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Sample records for calculate unit costs

  1. Calculating the Unit Cost Factors for Decommissioning Cost Estimation of the Nuclear Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Kwan Seong; Lee, Dong Gyu; Jung, Chong Hun; Lee, Kune Woo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-12-15

    The estimated decommissioning cost of nuclear research reactor is calculated by applying a unit cost factor-based engineering cost calculation method on which classification of decommissioning works fitted with the features and specifications of decommissioning objects and establishment of composition factors are based. Decommissioning cost of nuclear research reactor is composed of labor cost, equipment and materials cost. Labor cost of decommissioning costs in decommissioning works are calculated on the basis of working time consumed in decommissioning objects. In this paper, the unit cost factors and work difficulty factors which are needed to calculate the labor cost in estimating decommissioning cost of nuclear research reactor are derived and figured out.

  2. The unit cost factors and calculation methods for decommissioning - Cost estimation of nuclear research facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: The uncertainties of decommissioning costs increase high due to several conditions. Decommissioning cost estimation depends on the complexity of nuclear installations, its site-specific physical and radiological inventories. Therefore, the decommissioning costs of nuclear research facilities must be estimated in accordance with the detailed sub-tasks and resources by the tasks of decommissioning activities. By selecting the classified activities and resources, costs are calculated by the items and then the total costs of all decommissioning activities are reshuffled to match with its usage and objectives. And the decommissioning cost of nuclear research facilities is calculated by applying a unit cost factor method on which classification of decommissioning works fitted with the features and specifications of decommissioning objects and establishment of composition factors are based. Decommissioning costs of nuclear research facilities are composed of labor cost, equipment and materials cost. Of these three categorical costs, the calculation of labor costs are very important because decommissioning activities mainly depend on labor force. Labor costs in decommissioning activities are calculated on the basis of working time consumed in decommissioning objects and works. The working times are figured out of unit cost factors and work difficulty factors. Finally, labor costs are figured out by using these factors as parameters of calculation. The accuracy of decommissioning cost estimation results is much higher compared to the real decommissioning works. (authors)

  3. Adaptation of activity-based-costing (ABC) to calculate unit costs in Mental Health Care in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Karen Moreno

    2007-01-01

    Background: To date, numerous cost-of-illness studies have been using methodologies that don't provide trustworthy results for decision making in mental health care. Objectives: The aims of this paper are design and implement a cost methodology by process of patient's care to calculate unit costs in mental health in Spain in 2005 and compare the results with the reached ones by traditional methods. Methods: We adapted Activity-Based-Costing to this field analyzing the organizational and manag...

  4. Adaptation of activity-based-costing (ABC to calculate unit costs in Mental Health Care in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Moreno

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: To date, numerous cost-of-illness studies have been using methodologies that don't provide trustworthy results for decision making in mental health care. Objectives: The aims of this paper are design and implement a cost methodology by process of patient's care to calculate unit costs in mental health in Spain in 2005 and compare the results with the reached ones by traditional methods. Methods: We adapted Activity-Based-Costing to this field analyzing the organizational and management structure of Mental Health's public services in a region of Spain, Navarre, describing the processes of care to patient in each resource and calculating their cost. Results: We implemented this methodology in all resources and obtained unit cost per service. There are great differences between our results and the ones calculated by traditional systems. We display one example of these disparities contrasting our cost with the reached one by the methodology of Diagnostic Related Group (DRG. Conclusions: This cost methodology offers more advantages for management than traditional methods provide.

  5. Adaptation of activity-based-costing (ABC) to calculate unit costs in Mental Health Care in Spain

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Karen, Moreno.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: To date, numerous cost-of-illness studies have been using methodologies that don't provide trustworthy results for decision making in mental health care. Objectives: The aims of this paper are design and implement a cost methodology by process of patient's care to calculate unit costs in [...] mental health in Spain in 2005 and compare the results with the reached ones by traditional methods. Methods: We adapted Activity-Based-Costing to this field analyzing the organizational and management structure of Mental Health's public services in a region of Spain, Navarre, describing the processes of care to patient in each resource and calculating their cost. Results: We implemented this methodology in all resources and obtained unit cost per service. There are great differences between our results and the ones calculated by traditional systems. We display one example of these disparities contrasting our cost with the reached one by the methodology of Diagnostic Related Group (DRG). Conclusions: This cost methodology offers more advantages for management than traditional methods provide.

  6. Calculation of the cost per exploration in a Radiodiagnosis Service based on relative value units (RVU)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this report is to present our system for calculating the costs of different products included in our catalogue(cost per exploration), comparing the total expense generated by our Service, as the center of activity, with the total activity performed yearly. In order to make the different catalogue products evaluable, we assigned a number of relative value units to each exploration on the basis of a series of factors that render it more or less costly when compared with the simple exploration carried out in an outpatient which was considered as RVU=1. (Author) 19 refs

  7. A strategy for assessing costs of implementing new practices in the child welfare system: adapting the English cost calculator in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Patricia; Snowden, Lonnie R; Padgett, Courtenay; Saldana, Lisa; Roles, Jennifer; Holmes, Lisa; Ward, Harriet; Soper, Jean; Reid, John; Landsverk, John

    2011-01-01

    In decisions to adopt and implement new practices or innovations in child welfare, costs are often a bottom-line consideration. The cost calculator, a method developed in England that can be used to calculate unit costs of core case work activities and associated administrative costs, is described as a potentially helpful tool for assisting child welfare administrators to evaluate the costs of current practices relative to their outcomes and could impact decisions about whether to implement new practices. The process by which the cost calculator is being adapted for use in US child welfare systems in two states is described and an illustration of using the method to compare two intervention approaches is provided. PMID:20976620

  8. Estudio retrospectivo de costos de tratamientos intensivos por paciente y día cama / Calculation of costs per inpatient day in an intensive care unit

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    SANDRA, ALVEAR V; JORGE, CANTEROS G; PATRICIA, RODRÍGUEZ C.

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english Background: Intensive medicine is especially expensive and requires an efficient management. Aim: To measure the real costs of diseases treated in an intensive care unit and compare them with the costs assigned by the Chilean National Health Fund (FONASA) for 2008. Material and Methods: Retrospectiv [...] e review of 225 patients, representing 82% of discharges from an intensive care unit during 2008. Patients were classified according to their medical conditions as having sepsis, trauma, cardiovascular, respiratory or neurological diseases. Costs were calculated using the cost per activity system. Results: Trauma, sepsis and cardiovascular diseases had the greatest cost per inpatient day, corresponding to 294,779; 253,513 and 244,713 Chilean pesos, respectively. Seventy percent of costs correspond to human resources followed by complementary examinations, that represent up to 15% of costs. Patients with sepsis and cardiovascular diseases absorbed 28 and 26% of intensive care unit resources, respectively. Patients who died with these diseases absorbed 35 and 16% of resources, respectively. Conclusions: All diseases studied had significantly higher costs than those assigned by the National Health Fund.

  9. COSTS CALCULATION OF TARGET COSTING METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian UNGUREANU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cost information system plays an important role in every organization in the decision making process. An important task of management is ensuring control of the operations, processes, sectors, and not ultimately on costs. Although in achieving the objectives of an organization compete more control systems (production control, quality control, etc., the cost information system is important because monitors results of the other. Detailed analysis of costs, production cost calculation, quantification of losses, estimate the work efficiency provides a solid basis for financial control. Knowledge of the costs is a decisive factor in taking decisions and planning future activities. Managers are concerned about the costs that will appear in the future, their level underpinning the supply and production decisions as well as price policy. An important factor is the efficiency of cost information system in such a way that the information provided by it may be useful for decisions and planning of the work.

  10. Applying Activity Based Costing (ABC) Method to Calculate Cost Price in Hospital and Remedy Services

    OpenAIRE

    Dabiri, A; A Rajabi

    2012-01-01

    Background: Activity Based Costing (ABC) is one of the new methods began appearing as a costing methodology in the 1990. It calculates cost price by determining the usage of resources. In this study, ABC method was used for calculating cost price of remedial services in hospitals.Methods: To apply ABC method, Shahid Faghihi Hospital was selected. First, hospital units were divided into three main departments: administrative, diagnostic, and hospitalized. Second, activity centers were defined ...

  11. REVIEW OF METHODOLOGIES FOR COSTS CALCULATING OF RUMINANTS IN SLOVAKIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana KRUPOVÁ

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to synthesise and analyse the methodologies and the biological aspects of the costs calculation in ruminants in Slovakia. According to literature, the account classification of cost items is most often considered for construction of costing formula. The costs are mostly divided into fixed (costs independent from volume of herd’s production and variable ones (costs connected with improvement of breeding conditions. Cost for feeds and beddings, labour costs, other direct costs and depreciations were found as the most important cost items in ruminants. It can be assumed that including the depreciations into costs of the basic herd takes into consideration the real costs simultaneously invested into raising of young animals in the given period. Costs are calculated for the unit of the main and by-products and their classification is influenced mainly by the type of livestock and production system. In dairy cows is usually milk defined as the main product, and by- products are live born calf and manure. The base calculation unit is kilogram of milk (basic herd of cows and kilogram of gain and kilogram of live weight (young breeding cattle. In suckler cows is a live-born calf the main product and manure is the by-product. The costs are mostly calculated per suckler cow, live-born calf and per kilogram of live weight of weaned calf. Similar division of products into main and by-products is also in cost calculation for sheep categories. The difference is that clotted cheese is also considered as the main product of basic herd in dairy sheep and greasy wool as the by-products in all categories. Definition of the base calculation units in sheep categories followed the mentioned classification. The value of a by-product in cattle and sheep is usually set according to its quantity and intra- plant price of the by-product. In the calculation of the costs for sheep and cattle the “structural ewe” and “structural cow” proportionally integrate the costs of other categories of the herd into the costs of the basic herd. Subtraction, allocation and combined calculation methods of costs are the most used in breeding of ruminants. It is recommended to consider specific breeding conditions and objective calculation of costs for the relevant category, when picking out the method of calculation.

  12. PROSPECTS OF MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING AND COST CALCULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian ?AICU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Progress in improving production technology requires appropriate measures to achieve an efficient management of costs. This raises the need for continuous improvement of management accounting and cost calculation. Accounting information in general, and management accounting information in particular, have gained importance in the current economic conditions, which are characterized by risk and uncertainty. The future development of management accounting and cost calculation is essential to meet the information needs of management.

  13. Cost calculation in agricultural enterprises in theory and practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Zi?tara

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to evolution of the production costs calculation theory in agriculture from the second half of XVIII century till present times. The author emphasized long lasting dispute among the economists about usefulness of the full account of unit costs of production in evaluation of production profitability. Moreover, utility of the part-costs account in evaluation of production competitiveness, as well as their value in evaluation of the production processes and structure (using optimisation methods was analysed. Additionally article describes current problems of cost calculation in agriculture.

  14. Applying Activity Based Costing (ABC Method to Calculate Cost Price in Hospital and Remedy Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Dabiri

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Activity Based Costing (ABC is one of the new methods began appearing as a costing methodology in the 1990. It calculates cost price by determining the usage of resources. In this study, ABC method was used for calculating cost price of remedial services in hospitals.Methods: To apply ABC method, Shahid Faghihi Hospital was selected. First, hospital units were divided into three main departments: administrative, diagnostic, and hospitalized. Second, activity centers were defined by the activity analysis method. Third, costs of administrative activity centers were allocated into diagnostic and operational departments based on the cost driver. Finally, with regard to the usage of cost objectives from services of activity centers, the cost price of medical services was calculated.Results: The cost price from ABC method significantly differs from tariff method. In addition, high amount of indirect costs in the hospital indicates that capacities of resources are not used properly.Conclusion: Cost price of remedial services with tariff method is not properly calculated when compared with ABC method. ABC calculates cost price by applying suitable mechanisms but tariff method is based on the fixed price. In addition, ABC represents useful information about the amount and combination of cost price services.

  15. Road Transport Congestion Costs Calculations-Adaptation to Engineering Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Lep

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The article represents so called ?engineering? approach for computing the total road transport congestion costs. According to economic welfare theory, the total costs of transport congestion are defined as dead weight loss (DWL of infrastructure use. With a set of equations DWL could be formulated in a mathematical way. Because such form of equation is not directly applicable for concrete road network calculations it should be transformed into ?engineering? form, which comprises transport engineering related data as classified road links, traffic volumes, passenger unit costs, etc. The equation is well applicable on the interurban road network; adaptations are needed for the urban road network cost calculations, where time losses are not so much related to the link travel time. The final equation was derived for the purposes of national road congestion cost calculation.

  16. [Calculation of workers' health care costs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydlewska-Liszkowska, Izabela

    2006-01-01

    In different health care systems, there are different schemes of organization and principles of financing activities aimed at ensuring the working population health and safety. Regardless of the scheme and the range of health care provided, economists strive for rationalization of costs (including their reduction). This applies to both employers who include workers' health care costs into indirect costs of the market product manufacture and health care institutions, which provide health care services. In practice, new methods of setting costs of workers' health care facilitate regular cost control, acquisition of detailed information about costs, and better adjustment of information to planning and control needs in individual health care institutions. For economic institutions and institutions specialized in workers' health care, a traditional cost-effect calculation focused on setting costs of individual products (services) is useful only if costs are relatively low and the output of simple products is not very high. But when products form aggregates of numerous actions like those involved in occupational medicine services, the method of activity based costing (ABC), representing the process approach, is much more useful. According to this approach costs are attributed to the product according to resources used during different activities involved in its production. The calculation of costs proceeds through allocation of all direct costs for specific processes in a given institution. Indirect costs are settled on the basis of resources used during the implementation of individual tasks involved in the process of making a new product. In this method, so called map of processes/actions consisted in the manufactured product and their interrelations are of particular importance. Advancements in the cost-effect for the management of health care institutions depend on their managerial needs. Current trends in this regard primarily depend on treating all cost reference subjects as cost objects and taking account of all their interrelations. Final products, specific assignments, resources and activities may all be regarded as cost objects. The ABC method is characterized by a very high informative value in terms of setting prices of products in the area of workers' health care. It also facilitates the assessment of costs of individual activities under a multidisciplinary approach to health care and the setting costs of varied products. The ABC method provides precise data on the consumption of resources, such as human labor or various materials. PMID:17533995

  17. Expanding the usefulness of unit supply cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unit supply cost is a widely used tool in the energy business for providing a one number-unit cost description. For example, controllable costs such as finding costs, development costs and operating costs have traditionally been described in an average cost per unit of reserves format for the oil and gas industry, however using this approach on more specific applications is not always informative. Projects with widely varying controllable parameters can still yield the same unit cost, making comparisons difficult. The application of unit supply cost can be readily expanded by adding a new unit cost component termed cost of capital. This element introduces the impacts of timing and return on investment into the supply cost determination through discounting annual costs. The cost of capital component adds the ability to represent a project's unique characteristics, particularly reserves' depletion rate and the timing or phasing of development. Introducing the cost of capital element into the supply cost analysis provides additional information and improves the likelihood of drawing correct conclusions when comparing and ranking projects. 4 figs., 6 tabs

  18. TTS-Polttopuu - cost calculation model for fuelwood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The TTS-Institutes's Forestry Department has developed a computer based cost-calculation model, 'TTS-Polttopuu', for the calculation of unit costs and resource needs in the harvesting systems for wood chips and split firewood. The model enables to determine the productivity and device cost per operating hour by each working stage of the harvesting system. The calculation model also enables the user to find out how changes in the productivity and cost bases of different harvesting chains influence the unit cost of the whole system. The harvesting chain includes the cutting of delimbed and non-delimbed fuelwood, forest haulage, road transportation, chipping and chopping of longwood at storage. This individually operating software was originally developed to serve research needs, but it also serves the needs of the forestry and agricultural education, training and extension as well as individual firewood producers. The system requirements for this cost calculation model are at least 486- level processor with the Windows 95/98 -operating system, 16 MB of memory (RAM) and 5 MB of available hard-disk. This development work was carried out in conjunction with the nation-wide BIOENERGY-research programme. (orig.)

  19. CALCULATION OF COMPANY COSTS THROUGH THE DIRECT-COSTING CALCULATION METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin-Constantin DIMA

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The cost of production has as its starting point the purchase cost of raw materials and consumables, as well as their processing cost and the calculation of the production cost involves complex aspects. This article is based on the two major concepts of costs calculation, namely the concept of full costs and the concept of partial costs, and it analyses the direct-costing calculation method. Necessity of the Development of calculation methods to ensure rapid determination of the cost of production, and the establishment of indicators broad spectrum of information necessary for making decisions to streamline a business activity conducted by direct-costing method. Direct-costing method appeared in the U.S. for the first time in 1934 (applied by Jonathan Harris and G. Charter Harrison. Subsequently, this method was applied to European countries (England, France, Germany etc.. We stopped on this method because it is considered a modern method of costing. Therefore, we analyzed both advantages and limitations of the method in question

  20. Join Cost for Unit Selection Speech Synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Vepa, Jithendra

    2004-01-01

    Undoubtedly, state-of-the-art unit selection-based concatenative speech systems produce very high quality synthetic speech. this is due to a large speech database containing many instances of each speech unit, with a varied and natural distribution of prosodic and spectral characteristics. the join cost, which measures how well two units can be joined together is one of the main criteria for selecting appropriate units from this large speech database. The ideal join cost is one that measur...

  1. TTS-Polttopuu - cost calculation model for fuelwood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The TTS-Institutes's Forestry Department has developed a computer based costcalculation model, 'TTS-Polttopuu', for the calculation of unit costs and resource needs in the harvesting systems for wood chips and split firewood. The model enables to determine the productivity and device cost per operating hour by each working stage of the harvesting system. The calculation model also enables the user to find out how changes in the productivity and cost bases of different harvesting chains influence the unit cost of the whole system. The harvesting chain includes the cutting of delimbed and non-delimbed fuelwood, forest haulage, road transportation chipping and chopping of longwood at storage. This individually operating software was originally developed to serve research needs, but it also serves the needs of the forestry and agricultural education, training and extension as well as individual firewood producers. The system requirements for this cost calculation model are at least 486-level processor with the Windows 95/98 -operating system, 16 MB of memory (RAM) and 5 MB of available hard-disk. This development work was carried out in conjunction with the nation-wide BIOENERGY Research Programme. (orig.)

  2. United States gas industry and cost of services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overview of the United States Gas industry includes the role of industry participants by segment: producer, pipeline and distributor. A scheme of Industry transactions in 1995 shows the connection between the participants. Gross cost of service includes: operation and maintenance; administrative depreciation, non-income taxes, income taxes and return. Other revenues are subtracted to obtain net cost of service. Detailed scheme is shown for calculating the rate base of a single company with the method for calculation of return

  3. COMPUTER PROGRAM FOR CALCULATING THE COST OF DRINKING WATER TREATMENT SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This FORTRAN computer program calculates the construction and operation/maintenance costs for 45 centralized unit treatment processes for water supply. The calculated costs are based on various design parameters and raw water quality. These cost data are applicable to small size ...

  4. Unit labor costs in the eurozone

    OpenAIRE

    Felipe, Jesus; Kumar, Utsav

    2011-01-01

    Current discussions about the need to reduce unit labor costs (especially through a significant reduction in nominal wages) in some countries of the eurozone (in particular, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Portugal, and Spain) to exit the crisis may not be a panacea. First, historically, there is no relationship between the growth of unit labor costs and the growth of output. This is a well-established empirical result, known in the literature as Kaldor's paradox. Second, construction of unit labor c...

  5. Petroleum Refinery Hydrogen Production Unit: Exergy and Production Cost Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio de Oliveira Júnior

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Some specific processes are required to obtain pure hydrogen and the most usual one is natural gas reforming, where natural gas reacts with superheated steam producing H2, CO, CO2 and H2O. This paper presents the exergy and production costs evaluation of a complete hydrogen production unit of a petroleum refinery. The hydrogen production unit analysed in this paper has to supply 550,000 Nm3 of hydrogen per day to purify diesel oil. Based on a synthesis plant of the hydrogen production unit, the exergy efficiency of each component and of the overall plant are calculated. The hydrogen production cost is determined by means of a thermoeconomic analysis in which the equality cost partition method is employed, including capital and operational costs, in order to determine the production cost of hydrogen and other products of the plant.

  6. COMPETITIVENESS AND UNIT LABOUR COSTS IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NAE TATIANA-ROXANA

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The present paper presents aspects related on Romanian competitiveness and its determination by unit labour cost (ULC. After reviewing the determinants of national competitiveness, it is taken into consideration the labour market as being an important de

  7. Method development concerning cost calculations for the programme for decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this analysis is to provide an estimated total Net Present Value of the future authorities' costs for the planned decommissioning programme, cf. the Swedish decommissioning legislation. The estimated total shall be usable as part of the calculations of the following year's unit fee and the related safety allowances for nuclear generated electricity to be paid by the owners of the Swedish nuclear power plants. These calculations are conducted by the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, SKI. The calculations in this analysis take account of the recommendations in respect of fees and safety allowances which will come into force in 2004. In addition, the uncertainty associated with the Net Present Value of the authorities' costs and the principal sources of uncertainty are assessed. In the course of two analysis sessions held between May and August 2003, a broad based analysis group examined the existing calculations and their references and preconditions. The group then identified and assessed the potential sources of uncertainty; and finally assessed the impact of these sources of uncertainty on the reference costs and incorporated the corresponding corrections in the analysis. The Successive Principle was used to optimise the quality of the result. Amongst other techniques, this involves using special processes for identifying and handling the sources of uncertainty. These processes allow neutral numerical evaluation results and correct statistical calculations to be obtained. The result includes the probable impact of external developments on the costs in future, albeit excluding any serious force majeure events. Future changes to the current fixed real interest rate are similarly excluded. Given clearly defined preconditions, with allowance being made inter alia for the current fixed real interest rate, the mean value result relating to the Net Present Value of the authorities' costs is 2,487 MSEK (about 350 MUSD) with an uncertainty of ± 674 MSEK, expressed as a standard deviation

  8. Low-cost inertial measurement unit.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deyle, Travis Jay

    2005-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories performs many expensive tests using inertial measurement units (IMUs)--systems that use accelerometers, gyroscopes, and other sensors to measure flight dynamics in three dimensions. For the purpose of this report, the metrics used to evaluate an IMU are cost, size, performance, resolution, upgradeability and testing. The cost of a precision IMU is very high and can cost hundreds of thousands of dollars. Thus the goals and results of this project are as follows: (1) Examine the data flow in an IMU and determine a generic IMU design. (2) Discuss a high cost IMU implementation and its theoretically achievable results. (3) Discuss design modifications that would save money for suited applications. (4) Design and implement a low cost IMU and discuss its theoretically achievable results. (5) Test the low cost IMU and compare theoretical results with empirical results. (6) Construct a more streamlined printed circuit board design reducing noise, increasing capabilities, and constructing a self-contained unit. Using these results, we can compare a high cost IMU versus a low cost IMU using the metrics from above. Further, we can examine and suggest situations where a low cost IMU could be used instead of a high cost IMU for saving cost, size, or both.

  9. Rooftop Unit Comparison Calculator User Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, James D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-04-30

    This document serves as a user manual for the Packaged rooftop air conditioners and heat pump units comparison calculator (RTUCC) and is an aggregation of the calculator’s website documentation. Content ranges from new-user guide material like the “Quick Start” to the more technical/algorithmic descriptions of the “Methods Pages.” There is also a section listing all the context-help topics that support the features on the “Controls” page. The appendix has a discussion of the EnergyPlus runs that supported the development of the building-response models.

  10. Cost estimating for CERCLA remedial alternatives a unit cost methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Guidance for Conducting Remedial Investigations and Feasibility Studies Under CERCLA, Interim Final, dated October 1988 (EPA 1988) requires a detailed analysis be conducted of the most promising remedial alternatives against several evaluation criteria, including cost. To complete the detailed analysis, order-of-magnitude cost estimates (having an accuracy of +50 percent to -30 percent) must be developed for each remedial alternative. This paper presents a methodology for developing cost estimates of remedial alternatives comprised of various technology and process options with a wide range of estimated contaminated media quantities. In addition, the cost estimating methodology provides flexibility for incorporating revisions to remedial alternatives and achieves the desired range of accuracy. It is important to note that the cost estimating methodology presented here was developed as a concurrent path to the development of contaminated media quantity estimates. This methodology can be initiated before contaminated media quantities are estimated. As a result, this methodology is useful in developing cost estimates for use in screening and evaluating remedial technologies and process options. However, remedial alternative cost estimates cannot be prepared without the contaminated media quantity estimates. In the conduct of the feasibility study for Operable Unit 5 at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), fourteen remedial alternatives were retained for detailed analysis. Each remedial alternative was composed of combinations of remedial technologies and processes which were earlier determined to be best suited for addressing the media-specific contaminants found at the FEMP site, and achieving desired remedial action objectives

  11. Unit Commitment With Dynamic Cycling Costs

    OpenAIRE

    Troy, Niamh; Flynn, Damian; Milligan, Michael R.; et. al.

    2012-01-01

    Increased competition in the electricity sector and the integration of variable renewable energy sources is resulting in more frequent cycling of thermal plant. Thus, the wear-and-tear to generator components and the related costs are a growing concern for plant owners and system operators alike. This paper presents a formulation that can be implemented in a MIP dispatch model to dynamically model cycling costs based on unit operation. When implemented for a test system, the results show that...

  12. The cost of nuclear electricity: economic values and political calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The subject is covered in sections: introduction (monetary inflation; US-style rate-base formula; cost escalation); electricity generation costs (rate-base calculation formula; regulatory versus economic costs; inflationary case; cost-of-service rates versus inflation; first year electricity costs); rate shock (A. comparison with oil; B. nuclear case; C. comparison with coal/nuclear system; vintaged electricity costs versus growth and inflation); conclusions. (U.K.)

  13. How to calculate total purchase cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, M L

    1998-05-01

    Companies wanting to implement a total cost-based supplier selection process often stumble over how to include nonmonetary issues such as delivery and quality performance, lead time, services, and social policies. This article describes a process that allows a company to include any issue it deems relevant and to determine its cost factor. PMID:10178553

  14. 49 CFR 639.25 - Calculation of lease cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...Cost-Effectiveness § 639.25 Calculation of lease cost. (a) For purposes of this part, the lease cost of a capital asset is— (1) The cost to lease the asset for the same use and same time period specified in the recipient's proposal to obtain...

  15. Cost unit accounting for power supply companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cost unit accounting was introduced to the power supply company Energie-Versorgung Schwaben AG (EVS) in the Seventies. The initial method of peak load proportioning was later modified to the so-called VDEW method and further improved in consecutive steps through specific measurements. Here EVS focussed particularly on collecting data in the separate-contract sector. The authors describe the procedure adopted and results obtained. (orig.)

  16. THEORETICAL AND PRACTICAL CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING THE COST CALCULATION USING DIRECT COSTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Aurora, Bunea-Bonta?

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The definition of the cost of production as applied to inventories refers to the acquisition and production cost, and its determination involves many considerations. This article emphasizes a comparative approach of the calculation of production cost under direct costing and absorption costing, and examines the impact of using these calculation systems on the financial performance of the companies presented in the income statement.

  17. Analysis of Unit Process Cost for an Engineering-Scale Pyroprocess Facility Using a Process Costing Method in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungki Kim

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Pyroprocessing, which is a dry recycling method, converts spent nuclear fuel into U (Uranium/TRU (TRansUranium metal ingots in a high-temperature molten salt phase. This paper provides the unit process cost of a pyroprocess facility that can process up to 10 tons of pyroprocessing product per year by utilizing the process costing method. Toward this end, the pyroprocess was classified into four kinds of unit processes: pretreatment, electrochemical reduction, electrorefining and electrowinning. The unit process cost was calculated by classifying the cost consumed at each process into raw material and conversion costs. The unit process costs of the pretreatment, electrochemical reduction, electrorefining and electrowinning were calculated as 195 US$/kgU-TRU, 310 US$/kgU-TRU, 215 US$/kgU-TRU and 231 US$/kgU-TRU, respectively. Finally the total pyroprocess cost was calculated as 951 US$/kgU-TRU. In addition, the cost driver for the raw material cost was identified as the cost for Li3PO4, needed for the LiCl-KCl purification process, and platinum as an anode electrode in the electrochemical reduction process.

  18. Avoided cost calculation procedures and values used by Canadian utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Information on the avoided cost calculation procedures and values used by Canadian utilities for economic evaluation of projects such as demand-side management, non-utility generation or supply-side enhancements is presented. The data were gathered using a questionnaire sent to all major Canadian utilities. It was found that the prevailing method for avoided cost calculations is using the differences between system development and operation costs with and without the program under consideration. Other methods are used less frequently. There is a considerable diversity of assumptions and detailed calculation procedures used for avoided costs. Due to this diversity, as well as to the different predominant conditions in the electric systems of each Canadian utility, the calculated avoided cost values vary considerably from utility to utility. 1 tab

  19. COSTING OF QUALITY IN BUSINESS BASE UNIT SEVERAL PRODUCTIONS, CIENFUEGOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez Alfonso, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The calculation of quality costs as a component of the System of Quality Management, is a must for Cuban business managers, to provide a technique identified as an advanced instrument of management, which will lead to improved competitiveness and serve as an informative source. Identify and calculate the costs of quality, as well as propose measured plans, to promote a decrease in operating expenses, which can be used as a tool to improve processes. The Business Unit of Several Base Productions of Cienfuegos presents the fault to give way to Business Improvement and certification of its Quality Management System, according to the norm ISO 9001:2008 and the decree law 281, so that the objective research was to estimate the costs of quality processes in the company. To achieve this level were used empirical methods and techniques such as direct observation, document review and work in groups, which allowed to calculate the costs of quality in all processes. The results obtained are applicable to companies that operate in the Cuban economy and according to the Cuban economic model implemented from the year 2011.

  20. Calculating the marginal costs of a district-heating utility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    District heating plays an important role in the Swedish heat-market. At the same time, the price of district heating varies considerably among different district-heating utilities. A case study is performed here in which a Swedish utility is analysed using three different methods for calculating the marginal costs of heat supply: a manual spreadsheet method, an optimising linear-programming model, and a least-cost dispatch simulation model. Calculated marginal-costs, obtained with the three methods, turn out to be similar. The calculated marginal-costs are also compared to the actual heat tariff in use by the utility. Using prices based on marginal costs should be able to bring about an efficient resource-allocation. It is found that the fixed rate the utility uses today should be replaced by a time-of-use rate, which would give a more accurate signal for customers to change their heat consumptions. (Author)

  1. Cost calculations for agricultural machinery; Konetyoen kustannukset ja tilastolliset urakointihinnat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pentti, S.; Laaksonen, K.

    2005-07-01

    TTS-institute has since the 1960ies drawn up cost calculations for various types of agricultural machinery. Using the model calculation provided by TTS, the farmer is in a good position to make a more accurate calculation corresponding to his situation. Determining of costs is important both when planning investments and when defining the rates to be charged in connection with contract work and when hiring equipment. The current regulations pertaining to competition prohibit the publication of general hire tariffs. Therefore, the charges to be made must be agreed upon by the parties between themselves. The demand and supply in the machine sector are reflected in local price levels. The parties involved are therefore well advised to spend some time in planning and making calculations so as to have a realistic base for their decisions. Advance agreement on the rates to be charged is the means to avoiding disagreements. Farm-specific calculation connected to machine costs are easy to do when using TTS-kone, TTS's machine calculation program. TTS-kone helps both the farmer and the contractor to determine the costs of machines and machine combinations. The program can be used to calculate cost in terms of the farm's utilisation capacity or in terms of how much outside contract work is required to make the acquisition of the machine profitable. The influence of the calculation factors (e.g. write-off period, interest rate, utilisation capacity) on machine costs can be quickly solved when using the program. In addition, the program provides the user with a summary of the costs for a specified chain of machines or for the farm's entire stock of machines. (orig.)

  2. Spreadsheets simplify oil field unitization calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linear programming, now available with most spreadsheet programs, allows companies involved in unitizing oil producing properties to determine their minimum and maximum interest. With spreadsheets, even the smallest companies can do linear programming or optimization techniques without having to know much about the process involved. If each company can easily determine its and the competition's optimum parameter weight, then reasonable compromise and unitization are more likely. When suspicion and lack of knowledge prevail, parties are less likely to cooperate and form production units. Unit participation formulas vary greatly, even if units have similar reservoir characteristics. This paper reviews an example of linear programming to determine the interests of four different oil companies operating in the same production zones

  3. Fusion reactor design studies: standard unit costs and cost scaling rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report establishes standard unit costs and scaling rules for estimating costs of material, equipment, land, and labor components used in magnetic confinement fusion reactor plant construction and operation. Use of the standard unit costs and scaling rules will add uniformity to cost estimates, and thus allow valid comparison of the economic characteristics of various reactor concepts

  4. Composite Cost Function Based Solution to the Unit Commitment Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Srikrishna Subramanian; Radhakrishnan Anandhakumar

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a new approach via composite cost function to solve the unit commitment problem. The unit com-mitment problem involves determining the start-up and shut-down schedules for generating units to meet the fore-casted demand at the minimum cost. The commitment schedule must satisfy the other constraints such as the generating limits, spinning reserve, minimum up and down time, ramp level and individual units. The proposed algorithm gives the committed units and economic load di...

  5. Manual for Reducing Educational Unit Costs in Latin American Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centro Multinacional de Investigacion Educativa, San Jose (Costa Rica).

    Designed for educational administrators, this manual provides suggestions for reducing educational unit costs in Latin America without reducing the quality of the education. Chapter one defines unit cost concepts and compares the costs of the Latin American countries. Chapter two deals with the different policies which could affect the principal…

  6. Modern trends of the NPP's unit decommissioning cost estimations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The review presents the results of modern trends analysis of the decommissioning cost estimations for the nuclear units of different types. The ranges of decommissioning cost estimations for the PWR, BWR, GCL, HWR and WWER type units are shown and qualitative consideration of the main factors influencing on the decommissioning cost value is given

  7. Patient experience – the ingredient missing from cost-effectiveness calculations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curtis D

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available David CurtisCentre for Psychiatry, Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, London, UKAbstract: Standard cost-effectiveness calculations as used by the UK National Institute of Clinical Excellence compare the net benefit of an intervention with the financial costs to the health service. Debates about public health interventions also focus on these factors. The subjective experience of the patient, including financial costs and also transient pain, distress, and indignity, is routinely ignored. I carried out an Internet survey which showed that members of the public assign a high financial cost to routine medical interventions such as taking a tablet regularly or attending a clinic for an injection. It is wrong to ignore such costs when attempting to obtain an overall evaluation of the benefit of medical interventions.Keywords: screening, prevention, financial cost, medical interventions

  8. Unit cost analysis in a university hospital: an example from Srinagarind Hospital, Khon Kaen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatanasapt, V; Kosuwon, W; Pengsaa, P

    1993-12-01

    This is the first analytic study to identify the unit cost in the University Hospital using the standard method of analysis in health economics. The unit costs in the report can be used to calculate the cost of each service for any disease. The costs of the hospital administration cost center and the supportive cost center were both allocated to the patient care service center by the simultaneous allocation method. The cost of teaching personnel was excluded from the analysis because it is quite difficult to estimate and differentiate the ratio of teaching costs to service costs. The hotel cost of the inpatient ward varied from 77.81 baht to 604.7 baht per day. The unit cost per service per day is different from the charge which is presently used at Srinagarind Hospital. Some services, such as in-house transportation are not included in the charge. This study was conducted to identify the unit cost of each service. The decision to establish charges can depend partly on this data and partly on the administrator's judgement. Other factors, such as patient poverty can dictate the final decision. In any case, the hospital and health service center should identify their own unit costs to be able to plan for effective budget management. PMID:7798815

  9. Road Transport Congestion Costs Calculations-Adaptation to Engineering Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Marjan Lep; Beno Mesarec

    2008-01-01

    The article represents so called ?engineering? approach for computing the total road transport congestion costs. According to economic welfare theory, the total costs of transport congestion are defined as dead weight loss (DWL) of infrastructure use. With a set of equations DWL could be formulated in a mathematical way. Because such form of equation is not directly applicable for concrete road network calculations it should be transformed into ?engineering? form, which comprises transport en...

  10. Economic analysis of the cost of Intensive Care Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazetas D.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The cost of Intensive Care Units has the greatest impact on overall medical costs and the overall cost for the health of a country and an increasing number of studies from around the world presenting the quantification of these costs. Aim: Review of the Economic Analysis of the Cost of Intensive Care Units. Method: Search was made in the SCOPUS, MEDLINE and CINAHL databases using the key-words “Intensive Care Units (ICU”, “Cost”, “Cost Analysis”, “Health Care Costs”, “Health Resources”, “ICU resources”. The study was based on articles published in English from 2000 to 2011 investigating the Economic Analysis of the Cost of Intensive Care Units. Results: The cost of ICU is a significant percentage of gross domestic product in developed countries. Most cost analysis studies that relate to plans that include the study of staff costs, duration of stay in the ICU, the clinical situations of hospitalized patients, engineering support, medications and diagnostic tests costing scales and in relation to the diagnostic criteria. Conclusions: most studies conclude that the remuneration of staff, particularly nurses, in the ICU is the largest cost of ICU, while for the duration of stay in the ICU results are conflicting. The analysis on the cost-effectiveness of ICU can help to better apply these findings to the therapeutic context of ICU.

  11. Unit costs of waste management operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides estimates of generic costs for the management, disposal, and surveillance of various waste types, from the time they are generated to the end of their institutional control. Costs include monitoring and surveillance costs required after waste disposal. Available data on costs for the treatment, storage, disposal, and transportation of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive, low-level radioactive, transuranic radioactive, hazardous, mixed (low-level radioactive plus hazardous), and sanitary wastes are presented. The costs cover all major elements that contribute to the total system life-cycle (i.e., ''cradle to grave'') cost for each waste type. This total cost is the sum of fixed and variable cost components. Variable costs are affected by operating rates and throughput capacities and vary in direct proportion to changes in the level of activity. Fixed costs remain constant regardless of changes in the amount of waste, operating rates, or throughput capacities. Key factors that influence cost, such as the size and throughput capacity of facilities, are identified. In many cases, ranges of values for the key variables are presented. For some waste types, the planned or estimated costs for storage and disposal, projected to the year 2000, are presented as graphics

  12. Cost calculations for decommissioning and dismantling of nuclear research facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, I. (Studsvik Nuclear AB (Sweden)); Backe, S. (Institute for Energy Technology (Norway)); Cato, A.; Lindskog, S. (Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (Sweden)); Efraimsson, H. (Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (Sweden)); Iversen, Klaus (Danish Decommissioning (Denmark)); Salmenhaara, S. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland (Finland)); Sjoeblom, R. (Tekedo AB, (Sweden))

    2008-07-15

    Today, it is recommended that planning of decommission should form an integral part of the activities over the life cycle of a nuclear facility (planning, building and operation), but it was only in the nineteen seventies that the waste issue really surface. Actually, the IAEA guidelines on decommissioning have been issued as recently as over the last ten years, and international advice on finance of decommissioning is even younger. No general international guideline on cost calculations exists at present. This implies that cost calculations cannot be performed with any accuracy or credibility without a relatively detailed consideration of the radiological prerequisites. Consequently, any cost estimates based mainly on the particulars of the building structures and installations are likely to be gross underestimations. The present study has come about on initiative by the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI) and is based on a common need in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. The content of the report may be briefly summarised as follows. The background covers design and operation prerequisites as well as an overview of the various nuclear research facilities in the four participating countries: Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. The purpose of the work has been to identify, compile and exchange information on facilities and on methodologies for cost calculation with the aim of achieving an 80 % level of confidence. The scope has been as follows: 1) to establish a Nordic network 2) to compile dedicated guidance documents on radiological surveying, technical planning and financial risk identification and assessment 3) to compile and describe techniques for precise cost calculations at early stages 4) to compile plant and other relevant data A separate section is devoted in the report to good practice for the specific purpose of early but precise cost calculations for research facilities, and a separate section is devoted to techniques for assessment of cost. Examples are provided for each of the countries of relevant projects. They are as follows: 5) Research reactor DR1 in Denmark 6) The TRIGA research reactor in Finland 7) The uranium reprocessing plant in Norway 8) Research reactor R1 in Sweden The following conclusions were made: 9) IAEA and OECD/NEA documents provide invaluable advice for pertinent approaches. 10) Adequate radiological surveying is needed before precise cost calculations can be made. 11) The same can be said about technical planning including selection of techniques to be used. 12) It is proposed that separate analyses be made regarding the probabilities for conceivable features and events which could lead to significantly higher costs than expected. 13) It is expected that the need for precise cost estimates will dictate the pace of the radiological surveying and technical planning, at least in the early stages. 14) It is important that the validity structure for early cost estimates with regard to type of facility be fully appreciated. E g, the precision is usually less for research facilities. 15) The summation method is treacherous and leads to systematical underestimations in early stages unless compensation is made for the fact that not all items are included. 16) Comparison between different facilities can be made when there is access to information from plants at different stages of planning and when accommodation can be made with regard to differences in features. 17) A simple approach is presented for 'calibration' of a cost estimate against one or more completed projects. 18) Information exchange and co-operations between different plant owners is highly desirable. (au)

  13. Cost calculations for decommissioning and dismantling of nuclear research facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Today, it is recommended that planning of decommission should form an integral part of the activities over the life cycle of a nuclear facility (planning, building and operation), but it was only in the nineteen seventies that the waste issue really surface. Actually, the IAEA guidelines on decommissioning have been issued as recently as over the last ten years, and international advice on finance of decommissioning is even younger. No general international guideline on cost calculations exists at present. This implies that cost calculations cannot be performed with any accuracy or credibility without a relatively detailed consideration of the radiological prerequisites. Consequently, any cost estimates based mainly on the particulars of the building structures and installations are likely to be gross underestimations. The present study has come about on initiative by the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI) and is based on a common need in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. The content of the report may be briefly summarised as follows. The background covers design and operation prerequisites as well as an overview of the various nuclear research facilities in the four participating countries: Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. The purpose of the work has been to identify, compile and exchange information on facilities and on methodologies for cost calculation with the aim of achieving an 80 % level of confidence. The scope has been as follows: 1) to establish a Nordic network 2) to compile dedicated guidance documents on radiological surveying, technical planning and financial risk identification and assessment 3) to compile and describe techniques for precise cost calculations at early stages 4) to compile plant and other relevant data A separate section is devoted in the report to good practice for the specific purpose of early but precise cost calculations for research facilities, and a separate section is devoted to techniques for assessment of cost. Examples are provided for each of the countries of relevant projects. They are as follows: 5) Research reactor DR1 in Denmark 6) The TRIGA research reactor in Finland 7) The uranium reprocessing plant in Norway 8) Research reactor R1 in Sweden The following conclusions were made: 9) IAEA and OECD/NEA documents provide invaluable advice for pertinent approaches. 10) Adequate radiological surveying is needed before precise cost calculations can be made. 11) The same can be said about technical planning including selection of techniques to be used. 12) It is proposed that separate analyses be made regarding the probabilities for conceivable features and events which could lead to significantly higher costs than expected. 13) It is expected that the need for precise cost estimates will dictate the pace of the radiological surveying and technical planning, at least in the early stages. 14) It is important that the validity structure for early cost estimates with regard to type of facility be fully appreciated. E g, the precision is usually less for research facilities. 15) The summation method is treacherous and leads to systematical underestimations in early stages unless compensation is made for the fact that not all items are included. 16) Comparison between different facilities can be made when there is access to information from plants at different stages of planning and when accommodation can be made with regard to differences in features. 17) A simple approach is presented for 'calibration' of a cost estimate against one or more completed projects. 18) Information exchange and co-operations between different plant owners is highly desirable. (au)

  14. Commerical electric power cost studies. Capital cost addendum multi-unit coal and nuclear stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is the culmination of a study performed to develop designs and associated capital cost estimates for multi-unit nuclear and coal commercial electric power stations, and to determine the distribution of these costs among the individual units. This report addresses six different types of 2400 MWe (nominal) multi-unit stations as follows: Two Unit PWR Station-1139 MWe Each, Two Unit BWR Station-1190 MWe Each, Two Unit High Sulfur Coal-Fired Station-1232 MWe Each, Two Unit Low Sulfur Coal-Fired Station-1243 MWe Each, Three Unit High Sulfur Coal-Fired Station-794 MWe Each, Three Unit Low Sulfur Coal-Fired Station-801 MWe Each. Recent capital cost studies performed for ERDA/NRC of single unit nuclear and coal stations are used as the basis for developing the designs and costs of the multi-unit stations. This report includes the major study groundrules, a summary of single and multi-unit stations total base cost estimates, details of cost estimates at the three digit account level and plot plan drawings for each multi-unit station identified

  15. Collecting unit cost data in multicentre studies. Creating comparable methods.

    OpenAIRE

    Wordsworth, S.; Ludbrook, A.; Caskey, F; MacLeod, A

    2005-01-01

    International comparisons of health care systems and services have created increased interest in the comparability of cost results. This study compared top-down and bottom-up approaches to collecting unit cost data across centres in the context of examining the cost-effectiveness of dialysis therapy across Europe. The study tested whether health care technologies in different countries can be costed using consistent and transparent methods to increase the comparability of results. There was m...

  16. On deregulation, unit duty cycle and production costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper highlights the importance of explicitly modeling operating considerations in the context of electric utility deregulation. Expected energy production costs are of interest to generation providers, regulatory authorities and consumers to assess the affects and advisability of deregulation. Accurate determination of plant output levels, duration of plant usage and hence the production cost, depend on knowledge of network characteristics, expected future demand and mix of generation in the system and the prevailing operating policies. Currently, generation owners assume fixed Forced Outage Rate (FOR) values, regardless of unit duty cycle, when performing studies. These FOR values may be based on industry averages for new plants or taken from past operation experience in the case of existing plants. Under deregulation, operating policies may undergo drastic change and unit duty cycles may change accordingly. In such a situation, the continued usage of FORs based on a former, and now changed, unit duty cycle could result in erroneous energy production cost computations. Proper and accurate analysis of production costs requires that issues such as changes in generating unit duty cycles, and consequently in FORs be explicitly considered and modeled. A study was carried out on the Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT) network to evaluate this concept. Expected production costs were computed using unit FORs computed both from pre- and post-deregulation unit duty cycles. Results show that significant errors in production costs may result if appropriate unit duty cycles and unit FORs are not used. (author)

  17. THE USE OF CALCULATION OF COSTS FOR ACTIVITIES TO IMPROVE COST MANAGEMENT AND PROFITABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BU?AN GABRIELA

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Dissatisfaction with the classical systems of managerial accounting has led to global acceptance of the ABC, as a result of the many theoretical and applied works, which had as its objective the creation of a system for calculating relevant costs, adapted to the needs of information, in the new context of production organization. Under this method, the task, allowing a new vision in the company and cut cross vision, becomes the Centre of representation and modeling of enterprise and serves as an interface between the resources consumed and cost bearers whose cost you want to measure it. In this way you get a real cost, on the basis of which the strategic decisions by removing non-creative activities and using as the basis for apportionment of costs it generates activity.

  18. Costly Landslide Events in the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer shows point locations of costly individual landslide events in the 50 United States and Puerto Rico. Landslide locations were determined from...

  19. Costly Regional Landslide Events in the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer contains information on costly regional landslide events in the 50 United States and Puerto Rico. The extents of the regional events were drawn from...

  20. Costs for Hospital Stays in the United States, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nearly 18 percent of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP). 1 Importantly, inpatient hospital costs account for nearly one-third of all health care expenses for the civilian noninstitutionalized population in the United States. 2 The Agency for ...

  1. PACTOLUS, Nuclear Power Plant Cost and Economics by Discounted Cash Flow Method. CLOTHO, Mass Flow Data Calculation for Program PACTOLUS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1 - Description of problem or function: PACTOLUS is a code for computing nuclear power costs using the discounted cash flow method. The cash flows are generated from input unit costs, time schedules and burnup data. CLOTHO calculates and communicates to PACTOLUS mass flow data to match a specified load factor history. 2 - Method of solution: Plant lifetime power costs are calculated using the discounted cash flow method. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem - Maxima of: 40 annual time periods into which all costs and mass flows are accumulated, 20 isotopic mass flows charged into and discharged from the reactor model

  2. Improvement of Cost Calculation in Constructions – Application of the Standard Cost Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adela Breuer

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Grace to the analysis of several commercial companies effectively performed “on the field”, we could remark the necessity to change the method of cost calculation, our motivation being related to the simplification of calculations and the reduction of the labour volume, but especially the necessity to know in due time the deviations occurred as well as the causes having led to their apparition. The importance of knowing the deviations in due time results from the very basic characteristics of the constructions execution, i.e. the performance of works during several budgetary years, which leads to the modifications of prices and materials, the introduction of new technologies, and to the performance of open air activities, making the execution of constructions works be influenced by the atmospheric condition. But the most important aspect of knowing the deviations is the correct determination of expenses and their inscribing in the corresponding period, in view of determining the result of the budgetary year. Our proposal for the enhancement of the method of cost calculation in constructions is the application of the standard cost method in the variant “single standard cost”.

  3. Replacement energy costs for nuclear electricity-generating units in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seasonal replacement energy costs are estimated for potential short-term shutdowns of 108 nuclear electricity-generating units. These estimates were developed to help the Nuclear Regulatory Commission establish regulatory policies, particularly those requiring safety modifications that might necessitate temporary reactor shutdowns. Cost estimates were derived from probabilistic production-cost simulations of pooled utility-system operations. Factors affecting replacement energy costs, such as random unit failures, maintenance and refueling requirements, and load variations, are treated in the analysis. Seasonal costs are presented for the two-year period beginning with fall 1984 and ending with summer 1986

  4. Comparison of United States and Canadian Glaucoma Medication Costs and Price Change from 2006 to 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Schlenker, Matthew B.; Trope, Graham E.; Yvonne M Buys

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Compare glaucoma medication costs between the United States (USA) and Canada. Methods. We modelled glaucoma brand name and generic medication annual costs in the USA and Canada based on October 2013 Costco prices and previously reported bottle overfill rates, drops per mL, and wastage adjustment. We also calculated real wholesale price changes from 2006 to 2013 based on the Average Wholesale Price (USA) and the Ontario Drug Benefit Price (Canada). Results. US brand name medication ...

