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Adaptation of activity-based-costing (ABC) to calculate unit costs in Mental Health Care in Spain  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: To date, numerous cost-of-illness studies have been using methodologies that don't provide trustworthy results for decision making in mental health care. Objectives: The aims of this paper are design and implement a cost methodology by process of patient's care to calculate unit costs in mental health in Spain in 2005 and compare the results with the reached ones by traditional methods. Methods: We adapted Activity-Based-Costing to this field analyzing the organizational and manag...

Karen Moreno

2007-01-01

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Cost Analysis in Hospitals and Calculation of Unit Costs in Medical Rehabilitation Services  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to demonstrate that actual cost values of medical rehabilitation services and cost functions could be estimated by using cost analysis in a physical and rehabilitation medicine (PMR clinic of a third-level hospital. This, in turn, could guide the hospital administrators in their financial planning, performance audit, and quality development issues.Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective study which was conducted by investigating and evaluating the medical, administrative, financial, and technical data. The true population of the study consisted of medical rehabilitation services provided in a PMR clinic of a third-level hospital in 2010. Since sampling was not done, all treatment sessions of outpatients and inpatients done in the PMR unit were included in the study. Results: After analysis, the cost for an outpatient was found to be 72.02 TL, for an inpatient 7.825.54 TL, for patient day 221.05 TL and for a PMR session 49.38 TL. These values were higher than the values paid to medical care providers by the Social Security Institution. Conclusion: Reimbursement institutions need to take cost analysis data into consideration when determining the rates of repayment for medical care providers. Turk J Phys Med Re­hab 2012;58:103-8.

?smail A??rba?

2012-06-01

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Adaptation of activity-based-costing (ABC to calculate unit costs in Mental Health Care in Spain  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: To date, numerous cost-of-illness studies have been using methodologies that don't provide trustworthy results for decision making in mental health care. Objectives: The aims of this paper are design and implement a cost methodology by process of patient's care to calculate unit costs in mental health in Spain in 2005 and compare the results with the reached ones by traditional methods. Methods: We adapted Activity-Based-Costing to this field analyzing the organizational and management structure of Mental Health's public services in a region of Spain, Navarre, describing the processes of care to patient in each resource and calculating their cost. Results: We implemented this methodology in all resources and obtained unit cost per service. There are great differences between our results and the ones calculated by traditional systems. We display one example of these disparities contrasting our cost with the reached one by the methodology of Diagnostic Related Group (DRG. Conclusions: This cost methodology offers more advantages for management than traditional methods provide.

Karen Moreno

2007-06-01

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Adaptation of activity-based-costing (ABC) to calculate unit costs in Mental Health Care in Spain  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: English Abstract in english Background: To date, numerous cost-of-illness studies have been using methodologies that don't provide trustworthy results for decision making in mental health care. Objectives: The aims of this paper are design and implement a cost methodology by process of patient's care to calculate unit costs in [...] mental health in Spain in 2005 and compare the results with the reached ones by traditional methods. Methods: We adapted Activity-Based-Costing to this field analyzing the organizational and management structure of Mental Health's public services in a region of Spain, Navarre, describing the processes of care to patient in each resource and calculating their cost. Results: We implemented this methodology in all resources and obtained unit cost per service. There are great differences between our results and the ones calculated by traditional systems. We display one example of these disparities contrasting our cost with the reached one by the methodology of Diagnostic Related Group (DRG). Conclusions: This cost methodology offers more advantages for management than traditional methods provide.

Moreno, Karen.

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The Transmission Line Cost Calculation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this thesis was to develop calculation models for the WICE-ME which is used for budgeting installation costs of different size high voltage lines. The examined voltage ranges were 72.5 kV, 145 kV, 245 kV and 400 kV.

Yli-hannuksela, Juho

2011-01-01

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Genetic algorithm based Different Re-dispatching Scheduling of Generator Units for Calculating Short Run Marginal Cost in Deregulated Environment  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Proper pricing of active power is an important issue in deregulated power environment. This paper presents a flexible formulation for determining short run marginal cost of synchronous generators using genetic algorithm based different re-dispatching scheduling considering economic load dispatch as well as optimized loss condition. By integrating genetic algorithm based solution, problem formulation became easier. The solution obtained from this methodology is quite encouraging and useful in ...

Roy, Priyanka; A, Chakrabarti

2012-01-01

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Forest management units through cost  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Costs minimizing and profit maximizing make the costs adjustment seems to be a vital necessity when the activity developed within the company does not assure the maintenance and stability of the necessary relation between consuming factors and costs. In such circumstances, approaching differing sides of the production cost and improving the methods of calculation has much significance in determining the most appropriate measures necessary for its adjustment and for profit increasing. The whole informational process of costs – formation, control and analysis of costs – involves a careful use the methodological concepts known under the name of classical methods and modern or complementary methods, as well as of other proceedings. Such methods and proceedings cannot be applied separately, only conjugated and integrated in a unitary methodological system, each of these methods and proceedings participating at achieving one or more objectives. Only by their unitary action they can fulfill all the system objective.

Cristina Tenovici

2010-12-01

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Applying Activity Based Costing (ABC) Method to Calculate Cost Price in Hospital and Remedy Services  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Activity Based Costing (ABC) is one of the new methods began appearing as a costing methodology in the 1990. It calculates cost price by determining the usage of resources. In this study, ABC method was used for calculating cost price of remedial services in hospitals.Methods: To apply ABC method, Shahid Faghihi Hospital was selected. First, hospital units were divided into three main departments: administrative, diagnostic, and hospitalized. Second, activity centers were defined ...

Rajabi, A.; Dabiri, A.

2012-01-01

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REVIEW OF METHODOLOGIES FOR COSTS CALCULATING OF RUMINANTS IN SLOVAKIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this work was to synthesise and analyse the methodologies and the biological aspects of the costs calculation in ruminants in Slovakia. According to literature, the account classification of cost items is most often considered for construction of costing formula. The costs are mostly divided into fixed (costs independent from volume of herd’s production and variable ones (costs connected with improvement of breeding conditions. Cost for feeds and beddings, labour costs, other direct costs and depreciations were found as the most important cost items in ruminants. It can be assumed that including the depreciations into costs of the basic herd takes into consideration the real costs simultaneously invested into raising of young animals in the given period. Costs are calculated for the unit of the main and by-products and their classification is influenced mainly by the type of livestock and production system. In dairy cows is usually milk defined as the main product, and by- products are live born calf and manure. The base calculation unit is kilogram of milk (basic herd of cows and kilogram of gain and kilogram of live weight (young breeding cattle. In suckler cows is a live-born calf the main product and manure is the by-product. The costs are mostly calculated per suckler cow, live-born calf and per kilogram of live weight of weaned calf. Similar division of products into main and by-products is also in cost calculation for sheep categories. The difference is that clotted cheese is also considered as the main product of basic herd in dairy sheep and greasy wool as the by-products in all categories. Definition of the base calculation units in sheep categories followed the mentioned classification. The value of a by-product in cattle and sheep is usually set according to its quantity and intra- plant price of the by-product. In the calculation of the costs for sheep and cattle the “structural ewe” and “structural cow” proportionally integrate the costs of other categories of the herd into the costs of the basic herd. Subtraction, allocation and combined calculation methods of costs are the most used in breeding of ruminants. It is recommended to consider specific breeding conditions and objective calculation of costs for the relevant category, when picking out the method of calculation.

Zuzana KRUPOVÁ

2012-09-01

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Computer Program Development for House Cost Calculation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The main purpose of this project was to develop a program, which can calculate the cost of houses. This program should accelerate a matching process between a company and users. Also the program should contain a database of building materials.

Korablev, Maxim

2010-01-01

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Applying Activity Based Costing (ABC Method to Calculate Cost Price in Hospital and Remedy Services  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Activity Based Costing (ABC is one of the new methods began appearing as a costing methodology in the 1990. It calculates cost price by determining the usage of resources. In this study, ABC method was used for calculating cost price of remedial services in hospitals.Methods: To apply ABC method, Shahid Faghihi Hospital was selected. First, hospital units were divided into three main departments: administrative, diagnostic, and hospitalized. Second, activity centers were defined by the activity analysis method. Third, costs of administrative activity centers were allocated into diagnostic and operational departments based on the cost driver. Finally, with regard to the usage of cost objectives from services of activity centers, the cost price of medical services was calculated.Results: The cost price from ABC method significantly differs from tariff method. In addition, high amount of indirect costs in the hospital indicates that capacities of resources are not used properly.Conclusion: Cost price of remedial services with tariff method is not properly calculated when compared with ABC method. ABC calculates cost price by applying suitable mechanisms but tariff method is based on the fixed price. In addition, ABC represents useful information about the amount and combination of cost price services.

A Dabiri

2012-04-01

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Road Transport Congestion Costs Calculations-Adaptation to Engineering Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article represents so called ?engineering? approach for computing the total road transport congestion costs. According to economic welfare theory, the total costs of transport congestion are defined as dead weight loss (DWL of infrastructure use. With a set of equations DWL could be formulated in a mathematical way. Because such form of equation is not directly applicable for concrete road network calculations it should be transformed into ?engineering? form, which comprises transport engineering related data as classified road links, traffic volumes, passenger unit costs, etc. The equation is well applicable on the interurban road network; adaptations are needed for the urban road network cost calculations, where time losses are not so much related to the link travel time. The final equation was derived for the purposes of national road congestion cost calculation.

Marjan Lep

2008-01-01

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Decommissioning Work-unit Productivity Calculation System  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The KRR-1 and 2 (Korea Research Reactor 1 and 2) and UCP (Uranium Conversion Plant), both are nuclear facilities at KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute), were decommissioned. During the decommissioning activities, all information and data, which generated from the decommissioning project, were record, input and managed at the DECOMMIS (DECOMMissioning Information management System). This system was developed for the inputting and management of the data and information of the man-power consumption, operation time of the dismantling equipment, the activities of the radiation control, dismantled waste management and Q/A activities. And it was also for the help of the understanding of the public peoples on the safety and management of the decommissioning work and radioactive waste control from the decommissioning site. When a decommissioning is planed for a nuclear facility, an investigation into the characterization of the nuclear facility is first required. The results of such an investigation are used for calculating the quantities of dismantled waste and estimating the cost of the decommissioning project. That is why, the DEFACS (DEcommissioning FAcility Characterization DB System), which was established for the management of the facility characterization data. The DEWOCS (DEcommissioning WOrk-unit productivity Calculation System) was developing of the workability on the decommissioning activities. The unit- work productivities are calculated through this system using the data from the two systems, DECOMMIS and DEFACS. This result, the factors of the decommissioning work-unit productivities, will be useful for the other nuclear facility decommissioning planning and engineering. And also, for the total system, DES (Decommissioning Engineering System), which is now developing for the decommissioning design and plan

Park, S. K.; Cho, W. H.; Park, J. H.; Moon, J. K. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

2011-05-15

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Processor Units Reduce Satellite Construction Costs  

Science.gov (United States)

As part of the effort to build the Fast Affordable Science and Technology Satellite (FASTSAT), Marshall Space Flight Center developed a low-cost telemetry unit which is used to facilitate communication between a satellite and its receiving station. Huntsville, Alabama-based Orbital Telemetry Inc. has licensed the NASA technology and is offering to install the cost-cutting units on commercial satellites.

2014-01-01

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Optimising Join Cost Weights For Unit Selection Speech Synthesis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Unit selection synthesis predominates today, but is not yet of a quality to rival natural speech. Unit selection can be inconsistent in quality and one of the causes are the joins. Earlier research suggested joins are perceived differently according to category. We investigated whether synthesis was perceived as more natural if join costs were calculated with reference to phonetic category. The join cost in the Festival multisyn synthesis system was extended beyond purely acoustic measure...

Woodcock, Steve

2008-01-01

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COMPUTER PROGRAM FOR CALCULATING THE COST OF DRINKING WATER TREATMENT SYSTEMS  

Science.gov (United States)

This FORTRAN computer program calculates the construction and operation/maintenance costs for 45 centralized unit treatment processes for water supply. The calculated costs are based on various design parameters and raw water quality. These cost data are applicable to small size ...

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Unit Commitment With Dynamic Cycling Costs  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Increased competition in the electricity sector and the integration of variable renewable energy sources is resulting in more frequent cycling of thermal plant. Thus, the wear-and-tear to generator components and the related costs are a growing concern for plant owners and system operators alike. This paper presents a formulation that can be implemented in a MIP dispatch model to dynamically model cycling costs based on unit operation. When implemented for a test system, the results show that...

Troy, Niamh; Flynn, Damian; Milligan, Michael R.; et al.

2012-01-01

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Unit Costs for Lunar-Derived Propellants  

Science.gov (United States)

The estimated propellant production cost per metric ton will be derived and presented for solar system transportation waypoints. Background on recent and ongoing space resource propellant supply models will be presented, with a review of architectural assumptions, costs and expected markets. Integrated economic and engineering models (Duke et al., 2003; Duke, Blair and Diaz, 2002; Lamassoure et al. 2003; and Blair et al., 2002) estimate production costs, expected productivity of the mining and processing system, reusable transportation element behavior, fuel depot activity and revenues based on projected market conditions. Results of these economic models are used to derive total and marginal unit costs for propellant at fuel depot facilities for the purpose of facilitating the commercial development of space and to aid program and logistic planning for human space exploration missions.

Blair, Brad R.

2004-02-01

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Calculating cost savings in utilization management.  

Science.gov (United States)

A major motivation for managing the utilization of laboratory testing is to reduce the cost of medical care. For this reason it is important to understand the basic principles of cost accounting in the clinical laboratory. The process of laboratory testing includes three distinct components termed the pre-analytic, analytic and post-analytic phases. Utilization management efforts may impact the cost structure of these three phases in different ways depending on the specific details of the initiative. Estimates of cost savings resulting from utilization management programs reported in the literature have often been fundamentally flawed due to a failure to understand basic concepts such as the difference between laboratory costs versus charges and the impact of reducing laboratory test volumes on the average versus marginal cost structure in the laboratory. This article will provide an overview of basic cost accounting principles in the clinical laboratory including both job order and process cost accounting. Specific examples will be presented to illustrate these concepts in various different scenarios. PMID:24084505

MacMillan, Donna

2014-01-01

20

Heat Deposit Calculation in Spallation Unit  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study concerns the calculation of the heat deposition in one of the EAP-80 basic units - the spallation module including the beam window, lead-bismuth spallation target and primary liquid metal cooling system. It is assumed that the model of sub-critical reactor under investigation is based on ANSALDO-INFN-ENEA-CRS4 reference configuration1. The calculation have been done by means of a couple computer codes: INCC 2 and GEANT3.21 3. These codes have been preliminary tested on the experimental data obtained in 4 for the case of interaction of proton beam and lead-bismuth targets at the energy Ep= 800MeV which is close to energy range relevant for ADS configuration.

Karmanov, F. I.; Travleev, A. A.; Latysheva, L. N.; Vecchi, M.

2001-11-01

 
 
 
 
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Recursive Delay Calculation Unit for Parametric Beamformer  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper presents a recursive approach for parametric delay calculations for a beamformer. The suggested calculation procedure is capable of calculating the delays for any image line defined by an origin and arbitrary direction. It involves only add and shift operations making it suitable for hardware implementation. One delaycalculation unit (DCU) needs 4 parameters, and all operations can be implemented using fixed-point arithmetics. An N -channel system needs N + 1 DCUs per line - one for the distance from the transmit origin to the image point and N for the distances from the image point to each of the receivers. Each DCU recursively calculates the square of the distance between a transducer element and a point on the beamformed line. Then it finds the approximate square root. The distance to point i is used as an initial guess for point i + 1. Using fixed-point calculations with 36-bit precision gives an error in the delay calculations on the order of 1/64 samples, at a sampling frequency of f s = 40 MHz. The circuit has been synthesized for a Virtex II Pro device speed grade 6 in two versions - a pipelined and a non-pipelined producing 150 and 30 million delays per second, respectively. The non-pipelined circuit occupies about 0.5 % of the FPGA resources and the pipelined one about 1 %. When the square root is found with a pipelined CORDIC processor, 2 % of the FPGA slices are used to deliver 150 million delays per second. © (2006) COPYRIGHT SPIE--The International Society for Optical Engineering.

Nikolov, Svetoslav; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

2006-01-01

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Nothing's Free: Calculating the Cost of Volunteers  

Science.gov (United States)

Most school district administrators recognize the benefits of using parent and community volunteers, including improved school-community relations. But volunteers are not cost free. At their best, volunteers can be a valuable resource for schools and districts. At their worst, volunteers can consume already limited resources. However, their use…

Ingle, W. Kyle

2010-01-01

23

Fundamentals for cost calculations of X-ray equipment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Economic implications of running an X-ray departement in Switzerland will be illustrated by comparing operating costs of private radiological institutes with and without CT to the operating costs of large radiological departments in hospitals with and without CT and to the operating costs of simple X-ray equipment in general practicioners' offices. - These costs calculations form the basis for cost-benefit analyses. (orig.)

1985-06-01

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Inbound Logistics Cost and CO2 Calculations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Business has globalized rapidly during the last decades. Distances between point of origin and point of consumption have increased as a result of globalization. Today’s increased distances mean that companies require faster logistic responses. Air transportation is preferred because it’s worldwide lead-time, of just 1-2 day, fulfill business expectations. However, transportation operation costs have risen dramatically and there are growing concerns about the high CO2 emission levels assoc...

Ko?kler, Cihan

2010-01-01

25

COSTING OF QUALITY IN BUSINESS BASE UNIT SEVERAL PRODUCTIONS, CIENFUEGOS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The calculation of quality costs as a component of the System of Quality Management, is a must for Cuban business managers, to provide a technique identified as an advanced instrument of management, which will lead to improved competitiveness and serve as an informative source. Identify and calculate the costs of quality, as well as propose measured plans, to promote a decrease in operating expenses, which can be used as a tool to improve processes. The Business Unit of Several Base Productions of Cienfuegos presents the fault to give way to Business Improvement and certification of its Quality Management System, according to the norm ISO 9001:2008 and the decree law 281, so that the objective research was to estimate the costs of quality processes in the company. To achieve this level were used empirical methods and techniques such as direct observation, document review and work in groups, which allowed to calculate the costs of quality in all processes. The results obtained are applicable to companies that operate in the Cuban economy and according to the Cuban economic model implemented from the year 2011.

Gómez Alfonso, Elizabeth

2013-01-01

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THEORETICAL AND PRACTICAL CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING THE COST CALCULATION USING DIRECT COSTING  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The definition of the cost of production as applied to inventories refers to the acquisition and production cost, and its determination involves many considerations. This article emphasizes a comparative approach of the calculation of production cost under direct costing and absorption costing, and examines the impact of using these calculation systems on the financial performance of the companies presented in the income statement.

Cristina Aurora, Bunea-Bonta?

2012-01-01

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Composite Cost Function Based Solution to the Unit Commitment Problem  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper presents a new approach via composite cost function to solve the unit commitment problem. The unit com-mitment problem involves determining the start-up and shut-down schedules for generating units to meet the fore-casted demand at the minimum cost. The commitment schedule must satisfy the other constraints such as the generating limits, spinning reserve, minimum up and down time, ramp level and individual units. The proposed algorithm gives the committed units and economic load di...

Srikrishna Subramanian; Radhakrishnan Anandhakumar

2010-01-01

28

Fusion reactor design studies: standard unit costs and cost scaling rules  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report establishes standard unit costs and scaling rules for estimating costs of material, equipment, land, and labor components used in magnetic confinement fusion reactor plant construction and operation. Use of the standard unit costs and scaling rules will add uniformity to cost estimates, and thus allow valid comparison of the economic characteristics of various reactor concepts

1979-01-01

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Analyis on influence factors of unit cost of coal mining  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Based on historical cost data of China's key state-owned coal mines, a study was made of the unit cost of coal mining and its components. This study revealed that in China the unit cost of coal mining has risen during the last few decades. The causes are various, such as policy of operation, pricing variation, labor cost, etc. 3 refs., 5 figs.

Zhang, A.; Xu, J. [Heilongjiang Institute of Science and Technology, Harbin (China)

2007-02-15

30

Economic analysis of the cost of Intensive Care Units  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The cost of Intensive Care Units has the greatest impact on overall medical costs and the overall cost for the health of a country and an increasing number of studies from around the world presenting the quantification of these costs. Aim: Review of the Economic Analysis of the Cost of Intensive Care Units. Method: Search was made in the SCOPUS, MEDLINE and CINAHL databases using the key-words “Intensive Care Units (ICU”, “Cost”, “Cost Analysis”, “Health Care Costs”, “Health Resources”, “ICU resources”. The study was based on articles published in English from 2000 to 2011 investigating the Economic Analysis of the Cost of Intensive Care Units. Results: The cost of ICU is a significant percentage of gross domestic product in developed countries. Most cost analysis studies that relate to plans that include the study of staff costs, duration of stay in the ICU, the clinical situations of hospitalized patients, engineering support, medications and diagnostic tests costing scales and in relation to the diagnostic criteria. Conclusions: most studies conclude that the remuneration of staff, particularly nurses, in the ICU is the largest cost of ICU, while for the duration of stay in the ICU results are conflicting. The analysis on the cost-effectiveness of ICU can help to better apply these findings to the therapeutic context of ICU.

Mazetas D.

2014-04-01

31

Unit decontamination and dismantlement (D ampersand D) costs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A series of relationships have been developed for estimating unit decontamination and dismantlement (D ampersand D) costs for a number of building types which may be applied in the absence of other data to obtain rough order-of-magnitude (ROM) cost estimates for D ampersand D activities. The relationships were developed using unit D ampersand D costs for a number of building structure types at the Department of Energy Fernald site. These unit costs into account the level of radioactive contamination as well as the, building size

1996-02-25

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Use of a database for calculating nuclear power plant decommissioning costs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A description is given of a computer code for computing the decommissioning costs of nuclear power plants. The code was written in the dBase IV language. Input data is information on the equipment of the decommissioned power plant and on the costs of decommissioning procedures. Output data include total costs, numbers of workers and devices needed, the collective doses to be expected, the quantity and the contamination of waste, the quantity of necessary materials, and the duration of the decommissioning work. The method of unit decommissioning cost factors was used for the calculation. (author) 1 tab., 5 refs

1992-01-01

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Cost-benefit of computed tomography application in dosimetry calculations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The cost-benefit analysis of CT-assisted radiation therapy treatment planning is incomplete at the moment. In fact, there are those who argue that the analysis will never be completed and cite the failure to obtain comparable data relative to previous technical innovations, e.g., megavoltage radiation (especially very high energy photon beam machines), computerized treatment planning units, and simulators

1983-01-01

34

Is cost coverage accounting suitable for the power price calculation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Recently opinions have been put forward that utilities should use cost coverage accounting for the calculation of their special contract power prices. Various VDEW committees are analysing this question from the viewpoint of various sectors. The related problems of applied economics were investigated in detail by the workstudy group 'Cost Accounting', which came to the conclusion that cost coverage accounting is fundamentally unsuitable for structuring the power price. At the most it can be used in price evaluation in special, limited circumstances.

1987-08-31

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Global Hawk: Root Cause Analysis of Projected Unit Cost Growth.  

Science.gov (United States)

In May 2007, Office of the Principal Deputy Under Secretary of Defense (Acquisition, Technology and Logistics) asked the Director, Performance Assessments and Root Cause Analyses (PARCA) to perform a root cause analysis of anticipated unit cost growth in ...

J. N. Fox P. F. Bronson P. M. Kodzwa

2011-01-01

36

Cost calculations for decommissioning and dismantling of nuclear research facilities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Today, it is recommended that planning of decommission should form an integral part of the activities over the life cycle of a nuclear facility (planning, building and operation), but it was only in the nineteen seventies that the waste issue really surface. Actually, the IAEA guidelines on decommissioning have been issued as recently as over the last ten years, and international advice on finance of decommissioning is even younger. No general international guideline on cost calculations exists at present. This implies that cost calculations cannot be performed with any accuracy or credibility without a relatively detailed consideration of the radiological prerequisites. Consequently, any cost estimates based mainly on the particulars of the building structures and installations are likely to be gross underestimations. The present study has come about on initiative by the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI) and is based on a common need in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. The content of the report may be briefly summarised as follows. The background covers design and operation prerequisites as well as an overview of the various nuclear research facilities in the four participating countries: Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. The purpose of the work has been to identify, compile and exchange information on facilities and on methodologies for cost calculation with the aim of achieving an 80 % level of confidence. The scope has been as follows: 1) to establish a Nordic network 2) to compile dedicated guidance documents on radiological surveying, technical planning and financial risk identification and assessment 3) to compile and describe techniques for precise cost calculations at early stages 4) to compile plant and other relevant data A separate section is devoted in the report to good practice for the specific purpose of early but precise cost calculations for research facilities, and a separate section is devoted to techniques for assessment of cost. Examples are provided for each of the countries of relevant projects. They are as follows: 5) Research reactor DR1 in Denmark 6) The TRIGA research reactor in Finland 7) The uranium reprocessing plant in Norway 8) Research reactor R1 in Sweden The following conclusions were made: 9) IAEA and OECD/NEA documents provide invaluable advice for pertinent approaches. 10) Adequate radiological surveying is needed before precise cost calculations can be made. 11) The same can be said about technical planning including selection of techniques to be used. 12) It is proposed that separate analyses be made regarding the probabilities for conceivable features and events which could lead to significantly higher costs than expected. 13) It is expected that the need for precise cost estimates will dictate the pace of the radiological surveying and technical planning, at least in the early stages. 14) It is important that the validity structure for early cost estimates with regard to type of facility be fully appreciated. E g, the precision is usually less for research facilities. 15) The summation method is treacherous and leads to systematical underestimations in early stages unless compensation is made for the fact that not all items are included. 16) Comparison between different facilities can be made when there is access to information from plants at different stages of planning and when accommodation can be made with regard to differences in features. 17) A simple approach is presented for 'calibration' of a cost estimate against one or more completed projects. 18) Information exchange and co-operations between different plant owners is highly desirable. (au)

2008-01-01

37

Cost calculations for decommissioning and dismantling of nuclear research facilities  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Today, it is recommended that planning of decommission should form an integral part of the activities over the life cycle of a nuclear facility (planning, building and operation), but it was only in the nineteen seventies that the waste issue really surface. Actually, the IAEA guidelines on decommissioning have been issued as recently as over the last ten years, and international advice on finance of decommissioning is even younger. No general international guideline on cost calculations exists at present. This implies that cost calculations cannot be performed with any accuracy or credibility without a relatively detailed consideration of the radiological prerequisites. Consequently, any cost estimates based mainly on the particulars of the building structures and installations are likely to be gross underestimations. The present study has come about on initiative by the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI) and is based on a common need in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. The content of the report may be briefly summarised as follows. The background covers design and operation prerequisites as well as an overview of the various nuclear research facilities in the four participating countries: Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. The purpose of the work has been to identify, compile and exchange information on facilities and on methodologies for cost calculation with the aim of achieving an 80 % level of confidence. The scope has been as follows: 1) to establish a Nordic network 2) to compile dedicated guidance documents on radiological surveying, technical planning and financial risk identification and assessment 3) to compile and describe techniques for precise cost calculations at early stages 4) to compile plant and other relevant data A separate section is devoted in the report to good practice for the specific purpose of early but precise cost calculations for research facilities, and a separate section is devoted to techniques for assessment of cost. Examples are provided for each of the countries of relevant projects. They are as follows: 5) Research reactor DR1 in Denmark 6) The TRIGA research reactor in Finland 7) The uranium reprocessing plant in Norway 8) Research reactor R1 in Sweden The following conclusions were made: 9) IAEA and OECD/NEA documents provide invaluable advice for pertinent approaches. 10) Adequate radiological surveying is needed before precise cost calculations can be made. 11) The same can be said about technical planning including selection of techniques to be used. 12) It is proposed that separate analyses be made regarding the probabilities for conceivable features and events which could lead to significantly higher costs than expected. 13) It is expected that the need for precise cost estimates will dictate the pace of the radiological surveying and technical planning, at least in the early stages. 14) It is important that the validity structure for early cost estimates with regard to type of facility be fully appreciated. E g, the precision is usually less for research facilities. 15) The summation method is treacherous and leads to systematical underestimations in early stages unless compensation is made for the fact that not all items are included. 16) Comparison between different facilities can be made when there is access to information from plants at different stages of planning and when accommodation can be made with regard to differences in features. 17) A simple approach is presented for 'calibration' of a cost estimate against one or more completed projects. 18) Information exchange and co-operations between different plant owners is highly desirable. (au)

Andersson, I. (Studsvik Nuclear AB (Sweden)); Backe, S. (Institute for Energy Technology (Norway)); Cato, A.; Lindskog, S. (Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (Sweden)); Efraimsson, H. (Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (Sweden)); Iversen, Klaus (Danish Decommissioning (Denmark)); Salmenhaara, S. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland (Finland)); Sjoeblom, R. (Tekedo AB, (Sweden))

2008-07-15

38

Revised Mulliken Electronegativities I. Calculation and Conversion to Pauling Units.  

Science.gov (United States)

Discusses a revision and extension of the Mulliken electronegativity scale to consider 50 elements. Describes the calculation of valence-state promotion energies and Mulliken atomic electronegativities and the conversion of Mulliken electronegativities to Pauling units. (CW)

Bratsch, Steven G.

1988-01-01

39

Composite Cost Function Based Solution to the Unit Commitment Problem  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents a new approach via composite cost function to solve the unit commitment problem. The unit com-mitment problem involves determining the start-up and shut-down schedules for generating units to meet the fore-casted demand at the minimum cost. The commitment schedule must satisfy the other constraints such as the generating limits, spinning reserve, minimum up and down time, ramp level and individual units. The proposed algorithm gives the committed units and economic load dispatch for each specific hour of operation. Numerical simulations were carried out using three cases: four-generator, seven-generator, and ten-generator thermal unit power systems over a 24 h period. The produced schedule was compared with several other methods, such as Dynamic programming, Branch and bound, Ant colony system, and traditional Tabu search. The result demonstrated the accuracy of the proposed method.

Srikrishna Subramanian

2010-08-01

40

Unit Cost Data for the Selection of Economics Assessment Indicators  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In order to select indicators for the nuclear fuel cycle economics assessment, fuel cycle components should be defined and their unit costs should be provided. In general a fuel cycle starts from uranium ore mining and ends with geological disposal. The unit cost data surveyed in this study for the typical nuclear fuel cycle can be summarized as follows: - The existing uranium price didn't consider the recent increase of the uranium price. The uranium price exceeded $300/kgU in 2007. Therefore it would be necessary to reflect the recent uranium price change in the future study. - The unit costs of reprocessing and pyro-processing have relatively large uncertainties due to lack of commercial operation experience of these facilities. These costs should be updated either by the conceptual design study or by establishing the recycling fuel cycle. - The cost variation of recycling fuel fabrication is also relatively large. Though MOX fuels are partially used in commercial reactors, the fuel fabrication costs for a fast reactor, a high temperature gas cooled reactor and an accelerator-driven system should be updated in the future as related technologies develop. - The disposal cost of the spent fuel adopts the result of detailed design study. However the variation of the cost is relatively large depending on the country that has performed the detailed design study of the disposal facility and the commercialization of such a facility has not yet been fully implemented. Reviewing unit cost data provided by several organizations, it is judged that they are not much different from those suggested by OECD/NEA though there is a certain amount of variation. Therefore this study suggests the OECD/NEA unit cost data and structure as potential indictors for the fuel cycle economics analysis.

Choi, Hang Bok

2007-08-15

 
 
 
 
41

Future production costs of baseload units. Toekomstige produktiekosten van basislasteenheden. Opgesteld op verzoek van de AER  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Study has been made on the title subject with nuclear-, coal- or gas-based units. Two different coal-fired plants were analysed. One is a conventional coal unit in compliance with today's emission standards, the other is a cleaner but more expensive coal gasification/combined cycle (KV/STEG) plant which should be available in the year 2010. In the cost analysis three levels were used for each of the following parameters: international fuel prices, exchange rate from US-dollar to Dutch guilders, interest rate and capacity utilization. For nuclear plants investment costs were also varied. The production costs of the four options were determined for all possible combinations of parameter values. In addition to the analysis on a unit-level calculations have been made for a public power system to determine total costs and emissions. In this way it is possible to establish a relationship between restrictions on total emission of all electricity production, the chosen type of the units and the level of kWh-costs. The calculations were made for simplified power systems, in which for baseload electricity a choice was made out of a number of available, more or less clean, coal- or gas-fired baseload units or nuclear power. For non-baseload electricity three different, more or less clean, gas-fired plants could be chosen. Finally the effects of the new Dutch gas-pricing policy on the costs of baseload production have been analysed. It is now possible to get gas for electricity production for a price that will result in the same production costs for a gas- and a coal unit. For all parameter values, which determine the costs of coal-based production, the new gas price is calculated. With the parameter values used in this study the new gas price will be lower than the gas price coupled to fuel oil prices in almost every case.

Boonekamp, P.G.M.

1989-07-01

42

THE USE OF CALCULATION OF COSTS FOR ACTIVITIES TO IMPROVE COST MANAGEMENT AND PROFITABILITY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Dissatisfaction with the classical systems of managerial accounting has led to global acceptance of the ABC, as a result of the many theoretical and applied works, which had as its objective the creation of a system for calculating relevant costs, adapted to the needs of information, in the new context of production organization. Under this method, the task, allowing a new vision in the company and cut cross vision, becomes the Centre of representation and modeling of enterprise and serves as an interface between the resources consumed and cost bearers whose cost you want to measure it. In this way you get a real cost, on the basis of which the strategic decisions by removing non-creative activities and using as the basis for apportionment of costs it generates activity.

BU?AN GABRIELA

2012-11-01

43

Improvement of Cost Calculation in Constructions – Application of the Standard Cost Method  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Grace to the analysis of several commercial companies effectively performed “on the field”, we could remark the necessity to change the method of cost calculation, our motivation being related to the simplification of calculations and the reduction of the labour volume, but especially the necessity to know in due time the deviations occurred as well as the causes having led to their apparition. The importance of knowing the deviations in due time results from the very basic characteristic...

Adela Breuer; Mihaela Lesconi Frumusanu; Jeanina Ciurea; Monica Rosu

2010-01-01

44

Renewable Energy Technologies for Water Pumping: An Estimation of Unit Cost of CO2 Emissions Mitigation  

Science.gov (United States)

An attempt has been made to estimate unit cost of CO2 emissions mitigation pertaining to four renewable energy technologies for water pumping in India. The annualized costs and benefits associated with each of the technologies have been estimated and the same have been used to estimate the unit cost of CO2 emissions mitigation of these technologies. Results of some sample calculations made on the basis of available data for different commercially available sizes and designs in India have been presented. Break-even analysis for each of the renewable energy technologies to be a no regret option for CO2 emissions mitigation have also been undertaken. Unit cost of CO2 emissions is found to be the lowest for the biogas based dual fuel engine pump followed by the windmill pump.

Kumar, Atul; Kandpal, Tara C.

2007-10-01

45

Low cost TDR unit for evaluation of transmission lines  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper presents a construction of digitally controlled, low cost, time domain relectometry unit designated for evaluation of quality of transmission lines. The "radar-like" TDR technique allows for detecting lines discontinuities, including shorts, open circuits, parasitic bridges etc. Described here TDR unit was successfully tested proving its proving its usefulness for detecting lines imperfections. The unit does not contain GUI nor the utilities for post processing measurement data, as they are left for the MASTER (controlling) system. Measurement results are delivered in the form of the waveform reflected from the end of the line being tested - its analysis allows to locate lines imperfections.

Opalska, Katarzyna; Burd, Aleksander; Owczarek, Tomasz

2008-11-01

46

Petroleum Refinery Hydrogen Production Unit: Exergy and Production Cost Evaluation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Some specific processes are required to obtain pure hydrogen and the most usual one is natural gas reforming, where natural gas reacts with superheated steam producing H2, CO, CO2 and H2O. This paper presents the exergy and production costs evaluation of a complete hydrogen production unit of a petroleum refinery. The hydrogen production unit analysed in this paper has to supply 550,000 Nm3 of hydrogen per day to purify diesel oil. Based on a synthesis plant of the hydrogen production unit, t...

2008-01-01

47

Improvement of Cost Calculation in Constructions – Application of the Standard Cost Method  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Grace to the analysis of several commercial companies effectively performed “on the field”, we could remark the necessity to change the method of cost calculation, our motivation being related to the simplification of calculations and the reduction of the labour volume, but especially the necessity to know in due time the deviations occurred as well as the causes having led to their apparition. The importance of knowing the deviations in due time results from the very basic characteristics of the constructions execution, i.e. the performance of works during several budgetary years, which leads to the modifications of prices and materials, the introduction of new technologies, and to the performance of open air activities, making the execution of constructions works be influenced by the atmospheric condition. But the most important aspect of knowing the deviations is the correct determination of expenses and their inscribing in the corresponding period, in view of determining the result of the budgetary year. Our proposal for the enhancement of the method of cost calculation in constructions is the application of the standard cost method in the variant “single standard cost”.

Adela Breuer

2010-12-01

48

Cost of Crashes Related to Road Conditions, United States, 2006  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This is the first study to estimate the cost of crashes related to road conditions in the U.S. To model the probability that road conditions contributed to the involvement of a vehicle in the crash, we used 2000–03 Large Truck Crash Causation Study (LTCCS) data, the only dataset that provides detailed information whether road conditions contributed to crash occurrence. We applied the logistic regression results to a costed national crash dataset in order to calculate the probability that ro...

Zaloshnja, Eduard; Miller, Ted R.

2009-01-01

49

Cost of crashes related to road conditions, United States, 2006.  

Science.gov (United States)

This is the first study to estimate the cost of crashes related to road conditions in the U.S. To model the probability that road conditions contributed to the involvement of a vehicle in the crash, we used 2000-03 Large Truck Crash Causation Study (LTCCS) data, the only dataset that provides detailed information whether road conditions contributed to crash occurrence. We applied the logistic regression results to a costed national crash dataset in order to calculate the probability that road conditions contributed to the involvement of a vehicle in each crash. In crashes where someone was moderately to seriously injured (AIS-2-6) in a vehicle that harmfully impacted a large tree or medium or large non-breakaway pole, or if the first harmful event was collision with a bridge, we changed the calculated probability of being road-related to 1. We used the state distribution of costs of fatal crashes where road conditions contributed to crash occurrence or severity to estimate the respective state distribution of non-fatal crash costs. The estimated comprehensive cost of traffic crashes where road conditions contributed to crash occurrence or severity was $217.5 billion in 2006. This represented 43.6% of the total comprehensive crash cost. The large share of crash costs related to road design and conditions underlines the importance of these factors in highway safety. Road conditions are largely controllable. Road maintenance and upgrading can prevent crashes and reduce injury severity. PMID:20184840

Zaloshnja, Eduard; Miller, Ted R

2009-10-01

50

Cost effectiveness of chest pain unit care in the NHS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute chest pain is responsible for approximately 700,000 patient attendances per year at emergency departments in England and Wales. A single centre study of selected patients suggested that chest pain unit (CPU care could be less costly and more effective than routine care for these patients, although a more recent multi-centre study cast doubt on the generalisability of these findings. Methods Our economic evaluation involved modelling data from the ESCAPE multi-centre trial along with data from other sources to estimate the comparative costs and effects of CPU versus routine care. Cost effectiveness ratios (cost per QALY were generated from our model. Results We found that CPU compared to routine care resulted in a non-significant increase in effectiveness of 0.0075 QALYs per patient and a non-significant cost decrease of £32 per patient and thus a negative incremental cost effectiveness ratio. If we are willing to pay £20,000 for an additional QALY then there is a 70% probability that CPU care will be considered cost-effective. Conclusion Our analysis shows that CPU care is likely to be slightly more effective and less expensive than routine care, however, these estimates are surrounded by a substantial amount of uncertainty. We cannot reliably conclude that establishing CPU care will represent a cost-effective use of health service resources given the substantial amount of investment it would require.

Wailoo Allan

2008-08-01

51

HOW TO CALCULATE THE ENVIRONMENTAL COSTS? CASE COMPANY GRAFICA CIENFUEGOS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The world urgently needs to protect the environment, many companies and organizations devote huge resources to reach that goal and achieve sustainable development as the highest standard of achievement for any country or organization. It then becomes imperative to determine how much the companies spend on the environment, taking into account that the Entities have an implicit contract with society and the environment, the product of the resources used and waste and waste pouring, which is why one needs to calculate and record the environmental costs of products to enhance the environmental management of the entity and thus promote an excellent decision-making. The following research seeks a procedure which allows solving this problem, making its composition with the use of various techniques within which highlights the environmental checklists and product life cycle, which also allows knowing separately as each process and product impacts the environment.

Keitel, Becerra

2011-01-01

52

Costs of Crashes to Government, United States, 2008  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We estimated how much the Federal government and state/local government pay for different kinds of crashes in the United States. Government costs include reductions in an array of public services (emergency, incident management, vocational rehabilitation, coroner court processing of liability litigation), medical payments, social safety net assistance to the injured and their families, and taxes foregone because victims miss work. Government also pays when its employees crash while working an...

Miller, Ted R.; Bhattacharya, Soma; Zaloshnja, Eduard; Taylor, Dexter; Bahar, Geni; David, Iuliana

2011-01-01

53

Nuclear power generation costs in the United States of America  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Increasing world energy prices and shortages of fuel resources make the utilization of nuclear power extremely important. The United States nuclear power industry represents the largest body of nuclear power experience in the world. Analysis of the recent United States experience of substantial increases in the cost of nuclear power generation provides good insight into the interdependence of technological, financial, and institutional influences and their combined impact on the economic viability of nuclear power generation. The various factors influencing ultimate generation costs, including construction cost, fuel cost, regulatory reviews, and siting considerations are discussed, and their relative impacts are explored, including discussion of design complexity and related regulatory response. A closer look into the recent relatively high escalation of nuclear plant construction costs shows how differing economic conditions can affect the relative cost effectiveness of various methods of power generation. The vulnerability of capital-intensive, long-lead-time projects to changes in economic conditions and uncertainty in future power demands is discussed. Likewise, the pitfalls of new designs and increased sophistication are contrasted to the advantages which result from proven designs, reliable engineering, and shorter lead times. The value of reliable architect-engineers experienced in the design and construction of the plant is discussed. A discussion is presented of additional regulatory requirements stemming from public safety aspects of nuclear power. These include recognition of requirements for the very large effort for quality assurance of materials and workmanship during plant construction and operation. Likewise, a discussion is included of the demanding nature of operations, maintenance, and modification of plants during the operational phase because of the need for highly qualified operations and maintenance personnel and strict quality assurance procedures. (author)

1982-09-13

54

Considerations Regarding Calculation Cost in the Machine Building Industry  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The paper structures the advantages and the disadvantages of the determination method of the standard cost. The need of the enterprises to operate with production scientifically established and verifiable costs is a recognized fact by the practice and standard computer technology cost although meets the technology requirements, keeps the deficiencies traditional techniques.

Gabriela Marian

2010-01-01

55

On calculation of foundation bases for power units  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Results of calculating the stressed-strained state of foundations of three large NPP units are presented. Coulomb-Moor condition is chosen as yield condition for solution of combined problems of elasticity and plasticity theories. Residual strains occurring before the ground achieves the limiting stressed state are added to reversible ones (properly elastic) and linear dependences of Hooke's law are accepted for obtained total deformations. Possibility of occurrence and development of plastic strains, connected with stresses by relations of nonassociated law of plastic flow theory, is assumed in addition to elastic strains in plastic fields. It is concluded that application of elastic-plastic and physically nonlinear ground models when calculating foundation bases enables to obtain rather reliable picture of contact pressure distribution, not conflicting with the data of full-scale measurements

1988-01-01

56

Low-Cost Sensor Units for Measuring Urban Air Quality  

Science.gov (United States)

Measurements of selected key air quality gases (CO, NO & NO2) have been made with a range of miniature low-cost sensors based on electrochemical gas sensing technology incorporating GPS and GPRS for position and communication respectively. Two types of simple to operate sensors units have been designed to be deployed in relatively large numbers. Mobile handheld sensor units designed for operation by members of the public have been deployed on numerous occasions including in Cambridge, London and Valencia. Static sensor units have also been designed for long-term autonomous deployment on existing street furniture. A study was recently completed in which 45 sensor units were deployed in the Cambridge area for a period of 3 months. Results from these studies indicate that air quality varies widely both spatially and temporally. The widely varying concentrations found suggest that the urban environment cannot be fully understood using limited static site (AURN) networks and that a higher resolution, more dispersed network is required to better define air quality in the urban environment. The results also suggest that higher spatial and temporal resolution measurements could improve knowledge of the levels of individual exposure in the urban environment.

Popoola, O. A.; Mead, M.; Stewart, G.; Hodgson, T.; McLoed, M.; Baldovi, J.; Landshoff, P.; Hayes, M.; Calleja, M.; Jones, R.

2010-12-01

57

Low finding costs calculated in Mississippi's Tuscaloosa, Frio  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports on a recent study conducted by the Mississippi Office of Geology which examined oil and gas finding costs in southwestern Mississippi for the period from 1986 through 1990. The formations of interest were the Upper Cretaceous Lower Tuscaloosa formation and the Oligocene Frio formation. The model incorporated the following financial considerations for exploratory activity: seismic data acquisition, geologic expenses, leasing and legal fees, and drilling costs. Average drilling and completion costs were also assigned to the development wells. The finding cost formula divided the total exploration and development costs by the recoverable reserves. Reserves were multiplied by a 75% net revenue for the Tuscaloosa and 80% for the Frio leases to account for royalty interests and severance taxes. No field operating expenses were included

58

Some Problems of Calculation and Design of High-Activity Gamma Units  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report describes the principal requirements for gamma units intended for various purposes. Several methods of calculating the dose fields for various forms of irradiators are given, as well as graphs, nomograms and formulae to estimate the amount of gamma-ray dose absorbed by the irradiated object from cobalt-60 and caesium-137. Some of the calculated data have been confirmed by experiment. The advantages of irradiators of various geometry employed in experimental and commercial units are discussed. The irradiation technique for various objects is analyzed and the optimum irradiation conditions (radiation utilization factor, dose field homogeneity, etc.) are discussed. Several rational shielding systems are suggested to simplify irradiation process and recharging, and to reduce the cost of design and operation. (author)

1960-07-01

59

Calculating the cost of generating electricity: Which role for nuclear?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nuclear, coal, gas, hydro, other renewable all have various advantages and disadvantages according to different customers and countries. Independent of the specific local and national context, however, economic and financial cost will frequently be the key criterion. Having an idea of the cost of different power plant technologies is thus crucial for developing a vision of the composition of the electricity sector in the years to come. That is why the NEA, in co-operation with its sister agency the IEA, publishes an update approximately every five years of the cost of generating electricity with different technologies in a range of OECD countries. The last of these studies was published in 2005 under the title Projected Costs of Generating Electricity. These studies have always constituted highly respected reference values for the costs of power generation and figure regularly among the best-sellers of both the NEA and the IEA. Since the beginning of 2009, work on a new edition of the Electricity Generating Cost (EGC) study has begun. (A.L.B.)

