water and carbon footprints cost into the resource and environmental costs respectively, taking the suggestions set by the Water Framework Directive (WFD 2000/60/EC one step forward. WFD states that full water cost recovery (FWCR should be based on the estimation of the three sub-costs related: direct; environmental; and resource cost. It also strongly suggests the EU Member States develop and apply effective water pricing policies to achieve FWCR. These policies must be socially just to avoid any social injustice phenomena. This is a very delicate task to handle, especially within the fragile economic conditions that the EU is facing today. Water losses play a crucial role for the FWC estimation. Water losses should not be neglected since they are one of the major “water uses” in any water supply network. A methodology is suggested to reduce water losses and the related Non Revenue Water (NRW index. An Expert Decision Support System is proposed to assess the FWC incorporating the Water and Carbon Footprint costs.

Anastasia Papadopoulou

2012-01-01

391

User manual for PACTOLUS: a code for computing power costs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

PACTOLUS is a computer code for calculating the cost of generating electricity. Through appropriate definition of the input data, PACTOLUS can calculate the cost of generating electricity from a wide variety of power plants, including nuclear, fossil, geothermal, solar, and other types of advanced energy systems. The purpose of PACTOLUS is to develop cash flows and calculate the unit busbar power cost (mills/kWh) over the entire life of a power plant. The cash flow information is calculated by two principal models: the Fuel Model and the Discounted Cash Flow Model. The Fuel Model is an engineering cost model which calculates the cash flow for the fuel cycle costs over the project lifetime based on input data defining the fuel material requirements, the unit costs of fuel materials and processes, the process lead and lag times, and the schedule of the capacity factor for the plant. For nuclear plants, the Fuel Model calculates the cash flow for the entire nuclear fuel cycle. For fossil plants, the Fuel Model calculates the cash flow for the fossil fuel purchases. The Discounted Cash Flow Model combines the fuel costs generated by the Fuel Model with input data on the capital costs, capital structure, licensing time, construction time, rates of return on capital, tax rates, operating costs, and depreciation method of the plant to calculate the cash flow for the entire lifetime of the project. The financial and tax structure for both investor-owned utilities and municipal utilities can be simulated through varying the rates of return on equity and debt, the debt-equity ratios, and tax rates. The Discounted Cash Flow Model uses the principal that the present worth of the revenues will be equal to the present worth of the expenses including the return on investment over the economic life of the project. This manual explains how to prepare the input data, execute cases, and interpret the output results with the updated version of PACTOLUS. 11 figures, 2 tables

392

EURISOL-DS multi-MW target unit: Neutronics performance and shielding assessment, dose rate and material activation calculations for the MAFF configuration  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One of the objectives of the EURISOL (EURopean Isotope Separation On-Line Radioactive Ion Beam) Design Study consisted of providing a safe and reliable facility layout and design for the following operational parameters and characteristics: (a) a 4 MW proton beam of 1 GeV energy impinging on a mercury target (the converter); (b) high neutron fluxes (?3 x 1016 neutrons/s) generated by spallation reactions of the protons impinging in the converter and (c) fission rate on fissile 235U targets in excess of 1015 fissions/s. In this work, the state-of-the-art Monte Carlo codes MCNPX () and FLUKA (; ) were used to characterize the neutronics performance and to perform the shielding assessment (; ) of the EURISOL Target Unit and to provide estimations of dose rate and activation of different components, in view of the radiation safety assessment of the facility. Dosimetry and activation calculations were performed for the different components, regions and systems of the Target Unit. The detailed description of the geometry and constituent materials were implemented and the time evolution of the dose rate and activity for the different components was performed, both during operation and after shutdown of the proton beam. The results obtained indicate that the very high activation of the structural materials in some components will require a detailed study and comparison of the behavior of different materials, namely their remaining activity srials, namely their remaining activity several years after beam shutdown. The very high dose rates assessed in the computational studies performed and reported in this work, also impose stringent requirements in the radiological protection and radiation safety issues associated to the operation and maintenance of the EURISOL facility.

393

Nano Calculators  

OpenAIRE

The whole circuit is obtained from the sun through a molecule called "Rhodopsin and bacteriorhodopsin". These molecules have the capability of trapping and storing energy from the sun light. These molecules are placed on the outer surface of the calculator to trap the energy and store it themselves for latter usage. The thickness of the whole circuit measures less than 300nm.The top layer is made up of layer which will show the different keys and a display unit. "Molecules a...

Venkatesh Kumaran, P.

2007-01-01

394

Contractor-style tunnel cost estimating  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Keeping pace with recent advances in construction technology is a challenge for the cost estimating engineer. Using an estimating style that simulates the actual construction process and is similar in style to the contractor's estimate will give a realistic view of underground construction costs. For a contractor-style estimate, a mining method is chosen; labor crews, plant and equipment are selected, and advance rates are calculated for the various phases of work which are used to determine the length of time necessary to complete each phase of work. The durations are multiplied by the cost or labor and equipment per unit of time and, along with the costs for materials and supplies, combine to complete the estimate. Variations in advance rates, ground support, labor crew size, or other areas are more easily analyzed for their overall effect on the cost and schedule of a project. 14 figs