  5. Cost-Optimal Operation of Energy Storage Units: Benefits of a Problem-Specific Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Siemer, Lars; Schöpfer, Frank; Kleinhans, David

    2015-01-01

    The integration of large shares of electricity produced by non-dispatchable Renewable Energy Sources (RES) leads to an increasingly volatile energy generation side, with temporary local overproduction. The application of energy storage units has the potential to use this excess electricity from RES efficiently and to prevent curtailment. The objective of this work is to calculate cost-optimal charging strategies for energy storage units used as buffers. For this purpose, a n...

  6. Accelerating Correlated Quantum Chemistry Calculations Using Graphical Processing Units

    OpenAIRE

    Watson, Mark A.; Olivares-Amaya, Roberto; Edgar, Richard G.; Arias, Tomás; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán

    2010-01-01

    Graphical processing units are now being used with dramatic effect to accelerate quantum chemistry calculations. However, early work exposed challenges involving memory bottlenecks and insufficient numerical precision. This research effort addresses those issues, proposing two new tools for accelerating matrix multiplications of arbitrary size where single-precision accuracy is not enough.

  7. THE USE OF CALCULATION OF COSTS FOR ACTIVITIES TO IMPROVE COST MANAGEMENT AND PROFITABILITY

    OpenAIRE

    BU?AN GABRIELA; CIURL?U LOREDANA

    2012-01-01

    Dissatisfaction with the classical systems of managerial accounting has led to global acceptance of the ABC, as a result of the many theoretical and applied works, which had as its objective the creation of a system for calculating relevant costs, adapted to the needs of information, in the new context of production organization. Under this method, the task, allowing a new vision in the company and cut cross vision, becomes the Centre of representation and modeling of enterprise and serves as...

  8. Applying activity-based costing to the nuclear medicine unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suthummanon, Sakesun; Omachonu, Vincent K; Akcin, Mehmet

    2005-08-01

    Previous studies have shown the feasibility of using activity-based costing (ABC) in hospital environments. However, many of these studies discuss the general applications of ABC in health-care organizations. This research explores the potential application of ABC to the nuclear medicine unit (NMU) at a teaching hospital. The finding indicates that the current cost averages 236.11 US dollars for all procedures, which is quite different from the costs computed by using ABC. The difference is most significant with positron emission tomography scan, 463 US dollars (an increase of 96%), as well as bone scan and thyroid scan, 114 US dollars (a decrease of 52%). The result of ABC analysis demonstrates that the operational time (machine time and direct labour time) and the cost of drugs have the most influence on cost per procedure. Clearly, to reduce the cost per procedure for the NMU, the reduction in operational time and cost of drugs should be analysed. The result also indicates that ABC can be used to improve resource allocation and management. It can be an important aid in making management decisions, particularly for improving pricing practices by making costing more accurate. It also facilitates the identification of underutilized resources and related costs, leading to cost reduction. The ABC system will also help hospitals control costs, improve the quality and efficiency of the care they provide, and manage their resources better. PMID:16102243

  9. 49 CFR 1152.32 - Calculation of avoidable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...Other expenses61-61-86 Do.Management services and data processing Salaries...Do. (e) Deadheading, taxi, and hotel costs.The costs assigned...branch line for deadheading, taxi, and hotel costs. The amounts included...

  10. Replacement energy costs for nuclear electricity-generating units in the United States, 1987-1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seasonal replacement energy costs are estimated for potential short-term shutdowns of 116 nuclear electricity-generating units. These estimates were developed to help the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) establish regulatory policies, particularly those requiring safety modifications that might necessitate temporary reactor shutdowns. Cost estimates were derived from probabilistic production-cost simulations of pooled utility-system operations. Factors affecting replacement energy costs, such as random unit failures, maintenance and refueling requirements, and load variations, are treated in the analysis. Seasonal costs are presented for the five-year period beginning with 1987 and ending with 1991. This information updates cost estimates that were developed previously for the NRC and published in NRC Report NUREG/CR-4012, Vol. 1. The updates were undertaken to extend the time frame of cost estimates and to account for recent changes in utility system conditions, such as fluctuations in fuel prices, changes in construction and retirement schedules, and adjustments to system demand projections

  11. 47 CFR 65.305 - Calculation of the weighted average cost of capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...Calculation of the weighted average cost of capital. (a) The composite weighted average cost of capital is the sum of the cost of debt, the...each weighted by its proportion in the capital structure of the telephone companies....

  12. New drying-calcining unit cuts yellowcake processing costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Processing of ammonium diuranate (yellowcake) to produce uranium oxide is a new application for the stainless steel ''Turbo- Heat-Treater'' unit made by Wyssmont Co. Inc. The Turbo-unit may be used to continuously dry and calcine approximately 10 tpd of yellowcake at a reduced processing cost, stemming from the very close temperature profile and the elimination of refractory requirements, the manufacturer reports. (U.S.)

  13. Foundations of Financial Accounting Organization and Cost Calculation using Activity-Based Costing Method in Romanian Textile Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorinel Capusneanu

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of first part of this article consists in attempting to establish the management accounting and cost calculation basis of the ABC method in Romania. After general characterization of the ABC method and origin establishment of the ABC method the premises analysis are treated which are the basis of management accounting and cost calculation through ABC method in Romania. There are established the role and implications of the processes, activities and cost objects on management accounting and cost calculation, in the attempt to classify the expenses which accomplish the production cost, accordingly to ABC method.

  14. Foundations of Financial Accounting Organization and Cost Calculation using Activity-Based Costing Method in Romanian Textile Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorinel Capusneanu

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of first part of this article consists in attempting to establish the management accounting and cost calculation basis of the ABC method in Romania. After general characterization of the ABC method and origin establishment of the ABC method the premises analysis are treated which are the basis of management accounting and cost calculation through ABC method in Romania. There are established the role and implications of the processes, activities and cost objects on management accounting and cost calculation, in the attempt to classify the expenses which accomplish the production cost, accordingly to ABC method.

  15. Small scale units testing low cost anaerobic digestion (AD) systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    To evaluate the potential for low technology and low cost digesters for small dairies, BARC and researchers from the University of Maryland installed six modified Taiwanese-model field-scale (FS) digesters near the original dairy manure digester. The FS units receive the same post-separated liquid ...

  16. COSTS AND PROFITABILITY IN FOOD PROCESSING: PASTRY TYPE UNITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DUMITRANA MIHAELA

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available For each company, profitability, products quality and customer satisfaction are the most importanttargets. To attaint these targets, managers need to know all about costs that are used in decision making. Whatkind of costs? How these costs are calculated for a specific sector such as food processing? These are only a fewquestions with answers in our paper. We consider that a case study for this sector may be relevant for all peoplethat are interested to increase the profitability of this specific activity sector.

  17. Renewable Energy Cost Modeling. A Toolkit for Establishing Cost-Based Incentives in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gifford, Jason S. [Sustainable Energy Advantage, LLC, Framington, MA (United States); Grace, Robert C. [Sustainable Energy Advantage, LLC, Framington, MA (United States); Rickerson, Wilson H. [Meister Consultants Group, Inc., Boston, MA (United States)

    2011-05-01

    This report serves as a resource for policymakers who wish to learn more about levelized cost of energy (LCOE) calculations, including cost-based incentives. The report identifies key renewable energy cost modeling options, highlights the policy implications of choosing one approach over the other, and presents recommendations on the optimal characteristics of a model to calculate rates for cost-based incentives, FITs, or similar policies. These recommendations shaped the design of NREL's Cost of Renewable Energy Spreadsheet Tool (CREST), which is used by state policymakers, regulators, utilities, developers, and other stakeholders to assist with analyses of policy and renewable energy incentive payment structures. Authored by Jason S. Gifford and Robert C. Grace of Sustainable Energy Advantage LLC and Wilson H. Rickerson of Meister Consultants Group, Inc.

  18. Foundations of Financial Accounting Organization and Cost Calculation using Activity-Based Costing Method in Romanian Textile Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Sorinel Capusneanu

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of first part of this article consists in attempting to establish the management accounting and cost calculation basis of the ABC method in Romania. After general characterization of the ABC method and origin establishment of the ABC method the premises analysis are treated which are the basis of management accounting and cost calculation through ABC method in Romania. There are established the role and implications of the processes, activities and cost objects on management accou...

  19. Using Standard-Sole Cost Method for Performance Gestion Accounting and Calculation Cost in the Machine Building Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Aureliana Geta Roman; Cleopatra Sendroiu; Costantin Roman

    2006-01-01

    The main purpose of improving and varying cost calculation methods in the machine building industry is to make them more operational and efficient in supplying the information necessary to the management in taking its decisions. The present cost calculation methods used in the machine building plants – global method and the method per orders – by which a historical cost is determined a posteriori used in deducting and post factum justification of manufacturing expenses does not offer the mana...

  20. Calculation of a cathode unit with ring emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To increase the electron current in an electron gun with a hole on the axis the calculation of a cathode unit is carried out. The cathode unit consists of 10 cathodes in the form of a tungsten ring of a rectangular cross section of the 1 mm thickness, internal and external diameters of 16 and 20 mm, respectively. It is shown that at the 2400 K tungsten cathode temperature, j=0.2 A/cm2 emission current density and ?/j=288 V parameter, where ? is power emitted by the cathode, the emission cathode current is 0.24 A and voltage between the adjacent cathodes is 860 V. The schematic diagram of the cathode unit supply system are given. The system ensures s nchronization of the high-voltage extending pulse with the voltage peaks on the cathodes. The calculation results have shown that the given method of current increasing in electron guns with the limited transverse dimensions can be realized without any difficulties

  1. Availability and cost functions for periodically inspected preventively maintained units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unavailability and cost rate functions are developed for components whose failures can occur randomly but they are detected only by periodic testing or inspections. If a failure occurs between consecutive inspections, the unit remains failed until the next inspection. Components are renewed by preventive maintenance periodically, or by repair or replacement after a failure, whichever occurs first (age-replacement). The model takes into account finite repair and maintenance durations as well as costs due to testing, repair, maintenance and lost production or accidents. For normally operating units the time-related penalty is loss of production. For standby safety equipment it is the expected cost of an accident that can happen when the component is down due to a dormant failure, repair or maintenance. The objective of maintenance optimization is to minimize the total cost rate by proper selection of two intervals, one for inspections and one for replacements. General conditions and techniques are developed for solving optimal test and maintenance intervals, with and without constraints on the production loss or accident rate. Insights are gained into how the optimal intervals depend on various cost parameters and reliability characteristics

  2. Cost of illness of hyponatremia in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paramore Clark

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hyponatremia is a disorder of fluid and electrolyte balance characterized by a relative excess of body water relative to body sodium content. It is the most common electrolyte disorder encountered in clinical medicine and is associated with negative outcomes in many chronic diseases. However, there is limited information in the literature about health care resource use and costs attributable to the effects of the condition. The purpose of this analysis was to estimate the annual cost of illness of hyponatremia in the United States. Methods The study utilized a prevalence-based cost of illness framework that incorporated data from publicly available databases, published literature and a consensus panel of expert physicians. Panel members provided information on: classification of hyponatremia patients, treatment settings for hyponatremia (i.e., hospital, emergency room, doctor's office, and health care resource use associated with the diagnosis and treatment of hyponatremia. Low and high prevalence scenarios were estimated and utilized in a spreadsheet-based cost of illness model. Costs were assigned to units of resources and summarized across treatment settings. Results The prevalence estimate for hyponatremia ranged from 3.2 million to 6.1 million persons in the U.S. on an annual basis. Approximately 1% of patients were classified as having acute and symptomatic hyponatremia, 4% acute and asymptomatic, 15%–20% chronic and symptomatic, and 75–80% chronic and asymptomatic. Of patients treated for hyponatremia, 55%–63% are initially treated as inpatients, 25% are initially treated in the emergency room, and 13%–20% are treated solely in the office setting. The direct costs of treating hyponatremia in the U.S. on an annual basis were estimated to range between $1.6 billion and $3.6 billion. Conclusion Treatment of hyponatremia represents a significant healthcare burden in the U.S. Newer therapies that may reduce the burden of hyponatremia in the inpatient setting could minimize the costs associated with this condition.

  3. Costs of Crashes to Government, United States, 2008

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Ted R; Bhattacharya, Soma; Zaloshnja, Eduard; Taylor, Dexter; Bahar, Geni; David, Iuliana

    2011-01-01

    We estimated how much the Federal government and state/local government pay for different kinds of crashes in the United States. Government costs include reductions in an array of public services (emergency, incident management, vocational rehabilitation, coroner court processing of liability litigation), medical payments, social safety net assistance to the injured and their families, and taxes foregone because victims miss work. Government also pays when its employees crash while working an...

  4. Low finding costs calculated in Mississippi's Tuscaloosa, Frio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on a recent study conducted by the Mississippi Office of Geology which examined oil and gas finding costs in southwestern Mississippi for the period from 1986 through 1990. The formations of interest were the Upper Cretaceous Lower Tuscaloosa formation and the Oligocene Frio formation. The model incorporated the following financial considerations for exploratory activity: seismic data acquisition, geologic expenses, leasing and legal fees, and drilling costs. Average drilling and completion costs were also assigned to the development wells. The finding cost formula divided the total exploration and development costs by the recoverable reserves. Reserves were multiplied by a 75% net revenue for the Tuscaloosa and 80% for the Frio leases to account for royalty interests and severance taxes. No field operating expenses were included

  5. Some Problems of Calculation and Design of High-Activity Gamma Units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report describes the principal requirements for gamma units intended for various purposes. Several methods of calculating the dose fields for various forms of irradiators are given, as well as graphs, nomograms and formulae to estimate the amount of gamma-ray dose absorbed by the irradiated object from cobalt-60 and caesium-137. Some of the calculated data have been confirmed by experiment. The advantages of irradiators of various geometry employed in experimental and commercial units are discussed. The irradiation technique for various objects is analyzed and the optimum irradiation conditions (radiation utilization factor, dose field homogeneity, etc.) are discussed. Several rational shielding systems are suggested to simplify irradiation process and recharging, and to reduce the cost of design and operation. (author)

  6. Fuel cost analysis of CANDU-PHWR Wolsung Nuclear Power Plant unit 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Being based on the Segal method, calculation was carried out for the natural uranium nuclear fuel cost with Zircaloy-4 cladding having design parameters of Wolsung Nuclear Power Plant, CANDU-PHWR (Unit 1), currently under construction in Korea aiming at its completion in 1982. An attempt was also made for the sensitivity analysis of each fuel component; i.e., depreciation of fuel manufacturing plant caused by its life time, its load factor, production scale expansion of plant facilities, variations of construction and operating costs of fuel manufacturing plant, fluctuation of interest rates, extent of uranium ore price increases and effect of learning factor. (author)

  7. An integrated approach to calculate life cycle costs of arms and military equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlada S. Sokolovi?

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION In a situation when government expenditures for defense are more restrictive, any investment in the acquisition of arms and military equipment (AME is a question that does not allow errors in decisions. Accordingly, the economic analysis of the investment must be detailed and unavoidable. In the past, the initial cost of procurement of AME was often the primary, and sometimes the only one criterion in decision-making. Neglecting the analysis of costs throughout the life of assets in prefeasibility studies is the main cause of unplanned investment in the later stages of the life cycle of investment, and also of a number of problems in the functioning and unfulfilling or partially fulfilling the goals of the system. PROCESS OF EQUIPPING THE MoD AND THE SAF WITH AME Legislation governing the process of equipping the Ministry of Defence (MoD and the Serbian Armed Forces (SAF with AME is based on the Regulation on equipping the Yugoslav Army with weapons and military equipment in peacetime, from 1996, and on several Standards of National Defense (SNO 0477/83, SNO 1096/85, SNO 8196/92, SNO 9000/97, etc.. Due to a number of social and organizational changes in the defense system, this regulation is not in full compliance with real-time requirements. The analysis of legal regulations and activities in the process of equipping the MoD and the SAF with AME in practice indicates dominance of technical - technological aspects of the equipping analysis, while the economic aspect (primarily aspect of costs is present, but not detailed enough. At best, there is only a static approach to the analysis and evaluation of investment projects, while a dynamic aspect and the aspect of the total cost over the life of assets are not taken into account. ANALYSIS OF COSTS IN THE LIFETIME OF ASSETS Given the non-profit character of military organizations and the possibility to express explicit costs, but not the benefits of investment in equipping with AME , costs are one of the most dominant parameters in decision-making. Modern trends in this area comprehensively perceive all costs during the life cycle of assets.In general, in the analysis of costs in the life cycle of AME there are two sets of costs: visible and invisible (hidden costs. The visible part of the costs is mainly present in decision-making and usually includes the cost of equipping units or purchase of assets. The invisible part of the costs is far more significant. Although it is larger than the visible part and covers more groups of costs, decision-makers often do not take it into account. The hidden costs include: distribution costs, operating costs, maintenance costs, training costs, inventory costs, information systems costs, the cost of disposal and write-offs, etc. The decision making problem about investment in the AME purchase and equipping is obviously of  multicriteria nature, whether an optimum combination of costs for one  technical system (AME is in question, or whether it is a choice of a system of AME among many offered. COST ANALYSIS OF A PARTICULAR  ASSET For the illustration of an integrated approach to the analysis of the cost of assets in their life-cycle, a model from the US Naval Postgraduate School, was adjusted and applied on an example of a real asset. The model is applied to the case of two  squadrons of identical aircraft based at different airports. With regard to the availability, confidentiality, and the variability of costs and reliability of the elements of AME, the calculations in the model are implemented on the basis of the estimated or orientation parameters. Essentially, the goal is to demonstrate the interdependence, mutual relations and influences of parameters and their ultimate impact on the overall cost of military assets. Applying the model to a particular example points to the fact that, in the first years of asset life, the dominant cost is that of asset procurement (cost of acquisition, cost of assets themselves, the price of equipment for service and maintenance, the costs of initial training of a

  8. Monte Carlo error analysis of power plant capital cost calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Monte Carlo statistical code is coupled with the CONCEPT capital cost estimating program to illustrate the accuracy of the cost estimates. The CONCEPT program is used to estimate the capital cost of nuclear and fossil-fueled power plants. Knowing the accuracy limitation of these estimates is important for decision-making. This analysis was made only on nuclear (PWR) type power plants in the South. However, the intent of the study was only to indicate the method of analysis, not to be a detailed sensitivity analysis of all parameters

  9. Cost-Optimal Operation of Energy Storage Units: Benefits of a Problem-Specific Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Siemer, Lars; Kleinhans, David

    2015-01-01

    The integration of large shares of electricity produced by non-dispatchable Renewable Energy Sources (RES) leads to an increasingly volatile energy generation side, with temporary local overproduction. The application of energy storage units has the potential to use this excess electricity from RES efficiently and to prevent curtailment. The objective of this work is to calculate cost-optimal charging strategies for energy storage units used as buffers. For this purpose, a new mathematical optimization method is presented that is applicable to general storage-related problems. Due to a tremendous gain in efficiency of this method compared with standard solvers and proven optimality, calculations of complex problems as well as a high-resolution sensitivity analysis of multiple system combinations are feasible within a very short time. As an example technology, Power-to-Heat converters used in combination with thermal storage units are investigated in detail and optimal system configurations, including storage ...

  10. Independent calculation of monitor units for VMAT and SPORT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Dose and monitor units (MUs) represent two important facets of a radiation therapy treatment. In current practice, verification of a treatment plan is commonly done in dose domain, in which a phantom measurement or forward dose calculation is performed to examine the dosimetric accuracy and the MU settings of a given treatment plan. While it is desirable to verify directly the MU settings, a computational framework for obtaining the MU values from a known dose distribution has yet to be developed. This work presents a strategy to calculate independently the MUs from a given dose distribution of volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and station parameter optimized radiation therapy (SPORT). Methods: The dose at a point can be expressed as a sum of contributions from all the station points (or control points). This relationship forms the basis of the proposed MU verification technique. To proceed, the authors first obtain the matrix elements which characterize the dosimetric contribution of the involved station points by computing the doses at a series of voxels, typically on the prescription surface of the VMAT/SPORT treatment plan, with unit MU setting for all the station points. An in-house Monte Carlo (MC) software is used for the dose matrix calculation. The MUs of the station points are then derived by minimizing the least-squares difference between doses computed by the treatment planning system (TPS) and that of the MC for the selected set of voxels on the prescription surface. The technique is applied to 16 clinical cases with a variety of energies, disease sites, and TPS dose calculation algorithms. Results: For all plans except the lung cases with large tissue density inhomogeneity, the independently computed MUs agree with that of TPS to within 2.7% for all the station points. In the dose domain, no significant difference between the MC and Eclipse Anisotropic Analytical Algorithm (AAA) dose distribution is found in terms of isodose contours, dose profiles, gamma index, and dose volume histogram (DVH) for these cases. For the lung cases, the MC-calculated MUs differ significantly from that of the treatment plan computed using AAA. However, the discrepancies are reduced to within 3% when the TPS dose calculation algorithm is switched to a transport equation-based technique (Acuros™). Comparison in the dose domain between the MC and Eclipse AAA/Acuros calculation yields conclusion consistent with the MU calculation. Conclusions: A computational framework relating the MU and dose domains has been established. The framework does not only enable them to verify the MU values of the involved station points of a VMAT plan directly in the MU domain but also provide a much needed mechanism to adaptively modify the MU values of the station points in accordance to a specific change in the dose domain

  11. Cost of reactive nitrogen release from human activities to the environment in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobota, Daniel J.; Compton, Jana E.; McCrackin, Michelle L.; Singh, Shweta

    2015-02-01

    Leakage of reactive nitrogen (N) from human activities to the environment can cause human health and ecological problems. Often these harmful effects are not reflected in the costs of food, fuel, and fiber that derive from N use. Spatial analyses of damage costs attributable to source at management-relevant scales could inform decisions in areas where anthropogenic N leakage causes harm. We used recently compiled data describing N inputs in the conterminous United States (US) to assess potential damage costs associated with anthropogenic N. We estimated fates of N leaked to the environment (air/deposition, surface freshwater, groundwater, and coastal zones) in the early 2000s by multiplying watershed-level N inputs (8-digit US Geologic Survey Hydrologic Unit Codes; HUC8s) with published coefficients describing nutrient uptake efficiency, leaching losses, and gaseous emissions. We scaled these N leakage estimates with mitigation, remediation, direct damage, and substitution costs associated with human health, agriculture, ecosystems, and climate (per kg of N) to calculate annual damage cost (US dollars in 2008 or as reported) of anthropogenic N per HUC8. Estimates of N leakage by HUC8 ranged from contamination. Nationally, potential health and environmental damages of anthropogenic N in the early 2000s totaled 210 billion yr-1 USD (range: 81-441 billion yr-1). While a number of gaps and uncertainties remain in these estimates, overall this work represents a starting point to inform decisions and engage stakeholders on the costs of N pollution.

  12. Economic aspects of severe sepsis: a review of intensive care unit costs, cost of illness and cost effectiveness of therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchardi, Hilmar; Schneider, Heinz

    2004-01-01

    Severe sepsis remains both an important clinical challenge and an economic burden in intensive care. An estimated 750,000 cases occur each year in the US alone (300 cases per 100,000 population). Lower numbers are estimated for most European countries (e.g. Germany and Austria: 54-116 cases per year per 100,000). Sepsis patients are generally treated in intensive care units (ICUs) where close supervision and intensive care treatment by a competent team with adequate equipment can be provided. Staffing costs represent from 40% to >60% of the total ICU budget. Because of the high proportion of fixed costs in ICU treatment, the total cost of ICU care is mainly dependent on the length of ICU stay (ICU-LOS). The average total cost per ICU day is estimated at approximately 1200 Euro for countries with a highly developed healthcare system (based on various studies conducted between 1989 and 2001 and converted at 2003 currency rates). Patients with infections and severe sepsis require a prolonged ICU-LOS, resulting in higher costs of treatment compared with other ICU patients. US cost-of-illness studies focusing on direct costs per sepsis patient have yielded estimates of 34,000 Euro, whereas European studies have given lower cost estimates, ranging from 23,000 Euro to 29,000 Euro. Direct costs, however, make up only about 20-30% of the cost of illness of severe sepsis. Indirect costs associated with severe sepsis account for 70-80% of costs and arise mainly from productivity losses due to mortality. Because of increasing healthcare cost pressures worldwide, economic issues have become important for the introduction of new innovations. This is evident when introducing new biotechnology products, such as drotrecogin-alpha (activated protein C), into specific therapy for severe sepsis. Data so far suggest that when drotrecogin-alpha treatment is targeted to those patients most likely to achieve the greatest benefit, the drug is cost effective by the standards of other well accepted life-saving interventions. PMID:15294012

  13. Nuclear power and global warming: a first cost-benefit calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper investigates the costs and benefits of a modest nuclear power programme in the European Union to combat the threat of global warming. The nuclear programme is found to bring a double benefit. The first and more obvious benefit is that the economic impacts of global warming are reduced. The second benefit is counter-intuitive; most people would expect it to be a cost. It comes from the stimulus to the economy from the construction of the nuclear plant, which, with the recycling of carbon tax revenues, offsets its construction and operating costs, and may even cause consumers' expenditure to rise. Calculations in this paper show that over the period to 2100 the mean net present value of the first benefit is 6 billion European Currency Units (ECU; 1 ECU is about Dollars 1), while the second benefit has a mean net present value of 159 billion ECU. However both benefits, particularly the second, are still very uncertain, to the extent that even their sign is not yet definitely established. (author)

  14. Low-Cost Sensor Units for Measuring Urban Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popoola, O. A.; Mead, M.; Stewart, G.; Hodgson, T.; McLoed, M.; Baldovi, J.; Landshoff, P.; Hayes, M.; Calleja, M.; Jones, R.

    2010-12-01

    Measurements of selected key air quality gases (CO, NO & NO2) have been made with a range of miniature low-cost sensors based on electrochemical gas sensing technology incorporating GPS and GPRS for position and communication respectively. Two types of simple to operate sensors units have been designed to be deployed in relatively large numbers. Mobile handheld sensor units designed for operation by members of the public have been deployed on numerous occasions including in Cambridge, London and Valencia. Static sensor units have also been designed for long-term autonomous deployment on existing street furniture. A study was recently completed in which 45 sensor units were deployed in the Cambridge area for a period of 3 months. Results from these studies indicate that air quality varies widely both spatially and temporally. The widely varying concentrations found suggest that the urban environment cannot be fully understood using limited static site (AURN) networks and that a higher resolution, more dispersed network is required to better define air quality in the urban environment. The results also suggest that higher spatial and temporal resolution measurements could improve knowledge of the levels of individual exposure in the urban environment.

  15. Simple cost risk-benefit calculation: nuclear plant backfit analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Margulies, Timothy S

    2004-12-01

    The radiological risks include the probabilities and consequences of severe accidents at commercial nuclear power plants. The purpose of this paper is to present a valuation on the expected person-rem or societal committed dose from major accidents to identify whether back-fits in design modification can be supported. The approach of project evaluation by engineers of amortization is somewhat modified for these probabilistic events. A sample calculation is presented along with examples from published analytical calculations for several US light water reactors.

  16. 47 CFR 65.300 - Calculations of the components and weights of the cost of capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...weights of the cost of capital. 65.300 Section...weights of the cost of capital. (a) Sections...stock, and financial structure weights for prescription...composite financial structure for all local exchange...Excluded from cost of capital calculations...

  17. 75 FR 13123 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Representative Average Unit Costs of Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-18

    ...: Representative Average Unit Costs of Energy'', dated June 3, 2009, 74 FR 26675. Effective April 19, 2010, the... Unit Costs of Energy for Five Residential Energy Sources Per million Btu As required by test Type of... Average Unit Costs of Energy AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department...

  18. 10 CFR 950.25 - Calculation of covered costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...principal or interest on any debt obligation financing the...covered delay to the extent the debt obligation was included in...average of the ratios of the net generation to the grid for calculating...average of the ratios of the net generation to the grid for...

  19. Estimating nuclear fuel cycle cost using a hand-held programmable calculator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A program has been developed by which average fuel cycle cost for a single reload batch can be calculated in a few minutes using a hand-held programmable calculator. The program described uses a modification of the so-called seven-page method, wherein the method was expanded to calculate mixed oxide fuel cycle cost, and to calculate the cost of off-site spent fuel storage prior to reprocessing or final spent fuel disposal; a fuel fabrication loss factor was added for plutonium and/or uranium fuel fabrication; and a single payment was used for fuel fabrication instead of several monthly payments

  20. Assessing DRG cost accounting with respect to resource allocation and tariff calculation: the case of Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogl, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the German diagnosis related groups (G-DRG) cost accounting scheme by assessing its resource allocation at hospital level and its tariff calculation at national level. First, the paper reviews and assesses the three steps in the G-DRG resource allocation scheme at hospital level: (1) the groundwork; (2) cost-center accounting; and (3) patient-level costing. Second, the paper reviews and assesses the three steps in G-DRG national tariff calculation: (1) plausibility checks; (2) inlier calculation; and (3) the "one hospital" approach. The assessment is based on the two main goals of G-DRG introduction: improving transparency and efficiency. A further empirical assessment attests high costing quality. The G-DRG cost accounting scheme shows high system quality in resource allocation at hospital level, with limitations concerning a managerially relevant full cost approach and limitations in terms of advanced activity-based costing at patient-level. However, the scheme has serious flaws in national tariff calculation: inlier calculation is normative, and the "one hospital" model causes cost bias, adjustment and representativeness issues. The G-DRG system was designed for reimbursement calculation, but developed to a standard with strategic management implications, generalized by the idea of adapting a hospital's cost structures to DRG revenues. This combination causes problems in actual hospital financing, although resource allocation is advanced at hospital level. PMID:22935314

  1. An evaluation of airline beta values and their application in calculating the cost of equity capital.

    OpenAIRE

    Turner, Sheelah; Morrell, Peter

    2003-01-01

    This paper focuses on the calculation of the cost of equity capital in a sample of airlines, in comparison to industry-calculated values. The approach usually taken is to apply the Capital Asset Pricing Model to airline stock prices and market indices. The research shows that the calculated b values are sensitive to the precise methodology and calculations used. Further, the low regression model ?ts indicate the Capital Asset Pricing Model may not be the most suitable model for b value calcul...

  2. Life cycle costing of waste management systems: Overview, calculation principles and case studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez-Sanchez, Veronica; Kromann, Mikkel A.; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides a detailed and comprehensive cost model for the economic assessment of solid waste management systems. The model was based on the principles of Life Cycle Costing (LCC) and followed a bottom-up calculation approach providing detailed cost items for all key technologies within modern waste systems. All technologies were defined per tonne of waste input, and each cost item within a technology was characterised by both a technical and an economic parameter (for example amount an...

  3. Cost and usage patterns of antibiotics in a tertiary care neurosurgical unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Singh Sharma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The routine use of prophylactic antibiotics in neurosurgery has been shown to significantly reduce surgical site infection rates. The documentation of non-surgical site, nosocomial infections in neurosurgical patients remains limited, despite this being a stimulus for prolific antibiotic usage. The actual quantum of antibiotic use in neurosurgery and its role in infection control remain both undocumented and controversial. The authors address this issue with a cost-effectiveness study using historical controls. Materials and Methods: Bacteriologically positive body fluid samples were used to quantify infection rates in the year 2006 and compared with those in the year 1997. Itemized drug lists obtained from dedicated neurosurgical intensive care units and wards were used to quantify antibiotic usage and calculate their costs. Results were compared using both historical and internal controls. The monetary conversion factor used was INR 40=US$1. Results: A total of 3114 consecutive elective and emergency neurosurgical procedures were performed during the study period. 329 patients (10.6% were recorded to have bacteriologically positive body fluid samples, and 100,250 units of antibiotics were consumed costing Rs. 14,378,227.5 ($359,455.7. On an average, an operated patient received 32.2 units of antibiotics valued at Rs. 4,617 ($115.4. The crude infection rates were recorded to have reduced significantly in comparison to 1997, but did not differ between mirror intra-departmental units with significantly different antibiotic usage. Conclusions: Antibiotics accounted for 31% of the per capita cost of consumables for performing a craniotomy in the year 2006. This estimate should be factored into projecting future package costs.

  4. A practical approach for electron monitor unit calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electron monitor unit (MU) calculation requires measured beam data such as the relative output factor (ROF) of a cone, insert correction factor (ICF) and effective source-to-surface distance (ESD). Measuring the beam data to cover all possible clinical cases is not practical for a busy clinic because it takes tremendous time and labor. In this study, we propose a practical approach to reduce the number of data measurements without affecting accuracy. It is based on two findings of dosimetric properties of electron beams. One is that the output ratio of two inserts is independent of the cone used, and the other is that ESD is a function of field size but independent of cone and jaw opening. For the measurements to prove the findings, a parallel plate ion chamber (Markus, PTW 23343) with an electrometer (Cardinal Health 35040) was used. We measured the outputs to determine ROF, ICF and ESD of different energies (5-21 MeV). Measurements were made in a Plastic Water(TM) phantom or in water. Three linear accelerators were used: Siemens MD2 (S/N 2689), Siemens Primus (S/N 3305) and Varian Clinic 21-EX (S/N 1495). With these findings, the number of data set to be measured can be reduced to less than 20% of the data points. (note)

  5. Burden of disease and costs of aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (aSAH in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gray Alastair

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To estimate life years and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs lost and the economic burden of aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (aSAH in the United Kingdom including healthcare and non-healthcare costs from a societal perspective. Methods All UK residents in 2005 with aSAH (International Classification of Diseases 10th revision (ICD-10 code I60. Sex and age-specific abridged life tables were generated for a general population and aSAH cohorts. QALYs in each cohort were calculated adjusting the life tables with health-related quality of life (HRQL data. Healthcare costs included hospital expenditure, cerebrovascular rehabilitation, primary care and community health and social services. Non-healthcare costs included informal care and productivity losses arising from morbidity and premature death. Results A total of 80,356 life years and 74,807 quality-adjusted life years were estimated to be lost due to aSAH in the UK in 2005. aSAH costs the National Health Service (NHS £168.2 million annually with hospital inpatient admissions accounting for 59%, community health and social services for 18%, aSAH-related operations for 15% and cerebrovascular rehabilitation for 6% of the total NHS estimated costs. The average per patient cost for the NHS was estimated to be £23,294. The total economic burden (including informal care and using the human capital method to estimate production losses of a SAH in the United Kingdom was estimated to be £510 million annually. Conclusion The economic and disease burden of aSAH in the United Kingdom is reported in this study. Decision-makers can use these results to complement other information when informing prevention policies in this field and to relate health care expenditures to disease categories.

  6. What does it cost to prevent on-duty firefighter cardiac events? A content valid method for calculating costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, P Daniel; Suyama, Joe; Reis, Steven E; Weaver, Matthew D; Hostler, David

    2013-01-01

    Cardiac arrest is a leading cause of mortality among firefighters. We sought to develop a valid method for determining the costs of a workplace prevention program for firefighters. In 2012, we developed a draft framework using human resource accounting and in-depth interviews with experts in the firefighting and insurance industries. The interviews produced a draft cost model with 6 components and 26 subcomponents. In 2013, we randomly sampled 100 fire chiefs out of >7,400 affiliated with the International Association of Fire Chiefs. We used the Content Validity Index (CVI) to identify the content valid components of the draft cost model. This was accomplished by having fire chiefs rate the relevancy of cost components using a 4-point Likert scale (highly relevant to not relevant). We received complete survey data from 65 fire chiefs (65% response rate). We retained 5 components and 21 subcomponents based on CVI scores ?0.70. The five main components include, (1) investment costs, (2) orientation and training costs, (3) medical and pharmaceutical costs, (4) education and continuing education costs, and (5) maintenance costs. Data from a diverse sample of fire chiefs has produced a content valid method for calculating the cost of a prevention program among firefighters. PMID:24455288

  7. INTEGRATING THE ABC METHOD OF COSTS CALCULATION AND CASH VALUE ADDED

    OpenAIRE

    Marius Sorin DINCA; Gheorghita DINCA

    2010-01-01

    In our paper we intend to explore the possibility of integrating the ABC method of cost calculation with cash based value measure, i.e. the Cash Value Added. Our purpose is to develop an instrument for the management of productive companies that will allow them to administrate the process of value creation at the level of individual products or services.The activity based costing (ABC) method of cost calculation can be extended to the way of allocating the capital costs to individual products...

  8. Critical Care Medicine Beds, Use, Occupancy, and Costs in the United States: A Methodological Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, Neil A; Pastores, Stephen M

    2015-11-01

    This article is a methodological review to help the intensivist gain insights into the classic and sometimes arcane maze of national databases and methodologies used to determine and analyze the ICU bed supply, use, occupancy, and costs in the United States. Data for total ICU beds, use, and occupancy can be derived from two large national healthcare databases: the Healthcare Cost Report Information System maintained by the federal Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services and the proprietary Hospital Statistics of the American Hospital Association. Two costing methodologies can be used to calculate U.S. ICU costs: the Russell equation and national projections. Both methods are based on cost and use data from the national hospital datasets or from defined groups of hospitals or patients. At the national level, an understanding of U.S. ICU bed supply, use, occupancy, and costs helps provide clarity to the width and scope of the critical care medicine enterprise within the U.S. healthcare system. This review will also help the intensivist better understand published studies on administrative topics related to critical care medicine and be better prepared to participate in their own local hospital organizations or regional critical care medicine programs. PMID:26308432

  9. Calculation of Total Cost, Tolerance Based on Taguchi?s, Asymmetric Quality Loss Function Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, R S; N. Alagumurthi; Ramesh, R

    2009-01-01

    Problem statement: Current world market force the manufacturing sectors to develop high quality product and process design with minimum possible cost. About 80% of problems in production units may be attributed to 20% of design tolerance causes. While design typically represents the smallest actual cost elements in products (around 5%), it leverages the largest cost influence (around 70%). So design engineers continuously stumble upon problem of design for high quality performance with lower ...

  10. Marginal cost calculation of energy production in hydro thermoelectric systems considering the transmission system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The alternatives for calculation of energy marginal cost in hydroelectric systems, considering the transmission one, was analysed, including fundamental concepts; generation/transmission systems, represented by linear power flow model; production marginal costs in hydrothermal systems and computation aspects. (C.G.C.). 11 refs, 5 figs

  11. 48 CFR 1845.7101-3 - Unit acquisition cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...representative of the types of costs that shall be included...or indirect production costs (for assets produced or constructed...Acquisition and preparation costs of buildings and other...construction work. (8) Fixed equipment and...

  12. 76 FR 79678 - Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; North Hollywood Operable Unit of the San...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-22

    ...Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; North Hollywood Operable Unit of the San Fernando Valley...of response costs concerning the North Hollywood Operable Unit of the San Fernando Valley...pay a total of $102,161 to the North Hollywood Operable Unit Special Account...

  13. 76 FR 77528 - Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; North Hollywood Operable Unit of the San...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-13

    ...Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; North Hollywood Operable Unit of the San Fernando Valley...of response costs concerning the North Hollywood Operable Unit of the San Fernando Valley...pay a total of $102,161 to the North Hollywood Operable Unit Special Account...

  14. 77 FR 123 - Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; North Hollywood Operable Unit of the San...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-03

    ...Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; North Hollywood Operable Unit of the San Fernando Valley...of response costs concerning the North Hollywood Operable Unit of the San Fernando Valley...pay a total of $185,734 to the North Hollywood Operable Unit Special Account...

  15. Development of radiological concentrations and unit liter doses for TWRS FSAR radiological consequence calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analysis described in this report develops the Unit Liter Doses for use in the TWRS FSAR. The Unit Liter Doses provide a practical way to calculate conservative radiological consequences for a variety of potential accidents for the tank farms

  16. Assessing DRG cost accounting with respect to resource allocation and tariff calculation: the case of Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Vogl, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the German diagnosis related groups (G-DRG) cost accounting scheme by assessing its resource allocation at hospital level and its tariff calculation at national level. First, the paper reviews and assesses the three steps in the G-DRG resource allocation scheme at hospital level: (1) the groundwork; (2) cost-center accounting; and (3) patient-level costing. Second, the paper reviews and assesses the three steps in G-DRG national tariff calculation: (1) ...

  17. Investigations of the unit generation costs of the nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An extensive study has been carried out to investigate the unit generation costs of different reactor types. The study analyzes the following: i) development of capital costs, ii) Fuel cycle costs, iii) operation and maintenance costs, iv) local and foreign finance requirements for an arbitrary reactor type

  18. Subjective Evaluation of Join Cost and Smoothing Methods for Unit Selection Speech Synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Vepa, Jithendra; King, Simon

    2005-01-01

    In unit selection-based concatenative speech synthesis, join cost (also known as concatenation cost), which measures how well two units can be joined together, is one of the main criteria for selecting appropriate units from the inventory. Usually, some form of local parameter smoothing is also needed to disguise the remaining discontinuities. This paper presents a subjective evaluation of three join cost functions and three smoothing methods. We also describe the design and performance of a ...

  19. Purchasing motors in the light of full-cost calculation; Beschaffung von Motoren unter der Vollkostenbetrachtung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauchle, P.; Schnyder, G.

    2006-07-01

    This final report published by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a study made on how full-cost calculation can help define the optimal purchasing strategy for electrical drives. According to the authors, taking total life-cycle costs into consideration also guarantees economical operation and helps avoid unexpected service costs. The report describes the goals of the project and co-operation with industry and users. Factors influencing life-cycle costs are looked at in detail, including investments, installation and operator-training, operation and monitoring as well as maintenance and repair. Also, energy costs are looked at, as are environmental aspects and the disposal of drives taken out of service. The calculation of the economic feasibility of two types of motor is looked at. Sample Calls for Tender are presented and software for the evaluation of offers is briefly discussed.

  20. Implementation of Cost Calculation Model in Forest Evaluation of Požega Forest Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stjepan Posavec

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The specific nature of forestry as an economic activity generates problems in realizing the set business plans and executing commercial operations. Business analysis deals with concepts and methods of perceiving the degree of development, as well as with unrealized possibilities of a business entity. The particular character of analyzing business operations of entities dealing with forest management arises, among other things, from the need to assure forest sustainability. In managing forests and forestland, it is not always possible to obey the principle of operational profitability, as the lack of any silvicultural treatments jeopardizes future increment of wood biomass and leads to the decline in the general forest value. Furthermore, the specificity of forest management is particularly evident in a long term cycle of biomass production, and extensive period of time between initial activities and the achieved economic effects, and in investments into forests which frequently exceed the financial possibilities of forest owners. The achieved degree and the unrealized possibilities of developing the forest potential are conditioned by biological factors and by economic and technical treatments. To measure and evaluate the effects of these factors on forest sustainability, specific knowledge is required combined with specific criteria for analytical assessment of the success of business entities dealing with forest management.This paper discusses economic and business analysis in forestry. It presents the results of the research project conducted by the state forest company »Hrvatske šume« d.o.o. and Faculty of Forestry University of Zagreb over a 5 year period. The data regarding the economic value of the forest, annual cut value, biological regeneration costs for all forest management units in Požega Forest Administration, including incomes and costs of forest harvesting have been analyzed together with the data regarding profitability and economic indicators. The actual cutting value method has been used for the analyses of the stand value. The Activity Based Cost Method has been used for the cost analysis. The cost-effectiveness and profitability in forestry have also been calculated.Požega Forest Administration manages the area of 52,025 ha, mainly productive forests in the Municipality of Slavonia and Požega. The total annual cut is 140,991 m3 on the area of 3,615 ha. The total growing stock of the state forests is 9,744,426 m3, which includes 9,200,025 m3 of even-aged forests and 544,401 m³ of uneven aged forests. The annual wood volume increment is 253,947 m3. The average forest stand value is 46,871 HRK/ha, or 54,723 HRK/ha without first age class (see Fig. 1 Forest value per management unit.The total costs of biological regeneration are 1,529 HRK/ha, and without forest management, silviculture, forest protection and wood construction it is 7,029 HRK/ha. The costs of the biological regeneration are shown in Fig. 2. The value of the annual cut for Požega Forest Administration is 10,214 HRK/ha (see Table 1.The costs of forest harvesting in 2007 are 8,460 HRK/ha on average, and 8,659 HRK/ha in 2008. Expenditures and revenues of forest harvesting in Požega Forest Administration 2007/2008 are shown in Fig. 4. If the costs of biological regeneration are included, the cost-effectiveness ratio is less than one (e<1, meaning that the management of the selected forest administration is not cost-effective. However, according to the presented negative economic indicators, profitability in forestry has shown positive forest management results. The possible measures that could lead to the increase in profitability are those affecting the company income. To achieve this goal it is necessary to lower the forest biological regeneration costs, to lower the market sale price, to increase the engaged resources, and to improve the capacity utilization.This research has shown that specific understanding and measuring of forest potentials are conditioned by biological factors and by economic and technical t

  1. Life cycle costing of waste management systems: Overview, calculation principles and case studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez-Sanchez, Veronica; Kromann, Mikkel A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides a detailed and comprehensive cost model for the economic assessment of solid waste management systems. The model was based on the principles of Life Cycle Costing (LCC) and followed a bottom-up calculation approach providing detailed cost items for all key technologies within modern waste systems. All technologies were defined per tonne of waste input, and each cost item within a technology was characterised by both a technical and an economic parameter (for example amount and cost of fuel related to waste collection), to ensure transparency, applicability and reproducibility. Cost items were classified as: (1) budget costs, (2) transfers (for example taxes, subsidies and fees) and (3) externality costs (for example damage or abatement costs related to emissions and disamenities). Technology costs were obtained as the sum of all cost items (of the same type) within a specific technology, while scenario costs were the sum of all technologies involved in a scenario. The cost model allows forthe completion of three types of LCC: a Conventional LCC, for the assessment of financial costs, an Environmental LCC, for the assessment of financial costs whose results are complemented by a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) for the same system, and a Societal LCC, for socio-economic assessments. Conventional and Environmental LCCs includes budget costs and transfers, while Societal LCCs includes budget and externality costs. Critical aspects were found in the existing literature regarding the cost assessment of waste management, namely system boundary equivalency, accounting for temporally distributed emissions and impacts, inclusions of transfers, the internalisation of environmental impacts and the coverage of shadow prices, and there was also significant confusion regarding terminology. The presented cost model was implemented in two case study scenarios assessing the costs involved in the source segregation of organic waste from 100,000 Danish households and the subsequent co-digestion of organic waste withanimal manure. Overall, source segregation resulted in higher financial costs than the alternative of incinerating the organic waste with the residual waste: 1.6. M€/year, of which 0.9. M€/year was costs for extra bins and bags used by the households, 1.0. M€/year for extra collections and -0.3. M€/year saved on incineration.

  2. Life cycle costing of waste management systems: overview, calculation principles and case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Sanchez, Veronica; Kromann, Mikkel A; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2015-02-01

    This paper provides a detailed and comprehensive cost model for the economic assessment of solid waste management systems. The model was based on the principles of Life Cycle Costing (LCC) and followed a bottom-up calculation approach providing detailed cost items for all key technologies within modern waste systems. All technologies were defined per tonne of waste input, and each cost item within a technology was characterised by both a technical and an economic parameter (for example amount and cost of fuel related to waste collection), to ensure transparency, applicability and reproducibility. Cost items were classified as: (1) budget costs, (2) transfers (for example taxes, subsidies and fees) and (3) externality costs (for example damage or abatement costs related to emissions and disamenities). Technology costs were obtained as the sum of all cost items (of the same type) within a specific technology, while scenario costs were the sum of all technologies involved in a scenario. The cost model allows for the completion of three types of LCC: a Conventional LCC, for the assessment of financial costs, an Environmental LCC, for the assessment of financial costs whose results are complemented by a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) for the same system, and a Societal LCC, for socio-economic assessments. Conventional and Environmental LCCs includes budget costs and transfers, while Societal LCCs includes budget and externality costs. Critical aspects were found in the existing literature regarding the cost assessment of waste management, namely system boundary equivalency, accounting for temporally distributed emissions and impacts, inclusions of transfers, the internalisation of environmental impacts and the coverage of shadow prices, and there was also significant confusion regarding terminology. The presented cost model was implemented in two case study scenarios assessing the costs involved in the source segregation of organic waste from 100,000 Danish households and the subsequent co-digestion of organic waste with animal manure. Overall, source segregation resulted in higher financial costs than the alternative of incinerating the organic waste with the residual waste: 1.6 M€/year, of which 0.9 M€/year was costs for extra bins and bags used by the households, 1.0 M€/year for extra collections and -0.3 M€/year saved on incineration. PMID:25524749

  3. 48 CFR 9904.410 - Allocation of business unit general and administrative expenses to final cost objectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...false Allocation of business unit general and administrative...Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD...PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.410 Allocation of business unit general and...