2009-01-01

60

Fast calculation of HELAS amplitudes using graphics processing unit (GPU)  

CERN Multimedia

We use the graphics processing unit (GPU) for fast calculations of helicity amplitudes of physics processes. As our first attempt, we compute $u\\overline{u}\\to n\\gamma$ ($n=2$ to 8) processes in $pp$ collisions at $\\sqrt{s} = 14$TeV by transferring the MadGraph generated HELAS amplitudes (FORTRAN) into newly developed HEGET ({\\bf H}ELAS {\\bf E}valuation with {\\bf G}PU {\\bf E}nhanced {\\bf T}echnology) codes written in CUDA, a C-platform developed by NVIDIA for general purpose computing on the GPU. Compared with the usual CPU programs, we obtain 40-150 times better performance on the GPU.

Hagiwara, K; Okamura, N; Rainwater, D L; Stelzer, T

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Thermal analysis of Malaysian double storey housing - low/medium cost unit  

Science.gov (United States)

Almost half of the total energy used today is consumed in buildings. In the tropical climate, air-conditioning a housing unit takes much of the energy bill. Malaysia is no exception. Malaysian double storey terrace housing is popular among developers and buyers. Surveys have shown that housing occupants are much dissatisfied with the thermal comfort and artificial cooling is often sought. The objective of this study is to assess the thermal comfort of the low and medium-cost double storey housing in the area surrounding Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. A simulation program using the Weighting Factor Method calculates the heat transfer interaction, temperature distribution, and PMV level in three types of housing units in relation to the size. Fanger's PMV model based on ISO Standard 7730 is used here because it accounts for all parameters that affect the thermal sensation of a human within its equation. Results showed that both the low and medium-cost housing units studied are out of the comfortable range described by ASHRAE Standard 55 with the units all complied with the local bylaws. In view of the uncertainties in energy supply, future housing units should consider natural ventilation as part of the passive energy management.

Normah, M. G.; Lau, K. Y.; Mohd. Yusoff, S.

2012-06-01

62

Burden of disease and costs of aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (aSAH in the United Kingdom  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background To estimate life years and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs lost and the economic burden of aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (aSAH in the United Kingdom including healthcare and non-healthcare costs from a societal perspective. Methods All UK residents in 2005 with aSAH (International Classification of Diseases 10th revision (ICD-10 code I60. Sex and age-specific abridged life tables were generated for a general population and aSAH cohorts. QALYs in each cohort were calculated adjusting the life tables with health-related quality of life (HRQL data. Healthcare costs included hospital expenditure, cerebrovascular rehabilitation, primary care and community health and social services. Non-healthcare costs included informal care and productivity losses arising from morbidity and premature death. Results A total of 80,356 life years and 74,807 quality-adjusted life years were estimated to be lost due to aSAH in the UK in 2005. aSAH costs the National Health Service (NHS £168.2 million annually with hospital inpatient admissions accounting for 59%, community health and social services for 18%, aSAH-related operations for 15% and cerebrovascular rehabilitation for 6% of the total NHS estimated costs. The average per patient cost for the NHS was estimated to be £23,294. The total economic burden (including informal care and using the human capital method to estimate production losses of a SAH in the United Kingdom was estimated to be £510 million annually. Conclusion The economic and disease burden of aSAH in the United Kingdom is reported in this study. Decision-makers can use these results to complement other information when informing prevention policies in this field and to relate health care expenditures to disease categories.

Gray Alastair

2010-04-01

63

H2POWER: Development of a methodology to calculate life cycle cost of small and medium-scale hydrogen systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

At this time, hydrogen-based power plants and large hydrogen production facilities are capital intensive and unable to compete financially against hydrocarbon-based energy production facilities. An option to overcome this problem and foster the introduction of hydrogen technology is to introduce small and medium-scale applications such as residential and community hydrogen refueling units. Such units could potentially be used to generate both electricity and heat for the home, as well as hydrogen fuel for the automobile. Cost modeling for the integration of these three forms of energy presents several methodological challenges. This is particularly true since the technology is still in the development phase and both the financial and the environmental cost must be calculated using mainly secondary sources. In order to address these issues and aid in the design of small and medium-scale hydrogen systems, this study presents a computer model to calculate financial and environmental costs of this technology using different hydrogen pathways. The model can design and compare hydrogen refueling units against hydrocarbon-based technologies, including the 'gap' between financial and economic costs. Using the methodology, various penalties and incentives that can foster the introduction of hydrogen-based technologies can be added to the analysis to study their impact on financial cost.

Verduzco, Laura E. [Department of Engineering Management and Systems Engineering, School of Engineering and Applied Science, George Washington University, 1776 G St, NW Washington, DC 20052 (United States)]. E-mail: laura.verduzco@gmail.com; Duffey, Michael R. [Department of Engineering Management and Systems Engineering, School of Engineering and Applied Science, George Washington University, 1776 G St, NW Washington, DC 20052 (United States); Deason, Jonathan P. [Department of Engineering Management and Systems Engineering, School of Engineering and Applied Science, George Washington University, 1776 G St, NW Washington, DC 20052 (United States)

2007-03-15

64

H2POWER: Development of a methodology to calculate life cycle cost of small and medium-scale hydrogen systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

At this time, hydrogen-based power plants and large hydrogen production facilities are capital intensive and unable to compete financially against hydrocarbon-based energy production facilities. An option to overcome this problem and foster the introduction of hydrogen technology is to introduce small and medium-scale applications such as residential and community hydrogen refueling units. Such units could potentially be used to generate both electricity and heat for the home, as well as hydrogen fuel for the automobile. Cost modeling for the integration of these three forms of energy presents several methodological challenges. This is particularly true since the technology is still in the development phase and both the financial and the environmental cost must be calculated using mainly secondary sources. In order to address these issues and aid in the design of small and medium-scale hydrogen systems, this study presents a computer model to calculate financial and environmental costs of this technology using different hydrogen pathways. The model can design and compare hydrogen refueling units against hydrocarbon-based technologies, including the 'gap' between financial and economic costs. Using the methodology, various penalties and incentives that can foster the introduction of hydrogen-based technologies can be added to the analysis to study their impact on financial cost

2007-03-01

65

Long term cost of natural gas in the United States. Beikoku tennen gas no choki cost  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A prediction was presented on the long term natural gas supply cost in the United States. According to NPC and the other organizations, the supply of natural gas in the two decades from 1990 to 2010 was predicted to be increased to a great extent together with the elevation of price. The reason why the rapid elevation of price due to the depletion did not occur in spite of tremendous increase in production of natural gas was assumed that the depletion was overcome by the progress of production technology. It is also possible to write a scenario that the introduction of carbon dioxide tax increases the demand for natural gas as well as its price. Perhaps the cost will be increased in the long run. The present equilibrium price is thought to be 2 dollars or a little bit higher per thousand cubic feet. It can be concluded that the natural gas in the United States are so abundant that the price is relatively low. 20 figs.

Lynch, M. (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, MA (United States))

1993-09-01

66

Nuclear power and global warming: a first cost-benefit calculation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper investigates the costs and benefits of a modest nuclear power programme in the European Union to combat the threat of global warming. The nuclear programme is found to bring a double benefit. The first and more obvious benefit is that the economic impacts of global warming are reduced. The second benefit is counter-intuitive; most people would expect it to be a cost. It comes from the stimulus to the economy from the construction of the nuclear plant, which, with the recycling of carbon tax revenues, offsets its construction and operating costs, and may even cause consumers' expenditure to rise. Calculations in this paper show that over the period to 2100 the mean net present value of the first benefit is 6 billion European Currency Units (ECU; 1 ECU is about Dollars 1), while the second benefit has a mean net present value of 159 billion ECU. However both benefits, particularly the second, are still very uncertain, to the extent that even their sign is not yet definitely established. (author).

Hope, C. (Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom). Judge Inst. of Management Studies)

1994-01-01

67

[Calculation of the reprocessing costs of single-use tongs used in video-assisted surgeries].  

Science.gov (United States)

The frequent reuse of disposable forceps instruments is justified by their high cost. However, few studies have been carried out on this topic. The objective of this study was to develop a methodological proposal for calculating the reprocessing costs for these instruments used in video-assisted surgery. A flowchart was developed for each phase of the reprocessing. This allowed subsequent identification of the cost components in terms of labor, materials and indirect expenses. From these data, a methodological proposal for cost calculation could be created, based on the Full Absorption Costing Method, including the spreadsheet for data collection. PMID:16892681

Psaltikidis, Eliane Molina; Graziano, Kazuko Uchikawa; Frezatti, Fábio

2006-06-01

68

What does it cost to prevent on-duty firefighter cardiac events? A content valid method for calculating costs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cardiac arrest is a leading cause of mortality among firefighters. We sought to develop a valid method for determining the costs of a workplace prevention program for firefighters. In 2012, we developed a draft framework using human resource accounting and in-depth interviews with experts in the firefighting and insurance industries. The interviews produced a draft cost model with 6 components and 26 subcomponents. In 2013, we randomly sampled 100 fire chiefs out of >7,400 affiliated with the International Association of Fire Chiefs. We used the Content Validity Index (CVI) to identify the content valid components of the draft cost model. This was accomplished by having fire chiefs rate the relevancy of cost components using a 4-point Likert scale (highly relevant to not relevant). We received complete survey data from 65 fire chiefs (65% response rate). We retained 5 components and 21 subcomponents based on CVI scores ?0.70. The five main components include, (1) investment costs, (2) orientation and training costs, (3) medical and pharmaceutical costs, (4) education and continuing education costs, and (5) maintenance costs. Data from a diverse sample of fire chiefs has produced a content valid method for calculating the cost of a prevention program among firefighters. PMID:24455288

Patterson, P Daniel; Suyama, Joe; Reis, Steven E; Weaver, Matthew D; Hostler, David

2013-01-01

69

Benefit/cost analysis of plutonium recycle options in the United States  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Predictable effects of the recycle of plutonium and uranium recovered from spent LWR fuels were assessed in a final environmental statement (GESMO). Five alternative dispositions of LWR-produced plutonium ranging from prompt recycle of recovered plutonium and uranium to no recovery and no recycle are compared. The assessments consider cumulative effects for the period 1975 through 2000, and are centered on a conservative low growth rate resulting in about 500 LWR's in the U.S. in 2000. A more optimistic growth projection resulting in about 800 LWR's in 2000 is also analyzed in order to assess the effects of industry size upon the impacts. Demands for fuel cycle services were calculated with an ERDA program, NUFUEL, which was modified to include penalties for "2"3"6U and "2"4"2Pu. Unit cost data, including a simulation of market place reaction to supply-demand functions for uranium costs, were combined with the NUFUEL demand data in an economics code, NUCOST. Environmental impacts were also based upon NUFUEL demand data and were developed using a model plant industry concept. Using the most likely unit costs with a 10% discount rate, present worth incentives for prompt recycle over no recycle of $3.2 billion for the lower growth and about $6 billion for the higher growth were indicated. Present worth costs of delays in recycle of up to 5 years were less than $1 billion. Sensitivity of the economic assessments to unit cost variations and discount rates were also evaluated. Environmental impacts other than radiological were lowest for prompt Pu recycle and highest for no recycle. Radiological impacts for the total world wide total body exposure from U.S. industry for the 26 year period were estimated to be: - No recycle-8.2 million person-rem; U only recycle-9.5 million person-rem; Pu and U recycle-8.8 million person-rem. Comparison of the decreased radiological impact of the no recycle option with its increased costs relative to prompt plutonium recycle resulted in a cost/benefit ratio of 0.04. Thus, the benefits of prompt plutonium recycle appear to far outweigh its costs

1977-05-13

70

Subjective Evaluation of Join Cost and Smoothing Methods for Unit Selection Speech Synthesis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In unit selection-based concatenative speech synthesis, join cost (also known as concatenation cost), which measures how well two units can be joined together, is one of the main criteria for selecting appropriate units from the inventory. Usually, some form of local parameter smoothing is also needed to disguise the remaining discontinuities. This paper presents a subjective evaluation of three join cost functions and three smoothing methods. We also describe the design and performance of a ...

Vepa, Jithendra; King, Simon

2005-01-01

71

Subjective Evaluation of Join Cost and Smoothing Methods for Unit Selection Speech Synthesis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In unit selection-based concatenative speech synthesis, join cost (also known as concatenation cost), which measures how well two units can be joined together, is one of the main criteria for selecting appropriate units from the inventory. Usually, some form of local parameter smoothing is also needed to disguise the remaining discontinuities. This paper presents a subjective evaluation of three join cost functions and three smoothing methods. We also describe the design and performance of a ...

Vepa, Jithendra; King, Simon

2006-01-01

72

Forecasting the Unit Cost of a Product with Some Linear Fuzzy Collaborative Forecasting Models  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Forecasting the unit cost of every product type in a factory is an important task. However, it is not easy to deal with the uncertainty of the unit cost. Fuzzy collaborative forecasting is a very effective treatment of the uncertainty in the distributed environment. This paper presents some linear fuzzy collaborative forecasting models to predict the unit cost of a product. In these models, the experts’ forecasts differ and therefore need to be aggregated through collaboration. Accordin...

Toly Chen

2012-01-01

73

ANALISA COST SHARING PERHITUNGAN TARIF HEMODIALISIS (HD MASYARAKAT MISKIN DI RUMAH SAKIT UMUM PKU MUHAMMADIYAH UNIT I YOGYAKARTA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Growing and expanding hopital may be efficiently and effectively managed, it is requiredto be conducted to face the tight competition in world of health service. If the hospital wish to survive in the competition, they need to recount the existing hospital tariff previously, that is by using competitive tariff model calculation. Hospital of PKU Muhammadiyah Unit I Yogyakarta divides HD tariff into two parts, these are Single Use and Re Use tariff. There are cost sharing differences between HD tariff in hospital and government. In this research, the reseacher only focuses on HD tariff of Re Use in order to reduce cost sharing. All this time, the hospital has never counted different cost. It can create lose for the hospital. th s researcher interest to analyze the cost sharing of hemodialisis tariff calculation for poor in public hospital of PKU Muhammadiyah Unit I Yogyakarta. Methode: This research type is descriptive research qualitative which analyzed real expense by using real cost methode and difference which is burdened by patien toward real tariff, meanwhile opinion about cost sharing is taken by interview with superintendent finance and superintendent of hemodialisis unit using interview method. Resulth: this research show the real tariff equal to Rp.912.571 while tariff released by hospital equal to Rp.575.000, and difference between second tariff is Rp.337.751, while tariff given by government is Rp.528.067 and difference with the real tariff equal to Rp.384.684. Conclusion: that unit based cost tariff higher than tariff given by hospital at this time, the biggest expense is component for examines or substance used up wear. The hospital should determine the strategy to decrease the difference. Key Words: cost sharing, real cost method, tariff packet, hemodialisis, poor, society

. Primandita

2013-04-01

74

An evaluation of airline beta values and their application in calculating the cost of equity capital.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper focuses on the calculation of the cost of equity capital in a sample of airlines, in comparison to industry-calculated values. The approach usually taken is to apply the Capital Asset Pricing Model to airline stock prices and market indices. The research shows that the calculated b values are sensitive to the precise methodology and calculations used. Further, the low regression model ?ts indicate the Capital Asset Pricing Model may not be the most suitable model for b value calc...

Turner, Sheelah; Morrell, Peter

2003-01-01

75

Cost-effective ceramics program in the United States  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The 5-year Cost-Effective Ceramics for Heat Engines program began in 1993. This effort reflects the realization that the problems with reliability of structural ceramics have been largely overcome, but the high cost of structural ceramics is limited their use in commercial applications. The technical causes of high cost were identified, and a technical plan developed. The work elements in the program include the following: economic cost modeling, ceramic machining, powder synthesis, alternative forming and densification processes, yield improvement, standards development, and low-expansion ceramics.

Schulz, R.B. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States); Johnson, D.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1994-10-01

76

Using Standard-Sole Cost Method for Performance Gestion Accounting and Calculation Cost in the Machine Building Industry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The main purpose of improving and varying cost calculation methods in the machine building industry is to make them more operational and efficient in supplying the information necessary to the management in taking its decisions. The present cost calculation methods used in the machine building plants – global method and the method per orders – by which a historical cost is determined a posteriori used in deducting and post factum justification of manufacturing expenses does not offer the management the possibility to fully satisfy its need for information. We are talking about a change of conception in applying certain systems, methods and work techniques, according to the needs of efficient administration of production and the plant seen as a whole. The standard-cost method best answers to the needs of the effective management of the value side of the manufacturing process and raising economic efficiency. We consider that, in the machine building industry, these objectives can be achieved by using the standard - sole cost alternative of the standard-cost method.

Aureliana Geta Roman

2006-09-01

77

GEOCITY: a computer code for calculating costs of district heating using geothermal resources  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

GEOCITY is a computer simulation model developed to study the economics of district heating using geothermal energy. GEOCITY calculates the cost of district heating based on climate, population, resource characteristics, and financing conditions. The principal input variables are minimum temperature, heating degree days, population size and density, resource temperature and distance from load center, and the interest rate. From this input data the model designs the transmission and district heating systems. From this design, GEOCITY calculates the capital and operating costs for the entire system, including the production and disposal of the geothermal water. GEOCITY consists of two major submodels: the geothermal reservoir model and the distribution system model. The distribution system model calculates the cost of heat by simulating the design and the operation of the district heating system. The reservoir model calculates the cost of energy by simulating the discovery, development and operation of a geothermal resource and the transmission of this energy to a distribution center.

McDonald, C.L.; Bloomster, C.H.; Schulte, S.C.

1977-02-01

78

CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF THE MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING SYSTEM AND OF THE COST CALCULATION IN THE ELECTROTECHNICAL INDUSTRY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The contemporary scientific and technical revolution has brought into view the increasingcomplexity of the economic activity in all departments whose current and future management mustnecessarily involve taking into account the efficiency criterion, the economic optimum displaying bothquantitative and qualitative forms. The company is placed in a competitive environment, within a valuechain of providers, on the one hand and suppliers or customers on the other hand. In order to becompetitive, the companies increasingly allocate more resources to doing researches, their target being tomake very good quality products at competitive prices. The methods of cost calculation have seen acontinuous evolution generated by the new problems that cost calculation had to respond to. The decisionon the organization and adoption of either one cost calculation method or another, involves the analysis ofthe main factors that determine the organization of cost calculation.

POPESCU (Costache LUMINITA NICOLETA

2013-08-01

79

Consideration concerning the costs of the 300 kW wind units developed in Romania  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A demonstrative wind farm with four research units, 300 kW each, is in developing stage in Romania. The article shows economic analysis of these experimental wind units and their cost structure focusing in component costs, performance, manufacturing technology and installing work. (author)

1995-09-05

80

Assessing DRG cost accounting with respect to resource allocation and tariff calculation: the case of Germany  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the German diagnosis related groups (G-DRG) cost accounting scheme by assessing its resource allocation at hospital level and its tariff calculation at national level. First, the paper reviews and assesses the three steps in the G-DRG resource allocation scheme at hospital level: (1) the groundwork; (2) cost-center accounting; and (3) patient-level costing. Second, the paper reviews and assesses the three steps in G-DRG national tariff calculation: (1) ...

Vogl, Matthias

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Assessing DRG cost accounting with respect to resource allocation and tariff calculation: The case of Germany  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the German diagnosis related groups (G-DRG) cost accounting scheme by assessing its resource allocation at hospital level and its tariff calculation at national level. First, the paper reviews and assesses the three steps in the G-DRG resource allocation scheme at hospital level: (1) the groundwork; (2) cost-center accounting; and (3) patient-level costing. Second, the paper reviews and assesses the three steps in G-DRG national tariff calculation: (1) ...

Vogl, Matthias

2012-01-01

82

Drug Prohibition in the United States: Costs, Consequences, and Alternatives  

Science.gov (United States)

``Drug legalization'' increasingly merits serious consideration as both an analytical model and a policy option for addressing the ``drug problem.'' Criminal justice approaches to the drug problem have proven limited in their capacity to curtail drug abuse. They also have proven increasingly costly and counterproductive. Drug legalization policies that are wisely implemented can minimize the risks of legalization, dramatically reduce the costs of current policies, and directly address the problems of drug abuse.

Nadelmann, Ethan A.

1989-09-01

83

Analysis of a Production Order Quantity Model With Declining Unit Cost  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper improves upon the existing literature surrounding the production order quantity inventory model in which unit cost and daily production are assumed to be constant. By including economies of scale into the model, we examine its impact on production order quantity and total cost. The results suggest that the minimal cost solution derived from the production order quantity model needs to balance out holding, setup and production costs. As a result, a smaller inventory level corresponding to a minimum unit production cost is found to be preferred.

Rod D. Raehsler

2012-05-01

84

Calculation of Complexity Costs â?? An Approach for Rationalizing a Product Program  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper proposes an operational method for rationalizing a product program based on the calculation of complexity costs. The method takes its starting point in the calculation of complexity costs on a product program level. This is done throughout the value chain ranging from component inventories at the factory sites, all the way to the distribution of finished goods from distribution centers to the customers. The method proposes a step-wise approach including the analysis, quantification and allocation of product program complexity costs by the means of identifying of a number of suggested Life Cycle Complexity Factors (LCCFs). The suggested method has been tested in an action based research study with promising results. The case study shows how the allocation of complexity costs on individual product variants provides previously unknown insights into the true cost structure of a product program. These findings represent an improved decision basis for the planning of reactive and proactive initiatives ofrationalizing a product program.

Hansen, Christian Lindschou; Mortensen, Niels Henrik

2012-01-01

85

Purchasing motors in the light of full-cost calculation; Beschaffung von Motoren unter der Vollkostenbetrachtung  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This final report published by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a study made on how full-cost calculation can help define the optimal purchasing strategy for electrical drives. According to the authors, taking total life-cycle costs into consideration also guarantees economical operation and helps avoid unexpected service costs. The report describes the goals of the project and co-operation with industry and users. Factors influencing life-cycle costs are looked at in detail, including investments, installation and operator-training, operation and monitoring as well as maintenance and repair. Also, energy costs are looked at, as are environmental aspects and the disposal of drives taken out of service. The calculation of the economic feasibility of two types of motor is looked at. Sample Calls for Tender are presented and software for the evaluation of offers is briefly discussed.

Mauchle, P.; Schnyder, G.

2006-07-01

86

Cost Analysis of Leed Certified United States Navy Buildings.  

Science.gov (United States)

A study was completed at UW-Madison in 2010 that reviewed the energy consumption of US Navy buildings which earned Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) certification by the United States Green Building Council (USGBC). The research compare...

C. V. Kirar

2011-01-01

87

Implementation of Cost Calculation Model in Forest Evaluation of Požega Forest Administration  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The specific nature of forestry as an economic activity generates problems in realizing the set business plans and executing commercial operations. Business analysis deals with concepts and methods of perceiving the degree of development, as well as with unrealized possibilities of a business entity. The particular character of analyzing business operations of entities dealing with forest management arises, among other things, from the need to assure forest sustainability. In managing forests and forestland, it is not always possible to obey the principle of operational profitability, as the lack of any silvicultural treatments jeopardizes future increment of wood biomass and leads to the decline in the general forest value. Furthermore, the specificity of forest management is particularly evident in a long term cycle of biomass production, and extensive period of time between initial activities and the achieved economic effects, and in investments into forests which frequently exceed the financial possibilities of forest owners. The achieved degree and the unrealized possibilities of developing the forest potential are conditioned by biological factors and by economic and technical treatments. To measure and evaluate the effects of these factors on forest sustainability, specific knowledge is required combined with specific criteria for analytical assessment of the success of business entities dealing with forest management.This paper discusses economic and business analysis in forestry. It presents the results of the research project conducted by the state forest company »Hrvatske šume« d.o.o. and Faculty of Forestry University of Zagreb over a 5 year period. The data regarding the economic value of the forest, annual cut value, biological regeneration costs for all forest management units in Požega Forest Administration, including incomes and costs of forest harvesting have been analyzed together with the data regarding profitability and economic indicators. The actual cutting value method has been used for the analyses of the stand value. The Activity Based Cost Method has been used for the cost analysis. The cost-effectiveness and profitability in forestry have also been calculated.Požega Forest Administration manages the area of 52,025 ha, mainly productive forests in the Municipality of Slavonia and Požega. The total annual cut is 140,991 m3 on the area of 3,615 ha. The total growing stock of the state forests is 9,744,426 m3, which includes 9,200,025 m3 of even-aged forests and 544,401 m³ of uneven aged forests. The annual wood volume increment is 253,947 m3. The average forest stand value is 46,871 HRK/ha, or 54,723 HRK/ha without first age class (see Fig. 1 Forest value per management unit.The total costs of biological regeneration are 1,529 HRK/ha, and without forest management, silviculture, forest protection and wood construction it is 7,029 HRK/ha. The costs of the biological regeneration are shown in Fig. 2. The value of the annual cut for Požega Forest Administration is 10,214 HRK/ha (see Table 1.The costs of forest harvesting in 2007 are 8,460 HRK/ha on average, and 8,659 HRK/ha in 2008. Expenditures and revenues of forest harvesting in Požega Forest Administration 2007/2008 are shown in Fig. 4. If the costs of biological regeneration are included, the cost-effectiveness ratio is less than one (e<1, meaning that the management of the selected forest administration is not cost-effective. However, according to the presented negative economic indicators, profitability in forestry has shown positive forest management results. The possible measures that could lead to the increase in profitability are those affecting the company income. To achieve this goal it is necessary to lower the forest biological regeneration costs, to lower the market sale price, to increase the engaged resources, and to improve the capacity utilization.This research has shown that specific understanding and measuring of forest potentials are conditioned by biological factors and by economic and technical t

Stjepan Posavec

2011-04-01

88

Global energy cost of buildings. Conventional method of calculation; Cout global energetique des batiments. Methode conventionnelle de calcul  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

On the initiative of the three main suppliers of space heating energy in France, a method of calculation of the global energy cost of new residential buildings has been developed. This method is devoted to design offices and contractors in order to confirm their decisions and choices about this important financial aspect of the building use. This method was presented during a press conference given on May 29, 2002 at the French building federation (FFB). (J.S.)

Anon.

2002-06-01

89

Hospital costs of central line-associated bloodstream infections and cost-effectiveness of closed vs. open infusion containers. The case of Intensive Care Units in Italy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Objectives The aim was to evaluate direct health care costs of central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSI and to calculate the cost-effectiveness ratio of closed fully collapsible plastic intravenous infusion containers vs. open (glass infusion containers. Methods A two-year, prospective case-control study was undertaken in four intensive care units in an Italian teaching hospital. Patients with CLABSI (cases and patients without CLABSI (controls were matched for admission departments, gender, age, and average severity of illness score. Costs were estimated according to micro-costing approach. In the cost effectiveness analysis, the cost component was assessed as the difference between production costs while effectiveness was measured by CLABSI rate (number of CLABSI per 1000 central line days associated with the two infusion containers. Results A total of 43 cases of CLABSI were compared with 97 matched controls. The mean age of cases and controls was 62.1 and 66.6 years, respectively (p = 0.143; 56% of the cases and 57% of the controls were females (p = 0.922. The mean length of stay of cases and controls was 17.41 and 8.55 days, respectively (p Conclusions CLABSI results in considerable and significant increase in utilization of hospital resources. Use of innovative technologies such as closed infusion containers can significantly reduce the incidence of healthcare acquired infection without posing additional burden on hospital budgets.

Torbica Aleksandra

2010-05-01

90

A systematic review of the unit costs of allied health and community services used by older people in Australia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background An economic evaluation of interventions for older people requires accurate assessment of costing and consideration of both acute and long-term services. Accurate information on the unit cost of allied health and community services is not readily available in Australia however. This systematic review therefore aims to synthesise information available in the literature on the unit costs of allied health and community services that may be utilised by an older person living in Australia. Method A comprehensive search of Medline, Embase, CINAHL, Google Scholar and Google was undertaken. Specialised economic databases were also reviewed. In addition Australian Government Department websites were inspected. The search identified the cost of specified allied health services including: physiotherapy, occupational therapy, dietetics, podiatry, counselling and home nursing. The range of community services included: personal care, meals on wheels, transport costs and domestic services. Where the information was not available, direct contact with service providers was made. Results The number of eligible studies included in the qualitative synthesis was fourty-nine. Calculated hourly rates for Australian allied health services were adjusted to be in equivalent currency and were as follows as follows: physiotherapy $157.75, occupational therapy $150.77, dietetics $163.11, psychological services $165.77, community nursing $105.76 and podiatry $129.72. Conclusions Utilisation of the Medicare Benefits Scheduled fee as a broad indicator of the costs of services, may lead to underestimation of the real costs of services and therefore to inaccuracies in economic evaluation.

Farag Inez

2013-02-01

91

Use of an expert system for energy cost calculations in the pulp and paper industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper, an application for the calculation of energy prices and product energy costs in the pulp and paper industry by using the Xi Plus expert system is presented. The use of expert systems in the energy field and also the Xi Plus expert system and its general features are also discussed. The application has been made after collecting data from several sources. It runs in an IBM AT compatible microcomputer therefore being easily used in mills. The name of the application is PRODUCT ENERGY COST. It has a three level structure: the mill level, the department level and the main equipment level. Currently, the mill level and, in the energy production area, the department level (power plant) and the equipment level (boilers, turbines) are used. The application consists of four knowledge base groups. Altogether there are 52 separate knowledge bases having 534 rules or demons. The knowledge base groups are: BASIC DATA, ENERGY USE, ENERGY PRODUCTION and ENERGY COSTS. The application can be used for various heat and electrical energy price calculations or for energy cost calculations for different pulp and paper products. In this study, the energy prices for kraft pulp, TMP, newsprint and fine paper in different operating conditions and the associated energy costs of the products are calculated. Also, in some cases a sensitivity analysis is done. The expert system is quite suitable for this type of calculation and the method could be further developed for specific industrial needs, e.g. to enhance the energy management systems

1991-01-01

92

Calculation of Total Cost, Tolerance Based on Taguchi?s, Asymmetric Quality Loss Function Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: Current world market force the manufacturing sectors to develop high quality product and process design with minimum possible cost. About 80% of problems in production units may be attributed to 20% of design tolerance causes. While design typically represents the smallest actual cost elements in products (around 5%, it leverages the largest cost influence (around 70%. So design engineers continuously stumble upon problem of design for high quality performance with lower cost. Objectives of this study where to: (i simultaneous selection of design and manufacturing tolerance (ii minimization of total cost (sum of the manufacturing cost and Taguchi?s asymmetric quality cost (iii minimum cost and its machining tolerance. Approach: Rotor key base assembly was considered as case study to optimize the minimization of assembly total cost and machining tolerance. New global nonlinear optimization techniques called pattern search algorithm had been implemented to find optimal tolerance allocation and total cost. Results: In this study minimum cost arrived was 45.15 Cr and its corresponding tolerances for machining process turning, drilling, face milling, face milling and drilling where 0.063, 0.0508, 0.2127, 0.2127, 0.2540 mm respectively at worst case conditions. Conclusion: Results indicated that optimization by integer programming, sequential quadratic programming and exhaustive search, nonlinear programming, genetic algorithm, simulated annealing, fuzzy logic, number set theory and Monte Carlo simulation did not give much least total cost and also predicted that pattern search algorithm was robust method. Second the method, generally termed as concurrent tolerance synthesis was well suited for engineering environment, where high quality products with low total cost were designed and manufactured.

R. S. Kumar

2009-01-01

93

Simple calculation measures NH3 slip for cogeneration units  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports that government regulations restricting NOx emissions for New Stationary Sources have brought about an increased demand for deNOx systems. One such system is selective catalytic reduction (SCR). It uses ammonia in the presence of a catalyst to selectively reduce NOx emissions. Because of inherent inefficiencies in the SCR design, a small amount of NH3 slip becomes an additional exhaust stream pollutant discharged into the atmosphere. This discharge requires monitoring. Normally, ammonia is listed as a pollutant in the environmental permit to construct when an SCR system is specified for NOx reduction. Therefore, a method to report NH3 slip also will be required. Although the Code of Federal Regulations 40 CRF 60 does not specifically addressed NH3 slip, state agencies usually require reporting of NH3 emissions. An ammonia analyzer usually is installed for the measurement. However, other methods to monitor NH3 slip should be considered. One alternative is to calculate it. A cogeneration plant equipped with SCR using a specific configuration of instrumentation hardware and software will allow the NH3 slip to be calculated accurately

1991-01-01

94

Sample size calculation in cost-effectiveness cluster randomized trials: optimal and maximin approaches.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, the optimal sample sizes at the cluster and person levels for each of two treatment arms are obtained for cluster randomized trials where the cost-effectiveness of treatments on a continuous scale is studied. The optimal sample sizes maximize the efficiency or power for a given budget or minimize the budget for a given efficiency or power. Optimal sample sizes require information on the intra-cluster correlations (ICCs) for effects and costs, the correlations between costs and effects at individual and cluster levels, the ratio of the variance of effects translated into costs to the variance of the costs (the variance ratio), sampling and measuring costs, and the budget. When planning, a study information on the model parameters usually is not available. To overcome this local optimality problem, the current paper also presents maximin sample sizes. The maximin sample sizes turn out to be rather robust against misspecifying the correlation between costs and effects at the cluster and individual levels but may lose much efficiency when misspecifying the variance ratio. The robustness of the maximin sample sizes against misspecifying the ICCs depends on the variance ratio. The maximin sample sizes are robust under misspecification of the ICC for costs for realistic values of the variance ratio greater than one but not robust under misspecification of the ICC for effects. Finally, we show how to calculate optimal or maximin sample sizes that yield sufficient power for a test on the cost-effectiveness of an intervention. PMID:25019136

Manju, Md Abu; Candel, Math J J M; Berger, Martijn P F

2014-07-10

95

Calculation of the CO2 Emission Reduction Costs in MARKAL Model  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Possible introduction of nuclear power plants is belong to the supply side long term mitigation options. These options are modeled in MARKAL by describing the technical, cost, availability and environmental data of the corresponding technologies. Model MARKAL (an acronym for MARket ALlocation) is a demand-driven, multi-period linear programming model of the technical energy system that deals with supply and demand side options. It is a cost-minimizing energy-environment system planning model used to investigate long-term responses to different future technological options, emissions limitations and policy scenarios of energy systems. Measures for CO2 reduction can be analyzed with MARKAL model in two ways, like conventional approach and forced introduction of technologies that do not appear in the baseline optimal solution. The latter way is used for calculation of the CO2 emission reduction costs in the case of nuclear power plants candidates in Croatian energy system. The differences in marginal costs are shown in the case of nuclear and coal power plants candidates. This analysis are performed in the scope of complete energy system (not only power sector), from supply side to technologies for energy transformation, and to demand side (sectors for energy consumption). This marginal costs are calculated as the ratio between the differences in discounted total system costs and emissions between the baseline and nuclear (coal) scenario. The results show which option is better from the optimality side of emission reduction, associated costs and possible final energy consumption changes in energy system. (author)

2006-05-21

96

Conceptual approaches to drafting procedure for estimating costs needed for NPP power units decommission  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The article presents a preliminary analysis of possible ways to classify costs required for NPP Units decommissioning purposes, in order to prepare a unified procedure for their assessment in the future

2003-01-01

97

Comparison of unit commitment schedules based on fuel cost and emission minimisation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents a comparative analysis of unit commitment schedule based on minimization of fuel cost and emission separately. The studies have been carried out using dynamic programming approach considering system equality and inequality constraints. The method and comparison are illustrated through a sample system. Comparison shows that the unit commitment schedule for a particular load profile over 24 hours are different in both the cases. Further it has been observed that minimization of fuel cost over entire scheduling period does not minimise emission from the committed units and vice-versa. Therefore attention needs to be paid to solve the unit commitment problem having a dual objective functions considering both fuel cost/operating cost and emission minimization. (author). 9 refs., 7 tabs., 1 fig., 1 ill

1996-05-01

98

Replacement energy costs for nuclear electricity-generating units in the United States: 1997--2001. Volume 4  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report updates previous estimates of replacement energy costs for potential short-term shutdowns of 109 US nuclear electricity-generating units. This information was developed to assist the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in its regulatory impact analyses, specifically those that examine the impacts of proposed regulations requiring retrofitting of or safety modifications to nuclear reactors. Such actions might necessitate shutdowns of nuclear power plants while these changes are being implemented. The change in energy cost represents one factor that the NRC must consider when deciding to require a particular modification. Cost estimates were derived from probabilistic production cost simulations of pooled utility system operations. Factors affecting replacement energy costs, such as random unit failures, maintenance and refueling requirements, and load variations, are treated in the analysis. This report describes an abbreviated analytical approach as it was adopted to update the cost estimates published in NUREG/CR-4012, Vol. 3. The updates were made to extend the time frame of cost estimates and to account for recent changes in utility system conditions, such as change in fuel prices, construction and retirement schedules, and system demand projects

1997-01-01

99

Comparison of basic methods of calculating specific reference cost of thermal power from nuclear power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Three methods are described for calculating specific reference costs of thermal and electric power for a nuclear power plant and a nuclear power plant with heat extraction. The first method is based on the combined division of reference costs of the fuel and capital cost component for the combined generation of heat and electric power. The second, Soviet, method is more suitable for nuclear power and heat plants than for nuclear power plants with heat extraction and is applicable for rough calculations. The Soviet method is based on the ''calorific'' method of dividing cost of heat and electric power which are generated in a nuclear power plant with heat extraction at the ratio of consumed heat in nuclear fuel to supplied heat and electric power. The third method is a modified method under the Decree issued by the Federal Ministry of Fuels and Power no. 2/1983 which evades the highly problematic break-down of costs for heat and electric power. The said method can only be used if the annual use of the heat supply from a nuclear power plant with heat extraction is adequate, i.e., 3000 to 5000 hours. Basic mathematical relations and methods of calculation are given for each method and demonstrated on examples of heat supply from the V-1 and V-2 nuclear power plants to the towns of Trnava, Leopoldov and Hlohovec. (E.S.)

1986-01-01

100

Technical and economic calculation of the cost of fabricating heliostats of solar power plants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Techniques are presented for calculating the cost for fabricating heliostats under conditions of experimental, small-series and mass production. A number of suggestions and organizational-technical measures are examined for achieving the greatest labor productivity and economics of fabricating heliostats.

Zakhidov, R.A.

1982-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

BICYCLE II: a computer code for calculating levelized life-cycle costs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report describes the BICYCLE computer code. BICYCLE was specifically designed to calculate levelized life-cycle costs for plants that produce electricity, heat, gaseous fuels, or liquid fuels. Included are (1) derivations of the equations used by BICYCLE, (2) input instructions, (3) sample case input, and (4) sample case output.

Hardie, R.W.

1981-11-01

102

MONNIE 2000: A description of a model to calculate environmental costs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new model (MONNIE 2000) was developed by the RIVM in the Netherlands in 2000 to calculate environmental costs on a macro level. The model, it's theoretical backgrounds and the technical aspects are described, making it attractive to both the user and the designer of the model. A user manual on how to calculate with the model is included. The basic principle of the model is the use of a harmonised method for calculating environmental costs, which provides the user with an output that can easily be compared with and used in other economic statistics and macro-economic models in the Netherlands. Input for the model are yearly figures on operational costs, investments and savings from environmental measures. With MONNIE 2000 calculated environmental costs per policy target group, economic sector and theme can be shown, With this model the burden of environmental measures on the economic sectors and the environmental expenditures of the government can be presented as well. MONNIE 2000 is developed in Visual Basic and by using Excel as input and output a user-friendly data exchange is realised. 12 refs

2001-01-01

103

Cost calculations at early stages of nuclear research facilities in the nordic countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Nordic countries Denmark, Norway and Sweden, and to some extent also Finland, had very large nuclear research and development programs for a few decades starting in the nineteen fifties. Today, only some of the facilities are in use. Some have been decommissioned and dismantled while others are at various stages of planning for shutdown. The perspective ranges from imminent to several decades. It eventually became realized that considerable planning for the future decommissioning is warranted and that an integral part of this planning is financial, including how financial funds should be acquired, used and allocated over time. This necessitates that accurate and reliable cost estimates be obtained at all stages. However, this is associated with fundamental difficulties and treacherous complexities, especially for the early ones. Eventually, Denmark and Norway decided not to build any nuclear power plants while Finland and Sweden did. This is reflected in the financing where the latter countries have established systems with special funds in which money is being collected now to cover the future costs for the decommissioning of the research facilities. Nonetheless, the needs for planning for the decommissioning of nuclear research facilities are very similar. However, they differ considerably from those of nuclear power reactors, especially with regard to cost calculations. It has become apparent in the course of work that summation types of cost estimation methodologies give rise to large systematic errors if applied at early stages, in which case comparison based assessments are less biased and may be more reliable. Therefore, in order to achieve the required quality of the cost calculations, it is necessary that data and experience from authentic cases be utilized in models for cost calculations. It also implies that this calculation process should include a well adopted learning process. Thus, a Nordic co-operation has been established for the exchange and evaluation of cost-related information on nuclear research facilities. The aim is to identify good practices, accumulate experience, compile data from actual plants and projects, and to derive methodology for cost calculations, especially for early stages. The work includes the following tasks which constitutes the bulk of the present paper: identification of good practice with regard to the following: - strategy and planning; - methodology selection; - radiological surveying; - uncertainty analysis. - descriptions of relevant plants, features and projects: - decommissioning of reactor DR 1 in Denmark; - decommissioning of reactor R 1 in Sweden; - decommissioning of the pilot scale uranium fuel; reprocessing plant in Norway - planning for the future decommissioning of the TRIGA reactor in Finland. - techniques for assessments of costs introduction. (authors)

2007-09-02

104

Calculation Of Recycle And Open Cycle Nuclear Fuel Cost Using Lagistase Method  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

. To be presented the calculation of recycle and open cycle nuclear fuel cost for LWR type that have net power of 600 MWe. This calculation using LEGECOST method developed by IAEA which have characteristics,where i.e. money is stated in constant money (no inflation),discount rate is equalized with interest rate and not consider tax and depreciation.As a conclusion is that open cycle nuclear fuel cost more advantage because it is cheaper than recycle nuclear fuel cost. This is caused that at present, reprocessing process disadvantage because it has not found yet more efficient and cheaper method, besides price of fresh uranium is still cheap. In future, the cost of recycle nuclear fuel cycle will be more competitive toward the cost of open nuclear fuel cycle if is found technology of reprocessing process that more advance, efficient and cheap. Increase of Pu use for reactor fuel especially MOX type will rise Pu price that finally will decrease the cost of recycle nuclear fuel cycle

2002-01-01

105

Extension of the COSYMA-ECONOMICS module - cost calculations based on different economic sectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The COSYMA program system for evaluating the off-site consequences of accidental releases of radioactive material to the atmosphere includes an ECONOMICS module for assessing economic consequences. The aim of this module is to convert various consequences (radiation-induced health effects and impacts resulting from countermeasures) caused by an accident into the common framework of economic costs; this allows different effects to be expressed in the same terms and thus to make these effects comparable. With respect to the countermeasure 'movement of people', the dominant cost categories are 'loss-of-income costs' and 'costs of lost capital services'. In the original version of the ECONOMICS module these costs are calculated on the basis of the total number of people moved. In order to take into account also regional or local economic peculiarities of a nuclear site, the ECONOMICS module has been extended: Calculation of the above mentioned cost categories is now based on the number of employees in different economic sectors in the affected area. This extension of the COSYMA ECONOMICS module is described in more detail. (orig.)

1994-01-01

106

Asset management and the calculation of capital costs for mains-usage fees  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article discusses the requirements stipulated in the Swiss Electricity Supply Law that capital costs for all mains-levels must be declared on a yearly basis. The costs are calculated from current market value and depreciation according to technical lifetime. The authors examine the requirements placed on the declaration of capital costs and how they are calculated. The detailed book-keeping needed is discussed as is the large volume of data involved. The role of existing mains information systems is looked at, as are methods of assessing current assets. Experience gained in practice is discussed: This is taken as the basis for future processes. Utilities participating in the project and a number of solutions available are noted

2007-01-01

107

Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Colonization in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Increases Total Hospital Costs  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections are increasing in neonatal intensive care units. We determined the economic impact of isolating and cohorting MRSA colonized neonates on total hospital cost at a 49 bed, level III-IV Neonatal Intensive Care Unit.

2009-01-01

108

Electronic medical records and cost efficiency in hospital medical-surgical units.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examines the impact of electronic medical records (EMRs) on cost efficiency in hospital medical-surgical units. Using panel data on California hospitals from 1998 to 2007, we employed stochastic frontier analysis (SFA) to estimate the relationships between EMR implementation and the cost inefficiency of medical-surgical units. We categorized EMR implementation into three stages based on the level of sophistication. We also examined the effects of specific EMR systems on cost inefficiency. Our SFA models addressed potential bias from unobserved heterogeneity and heteroskedasticity. EMR Stages 1 and 2, nursing documentation, electronic medication administration records, and clinical decision support were associated with significantly higher inefficiency. PMID:20812460

Furukawa, Michael F; Raghu, T S; Shao, Benjamin B M

2010-01-01

109

Economic impacts of oil spills: Spill unit costs for tankers, pipelines, refineries, and offshore facilities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The impacts of oil spills -- ranging from the large, widely publicized Exxon Valdez tanker incident to smaller pipeline and refinery spills -- have been costly to both the oil industry and the public. For example, the estimated costs to Exxon of the Valdez tanker spill are on the order of $4 billion, including $2.8 billion (in 1993 dollars) for direct cleanup costs and $1.125 billion (in 1992 dollars) for settlement of damages claims caused by the spill. Application of contingent valuation costs and civil lawsuits pending in the State of Alaska could raise these costs appreciably. Even the costs of the much smaller 1991 oil spill at Texaco's refinery near Anacortes, Washington led to costs of $8 to 9 million. As a result, inexpensive waming, response and remediation technologies could lower oil spin costs, helping both the oil industry, the associated marine industries, and the environment. One means for reducing the impact and costs of oil spills is to undertake research and development on key aspects of the oil spill prevention, warming, and response and remediation systems. To target these funds to their best use, it is important to have sound data on the nature and size of spills, their likely occurrence and their unit costs. This information could then allow scarce R ampersand D dollars to be spent on areas and activities having the largest impact. This report is intended to provide the ''unit cost'' portion of this crucial information. The report examines the three key components of the US oil supply system, namely, tankers and barges; pipelines and refineries; and offshore production facilities. The specific purpose of the study was to establish the unit costs of oil spills. By manipulating this key information into a larger matrix that includes the size and frequency of occurrence of oil spills, it will be possible' to estimate the likely future impacts, costs, and sources of oil spills

1993-01-01

110

Unit Commitment Considering Regional Synchronous Reactive Power Requirements : Costs and Effects  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Highly renewable power systems may have to impose regional minima on the number of online synchronous units to ensure appropriate availability of controllable reactive power. Given the declining net loads associated with increasing wind penetration levels, these regional constraints are anticipated to come into effect with greater frequency. Such constraints have a tangible effect on the total cost of unit commitment schedules, with out-of-merit units being committed solely ...

Cuffe, Paul; Lannoye, Eamonn; Keane, Andrew; Tuohy, Aidan

2012-01-01

111

Economics of immunization information systems in the United States: assessing costs and efficiency  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the United States' national health objectives for 2010 is that 95% of children aged Methods Data were collected from a national sampling frame of the 56 states/cities that received federal immunization grants under U.S. Public Health Service Act 317b and completed the federal 1999 Immunization Registry Annual Report. The sampling frame was stratified by IIS functional status, children's enrollment in the IIS, and whether the IIS had been developed as an independent system or was integrated into a larger system. These sites self-reported IIS developmental and operational program costs for calendar years 1998–2002 using a standardized data collection tool and underwent on-site interviews to verify reported data with information from the state/city financial management system and other financial records. A parametric cost-per-patient-record (CPR model was estimated. The model assessed the impact of labor and non-labor resources used in development and operations tasks, as well as the impact of information technology, local providers' participation and compliance with federal IIS performance standards (e.g., ensuring the confidentiality and security of information, ensure timely vaccination data at the time of patient encounter, and produce official immunization records. Given the number of records minimizing CPR, the additional amount of resources needed to meet national health goals for the year 2010 was also calculated. Results Estimated CPR was as high as $10.30 and as low as $0.09 in operating IIS. About 20% of IIS had between 2.9 to 3.2 million records and showed CPR estimates of $0.09. Overall, CPR was highly sensitive to local providers' participation. To achieve the 2010 goals, additional aggregated costs were estimated to be $75.6 million nationwide. Conclusion Efficiently increasing the number of records in IIS would require additional resources and careful consideration of various strategies to minimize CPR, such as boosting providers' participation.

Urquhart Gary A

2006-08-01

112

Calculation of the cost of Generating Power in a Fast Reactor by the Discounting Method  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A method of calculating the discounted cost of fuel cycles, using a computer, was presented during the 2nd Nuclear Meeting of the Forum Atómico Español held in Madrid during 27-28 October 1966. This method had been developed for optimization studies in relation to a 1000-MW(e) fast reactor under the ''Fast Reactors'' partnership agreement concluded between Euratom and the Belgian Government. The object of the paper is to describe how the method is applied and to analyse the initial results obtained with it. The calculational code, for use with an IBM 360 computer, consists of two parts. In the first part, the reactor characteristics necessary for the economic computations are determined; these consist essentially of the initial and final composition of the fuel (isotopic composition, plutonium content, proportion of inert material, fuel weight) and the time during which the fuel remains in the reactor. These characteristics are computed for each zone of the core, and of the axial and radial breeding blankets. In the second part of the code, the fuel cycle characteristics are first calculated: doubling time and various factors required for feasibility studies (loading and unloading factors, inventory factors in terms of natural uranium or 239Pu equivalent). The various specific costs are then determined by means of sub-routines. The discounting calculations are performed for each reactor zone and combined into two separate groups: costs discounted to the time of reactor start-up and costs discounted to shut-down. Two approaches are then possible, depending on whether the fissile material is purchased or leased from a national or international organization (this in turn depends on whether private ownership of fissile materials is permitted). The costs, expressed in kWh, are then grouped by zone and by type of operation (transport, manufacture, etc.), and sub-divided into fixed and variable costs, and operating and capital costs. The method has been applied to the German Na-1 reactor, and the results are extremely interesting. The cost breakdown shows the Importance of capital costs in the fuel cycle of a fast reactor. The Influence of various technical and economic parameters is brought out; for example, bum-up (the effect of which can no longer be represented by a simple hyperbola), loading frequency, the rate used for discounting and the price of plutonium. (author)

1967-09-01

113

Production process in radiation therapy and research into cost-inducers in two radiation oncology units  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Production process in radiation therapy and research into cost-inducers in two radiation oncology units. Purpose. - To analyse the process of outpatient radiation therapy by dividing it into elementary acts, and to determine the cost-inducers (staff and machine time, equipment) in order to enhance the value of radiotherapy activity. Material and methods. - The care process was analysed from 1 June 1997 to 1 September 1997, in two institutions (Centre hospitalo-universitaire de Saint Etienne and centre de Lutte contre le Cancer de Lyon), in terms of consumption of human and equipment means, representing a cost for the care institution. The valorization was expressed in physics units for material means, and in time units for human and heavy equipment. Parameters able to modify the consumption of means had been defined. The following data had been collected for each activity: patient characteristics, characteristics of the process, specific parameters of each activity, data related to the care staff and care unit. (authors)

1997-06-01

114

Costos reales de tratamientos intensivos por paciente y día cama / Real daily costs of patients admitted to public intensive care units  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish [...] Abstract in english Background: Patient care costs in intensive care units are high and should be considered in medical decision making. Aim: To calculate the real disease related costs for patients admitted to intensive care units of public hospitals. Material and Methods: Using an activity associated costs analysis, [...] the expenses of 716 patients with a mean age of 56 years, mean APACHE score of20 (56% males), admitted to intensive care units of two regional public hospitals, were calculated. Patients were classified according to their underlying disease. Results: The costs per day of hospital stay, in Chilean pesos, were $ 426,265for sepsis, $ 423,300for cardiovascular diseases, $ 418,329 for kidney diseases, $ 404,873 for trauma, $ 398,913 for respiratory diseases, $ 379,455for digestive diseases and $ 371,801 for neurologic disease. Human resources and medications determined up to 85 and 12% of costs, respectively. Patients with sepsis and trauma use 32 and 19% of intensive care unit resources, respectively. Twenty seven percent of resources are invested in patients that eventually died. Conclusions: A real cost benefit analysis should be performed to optimize resource allocation in intensive care units.

Sandra, Alvear; Jorge, Canteros; Juan, Jara; Patricia, Rodríguez.

115

A calculation program for harvesting and transportation costs of energy wood; Energiapuun korjuun ja kuljetuksen kustannuslaskentaohjelmisto  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

VTT Energy is compiling a large and versatile calculation program for harvesting and transportation costs of energy wood. The work has been designed and will be carried out in cooperation with Metsaeteho and Finntech Ltd. The program has been realised in Windows surroundings using SQLWindows graphical database application development system, using the SQLBase relational database management system. The objective of the research is to intensify and create new possibilities for comparison of the utilization costs and the profitability of integrated energy wood production chains with each other inside the chains

Kuitto, P.J.

1996-12-31

116

Cost calculations for decommissioning and dismantling of nuclear research facilities, Phase 1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Today, it is recommended that planning of decommission should form an integral part of the activities over the life cycle of a nuclear facility. However, no actual international guideline on cost calculations exists at present. Intuitively, it might be tempting to regard costs for decommissioning of a nuclear facility as similar to those of any other plant. However, the presence of radionuclide contamination may imply that the cost is one or more orders of magnitude higher as compared to a corresponding inactive situation, the actual ratio being highly dependent on the level of contamination as well as design features and use of the facility in question. Moreover, the variations in such prerequisites are much larger than for nuclear power plants. This implies that cost calculations cannot be performed with any accuracy or credibility without a relatively detailed consideration of the radiological and other prerequisites. Application of inadequate methodologies especially at early stages has often lead to large underestimations. The goals of the project and the achievements described in the report are as follows: 1) Advice on good practice with regard to: 1a) Strategy and planning; 1b) Methodology selection; 1c) Radiological surveying; 1d) Uncertainty analysis; 2) Techniques for assessment of costs: 2a) Cost structuring; 2b) Cost estimation methodologies; 3) Compilation of data for plants, state of planning, organisations, etc.; 3a) General descriptions of relevant features of the nuclear research facilities; 3b) General plant specific data; 3c) Example of the decommissioning of the R1 research reactor in Sweden; 3d) Example of the decommissioning of the DR1 research reactor in Denmark. In addition, but not described in the present report, is the establishment of a Nordic network in the area including an internet based expert system. It should be noted that the project is planned to exist for at least three years and that the present report is an interim one covering the work for approximately the first 16 months. (au)

2006-01-01

117

Cost calculations for decommissioning and dismantling of nuclear research facilities, Phase 1  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Today, it is recommended that planning of decommission should form an integral part of the activities over the life cycle of a nuclear facility. However, no actual international guideline on cost calculations exists at present. Intuitively, it might be tempting to regard costs for decommissioning of a nuclear facility as similar to those of any other plant. However, the presence of radionuclide contamination may imply that the cost is one or more orders of magnitude higher as compared to a corresponding inactive situation, the actual ratio being highly dependent on the level of contamination as well as design features and use of the facility in question. Moreover, the variations in such prerequisites are much larger than for nuclear power plants. This implies that cost calculations cannot be performed with any accuracy or credibility without a relatively detailed consideration of the radiological and other prerequisites. Application of inadequate methodologies especially at early stages has often lead to large underestimations. The goals of the project and the achievements described in the report are as follows: 1) Advice on good practice with regard to: 1a) Strategy and planning; 1b) Methodology selection; 1c) Radiological surveying; 1d) Uncertainty analysis; 2) Techniques for assessment of costs: 2a) Cost structuring; 2b) Cost estimation methodologies; 3) Compilation of data for plants, state of planning, organisations, etc.; 3a) General descriptions of relevant features of the nuclear research facilities; 3b) General plant specific data; 3c) Example of the decommissioning of the R1 research reactor in Sweden; 3d) Example of the decommissioning of the DR1 research reactor in Denmark. In addition, but not described in the present report, is the establishment of a Nordic network in the area including an internet based expert system. It should be noted that the project is planned to exist for at least three years and that the present report is an interim one covering the work for approximately the first 16 months. (au)

Andersson, Inga [StudsvikNuclear AB (Sweden); Backe, S. [Institute for Energy Technology (Norway); Iversen, Klaus [Danish Decommissioning (Denmark); Lindskog, S [Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (Sweden); Salmenhaara, S. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland (Finland); Sjoeblom, R. [Tekedo AB (Sweden)

2006-11-15

118

Impact of pharmacist’s interventions on cost of drug therapy in intensive care unit. Pharmacy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Pharmacist participation in patient care team has been shown to reduce incidence of adverse drug events, and overall drug costs. However, impact of pharmacist participation in the multidisciplinary intensive care team on cost saving and cost avoidance has little been studied in Thailand.Objective: To describe the characteristics of the interventions and to determine pharmacist’s interventions led to change in cost saving and cost avoidance in intensive care unit (ICU. Methods: A Prospective, standard care-controlled study design was used to compare cost saving and cost avoidance of patients receiving care from patient care team (including a clinical pharmacist versus standard care (no pharmacist on team. All patients admitted to the medical intensive care unit 1 and 2 during the same period were included in the study. The outcome measures were overall drug cost and length of ICU stay. Interventions made by the pharmacist in the study group were documented. The analyses of acceptance and cost saving and/or cost avoidance were also performed. Results: A total of 65 patients were admitted to either ICU 1 or 2 during the 5 week- study period. The pharmacist participated in patient care and made total of 127 interventions for the ICU-1 team. Ninety-eight percent of the interventions were accepted and implemented by physicians. The difference of overall drug cost per patient between two groups was 182.01 USD (1,076.37 USD in study group and 1,258.38 USD in control group, p=0.138. The average length of ICU stay for the intervention group and the control group was not significantly different (7.16 days vs. 6.18 days, p=0.995. The 125 accepted interventions were evaluated for cost saving and cost avoidance. Pharmacist’s interventions yielded a total of 1,971.43 USD from drug cost saving and 294.62 USD from adverse drug event cost avoidance. The net cost saved and avoided from pharmacist interventions was 2,266.05 USD. Interventions involving antibiotic use accounted for the largest economic impact (1,958.61 USD. Conclusions: Although the statistical was not significant, having a pharmacist participated in ICU patient care team tend to reduced overall drug cost, cost saving, and cost avoidance. The largest cost impact and intervention requirement involved antibiotic use.

Saokaew S

2009-06-01

119

UNITBURN: a computer code for burnup calculation of a unit fuel cell  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A computer code UNITBURN has been developed for performing burnup calculation of a unit fuel cell. This code calculates neutron flux distribution in a cell by SN-PL method with Multi Group Constants Library (MGCL) and estimates buildup and depletion of nuclides in a fuel pellet. It also calculates nuclear few group constants averaged over a cell for calculation of fuel bundle or whole reactor core, and one group neutron cross sections at each burnup for nuclide generation and decay calculation code COMRAD. This report is a user's manual for UNITBURN. (author)

1990-01-01

120

Hospital costs of central line-associated bloodstream infections and cost-effectiveness of closed vs. open infusion containers. The case of Intensive Care Units in Italy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Objectives The aim was to evaluate direct health care costs of central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSI) and to calculate the cost-effectiveness ratio of closed fully collapsible plastic intravenous infusion containers vs. open (glass) infusion containers. Methods A two-year, prospective case-control study was undertaken in four intensive care units in an Italian teaching hospital. Patients with CLABSI (cases) and patients without CLABSI (...

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Methodology for Calculating Cost-per-Mile for Current and Future Vehicle Powertrain Technologies, with Projections to 2024: Preprint  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Currently, several cost-per-mile calculators exist that can provide estimates of acquisition and operating costs for consumers and fleets. However, these calculators are limited in their ability to determine the difference in cost per mile for consumer versus fleet ownership, to calculate the costs beyond one ownership period, to show the sensitivity of the cost per mile to the annual vehicle miles traveled (VMT), and to estimate future increases in operating and ownership costs. Oftentimes, these tools apply a constant percentage increase over the time period of vehicle operation, or in some cases, no increase in direct costs at all over time. A more accurate cost-per-mile calculator has been developed that allows the user to analyze these costs for both consumers and fleets. The calculator was developed to allow simultaneous comparisons of conventional light-duty internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles, mild and full hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), and fuel cell vehicles (FCVs). This paper is a summary of the development by the authors of a more accurate cost-per-mile calculator that allows the user to analyze vehicle acquisition and operating costs for both consumer and fleets. Cost-per-mile results are reported for consumer-operated vehicles travelling 15,000 miles per year and for fleets travelling 25,000 miles per year.

Ruth, M.; Timbario, T. A.; Timbario, T. J.; Laffen, M.

2011-01-01

122

A model for calculating costs of hospital-acquired infections: an Italian experience  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

PURPOSE: Many approaches on the economic aspect of hospital acquired infections (HAIs) have two major limitations: first, the lack of distinction between resources attributable to the management of HAI and resources absorbed by the main clinical problem for which the patient was hospitalized, and second, the lack of an adequate method for calculating the relative costs. These assume that the resources used by HAI can be determined by measuring the extra days of length of days (LOS) of infecte...

Zotti, Carla Maria; Gianino, Maria Michela

2007-01-01

123

POPCYCLE: a computer code for calculating nuclear and fossil plant levelized life-cycle power costs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

POPCYCLE, a computer code designed to calculate levelized life-cycle power costs for nuclear and fossil electrical generating plants is described. Included are (1) derivations of the equations and a discussion of the methodology used by POPCYCLE, (2) a description of the input required by the code, (3) a listing of the input for a sample case, and (4) the output for a sample case

1982-01-01

124

FAPMAN-IC: a program module calculating the incremental fuel cost of LWR power stations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The fuel loading and operation planning code FAPMAN-8 has been simplified as an independent subroutine module FAPMAN-IC, that is callable from the more overall system integration model like ORSIM. The module calculates the fuel and associated incremental fuel cost for LWR stations, given the cycle operation schedule, cycle energy demand and plant thermal efficiency. Summary of the problem to be solved and interface to ORSIM were presented with sample input and printout. (author)

1980-01-01

125

A Geographical-Origin–Destination Model for Calculating the Cost of Multimodal Forest-Fuel Transportation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As a consequence of increasing demand for wood fuels, the management of forest-fuel production chains has become an important logistics issue in FinlandandSweden. Truck-based transportation has been the dominant method in fuel supply from the areas around power plants. However, increasing demand has led to enlargement of supply areas and greater variety in supply methods, including also railway and waterway transportation. This study presents a GIS-based calculation model suitable for cost calculations for power plants’ forest-fuel supply chains. The model has multimodal properties—i.e., it provides transfer of forest-fuel loads between transportation modes—and enables case-specific adjustment of transportation and material-handling cost parameters. The functionality of the model is examined with a case study focusing on a region of intense forest-fuel use. The results indicate that truck transportation is competitive with railway transportation also for long transport distances. However, increasing the proportion of multimodal transportation for other than economic reasons (e.g., for supply security could be reasonable, since the impact on total supply costs is marginal. In addition to honing of the parameters related to biomass availability and transport costs, the model should be developed through inclusion of other means of transportation, such as roundwood carriers.

Tapio Ranta

2013-02-01

126

Audit Calculations of LBLOCA for Ulchin Unit 1 and 2 Power Up rate  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The KINS-Realistic Evaluation Model (KINS-REM) was developed for the independent audit calculation in 1991, and the code accuracy and statistical method have been improved. To support the licensing review and to confirm the validity of licensee's calculation, regulatory auditing calculations have been also conducted. Currently, the modification of Ulchin 1 and 2 operating license for 4.5% power up rate is under review. In this study, the regulatory audit calculation for LBLOCA of Ulchin Unit 1 and 2 with 4.5% power up rate was performed by applying KINS-REM. In this study, the regulatory audit calculation for LBLOCA of Ulchin Unit 1 and 2 with 4.5% power up rate was performed by applying KINS-REM. It is confirmed that the analysis results of LBLOCA for Ulchin 1 and 2 power up rate meets the PCT acceptance criteria.

Kang, Donggu; Huh, Byunggil; Yoo, Seunghunl; Yang, Chaeyong; Seul, Kwangwon [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

2013-05-15

127

Audit Calculations of LBLOCA for Ulchin Unit 1 and 2 Power Up rate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The KINS-Realistic Evaluation Model (KINS-REM) was developed for the independent audit calculation in 1991, and the code accuracy and statistical method have been improved. To support the licensing review and to confirm the validity of licensee's calculation, regulatory auditing calculations have been also conducted. Currently, the modification of Ulchin 1 and 2 operating license for 4.5% power up rate is under review. In this study, the regulatory audit calculation for LBLOCA of Ulchin Unit 1 and 2 with 4.5% power up rate was performed by applying KINS-REM. In this study, the regulatory audit calculation for LBLOCA of Ulchin Unit 1 and 2 with 4.5% power up rate was performed by applying KINS-REM. It is confirmed that the analysis results of LBLOCA for Ulchin 1 and 2 power up rate meets the PCT acceptance criteria

2013-05-01

128

The economic cost of senile dementia in the United States, 1985.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Senile dementia is a progressive and irreversible decline of mental functions. The symptoms are mental confusion, memory loss, disorientation, cognitive decline, and inappropriate social behavior. It is one of the most common, costly, and distressful diseases among the elderly in the United States. Information on the economic costs of senile dementia is essential for determining research priorities and the allocation of resources to support aging and medical research. Economic consequences, s...

1988-01-01

129

Unit labor cost and productivity recovery under non neutral technical change  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This document proposes a new decomposition of unit labor cost changes (ULC) in terms of efficiency, technical progress and capital deepening. This decomposition is applied to data for western European countries and the US. Results show that sustained growth rates of labor compensation and poor labor productivity gains lead to large losses in cost competitiveness. The poor productivity performance is explained by low technical progress and even technical regress. In addition, it is shown that ...

Dimaria, Charles-henri; Peroni, Chiara

2012-01-01

130

Kalman-Filter Based Join Cost for Unit-Selection Speech Synthesis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We introduce a new method for computing join cost in unit-selection speech synthesis which uses a linear dynamical model (also known as a Kalman filter) to model line spectral frequency trajectories. The model uses an underlying subspace in which it makes smooth, continuous trajectories. This subspace can be seen as an analogy for underlying articulator movement. Once trained, the model can be used to measure how well concatenated speech segments join together. The objective join cost is base...

Vepa, Jithendra; King, Simon

2003-01-01

131

Break-Even Cost for Residential Photovoltaics in the United States: Key Drivers and Sensitivities  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Grid parity--or break-even cost--for photovoltaic (PV) technology is defined as the point where the cost of PV-generated electricity equals the cost of electricity purchased from the grid. Break-even cost is expressed in $/W of an installed system. Achieving break-even cost is a function of many variables. Consequently, break-even costs vary by location and time for a country, such as the United States, with a diverse set of resources, electricity prices, and other variables. In this report, we analyze PV break-even costs for U.S. residential customers. We evaluate some key drivers of grid parity both regionally and over time. We also examine the impact of moving from flat to time-of-use (TOU) rates, and we evaluate individual components of the break-even cost, including effect of rate structure and various incentives. Finally, we examine how PV markets might evolve on a regional basis considering the sensitivity of the break-even cost to four major drivers: technical performance, financing parameters, electricity prices and rates, and policies. We find that local incentives rather than ?technical? parameters are in general the key drivers of the break-even cost of PV. Additionally, this analysis provides insight about the potential viability of PV markets.

Denholm, P.; Margolis, R. M.; Ong, S.; Roberts, B.

2009-12-01

132

Subjective Evaluation of Join Cost Functions Used in Unit Selection Speech Synthesis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In our previous papers, we have proposed join cost functions derived from spectral distances, which have good correlations with perceptual scores obtained for a range of concatenation discontinuities. To further validate their ability to predict concatenation discontinuities, we have chosen the best three spectral distances and evaluated them subjectively in a listening test. The unit sequences for synthesis stimuli are obtained from a state-of-the-art unit selection text-to-speech system: rV...

Vepa, Jithendra; King, Simon

2004-01-01

133

Levelised unit electricity cost comparison of alternate technologies for baseload generation in Ontario  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report describes the options available to Ontario for generating extra baseload power in terms of the lifetime cost of a new plant. Nuclear and coal-fired plants are characterized as high capital cost, low operating cost which makes them suitable for baseload operation. In relation to these, gas-fired plants incur lower capital costs, but higher operating costs, making them suitable for either baseload or peak load. The key concept is the levelised unit electricity cost (LUEC). This is the wholesale cost of electricity taking into account all costs over the lifetime of the plant, such as financing, debt repayment, decommissioning, and income tax. This report assumed two different basic financing assumptions. The first involved financing through private investors, while the second involved financing through the public purse. Each of the three generating options is considered under each of these two financing possibilities. The authors believe that the public model, because it excludes transfer payments such as financing and taxes, represents the true cost of the technology more closely. 55 refs., 22 tabs., 12 figs.

Ayers, M.; MacRae, M.; Stogran, M. [Canadian Energy Research Inst., Calgary, AB (Canada)

2004-08-01

134

Cost-effectiveness of pazopanib in advanced soft tissue sarcoma in the United kingdom.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the phase III PALETTE trial, pazopanib improved progression-free survival (PFS) compared with placebo in patients with advanced/metastatic soft tissue sarcomas (mSTS) who had received prior chemotherapy. We used a multistate model to estimate expected PFS, overall survival (OS), lifetime STS treatment costs, and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) for patients receiving pazopanib, placebo, trabectedin, ifosfamide, or gemcitabine plus docetaxel as second-line mSTS therapies. The cost-effectiveness of pazopanib was expressed as the incremental costs per QALY gained. Estimates of PFS/OS, adverse events, and utilities for pazopanib and placebo were from the PALETTE trial. Estimates of relative effectiveness of the other comparators were from an unadjusted indirect comparison versus pazopanib. Costs were from published sources. Pazopanib is estimated to increase QALYs by 0.128 and costs by £7,976 versus placebo; cost per QALY gained with pazopanib versus placebo is estimated to be £62,000. Compared with the other chemotherapies, pazopanib provides similar QALYs at a lower cost. Pazopanib may not be cost-effective versus placebo but may be cost-effective versus the most commonly used active treatments, although this conclusion is uncertain. Given the unmet need for effective treatments for mSTS, pazopanib may be an appropriate alternative to some currently used medications in the United Kingdom. PMID:25024640

Amdahl, Jordan; Manson, Stephanie C; Isbell, Robert; Chit, Ayman; Diaz, Jose; Lewis, Lily; Delea, Thomas E

2014-01-01

135

Personal Finance Calculations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Contains explanations and examples of mathematical calculations for a secondary level course on personal finance. How to calculate total monetary cost of an item, monthly payments, different types of interest, annual percentage rates, and unit pricing is explained. (RM)

Argo, Mark

1982-01-01

136

Calculation of scatter calibration factor for 60Co therapy unit with monte-carlo method  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Three scatter calibration factors of 60Co therapy unit were calculated by using Monte-Carlo method. The effects of radiation field and depth to total scatter calibration factor Sc,p and the phantom scatter calibration factor Sp of 60Co therapy unit were also calculated. The calculating results agree well with the measuring results. Sc,p and Sp increase with the increasing of the fields. Sc,p and Sp have increasing trend with depth increasing while beam field larger than 10 cm x 10 cm. Sc,p and Sp have decreasing trend with depth increasing while beam field smaller than 10 cm x 10 cm. Scatter calibration factor is not be overlooked in calculating the prescription dose. Monte-Carlo method is able to establish a set of accurate and comprehensive scatter calibration factor, and provides the basis of clinical use, quality assurance and quality control for radiotherapy. (authors)

2011-02-01

137

Economic burden of mucormycosis in the United States: can a vaccine be cost-effective?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Mucormycosis is a life-threatening infection which causes unacceptably high morbidity and mortality despite treatment. Therefore, a vaccine to prevent mucormycosis is desirable. A major barrier to developing an anti-mucormycosis vaccine is the perception that such a vaccine would not be cost-effective to deploy because the disease is rare. We used data from a recent retrospective study to calculate the annual cost to the US healthcare system caused by mucormycosis infections. We created a mod...

Ibrahim, Ashraf S.; Edwards, John E.; Bryant, Richard; Spellberg, Brad

2009-01-01

138

The Idaho dedicated education unit model: cost-effective, high-quality education.  

Science.gov (United States)

Faculty face many challenges in delivering clinical education, including faculty availability, the complexity of the faculty role, and limited clinical placements. Dedicated education units (DEUs) are being explored as alternatives to traditional clinical placement models. The authors describe the successful development of a DEU that resulted in positive student outcomes at reduced cost to both the school and the medical center. PMID:23086072

Springer, Pamela J; Johnson, Patricia; Lind, Bonnie; Walker, Eldon; Clavelle, Joanne; Jensen, Nancy

2012-01-01

139

Correction of manucal monitor unit calculation for asymmetric fields using varian enhanced dynamic wedge  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To investigate the correction of manual monitor unit calculation for asymmetric fields using the Varian enhanced dynamic wedge. Methods: Monitor unit (MU) was calculated when the field sizes ranged from 6 cm x 6 cm to 20 cm x 20 cm at a depth of 5 cm using Varian Eclipse and both 6 MV and 10 MV X-rays data from Varian Clinac 23EX for all seven available EDW angles, including 10 degree 15 degree, 20 degree, 25 degree, 30 degree, 45 degree and 60 degree The field size was kept fixed, and the distance between geometry center of field and isocenter was increased in increments of 1 cm, ranging from -9 cm to 4 cm. When the field size was the same, the correction factor was defined as the ratio of MU calculated for asymmetric field to monitor unit calculated for symmetric field. To ensure the correction factors obtained above could be used in routine manual calculation for EDW fields, measurements were made at a depth of 5 cm for 30 degree and 45 degree EDW with field size of 10 cm x 10 cm using 6 MV X-rays. Results: The correction factor was independent of field dimensions, so the average value was adopted to make practical calculation. Without correction, the maximum error was 18% for 30 degree, and 30% for 45. After the results of monitor unit calculation were corrected, the largest error was - 1.8% and - 1.7% for 30 degree and 45 degree EDW, respectively. The magnitude of errors was within the clinical tolerance limits. Conclusions: For asymmetric EDW fields, there is very large difference between the prescribed dose by manual calculation using EDW factors measured for symmetric fields and that delivered during treatment in order to obtain correct dose to reference point. The errors are decreased to be acceptable after correction. The method of correction is simple and independent of machine specific beam parameters. (authors)

2010-02-01

140

Applying graphics processor units to Monte Carlo dose calculation in radiation therapy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We investigate the potential in using of using a graphics processor unit (GPU) for Monte-Carlo (MC)-based radiation dose calculations. The percent depth dose (PDD) of photons in a medium with known absorption and scattering coefficients is computed using a MC simulation running on both a standard CPU and a GPU. We demonstrate that the GPU's capability for massive parallel processing provides a significant acceleration in the MC calculation, and offers a significant advantage for distributed s...

Bakhtiari, M.; Malhotra, H.; Jones, M. D.; Chaudhary, V.; Walters, J. P.; Nazareth, D.

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Market Value Margin calculations under the Cost of Capital approach within a Bayesian chain ladder framework  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the Solvency II framework, insurance companies need to calculate the Best Estimate valuation of Liabilities (BEL) and the Market Value Margin (MVM) for non-hedgeable insurance-technical risks. The Cost-of-Capital approach defi?nes the MVM as the present value of the current and future Solvency Capital Requirement (SCR) of the non-hedgeable risks to protect against adverse developments in the run-off of the insurance liabilities. However the SCR at time t itself depends on the increase...

Robert, Christian

2011-01-01

142

Simulation analysis of Shadow Factor and unit cost in the booster mirror arrangement for a solar panel  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A simulation and experimental study was attempted to increase the power output from a 75 W mono and multi crystalline solar panel using V Trough solar concentrators, thus estimating its ideal concentration ratio for domestic applications in the absence of automatic tracking. The net radiation falling on the panel due to reflection from concentrators and the shading caused by the reflectors was simulated using TRACE PRO and PV Syst Software, calculating the net power output, losses and output energy. Through the simulated values, the calculated unit cost of energy for the concentrator arrangement with 1 X, 2 X, 3 X and 4 X configurations are found to be 0.81, 0.70, 0.74 and 0.75 $/kWh respectively for the 1st year. It is estimated that 2 X configuration having a surface temperature of less than 70°C, CO2 savings of 28 % higher than the reference model and a unit cost of 0.7 $/kWh is the optimum concentration ratio for a solar V Trough concentrator.

Nivas.V

2013-10-01

143

Independent calculation of the monitor units and times of treatment in radiotherapy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this work, an independent verification system of calculations in radiotherapy was developed and applied, using Visual BasicTM programming language. The computational program performs calculations of monitor units and treatment time, based on the algorithm of manual calculation. The calculations executed for the independent system had initially been compared with the manual calculations performed by the medical physicists of the Institute of Radiotherapy of the Hospital das Clinicas da Universidade de Sao Paulo. In this step, the results found for more than two hundred fields studied were similar to those found in the literature; deviations larger than +- 1% were found only in five cases involving errors in manual calculation. The application of the independent system, in this stage, could have identified errors up to +- 2,4%. Based on these data, the system was validated for use in clinical routine. In a second step, calculations were compared with calculations realized by the treatment computerized planning system CadPIanTM. When, again, the results were similar to those published in other works allowing to obtain levels of acceptance of the discrepancies between the calculations executed for the independent system and the calculations developed from the planning system, separated by anatomical region, as recommended according by the recent literature. For beams of 6 MV, the levels of acceptance for deviations between the calculations of monitor units, separated by treatment region were the following; breast +- 1.7%, head and neck +2%; hypophysis +- 2.2%; pelvis +- 4 . 1% and thorax +- 1.5%. For beams of 15 MV, the level suggested for pelvis was of +- 4.5%. (author)

2005-01-01

144

Calculation method for the seasonal performance of heat pump compact units and validation. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This comprehensive final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at compact heat pump units that have been developed for the heating of low energy consumption houses built to MINERGIE or MINERGIE-P standards. These units, which combine the functions of space heating, domestic hot water preparation and ventilation in one unit are described. A testing procedure developed at the University of Applied Science in Lucerne, Switzerland, using a test rig for the measurement of the seasonal performance factor (SPF) is described. A calculation method based on temperature classes for the calculation of the SPF of combined heat pump systems for space heating and domestic hot water preparation that was developed by the Institute of Energy in Buildings at the University of Applied Sciences Northwestern Switzerland is examined. Two pilot plants allowing detailed field monitoring of two compact units are described. One pilot plant installed in a single-family house built to MINERGIE standard in Gelterkinden, Switzerland, provided data on a compact unit. These results of measurements made on this and a further installation in a MINERGIE-P ultra-low energy consumption house in Zeiningen, Switzerland, are presented and discussed. Calculation methods, including exergy considerations are reviewed and their validation is discussed.

Wemhoener, C.; Dott, R.; Afjei, Th. [University of Applied Sciences Northwestern Switzerland, Institute of Energy in Buildings, Muttenz (Switzerland); Huber, H.; Helfenfinger, D.; Keller, P.; Furter, R. [University of Applied Sciences Lucerne (HTA), Test center HLKS, Horw (Switzerland)

2007-02-15

145

Calculation of the Power of Separation Units with Gas Membranes for Various Types of Processes.  

Science.gov (United States)

The design of plants for the separation of gas mixtures by means of membranes requires makes it necessary to know the power of the individual separation units used in the plant. In order to calculate these powers one uses models which approximate the actu...

K. Hattenbach

1984-01-01

146

GEOCOST-BC, Geothermal Power Plant Electricity Generator Cost, Thermodynamics Calculation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

1 - Description of problem or function: GEOCOST calculates the cost of generating electricity from geothermal energy. The version of GEOCOST in this release, GEOCOST-BC, simulates the production of electricity using a binary fluid cycle based upon a hydrothermal resource. 2 - Method of solution: GEOCOST is a simulation model which combines both technical processes and economic factors into one systematic framework. The simulation is composed of two principal parts: a reservoir model which simulates the exploration, development, and operation of a geothermal reservoir, and a power plant model which simulates the design, construction, and operation of the power plant. Each of these parts is composed of several submodels which treat fluid transmission and disposal, geothermal fluid/working fluid heat exchangers, turbine, generators, working fluid condenser, pumps, heat rejection, and calculation of thermodynamic state points in basic subcritical and supercritical Rankine cycles for a variety of working fluids. Working fluids which are now in the model include isobutane, n-butane, R-ll, R-12, R-22, R-113, R-114, and ammonia. Thermodynamic properties of the working fluids at the state points are calculated using empirical equations of state. The Starling equation of state is used for hydrocarbons and the Martin-Hou equation of state is used for fluorocarbons and ammonia. A wide variety of financial and tax structures can be simulated through varying the rates of return on equity and debt, the debt-equity ratio, and tax rates. Using discounted cash flow analyses, GEOCOST calculates the cost of energy by equating the present worth of the revenues and expenses over the economic life of the reservoir and plant. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Current array dimensions provide for a maximum well field size of 625 wells and maximum operating period of 50 years from reservoir exploration through the economic life of the power plant

1981-01-01

147

Target costing in the sales area of an energy supplier. market-oriented calculation of services; Target Costing im Vertriebsbereich von EVU. Marktorientierte Kalkulation von Dienst- und Serviceleistungen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The targeted steering of cost positions is becoming an increasingly decisive success factor for companies of the energy sector. However the traditional method of cost accounting and result accounts for merely operative purposes is not or only insufficiently able to generate the information required for this. Of greater service here are methods of strategic cost management which are aimed at shaping potentials, processes and products on the basis of cost criteria. Using this as a basis the present article documents the essential results of an empirical study carried out at the chair for business administration, in particular environmental management and controlling, of Duisburg-Essen University on the state of application of cost calculation systems and cost management methods among German energy supply companies. The article also presents conceptual deliberations on the use of target costing in the sales area.

Held, Stephan [Duisburg-Essen Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Betriebswirtschaftslehre, insb. Umweltwirtschaft und Controlling; Bucksteeg, Michael [Duisburg-Essen Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Energiewirtschaft

2010-06-15

148

A Probability analysis of the Generating Cost of APR+ Dual Unit  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes the probabilistic analysis of generating cost results in the final of the process of the APR+ standard detailed design. In this simulation, the results of the generating cost (COE, Cost of Electricity) of APR+ dual unit were determined using the probability cost analysis technique, the COE range was shown to be 39.60 won/kWh?52.82 won/kWh. As a part of a national long-term R and D program, the Advanced Power Reactor plus (APR+) project was launched in 2007. The APR+ project consists of three phases. In the first phase, the basic design was developed. the second phase involves the development of the standard detailed design and the submittal of the request for Standard Design Approval (SDA) to the Korean nuclear regulatory body. The third phase is the completion of the APR+ design optimizing core part

2013-05-01

149

Cost unit accounting as basis of price control at the Bewag  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Since Section 12a of the Decree of General Tariffs for the Supply of Electricity came into force on January, 30sup(th), 1980, questions on the cost-oriented price structure in the power economy have become the topic of spirited discussions. In addition, since the introduction of the ''Guideline for showing Costs and Profit Development in Power Supply (Questionnaire K)'' into the approval procedure, numerous differences of opinion have arisen as to its legitimacy in power and in applied economics and especially in view of its contents on cost definition. Agreement does exist on one point: that the issuance of a cost unit accounting is necessary to fulfill legal requirements for balanced and costoriented power tariffs and that this invoice must reflect the conditions of individual companies.

Schrader, P.

1984-05-08

150

Experience with the core protection calculator system at Arkansas Nuclear One - Unit 2  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The first digital reactor reactor protection system installed in a US commercial nuclear power plant has now been operating for 5 years. This system, called the Core Protection Calculator System (CPCS) at Arkansas Nuclear One - Unit 2 (ANO-2) provides automatic reactor shutdown for protection of fuel cladding (departure from nucleate boiling) and protection against fuel center line melting (linear heat rate) for design basis events and anticipated operational occurrences. There are now three other such systems in operation: at Southern California Edison's San-Onofre Units 2 and 3 and at Louisiana Power and Light's Waterford Unit 3. The three nuclear units at Arizona Public Service's Palo-Verde station also employ a functionally identical design utilizing different hardware. The major difficulties encountered in licensing this system with The Nuclear Regulatory Commission are discussed and Arkansas Power and Light Company's experience associated with the installation, operation, modification and maintenance of the CPCS at ANO-2 is highlighted

1986-09-01

151

The benefits and costs of new fuels and engines for light-duty vehicles in the United States.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rising oil prices and concerns about energy security and climate change are spurring reconsideration of both automobile propulsion systems and the fuels that supply energy to them. In addition to the gasoline internal combustion engine, recent years have seen alternatives develop in the automotive marketplace. Currently, hybrid-electric vehicles, advanced diesels, and flex-fuel vehicles running on a high percentage mixture of ethanol and gasoline (E85) are appearing at auto shows and in driveways. We conduct a rigorous benefit-cost analysis from both the private and societal perspective of the marginal benefits and costs of each technology--using the conventional gasoline engine as a baseline. The private perspective considers only those factors that influence the decisions of individual consumers, while the societal perspective accounts for environmental, energy, and congestion externalities as well. Our analysis illustrates that both hybrids and diesels show promise for particular light-duty applications (sport utility vehicles and pickup trucks), but that vehicles running continuously on E85 consistently have greater costs than benefits. The results for diesels were particularly robust over a wide range of sensitivity analyses. The results from the societal analysis are qualitatively similar to the private analysis, demonstrating that the most relevant factors to the benefit-cost calculations are the factors that drive the individual consumer's decision. We conclude with a brief discussion of marketplace and public policy trends that will both illustrate and influence the relative adoption of these alternative technologies in the United States in the coming decade. PMID:18684162

Keefe, Ryan; Griffin, James P; Graham, John D

2008-10-01

152

Calculation of the Cost of an Adequate Education in Kentucky: A Professional Judgment Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available What is an adequate education and how much does it cost? In 1989, Kentucky’s State Supreme Court found the entire system of education unconstitutional-“all of its parts and parcels”. The Court called for all children to have access to an adequate education, one that is uniform and has as its goal the development of seven capacities, including: (i “sufficient oral and written communication skills to enable students to function in a complex and rapidly changing civilization . . . .and (vii sufficient levels of academic or vocational skills to enable public school students to compete favorably with their counterparts in surrounding states, in academics or in the job market”. Now, over a decade later, key questions remain regarding whether these objectives have been fulfilled. This research is designed to calculate the cost of an adequate education by aligning resources to State standards, laws and objectives, using a professional judgment approach. Seven focus groups were convened for this purpose and the scholarly literature was reviewed to provide multiple inputs into study findings. The study produced a per pupil base cost for each of three prototype school districts and an total statewide cost, with the funding gap between existing revenue and the revenue needed for current operations of $1.097 billion per year (2001-02. Additional key resource requirements needed to achieve an adequate education, identified by professional judgment panels, include: (1 extending the school year for students and teachers, (2 adding voluntary half-day preschool for three and four year olds, and (3 raising teacher salaries. This increases the funding gap to $1.23 billion and suggests that significant new funding is required over time if the Commonwealth of Kentucky is to provide an adequate and equitable education of high quality for all children and youth as directed by the State Supreme Court.

Deborah A. Verstegen

2004-02-01

153

Levelised unit electricity cost comparison of alternate technologies for baseload generation in Ontario  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report provides a comparison of the lifetime cost of constructing, operating and decommissioning new generation suitable for supplying baseload power by early in the next decade. New baseload generation options in Ontario are nuclear, coal-fired steam turbines or combined cycle gas turbines (CCGT). Nuclear and coal-fired units are characterised by high capital costs and low operating costs. As such, they are candidates for baseload operation only. Gas-fired generation is characterised by lower capital costs and higher operating costs and thus may meet the requirements for operation as peaking and/or baseload generation. The comparison of baseload generating technologies is made by reference to the estimated levelised unit electricity cost (LUEC). The LUEC can be thought of as a 'supply cost', where the unit cost is the price needed to recover all costs over the period. It is determined by finding the price that sets the sum of all future discounted cash flows (net present value, or NPV) to zero. It can also be thought of as representing the constant real wholesale price of electricity that meets the financing cost, debt repayment, income tax and cash flow constraints associated with the construction operation and decommissioning of a generating plant. Levelised unit cost comparisons are usually made with different sets of financing assumptions. This report considers two base cases, which we describe as 'merchant' and 'public' financing. The term 'merchant plant' is used to refer to ones that are built and operated by private investors. These investors pay for their capital through debt and by raising equity, and thus pay return on equity and interest on debt throughout their lifetime. These projects include income taxes, both provincial and federal. Publicly financed projects typically are not subject to income taxes or to the same constraints on raising finance through issuing debt and equity. However, they are constrained to provide a rate of return. The rate of return required for projects is subject to some uncertainty. For a merchant project the higher the perceived risk the higher the required return. Publicly financed projects may be evaluated on the basis of a given discount rate or may be able to access funds at lower rates, but the risk of cost overruns is implicitly borne by the taxpayer. There is a third possibility, a public/private partnership. A number of partnership arrangements are possible, for example, public financing of construction and leasing to private owners for operation. All partnership arrangements represent a sharing of risk between the public and private sector. Public/private partnership may provide an attractive model for building new generation in Ontario. This report considers each of the generation options under both merchant and public financing. The base case merchant financing scenario is consistent with one where risk is relatively low, and consequently the real return on equity required by private investors is 12%. We believe a comparison between merchant and public financing to be important in that it shows the effect of taxes and financing assumptions on the economics of a generation project. Since the pure economic assessment of projects does not normally consider financing or tax costs, these being transfer payments not essential to the project itself, the public financing version of our assessments can be interpreted as the underlying economics of different technologies. This report does not include a detailed modelling of financing arrangements that could occur under a public/private partnership. However, we do consider how the cost of generation options compares under a wide range of illustrative assumptions on the required return on equity, debt and the debt/equity ratio. (author)

Ayres, M.; McRae, M.; Stogran, M.