  4. Use of an expert system for energy cost calculations in the pulp and paper industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, an application for the calculation of energy prices and product energy costs in the pulp and paper industry by using the Xi Plus expert system is presented. The use of expert systems in the energy field and also the Xi Plus expert system and its general features are also discussed. The application has been made after collecting data from several sources. It runs in an IBM AT compatible microcomputer therefore being easily used in mills. The name of the application is PRODUCT ENERGY COST. It has a three level structure: the mill level, the department level and the main equipment level. Currently, the mill level and, in the energy production area, the department level (power plant) and the equipment level (boilers, turbines) are used. The application consists of four knowledge base groups. Altogether there are 52 separate knowledge bases having 534 rules or demons. The knowledge base groups are: BASIC DATA, ENERGY USE, ENERGY PRODUCTION and ENERGY COSTS. The application can be used for various heat and electrical energy price calculations or for energy cost calculations for different pulp and paper products. In this study, the energy prices for kraft pulp, TMP, newsprint and fine paper in different operating conditions and the associated energy costs of the products are calculated. Also, in some cases a sensitivity analysis is done. The expert system is quite suitable for this type of calculation and the method could be further developed for specific industrial needs, e.g. to enhance the energy management systems

  5. ABC estimation of unit costs for emergency department services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, R L; Schroeder, R E

    1996-04-01

    Rapid evolution of the health care industry forces managers to make cost-effective decisions. Typical hospital cost accounting systems do not provide emergency department managers with the information needed, but emergency department settings are so complex and dynamic as to make the more accurate activity-based costing (ABC) system prohibitively expensive. Through judicious use of the available traditional cost accounting information and simple computer spreadsheets. managers may approximate the decision-guiding information that would result from the much more costly and time-consuming implementation of ABC. PMID:10156656

  6. Could CT screening for lung cancer ever be cost effective in the United Kingdom?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whynes David K

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The absence of trial evidence makes it impossible to determine whether or not mass screening for lung cancer would be cost effective and, indeed, whether a clinical trial to investigate the problem would be justified. Attempts have been made to resolve this issue by modelling, although the complex models developed to date have required more real-world data than are currently available. Being founded on unsubstantiated assumptions, they have produced estimates with wide confidence intervals and of uncertain relevance to the United Kingdom. Method I develop a simple, deterministic, model of a screening regimen potentially applicable to the UK. The model includes only a limited number of parameters, for the majority of which, values have already been established in non-trial settings. The component costs of screening are derived from government guidance and from published audits, whilst the values for test parameters are derived from clinical studies. The expected health gains as a result of screening are calculated by combining published survival data for screened and unscreened cohorts with data from Life Tables. When a degree of uncertainty over a parameter value exists, I use a conservative estimate, i.e. one likely to make screening appear less, rather than more, cost effective. Results The incremental cost effectiveness ratio of a single screen amongst a high-risk male population is calculated to be around £14,000 per quality-adjusted life year gained. The average cost of this screening regimen per person screened is around £200. It is possible that, when obtained experimentally in any future trial, parameter values will be found to differ from those previously obtained in non-trial settings. On the basis both of differing assumptions about evaluation conventions and of reasoned speculations as to how test parameters and costs might behave under screening, the model generates cost effectiveness ratios as high as around £20,000 and as low as around £7,000. Conclusion It is evident that eventually being able to identify a cost effective regimen of CT screening for lung cancer in the UK is by no means an unreasonable expectation.

  7. Calculation of Total Cost, Tolerance Based on Taguchi?s, Asymmetric Quality Loss Function Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. S. Kumar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Current world market force the manufacturing sectors to develop high quality product and process design with minimum possible cost. About 80% of problems in production units may be attributed to 20% of design tolerance causes. While design typically represents the smallest actual cost elements in products (around 5%, it leverages the largest cost influence (around 70%. So design engineers continuously stumble upon problem of design for high quality performance with lower cost. Objectives of this study where to: (i simultaneous selection of design and manufacturing tolerance (ii minimization of total cost (sum of the manufacturing cost and Taguchi?s asymmetric quality cost (iii minimum cost and its machining tolerance. Approach: Rotor key base assembly was considered as case study to optimize the minimization of assembly total cost and machining tolerance. New global nonlinear optimization techniques called pattern search algorithm had been implemented to find optimal tolerance allocation and total cost. Results: In this study minimum cost arrived was 45.15 Cr and its corresponding tolerances for machining process turning, drilling, face milling, face milling and drilling where 0.063, 0.0508, 0.2127, 0.2127, 0.2540 mm respectively at worst case conditions. Conclusion: Results indicated that optimization by integer programming, sequential quadratic programming and exhaustive search, nonlinear programming, genetic algorithm, simulated annealing, fuzzy logic, number set theory and Monte Carlo simulation did not give much least total cost and also predicted that pattern search algorithm was robust method. Second the method, generally termed as concurrent tolerance synthesis was well suited for engineering environment, where high quality products with low total cost were designed and manufactured.

  8. Consideration concerning the costs of the 300 kW wind units developed in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A demonstrative wind farm with four research units, 300 kW each, is in developing stage in Romania. The article shows economic analysis of these experimental wind units and their cost structure focusing in component costs, performance, manufacturing technology and installing work. (author)

  9. Consideration concerning the costs of the 300 kW wind units developed in Romania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gyulai, F.; Bej, A. [Technical Univ. of Timisoara (Romania). Wind Energy Research Center

    1995-12-31

    A demonstrative wind farm with four research units, 300 kW each, is in developing stage in Romania. The article shows economic analysis of these experimental wind units and their cost structure focusing in component costs, performance, manufacturing technology and installing work. (author)

  10. Cost calculation - a necessary step towards widespread adoption of advanced radiotherapy technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lievens, Yolande; Borras, Josep M

    2015-01-01

    Radiotherapy costs are an often underestimated component of the economic assessment of new radiotherapy treatments and technologies. That the radiotherapy budget only consumes a finite part of the total cancer and healthcare budget does not relieve us from our responsibility to balance the extra costs to the additional benefits of new, more advanced, but typically also more expensive treatments we want to deliver. Yet, in contrast to what is the case for oncology drugs, literature evidence remains limited, as well for economic evaluations comparing new radiotherapy interventions as for cost calculation studies. Even more cumbersome, the available costing studies in the field of radiotherapy fail to accurately capture the real costs of our treatments due to the large variation in cost inputs, in scope of the analysis, in costing methodology. And this is not trivial. Accurate resource cost accounting lays the basis for the further steps in health technology assessment leading to radiotherapy investments and reimbursement, at the local, the national and the worldwide level. In the current paper we review some evidence from the existing costing literature and discuss how such data can be used to support reimbursement setting and investment cases for new radiotherapy equipment and infrastructure.

  11. Cost calculation: a necessary step towards widespread adoption of advanced radiotherapy technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lievens, Yolande; Borras, Jose Maria; Grau, Cai

    2015-10-01

    Radiotherapy costs are an often underestimated component of the economic assessment of new radiotherapy treatments and technologies. That the radiotherapy budget only consumes a finite part of the total cancer and healthcare budget does not relieve us from our responsibility to balance the extra costs to the additional benefits of new, more advanced, but typically also more expensive treatments we want to deliver. Yet, in contrast to what is the case for oncology drugs, literature evidence remains limited, as well for economic evaluations comparing new radiotherapy interventions as for cost calculation studies. Even more cumbersome, the available costing studies in the field of radiotherapy fail to accurately capture the real costs of our treatments due to the large variation in cost inputs, in scope of the analysis, in costing methodology. And this is not trivial. Accurate resource cost accounting lays the basis for the further steps in health technology assessment leading to radiotherapy investments and reimbursement, at the local, the national and the worldwide level. In the current paper we review some evidence from the existing costing literature and discuss how such data can be used to support reimbursement setting and investment cases for new radiotherapy equipment and infrastructure. PMID:26198650

  12. Calculation of the CO2 Emission Reduction Costs in MARKAL Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Possible introduction of nuclear power plants is belong to the supply side long term mitigation options. These options are modeled in MARKAL by describing the technical, cost, availability and environmental data of the corresponding technologies. Model MARKAL (an acronym for MARket ALlocation) is a demand-driven, multi-period linear programming model of the technical energy system that deals with supply and demand side options. It is a cost-minimizing energy-environment system planning model used to investigate long-term responses to different future technological options, emissions limitations and policy scenarios of energy systems. Measures for CO2 reduction can be analyzed with MARKAL model in two ways, like conventional approach and forced introduction of technologies that do not appear in the baseline optimal solution. The latter way is used for calculation of the CO2 emission reduction costs in the case of nuclear power plants candidates in Croatian energy system. The differences in marginal costs are shown in the case of nuclear and coal power plants candidates. This analysis are performed in the scope of complete energy system (not only power sector), from supply side to technologies for energy transformation, and to demand side (sectors for energy consumption). This marginal costs are calculated as the ratio between the differences in discounted total system costs and emissions between the baseline and nuclear (coal) scenario. The results show which option is better from the optimality side of emission reduction, associated costs and possible final energy consumption changes in energy system. (author)

  13. INTEGRATING THE ABC METHOD OF COSTS CALCULATION AND CASH VALUE ADDED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Sorin DINCA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In our paper we intend to explore the possibility of integrating the ABC method of cost calculation with cash based value measure, i.e. the Cash Value Added. Our purpose is to develop an instrument for the management of productive companies that will allow them to administrate the process of value creation at the level of individual products or services.The activity based costing (ABC method of cost calculation can be extended to the way of allocating the capital costs to individual products and services. In the same time, the value based measures can register the shareholders’ value creation process only at the company level and not for the individual products or services as they lack the information regarding the assignment of capital costs to those products.By integrating the calculus of Cash Value Added in the ABC method we consider that the managers will get an important managerial tool for the efficient allocation of the investment capital for the various products or services, given their real profitability, which can be determined by including capital costs in the overall cost of the products or services.

  14. Alaskan Interregional Cost Differentials. An Examination of Costs of Living, Public School Foundation Program Instructional Unit Allotments, and School Operations Costs in Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaska Univ., Fairbanks. Inst. of Social, Economic, and Government Research.

    The primary purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between the cost-of-living allowance used in the Alaska Public School Foundation Program (PSFP) to the actual cost of providing educational services in different regions of the state. The focus of this examination is on "instructional unit allotments," the factor in the PSFP that…

  15. Hospital costs of central line-associated bloodstream infections and cost-effectiveness of closed vs. open infusion containers. The case of Intensive Care Units in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torbica Aleksandra

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives The aim was to evaluate direct health care costs of central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSI and to calculate the cost-effectiveness ratio of closed fully collapsible plastic intravenous infusion containers vs. open (glass infusion containers. Methods A two-year, prospective case-control study was undertaken in four intensive care units in an Italian teaching hospital. Patients with CLABSI (cases and patients without CLABSI (controls were matched for admission departments, gender, age, and average severity of illness score. Costs were estimated according to micro-costing approach. In the cost effectiveness analysis, the cost component was assessed as the difference between production costs while effectiveness was measured by CLABSI rate (number of CLABSI per 1000 central line days associated with the two infusion containers. Results A total of 43 cases of CLABSI were compared with 97 matched controls. The mean age of cases and controls was 62.1 and 66.6 years, respectively (p = 0.143; 56% of the cases and 57% of the controls were females (p = 0.922. The mean length of stay of cases and controls was 17.41 and 8.55 days, respectively (p Conclusions CLABSI results in considerable and significant increase in utilization of hospital resources. Use of innovative technologies such as closed infusion containers can significantly reduce the incidence of healthcare acquired infection without posing additional burden on hospital budgets.

  16. A systematic review of the unit costs of allied health and community services used by older people in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farag Inez

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An economic evaluation of interventions for older people requires accurate assessment of costing and consideration of both acute and long-term services. Accurate information on the unit cost of allied health and community services is not readily available in Australia however. This systematic review therefore aims to synthesise information available in the literature on the unit costs of allied health and community services that may be utilised by an older person living in Australia. Method A comprehensive search of Medline, Embase, CINAHL, Google Scholar and Google was undertaken. Specialised economic databases were also reviewed. In addition Australian Government Department websites were inspected. The search identified the cost of specified allied health services including: physiotherapy, occupational therapy, dietetics, podiatry, counselling and home nursing. The range of community services included: personal care, meals on wheels, transport costs and domestic services. Where the information was not available, direct contact with service providers was made. Results The number of eligible studies included in the qualitative synthesis was fourty-nine. Calculated hourly rates for Australian allied health services were adjusted to be in equivalent currency and were as follows as follows: physiotherapy $157.75, occupational therapy $150.77, dietetics $163.11, psychological services $165.77, community nursing $105.76 and podiatry $129.72. Conclusions Utilisation of the Medicare Benefits Scheduled fee as a broad indicator of the costs of services, may lead to underestimation of the real costs of services and therefore to inaccuracies in economic evaluation.

  17. Cost Analysis of an Open Low-Field (0.23T) MRI Unit: Effect of Procedure Shares in Combined Imaging, Interventional, and Neurosurgical Use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To analyze the cost structure of procedures performed in a multipurpose interventional magnetic resonance imaging (IMRI) unit and to analyze the effect of procedure shares on cost structure. Material and Methods: During a 1-year period, 691 procedures were performed in the IMRI unit, of which 563 were diagnostic MRI examinations, 89 MRI-guided interventions, and 39 MRI-guided neurosurgical operations. Three alternative utilization models of IMRI were created to simulate different local institutions by adjusting the proportions of different procedures. The costs of procedures were calculated by activity-based cost analysis. Results: The cost of the main procedure (imaging, biopsy, injection, or operation) was the most significant item in all procedures, accounting for 66-89% of the total costs. The volume of imaging has a major effect on unit costs. Volume is not such a deterministic factor in interventions due to the high material costs. The volume of neurosurgical use of IMRI has a major effect on the costs of radiological procedures due to the long operation times. Conclusion: The volumes of different procedures done on an IMRI unit have significant effects on the unit costs of the procedures

  18. MONNIE 2000: A description of a model to calculate environmental costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new model (MONNIE 2000) was developed by the RIVM in the Netherlands in 2000 to calculate environmental costs on a macro level. The model, it's theoretical backgrounds and the technical aspects are described, making it attractive to both the user and the designer of the model. A user manual on how to calculate with the model is included. The basic principle of the model is the use of a harmonised method for calculating environmental costs, which provides the user with an output that can easily be compared with and used in other economic statistics and macro-economic models in the Netherlands. Input for the model are yearly figures on operational costs, investments and savings from environmental measures. With MONNIE 2000 calculated environmental costs per policy target group, economic sector and theme can be shown, With this model the burden of environmental measures on the economic sectors and the environmental expenditures of the government can be presented as well. MONNIE 2000 is developed in Visual Basic and by using Excel as input and output a user-friendly data exchange is realised. 12 refs

  19. 47 CFR 65.305 - Calculation of the weighted average cost of capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., each weighted by its proportion in the capital structure of the telephone companies. (b) Unless the... capital. 65.305 Section 65.305 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON... Carriers § 65.305 Calculation of the weighted average cost of capital. (a) The composite weighted...

  20. Cost calculations at early stages of nuclear research facilities in the nordic countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nordic countries Denmark, Norway and Sweden, and to some extent also Finland, had very large nuclear research and development programs for a few decades starting in the nineteen fifties. Today, only some of the facilities are in use. Some have been decommissioned and dismantled while others are at various stages of planning for shutdown. The perspective ranges from imminent to several decades. It eventually became realized that considerable planning for the future decommissioning is warranted and that an integral part of this planning is financial, including how financial funds should be acquired, used and allocated over time. This necessitates that accurate and reliable cost estimates be obtained at all stages. However, this is associated with fundamental difficulties and treacherous complexities, especially for the early ones. Eventually, Denmark and Norway decided not to build any nuclear power plants while Finland and Sweden did. This is reflected in the financing where the latter countries have established systems with special funds in which money is being collected now to cover the future costs for the decommissioning of the research facilities. Nonetheless, the needs for planning for the decommissioning of nuclear research facilities are very similar. However, they differ considerably from those of nuclear power reactors, especially with regard to cost calculations. It has become apparent in the course of work that summation types of cost estimation methodologies give rise to large systematic errors if applied at early stages, in which case comparison based assessments are less biased and may be more reliable. Therefore, in order to achieve the required quality of the cost calculations, it is necessary that data and experience from authentic cases be utilized in models for cost calculations. It also implies that this calculation process should include a well adopted learning process. Thus, a Nordic co-operation has been established for the exchange and evaluation of cost-related information on nuclear research facilities. The aim is to identify good practices, accumulate experience, compile data from actual plants and projects, and to derive methodology for cost calculations, especially for early stages. The work includes the following tasks which constitutes the bulk of the present paper: identification of good practice with regard to the following: - strategy and planning; - methodology selection; - radiological surveying; - uncertainty analysis. - descriptions of relevant plants, features and projects: - decommissioning of reactor DR 1 in Denmark; - decommissioning of reactor R 1 in Sweden; - decommissioning of the pilot scale uranium fuel; reprocessing plant in Norway - planning for the future decommissioning of the TRIGA reactor in Finland. - techniques for assessments of costs introduction. (authors)

  1. Asset management and the calculation of capital costs for mains-usage fees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article discusses the requirements stipulated in the Swiss Electricity Supply Law that capital costs for all mains-levels must be declared on a yearly basis. The costs are calculated from current market value and depreciation according to technical lifetime. The authors examine the requirements placed on the declaration of capital costs and how they are calculated. The detailed book-keeping needed is discussed as is the large volume of data involved. The role of existing mains information systems is looked at, as are methods of assessing current assets. Experience gained in practice is discussed: This is taken as the basis for future processes. Utilities participating in the project and a number of solutions available are noted

  2. Calculation Of Recycle And Open Cycle Nuclear Fuel Cost Using Lagistase Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    . To be presented the calculation of recycle and open cycle nuclear fuel cost for LWR type that have net power of 600 MWe. This calculation using LEGECOST method developed by IAEA which have characteristics,where i.e. money is stated in constant money (no inflation),discount rate is equalized with interest rate and not consider tax and depreciation.As a conclusion is that open cycle nuclear fuel cost more advantage because it is cheaper than recycle nuclear fuel cost. This is caused that at present, reprocessing process disadvantage because it has not found yet more efficient and cheaper method, besides price of fresh uranium is still cheap. In future, the cost of recycle nuclear fuel cycle will be more competitive toward the cost of open nuclear fuel cycle if is found technology of reprocessing process that more advance, efficient and cheap. Increase of Pu use for reactor fuel especially MOX type will rise Pu price that finally will decrease the cost of recycle nuclear fuel cycle

  3. Extension of the COSYMA-ECONOMICS module - cost calculations based on different economic sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The COSYMA program system for evaluating the off-site consequences of accidental releases of radioactive material to the atmosphere includes an ECONOMICS module for assessing economic consequences. The aim of this module is to convert various consequences (radiation-induced health effects and impacts resulting from countermeasures) caused by an accident into the common framework of economic costs; this allows different effects to be expressed in the same terms and thus to make these effects comparable. With respect to the countermeasure 'movement of people', the dominant cost categories are 'loss-of-income costs' and 'costs of lost capital services'. In the original version of the ECONOMICS module these costs are calculated on the basis of the total number of people moved. In order to take into account also regional or local economic peculiarities of a nuclear site, the ECONOMICS module has been extended: Calculation of the above mentioned cost categories is now based on the number of employees in different economic sectors in the affected area. This extension of the COSYMA ECONOMICS module is described in more detail. (orig.)

  4. About real cost calculations for biogas from vinasse biodigestion and its energy utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salomon, K.R. [Universidade Federal de Alagoas (UFAL), Maceio, AL (Brazil)]. E-mail: kaka_salomon@yahoo.com.br; Lora , E.E.S.; Rocha, M.H. [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil). Thermal Systems Study Group]. E-mails: electo@unifei.edu.br; mateus.rocha@unifei.edu.br

    2008-07-01

    The sharp increase in ethanol production has drawn attention to the increase in the production of n residues, mainly stillage, a by-product from the ethanol agro-industry. As it is a highly polluting effluent that is generated in great volumes, its transport and disposal is not simple. Stillage Is a product that results from the distillation and fermentation of the sugarcane in the process of ethanol production. Today there are new environmental standards that restrict the disposal of the stillage in the soil. The anaerobic biodigestion comes as an alternative treatment for the stillage. One of the advantages of the biodigestion is that the stillage fertilization potential continues to be the same after the process and, this way, the effluent can be taken to the fields through fertirrigation. The main advantages are the conservation of the nutrients, mainly phosphor and nitrogen contents, and the increase in the pH for the application in the soil. This paper presents a methodology for the calculation of the biogas cost obtained from stillage biodigestion, considering the benefits of the fertirrigation with the effluent generated in the digester. Later an analysis of the economical feasibility of the use of the biogas obtained from the stillage anaerobic digestion in different scenarios is carried out, among them there are: electric power generation with alternative internal combustion, with gas turbines and micro-turbines, with the 'substituted' bagasse burned together with the biogas in the boilers, with the sales of the substituted bagasse (for electric power generation in another unit) and with the use of the biogas in spray dryers with the subsequent sales of dried yeasts. It is also considered an analysis under an environmental point of view of the use of the biogas that includes the possibility of selling the certificates of avoided emissions (carbon credits) due to the use of the biogas in substitution to fossil fuels. The most important results are presented in a comparative table. (author)

  5. Accelerating VASP electronic structure calculations using graphic processing units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacene, Mohamed; Anciaux-Sedrakian, Ani; Rozanska, Xavier; Klahr, Diego; Guignon, Thomas; Fleurat-Lessard, Paul

    2012-12-15

    We present a way to improve the performance of the electronic structure Vienna Ab initio Simulation Package (VASP) program. We show that high-performance computers equipped with graphics processing units (GPUs) as accelerators may reduce drastically the computation time when offloading these sections to the graphic chips. The procedure consists of (i) profiling the performance of the code to isolate the time-consuming parts, (ii) rewriting these so that the algorithms become better-suited for the chosen graphic accelerator, and (iii) optimizing memory traffic between the host computer and the GPU accelerator. We chose to accelerate VASP with NVIDIA GPU using CUDA. We compare the GPU and original versions of VASP by evaluating the Davidson and RMM-DIIS algorithms on chemical systems of up to 1100 atoms. In these tests, the total time is reduced by a factor between 3 and 8 when running on n (CPU core + GPU) compared to n CPU cores only, without any accuracy loss. PMID:22903247

  6. Study on the Development of Methodology for Cost Calculations and Financial Planning of Decommissioning Operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following study deals with the development of methodology for cost calculations and financial planning of decommissioning operations. It has been carried out by EDF / FRAMATOME / VUJE / SCK-CEN in the frame of the contract B7-032/2000/291058/MAR/C2 awarded by the European Commission. This study consists of 4 parts. The first task objective is to develop a reliable and transparent methodology for cost assessment and financial planning sufficient precise but without long and in depth investigations and studies. This methodology mainly contains: Calculation methods and algorithms for the elaboration of costs items making up the whole decommissioning cost. Estimated or standard values for the parameters and for the cost factors to be used in the above-mentioned algorithms Financial mechanism to be applied as to establish a financial planning. The second part task is the provision of standard values for the different parameters and costs factors described in the above-mentioned algorithms. This provision of data is based on the own various experience acquired by the members of the working team and on existing international references (databases, publications and reports). As decommissioning operations are spreading over several dozens of years, the scope of this task the description of the financial mechanisms to be applied to the different cost items as to establish a complete financial cost. It takes into account the financial schedule issued in task 1. The scope of this task consists in bringing together in a guideline all the information collected before: algorithms, data and financial mechanisms. (A.L.B.)

  7. Calculation of the cost of Generating Power in a Fast Reactor by the Discounting Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method of calculating the discounted cost of fuel cycles, using a computer, was presented during the 2nd Nuclear Meeting of the Forum Atómico Español held in Madrid during 27-28 October 1966. This method had been developed for optimization studies in relation to a 1000-MW(e) fast reactor under the ''Fast Reactors'' partnership agreement concluded between Euratom and the Belgian Government. The object of the paper is to describe how the method is applied and to analyse the initial results obtained with it. The calculational code, for use with an IBM 360 computer, consists of two parts. In the first part, the reactor characteristics necessary for the economic computations are determined; these consist essentially of the initial and final composition of the fuel (isotopic composition, plutonium content, proportion of inert material, fuel weight) and the time during which the fuel remains in the reactor. These characteristics are computed for each zone of the core, and of the axial and radial breeding blankets. In the second part of the code, the fuel cycle characteristics are first calculated: doubling time and various factors required for feasibility studies (loading and unloading factors, inventory factors in terms of natural uranium or 239Pu equivalent). The various specific costs are then determined by means of sub-routines. The discounting calculations are performed for each reactor zone and combined into two separate groups: costs discounted to the time of reactor start-up and costs discounted to shut-down. Two approaches are then possible, depending on whether the fissile material is purchased or leased from a national or international organization (this in turn depends on whether private ownership of fissile materials is permitted). The costs, expressed in kWh, are then grouped by zone and by type of operation (transport, manufacture, etc.), and sub-divided into fixed and variable costs, and operating and capital costs. The method has been applied to the German Na-1 reactor, and the results are extremely interesting. The cost breakdown shows the Importance of capital costs in the fuel cycle of a fast reactor. The Influence of various technical and economic parameters is brought out; for example, bum-up (the effect of which can no longer be represented by a simple hyperbola), loading frequency, the rate used for discounting and the price of plutonium. (author)

  8. Unit cost of providing and utilizing contraception services for newly married couples in Satara district of Maharashtra, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapnil Vishnu Lale

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Since 2007, Satara district is implementing a pilot project named "Second Honeymoon Package" (SHP. SHP gives cash incentives to encourage postponement of first pregnancy in newly married couples. At the same time, contraception services are also provided under National family welfare program. There requires a significant amount of commitment and expenditure from the beneficiaries to avail the benefits of governmental programs, which is often overlooked by the system. The costs of these two reproductive health interventions are compared in this study. Objective: To calculate the cost of providing and utilizing contraception services for the newly-wed couples in Satara district from the perspective of the Government of Maharashtra and that of beneficiaries'. Materials and Methods: This was a cost-minimization study of two reproductive health interventions in rural part of Satara district. Information about expenditure incurred was calculated from 17th June 2010 to 16th June 2012. Cost analysis was conducted from the perspective of Government of Maharashtra and that of beneficiaries'. Costs of SHP were evaluated in comparison with those of routine family welfare program. Results: One thousand and ninety-five out of 1355 participants (80.8% have used condoms, 125 participants (9.22% have used oral pills while only 15 (1.1% have used safe period method. The average distance of health facility from the homes of participants has been 4.24 km ± 6.54. Annual unit cost of implementation of SHP was Rs. 883 (16.35$/ year during the study period while the opportunity cost of utilizing the contraception services was Rs. 383.40 (7.1$ per person per year. The annual unit cost of implementation of family planning program was Rs. 323.73 (6$. Conclusions: In districts like Satara that have a strong family planning infrastructure, reorienting the program to provide contraception services for newly married couples may be achieved with minimal additional inputs.

  9. Conventional method for the calculation of the global energy cost of buildings; Methode conventionnelle de calcul du cout global energetique des batiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-05-01

    A working group driven by Electricite de France (EdF), Chauffage Fioul and Gaz de France (GdF) companies has been built with the sustain of several building engineering companies in order to clarify the use of the method of calculation of the global energy cost of buildings. This global cost is an economical decision help criterion among others. This press kit presents, first, the content of the method (input data, calculation of annual expenses, calculation of the global energy cost, display of results and limitations of the method). Then it fully describes the method and its appendixes necessary for its implementation: economical and financial context, general data of the project in progress, environmental data, occupation and comfort level, variants, investment cost of energy systems, investment cost for the structure linked with the energy system, investment cost for other invariant elements of the structure, calculation of consumptions (space heating, hot water, ventilation), maintenance costs (energy systems, structure), operation and exploitation costs, tariffs and consumption costs and taxes, actualized global cost, annualized global cost, comparison between variants. The method is applied to a council building of 23 flats taken as an example. (J.S.)

  10. A calculation program for harvesting and transportation costs of energy wood; Energiapuun korjuun ja kuljetuksen kustannuslaskentaohjelmisto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuitto, P.J.

    1996-12-31

    VTT Energy is compiling a large and versatile calculation program for harvesting and transportation costs of energy wood. The work has been designed and will be carried out in cooperation with Metsaeteho and Finntech Ltd. The program has been realised in Windows surroundings using SQLWindows graphical database application development system, using the SQLBase relational database management system. The objective of the research is to intensify and create new possibilities for comparison of the utilization costs and the profitability of integrated energy wood production chains with each other inside the chains

  11. Methodology for Calculating Cost-per-Mile for Current and Future Vehicle Powertrain Technologies, with Projections to 2024: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruth, M.; Timbario, T. A.; Timbario, T. J.; Laffen, M.

    2011-01-01

    Currently, several cost-per-mile calculators exist that can provide estimates of acquisition and operating costs for consumers and fleets. However, these calculators are limited in their ability to determine the difference in cost per mile for consumer versus fleet ownership, to calculate the costs beyond one ownership period, to show the sensitivity of the cost per mile to the annual vehicle miles traveled (VMT), and to estimate future increases in operating and ownership costs. Oftentimes, these tools apply a constant percentage increase over the time period of vehicle operation, or in some cases, no increase in direct costs at all over time. A more accurate cost-per-mile calculator has been developed that allows the user to analyze these costs for both consumers and fleets. The calculator was developed to allow simultaneous comparisons of conventional light-duty internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles, mild and full hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), and fuel cell vehicles (FCVs). This paper is a summary of the development by the authors of a more accurate cost-per-mile calculator that allows the user to analyze vehicle acquisition and operating costs for both consumer and fleets. Cost-per-mile results are reported for consumer-operated vehicles travelling 15,000 miles per year and for fleets travelling 25,000 miles per year.

  12. Cost calculations for decommissioning and dismantling of nuclear research facilities, Phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Inga [StudsvikNuclear AB (Sweden); Backe, S. [Institute for Energy Technology (Norway); Iversen, Klaus [Danish Decommissioning (Denmark); Lindskog, S [Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (Sweden); Salmenhaara, S. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland (Finland); Sjoeblom, R. [Tekedo AB (Sweden)

    2006-11-15

    Today, it is recommended that planning of decommission should form an integral part of the activities over the life cycle of a nuclear facility. However, no actual international guideline on cost calculations exists at present. Intuitively, it might be tempting to regard costs for decommissioning of a nuclear facility as similar to those of any other plant. However, the presence of radionuclide contamination may imply that the cost is one or more orders of magnitude higher as compared to a corresponding inactive situation, the actual ratio being highly dependent on the level of contamination as well as design features and use of the facility in question. Moreover, the variations in such prerequisites are much larger than for nuclear power plants. This implies that cost calculations cannot be performed with any accuracy or credibility without a relatively detailed consideration of the radiological and other prerequisites. Application of inadequate methodologies especially at early stages has often lead to large underestimations. The goals of the project and the achievements described in the report are as follows: 1) Advice on good practice with regard to: 1a) Strategy and planning; 1b) Methodology selection; 1c) Radiological surveying; 1d) Uncertainty analysis; 2) Techniques for assessment of costs: 2a) Cost structuring; 2b) Cost estimation methodologies; 3) Compilation of data for plants, state of planning, organisations, etc.; 3a) General descriptions of relevant features of the nuclear research facilities; 3b) General plant specific data; 3c) Example of the decommissioning of the R1 research reactor in Sweden; 3d) Example of the decommissioning of the DR1 research reactor in Denmark. In addition, but not described in the present report, is the establishment of a Nordic network in the area including an internet based expert system. It should be noted that the project is planned to exist for at least three years and that the present report is an interim one covering the work for approximately the first 16 months. (au)

  13. Cost calculations for decommissioning and dismantling of nuclear research facilities, Phase 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Today, it is recommended that planning of decommission should form an integral part of the activities over the life cycle of a nuclear facility. However, no actual international guideline on cost calculations exists at present. Intuitively, it might be tempting to regard costs for decommissioning of a nuclear facility as similar to those of any other plant. However, the presence of radionuclide contamination may imply that the cost is one or more orders of magnitude higher as compared to a corresponding inactive situation, the actual ratio being highly dependent on the level of contamination as well as design features and use of the facility in question. Moreover, the variations in such prerequisites are much larger than for nuclear power plants. This implies that cost calculations cannot be performed with any accuracy or credibility without a relatively detailed consideration of the radiological and other prerequisites. Application of inadequate methodologies especially at early stages has often lead to large underestimations. The goals of the project and the achievements described in the report are as follows: 1) Advice on good practice with regard to: 1a) Strategy and planning; 1b) Methodology selection; 1c) Radiological surveying; 1d) Uncertainty analysis; 2) Techniques for assessment of costs: 2a) Cost structuring; 2b) Cost estimation methodologies; 3) Compilation of data for plants, state of planning, organisations, etc.; 3a) General descriptions of relevant features of the nuclear research facilities; 3b) General plant specific data; 3c) Example of the decommissioning of the R1 research reactor in Sweden; 3d) Example of the decommissioning of the DR1 research reactor in Denmark. In addition, but not described in the present report, is the establishment of a Nordic network in the area including an internet based expert system. It should be noted that the project is planned to exist for at least three years and that the present report is an interim one covering the work for approximately the first 16 months. (au)

  14. Direct Costs of Institutional Care in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braddock, David; And Others

    1986-01-01

    A nationwide study of costs of U.S. institutional care between fiscal years 1977 and 1984 identified major trends: a plateau in adjusted total nationwide spending for institutional operations, a decline in adjusted nationwide spending for institutions from state revenue sources, and emergence of the federal government as an equal partner in…

  15. Renewable Energy Cost Modeling: A Toolkit for Establishing Cost-Based Incentives in the United States; March 2010 -- March 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gifford, J. S.; Grace, R. C.; Rickerson, W. H.

    2011-05-01

    This report is intended to serve as a resource for policymakers who wish to learn more about establishing cost-based incentives. The report will identify key renewable energy cost modeling options, highlight the policy implications of choosing one approach over the other, and present recommendations on the optimal characteristics of a model to calculate rates for cost-based incentives, feed-in tariffs (FITs), or similar policies. These recommendations will be utilized in designing the Cost of Renewable Energy Spreadsheet Tool (CREST). Three CREST models will be publicly available and capable of analyzing the cost of energy associated with solar, wind, and geothermal electricity generators. The CREST models will be developed for use by state policymakers, regulators, utilities, developers, and other stakeholders to assist them in current and future rate-setting processes for both FIT and other renewable energy incentive payment structures and policy analyses.

  16. UNITBURN: a computer code for burnup calculation of a unit fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A computer code UNITBURN has been developed for performing burnup calculation of a unit fuel cell. This code calculates neutron flux distribution in a cell by SN-PL method with Multi Group Constants Library (MGCL) and estimates buildup and depletion of nuclides in a fuel pellet. It also calculates nuclear few group constants averaged over a cell for calculation of fuel bundle or whole reactor core, and one group neutron cross sections at each burnup for nuclide generation and decay calculation code COMRAD. This report is a user's manual for UNITBURN. (author)

  17. Accelerating modified Shepard interpolated potential energy calculations using graphics processing units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Hong; Zheng, Limin; Yang, Minghui

    2013-04-01

    The potential energy surfaces constructed with the modified Shepard interpolation scheme have been widely used in studies of chemical reaction dynamics. However, computational costs of interpolation increase rapidly with the size of the system and the number of data points needed to achieve a given accuracy. In this work, we present a naive Graphics Processing Unit (GPU)-accelerated algorithm for modified Shepard interpolated potential energy calculations and its implementation with the PGI CUDA Fortran language. The benchmark tests on a NVIDIA Tesla C2050 using four interpolated potential energy surfaces (one for H+H2O?H2+OH, two for H+NH3?H2+NH2 and one for H+CH4?H2+CH3) demonstrated a speedup of 50-fold over the original CPU implementation on an Intel E5620 processor and the speedup increases with the system size and the number of data points. This work presents a promising GPU application in the field of chemical reaction dynamics.

  18. HEPAFIL - a program for the calculation of the fluid dynamics of high efficiency particulate air filter units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With HEPAFIL, LAF II provides a FORTRAN program for the calculation of various parameters associated with the fluid dynamics of high efficiency particulate air filter units. Most of the currently available commercial deep pleat designs have been taken into consideration, e.g., high strength nuclear grade units employing separators with inclined corrugations, units for clean room applications, as well as low and medium efficiency EU 6 and EU 8 types having very low pressure drops. The flow resistance curves obtained from HEPAFIL could be verified in extensive experimental test. A user-friendly PC version with the integrated program library HEPAGAS can serve as a useful tool to the researcher in filter development as well as to the filter manufacturer for cost reduction analyses. Knowledge of the distributions of airstream, pressures and velocities within the flow channels of the filter pack allows more precise investigations of failure mechanisms and filtration characteristics for a wide range of flow conditions. The newest scientific application involves fundamental investigations into the cleanability of HEPA filter units. HEPAFIL offers filter manufacturers the opportunity to improve and optimize filter performance with respect to pressure drop, burst strength, and material costs, with a minimum of prototype fabrication and testing. (orig.)

  19. Cost of hospitalizations associated with sickle cell disease in the United States.

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, H (Hugh); Moore, R. M.; Gergen, P J

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study estimated the number and cost of hospitalizations associated with sickle cell disease in the United States. METHODS: To estimate the number of hospitalizations per year in the United States of people with sickle cell disease, the authors used data for the years 1989 through 1993 from national hospital discharge surveys conducted by the National Center for Health Statistics. The authors derived cost estimates using data from a 1992 national hospital discharge survey condu...

  20. The Summed Start-up Costs in a Unit Commitment Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Brandenberg, René; Huber, Matthias; Silbernagl, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    We consider the sum of the incurred start-up costs of a single unit in a Unit Commitment problem. Our major result is a correspondence between the facets of its epigraph and some binary trees for concave start-up cost functions CU, which is bijective if CU is strictly concave. We derive an exponential H-representation of this epigraph, and provide an exact linear separation algorithm. These results significantly reduce the integrality gap of the Mixed Integer formulation of ...

  1. A Geographical-Origin–Destination Model for Calculating the Cost of Multimodal Forest-Fuel Transportation

    OpenAIRE

    Tapio Ranta; Eero Jäppinen; Olli-Jussi Korpinen

    2013-01-01

    As a consequence of increasing demand for wood fuels, the management of forest-fuel production chains has become an important logistics issue in FinlandandSweden. Truck-based transportation has been the dominant method in fuel supply from the areas around power plants. However, increasing demand has led to enlargement of supply areas and greater variety in supply methods, including also railway and waterway transportation. This study presents a GIS-based calculation model suitable for cost c...

  2. POPCYCLE: a computer code for calculating nuclear and fossil plant levelized life-cycle power costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    POPCYCLE, a computer code designed to calculate levelized life-cycle power costs for nuclear and fossil electrical generating plants is described. Included are (1) derivations of the equations and a discussion of the methodology used by POPCYCLE, (2) a description of the input required by the code, (3) a listing of the input for a sample case, and (4) the output for a sample case

  3. Cost of illness of hyponatremia in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Paramore Clark; Boscoe Audra; Verbalis Joseph G

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Hyponatremia is a disorder of fluid and electrolyte balance characterized by a relative excess of body water relative to body sodium content. It is the most common electrolyte disorder encountered in clinical medicine and is associated with negative outcomes in many chronic diseases. However, there is limited information in the literature about health care resource use and costs attributable to the effects of the condition. The purpose of this analysis was to estimate the ...

  4. Costos reales de tratamientos intensivos por paciente y día cama / Real daily costs of patients admitted to public intensive care units

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sandra, Alvear; Jorge, Canteros; Juan, Jara; Patricia, Rodríguez.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english Background: Patient care costs in intensive care units are high and should be considered in medical decision making. Aim: To calculate the real disease related costs for patients admitted to intensive care units of public hospitals. Material and Methods: Using an activity associated costs analysis, [...] the expenses of 716 patients with a mean age of 56 years, mean APACHE score of20 (56% males), admitted to intensive care units of two regional public hospitals, were calculated. Patients were classified according to their underlying disease. Results: The costs per day of hospital stay, in Chilean pesos, were $ 426,265for sepsis, $ 423,300for cardiovascular diseases, $ 418,329 for kidney diseases, $ 404,873 for trauma, $ 398,913 for respiratory diseases, $ 379,455for digestive diseases and $ 371,801 for neurologic disease. Human resources and medications determined up to 85 and 12% of costs, respectively. Patients with sepsis and trauma use 32 and 19% of intensive care unit resources, respectively. Twenty seven percent of resources are invested in patients that eventually died. Conclusions: A real cost benefit analysis should be performed to optimize resource allocation in intensive care units.

  5. Replacement energy costs for nuclear electricity-generating units in the United States: 1997--2001. Volume 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report updates previous estimates of replacement energy costs for potential short-term shutdowns of 109 US nuclear electricity-generating units. This information was developed to assist the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in its regulatory impact analyses, specifically those that examine the impacts of proposed regulations requiring retrofitting of or safety modifications to nuclear reactors. Such actions might necessitate shutdowns of nuclear power plants while these changes are being implemented. The change in energy cost represents one factor that the NRC must consider when deciding to require a particular modification. Cost estimates were derived from probabilistic production cost simulations of pooled utility system operations. Factors affecting replacement energy costs, such as random unit failures, maintenance and refueling requirements, and load variations, are treated in the analysis. This report describes an abbreviated analytical approach as it was adopted to update the cost estimates published in NUREG/CR-4012, Vol. 3. The updates were made to extend the time frame of cost estimates and to account for recent changes in utility system conditions, such as change in fuel prices, construction and retirement schedules, and system demand projects

  6. Economics of immunization information systems in the United States: assessing costs and efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urquhart Gary A

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the United States' national health objectives for 2010 is that 95% of children aged Methods Data were collected from a national sampling frame of the 56 states/cities that received federal immunization grants under U.S. Public Health Service Act 317b and completed the federal 1999 Immunization Registry Annual Report. The sampling frame was stratified by IIS functional status, children's enrollment in the IIS, and whether the IIS had been developed as an independent system or was integrated into a larger system. These sites self-reported IIS developmental and operational program costs for calendar years 1998–2002 using a standardized data collection tool and underwent on-site interviews to verify reported data with information from the state/city financial management system and other financial records. A parametric cost-per-patient-record (CPR model was estimated. The model assessed the impact of labor and non-labor resources used in development and operations tasks, as well as the impact of information technology, local providers' participation and compliance with federal IIS performance standards (e.g., ensuring the confidentiality and security of information, ensure timely vaccination data at the time of patient encounter, and produce official immunization records. Given the number of records minimizing CPR, the additional amount of resources needed to meet national health goals for the year 2010 was also calculated. Results Estimated CPR was as high as $10.30 and as low as $0.09 in operating IIS. About 20% of IIS had between 2.9 to 3.2 million records and showed CPR estimates of $0.09. Overall, CPR was highly sensitive to local providers' participation. To achieve the 2010 goals, additional aggregated costs were estimated to be $75.6 million nationwide. Conclusion Efficiently increasing the number of records in IIS would require additional resources and careful consideration of various strategies to minimize CPR, such as boosting providers' participation.

  7. Economic impacts of oil spills: Spill unit costs for tankers, pipelines, refineries, and offshore facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The impacts of oil spills -- ranging from the large, widely publicized Exxon Valdez tanker incident to smaller pipeline and refinery spills -- have been costly to both the oil industry and the public. For example, the estimated costs to Exxon of the Valdez tanker spill are on the order of $4 billion, including $2.8 billion (in 1993 dollars) for direct cleanup costs and $1.125 billion (in 1992 dollars) for settlement of damages claims caused by the spill. Application of contingent valuation costs and civil lawsuits pending in the State of Alaska could raise these costs appreciably. Even the costs of the much smaller 1991 oil spill at Texaco's refinery near Anacortes, Washington led to costs of $8 to 9 million. As a result, inexpensive waming, response and remediation technologies could lower oil spin costs, helping both the oil industry, the associated marine industries, and the environment. One means for reducing the impact and costs of oil spills is to undertake research and development on key aspects of the oil spill prevention, warming, and response and remediation systems. To target these funds to their best use, it is important to have sound data on the nature and size of spills, their likely occurrence and their unit costs. This information could then allow scarce R ampersand D dollars to be spent on areas and activities having the largest impact. This report is intended to provide the ''unit cost'' portion of this crucial information. The report examines the three key components of the US oil supply system, namely, tankers and barges; pipelines and refineries; and offshore production facilities. The specific purpose of the study was to establish the unit costs of oil spills. By manipulating this key information into a larger matrix that includes the size and frequency of occurrence of oil spills, it will be possible' to estimate the likely future impacts, costs, and sources of oil spills

  8. Unit Commitment Considering Regional Synchronous Reactive Power Requirements : Costs and Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Cuffe, Paul; Lannoye, Eamonn; Keane, Andrew; Tuohy, Aidan

    2012-01-01

    Highly renewable power systems may have to impose regional minima on the number of online synchronous units to ensure appropriate availability of controllable reactive power. Given the declining net loads associated with increasing wind penetration levels, these regional constraints are anticipated to come into effect with greater frequency. Such constraints have a tangible effect on the total cost of unit commitment schedules, with out-of-merit units being committed solely ...

  9. Comparative costs of coal and nuclear-generated electricity in the united states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper compares the future first-year operating costs and lifetime levelized costs of producing baseload coal- and nuclear-generated electricity under schedules shorter than those recently experienced at U.S. plants. Nuclear appears to have a clear economic advantage. Coal is favorable only when it is assumed that the units will operate at very low capacity factors and/or when the capital cost differential between nuclear and coal is increased far above the recent historical level. Nuclear is therefore a cost-competitive electric energy option for utilities and should be considered as an alternative to coal when large baseload capacity is required. (author)

  10. Numerical-analytical method of calculating insulated double-glazed units deflection under climatic (internal load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plotnikov Aleksandr Aleksandrovich

    Full Text Available Glass unit consists of glasses hermetically-united together. The cavity of an insulating glass unit contains a fixed volume of air (gas. In the process of production regular air with atmospheric pressure and temperature is sealed inside a glass unit. During operation the atmospheric pressure is constantly changing, but the pressure inside remains constant (at a constant temperature. A change of temperature or of the external air pressure results in a pressure difference and therefore in a load on the glass panes. The action may exceed the usual load considerably. This pressure effects the glasses of the unit, deforms them, lowers the thermotechnical properties of glass units and can lead to their destruction. The action of the inside pressure can be seen all around as convex and concaved glasses, which destroys the architectural look of buildings. It is obvious that it is incorrect to calculate thin glass plates on such a load only by classical methods of strength of materials theory. In this case we need a special calculation method. The effects of a change in temperature, altitude or meteorological pressure are easily covered by the definition of an isochore pressure. This is necessary, to determine the change of pressure due to the temperature induced gas expansion in the cavity of the insulating glass according to the ideal gas law. After the integration of the analytical plate solution and the ideal gas law, the final pressure states can easily be calculated by coupling the change of volume and the change of pressure.

  11. The cost-effectiveness of supported employment for adults with autism in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavranezouli, Ifigeneia; Megnin-Viggars, Odette; Cheema, Nadir; Howlin, Patricia; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Pilling, Stephen

    2014-11-01

    Adults with autism face high rates of unemployment. Supported employment enables individuals with autism to secure and maintain a paid job in a regular work environment. The objective of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of supported employment compared with standard care (day services) for adults with autism in the United Kingdom. Thus, a decision-analytic economic model was developed, which used outcome data from the only trial that has evaluated supported employment for adults with autism in the United Kingdom. The main analysis considered intervention costs, while cost-savings associated with changes in accommodation status and National Health Service and personal social service resource use were examined in secondary analyses. Two outcome measures were used: the number of weeks in employment and the quality-adjusted life year. Supported employment resulted in better outcomes compared with standard care, at an extra cost of £18 per additional week in employment or £5600 per quality-adjusted life year. In secondary analyses that incorporated potential cost-savings, supported employment dominated standard care (i.e. it produced better outcomes at a lower total cost). The analysis suggests that supported employment schemes for adults with autism in the United Kingdom are cost-effective compared with standard care. Further research needs to confirm these findings. PMID:24126866

  12. GEOCOST-BC, Geothermal Power Plant Electricity Generator Cost, Thermodynamics Calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1 - Description of problem or function: GEOCOST calculates the cost of generating electricity from geothermal energy. The version of GEOCOST in this release, GEOCOST-BC, simulates the production of electricity using a binary fluid cycle based upon a hydrothermal resource. 2 - Method of solution: GEOCOST is a simulation model which combines both technical processes and economic factors into one systematic framework. The simulation is composed of two principal parts: a reservoir model which simulates the exploration, development, and operation of a geothermal reservoir, and a power plant model which simulates the design, construction, and operation of the power plant. Each of these parts is composed of several submodels which treat fluid transmission and disposal, geothermal fluid/working fluid heat exchangers, turbine, generators, working fluid condenser, pumps, heat rejection, and calculation of thermodynamic state points in basic subcritical and supercritical Rankine cycles for a variety of working fluids. Working fluids which are now in the model include isobutane, n-butane, R-ll, R-12, R-22, R-113, R-114, and ammonia. Thermodynamic properties of the working fluids at the state points are calculated using empirical equations of state. The Starling equation of state is used for hydrocarbons and the Martin-Hou equation of state is used for fluorocarbons and ammonia. A wide variety of financial and tax structures can be simulated through varying the rates of return on equity and debt, the debt-equity ratio, and tax rates. Using discounted cash flow analyses, GEOCOST calculates the cost of energy by equating the present worth of the revenues and expenses over the economic life of the reservoir and plant. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Current array dimensions provide for a maximum well field size of 625 wells and maximum operating period of 50 years from reservoir exploration through the economic life of the power plant

  13. Independent calculation of the monitor units and times of treatment in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, an independent verification system of calculations in radiotherapy was developed and applied, using Visual BasicTM programming language. The computational program performs calculations of monitor units and treatment time, based on the algorithm of manual calculation. The calculations executed for the independent system had initially been compared with the manual calculations performed by the medical physicists of the Institute of Radiotherapy of the Hospital das Clinicas da Universidade de Sao Paulo. In this step, the results found for more than two hundred fields studied were similar to those found in the literature; deviations larger than +- 1% were found only in five cases involving errors in manual calculation. The application of the independent system, in this stage, could have identified errors up to +- 2,4%. Based on these data, the system was validated for use in clinical routine. In a second step, calculations were compared with calculations realized by the treatment computerized planning system CadPIanTM. When, again, the results were similar to those published in other works allowing to obtain levels of acceptance of the discrepancies between the calculations executed for the independent system and the calculations developed from the planning system, separated by anatomical region, as recommended according by the recent literature. For beams of 6 MV, the levels of acceptance for deviations between the calculations of monitor units, separated by treatment region were the following; breast +- 1.7%, head and neck +2%; hypophysis +- 2.2%; pelvis +- 4 . 1% and thorax +- 1.5%. For beams of 15 MV, the level suggested for pelvis was of +- 4.5%. (author)

  14. CALCULATION OF POWER AND CHOICE OF BASIC FUNCTIONAL UNITS OF WIND POWER ELECTRIC-INSTALLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kvitko A. V.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the basic analytical expressions for the calculation of power generators and select features basic functional units of wind turbines, allowing the design phase to conduct a preliminary assessment of the effectiveness of wind power stations, which supplies specific consumers of electric power

  15. 40 CFR 1065.20 - Units of measure and overview of calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Units of measure and overview of calculations. 1065.20 Section 1065.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... specifications, use good engineering judgment to record the appropriate number of significant digits....