2004-08-15

154

Levelised unit electricity cost comparison of alternate technologies for baseload generation in Ontario  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report provides a comparison of the lifetime cost of constructing, operating and decommissioning new generation suitable for supplying baseload power by early in the next decade. New baseload generation options in Ontario are nuclear, coal-fired steam turbines or combined cycle gas turbines (CCGT). Nuclear and coal-fired units are characterised by high capital costs and low operating costs. As such, they are candidates for baseload operation only. Gas-fired generation is characterised by lower capital costs and higher operating costs and thus may meet the requirements for operation as peaking and/or baseload generation. The comparison of baseload generating technologies is made by reference to the estimated levelised unit electricity cost (LUEC). The LUEC can be thought of as a 'supply cost', where the unit cost is the price needed to recover all costs over the period. It is determined by finding the price that sets the sum of all future discounted cash flows (net present value, or NPV) to zero. It can also be thought of as representing the constant real wholesale price of electricity that meets the financing cost, debt repayment, income tax and cash flow constraints associated with the construction operation and decommissioning of a generating plant. Levelised unit cost comparisons are usually made with different sets of financing assumptions. This report considers two base cases, which we describe as 'merchant' and 'public' financing. The term 'merchant plant' is used to refer to ones that are built and operated by private investors. These investors pay for their capital through debt and by raising equity, and thus pay return on equity and interest on debt throughout their lifetime. These projects include income taxes, both provincial and federal. Publicly financed projects typically are not subject to income taxes or to the same constraints on raising finance through issuing debt and equity. However, they are constrained to provide a rate of return. The rate of return required for projects is subject to some uncertainty. For a merchant project the higher the perceived risk the higher the required return. Publicly financed projects may be evaluated on the basis of a given discount rate or may be able to access funds at lower rates, but the risk of cost overruns is implicitly borne by the taxpayer. There is a third possibility, a public/private partnership. A number of partnership arrangements are possible, for example, public financing of construction and leasing to private owners for operation. All partnership arrangements represent a sharing of risk between the public and private sector. Public/private partnership may provide an attractive model for building new generation in Ontario. This report considers each of the generation options under both merchant and public financing. The base case merchant financing scenario is consistent with one where risk is relatively low, and consequently the real return on equity required by private investors is 12%. We believe a comparison between merchant and public financing to be important in that it shows the effect of taxes and financing assumptions on the economics of a generation project. Since the pure economic assessment of projects does not normally consider financing or tax costs, these being transfer payments not essential to the project itself, the public financing version of our assessments can be interpreted as the underlying economics of different technologies. This report does not include a detailed modelling of financing arrangements that could occur under a public/private partnership. However, we do consider how the cost of generation options compares under a wide range of illustrative assumptions on the required return on equity, debt and the debt/equity ratio. (author)

2004-01-01

155

Therapeutic intervention scoring system (TISS)--a method for measuring workload and calculating costs in the ICU.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Therapeutic Intervention Scoring System (TISS) is an easily applicable method for measurement of workload in the intensive care unit (ICU). In the present study a modified TISS-scoring (mTISS) was performed daily during 1988-1989 on 2693 patients in a general ICU. Of these, 900 could be classified as 'true' ICU-patients (ICU-stay > or = 24 h or TISS > or = 20 points), whereas the rest were postoperative. In ICU-patients the average length of stay was 4.5 +/- 8.9 days and the average workload 114 +/- 218 mTISS-points. The workload was not significantly related to age or type of admission (scheduled vs unscheduled). Hospital non-survivors (13.6%) showed a significantly increased mean total mTISS-score (239 +/- 364, P < 0.001). Critically ill (TISS Class IV) patients (14% of the sample), with an average workload of 437 +/- 401 mTISS-points, consumed 53% of the total resources. Patients categorized (ICD-9) to respiratory and infectious diseases showed the greatest average workload (207 +/- 315 and 208 +/- 355 mTISS-points, respectively). A workload-index was also developed relating the actual workload to the ICU personnel. The cost of each mTISS-point was calculated. In conclusion, the present study showed that mTISS is a valuable tool when evaluating resource utilization in the ICU. Together with the proposed workload-index and calculation of costs, mTISS could be used for ICU management control. PMID:1466209

Mälstam, J; Lind, L

1992-11-01

156

Health-resource use and costs associated with fibromyalgia in France, Germany, and the United States  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Tyler Knight,1 Caroline Schaefer,1 Arthi Chandran,2 Gergana Zlateva,2 Andreas Winkelmann,3 Serge Perrot4 1Health Economics and Outcomes Research, Covance Market Access Services, Gaithersburg, MD, USA; 2Primary Care Health Economics and Outcomes Research, Pfizer Global Health Economics, New York, NY, USA; 3Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University Hospital Munich, Munich, Germany; 4Service de Médecine Interne et Thérapeutique, Université Paris Descartes, Paris, France Background: Fibromyalgia (FM is a chronic disorder characterized by widespread, persistent pain. Prospective and retrospective studies have demonstrated substantial health-care costs associated with FM in a number of countries. This study evaluated and compared health-resource use (HRU and associated costs related to FM in routine clinical practice across the US, France, and Germany. Methods: Two separate, cross-sectional, observational studies of subjects with FM were conducted: one in the US and one in France and Germany. HRU related to prescription medication, physician office visits, diagnostic tests, and hospitalizations was abstracted from chart review; patient out-of-pocket costs and lost productivity were collected via subject self-report. Costs were assigned to HRU based on standard algorithms. Direct and indirect costs were evaluated and compared by simple linear regression. Results: A total of 442 subjects (203 US, 70 France, 169 Germany with FM were analyzed. The mean (standard deviation age in the US, France, and Germany was 47.9 (10.9, 51.2 (9.5, and 49.2 (9.8, respectively (P = 0.085. Most subjects were female (95% US, 83% France, 80% Germany (P < 0.001. Adjusted annual direct costs per subject for FM were significantly higher in the US ($7087 than in France ($481, P < 0.001 or Germany ($2417, P < 0.001. Adjusted mean annual indirect costs per subject for FM were lower in the US ($6431 than in France ($8718 or Germany ($10,001, but represented a significant proportion of total costs in all countries. Conclusion: The significant HRU and costs associated with FM in the US, France, and Germany documented in this study highlight the substantial global economic burden of FM. Indirect costs represented a significant proportion of the total costs, particularly in Europe. Comparisons between the three countries show differences in HRU, with significantly higher direct costs in the US compared with France and Germany. Keywords: fibromyalgia, cost, burden of illness, United States, France, Germany

Chandran A

2013-04-01

157

Auto-type battery lowers cost of control power at unit substations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The article considers the use of standard automotive batteries to provide d.c. power for metal-clad switchgear in unit substations at Union Electric Co. This has produced savings in several ways. A very substantial saving is in first cost. A demonstrated longer in-service life, at least double that of a conventional automotive battery, reduces operating expenses. Finally, the time and effort of inspecting and testing the automotive battery is less.

1970-01-12

158

Efficiency-optimized low-cost TDPAC spectrometer using a versatile routing/coincidence unit  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A highly efficient, reliable, and low-cost ?-? TDPAC spectrometer, PACAr, optimized for 181Hf-implanted low-activity samples, is presented. A versatile EPROM-based routing/coincidence unit was developed and implemented to be use with the memory-card-based multichannel analyzer hosted in a personal computer. The excellent energy resolution and very good overall resolution and efficiency of PACAr are analyzed and compare with advanced and already tested fast-fast and slow-fast PAC spectrometers.

2008-01-01

159

Unit commitment considering regional synchronous reactive power requirements. Costs and effects  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highly renewable power systems may have to impose regional minima on the number of online synchronous units to ensure appropriate availability of controllable reactive power. Given the declining net loads associated with increasing wind penetration levels, these regional constraints are anticipated to come into effect with greater frequency. Such constraints have a tangible effect on the total cost of unit commitment schedules, with out-of-merit units being committed solely to preserve secure voltage regimes. The use of novel reactive power resources may make regional constraints less necessary, and the voltage-control capabilities of distribution-connected wind farms will be examined in this role. Harnessing these resources may not require any roll-out of new technology, but would be an operational change to utilise the pre-existing voltage-control capabilities implicit in the power electronic topology of modern wind turbine generators. Given the capital costs of new dedicated VAr sources, and the generating costs associated with using synchronous plant for voltage control, it appears vital to derive the greatest possible value from existing assets. (orig.)

Cuffe, Paul; Lannoye, Eamonn; Keane, Andrew [University College Dublin (UCD) (Ireland). Electricity Research Centre; Tuohy, Aidan [Electric Power Research Institute, Knoxville, TN (United States)

2012-07-01

160

Design of a computer software for calculation of required barrier against radiation at the diagnostic x-ray units  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background and purpose : Instalation of protective barrier against diagnostic x-ray is generally done based on the recommendations of NCRP49. There are analytic methods for designing protective barriers howerer, they lack sufficient efficiency and considering the NCRP49 reports, designing mechanical protective barrier in order to protect the initial x-ray radiation and absorption of the ray quality of such radiation is different.Therefore, the protective barrier for each radiation is measured separately. In this study, a computer software was designed to calculate the needed barrier with high accuracy.Materials and methods: Calculation of required protective barrier particularly when two or more generators are in use at diagnostic x-ray units and or installed diagnostic equipments do not have proper room space and the limitations for other clanges in parameters which are time- consuming and impossible to be manually calculated. For proper determination of thichness of the protective barrier, relevant information about curves of radiation weakness, dose limit etc should be entered. This program was done in windows and designed in such a way that the operator works easily, flexibility of the program is acceptable and its accuracy and sensitivity is high.Results : Results of this program indicate that, in most cases, in x-ray units required protective barrier was not used. Meanwhile sometimes shielding is more than what required which lacks technical standards and cost effectiveness. When the application index is contrasting zero, thichness of NCRP49 calculation is about 20% less than the calculated rate done by the method of this study. When the applied index is equal to zero (that is the only situation where the second barrier is considered, thickness of requined barrier is about 15% less than the lead barrier and concrete barrier calculated in this project is 8% less than that calculated by McGuire method.Conclusion : In this study proper determination of required protective thickness for weakening of radiation to the permitable level is proposed. The multi radiation sources in a single room are considered and non garanteed radiation of NCRP49 hypothesis are removed. Difference between the the oritical and calculated rates this of method is X2=10-5 which indicates accuracy and high efficiency of this software.

S.A. Rahimi

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS OF A SINGLE UNIT SYSTEM WITH SCHEDULED MAINTENANCE AND VARIATION IN DEMAND  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present paper analyses the reliability and cost-benefit for a single unit system with scheduled maintenance and variation in demand. As Change in demand affects the production of system also, hence sometimes, the system needs to be shut down when the number of produces are in excess as compared to those demanded. Revenue in case of both types of up states i.e., when demand is greater than or equal to production and when demand is less than production have also been taken under consideration while carrying out the cost-benefit analysis. The loss incurred to the system when it is kept shut down due to less demand has also been taken into account. Optimized reliability indices of the system effectiveness are estimated numerically using semi-Markov processes and regenerative point technique. Expression for the expected profit is obtained after obtaining various measures of system effectiveness. We can conclude that cut off points for various rates/probabilities/revenue per unit up time/costs can be obtained which help in deciding the upper/lower acceptable values of rates/costs so that the system is profitable.

Gulshan Taneja

2013-01-01

162

Cost effective interprofessional training : an evaluation of a training unit in Denmark  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In 2004, the first Danish undergraduate interprofessional training unit (ITU) was established at the Regional Hospital Holstebro, inspired by experiences from Sweden. In this unit, medical, nursing, occupational therapy and physiotherapy students are given responsibility, under supervision by trained and motivated personnel, for rehabilitation and care of patients in a subunit of an orthopaedic department. The aim of this study was to see whether the ITU was cost effective in treating patients compared with a conventional orthopaedic ward. One-hundred and thirty-four patients admitted for primary hip or knee replacement surgery were included in the study. All costs were recorded in the ITU and in the conventional ward. Follow-up was done by a quality of life questionnaire three months after the operation. Comparison was done by univariable and multivariable testing of costs and effect. In both, the ITU was more cost effective than the conventional ward. No difference was found in complications and patient-reported quality of life. In conclusion, clinical training can be given to students in an ITU without reducing productivity in a hospital environment if pedagogic principles, clinical tutors and patient logistics all adapt to the challenge of the teaching environment.

Hansen, Torben Bæk; Jakobsen, Flemming Bandholm

2009-01-01

163

A method for calculation of dose per unit concentration values for aquatic biota  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A dose per unit concentration database has been generated for application to ecosystem assessments within the FASSET framework. Organisms are represented by ellipsoids of appropriate dimensions, and the proportion of radiation absorbed within the organisms is calculated using a numerical method implemented in a series of spreadsheet-based programs. Energy-dependent absorbed fraction functions have been derived for calculating the total dose per unit concentration of radionuclides present in biota or in the media they inhabit. All radionuclides and reference organism dimensions defined within FASSET for marine and freshwater ecosystems are included. The methodology has been validated against more complex dosimetric models and compared with human dosimetry based on ICRP 72. Ecosystem assessments for aquatic biota within the FASSET framework can now be performed simply, once radionuclide concentrations in target organisms are known, either directly or indirectly by deduction from radionuclide concentrations in the surrounding medium

2004-12-01

164

A method for calculation of dose per unit concentration values for aquatic biota  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A dose per unit concentration database has been generated for application to ecosystem assessments within the FASSET framework. Organisms are represented by ellipsoids of appropriate dimensions, and the proportion of radiation absorbed within the organisms is calculated using a numerical method implemented in a series of spreadsheet-based programs. Energy-dependent absorbed fraction functions have been derived for calculating the total dose per unit concentration of radionuclides present in biota or in the media they inhabit. All radionuclides and reference organism dimensions defined within FASSET for marine and freshwater ecosystems are included. The methodology has been validated against more complex dosimetric models and compared with human dosimetry based on ICRP 72. Ecosystem assessments for aquatic biota within the FASSET framework can now be performed simply, once radionuclide concentrations in target organisms are known, either directly or indirectly by deduction from radionuclide concentrations in the surrounding medium.

Batlle, J Vives i [Westlakes Scientific Consulting Ltd, Westlakes Science and Technology Park, Moor Row, Cumbria CA24 3LN (United Kingdom); Jones, S R [Westlakes Scientific Consulting Ltd, Westlakes Science and Technology Park, Moor Row, Cumbria CA24 3LN (United Kingdom); Gomez-Ros, J M [Radiation Dosimetry Group, CIEMAT, Avenida Complutense 22, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)

2004-12-01

165

A calculation method for the global energy cost of buildings; Une methode de calcul pour le cout global energetique des batiments  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In order to meet the expectations of building contractors, a working group directed by Electricite de France (EdF), Gaz de France (GdF) and Chauffage Fioul, with the sustain of the French centre of electricity (CFE), has elaborated a conventional calculation method for the global energy cost of buildings. This working group includes several partners from the energy and building engineering sectors and their calculation method aims at becoming a reference for all professionals of these sectors. (J.S.)

Anon.

2002-10-01

166

Synthesis of the public opinion on the calculation methods of avoided costs; Synthese de la consultation publique sur les methodes de calcul des couts evites  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The CRE began the 22 october 2001 a public opinion on the avoided costs calculation methods, to determine the charges amount of the electric utilities. The main questions dealt with the general position of the actors towards the two calculation methods proposed by the CRE; the modalities of these methods implementing; the alternative and possible methods; the case of the non national distributors. The answers are detailed and analyzed. (A.L.B.)

NONE

2002-05-01

167

Decommissioning cost recovery in the United States: lessons learned from Connecticut Yankee NPP  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The international audience at ICONE-7 is already familiar with the roles of the owner and the NRC in ensuring the technical and safety performance goals of nuclear plant decommissioning. This paper addresses the role of the economic regulator since the pursuit of technical and safety goals must necessarily carry with them -a price tag- and owners must be concerned with the recovery of those costs. Answers to questions about how to pay and who should pay for decommissioning can very often influence nuclear power plant owner's decision-making. In the United States, most nuclear power plants are privately owned. Nevertheless, their owners are not totally free to determine the plant's economics or profitability. Instead, plant owners must sell their electricity to consumers in a regulated market wherein the price of electricity and terms of sale are controlled by the government. Under this regulatory regime, utilities are generally allowed to recover their investment costs -including decommissioning costs- provided that such costs are prudently, incurred. However, when an owner retires the plant prematurely, the prudence of his actions -up to and including the shutdown- are likely to be challenged. In 1997, for example, the owners of the Connecticut Yankee reactor faced a stiff challenge to the recovery of decommissioning costs when they shut down the plant ten years before license expiration. The Connecticut Yankee case thus provides valuable insights into the role of economic regulation on a nuclear plant's decommissioning strategy. (author)

1999-04-19

168

Decommissioning cost recovery in the United States: lessons learned from Connecticut Yankee NPP  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The international audience at ICONE-7 is already familiar with the roles of the owner and the NRC in ensuring the technical and safety performance goals of nuclear plant decommissioning. This paper addresses the role of the economic regulator since the pursuit of technical and safety goals must necessarily carry with them -a price tag- and owners must be concerned with the recovery of those costs. Answers to questions about how to pay and who should pay for decommissioning can very often influence nuclear power plant owner's decision-making. In the United States, most nuclear power plants are privately owned. Nevertheless, their owners are not totally free to determine the plant's economics or profitability. Instead, plant owners must sell their electricity to consumers in a regulated market wherein the price of electricity and terms of sale are controlled by the government. Under this regulatory regime, utilities are generally allowed to recover their investment costs -including decommissioning costs- provided that such costs are prudently, incurred. However, when an owner retires the plant prematurely, the prudence of his actions -up to and including the shutdown- are likely to be challenged. In 1997, for example, the owners of the Connecticut Yankee reactor faced a stiff challenge to the recovery of decommissioning costs when they shut down the plant ten years before license expiration. The Connecticut Yankee case thus provides valuable insights into the role of economic regulation on a nuclear plant's decommissioning strategy. (author)

Joosten, J. [Connect USA LLC, Gaithersburg, MD (United States)

1999-07-01

169

Preliminary regulatory audit calculation for Shinkori Units 3 and 4 LBLOCA  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this study is to perform a preliminary evaluation for Shinkori Units 3 and 4 LBLOCA by applying KINS Realistic Evaluation Methodology (REM). The following results were obtained: (1) From the evaluation for Shinkori Units 3 and 4 LBLOCA, the peak cladding temperature was evaluated to meet the regulatory requirement and the feasibility of the KINS-REM was identified. (2) The input decks that were developed in the previous studies, were reviewed and the evaluation model of the fluidic device was developed and applied for the audit calculation. (3) The treating method for the uncertainty of the gap conductance was developed and applied for the audit calculation. (4) The pre- and post-processing programs were developed for this study. (5) For the more detailed assessments, the information for the gap conductance, etc. should be improved and the effects of coolant bypass during blowdown, steam binding and so on were not sufficiently evaluated. KINS-REM should be advanced to evaluate these effects properly. The KINS methodology that was used in this study, can be further applied for independent regulatory audit calculations related to the licensing application on LOCA best estimate calculation

2006-01-01

170

REFLOS, Fuel Loading and Cost from Burnup and Heavy Atomic Mass Flow Calculation in HWR  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

1 - Nature of physical problem solved: REFLOS is a programme for the evaluation of fuel-loading schemes in heavy water moderated reactors. The problems involved in this study are: a) Burn-up calculation for the reactor cell. b) Determination of reactivity behaviour, power distribution, attainable burn-up for both the running-in period and the equilibrium of a 3-dimensional heterogeneous reactor model; investigation of radial fuel movement schemes. c) Evaluation of mass flows of heavy atoms through the reactor and fuel cycle costs for the running-in, the equilibrium, and the shut down of a power reactor. If the subroutine for treating the reactor cell were replaced by a suitable routine, other reactors with weakly absorbing moderators could be analyzed. 2 - Method of solution: Nuclear constants and isotopic compositions of the different fuels in the reactor are calculated by the cell-burn-up programme and tabulated as functions of the burn-up rate (MWD/T). Starting from a known state of the reactor, the 3-dimensional heterogeneous reactor programme (applying an extension of the technique of Feinberg and Galanin) calculates reactivity and neutron flux distribution using one thermal and one or two fast neutron groups. After a given irradiation time, the new state of the reactor is determined, and new nuclear constants are assigned to the various defined locations in the reactor. Reloading of fuel may occur if the prescribed life of the reactor is reached or if the effective multiplication factor or the power form factor falls below a specified level. The scheme of reloading to be carried out is specified by a load vector, giving the number of channels to be discharged, the kind of movement from one to another channel and the type of fresh fuel to be charged for each single reloading event. After having determined the core states characterizing the equilibrium period, and having decided the fuel reloading scheme for the running-in period of the reactor life, the fuel cycle costs are evaluated following proposals of the EURATOM Economic Handbook. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Maximum number of groups of channels having rotation symmetry is 60. Maximum Number of groups of channels having specular symmetry is 120. Maximum number of harmonics for the approximation of the axial flux distribution is 19. Highest order of Bessel functions for the approximation of the radial flux distribution is 12. Maximum number of axial pieces of a channel with possibly different neutronic properties is 20. Maximum number of neutron groups: two fast, one thermal. Maximum number of different types of channels in the reactor is 10. Maximum number of burn-up steps characterizing one type of channel is 50

1969-01-01

171

International differences in health care costs in Europe and the United States: Do these affect the cost-effectiveness of diagnostic strategies for pulmonary embolism?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The aim of this study was to assess whether potential differences in costs for diagnostic procedures and treatment of pulmonary embolism (PE) among European and U. S. hospitals alter the optimal cost-effective diagnostic strategy for PE. A standardized questionnaire was used to obtain cost data for the diagnosis and treatment of PE in participating European and U. S. hospitals. Costs for diagnostic tests and treatment of PE were then calculated in a standardized manner for all participating hospitals, from the hospital perspective. Costs were used in an existing cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) model to determine the most cost-effective diagnostic strategy in participating hospitals. There were considerable differences in costs for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures for PE among the participating centers. These differences, however, did not affect the most cost-effective strategy based on incremental cost-effectiveness. In all hospitals the most cost-effective strategy appeared to be ultrasound followed by helical CT. International differences in cost of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures certainly exist and should be considered before applying a published CEA. Nevertheless, despite these cost differences, the diagnostic strategy for PE of ultrasound followed by helical CT appears most cost-effective. (orig.)

Erkel, A.R. van; Pattynama, P.M.T. [Dept. of Radiology, Leiden University Medical Center (Netherlands); Hout, W.B. van den [Medical Decision Making Unit, Leiden University Medical Center (Netherlands)

1999-07-01

172

CNSS plant concept, capital cost, and multi-unit station economics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

United Engineers and Constructors (UE and C) and the Babcock and Wilcox Company (B and W) have performed several studies over the last eight years related to small integral pressurized water reactors. These reactors include the 365 MWt (100 MWe) Consolidated Nuclear Steam Generator (CNSG) and the 1200 MWt Consolidated Nuclear Steam System (CNSS). The studies, mostly performed under contract to the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, have led to a 1250 MWt (400 MWe) Consolidated Nuclear Steam System (CNSS) plant concept, with unique design and cost features. This report contains an update of earlier studies of the CNSS reactor and balance-of-plant concept design, capital costs, and multi-unit plant economics incorporating recent design developments, improvements, and post-TMI-2 upgrades. The economic evaluation compares the total system economic impact of a phased, three stage 400 MWe CNSS implementation program, i.e., a three-unit station, to the installation of a single 1200 MWe Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) into a typical USA utility system

1984-01-01

173

Lessons learnt from application of the standardized cost calculation code OMEGA in decision making processes and planning in decommissioning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Implementation of the standardised cost structure, as defined in 'A Proposed Standardised List of Costs Items for Decommissioning Purposes' (OECD/NEA, IAEA, EC, 1999), into the decommissioning costing, supports the harmonisation of decommissioning costs. The decision making processes in decommissioning planning can be more effective if there is the possibility to compare the calculated data with the data of other projects, structured in standardised cost structure. The results of the decision making process should be based on evaluation of such a set of decommissioning options which covers the methods of decommissioning, the selected strategy and existing or planned decommissioning infrastructure. Aspects such as impact of time, waste management scenarios, uncertainties of input data and other aspects should be also evaluated. These issues of decision making process were implemented into the decommissioning costing code OMEGA. All activities of a decommissioning project are involved within single compact standardised calculation structure including waste management. The resulting costs have standardised format and no additional data conversion is needed. The calculation process is nuclide resolved and internally linked in such a way that it models the material and radioactivity flow in the decommissioning process. The effect of decay of radioactivity is considered. The options are optimised in the standard MS-Project software as Gantt charts. The bi-directional data link between the standardised calculation structure and the Gantt chart supports the on-line optimisation of the Gantt chart structure. Multi-option work is applied, i.e. decommissioning options, which cover all decommissioning scenarios to be considered, are evaluated individually and multi-attribute analysis is applied for selecting the optimal one. Methods of sensitivity analysis and evaluation of uncertainties of calculated costs were developed for support the decision making process and for definition of contingencies. (author)

2006-12-01

174

Calculation of unit tensor operators using a restricted set of Slater determinants  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper we present a new result involving the properties of the Clebsch-Gordan coefficients well-used in atomic physics. We also demonstrate a practical use of this result: a new and simple method of calculation of unit tensor operators of multi-electron atoms while working within the Slater-Condon scheme. This results in a significant increase in the ease of implementation of multi-electron atomic physics models, and we discuss the computational complexity of the resulting algorithm.

Hill, E. G.

2014-06-01

175

Calculations of the radiological impact of disposal of unit activity of selected radionuclides  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of the work described is to provide estimates of the radiological impact following disposal of unit activity via each of several options, including disposal on the deep ocean bed, shallow burial, engineered trench disposal, disposal in a geologic repository and disposal in off-shore boreholes. Results are presented for a range of important representative radionuclides. In the course of the calculations it was necessary to make a number of simplifying assumptions. The implications of these are discussed in the context of use of the results for comparative assessments of waste management options. (author)

1985-01-01

176

Market value calculation and the solution of circularity between value and the weighted average cost of capital WACC  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Most finance textbooks present the Weighted Average Cost of Capital (WACC calculation as: WACC = Kd×(1-T×D% + Ke×E%, where Kd is the cost of debt before taxes, T is the tax rate, D% is the percentage of debt on total value, Ke is the cost of equity and E% is the percentage of equity on total value. All of them precise (but not with enough emphasis that the values to calculate D% y E% are market values. Although they devote special space and thought to calculate Kd and Ke, little effort is made to the correct calculation of market values. This means that there are several points that are not sufficiently dealt with: Market values, location in time, occurrence of tax payments, WACC changes in time and the circularity in calculating WACC. The purpose of this note is to clear up these ideas, solve the circularity problem and emphasize in some ideas that usually are looked over. Also, some suggestions are presented on how to calculate, or estimate, the equity cost of capital.

Ignacio Vélez-Pareja

2009-12-01

177

Statin cost effectiveness in primary prevention: A systematic review of the recent cost-effectiveness literature in the United States  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background The literature on the cost-effectiveness of statin drugs in primary prevention of coronary heart disease is complex. The objective of this study is to compare the disparate results of recent cost-effectiveness analyses of statins. Findings We conducted a systematic review of the literature on statin cost-effectiveness. The four studies that met inclusion criteria reported varying conclusions about the cost-effectiveness of statin treatment, w...

Mitchell Aaron P; Simpson Ross J

2012-01-01

178

Costing: General Considerations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Contents: Profit v/s profitability; Elements of cost; Cost classification (functional costs, attributable costs - direct/indirect); Variable/fixed costs; Total cost; Statements of total cost; Cost center and cost unit; Absorption costing v/s marginal cost...

J. Pochun

1984-01-01

179

Statin cost effectiveness in primary prevention: A systematic review of the recent cost-effectiveness literature in the United States  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The literature on the cost-effectiveness of statin drugs in primary prevention of coronary heart disease is complex. The objective of this study is to compare the disparate results of recent cost-effectiveness analyses of statins. Findings We conducted a systematic review of the literature on statin cost-effectiveness. The four studies that met inclusion criteria reported varying conclusions about the cost-effectiveness of statin treatment, without a clear consensus as to whether statins are cost-effective for primary prevention. However, after accounting for each study’s assumptions about statin costs, we found substantial agreement among the studies. Studies that assumed statins to be more expensive found them to be less cost-effective, and vice-versa. Furthermore, treatment of low-risk groups became cost-effective as statins became less expensive. Conclusions Drug price is the primary determinant of statin cost-effectiveness within a given risk group. As more statin drugs become generic, patients at low risk for coronary disease may be treated cost-effectively. Though many factors must be weighed in any medical decision, from a cost-effectiveness perspective, statins may now be considered an appropriate therapy for many patients at low risk for heart disease.

Mitchell Aaron P

2012-07-01

180

Weather data for simplified energy calculation methods. Volume I. Eastern United States: TRY data  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of this report is to provide a source of weather data for direct use with a number of simplified energy calculation methods available today. Complete weather data for a number of cities in the United States are provided for use in the following methods: degree hour, modified degree hour, bin, modified bin, and variable degree day. This report contains sets of weather data for 23 cities in the continental United States using Test Reference Year (TRY) source weather data. The weather data at each city has been summarized in a number of ways to provide differing levels of detail necessary for alternative simplified energy calculation methods. Weather variables summarized include dry bulb and wet bulb temperature, percent relative humidity, humidity ratio, wind speed, percent possible sunshine, percent diffuse solar radiation, total solar radiation on horizontal and vertical surfaces, and solar heat gain through standard DSA glass. Monthly and annual summaries, in some cases by time of day, are available. These summaries are produced in a series of nine computer generated tables.

Olsen, A.R.; Moreno, S.; Deringer, J.; Watson, C.R.

1984-08-01

 
 
 
 
181

Weather data for simplified energy calculation methods. Volume III. Western United States: TRY data  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective is to provide a source of weather data for direct use with a number of simplified energy calculation methods available today. Complete weather data for a number of cities in the United States are provided for use in the following methods: degree hour, modified degree hour, bin, modified bin, and variable degree day. This report contains sets of weather data for 24 cities in the continental United States using Test Reference Year (TRY) source weather data. The weather data at each city has been summarized in a number of ways to provide differing levels of detail necessary for alternative simplified energy calculation methods. Weather variables summarized include dry bulb and wet bulb temperature, percent relative humidity, humidity ratio, wind speed, percent possible sunshine, percent diffuse solar radiation, total solar radiation on horizontal and vertical surfaces, and solar heat gain through standard DSA glass. Monthly and annual summaries, in some cases by time of day, are available. These summaries are produced in a series of nine computer generated tables.

Olsen, A.R.; Moreno, S.; Deringer, J.; Watson, C.R.

1984-08-01

182

Weather data for simplified energy calculation methods. Volume II. Middle United States: TRY data  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of this report is to provide a source of weather data for direct use with a number of simplified energy calculation methods available today. Complete weather data for a number of cities in the United States are provided for use in the following methods: degree hour, modified degree hour, bin, modified bin, and variable degree day. This report contains sets of weather data for 22 cities in the continental United States using Test Reference Year (TRY) source weather data. The weather data at each city has been summarized in a number of ways to provide differing levels of detail necessary for alternative simplified energy calculation methods. Weather variables summarized include dry bulb and wet bulb temperature, percent relative humidity, humidity ratio, wind speed, percent possible sunshine, percent diffuse solar radiation, total solar radiation on horizontal and vertical surfaces, and solar heat gain through standard DSA glass. Monthly and annual summaries, in some cases by time of day, are available. These summaries are produced in a series of nine computer generated tables.

Olsen, A.R.; Moreno, S.; Deringer, J.; Watson, C.R.

1984-08-01

183

CASMO: a computer program to calculate spent fuel and high-level waste transportation mileage and costs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The CASMO computer program calculates the mileage and costs of transporting spent fuel and/or high-level wastes to various facilities in the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle. The program was specifically written to provide a tool for siting monitored retrievable storage (MRS) facilities. Three program options are described that can survey many potential sites or determine mileage and costs for specific sites. The results of CASMO are utilized to determine transportation risks and to perform a cost analysis of transporting transuranic (TRU) wastes

1983-01-01

184

The costs of peripheral intravascular device in the values of hospitalization in a pediatric unit  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: to raise the costs of dispositive intravascular peripheric (DIP used during the internment in a pediatric unit. Methodology: this is a descriptive and exploratory study, from quantitative approach. The sample consisted of nineteen children who were using intravenous therapy for a period exceeding seven days and whose guardians signed a consent form. To data collect was used a formularie composed of variables related to the patient and causes the change of DIP. The data were analyzed using simple statistics. This study was approved by the Ethics Committee and Research of the Hospital Universitário Antônio Pedro (HUAP/UFF with protocol number 071/2006. Results: it was found that most of the children lived outside the city of location of the hospital, each child used an average of 27.3 DIP, the main failure was the infusion of phlebitis and the cost of the device in relation to the total costs of hospitalization ranged between R$ 25,00 and 100,00. Conclusions: this study contributed to broader investigation, incorporating technology in vascular access and intravenous therapy, with respect to customer pediatric hospital.

Tathiana Silva Martins, Zenith Rosa Silvino

2010-04-01

185

Cost-income analysis of oral health units of health care centers in Yazd city  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background and Aims: Increasing demands for health care's services on one hand and limited resources on the other hand brings about pressure over governments to find out a mechanism for fair and appropriate distribution of resources. Economic analysis is one of the appropriate tools for policy making on this priority. The aim of this study was to assess capital and consumption of oral health units of health care centers in Yazd city and comparing it with revenue of these centers and determining of cost effectiveness.Materials and Methods: In this descriptive cross sectional study, all health care centers of Yazd city with active dentistry department were evaluated. The data has been extracted from current documents in health care center of county based issued receipts and daily information registers.Results: Expended cost for providing of oral hygiene services in second half of 2008 in 13 medical health centers of Yazd included active dentistry section was 557.887.500 Rials and revenue to cost ratio was about 34%. The most provided service was related to tooth extraction and the average of tooth restoration in each working day was 0.48.Conclusion: With attention to low tariffs of dentistry services in medical health centers and paying subsidy to target groups, expenses of oral hygiene are always more than its revenue.

Hosein Fallahzadeh

2012-01-01

186

Analysis of Unit Costs in a University. The Fribourg Example. Program on Institutional Management in Higher Education.  

Science.gov (United States)

Costing principles are applied to a university by estimating unit costs and their component factors for the university's different inputs, activities, and outputs. The information system used is designed for Fribourg University but could be applicable to other Swiss universities and could serve Switzerland's universities policy. In general, it…

Pasquier, Jacques; Sachse, Matthias

187

Low-cost general purpose spectral display unit using an IBM PC  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Many physics experiments require acquisition and analysis of spectral data. commercial minicomputer-based multichannel analyzers collect detected counts at various energies, create a histogram of the counts in memory, and display the resultant spectra. They acquire data and provide the user-to-display interface. The system discussed separates functions into the three modular components of data acquisition, storage, and display. This decoupling of functions allows the experimenter to use any number of detectors for data collection before forwarding up to 64 spectra to the display unit, thereby increasing data throughput over that available with commercial systems. An IBM PC was chosen for the low-cost, general purpose display unit. Up to four spectra may be displayed simultaneously in different colors. The histogram saves 1024 channels per detector, 640 of which may be distinctly displayed per spectra. The IEEE-488 standard provides the data path between the IBM PC and the data collection unit. Data is sent to the PC under interrupt control, using direct memory access. Display manipulations available via keyboard are also discussed

1985-10-23

188

A cost-savings analysis of the use of a predictive instrument for coronary-care-unit admission decisions.  

Science.gov (United States)

The predictive instrument for acute ischemic heart disease is one of several clinical decision aids developed to reduce unnecessary coronary-care-unit (CCU) admissions. Previous cost analyses of such decision aids have been based on hospital charges; however, estimates based on hospital charges significantly overstate true cost savings to hospitals. The actual savings for a hospital that wants to implement the predictive instrument depend on the hospital's cost structure, the competitiveness of its medical care, and its payor mix. PMID:1601659

Holthof, B; Selker, H P

1992-01-01

189

Multi-Item EOQ Model with Both Demand-Dependent Unit Cost and Varying Leading Time via Geometric Programming  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The objective of this paper is to derive the analytical solution of the EOQ model of multiple items with both demand-dependent unit cost and leading time using geometric programming approach. The varying purchase and leading time crashing costs are considered to be continuous functions of demand rate and leading time, respectively. The researchers deduce the optimal order quantity, the demand rate and the leading time as decision variables then the optimal total cost is obtained.

Kotb, Kotb A. M.; Fergany, Hala A.

2011-01-01

190

Entry Deterrence and the Calculation of the Net Cost of Universal Service Obligations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper relates to the current discussion about how to measure the net cost and the unfair burden of universal service provision in network industries. The established profitability cost approach compares the profit of a universal service provider (USP) with and without a universal service obligation (USO). This paper argues that the net cost of universal service provision critically depends on the regulatory counterfactual and hence the USP’s strategy space without USO. On the one hand,...

Christian Jaag

2011-01-01

191

Weather data for simplified energy calculation methods. Volume IV. United States: WYEC data  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of this report is to provide a source of weather data for direct use with a number of simplified energy calculation methods available today. Complete weather data for a number of cities in the United States are provided for use in the following methods: degree hour, modified degree hour, bin, modified bin, and variable degree day. This report contains sets of weather data for 23 cities using Weather Year for Energy Calculations (WYEC) source weather data. Considerable overlap is present in cities (21) covered by both the TRY and WYEC data. The weather data at each city has been summarized in a number of ways to provide differing levels of detail necessary for alternative simplified energy calculation methods. Weather variables summarized include dry bulb and wet bulb temperature, percent relative humidity, humidity ratio, wind speed, percent possible sunshine, percent diffuse solar radiation, total solar radiation on horizontal and vertical surfaces, and solar heat gain through standard DSA glass. Monthly and annual summaries, in some cases by time of day, are available. These summaries are produced in a series of nine computer generated tables.

Olsen, A.R.; Moreno, S.; Deringer, J.; Watson, C.R.

1984-08-01

192

Medical costs and productivity losses of cancer survivors - United States, 2008-2011.  

Science.gov (United States)

The number of persons in the United States with a history of cancer has increased from 3 million in 1971 to approximately 13.4 million in 2012, representing 4.6% of the population. Given the advances in early detection and treatment of cancer and the aging of the U.S. population, the number of cancer survivors is projected to increase by >30% during the next decade, to approximately 18 million. Cancer survivors face many challenges with medical care follow-up, managing the long-term and late effects of treatments, monitoring for recurrence, and an increased risk for additional cancers. These survivors also face economic challenges, including limitations in work and daily activities, obtaining health insurance coverage and accessing health care, and increasing medical care costs. To estimate annual medical costs and productivity losses among male and female cancer survivors and persons without a cancer history, CDC, along with other organizations, analyzed data from the 2008-2011 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS), sponsored by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. The results indicate that the economic burden of cancer survivorship is substantial among all survivors. For male cancer survivors, during 2008-2011, average annual medical costs and productivity losses resulting from health problems per person and adjusted to 2011 dollars were significantly higher among cancer survivors than among persons without a cancer history, by $4,187 and $1,459, respectively; for females, the estimated annual costs per person were $3,293 and $1,330 higher among cancer survivors than among persons without a cancer history, respectively. These findings suggest the need to develop and evaluate health and employment intervention programs aimed at improving outcomes for cancer survivors and their families. PMID:24918485

Ekwueme, Donatus U; Yabroff, K Robin; Guy, Gery P; Banegas, Matthew P; de Moor, Janet S; Li, Chunyu; Han, Xuesong; Zheng, Zhiyuan; Soni, Anita; Davidoff, Amy; Rechis, Ruth; Virgo, Katherine S

2014-06-13

193

Political economy of western water finance: cost allocation and the Bonneville Unit of the Central Utah Project  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A common hypothesis is that federal water agencies pursue continued appropriations with little consideration of national economic efficiency. In the mid-1980s, faced with a vote on a supplemented municipal and industrial water repayment contract on the Bonneville Unit of the Central Utah Project, the Bureau of Reclamation confirmed this hypothesis. Through modifications in cost allocation procedures, the bureau shifted costs from municipal and industrial water to hydropower and irrigation. The result of this action was retention of the irrigation purpose in the Bonneville Unit, which would have been unjustified under previous cost allocation procedures.

Miller, J.R.

1987-05-01

194

Economic impacts of oil spills: Spill unit costs for tankers, pipelines, refineries, and offshore facilities. [Task 1, Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The impacts of oil spills -- ranging from the large, widely publicized Exxon Valdez tanker incident to smaller pipeline and refinery spills -- have been costly to both the oil industry and the public. For example, the estimated costs to Exxon of the Valdez tanker spill are on the order of $4 billion, including $2.8 billion (in 1993 dollars) for direct cleanup costs and $1.125 billion (in 1992 dollars) for settlement of damages claims caused by the spill. Application of contingent valuation costs and civil lawsuits pending in the State of Alaska could raise these costs appreciably. Even the costs of the much smaller 1991 oil spill at Texaco`s refinery near Anacortes, Washington led to costs of $8 to 9 million. As a result, inexpensive waming, response and remediation technologies could lower oil spin costs, helping both the oil industry, the associated marine industries, and the environment. One means for reducing the impact and costs of oil spills is to undertake research and development on key aspects of the oil spill prevention, warming, and response and remediation systems. To target these funds to their best use, it is important to have sound data on the nature and size of spills, their likely occurrence and their unit costs. This information could then allow scarce R&D dollars to be spent on areas and activities having the largest impact. This report is intended to provide the ``unit cost`` portion of this crucial information. The report examines the three key components of the US oil supply system, namely, tankers and barges; pipelines and refineries; and offshore production facilities. The specific purpose of the study was to establish the unit costs of oil spills. By manipulating this key information into a larger matrix that includes the size and frequency of occurrence of oil spills, it will be possible` to estimate the likely future impacts, costs, and sources of oil spills.

1993-10-15

195

Intoxicated children at an intensive care unit: popular medicine risks, complications and costs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: The Hospital Universitario del Valle (HUV at the Pediatrics Intensive Care Unit (PICU admits intoxicated patients, erroneously medicated by «teguas» or family members with serious aggravation of basic diseases or generating severe intoxications. Absent reports of these practices in Colombia motivated the publication of this case seriesObjective: To report a series of pediatric intoxication cases secondary to oral or dermatological application of varied substances by healers («teguas» or family members, leading to admission at the PICU, and to describe complications and hospital costs of these events.Methodology: Clinical charts of patients admitted to the PICU with diagnosis of exogenous intoxication during May 2001 to September 2004, were reviewed. Of 28 registered cases during that time, only 14 clinical charts were recovered. Variables evaluated included: age, gender, proceeding, administered substance, person responsible for the administration, complications, days of mechanical ventilation, total days at the intensive care unit and average costs. Of the 14 medical records with exogenous intoxications only 5 cases were involuntary and 9 were related to the administration of substances by quacks or family members; these are the ones reported in this series.Results: We report a total of 9 intoxicated patients, 5 girls and 4 boys, with an age range from 1 to 24 months, all from Cali. Topical administered substances: alcohol 6/9, vinegar 1/9; oral: aspirin 2/9, paico 1/9, and unidentified herbs 1/9. Administered substances by teguas: 6 patients; 3 by family members. All patients had metabolic acidosis with an increased anion gap: 27 in average (range from 21 to 32. All required mechanical ventilation (2 to 32 day range. Average hospital day costs were $6’657,800 pesos (around U$3,000.oo. Three patients died and 4 presented acute renal failure, 2 convulsions, 2 nosocomial infections, 1 subglotic stenosis.Conclusions and recommendations: Those practices are a high risk for children and have high health costs. Mortality and severe complications are high. Educational campaigns should be started in the community to prevent these cases.

Consuelo de Rovetto

2009-09-01

196

Including budgeted costs in the calculation of network fees; Der Ansatz von Plankosten im Rahmen der Kalkulation der Netzentgelte  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

One of the central points of contention in the implementation of the network fee regulations is the question of to which degree to include in the calculation the budgeted costs stated by the companies. The following article analyses the field of application of paragraph 3 sentence 5 of the power network regulation (Strom NEV) and the assured facts, trying to better clarify the subject.

Jansen, Guido; Sieberg, Christoph [Freshfields Bruckhaus Deringer, Koeln (Germany)

2007-04-15

197

CASMO: A Computer Program to Calculate Spent Fuel and High-Level Waste Transportation Mileage and Costs.  

Science.gov (United States)

The CASMO computer program calculates the mileage and costs of transporting spent fuel and/or high-level wastes to various facilities in the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle. The program was specifically written to provide a tool for siting monitored re...

S. S. Seth K. A. Young P. A. Harris

1983-01-01

198

Microcomputer software for the calculation of distribution marginal costs; Software de calculo dos custos marginais de distribuicao para microcomputadores  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper shows the efforts of the Brazilian Energy Centre, joined with the state energy enterprises in medium and low tension distribution marginal costs calculation. In front of the large number of the enterprises, a software were developed, for high sized computers, aiming increase the performance of the data input, processing and the results output. 11 tabs., 6 refs.

Amendola, Alexandre Gomes [ELETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Galindo, Ricardo Vasconcelos [Companhia Energetica de Pernambuco (CELPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

1992-12-31

199

Marketing techniques and cost calculations of radiation vulcanised natural rubber latex (RVNRL)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes how RVNRL is promoted to the latex based industries locally and abroad. RVNRL promotion requires patience and very challenging. This is a fact since the product is new to the market. Cost is important in deciding its market and potential usage. The elements that contribute to the cost is described in this paper. (Author)

2003-07-22

200

Comminution of logging residues with a tub grinder: Calculation of productivity and procurement cost of wood chips  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An experiment on comminution of logging residues with a tub grinder was carried out in order to calculate the productivity and procurement cost of wood chips. At the investigated site, the tub grinder had a hammer mill crusher at the bottom of the tub, and a grapple loaderand a bucket loader worked as auxiliary machines for the grinder. As a result, the productivity of the tub grinder was 60.0 loose m3/PMH0, and the total comminuting cost was calculated as 5.637 US$/m3, indicating that the comminuting cost of a large-sized crusher waslower than that of a small-sized chipper. The percentage of the cost of loaders, that of carrying in, installing, and carrying out the machines, and that of constructing a landing was 53% of the total comminuting cost. When a truck with the capacity of 40 m3 transported wood chips three times a day, the costs of comminution and transportation were71.2 US$/t (DM1, which is almost on a par with those of European countries in which the energy utilization of logging residues is making steady progress. As a result of the discussion about the balance between the processing capacity of the tub grinder and that of othermachines, it seemed reasonable for Japanese forestry to consider the use of one tub grinder at several logging sites.

Takuyuki Yoshioka

2006-12-01

 
 
 
 
201

Low finding costs calculated in Mississippi's Tuscaloosa, Frio  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper reports on a recent study conducted by the Mississippi Office of Geology which examined oil and gas finding costs in southwestern Mississippi for the period from 1986 through 1990. The formations of interest were the Upper Cretaceous Lower Tuscaloosa formation and the Oligocene Frio formation. The model incorporated the following financial considerations for exploratory activity: seismic data acquisition, geologic expenses, leasing and legal fees, and drilling costs. Average drilling and completion costs were also assigned to the development wells. The finding cost formula divided the total exploration and development costs by the recoverable reserves. Reserves were multiplied by a 75% net revenue for the Tuscaloosa and 80% for the Frio leases to account for royalty interests and severance taxes. No field operating expenses were included.

Dowty, S.G.; Moody, J.S. (Mississippi Office of Geology, Jackson, MS (US))

1992-04-06

202

A methodology for calculating the levelized cost of electricity in nuclear power systems with fuel recycling  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper we show how the traditional definition of the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) can be extended to alternative nuclear fuel cycles in which elements of the fuel are recycled. In particular, we define the LCOE for a cycle with full actinide recycling in fast reactors in which elements of the fuel are reused an indefinite number of times. To our knowledge, ours is the first LCOE formula for this cycle. Others have approached the task of evaluating this cycle using an 'equilibrium cost' concept that is different from a levelized cost. We also show how the LCOE implies a unique price for the recycled elements. This price reflects the ultimate cost of waste disposal postponed through the recycling, as well as other costs in the cycle. We demonstrate the methodology by estimating the LCOE for three classic nuclear fuel cycles: (i) the traditional Once-Through Cycle, (ii) a Twice-Through Cycle, and (iii) a Fast Reactor Recycle. Given our chosen input parameters, we show that the 'equilibrium cost' is typically larger than the levelized cost, and we explain why.

2011-09-01

203

The financial cost of treating polytrauma: implications for tertiary referral centres in the United Kingdom.  