  16. How can activity-based costing methodology be performed as a powerful tool to calculate costs and secure appropriate patient care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Blossom Yen-Ju; Chao, Te-Hsin; Yao, Yuh; Tu, Shu-Min; Wu, Chun-Ching; Chern, Jin-Yuan; Chao, Shiu-Hsiung; Shaw, Keh-Yuong

    2007-04-01

    Previous studies have shown the advantages of using activity-based costing (ABC) methodology in the health care industry. The potential values of ABC methodology in health care are derived from the more accurate cost calculation compared to the traditional step-down costing, and the potentials to evaluate quality or effectiveness of health care based on health care activities. This project used ABC methodology to profile the cost structure of inpatients with surgical procedures at the Department of Colorectal Surgery in a public teaching hospital, and to identify the missing or inappropriate clinical procedures. We found that ABC methodology was able to accurately calculate costs and to identify several missing pre- and post-surgical nursing education activities in the course of treatment. PMID:17489499

  17. Evaluation of syngas production unit cost of bio-gasification facility using regression analysis techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Yangyang; Parajuli, Prem B.

    2011-08-10

    Evaluation of economic feasibility of a bio-gasification facility needs understanding of its unit cost under different production capacities. The objective of this study was to evaluate the unit cost of syngas production at capacities from 60 through 1800Nm 3/h using an economic model with three regression analysis techniques (simple regression, reciprocal regression, and log-log regression). The preliminary result of this study showed that reciprocal regression analysis technique had the best fit curve between per unit cost and production capacity, with sum of error squares (SES) lower than 0.001 and coefficient of determination of (R 2) 0.996. The regression analysis techniques determined the minimum unit cost of syngas production for micro-scale bio-gasification facilities of $0.052/Nm 3, under the capacity of 2,880 Nm 3/h. The results of this study suggest that to reduce cost, facilities should run at a high production capacity. In addition, the contribution of this technique could be the new categorical criterion to evaluate micro-scale bio-gasification facility from the perspective of economic analysis.

  18. Cost implications of African swine fever in smallholder farrow-to-finish units: economic benefits of disease prevention through biosecurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasina, F O; Lazarus, D D; Spencer, B T; Makinde, A A; Bastos, A D S

    2012-06-01

    African swine fever remains the greatest limitation to the development of the pig industry in Africa, and parts of Asia and Europe. It is especially important in West and Central African countries where the disease has become endemic. Biosecurity is the implementation of a set of measures that reduce the risk of infection through segregation, cleaning and disinfection. Using a 122-sow piggery unit, a financial model and costing were used to estimate the economic benefits of effective biosecurity against African swine fever. The outcomes suggest that pig production is a profitable venture that can generate a profit of approximately US$109,637.40 per annum and that an outbreak of African swine fever (ASF) has the potential to cause losses of up to US$910,836.70 in a single year. The implementation of biosecurity and its effective monitoring can prevent losses owing to ASF and is calculated to give a benefit-cost ratio of 29. A full implementation of biosecurity will result in a 9.70% reduction in total annual profit, but is justified in view of the substantial costs incurred in the event of an ASF outbreak. Biosecurity implementation is robust and capable of withstanding changes in input costs including moderate feed price increases, higher management costs and marginal reductions in total outputs. It is concluded that biosecurity is a key to successful pig production in an endemic situation. PMID:21929615

  19. Subjective Evaluation of Join Cost Functions Used in Unit Selection Speech Synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Vepa, Jithendra; King, Simon

    2004-01-01

    In our previous papers, we have proposed join cost functions derived from spectral distances, which have good correlations with perceptual scores obtained for a range of concatenation discontinuities. To further validate their ability to predict concatenation discontinuities, we have chosen the best three spectral distances and evaluated them subjectively in a listening test. The unit sequences for synthesis stimuli are obtained from a state-of-the-art unit selection text-to-speech system:...

  20. Calculation of the Cost of an Adequate Education in Kentucky: A Professional Judgment Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah A. Verstegen

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available What is an adequate education and how much does it cost? In 1989, Kentucky’s State Supreme Court found the entire system of education unconstitutional-“all of its parts and parcels”. The Court called for all children to have access to an adequate education, one that is uniform and has as its goal the development of seven capacities, including: (i “sufficient oral and written communication skills to enable students to function in a complex and rapidly changing civilization . . . .and (vii sufficient levels of academic or vocational skills to enable public school students to compete favorably with their counterparts in surrounding states, in academics or in the job market”. Now, over a decade later, key questions remain regarding whether these objectives have been fulfilled. This research is designed to calculate the cost of an adequate education by aligning resources to State standards, laws and objectives, using a professional judgment approach. Seven focus groups were convened for this purpose and the scholarly literature was reviewed to provide multiple inputs into study findings. The study produced a per pupil base cost for each of three prototype school districts and an total statewide cost, with the funding gap between existing revenue and the revenue needed for current operations of $1.097 billion per year (2001-02. Additional key resource requirements needed to achieve an adequate education, identified by professional judgment panels, include: (1 extending the school year for students and teachers, (2 adding voluntary half-day preschool for three and four year olds, and (3 raising teacher salaries. This increases the funding gap to $1.23 billion and suggests that significant new funding is required over time if the Commonwealth of Kentucky is to provide an adequate and equitable education of high quality for all children and youth as directed by the State Supreme Court.

  1. Challenges of unit cost Control of higher education in B.T.A.D

    OpenAIRE

    Subhash Saha

    2013-01-01

    The paper tries to evaluate the problem of unit cost control for graduating a student in BTAD. The study conducted in the various higher education institute in the 4 district of B.T.A.D( Bodoland territorial area districts ) brought to light various cause and reasons for increasing of cost of educating a student in the institute of BTAD area. The study evaluated that the cost of higher education is higher in BTAD because of various factor and lack of management ability of the institute to im...

  2. Cost Effectiveness of Home Energy Retrofits in Pre-Code Vintage Homes in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fairey, Philip [BA-PIRC/Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States); Parker, Danny [BA-PIRC/Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States)

    2012-11-01

    This analytical study examines the opportunities for cost-effective energy efficiency and renewable energy retrofits in residential archetypes constructed prior to 1980 (Pre-Code) in fourteen U.S. cities. These fourteen cities are representative of each of the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) climate zones in the contiguous United States. The analysis is conducted using an in-house version of EnergyGauge USA v.2.8.05 named CostOpt that has been programmed to perform iterative, incremental economic optimization on a large list of residential energy efficiency and renewable energy retrofit measures. The principle objectives of the study are to determine the opportunities for cost effective source energy reductions in this large cohort of existing residential building stock as a function of local climate and energy costs; and to examine how retrofit financing alternatives impact the source energy reductions that are cost effectively achievable.

  3. Realistic Approach for Phasor Measurement Unit Placement : Consideration of Hidden Practical Costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rather, Zakir Hussain; Chen, Zhe

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a realistic cost-effectivemodel for optimal placement of phasor measurement units (PMUs) for complete observability of a power system considering practical cost implications. The proposed model considers hidden or otherwise unaccounted practical costs involved in PMU installation. Consideration of these hidden but significant and integral part of total PMU installation costs was inspired from practical experience on a real-life project. The proposedmodel focuses on the minimization of total realistic costs instead of a widely used theoretical concept of a minimal number of PMUs. The proposed model has been applied to IEEE 14-bus, IEEE 24-bus, IEEE 30-bus, New England 39-bus, and large power system of 300 buses and real life Danish grid. A comparison of the presented results with those reported by traditionalmethods has also been shown to justify the effectiveness of the proposed model with regard to its realistic and practical nature.

  4. Simulation analysis of Shadow Factor and unit cost in the booster mirror arrangement for a solar panel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nivas.V

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A simulation and experimental study was attempted to increase the power output from a 75 W mono and multi crystalline solar panel using V Trough solar concentrators, thus estimating its ideal concentration ratio for domestic applications in the absence of automatic tracking. The net radiation falling on the panel due to reflection from concentrators and the shading caused by the reflectors was simulated using TRACE PRO and PV Syst Software, calculating the net power output, losses and output energy. Through the simulated values, the calculated unit cost of energy for the concentrator arrangement with 1 X, 2 X, 3 X and 4 X configurations are found to be 0.81, 0.70, 0.74 and 0.75 $/kWh respectively for the 1st year. It is estimated that 2 X configuration having a surface temperature of less than 70°C, CO2 savings of 28 % higher than the reference model and a unit cost of 0.7 $/kWh is the optimum concentration ratio for a solar V Trough concentrator.

  5. Cost of Wind Energy in the United States: Trends from 2007 to 2012 (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hand, M.

    2015-01-01

    This presentation provides an overview of recent technology trends observed in the United States including project size, turbine size, rotor diameter, hub height, annual average wind speed, and annual energy production. It also highlights area where system analysis is required to fully understand how these technology trends relate to the cost of wind energy.

  6. Costeo basado en actividades: una metodología de gestión en tratamientos intensivos / Activity-based costing methodology to manage resources in intensive care units

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sandra, Alvear V; Jorge, Canteros G; Juan, Jara M; Patricia, Rodríguez C.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english Background: An accurate estimation of resources use by individual patients is crucial in hospital management. Aim: To measure financial costs of health care actions in intensive care units of two public regional hospitals in Chile. Material and Methods: Prospective follow up of 716 patients admitted [...] to two intensive care units during 2011. The financial costs of health care activities was calculated using the Activity-Based Costing methodology. The main activities recorded were procedures and treatments, monitoring, response to patient needs, patient maintenance and coordination. Results: Activity-Based Costs, including human resources and assorted indirect costs correspond to 81 to 88% of costs per disease in one hospital and 69 to 80% in the other. The costs associated to procedures and treatments are the most significant and are approximately $100,000 (Chilean pesos) per day of hospitalization. The second most significant cost corresponds to coordination activities, which fluctuates between $86,000 and 122,000 (Chilean pesos). Conclusions: There are significant differences in resources use between the two hospitals studied. Therefore cost estimation methodologies should be incorporated in the management of these clinical services.

  7. Applying graphics processor units to Monte Carlo dose calculation in radiation therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakhtiari M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the potential in using of using a graphics processor unit (GPU for Monte-Carlo (MC-based radiation dose calculations. The percent depth dose (PDD of photons in a medium with known absorption and scattering coefficients is computed using a MC simulation running on both a standard CPU and a GPU. We demonstrate that the GPU?s capability for massive parallel processing provides a significant acceleration in the MC calculation, and offers a significant advantage for distributed stochastic simulations on a single computer. Harnessing this potential of GPUs will help in the early adoption of MC for routine planning in a clinical environment.

  8. Calculation of depth dose and dose per monitor unit for irregularly shaped electron fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, F. M.; Higgins, P. D.; Gerbi, B. J.; Deibel, F. C.; Sethi, A.; Mihailidis, D. N.

    1998-10-01

    A new dosimetric quantity, the lateral build-up ratio (LBR), has been introduced to calculate depth dose distribution for any shaped field. Factors to account for change in incident fluence with collimation are applied separately. The LBR data for a small circular field are used to extract radial spread of the pencil beam, , as a function of depth and energy. By using the relationship between LBR, , energy and depth, a formalism is developed to calculate dose per monitor unit for any shaped field. Criteria for lateral scatter equilibrium are also developed which are useful in clinical dosimetry.

  9. X/Qs and unit dose calculations for Central Waste Complex interim safety basis effort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective for this problem is to calculate the ground-level release dispersion factors (X/Q) and unit doses for onsite facility and offsite receptors at the site boundary and at Highway 240 for plume meander, building wake effect, plume rise, and the combined effect. The release location is at Central Waste Complex Building P4 in the 200 West Area. The onsite facility is located at Building P7. Acute ground level release 99.5 percentile dispersion factors (X/Q) were generated using the GXQ. The unit doses were calculated using the GENII code. The dimensions of Building P4 are 15 m in W x 24 m in L x 6 m in H

  10. An independent algorithm to check the monitor units calculation in radiosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Double checking of the monitor units (MU) is an important step in the quality assurance (QA) process in radiosurgery. In this paper we propose the use of an independent algorithm constructed using the ellipsoid which best fits the measurements taken with the bubble head frame. The monitor units calculated by this independent algorithm and the commercial planning system were compared in 40 patients treated with radiosurgery (57 isocenters, 320 arcs). The average relative difference was -0.2%±2.1 (k=1). These results are better for the variance, -0.4%±1.8 (k=1), when all the depths of the bubble head frame are measured and no arcs are calculated by extrapolation or when only one of these factors appear. If there are missing values in the bubble head frame measurements and the model is extrapolated, the variance of the results is greater, 0.4%±3.9 (k=1). The algorithm is reliable as a QA tool for linac radiosurgery

  11. 49 CFR 639.23 - Calculation of purchase or construction cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...purchase or construction cost of a capital asset is— (1) The estimated...purchase or construct the asset; plus (2) Ancillary costs such as delivery and installation...to obtain the capital asset. (b) The estimated cost to purchase or...

  12. 19 CFR 351.407 - Calculation of constructed value and cost of production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...value and cost of production. (a) Introduction. This section sets forth certain...relative sales values, and other quantitative and qualitative factors associated...non-production costs (such as general research and development costs), as...

  13. Calculation method for the seasonal performance of heat pump compact units and validation. Appendix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wemhoener, C.; Dott, R.; Afjei, Th. [University of Applied Sciences Northwestern Switzerland, Institute of Energy in Buildings, Muttenz (Switzerland); Huber, H.; Helfenfinger, D.; Keller, P.; Furter, R. [University of Applied Sciences Lucerne (HTA), Test center HLKS, Horw (Switzerland)

    2007-02-15

    This appendix to a comprehensive final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of tests made on compact heat pump units that have been developed for the heating of low energy consumption houses built to MINERGIE or MINERGIE-P standards. The tests on these units, which combine the functions of space heating, domestic hot water preparation and ventilation in one unit are presented and discussed. Test conditions are described; these cover ventilation, acoustic, hygiene and safety aspects. Detailed results from the two test objects - buildings built to MINERGIE and MINERGIE-P low energy consumption standards - are presented and discussed. The calculation methods used are examined and discussed.

  14. What Does It Cost to Prevent On-Duty Firefighter Cardiac Events? A Content Valid Method for Calculating Costs

    OpenAIRE

    P. Daniel Patterson; Joe Suyama; Reis, Steven E.; Weaver, Matthew D; David Hostler

    2013-01-01

    Cardiac arrest is a leading cause of mortality among firefighters. We sought to develop a valid method for determining the costs of a workplace prevention program for firefighters. In 2012, we developed a draft framework using human resource accounting and in-depth interviews with experts in the firefighting and insurance industries. The interviews produced a draft cost model with 6 components and 26 subcomponents. In 2013, we randomly sampled 100 fire chiefs out of >7,400 affiliated with the...

  15. Nemo X: Freeware independent monitor units calculation for external beam radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In External Beam Radiotherapy (EBRT) the check of dosimetric calculations is a major concern in the quality assurance of the treatment. This is true not only for conventional conformal techniques but also for special techniques including Intraoperative Radiotherapy (IORT), Total Body Irradiation (TBI) and Intensity Modulation (IMRT). As evidenced by primary international organizations dealing with radiation dosimetry and quality assurance (ESTRO, ICRP, IAEA), a fundamental aspect of the treatment planning process is the independent verification of Monitor Units (MU). Moreover in some situations (backup of commercial planning systems, urgent palliations, TBI and IORT treatments) there is a concrete need for a system of dosimetric calculation alternative to Treatment Planning Systems (TPS). To address this kind of exigency the National Cancer Research Institute of Genova started in year 2000 a research project which put as its main objective the development of a software application (Nemo X) for the independent dosimetric calculation and verification of the MU with the following features: Running on Windows platform; Management of all dosimetric data through graphical user interface; MU calculation for EBRT with photon and electron beams including IMRT; TBI calculations for anterior-posterior and lateral-lateral techniques; MU calculation for IORT treatments; Data interface to commercial Treatment Planning and Record and Verify systems with automatic import of Multileaf Collimator (MLC) shape; Print out of treatment and QA data

  16. Human errors in the calculation of monitor units in clinical radiotherapy practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human mistakes are an important source of error in all steps of radiotherapy planning and their incidence should be investigated. As has been recognized by different authors and by the ICRU [4], the human error rate in the calculation of monitor units (MU) is relatively high. At our institute, we measured the human error rate in the calculation of MU by an independent check of the calculation. From September 1991 to June 1992 we identified and corrected 17 serious errors (deviation from the prescribed dose ?5%) over 890 controls (1.9%) (daily dose errors). We also found a serious global dose error rate (i.e. the errors induced on the total reference dose for the complete course of the treatment) of 1.3% (9/685) during the period November 1991-June 1992. These values suggest the importance of human errors in the calculation of MU and also confirm the validity of the independent check of MU calculation as one of the simplest ways of avoiding erroneous dose delivery by incorrect calculation of MU. (author). 12 refs., 3 figs

  17. Acceleration of orbital-free first principles calculation with graphics processing unit GPU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computational material design requires efficient algorithms and high-speed computers for calculating and predicting material properties. The orbital-free first principles calculation (OF-FPC) method, which is a tool for calculating and designing material properties, is an O(N) method and is suitable for large-scaled systems. The stagnation in the development of CPU devices with high mobility of electron carriers has driven the development of parallel computing and the production of CPU devices with finer spaced wiring. We, for the first time, propose another method to accelerate the computation using Graphics Processing Unit (GPU). The implementation of the Fast Fourier Transform (CUFFT) library that uses GPU, into our in-house OF-FPC code, reduces the computation time to half of that of the CPU.

  18. Lessons learnt from application of the standardized cost calculation code OMEGA in decision making processes and planning in decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Implementation of the standardised cost structure, as defined in 'A Proposed Standardised List of Costs Items for Decommissioning Purposes' (OECD/NEA, IAEA, EC, 1999), into the decommissioning costing, supports the harmonisation of decommissioning costs. The decision making processes in decommissioning planning can be more effective if there is the possibility to compare the calculated data with the data of other projects, structured in standardised cost structure. The results of the decision making process should be based on evaluation of such a set of decommissioning options which covers the methods of decommissioning, the selected strategy and existing or planned decommissioning infrastructure. Aspects such as impact of time, waste management scenarios, uncertainties of input data and other aspects should be also evaluated. These issues of decision making process were implemented into the decommissioning costing code OMEGA. All activities of a decommissioning project are involved within single compact standardised calculation structure including waste management. The resulting costs have standardised format and no additional data conversion is needed. The calculation process is nuclide resolved and internally linked in such a way that it models the material and radioactivity flow in the decommissioning process. The effect of decay of radioactivity is considered. The options are optimised in the standard MS-Project software as Gantt charts. The bi-directional data link between the standardised calculation structure and the Gantt chart supports the on-line optimisation of the Gantt chart structure. Multi-option work is applied, i.e. decommissioning options, which cover all decommissioning scenarios to be considered, are evaluated individually and multi-attribute analysis is applied for selecting the optimal one. Methods of sensitivity analysis and evaluation of uncertainties of calculated costs were developed for support the decision making process and for definition of contingencies. (author)

  19. Levelised unit electricity cost comparison of alternate technologies for baseload generation in Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayres, M.; McRae, M.; Stogran, M.

    2004-08-15

    This report provides a comparison of the lifetime cost of constructing, operating and decommissioning new generation suitable for supplying baseload power by early in the next decade. New baseload generation options in Ontario are nuclear, coal-fired steam turbines or combined cycle gas turbines (CCGT). Nuclear and coal-fired units are characterised by high capital costs and low operating costs. As such, they are candidates for baseload operation only. Gas-fired generation is characterised by lower capital costs and higher operating costs and thus may meet the requirements for operation as peaking and/or baseload generation. The comparison of baseload generating technologies is made by reference to the estimated levelised unit electricity cost (LUEC). The LUEC can be thought of as a 'supply cost', where the unit cost is the price needed to recover all costs over the period. It is determined by finding the price that sets the sum of all future discounted cash flows (net present value, or NPV) to zero. It can also be thought of as representing the constant real wholesale price of electricity that meets the financing cost, debt repayment, income tax and cash flow constraints associated with the construction operation and decommissioning of a generating plant. Levelised unit cost comparisons are usually made with different sets of financing assumptions. This report considers two base cases, which we describe as 'merchant' and 'public' financing. The term 'merchant plant' is used to refer to ones that are built and operated by private investors. These investors pay for their capital through debt and by raising equity, and thus pay return on equity and interest on debt throughout their lifetime. These projects include income taxes, both provincial and federal. Publicly financed projects typically are not subject to income taxes or to the same constraints on raising finance through issuing debt and equity. However, they are constrained to provide a rate of return. The rate of return required for projects is subject to some uncertainty. For a merchant project the higher the perceived risk the higher the required return. Publicly financed projects may be evaluated on the basis of a given discount rate or may be able to access funds at lower rates, but the risk of cost overruns is implicitly borne by the taxpayer. There is a third possibility, a public/private partnership. A number of partnership arrangements are possible, for example, public financing of construction and leasing to private owners for operation. All partnership arrangements represent a sharing of risk between the public and private sector. Public/private partnership may provide an attractive model for building new generation in Ontario. This report considers each of the generation options under both merchant and public financing. The base case merchant financing scenario is consistent with one where risk is relatively low, and consequently the real return on equity required by private investors is 12%. We believe a comparison between merchant and public financing to be important in that it shows the effect of taxes and financing assumptions on the economics of a generation project. Since the pure economic assessment of projects does not normally consider financing or tax costs, these being transfer payments not essential to the project itself, the public financing version of our assessments can be interpreted as the underlying economics of different technologies. This report does not include a detailed modelling of financing arrangements that could occur under a public/private partnership. However, we do consider how the cost of generation options compares under a wide range of illustrative assumptions on the required return on equity, debt and the debt/equity ratio. (author)

  20. Levelised unit electricity cost comparison of alternate technologies for baseload generation in Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides a comparison of the lifetime cost of constructing, operating and decommissioning new generation suitable for supplying baseload power by early in the next decade. New baseload generation options in Ontario are nuclear, coal-fired steam turbines or combined cycle gas turbines (CCGT). Nuclear and coal-fired units are characterised by high capital costs and low operating costs. As such, they are candidates for baseload operation only. Gas-fired generation is characterised by lower capital costs and higher operating costs and thus may meet the requirements for operation as peaking and/or baseload generation. The comparison of baseload generating technologies is made by reference to the estimated levelised unit electricity cost (LUEC). The LUEC can be thought of as a 'supply cost', where the unit cost is the price needed to recover all costs over the period. It is determined by finding the price that sets the sum of all future discounted cash flows (net present value, or NPV) to zero. It can also be thought of as representing the constant real wholesale price of electricity that meets the financing cost, debt repayment, income tax and cash flow constraints associated with the construction operation and decommissioning of a generating plant. Levelised unit cost comparisons are usually made with different sets of financing assumptions. This report considers two base cases, which we describe as 'merchant' and 'public' financing. The term 'merchant plant' is used to refer to ones that are built and operated by private investors. These investors pay for their capital through debt and by raising equity, and thus pay return on equity and interest on debt throughout their lifetime. These projects include income taxes, both provincial and federal. Publicly financed projects typically are not subject to income taxes or to the same constraints on raising finance through issuing debt and equity. However, they are constrained to provide a rate of return. The rate of return required for projects is subject to some uncertainty. For a merchant project the higher the perceived risk the higher the required return. Publicly financed projects may be evaluated on the basis of a given discount rate or may be able to access funds at lower rates, but the risk of cost overruns is implicitly borne by the taxpayer. There is a third possibility, a public/private partnership. A number of partnership arrangements are possible, for example, public financing of construction and leasing to private owners for operation. All partnership arrangements represent a sharing of risk between the public and private sector. Public/private partnership may provide an attractive model for building new generation in Ontario. This report considers each of the generation options under both merchant and public financing. The base case merchant financing scenario is consistent with one where risk is relatively low, and consequently the real return on equity required by private investors is 12%. We believe a comparison between merchant and public financing to be important in that it shows the effect of taxes and financing assumptions on the economics of a generation project. Since the pure economic assessment of projects does not normally consider financing or tax costs, these being transfer payments not essential to the project itself, the public financing version of our assessments can be interpreted as the underlying economics of different technologies. This report does not include a detailed modelling of financing arrangements that could occur under a public/private partnership. However, we do consider how the cost of generation options compares under a wide range of illustrative assumptions on the required return on equity, debt and the debt/equity ratio. (author)

  1. The influence of capacity management on the unit cost of production: a case study in a flexible plastic packaging company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tálita Floriano Goulart Silva

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the relationship between capacity management and cost management in determining the unit cost. The objective was to show how the use of effective capacity decreases the unit cost of manufacturing. For this, follow these steps: 1 Knowledge and analysis of production process and PPPC; 2 Data Collection; 3 Application of the Method Cost Center; 4Verification of the relationship between the Capacity Management and Cost Management. Through the company’s accounting reports, observations and interviews, the following results was possible: knowledge of the production process and functioning of PPCP, measuring the cost of each step of the production process and the unit cost of each product. Subsequently, we compared the unit cost using the effective capacity and normal capacity. The results showed that the unit costs decrease with the use of effective capacity, while increasing the margin for each product, even with the lower sale price, thus establishing a virtuous circle: effective capacity utilization, reduced unit cost, most competitive prices and increase in the number of requests.

  2. Market value calculation and the solution of circularity between value and the weighted average cost of capital WACC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Vélez-Pareja

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Most finance textbooks present the Weighted Average Cost of Capital (WACC calculation as: WACC = Kd×(1-T×D% + Ke×E%, where Kd is the cost of debt before taxes, T is the tax rate, D% is the percentage of debt on total value, Ke is the cost of equity and E% is the percentage of equity on total value. All of them precise (but not with enough emphasis that the values to calculate D% y E% are market values. Although they devote special space and thought to calculate Kd and Ke, little effort is made to the correct calculation of market values. This means that there are several points that are not sufficiently dealt with: Market values, location in time, occurrence of tax payments, WACC changes in time and the circularity in calculating WACC. The purpose of this note is to clear up these ideas, solve the circularity problem and emphasize in some ideas that usually are looked over. Also, some suggestions are presented on how to calculate, or estimate, the equity cost of capital.

  3. Health-resource use and costs associated with fibromyalgia in France, Germany, and the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandran A

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Tyler Knight,1 Caroline Schaefer,1 Arthi Chandran,2 Gergana Zlateva,2 Andreas Winkelmann,3 Serge Perrot4 1Health Economics and Outcomes Research, Covance Market Access Services, Gaithersburg, MD, USA; 2Primary Care Health Economics and Outcomes Research, Pfizer Global Health Economics, New York, NY, USA; 3Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University Hospital Munich, Munich, Germany; 4Service de Médecine Interne et Thérapeutique, Université Paris Descartes, Paris, France Background: Fibromyalgia (FM is a chronic disorder characterized by widespread, persistent pain. Prospective and retrospective studies have demonstrated substantial health-care costs associated with FM in a number of countries. This study evaluated and compared health-resource use (HRU and associated costs related to FM in routine clinical practice across the US, France, and Germany. Methods: Two separate, cross-sectional, observational studies of subjects with FM were conducted: one in the US and one in France and Germany. HRU related to prescription medication, physician office visits, diagnostic tests, and hospitalizations was abstracted from chart review; patient out-of-pocket costs and lost productivity were collected via subject self-report. Costs were assigned to HRU based on standard algorithms. Direct and indirect costs were evaluated and compared by simple linear regression. Results: A total of 442 subjects (203 US, 70 France, 169 Germany with FM were analyzed. The mean (standard deviation age in the US, France, and Germany was 47.9 (10.9, 51.2 (9.5, and 49.2 (9.8, respectively (P = 0.085. Most subjects were female (95% US, 83% France, 80% Germany (P < 0.001. Adjusted annual direct costs per subject for FM were significantly higher in the US ($7087 than in France ($481, P < 0.001 or Germany ($2417, P < 0.001. Adjusted mean annual indirect costs per subject for FM were lower in the US ($6431 than in France ($8718 or Germany ($10,001, but represented a significant proportion of total costs in all countries. Conclusion: The significant HRU and costs associated with FM in the US, France, and Germany documented in this study highlight the substantial global economic burden of FM. Indirect costs represented a significant proportion of the total costs, particularly in Europe. Comparisons between the three countries show differences in HRU, with significantly higher direct costs in the US compared with France and Germany. Keywords: fibromyalgia, cost, burden of illness, United States, France, Germany

  4. Some considerations to estimate the cost of the unit of the collective effective dose in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, the starting point are characteristics of the Cuban health system. It also analyzes the behaviour of its funding and its results in the extension of the life of the population. this analysis allows to find the general amount the society want to invest to reduce the mortality rate. From the relationship between these aspects, it proposes the way assign a cost to the unit of collective effective dose

  5. Admission clinicopathological data, length of stay, cost and mortality in an equine neonatal intensive care unit

    OpenAIRE

    Bain, F T; K. MacGillivray; Frazer, M.; T.D. Byars; Slovis, N.M.; B. Gummow; Saulez, M.N.

    2012-01-01

    Veterinary internists need to prognosticate patients quickly and accurately in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). This may depend on laboratory data collected on admission, the cost of hospitalisation, length of stay (LOS) and mortality rate experienced in the NICU. Therefore, we conducted a retrospective study of 62 equine neonates admitted to a NICU of a private equine referral hospital to determine the prognostic value of venous clinicopathological data collected on admission before th...

  6. United States cost of military force projection in the Persian Gulf, 1976-2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the first estimate of United States military cost for Persian Gulf force (CPGfp) derived entirely by a quantitative method. An activity-based cost (ABC) model uses geographic distribution of aircraft carriers as a proxy allocator of Department of Defense (DoD) baseline cost to regional operations. Allocation follows simply from DoD data that since 1990 no less than one aircraft carrier has been continuously on-station in the Persian Gulf; that eight are required to keep one on-station there; that the Navy has had eleven-fifteen carriers since 1990; and that Army and Air Force units are virtually never deployed to combat operations without Navy units. For 1976-2007 CPGfp is estimated to be $6.8 x 1012 and for 2007 $0.5 x 1012 (2008$). This substantial military investment is not a remedy for the market failure at the heart of regional security problem, which is oil market power. When CPGfp is added to economic losses attributed to market power in another recent study, the severity of this market failure becomes more apparent. (author)

  7. United States cost of military force projection in the Persian Gulf, 1976-2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stern, Roger J. [Oil, Energy and the Middle East Program, Department of Near Eastern Studies and Princeton Environmental Institute, Guyot Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2010-06-15

    This paper presents the first estimate of United States military cost for Persian Gulf force (C{sub PGfp}) derived entirely by a quantitative method. An activity-based cost (ABC) model uses geographic distribution of aircraft carriers as a proxy allocator of Department of Defense (DoD) baseline cost to regional operations. Allocation follows simply from DoD data that since 1990 no less than one aircraft carrier has been continuously on-station in the Persian Gulf; that eight are required to keep one on-station there; that the Navy has had eleven-fifteen carriers since 1990; and that Army and Air Force units are virtually never deployed to combat operations without Navy units. For 1976-2007 C{sub PGfp} is estimated to be $6.8 x 10{sup 12} and for 2007 $0.5 x 10{sup 12} (2008$). This substantial military investment is not a remedy for the market failure at the heart of regional security problem, which is oil market power. When C{sub PGfp} is added to economic losses attributed to market power in another recent study, the severity of this market failure becomes more apparent. (author)

  8. A Probability Analysis of the Generating Cost for EU-APR1400 Single Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear power plant market is expected to grow rapidly in order to address issues of global warming, reducing CO2 emissions and securing stable electricity supplies. Under these circumstances, the main primary goal of the EU-APR100 development is to ensure export competitiveness in the European countries. To this end, EU-APR1400 have been developed based one te APR1400 (Advanced Power Reactor, GEN Type) The EU-APR1400 adds many advanced design features to its predecessor, as outlined below in Table 1. In this simulation, the results of the generating cost of the EU-APR1400 single unit were determined using the probability cost analysis technique, the generating cost range was shown to be 56.16 ? 70.92 won/kWh.

  9. A Probability Analysis of the Generating Cost for EU-APR1400 Single Unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Gak Hyeon; Kim, Sung Hwan [KHNP CRI, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    The nuclear power plant market is expected to grow rapidly in order to address issues of global warming, reducing CO{sub 2} emissions and securing stable electricity supplies. Under these circumstances, the main primary goal of the EU-APR100 development is to ensure export competitiveness in the European countries. To this end, EU-APR1400 have been developed based one te APR1400 (Advanced Power Reactor, GEN Type) The EU-APR1400 adds many advanced design features to its predecessor, as outlined below in Table 1. In this simulation, the results of the generating cost of the EU-APR1400 single unit were determined using the probability cost analysis technique, the generating cost range was shown to be 56.16 ? 70.92 won/kWh.

  10. Cost effective interprofessional training : an evaluation of a training unit in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Torben Bæk; Jakobsen, Flemming Bandholm

    2009-01-01

    In 2004, the first Danish undergraduate interprofessional training unit (ITU) was established at the Regional Hospital Holstebro, inspired by experiences from Sweden. In this unit, medical, nursing, occupational therapy and physiotherapy students are given responsibility, under supervision by trained and motivated personnel, for rehabilitation and care of patients in a subunit of an orthopaedic department. The aim of this study was to see whether the ITU was cost effective in treating patients compared with a conventional orthopaedic ward. One-hundred and thirty-four patients admitted for primary hip or knee replacement surgery were included in the study. All costs were recorded in the ITU and in the conventional ward. Follow-up was done by a quality of life questionnaire three months after the operation. Comparison was done by univariable and multivariable testing of costs and effect. In both, the ITU was more cost effective than the conventional ward. No difference was found in complications and patient-reported quality of life. In conclusion, clinical training can be given to students in an ITU without reducing productivity in a hospital environment if pedagogic principles, clinical tutors and patient logistics all adapt to the challenge of the teaching environment.

  11. A Prediction on the Unit Cost Estimation for Decommissioning Activities Using the Experienced Data from DECOMMIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Seung Kook; Park, Hee Seong; Choi, Yoon Dong; Song, Chan Ho; Moon, Jei Kwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) has developed the DECOMMIS (Decommissioning Information Management System) and have been applied for the decommissioning project of the KRR (Korea Research Reactor)-1 and 2 and UCP (Uranium Conversion Plant), as the meaning of the first decommissioning project in Korea. All information and data which are from the decommissioning activities are input, saved, output and managed in the DECOMMIS. This system was consists of the web server and the database server. The users could be access through a web page, depending on the input, processing and output, and be modified the permissions to do such activities can after the decommissioning activities have created the initial system-wide data is stored. When it could be used the experienced data from DECOMMIS, the cost estimation on the new facilities for the decommissioning planning will be established with the basic frame of the WBS structures and its codes. In this paper, the prediction on the cost estimation through using the experienced data which were store in DECOMMIS was studied. For the new decommissioning project on the nuclear facilities in the future, through this paper, the cost estimation for the decommissioning using the experienced data which were WBS codes, unit-work productivity factors and annual governmental unit labor cost is proposed. These data were from the KRR and UCP decommissioning project. The differences on the WBS code sectors and facility characterization between new objected components and experienced dismantled components was reduces as scaling factors. The study on the establishment the scaling factors and cost prediction for the cost estimation is developing with the algorithms from the productivity data, now.

  12. A Prediction on the Unit Cost Estimation for Decommissioning Activities Using the Experienced Data from DECOMMIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) has developed the DECOMMIS (Decommissioning Information Management System) and have been applied for the decommissioning project of the KRR (Korea Research Reactor)-1 and 2 and UCP (Uranium Conversion Plant), as the meaning of the first decommissioning project in Korea. All information and data which are from the decommissioning activities are input, saved, output and managed in the DECOMMIS. This system was consists of the web server and the database server. The users could be access through a web page, depending on the input, processing and output, and be modified the permissions to do such activities can after the decommissioning activities have created the initial system-wide data is stored. When it could be used the experienced data from DECOMMIS, the cost estimation on the new facilities for the decommissioning planning will be established with the basic frame of the WBS structures and its codes. In this paper, the prediction on the cost estimation through using the experienced data which were store in DECOMMIS was studied. For the new decommissioning project on the nuclear facilities in the future, through this paper, the cost estimation for the decommissioning using the experienced data which were WBS codes, unit-work productivity factors and annual governmental unit labor cost is proposed. These data were from the KRR and UCP decommissioning project. The differences on the WBS code sectors and facility characterization between new objected components and experienced dismantled components was reduces as scaling factors. The study on the establishment the scaling factors and cost prediction for the cost estimation is developing with the algorithms from the productivity data, now

  13. Calculations of the radiological impact of disposal of unit activity of selected radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the work described is to provide estimates of the radiological impact following disposal of unit activity via each of several options, including disposal on the deep ocean bed, shallow burial, engineered trench disposal, disposal in a geologic repository and disposal in off-shore boreholes. Results are presented for a range of important representative radionuclides. In the course of the calculations it was necessary to make a number of simplifying assumptions. The implications of these are discussed in the context of use of the results for comparative assessments of waste management options. (author)

  14. MARCH calculations performed for the TMI-2 [Three Mile Island Unit] analysis exercise program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of the validation effort for the MARCH portion of the Source Term Code Package, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission has requested Battelle Columbus to participate in the Three Mile Island Unit (TMI-2) Analysis Exercise Program. Previous TMI-2 calculations (1980) had been performed using the original MARCH 1.1 version of the code. MARCH was written to calculate thermal-hydraulic phenomena for reactor accidents leading to core meltdown. The accident sequences normally considered by MARCH users are relatively uncomplicated. For example, multiple changes in emergency core cooling injection, steam generator auxiliary feedwater flow rates, and cycling of primary system steam relief valves are not generally considered in severe-accident analysis. All of these things were done during the TMI-2 accident. In addition, at TMI-2 the core meltdown sequence was interrupted by the restoration of core cooling after achieving significant melting. In order to perform meaningful TMI-2 calculations, it has been found necessary to add a number of modeling enhancements to MARCH. These modeling changes are discussed along with the results of the TMI-2 MARCH calculations in this paper

  15. Innovative global approach for high-performance low-cost integral field unit (IFU)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivès, Sébastien; Prieto, Eric; Salaun, Yves

    2007-09-01

    The current Integral Field Units (IFUs) are limited either by their cost/risk or by their performance. In particular, standard glass manufacturing techniques allow reaching high level of performances: accurate roughness (high throughput), sharp edges (about 1 micron), surface form (image quality), etc. in spite of their reputation to be costly and risky. Combining high performances and low costs is challenging. By coupling fast tools specifically developed at LAM to design IFU, and innovative low-cost and low-risk methods of manufacturing, we are able to reach high performances while saving costs and time by an order of magnitude. We have developed a demonstrator which validates our tools and manufacturing methods in terms of optical image quality, slice edges quality and decentring errors. We will present these results and an example of IFU designed with our tools. All these processes of optimization between manufacturing techniques and design can be applied for future ground-based instruments (MUSE, KMOS for the VTL; MOMFIS of the ELT) or into future space instruments (SNAP).

  16. Decommissioning cost recovery in the United States: lessons learned from Connecticut Yankee NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The international audience at ICONE-7 is already familiar with the roles of the owner and the NRC in ensuring the technical and safety performance goals of nuclear plant decommissioning. This paper addresses the role of the economic regulator since the pursuit of technical and safety goals must necessarily carry with them -a price tag- and owners must be concerned with the recovery of those costs. Answers to questions about how to pay and who should pay for decommissioning can very often influence nuclear power plant owner's decision-making. In the United States, most nuclear power plants are privately owned. Nevertheless, their owners are not totally free to determine the plant's economics or profitability. Instead, plant owners must sell their electricity to consumers in a regulated market wherein the price of electricity and terms of sale are controlled by the government. Under this regulatory regime, utilities are generally allowed to recover their investment costs -including decommissioning costs- provided that such costs are prudently, incurred. However, when an owner retires the plant prematurely, the prudence of his actions -up to and including the shutdown- are likely to be challenged. In 1997, for example, the owners of the Connecticut Yankee reactor faced a stiff challenge to the recovery of decommissioning costs when they shut down the plant ten years before license expiration. The Connecticut Yankee case thus provides valuable insights into the role of economic regulation on a nuclear plant's decommissioning strategy. (author)

  17. Weather data for simplified energy calculation methods. Volume III. Western United States: TRY data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, A.R.; Moreno, S.; Deringer, J.; Watson, C.R.

    1984-08-01

    The objective is to provide a source of weather data for direct use with a number of simplified energy calculation methods available today. Complete weather data for a number of cities in the United States are provided for use in the following methods: degree hour, modified degree hour, bin, modified bin, and variable degree day. This report contains sets of weather data for 24 cities in the continental United States using Test Reference Year (TRY) source weather data. The weather data at each city has been summarized in a number of ways to provide differing levels of detail necessary for alternative simplified energy calculation methods. Weather variables summarized include dry bulb and wet bulb temperature, percent relative humidity, humidity ratio, wind speed, percent possible sunshine, percent diffuse solar radiation, total solar radiation on horizontal and vertical surfaces, and solar heat gain through standard DSA glass. Monthly and annual summaries, in some cases by time of day, are available. These summaries are produced in a series of nine computer generated tables.

  18. Weather data for simplified energy calculation methods. Volume II. Middle United States: TRY data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, A.R.; Moreno, S.; Deringer, J.; Watson, C.R.

    1984-08-01

    The objective of this report is to provide a source of weather data for direct use with a number of simplified energy calculation methods available today. Complete weather data for a number of cities in the United States are provided for use in the following methods: degree hour, modified degree hour, bin, modified bin, and variable degree day. This report contains sets of weather data for 22 cities in the continental United States using Test Reference Year (TRY) source weather data. The weather data at each city has been summarized in a number of ways to provide differing levels of detail necessary for alternative simplified energy calculation methods. Weather variables summarized include dry bulb and wet bulb temperature, percent relative humidity, humidity ratio, wind speed, percent possible sunshine, percent diffuse solar radiation, total solar radiation on horizontal and vertical surfaces, and solar heat gain through standard DSA glass. Monthly and annual summaries, in some cases by time of day, are available. These summaries are produced in a series of nine computer generated tables.

  19. Weather data for simplified energy calculation methods. Volume I. Eastern United States: TRY data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, A.R.; Moreno, S.; Deringer, J.; Watson, C.R.

    1984-08-01

    The objective of this report is to provide a source of weather data for direct use with a number of simplified energy calculation methods available today. Complete weather data for a number of cities in the United States are provided for use in the following methods: degree hour, modified degree hour, bin, modified bin, and variable degree day. This report contains sets of weather data for 23 cities in the continental United States using Test Reference Year (TRY) source weather data. The weather data at each city has been summarized in a number of ways to provide differing levels of detail necessary for alternative simplified energy calculation methods. Weather variables summarized include dry bulb and wet bulb temperature, percent relative humidity, humidity ratio, wind speed, percent possible sunshine, percent diffuse solar radiation, total solar radiation on horizontal and vertical surfaces, and solar heat gain through standard DSA glass. Monthly and annual summaries, in some cases by time of day, are available. These summaries are produced in a series of nine computer generated tables.

  20. Cost of managing an episode of relapse in multiple sclerosis in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ward Alexandra J

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to determine the direct medical US cost of managing multiple sclerosis relapses. Methods Direct data analysis and cost modeling were employed to derive typical resource use profiles and costs in 2002 US dollars, from the perspective of a third-party payer responsible for comprehensive health-care. The location and scope of health care services provided over a 90-day period were used to define three levels of relapse management. Hospitalization and resulting subsequent care was defined as high intensity management. A medium level of intervention was defined as either use of the emergency room, an observational unit, or administration of acute treatments, such as intravenous methylprednisolone in an outpatient or home setting. The lowest intensity of care comprised physician office visits and symptom-related medications. Data were obtained from many sources including all payer inpatient, ambulatory and emergency room databases from several states, fee schedules, government reports, and literature. All charges were adjusted using cost-to-charge ratios. Results Average cost per person for high management level was $12,870, based on analysis of 4,634 hospital cases (mean age 48 years, 73% female. Hospital care comprised 71% of that cost. At discharge, 36% required inpatient sub-acute care, rehabilitation or home care. The typical cost per moderate episode was $1,847 and mild episode $243. Conclusions Management strategies leading to a reduction in the frequency and severity of a relapse, less reliance on inpatient care, or increased access to steroid infusions in the home, would have a substantial impact on the economic consequences of managing relapses.

  1. Cost of managing an episode of relapse in multiple sclerosis in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Judith A; Ward, Alexandra J; Patrick, Amanda R; Caro, Jaime

    2003-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to determine the direct medical US cost of managing multiple sclerosis relapses. Methods Direct data analysis and cost modeling were employed to derive typical resource use profiles and costs in 2002 US dollars, from the perspective of a third-party payer responsible for comprehensive health-care. The location and scope of health care services provided over a 90-day period were used to define three levels of relapse management. Hospitalization and resulting subsequent care was defined as high intensity management. A medium level of intervention was defined as either use of the emergency room, an observational unit, or administration of acute treatments, such as intravenous methylprednisolone in an outpatient or home setting. The lowest intensity of care comprised physician office visits and symptom-related medications. Data were obtained from many sources including all payer inpatient, ambulatory and emergency room databases from several states, fee schedules, government reports, and literature. All charges were adjusted using cost-to-charge ratios. Results Average cost per person for high management level was $12,870, based on analysis of 4,634 hospital cases (mean age 48 years, 73% female). Hospital care comprised 71% of that cost. At discharge, 36% required inpatient sub-acute care, rehabilitation or home care. The typical cost per moderate episode was $1,847 and mild episode $243. Conclusions Management strategies leading to a reduction in the frequency and severity of a relapse, less reliance on inpatient care, or increased access to steroid infusions in the home, would have a substantial impact on the economic consequences of managing relapses. PMID:12952552

  2. Cost optimal and nearly zero-energy buildings (nZEB) definitions, calculation principles and case studies

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    This book introduces technical definitions, system boundaries, energy calculation methods and input data for setting primary energy based minimum/cost optimal and nZEB requirements in national energy frames. Offers five case studies of nZEB office buildings.

  3. Audit Calculations of ATWS for Ulchin Unit 1 and 2 Power Uprate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, the regulatory audit calculation for ATWS of Ulchin Unit 1 and 2 with 4.5% power uprate was performed to support the licensing review and to confirm the validity of licensee's calculation. In order to simulate the transient behavior of ATWS initiated by a loss of feed water, the systems of Ulchin Unit 1 and 2 was modeled with MARS-KS 1.3. In this study, the regulatory audit calculation of ATWS for Ulchin 1 and 2 with 4.5% power uprating and 99% MTC in the specific cycle designs was performed. It is conformed that the analysis results of ATWS for Ulchin 1 and 2 power uprate meets the RCS pressure acceptance criteria. An anticipated transient accompanied by a failure in the Reactor Trip System (RTS) to shut down the reactor is defined as an Anticipated Transient Without Scram (ATWS). Under certain postulated conditions, the ATWS could lead to Reactor Coolant system (RCS) pressure boundary fracture and/or core damage. For a conventional pressurized water reactor (PWR), the temperature corresponding to the NSSC notice No.2013.09(Performance Criteria for ECCS of the Pressurized Water Reactor Nuclear Power Plants), 1204 .deg. C and the pressure corresponding to the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code service level C stress, 221.5 bar is assumed to be an unacceptable plant condition against ATWS, above which the RCS pressure boundary could deform to the point of inoperability and the safe shutdown by injection of borated water could be challenged. Such potentially excessive RCS overpressure may occur in the ATWS initiated from a loss of heat sink. Currently, the modification of Ulchin 1 and 2 operating license for 4.5% power uprate is under review

  4. Audit Calculations of ATWS for Ulchin Unit 1 and 2 Power Uprate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jun Soo; Huh, Byung Gil; Choi, Yong Seog; Seul, Kwang Won [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    In this study, the regulatory audit calculation for ATWS of Ulchin Unit 1 and 2 with 4.5% power uprate was performed to support the licensing review and to confirm the validity of licensee's calculation. In order to simulate the transient behavior of ATWS initiated by a loss of feed water, the systems of Ulchin Unit 1 and 2 was modeled with MARS-KS 1.3. In this study, the regulatory audit calculation of ATWS for Ulchin 1 and 2 with 4.5% power uprating and 99% MTC in the specific cycle designs was performed. It is conformed that the analysis results of ATWS for Ulchin 1 and 2 power uprate meets the RCS pressure acceptance criteria. An anticipated transient accompanied by a failure in the Reactor Trip System (RTS) to shut down the reactor is defined as an Anticipated Transient Without Scram (ATWS). Under certain postulated conditions, the ATWS could lead to Reactor Coolant system (RCS) pressure boundary fracture and/or core damage. For a conventional pressurized water reactor (PWR), the temperature corresponding to the NSSC notice No.2013.09(Performance Criteria for ECCS of the Pressurized Water Reactor Nuclear Power Plants), 1204 .deg. C and the pressure corresponding to the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code service level C stress, 221.5 bar is assumed to be an unacceptable plant condition against ATWS, above which the RCS pressure boundary could deform to the point of inoperability and the safe shutdown by injection of borated water could be challenged. Such potentially excessive RCS overpressure may occur in the ATWS initiated from a loss of heat sink. Currently, the modification of Ulchin 1 and 2 operating license for 4.5% power uprate is under review.

  5. Comminution of logging residues with a tub grinder: Calculation of productivity and procurement cost of wood chips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuyuki Yoshioka

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available An experiment on comminution of logging residues with a tub grinder was carried out in order to calculate the productivity and procurement cost of wood chips. At the investigated site, the tub grinder had a hammer mill crusher at the bottom of the tub, and a grapple loaderand a bucket loader worked as auxiliary machines for the grinder. As a result, the productivity of the tub grinder was 60.0 loose m3/PMH0, and the total comminuting cost was calculated as 5.637 US$/m3, indicating that the comminuting cost of a large-sized crusher waslower than that of a small-sized chipper. The percentage of the cost of loaders, that of carrying in, installing, and carrying out the machines, and that of constructing a landing was 53% of the total comminuting cost. When a truck with the capacity of 40 m3 transported wood chips three times a day, the costs of comminution and transportation were71.2 US$/t (DM1, which is almost on a par with those of European countries in which the energy utilization of logging residues is making steady progress. As a result of the discussion about the balance between the processing capacity of the tub grinder and that of othermachines, it seemed reasonable for Japanese forestry to consider the use of one tub grinder at several logging sites.

  6. Evaluation of a rapid LMP-based approach for calculating marginal unit emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • Pollutant emissions estimated based on locational marginal price and eGRID data. • Stochastic model using IEEE RTS-96 system used to evaluate LMP approach. • Incorporating membership function enhanced reliability of pollutant estimate. • Error in pollutant estimate typically 2 and X and SO2. - Abstract: To evaluate the sustainability of systems that draw power from electrical grids there is a need to rapidly and accurately quantify pollutant emissions associated with power generation. Air emissions resulting from electricity generation vary widely among power plants based on the types of fuel consumed, the efficiency of the plant, and the type of pollution control systems in service. To address this need, methods for estimating real-time air emissions from power generation based on locational marginal prices (LMPs) have been developed. Based on LMPs the type of the marginal generating unit can be identified and pollutant emissions are estimated. While conceptually demonstrated, this LMP approach has not been rigorously tested. The purpose of this paper is to (1) improve the LMP method for predicting pollutant emissions and (2) evaluate the reliability of this technique through power system simulations. Previous LMP methods were expanded to include marginal emissions estimates using an LMP Emissions Estimation Method (LEEM). The accuracy of emission estimates was further improved by incorporating a probability distribution function that characterize generator fuel costs and a membership function (MF) capable of accounting for multiple marginal generation units. Emission estimates were compared to those predicted from power flow simulations. The improved LEEM was found to predict the marginal generation type approximately 70% of the time based on typical system conditions (e.g. loads and fuel costs) without the use of a MF. With the addition of a MF, the LEEM was found to provide emission estimates with errors typically less than 25% for CO2, and less than 50% for SO2 and NOX. Overall, the LEEM presented provides a means of incorporating pollutant emissions into demand side decisions

  7. CNSS plant concept, capital cost, and multi-unit station economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    United Engineers and Constructors (UE and C) and the Babcock and Wilcox Company (B and W) have performed several studies over the last eight years related to small integral pressurized water reactors. These reactors include the 365 MWt (100 MWe) Consolidated Nuclear Steam Generator (CNSG) and the 1200 MWt Consolidated Nuclear Steam System (CNSS). The studies, mostly performed under contract to the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, have led to a 1250 MWt (400 MWe) Consolidated Nuclear Steam System (CNSS) plant concept, with unique design and cost features. This report contains an update of earlier studies of the CNSS reactor and balance-of-plant concept design, capital costs, and multi-unit plant economics incorporating recent design developments, improvements, and post-TMI-2 upgrades. The economic evaluation compares the total system economic impact of a phased, three stage 400 MWe CNSS implementation program, i.e., a three-unit station, to the installation of a single 1200 MWe Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) into a typical USA utility system

  8. Weather data for simplified energy calculation methods. Volume IV. United States: WYEC data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, A.R.; Moreno, S.; Deringer, J.; Watson, C.R.

    1984-08-01

    The objective of this report is to provide a source of weather data for direct use with a number of simplified energy calculation methods available today. Complete weather data for a number of cities in the United States are provided for use in the following methods: degree hour, modified degree hour, bin, modified bin, and variable degree day. This report contains sets of weather data for 23 cities using Weather Year for Energy Calculations (WYEC) source weather data. Considerable overlap is present in cities (21) covered by both the TRY and WYEC data. The weather data at each city has been summarized in a number of ways to provide differing levels of detail necessary for alternative simplified energy calculation methods. Weather variables summarized include dry bulb and wet bulb temperature, percent relative humidity, humidity ratio, wind speed, percent possible sunshine, percent diffuse solar radiation, total solar radiation on horizontal and vertical surfaces, and solar heat gain through standard DSA glass. Monthly and annual summaries, in some cases by time of day, are available. These summaries are produced in a series of nine computer generated tables.

  9. Initial Assessment of Parallelization of Monte Carlo Calculation using Graphics Processing Units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monte Carlo (MC) simulation is an effective tool for calculating neutron transports in complex geometry. However, because Monte Carlo simulates each neutron behavior one by one, it takes a very long computing time if enough neutrons are used for high precision of calculation. Accordingly, methods that reduce the computing time are required. In a Monte Carlo code, parallel calculation is well-suited since it simulates the behavior of each neutron independently and thus parallel computation is natural. The parallelization of the Monte Carlo codes, however, was done using multi CPUs. By the global demand for high quality 3D graphics, the Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) has developed into a highly parallel, multi-core processor. This parallel processing capability of GPUs can be available to engineering computing once a suitable interface is provided. Recently, NVIDIA introduced CUDATM, a general purpose parallel computing architecture. CUDA is a software environment that allows developers to manage GPU using C/C++ or other languages. In this work, a GPU-based Monte Carlo is developed and the initial assessment of it parallel performance is investigated

  10. THE APPLICATION OF ACTIVITY BASED COSTING ARE: ELIMINATION IN THE CALCULATION OF COST OF PRODUCTION PT SEMEN TONASA (PERSERO, PANGKEP REGENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firman Menne

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Economic conditions should be viewed as the catalyst for developing the ability to intelligently manage resources so that the people of Indonesia can be out of the condition. Effective management and efficiency is reflected in good planning and good planning requires good information. In order to plan well the utilization of company resources to fold the duplicate spiders, company management requires system information revealed by clearly and precisely the facts relating to the activity. PT Semen Tonasa is a fabrication company doing business in the field of cement industry and produces two types of cement, cement or Portland cement type 1 can (OPC and Portland cement (PPC Pazzolan. The benefits that can be gained if the company implemented the system of Activity-Based Costing are: elimination is obtained more accurate information, among others, to improve the quality of decision making. In the ABC product only burdened costs of resources and activities that are used and does not burdened by the cost of the resources and activities. This method causes the cost per unit of a more stable and consistent with the purposes of the imposition of costs to the product result in activity.

  11. Marketing techniques and cost calculations of radiation vulcanised natural rubber latex (RVNRL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes how RVNRL is promoted to the latex based industries locally and abroad. RVNRL promotion requires patience and very challenging. This is a fact since the product is new to the market. Cost is important in deciding its market and potential usage. The elements that contribute to the cost is described in this paper. (Author)

  12. Methodology and input availability parameters for calculating OpEx and CapEx costs for realistic network scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbrugge, S.; Colle, D.; Pickavet, M.; Demeester, P.; Pasqualini, S.; Iselt, A.; Kirstädter, A.; Hülsermann, R.; Westphal, F.-J.; Jäger, M.

    2006-06-01

    The availability requirements for today's networks are very high. Higher availability often comes with a higher cost. We describe several steps required for estimating the costs of realistic network scenarios. Capital expenditures (CapEx) and operational expenditures (OpEx) are classified. An activity-based approach is used to quantify the cost of the event-driven operational processes such as repair and service provisioning. We discuss activity duration and availability parameters as required input data, which are necessary for calculating the processes' costs for realistic network scenarios. The relevant availability measures for an IP-over-Optical network are described using a triplet representation with optimistic, nominal, and conservative values. The model is applied to a reference German network scenario.

  13. Admission clinicopathological data, length of stay, cost and mortality in an equine neonatal intensive care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.N. Saulez

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Veterinary internists need to prognosticate patients quickly and accurately in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU. This may depend on laboratory data collected on admission, the cost of hospitalisation, length of stay (LOS and mortality rate experienced in the NICU. Therefore, we conducted a retrospective study of 62 equine neonates admitted to a NICU of a private equine referral hospital to determine the prognostic value of venous clinicopathological data collected on admission before therapy, the cost of hospitalisation, LOS and mortality rate. The WBC count, total CO2 (TCO2 and alkaline phosphatase (ALP were significantly higher (P < 0.05 and anion gap lower in survivors compared with nonsurvivors. A logistic regression model that included WBC count, hematocrit, albumin / globulin ratio, ALP, TCO2, potassium, sodium and lactate, was able to correctly predict mortality in 84 % of cases. Only anion gap proved to be an independent predictor of neonatal mortality in this study. In the study population, the overall mortality rate was 34 % with greatest mortality rates reported in the first 48 hours and again on day 6 of hospitalisation. Amongst the various clinical diagnoses, mortality was highest in foals after forced extraction during correction of dystocia. Median cost per day was higher for nonsurvivors while total cost was higher in survivors.

  14. Unit costs for house spraying and bednet impregnation with residual insecticides in Colombia: a management tool for the control of vector-borne disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeger, A; Ayala, C; Medina Lara, A

    2002-06-01

    A study of unit costs and cost components of two malaria-control strategies (house spraying and bednet impregnation with residual insecticides) was undertaken in 11 malaria-endemic states (departamentos) of Colombia, using data provided by control staff on self-administered questionnaires. The accuracy of the data was verified by personal visits, telephone conversations and complementary information from 10 other states. Allthe financial-cost components of the malaria-control operations carried out in the previous 6 months and the results of the control operations themselves (including the numbers of houses sprayed and numbers of bednets impregnated/day) were recorded. The information was stratified according to whether the target communities were 'near' or 'far away' from an operational base, the far-away communities being those that needed overnight stays by the control staff. The main variables analysed were unit costs/house treated, and annual cost/person protected. The results show that house spraying was generally more expensive for the health services than bednet impregnation. This is particularly the case in 'nearby' communities, where most of those at-risk live. In such communities, spraying one house was 7.2 times more expensive than impregnating one bednet. Even if only those sleeping under an impregnated net were assumed to be protected, the unit costs/person protected in a 'nearby' community were twice as high for house spraying than for bednet impregnation. In 'nearby' communities, where technicians could return to the operational base each evening, insecticides made up 80% of the total spraying costs and 42% of the costs of bednet impregnation. In 'far-away' communities, however, salaries and 'per diems' were the most important cost components, representing, respectively, 23% and 22% of the costs of spraying, and 34% plus 27% of the costs of impregnation. Insecticide wastage and non-use of discounts on insecticide prices (available through the national Ministry of Health) increased the overall costs considerably. The multiple uses of these cost calculations for district health managers are presented. PMID:12171622

  15. Costos directos de la hemodiálisis en unidades públicas y privadas / Direct cost analysis of hemodialysis units

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luis, Durán-Arenas; Paula D, Ávila-Palomares; Rodrigo, Zendejas-Villanueva; María Magaly, Vargas-Ruiz; Laura L, Tirado-Gómez; Malaquías, López-Cervantes.

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO. Estimar y comparar el costo por sesión de hemodiálisis dentro del sector público y privado en la Ciudad de México. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS. Se calcularon los costos de los insumos utilizados en las hemodiálisis de cuatro hospitales públicos y dos privados de la Ciudad de México, mediante la est [...] rategia de micro-costeo denominada PAATI. Para la obtención de los datos se utilizó el método de sombra; además, se empleó Excel para elaborar cédulas en las que se determina el PAATI para cada sesión. RESULTADOS. El costo anual promedio directo en el sector público por el tratamiento de un individuo en hemodiálisis es de $158 964.00 M. N., y el costo de atender a la población que podría demandar terapia de reemplazo renal se estima en $10 921 788 072.00 M. N. CONCLUSIÓN. La disponibilidad de recursos humanos e infraestructura en el país es muy limitada para el campo de la nefrología en general y, en particular, para ofrecer servicios de hemodiálisis, por lo que sería necesario inyectar más recursos para poder responder ante la demanda por insuficiencia renal terminal. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE. To estimate and compare direct costs per hemodialysis session in public and private units in Mexico City. MATERIAL AND METHODS. PAATI, a microcosting strategy, was used to determine total costs of four public and two private health hospitals in Mexico City. A "shadow study" approach was e [...] mployed to collect the needed data. Charts containing the "PAATI" information for each session were developed in Microsoft Excel. RESULTS. The average annual cost per patient undergoing hemodialysis in public units is $158 964.00 MX. The estimated cost for the care of all population estimated in need of renal replacement therapy (via hemodialysis) was estimated to be $10 921 788 072.00 MX. CONCLUSION. Human resources and infrastructure availability in México are very limited for nephrology, and in consequence for offering hemodialysis services.

  16. Burden of disease and costs of aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (aSAH) in the United Kingdom.

    OpenAIRE

    Gray Alastair; Rivero-Arias Oliver; Wolstenholme Jane

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background To estimate life years and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) lost and the economic burden of aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (aSAH) in the United Kingdom including healthcare and non-healthcare costs from a societal perspective. Methods All UK residents in 2005 with aSAH (International Classification of Diseases 10th revision (ICD-10) code I60). Sex and age-specific abridged life tables were generated for a general population and aSAH cohorts. QALYs in each cohort we...

  17. A methodology for calculating the levelized cost of electricity in nuclear power systems with fuel recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we show how the traditional definition of the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) can be extended to alternative nuclear fuel cycles in which elements of the fuel are recycled. In particular, we define the LCOE for a cycle with full actinide recycling in fast reactors in which elements of the fuel are reused an indefinite number of times. To our knowledge, ours is the first LCOE formula for this cycle. Others have approached the task of evaluating this cycle using an 'equilibrium cost' concept that is different from a levelized cost. We also show how the LCOE implies a unique price for the recycled elements. This price reflects the ultimate cost of waste disposal postponed through the recycling, as well as other costs in the cycle. We demonstrate the methodology by estimating the LCOE for three classic nuclear fuel cycles: (i) the traditional Once-Through Cycle, (ii) a Twice-Through Cycle, and (iii) a Fast Reactor Recycle. Given our chosen input parameters, we show that the 'equilibrium cost' is typically larger than the levelized cost, and we explain why.

  18. A methodology for calculating the levelized cost of electricity in nuclear power systems with fuel recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Roo, Guillaume, E-mail: guillaume.deroo@alum.mit.edu [MIT Technology and Policy Program, MIT Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, and the MIT Center for Energy and Environmental Policy Research, MIT, E19-411, 77 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Parsons, John E., E-mail: jparsons@mit.edu [MIT Sloan School of Management, MIT Center for Energy and Environmental Policy Research, and MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change, E19-411, 77 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2011-09-15

    In this paper we show how the traditional definition of the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) can be extended to alternative nuclear fuel cycles in which elements of the fuel are recycled. In particular, we define the LCOE for a cycle with full actinide recycling in fast reactors in which elements of the fuel are reused an indefinite number of times. To our knowledge, ours is the first LCOE formula for this cycle. Others have approached the task of evaluating this cycle using an 'equilibrium cost' concept that is different from a levelized cost. We also show how the LCOE implies a unique price for the recycled elements. This price reflects the ultimate cost of waste disposal postponed through the recycling, as well as other costs in the cycle. We demonstrate the methodology by estimating the LCOE for three classic nuclear fuel cycles: (i) the traditional Once-Through Cycle, (ii) a Twice-Through Cycle, and (iii) a Fast Reactor Recycle. Given our chosen input parameters, we show that the 'equilibrium cost' is typically larger than the levelized cost, and we explain why.

  19. Calculation of economic viability of alternative energy sources considering its environmental costs for small communities of Northeast Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There has been an increasing concern about current environmental issues caused by human activity, as the world searches for development. The production of electricity is an extremely relevant factor in this scenario since it is responsible for a large portion of the emissions that cause the greenhouse effect. Due to this fact, a sustainable development with alternative energy sources, which are attractive for such purpose, must be proposed, especially in places that are not supplied by the conventional electricity grid such as many communities in the Northeast Brazil. This work aims to calculate the environmental cost for the alternative sources of energy - solar, wind and biomass - during electricity generation, and to estimate the economic feasibility of those sources in small communities of Northeast Brazil, considering the avoided costs. The externalities must be properly identified and valued so the costs or benefits can be internalized and reflect accurately the economic feasibility or infeasibility of those sources. For this, the method of avoided costs was adopted for the calculation of externalities. This variable was included in the equation developed for all considered alternative energy sources. The calculations of economic feasibility were performed taking the new configurations in consideration, and the new equation was reprogrammed in the Programa de Calculo de Custos de Energias Alternativas, Solar, Eolica e Biomassa (PEASEB). The results demonstrated that the solar photovoltaic energy in isolated systems is the most feasible and broadly applicable source for small communities of Northeast Brazil. (author)

  20. Costs of poisoning in the United States and savings from poison control centers: a benefit-cost analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, T R; Lestina, D C

    1997-02-01

    Data on incidence, medical spending, and payment sources for poisoning were taken from the 1987 National Medical Expenditure Survey, 1991 US Vital Statistics, the 1992 National Hospital Discharge Survey, and 1992 poison control center surveillance data. Benefits, measured as percentage reductions in medical spending attributable to use of poison control centers, were calculated from analyses of published and unpublished studies of jurisdictions in which services became unavailable. Medical spending (payments) for poisoning treatment totaled $3 billion in 1992. Spending averaged $925 per case. Poison control center services were available for 86% of poisonings As used, they reduced the number of patients who were medically treated but not hospitalized for poisoning by an estimated 350,000 (24%) and the number of hospitalizations by 40,000 (12%) in 1992. The average public call to a poison control center for aid prevented $175 in other medical spending. Poison control centers offer a large return on investment. Despite their proven benefits, many poison control centers are unstably funded and financially strapped, in part because the federal government pays far less than its fair share of center costs. PMID:9018189

  1. Energy Savings and Breakeven Costs for Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maguire, Jeff [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Burch, Jay [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Merrigan, Tim [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ong, Sean [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have recently re-emerged in the U.S. residential water heating market and have the potential to provide homeowners with significant energy savings. However, there are questions as to the actual performance and energy savings potential of these units, in particular in regards to the heat pump's performance in unconditioned space and the impact of the heat pump on space heating and cooling loads when it is located in conditioned space. To help answer these questions, NREL performed simulations of a HPWH in both conditioned and unconditioned space at over 900 locations across the continental United States and Hawaii. Simulations included a Building America benchmark home so that any interaction between the HPWH and the home's HVAC equipment could be captured. Comparisons were performed to typical gas and electric water heaters to determine the energy savings potential and cost effectiveness of a HPWH relative to these technologies. HPWHs were found to have a significant source energy savings potential when replacing typical electric water heaters, but only saved source energy relative to gas water heater in the most favorable installation locations in the southern United States. When replacing an electric water heater, the HPWH is likely to break even in California, the southern United States, and parts of the northeast in most situations. However, the HPWH will only break even when replacing a gas water heater in a few southern states.

  2. Calculation of additional costs in 2010 - for the demolition of the Swedish nuclear power plants and disposal of residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the SSM's calculation of additional costs for fee proposal for 2012-2014. The calculation is made pursuant to the Financing Act and includes all additional costs until the residue from the Swedish nuclear power plants is disposed of. According to current calculations, this should be done in 2069. Estimates of such a long time means a great deal of uncertainty and SSM uses, like SKB, the successive calculation method to estimate an expected value and tax association uncertainty. As a starting point for analysis, the SSM has made estimates of the future costs broken down into paragraphs in paragraph 2 Financing Act. The estimates were made after discussions within the organization and representatives of relevant external organizations. Assuming a total annual cost per worker of 1.24 million gave these estimates a total cost of over three billion. It should be emphasized that this sum is only a starting point for analysis and applies in particular circumstances. These circumstances critically reviewed the analysis and the reasonableness of assessments made by a analysis group. The analysis took place for 2.5 days in spring 2010. The analysis group consisted of 17 people including nine from the SSM. Lores Borg and Steen Lichtenberg were moderators. Via a brainstorming process, the analysis group presented a number of uncertainties and made a three-part assessment of their impact on the overall results (minimum, most likely and maximum). The result of the analysis: average in the 2010 monetary value was assessed to 4.24 billion Swedish crowns with a standard deviation of 920 million Swedish crowns. These values are undiscounted

  3. A preliminary design and BOP cost analysis of M-C Power`s MCFC commerical unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, T.P. [Bechtel Corp, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    M-C Power Corporation plans to introduce its molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) market entry unit in the year 2000 for distributed and on-site power generation. Extensive efforts have been made to analyze the cell stack manufacturing costs. The major objective of this study is to conduct a detailed analysis of BOP costs based on an initial design of the market entry unit.

  4. Improving Accuracy and Efficiency of Start-up Cost Formulations in MIP Unit Commitment by Modeling Power Plant Temperatures

    OpenAIRE

    Silbernagl, Matthias; Huber, Matthias; Brandenberg, René

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an improved mixed-integer model for the Thermal Unit Commitment Problem. By introducing new variables for the temperature of each thermal unit, the off-time-dependent start-up costs are modeled accurately and with a lower integrality gap than state-of-the-art formulations. This new approach significantly improves computational efficiency compared to existing formulations, even if they only model a rough approximation of the start-up costs. Our findings we...

  5. A guide for the calculation of the maximum permissible costs for shelters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among other things, this paper has the aim to define the scope which is reasonable for shelter costs as well as to inform about their real amount. Various assumptions have been made and examples have been given which seldom coincide with the specific facts. Thus, the possibility of how to find solutions which are precisely appropriate for persons is shown in a formula. The less the income, life expectancy and the number of persons to be considered the less are the maximum permissible costs for shelters. Under certain conditions the permissible costs are lower than the real costs. Thus, taking those assumptions into account, the shelter is not profitable any more. This case, for example, really applies to a couple, 57 years old, without children, with an income of 40,000 DM/year who intend to build an interior shelter. For a family with children who are under age, however, it is always profitable to build an interior basic shelter. (orig.)

  6. An integrated approach to calculate life cycle costs of arms and military equipment

    OpenAIRE

    Vlada S. Sokolovi?; Marko D. Andreji?; Sr?an D. Ljubojevi?

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION In a situation when government expenditures for defense are more restrictive, any investment in the acquisition of arms and military equipment (AME) is a question that does not allow errors in decisions. Accordingly, the economic analysis of the investment must be detailed and unavoidable. In the past, the initial cost of procurement of AME was often the primary, and sometimes the only one criterion in decision-making. Neglecting the analysis of costs throughout the life of asset...

  7. A Cost-Benefit Calculator for RFID Implementations in the Apparel Retail Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Jasser Al-Kassab; Nezar Mahmoud; Frederic Thiesse; Elgar Fleisch

    2009-01-01

    The apparel retail industry is on the one hand facing challenges from increasing competition, consolidations, and thus increasing pressure to reduce costs. On the other hand, customers are getting more demanding, resulting in shorter fashion cycles, and demands for new customer experience. RFID technology is supposed to raise efficiency and to enable innovative customer service offerings. Besides cost savings, benefits are expected to arise from newly designed RFID applications and customer i...

  8. Statin cost effectiveness in primary prevention: A systematic review of the recent cost-effectiveness literature in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell Aaron P; Simpson Ross J

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The literature on the cost-effectiveness of statin drugs in primary prevention of coronary heart disease is complex. The objective of this study is to compare the disparate results of recent cost-effectiveness analyses of statins. Findings We conducted a systematic review of the literature on statin cost-effectiveness. The four studies that met inclusion criteria reported varying conclusions about the cost-effectiveness of statin treatment, without a clear consensus as to ...

  9. 78 FR 5765 - Wireline Competition Bureau Releases Connect America Phase II Cost Model Virtual Workshop...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-28

    ...of the Connect America Cost Model and solicited input...to the Connect America Cost Model platform. 6. On...calculating average per-unit costs/take rate; and assigning...Cost Model: determining customer locations;...

  10. User's guide to SERICPAC: A computer program for calculating electric-utility avoided costs rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wirtshafter, R.; Abrash, M.; Koved, M.; Feldman, S.

    1982-05-01

    SERICPAC is a computer program developed to calculate average avoided cost rates for decentralized power producers and cogenerators that sell electricity to electric utilities. SERICPAC works in tandem with SERICOST, a program to calculate avoided costs, and determines the appropriate rates for buying and selling of electricity from electric utilities to qualifying facilities (QF) as stipulated under Section 210 of PURA. SERICPAC contains simulation models for eight technologies including wind, hydro, biogas, and cogeneration. The simulations are converted in a diversified utility production which can be either gross production or net production, which accounts for an internal electricity usage by the QF. The program allows for adjustments to the production to be made for scheduled and forced outages. The final output of the model is a technology-specific average annual rate. The report contains a description of the technologies and the simulations as well as complete user's guide to SERICPAC.

  11. Cost-income analysis of oral health units of health care centers in Yazd city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosein Fallahzadeh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Increasing demands for health care's services on one hand and limited resources on the other hand brings about pressure over governments to find out a mechanism for fair and appropriate distribution of resources. Economic analysis is one of the appropriate tools for policy making on this priority. The aim of this study was to assess capital and consumption of oral health units of health care centers in Yazd city and comparing it with revenue of these centers and determining of cost effectiveness.Materials and Methods: In this descriptive cross sectional study, all health care centers of Yazd city with active dentistry department were evaluated. The data has been extracted from current documents in health care center of county based issued receipts and daily information registers.Results: Expended cost for providing of oral hygiene services in second half of 2008 in 13 medical health centers of Yazd included active dentistry section was 557.887.500 Rials and revenue to cost ratio was about 34%. The most provided service was related to tooth extraction and the average of tooth restoration in each working day was 0.48.Conclusion: With attention to low tariffs of dentistry services in medical health centers and paying subsidy to target groups, expenses of oral hygiene are always more than its revenue.

  12. Economic impacts of oil spills: Spill unit costs for tankers, pipelines, refineries, and offshore facilities. [Task 1, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-15

    The impacts of oil spills -- ranging from the large, widely publicized Exxon Valdez tanker incident to smaller pipeline and refinery spills -- have been costly to both the oil industry and the public. For example, the estimated costs to Exxon of the Valdez tanker spill are on the order of $4 billion, including $2.8 billion (in 1993 dollars) for direct cleanup costs and $1.125 billion (in 1992 dollars) for settlement of damages claims caused by the spill. Application of contingent valuation costs and civil lawsuits pending in the State of Alaska could raise these costs appreciably. Even the costs of the much smaller 1991 oil spill at Texaco`s refinery near Anacortes, Washington led to costs of $8 to 9 million. As a result, inexpensive waming, response and remediation technologies could lower oil spin costs, helping both the oil industry, the associated marine industries, and the environment. One means for reducing the impact and costs of oil spills is to undertake research and development on key aspects of the oil spill prevention, warming, and response and remediation systems. To target these funds to their best use, it is important to have sound data on the nature and size of spills, their likely occurrence and their unit costs. This information could then allow scarce R&D dollars to be spent on areas and activities having the largest impact. This report is intended to provide the ``unit cost`` portion of this crucial information. The report examines the three key components of the US oil supply system, namely, tankers and barges; pipelines and refineries; and offshore production facilities. The specific purpose of the study was to establish the unit costs of oil spills. By manipulating this key information into a larger matrix that includes the size and frequency of occurrence of oil spills, it will be possible` to estimate the likely future impacts, costs, and sources of oil spills.

  13. A calculation program for harvesting and transportation costs of energy and industrial wood; Energiapuun korjuun ja kuljetuksen kustannuslaskentaohjelmisto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranta, T. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    A computer based model has been developed for calculating the production costs of industrial wood and wood fuel. Several calculation situations, which might be useful for decision-making in energy wood supply, are included into this software. The model will be easy to use for practical purposes and flexible so that different new model and changes in the basis of calculations are easy to implement. Model will offer open interfaces for importing and exporting information. Model includes selected wood delivery chains and open interfaces for adding data from different procurement sources. The cost analysis model is built on Windows-based software, SQLWindows, using different sources of data (ODBC). With the model it is possible to manage these SQLBase databases with SQL-queries. The data included in the databases origins from various energy wood sources (local communities or part of them, forestry boards planning areas or even stands ready for cutting). By knowing the planned share of first thinnings, final cuttings and other harvesting operations it is possible to estimate the potential amount of wood fuel from each area. Also databases from energy wood users, forest and transportation machinery and distances are available in the system. Using the information it is possible to find out the fuel demand of power and heating plants in each moment (e.g., amount and quality), costs of various machines (harvesters, forwarders, trucks) as well as distances between energy wood sources and users. (orig.)

  14. 5 CFR 591.220 - How does OPM calculate energy utility cost indexes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of heating and cooling equipment and energy types (e.g., electricity, gas, and oil) in each area. (3... process to compute a cost index(es) for heating and cooling a standard home to a given ambient temperature... energy type for heating and cooling a standard size dwelling, built according to current local...

  15. Cost optimal building performance requirements. Calculation methodology for reporting on national energy performance requirements on the basis of cost optimality within the framework of the EPBD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boermans, T.; Bettgenhaeuser, K.; Hermelink, A.; Schimschar, S. [Ecofys, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2011-05-15

    On the European level, the principles for the requirements for the energy performance of buildings are set by the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD). Dating from December 2002, the EPBD has set a common framework from which the individual Member States in the EU developed or adapted their individual national regulations. The EPBD in 2008 and 2009 underwent a recast procedure, with final political agreement having been reached in November 2009. The new Directive was then formally adopted on May 19, 2010. Among other clarifications and new provisions, the EPBD recast introduces a benchmarking mechanism for national energy performance requirements for the purpose of determining cost-optimal levels to be used by Member States for comparing and setting these requirements. The previous EPBD set out a general framework to assess the energy performance of buildings and required Member States to define maximum values for energy delivered to meet the energy demand associated with the standardised use of the building. However it did not contain requirements or guidance related to the ambition level of such requirements. As a consequence, building regulations in the various Member States have been developed by the use of different approaches (influenced by different building traditions, political processes and individual market conditions) and resulted in different ambition levels where in many cases cost optimality principles could justify higher ambitions. The EPBD recast now requests that Member States shall ensure that minimum energy performance requirements for buildings are set 'with a view to achieving cost-optimal levels'. The cost optimum level shall be calculated in accordance with a comparative methodology. The objective of this report is to contribute to the ongoing discussion in Europe around the details of such a methodology by describing possible details on how to calculate cost optimal levels and pointing towards important factors and effects. The methodology described in this report is consistent with the description of the process as presented in the study 'Cost Optimality - Discussing methodology and challenges within the recast Energy Performance of Buildings Directive' published in September 2010 by the Buildings Performance Institute Europe (BPIE). The present document provides additional insights and details.

  16. Cancer in the oropharynx: Cost calculation of different treatment modalities for controlled primaries, relapses and grade III/IV complications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: This paper presents a model for cost calculation using the different treatment modalities for oropharyngeal (OPh) cancers used in our hospital. We compared full hospital costs, the associated costs of localregional relapses (LRR) and/or treatment related grade III/IV complications. Materials and methods: Patients with OPh cancer are treated in the Erasmus MC preferably by an organ function preservation protocol. That is, by external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) followed by a brachytherapy (BT) boost, and neck dissection in case of N+ disease (BT-group: 157 patients). If BT is not feasible, resection with postoperative EBRT (S-group [S=Surgery]: 110 patients) or EBRT-alone (EBRT-group: 77 patients) is being pursued. Actuarial localregional control (LRC), disease free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) at 5-years were calculated according to the Kaplan-Meier method. The mean costs per treatment group for diagnosis, primary Tx per se, follow-up, (salvage of) locoregional relapse (LRR), distant metastasis (DM), and/or grade III/IV complications needing clinical admission, were computed. Results: For the BT-, S-, or EBRT treatment groups, LRC rates at 5-years were 85, 82, and 55%, for the DFS, 61, 48, and 43%, and for the OS 65, 52, and 40%, respectively. The mean costs of primary Tx in case of the BT-group is EURO 13,466; for the S-group EURO 24,219, and EURO 12,502 for the EBRT-group. The mean costs of S (the main salvage modality) for a LRR of the BT group or EBRT-group, were EURO 17,861 and EURO 15,887, respectively. The mean costs of clinical management of Grade III/IV complications were EURO 7184 (BT-group), EURO 16,675 (S-group) and EURO 6437 (EBRT-group). Conclusion: The clinical outcome illustrates excellent LRC rates at 5-years for BT (85%), as well as for S (82%). The relatively low 55% LRC rate at 5-years for EBRT probably reflects a negative selection of patients. It is of interest that the total mean costs of patients alive with no evidence of disease is least for the BT-group: EURO 15,101 as opposed to EURO 25,288 (S) and EURO 18,674 (EBRT). Main underlying cause for the high costs with S as opposed to RT alone is the number of associated clinical admission days, not only during primary treatment, but also at relapse. This might be taken into consideration when treating these patients

  17. Intoxicated children at an intensive care unit: popular medicine risks, complications and costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Consuelo de Rovetto

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The Hospital Universitario del Valle (HUV at the Pediatrics Intensive Care Unit (PICU admits intoxicated patients, erroneously medicated by «teguas» or family members with serious aggravation of basic diseases or generating severe intoxications. Absent reports of these practices in Colombia motivated the publication of this case seriesObjective: To report a series of pediatric intoxication cases secondary to oral or dermatological application of varied substances by healers («teguas» or family members, leading to admission at the PICU, and to describe complications and hospital costs of these events.Methodology: Clinical charts of patients admitted to the PICU with diagnosis of exogenous intoxication during May 2001 to September 2004, were reviewed. Of 28 registered cases during that time, only 14 clinical charts were recovered. Variables evaluated included: age, gender, proceeding, administered substance, person responsible for the administration, complications, days of mechanical ventilation, total days at the intensive care unit and average costs. Of the 14 medical records with exogenous intoxications only 5 cases were involuntary and 9 were related to the administration of substances by quacks or family members; these are the ones reported in this series.Results: We report a total of 9 intoxicated patients, 5 girls and 4 boys, with an age range from 1 to 24 months, all from Cali. Topical administered substances: alcohol 6/9, vinegar 1/9; oral: aspirin 2/9, paico 1/9, and unidentified herbs 1/9. Administered substances by teguas: 6 patients; 3 by family members. All patients had metabolic acidosis with an increased anion gap: 27 in average (range from 21 to 32. All required mechanical ventilation (2 to 32 day range. Average hospital day costs were $6’657,800 pesos (around U$3,000.oo. Three patients died and 4 presented acute renal failure, 2 convulsions, 2 nosocomial infections, 1 subglotic stenosis.Conclusions and recommendations: Those practices are a high risk for children and have high health costs. Mortality and severe complications are high. Educational campaigns should be started in the community to prevent these cases.

  18. A cost effective model for appropriate administration of red cell units and salvaging un-transfused red cell units by using temperature sensitive indicators for blood component transportation in a hospital setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aseem K Tiwari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A rule called "30-min rule" defines that red cell unit cannot be used if it has been out of blood bank refrigerator for over 30 min. This rule is useful to guide initiation of transfusion, but is inadequate for deciding whether to reuse or discard units received-back at blood transfusion services (BTS. A simple cost-effective temperature-sensitive indicator was evaluated to decide upon reuse (cold chain was uninterrupted or discard (where cold chain was interrupted in a simulation exercise. Materials and Methods: Temperature-sensitive indicators TH-F™ that irreversibly changed color from white to red demonstrated that heat excursion has occurred and the cumulative temperature has exceeded 10°C for over 30 min, were used in outdated red cells for simulating units, which are not used and received-back. These units were also tagged with a standard temperature monitoring device, which was a re-usable credit card sized device, which would log the actual time and temperature. In few units percent hemolysis was also calculated. Results: Statistically insignificant elevation in average temperature was noted in 102 simulated units at the time of return to BTS (? 0.04°C, despite the fact that these units were in the transport box for over 4 h. The average supernatant hemoglobin in these units was 0.24%, much below the prescribed threshold. Conclusion: Transportation of blood in controlled conditions with temperature-sensitive indicator is a cost-effective model to save blood, a precious human resource.

  19. Analysis of the Entanglement Cost and Calculation of the Holevo Capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Shimono, Toshiyuki

    2006-01-01

    ``Beam me over,'' Alice: A cricket's quantum journey This thesis addresses two known quantities in quantum information science: (1) entanglement cost, and (2) Holevo capacity. These quantities will be crucial values when teleportation becomes common in daily life, perhaps centuries from now. Assume that Alice desires to send a singing Japanese cricket to her friend Bob in America, and that Alice and Bob already share a quantum entanglement. First, Alice sends Bob a ma...

  20. ORGANIZATION OF MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING AND COST CALCULATION OF MINING IN JIU VALLEY

    OpenAIRE

    ILEANA-SORINA BOCA (RAKOS)

    2011-01-01

    The scientific approach taken, due to the fact that a nationally more acute problem arises regarding mining restructuring, namely the closure of uneconomic mines, in this paper I want to report my finding on how management accounting is organized and which is the costing method currently applied by the seven mines in the Jiu Valley, which are currently functional, as well as to identify their limitations and advantages for improving them and identifying financial and economic solutions, demon...

  1. Calculation of economic viability and environmental costs of photovoltaic solar energy for the Brazilian Northeast region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stecher, Luiza C.; Sabundjian, Gaiane; Menzel, Francine, E-mail: luizastecher@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The availability of energy resources is a central point to economic development. The energy matrix of most countries is based on the consumption of fossil fuels, which adds annually over 5 billion tons of carbon into the atmosphere. The energy consumption in developing countries has quadrupled since the 60s further aggravating global environmental conditions. The need to implement alternative energy sources to the energy matrix was proved. In addition, Brazil has a large number of people without access to electricity, which affects the quality of life of these populations. In this context, it is necessary to think in economic development way, and then the sustainable and alternative sources appear as an option for its features and its availability in Brazil. The solar energy captured by photovoltaic cells can be highlighted in the Brazilian scenario because of its wide availability, especially in the Northeast. The aim of this paper is to estimate the economic feasibility of insertion of solar systems in small communities in the Brazilian Northeast, considering environmental costs involved in electricity generation. The methodology is based on economic concepts and economic valuation of environmental resources. The results shows that solar power is becoming increasingly competitive due to reduced costs of components and due to the environmental costs reduced when compared with fossil fuels. (author)

  2. Calculation of economic viability and environmental costs of photovoltaic solar energy for the Brazilian Northeast region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The availability of energy resources is a central point to economic development. The energy matrix of most countries is based on the consumption of fossil fuels, which adds annually over 5 billion tons of carbon into the atmosphere. The energy consumption in developing countries has quadrupled since the 60s further aggravating global environmental conditions. The need to implement alternative energy sources to the energy matrix was proved. In addition, Brazil has a large number of people without access to electricity, which affects the quality of life of these populations. In this context, it is necessary to think in economic development way, and then the sustainable and alternative sources appear as an option for its features and its availability in Brazil. The solar energy captured by photovoltaic cells can be highlighted in the Brazilian scenario because of its wide availability, especially in the Northeast. The aim of this paper is to estimate the economic feasibility of insertion of solar systems in small communities in the Brazilian Northeast, considering environmental costs involved in electricity generation. The methodology is based on economic concepts and economic valuation of environmental resources. The results shows that solar power is becoming increasingly competitive due to reduced costs of components and due to the environmental costs reduced when compared with fossil fuels. (author)

  3. Calculation of HELAS amplitudes for QCD processes using graphics processing unit (GPU)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We use a graphics processing unit (GPU) for fast calculations of helicity amplitudes of quark and gluon scattering processes in massless QCD. New HEGET (HELAS Evaluation with GPU Enhanced Technology) codes for gluon self-interactions are introduced, and a C++ program to convert the MadGraph generated FORTRAN codes into HEGET codes in CUDA (a C-platform for general purpose computing on GPU) is created. Because of the proliferation of the number of Feynman diagrams and the number of independent color amplitudes, the maximum number of final state jets we can evaluate on a GPU is limited to 4 for pure gluon processes (gg?4g), or 5 for processes with one or more quark lines such as q anti q? 5g and qq?qq+3g. Compared with the usual CPU-based programs, we obtain 60-100 times better performance on the GPU, except for 5-jet production processes and the gg?4g processes for which the GPU gain over the CPU is about 20. (orig.)

  4. Calculation of HELAS amplitudes for QCD processes using graphics processing unit (GPU)

    CERN Document Server

    Hagiwara, K; Okamura, N; Rainwater, D L; Stelzer, T

    2009-01-01

    We use a graphics processing unit (GPU) for fast calculations of helicity amplitudes of quark and gluon scattering processes in massless QCD. New HEGET ({\\bf H}ELAS {\\bf E}valuation with {\\bf G}PU {\\bf E}nhanced {\\bf T}echnology) codes for gluon self-interactions are introduced, and a C++ program to convert the MadGraph generated FORTRAN codes into HEGET codes in CUDA (a C-platform for general purpose computing on GPU) is created. Because of the proliferation of the number of Feynman diagrams and the number of independent color amplitudes, the maximum number of final state jets we can evaluate on a GPU is limited to 4 for pure gluon processes ($gg\\to 4g$), or 5 for processes with one or more quark lines such as $q\\bar{q}\\to 5g$ and $qq\\to qq+3g$. Compared with the usual CPU-based programs, we obtain 60-100 times better performance on the GPU, except for 5-jet production processes and the $gg\\to 4g$ processes for which the GPU gain over the CPU is about 20.

  5. Costos unitarios laborales verticalmente integrados por rama en México y Estados Unidos, 1970-2000 / Vertically integrated unit labor costs by sector Mexico-USA, 1970-2000

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Pablo, Ruiz Nápoles.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Los tipos de cambio reales efectivos, en términos de costos unitarios de trabajo, han sido calculados en la economía mundial siguiendo varios métodos. En este trabajo se desarrolla una metodología para estimar los costos unitarios laborales vertical-mente integrados por rama económica utilizando las [...] técnicas de insumo-producto. El modelo se aplica a las economías de México y de Estados Unidos para el periodo 1970-2000. Los resultados obtenidos se comparan con un coeficiente estimado de ventaja comparativa revelada por rama de la economía mexicana a fin de establecer si el comercio exterior de México está relacionado con los costos unitarios laborales relativos en este periodo. Para probar esta relación se utilizó el análisis econométrico para datos en panel. Abstract in english Real effective exchange rates have been calculated by relative unit labor costs for many countries in the world economy. In this work we develop a methodology to estimate vertically integrated unit labor costs by sector, using input-output techniques, for the Mexican and United States economies in t [...] he period 1970-2000. The results are then compared to a measurement of revealed comparative advantage by sector, of the Mexican economy, in order to establish whether Mexican foreign trade by sector was related to its relative labor costs during this period. To test this relationship econometric analysis for panel data is utilized.

  6. The DRG Project of the German Transplant Society: 1. Improved Delineation of the Cost of Liver Transplantation under the G-DRG System through Cost Analysis and Calculation of New Cost Separators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Lohmann

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The first calculation of the Diagnosis Related Groups (DRGs in Germany resulted in a drastic reduction of reimbursements for liver transplantations (LTX. While under the previous reimbursement system, a liver transplantation was calculated with approximately € 125.000, the newly introduced German DRG system calculated for a liver transplantation without complications for 2004 a case weight of 11,9 and hence, based on the base rate utilized a fee of € 35.000 - € 45.000. Since under these circumstances the financing for clinical liver transplantations seemed to be in jeopardy, the Deutsche Transplantationsgesellschaft (German Society for Organ Transplantation conducted an evaluation of the actual costs of liver transplantations. Materials and Methods: The data of 75 transplant admissions from five major transplant centres were collected and 177 cost parameters were captured each day. In addition, the data which is important for the classification of the DRGs (diagnosis, procedures, length of hospital stay and duration of ventilation were recorded and cost comparisons for single parameters were performed using the DKG-NT (Deutsche Krankenhausgesellschaft Normal-Tarif [German hospital association regular price] and Lauer-Tax (drugstore base buying price. With this method the total actual costs per case were determined and also which parameter could be useful as a cost separator. Results: Based on our data, our estimated cost for the DRG liver transplantation was much higher then the actual reimbursement under the new German DRG system. This led us to initiate a discussion with the InEK and subsequently the introduction of weighed hospital days for better allocation of the cost to the liver transplanted patient. Furthermore, based on our findings, additional split criteria were discussed with the InEK, which partially have been included into the DRG 2005 system. Conclusions: The investigation which was performed in cooperation with the InEK underlined that the actual reimbursement for liver transplantations does not mirror the actual cost, and the introduction of new cost separators, new ICD and procedure codes should enable the hospitals in the future to allocate the real cost of liver transplantations to the liver recipient. The changes already implemented have resulted in a significantly higher reimbursement for liver transplantation for 2005, and have reduced the financial gap for liver transplantations considerably.

  7. Fast unit commitment based on optimal linear approximation to nonlinear fuel cost: Error analysis and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) based techniques are among the most widely applied methods for unit commitment (UC) problems. The fuel cost functions are often replaced by their piecewise linear approximations whereas it is more or less disturbing to use piecewise linear approximations without knowing the exact effect on solution deviation from the optima. Therefore, error analysis is important since the optimal solutions are different when different objective functions are adopted. Another important problem is balancing between solution quality and computation efficiency since better solution quality relies on finer discretization with exponentially increased computational efforts. A detailed error analysis is presented in this paper. It is found that the approximation error is inverse proportional to the square of the number of piecewise segments. Lower bounds on the minimum necessary number of discretization segments are also derived. A 2-Stage Procedure is then established to achieve a better balance between solution quality and computation efficiency. Numerical testing to 2 groups of UC problems is exciting. It is found that the operating cost increases no more than 0.6% in all cases while the CPU time is greatly reduced regarding other MILP approaches. The results are still valid in electric power market clearing computation. (author)

  8. Energy Savings and Breakeven Cost for Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maguire, J.; Burch, J.; Merrigan, T.; Ong, S.

    2013-07-01

    Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have recently reemerged in the U.S. residential water heating market and have the potential to provide homeowners with significant energy savings. However, there are questions as to the actual performance and energy savings potential of these units, in particular in regards to the heat pump's performance in unconditioned space and the impact of the heat pump on space heating and cooling loads when it is located in conditioned space. To help answer these questions, simulations were performed of a HPWH in both conditioned and unconditioned space at over 900 locations across the continental United States and Hawaii. Simulations included a Building America benchmark home so that any interaction between the HPWH and the home's HVAC equipment could be captured. Comparisons were performed to typical gas and electric water heaters to determine the energy savings potential and cost effectiveness of a HPWH relative to these technologies. HPWHs were found to have a significant source energy savings potential when replacing typical electric water heaters, but only saved source energy relative to gas water heater in the most favorable installation locations in the southern US. When replacing an electric water heater, the HPWH is likely to break even in California, the southern US, and parts of the northeast in most situations. However, the HPWH will only break even when replacing a gas water heater in a few southern states.

  9. A New Improved Hybrid Meta-Heuristics Method for Unit Commitment with Nonlinear Fuel Cost Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okawa, Kenta; Mori, Hiroyuki

    In this paper, a new improved hybrid meta-heuristic method is proposed to solve the unit commitment problem effectively. The objective is to minimize operation cost while satisfying the power balance constraints and so on. It may be formulated as a nonlinear mixed-integer problem. In other words, the unit commitment problem is hard to solve. Therefore, this paper makes use of a hybrid meta-heuristic method with two layers. Layer 1 determines the on/off conditions of generators with tabu search (TS) while Layer 2 evaluates output of generators with evolutionary particle swarm optimization (EPSO). The construction phase of Greedy Randomized Adaptive Search Procedure (GRASP) is used to create initial feasible solutions efficiently. Three kinds of meta-heuristic methods such as TS, EPSO and GRASP are combined to solve the problem. In addition, a parallel scheme of EPSO is developed to improve the computational efficient as well as the accuracy. The effectiveness of the proposed method is tested in sample systems.

  10. Cost accounting in ECN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A five year planning is made in which the available money is distributed to the expected programmes. This five year plan is used as basis for working plan and budget for the next year. In the working plan all financial means are divided into kinds of costs, cost centres and cost units. Based on this working plan and the relevant budgets the tariffs are calculated per working centre (cost centre). The tariffs are fixed for a whole year. Up till now these tariffs are also basis for the cost unit accounting at the end of the year together with the results of the time registration. The estimated work shop services for the working centres are included in the tariffs. For the allocation of overhead costs ECN uses dynamic keys. Depreciation costs with respect to instruments, investments etc. are determined per working centre according to a computer programme. The cost unit related costs are charged directly to cost unit. This implies that project related in instruments are looked upon as running costs. In the future we will try to refine the present cost accounting system still further in this way that we will look upon a cost centre as a profit centre. Furthermore we will try to analyse the tariff and calculation deviations and under/over occupation deviations afterwards (post calculation). The information provided to the management knows a hierachic construction: project information to projectleader, programme (compound projects) information to programme coordinator, cost centre summary to department heads, attention area (compound programme) information to programme coordinator and managing director, ECN research (compound attention areas) information to general management, information re kind of costs to relevant persons, f.e. surveys of expenditure for part time personnel to personnel bureau. The information is provided by the department of Finance and Administrative Organisation. The entire scope of cost accounting is the responsibility of the head of the department of Finance and Administrative Organisation. (author)

  11. Marginal Costing Techniques for Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Richard; Brinkman, Paul

    The techniques for calculating marginal costs in higher education are examined in detail. Marginal costs, as defined in economics, is the change in total cost associated with producing one additional unit of output. In higher education, the most frequently selected unit of output is a full-time-equivalent student or, alternatively, a student…

  12. Does a single specialty intensive care unit make better business sense than a multi-specialty intensive care unit? A costing study in a trauma center in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Parmeshwar; Jithesh, Vishwanathan; Gupta, Shakti Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Context: Though intensive care units (ICUs) only account for 10% of hospital beds, they consume nearly 22% of hospital resources. Few definitive costing studies have been conducted in Indian settings that would help determine appropriate resource allocation. Aim: To evaluate and compare the cost of intensive care delivery between multi-specialty and neurosurgery ICU in an apex trauma care facility in India. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in a polytrauma and neurosurgery ICU at a 203 bedded level IV trauma care facility in New Delhi, India from May, 2012 to June 2012. The study was cross-sectional, retrospective, and record-based. Traditional costing was used to arrive at the cost for both direct and indirect cost estimates. The cost centers included in study were building cost, equipment cost, human resources, materials and supplies, clinical and nonclinical support services, engineering maintenance cost, and biomedical waste management. Statistical Analysis: Fisher's two-tailed t-test. Results: Total cost/bed/day for the multi-specialty ICU was Rs. 14,976.9/- and for the neurosurgery ICU was Rs. 14,306.7/-, manpower constituting nearly half of the expenditure in both ICUs. The cost center wise and overall difference in the cost among the ICUs were statistically significant. Conclusions: Quantification of expenditure in running an ICU in a trauma center would assist healthcare decision makers in better allocation of resources. Although multi-specialty ICUs are more expensive, other factors will also play a role in defining the kind of ICU that need to be designed. PMID:25829909

  13. Levelized Product Cost: Concept and Decision Relevance

    OpenAIRE

    Reichelstein, Stefan; Rohlfing-Bastian, Anna

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines a life-cycle cost concept that applies to both manufacturing and service industries in which upfront capacity investments are essential. Borrowing from the energy literature, we refer to this cost measure as the levelized product cost (LC). Per unit of output, the levelized cost aggregates a share of the initial capacity expenditure with periodic fixed and variable operating costs. The resulting cost figure exceeds the full cost of a product, as commonly calculated in mana...