Science.gov (United States)

This observational study was designed to evaluate the financial cost and resources needed to treat a polytrauma patient at a tertiary care centre in the United Kingdom. Sixty-nine patients, from outside the normal hospital catchment area, were referred to a University Hospital and treated for polytrauma (injury severity score>15). Fifty-one patients had head injuries in addition to other injuries. Fourteen patients died in hospital. Forty-seven patients spent 316 ITU days with a total of 832 hospital days. One hundred and ninety-six operating hours were used for their surgical treatment and only 13 patients required neurosurgical intervention. There were 580 radiological and 2967 blood investigations. The total cost of treating these patients was 974,874 pounds. The money received by the hospital from the respective primary care trusts was an average of 1500 pounds per patient for the full treatment including follow up. Thus, the fiscal deficit was 871,375 pounds. This study indicates that the financial accounting for complex cases is antiquated and inaccurate within the NHS. Tertiary referral centres receive only 10% of the appropriate money for treatment of polytrauma patients. The number of patients is relatively small, but their impact on the local services is very high. PMID:15910825

Sikand, M; Williams, K; White, C; Moran, C G

2005-06-01

204

Fast unit commitment based on optimal linear approximation to nonlinear fuel cost: Error analysis and applications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) based techniques are among the most widely applied methods for unit commitment (UC) problems. The fuel cost functions are often replaced by their piecewise linear approximations whereas it is more or less disturbing to use piecewise linear approximations without knowing the exact effect on solution deviation from the optima. Therefore, error analysis is important since the optimal solutions are different when different objective functions are adopted. Another important problem is balancing between solution quality and computation efficiency since better solution quality relies on finer discretization with exponentially increased computational efforts. A detailed error analysis is presented in this paper. It is found that the approximation error is inverse proportional to the square of the number of piecewise segments. Lower bounds on the minimum necessary number of discretization segments are also derived. A 2-Stage Procedure is then established to achieve a better balance between solution quality and computation efficiency. Numerical testing to 2 groups of UC problems is exciting. It is found that the operating cost increases no more than 0.6% in all cases while the CPU time is greatly reduced regarding other MILP approaches. The results are still valid in electric power market clearing computation. (author)

2009-11-01

205

Present state of earthquake resistance calculations for the main generating units of nuclear power plants Mochovce and Temelin  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The finite element method and the ICES program package were used for calculating the earthquake resistance of the main generating unit of the Mochovce nuclear power plant. The seismic calculation of structures includes the calculation of shapes and eigenfrequencies, the calculation of substitute seismic forces, of the dynamic response of structures to accelerogram excitation and the calculation of response spectra from accelerograms. Seismic calculations are being prepared for the Temelin nuclear power plant. The calculation method will be the same with different distribution of facilities and structures into categories of earthquake resistance. So far dynamic calculations have been made of the WWER-1000 reactor containment on a simplified model; the calculation of a spatial model is being prepared which will take account of the fact that the containment is part of a complex structure. (Z.M.)

1984-10-17

206

An innovative design of small low head hydropower units for low cost decentralized production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Design allowing turbine operation at heads as low as 1m and operating at a rotational speed of 500 RPM at a flow of 2.6m3/s and a runner diameter of 700 mm. This eliminates the need for a gear box and helps in achieving efficiency of 60% in the case of a 21 kW installation at a 1m head site and 85% with a 69 kW 3.2m head site. Present turbine designs for such low head sites are very expensive to produce and have a low efficiency. The design uses an all plastic waterway, guide vane assembly and reinforced plastic runner blades. There will be a short pay-back period, for example 4.5 years in the case of a 21 kW unit and 2.0 years in case of the 69 kW unit. These payback periods assume a cost per kW of 0.00 ECU. Design is attractive for decentralized production. 3 figs

1991-06-01

207

Energy Savings and Breakeven Cost for Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters in the United States  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have recently reemerged in the U.S. residential water heating market and have the potential to provide homeowners with significant energy savings. However, there are questions as to the actual performance and energy savings potential of these units, in particular in regards to the heat pump's performance in unconditioned space and the impact of the heat pump on space heating and cooling loads when it is located in conditioned space. To help answer these questions, simulations were performed of a HPWH in both conditioned and unconditioned space at over 900 locations across the continental United States and Hawaii. Simulations included a Building America benchmark home so that any interaction between the HPWH and the home's HVAC equipment could be captured. Comparisons were performed to typical gas and electric water heaters to determine the energy savings potential and cost effectiveness of a HPWH relative to these technologies. HPWHs were found to have a significant source energy savings potential when replacing typical electric water heaters, but only saved source energy relative to gas water heater in the most favorable installation locations in the southern US. When replacing an electric water heater, the HPWH is likely to break even in California, the southern US, and parts of the northeast in most situations. However, the HPWH will only break even when replacing a gas water heater in a few southern states.

Maguire, J.; Burch, J.; Merrigan, T.; Ong, S.

2013-07-01

208

A New Improved Hybrid Meta-Heuristics Method for Unit Commitment with Nonlinear Fuel Cost Function  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, a new improved hybrid meta-heuristic method is proposed to solve the unit commitment problem effectively. The objective is to minimize operation cost while satisfying the power balance constraints and so on. It may be formulated as a nonlinear mixed-integer problem. In other words, the unit commitment problem is hard to solve. Therefore, this paper makes use of a hybrid meta-heuristic method with two layers. Layer 1 determines the on/off conditions of generators with tabu search (TS) while Layer 2 evaluates output of generators with evolutionary particle swarm optimization (EPSO). The construction phase of Greedy Randomized Adaptive Search Procedure (GRASP) is used to create initial feasible solutions efficiently. Three kinds of meta-heuristic methods such as TS, EPSO and GRASP are combined to solve the problem. In addition, a parallel scheme of EPSO is developed to improve the computational efficient as well as the accuracy. The effectiveness of the proposed method is tested in sample systems.

Okawa, Kenta; Mori, Hiroyuki

209

A guide for the calculation of the maximum permissible costs for shelters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Among other things, this paper has the aim to define the scope which is reasonable for shelter costs as well as to inform about their real amount. Various assumptions have been made and examples have been given which seldom coincide with the specific facts. Thus, the possibility of how to find solutions which are precisely appropriate for persons is shown in a formula. The less the income, life expectancy and the number of persons to be considered the less are the maximum permissible costs for shelters. Under certain conditions the permissible costs are lower than the real costs. Thus, taking those assumptions into account, the shelter is not profitable any more. This case, for example, really applies to a couple, 57 years old, without children, with an income of 40,000 DM/year who intend to build an interior shelter. For a family with children who are under age, however, it is always profitable to build an interior basic shelter. (orig.)

1981-01-01

210

A Cost-Benefit Calculator for RFID Implementations in the Apparel Retail Industry  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The apparel retail industry is on the one hand facing challenges from increasing competition, consolidations, and thus increasing pressure to reduce costs. On the other hand, customers are getting more demanding, resulting in shorter fashion cycles, and demands for new customer experience. RFID technology is supposed to raise efficiency and to enable innovative customer service offerings. Besides cost savings, benefits are expected to arise from newly designed RFID applications and customer i...

Jasser Al-Kassab; Nezar Mahmoud; Frederic Thiesse; Elgar Fleisch

2009-01-01

211

46 CFR 401.400 - Calculation of pilotage units and determination of weighting factor.  

Science.gov (United States)

...pilotage units and determination of weighting factor. 401.400 Section 401...pilotage units and determination of weighting factor. The equivalent pilotage unit number and appropriate weighting factor for each ship shall be...

2010-10-01

212

Calculation of additional costs in 2010 - for the demolition of the Swedish nuclear power plants and disposal of residues  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report describes the SSM's calculation of additional costs for fee proposal for 2012-2014. The calculation is made pursuant to the Financing Act and includes all additional costs until the residue from the Swedish nuclear power plants is disposed of. According to current calculations, this should be done in 2069. Estimates of such a long time means a great deal of uncertainty and SSM uses, like SKB, the successive calculation method to estimate an expected value and tax association uncertainty. As a starting point for analysis, the SSM has made estimates of the future costs broken down into paragraphs in paragraph 2 Financing Act. The estimates were made after discussions within the organization and representatives of relevant external organizations. Assuming a total annual cost per worker of 1.24 million gave these estimates a total cost of over three billion. It should be emphasized that this sum is only a starting point for analysis and applies in particular circumstances. These circumstances critically reviewed the analysis and the reasonableness of assessments made by a analysis group. The analysis took place for 2.5 days in spring 2010. The analysis group consisted of 17 people including nine from the SSM. Lores Borg and Steen Lichtenberg were moderators. Via a brainstorming process, the analysis group presented a number of uncertainties and made a three-part assessment of their impact on the overall results (minimum, most likely and maximum). The result of the analysis: average in the 2010 monetary value was assessed to 4.24 billion Swedish crowns with a standard deviation of 920 million Swedish crowns. These values are undiscounted

2010-01-01

213

Evaluation of cost estimates of nuclear power reactor decommissioning in Sweden, Germany and the United States.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nominal base decommissioning cost estimates in Sweden, Germany and the US differ by large amounts. Even after adjustments to normalize the work scopes, significant cost differences remain. Variations in national cost structures, achievable productivity, t...

S. O. Andersson G. Varley R. Heibel C. Rusch

1995-01-01

214

Conventional method for the calculation of the global energy cost of buildings; Methode conventionnelle de calcul du cout global energetique des batiments  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article presents a calculation tool developed by a working group involving Electricite de France (EdF), Chauffage Fioul, Gaz de France (GdF) with the sustain of the CFE (French center of electric power). This tool aims at evaluating the global energy costs (actualized and annualized) of a building in the domain of space heating, hot water production and ventilation taking into account the structure of the building. This method can be used at any stage of a building project and is compatible with all possible energy sources. (J.S.)

Anon.

2002-09-01

215

Real time economic dispatch and marginal costs calculation in CFE's northeast system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents a real time model developed to solve a constrained economic dispatch using the cost curve for an equivalent generator. The approach includes constraints such as reserve, transmission power interchanges, ramp rates and generator limits. The formulation combines the solution of coordination equations and a fast decoupled load flow (FDLF) is used to determine penalty factors and bus marginal costs. A model for a combined cycle power plant is described and included in the dispatch. Results on various test systems and study cases are presented using this formulation. (author)

1996-01-01

216

Break-Even Cost for Residential Solar Water Heating in the United States: Key Drivers and Sensitivities  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper examines the break-even cost for residential rooftop solar water heating (SWH) technology, defined as the point where the cost of the energy saved with a SWH system equals the cost of a conventional heating fuel purchased from the grid (either electricity or natural gas). We examine the break-even cost for the largest 1,000 electric and natural gas utilities serving residential customers in the United States as of 2008. Currently, the break-even cost of SWH in the United States varies by more than a factor of five for both electricity and natural gas, despite a much smaller variation in the amount of energy saved by the systems (a factor of approximately one and a half). The break-even price for natural gas is lower than that for electricity due to a lower fuel cost. We also consider the relationship between SWH price and solar fraction and examine the key drivers behind break-even costs. Overall, the key drivers of the break-even cost of SWH are a combination of fuel price, local incentives, and technical factors including the solar resource location, system size, and hot water draw.

Cassard, H.; Denholm, P.; Ong, S.

2011-02-01

217

Opportunity cost calculations only determine justified effort--or, what happened to the resource conservation principle?  

Science.gov (United States)

We welcome the development of a new model on effort and performance and the critique on existing resource-based models. However, considering the vast evidence for the significant impact of experienced task demand on resource allocation, we conclude that Kurzban et al.'s opportunity cost model is only valid for one performance condition: if task demand is unknown or unspecified. PMID:24304784

Gendolla, Guido H E; Richter, Michael

2013-12-01

218

Cost calculation for combined heat and power products; Kostenkalkulation fuer die Kuppelprodukte Waerme und Strom  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

CHP at steam power stations is regarded as joint production, a characteristic of which is that two or more different products emerge from one production process. The fact that equitable causal cost accounting is not possible is regard as a peculiarity of cost accounting for joint products. Costs which are clearly attributable to joint products do not arise until the products have been separated. The flow of goods forms the basis of correct cost accounting. The goods used and the products emerging from the combined effect of the production factors must be specified. The concept of the product at a CHP plant must be sought on the basis of the product medium. The steam power process is a peculiarity, as the product emerging differs from the substance of the process medium. The medium (e.g. water) is processed to form the corresponding constituents and is itself the operating medium. The production flow is used as a basis for analysis of the production situation. The point marked with a circle on the flow chart is the point at which the production flow divides. The processes at this point, also known as the splitting point, are of particular interest. (orig.) [German] Die Kraft-Waerme-Kopplung in Dampfkraftwerken wird als Kuppelproduktion angesehen. Die fuer diese Produktionssituation im Allgemeinen angewandten Kostenrechnungsmethoden geben oft nur teilweise den tatsaechlichen Werteinsatz fuer die Erzeugnisse wieder. Der Autor beschreibt die Entwicklung und Anwendung von geeigneten Methoden, um die Kosten von in einer Kuppelproduktion hergestellten Guetern kalkulieren zu koennen. (orig.)

Schenk, P. [Ingenieurbuero fuer Maschinenbau und Unternehmensberatung, Graz (Austria)

2003-02-01

219

Cost optimal building performance requirements. Calculation methodology for reporting on national energy performance requirements on the basis of cost optimality within the framework of the EPBD  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

On the European level, the principles for the requirements for the energy performance of buildings are set by the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD). Dating from December 2002, the EPBD has set a common framework from which the individual Member States in the EU developed or adapted their individual national regulations. The EPBD in 2008 and 2009 underwent a recast procedure, with final political agreement having been reached in November 2009. The new Directive was then formally adopted on May 19, 2010. Among other clarifications and new provisions, the EPBD recast introduces a benchmarking mechanism for national energy performance requirements for the purpose of determining cost-optimal levels to be used by Member States for comparing and setting these requirements. The previous EPBD set out a general framework to assess the energy performance of buildings and required Member States to define maximum values for energy delivered to meet the energy demand associated with the standardised use of the building. However it did not contain requirements or guidance related to the ambition level of such requirements. As a consequence, building regulations in the various Member States have been developed by the use of different approaches (influenced by different building traditions, political processes and individual market conditions) and resulted in different ambition levels where in many cases cost optimality principles could justify higher ambitions. The EPBD recast now requests that Member States shall ensure that minimum energy performance requirements for buildings are set 'with a view to achieving cost-optimal levels'. The cost optimum level shall be calculated in accordance with a comparative methodology. The objective of this report is to contribute to the ongoing discussion in Europe around the details of such a methodology by describing possible details on how to calculate cost optimal levels and pointing towards important factors and effects. The methodology described in this report is consistent with the description of the process as presented in the study 'Cost Optimality - Discussing methodology and challenges within the recast Energy Performance of Buildings Directive' published in September 2010 by the Buildings Performance Institute Europe (BPIE). The present document provides additional insights and details.

Boermans, T.; Bettgenhaeuser, K.; Hermelink, A.; Schimschar, S. [Ecofys, Utrecht (Netherlands)

2011-05-15

220

Cost-effectiveness of social marketing of insecticide-treated nets for malaria control in the United Republic of Tanzania.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVE: To assess the costs and consequences of a social marketing approach to malaria control in children by means of insecticide-treated nets in two rural districts of the United Republic of Tanzania, compared with no net use. METHODS: Project cost data were collected prospectively from accounting records. Community effectiveness was estimated on the basis of a nested case-control study and a cross-sectional cluster sample survey. FINDINGS: The social marketing approach to the distributi...

Hanson, Kara; Kikumbih, Nassor; Armstrong Schellenberg, Joanna; Mponda, Haji; Nathan, Rose; Lake, Sally; Mills, Anne; Tanner, Marcel; Lengeler, Christian

2003-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

DUCKS: Low cost thermal monitoring units for near-vent deployment  

Science.gov (United States)

During 1999 we designed and tested a thermal monitoring system to provide a cheap, robust, modular, real-time system capable of surviving the hostile conditions encountered proximal to active volcanic vents. In November 2000 the first system was deployed at Pu'u 'O'o (Kilauea, Hawai'i) to target persistently active vents. Aside from some minor problems, such as sensor damage due to tampering, this system remained operational until January 2004. The success of the prototype system led us to use the blueprint for a second installation at Stromboli (Aeolian Islands, Italy). This was deployed, dug into a bomb-proof bunker, during May 2002 and survived the April 2003 paroxysmal eruption despite being located just 250 m from the vent. In both cases, careful waterproofing of connectors and selection of suitable protection has prevented water damage and corrosion in the harsh atmosphere encountered at the crater rim. The Pu'u 'O'o system cost ???US$10,000 and comprises four modules: sensors, transmission and power hub, repeater station and reception site. The sensor component consists of three thermal infrared thermometers housed in Pelican??? cases fitted with Germanium-Arsenide-Selenium windows. Two 1?? field of view (FOV) sensors allow specific vents to be targeted and a 60?? FOV sensor provides a crater floor overview. A hard wire connection links to a Pelican???-case-housed microprocessor, modem and power module. From here data are transmitted, via a repeater site, to a dedicated PC at the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory. Here data are displayed with a delay of ???3 s between acquisition and display. The modular design allows for great flexibility. At Stromboli, 1?? and 15?? FOV sensor modules can be switched depending changes in activity style and crater geometry. In addition a direct line of site to the Stromboli reception center negates the repeater site requirement, reducing the cost to US$5500 for a single sensor system. We have also constructed self-contained units w ith internal data loggers for US$1500/unit. These have been tested at Kilauea, Stromboli, Etna, Masaya, Santiaguito, Fuego, Pacaya, Poas, Soufriere Hills, Villarrica and Erta Ale. These instruments have proved capable of detecting thermal signals associated with: (1) gas emission; (2) gas jetting events; (3) crater floor collapse; (4) lava effusion; (5) lava flow in tubes; (6) lava lake activity; (7) lava dome activity; and (8) crater lake skin temperature. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Harris, A.; Pirie, D.; Horton, K.; Garbeil, H.; Pilger, E.; Ramm, H.; Hoblitt, R.; Thornber, C.; Ripepe, M.; Marchetti, E.; Poggi, P.

2005-01-01

222

NUFCO-A computer program for levelized fuel cost calculations for on-load natural uranium fueled reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This work is a part of an integrated calculation scheme, conducted by nuclear power plants authority, aiming at the development of the necessary tools for complete economic and material analysis of various nuclear fuel cycles. NUFCO is an adaptation of NUFCCAMA computer cods, developed previously by the authors; for nuclear fuel cycle cost and material analysis. Nufco allows for the analysis subject to on-load refueling concept as applied in uranium fueled pressure tube reactors. It is based on the levelized batch fuel cycle cost technique using the continuous energy discounting. This program can deal with time dependent plant capacity factor and escalation of the fuel material cost items. Sample case study is presented including input data, output results, and conclusions. 6 tab

1992-01-01

223

Calculation of Costs of Pregnancy- and Puerperium-related Care: Experience from a Hospital in a Low-income Country  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Calculation of costs of different medical and surgical services has numerous uses, which include monitoring the performance of service-delivery, setting the efficiency target, benchmarking of services across all sectors, considering investment decisions, commissioning to meet health needs, and negotiating revised levels of funding. The role of private-sector healthcare facilities has been increasing rapidly over the last decade. Despite the overall improvement in the public and private health...

Sarowar, M. G.; Medin, E.; Gazi, R.; Koehlmoos, T. P.; Rehnberg, C.; Saifi, R.; Bhuiya, A.; Khan, J.

2010-01-01

224

Does the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness cost more than routine care? Results from the United Republic of Tanzania.  

Science.gov (United States)

OBJECTIVE: The Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) strategy is designed to address the five leading causes of childhood mortality, which together account for 70% of the 10 million deaths occurring among children worldwide annually. Although IMCI is associated with improved quality of care, which is a key determinant of better health outcomes, it has not yet been widely adopted, partly because it is assumed to be more expensive than routine care. Here we report the cost of IMCI compared with routine care in four districts in the United Republic of Tanzania. METHODS: Total district costs of child care were estimated from the societal perspective as the sum of child health-care costs incurred in a district at the household level, primary health-facility level and hospital level. We also included administrative and support costs incurred by national and district administrations. The incremental cost of IMCI is the difference in costs of child health-care between districts with and without IMCI, after standardization for population size. FINDINGS: The annual cost per child of caring for children less than five years old in districts with IMCI was USD 11.19, 44% lower than the cost in the districts without IMCI (USD 16.09). Much of the difference was due to higher rates of hospitalization of children less than 5 years old in the districts without IMCI. Not all of this difference can be attributed to IMCI but even when differences in hospitalization rates are excluded, the cost per child was still 6% lower in IMCI districts. CONCLUSION:IMCI was not associated with higher costs than routine child health-care in the four study districts in the United Republic of Tanzania. Given the evidence of improved quality of care in the IMCI districts, the results suggest that cost should not be a barrier to the adoption and scaling up of IMCI.

Adam, Taghreed; Manzi, Fatuma; Schellenberg, Joanna Armstrong; Mgalula, Leslie; de Savigny, Don; Evans, David B.

2005-01-01

225

A calculation program for harvesting and transportation costs of energy and industrial wood; Energiapuun korjuun ja kuljetuksen kustannuslaskentaohjelmisto  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A computer based model has been developed for calculating the production costs of industrial wood and wood fuel. Several calculation situations, which might be useful for decision-making in energy wood supply, are included into this software. The model will be easy to use for practical purposes and flexible so that different new model and changes in the basis of calculations are easy to implement. Model will offer open interfaces for importing and exporting information. Model includes selected wood delivery chains and open interfaces for adding data from different procurement sources. The cost analysis model is built on Windows-based software, SQLWindows, using different sources of data (ODBC). With the model it is possible to manage these SQLBase databases with SQL-queries. The data included in the databases origins from various energy wood sources (local communities or part of them, forestry boards planning areas or even stands ready for cutting). By knowing the planned share of first thinnings, final cuttings and other harvesting operations it is possible to estimate the potential amount of wood fuel from each area. Also databases from energy wood users, forest and transportation machinery and distances are available in the system. Using the information it is possible to find out the fuel demand of power and heating plants in each moment (e.g., amount and quality), costs of various machines (harvesters, forwarders, trucks) as well as distances between energy wood sources and users. (orig.)

Ranta, T. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

1997-12-01

226

Calculation of HELAS amplitudes for QCD processes using graphics processing unit (GPU)  

CERN Document Server

We use a graphics processing unit (GPU) for fast calculations of helicity amplitudes of quark and gluon scattering processes in massless QCD. New HEGET ({\\bf H}ELAS {\\bf E}valuation with {\\bf G}PU {\\bf E}nhanced {\\bf T}echnology) codes for gluon self-interactions are introduced, and a C++ program to convert the MadGraph generated FORTRAN codes into HEGET codes in CUDA (a C-platform for general purpose computing on GPU) is created. Because of the proliferation of the number of Feynman diagrams and the number of independent color amplitudes, the maximum number of final state jets we can evaluate on a GPU is limited to 4 for pure gluon processes ($gg\\to 4g$), or 5 for processes with one or more quark lines such as $q\\bar{q}\\to 5g$ and $qq\\to qq+3g$. Compared with the usual CPU-based programs, we obtain 60-100 times better performance on the GPU, except for 5-jet production processes and the $gg\\to 4g$ processes for which the GPU gain over the CPU is about 20.

Hagiwara, K; Okamura, N; Rainwater, D L; Stelzer, T

2009-01-01

227

The DRG Project of the German Transplant Society: 1. Improved Delineation of the Cost of Liver Transplantation under the G-DRG System through Cost Analysis and Calculation of New Cost Separators  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: The first calculation of the Diagnosis Related Groups (DRGs in Germany resulted in a drastic reduction of reimbursements for liver transplantations (LTX. While under the previous reimbursement system, a liver transplantation was calculated with approximately € 125.000, the newly introduced German DRG system calculated for a liver transplantation without complications for 2004 a case weight of 11,9 and hence, based on the base rate utilized a fee of € 35.000 - € 45.000. Since under these circumstances the financing for clinical liver transplantations seemed to be in jeopardy, the Deutsche Transplantationsgesellschaft (German Society for Organ Transplantation conducted an evaluation of the actual costs of liver transplantations. Materials and Methods: The data of 75 transplant admissions from five major transplant centres were collected and 177 cost parameters were captured each day. In addition, the data which is important for the classification of the DRGs (diagnosis, procedures, length of hospital stay and duration of ventilation were recorded and cost comparisons for single parameters were performed using the DKG-NT (Deutsche Krankenhausgesellschaft Normal-Tarif [German hospital association regular price] and Lauer-Tax (drugstore base buying price. With this method the total actual costs per case were determined and also which parameter could be useful as a cost separator. Results: Based on our data, our estimated cost for the DRG liver transplantation was much higher then the actual reimbursement under the new German DRG system. This led us to initiate a discussion with the InEK and subsequently the introduction of weighed hospital days for better allocation of the cost to the liver transplanted patient. Furthermore, based on our findings, additional split criteria were discussed with the InEK, which partially have been included into the DRG 2005 system. Conclusions: The investigation which was performed in cooperation with the InEK underlined that the actual reimbursement for liver transplantations does not mirror the actual cost, and the introduction of new cost separators, new ICD and procedure codes should enable the hospitals in the future to allocate the real cost of liver transplantations to the liver recipient. The changes already implemented have resulted in a significantly higher reimbursement for liver transplantation for 2005, and have reduced the financial gap for liver transplantations considerably.

R. Lohmann

2005-12-01

228

En plena crisis económica: coste y efectividad de las unidades de estancia corta hospitalarias / Economic crisis: cost and effectiveness of short stay hospital units  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Fundamento. La duración de la estancia es el principal determinante del coste de una hospitalización, por lo que se deben implementar estrategias para reducir la estancia hospitalaria convencional manteniéndose los niveles de calidad. Las Unidades de Estancia Corta (UEC) nacen con el objetivo de dis [...] minuir la estancia hospitalaria en un grupo de patologias y pacientes determinados. El objetivo de este original es evaluar la bibliografía existente sobre la evidencia de la disminución del periodo de estancia, eficiencia, reconsultas en los servicios de urgencias, coste-efectividad, y mortalidad de estas unidades. Método. Se realizó una revisión sistemática de las publicaciones que aparecen en la literatura, utilizando los términos MeSH "Observation Unit", "Short-Stay Ward", "Monday to Friday Clinic", "Monaday to Friday Surgery Ward", "Short Stay Hospitalization", "Alternative to Convencional Hospitalization", "Alternative Admissions" en la base de datos MEDLINE, Web of Knowledge y la Cochrane Library desde el 1 de enero de 1960 al 1 de enero del 2012. Los estudios revisados se seleccionaron según la US Preventive Services Task Force Protocol. Resultados. Las UEC permiten en grupos determinados de pacientes, disminuir el periodo de estancia, mantener la eficiencia, no mostrando incrementos de los reingresos por urgencias, ni la mortalidad. Conclusiones. Las UEC pueden ser un instrumento para disminuir el coste del proceso sanitario en un grupo de patologias determinadas. Abstract in english Background. Length of stay is the main determinant of the cost of hospitalization, which is why strategies must be implemented to reduce conventional hospital stays while maintaining quality levels. Short Stay Units (SSU) were created with the aim of reducing hospital stays in a certain group of pat [...] ients and pathologies. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the literature on the evidence of decreased length of stay, efficiency, readmissions in the emergency department, cost-effectiveness, and mortality of these units. Methods. We made a systematic review of the literature, using the MeSH terms "Observation Unit", "Short-Stay Ward", "Monday to Friday Clinic", "Monday to Friday Surgery Ward", "Short Stay Hospitalization", "Alternative to Conventional Hospitalization", "Alternative Admissions" in the MEDLINE database, Web of Knowledge and the Cochrane Library from January 1 1960 to January 1 2012. The studies reviewed were selected according to the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Protocol. Results. The SSU made it possible in certain groups of patients to reduce the period of stay and maintain efficiency, showing no increases in emergency readmissions or mortality. Conclusions. The SSU can be an instrument to reduce the cost of the health process in a certain group of pathologies.

Epelde, F.; Iglesias-Lepine, M.L.; Anarte, L..

229

Energy savings estimates and cost benefit calculations for high performance relocatable classrooms  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report addresses the results of detailed monitoring completed under Program Element 6 of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's High Performance Commercial Building Systems (HPCBS) PIER program. The purpose of the Energy Simulations and Projected State-Wide Energy Savings project is to develop reasonable energy performance and cost models for high performance relocatable classrooms (RCs) across California climates. A key objective of the energy monitoring was to validate DOE2 simulations for comparison to initial DOE2 performance projections. The validated DOE2 model was then used to develop statewide savings projections by modeling base case and high performance RC operation in the 16 California climate zones. The primary objective of this phase of work was to utilize detailed field monitoring data to modify DOE2 inputs and generate performance projections based on a validated simulation model. Additional objectives include the following: (1) Obtain comparative performance data on base case and high performance HVAC systems to determine how they are operated, how they perform, and how the occupants respond to the advanced systems. This was accomplished by installing both HVAC systems side-by-side (i.e., one per module of a standard two module, 24 ft by 40 ft RC) on the study RCs and switching HVAC operating modes on a weekly basis. (2) Develop projected statewide energy and demand impacts based on the validated DOE2 model. (3) Develop cost effectiveness projections for the high performance HVAC system in the 16 California climate zones.

Rainer, Leo I.; Hoeschele, Marc A.; Apte, Michael G.; Shendell, Derek G.; Fisk, Wlliam J.

2003-12-01

230

The method of the unit costs. A method for CHP plants cost allocation on both types of energy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the first part of the paper we try to explain why the production of electricity is more expansive than the production of heat. In the last part of the paper we propose a new method for fuel consumption allocation between the two forms of energy. The method leads to a scientifically higher cost for electricity but on the other hand presents some important advantages: - It establishes a correct price for both types of energy, increasing the competitiveness of the CHP plant on the heat market; - It facilitates the implementation of the energy efficiency methods focusing on electricity savings and that leads to higher fuel savings and lower greenhouse gasses emissions; - It facilitates the rehabilitation methods that lead to a higher electricity production efficiency

2004-06-13

231

Calculating Optimal Cost of Using DGs in Micro Grids by Using Imperialistic Competitive Algorithm (ICA?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available How to use renewable sources has been a great problem for many years. Researchers haveinvented and developed Microgrids, flexible networks with a central control system; nevertheless, forinstalling renewable sources on them there is still questions. As a result, researchers started to use differentalgorithms in order to solve problems and find best answers for electrical functions. One of the most novelalgorithms for this purpose is Imperialistic Competitive Algorithm (ICA. It is based on historical events andprovides marvelous results and speed in comparison with similar algorithms such as Genetic Algorithm orPSO. In this paper we will investigate best answers for cost function in a 14-Bus Microgrid by using ICAalgorithm. Finally answers will be compared with GA and PSO so that it can be shown that proposedalgorithm is more efficient than its counterparts.

Navid Javidtash

2013-10-01

232

Design of Optimized Decimator for Distortion Removal in Wireless Communication & Calculation of Cost Function  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In digital signal processing, decimation is a technique for reducing the number of samples in discrete-time signal used for multi-rate signal processing in wireless communication systems. In this paper optimized decimator has been presented to improve the implementation complexity. The proposed decimator is implemented using MATLAB as standard FIR, Half Band FIR and Nyquist FIR by using the multistage design techniques. The performance of different decimator designs is compared in terms of error and hardware requirements. The results show that the performance of all designs is almost identical but their implementation cost varies greatly in terms of hardware requirements. The hardware saving of 80% to 90% can be achieved by using multistage Nyquist decimator design.

Manpreet kaur, Mandeep Singh Saini

2012-10-01

233

Subsequent claims of electricity costs in case of calculation errors. Section VI No. 4 AVB  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The sentence is based on the following factual findings: the electric power provided by an electricity supply service was measured by an electric meter in a way that the actual use of electricity could be determined only with the help of a multiplicator (constant of a meter). Non-application of the constants, is to be also considered a calculation error when measuring electrical power even if this multiplication must be carried out, by an electronic data processing device, which has been incorrectly programmed.

1980-03-01

234

Coal unit trains: operations, maintenance, and technology. Volume 4. Costs and benefits of aluminum coal cars. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report examines the costs and benefits to a utility of acquiring aluminum coal cars. After discussing the history of aluminum car production, the report describes in detail the characteristics of several aluminum cars now in use, and the experience of railroads and utilities with them. The effects of acquiring aluminum cars instead of steel cars on the fuel cost, crew cost, maintenance-of-way cost, and car costs (capital and maintenance) are discussed. An illustrative example is given, in which the internal rate of return (IRR) and payback period of the extra investment made to acquire aluminum cars are calculated. A parametric analysis is performed to determine the sensitivity of IRR and payback period to the freight-rate discount for the aluminum car, the inflation rate, the purchase price of aluminum and steel cars, their maintenance costs, bad order ratios, car lives, salvage values, trip length, and car utilization. The study concludes that the aluminum cars can be an excellent investment, provided a reasonable freight-rate discount is obtained. The first cost of an aluminum car compared to that of a steel car, its estimated downtime, its estimated maintenance cost, and the anticipated degree of its utilization are also shown to significantly affect the attractiveness of the extra investment. In addition, the study reveals that some aluminum cars have proved more durable in service than others. Thus, the importance of a thorough evaluation of the design of the aluminum cars being offered is demonstrated. 11 references, 15 figures, 8 tables.

Boghani, A.B.

1984-11-01

235

On tentative decommissioning cost analysis with specific authentic cost calculations with the application of the Omega code on a case linked to the Intermediate storage facility for spent fuel in Sweden  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The presented report is focused on tentative calculations of basic decommissioning parameters such as costs, manpower and exposure of personnel for activities of older nuclear facility decommissioning in Sweden represented by Intermediate storage facility for spent fuel in Studsvik, by means of calculation code OMEGA. This report continuously follows up two previous projects, which described methodology of cost estimates of decommissioning with an emphasis to derive cost functions for alpha contaminated material and implementation of the advanced decommissioning costing methodology for Intermediate Storage facility for Spent Fuel in Studsvik. The main purpose of the presented study is to demonstrate the trial application of the advanced costing methodology using OMEGA code for Intermediate Storage Facility for Spent Fuel in Studsvik. Basic work packages presented in report are as follows: 1. Analysis and validation input data on Intermediate Storage Facility for Spent Fuel and assemble a database suitable for standardised decommissioning cost calculations including radiological parameters, 2. Proposal of range of decommissioning calculations and define an extent of decommissioning activities, 3. Defining waste management scenarios for particular material waste streams from Intermediate Storage Facility for Spent Fuel, 4. Developing standardised cost calculation structure applied for Intermediate Storage Facility for Spent Fuel decommissioning calculation and 5. Performing tentative decommissioning calculations for Intermediate Storage Facility for Spent Fuel by OMEGA code. Calculated parameters of decommissioning are presented in structure according to Proposed Standardized List of Items for Costing Purposes. All parameters are documented and summed up in both table and graphic forms in text and Annexes. The presented report documents availability and applicability of methodology for evaluation of costs and other parameters of decommissioning in a form implemented within calculation code OMEGA for calculations of Intermediate Storage for Spent Fuel in Studsvik.

Vasko, Marek; Daniska, Vladimir; Ondra, Frantisek; Bezak, Peter; Kristofova, Kristina; Tatransky, Peter; Zachar, Matej [DECOM Slovakia, spol. s.r.o., J. Bottu 2, SK-917 01 Trnava (Slovakia); Lindskog, Staffan [Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, Stockholm (Sweden)

2007-03-15

236

On tentative decommissioning cost analysis with specific authentic cost calculations with the application of the Omega code on a case linked to the Intermediate storage facility for spent fuel in Sweden  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The presented report is focused on tentative calculations of basic decommissioning parameters such as costs, manpower and exposure of personnel for activities of older nuclear facility decommissioning in Sweden represented by Intermediate storage facility for spent fuel in Studsvik, by means of calculation code OMEGA. This report continuously follows up two previous projects, which described methodology of cost estimates of decommissioning with an emphasis to derive cost functions for alpha contaminated material and implementation of the advanced decommissioning costing methodology for Intermediate Storage facility for Spent Fuel in Studsvik. The main purpose of the presented study is to demonstrate the trial application of the advanced costing methodology using OMEGA code for Intermediate Storage Facility for Spent Fuel in Studsvik. Basic work packages presented in report are as follows: 1. Analysis and validation input data on Intermediate Storage Facility for Spent Fuel and assemble a database suitable for standardised decommissioning cost calculations including radiological parameters, 2. Proposal of range of decommissioning calculations and define an extent of decommissioning activities, 3. Defining waste management scenarios for particular material waste streams from Intermediate Storage Facility for Spent Fuel, 4. Developing standardised cost calculation structure applied for Intermediate Storage Facility for Spent Fuel decommissioning calculation and 5. Performing tentative decommissioning calculations for Intermediate Storage Facility for Spent Fuel by OMEGA code. Calculated parameters of decommissioning are presented in structure according to Proposed Standardized List of Items for Costing Purposes. All parameters are documented and summed up in both table and graphic forms in text and Annexes. The presented report documents availability and applicability of methodology for evaluation of costs and other parameters of decommissioning in a form implemented within calculation code OMEGA for calculations of Intermediate Storage for Spent Fuel in Studsvik

2007-01-01

237

Norwegian electricity market liberalisation: questions of cost calculation and price definition by grid operators  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a study carried out on the Norwegian electricity market 10 years after its liberalisation. The similarity of the Norwegian market to the Swiss electricity market is discussed. Similarly to the proposed situation in Switzerland, the liberalisation in Norway foresaw no privatisation of public utilities and a model for the regulation of grid access was introduced. The report describes and comments on the various phases in which the liberalisation occurred and examines the various instruments used, e.g. to ensure that individual grid operators did not make undue profits from their monopoly. The methods used for the monitoring of grid operators' costs are described and the mechanisms involved in the definition of prices for grid services are examined, including measures taken when profits were too high or too low. The report is concluded with a discussion of the conclusions that can be drawn from the Norwegian model for Swiss market opening efforts

2002-01-01

238

Calculating voltage levels in any unit of a main electric power transmission line (LEP) by the iteration method  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The question is examined of analytic calculation of the voltage levels in any unit of a main electric power transmission line with one-way feed by the simple iteration method. A mathematical model and calculation algorithms are worked out of the voltage levels in FORTRAN-IV for open pit power transmission lines. The dependence is studied of the voltage levels in all the units of 6 kV networks of manganese ore open pits on its change on the buses of main step-down substations. A comparison is given of the results of calculating using different methods. A conclusion is drawn on the necessity of maintaining a stable 6 kV voltage level in electric power receivers in the rated range by local automatic control means.

Dzhunov, V.A.

1981-01-01

239

Radioimmunoassay evaluation and quality control by use of a simple computer program for a low cost desk top calculator  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A simple computer program for the data processing and quality control of radioimmunoassays is presented. It is written for low cost programmable desk top calculator (Hewlett Packard 97), which can be afforded by smaller laboratories. The untreated counts from the scintillation spectrometer are entered manually; the printout gives the following results: initial data, logit-log transformed calibration points, parameters of goodness of fit and of the position of the standard curve, control and unknown samples dose estimates (mean value from single dose interpolations and scatter of replicates) together with the automatic calculation of within assay variance and, by use of magnetic cards holding the control parameters of all previous assays, between assay variance. (orig.)

1980-01-01

240

Geothermal Energy Development in the Eastern United States, Sensitivity analysis-cost of geothermal energy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Geothermal Resources Interactive Temporal Simulation (GRITS) model is a computer code designed to estimate the costs of geothermal energy systems. The interactive program allows the user to vary resource, demand, and financial parameters to observe their effects on delivered costs of direct-use geothermal energy. Due to the large number and interdependent nature of the variables that influence these costs, the variables can be handled practically only through computer modeling. This report documents a sensitivity analysis of the cost of direct-use geothermal energy where each major element is varied to measure the responsiveness of cost to changes in that element. It is hoped that this analysis will assist those persons interested in geothermal energy to understand the most significant cost element as well as those individuals interested in using the GRITS program in the future.

Kane, S.M.; Kroll, P.; Nilo, B.

1982-12-01

 
 
 
 
241

Health Care Use and Costs for Participants in a Diabetes Disease Management Program, United States, 2007-2008  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available IntroductionThe Disease Management Association of America identifies diabetes as one of the chronic conditions with the greatest potential for management. TRICARE Management Activity, which administers health care benefits for US military service personnel, retirees, and their dependents, created a disease management program for beneficiaries with diabetes. The objective of this study was to determine whether participation intensity and prior indication of uncontrolled diabetes were associated with health care use and costs for participants enrolled in TRICARE’s diabetes management program.MethodsThis ongoing, opt-out study used a quasi-experimental approach to assess program impact for beneficiaries (n = 37,370 aged 18 to 64 living in the United States. Inclusion criteria were any diabetes-related emergency department visits or hospitalizations, more than 10 diabetes-related ambulatory visits, or more than twenty 30-day prescriptions for diabetes drugs in the previous year. Beginning in June 2007, all participants received educational mailings. Participants who agreed to receive a baseline telephone assessment and telephone counseling once per month in addition to educational mailings were considered active, and those who did not complete at least the baseline telephone assessment were considered passive. We categorized the diabetes status of each participant as “uncontrolled” or “controlled” on the basis of medical claims containing diagnosis codes for uncontrolled diabetes in the year preceding program eligibility. We compared observed outcomes to outcomes predicted in the absence of diabetes management. Prediction equations were based on regression analysis of medical claims for a historical control group (n = 23,818 that in October 2004 met the eligibility criteria for TRICARE’s program implemented June 2007. We conducted regression analysis comparing historical control group patient outcomes after October 2004 with these baseline characteristics.ResultsPer-person total annual medical savings for program participants, calculated as the difference between observed and predicted outcomes, averaged $783. Active participants had larger reductions in inpatient days and emergency department visits, larger increases in ambulatory visits, and larger increases in receiving retinal examinations, hemoglobin A1c tests, and urine microalbumin tests compared with passive participants. Participants with prior indication of uncontrolled diabetes had higher per-person total annual medical savings, larger reduction in inpatient days, and larger increases in ambulatory visits than did participants with controlled diabetes.ConclusionGreater intensity of participation in TRICARE’s diabetes management program was associated with lower medical costs and improved receipt of recommended testing. That patients who were categorized as having uncontrolled diabetes realized greater program benefits suggests diabetes management programs should consider indication of uncontrolled diabetes in their program candidate identification criteria.

Timothy M. Dall, MS

2011-05-01

242

[Costs attributed to hospital-acquired infections].  

Science.gov (United States)

The literature on costs associated with hospital-acquired infections is critically evaluated and exemplified. There are considerable added costs attributed to hospital infections. Two types of analyses are discussed: cost-of-illness studies, COIs, typically without a societal cost perspective, and cost-effectiveness studies. It is a mistake to think that costs calculated in COIs can be used as estimates of potential savings in cost-effectiveness analyses. As a general rule, this is not the case. The calculation of unit costs and marginal costs are common weaknesses in most studies. PMID:18211775

Pedersen, Kjeld Møller; Kolmos, Hans Jørn

2007-11-26

243

Excess costs associated with common healthcare-associated infections in an Iranian cardiac surgical unit.  

Science.gov (United States)

Healthcare-associated infection (HCAI) following open heart surgery is not only a major cause of mortality and morbidity, but also carries higher costs. There are limited data on the additional costs due to HCAI in non-western countries. To estimate the direct cost of the four most common HCAIs in an Iranian sample, we studied 1191 patients admitted for elective open heart surgery. HCAIs were defined using the National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance criteria (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA). The financial costs of length of stay per day in hospital, paraclinical services, medications, instruments, and operating room were provided by the hospital's finance department. The contribution of HCAI to excess direct medical costs in patients with HCAI was assessed by multivariable linear regression. In the study population, the mean age was 57.3±11.9 years, 857 (72.0%) were men, and 64 (5.4%) developed HCAI. In total there were 73 infections of which the most common was surgical site infection (49.3%), followed by urinary tract infection (20.5%), bloodstream infection (16.5%), and pneumonia (13.7%). After adjustment for other confounders HCAI remained associated with excess direct medical costs (?=1707.06, SE=90.84; P < 0.001). The medical costs in patients with HCAI were almost twice those in patients without HCAI. More than half of the excess cost was attributable to prolonged hospitalisation. PMID:20833445

Nosrati, M; Boroumand, M; Tahmasebi, S; Sotoudeh, M; Sheikhfathollahi, M; Goodarzynejad, H

2010-12-01

244

Life cycle assessment of renewables: present issues, future outlook and implications for the calculation of external costs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In principle, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is certainly appropriate for estimating external costs of renewables, since major environmental impacts of the latter are generated in phases of the life cycle other than use. In practice however, several issues still remain. They are related to the availability and quality of Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) data, to the frit technological development of renewable energy technologies (RET), to the existence of many different applications of the latter and to a strong dependency on local conditions. Moreover, a 'static' picture of present technologies is not enough for policy indications. Therefore some kind of dynamic LCA is needed. These LCA issues are reflected in the calculation of external costs. First, the paper discusses these issues on the examples of two main technologies, namely photovoltaic (PV) and wind. Second, it discusses the results of ExternE for these two specific technologies and gives an outlook for the future. Future needs for a better use of LCA as a support tool for the calcination of external costs are identified. Finally, a new research project funded by the European Commission focused on LCI of renewables is briefly introduced and presented. (author)

2001-11-15

245

BIOMASS TO ENERGY IN THE SOUTHERN UNITED STATES: SUPPLY CHAIN AND DELIVERED COST  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Supply chain and delivered cost models for seven feedstocks (loblolly pine, Eucalyptus, natural hardwood, switchgrass, Miscanthus, sweet sorghum, and corn stover were built, simulating a supply of 453,597 dry tons per year to a biorefinery. Delivered cost of forest-based feedstocks ranged from $69 to $71 per dry ton. On the other hand, delivered cost of agricultural biomass ranged from $77.60 to $102.50 per dry ton. The total production area required for fast growing feedstocks was estimated as between 22,500 to 27,000 hectares, while the total production area for feedstocks with lower biomass productivity ranged from 101,200 to 202,300 hectares (corn stover and natural hardwood, respectively. Lower delivered cost per ton of carbohydrate and million BTU were found for loblolly pine, Eucalyptus, and natural hardwood. In addition, agricultural biomass had higher delivered costs for carbohydrate and energy value.