  14. On tentative decommissioning cost analysis with specific authentic cost calculations with the application of the Omega code on a case linked to the Intermediate storage facility for spent fuel in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasko, Marek; Daniska, Vladimir; Ondra, Frantisek; Bezak, Peter; Kristofova, Kristina; Tatransky, Peter; Zachar, Matej [DECOM Slovakia, spol. s.r.o., J. Bottu 2, SK-917 01 Trnava (Slovakia); Lindskog, Staffan [Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2007-03-15

    The presented report is focused on tentative calculations of basic decommissioning parameters such as costs, manpower and exposure of personnel for activities of older nuclear facility decommissioning in Sweden represented by Intermediate storage facility for spent fuel in Studsvik, by means of calculation code OMEGA. This report continuously follows up two previous projects, which described methodology of cost estimates of decommissioning with an emphasis to derive cost functions for alpha contaminated material and implementation of the advanced decommissioning costing methodology for Intermediate Storage facility for Spent Fuel in Studsvik. The main purpose of the presented study is to demonstrate the trial application of the advanced costing methodology using OMEGA code for Intermediate Storage Facility for Spent Fuel in Studsvik. Basic work packages presented in report are as follows: 1. Analysis and validation input data on Intermediate Storage Facility for Spent Fuel and assemble a database suitable for standardised decommissioning cost calculations including radiological parameters, 2. Proposal of range of decommissioning calculations and define an extent of decommissioning activities, 3. Defining waste management scenarios for particular material waste streams from Intermediate Storage Facility for Spent Fuel, 4. Developing standardised cost calculation structure applied for Intermediate Storage Facility for Spent Fuel decommissioning calculation and 5. Performing tentative decommissioning calculations for Intermediate Storage Facility for Spent Fuel by OMEGA code. Calculated parameters of decommissioning are presented in structure according to Proposed Standardized List of Items for Costing Purposes. All parameters are documented and summed up in both table and graphic forms in text and Annexes. The presented report documents availability and applicability of methodology for evaluation of costs and other parameters of decommissioning in a form implemented within calculation code OMEGA for calculations of Intermediate Storage for Spent Fuel in Studsvik.

  15. On tentative decommissioning cost analysis with specific authentic cost calculations with the application of the Omega code on a case linked to the Intermediate storage facility for spent fuel in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presented report is focused on tentative calculations of basic decommissioning parameters such as costs, manpower and exposure of personnel for activities of older nuclear facility decommissioning in Sweden represented by Intermediate storage facility for spent fuel in Studsvik, by means of calculation code OMEGA. This report continuously follows up two previous projects, which described methodology of cost estimates of decommissioning with an emphasis to derive cost functions for alpha contaminated material and implementation of the advanced decommissioning costing methodology for Intermediate Storage facility for Spent Fuel in Studsvik. The main purpose of the presented study is to demonstrate the trial application of the advanced costing methodology using OMEGA code for Intermediate Storage Facility for Spent Fuel in Studsvik. Basic work packages presented in report are as follows: 1. Analysis and validation input data on Intermediate Storage Facility for Spent Fuel and assemble a database suitable for standardised decommissioning cost calculations including radiological parameters, 2. Proposal of range of decommissioning calculations and define an extent of decommissioning activities, 3. Defining waste management scenarios for particular material waste streams from Intermediate Storage Facility for Spent Fuel, 4. Developing standardised cost calculation structure applied for Intermediate Storage Facility for Spent Fuel decommissioning calculation and 5. Performing tentative decommissioning calculations for Intermediate Storage Facility for Spent Fuel by OMEGA code. Calculated parameters of decommissioning are presented in structure according to Proposed Standardized List of Items for Costing Purposes. All parameters are documented and summed up in both table and graphic forms in text and Annexes. The presented report documents availability and applicability of methodology for evaluation of costs and other parameters of decommissioning in a form implemented within calculation code OMEGA for calculations of Intermediate Storage for Spent Fuel in Studsvik

  16. Break-Even Cost for Residential Solar Water Heating in the United States: Key Drivers and Sensitivities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassard, H.; Denholm, P.; Ong, S.

    2011-02-01

    This paper examines the break-even cost for residential rooftop solar water heating (SWH) technology, defined as the point where the cost of the energy saved with a SWH system equals the cost of a conventional heating fuel purchased from the grid (either electricity or natural gas). We examine the break-even cost for the largest 1,000 electric and natural gas utilities serving residential customers in the United States as of 2008. Currently, the break-even cost of SWH in the United States varies by more than a factor of five for both electricity and natural gas, despite a much smaller variation in the amount of energy saved by the systems (a factor of approximately one and a half). The break-even price for natural gas is lower than that for electricity due to a lower fuel cost. We also consider the relationship between SWH price and solar fraction and examine the key drivers behind break-even costs. Overall, the key drivers of the break-even cost of SWH are a combination of fuel price, local incentives, and technical factors including the solar resource location, system size, and hot water draw.

  17. Calculational results using a survey type code system for the analysis of the Almaraz Unit 2 PWR benchmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The calculations performed for the Almaraz Unit 2 PWR using the code packages of the Atomic Energy Corporation of South Africa Ltd. are summarized. These calculations were done as part of the IAEA Coordinated Research Programme on In-Core Fuel Management Code Package Validation for LWRs. A brief description of the one-dimensional cross section generation package as well as of the Level II (scoping type) global core calculational package which was used is given. Detailed results are presented in several appendices. 29 figs., 20 tabs., 10 refs

  18. Review of cost estimates and the calculation of the 2014 Act (1988:1597) on the financing of the management of certain radioactive waste, etc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation Safety Authority (SSM) has based on the licensee's submitted cost estimates for 2013 and SSM cost-adjustments to those rates calculated under the Act (1988:1597) on the financing of the management of certain radioactive waste, etc. (Studsvik Act) to 0.12 SEK per kWh delivered nuclear electricity for the period 2014 to 2017. The fee calculation has not taken into account the remaining uncertainties in the data. SSM's calculations show that the net present value for measures under Studsvik Act amounts to 1743 million Swedish kronor. This amount is in turn composed of two subtotals. The first installment amounting to 1512 million Swedish kronor and indicates the present value of the costs that have been submitted by the licensee in their cost estimates for 2013. The second partial sum represents the present value of the adjusted cost of 231 million Swedish kronor that SSM chosen to add to the submitted cost estimates

  19. Chemical Equilibrium, Unit 3: Chemical Equilibrium Calculations. A Computer-Enriched Module for Introductory Chemistry. Student's Guide and Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jameson, Cynthia J.

    Presented are the teacher's guide and student materials for one of a series of self-instructional, computer-based learning modules for an introductory, undergraduate chemistry course. The student manual for this unit on chemical equilibrium calculations includes objectives, prerequisites, a discussion of the equilibrium constant (K), and ten…

  20. Norwegian electricity market liberalisation: questions of cost calculation and price definition by grid operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a study carried out on the Norwegian electricity market 10 years after its liberalisation. The similarity of the Norwegian market to the Swiss electricity market is discussed. Similarly to the proposed situation in Switzerland, the liberalisation in Norway foresaw no privatisation of public utilities and a model for the regulation of grid access was introduced. The report describes and comments on the various phases in which the liberalisation occurred and examines the various instruments used, e.g. to ensure that individual grid operators did not make undue profits from their monopoly. The methods used for the monitoring of grid operators' costs are described and the mechanisms involved in the definition of prices for grid services are examined, including measures taken when profits were too high or too low. The report is concluded with a discussion of the conclusions that can be drawn from the Norwegian model for Swiss market opening efforts

  1. Evaluating microfoundations for aggregate price rigidities: Evidence from matched firm-level data on product prices and unit labor cost

    OpenAIRE

    Carlsson, Mikael; Nordström Skans, Oskar

    2011-01-01

    Using data on product-level prices matched to the producing firm's unit labor cost, we reject the hypothesis of a full and immediate pass-through of marginal cost. Since we focus on idiosyncratic variation, this does not fit the predictions of the Ma'ckowiak and Wiederholt (2009) version of the Rational Inattention Model. Neither do we find that firms react strongly to predictable marginal cost changes, as expected from the Mankiw and Reis (2002) Sticky Information Model. We find that, in lin...

  2. Estimates of the direct and indirect costs of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in the United States, 1985, 1986, and 1991.

    OpenAIRE

    Scitovsky, A A; Rice, D. P.

    1987-01-01

    This study presents three estimates--ranging from low to high--of the direct and indirect costs of the AIDS epidemic in the United States in 1985, 1986, and 1991, based on prevalence estimates provided by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC). According to what the authors consider their best estimates, personal medical care costs of AIDS in current dollars will rise from $630 million in 1985 to $1.1 billion in 1986 to $8.5 billion in 1991. Nonpersonal costs (for research, screening, educatio...

  3. Costes del dolor neuropático según etiología en las Unidades del Dolor en España Neurohatic pain costs according it´s etiology the Spanish Pain Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Rodríguez

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Realizar un registro etiológico y de costes de pacientes con Dolor Neuropático (DN en Unidades del Dolor (UD en España. Métodos: Estudio transversal retrospectivo realizado entre abril y diciembre de 2004 en UDs. Se recogieron datos demográficos, tipo y causa del DN, origen de la derivación y la utilización de recursos sanitarios (tratamientos, visitas médicas, hospitalizaciones, etc., y se computaron los costes médicos directos en el año 2004. Se utilizó estadística descriptiva y modelos ANCOVA. Resultados: Se incluyeron 504 pacientes con DN de etiología variada (44% radiculopatía, 21% neuralgias, 11% neuropatías, 7% atrapamientos, 5% SDRC, 4% dolor central, con una edad de 57,8±0,7 años (Media±EE, 57,6% mujeres, y 29,6±2,2 meses de evolución. El coste medio mensual ajustado fue de 403€ (IC 95%: 333€-473€. Las neuropatías presentaron un coste medio mensual ajustado mayor que la media (580+90€, p=0,011, debido a un mayor número mensual de días de hospitalización (0,6±0,1, p=0,021 y mayor coste farmacológico (162+17€, p=0,001. Las radiculopatías mostraron menor coste que la media; 287+46€, p=0,026, particularmente por un menor coste de hospitalización; 79+38€, p=0,027. Conclusiones: El DN ocasiona una considerable utilización de recursos sanitarios con un coste sustancial para el Sistema Nacional de Salud. La neuropatía es el síndrome etiológico que tiene un mayor coste mensual por paciente, mientras que las radiculopatías muestran un coste significativamente inferior al promedio.Objective: To realize a registry about aetology and costs of patients with Neuropathic Pain (NeP in Pain Clinics (PC in Spain. Methods: Retrospective, cross-ssectional study performed between april and december 2004 in PC. Demographic data, NeP type and cause, origin of the derivation, and health resources consumption (treatments, medical visits, hospitalizations, etc were collected and direct medical costs were calculated in year 2004. A descriptive statistic and ANCOVA models were applied. Results: 504 NeP patients of broad aetiology (44% radiculophaty, 21% neuralgias, 11% neurophaties, 7% entrapment syndromes, 5% CRPS, 4% central pain, 57.8±0.7 years (Mean±SE, 57.6% women, and 29.6±2.2 months of evolution, were enrolled in the study. Adjusted monthly average cost was 403€ (95% CI: 333€-473€. Neuropathies present an adjusted monthly cost significantly higher than average (580+90€, p=0.011, because of the higher number of hospitalization days (0.6+0.1, p=0.021 and the higher pharmacologic cost (162+17€, p=0.001. Radiculophaties showed lower adjusted cost than the average; 287+46€, p=0.026, because of the lower cost of hospitalization; 79+38€, p=0.027. Conclusions: NeP causes a considerable utilization of health resources with a substantial cost for the National Health Service. Neurophaties are the aetiology syndrome which showed the higher monthly cost per patient, while radiculophaties showed a cost significantly lower than the average.

  4. Costes del dolor neuropático según etiología en las Unidades del Dolor en España / Neurohatic pain costs according it´s etiology the Spanish Pain Units

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M. J., Rodríguez; A. J., García.

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Realizar un registro etiológico y de costes de pacientes con Dolor Neuropático (DN) en Unidades del Dolor (UD) en España. Métodos: Estudio transversal retrospectivo realizado entre abril y diciembre de 2004 en UDs. Se recogieron datos demográficos, tipo y causa del DN, origen de la derivac [...] ión y la utilización de recursos sanitarios (tratamientos, visitas médicas, hospitalizaciones, etc.), y se computaron los costes médicos directos en el año 2004. Se utilizó estadística descriptiva y modelos ANCOVA. Resultados: Se incluyeron 504 pacientes con DN de etiología variada (44% radiculopatía, 21% neuralgias, 11% neuropatías, 7% atrapamientos, 5% SDRC, 4% dolor central), con una edad de 57,8±0,7 años (Media±EE), 57,6% mujeres, y 29,6±2,2 meses de evolución. El coste medio mensual ajustado fue de 403€ (IC 95%: 333€-473€). Las neuropatías presentaron un coste medio mensual ajustado mayor que la media (580+90€, p=0,011), debido a un mayor número mensual de días de hospitalización (0,6±0,1, p=0,021) y mayor coste farmacológico (162+17€, p=0,001). Las radiculopatías mostraron menor coste que la media; 287+46€, p=0,026, particularmente por un menor coste de hospitalización; 79+38€, p=0,027. Conclusiones: El DN ocasiona una considerable utilización de recursos sanitarios con un coste sustancial para el Sistema Nacional de Salud. La neuropatía es el síndrome etiológico que tiene un mayor coste mensual por paciente, mientras que las radiculopatías muestran un coste significativamente inferior al promedio. Abstract in english Objective: To realize a registry about aetology and costs of patients with Neuropathic Pain (NeP) in Pain Clinics (PC) in Spain. Methods: Retrospective, cross-ssectional study performed between april and december 2004 in PC. Demographic data, NeP type and cause, origin of the derivation, and health [...] resources consumption (treatments, medical visits, hospitalizations, etc) were collected and direct medical costs were calculated in year 2004. A descriptive statistic and ANCOVA models were applied. Results: 504 NeP patients of broad aetiology (44% radiculophaty, 21% neuralgias, 11% neurophaties, 7% entrapment syndromes, 5% CRPS, 4% central pain), 57.8±0.7 years (Mean±SE), 57.6% women, and 29.6±2.2 months of evolution, were enrolled in the study. Adjusted monthly average cost was 403€ (95% CI: 333€-473€). Neuropathies present an adjusted monthly cost significantly higher than average (580+90€, p=0.011), because of the higher number of hospitalization days (0.6+0.1, p=0.021) and the higher pharmacologic cost (162+17€, p=0.001). Radiculophaties showed lower adjusted cost than the average; 287+46€, p=0.026, because of the lower cost of hospitalization; 79+38€, p=0.027. Conclusions: NeP causes a considerable utilization of health resources with a substantial cost for the National Health Service. Neurophaties are the aetiology syndrome which showed the higher monthly cost per patient, while radiculophaties showed a cost significantly lower than the average.

  5. En plena crisis económica: coste y efectividad de las unidades de estancia corta hospitalarias / Economic crisis: cost and effectiveness of short stay hospital units

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    F., Epelde; M.L., Iglesias-Lepine; L., Anarte.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento. La duración de la estancia es el principal determinante del coste de una hospitalización, por lo que se deben implementar estrategias para reducir la estancia hospitalaria convencional manteniéndose los niveles de calidad. Las Unidades de Estancia Corta (UEC) nacen con el objetivo de dis [...] minuir la estancia hospitalaria en un grupo de patologias y pacientes determinados. El objetivo de este original es evaluar la bibliografía existente sobre la evidencia de la disminución del periodo de estancia, eficiencia, reconsultas en los servicios de urgencias, coste-efectividad, y mortalidad de estas unidades. Método. Se realizó una revisión sistemática de las publicaciones que aparecen en la literatura, utilizando los términos MeSH "Observation Unit", "Short-Stay Ward", "Monday to Friday Clinic", "Monaday to Friday Surgery Ward", "Short Stay Hospitalization", "Alternative to Convencional Hospitalization", "Alternative Admissions" en la base de datos MEDLINE, Web of Knowledge y la Cochrane Library desde el 1 de enero de 1960 al 1 de enero del 2012. Los estudios revisados se seleccionaron según la US Preventive Services Task Force Protocol. Resultados. Las UEC permiten en grupos determinados de pacientes, disminuir el periodo de estancia, mantener la eficiencia, no mostrando incrementos de los reingresos por urgencias, ni la mortalidad. Conclusiones. Las UEC pueden ser un instrumento para disminuir el coste del proceso sanitario en un grupo de patologias determinadas. Abstract in english Background. Length of stay is the main determinant of the cost of hospitalization, which is why strategies must be implemented to reduce conventional hospital stays while maintaining quality levels. Short Stay Units (SSU) were created with the aim of reducing hospital stays in a certain group of pat [...] ients and pathologies. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the literature on the evidence of decreased length of stay, efficiency, readmissions in the emergency department, cost-effectiveness, and mortality of these units. Methods. We made a systematic review of the literature, using the MeSH terms "Observation Unit", "Short-Stay Ward", "Monday to Friday Clinic", "Monday to Friday Surgery Ward", "Short Stay Hospitalization", "Alternative to Conventional Hospitalization", "Alternative Admissions" in the MEDLINE database, Web of Knowledge and the Cochrane Library from January 1 1960 to January 1 2012. The studies reviewed were selected according to the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Protocol. Results. The SSU made it possible in certain groups of patients to reduce the period of stay and maintain efficiency, showing no increases in emergency readmissions or mortality. Conclusions. The SSU can be an instrument to reduce the cost of the health process in a certain group of pathologies.

  6. En plena crisis económica: coste y efectividad de las unidades de estancia corta hospitalarias Economic crisis: cost and effectiveness of short stay hospital units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Epelde

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento. La duración de la estancia es el principal determinante del coste de una hospitalización, por lo que se deben implementar estrategias para reducir la estancia hospitalaria convencional manteniéndose los niveles de calidad. Las Unidades de Estancia Corta (UEC nacen con el objetivo de disminuir la estancia hospitalaria en un grupo de patologias y pacientes determinados. El objetivo de este original es evaluar la bibliografía existente sobre la evidencia de la disminución del periodo de estancia, eficiencia, reconsultas en los servicios de urgencias, coste-efectividad, y mortalidad de estas unidades. Método. Se realizó una revisión sistemática de las publicaciones que aparecen en la literatura, utilizando los términos MeSH "Observation Unit", "Short-Stay Ward", "Monday to Friday Clinic", "Monaday to Friday Surgery Ward", "Short Stay Hospitalization", "Alternative to Convencional Hospitalization", "Alternative Admissions" en la base de datos MEDLINE, Web of Knowledge y la Cochrane Library desde el 1 de enero de 1960 al 1 de enero del 2012. Los estudios revisados se seleccionaron según la US Preventive Services Task Force Protocol. Resultados. Las UEC permiten en grupos determinados de pacientes, disminuir el periodo de estancia, mantener la eficiencia, no mostrando incrementos de los reingresos por urgencias, ni la mortalidad. Conclusiones. Las UEC pueden ser un instrumento para disminuir el coste del proceso sanitario en un grupo de patologias determinadas.Background. Length of stay is the main determinant of the cost of hospitalization, which is why strategies must be implemented to reduce conventional hospital stays while maintaining quality levels. Short Stay Units (SSU were created with the aim of reducing hospital stays in a certain group of patients and pathologies. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the literature on the evidence of decreased length of stay, efficiency, readmissions in the emergency department, cost-effectiveness, and mortality of these units. Methods. We made a systematic review of the literature, using the MeSH terms "Observation Unit", "Short-Stay Ward", "Monday to Friday Clinic", "Monday to Friday Surgery Ward", "Short Stay Hospitalization", "Alternative to Conventional Hospitalization", "Alternative Admissions" in the MEDLINE database, Web of Knowledge and the Cochrane Library from January 1 1960 to January 1 2012. The studies reviewed were selected according to the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Protocol. Results. The SSU made it possible in certain groups of patients to reduce the period of stay and maintain efficiency, showing no increases in emergency readmissions or mortality. Conclusions. The SSU can be an instrument to reduce the cost of the health process in a certain group of pathologies.

  7. Primer: The DOE Wind Energy Program's Approach to Calculating Cost of Energy: July 9, 2005 - July 8, 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, K.; Schweizer, T.

    2008-01-01

    This report details the methodology used by DOE to calculate levelized cost of wind energy and demonstrates the variation in COE estimates due to different financing assumptions independent of wind generation technology.

  8. Accelerating Resolution-of-the-Identity Second Order Møller-Plesset Quantum Chemistry Calculations with Graphical Processing Units

    OpenAIRE

    Vogt, Leslie Ann; Olivares-Amaya, Roberto; Kermes, Sean; Shao, Yihan; Amador-Bedolla, Carlos; Aspuru-Guzik, Alan

    2008-01-01

    The modification of a general purpose code for quantum mechanical calculations of molecular properties (Q-Chem) to use a graphical processing unit (GPU) is reported. A 4.3x speedup of the resolution-of-the-identity second-order Møller?Plesset perturbation theory (RI-MP2) execution time is observed in single point energy calculations of linear alkanes. The code modification is accomplished using the compute unified basic linear algebra subprograms (CUBLAS) library for an NVIDIA Quadro FX 5600 ...

  9. Costs and benefits of the environmental policy in the Netherlands. Definitions and calculation methods; Kosten en baten in het milieubeleid. Definities en berekeningsmethoden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vijverberg, C.H.T. [ed.] [Ministerie van Volkshuisvesting, Ruimtelijke Ordening en Milieubeheer VROM, The Hague (Netherlands); Engelen, R.; Hanemaaijer, A.H. [eds.] [Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieuhygiene RIVM, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Van Driel, M.J. [Rijksinstituut voor Integraal Zoetwaterbeheer en Afvalwaterbehandeling RIZA, Lelystad (Netherlands)

    1998-11-01

    In 1994 the report `Methodiek Milieukosten` (Method for Environmental Costs) was published. It comprises a standardized method to define and calculate the costs of measures to protect the environment. Due to developments in environmental policy and environmental technology and the wish to apply the method for other purposes the 1994 method had to be revised. The aim of this report is primarily to realize consistency and comparability of environmental costs for different purposes

  10. Nuclide Inventory Calculation Using MCNPX for Wolsung Unit 1 Reactor Decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CINDER90 computation process involves utilizing linear Markovian chains to determine the time dependent nuclide densities. The CINDER90 depletion algorithm is implemented the MCNPX code package. The coupled depletion process involves a Monte-Carlo steady-state reaction rate calculation linked to a deterministic depletion calculation. The process is shown in Fig.1. MCNPX runs a steady state calculation to determine the system eigenvalue collision densities, recoverable energies from fission and neutrons per fission events. In order to generate number densities for the next time step, the CINDER90 code takes the MCNPX generated values and performs a depletion calculation. MCNPX then takes the new number densities and caries out a new steady-stated calculation. The process repeats itself until the final time step. This paper describe the preliminary source term and nuclide inventory calculation of Candu single fuel channel using MCNPX, as a part of the activities to support the equilibrium core model development and decommissioning evaluation process of a Candu reactor. The aim of this study was to apply the MCNPX code for source term and nuclide inventory calculation of Candu single fuel channel. Nuclide inventories as a function of burnup will be used to model an equilibrium core for Candu reactor. The core lifetime neutron fluence obtained from the model is used to estimate radioactivity at the stage of decommisioning. In general, as expected, the actinides and fission products build up increase with increasing burnup. Despite the fact that the MCNPX code is still in development we can conclude that the code is capable of obtaining relevant results in burnup and source term calculation. It is recommended that in the future work, the calculation has to be verified on the basis of experimental data or comparison with other codes

  11. Nuclide Inventory Calculation Using MCNPX for Wolsung Unit 1 Reactor Decommissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabir, Mohamad Hairie; Noh, Kyoung Ho; Hah, Chang Joo [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The CINDER90 computation process involves utilizing linear Markovian chains to determine the time dependent nuclide densities. The CINDER90 depletion algorithm is implemented the MCNPX code package. The coupled depletion process involves a Monte-Carlo steady-state reaction rate calculation linked to a deterministic depletion calculation. The process is shown in Fig.1. MCNPX runs a steady state calculation to determine the system eigenvalue collision densities, recoverable energies from fission and neutrons per fission events. In order to generate number densities for the next time step, the CINDER90 code takes the MCNPX generated values and performs a depletion calculation. MCNPX then takes the new number densities and caries out a new steady-stated calculation. The process repeats itself until the final time step. This paper describe the preliminary source term and nuclide inventory calculation of Candu single fuel channel using MCNPX, as a part of the activities to support the equilibrium core model development and decommissioning evaluation process of a Candu reactor. The aim of this study was to apply the MCNPX code for source term and nuclide inventory calculation of Candu single fuel channel. Nuclide inventories as a function of burnup will be used to model an equilibrium core for Candu reactor. The core lifetime neutron fluence obtained from the model is used to estimate radioactivity at the stage of decommisioning. In general, as expected, the actinides and fission products build up increase with increasing burnup. Despite the fact that the MCNPX code is still in development we can conclude that the code is capable of obtaining relevant results in burnup and source term calculation. It is recommended that in the future work, the calculation has to be verified on the basis of experimental data or comparison with other codes.

  12. Classification of geokhod units and systems based on product cost analysis and estimation for a prototype model production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksenov, V. V.; Walter, A. V.; Gordeyev, A. A.; Kosovets, A. V.

    2015-09-01

    The paper considers data systematization on a new shield-type heading machine - geokhod. The target of the paper is to classify geokhod components on the basis of their technical and economical production parameters. A prototype model reveals the structure of a geokhod as an assembly unit and identifies its basic characteristics. The paper overviews the methods of product cost estimations, justifies the application of an operation-based approach for a prototype model, provides the results containing product cost data for various geokhod components and technological processes, and gives the data for a material cost structure. Taking into consideration the product cost analysis, geokhod components are classified according to their technical and economical production parameters. Moreover the paper outlines the ways of a classification application for a geokhod manufacturing techniques improvement.

  13. Cost-effectiveness of social marketing of insecticide-treated nets for malaria control in the United Republic of Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanson Kara

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the costs and consequences of a social marketing approach to malaria control in children by means of insecticide-treated nets in two rural districts of the United Republic of Tanzania, compared with no net use. METHODS: Project cost data were collected prospectively from accounting records. Community effectiveness was estimated on the basis of a nested case-control study and a cross-sectional cluster sample survey. FINDINGS: The social marketing approach to the distribution of insecticide-treated nets was estimated to cost US$ 1560 per death averted and US$ 57 per disability-adjusted life year averted. These figures fell to US$ 1018 and US$ 37, respectively, when the costs and consequences of untreated nets were taken into account. CONCLUSION: The social marketing of insecticide-treated nets is an attractive intervention for preventing childhood deaths from malaria.

  14. Accuracy and efficiency of an automated system for calculating APACHE II scores in an intensive care unit.

    OpenAIRE

    Gooder, V. J.; Farr, B. R.; Young, M P

    1997-01-01

    We evaluated the reliability and efficiency of an automated system for calculating APACHE II scores. We imported an automated APACHE II scoring system developed at another institution. We scored a convenience sample of 50 consecutive intensive care unit (ICU) admissions using three methods: (1) the automated system (2) an expert scorer using a manual data abstraction method, and (3) the current manual scoring method used in the ICU. We analyzed interrater reliability among the three groups, a...

  15. Health care costs before and after diagnosis of depression in patients with unexplained pain: a retrospective cohort study using the United Kingdom General Practice Research Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reed C

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Catherine Reed,1 Jihyung Hong,2 Diego Novick,1 Alan Lenox-Smith,3 Michael Happich41Global Health Outcomes, Eli Lilly and Company, Windlesham, Surrey, UK; 2Personal Social Services Research Unit, London School of Economics and Political Science, London, UK; 3Eli Lilly UK, Basingstoke, UK; 4Eli Lilly and Company, Bad Homburg, GermanyPurpose: To assess the impact of pain severity and time to diagnosis of depression on health care costs for primary care patients with pre-existing unexplained pain symptoms who subsequently received a diagnosis of depression.Patients and methods: This retrospective cohort study analyzed 4000 adults with unexplained pain (defined as painful physical symptoms [PPS] without any probable organic cause and a subsequent diagnosis of depression, identified from the UK General Practice Research Database using diagnostic codes. Patients were categorized into four groups based on pain severity (milder or more severe; based on number of pain-relief medications and use of opioids and time to diagnosis of depression (?1 year or >1 year from PPS index date. Annual health care costs were calculated (2009 values and included general practitioner (GP consultations, secondary care referrals, and prescriptions for pain-relief medications for the 12 months before depression diagnosis and in the subsequent 2 years. Multivariate models of cost included time period as a main independent variable, and adjusted for age, gender, and comorbidities.Results: Total annual health care costs before and after depression diagnosis for the four patient groups were higher for the groups with more severe pain (£819–£988 versus £565–£628; P < 0.001 for all pairwise comparisons and highest for the group with more severe pain and longer time to depression diagnosis in the subsequent 2 years (P < 0.05. Total GP costs were highest in the group with more severe pain and longer time to depression diagnosis both before and after depression diagnosis (P < 0.05. In the second year following depression diagnosis, this group also had the highest secondary care referral costs (P < 0.01. The highest drug costs were in the groups with more severe pain (P < 0.001, although costs within each group were similar before and after depression diagnosis.Conclusion: Among patients with unexplained pain symptoms, significant pain in combination with longer time from pain symptoms to depression diagnosis contribute to higher costs for the UK health care system.Keywords: depression, pain, cost, GPRD, UK

  16. On exergy costing in exergoeconomics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Existing methods of the exergoeconomic analysis and optimization of energy systems operate with single average or marginal cost values per exergy unit for each material stream in the system being considered. These costs do not contain detailed information on (a) how much exergy, and (b) at what cost the exergy was supplied in each of the previous process steps. The cost of supplying the same exergy form, however, might vary significantly from one step to the other. Knowledge of the exergy addition and the corresponding cost at each previous step can be used to improve the costing process. This paper presents a new approach to exergy costing in exergoeconomics. The monetary flow rate associated with the thermal, mechanical and chemical exergy of a material stream at a given state is calculated by considering the complete previous history of supplying and removing units of the corresponding exergy form to and from the stream being considered. When exergy is supplied to a stream, the cost of adding each exergy unit to the stream is calculated using the cost of product exergy unit for the process or device in which the exergy addition occurs. When exergy is supplied to a stream, the cost of adding each exergy unit to the stream is calculated using the cost of product exergy unit for the process or device in which the exergy addition occurs the stream being considered supplies exergy to another exergy carrier, the last-in-first-out principle of accounting is used for the spent exergy units to calculate the cost of exergy supply to the carrier

  17. CRC DEPLETION CALCULATIONS FOR THE RODDED ASSEMBLIES IN BATCHES 1, 2, 3, AND 1X OF CRYSTAL RIVER UNIT 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenneth D. Wright

    1997-09-03

    The purpose of this design analysis is to document the SAS2H depletion calculations of certain rodded fuel assemblies from batches 1, 2, 3, and 1X of the Crystal River Unit 3 pressurized water reactor (PWR) that are required for Commercial Reactor Critical (CRC) evaluations to support the development of the disposal criticality methodology. A rodded assembly is one that contains a control rod assembly (CRA) or an axial power shaping rod assembly (APSRA) for some period of time during its irradiation history. The objective of this analysis is to provide SAS2H calculated isotopic compositions of depleted fuel and depleted burnable poison for each fuel assembly to be used in subsequent CRC reactivity calculations containing the fuel assemblies.

  18. Cost of managing an episode of relapse in multiple sclerosis in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Ward Alexandra J; O'Brien Judith A; Patrick Amanda R; Caro Jaime

    2003-01-01

    Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to determine the direct medical US cost of managing multiple sclerosis relapses. Methods Direct data analysis and cost modeling were employed to derive typical resource use profiles and costs in 2002 US dollars, from the perspective of a third-party payer responsible for comprehensive health-care. The location and scope of health care services provided over a 90-day period were used to define three levels of relapse management. Hospitalization...

  19. THE NECESSITY OF LOWERING PRODUCTION COST IN THE MANAGEMENT OF COAL MINING UNITS

    OpenAIRE

    IONELA-CLAUDIA DINA; GABRIELA BU?AN

    2009-01-01

    In the current economic conditions, cost is a key instrument in decisionson resource allocation, which are often limited, on the volume and structure of production,increase or withdraw supply of goods or services market, etc. In these circumstances the bestchoice is to choose a minimum cost. In its universal acceptance, the cost of production is aneconomic category that provides information about the work done by an operator and is a keyfactor of economic and financial analysis of the efficie...

  20. INTEGRATION OF THE ACTIVITY BASED COSTING AND THE UNITS OF PRODUCTION METHOD: A CASE STUDY INTEGRAÇÃO DO CUSTEIO ABC COM O MÉTODO UP: UM ESTUDO DE CASO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Léo Sabadin

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available A competitive environment suggests changes in the form of costs management to able the company to remain in the market. Within this perspective, the objective of this article is to describe the integration of the activity based costing (ABC and the units of production (UP method in a food plant. The former is used for an appropriation of administrative and commercial expenses as a perfected form of allocating operational expenses; the latter, for the allocation of production variable expenses, marginal cost and fixed costs of production. This research methodology consists of an exploratory study, accomplished through a case study with a quantitative approach. The results of the research have demonstrated that the UP method considers a single measure to calculate production efforts, contemplating exclusively the transformation costs. In turn, by the application of the ABC to allocate operational expenses, the vision of processes and activities expands. It has been concluded that, in spite of different degrees of emphasis, the integration of the two costing methodologies increases quality of information, providing subsidies to the management to improve the classification of activities and the measurement of productivity. Keywords: Integration. The Activity Based Costing. The Units of Production Method. O ambiente competitivo sugere mudanças na forma de administrar os custos para possibilitar a continuidade da empresa no mercado. Nesta perspectiva, o objetivo deste artigo é descrever a integração do custeio baseado em atividades com o método das unidades de produção em uma indústria do setor de alimentos. O primeiro, usado para apropriação das despesas administrativas e despesas comerciais, como uma forma mais acurada de alocar as despesas operacionais. O segundo, para alocação dos gastos variáveis de fabricação, custo marginal e custos fixos de fabricação. A metodologia da pesquisa consubstancia-se de um estudo exploratório, realizado por meio de um estudo de caso, com abordagem quantitativa. Os resultados da pesquisa evidenciam que o método das unidades de produção considera uma única medida para mensurar os esforços de produção, contemplando exclusivamente os custos de transformação. Por sua vez, a aplicação do custeio baseado em atividades para alocação das despesas operacionais expande a visão de processos e atividades. Concluiu-se que, mesmo com diferentes ênfases, a integração das duas metodologias de custeio adicionam maior qualidade na informação, fornecendo subsídios à gestão para melhorar a classificação das atividades e a medição de produtividade. Palavras chave: Integração. Custeio baseado em atividades. Método das unidades de produção.

  1. Dropping Out of School in the North Central Region of the United States: Costs and Consequences. Success for Students at Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catterall, James S.

    This study examines the individual and social costs associated with dropping out of high school in the North Central Region of the United States. Dropouts incur personal costs in the form of reduced earnings, higher chances of being unemployed, and higher likelihood of involvement with crime. Social costs appear in the form of lower total…

  2. Cost implications of African swine fever in smallholder farrow-to-finish units : economic benefits of disease prevention through biosecurity

    OpenAIRE

    Fasina, Folorunso Oludayo; Lazarus, David D.; Spencer, B.T.; Makinde, Adesoji A; Bastos, Armanda D.S.

    2012-01-01

    African swine fever remains the greatest limitation to the development of the pig industry in Africa, and parts of Asia and Europe. It is especially important in West and Central African countries where the disease has become endemic. Biosecurity is the implementation of a set of measures that reduce the risk of infection through segregation, cleaning and disinfection. Using a 122-sow piggery unit, a financial model and costing were used to estimate the economic benefits of ...

  3. Cost-effectiveness of malaria intermittent preventive treatment in infants (IPTi) in Mozambique and the United Republic of Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Hutton, Guy; Schellenberg, David; Tediosi, Fabrizio; Macete, Eusebio; Kahigwa, Elizeus; Sigauque, Betuel; Mas, Xavier; Trapero, Marta; Tanner, Marcel; Trilla, Antoni; Alonso, Pedro; Menendez, Clara

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To estimate the cost-effectiveness of malaria intermittent preventive treatment in infants (IPTi) using sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP). METHODS In two previous IPTi trials in Ifakara (United Republic of Tanzania) and Manhiça (Mozambique), SP was administered three times to infants before 9 months of age through the Expanded Programme on Immunization. Based on the efficacy results of the intervention and on malaria incidence in the target population, an estimate was made ...

  4. Photolysis of caged calcium using a low-cost flash unit: efficacy analysis with a calcium selective electrode

    OpenAIRE

    Koeveringe, G.A. van; Van Mastrigt, R.

    1994-01-01

    Photolysis of caged calcium (Nitr5, Calbiochem) can be used to study calcium dependent processes such as excitation-contraction coupling and muscular mechanics. Expensive high energy light sources are routinely used for UV light exposure, but this study describes an alternative low cost xenon flash unit constructed in our laboratory. A 300 J short arc xenon flash lamp (Heimann) was mounted in an elliptical reflector and driven by a modifie...

  5. Feasibility Analysis of Low Cost Graphical Processing Units for Electromagnetic Field Simulations by Finite Difference Time Domain Method

    OpenAIRE

    Choudhari, A V; Pande, N A; Gupta, M R

    2013-01-01

    Among several techniques available for solving Computational Electromagnetics (CEM) problems, the Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method is one of the best suited approaches when a parallelized hardware platform is used. In this paper we investigate the feasibility of implementing the FDTD method using the NVIDIA GT 520, a low cost Graphical Processing Unit (GPU), for solving the differential form of Maxwell's equation in time domain. Initially a generalized benchmarkin...

  6. Tracking the Sun III; The Installed Cost of Photovoltaics in the United States from 1998-2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbose, Galen; Darghouth, Naim; Wiser, Ryan

    2010-12-13

    Installations of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems have been growing at a rapid pace in recent years. In 2009, approximately 7,500 megawatts (MW) of PV were installed globally, up from approximately 6,000 MW in 2008, consisting primarily of grid-connected applications. With 335 MW of grid-connected PV capacity added in 2009, the United States was the world's fourth largest PV market in 2009, behind Germany, Italy, and Japan. The market for PV in the United States is driven by national, state, and local government incentives, including up-front cash rebates, production-based incentives, requirements that electricity suppliers purchase a certain amount of solar energy, and federal and state tax benefits. These programs are, in part, motivated by the popular appeal of solar energy, and by the positive attributes of PV - modest environmental impacts, avoidance of fuel price risks, coincidence with peak electrical demand, and the possible deployment of PV at the point of use. Given the relatively high cost of PV, however, a key goal of these policies is to encourage cost reductions over time. Therefore, as policy incentives have become more significant and as PV deployment has accelerated, so too has the desire to track the installed cost of PV systems over time, by system characteristics, by system location, and by component. Despite the significant year-on-year growth, however, the share of global and U.S. electricity supply met with PV remains small, and annual PV additions are currently modest in the context of the overall electric system. To address this need, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory initiated a report series focused on describing trends in the installed cost of grid-connected PV systems in the United States. The present report, the third in the series, describes installed cost trends from 1998 through 2009, and provides preliminary cost data for systems installed in 2010. The analysis is based on project-level cost data from approximately 78,000 residential and non-residential PV systems in the U.S., all of which are installed at end-use customer facilities (herein referred to as 'customer-sited' systems). The combined capacity of systems in the data sample totals 874 MW, equal to 70% of all grid-connected PV capacity installed in the United States through 2009 and representing one of the most comprehensive sources of installed PV cost data for the U.S. The report also briefly compares recent PV installed costs in the United States to those in Germany and Japan. Finally, it should be noted that the analysis presented here focuses on descriptive trends in the underlying data, serving primarily to summarize the data in tabular and graphical form; later analysis may explore some of these trends with more-sophisticated statistical techniques. The report begins with a summary of the data collection methodology and resultant dataset (Section 2). The primary findings of the analysis are presented in Section 3, which describes trends in installed costs prior to receipt of any financial incentives: over time and by system size, component, state, system ownership type (customer-owned vs. third party-owned), host customer segment (residential vs. commercial vs. public-sector vs. non-profit), application (new construction vs. retrofit), and technology type (building-integrated vs. rack-mounted, crystalline silicon vs. thin-film, and tracking vs. fixed-axis). Section 4 presents additional findings related to trends in PV incentive levels over time and among states (focusing specifically on state and utility incentive programs as well as state and federal tax credits), and trends in the net installed cost paid by system owners after receipt of such incentives. Brief conclusions are offered in the final section, and several appendices provide additional details on the analysis methodology and additional tabular summaries of the data.

  7. 42 CFR 447.206 - Cost limit for providers operated by units of government.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...methodology funded by certified public expenditures. (1) In...the filed cost report for the spending year in which interim payment...finalized cost report for the spending year in which any interim payment...payments funded by certified public expenditures in Medicaid...

  8. Cost of reactive nitrogen release from human activities to the environment in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    The leakage of reactive nitrogen (N) from human activities to the environment can cause human health and ecological problems. Often these harmful effects are not reflected in the costs of food, fuel, and fiber that derive from N use. Spatial analyses of economic costs and benef...

  9. BIOMASS TO ENERGY IN THE SOUTHERN UNITED STATES: SUPPLY CHAIN AND DELIVERED COST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronalds W. Gonzalez

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Supply chain and delivered cost models for seven feedstocks (loblolly pine, Eucalyptus, natural hardwood, switchgrass, Miscanthus, sweet sorghum, and corn stover were built, simulating a supply of 453,597 dry tons per year to a biorefinery. Delivered cost of forest-based feedstocks ranged from $69 to $71 per dry ton. On the other hand, delivered cost of agricultural biomass ranged from $77.60 to $102.50 per dry ton. The total production area required for fast growing feedstocks was estimated as between 22,500 to 27,000 hectares, while the total production area for feedstocks with lower biomass productivity ranged from 101,200 to 202,300 hectares (corn stover and natural hardwood, respectively. Lower delivered cost per ton of carbohydrate and million BTU were found for loblolly pine, Eucalyptus, and natural hardwood. In addition, agricultural biomass had higher delivered costs for carbohydrate and energy value.

  10. Cálculo del Costo Comparativo de la Obtención de Concentrados de Boratos Comparative Cost Calculation in the Obtaining of Borate Concentrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horacio R Flores

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo muestra la similitud existente entre los diagramas de flujo, balances de materia y equipos empleados en la concentración de boratos para obtener refinados y boratos de alto valor agregado. Se usa una planilla de cálculo para determinar el costo de producción para distintas condiciones de operación, a fin de determinar la oportunidad y conveniencia de cambiar el producto final, empleando la misma planta productora. Se analiza un caso particular que compara la producción de 10 tn/hr de concentrado de ulexita o de hidroboracita. Se obtiene un costo de producción por tonelada de B2O3 de 94.3 US dólares para la concentración de ulexita, que se reduce a 67.5 US dólares para la concentración de hidroboracita. Se concluye que el método propuesto es una herramienta que facilita el análisis económico del proceso productivo estudiado.This paper presents the similitude found between flow sheets, material balances and equipments employed in the concentration of borates, to obtain base refined borates and to obtain high added value borates. Spread sheet calculations are used to determine the production costs for different operating conditions and to analyze the opportunity and convenience of changing the final product, using the same process plant. A study case is considered in which 10 tn/hr of ulexite concentrate or the same amount of hydroboracite are produced. The cost per ton of B2O3 was 94.3 US dollars for the concentrated ulexite and 67.5 US dollars for concentrated hydroboracite. It is concluded that the proposed method is an useful tool for the economic analysis of the productive process considered in this study.

  11. Cálculo del Costo Comparativo de la Obtención de Concentrados de Boratos / Comparative Cost Calculation in the Obtaining of Borate Concentrates

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Horacio R, Flores; María de los Á, Tinte.

    Full Text Available Este trabajo muestra la similitud existente entre los diagramas de flujo, balances de materia y equipos empleados en la concentración de boratos para obtener refinados y boratos de alto valor agregado. Se usa una planilla de cálculo para determinar el costo de producción para distintas condiciones d [...] e operación, a fin de determinar la oportunidad y conveniencia de cambiar el producto final, empleando la misma planta productora. Se analiza un caso particular que compara la producción de 10 tn/hr de concentrado de ulexita o de hidroboracita. Se obtiene un costo de producción por tonelada de B2O3 de 94.3 US dólares para la concentración de ulexita, que se reduce a 67.5 US dólares para la concentración de hidroboracita. Se concluye que el método propuesto es una herramienta que facilita el análisis económico del proceso productivo estudiado. Abstract in english This paper presents the similitude found between flow sheets, material balances and equipments employed in the concentration of borates, to obtain base refined borates and to obtain high added value borates. Spread sheet calculations are used to determine the production costs for different operating [...] conditions and to analyze the opportunity and convenience of changing the final product, using the same process plant. A study case is considered in which 10 tn/hr of ulexite concentrate or the same amount of hydroboracite are produced. The cost per ton of B2O3 was 94.3 US dollars for the concentrated ulexite and 67.5 US dollars for concentrated hydroboracite. It is concluded that the proposed method is an useful tool for the economic analysis of the productive process considered in this study.

  12. CRC DEPLETION CALCULATIONS FOR THE NON-RODDED ASSEMBLIES IN BATCHES 1, 2, AND 3 OF CRYSTAL RIVER UNIT 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenneth D. Wright

    1997-07-29

    The purpose of this design analysis is to document the SAS2H depletion calculations of certain non-rodded fuel assemblies from batches 1, 2, and 3 of the Crystal River Unit 3 pressurized water reactor (PWR) that are required for Commercial Reactor Critical (CRC) evaluations to support development of the disposal criticality methodology. A non-rodded assembly is one which never contains a control rod assembly (CRA) or an axial power shaping rod assembly (APSRA) during its irradiation history. The objective of this analysis is to provide SAS2H generated isotopic compositions for each fuel assembly's depleted fuel and depleted burnable poison materials. These SAS2H generated isotopic compositions are acceptable for use in CRC benchmark reactivity calculations containing the various fuel assemblies.

  13. CRC DEPLETION CALCULATIONS FOR THE NON-RODDED ASSEMBLIES IN BATCHES 4 AND 5 OF CRYSTAL RIVER UNIT 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenneth D. Wright

    1997-07-30

    The purpose of this design analysis is to document the SAS2H depletion calculations of certain non-rodded fuel assemblies from batches 4 and 5 of the Crystal River Unit 3 pressurized water reactor (PWR) that are required for commercial Reactor Critical (CRC) evaluations to support the development of the disposal criticality methodology. A non-rodded assembly is one which never contains a control rod assembly (CRA) or an axial power shaping rod assembly (APSRA) during its irradiation history. The objective of this analysis is to provide SAS2H generated isotopic compositions for each fuel assembly's depleted fuel and depleted burnable poison materials. These SAS2H generated isotopic compositions are acceptable for use in CRC benchmark reactivity calculations containing the various fuel assemblies.

  14. Dosimetric measurements and dose calculation in certain routine studies with different computed tomography units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The European Commission recently published a White Paper proposing reference values of dosimetric magnitude for several types of CT studies. The objective of the present report is to characterize, in terms of dosimetry, a Ct unit and establish reference values for the doses used in CT in Spain. We took dosimetric measurements in 15 models of the CT Pace line, analyzing the data obtained in patients subjected to brain, chest, abdomen and lumbar spine CT with these units. The CT dose indices (CTDI) for theoretic thicknesses of 2 to 10 mm were 0.094 to 0.098 mGy/mA.s (body phantom) and 0.203 to 0.205 mGy/mA.s (head phantom), and the values for a 1 mm thickness were 0.134 mGy/mA.s (body) and 0.260 mGy/mA.s (head). In patient studies, the following values were found: the weighted CT dose (CTDIw) ranged from 44 to 74 mGy for brain, 27 to 48 mGy in chest, 19 to 33 mGy in lumbar spine and 21 to 33 mGy in abdomen: the dose-length product (DLP) was 499 to 918 mGy.cm in brain studies, 446 to 765 mGy.cm in chest, 188 to 333 mGy.cm in spine and 406 to 613 mGy.cm in abdomen. The effective dose (E) was 1.09 to 2.14 mSv in brain, 7.13 to 12 mSv in chest, 3.16 to 4.97 mSv in lumbar spine and 6.95 to 8.76 mSv in abdomen. The units analyzed processes similar dosimetric behaviors except for certain differences when 1 mm-thick sections were used. With respect to patient dose, the CTDIw, DLP and E obtained in our series were very similar, equal to or greater than the reference values proposed by the European paper. Thus, efforts should be made to optimize CT tests for the purpose of reducing the dose. According to our results, there is a lack of correlation between the values proposed in the document in question for CTDIw and the DLP, suggesting. (Author) 13 refs

  15. Cost-Effectiveness of Pazopanib in Advanced Soft Tissue Sarcoma in the United Kingdom

    OpenAIRE

    Jordan Amdahl; Manson, Stephanie C; Robert Isbell; Ayman Chit; Jose Diaz; Lily Lewis; Thomas E. Delea

    2014-01-01

    In the phase III PALETTE trial, pazopanib improved progression-free survival (PFS) compared with placebo in patients with advanced/metastatic soft tissue sarcomas (mSTS) who had received prior chemotherapy. We used a multistate model to estimate expected PFS, overall survival (OS), lifetime STS treatment costs, and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) for patients receiving pazopanib, placebo, trabectedin, ifosfamide, or gemcitabine plus docetaxel as second-line mSTS therapies. The cost-effect...