Ronalds W. Gonzalez

2011-06-01

246

Calculation of shielding needed at the wall where cobalt therapy unit Alcyon II is installed  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Calculations of shielding at the wall to avoid scattering radiation for the personnel and population were performed. The position of the shielding door was corrected because before it had been placed in front of the beams, thus producing excessive radiation to the operator and personnel and patients. The calculations were based on the German standard (DIN)

1994-01-01

247

A program for monitor unit calculation for high energy photon beams in isocentric condition based on measured data  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this study is: 1) to propose a procedure and a program for monitor unit calculation for radiation therapy with high energy photon beams, based on data measured by author; 2) to compare this data with published one and 3) to evaluate the precision of the monitor unit calculation program. From this study it could be concluded that, we reproduced with a good agreement the published data, except the TPR values for dept up to 5 cm. The measured relative weight of upper and lower jaws - parameter A was dramatically different from the published data, but perfectly described the collimator exchange effect for our treatment machine. No difference was found between the head scatter ratios, measured in a mini phantom and those measured with a proper brass buildup cap. Our monitor unit calculation program was found to be reliable and it can be applied for check up of the patient's plans for irradiation with high energy photon beams and for some fast calculations. Because of the identity in the construction, design and characteristics of the Siemens accelerators, and the agreement with the published data for the same beam qualities, we hope that most of our experimental data and this program can be used after verification in other hospitals

2008-10-16

248

EconoMe-Develop - a calculation tool for multi-risk assessment and benefit-cost-analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

Public money is used to finance the protection of human life, material assets and the environment against natural hazards. This limited resource should be used in a way that it achieves the maximum possible effect by minimizing as many risks as possible. Hence, decision-makers are facing the question which mitigation measures should be prioritised. Benefit-Cost-Analysis (BCA) is a recognized method for determining the economic efficiency of investments in mitigation measures. In Switzerland, the Federal Office for the Environment (FOEN) judges the benefit-cost-ratio of mitigation projects on the base of the results of the calculation tool "EconoMe" [1]. The check of the economic efficiency of mitigation projects with an investment of more than 1 million CHF (800,000 EUR) by using "EconoMe" is mandatory since 2008 in Switzerland. Within "EconoMe", most calculation parameters cannot be changed by the user allowing for comparable results. Based on the risk guideline "RIKO" [2] an extended version of the operational version of "EconoMe", called "EconoMe-Develop" was developed. "EconoMe-Develop" is able to deal with various natural hazard processes and thus allows multi-risk assessments, since all restrictions of the operational version of "EconoMe" like e.g. the number of scenarios and expositions, vulnerability, spatial probability of processes and probability of presence of objects, are not existing. Additionally, the influences of uncertainty of calculation factors, like e.g. vulnerability, on the final results can be determined. "EconoMe-Develop" offers import and export of data, e.g. results of GIS-analysis. The possibility for adapting the tool to user specific requirements makes EconoMe-Develop an easy-to-use tool for risk assessment and assessment of economic efficiency of mitigation projects for risk experts. In the paper we will present the most important features of the tool and we will illustrate the application by a practical example.

Bründl, M.

2012-04-01

249

The pilot plant in Geiselbullach for the gamma irradiation of sewage sludge - design, operation experience and cost calculations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The pilot plant for sewage sludge irradiation in Geiselbullach near Munich has been in operation from July '73 to October '75 with a capacity of 30 m"3 per day. Successful experiences during this period resulted in an increase of the installed radiation energy and in several improvements for the technique and the efficiency. From December 1975 on the plant has been operating with a daily capacity of 120 m"3 of sludge per day. The experience with this plant brought several problems which caused interruptions of the continuous operation and that had to be solved with new measures. But although the facility at Geiselbullach is a pilot plant the availability was more than 350 days per year. Due to the simple design of the plant and of the fully automatic operation no special trained personal is necessary for the maintenance. Beside the effect of the hygienization the irradiation caused improved sedimentation properties of the sludge. Presently investigations are undertaken to prove better mechanical sludge dewatering properties. Cost calculations resulted in about DM 2.30 for operating expenses and DM 2.25 for capital costs per m"3 of sludge for the fully charged plant. The capital costs will be less in commercial plants. The conditioning effect on the sludge by the irradiation means savings of about DM 1.00 per m"3. The irradiation of sewage sludge proved to be possible at about equal costs compared to the wellknown heat treatment (pasteurization at 70"0C during 30 minutes.). Further investigations have to be done to overcome the contrary development of the plant capacity, limited by the decaying radiation energy and the normally rising sludge quantities of a sewage water treatment plant. (author)

1976-06-11

250

Taxes, divorce-transactions costs, economic conditions, and divorce rates: an exploratory empirical inquiry for the United States.  

Science.gov (United States)

"This study argues that, given the tax deductibility of alimony payments in the United States, higher marginal federal income tax rates may reduce the expected transactions costs of divorce and act thereby to increase the divorce rate. After allowing for a variety of other factors, including inflation, female labor force participation, AIDS, the Vietnam War, age, the availability of legal assistance, and transfer payments, both first-differences estimates and Granger-causality tests strongly support the hypothesis." PMID:12178368

Cebula, R J; Belton, W J

1995-01-01

251

RELAP5/MOD3.3 code calculation for preoperational tests of safety injection tanks in SKN unit 3  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Shin Kori nuclear power plant (SKN) unit 3 and 4 are now being constructed as a first plant of APR1400. APR1400 has adopted a new design feature, called fluidic device (FD), in safety injection tanks (SITs) to optimize the emergency core cooling (ECC) flow rate. Before starting the commercial operation, the safety systems have to be tested to ensure their performances of safety functions. The object of preoperational tests for SITs is to confirm whether the performance of SITs satisfies the design requirement which is defined by a design basis accidents analysis. The design requirement can be expressed as pressure loss coefficient, called K factor, which can convert to discharge flow rate of SITs from a certain pressure condition of SITs. Preoperational tests of four SITs were performed in March 2012. To evaluate the K factor, the pressure and water level of SITs are measured. The results of evaluated K factor are bounded at the lowest value of the design requirement due to measurement uncertainty. Therefore, KHNP expanded the design requirement to embrace the measurement uncertainty. A consistency between the evaluated K factor and code calculation results has to be verified through code calculation although KINS agrees with validity of expanded requirement. This paper deals with benchmark calculations of preoperational tests for SITs in SKN unit 3 using RELAP5/MOD3.3 code. Calculation results are compared with measured data and show a consistency between the calculation data and measured data

2012-10-01

252

RELAP5/MOD3.3 code calculation for preoperational tests of safety injection tanks in SKN unit 3  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Shin Kori nuclear power plant (SKN) unit 3 and 4 are now being constructed as a first plant of APR1400. APR1400 has adopted a new design feature, called fluidic device (FD), in safety injection tanks (SITs) to optimize the emergency core cooling (ECC) flow rate. Before starting the commercial operation, the safety systems have to be tested to ensure their performances of safety functions. The object of preoperational tests for SITs is to confirm whether the performance of SITs satisfies the design requirement which is defined by a design basis accidents analysis. The design requirement can be expressed as pressure loss coefficient, called K factor, which can convert to discharge flow rate of SITs from a certain pressure condition of SITs. Preoperational tests of four SITs were performed in March 2012. To evaluate the K factor, the pressure and water level of SITs are measured. The results of evaluated K factor are bounded at the lowest value of the design requirement due to measurement uncertainty. Therefore, KHNP expanded the design requirement to embrace the measurement uncertainty. A consistency between the evaluated K factor and code calculation results has to be verified through code calculation although KINS agrees with validity of expanded requirement. This paper deals with benchmark calculations of preoperational tests for SITs in SKN unit 3 using RELAP5/MOD3.3 code. Calculation results are compared with measured data and show a consistency between the calculation data and measured data.

Lim, Sang Gyu [KHNP, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

2012-10-15

253

Calculation method for the annual thermal heat requirement of farrowing units; Berechnungsmethode fuer den jaehrlichen Heizwaermebedarf von Abferkelstaellen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The method developed for the calculation of the thermal heat requirement for farrowing units is based on the thermal energy balance in which energy gains and energy losses are compared. While the heat dissipation from animals and electrical devices, and solar heat gains positively influence the balance, transmission heat losses and ventilation heat losses have the opposite effect. In comparison to the target values the results of the calculation provide information about the energy efficiency and weaknesses of the thermal performance of buildings. At the same time, the potential of energy saving measures can be assessed. (orig.)

Caenegem, Ludo van; Schick, Matthias [Forschungsanstalt Agroscope Reckenholz-Taenikon ART, Ettenhausen (Switzerland). Forschungsgruppe Bau, Tier und Arbeit; Doerfler, Renate Luise

2012-07-01

254

A synthesis of regional inputs and damage costs of reactive nitrogen in the United States  

Science.gov (United States)

We estimated the fate of N in crops and in the environment (air, land, freshwater, groundwater, and coastal zones) with published coefficients describing nutrient uptake efficiency, gaseous emissions, and leaching losses. Benefits and damage costs of anthropogenic N inputs were ...

255

INTEGRATION OF THE ACTIVITY BASED COSTING AND THE UNITS OF PRODUCTION METHOD: A CASE STUDY INTEGRAÇÃO DO CUSTEIO ABC COM O MÉTODO UP: UM ESTUDO DE CASO  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A competitive environment suggests changes in the form of costs management to able the company to remain in the market. Within this perspective, the objective of this article is to describe the integration of the activity based costing (ABC and the units of production (UP method in a food plant. The former is used for an appropriation of administrative and commercial expenses as a perfected form of allocating operational expenses; the latter, for the allocation of production variable expenses, marginal cost and fixed costs of production. This research methodology consists of an exploratory study, accomplished through a case study with a quantitative approach. The results of the research have demonstrated that the UP method considers a single measure to calculate production efforts, contemplating exclusively the transformation costs. In turn, by the application of the ABC to allocate operational expenses, the vision of processes and activities expands. It has been concluded that, in spite of different degrees of emphasis, the integration of the two costing methodologies increases quality of information, providing subsidies to the management to improve the classification of activities and the measurement of productivity. Keywords: Integration. The Activity Based Costing. The Units of Production Method. O ambiente competitivo sugere mudanças na forma de administrar os custos para possibilitar a continuidade da empresa no mercado. Nesta perspectiva, o objetivo deste artigo é descrever a integração do custeio baseado em atividades com o método das unidades de produção em uma indústria do setor de alimentos. O primeiro, usado para apropriação das despesas administrativas e despesas comerciais, como uma forma mais acurada de alocar as despesas operacionais. O segundo, para alocação dos gastos variáveis de fabricação, custo marginal e custos fixos de fabricação. A metodologia da pesquisa consubstancia-se de um estudo exploratório, realizado por meio de um estudo de caso, com abordagem quantitativa. Os resultados da pesquisa evidenciam que o método das unidades de produção considera uma única medida para mensurar os esforços de produção, contemplando exclusivamente os custos de transformação. Por sua vez, a aplicação do custeio baseado em atividades para alocação das despesas operacionais expande a visão de processos e atividades. Concluiu-se que, mesmo com diferentes ênfases, a integração das duas metodologias de custeio adicionam maior qualidade na informação, fornecendo subsídios à gestão para melhorar a classificação das atividades e a medição de produtividade. Palavras chave: Integração. Custeio baseado em atividades. Método das unidades de produção.

Anderson Léo Sabadin

2007-07-01

256

Development of DUST: A computer code that calculates release rates from a LLW disposal unit  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Performance assessment of a Low-Level Waste (LLW) disposal facility begins with an estimation of the rate at which radionuclides migrate out of the facility (i.e., the disposal unit source term). The major physical processes that influence the source term are water flow, container degradation, waste form leaching, and radionuclide transport. A computer code, DUST (Disposal Unit Source Term) has been developed which incorporates these processes in a unified manner. The DUST code improves upon existing codes as it has the capability to model multiple container failure times, multiple waste form release properties, and radionuclide specific transport properties. Verification studies performed on the code are discussed.

Sullivan, T.M.

1992-04-01

257

Development of DUST: A computer code that calculates release rates from a LLW disposal unit  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Performance assessment of a Low-Level Waste (LLW) disposal facility begins with an estimation of the rate at which radionuclides migrate out of the facility (i.e., the disposal unit source term). The major physical processes that influence the source term are water flow, container degradation, waste form leaching, and radionuclide transport. A computer code, DUST (Disposal Unit Source Term) has been developed which incorporates these processes in a unified manner. The DUST code improves upon existing codes as it has the capability to model multiple container failure times, multiple waste form release properties, and radionuclide specific transport properties. Verification studies performed on the code are discussed.

Sullivan, T.M.

1992-01-01

258

Lessons from cost-effectiveness research for United States public health policy.  

Science.gov (United States)

The application of cost-effectiveness analysis to health care has been the subject of previous reviews. We address the use of economic evaluation methods in public health, including case studies of population-level policies, e.g., environmental regulations, injury prevention, tobacco control, folic acid fortification, and blood product safety, and the public health promotion of clinical preventive services, e.g., newborn screening, cancer screening, and childhood immunizations. We review the methods used in cost-effectiveness analysis, the implications for cost-effectiveness findings, and the extent to which economic studies have influenced policy and program decisions. We discuss reasons for the relatively limited impact to date of economic evaluation in public health. Finally, we address the vexing question of how to decide which interventions are cost effective and worthy of funding. Policy makers have funded certain interventions with rather high cost-effectiveness ratios, notably nucleic acid testing for blood product safety. Cost-effectiveness estimates are a decision aid, not a decision rule. PMID:17222080

Grosse, Scott D; Teutsch, Steven M; Haddix, Anne C

2007-01-01

259

Primer: The DOE Wind Energy Program's Approach to Calculating Cost of Energy: July 9, 2005 - July 8, 2006  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report details the methodology used by DOE to calculate levelized cost of wind energy and demonstrates the variation in COE estimates due to different financing assumptions independent of wind generation technology.

George, K.; Schweizer, T.

2008-01-01

260

Chronic Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Disease Burden and Cost in the United States  

Science.gov (United States)

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a leading cause of cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and liver transplantation. A better understanding of HCV disease progression and the associated cost can help the medical community manage HCV and develop treatment strategies in light of the emergence of several potent anti-HCV therapies. A system dynamic model with 36 cohorts was used to provide maximum flexibility and improved forecasting. New infections incidence of 16,020 (95% confidence interval, 13,510-19,510) was estimated in 2010. HCV viremic prevalence peaked in 1994 at 3.3 (2.8-4.0) million, but it is expected to decline by two-thirds by 2030. The prevalence of more advanced liver disease, however, is expected to increase, as well as the total cost associated with chronic HCV infection. Today, the total cost is estimated at $6.5 ($4.3-$8.4) billion and it will peak in 2024 at $9.1 ($6.4-$13.3) billion. The lifetime cost of an individual infected with HCV in 2011 was estimated at $64,490. However, this cost is significantly higher among individuals with a longer life expectancy. Conclusion This analysis demonstrates that US HCV prevalence is in decline due to a lower incidence of infections. However, the prevalence of advanced liver disease will continue to increase as well as the corresponding healthcare costs. Lifetime healthcare costs for an HCV-infected person are significantly higher than for noninfected persons. In addition, it is possible to substantially reduce HCV infection through active management.

Razavi, Homie; ElKhoury, Antoine C; Elbasha, Elamin; Estes, Chris; Pasini, Ken; Poynard, Thierry; Kumar, Ritesh

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Franchising and Centrally Owned and Operated Units : The Significance of Context and Monitoring Costs  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Franchising is not particularly well researched topic in organizational economics. However, its economic importance is significant. For example, the total revenue of franchising in the US is now approximately 50% of all retail trade. A typical franchising chain consists of units that are operated by the franchisees but there are also centrally managed units? Which ones are managed centrally and why? Some of the prior research on the matter is incomplete. The research question of this thesis i...

Masalin, Walter

2007-01-01

262

Impact of an emergency department observation unit transient ischemic attack protocol on length of stay and cost.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined the impact of an emergency department (ED) observation unit's accelerated diagnostic protocol (ADP) on hospital length of stay (LOS), cost of care, and clinical outcome of patients who had sustained a transient ischemic attack (TIA). All patients with TIA presenting to the ED over a 18-consecutive month period were eligible for the study. During the initial 11 months of the study (pre-ADP period), all patients were admitted to the neurology service. Over the subsequent 7 months (post-ADP period), patients were either managed using the ADP or were admitted based on ADP exclusion criteria or at a physician's discretion. All patients had orders for serial clinical examinations, neurologic evaluation, cardiac monitoring, vascular imaging of the brain and neck, and echocardiography. A total of 142 patients were included in the study (mean age, 67.9 ± 13.9 years; 61% female; mean ABCD(2) score, 4.3 ± 1.4). In the post-ADP period, 68% of the patients were managed using the ADP. Of these patients, 79% were discharged with a median LOS of 25.5 hours (ED + observation unit). Compared with the pre-ADP patients, the post-ADP patients (ADP and non-ADP) had a 20.8-hour shorter median LOS (95% confidence interval, 16.3-25.1 hours; P < .01) than pre-ADP patients and lower median associated costs (cost difference, $1643; 95% confidence interval, $1047-$2238). The stroke rate at 90 days was low in both groups (pre-ADP, 0%; post-ADP, 1.2%). Our findings indicate that introduction of an ED observation unit ADP for patients with TIA at a primary stroke center is associated with a significantly shorter LOS and lower costs compared with inpatient admission, with comparable clinical outcomes. PMID:21482142

Nahab, Fadi; Leach, George; Kingston, Carlene; Mir, Osman; Abramson, Jerome; Hilton, Sarah; Keadey, Matthew; Gartland, Bryce; Ross, Michael

2012-11-01

263

Measurements of primary off-axis ratios in wedged asymmetric photon fields: a formalism for dose and monitor unit calculations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Asymmetric collimators or heavily blocked fields with physical wedges are still encountered in daily practice. In such cases, a reliable dosimetry system is necessary to perform manual dose and monitor unit calculations in order to independently verify the calculations of commercial treatment planning systems. In this work, primary wedged off-axis ratios (POARws) that account for changes in the beam intensity along both the wedge gradient and perpendicular directions of the photon field, when asymmetric collimators are applied, were measured experimentally at specific depths. The measurements were made in phantom with an ion chamber along the wedge gradient and the perpendicular directions under 'good geometry' conditions. A consistent formalism was presented that could easily be implemented in the clinical environment as an independent verification of the calculations by a treatment planning system. The accuracy of the method was found to be dependent on the specific wedge used, off-axis distance and depth in the phantom. In our study, the accuracy was within 2% in most cases for both energies. We concluded that the primary wedged off-axis ratios when used along with open symmetric field dosimetric parameters could provide adequate accuracy for manual monitor unit calculations

2005-05-07

264

Research on MCNP4C2 Code for calculation of gamma dose distribution for Dalat Co-60 Unit  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper presents the results of Institutional R and D project ''Research on MCNP4C2 Code for calculation of gamma dose distribution for Dalat Co-60 Unit '' performed by Dalat Nuclear Research Institute (DNRI). In the field of irradiation, it has been special importance for an estimation of dose distribution since every point in chamber needs to be determined so as to apply for appropriate dose-level irradiation of particular objects. It is meaningful in case of irradiating for small-size samples. Several of methods used to determine dose distribution, among those the ways being carried out mainly are using TLD or Fricke dosimeter so far. These dosimeters were positioned at points of interest, from that referring gamma dose rate at certain position through some of calibrated and measured steps. The other effective-approved approach is doing by MCNP Code in replaceable for the above-mentioned classical ways. Results from MCNP calculation in comparison with Fricke experimental results (error about 11%) affirm the feasibility of using modern-calculated programme in dose distribution calculation for any irradiated unit. (author)

2007-12-01

265

Accelerating Correlated Quantum Chemistry Calculations Using Graphical Processing Units and a Mixed Precision Matrix Multiplication Library  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Two new tools for the acceleration of computational chemistry codes using graphical processing units (GPUs) are presented. First, we propose a general black-box approach for the efficient GPU acceleration of matrix?matrix multiplications where the matrix size is too large for the whole computation to be held in the GPU’s onboard memory. Second, we show how to improve the accuracy of matrix multiplications when using only single-precision GPU devices by proposing a heterogeneous computing ...

Olivares-amaya, Roberto; Watson, Mark A.; Edgar, Richard G.; Vogt, Leslie Ann; Shao, Yihan; Aspuru-guzik, Alan

2010-01-01

266

A simple theoretical verification of monitor unit calculation for intensity modulated beams using dynamic mini-multileaf collimation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A spreadsheet based program is presented to perform an independent Monitor Unit (MU) calculation verification for the Quality Assurance (QA) of Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) using Dynamic MultiLeaf Collimation (DMLC). The computed dose value is compared to the planned dose by calculating the percent dose difference per Intensity Modulated Beam (IMB) and absolute dose difference per IMB. The proposed acceptability levels are ±5.0% or ±2.0 cGy for the percent dose difference per IMB and the absolute dose difference per IMB, respectively. For percent dose difference per treatment, an acceptability level of ±2.0% is proposed. The presented program is considered adequate for checking the treatment plans calculated for IMRT treatments using DMLC as a part of the QA procedure

2004-05-01

267

On exergy costing in exergoeconomics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Existing methods of the exergoeconomic analysis and optimization of energy systems operate with single average or marginal cost values per exergy unit for each material stream in the system being considered. These costs do not contain detailed information on (a) how much exergy, and (b) at what cost the exergy was supplied in each of the previous process steps. The cost of supplying the same exergy form, however, might vary significantly from one step to the other. Knowledge of the exergy addition and the corresponding cost at each previous step can be used to improve the costing process. This paper presents a new approach to exergy costing in exergoeconomics. The monetary flow rate associated with the thermal, mechanical and chemical exergy of a material stream at a given state is calculated by considering the complete previous history of supplying and removing units of the corresponding exergy form to and from the stream being considered. When exergy is supplied to a stream, the cost of adding each exergy unit to the stream is calculated using the cost of product exergy unit for the process or device in which the exergy addition occurs. When exergy is supplied to a stream, the cost of adding each exergy unit to the stream is calculated using the cost of product exergy unit for the process or device in which the exergy addition occurs the stream being considered supplies exergy to another exergy carrier, the last-in-first-out principle of accounting is used for the spent exergy units to calculate the cost of exergy supply to the carrier

1990-11-25

268

The unitized well cluster: A low-cost alternative to large multi-well templates and clustered satellite wells  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Traditional subsea production systems have been based upon large template systems with integral manifolds, or more recently individual satellite wells clustered around a central manifold. This paper describes the Unitized Well Cluster (UWC), a low-cost alternative to large multi-well templates and clustered satellite wells. The UWC utilizes existing technology to combine the benefits of individual wells with those of a unitized structure into a fully integrated subsea drilling and production system. It is comprised of two main components, a drilling template and a production template, which are installed in a stacked (piggyback) fashion. The UWC provides the capability to drill and produce several wells from a common structure that can be installed by a semisubmersible drilling vessel using standard equipment and procedures. Three 3-well UWCs have been successfully installed in the Gulf of Mexico in water depths ranging from 860 ft. to 1,520 ft. Other available configurations and options make the UWC readily adaptable to a wide range of development scenarios. The primary benefits of the Unitized Well Cluster are (1) reduced operator risk, (2) reduced lead time, (3) lower capital and installation costs, and (4) improved cash flow.

Parks, W.C.; Going, W.S.; Beebe, D.C.

1995-12-31

269

High throughput transmission optical projection tomography using low cost graphics processing unit.  

Science.gov (United States)

We implement the use of a graphics processing unit (GPU) in order to achieve real time data processing for high-throughput transmission optical projection tomography imaging. By implementing the GPU we have obtained a 300 fold performance enhancement in comparison to a CPU workstation implementation. This enables to obtain on-the-fly reconstructions enabling for high throughput imaging. PMID:20052155

Vinegoni, Claudio; Fexon, Lyuba; Feruglio, Paolo Fumene; Pivovarov, Misha; Figueiredo, Jose-Luiz; Nahrendorf, Matthias; Pozzo, Antonio; Sbarbati, Andrea; Weissleder, Ralph

2009-12-01

270

A MORE COST-EFFECTIVE EMAP-W BENTHIC MACROFAUNAL SAMPLE UNIT  

Science.gov (United States)

The standard EPA West Coast Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP-W) benthic macrofaunal sampling protocol is to collect 30-50 random benthic samples per reporting unit (e.g., estuary, region) using a 0.1 m2 grab and to sort out macrofauna using a 1.0 mm mesh scre...

271

Catacol, a low cost reactive distillation technology for ether production and for revamping existing units  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper outlines the advantages of Catacol (tm) and describes this new technology. Some applications of Catacol (tm) such as debottlenecking of existing etherification units are developed. Technological considerations for the production of ETBE are also provided in this paper and the conversion of MTBE plants to ETBE manufacture is addressed. (author). 3 figs.

Nocca, J.L.; Travers, P.; Koskas, A.

1996-12-31

272

Assessment of the direct medical costs of diabetes mellitus and its complications in the United Arab Emirates  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes mellitus (DM is a major health problem in the United Arab Emirates (UAE and is well recognized as a major and increasing burden to the country's resources due to its severe, long term debilitating effects on individuals, families and the society at large. The aim of the study was to estimate the direct annual treatment costs of DM and its related complications among patients in Al-Ain city, UAE. Methods A sample of 150 DM patients were enrolled during 2004-2005, and their medical costs over the ensuing 12 months was measured, quantified, analyzed and extrapolated to the population in Al-Ain and UAE, using conventional and inference statistics. The costs were converted from UAE Dirhams to US Dollar, using the official conversion rate of US$ (1 USD = 3.68 AED. Results The total annual direct treatment costs of DM among patients without complications in Al Ain-UAE, was US $1,605 (SD = 1,206 which is 3.2 times higher than the per capita expenditure for health care in the UAE (US$ 497 during 2004 (WHO, 2004. However, this cost increased 2.2 times with the presence of DM related complications for patients with microvascular complications, by 6.4 times for patients with macrovascular complications and 9.4 times for patients with both micro and macrovascular complications. Likewise, the annual direct hospitalization costs of DM patients increased by 3.7 times for patients with microvascular complications, by 6.6 times for patients with macrovascular complications and by 5 times for patients with both micro and macrovascualr complications. Overall, costs increased with age, diabetes duration and were higher for patients treated with insulin compared to those treated with oral hypoglycemic agents or with diet control only. Conclusions DM direct treatment costs increased with the presence and progression of chronic DM related complications. Hospitalisation costs constituted a large proportion and were increasingly higher with the presence and progression of DM related complications. To reduce the impact on healthcare resources, efforts should be made to prevent progression to DM complications, by implementing guidelines for diabetes care, screening for complications and better management.

Nagelkerke Nicholas

2010-11-01

273

Cost-Effectiveness of Complementary Therapies in the United Kingdom—A Systematic Review†  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objectives: The aim of this review is to systematically summarize and assess all prospective, controlled, cost-effectiveness studies of complementary therapies carried out in the UK. Data sources: Medline (via PubMed), Embase, CINAHL, Amed (Alternative and Allied Medicine Database, British Library Medical Information Centre), The Cochrane Library, National Health Service Economic Evaluation Database (via Cochrane) and Health Technology Assessments up to October 2005. Review methods: Articles ...

2006-01-01

274

Calculation of Direct Antiretroviral Treatment Costs and Potential Cost Savings by Using Generics in the German HIV ClinSurv Cohort  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background/Aim of the Study: The study aimed to determine the cost impacts of antiretroviral drugs by analysing a longterm follow-up of direct costs for combined antiretroviral therapy, cART,-regimens in the nationwide long-term observational multi-centre German HIV ClinSurv Cohort. The second aim was to develop potential cost saving strategies by modelling different treatment scenarios. Methods: Antiretroviral regimens (ART) from 10,190 HIV-infected patients from 11 par...

Stoll, Matthias; Kollan, Christian; Bergmann, Frank; Bogner, Johannes; Faetkenheuer, Gerd; Fritzsche, Carlos; Hoeper, Kirsten; Horst, Heinz-august; Lunzen, Jan; Plettenberg, Andreas; Reuter, Stefan; Rockstroh, Ju?rgen; Stellbrink, Hans-ju?rgen; Hamouda, Osamah; Bartmeyer, Barbara

2011-01-01

275

Coverage Range and Cost Comparison of Remote Antenna Unit Designs for In-building Radio over Fiber Technology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Future communication needs to be ubiquitous, broadband, convergent, and seamless. Radio over fiber (RoF technology is one of the most important enabler in access network for the technologies. Adoption of RoF faces bottleneck in optoelectronics, that they are still expensive, high power consumption, and limited in bandwidth. To solve the problem, transceiver in remote antenna unit (RAU is developed, i.e. electroabsorption transceiver (EAT and asymmetric Fabry-Perot modulator (AFPM. This paper compares their coverage range and cost in providing WCDMA and WLAN services. Needed gain of RF amplifier for supporting picocell is also discussed.

Razali Ngah

2008-05-01

276

Cost-Effectiveness of HIV Testing and Treatment in the United States  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In September 2006, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) released new guidelines calling for routine, voluntary human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing for all persons aged 13–64 years in health care settings. These guidelines were motivated, in part, by mounting evidence that the traditional approach of using risk factors to identify candidates for HIV testing is inadequate. Of the 1.0–1.2 million people in the United States thought to be infected with HIV, ~25% rema...

Walensky, Rochelle P.; Freedberg, Kenneth A.; Weinstein, Milton C.; Paltiel, A. David

2007-01-01

277

Estimates of incidence and costs of intestinal infectious diseases in the United States.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The incidence of acute episodes of intestinal infectious diseases in the United States was estimated through analysis of community-based studies and national interview surveys. Their differing results were reconciled by adjusting the study population age distributions in the community-based studies, by excluding those cases that also showed respiratory symptoms, and by accounting for structural differences in the surveys. The reconciliation process provided an estimate of 99 million acute cas...

Garthright, W. E.; Archer, D. L.; Kvenberg, J. E.

1988-01-01

278

Variación del Costo Unitario en una Institución de Seguridad Social en Querétaro, México Unit cost variation in a social security company in Querétaro, México  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objetivo Estimar e identificar la variación del costo unitario por departamento final y motivo de atención, en unidades de medicina familiar de una institución de seguridad social en Querétaro, México. Métodos Se trata de un estudio de costo (dólares americanos $US en unidades de medicina familiar para el año 2004. El costo unitario fijo se estimó utilizando la departamentalización ajustada por productividad para un año, se identificaron departamentos finales y generales. Se incluyeron recursos materiales, físicos y de consumo, se construyeron ponderadores para asignar los recursos invertidos en los departamentos generales a cada uno de los finales. La estimación del costo unitario variable se realizó mediante la técnica de micro-costeo apoyado por grupos de expertos, se consideraron como insumos variables los medicamentos, el material de curación y los reactivos. El costo unitario se integró con la suma del costo unitario fijo y el costo unitario variable correspondiente para el motivo de atención. El análisis contempló la comparación de los costos unitarios entre las unidades médicas. Resultados El costo unitario para un mes de manejo del diabético varió entre $US 34,8, $US 32,2 y $US 34,0; el costo de la detección de cáncer cervicouterino se encontró entre $US 7,2, $US 8,7 y $US 7,3; y el costo unitario de la atención de la caries fluctuó entre $US 27,0, $US 33,6 y $US 28,7. Conclusión La variación del costo unitario es más importante en el departamento de urgencias y dental.Objective Comparing unit cost variation between departments and reasons for consultation in outpatient health services provided by a social security company from Querétaro, México. Methods A study of costs (in US$ was carried out in outpatient health service units during 2004. Fixed unit costs were estimated per department and adjusted for one year’s productivity. Material, physical and consumer resources were included. Weighting was assigned to resources invested in each department. Unit cost was estimated by using the micro cost technique; medicaments, materials used during treatment and reagents were considered to be consumer items. Unit cost resulted from adding fixed unit cost to the variable unit cost corresponding to the reason for consulting. Units costs were then compared between the medical units. Results Unit cost per month for diabetic treatment varied from US$ 34.8, US$ 32,2 to US$ 34, pap smear screening test costs were US$ 7,2, US$ 8,7 and $US 7,3 and dental treatment US$ 27, US$ 33,6 and US$ 28,7. Conclusion Unit cost variation was more important in the emergency room and the dental service.

Enrique Villarreal-Ríos

279

Water use for electricity in the United States: an analysis of reported and calculated water use information for 2008  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Water use by the electricity sector represents a significant portion of the United States water budget (41% of total freshwater withdrawals; 3% consumed). Sustainable management of water resources necessitates an accurate accounting of all water demands, including water use for generation of electricity. Since 1985, the Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Information Administration (EIA) has collected self-reported data on water consumption and withdrawals from individual power generators. These data represent the only annual collection of water consumption and withdrawals by the electricity sector. Here, we compile publically available information into a comprehensive database and then calculate water withdrawals and consumptive use for power plants in the US. In effect, we evaluate the quality of water use data reported by EIA for the year 2008. Significant differences between reported and calculated water data are evident, yet no consistent reason for the discrepancies emerges. (letter)

2013-01-01

280

Water use for electricity in the United States: an analysis of reported and calculated water use information for 2008  

Science.gov (United States)

Water use by the electricity sector represents a significant portion of the United States water budget (41% of total freshwater withdrawals; 3% consumed). Sustainable management of water resources necessitates an accurate accounting of all water demands, including water use for generation of electricity. Since 1985, the Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Information Administration (EIA) has collected self-reported data on water consumption and withdrawals from individual power generators. These data represent the only annual collection of water consumption and withdrawals by the electricity sector. Here, we compile publically available information into a comprehensive database and then calculate water withdrawals and consumptive use for power plants in the US. In effect, we evaluate the quality of water use data reported by EIA for the year 2008. Significant differences between reported and calculated water data are evident, yet no consistent reason for the discrepancies emerges.

Averyt, K.; Macknick, J.; Rogers, J.; Madden, N.; Fisher, J.; Meldrum, J.; Newmark, R.

2013-03-01

 
 
 
 
281

CRC DEPLETION CALCULATIONS FOR THE NON-RODDED ASSEMBLIES IN BATCHES 8 AND 9 CRYSTAL RIVER UNIT 3  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this design analysis is to document the SAS2H depletion calculations of certain non-rodded fuel assemblies from batches 8 and 9 of the Crystal River Unit 3 pressurized water reactor (PWR) that are required for Commercial Reactor Critical (CRC) evaluations to support the development of the disposal criticality methodology. A non-rodded assembly is one which never contains a control rod assembly (CRA) or an axial power shaping rod assembly (APSRA) during its irradiation history. The objective of this analysis is to provide SAS2H generated isotopic compositions for each fuel assembly's depleted fuel and depleted burnable poison materials. These SAS2H generated isotopic compositions are acceptable for use in CRC benchmark reactivity calculations containing the various fuel assemblies.

Michael L. Wilson

2001-02-08

282

Cost-Effectiveness of Blood Donor Screening for Babesia microti in Endemic Regions of the United States  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Babesia microti is the leading reported cause of red blood cell (RBC) transfusion-transmitted infection in the United States (US). Donor screening assays are in development. Study Design and Methods A decision analytic model estimated the cost-effectiveness of screening strategies for preventing transfusion-transmitted babesiosis (TTB) in a hypothetical cohort of transfusion recipients in Babesia-endemic areas of the US. Strategies included: (1) No screening, (2) Uniform Donor Health History Questionnaire (UDHQ), “status quo”, (3) Recipient risk-targeting using donor antibody (Ab) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) screening, (4) Universal endemic donor Ab screening, (5) Universal endemic donor Ab and PCR screening. Outcome measures were TTB cases averted, costs, quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios ($/QALY). We assumed a societal willingness to pay of $1 million/QALY based on screening for other transfusion-transmitted infections. Results Compared to no screening, the UDHQ avoids 0.02 TTB cases per 100,000 RBC transfusions at an incremental cost effectiveness ratio (ICER) of $160,000/QALY whereas recipient risk-targeted strategy using Ab/PCR avoids 1.62 TTB cases per 100,000 RBC transfusions at an ICER of $713,000/QALY compared to the UDHQ. Universal endemic Ab screening avoids 3.39 cases at an ICER of $760,000/QALY compared to the recipient-risk targeted strategy. Universal endemic Ab/PCR screening avoids 3.60 cases and has an ICER of $8.8 million/QALY compared to universal endemic Ab screening. Results are sensitive to blood donor Babesia prevalence, TTB transmission probability, screening test costs, risk and severity of TTB complications, and impact of babesiosis diagnosis on donor quality of life. Conclusion Antibody screening for Babesia in endemic regions is appropriate from an economic perspective based on the societal willingness to pay for preventing infectious threats to blood safety.

Simon, Matthew S.; Leff, Jared A.; Pandya, Ankur; Cushing, Melissa; Shaz, Beth H.; Calfee, David P.; Schackman, Bruce R.; Mushlin, Alvin I.

2014-01-01

283

Cost and benefit including value of life, health and environmental damage measured in time units  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Key elements of the authors' work on money equivalent time allocation to costs and benefits in risk analysis are put together as an entity. This includes the data supported dimensionless analysis of an equilibrium relation between total population work time and gross domestic product leading to the definition of the life quality time allocation index (LQTAI). On the basis of a postulate of invariance of the LQTAI, a rule is obtained for allocating societal value in terms of time to avoid life shortening fatalities as well as serious injuries that shorten the life in good health. The excess of this societal value over the actual costs, used by the owner for economically optimizing an activity, motivates a simple risk accept criterion suited to be imposed on the owner by the public. An illustration is given concerning allocation of economical means for mitigation of loss of life and health on a ferry in fire. Finally a definition is suggested for a nature preservation willingness index, which by an invariance postulate leads to a rational format for allocating means to avoid pollution accidents.

Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager; Friis-Hansen, Peter

2009-01-01

284

A prospective audit of the use and costs of myelography in a regional neuroscience unit.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A consecutive series of 397 myelograms performed in 385 patients over a six month period at the Mersey Regional Neurosciences Unit is reported. The reasons for performing the myelogram were to identify the cause of a radicular lesion in 54% of patients, a chronic spinal cord lesion in 30%, an acute cord lesion in 9%, suspected disease at the level of the foramen magnum 6%, and for a variety of other conditions in 8%. For the 385 patients undergoing a myelogram in the study period, the median ...

Sandercock, P. A.; Roberts, M. A.; Blumhardt, L. D.

1989-01-01

285

Working with Electron Microprobe Data from a High Pressure Experiment - Calculating Mineral Formulas, Unit Cell Content, and Geothermometry  

Science.gov (United States)

This exercise provides students the opportunity to work with real microprobe data to perform a series of common calculations. It also provides a brief glimpse into a high-pressure experiment. (I hope to expand this opportunity in the future via web activities...stay tuned.) The exercise can be used as a laboratory activity or a problem set. It is ideally suited for the use of a spreadsheet like Excel, but can be completed by hand. This is a great opportunity for students who are unfamiliar with spreadsheets to get their feet wet. For me, trial by fire is the best way to learn a new software program. The exercise could be used in any undergraduate petrology or mineralogy course and assumes only a general background in mineral chemistry. The goals are for students to: 1) work with real data from an experiment, 2) learn/remind themselves of the relationship between chemistry and crystal structure as displayed in mineral formula, 3) use a geothermometer to see how phase equilibria can be used to decipher physical properties of rocks. The exercises include: - Mineral formula recalculation - Unit cell content calculation - Calculating end-member percentage - Plotting data on a ternary plot - Geothermometer calculation The exercise could easily be modified to include other "pet" analyses or questions.

Schwab, Brandon

286

Calculation of resonance reaction rates for the Ghana Research Reactor-1 fuel lattice unit cell using the WIMS lattice code  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Resonance reaction rates for different nuclear reactions (absorption, fission, fission yield) have been calculated at room temperature(2930 K) for six different resonance absorbers or isotopes U234,U235,U238, Pu239, Pu240 and Pu241 of the fuel lattices cell of the Ghana Research Reactor-1 facility using WIMSPC, the PC version of the versatile WIMSD/4 transport lattice code written in FORTRAN and designed for performing reactor physics lattice cell calculations. The calculations were performed in the full 69-energy group library structure of the WIMS code and presented in a condensed 4-energy few group structure. The Ludwig Boltzmann multigroup neutron transport equation was solved for this exercise using the discrete ordinate spatial model (DSN) which provides solution to the differential form of the transport equation by the Carlson-Sn. The reaction rates were computed for all the different lattice cell materials in the five-region fuel lattice cell and also for the sixty-five lattice mesh points selected for the unit cell analysis. The corresponding actual events or nuclear reactions occurring in each cell material have also been calculated for each resonance absorber (author)

1997-01-01

287

Monitor unit calculations for external photon and electron beams: Report of the AAPM Therapy Physics Committee Task Group No. 71  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A protocol is presented for the calculation of monitor units (MU) for photon and electron beams, delivered with and without beam modifiers, for constant source-surface distance (SSD) and source-axis distance (SAD) setups. This protocol was written by Task Group 71 of the Therapy Physics Committee of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) and has been formally approved by the AAPM for clinical use. The protocol defines the nomenclature for the dosimetric quantities used in these calculations, along with instructions for their determination and measurement. Calculations are made using the dose per MU under normalization conditions, D{sub 0}{sup ?}, that is determined for each user's photon and electron beams. For electron beams, the depth of normalization is taken to be the depth of maximum dose along the central axis for the same field incident on a water phantom at the same SSD, where D{sub 0}{sup ?} = 1 cGy/MU. For photon beams, this task group recommends that a normalization depth of 10 cm be selected, where an energy-dependent D{sub 0}{sup ?} ? 1 cGy/MU is required. This recommendation differs from the more common approach of a normalization depth of d{sub m}, with D{sub 0}{sup ?} = 1 cGy/MU, although both systems are acceptable within the current protocol. For photon beams, the formalism includes the use of blocked fields, physical or dynamic wedges, and (static) multileaf collimation. No formalism is provided for intensity modulated radiation therapy calculations, although some general considerations and a review of current calculation techniques are included. For electron beams, the formalism provides for calculations at the standard and extended SSDs using either an effective SSD or an air-gap correction factor. Example tables and problems are included to illustrate the basic concepts within the presented formalism.

Gibbons, John P., E-mail: john.gibbons@marybird.com [Department of Physics, Mary Bird Perkins Cancer Center, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70809 (United States); Antolak, John A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota 55905 (United States); Followill, David S. [Department of Radiation Physics, UT M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Huq, M. Saiful [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15232 (United States); Klein, Eric E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri 63110 (United States); Lam, Kwok L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Palta, Jatinder R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23298 (United States); Roback, Donald M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Centers of North Carolina, Raleigh, North Carolina 27607 (United States); Reid, Mark [Department of Medical Physics, Fletcher-Allen Health Care, Burlington, Vermont 05401 (United States); Khan, Faiz M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States)

2014-03-15

288

Monitor unit calculations for external photon and electron beams: Report of the AAPM Therapy Physics Committee Task Group No. 71.  

Science.gov (United States)

A protocol is presented for the calculation of monitor units (MU) for photon and electron beams, delivered with and without beam modifiers, for constant source-surface distance (SSD) and source-axis distance (SAD) setups. This protocol was written by Task Group 71 of the Therapy Physics Committee of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) and has been formally approved by the AAPM for clinical use. The protocol defines the nomenclature for the dosimetric quantities used in these calculations, along with instructions for their determination and measurement. Calculations are made using the dose per MU under normalization conditions, D'0, that is determined for each user's photon and electron beams. For electron beams, the depth of normalization is taken to be the depth of maximum dose along the central axis for the same field incident on a water phantom at the same SSD, where D'0 = 1 cGy/MU. For photon beams, this task group recommends that a normalization depth of 10 cm be selected, where an energy-dependent D'0 ? 1 cGy/MU is required. This recommendation differs from the more common approach of a normalization depth of dm, with D'0 = 1 cGy/MU, although both systems are acceptable within the current protocol. For photon beams, the formalism includes the use of blocked fields, physical or dynamic wedges, and (static) multileaf collimation. No formalism is provided for intensity modulated radiation therapy calculations, although some general considerations and a review of current calculation techniques are included. For electron beams, the formalism provides for calculations at the standard and extended SSDs using either an effective SSD or an air-gap correction factor. Example tables and problems are included to illustrate the basic concepts within the presented formalism. PMID:24593704

Gibbons, John P; Antolak, John A; Followill, David S; Huq, M Saiful; Klein, Eric E; Lam, Kwok L; Palta, Jatinder R; Roback, Donald M; Reid, Mark; Khan, Faiz M

2014-03-01

289

Multi-sphere unit cell model to calculate the effective thermal conductivity in pebble bed reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A proper understanding of the mechanisms of heat transfer, fluid flow and pressure drop through a packed bed of spheres is of utmost importance in the design of a high temperature Pebble Bed Reactor (PBR). While the gas flows predominantly in the axial direction through the bed, the total effective thermal conductivity is a lumped parameter that characterises the total heat transfer in the radial direction through the packed bed. The study of the effective thermal conductivity is important because it forms an intricate part of the self-acting decay heat removal chain, which is directly related to the PBR safety case. The effective thermal conductivity is the summation of various heat transport phenomena. These are the enhanced thermal conductivity due to turbulent mixing as the fluid passes through the voids between pebbles, heat transfer due to the movement of the solid spheres and thermal conduction and thermal radiation between the spheres in a stagnant fluid environment. In this study, the conduction and radiation between the spheres are investigated. Firstly, existing correlations for the effective thermal conductivity are investigated, with particular attention given to its applicability in the near-wall region. Several phenomena in particular are examined namely: conduction through the spheres, conduction through the contact area between the spheres, conduction through the gas phase and radiation between solid surfaces. A new approach to simulate the effective thermal conductivity for randomly packed beds is then presented, namely the so-called Multi-sphere Unit Cell Model. The model is validated by comparing the results with that obtained in experiments. (authors)

2010-06-02

290

Monte Carlo calculated output factors of a Leksell Gamma Knife unit  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Leksell Gamma Knife is a standard radiosurgical tool for treating brain lesions by directing beams of gamma radiation to a specific region. The diameter of the gamma beams is confined by collimator systems and available collimator sizes are 4, 8, 14 and 18 mm. The reduction in dose rate for each collimator helmet is called the output factor (OPF). Experimental determination of OPFs is difficult due to the extremely narrow beams for which the dose is determined. In the present work, the PRESTA version of the EGS4 Monte Carlo code was used to obtain relative OPFs for the Leksell Gamma Knife for collimator sizes of 14, 8 and 4 mm (relative to that of the 18 mm collimator). A spherical probe with a radius of 1 mm was utilized in this computer experiment. Our Monte Carlo results gave OPFs of 0.974, 0.951 and 0.872 for the 14 mm, 8 mm and 4 mm collimators respectively, relative to the 18 mm collimator. Our calculated OPF for the 4 mm collimator helmet was more than 8% higher than the value currently used, but in good agreement with the average of experimental values obtained by various Gamma Knife centres throughout the world and with the value now recommended by the manufacturer, Elekta (Elekta Instrument AB, Skeppargatan 8, S-114 52 Stockholm, Sweden). (author)

1999-12-01

291

Experience with 500 extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy patients using a low-cost unit: the "Econolith".  

Science.gov (United States)

The Econolith (Medispec Ltd.) is a modular extracorporeal shockwave (SWL) system that uses the spark gap as its source for lithotripsy. In this study, the immediate and late results and complications in 500 patients (640 treatments) treated with this machine during the last 2 years were summarized. An average fragmentation rate of 86% was achieved after the first treatment. A stone-free situation at 3 months was achieved in 75% of the cases; 18% had small (< 5mm) fragments, and 7% had larger fragments. Auxiliary procedures were required in 8% of the patients. Minor complications such as hematuria, colic, and urinary tract infection were seen in 6% of the patients. The Econolith system is safe and effective. Its mobility and low cost enable any urologist to use this technology even with a low monthly turnover of patients. PMID:7550261

Simon, D

1995-06-01

292

Low-cost accelerograph units as earthquake alert devices for Mexico City: how well would they work?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recently, low-cost accelerograph units have been proposed as earthquake alert devices for Mexico City. These units would trigger when the acceleration reaches a pre-established level, presumably 4 gal. For significant earthquakes, this would occur during P wave or in the early part of its coda. We test the performance of such a unit on accelerograms recorded in the period 1985 - 2008 at SCT and CDAO, two lake-bed sites in Mexico City. As expected, the alert time (the time of arrival of intense ground motion minus the trigger time, TA, for regional earthquakes is found to increase with the PGA. TA of the recorded accelerograms (with PGA > 4 gal ranges between about -20 and 45 sec; the largest values of TA correspond to the 1985 Michoacan earthquake. With some exceptions, TA is greater than ~15 sec for earthquakes which produced PGA > 20 gal. The device may be useful in mitigating injuries and loss of lives if an alert time of 15 to 45 sec is sufficient to put in to effect pre-established safety measures. This may be practical for one- to three-storey public school buildings. The device would be useful for shutting critical facilities before the arrival of large- amplitude ground motion.

C. Valdés

2009-04-01

293

Levelized nuclear fueling cost in Israel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Basic nuclear fuel cycle mode options are discussed as they apply to PWR-type reactors. Forecast fueling costs have been computed and are reported for the two main choices - basic front-end cost supplemented by either a throw- away mode option or a reprocessing mode option. It is concluded that reprocessing could result in total unit fueling costs ranging from a minimum slightly lower, through a maximum about 30% higher than the total unit fueling cost using the throw-away mode option. Moreover, in massive breeder development the total unit fueling cost can extend even below the numerically calculated limit. (H.K.)

1982-01-01

294

Antibiotic surveillance on a paediatric intensive care unit: easy attainable strategy at low costs and resources  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Antibiotic surveillance is mandatory to optimise antibiotic therapy. Our objectives were to evaluate antibiotic use in our pediatric intensive care unit (PICU and to implement a simple achievable intervention aimed at improving antibiotic therapy. Method Prospective, 3 months surveillance of antibiotic use on PICU (phase I and evaluation according to the CDC 12-step campaign with development of an attainable intervention. 3 months surveillance (phase II after implementation of intervention with comparison of antibiotic use. Results Appropriate antibiotic use for culture-negative infection-like symptoms and targeted therapy for proven infections were the main areas for potential improvement. The intervention was a mandatory checklist requiring indication and recording likelihood of infection at start of antibiotic therapy and a review of the continuing need for therapy at 48?h and 5 days, reasons for continuation and possible target pathogen. The percentage of appropriate empiric antibiotic therapy courses for culture-negative infection-like symptoms increased from 18% (10/53 to 74% (42/57; p Conclusions Antibiotic surveillance using the CDC 12-step campaign can help to evaluate institutional antibiotic therapy. Development of an attainable intervention using a checklist can show improved antibiotic use with minimal expense.

Stocker Martin

2012-12-01

295

Restriction techniques for the unit-commitment problem with total procurement costs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Many discrete optimization problems may be solved much easier, if the solution space can be restricted in a convenient way. For a given specific problem, the restriction techniques can be helpful if an available optimization solver, perceived as a black box, is capable of solving quickly only reduced subproblems of a limited size. For the family of hard unit-commitment problems we investigate a hierarchical search algorithm, which is based on decomposition of the problem into two subproblems. The upper-level subproblem is a relatively small decision 'kernel' of the problem that can be solved approximately by a search algorithm. We define an appropriate restricted decision space for this subproblem. The lower-level subproblem is an appropriate restriction of the original problem that can be solved efficiently by a dedicated solver. Our approach was analyzed on a set of historical data from the Polish electrical balancing market and the best known solutions were improved by the average of about 2-5%

2008-07-01

296

Restriction techniques for the unit-commitment problem with total procurement costs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Many discrete optimization problems may be solved much easier, if the solution space can be restricted in a convenient way. For a given specific problem, the restriction techniques can be helpful if an available optimization solver, perceived as a black box, is capable of solving quickly only reduced subproblems of a limited size. For the family of hard unit-commitment problems we investigate a hierarchical search algorithm, which is based on decomposition of the problem into two subproblems. The upper-level subproblem is a relatively small decision ''kernel'' of the problem that can be solved approximately by a search algorithm. We define an appropriate restricted decision space for this subproblem. The lower-level subproblem is an appropriate restriction of the original problem that can be solved efficiently by a dedicated solver. Our approach was analyzed on a set of historical data from the Polish electrical balancing market and the best known solutions were improved by the average of about 2-5%. (author)

2008-07-01

297

LIFE Cost of Electricity, Capital and Operating Costs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Successful commercialization of fusion energy requires economic viability as well as technical and scientific feasibility. To assess economic viability, we have conducted a pre-conceptual level evaluation of LIFE economics. Unit costs are estimated from a combination of bottom-up costs estimates, working with representative vendors, and scaled results from previous studies of fission and fusion plants. An integrated process model of a LIFE power plant was developed to integrate and optimize unit costs and calculate top level metrics such as cost of electricity and power plant capital cost. The scope of this activity was the entire power plant site. Separately, a development program to deliver the required specialized equipment has been assembled. Results show that LIFE power plant cost of electricity and plant capital cost compare favorably to estimates for new-build LWR's, coal and gas - particularly if indicative costs of carbon capture and sequestration are accounted for.

2011-01-01

298

LIFE Cost of Electricity, Capital and Operating Costs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Successful commercialization of fusion energy requires economic viability as well as technical and scientific feasibility. To assess economic viability, we have conducted a pre-conceptual level evaluation of LIFE economics. Unit costs are estimated from a combination of bottom-up costs estimates, working with representative vendors, and scaled results from previous studies of fission and fusion plants. An integrated process model of a LIFE power plant was developed to integrate and optimize unit costs and calculate top level metrics such as cost of electricity and power plant capital cost. The scope of this activity was the entire power plant site. Separately, a development program to deliver the required specialized equipment has been assembled. Results show that LIFE power plant cost of electricity and plant capital cost compare favorably to estimates for new-build LWR's, coal and gas - particularly if indicative costs of carbon capture and sequestration are accounted for.

Anklam, T

2011-04-14

299

Allocation of Home Office Expenses to Segments and Business Unit General and Administrative Expenses to Final Cost Objectives.  

Science.gov (United States)

The allocation of indirect costs to federal government contracts is based on principles of cost accounting contained in the cost principles, the Cost Accounting Standards (CAS), and Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP). This thesis discusses th...

S. T. Lynch

1992-01-01

300

¿Cómo calcular los Costos Medioambientales?: Caso: Empresa Gráfica de Cienfuegos / How to Calculate the Environmental Costs?: Case Company Grafica Cienfuegos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El mundo necesita urgentemente que se proteja el medio ambiente, muchas empresas y organizaciones destinan grandes recursos para lograr ese fin y lograr un Desarrollo Sostenible como máxima a alcanzar por cualquier país u organización. Se hace entonces imprescindible determinar cuánto le dedican las [...] Empresas al medio ambiente, teniendo en cuenta que las Entidades tienen un contrato implícito con la sociedad y el medio, producto de los recursos que utiliza y los desechos y desperdicios que vierte, es por eso que se necesitan calcular y registrar los costos medioambientales por productos, para enriquecer la gestión medioambiental de la entidad y favorecer de esta manera una excelente toma de decisiones. La siguiente investigación busca un procedimiento que permita dar solución a esta problemática, logrando su conformación con el uso de diversas técnicas dentro de las que se destacan las listas de chequeos medioambientales y el ciclo de vida del producto, que permite además poder conocer por separado como cada proceso y producto impacta en el medioambiente. Abstract in english The world urgently needs to protect the environment, many companies and organizations devote huge resources to reach that goal and achieve sustainable development as the highest standard of achievement for any country or organization. It then becomes imperative to determine how much the companies sp [...] end on the environment, taking into account that the Entities have an implicit contract with society and the environment, the product of the resources used and waste and waste pouring, which is why one needs to calculate and record the environmental costs of products to enhance the environmental management of the entity and thus promote an excellent decision-making. The following research seeks a procedure which allows solving this problem, making its composition with the use of various techniques within which highlights the environmental checklists and product life cycle, which also allows knowing separately as each process and product impacts the environment.

Keitel, Becerra; Elizabeth, Gómez; Grisel, Pérez; Reynier, Reyes.

 
 
 
 
301

A novel methodology for calculating large numbers of symmetrical matrices on a graphics processing unit: Towards efficient, real-time hyperspectral image processing  

Science.gov (United States)

Hyperspectral imagery (HSI) is often processed to identify targets of interest. Many of the quantitative analysis techniques developed for this purpose mathematically manipulate the data to derive information about the target of interest based on local spectral covariance matrices. The calculation of a local spectral covariance matrix for every pixel in a given hyperspectral data scene is so computationally intensive that real-time processing with these algorithms is not feasible with today's general purpose processing solutions. Specialized solutions are cost prohibitive, inflexible, inaccessible, or not feasible for on-board applications. Advances in graphics processing unit (GPU) capabilities and programmability offer an opportunity for general purpose computing with access to hundreds of processing cores in a system that is affordable and accessible. The GPU also offers flexibility, accessibility and feasibility that other specialized solutions do not offer. The architecture for the NVIDIA GPU used in this research is significantly different from the architecture of other parallel computing solutions. With such a substantial change in architecture it follows that the paradigm for programming graphics hardware is significantly different from traditional serial and parallel software development paradigms. In this research a methodology for mapping an HSI target detection algorithm to the NVIDIA GPU hardware and Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA) Application Programming Interface (API) is developed. The RX algorithm is chosen as a representative stochastic HSI algorithm that requires the calculation of a spectral covariance matrix. The developed methodology is designed to calculate a local covariance matrix for every pixel in the input HSI data scene. A characterization of the limitations imposed by the chosen GPU is given and a path forward toward optimization of a GPU-based method for real-time HSI data processing is defined.

Runnels, Denise Renee

302

Comparative study of the variables for determining unit processing cost of irradiated food products in developing countries : case study of Ghana  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A method for estimating unit cost of gamma treated food products in a developing country like Ghana is presented. The method employs the cost of cobalt source requirement, capital and operating costs, dose requirements etc. and relates these variables to various annual throughput at a gamma processing facility. In situations where the cost of foreign components or devices are required, the assumptions have been based on those of Kunstadt and Steeves. Otherwise, the prevailing conditions existing in Ghana have been used. The study reveals that the unit processing cost for gamma treatment foods in such a facility is between 8.0 to 147.2 US dollars per tonne. (author). 9 refs., 4 figs

1997-01-01

303

The Scales of Time, Length, Mass, Energy, and Other Fundamental Physical Quantities in the Atomic World and the Use of Atomic Units in Quantum Mechanical Calculations  

Science.gov (United States)

This article is divided into two parts. In the first part, the atomic unit (au) system is introduced and the scales of time, space (length), and speed, as well as those of mass and energy, in the atomic world are discussed. In the second part, the utility of atomic units in quantum mechanical and spectroscopic calculations is illustrated with…

Teo, Boon K.; Li, Wai-Kee

2011-01-01

304

Treatment practices, outcomes, and costs of multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis, United States, 2005-2007.  

Science.gov (United States)

To describe factors associated with multidrug-resistant (MDR), including extensively-drug-resistant (XDR), tuberculosis (TB) in the United States, we abstracted inpatient, laboratory, and public health clinic records of a sample of MDR TB patients reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention from California, New York City, and Texas during 2005-2007. At initial diagnosis, MDR TB was detected in 94% of 130 MDR TB patients and XDR TB in 80% of 5 XDR TB patients. Mutually exclusive resistance was 4% XDR, 17% pre-XDR, 24% total first-line resistance, 43% isoniazid/rifampin/rifabutin-plus-other resistance, and 13% isoniazid/rifampin/rifabutin-only resistance. Nearly three-quarters of patients were hospitalized, 78% completed treatment, and 9% died during treatment. Direct costs, mostly covered by the public sector, averaged $134,000 per MDR TB and $430,000 per XDR TB patient; in comparison, estimated cost per non-MDR TB patient is $17,000. Drug resistance was extensive, care was complex, treatment completion rates were high, and treatment was expensive. PMID:24751166

Marks, Suzanne M; Flood, Jennifer; Seaworth, Barbara; Hirsch-Moverman, Yael; Armstrong, Lori; Mase, Sundari; Salcedo, Katya; Oh, Peter; Graviss, Edward A; Colson, Paul W; Armitige, Lisa; Revuelta, Manuel; Sheeran, Kathryn

2014-05-01

305

Treatment Practices, Outcomes, and Costs of Multidrug-Resistant and Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis, United States, 2005-2007  

Science.gov (United States)

To describe factors associated with multidrug-resistant (MDR), including extensively-drug-resistant (XDR), tuberculosis (TB) in the United States, we abstracted inpatient, laboratory, and public health clinic records of a sample of MDR TB patients reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention from California, New York City, and Texas during 2005–2007. At initial diagnosis, MDR TB was detected in 94% of 130 MDR TB patients and XDR TB in 80% of 5 XDR TB patients. Mutually exclusive resistance was 4% XDR, 17% pre-XDR, 24% total first-line resistance, 43% isoniazid/rifampin/rifabutin-plus-other resistance, and 13% isoniazid/rifampin/rifabutin-only resistance. Nearly three-quarters of patients were hospitalized, 78% completed treatment, and 9% died during treatment. Direct costs, mostly covered by the public sector, averaged $134,000 per MDR TB and $430,000 per XDR TB patient; in comparison, estimated cost per non-MDR TB patient is $17,000. Drug resistance was extensive, care was complex, treatment completion rates were high, and treatment was expensive.

Flood, Jennifer; Seaworth, Barbara; Hirsch-Moverman, Yael; Armstrong, Lori; Mase, Sundari; Salcedo, Katya; Oh, Peter; Graviss, Edward A.; Colson, Paul W.; Armitige, Lisa; Revuelta, Manuel; Sheeran, Kathryn

2014-01-01

306

United States experience in environmental cost-benefit analysis for nuclear power plants with implications for developing countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Environmental cost-benefit analysis in the United States involves a comparison of diverse societal impacts of the proposed developments and its alternatives. Regarding nuclear power plant licensing actions, such analyses include the need for base-load electrical generating capacity versus the no-action alternative; alternative sources of energy; alternative sites for the proposed nuclear plants; and alternative technologies for mitigating environmental impacts. Many U.S. experiences and environmental assessment practices and comparative resource requirements presented in this report will not provide a wholly reliable reflection of the precise situation of each country. Nevertheless, the procedural and substantive issues encountered by the United States in nuclear power plant licensing may exhibit a number of important, if rough, parallelisms for other countries. Procedural issues dealt with include: the scoping of alternatives and impact issues; the problem of balancing incommensurable impacts; and treating uncertainty in measuring or forecasting certain kinds of environmental impacts. Although substantive environmental impact issues will vary appreciably among nations, it is to be expected that many of the substantive impact issues such as impacts on biota, community-related effects, and aesthetic impacts will also have some measure of universal interest to other countries

1980-01-01

307

Cost and appropriateness of treating asthma with fixed-combination drugs in local health care units in Italy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Isabella Ruggeri,1 Donatello Bragato,2 Giorgio L Colombo,3,4 Emanuela Valla,3 Sergio Di Matteo41Servizio Governo Area Farmaceutica, Azienda Sanitaria Locale, Milano, Binasco, 2Data Solution Provider, Milan, 3University of Pavia, Department of Drug Sciences, School of Pharmacy, 4Studi Analisi Valutazioni Economiche, MilanBackground: Bronchial asthma is a chronic airways disease and is considered to be one of the major health problems in the Western world. During the last decade, a significant increase in the use of ?2-agonists in combination with inhaled corticosteroids has been observed. The aim of this study was to assess the appropriateness of expenditure on these agents in an asthmatic population treated in a real practice setting.Methods: This study used data for a resident population of 635,906 citizens in the integrated patient database (Banca Dati Assistito of a local health care unit (Milano 2 Azienda Sanitaria Locale in the Lombardy region over 3 years (2007–2009. The sample included 3787–4808 patients selected from all citizens aged ? 18 years entitled to social security benefits, having a prescription for a corticosteroid + ?2-agonist combination, and an ATC code corresponding to R03AK, divided into three groups, ie, pressurized (spray drugs, inhaled powders, and extrafine formulations. Patients with chronic obstructive lung disease were excluded. Indicators of appropriateness were 1–3 packs per year (underdosed, inappropriate, 4–12 packs per year (presumably appropriate, and ?13 packs per year (overtreatment, inappropriate.Results: The corticosteroid + ?2-agonist combination per treated asthmatic patient increased from 37% in 2007 to 45% in 2009 for the total of prescribed antiasthma drugs, and 28%–32% of patients used the drugs in an appropriate manner (4–12 packs per years. The cost of inappropriately used packs increased combination drug expenditure by about 40%, leading to inefficient use of health care resources. This trend improved during the 3-year observation period. The mean annual cost per patient was higher for powders (€223.95 and sprays (€224.83 than for extrafine formulation (€142.71.Conclusion: Based on this analysis, we suggest implementation of better health care planning and more appropriate prescription practices aimed at optimizing use of health care resources for the treatment of bronchial asthma. The results of our study should be extended to other regional/national reference local health care units, in order to define and compare average standard costs per pathology, and consolidated through the wide sample considered.Keywords: asthma, antiasthma drugs, general medicine, appropriateness, pharmacoeconomics, health economics

Ruggeri I

2012-12-01

308

Conceptual design and cost analysis of hydraulic output unit for 15 kW free-piston Stirling engine  

Science.gov (United States)

A long-life hydraulic converter with unique features was conceptually designed to interface with a specified 15 kW(e) free-piston Stirling engine in a solar thermal dish application. Hydraulic fluid at 34.5 MPa (5000 psi) is produced to drive a conventional hydraulic motor and rotary alternator. Efficiency of the low-maintenance converter design was calculated at 93.5% for a counterbalanced version and 97.0% without the counterbalance feature. If the converter were coupled to a Stirling engine with design parameters more typcial of high-technology Stirling engines, counterbalanced converter efficiency could be increased to 99.6%. Dynamic computer simulation studies were conducted to evaluate performance and system sensitivities. Production costs of the complete Stirling hydraulic/electric power system were evaluated at $6506 which compared with $8746 for an alternative Stirling engine/linear alternator system.

White, M. A.

1982-01-01

309

Cost-effectiveness model comparing olanzapine and other oral atypical antipsychotics in the treatment of schizophrenia in the United States  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Schizophrenia is often a persistent and costly illness that requires continued treatment with antipsychotics. Differences among antipsychotics on efficacy, safety, tolerability, adherence, and cost have cost-effectiveness implications for treating schizophrenia. This study compares the cost-effectiveness of oral olanzapine, oral risperidone (at generic cost, primary comparator), quetiapine, ziprasidone, and aripiprazole in the treatment of patients with sc...

2009-01-01

310

Cost estimating methodology and application  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Economic Modeling Working Group (EMWG) was created by Generation IV International Forum (GIF) early in 2003. The Group was charged with developing a simplified cost estimating methodology appropriate for Generation IV systems in various stages of development. The Cost Estimating Methodology consists of (1) the Generation IV Cost Estimating Guidelines and (2) a software package, G4-ECONS, to facilitate the implementation of the Guidelines. The Guidelines provide detailed processes for developing the total capital investment cost and calculating the leveled unit electric cost. The central feature of the methodology is the comprehensive Code of Accounts. The Code of Accounts provides a disciplined structure for capturing and categorizing all appropriate costs in the development of consistent system cost estimates. To facilitate implementation of the Cost Estimating Guidelines, the EMWG developed an EXCEL based spread-sheet package, G4-ECONS. The software package facilitates the input of total capital cost at a high level to prevent the inadvertent disclosure of proprietary data. Leveled unit electric cost is also calculated. The methodology, particularly the G4-ECONS software, compared well with published results. The leveled cost of electricity calculated by G4-ECONS was within 1% of the published figure. (A.C.)

2009-09-09

311

A case study using the United Republic of Tanzania: costing nationwide HPV vaccine delivery using the WHO Cervical Cancer Prevention and Control Costing Tool  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose, methods, data sources and assumptions behind the World Health Organization (WHO Cervical Cancer Prevention and Control Costing (C4P tool that was developed to assist low- and middle-income countries (LMICs with planning and costing their nationwide human papillomavirus (HPV vaccination program are presented. Tanzania is presented as a case study where the WHO C4P tool was used to cost and plan the roll-out of HPV vaccines nationwide as part of the national comprehensive cervical cancer prevention and control strategy. Methods The WHO C4P tool focuses on estimating the incremental costs to the health system of vaccinating adolescent girls through school-, health facility- and/or outreach-based strategies. No costs to the user (school girls, parents or caregivers are included. Both financial (or costs to the Ministry of Health and economic costs are estimated. The cost components for service delivery include training, vaccination (health personnel time and transport, stationery for tally sheets and vaccination cards, and so on, social mobilization/IEC (information, education and communication, supervision, and monitoring and evaluation (M&E. The costs of all the resources used for HPV vaccination are totaled and shown with and without the estimated cost of the vaccine. The total cost is also divided by the number of doses administered and number of fully immunized girls (FIGs to estimate the cost per dose and cost per FIG. Results Over five years (2011 to 2015, the cost of establishing an HPV vaccine program that delivers three doses of vaccine to girls at schools via phased national introduction (three regions in year 1, ten regions in year 2 and all 26 regions in years 3 to 5 in Tanzania is estimated to be US$9.2 million (excluding vaccine costs and US$31.5 million (with vaccine assuming a vaccine price of US$5 (GAVI 2011, formerly the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunizations. This is equivalent to a financial cost of US$5.77 per FIG, excluding the vaccine cost. The most important costs of service delivery are social mobilization/IEC and service delivery operational costs. Conclusions When countries expand their immunization schedules with new vaccines such as the HPV vaccine, they face initial costs to fund critical pre-introduction activities, as well as incremental system costs to deliver the vaccines on an ongoing basis. In anticipation, governments need to plan ahead for non-vaccine costs so they will be financed adequately. Existing human resources need to be re-allocated or new staff need to be recruited for the program to be implemented successfully in a sustainable and long-term manner. Reaching a target group not routinely served by national immunization programs previously with three doses of vaccine requires new delivery strategies, more transport of vaccines and health workers and more intensive IEC activities leading to new delivery costs for the immunization program that are greater than the costs incurred when a new infant vaccine is added to the existing infant immunization schedule. The WHO C4P tool is intended to help LMICs to plan ahead and estimate the programmatic and operational costs of HPV vaccination.

Hutubessy Raymond

2012-11-01

312

[Quality management (TQM) in public health-care (PHC): principles for cost-performance calculations and cost reductions with better quality].  

Science.gov (United States)

In many high-tech industries, quality management (QM) has enabled improvements of quality by a factor of 100 or more, in combination with significant cost reductions. Compared to this, the application of QM methods in health care is in its initial stages. It is anticipated that stringent process management, embedded in an effective QM system will lead to significant improvements in health care in general and in the German public health service in particular. Process management is an ideal platform for controlling in the health care sector, and it will significantly improve the leverage of controlling to bring down costs. Best practice sharing in industry has led to quantum leap improvements. Process management will enable best practice sharing also in the public health service, in spite of the highly diverse portfolio of services that the public health service offers in different German regions. Finally, it is emphasised that "technical" QM, e.g., on the basis of the ISO 9001 standard is not sufficient to reach excellence. It is necessary to integrate soft factors, such as patient or employee satisfaction, and leadership quality into the system. The EFQM model for excellence can serve as proven tool to reach this goal. PMID:19039720

Bergholz, W

2008-11-01

313

Costs and risk factors for ventilator-associated pneumonia in a Turkish University Hospital's Intensive Care Unit: A case-control study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) which is an important part of all nosocomial infections in intensive care unit (ICU) is a serious illness with substantial morbidity and mortality, and increases costs of hospital care. We aimed to evaluate costs and risk factors for VAP in adult ICU. Methods This is a-three year retrospective case-control study. The data were collected between 01 January 2000 and 31 December 2002. During the study period...

Erbay Riza; Yalcin Ata; Zencir Mehmet; Serin Simay; Atalay Habip

2004-01-01

314

Cost evaluation of cardiovascular magnetic resonance versus coronary angiography for the diagnostic work-up of coronary artery disease: Application of the European Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance registry data to the German, United Kingdom, Swiss, and United States health care systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR has favorable characteristics for diagnostic evaluation and risk stratification of patients with known or suspected CAD. CMR utilization in CAD detection is growing fast. However, data on its cost-effectiveness are scarce. The goal of this study is to compare the costs of two strategies for detection of significant coronary artery stenoses in patients with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD: 1 Performing CMR first to assess myocardial ischemia and/or infarct scar before referring positive patients (defined as presence of ischemia and/or infarct scar to coronary angiography (CXA versus 2 a hypothetical CXA performed in all patients as a single test to detect CAD. Methods A subgroup of the European CMR pilot registry was used including 2,717 consecutive patients who underwent stress-CMR. From these patients, 21% were positive for CAD (ischemia and/or infarct scar, 73% negative, and 6% uncertain and underwent additional testing. The diagnostic costs were evaluated using invoicing costs of each test performed. Costs analysis was performed from a health care payer perspective in German, United Kingdom, Swiss, and United States health care settings. Results In the public sectors of the German, United Kingdom, and Swiss health care systems, cost savings from the CMR-driven strategy were 50%, 25% and 23%, respectively, versus outpatient CXA. If CXA was carried out as an inpatient procedure, cost savings were 46%, 50% and 48%, respectively. In the United States context, cost savings were 51% when compared with inpatient CXA, but higher for CMR by 8% versus outpatient CXA. Conclusion This analysis suggests that from an economic perspective, the use of CMR should be encouraged as a management option for patients with suspected CAD.

Moschetti Karine

2012-06-01

315

IMPROVING COST CALCULATION IN THE IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY IN LIBYA USING THE STANDARD COST METHOD ÎMBUN?T??IREA CALCULA?IEI COSTURILOR ÎN INDUSTRIA DE FIER ?I O?EL DIN LIBIA PRIN FOLOSIREA METODEI STANDARD COST  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The iron and steel industry has a strategic role in each country`s economy as there is a direct connection between its production level and economic development. In the countries with developed market economy, the standard cost reflects the efficiency of the production process. In this context, the use of the standard cost method represents an instrument for research and estimation. This paper`s intention is to present the advantages offered by the application of the standard cost meth...

2013-01-01

316

Tracking the Sun IV: An Historical Summary of the Installed Cost of Photovoltaics in the United States from 1998 to 2010  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present report describes installed cost trends for grid-connected PV projects installed from 1998 through 2010 (with some limited and preliminary results presented for projects installed in the first six months of 2011). The analysis is based on project-level cost data from approximately 116,500 residential, non-residential, and utility-sector PV systems in the United States. The inclusion of utility-sector PV is a new element in this year’s report. The combined capacity of all systems in the data sample totals 1,685 MW, equal to 79% of all grid-connected PV capacity installed in the United States through 2010 and representing one of the most comprehensive sources of installed PV cost data for the U.S. Based on this dataset, the report describes historical installed cost trends over time, and by location, market segment, technology type, and component. The report also briefly compares recent PV installed costs in the United States to those in Germany and Japan, and describes trends in customer incentives for PV installations and net installed costs after receipt of such incentives. The analysis presented here focuses on descriptive trends in the underlying data, serving primarily to summarize the data in tabular and graphical form.

Darghouth, Naim; Wiser, Ryan

2011-09-07

317

Análisis de las obligaciones en materia de cálculo de costes en las administraciones públicas españolas / Analysis of Obligations Regarding Cost Calculation in Spanish Public Administrations / Análise das obrigações em matéria de cálculo de custos nas administrações públicas espanholas  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho é rever as tentativas legisladoras destinadas a estabelecer obrigatoriedade no custeio das administrações públicas. Apesar dos múltiplos esforços normativos, a aplicação da contabilidade de custos não é generalizada no campo do setor público, pois bem poucas instituições de [...] terminam seus custos. Na atualidade, está se produzindo grande impulso na aplicação desta ferramenta, devido à exigência de apresentar um resumo dos custos na memória das entidades do setor público administrativo. Abstract in spanish El objetivo de este trabajo es realizar una revisión de los intentos legisladores encaminados a establecer la obligatoriedad del cálculo de costes en las administraciones públicas. A pesar de los múltiples esfuerzos normativos, la aplicación de la contabilidad de costes no se ha generalizado en el á [...] mbito del sector público, pues muy pocas instituciones determinan sus costes. En la actualidad, se está produciendo un gran impulso en la aplicación de esta herramienta, debido a la exigencia de presentar un resumen de costes en la memoria de las entidades pertenecientes al sector público administrativo. Abstract in english The aim of this paper is to review the regulation attempts aimed at making cost calculation compulsory in public administrations. Despite many policy efforts, the application of cost accounting is not widespread in the public sector, for very few institutions determine their costs. Nowadays there is [...] a big boost for the application of this tool, due to the requirement to present a summary of costs in the memory of the entities belonging to the public administration sector.

González-Sánchez, María Beatriz; López-Valeiras Sampedro, Ernesto; Gómez-Conde, Jacobo; Rodríguez-González, Estefanía.

318

The use of phenological data to calculate chilling units in Olea europaea L. in relation to the onset of reproduction  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to develop a practical method to evaluate the effective relationship between the amount of winter chilling and the response expressed as the spring reproductive re-starting dates in the olive ( Olea europaea L.). Two olive cultivars growing in a special olive orchard in Umbria (central Italy) were studied over a 3-year period (1998-2000): the cultivar Ascolana, typical of central Italy, and the cultivar Giarraffa, typical of southern Italy. The spring reproductive re-starts were assessed using data from detailed phenological observations made on 60 trees of each cultivar in an effort to establish the exact date of reproductive bud swelling. The chilling phenomenon was evaluated by using 341 functions derived from a formula developed by researchers at Utah State University to calculate chilling units. The mathematical functions are defined, and show the very close relationship between the amount of winter chilling and the spring reproductive response in the two cultivars in the orchard studied. The results can be used to define the relationship between local climate and plant development, and the mathematical approach can be used to draw maps that can show the suitability of different cultivars on the basis of local climatic conditions.

Orlandi, F.; Fornaciari, M.; Romano, B.

2002-02-01

319

20 CFR 404.274 - What are the measuring periods we use to calculate cost-of-living increases?  

Science.gov (United States)

Depending on the OASDI fund ratio, we measure the rise in one index or in both indexes during the applicable measuring period (described in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section) to determine whether there will be an automatic cost-of-living increase and if so, its...

2010-04-01

320

IMPROVING COST CALCULATION IN THE IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY IN LIBYA USING THE STANDARD COST METHOD ÎMBUN?T??IREA CALCULA?IEI COSTURILOR ÎN INDUSTRIA DE FIER ?I O?EL DIN LIBIA PRIN FOLOSIREA METODEI STANDARD COST  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The iron and steel industry has a strategic role in each country`s economy as there is a direct connection between its production level and economic development. In the countries with developed market economy, the standard cost reflects the efficiency of the production process. In this context, the use of the standard cost method represents an instrument for research and estimation. This paper`s intention is to present the advantages offered by the application of the standard cost method in the iron and steel industry.

Abdelkarim S.Mohmed Abdelali

2013-05-01

 
 
 
 
321

The pilot plant in Geiselbullach for the gamma irradiation of sewage sludge - design, operation experience and cost calculations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Gamma irradiation of sewage sludge is possible with facilities of simple design and great availability; they can be working fully automatically 24 hours on 350 days a year or more. No specially trained service staff is necessary. The costs for gamma irradiation of sewage sludge are slightly higher than for heat treatment, but several secondary effects speak in favour of the irradiated sludge. The hygienization of sewage sludge by gamma irradiation is normally only useful when sludge has to be disinfected during the whole year. (orig.)

1976-06-08

322

Custo médio do Módulo de Coleta de sangue total pelo método ABC / The mean cost of collection of whole blood units by the ABC method  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Os procedimentos em hemoterapia são complexos e caros. Exigem processos controlados e validados, equipamentos calibrados e monitorados e insumos qualificados, validados e inspecionados antes e durante o uso. Isto acarreta, além dos gastos diretos, gastos indiretos especificamente relacionados à gara [...] ntia da qualidade e da segurança transfusionais, além dos gastos indiretos usuais de qualquer produto ou serviço. Procurando avaliar com maior aproximação estes custos e buscando evitar as distorções das apropriações de custos por rateios, o presente estudo utilizou o sistema de Custeio Baseado em Atividades - ABC, para apurar o custo médio do Módulo de Coleta de sangue total no Hemocentro de Ribeirão Preto - SP, unidade sede, no primeiro semestre de 2006. O maior impacto no custo médio apurado se deveu aos custos monetários diretos, entretanto os custos indiretos não foram desprezíveis. O custo médio obtido para desempenho das atividades que compõem o Módulo de Coleta foi de R$ 35,20, que é 68,75% superior ao valor pago na tabela SIA/SUS para este módulo. A metodologia desenvolvida pode ser aplicada aos outros procedimentos dos serviços de hemoterapia, permitindo a avaliação dos custos de seus processos, evitando desperdícios, aprimorando o seu funcionamento e gerando evidências objetivas que demonstrem os custos reais da hemoterapia de qualidade para as instâncias financiadoras públicas e privadas. Abstract in english The procedures in hemotherapy are complex and expensive. They demand a controlled and validated process. They also require calibrated and monitored equipment and qualified and validated materials, inspected before and during use. This causes, apart from direct expenses, indirect expenses related to [...] the guarantee of quality and transfusional safety, as well as the usual indirect costs of any product or service. The present study used the Activity-Based Costing system - ABC, to find the mean cost of collection of whole blood units in a Regional Blood Center in Ribeirão Preto, during the first semester of 2006, in order to assess these costs more carefully and to try to avoid the cost distortions due to separation of blood components. Although the indirect costs were not negligible, the major impact on the mean cost was related to direct monetary costs. The mean cost to perform the activities that compose the collection of blood units was R$ 35.20, which is 68.75% higher than the value paid by the Brazilian government for this unit. The developed methodology can be applied to other procedures of services in hemotherapy allowing the evaluation of process costs, avoiding waste, improving performance and generating objective evidence to demonstrate the real cost of quality hemotherapy activities for public and private fund source.

Ubiali, Eugênia M. A.; Sampaio, Divaldo A.; Pinho, Patrícia F.; Covas, Dimas T..

323

Custo médio do Módulo de Coleta de sangue total pelo método ABC The mean cost of collection of whole blood units by the ABC method  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Os procedimentos em hemoterapia são complexos e caros. Exigem processos controlados e validados, equipamentos calibrados e monitorados e insumos qualificados, validados e inspecionados antes e durante o uso. Isto acarreta, além dos gastos diretos, gastos indiretos especificamente relacionados à garantia da qualidade e da segurança transfusionais, além dos gastos indiretos usuais de qualquer produto ou serviço. Procurando avaliar com maior aproximação estes custos e buscando evitar as distorções das apropriações de custos por rateios, o presente estudo utilizou o sistema de Custeio Baseado em Atividades - ABC, para apurar o custo médio do Módulo de Coleta de sangue total no Hemocentro de Ribeirão Preto - SP, unidade sede, no primeiro semestre de 2006. O maior impacto no custo médio apurado se deveu aos custos monetários diretos, entretanto os custos indiretos não foram desprezíveis. O custo médio obtido para desempenho das atividades que compõem o Módulo de Coleta foi de R$ 35,20, que é 68,75% superior ao valor pago na tabela SIA/SUS para este módulo. A metodologia desenvolvida pode ser aplicada aos outros procedimentos dos serviços de hemoterapia, permitindo a avaliação dos custos de seus processos, evitando desperdícios, aprimorando o seu funcionamento e gerando evidências objetivas que demonstrem os custos reais da hemoterapia de qualidade para as instâncias financiadoras públicas e privadas.The procedures in hemotherapy are complex and expensive. They demand a controlled and validated process. They also require calibrated and monitored equipment and qualified and validated materials, inspected before and during use. This causes, apart from direct expenses, indirect expenses related to the guarantee of quality and transfusional safety, as well as the usual indirect costs of any product or service. The present study used the Activity-Based Costing system - ABC, to find the mean cost of collection of whole blood units in a Regional Blood Center in Ribeirão Preto, during the first semester of 2006, in order to assess these costs more carefully and to try to avoid the cost distortions due to separation of blood components. Although the indirect costs were not negligible, the major impact on the mean cost was related to direct monetary costs. The mean cost to perform the activities that compose the collection of blood units was R$ 35.20, which is 68.75% higher than the value paid by the Brazilian government for this unit. The developed methodology can be applied to other procedures of services in hemotherapy allowing the evaluation of process costs, avoiding waste, improving performance and generating objective evidence to demonstrate the real cost of quality hemotherapy activities for public and private fund source.

Eugênia M. A. Ubiali

2008-01-01

324

Cost-effectiveness model comparing olanzapine and other oral atypical antipsychotics in the treatment of schizophrenia in the United States  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Schizophrenia is often a persistent and costly illness that requires continued treatment with antipsychotics. Differences among antipsychotics on efficacy, safety, tolerability, adherence, and cost have cost-effectiveness implications for treating schizophrenia. This study compares the cost-effectiveness of oral olanzapine, oral risperidone (at generic cost, primary comparator, quetiapine, ziprasidone, and aripiprazole in the treatment of patients with schizophrenia from the perspective of third-party payers in the U.S. health care system. Methods A 1-year microsimulation economic decision model, with quarterly cycles, was developed to simulate the dynamic nature of usual care of schizophrenia patients who switch, continue, discontinue, and restart their medications. The model captures clinical and cost parameters including adherence levels, relapse with and without hospitalization, quality-adjusted life years (QALYs, treatment discontinuation by reason, treatment-emergent adverse events, suicide, health care resource utilization, and direct medical care costs. Published medical literature and a clinical expert panel were used to develop baseline model assumptions. Key model outcomes included mean annual total direct cost per treatment, cost per stable patient, and incremental cost-effectiveness values per QALY gained. Results The results of the microsimulation model indicated that olanzapine had the lowest mean annual direct health care cost ($8,544 followed by generic risperidone ($9,080. In addition, olanzapine resulted in more QALYs than risperidone (0.733 vs. 0.719. The base case and multiple sensitivity analyses found olanzapine to be the dominant choice in terms of incremental cost-effectiveness per QALY gained. Conclusion The utilization of olanzapine is predicted in this model to result in better clinical outcomes and lower total direct health care costs compared to generic risperidone, quetiapine, ziprasidone, and aripiprazole. Olanzapine may, therefore, be a cost-effective therapeutic option for patients with schizophrenia.

Smolen Lee J

2009-04-01

325

Residential, Commercial, and Utility-Scale Photovoltaic (PV) System Prices in the United States: Current Drivers and Cost-Reduction Opportunities  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The price of photovoltaic (PV) systems in the United States (i.e., the cost to the system owner) has dropped precipitously in recent years, led by substantial reductions in global PV module prices. However, system cost reductions are not necessarily realized or realized in a timely manner by many customers. Many reasons exist for the apparent disconnects between installation costs, component prices, and system prices; most notable is the impact of fair market value considerations on system prices. To guide policy and research and development strategy decisions, it is necessary to develop a granular perspective on the factors that underlie PV system prices and to eliminate subjective pricing parameters. This report's analysis of the overnight capital costs (cash purchase) paid for PV systems attempts to establish an objective methodology that most closely approximates the book value of PV system assets.

Goodrich, A.; James, T.; Woodhouse, M.

2012-02-01

326

Typical structure of computerized calculation of the engineering-and-economical indices and of analysis of NPP unit economical operation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A set of problem for calculating technico-economical indices (TEI) and analizing NPP efficiency is briefly described. The set includes the problems of data collection, processing and input data reliability control TEI calculation and efficiency analysis at different stages of NPP operation. The proposed set of problems permits to create a typical algorithm for calculating and analyzing NPP TEI

1985-10-01

327

Cost-Benefit Analysis of Nanoparticle Albumin-Bound Paclitaxel versus Solvent-Based Paclitaxel for the Treatment of Metastatic Breast Cancer in the United States  

Science.gov (United States)

Breast cancer is the second leading cause of death among women in the US. Although early detection and treatment help to increase survival rates, some unfortunate patients develop metastatic breast cancer that has no cure. Palliative treatment is the main objective in this group of patients in order to prolong life and reduce toxicities from interventions. In the advancement of treatment for metastatic breast cancer, solvent-based paclitaxel has been widely used. However, solvent-based paclitaxel often causes adverse reactions. Therefore, researchers have developed a new chemotherapy based on nanotechnology. One of these drugs is the Nanoparticle albumin-bound Paclitaxel. This nanodrug aims to increase therapeutic index by reducing adverse reactions from solvents and to improve efficacy of conventional cytotoxic chemotherapy. Breast cancer is a disease with high epidemiological and economic burden. The treatment of metastatic breast cancer has not only high direct costs but also high indirect costs. Breast cancer affects mass populations, especially women younger than 50 years of age. It relates to high indirect costs due to lost productivity and premature death because the majority of these patients are in the workforce. Because of the high cost of breast cancer therapies and short survival rates, the question is raised whether the costs and benefits are worth paying or not. Due to the rising costs in healthcare and new financing policies that have been developed to address this issue, economic evaluation is an important aspect of the development and use of any new interventions. To guide policy makers on how to allocate limited healthcare resources in the most efficient and effective manner, many economic evaluation methods can be used to measure the costs, benefits, and impacts of healthcare innovations. Currently, economic evaluation and health outcomes studies have focused greatly on cost-effectiveness and cost-utility analysis. However, the previous studies had some limitations because they were conducted from a narrow perspective such as payer and provider point of views. The studies also considered only direct costs in their analysis. In fact, conducting economic evaluations from a narrow perspective and leaving out indirect costs might undermine the true benefit of the interventions for society. A cost-benefit analysis measures all costs and benefits in monetary units. It incorporates both health outcomes gained from individuals and the value gained to society in order to maximize the usage of resources effectively. This thesis conducted a cost-benefit analysis to compare nab-paclitaxel and generic paclitaxel in treating metastatic breast cancer from a societal perspective in the United States. The results showed that nab-paclitaxel is a cost-benefit strategy regardless of the different costs and benefits due to the extra 3 years of living it provides. In all models, when nab-paclitaxel was compared to generic paclitaxel, nab-paclitaxel showed cost-benefit to society. However, the results of generic paclitaxel were dependent on the total medical costs. Performing a cost-benefit analysis of nab-paclitaxel from a societal perspective is important to understand the true benefit of interventions. Furthermore, considering both direct and indirect costs, as well as benefits, of this drug is vital because the economic profile of nab-paclitaxel would be improved.

Vichansavakul, Kittaya

328

CECP, Decommissioning Costs for PWR and BWR  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

1 - Description of program or function: The Cost Estimating Computer Program CECP, designed for use on an IBM personal computer or equivalent, was developed for estimating the cost of decommissioning boiling water reactor (BWR) and light-water reactor (PWR) power stations to the point of license termination. 2 - Method of solution: Cost estimates include component, piping, and equipment removal costs; packaging costs; decontamination costs; transportation costs; burial volume and costs; and manpower staffing costs. Using equipment and consumables costs and inventory data supplied by the user, CECP calculates unit cost factors and then combines these factors with transportation and burial cost algorithms to produce a complete report of decommissioning costs. In addition to costs, CECP also calculates person-hours, crew-hours, and exposure person-hours associated with decommissioning. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: The program is designed for a specific waste charge structure. The waste cost data structure cannot handle intermediate waste handlers or changes in the charge rate structures. The decommissioning of a reactor can be divided into 5 periods. 200 different items for special equipment costs are possible. The maximum amount for each special equipment item is 99,999,999$. You can support data for 10 buildings, 100 components each; ESTS1071/01: There are 65 components for 28 systems available to specify the contaminated systems costs (BWR). ESTS1071/02: There are 75 components for 25 systems available to specify the contaminated systems costs (PWR)

1997-01-01

329

On the contribution of external cost calculations to energy system governance: The case of a potential large-scale nuclear accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The contribution of nuclear power to a sustainable energy future is a contested issue. This paper presents a critical review of an attempt to objectify this debate through the calculation of the external costs of a potential large-scale nuclear accident in the ExternE project. A careful dissection of the ExternE approach resulted in a list of 30 calculation steps and assumptions, from which the 6 most contentious ones were selected through a stakeholder internet survey. The policy robustness and relevance of these key assumptions were then assessed in a workshop using the concept of a 'pedigree of knowledge'. Overall, the workshop outcomes revealed the stakeholder and expert panel's scepticism about the assumptions made: generally these were considered not very plausible, subjected to disagreement, and to a large extent inspired by contextual factors. Such criticism indicates a limited validity and useability of the calculated nuclear accident externality as a trustworthy sustainability indicator. Furthermore, it is our contention that the ExternE project could benefit greatly - in terms of gaining public trust - from employing highly visible procedures of extended peer review such as the pedigree assessment applied to our specific case of the external costs of a potential large-scale nuclear accident. - Highlights: ? Six most contentious assumptions were selected through a stakeholder internet survey. ? Policy robustness of these assumptions was assessed in a pedigree assessment workshop. ? Assumptions were considered implausible, controversial, and inspired by contextual factors. ? This indicates a limited validity and useability as a trustworthy sustainability indicator.

2011-09-01

330

Economical analysis and study on a solar desalination unit  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Based on the calculation of the single-factor impact values of the parameters of a triple tower-type solar desalination unit on the cost of fresh water production by utilizing a single-factor analyzing method, the influences of the cost of solar heating system, the cost of hot water tank, the costs of desalination unit and electrical power, the life time of solar desalination unit and the yearly yield of fresh water, on the cost of the fresh water production of the solar desalination unit ar...

2011-01-01

331

NREL Analysis: Cost-Effective and Reliable Integration of High-Penetration Solar in the Western United States (Poster)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

SunShot Initiative awardee posters describing the different technologies within the four subprograms of the DOE Solar Program (Photovoltaics, Concentrating Solar Power, Soft Costs, and Systems Integration).

Lew, D.; Brinkman, G.; Ibanez, E.; Hodge, B.; Lefton, S.; Kumar, N.; Agan, D.; Jordan, G.; Venkatataman, S.