  16. Monitor unit calculation for radiotherapy treatments using the Monte Carlo method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study aims to develop a methodology to quantify and assess the monitor unit (MU) for a radiotherapy treatment simulation using the Monte Carlo method. For this study was reproduced two standard treatments considering that the patient has low or high risk prostate cancer. In low risk prostate cancer, the Clinical Target Volume (CT V) should be restricted to the prostate only and the Planning Target Volume (PTV) was considered 1 cm beyond the CT V. An additional 0.6 cm margin is added to account for penumbra. In the high risk prostate cancer, we use Whole Pelvic Radiotherapy (WPRT). Here we consider bony landmarks to determine the field size. In both treatments we use 15 MV photons, the four-field box technique and 2 Gy daily fractions. The irradiations were performed using the Siemens Oncor Expression linear accelerator belonging to the service of the Oncological Clinics (COI/R J), modeled and validated using the MCNP code

  17. Monte Carlo method for neutron transport calculations in graphics processing units (GPUs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monte Carlo simulation is well suited for solving the Boltzmann neutron transport equation in an inhomogeneous media for complicated geometries. However, routine applications require the computation time to be reduced to hours and even minutes in a desktop PC. The interest in adopting Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) for Monte Carlo acceleration is rapidly growing. This is due to the massive parallelism provided by the latest GPU technologies which is the most promising solution to the challenge of performing full-size reactor core analysis on a routine basis. In this study, Monte Carlo codes for a fixed-source neutron transport problem were developed for GPU environments in order to evaluate issues associated with computational speedup using GPUs. Results obtained in this work suggest that a speedup of several orders of magnitude is possible using the state-of-the-art GPU technologies. (author)

  18. Monitor unit calculations for external photon and electron beams: Report of the AAPM Therapy Physics Committee Task Group No. 71

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibbons, John P., E-mail: john.gibbons@marybird.com [Department of Physics, Mary Bird Perkins Cancer Center, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70809 (United States); Antolak, John A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota 55905 (United States); Followill, David S. [Department of Radiation Physics, UT M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Huq, M. Saiful [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15232 (United States); Klein, Eric E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri 63110 (United States); Lam, Kwok L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Palta, Jatinder R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23298 (United States); Roback, Donald M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Centers of North Carolina, Raleigh, North Carolina 27607 (United States); Reid, Mark [Department of Medical Physics, Fletcher-Allen Health Care, Burlington, Vermont 05401 (United States); Khan, Faiz M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States)

    2014-03-15

    A protocol is presented for the calculation of monitor units (MU) for photon and electron beams, delivered with and without beam modifiers, for constant source-surface distance (SSD) and source-axis distance (SAD) setups. This protocol was written by Task Group 71 of the Therapy Physics Committee of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) and has been formally approved by the AAPM for clinical use. The protocol defines the nomenclature for the dosimetric quantities used in these calculations, along with instructions for their determination and measurement. Calculations are made using the dose per MU under normalization conditions, D{sub 0}{sup ?}, that is determined for each user's photon and electron beams. For electron beams, the depth of normalization is taken to be the depth of maximum dose along the central axis for the same field incident on a water phantom at the same SSD, where D{sub 0}{sup ?} = 1 cGy/MU. For photon beams, this task group recommends that a normalization depth of 10 cm be selected, where an energy-dependent D{sub 0}{sup ?} ? 1 cGy/MU is required. This recommendation differs from the more common approach of a normalization depth of d{sub m}, with D{sub 0}{sup ?} = 1 cGy/MU, although both systems are acceptable within the current protocol. For photon beams, the formalism includes the use of blocked fields, physical or dynamic wedges, and (static) multileaf collimation. No formalism is provided for intensity modulated radiation therapy calculations, although some general considerations and a review of current calculation techniques are included. For electron beams, the formalism provides for calculations at the standard and extended SSDs using either an effective SSD or an air-gap correction factor. Example tables and problems are included to illustrate the basic concepts within the presented formalism.

  19. Levelized nuclear fueling cost in Israel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basic nuclear fuel cycle mode options are discussed as they apply to PWR-type reactors. Forecast fueling costs have been computed and are reported for the two main choices - basic front-end cost supplemented by either a throw- away mode option or a reprocessing mode option. It is concluded that reprocessing could result in total unit fueling costs ranging from a minimum slightly lower, through a maximum about 30% higher than the total unit fueling cost using the throw-away mode option. Moreover, in massive breeder development the total unit fueling cost can extend even below the numerically calculated limit. (H.K.)

  20. Economical analysis and study on a solar desalination unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Based on the calculation of the single-factor impact values of the parameters of a triple tower-type solar desalination unit on the cost of fresh water production by utilizing a single-factor analyzing method, the influences of the cost of solar heating system, the cost of hot water tank, the costs of desalination unit and electrical power, the life time of solar desalination unit and the yearly yield of fresh water, on the cost of the fresh water production of the solar desalination unit are studied. It is helpful for the further investigation of solar desalination and for reducing the cost of fresh water production for solar desalination units.

  1. Capital and operating cost estimation for milling of uranium ores in United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The strategic importance of uranium as an energy source must be a major consideration in the formulation of a comprehensive energy policy by U.S. decision makers. Accurate cost estimating is an integral step in the evaluation process of a potential mineral deposit for the milling of uranium ores in the production of the uranium concentrate yellowcake. Capital and operating cost estimates were developed for conventional milling techniques between 500 and 8,000 tons of ore per day using standard engineering methods. The operating parameters of U.S. uranium mills were the basis for the findings in this study. To facilitate the application to site-specific situations, the cost estimates presented herein may be adjusted to include the site-specific parameters for four conventional milling methods

  2. Woody biomass production costs in the United States: An economic summary of commercial Populus plantation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Production costs for commercial-sized Populus plantations were developed from a series of research programs sponsored by the US Department of Energy's Short Rotation Woody Crops Program. Populus hybrid planted on good quality agricultural sites at a density of 2,100 cuttings ha-1 was projected to yield an average of 16 ovendry metric tons of biomass per hectare per year (Mg (OD) ha-1yr-1). A discounted cash flow analysis of multiple rotations showed production costs of $17 (US) Mg-1 (OD). Site preparation and planting were 30% of this cost, with annual management and maintenance contributing another 28%. Land rent and property taxes were major expenses, representing 42% of the total

  3. LIFE Cost of Electricity, Capital and Operating Costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anklam, T

    2011-04-14

    Successful commercialization of fusion energy requires economic viability as well as technical and scientific feasibility. To assess economic viability, we have conducted a pre-conceptual level evaluation of LIFE economics. Unit costs are estimated from a combination of bottom-up costs estimates, working with representative vendors, and scaled results from previous studies of fission and fusion plants. An integrated process model of a LIFE power plant was developed to integrate and optimize unit costs and calculate top level metrics such as cost of electricity and power plant capital cost. The scope of this activity was the entire power plant site. Separately, a development program to deliver the required specialized equipment has been assembled. Results show that LIFE power plant cost of electricity and plant capital cost compare favorably to estimates for new-build LWR's, coal and gas - particularly if indicative costs of carbon capture and sequestration are accounted for.

  4. LIFE Cost of Electricity, Capital and Operating Costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Successful commercialization of fusion energy requires economic viability as well as technical and scientific feasibility. To assess economic viability, we have conducted a pre-conceptual level evaluation of LIFE economics. Unit costs are estimated from a combination of bottom-up costs estimates, working with representative vendors, and scaled results from previous studies of fission and fusion plants. An integrated process model of a LIFE power plant was developed to integrate and optimize unit costs and calculate top level metrics such as cost of electricity and power plant capital cost. The scope of this activity was the entire power plant site. Separately, a development program to deliver the required specialized equipment has been assembled. Results show that LIFE power plant cost of electricity and plant capital cost compare favorably to estimates for new-build LWR's, coal and gas - particularly if indicative costs of carbon capture and sequestration are accounted for.

  5. Variación del Costo Unitario en una Institución de Seguridad Social en Querétaro, México Unit cost variation in a social security company in Querétaro, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Villarreal-Ríos

    Full Text Available Objetivo Estimar e identificar la variación del costo unitario por departamento final y motivo de atención, en unidades de medicina familiar de una institución de seguridad social en Querétaro, México. Métodos Se trata de un estudio de costo (dólares americanos $US en unidades de medicina familiar para el año 2004. El costo unitario fijo se estimó utilizando la departamentalización ajustada por productividad para un año, se identificaron departamentos finales y generales. Se incluyeron recursos materiales, físicos y de consumo, se construyeron ponderadores para asignar los recursos invertidos en los departamentos generales a cada uno de los finales. La estimación del costo unitario variable se realizó mediante la técnica de micro-costeo apoyado por grupos de expertos, se consideraron como insumos variables los medicamentos, el material de curación y los reactivos. El costo unitario se integró con la suma del costo unitario fijo y el costo unitario variable correspondiente para el motivo de atención. El análisis contempló la comparación de los costos unitarios entre las unidades médicas. Resultados El costo unitario para un mes de manejo del diabético varió entre $US 34,8, $US 32,2 y $US 34,0; el costo de la detección de cáncer cervicouterino se encontró entre $US 7,2, $US 8,7 y $US 7,3; y el costo unitario de la atención de la caries fluctuó entre $US 27,0, $US 33,6 y $US 28,7. Conclusión La variación del costo unitario es más importante en el departamento de urgencias y dental.Objective Comparing unit cost variation between departments and reasons for consultation in outpatient health services provided by a social security company from Querétaro, México. Methods A study of costs (in US$ was carried out in outpatient health service units during 2004. Fixed unit costs were estimated per department and adjusted for one year’s productivity. Material, physical and consumer resources were included. Weighting was assigned to resources invested in each department. Unit cost was estimated by using the micro cost technique; medicaments, materials used during treatment and reagents were considered to be consumer items. Unit cost resulted from adding fixed unit cost to the variable unit cost corresponding to the reason for consulting. Units costs were then compared between the medical units. Results Unit cost per month for diabetic treatment varied from US$ 34.8, US$ 32,2 to US$ 34, pap smear screening test costs were US$ 7,2, US$ 8,7 and $US 7,3 and dental treatment US$ 27, US$ 33,6 and US$ 28,7. Conclusion Unit cost variation was more important in the emergency room and the dental service.

  6. ¿Cómo calcular los Costos Medioambientales?: Caso: Empresa Gráfica de Cienfuegos / How to Calculate the Environmental Costs?: Case Company Grafica Cienfuegos

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Keitel, Becerra; Elizabeth, Gómez; Grisel, Pérez; Reynier, Reyes.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El mundo necesita urgentemente que se proteja el medio ambiente, muchas empresas y organizaciones destinan grandes recursos para lograr ese fin y lograr un Desarrollo Sostenible como máxima a alcanzar por cualquier país u organización. Se hace entonces imprescindible determinar cuánto le dedican las [...] Empresas al medio ambiente, teniendo en cuenta que las Entidades tienen un contrato implícito con la sociedad y el medio, producto de los recursos que utiliza y los desechos y desperdicios que vierte, es por eso que se necesitan calcular y registrar los costos medioambientales por productos, para enriquecer la gestión medioambiental de la entidad y favorecer de esta manera una excelente toma de decisiones. La siguiente investigación busca un procedimiento que permita dar solución a esta problemática, logrando su conformación con el uso de diversas técnicas dentro de las que se destacan las listas de chequeos medioambientales y el ciclo de vida del producto, que permite además poder conocer por separado como cada proceso y producto impacta en el medioambiente. Abstract in english The world urgently needs to protect the environment, many companies and organizations devote huge resources to reach that goal and achieve sustainable development as the highest standard of achievement for any country or organization. It then becomes imperative to determine how much the companies sp [...] end on the environment, taking into account that the Entities have an implicit contract with society and the environment, the product of the resources used and waste and waste pouring, which is why one needs to calculate and record the environmental costs of products to enhance the environmental management of the entity and thus promote an excellent decision-making. The following research seeks a procedure which allows solving this problem, making its composition with the use of various techniques within which highlights the environmental checklists and product life cycle, which also allows knowing separately as each process and product impacts the environment.

  7. Formulas for estimating the costs averted by sexually transmitted infection (STI prevention programs in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koski Kathryn

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sexually transmitted infection (STI prevention programs can mitigate the health and economic burden of STIs. A tool to estimate the economic benefits of STI programs could prove useful to STI program personnel. Methods We developed formulas that can be applied to estimate the direct medical costs and indirect costs (lost productivity averted by STI programs in the United States. Costs and probabilities for these formulas were based primarily on published studies. Results We present a series of formulas that can be used to estimate the economic benefits of STI prevention (in 2006 US dollars, using data routinely collected by STI programs. For example, the averted sequelae costs associated with treating women for chlamydia is given as (Cw(0.16(0.925(0.70($1,995, where Cw is the number of infected women treated for chlamydia, 0.16 is the absolute reduction in the probability of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID as a result of treatment, 0.925 is an adjustment factor to prevent double-counting of PID averted in women with both chlamydia and gonorrhea, 0.70 is an adjustment factor to account for the possibility of re-infection, and $1,995 is the average cost per case of PID, based on published sources. Conclusion The formulas developed in this study can be a useful tool for STI program personnel to generate evidence-based estimates of the economic impact of their program and can facilitate the assessment of the cost-effectiveness of their activities.

  8. 14 CFR 152.205 - United States share of project costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ....205 Section 152.205 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... this section. (b) In a State in which the unappropriated and unreserved public lands and nontaxable... allowable project costs of an airport planning project shall be— (1) In the case of an airport master...

  9. Estudo comparativo envolvendo três métodos de cálculo de custo operacional do caminhão bitrem / Comparative study of three methods for calculating operational cost of Bitrem truck

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luís Carlos de, Freitas; Gláucio Marcelino, Marques; Márcio Lopes da, Silva; Raiane Ribeiro, Machado; Carlos Cardoso, Machado.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho trata do estudo comparativo de três metodologias utilizadas para o cálculo do custo operacional de veículos de transporte florestal, a saber: FAO - América do Norte, FAO/ECE/KWF e Battistella/Scânia. Para tanto, considerou-se um caminhão bitrem, um dos mais utilizados no transpor [...] te de carga florestal no Brasil. Nos dois primeiros métodos, o custo foi calculado por hora efetiva de trabalho (he), sendo no último calculado por quilômetro (km), em que se utilizou um fator para converter o custo de km em custo por hora efetiva de trabalho (he). O custo operacional, no método FAO - América do Norte e FAO/ECE/KWF foi dado pelo somatório dos seguintes custos: de maquinário (custos fixos e variáveis), administrativo (custo de administração) e de pessoal (custo de mão-de-obra). No método Battistella/Scânia, esse custo foi resultante do somatório dos custos de maquinário e administrativo. O método FAO - América do Norte foi o mais expressivo em termos de custo operacional (US$ 50,47/he), sendo o mais indicado no caso em estudo, em razão, principalmente, da grande aproximação em relação ao custo real. O custo de maquinário representou mais de 85% do custo total em todas as metodologias, destacando-se o custo variável devido ao alto custo do combustível. Observou-se que o custo operacional apresentou valores distintos, uma vez que nesses métodos se utilizam fórmulas diferenciadas num mesmo custo. Abstract in english The present work deals with the comparative study of three methodologies used for calculating the operational cost of forest transport vehicles such as: FAO - North America; FAO/ECE/KWF e Battistella /Scânia. For this the, Bitrem truck was considered as it is one of the most used for forest load tra [...] nsport in Brazil. The two first methods had the operational cost calculated per effective hour of work (eh), and the latter had the cost calculated per kilometer (km). Thus, for this method, a factor to convert kilometer cost to cost per effective hours of work (eh) was used. The operational cost, for FAO - North America and FAO/ECE/KWF, was obtained by the sum of the following costs: machine (fixed and variable costs); administrative (administration cost) and worker (workmanship hand cost). For the Battistella/Scânia method, the operacional cost was obtained by the sum of machine and administrative costs. The FAO method - North America was the most expressive in terms of operational cost (USS 50,47/he). This method was the most indicated for the case in study, due mainly to the large approximation in relation to the real cost. The machine costs represented more than 85% of the total cost in all methodologies, with the variable cost standing out, due the high fuel cost. The operational costs presented distinct values, probably due to the fact that these methods present different formulas for the same cost.

  10. Estudo comparativo envolvendo três métodos de cálculo de custo operacional do caminhão bitrem Comparative study of three methods for calculating operational cost of Bitrem truck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Carlos de Freitas

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho trata do estudo comparativo de três metodologias utilizadas para o cálculo do custo operacional de veículos de transporte florestal, a saber: FAO - América do Norte, FAO/ECE/KWF e Battistella/Scânia. Para tanto, considerou-se um caminhão bitrem, um dos mais utilizados no transporte de carga florestal no Brasil. Nos dois primeiros métodos, o custo foi calculado por hora efetiva de trabalho (he, sendo no último calculado por quilômetro (km, em que se utilizou um fator para converter o custo de km em custo por hora efetiva de trabalho (he. O custo operacional, no método FAO - América do Norte e FAO/ECE/KWF foi dado pelo somatório dos seguintes custos: de maquinário (custos fixos e variáveis, administrativo (custo de administração e de pessoal (custo de mão-de-obra. No método Battistella/Scânia, esse custo foi resultante do somatório dos custos de maquinário e administrativo. O método FAO - América do Norte foi o mais expressivo em termos de custo operacional (US$ 50,47/he, sendo o mais indicado no caso em estudo, em razão, principalmente, da grande aproximação em relação ao custo real. O custo de maquinário representou mais de 85% do custo total em todas as metodologias, destacando-se o custo variável devido ao alto custo do combustível. Observou-se que o custo operacional apresentou valores distintos, uma vez que nesses métodos se utilizam fórmulas diferenciadas num mesmo custo.The present work deals with the comparative study of three methodologies used for calculating the operational cost of forest transport vehicles such as: FAO - North America; FAO/ECE/KWF e Battistella /Scânia. For this the, Bitrem truck was considered as it is one of the most used for forest load transport in Brazil. The two first methods had the operational cost calculated per effective hour of work (eh, and the latter had the cost calculated per kilometer (km. Thus, for this method, a factor to convert kilometer cost to cost per effective hours of work (eh was used. The operational cost, for FAO - North America and FAO/ECE/KWF, was obtained by the sum of the following costs: machine (fixed and variable costs; administrative (administration cost and worker (workmanship hand cost. For the Battistella/Scânia method, the operacional cost was obtained by the sum of machine and administrative costs. The FAO method - North America was the most expressive in terms of operational cost (USS 50,47/he. This method was the most indicated for the case in study, due mainly to the large approximation in relation to the real cost. The machine costs represented more than 85% of the total cost in all methodologies, with the variable cost standing out, due the high fuel cost. The operational costs presented distinct values, probably due to the fact that these methods present different formulas for the same cost.

  11. Feasibility Analysis of Low Cost Graphical Processing Units for Electromagnetic Field Simulations by Finite Difference Time Domain Method

    CERN Document Server

    Choudhari, A V; Gupta, M R

    2013-01-01

    Among several techniques available for solving Computational Electromagnetics (CEM) problems, the Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method is one of the best suited approaches when a parallelized hardware platform is used. In this paper we investigate the feasibility of implementing the FDTD method using the NVIDIA GT 520, a low cost Graphical Processing Unit (GPU), for solving the differential form of Maxwell's equation in time domain. Initially a generalized benchmarking problem of bandwidth test and another benchmarking problem of 'matrix left division is discussed for understanding the correlation between the problem size and the performance on the CPU and the GPU respectively. This is further followed by the discussion of the FDTD method, again implemented on both, the CPU and the GT520 GPU. For both of the above comparisons, the CPU used is Intel E5300, a low cost dual core CPU.

  12. Analysis of calculation methodologies of electric power deficit cost; Analise das metodologias de calculo do custo do deficit de energia eletrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira Junior, Amaro Olimpio; David, Pedro A.M-S.; Spera, Marilia Ribeiro [Empresa de Pesquisa Energetica (EPE), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Diretoria de Estudos de Energia Eletrica. Superintendencia de Planejamento de Geracao

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents a methodology review of electric power deficit cost calculation, which is a fundamental parameter for planning of operation and expansion of a hydrothermal system, in a way to contribute with compatibilizing in procedures of planning and operation, and of methodological improvement as well.

  13. Internalizing social costs in power plant siting: some examples for coal and nuclear plants in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selected aspects of the United States experience in one particular type of energy development project, the siting of nuclear and fossil fueled power generating facilities, are examined in terms of how well community-level impacts are internalized. New institutional arrangements being devised and new requirements being made at local, state, regional, and federal levels in response to these dissociations of cost and benefits from large energy development projects are discussed. Selected examples of these new institutional responses are analyzed for adequacy and significance

  14. Análisis de las obligaciones en materia de cálculo de costes en las administraciones públicas españolas / Analysis of Obligations Regarding Cost Calculation in Spanish Public Administrations / Análise das obrigações em matéria de cálculo de custos nas administrações públicas espanholas

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    María Beatriz, González-Sánchez; Ernesto, López-Valeiras Sampedro; Jacobo, Gómez-Conde; Estefanía, Rodríguez-González.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho é rever as tentativas legisladoras destinadas a estabelecer obrigatoriedade no custeio das administrações públicas. Apesar dos múltiplos esforços normativos, a aplicação da contabilidade de custos não é generalizada no campo do setor público, pois bem poucas instituições de [...] terminam seus custos. Na atualidade, está se produzindo grande impulso na aplicação desta ferramenta, devido à exigência de apresentar um resumo dos custos na memória das entidades do setor público administrativo. Abstract in spanish El objetivo de este trabajo es realizar una revisión de los intentos legisladores encaminados a establecer la obligatoriedad del cálculo de costes en las administraciones públicas. A pesar de los múltiples esfuerzos normativos, la aplicación de la contabilidad de costes no se ha generalizado en el á [...] mbito del sector público, pues muy pocas instituciones determinan sus costes. En la actualidad, se está produciendo un gran impulso en la aplicación de esta herramienta, debido a la exigencia de presentar un resumen de costes en la memoria de las entidades pertenecientes al sector público administrativo. Abstract in english The aim of this paper is to review the regulation attempts aimed at making cost calculation compulsory in public administrations. Despite many policy efforts, the application of cost accounting is not widespread in the public sector, for very few institutions determine their costs. Nowadays there is [...] a big boost for the application of this tool, due to the requirement to present a summary of costs in the memory of the entities belonging to the public administration sector.

  15. Wind Technology, Cost, and Performance Trends in Denmark, Germany, Ireland, Norway, the European Union, and the United States: 2007 - 2012; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hand, Maureen

    2015-06-15

    This presentation provides a summary of IEA Wind Task 26 report on Wind Technology, Cost, and Performance Trends in Denmark, Germany, Ireland, Norway, the European Union, and the United States: 2007-2012

  16. An independent monitor unit calculation by commercial software as a part of a radiotherapy treatment planning system quality control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the independent calculation of the monitored unit (MU) the commercial software RadCalc (Lifeline Software Inc., Tyler TX) was used as the choice of some available similar programs. The program was configured and used to verify the doses calculated by commercially accessible planning system Eclipse version 8.6.17 (Varian Medical System Inc., Palo Alto). This system is being used during the clinical running for the creation of the treatment plans. The results of each plan were compared to the dose phantom measurements by the ionization chamber at the same point in which the calculation were done (Eclipse, RadCalc) - in the izocentre. TPS is configured by the beam data (PDD and OAR). Those beam data were exported and afterwards the same data were imported to the program RadCalc. The consistent and independent data between TPS and RadCalc were gained by this process. The reference conditions were set the identical in RadCalc as in TPS, so the consistency between TPS and RadCalc output factors has been achieved (Collimator Scatter Factor: Sc, Phantom Scatter Factor: Sp). Those output factors were also measured by the ionizing chamber in the water phantom and compared with the TPS. Based on the clinical data of the response to the doses, ICRU recommends ensuring the ability of dosimetric systems to deliver the doses with accuracy of at least 5%. Many factors, such as layout of anatomic structures, positioning of a patient, factors related to an accelerator (a dose calibration and mechanic parameters) cause random and systematic failures in a dose delivery. The source of some problems can be also caused by the system databases and relating information transfer; and the TPS containing besides other things other dose calculation algorithms. (authors)

  17. The Scales of Time, Length, Mass, Energy, and Other Fundamental Physical Quantities in the Atomic World and the Use of Atomic Units in Quantum Mechanical Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Boon K.; Li, Wai-Kee

    2011-01-01

    This article is divided into two parts. In the first part, the atomic unit (au) system is introduced and the scales of time, space (length), and speed, as well as those of mass and energy, in the atomic world are discussed. In the second part, the utility of atomic units in quantum mechanical and spectroscopic calculations is illustrated with…

  18. Cost-Effectiveness of Pazopanib Versus Sunitinib for Renal Cancer in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict, Agnes; Ramaswamy, Krishnan; Sandin, Rickard

    2015-09-01

    We write to comment on a recently published study by Delea et al. in the January 2015 issue of JMCP that evaluated the cost-effectiveness (CE) of sunitinib (SU) versus pazopanib (PAZ) as first-line treatment for metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) from a U.S. third-party payer perspective.1 This analysis was based on COMPARZ and PISCES, clinical trials that compared SU and PAZ2,3 and led the authors to conclude that PAZ is cost-effective (in fact, dominant, according to the base-case results) compared with SU. Such assessment of economic value is clearly important for deciding between therapies to ensure fair access; therefore, we welcome a comparative evaluation of SU and PAZ. However, we believe that some of the key assumptions and inputs used in the model by Delea et al. render their results and conclusions invalid.  Best practice requires that results from a health economic model should reflect the most likely outcomes based on sound methodology and robust evidence for its inputs, as recommended by the International Society of Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR).4 Here, we focus on 2 key areas (utilities and survival modeling) where, in our view, the analysis by Delea et al. falls short of this standard, and a third area (treatment costs) where the basis for the data derived is unclear. PMID:26308230

  19. The methodological steps in management accounting and cost calculation - A comparative analysis between the traditional methods used in Romania and the Activity-Based Costing (ABC) method

    OpenAIRE

    C?pu?neanu, Sorinel/I; Lep?datu, Gheorghe/V

    2008-01-01

    In this article, I discuss the methodological steps taken in the Romanian management accounting, according to the specifics of the ABC method. I also make a comparative analysis between the custom (ordered-based) method and Activity-Based Costing (ABC) method. I bring my own comments on the similarities and differences between the custom method and the ABC method.

  20. Calculation of the horizon brightness irradiance in the model of Perez using the unit-sphere method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, J.L.; Garcia, A.; De Blas, M. [Department of Projects and Rural Engineering, Public University of Navarre, Edif. Los Olivos 31006, Pamplona (Navarre) (Spain); De Francisco, A. [Department of Forestry Engineering, Politechnical University of Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2008-01-15

    The present technical note describes a computer tool for determining the horizon brightness diffuse irradiance on a tilted plane in the model of Perez. The applied procedure considers the configuration factor concept, which is calculated using the unit-sphere method. The results obtained with this procedure, which is more exact than the one followed by Perez, are compared with the ones obtained with Perez's proposal. It may be observed that for small angles of inclination differences are up to 36%, and that said differences decrease when the angle of inclination increases. For angles higher than 77.15 , differences become lower than 1%. It may be concluded that the described procedure, together with the computer tool for implementing it, is adequate for determining the horizon brightness irradiance on a tilted plane, once the radiance of this area of the sky dome is known. (author)

  1. HTTR criticality calculations with SCALE6: Studies of various geometric and unit-cell options in modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fuel element of the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) presents a doubly heterogeneous geometry, where tiny TRISO fuel particles dispersed in a graphite matrix form the fuel region of a cylindrical fuel rod, and a number of fuel rods together with moderator or reflector then constitute the lattice design of the core. In this study, a series of full-core HTTR criticality calculations were performed with the SCALE6 code system using various geometric and unit-cell options in order to systematically investigate their effects on neutronic analysis. Two geometric descriptions (ARRAY or HOLE) in SCALE6 can be used to construct a complicated and repeated model. The result shows that eliminating the use of HOLE in the HTTR geometric model can save the computation time by a factor of 4. Four unit-cell treatments for resonance self-shielding corrections in SCALE6 were tested to create problem-specific multigroup cross sections for the HTTR core model. Based on the same ENDF/B-VII cross-section library, their results were evaluated by comparing with continuous-energy calculations. The comparison indicates that the INFHOMMEDIUM result overestimates the system multiplication factor (keff) by 55 mk, whereas the LATTICECELL and MULTIREGION treatments predict the keff values with similar biases of approximately 10 mk overestimation. The DOUBLEHET result shows a more satisfactory agreement, about 4.2 mk underestimation in the keff value. In addition, using cell-weighted cross sections instead of an explicit modeling of TRISO particles in fuel region can further reduce the computation time by a factor of 5 without sacrificing accuracy. (authors)

  2. Creating a Multi-Dimensional Model for Analyzing Costs in a Health Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu LIXANDROIU

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to develop a model based on existing historical financial data in a health unit, with a view to facilitating the decision-maker’s task, who, starting from the analysis of historical data, can better manage the present decisions. Also the publication of reports on the Internet of the use of public money can increase the transparency of the public institutions concerned.

  3. The Rising Cost of Child Care in the United States: A Reassessment of the Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Herbst, Chris M.

    2015-01-01

    Anecdotal evidence suggests that the cost of child care in the U.S. has increased substantially over the past few decades. This paper marshals data from a variety of sources to rigorously assess the issue. It begins by using nationally representative survey data to trace the evolution in families' child care expenditures. I find that the typical family currently spends 14 percent more on child care than it did in 1990. This is less than half the increase documented in previous work. Interesti...

  4. Cálculo de los costos de calidad en la Unidad Empresarial de Base Producciones Varias, Cienfuegos / Costing of quality in Business Base Unit Several Productions, Cienfuegos

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Elizabeth, Gómez Alfonso.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available El cálculo de los costos de calidad como elemento integrante del Sistema de Gestión de la Calidad, es una necesidad para los directivos de las empresas cubanas, al constituir una técnica identificada como instrumento avanzado de gestión, que permitirá mejorar la competitividad y servir de fuente inf [...] ormativa. Identificar y calcular los costos de calidad, así como proponer planes de medidas, que propicien una disminución de los gastos operativos, lo cual puede ser utilizado como herramienta para mejorar los procesos. La Unidad Empresarial de Base Producciones Varias de Cienfuegos presenta el diagnóstico para dar paso al Perfeccionamiento Empresarial y a la certificación de su Sistema de Gestión de la Calidad, según la Norma NC-ISO 9001:2008 y el decreto Ley 281, por lo que el objetivo de la investigación fue calcular los costos de calidad por procesos en dicha empresa. Para lograrlo se utilizaron métodos de nivel empírico y técnicas como la observación directa, revisión documental y el trabajo en grupos, lo cual permitió calcular los costos de calidad en todos los procesos. Los resultados alcanzados son aplicables a empresas que operan en la economía cubana y según el modelo económico cubano puesto en práctica a partir del año 2011. Abstract in english The calculation of quality costs as a component of the System of Quality Management, is a must for Cuban business managers, to provide a technique identified as an advanced instrument of management, which will lead to improved competitiveness and serve as an informative source. Identify and calculat [...] e the costs of quality, as well as propose measured plans, to promote a decrease in operating expenses, which can be used as a tool to improve processes. The Business Unit of Several Base Productions of Cienfuegos presents the fault to give way to Business Improvement and certification of its Quality Management System, according to the norm ISO 9001:2008 and the decree law 281, so that the objective research was to estimate the costs of quality processes in the company. To achieve this level were used empirical methods and techniques such as direct observation, document review and work in groups, which allowed to calculate the costs of quality in all processes. The results obtained are applicable to companies that operate in the Cuban economy and according to the Cuban economic model implemented from the year 2011.

  5. THE IMPACT OF DEPRECIATION ON COSTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIANA RADU

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available It is known that depreciation is calculated in financial accounting by regulated criteria, depending on a conventional fixed life. Excluding depreciation depending on units produced (applied to buildings and special construction of mines, salt mines, quarries where it is calculated per unit based on the exploitable reserve of useful mineral substance, the other depreciation methods do not always lead to fair and justified calculation of production costs. In this paper I will show how to record depreciation expenses in management accounting in Romania, the influence of methods of depreciation on costs, which are the restatements that depreciation expenses should be subject to for an accurate determination of production costs.

  6. Can enteral antibiotics be used to treat pneumonia in the surgical intensive care unit? A clinical outcomes and cost comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elofson, Kathryn A; Forbes, Rachel C; Gerlach, Anthony T

    2015-01-01

    Background: Controlling healthcare costs without compromising patient care is a focus given recent healthcare changes in the United States. The purpose of this study was to assess clinical improvement in surgical intensive care unit (SICU) patients initiated on or transitioned to enteral antibiotics compared to those who solely receive intravenous (IV) antibiotic therapy for treatment of bacterial pneumonia. Materials and Methods: This retrospective cohort study included patients with a positive quantitative respiratory culture being treated for bacterial pneumonia in a SICU from 1/1/09 to 3/31/11. Two distinct patient groups were identified: Those treated with IV antibiotics exclusively (IV) and those either initiated on or transitioned to enteral antibiotics within 4 days of antibiotic initiation (PO). The primary endpoint of clinical improvement was assessed on day of antibiotic discontinuation. Results: A total of 647 patients were evaluated; 124 met inclusion criteria (30 patients PO group and 94 IV group). There was no difference in clinical improvement (86.7 PO vs 72.3% IV, P = 0.14) or recurrence (10 PO vs. 12.8% IV, P > 0.99) between groups. Secondary outcomes of duration of mechanical ventilation, ICU and hospital length of stay, and all-cause mortality were also similar. Antibiotic and infection-related costs were significantly decreased in the PO group ($1,042 vs $697, P = 0.04; $20,776 vs $17,381, P = 0.012, respectively). Conclusions: SICU patients initiated on or transitioned to PO antibiotics for pneumonia had similar clinical outcomes, but significantly less infection-related and antibiotic costs compared to those receiving IV therapy. Further, prospective studies are warranted.

  7. Building a market for small wind: The break-even turnkey cost of residential wind systems in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, Jennifer L.; Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark; Forsyth, Trudy

    2004-03-01

    Although small wind turbine technology and economics have improved in recent years, the small wind market in the United States continues to be driven in large part by state incentives, such as cash rebates, favorable loan programs, and tax credits. This paper examines the state-by-state economic attractiveness of small residential wind systems. Economic attractiveness is evaluated primarily using the break-even turnkey cost (BTC) of a residential wind system as the figure of merit. The BTC is defined here as the aggregate installed cost of a small wind system that could be supported such that the system owner would break even (and receive a specified return on investment) over the life of the turbine, taking into account current available incentives, the wind resource, and the retail electricity rate offset by on-site generation. Based on the analysis presented in this paper, we conclude that: (1) the economics of residential, grid-connected small wind systems is highly variable by state and wind resource class, (2) significant cost reductions will be necessary to stimulate widespread market acceptance absent significant changes in the level of policy support, and (3) a number of policies could help stimulate the market, but state cash incentives currently have the most significant impact, and will be a critical element of continued growth in this market.

  8. Cost and benefit including value of life, health and environmental damage measured in time units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager; Friis-Hansen, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Key elements of the authors' work on money equivalent time allocation to costs and benefits in risk analysis are put together as an entity. This includes the data supported dimensionless analysis of an equilibrium relation between total population work time and gross domestic product leading to the definition of the life quality time allocation index (LQTAI). On the basis of a postulate of invariance of the LQTAI, a rule is obtained for allocating societal value in terms of time to avoid life shortening fatalities as well as serious injuries that shorten the life in good health. The excess of this societal value over the actual costs, used by the owner for economically optimizing an activity, motivates a simple risk accept criterion suited to be imposed on the owner by the public. An illustration is given concerning allocation of economical means for mitigation of loss of life and health on a ferry in fire. Finally a definition is suggested for a nature preservation willingness index, which by an invariance postulate leads to a rational format for allocating means to avoid pollution accidents.

  9. The role of cost accounting in the university performance measurement in Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Marques, Maria da Conceição da Costa

    2010-01-01

    Cost accounting is aimed at emphasising those elements of costs and profits of original importance to the management board of an organizational unit. Therefore, cost accounting was initially understood as mere collector of costs and profits, using the traditional system of costing everything, a budget with a limited base. Originally, it was designed to calculate real costs with the aim to determine the results. In public organizations, the aim of cost accounting, costs or management, c...

  10. A Low-Cost Energy-Efficient Cableless Geophone Unit for Passive Surface Wave Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Kaoshan; Li, Xiaofeng; Lu, Chuan; You, Qingyu; Huang, Zhenhua; Wu, H. Felix

    2015-01-01

    The passive surface wave survey is a practical, non-invasive seismic exploration method that has increasingly been used in geotechnical engineering. However, in situ deployment of traditional wired geophones is labor intensive for a dense sensor array. Alternatively, stand-alone seismometers can be used, but they are bulky, heavy, and expensive because they are usually designed for long-term monitoring. To better facilitate field applications of the passive surface wave survey, a low-cost energy-efficient geophone system was developed in this study. The hardware design is presented in this paper. To validate the system’s functionality, both laboratory and field experiments were conducted. The unique feature of this newly-developed cableless geophone system allows for rapid field applications of the passive surface wave survey with dense array measurements. PMID:26404270

  11. A Low-Cost Energy-Efficient Cableless Geophone Unit for Passive Surface Wave Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Kaoshan; Li, Xiaofeng; Lu, Chuan; You, Qingyu; Huang, Zhenhua; Wu, H Felix

    2015-01-01

    The passive surface wave survey is a practical, non-invasive seismic exploration method that has increasingly been used in geotechnical engineering. However, in situ deployment of traditional wired geophones is labor intensive for a dense sensor array. Alternatively, stand-alone seismometers can be used, but they are bulky, heavy, and expensive because they are usually designed for long-term monitoring. To better facilitate field applications of the passive surface wave survey, a low-cost energy-efficient geophone system was developed in this study. The hardware design is presented in this paper. To validate the system's functionality, both laboratory and field experiments were conducted. The unique feature of this newly-developed cableless geophone system allows for rapid field applications of the passive surface wave survey with dense array measurements. PMID:26404270

  12. A Low-Cost Energy-Efficient Cableless Geophone Unit for Passive Surface Wave Surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaoshan Dai

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The passive surface wave survey is a practical, non-invasive seismic exploration method that has increasingly been used in geotechnical engineering. However, in situ deployment of traditional wired geophones is labor intensive for a dense sensor array. Alternatively, stand-alone seismometers can be used, but they are bulky, heavy, and expensive because they are usually designed for long-term monitoring. To better facilitate field applications of the passive surface wave survey, a low-cost energy-efficient geophone system was developed in this study. The hardware design is presented in this paper. To validate the system’s functionality, both laboratory and field experiments were conducted. The unique feature of this newly-developed cableless geophone system allows for rapid field applications of the passive surface wave survey with dense array measurements.

  13. Comparative study of the variables for determining unit processing cost of irradiated food products in developing countries : case study of Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method for estimating unit cost of gamma treated food products in a developing country like Ghana is presented. The method employs the cost of cobalt source requirement, capital and operating costs, dose requirements etc. and relates these variables to various annual throughput at a gamma processing facility. In situations where the cost of foreign components or devices are required, the assumptions have been based on those of Kunstadt and Steeves. Otherwise, the prevailing conditions existing in Ghana have been used. The study reveals that the unit processing cost for gamma treatment foods in such a facility is between 8.0 to 147.2 US dollars per tonne. (author). 9 refs., 4 figs

  14. [Quality management (TQM) in public health-care (PHC): principles for cost-performance calculations and cost reductions with better quality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergholz, W

    2008-11-01

    In many high-tech industries, quality management (QM) has enabled improvements of quality by a factor of 100 or more, in combination with significant cost reductions. Compared to this, the application of QM methods in health care is in its initial stages. It is anticipated that stringent process management, embedded in an effective QM system will lead to significant improvements in health care in general and in the German public health service in particular. Process management is an ideal platform for controlling in the health care sector, and it will significantly improve the leverage of controlling to bring down costs. Best practice sharing in industry has led to quantum leap improvements. Process management will enable best practice sharing also in the public health service, in spite of the highly diverse portfolio of services that the public health service offers in different German regions. Finally, it is emphasised that "technical" QM, e.g., on the basis of the ISO 9001 standard is not sufficient to reach excellence. It is necessary to integrate soft factors, such as patient or employee satisfaction, and leadership quality into the system. The EFQM model for excellence can serve as proven tool to reach this goal. PMID:19039720

  15. Design and calculated performance and cost of the ECAS Phase II open cycle MHD power generation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, L. P.

    1977-01-01

    A 2000 MWe MHD/steam plant for central station applications has been designed and costed as part of the Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS). This plant is fueled by Illinois No. 6 coal, rejects heat through mechanical draft wet cooling towers, and includes coal processing equipment, seed reprocessing, electrical inversion of the MHD generator output and emission controls to current EPA standards. It yields an estimated overall efficiency of 0.483 (7066 Btu/kWe-hr), a capital cost of $718 per kWe (1975 dollars), and a cost of electricity at 65% capacity factor of 32 mills per kWe-hr. If the assumed life and reliability could be achieved with these performance parameters, the MHD system should prove attractive.

  16. Fuel miles and the blend wall: costs and emissions from ethanol distribution in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strogen, Bret; Horvath, Arpad; McKone, Thomas E

    2012-05-15

    From 1991 to 2009, U.S. production of ethanol increased 10-fold, largely due to government programs motivated by climate change, energy security, and economic development goals. As low-level ethanol-gasoline blends have not consistently outperformed ethanol-free gasoline in vehicle performance or tailpipe emissions, national-level economic and environmental goals could be accomplished more efficiently by concentrating consumption of gasoline containing 10% ethanol (i.e., E10) near producers to minimize freight activity. As the domestic transportation of ethanol increased 10-fold in metric ton-kilometers (t-km) from 2000 to 2009, the portion of t-km potentially justified by the E10 blend wall increased from less than 40% to 80%. However, we estimate 10 billion t-km took place annually from 2004 to 2009 for reasons other than the blend wall. This "unnecessary" transportation resulted in more than $240 million in freight costs, 90 million L of diesel consumption, 300,000 metric tons of CO(2)-e emissions, and 440 g of human intake of PM(2.5). By 2009, the marginal savings from enabling Iowa to surpass E10 would have exceeded 2.5 g CO(2)-e/MJ and $0.12/gallon of ethanol, as the next-closest customer was 1600 km away. The use of a national network model enables estimation of marginal transportation impacts from subnational policies, and benefits from policies encouraging concentrated consumption of renewable fuels. PMID:22506875

  17. The management of the cost and utilisation of pharmaceuticals in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burstall, M L

    1997-09-01

    The British National Health Service (NHS) provide comprehensive health services, including prescription drugs, to the entire population. Thus pharmaceuticals are seen as part of the provision of health care, not as an isolated cost element. UK expenditures on pharmaceuticals has been relatively low by European and US standards. The basic dilemma facing pharmaceutical policymakers is the need to control public spending on drugs while encouraging a successful UK pharmaceutical industry. A highly centralised policymaking apparatus has historically permitted a fairly collaborative approach with the pharmaceutical industry. Prices are not controlled directly as in some other European countries; rather, producers negotiate an allowable rate of return on all sales to the NHS. This gives producers considerable discretion to set prices for new drugs without government interference. Thus, prices are somewhat higher than in comparable European countries, but utilisation rates are among the lowest. The credit for low utilisation (and high generic substitution rates) goes to the conservative nature and medical education of British general practitioners. A general conclusion is that pharmaceutical spending has been curbed with minimal damage to the UK pharmaceutical sector. PMID:10174472

  18. Determination of ideal blending for Tandem fuel cycle between Angra-1 reactor (Brazil) and Embalse reactor (Argentina) by fuel cycle cost calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this work is to determine by means of a fuel cycle cost calculation, the ideal percentage of natural uranium (blending) to be used with irradiated and decontaminated fuel of Angra-I reactor. This blending will be used in the argentinian reactor of Embalse (Tandem cycle). This work confirm previous study where an ideal percentage of natural uranium was determined by minimizing its use. (author)

  19. THE IMPACT OF DEPRECIATION ON COSTS

    OpenAIRE

    MARIANA RADU

    2013-01-01

    It is known that depreciation is calculated in financial accounting by regulated criteria, depending on a conventional fixed life. Excluding depreciation depending on units produced (applied to buildings and special construction of mines, salt mines, quarries) where it is calculated per unit based on the exploitable reserve of useful mineral substance, the other depreciation methods do not always lead to fair and justified calculation of production costs. In this paper I will show how to reco...

  20. Restriction techniques for the unit-commitment problem with total procurement costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many discrete optimization problems may be solved much easier, if the solution space can be restricted in a convenient way. For a given specific problem, the restriction techniques can be helpful if an available optimization solver, perceived as a black box, is capable of solving quickly only reduced subproblems of a limited size. For the family of hard unit-commitment problems we investigate a hierarchical search algorithm, which is based on decomposition of the problem into two subproblems. The upper-level subproblem is a relatively small decision ''kernel'' of the problem that can be solved approximately by a search algorithm. We define an appropriate restricted decision space for this subproblem. The lower-level subproblem is an appropriate restriction of the original problem that can be solved efficiently by a dedicated solver. Our approach was analyzed on a set of historical data from the Polish electrical balancing market and the best known solutions were improved by the average of about 2-5%. (author)

  1. Restriction techniques for the unit-commitment problem with total procurement costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many discrete optimization problems may be solved much easier, if the solution space can be restricted in a convenient way. For a given specific problem, the restriction techniques can be helpful if an available optimization solver, perceived as a black box, is capable of solving quickly only reduced subproblems of a limited size. For the family of hard unit-commitment problems we investigate a hierarchical search algorithm, which is based on decomposition of the problem into two subproblems. The upper-level subproblem is a relatively small decision 'kernel' of the problem that can be solved approximately by a search algorithm. We define an appropriate restricted decision space for this subproblem. The lower-level subproblem is an appropriate restriction of the original problem that can be solved efficiently by a dedicated solver. Our approach was analyzed on a set of historical data from the Polish electrical balancing market and the best known solutions were improved by the average of about 2-5%

  2. Preselective Screening for Linear-Scaling Exact Exchange-Gradient Calculations for Graphics Processing Units and General Strong-Scaling Massively Parallel Calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kussmann, Jörg; Ochsenfeld, Christian

    2015-03-10

    We present an extension of our recently presented PreLinK scheme ( J. Chem. Phys. 2013 , 138 , 134114 ) for the exact exchange contribution to nuclear forces. The significant contributions to the exchange gradient are determined by preselection based on accurate shell-pair contributions to the SCF exchange energy prior to the calculation. Therefore, our method is highly suitable for massively parallel electronic structure calculations because of an efficient load balancing of the significant contributions only and an unhampered control flow. The efficiency of our method is shown for several illustrative calculations on single GPU servers, as well as for hybrid MPI/CUDA parallel calculations with the largest system comprising 3369 atoms and 26952 basis functions. PMID:26579745

  3. Vaccination benefits and cost-sharing policy for non-institutionalized adult Medicaid enrollees in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Alexandra M; Lindley, Megan C; Chang, Kristen H M; Cox, Marisa A

    2014-01-23

    Medicaid is the largest funding source of health services for the poorest people in the United States. Medicaid enrollees have greater health care, needs, and higher health risks than other individuals in the country and, experience disproportionately low rates of preventive care. Without, Medicaid coverage, poor uninsured adults may not be vaccinated or would, rely on publicly-funded programs that provide vaccinations. We examined each programs' policies related to benefit coverage and, copayments for adult enrollees. Our study was completed between October 2011 and September 2012 using a document review and a survey of Medicaid administrators that assessed coverage and cost-sharing policy for fee-for-service programs. Results were compared to a similar review, conducted in 2003. Over the past 10 years, Medicaid programs have typically maintained or expanded vaccination coverage benefits for adults and nearly half have explicitly prohibited copayments. The 17 programs that cover all recommended vaccines while prohibiting, copayments demonstrate a commitment to providing increased access to vaccinations for adult enrollees. When developing responses to fiscal and political challenges, the programs that do not cover all ACIP recommended adult vaccines or those that permit copayments for vaccinations, should consider all strategies to increase vaccinations and reduce costs to enrollees. PMID:24291539

  4. Theoretical and scaling factors methods to calculate the radioactivity in operational waste streams from Unit 1 at Cernavoda NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main goal of this paper is to present a methodology for calculating the radioactivity in the moderator and heat transport systems of Cernavoda NPP Unit 1, with the intention to improve the knowledge on the radionuclides inventories in the operational waste streams, and to aid the licensing process of new near surface repository. In the present paper we describe our methodology for estimating H-3 and C-14 production rates in the heavy-water moderator and heat transport systems using the capacity factors from 1997 to 2007 years. The radioactivity of the difficult-to-measure nuclides is predicted by scaling method using measured concentration in reference CANDU 6 reactor Gentilly-2. The difficult-to-measure radionuclides of primary interest in this study were those with long half-lives which have a significant role for post-closure safety assessment. The equation used to scale fission products (parents and daughters) is based on the equilibrium solution of the time dependent equation governing the number of atoms of the fission products. The measured activity of Co-60 was used for scaling activities of the actinides. (authors)

  5. Phase coexistence calculations via a unit-cell Gibbs ensemble formalism for melts of reversibly bonded block copolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mester, Zoltan; Lynd, Nathaniel; Fredrickson, Glenn

    2013-03-01

    Melts of block copolymer blends can exhibit coexistence between compositionally and morphologically distinct phases. We derived a unit-cell approach for a field theoretic Gibbs ensemble formalism to rapidly map out such coexistence regions. We also developed a canonical ensemble model for the reversible reaction of supramolecular polymers and integrated it into the Gibbs ensemble scheme. This creates a faster method for generating phase diagrams in complex supramolecular systems than the usual grand canonical ensemble method and allows us to specify the system in experimentally accessible volume fractions rather than chemical potentials. The integrated approach is used to calculate phase diagrams for AB diblock copolymers reversibly reacting with B homopolymers to form a new diblocks we term ``ABB.'' For our case, we use a diblock that is sixty percent A monomer and a homopolymer that is the same length as the diblock. In the limits of infinite reaction favorability (large equilibrium constant), the system approaches cases of an ABB diblock-B homopolymer blend when the AB diblock is the limiting reactant and AB diblock-ABB diblock blend when the homopolymer is the limiting reactant. As reaction favorability is decreased, the phase boundaries shift towards higher homopolymer compositions so that sufficient reaction can take place to produce the ABB diblock that has a deciding role stabilizing the observed phases.