2012-07-01

332

Survey of the costs of peripheric intravenous device in the composition of the values of the internment in pediatrics unit ? a quantitative study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Martins TSS. Survey of the costs of peripheric intravenous device in the composition of the values of the internment in pediatrics unit ? a quantitative study (dissertation. Rio de Janeiro (RJ: Mestrado Profissional de Enfermagem Assistencial, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Cfarma Serviços Farmacêuticos Ltda; 2007.The venous puncture in pediatrics is for the child a painful and strain procedure for the family companions. Observing in practical daily of the pediatric assistance the puncture of repetition for maintenance of a security access in the medicine administration with drawn out period and knowing that the system of payment to the hospital for the SUS (system of health financed by the government is for type of illness, it sharpened me the interest in developing a exploratory, descriptive research with quantitative boarding on the costs of Peripheral Intravenous Device (DIP in the internment in Pediatrics. Objectives: To raise the costs of DIP used during the internment in a pediatrics unit; To identify the causes of substitution of DIP in the venous accesses during the internment in a pediatrics unit and To correlate the cost of DIP in the composition of the final remuneration of the paid pediatrics internments for the SUS. The scene of the research was a Pediatric Infirmary of a University Hospital (HU. Sample: nineteen children interned in the period of October of 2006 the April of 2007. The research was approved by the Committee of Ethics of the Institution under nº. 071/2006. The date had been analyzed statistical and organized in three categories: I. Demographic profile and Epidemiologist of the Children interned in the Infirmary of Pediatrics of the HU; II The Costs of the DIP in the Process of Hospitalization in Pediatrics in the HU; e III. The Costs of the DIP in the composition of the final remuneration of the paid pediatrics internments for the SUS.

Tathiana Silva de Souza Martins, Zenith Rosa Silvino

2008-10-01

333

A precise and cost-effective method to calculate the stresses and deformations of pipe bends with realistic boundary conditions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The transfer matrix of a pipe bend is derived by the semi-bending theory. Thereby realistic boundary conditions of the bends like connected flanges, cylindrical and conical pipes and concentrated or distributed loads will be considered in pipeline calculations. Furthermore, this transfer matrix of the pipe bend is converted into a stiffness matrix and is incorporated into an existing FE program. This way the exact stiffness as well as realistic boundary conditions of pipe bends may be considered for the stress and deformation analysis of complex piping systems. Several comparisons between analytical and test results of pipe bends demonstrate a very good agreement. As it can be shown this transfer matrix method is highly economical and is very precise as well. (orig.)

1985-01-01

334

Cost-Effectiveness of Home Energy Retrofits in Pre-Code Vintage Homes in the United States  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This analytical study examines the opportunities for cost-effective energy efficiency and renewable energy retrofits in residential archetypes constructed prior to 1980 (Pre-Code) in fourteen U.S. cities. These fourteen cities are representative of each of the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) climate zones in the contiguous U.S. The analysis is conducted using an in-house version of EnergyGauge USA v.2.8.05 named CostOpt that has been programmed to perform iterative, incremental economic optimization on a large list of residential energy efficiency and renewable energy retrofit measures. The principle objectives of the study are as follows: to determine the opportunities for cost effective source energy reductions in this large cohort of existing residential building stock as a function of local climate and energy costs; and to examine how retrofit financing alternatives impact the source energy reductions that are cost effectively achievable.

Fairey, P.; Parker, D.

2012-11-01

335

Calculation of profitability in computer tomography (CT)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The comments do not refer to a specific type of whole body computer tomography which made it necessary to base the calculations on mean values with regard to both initial costs and operating costs. The calculation of the receipts was based on the resulting costs, mean long-term utilization of the unit and on a reasonable period of amortization. The model calculation indicates that the break-even point is reached with 1,920 annual examinations and a five-year amortization period. (orig.) 891 MG/orig. 892 MB

1979-01-01

336

Impact of pharmacist's interventions on cost of drug therapy in intensive care unit / Impacto de las intervenciones de farmacéuticos en el coste del tratamiento farmacológico en una unidad de cuidados intensivos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: English Abstract in spanish La participación del farmacéutico en el equipo de cuidados del paciente ha demostrado reducir la incidencia de eventos adversos medicamentosos, y los costes totales de medicamentos. Sin embargo, el impacto de la participación del farmacéutico en equipos multidisciplinarios de cuidados intensivos sob [...] re el ahorro y la evitación de costes en Tailandia ha sido poco estudiado. Objetivo: Describir las características de las intervenciones y determinar si las intervenciones del farmacéutico condujeron a cambios en ahorro de costes o evitación de costes en una unidad de cuidados intensivos (UCI). Métodos: Se diseñó un estudio prospectivo controlado con cuidados usuales para comparar los ahorros de costes y las evitaciones de costes de pacientes recibiendo cuidados de un equipo de atención a paciente (que incluía un farmacéutico clínico) contra una atención normal (sin farmacéutico en el equipo). Todos los pacientes ingresados en las unidades 1 y 2 de cuidados intensivos médicos fueron incluidos en el estudio. Los resultados medidos eran coste total de medicamentos y duración de la estancia en la UCI. Se documentaron las intervenciones realizadas por el farmacéutico en el grupo de estudio. También se realizaron análisis de aceptación y ahorro de costes y/o evitación de costes. Resultados: Un total e 65 pacientes ingresaron en las UCI 1 o 2 durante las 5 semanas del estudio. El farmacéutico participó en la atención de pacientes y realizó 127 intervenciones para el equipo de la UCI 1. El 98% de las intervenciones fueron aceptadas e implantadas por los médicos. La diferencia del coste total de medicamentos por paciente entre los dos grupos fue de 182,01 USD (1.076,37 USD en el grupo estudio y 1.258,38 USD en el control, p=0.138). La media de duración de estancia entre grupo de estudio y control no fue significativamente diferente (7,16 días vs. 6,18 días, p=0.995). Se evaluaron los ahorros y evitaciones de costes de las 125 intervenciones aceptadas. Las intervenciones del farmacéutico llevaron a un total de 1.971,43 USD de ahorros y a 294,62 USD de coste de eventos adversos evitados. El coste neto ahorrado y evitado por las intervenciones del farmacéutico fue de 2.266,05 USD. Las intervenciones que involucraban el uso de antibióticos significaron el mayor impacto económico (1.958,61 USD). Conclusiones: Aunque, no fue estadísticamente significativo, el haber participado un farmacéutico en el equipo de cuidados de la UCI produjo una tendencia a la reducción global del coste de medicamentos, ahorro de costes y evitación de costes. El mayor impacto en los costes envolvió el uso de antibióticos. Abstract in english Pharmacist participation in patient care team has been shown to reduce incidence of adverse drug events, and overall drug costs. However, impact of pharmacist participation in the multidisciplinary intensive care team on cost saving and cost avoidance has little been studied in Thailand. Objective: [...] To describe the characteristics of the interventions and to determine pharmacist's interventions led to change in cost saving and cost avoidance in intensive care unit (ICU). Methods: A Prospective, standard care-controlled study design was used to compare cost saving and cost avoidance of patients receiving care from patient care team (including a clinical pharmacist) versus standard care (no pharmacist on team). All patients admitted to the medical intensive care unit 1 and 2 during the same period were included in the study. The outcome measures were overall drug cost and length of ICU stay. Interventions made by the pharmacist in the study group were documented. The analyses of acceptance and cost saving and/or cost avoidance were also performed. Results: A total of 65 patients were admitted to either ICU 1 or 2 during the 5 week- study period. The pharmacist participated in patient care and made total of 127 interventions for the ICU-1 team. Ninety-eight percent of the interventions were accepted and i

Surasak, Saokaew; Sirada, Maphanta; Pornchanok, Thangsomboon.

337

Avoidable waste management costs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report describes the activity based costing method used to acquire variable (volume dependent or avoidable) waste management cost data for routine operations at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. Waste volumes from environmental restoration, facility stabilization activities, and legacy waste were specifically excluded from this effort. A core team consisting of Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, and Oak Ridge Reservation developed and piloted the methodology, which can be used to determine avoidable waste management costs. The method developed to gather information was based on activity based costing, which is a common industrial engineering technique. Sites submitted separate flow diagrams that showed the progression of work from activity to activity for each waste type or treatability group. Each activity on a flow diagram was described in a narrative, which detailed the scope of the activity. Labor and material costs based on a unit quantity of waste being processed were then summed to generate a total cost for that flow diagram. Cross-complex values were calculated by determining a weighted average for each waste type or treatability group based on the volume generated. This study will provide DOE and contractors with a better understanding of waste management processes and their associated costs. Other potential benefits include providing cost data for sites to perform consistent cost/benefit analysis of waste minimization and pollution prevention (WMIN/PP) options identified during pollution prevention opportunity assessments and providing a means for prioritizing and allocating limited resources for WMIN/PP

1995-01-01

338

Advances and Challenges for Adoption of Activity Based Costing (ABC) by Public Sector: A Comparative Study of Brazil, Colombia, Uruguay and United States  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article aims to evaluate the advances and challenges to the adoption of the activity based costing system (ABC) by the public sector of countries like Colombia, Uruguay and Brazil, always keeping a comparative perspective with the historical experience of the United States. Considering the growing demand of citizens-users of public services in terms of quality, accountability and transparency, and also the convergence of international accounting and management pract...

Carmo, Lui?s Paulo F.; Fernando Padovani

2012-01-01

339

Development of a method for calculating the cost of the program for decommissioning of nuclear power plants. Prognosis of future costs for the authorities including the corresponding net present value. Analysis performed May 6-7 and June 8 2004  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this report is to present a calculation of the authorities' total future costs in terms of their activities to monitor a safe and prudent decommission of the power plants, including the long term storage of the used fuel. An assessment of the inherent uncertainty in this estimate is also made. The study forms an integrated part of the total monitoring into the financial assessment of the whole programme of decommissioning and demolition of the Swedish nuclear power plants that continuously is made by SKI. Hence, the estimate is presented with the additional function of supporting SKI's annual calculations of fees and contingencies in accordance with the Swedish Finance Act. Main result The expected Net Present Value of the authorities' costs as at January 2004 price level have consequently been estimated as follows: Mean Value (M): 2303 MSEK Standard deviation (S): 538 MSEK 8 This result tallies with the corresponding prognoses for the last two years. An additional clarification of a number of key figures resulted in some reduction of the total Net Present Value. By way of supplement to this main result, the undiscounted costs have been estimated (calculation 2). Besides, a tentative estimate has also been made by incorporating the official view on the future development on real rate of return in a long time perspective (calculation 3). The uncertainty of the result is significant in terms of the final budget figures and of the scale of the supplementary amounts in those situations where the budgets must be prudent and conservative. There may be a potential for further reduction of the current uncertainty in that the greatest causes of uncertainty now have been identified and ranked in order of priority. The greatest causes of uncertainty are set out in the table below. No. Cause of uncertainty Uncertainty group 1 Priority 2 1 Correction allowing for the uncertainty of the real interest rate N 55 % 2 Productivity E2 8 % 3 Uncertainty in the current base values 6 % 4 Analysis-specific uncertainty Y 6 % 5 Base value of other organisations' undiscounted costs 4 % 6 Relations with SKB and authorities C 4 % 7 Classification rules for waste L 4 % 8 Political, economic and social factors A 3 % 9 Organisation and management B 2 % 10 Base value, undiscounted interfaces 2 % 1The main objectives of the study to present a transparent and robust probabilistic estimate and an equivalent report have been achieved. Furthermore, the analysis process has also contributed to the building up of a systematic knowledge base in this area by means of regular meetings with the expert group since the spring of 2002. It is also satisfying that the mean value of the estimates remains stable and that there has been a degree of reduction of the uncertainty. Integration with SKB's procurement of bases for charges and contingencies The mean derived from this analysis can correctly be added to the mean of the remaining discounted costs, i.e. mean values of the 40 main cost items which are set out in SKB's 'PLAN 2004'. A somewhat more accurate processing of the uncertainty is, however, encumbered with a number of principal methodological difficulties. These minor obstacles are dealt with in some depth in section 7.3. Three days of analysis proved to be sufficient for an examination of all the relevant specifications, discussions and more detailed evaluations. It was ascertained that, with improved preparation, the time needed for future analyses could be reduced to two days. This is important, as the process requires between 10 a nd 15 highly qualified individuals to be assembled to perform the analyses

340

Cost-Effectiveness of Alternative Blood-Screening Strategies for West Nile Virus in the United States.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available BACKGROUND: West Nile virus (WNV is endemic in the US, varying seasonally and by geographic region. WNV can be transmitted by blood transfusion, and mandatory screening of blood for WNV was recently introduced throughout the US. Guidelines for selecting cost-effective strategies for screening blood for WNV do not exist. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a cost-effectiveness analysis for screening blood for WNV using a computer-based mathematical model, and using data from prospective studies, retrospective studies, and published literature. For three geographic areas with varying WNV-transmission intensity and length of transmission season, the model was used to estimate lifetime costs, quality-adjusted life expectancy, and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios associated with alternative screening strategies in a target population of blood-transfusion recipients. We compared the status quo (baseline screening using a donor questionnaire to several strategies which differed by nucleic acid testing of either pooled or individual samples, universal versus targeted screening of donations designated for immunocompromised patients, and seasonal versus year-long screening. In low-transmission areas with short WNV seasons, screening by questionnaire alone was the most cost-effective strategy. In areas with high levels of WNV transmission, seasonal screening of individual samples and restricting screening to blood donations designated for immunocompromised recipients was the most cost-effective strategy. Seasonal screening of the entire recipient pool added minimal clinical benefit, with incremental cost-effectiveness ratios exceeding US$1.7 million per quality-adjusted life-year gained. Year-round screening offered no additional benefit compared to seasonal screening in any of the transmission settings. CONCLUSIONS: In areas with high levels of WNV transmission, seasonal screening of individual samples and restricting screening to blood donations designated for immunocompromised recipients is cost saving. In areas with low levels of infection, a status-quo strategy using a standard questionnaire is cost-effective.

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Cost-Effectiveness of Helicopter Versus Ground Emergency Medical Services for Trauma Scene Transport in the United States  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective We determined the minimum mortality reduction that helicopter emergency medical services (HEMS) should provide relative to ground EMS for the scene transport of trauma victims to offset higher costs, inherent transport risks, and inevitable overtriage of minor injury patients. Methods We developed a decision-analytic model to compare the costs and outcomes of helicopter versus ground EMS transport to a trauma center from a societal perspective over a patient's lifetime. We determined the mortality reduction needed to make helicopter transport cost less than $100,000 and $50,000 per quality adjusted life year (QALY) gained compared to ground EMS. Model inputs were derived from the National Study on the Costs and Outcomes of Trauma (NSCOT), National Trauma Data Bank, Medicare reimbursements, and literature. We assessed robustness with probabilistic sensitivity analyses. Results HEMS must provide a minimum of a 17% relative risk reduction in mortality (1.6 lives saved/100 patients with the mean characteristics of the NSCOT cohort) to cost less than $100,000 per QALY gained and a reduction of at least 33% (3.7 lives saved/100 patients) to cost less than $50,000 per QALY. HEMS becomes more cost-effective with significant reductions in minor injury patients triaged to air transport or if long-term disability outcomes are improved. Conclusions HEMS needs to provide at least a 17% mortality reduction or a measurable improvement in long-term disability to compare favorably to other interventions considered cost-effective. Given current evidence, it is not clear that HEMS achieves this mortality or disability reduction. Reducing overtriage of minor injury patients to HEMS would improve its cost-effectiveness.

Delgado, M. Kit; Staudenmayer, Kristan L.; Wang, N. Ewen; Spain, David A.; Weir, Sharada; Owens, Douglas K.; Goldhaber-Fiebert, Jeremy D.

2014-01-01

342

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Site Dose-per-Unit-Release Factors for Use in Calculating Radionuclide Air Emissions Potential-to-Emit Doses  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report documents assumptions and inputs used to prepare the dose-per-unit-release factors for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Site (including the buildings that make up the Physical Sciences Facility [PSF] as well as the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory [EMSL]) calculated using the EPA-approved Clean Air Act Assessment Package 1988–Personal Computer (CAP88-PC) Version 3 software package. The dose-per-unit-release factors are used to prepare dose estimates for a maximum public receptor (MPR) in support of Radioactive Air Pollutants Notice of Construction (NOC) applications for the PNNL Site.

Barnett, J. M.; Rhoads, Kathleen

2008-09-29

343

cost-benefit analysis of legumes irradiation processing in egypt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper discusses the economics of legumes irradiation such as Chickpea,Lupin,Kidny Bean and broad and the effect of various parameters on unit processing costs. It provides a model for calculating specific unit processing costs by correlating known capital costs with annual operation cost an annual throughputs. We analysed the cost-benefit of the proposed grain irradiation facility. We took into account the cost of the capital investment, operation and other additional parameters and then estimated the unit processing cost. The investment criteria utilized for commercial evaluation were internal rate of return (I.I.R), pay back period (P.B.P), and average rate of return (A.R.R). The irradiation cost and the additional income are also discussed. The results of this analysis showed that the installation of an irradiation unit for legumes processing in Egypt would be economically feasible

2004-01-01

344

Comparison of the APA-H (Westinghouse) calculations with the operational data for ZpNPP unit 3 cycles 16-19  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The computer simulation of ZpNPP Unit 3 (WWER-1000) Cycles 16-19 core depletion has been performed on the basis of the operational data. The changes in reactor heat rate, lead bank position and inlet temperature during the core operation have been taken into account. These calculations were performed by using Westinghouse APA-H (ALPHA/PHOENIX/ ANC-H) code system. The main objectives of the calculations were the comparison with operational data for core loading with TVS-M (Cycle 16) and transition core loading with TVS-A (Cycle 17-19). The calculation results were compared with the results of Critical boric acid concentration vs. Cycle Burnup measurements and Start up Physics Test measurements (at HZP, BOC, NoXe core conditions). Additionally, the comparison between the results of assemblies power calculation performed by ANC-H and BIPR-7A codes is presented (Authors)

2007-11-01

345

Preliminary UKAEA reactor physics calculations on CYCLE 1 and part of CYCLE 2 of Zion Unit 2 PWR  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Calculations were made using the UKAEA reactor physics code package LWRWIMS/JOSHUA, to provide comparisons with similar calculations on the first two cycles of Sizewell B. In Zion cycle 1, the channel power distributions agree quite well with measurement, but there is less good agreement for low burnups in cycle 2. Core axial power profile calculations for cycle 1 also agree quite well with measurement, although the agreement is less good at intermediate cycle burnups. In cycle 2, these do not show the same trends as the measured axial offset. (U.K.)

1986-01-01

346

COMPUTER COST MODELS FOR POTABLE WATER TREATMENT PLANTS  

Science.gov (United States)

A series of computer programs have been developed which calculate costs for specific unit treatment processes used in water treatment plants. The programs contained in this report are as follows: chlorination, chlorine dioxide, ozone, and granular activated carbon adsorption. Tab...

347

Deterministic Assessment of Future Costs for Dismantling (FA)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The main objective of the report is to provide an re-evaluation of cost calculations by OMEGA code for the Intermediate Storage for Spent Fuel in Studsvik (FA facility) using up-to-date Swedish labour cost unit factors and available up-to-date Swedish (or international) cost unit factors for consumables, materials and substances. Furthermore, evolution of other OMEGA database parameters concerning cost calculations e.g. manpower unit factors and workgroups parameters are taken into account. This report follows up former project which introduced tentative calculations of main decommissioning parameters such as costs, manpower and exposure of personnel for activities of older nuclear facility decommissioning in Sweden represented by FA Facility in Studsvik by means of calculation code OMEGA. The project demonstrated an implementation of advanced costing methodology based on PSL structure format to achieve transparent, traceable and comparable estimates even for older nuclear facilities like FA Facility in Studsvik. This former project used Slovak origin labour costs unit factors and other cost unit factors. After successful completion of this project, there was an intent of SSM to reevaluate calculations using an up-to-date Swedish labour cost data and also available Swedish consumables and materials cost data if available. Within this report re-calculations of main decommissioning parameters using available Swedish data are presented in structure according to Proposed Standardized List of Items for Costing Purposes. Calculations are made for decommissioning scenario with post-dismantling decontamination and steel radwaste melting technologies available at the site. All parameters are documented and summed up in both table and graphic forms in text and Annexes. Further, comparison of calculated results with previous calculations together with discussion is provided

2012-01-01

348

Deterministic Assessment of Future Costs for Dismantling (FA)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The main objective of the report is to provide an re-evaluation of cost calculations by OMEGA code for the Intermediate Storage for Spent Fuel in Studsvik (FA facility) using up-to-date Swedish labour cost unit factors and available up-to-date Swedish (or international) cost unit factors for consumables, materials and substances. Furthermore, evolution of other OMEGA database parameters concerning cost calculations e.g. manpower unit factors and workgroups parameters are taken into account. This report follows up former project which introduced tentative calculations of main decommissioning parameters such as costs, manpower and exposure of personnel for activities of older nuclear facility decommissioning in Sweden represented by FA Facility in Studsvik by means of calculation code OMEGA. The project demonstrated an implementation of advanced costing methodology based on PSL structure format to achieve transparent, traceable and comparable estimates even for older nuclear facilities like FA Facility in Studsvik. This former project used Slovak origin labour costs unit factors and other cost unit factors. After successful completion of this project, there was an intent of SSM to reevaluate calculations using an up-to-date Swedish labour cost data and also available Swedish consumables and materials cost data if available. Within this report re-calculations of main decommissioning parameters using available Swedish data are presented in structure according to Proposed Standardized List of Items for Costing Purposes. Calculations are made for decommissioning scenario with post-dismantling decontamination and steel radwaste melting technologies available at the site. All parameters are documented and summed up in both table and graphic forms in text and Annexes. Further, comparison of calculated results with previous calculations together with discussion is provided.

Vasko, Marek [DECOM, Trnava (Slovakia)

2012-11-01

349

Pro/Con debate: Are barrier precautions cost-effective in improving patient outcomes in the intensive care unit?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

You are responsible for a large medical surgical ICU. Your hospital administration has been very focused on reducing rates of hospital-acquired infections particularly in the wake of increasing public attention. However, it is time for budget preparation and your financial officer is concerned about the escalating costs associated with patient isolation and barrier precautions/personal protective equipment. Having become aware of the high costs associated with these interventions, you start t...

Thampi, Nisha; Morris, Andrew M.

2012-01-01

350

Cost-effectiveness of alternative blood-screening strategies for West Nile virus in the United States  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

BACKGROUND: West Nile virus (WNV) is endemic in the US, varying seasonally and by geographic region. WNV can be transmitted by blood transfusion, and mandatory screening of blood for WNV was recently introduced throughout the US. Guidelines for selecting cost-effective strategies for screening blood for WNV do not exist. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a cost-effectiveness analysis for screening blood for WNV using a computer-based mathematical model, and using data from prospective studie...

2006-01-01

351

Treatment of paediatric burns with a nanocrystalline silver dressing compared with standard wound care in a burns unit: a cost analysis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Burns are a leading cause of non-natural death in South African infants and children. Conventional care of partial-thickness burns often requires painful, time consuming and costly twice-daily dressing changes to clean the wound and apply antimicrobial topical agents. A new topical nanocrystalline s [...] ilver-coated (NS) dressing (Acticoat; Smith & Nephew) has been developed and is the first-line treatment of choice in many burn centres. However, because of its cost the Department of Health has been reluctant to introduce it as a standard of care. We retrospectively studied 4 randomly selected paediatric burn patients, calculating the cost associated with the use of NS dressings and comparing this with the projected costs of three previously standard burn wound treatment regimens. NS dressings were changed every 3 days based on their sustained and slow release of silver ions over 72 hours. Using NS clearly saved costs compared with the three other regimens. The demonstrated cost savings resulted primarily from the decreased number of dressings, and the presumed shorter hospital stay.

Cox, S G; Cullingworth, L; Rode, H.

352

Model-based calculations of off-axis ratio of conic beams for a dedicated 6 MV radiosurgery unit  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: Because the small-radius photon beams shaped by cones in stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) lack lateral electronic equilibrium and a detector's finite cross section, direct experimental measurement of dosimetric data for these beams can be subject to large uncertainties. As the dose calculation accuracy of a treatment planning system largely depends on how well the dosimetric data are measured during the machine's commissioning, there is a critical need for an independent method to validate measured results. Therefore, the authors studied the model-based calculation as an approach to validate measured off-axis ratios (OARs). Methods: The authors previously used a two-component analytical model to calculate central axis dose and associated dosimetric data (e.g., scatter factors and tissue-maximum ratio) in a water phantom and found excellent agreement between the calculated and the measured central axis doses for small 6 MV SRS conic beams. The model was based on that of Nizin and Mooij [''An approximation of central-axis absorbed dose in narrow photon beams,'' Med. Phys. 24, 1775-1780 (1997)] but was extended to account for apparent attenuation, spectral differences between broad and narrow beams, and the need for stricter scatter dose calculations for clinical beams. In this study, the authors applied Clarkson integration to this model to calculate OARs for conic beams. OARs were calculated for selected cones with radii from 0.2 to 1.0 cm. To allow comparisons, the authors also directly measured OARs using stereotactic diode (SFD), microchamber, and film dosimetry techniques. The calculated results were machine-specific and independent of direct measurement data for these beams. Results: For these conic beams, the calculated OARs were in excellent agreement with the data measured using an SFD. The discrepancies in radii and in 80%-20% penumbra were within 0.01 cm, respectively. Using SFD-measured OARs as the reference data, the authors found that the calculated OARs were more accurate than those measured with a microchamber or film dosimetry. Conclusions: The model produces sufficiently accurate conic beam dosimetric data that can be used to validate direct measurement results for such beams.

2010-10-01

353

Calculation of the power of separation units with gas membranes for various types of processes. Berechnung der Leistung von Trenneinheiten mit Gasmembranen fuer verschiedene Verfahrensarten  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The design of plants for the separation of gas mixtures by means of membranes requires makes it necessary to know the power of the individual separation units used in the plant. In order to calculate these powers one uses models which approximate the actual facts. Despite idealising, the equations which describe the models are very complex and cannot be solved directly if one has mixtures with more than two components. Iterative methods have to be used in these cases.

Hattenbach, K.

1984-01-01

354

Pro/con debate: are barrier precautions cost-effective in improving patient outcomes in the intensive care unit?  

Science.gov (United States)

You are responsible for a large medical surgical ICU. Your hospital administration has been very focused on reducing rates of hospital-acquired infections particularly in the wake of increasing public attention. However, it is time for budget preparation and your financial officer is concerned about the escalating costs associated with patient isolation and barrier precautions/personal protective equipment. Having become aware of the high costs associated with these interventions, you start to wonder about the wisdom of spending so much in this area. Your hospital administration wants your direction on next year's expenditures. You are debating whether the expense is worthwhile and advise your hospital administration accordingly. PMID:22264293

Thampi, Nisha; Morris, Andrew M

2012-01-01

355

Evaluation of the cost effectiveness of exenatide versus insulin glargine in patients with sub-optimally controlled Type 2 diabetes in the United Kingdom  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Objective Exenatide belongs to a new therapeutic class in the treatment of diabetes (incretin mimetics, allowing glucose-dependent glycaemic control in Type 2 diabetes. Randomised controlled trial data suggest that exenatide is as effective as insulin glargine at reducing HbA1c in combination therapy with metformin and sulphonylureas; with reduced weight but higher incidence of adverse gastrointestinal events. The objective of this study is to evaluate the cost effectiveness of exenatide versus insulin glargine using RCT data and a previously published model of Type 2 diabetes disease progression that is based on the United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study; the perspective of the health-payer of the United Kingdom National Health Service. Methods The study used a discrete event simulation model designed to forecast the costs and health outcome of a cohort of 1,000 subjects aged over 40 years with sub-optimally-controlled Type 2 diabetes, following initiation of either exenatide, or insulin glargine, in addition to oral hypoglycaemic agents. Sensitivity analysis for a higher treatment discontinuation rate in exenatide patients was applied to the cohort in three different scenarios; (1 either ignored or (2 exenatide-failures excluded or (3 exenatide-failures switched to insulin glargine. Analyses were undertaken to evaluate the price sensitivity of exenatide in terms of relative cost effectiveness. Baseline cohort profiles and effectiveness data were taken from a published randomised controlled trial. Results The relative cost-effectiveness of exenatide and insulin glargine was tested under a variety of conditions, in which insulin glargine was dominant in all cases. Using the most conservative of assumptions, the cost-effectiveness ratio of exenatide vs. insulin glargine at the current UK NHS price was -?29,149/QALY (insulin glargine dominant and thus exenatide is not cost-effective when compared with insulin glargine, at the current UK NHS price. Conclusion This study evaluated the relative cost effectiveness of insulin glargine versus exenatide in the management of Type 2 diabetes using a published model. Given no significant difference in glycaemic control and applying the additional effectiveness of exenatide over insulin glargine, with respect to weight loss, and using the current UK NHS prices, insulin glargine was found to be dominant over exenatide in all modelled scenarios. With current clinical evidence, exenatide does not appear to represent a cost-effective treatment option for patients with Type 2 diabetes when compared to insulin glargine.

Tetlow Anthony P

2008-08-01

356

The cost of decommissioning uranium mill tailings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report identifies several key operations that are commonly carried out during decommissioning of tailings areas in the Canadian environment. These operations are unit costed for a generic site to provide a base reference case. The unit costs have also been scaled to the quantities required for the decommissioning of four Canadian sites and these scaled quantities compared with site-specific engineering cost estimates and actual costs incurred in carrying out the decommissioning activities. Variances in costing are discussed. The report also recommends a generic monitoring regime upon which both short- and longer-term environmental monitoring costs are calculated. Although every site must be addressed as a site-specific case, and monitoring programs must be tailored to fit a specific site, it would appear that for the conventional decommissioning and monitoring practices that have been employed to date, costs can be reasonably estimated when site-specific conditions are taken into account

1986-01-01

357

An evaluation of cost estimates of nuclear power reactor decommissioning in Sweden, Germany and the United States  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Nominal base decommissioning cost estimates in Sweden, Germany and the US differ by large amounts. Even after adjustments to normalize the work scopes, significant cost differences remain. Variations in national cost structures, achievable productivity, the extent of preexisting infrastructure and institutional factors all contribute to make up the differences. Exchange rate aberrations are a complication for which appropriate adjustments have to be made in order to achieve a meaningful comparison. Our analyses demonstrate that virtually all these differences between the Swedish, German and US estimates can be explained by these factors. In terms of the overall reasonableness of the Swedish estimate as a basis for making financial provisions, there remain some issues that may warrant further investigation. One is the potential for and financial consequences of a serious interruption to the proposed sea transportation system. Secondly, the limited number of individual system analyses we have performed indicated some significant potential underestimates. For example, dismantling of the reactor pressure vessel costs appear to be underestimated by up to 70 MSEK (about 10 MUSD) per reactor, or up to 900 MSEK for the whole Swedish program of 12 reactors. Overall, the Swedish estimates appear to be built up in a logical and reasonable way. Our analyses indicate that some internal inconsistencies exist and that some specific input data assumptions may not be valid. In summary, the credibility of the estimates would benefit from further refinement of the scenarios and assumptions. 21 refs., 15 figs., 42 tabs.

Andersson, S.O.; Varley, G.; Heibel, R.; Rusch, C. [NAC International, Zurich (Switzerland)

1995-11-01

358

Cost-Effectiveness of HIV Screening in STD Clinics, Emergency Departments, and Inpatient Units: A Model-Based Analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Identifying and treating persons with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection early in their disease stage is considered an effective means of reducing the impact of the disease. We compared the cost-effectiveness of HIV screening in three settings, sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics serving men who have sex with men, hospital emergency departments (EDs), settings where patients are likely to be diagnosed early, and inpatient diagnosis based on clinical manifestations. Methods and Findings We developed the Progression and Transmission of HIV/AIDS model, a health state transition model that tracks index patients and their infected partners from HIV infection to death. We used program characteristics for each setting to compare the incremental cost per quality-adjusted life year gained from early versus late diagnosis and treatment. We ran the model for 10,000 index patients for each setting, examining alternative scenarios, excluding and including transmission to partners, and assuming HAART was initiated at a CD4 count of either 350 or 500 cells/µL. Screening in STD clinics and EDs was cost-effective compared with diagnosing inpatients, even when including only the benefits to the index patients. Screening patients in STD clinics, who have less-advanced disease, was cost-effective compared with ED screening when treatment with HAART was initiated at a CD4 count of 500 cells/µL. When the benefits of reduced transmission to partners from early diagnosis were included, screening in settings with less-advanced disease stages was cost-saving compared with screening later in the course of infection. The study was limited by a small number of observations on CD4 count at diagnosis and by including transmission only to first generation partners of the index patients. Conclusions HIV prevention efforts can be advanced by screening in settings where patients present with less-advanced stages of HIV infection and by initiating treatment with HAART earlier in the course of infection.

Prabhu, Vimalanand S.; Farnham, Paul G.; Hutchinson, Angela B.; Soorapanth, Sada; Heffelfinger, James D.; Golden, Matthew R.; Brooks, John T.; Rimland, David; Sansom, Stephanie L.

2011-01-01

359

Use of synthetic series of monthly flows in calculating the marginal cost of energy of the national interconnected power system of Peru  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this research it was determined the feasibility of using synthetic series of monthly average flow for the determination of the average marginal cost of energy in the National Interconnected Electric System of Peru, SEIN, taking as a case study of implementing bar tariff setting in 2004, where it was used the PERSEO model for planning, simulation and optimization of the hydrothermal system in Peru. The model is currently used by the Deputy Manager of tariff regulation (GART) of the Agency for Supervision of Investment in Energy and Mining - OSINERGMIN. The model use as hydrological information the average monthly flow series of tributaries to the historical attractions of the 23 river basins of the SEIN, one of the main is the basin of the Junin Lake, whose water is used by the Mantaro and Restitution hydroelectric, generating almost 20% of the power of our country. With the HEC-4 program, developed by the Hydrological Engineering Center of the USA, from the time series of monthly historical flows tributary to the Junin Lake, 50 series were generated synthetic monthly flow, determined from them a dry series, a average series and a wet series, information that was used in the PERSEO model to calculate the average marginal cost of energy of SEIN for each case. The results obtained from the average marginal cost of energy with the use of synthetic series of monthly flows, for the dry case, average case and wet case, with the PERSEO model, compared to the historical event, are lower in order of 1.14, 1.55 and 0.87 US $/MWh, the results will determine a decline in energy prices for end users, such as the domestic, commercial, industrial and mining users. (author).

2009-01-01

360

Inflation Calculator  

Science.gov (United States)

This simple inflation calculator uses the Consumer Price Index to adjust any given amount of money, from 1800 to 1998. Creator S. Morgan Friedman uses data from the Historical Statistics of the United States for statistics predating 1975 and the annual Statistics Abstracts of the United States for data from 1975 to 1998. Links to other online inflation information are also included.

Friedman, S. M.

 
 
 
 
361

A Bicultural Analysis of the Cost of Caring: Nursing Burnout in the United States and the Philippines.  

Science.gov (United States)

Questionnaires completed by 129 U.S. nurses and 71 from the Philippines revealed higher levels of emotional exhaustion and feelings of personal accomplishment in the United States. The Filipino work environment was rated higher for supervisor support, autonomy, control, and innovation. U.S. nurses reported greater work pressure. (SK)

Turnipseed, David L.; Turnipseed, Patricia H.

1997-01-01

362

Increased Mechanical Cost of Walking in Children with Diplegia: The Role of the Passenger Unit Cannot Be Neglected  

Science.gov (United States)

Gait efficiency in children with cerebral palsy is decreased. To date, most research did not include the upper body as a separate functional unit when exploring these changes in gait efficiency. Since children with spastic diplegia often experience problems with trunk control, they could benefit from separate evaluation of the so-called "passenger…

Van de Walle, P.; Hallemans, A.; Truijen, S.; Gosselink, R.; Heyrman, L.; Molenaers, G.; Desloovere, K.

2012-01-01

363

LPGC, Levelized Steam Electric Power Generator Cost  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

1 - Description of program or function: LPGC is a set of nine microcomputer programs for estimating power generation costs for large steam-electric power plants. These programs permit rapid evaluation using various sets of economic and technical ground rules. The levelized power generation costs calculated may be used to compare the relative economics of nuclear and coal-fired plants based on life-cycle costs. Cost calculations include capital investment cost, operation and maintenance cost, fuel cycle cost, decommissioning cost, and total levelized power generation cost. These programs can be used for quick analyses of power generation costs using alternative economic parameters, such as interest rate, escalation rate, inflation rate, plant lead times, capacity factor, fuel prices, etc. The two major types of electric generating plants considered are pressurized-water reactor (PWR) and pulverized coal-fired plants. Data are also provided for the Large Scale Prototype Breeder (LSPB) type liquid metal reactor. Costs for plant having either one or two units may be obtained. 2 - Method of solution: LPGC consists of nine individual menu-driven programs controlled by a driver program, MAINPWR. The individual programs are PLANTCAP, for calculating capital investment costs; NUCLOM, for determining operation and maintenance (O and M) costs for nuclear plants; COALOM, for computing O and M costs for coal-fired plants; NFUEL, for calculating levelized fuel costs for nuclear plants; COALCOST, for determining levelized fuel costs for coal-fired plants; FCRATE, for computing the fixed charge rate on the capital investment; LEVEL, for calculating levelized power generation costs; CAPITAL, for determining capitalized cost from overnight cost; and MASSGEN, for generating, deleting, or changing fuel cycle mass balance data for use with NFUEL. LPGC has three modes of operation. In the first, each individual code can be executed independently to determine one aspect of the total levelized power cost, such as fuel or O and M cost. In the second, the integrated code can be run to calculate all aspects of the levelized power cost, and in the third, the integrated code can be used to access an individual code which calculates one aspect of the levelized power generation cost as in the first mode of operation

1994-01-01

364

Efficient linear-scaling quantum transport calculations on graphics processing units and applications on electron transport in graphene  

CERN Multimedia

We implement, optimize, and validate the linear-scaling Kubo-Greenwood quantum transport simulation on graphics processing units by examining resonant scattering in graphene. We consider two practical representations of the Kubo-Greenwood formula: a Green-Kubo formula based on the velocity auto-correlation and an Einstein formula based on the mean square displacement. The code is fully implemented on graphics processing units with a speedup factor of up to 16 (using double-precision) relative to our CPU implementation. We compare the kernel polynomial method and the Fourier transform method for the approximation of the Dirac delta function and conclude that the former is more efficient. In the ballistic regime, the Einstein formula can produce the correct quantized conductance of one-dimensional graphene nanoribbons except for an overshoot near the band edges. In the diffusive regime, the Green-Kubo and the Einstein formalisms are demonstrated to be equivalent. A comparison of the length-dependence of the con...

Fan, Zheyong; Siro, Topi; Harju, Ari

2013-01-01

365

Integrated Risk Assessment for the LaSalle Unit 2 Nuclear Power Plant, Phenomenology and Risk Uncertainty Evaluation Program (PRUEP), MELCOR code calculations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A Level III Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) has been performed for LaSalle Unit 2 under the Risk Methods Integration and Evaluation Program (RMIEP) and the Phenomenology and Risk Uncertainty Evaluation Program (PRUEP). This report documents the phenomenological calculations and sources of. uncertainty in the calculations performed with HELCOR in support of the Level II portion of the PRA. These calculations are an integral part of the Level II analysis since they provide quantitative input to the Accident Progression Event Tree (APET) and Source Term Model (LASSOR). However, the uncertainty associated with the code results must be considered in the use of the results. The MELCOR calculations performed include four integrated calculations: (1) a high-pressure short-term station blackout, (2) a low-pressure short-term station blackout, (3) an intermediate-term station blackout, and (4) a long-term station blackout. Several sensitivity studies investigating the effect of variations in containment failure size and location, as well as hydrogen ignition concentration are also documented

1992-01-01

366

CRADA with United Solar Technologies and Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL-021): Thin film materialsfor low-cost high performance solar concentrators  

Science.gov (United States)

The objectives of this project were to develop and evaluate promising low-cost dielectric and polymer-protected thin-film reflective metal coatings to be applied to preformed continuously-curved solar reflector panels to enhance their solar reflectance, and to demonstrate protected solar reflective coatings on preformed solar concentrator panels. The opportunity for this project arose from a search by United Solar Technologies (UST) for organizations and facilities capable of applying reflective coatings to large preformed panels. PNL was identified as being uniquely qualified to participate in this collaborative project.

Martin, P. M.; Affinito, J. D.; Gross, M. E.; Bennett, W. D.

1995-03-01

367

Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations Project: Unit evaluation at Yucca Mountain, Nevada Test Site: Near-field thermal and mechanical calculations using the SANDIA-ADINA code  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Presented in this report are the results of a comparative study of two candidate horizons, the welded, devitrified Topopah Spring Member ofthe Paintbrush Tuff, and the nonwelded, zeolitized Tuffaceous Beds of Calico Hills. The mechanical and thermomechanical response these two horizons was assessed by conducting thermal and thermomechanical calculations using a two-dimensional room and pillar geometry of the vertical waste emplacement option using average and limit properties for each. A modified version of the computer code ADINA (SANDIA-ADINA) containing a material model for rock masses with ubiquitous jointing was used in the calculations. Results of the calculations are presented as the units' capacity for storage of nuclear waste and stability of the emplacement room and pillar due to excavation and long-term heating. A comparison is made with a similar underground opening geometry sited in Grouse Canyon Tuff, using properties obtained from G-Tunnel - a horizon of known excavation characteristics. Long-term stability of the excavated rooms was predicted for all units, as determined by evaluating regions of predicted joint slip as the result of excavation and subsequent thermal loading, evaluating regions of predicted rock matrix failure as the result of excavation and subsequent thermal loading, and evaluating safety factors against rock matrix failure. These results were derived through considering a wide range in material properties and in situ stresses. 21 refs., 21 figs., 5 tabs

1987-01-01

368

High-Resolution 27Al NMR Shift Calculation for Aluminosilicate Species Structural Units (Qn/Q by Gaussian, Deconvolution and Resolution Enhancement Methods  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hartree-Fock self-consistent-field (HF-SCF theory and the Gauge-including atomic orbital (GIAO methods are used in calculation of 27Al NMR chemical shifts for units of compounds of various aluminate species of precursors for zeolites. Calculations were performed at geometries optimized at AM1 semi-empirical method. The GIAO-HF-SCF calculations were carried out using three different basis sets: 6-31G*, 6-31+G** and 6-311+G(2d, p. The intensity of partially overlapping NMR peaks may be separated by deconvolution into individual Gaussian component peaks. The relative concentrations of aluminosilicate species present as q1, q2, q3 and q4 structural units, have been estimated from integrated intensities of the corresponding signals. It is pertinent to notice that the spectra in and the estimated data showed that the intensity of q4 (the band at lowest frequency, seems to increase as Si/Al mole ratio (at constant Si=0.875 and TMAOH=1 M decreases, i.e. with increasing aluminates concentration. However, the bands become broader as the concentration of Al increases, so that operation of backward linear prediction (BLP is of variable effect. From this study, one can expect that cage-like species might be dominant due to the stability of the corresponding silicate anions in TMAOH silicate solutions. The formation of three-member rings apparently causes some deshilding compared to chains or larger rings.

S.N. Azizi

2012-01-01

369

Geological studies of the COST Nos. G-1 and G-2 wells, United States North Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Core sampling and multichannel seismic reflection investigations of the Georges Bank basin are reported. Maps, charts, and graphs summarize results of studies of the lithology, stratigraphy, paleoenvironments, and deposition cycles. Organic geochemical analysis, calculation of basin subsidence, and geomagnetic and magnetic anomaly locations are included.

Scholle, P.A.; Wenkam, C.R.

1982-01-01

370

Calculating the neutron flux distribution in the channels of biological shield of the first unit at the Armenia nuclear power plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The results of testing the RNZ program complex efficiency are considered. The programs are intended for calculating nuclear reactor shield configurations on the base of the full-scale neutron flux experimental investigations in the biological shield of the first unit at the Armenia NPP. The following neutron flux characteristics are calculated: line-of-sight radiation, inleakage and albedo. The data, characterizing the spatial dependence of these component contributions into the total neutron flux density in energy ranges above 2.5 and 0.8 MeV are given. The RNZ program complex is used for calculating the components of albedo inleakage radiation. For calculation the Monte Carlo method is used in combination with the differential albedo conception. Together with the RNZ complex the ROZ-6 program has been used according to which in 2D7P5 approximation the neutron transport in continuum shield is calculated. The same program is used to determine the equivalent source characteristics when calculating the albedo inleakage radiation component. The analysis of the results obtained shows that at the distances of l/a > 15, where a is a channel radius, l-a distance up to the measurement point, more than 90% of radiation flux density is determined by line-of-sight radiation components. The inleakage component provides the greatest contribution up to l/a=5-8. The reflected radiation component constitutes not more than 30-35% of the total flux density. The albedo inleakage radiation component constitutes more than 75 % of the albedo component. The conclusion is drawn that by means of the RNZ program complex the correct calculation of neutron flux in nuclear reactor real shield configuration is possible

1981-01-01

371

Parallelizing flow-accumulation calculations on graphics processing units—From iterative DEM preprocessing algorithm to recursive multiple-flow-direction algorithm  

Science.gov (United States)

As one of the important tasks in digital terrain analysis, the calculation of flow accumulations from gridded digital elevation models (DEMs) usually involves two steps in a real application: (1) using an iterative DEM preprocessing algorithm to remove the depressions and flat areas commonly contained in real DEMs, and (2) using a recursive flow-direction algorithm to calculate the flow accumulation for every cell in the DEM. Because both algorithms are computationally intensive, quick calculation of the flow accumulations from a DEM (especially for a large area) presents a practical challenge to personal computer (PC) users. In recent years, rapid increases in hardware capacity of the graphics processing units (GPUs) provided in modern PCs have made it possible to meet this challenge in a PC environment. Parallel computing on GPUs using a compute-unified-device-architecture (CUDA) programming model has been explored to speed up the execution of the single-flow-direction algorithm (SFD). However, the parallel implementation on a GPU of the multiple-flow-direction (MFD) algorithm, which generally performs better than the SFD algorithm, has not been reported. Moreover, GPU-based parallelization of the DEM preprocessing step in the flow-accumulation calculations has not been addressed. This paper proposes a parallel approach to calculate flow accumulations (including both iterative DEM preprocessing and a recursive MFD algorithm) on a CUDA-compatible GPU. For the parallelization of an MFD algorithm (MFD-md), two different parallelization strategies using a GPU are explored. The first parallelization strategy, which has been used in the existing parallel SFD algorithm on GPU, has the problem of computing redundancy. Therefore, we designed a parallelization strategy based on graph theory. The application results show that the proposed parallel approach to calculate flow accumulations on a GPU performs much faster than either sequential algorithms or other parallel GPU-based algorithms based on existing parallelization strategies.

Qin, Cheng-Zhi; Zhan, Lijun

2012-06-01

372