  6. United States experience in environmental cost-benefit analysis for nuclear power plants with implications for developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental cost-benefit analysis in the United States involves a comparison of diverse societal impacts of the proposed developments and its alternatives. Regarding nuclear power plant licensing actions, such analyses include the need for base-load electrical generating capacity versus the no-action alternative; alternative sources of energy; alternative sites for the proposed nuclear plants; and alternative technologies for mitigating environmental impacts. Many U.S. experiences and environmental assessment practices and comparative resource requirements presented in this report will not provide a wholly reliable reflection of the precise situation of each country. Nevertheless, the procedural and substantive issues encountered by the United States in nuclear power plant licensing may exhibit a number of important, if rough, parallelisms for other countries. Procedural issues dealt with include: the scoping of alternatives and impact issues; the problem of balancing incommensurable impacts; and treating uncertainty in measuring or forecasting certain kinds of environmental impacts. Although substantive environmental impact issues will vary appreciably among nations, it is to be expected that many of the substantive impact issues such as impacts on biota, community-related effects, and aesthetic impacts will also have some measure of universal interest to other countries

  7. Costo-beneficio en una unidad de cuidados intensivos neonatales / The cost-benefit in a neonatal intensive care unit

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rafael, Amador Morán; Alberto, Labrada Despaigne; Ana, Campo González; Rosa, Díaz Aguilar.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN. El Sistema Nacional de Salud de Cuba ha desarrollado un conjunto de reformas encaminadas a lograr una mayor eficiencia en la prestación de servicios, para preservar logros como la efectividad y la accesibilidad. El objetivo de esta investigación fue identificar los costos en la Unidad [...] de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal del Hospital Ginecoobstétrico de Guanabacoa en el período de un año. MÉTODOS. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo prospectivo del período de enero a diciembre del 2009. La muestra quedo constituida por 65 recién nacidos graves y críticos. Las variables independientes estudiadas fueron: antibióticos, inmunomoduladores, fármacos vasoactivos, soluciones para hidratación, yodo, peróxido de hidrógeno, vitaminas y minerales, oxígeno, material desechable, material de oficina y medios diagnósticos. La información recogida se introdujo en una base de datos, y se procesó con el programa Epidat 3.0. RESULTADOS. Existió un costo total de 70 605,83 CU, que representó unos 2 824,23 CUC, con costo total por paciente de 74,32 CUC. El mayor gasto correspondió al uso de materiales desechables, las soluciones para hidratación y los antibióticos. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION. The Cuban National Health System has developed a series of reforms aimed to achieve a great efficiency in services provision to protect achievements as effectiveness and accessibility. The aim of present research was to identify the costs in the Neonatal Intensive Therapy Unit of the G [...] ynecology and Obstetrics Hospital of Guanabacoa municipality within one year. METHODS. A prospective and descriptive study was conducted from January to December, 2009. Sample included 65 severe and critically ill newborns. The independent study variables were: antibiotics, immunological therapy, vasoactive drugs, solutions for hydration, iodine, hydrogen peroxide, vitamins and minerals, oxygen, waste material, office stationery and diagnostic means. Information capture was entered in a database and processed with Epidat 3.0 program. RESULTS. The total cost of 70 605,83 Currency Unit (CU) accounted for 2 824,23 Cuban Convertible Pesos (CUC) with a total cost by patient of 74,32 CUC. The great expense was for waste materials, solutions for hydration and antibiotics use.

  8. Cost-effectiveness model comparing olanzapine and other oral atypical antipsychotics in the treatment of schizophrenia in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Smolen Lee J; Klein Robert W; Ascher-Svanum Haya; Furiak Nicolas M; Lawson Anthony H; Conley Robert R; Culler Steven D

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Schizophrenia is often a persistent and costly illness that requires continued treatment with antipsychotics. Differences among antipsychotics on efficacy, safety, tolerability, adherence, and cost have cost-effectiveness implications for treating schizophrenia. This study compares the cost-effectiveness of oral olanzapine, oral risperidone (at generic cost, primary comparator), quetiapine, ziprasidone, and aripiprazole in the treatment of patients with schizophrenia from ...

  9. A case study using the United Republic of Tanzania: costing nationwide HPV vaccine delivery using the WHO Cervical Cancer Prevention and Control Costing Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hutubessy Raymond

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose, methods, data sources and assumptions behind the World Health Organization (WHO Cervical Cancer Prevention and Control Costing (C4P tool that was developed to assist low- and middle-income countries (LMICs with planning and costing their nationwide human papillomavirus (HPV vaccination program are presented. Tanzania is presented as a case study where the WHO C4P tool was used to cost and plan the roll-out of HPV vaccines nationwide as part of the national comprehensive cervical cancer prevention and control strategy. Methods The WHO C4P tool focuses on estimating the incremental costs to the health system of vaccinating adolescent girls through school-, health facility- and/or outreach-based strategies. No costs to the user (school girls, parents or caregivers are included. Both financial (or costs to the Ministry of Health and economic costs are estimated. The cost components for service delivery include training, vaccination (health personnel time and transport, stationery for tally sheets and vaccination cards, and so on, social mobilization/IEC (information, education and communication, supervision, and monitoring and evaluation (M&E. The costs of all the resources used for HPV vaccination are totaled and shown with and without the estimated cost of the vaccine. The total cost is also divided by the number of doses administered and number of fully immunized girls (FIGs to estimate the cost per dose and cost per FIG. Results Over five years (2011 to 2015, the cost of establishing an HPV vaccine program that delivers three doses of vaccine to girls at schools via phased national introduction (three regions in year 1, ten regions in year 2 and all 26 regions in years 3 to 5 in Tanzania is estimated to be US$9.2 million (excluding vaccine costs and US$31.5 million (with vaccine assuming a vaccine price of US$5 (GAVI 2011, formerly the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunizations. This is equivalent to a financial cost of US$5.77 per FIG, excluding the vaccine cost. The most important costs of service delivery are social mobilization/IEC and service delivery operational costs. Conclusions When countries expand their immunization schedules with new vaccines such as the HPV vaccine, they face initial costs to fund critical pre-introduction activities, as well as incremental system costs to deliver the vaccines on an ongoing basis. In anticipation, governments need to plan ahead for non-vaccine costs so they will be financed adequately. Existing human resources need to be re-allocated or new staff need to be recruited for the program to be implemented successfully in a sustainable and long-term manner. Reaching a target group not routinely served by national immunization programs previously with three doses of vaccine requires new delivery strategies, more transport of vaccines and health workers and more intensive IEC activities leading to new delivery costs for the immunization program that are greater than the costs incurred when a new infant vaccine is added to the existing infant immunization schedule. The WHO C4P tool is intended to help LMICs to plan ahead and estimate the programmatic and operational costs of HPV vaccination.

  10. Joint U.S./Russian Study on the Development of a Preliminary Cost Estimate of the SAFSTOR Decommissioning Alternative for the Leningrad Nuclear Power Plant Unit #1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SM Garrett

    1998-09-28

    The objectives of the two joint Russian/U.S. Leningrad Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) Unit #1 studies were the development of a safe, technically feasible, economically acceptable decom missioning strategy, and the preliminary cost evaluation of the developed strategy. The first study, resulting in the decommissioning strategy, was performed in 1996 and 1997. The preliminary cost estimation study, described in this report, was performed in 1997 and 1998. The decommissioning strategy study included the analyses of three basic RBM.K decommission- ing alternatives, refined for the Leningrad NPP Unit #1. The analyses included analysis of the requirements for the planning and preparation as well as the decommissioning phases.

  11. Variación del costo unitario en una institución de seguridad social en Querétaro, México / Unit cost variation in a social security company in Querétaro, México

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Enrique, Villarreal-Ríos; Maribel, Campos-Esparza; María E., Garza-Elizondo; Lidia, Martínez-González; Georgina M., Núñez-Rocha; Néstor R., Romero-Islas.

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estimar e identificar la variación del costo unitario por departamento final y motivo de atención, en unidades de medicina familiar de una institución de seguridad social en Querétaro, México. MÉTODOS: Se trata de un estudio de costo (dólares americanos $US) en unidades de medicina familia [...] r para el año 2004. El costo unitario fijo se estimó utilizando la departamentalización ajustada por productividad para un año, se identificaron departamentos finales y generales. Se incluyeron recursos materiales, físicos y de consumo, se construyeron ponderadores para asignar los recursos invertidos en los departamentos generales a cada uno de los finales. La estimación del costo unitario variable se realizó mediante la técnica de micro-costeo apoyado por grupos de expertos, se consideraron como insumos variables los medicamentos, el material de curación y los reactivos. El costo unitario se integró con la suma del costo unitario fijo y el costo unitario variable correspondiente para el motivo de atención. El análisis contempló la comparación de los costos unitarios entre las unidades médicas. RESULTADOS: El costo unitario para un mes de manejo del diabético varió entre $US 34,8, $US 32,2 y $US 34,0; el costo de la detección de cáncer cervicouterino se encontró entre $US 7,2, $US 8,7 y $US 7,3; y el costo unitario de la atención de la caries fluctuó entre $US 27,0, $US 33,6 y $US 28,7. CONCLUSION: La variación del costo unitario es más importante en el departamento de urgencias y dental. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: Comparing unit cost variation between departments and reasons for consultation in outpatient health services provided by a social security company from Querétaro, México. METHODS: A study of costs (in US$) was carried out in outpatient health service units during 2004. Fixed unit costs we [...] re estimated per department and adjusted for one year's productivity. Material, physical and consumer resources were included. Weighting was assigned to resources invested in each department. Unit cost was estimated by using the micro cost technique; medicaments, materials used during treatment and reagents were considered to be consumer items. Unit cost resulted from adding fixed unit cost to the variable unit cost corresponding to the reason for consulting. Units costs were then compared between the medical units. RESULTS: Unit cost per month for diabetic treatment varied from US$ 34.8, US$ 32,2 to US$ 34, pap smear screening test costs were US$ 7,2, US$ 8,7 and $US 7,3 and dental treatment US$ 27, US$ 33,6 and US$ 28,7. CONCLUSION: Unit cost variation was more important in the emergency room and the dental service.

  12. Variación del Costo Unitario en una Institución de Seguridad Social en Querétaro, México / Unit cost variation in a social security company in Querétaro, México

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Enrique, Villarreal-Ríos; Maribel, Campos-Esparza; María E, Garza-Elizondo; Lidia, Martínez-González; Georgina M, Núñez-Rocha; Néstor R, Romero-Islas.

    2006-07-30

    Full Text Available Objetivo Estimar e identificar la variación del costo unitario por departamento final y motivo de atención, en unidades de medicina familiar de una institución de seguridad social en Querétaro, México. Métodos Se trata de un estudio de costo (dólares americanos $US) en unidades de medicina familiar [...] para el año 2004. El costo unitario fijo se estimó utilizando la departamentalización ajustada por productividad para un año, se identificaron departamentos finales y generales. Se incluyeron recursos materiales, físicos y de consumo, se construyeron ponderadores para asignar los recursos invertidos en los departamentos generales a cada uno de los finales. La estimación del costo unitario variable se realizó mediante la técnica de micro-costeo apoyado por grupos de expertos, se consideraron como insumos variables los medicamentos, el material de curación y los reactivos. El costo unitario se integró con la suma del costo unitario fijo y el costo unitario variable correspondiente para el motivo de atención. El análisis contempló la comparación de los costos unitarios entre las unidades médicas. Resultados El costo unitario para un mes de manejo del diabético varió entre $US 34,8, $US 32,2 y $US 34,0; el costo de la detección de cáncer cervicouterino se encontró entre $US 7,2, $US 8,7 y $US 7,3; y el costo unitario de la atención de la caries fluctuó entre $US 27,0, $US 33,6 y $US 28,7. Conclusión La variación del costo unitario es más importante en el departamento de urgencias y dental. Abstract in english Objective Comparing unit cost variation between departments and reasons for consultation in outpatient health services provided by a social security company from Querétaro, México. Methods A study of costs (in US$) was carried out in outpatient health service units during 2004. Fixed unit costs were [...] estimated per department and adjusted for one year’s productivity. Material, physical and consumer resources were included. Weighting was assigned to resources invested in each department. Unit cost was estimated by using the micro cost technique; medicaments, materials used during treatment and reagents were considered to be consumer items. Unit cost resulted from adding fixed unit cost to the variable unit cost corresponding to the reason for consulting. Units costs were then compared between the medical units. Results Unit cost per month for diabetic treatment varied from US$ 34.8, US$ 32,2 to US$ 34, pap smear screening test costs were US$ 7,2, US$ 8,7 and $US 7,3 and dental treatment US$ 27, US$ 33,6 and US$ 28,7. Conclusion Unit cost variation was more important in the emergency room and the dental service.

  13. A case study using the United Republic of Tanzania: costing nationwide HPV vaccine delivery using the WHO Cervical Cancer Prevention and Control Costing Tool

    OpenAIRE

    Hutubessy Raymond; Levin Ann; Wang Susan; Morgan Winthrop; Ally Mariam; John Theopista; Broutet Nathalie

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The purpose, methods, data sources and assumptions behind the World Health Organization (WHO) Cervical Cancer Prevention and Control Costing (C4P) tool that was developed to assist low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) with planning and costing their nationwide human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination program are presented. Tanzania is presented as a case study where the WHO C4P tool was used to cost and plan the roll-out of HPV vaccines nationwide as part of the national...

  14. Tracking the Sun IV: An Historical Summary of the Installed Cost of Photovoltaics in the United States from 1998 to 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darghouth, Naim; Wiser, Ryan

    2011-09-07

    The present report describes installed cost trends for grid-connected PV projects installed from 1998 through 2010 (with some limited and preliminary results presented for projects installed in the first six months of 2011). The analysis is based on project-level cost data from approximately 116,500 residential, non-residential, and utility-sector PV systems in the United States. The inclusion of utility-sector PV is a new element in this year’s report. The combined capacity of all systems in the data sample totals 1,685 MW, equal to 79% of all grid-connected PV capacity installed in the United States through 2010 and representing one of the most comprehensive sources of installed PV cost data for the U.S. Based on this dataset, the report describes historical installed cost trends over time, and by location, market segment, technology type, and component. The report also briefly compares recent PV installed costs in the United States to those in Germany and Japan, and describes trends in customer incentives for PV installations and net installed costs after receipt of such incentives. The analysis presented here focuses on descriptive trends in the underlying data, serving primarily to summarize the data in tabular and graphical form.

  15. MODELS SELECTED FOR CALCULATION OF DOSES, HEALTH EFFECTS AND ECONOMIC COSTS DUE TO ACCIDENTAL RADIONUCLIDE RELEASES FROM NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strenge, D L; Baker, D A; Droppo, J G; McPherson, R B; Napier, B A; Nieves, L A; Soldat, J K

    1980-05-01

    Models are described for use in site-specific environmental consequence analysis of nuclear reactor accidents of Classes 3 through 9. The models presented relate radioactivity released to resulting doses, health effects, and costs of remedial actions. Specific models are presented for the major exposure pathways of airborne releases, waterborne releases and direct irradiation from activity within the facility buildings, such as the containment. Time-dependent atmospheric dispersion parameters, crop production parameters and other variable parameters are used in the models. The environmental effects are analyzed for several accident start times during the year.

  16. Cost evaluation of cardiovascular magnetic resonance versus coronary angiography for the diagnostic work-up of coronary artery disease: Application of the European Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance registry data to the German, United Kingdom, Swiss, and United States health care systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moschetti Karine

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR has favorable characteristics for diagnostic evaluation and risk stratification of patients with known or suspected CAD. CMR utilization in CAD detection is growing fast. However, data on its cost-effectiveness are scarce. The goal of this study is to compare the costs of two strategies for detection of significant coronary artery stenoses in patients with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD: 1 Performing CMR first to assess myocardial ischemia and/or infarct scar before referring positive patients (defined as presence of ischemia and/or infarct scar to coronary angiography (CXA versus 2 a hypothetical CXA performed in all patients as a single test to detect CAD. Methods A subgroup of the European CMR pilot registry was used including 2,717 consecutive patients who underwent stress-CMR. From these patients, 21% were positive for CAD (ischemia and/or infarct scar, 73% negative, and 6% uncertain and underwent additional testing. The diagnostic costs were evaluated using invoicing costs of each test performed. Costs analysis was performed from a health care payer perspective in German, United Kingdom, Swiss, and United States health care settings. Results In the public sectors of the German, United Kingdom, and Swiss health care systems, cost savings from the CMR-driven strategy were 50%, 25% and 23%, respectively, versus outpatient CXA. If CXA was carried out as an inpatient procedure, cost savings were 46%, 50% and 48%, respectively. In the United States context, cost savings were 51% when compared with inpatient CXA, but higher for CMR by 8% versus outpatient CXA. Conclusion This analysis suggests that from an economic perspective, the use of CMR should be encouraged as a management option for patients with suspected CAD.

  17. On the contribution of external cost calculations to energy system governance: The case of a potential large-scale nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The contribution of nuclear power to a sustainable energy future is a contested issue. This paper presents a critical review of an attempt to objectify this debate through the calculation of the external costs of a potential large-scale nuclear accident in the ExternE project. A careful dissection of the ExternE approach resulted in a list of 30 calculation steps and assumptions, from which the 6 most contentious ones were selected through a stakeholder internet survey. The policy robustness and relevance of these key assumptions were then assessed in a workshop using the concept of a 'pedigree of knowledge'. Overall, the workshop outcomes revealed the stakeholder and expert panel's scepticism about the assumptions made: generally these were considered not very plausible, subjected to disagreement, and to a large extent inspired by contextual factors. Such criticism indicates a limited validity and useability of the calculated nuclear accident externality as a trustworthy sustainability indicator. Furthermore, it is our contention that the ExternE project could benefit greatly - in terms of gaining public trust - from employing highly visible procedures of extended peer review such as the pedigree assessment applied to our specific case of the external costs of a potential large-scale nuclear accident. - Highlights: ? Six most contentious assumptions were selected through a stakeholder internet survey. ? Policy robustness of these assumptions was assessed in a pedigree assessment workshop. ? Assumptions were considered implausible, controversial, and inspired by contextual factors. ? This indicates a limited validity and useability as a trustworthy sustainability indicator.

  18. Economical analysis and study on a solar desalination unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    Based on the calculation of the single-factor impact values of the parameters of a triple tower-type solar desalination unit on the cost of fresh water production by utilizing a single-factor analyzing method, the influences of the cost of solar heating system, the cost of hot water tank, the costs of desalination unit and electrical power, the life time of solar desalination unit and the yearly yield of fresh water, on the cost of the fresh water production of the solar desalination unit are st...

  19. Six climate change-related events in the United States accounted for about $14 billion in lost lives and health costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowlton, Kim; Rotkin-Ellman, Miriam; Geballe, Linda; Max, Wendy; Solomon, Gina M

    2011-11-01

    The future health costs associated with predicted climate change-related events such as hurricanes, heat waves, and floods are projected to be enormous. This article estimates the health costs associated with six climate change-related events that struck the United States between 2000 and 2009. The six case studies came from categories of climate change-related events projected to worsen with continued global warming-ozone pollution, heat waves, hurricanes, infectious disease outbreaks, river flooding, and wildfires. We estimate that the health costs exceeded $14 billion, with 95 percent due to the value of lives lost prematurely. Actual health care costs were an estimated $740 million. This reflects more than 760,000 encounters with the health care system. Our analysis provides scientists and policy makers with a methodology to use in estimating future health costs related to climate change and highlights the growing need for public health preparedness. PMID:22068410

  20. Deterministic Assessment of Future Costs for Dismantling (FA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objective of the report is to provide an re-evaluation of cost calculations by OMEGA code for the Intermediate Storage for Spent Fuel in Studsvik (FA facility) using up-to-date Swedish labour cost unit factors and available up-to-date Swedish (or international) cost unit factors for consumables, materials and substances. Furthermore, evolution of other OMEGA database parameters concerning cost calculations e.g. manpower unit factors and workgroups parameters are taken into account. This report follows up former project which introduced tentative calculations of main decommissioning parameters such as costs, manpower and exposure of personnel for activities of older nuclear facility decommissioning in Sweden represented by FA Facility in Studsvik by means of calculation code OMEGA. The project demonstrated an implementation of advanced costing methodology based on PSL structure format to achieve transparent, traceable and comparable estimates even for older nuclear facilities like FA Facility in Studsvik. This former project used Slovak origin labour costs unit factors and other cost unit factors. After successful completion of this project, there was an intent of SSM to reevaluate calculations using an up-to-date Swedish labour cost data and also available Swedish consumables and materials cost data if available. Within this report re-calculations of main decommissioning parameters using available Swedish data are presented in structure according to Proposed Standardized List of Items for Costing Purposes. Calculations are made for decommissioning scenario with post-dismantling decontamination and steel radwaste melting technologies available at the site. All parameters are documented and summed up in both table and graphic forms in text and Annexes. Further, comparison of calculated results with previous calculations together with discussion is provided

  1. Deterministic Assessment of Future Costs for Dismantling (FA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasko, Marek [DECOM, Trnava (Slovakia)

    2012-11-01

    The main objective of the report is to provide an re-evaluation of cost calculations by OMEGA code for the Intermediate Storage for Spent Fuel in Studsvik (FA facility) using up-to-date Swedish labour cost unit factors and available up-to-date Swedish (or international) cost unit factors for consumables, materials and substances. Furthermore, evolution of other OMEGA database parameters concerning cost calculations e.g. manpower unit factors and workgroups parameters are taken into account. This report follows up former project which introduced tentative calculations of main decommissioning parameters such as costs, manpower and exposure of personnel for activities of older nuclear facility decommissioning in Sweden represented by FA Facility in Studsvik by means of calculation code OMEGA. The project demonstrated an implementation of advanced costing methodology based on PSL structure format to achieve transparent, traceable and comparable estimates even for older nuclear facilities like FA Facility in Studsvik. This former project used Slovak origin labour costs unit factors and other cost unit factors. After successful completion of this project, there was an intent of SSM to reevaluate calculations using an up-to-date Swedish labour cost data and also available Swedish consumables and materials cost data if available. Within this report re-calculations of main decommissioning parameters using available Swedish data are presented in structure according to Proposed Standardized List of Items for Costing Purposes. Calculations are made for decommissioning scenario with post-dismantling decontamination and steel radwaste melting technologies available at the site. All parameters are documented and summed up in both table and graphic forms in text and Annexes. Further, comparison of calculated results with previous calculations together with discussion is provided.

  2. cost-benefit analysis of legumes irradiation processing in egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the economics of legumes irradiation such as Chickpea,Lupin,Kidny Bean and broad and the effect of various parameters on unit processing costs. It provides a model for calculating specific unit processing costs by correlating known capital costs with annual operation cost an annual throughputs. We analysed the cost-benefit of the proposed grain irradiation facility. We took into account the cost of the capital investment, operation and other additional parameters and then estimated the unit processing cost. The investment criteria utilized for commercial evaluation were internal rate of return (I.I.R), pay back period (P.B.P), and average rate of return (A.R.R). The irradiation cost and the additional income are also discussed. The results of this analysis showed that the installation of an irradiation unit for legumes processing in Egypt would be economically feasible

  3. Low-cost accelerograph units as earthquake alert devices for Mexico City: how well would they work?

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    D., García; S. K., Singh; A., Iglesias; L., Quintanar; C., Valdés.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Recientemente se ha propuesto la utilización de unidades acelerográficas de bajo coste como dispositivo de alerta sísmica para la Ciudad de México. Este tipo de unidades dispararía la alarma cuando la aceleración del suelo alcanzara un nivel prefijado, en principio 4 gal, lo que para sismos importan [...] tes sucedería durante la onda P o en el inicio de su coda. En este trabajo se ha evaluado el desempeño de este tipo de unidades a partir de los acelerogramas registrados en el periodo 1985 - 2008 en las estaciones SCT y CDAO, ubicadas en la zona de lago de Ciudad de México. Como se preveía, el tiempo de alerta (la diferencia entre el tiempo de disparo del dispositivo y el de inicio de la parte intensa del movimiento), T A, aumenta, para sismos regionales, con la aceleración máxima, PGA. Para los registros analizados (con PGA > 4 gal) T A varía entre -20 y 45 s, correspondiendo el máximo T A al terremoto de Michoacán de 1985. Salvo algunas excepciones T A es superior a 15 s para todos aquellos sismos que produjeron PGA > 20 gal. Este dispositivo podría ser útil para mitigar los daños humanos de un sismo siempre y cuando un tiempo de alerta entre 15 y 45 s fuese suficiente para poner en práctica medidas de seguridad previamente establecidas, lo cual podría ser práctico para escuelas de una a tres plantas. Además el dispositivo podría utilizarse para detener y/o cerrar de forma segura instalaciones críticas antes de la llegada del movimiento sísmico de mayor amplitud. Abstract in english Recently, low-cost accelerograph units have been proposed as earthquake alert devices for Mexico City. These units would trigger when the acceleration reaches a pre-established level, presumably 4 gal. For significant earthquakes, this would occur during P wave or in the early part of its coda. We t [...] est the performance of such a unit on accelerograms recorded in the period 1985 - 2008 at SCT and CDAO, two lake-bed sites in Mexico City. As expected, the alert time (the time of arrival of intense ground motion minus the trigger time), T A, for regional earthquakes is found to increase with the PGA. T A of the recorded accelerograms (with PGA > 4 gal) ranges between about -20 and 45 sec; the largest values of T A correspond to the 1985 Michoacan earthquake. With some exceptions, T A is greater than 15 sec for earthquakes which produced PGA > 20 gal. The device may be useful in mitigating injuries and loss of lives if an alert time of 15 to 45 sec is sufficient to put in to effect pre-established safety measures. This may be practical for one- to three-storey public school buildings. The device would be useful for shutting critical facilities before the arrival of large-amplitude ground motion.

  4. A precise and cost-effective method to calculate the stresses and deformations of pipe bends with realistic boundary conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transfer matrix of a pipe bend is derived by the semi-bending theory. Thereby realistic boundary conditions of the bends like connected flanges, cylindrical and conical pipes and concentrated or distributed loads will be considered in pipeline calculations. Furthermore, this transfer matrix of the pipe bend is converted into a stiffness matrix and is incorporated into an existing FE program. This way the exact stiffness as well as realistic boundary conditions of pipe bends may be considered for the stress and deformation analysis of complex piping systems. Several comparisons between analytical and test results of pipe bends demonstrate a very good agreement. As it can be shown this transfer matrix method is highly economical and is very precise as well. (orig.)

  5. Calculation of economic viability and environmental costs of biomass from dende oil for small communities of Brazilian northeast region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current environmental problems caused by human activity has been gaining attention in society, i.e., as it has influenced in the growth and development of the global economic. The availability of energy resources is central point to economic development and the generation of energy is responsible for a significant portion of the emissions causing the greenhouse effect nowadays. The Brazil, a developing country, still has a large number of people without access to electricity, which affects the quality of life of individuals. In this context, it should think in the sustainable economic development, so the alternative energy sources emerge as an option for power generation. Can highlight biomass as a source in the Brazilian scenario by its wide availability and variety. Therefore, the objective of this work is to estimate the economic viability of the decentralized generation of electricity based on the use of biomass from dende oil in small communities in the Brazilian Northeast considering the environmental costs involved for the source in question. The methodology is based on economic concepts and economic evaluation of environmental resources. The biomass from dende oil was adopted in this work by its characteristics and availability in the studied region. The results show that the generation of energy by biomass from dende oil, it will contribute significantly to the sustainable development of the region, already that it will bring gains environmental, social and financial to society. (author)

  6. 75 FR 73972 - Medicaid Program; Cost Limit for Providers Operated by Units of Government and Provisions To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-30

    ...Units of Government and Provisions...Federal-State Financial...decision by the United States District...units of government to an amount...Medicaid State plan. ...2008, the United States District...mandates require spending in any 1...effect on State, local, or tribal governments or on...

  7. Putting the ‘Q’ in QALY in cost-utility analyses : The importance of using standardized methods to estimate utility when calculating quality adjusted life-years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oddershede, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Resources are scare and healthcare systems must, therefore, prioritize which new technologies should be funded, and which should be rejected. To aid decision makers in their choice, economic evaluations can be conducted to assess the cost-effectiveness of the new technologies. The present thesis argues that two problems could be solved by updating the Danish guideline for economic evaluations to include a stated preference for measuring effectiveness in terms of quality adjusted life-years (QALYs). Firstly, it would be possible to compare the cost-effectiveness of new technologies across conditions. Secondly, it would make it possible to capture both effects and side effects of new technologies in a single outcome measure. Therefore, the present thesis explores how to procure optimal estimates of quality of life, i.e. utility, for QALY calculations in different situations, depending on which data are available. Using the methodological papers and economic evaluations conducted during the PhD project; the thesis exemplifies why it is important to use standardized methods when calculating QALYs in economic evaluations. The thesis recommends that a shared measure of health, QALYs, is used in order to make the results of the economic evaluations submitted to the Danish Health and Medicines Authorities more comparable across conditions and interventions.

  8. Avoidable waste management costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the activity based costing method used to acquire variable (volume dependent or avoidable) waste management cost data for routine operations at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. Waste volumes from environmental restoration, facility stabilization activities, and legacy waste were specifically excluded from this effort. A core team consisting of Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, and Oak Ridge Reservation developed and piloted the methodology, which can be used to determine avoidable waste management costs. The method developed to gather information was based on activity based costing, which is a common industrial engineering technique. Sites submitted separate flow diagrams that showed the progression of work from activity to activity for each waste type or treatability group. Each activity on a flow diagram was described in a narrative, which detailed the scope of the activity. Labor and material costs based on a unit quantity of waste being processed were then summed to generate a total cost for that flow diagram. Cross-complex values were calculated by determining a weighted average for each waste type or treatability group based on the volume generated. This study will provide DOE and contractors with a better understanding of waste management processes and their associated costs. Other potential benefits include providing cost data for sites to perform consistent cost/benefit analysis of waste minimization and pollution prevention (WMIN/PP) options identified during pollution prevention opportunity assessments and providing a means for prioritizing and allocating limited resources for WMIN/PP

  9. Avoidable waste management costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, K.; Burns, M.; Priebe, S.; Robinson, P.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes the activity based costing method used to acquire variable (volume dependent or avoidable) waste management cost data for routine operations at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. Waste volumes from environmental restoration, facility stabilization activities, and legacy waste were specifically excluded from this effort. A core team consisting of Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, and Oak Ridge Reservation developed and piloted the methodology, which can be used to determine avoidable waste management costs. The method developed to gather information was based on activity based costing, which is a common industrial engineering technique. Sites submitted separate flow diagrams that showed the progression of work from activity to activity for each waste type or treatability group. Each activity on a flow diagram was described in a narrative, which detailed the scope of the activity. Labor and material costs based on a unit quantity of waste being processed were then summed to generate a total cost for that flow diagram. Cross-complex values were calculated by determining a weighted average for each waste type or treatability group based on the volume generated. This study will provide DOE and contractors with a better understanding of waste management processes and their associated costs. Other potential benefits include providing cost data for sites to perform consistent cost/benefit analysis of waste minimization and pollution prevention (WMIN/PP) options identified during pollution prevention opportunity assessments and providing a means for prioritizing and allocating limited resources for WMIN/PP.

  10. Project of processing of 4 million tone in year of mixture of Mangyshlak, Maryshy and Tengiz oils. Calculation of vacuum gas-oil hydrocracking unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For increase of petroleum processing depth at Aturau petroleum refinery plant a variant of mass-line scheme of fuel profile on 4 million tone per year is offered. Processing raw mixture consists of 40 % of Mangyshlak petroleum , 40 % Martyshy one, 20 % Tengiz. Calculation of two stepped unit of vacuum gas-oil hydrocracking is carried out. Taking into operation of pilot unit allow to solve number of tasks: petroleum processing depth by means increase light petroleum products yield, including gasoline; attainment higher quality of products namely receive high-octane component of car gasoline

  11. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Site Dose-per-Unit-Release Factors for Use in Calculating Radionuclide Air Emissions Potential-to-Emit Doses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, J. M.; Rhoads, Kathleen

    2008-09-29

    This report documents assumptions and inputs used to prepare the dose-per-unit-release factors for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Site (including the buildings that make up the Physical Sciences Facility [PSF] as well as the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory [EMSL]) calculated using the EPA-approved Clean Air Act Assessment Package 1988–Personal Computer (CAP88-PC) Version 3 software package. The dose-per-unit-release factors are used to prepare dose estimates for a maximum public receptor (MPR) in support of Radioactive Air Pollutants Notice of Construction (NOC) applications for the PNNL Site.

  12. Custo médio do Módulo de Coleta de sangue total pelo método ABC / The mean cost of collection of whole blood units by the ABC method

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Eugênia M. A., Ubiali; Divaldo A., Sampaio; Patrícia F., Pinho; Dimas T., Covas.

    Full Text Available Os procedimentos em hemoterapia são complexos e caros. Exigem processos controlados e validados, equipamentos calibrados e monitorados e insumos qualificados, validados e inspecionados antes e durante o uso. Isto acarreta, além dos gastos diretos, gastos indiretos especificamente relacionados à gara [...] ntia da qualidade e da segurança transfusionais, além dos gastos indiretos usuais de qualquer produto ou serviço. Procurando avaliar com maior aproximação estes custos e buscando evitar as distorções das apropriações de custos por rateios, o presente estudo utilizou o sistema de Custeio Baseado em Atividades - ABC, para apurar o custo médio do Módulo de Coleta de sangue total no Hemocentro de Ribeirão Preto - SP, unidade sede, no primeiro semestre de 2006. O maior impacto no custo médio apurado se deveu aos custos monetários diretos, entretanto os custos indiretos não foram desprezíveis. O custo médio obtido para desempenho das atividades que compõem o Módulo de Coleta foi de R$ 35,20, que é 68,75% superior ao valor pago na tabela SIA/SUS para este módulo. A metodologia desenvolvida pode ser aplicada aos outros procedimentos dos serviços de hemoterapia, permitindo a avaliação dos custos de seus processos, evitando desperdícios, aprimorando o seu funcionamento e gerando evidências objetivas que demonstrem os custos reais da hemoterapia de qualidade para as instâncias financiadoras públicas e privadas. Abstract in english The procedures in hemotherapy are complex and expensive. They demand a controlled and validated process. They also require calibrated and monitored equipment and qualified and validated materials, inspected before and during use. This causes, apart from direct expenses, indirect expenses related to [...] the guarantee of quality and transfusional safety, as well as the usual indirect costs of any product or service. The present study used the Activity-Based Costing system - ABC, to find the mean cost of collection of whole blood units in a Regional Blood Center in Ribeirão Preto, during the first semester of 2006, in order to assess these costs more carefully and to try to avoid the cost distortions due to separation of blood components. Although the indirect costs were not negligible, the major impact on the mean cost was related to direct monetary costs. The mean cost to perform the activities that compose the collection of blood units was R$ 35.20, which is 68.75% higher than the value paid by the Brazilian government for this unit. The developed methodology can be applied to other procedures of services in hemotherapy allowing the evaluation of process costs, avoiding waste, improving performance and generating objective evidence to demonstrate the real cost of quality hemotherapy activities for public and private fund source.

  13. Custo médio do Módulo de Coleta de sangue total pelo método ABC The mean cost of collection of whole blood units by the ABC method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugênia M. A. Ubiali

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Os procedimentos em hemoterapia são complexos e caros. Exigem processos controlados e validados, equipamentos calibrados e monitorados e insumos qualificados, validados e inspecionados antes e durante o uso. Isto acarreta, além dos gastos diretos, gastos indiretos especificamente relacionados à garantia da qualidade e da segurança transfusionais, além dos gastos indiretos usuais de qualquer produto ou serviço. Procurando avaliar com maior aproximação estes custos e buscando evitar as distorções das apropriações de custos por rateios, o presente estudo utilizou o sistema de Custeio Baseado em Atividades - ABC, para apurar o custo médio do Módulo de Coleta de sangue total no Hemocentro de Ribeirão Preto - SP, unidade sede, no primeiro semestre de 2006. O maior impacto no custo médio apurado se deveu aos custos monetários diretos, entretanto os custos indiretos não foram desprezíveis. O custo médio obtido para desempenho das atividades que compõem o Módulo de Coleta foi de R$ 35,20, que é 68,75% superior ao valor pago na tabela SIA/SUS para este módulo. A metodologia desenvolvida pode ser aplicada aos outros procedimentos dos serviços de hemoterapia, permitindo a avaliação dos custos de seus processos, evitando desperdícios, aprimorando o seu funcionamento e gerando evidências objetivas que demonstrem os custos reais da hemoterapia de qualidade para as instâncias financiadoras públicas e privadas.The procedures in hemotherapy are complex and expensive. They demand a controlled and validated process. They also require calibrated and monitored equipment and qualified and validated materials, inspected before and during use. This causes, apart from direct expenses, indirect expenses related to the guarantee of quality and transfusional safety, as well as the usual indirect costs of any product or service. The present study used the Activity-Based Costing system - ABC, to find the mean cost of collection of whole blood units in a Regional Blood Center in Ribeirão Preto, during the first semester of 2006, in order to assess these costs more carefully and to try to avoid the cost distortions due to separation of blood components. Although the indirect costs were not negligible, the major impact on the mean cost was related to direct monetary costs. The mean cost to perform the activities that compose the collection of blood units was R$ 35.20, which is 68.75% higher than the value paid by the Brazilian government for this unit. The developed methodology can be applied to other procedures of services in hemotherapy allowing the evaluation of process costs, avoiding waste, improving performance and generating objective evidence to demonstrate the real cost of quality hemotherapy activities for public and private fund source.

  14. Reconciling quality and cost: A case study in interventional radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To provide a method to calculate delay cost and examine the relationship between quality and total cost. The total cost including capacity, supply and delay cost for running an interventional radiology suite was calculated. The capacity cost, consisting of labour, lease and overhead costs, was derived based on expenses per unit time. The supply cost was calculated according to actual procedural material use. The delay cost and marginal delay cost derived from queueing models was calculated based on waiting times of inpatients for their procedures. Quality improvement increased patient safety and maintained the outcome. The average daily delay costs were reduced from 1275 EUR to 294 EUR, and marginal delay costs from approximately 2000 EUR to 500 EUR, respectively. The one-time annual cost saved from the transfer of surgical to radiological procedures was approximately 130,500 EUR. The yearly delay cost saved was approximately 150,000 EUR. With increased revenue of 10,000 EUR in project phase 2, the yearly total cost saved was approximately 290,000 EUR. Optimal daily capacity of 4.2 procedures was determined. An approach for calculating delay cost toward optimal capacity allocation was presented. An overall quality improvement was achieved at reduced costs. (orig.)

  15. On the contribution of external cost calculations to energy system governance: The case of a potential large-scale nuclear accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laes, Erik, E-mail: erik.laes@vito.be [Flemish Institute for Technological Research (VITO), Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Meskens, Gaston, E-mail: gaston.meskens@sckcen.be [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK-CEN), Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Sluijs, Jeroen P. van der, E-mail: j.p.vandersluijs@uu.nl [Copernicus Institute, Department of Science Technology and Society, Utrecht University, Budapestlaan 6, 584 CD Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2011-09-15

    The contribution of nuclear power to a sustainable energy future is a contested issue. This paper presents a critical review of an attempt to objectify this debate through the calculation of the external costs of a potential large-scale nuclear accident in the ExternE project. A careful dissection of the ExternE approach resulted in a list of 30 calculation steps and assumptions, from which the 6 most contentious ones were selected through a stakeholder internet survey. The policy robustness and relevance of these key assumptions were then assessed in a workshop using the concept of a 'pedigree of knowledge'. Overall, the workshop outcomes revealed the stakeholder and expert panel's scepticism about the assumptions made: generally these were considered not very plausible, subjected to disagreement, and to a large extent inspired by contextual factors. Such criticism indicates a limited validity and useability of the calculated nuclear accident externality as a trustworthy sustainability indicator. Furthermore, it is our contention that the ExternE project could benefit greatly - in terms of gaining public trust - from employing highly visible procedures of extended peer review such as the pedigree assessment applied to our specific case of the external costs of a potential large-scale nuclear accident. - Highlights: > Six most contentious assumptions were selected through a stakeholder internet survey. > Policy robustness of these assumptions was assessed in a pedigree assessment workshop. > Assumptions were considered implausible, controversial, and inspired by contextual factors. > This indicates a limited validity and useability as a trustworthy sustainability indicator.

  16. Residential, Commercial, and Utility-Scale Photovoltaic (PV) System Prices in the United States: Current Drivers and Cost-Reduction Opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodrich, A.; James, T.; Woodhouse, M.

    2012-02-01

    The price of photovoltaic (PV) systems in the United States (i.e., the cost to the system owner) has dropped precipitously in recent years, led by substantial reductions in global PV module prices. However, system cost reductions are not necessarily realized or realized in a timely manner by many customers. Many reasons exist for the apparent disconnects between installation costs, component prices, and system prices; most notable is the impact of fair market value considerations on system prices. To guide policy and research and development strategy decisions, it is necessary to develop a granular perspective on the factors that underlie PV system prices and to eliminate subjective pricing parameters. This report's analysis of the overnight capital costs (cash purchase) paid for PV systems attempts to establish an objective methodology that most closely approximates the book value of PV system assets.

  17. IEA Wind Task 26. Wind Technology, Cost and Performance Trends in Denmark, Germany, Ireland, Norway, the European Union, and the United States. 2007 - 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitina, Aisma [Ea Energy Analyses, Copenhagen (Denmark); Luers, Silke [Deutsche WindGuard, Varel (Germany); Wallasch, Anna-Kathrin [Deutsche WindGuard, Varel (Germany); Berkhout, Volker [Fraunhofer IWES (Germany); Duffy, Aidan [Dublin Inst. of Technology and Dublin Energy Lab (Ireland); Cleary, Brendan [Dublin Inst. of Technology and Dublin Energy Lab (Ireland); Husabo, Leif I. [Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate (NVE), Oslo (Norway); Weir, David E. [Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate (NVE), Oslo (Norway); Lacal-Arantegui, Roberto [European Commission, Ispra (Italy). Joint Research Centre; Hand, M. Maureen [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lantz, Eric [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Belyeu, Kathy [Belyeu Consulting, Tacoma Park, MD (United States); Wiser, Ryan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Bolinger, Mark [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hoen, Ben [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-06-12

    This report builds from a similar previous analysis (Schwabe et al., 2011) exploring the differences in cost of wind energy in 2008 among countries participating in IEA Wind Task 26 at that time. The levelized cost of energy (LCOE) is a widely recognized metric for understanding how technology, capital investment, operations, and financing impact the life-cycle cost of building and operating a wind plant. Schwabe et al. (2011) apply a spreadsheet-based cash flow model developed by the Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN) to estimate LCOE. This model is a detailed, discounted cash flow model used to represent the various cost structures in each of the participating countries from the perspective of a financial investor in a domestic wind energy project. This model is used for the present analysis as well, and comparisons are made for those countries who contributed to both reports, Denmark, Germany, and the United States.

  18. Cost-Benefit Analysis of Nanoparticle Albumin-Bound Paclitaxel versus Solvent-Based Paclitaxel for the Treatment of Metastatic Breast Cancer in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vichansavakul, Kittaya

    Breast cancer is the second leading cause of death among women in the US. Although early detection and treatment help to increase survival rates, some unfortunate patients develop metastatic breast cancer that has no cure. Palliative treatment is the main objective in this group of patients in order to prolong life and reduce toxicities from interventions. In the advancement of treatment for metastatic breast cancer, solvent-based paclitaxel has been widely used. However, solvent-based paclitaxel often causes adverse reactions. Therefore, researchers have developed a new chemotherapy based on nanotechnology. One of these drugs is the Nanoparticle albumin-bound Paclitaxel. This nanodrug aims to increase therapeutic index by reducing adverse reactions from solvents and to improve efficacy of conventional cytotoxic chemotherapy. Breast cancer is a disease with high epidemiological and economic burden. The treatment of metastatic breast cancer has not only high direct costs but also high indirect costs. Breast cancer affects mass populations, especially women younger than 50 years of age. It relates to high indirect costs due to lost productivity and premature death because the majority of these patients are in the workforce. Because of the high cost of breast cancer therapies and short survival rates, the question is raised whether the costs and benefits are worth paying or not. Due to the rising costs in healthcare and new financing policies that have been developed to address this issue, economic evaluation is an important aspect of the development and use of any new interventions. To guide policy makers on how to allocate limited healthcare resources in the most efficient and effective manner, many economic evaluation methods can be used to measure the costs, benefits, and impacts of healthcare innovations. Currently, economic evaluation and health outcomes studies have focused greatly on cost-effectiveness and cost-utility analysis. However, the previous studies had some limitations because they were conducted from a narrow perspective such as payer and provider point of views. The studies also considered only direct costs in their analysis. In fact, conducting economic evaluations from a narrow perspective and leaving out indirect costs might undermine the true benefit of the interventions for society. A cost-benefit analysis measures all costs and benefits in monetary units. It incorporates both health outcomes gained from individuals and the value gained to society in order to maximize the usage of resources effectively. This thesis conducted a cost-benefit analysis to compare nab-paclitaxel and generic paclitaxel in treating metastatic breast cancer from a societal perspective in the United States. The results showed that nab-paclitaxel is a cost-benefit strategy regardless of the different costs and benefits due to the extra 3 years of living it provides. In all models, when nab-paclitaxel was compared to generic paclitaxel, nab-paclitaxel showed cost-benefit to society. However, the results of generic paclitaxel were dependent on the total medical costs. Performing a cost-benefit analysis of nab-paclitaxel from a societal perspective is important to understand the true benefit of interventions. Furthermore, considering both direct and indirect costs, as well as benefits, of this drug is vital because the economic profile of nab-paclitaxel would be improved.

  19. Real-space finite-difference calculation method of generalized Bloch wave functions and complex band structures with reduced computational cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukamoto, Shigeru; Hirose, Kikuji; Blügel, Stefan

    2014-07-01

    Generalized Bloch wave functions of bulk structures, which are composed of not only propagating waves but also decaying and growing evanescent waves, are known to be essential for defining the open boundary conditions in the calculations of the electronic surface states and scattering wave functions of surface and junction structures. Electronic complex band structures being derived from the generalized Bloch wave functions are also essential for studying bound states of the surface and junction structures, which do not appear in conventional band structures. We present a novel calculation method to obtain the generalized Bloch wave functions of periodic bulk structures by solving a generalized eigenvalue problem, whose dimension is drastically reduced in comparison with the conventional generalized eigenvalue problem derived by Fujimoto and Hirose [Phys. Rev. B 67, 195315 (2003)], 10.1103/PhysRevB.67.195315. The generalized eigenvalue problem derived in this work is even mathematically equivalent to the conventional one, and, thus, we reduce computational cost for solving the eigenvalue problem considerably without any approximation and losing the strictness of the formulations. To exhibit the performance of the present method, we demonstrate practical calculations of electronic complex band structures and electron transport properties of Al and Cu nanoscale systems. Moreover, employing atom-structured electrodes and jellium-approximated ones for both of the Al and Si monatomic chains, we investigate how much the electron transport properties are unphysically affected by the jellium parts.

  20. Cost-effectiveness model comparing olanzapine and other oral atypical antipsychotics in the treatment of schizophrenia in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smolen Lee J

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Schizophrenia is often a persistent and costly illness that requires continued treatment with antipsychotics. Differences among antipsychotics on efficacy, safety, tolerability, adherence, and cost have cost-effectiveness implications for treating schizophrenia. This study compares the cost-effectiveness of oral olanzapine, oral risperidone (at generic cost, primary comparator, quetiapine, ziprasidone, and aripiprazole in the treatment of patients with schizophrenia from the perspective of third-party payers in the U.S. health care system. Methods A 1-year microsimulation economic decision model, with quarterly cycles, was developed to simulate the dynamic nature of usual care of schizophrenia patients who switch, continue, discontinue, and restart their medications. The model captures clinical and cost parameters including adherence levels, relapse with and without hospitalization, quality-adjusted life years (QALYs, treatment discontinuation by reason, treatment-emergent adverse events, suicide, health care resource utilization, and direct medical care costs. Published medical literature and a clinical expert panel were used to develop baseline model assumptions. Key model outcomes included mean annual total direct cost per treatment, cost per stable patient, and incremental cost-effectiveness values per QALY gained. Results The results of the microsimulation model indicated that olanzapine had the lowest mean annual direct health care cost ($8,544 followed by generic risperidone ($9,080. In addition, olanzapine resulted in more QALYs than risperidone (0.733 vs. 0.719. The base case and multiple sensitivity analyses found olanzapine to be the dominant choice in terms of incremental cost-effectiveness per QALY gained. Conclusion The utilization of olanzapine is predicted in this model to result in better clinical outcomes and lower total direct health care costs compared to generic risperidone, quetiapine, ziprasidone, and aripiprazole. Olanzapine may, therefore, be a cost-effective therapeutic option for patients with schizophrenia.

  1. Calculation of a 900 MW conceptual 700/720ºC coal-fired power unit with an auxiliary extraction-backpressure turbine

    OpenAIRE

    Katarzyna St?pczy?ska; ?ukasz Kowalczyk; S?awomir Dykas; Witold Elsner

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the calculations for different configurations of a 900 MW power unit for advanced 700/720°C ultra-supercritical steam parameters with a single and double steam reheat. The use of such high parameters, especially the reheated steam temperature, involves thermodynamic and material problems related to high temperature differences in the feed water heaters. In relation to this, a concept of the modification of the feed water heaters system by using an auxiliary extraction-back...

  2. A methodology for financial evaluation of biogas technology in India using cost functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A methodology for financial evaluation of biogas technology for domestic use in India using recently developed cost functions is reported. Analytical expressions for the unit cost of biogas and cost per unit of useful energy delivered by a biogas plant in combination with other suitable technologies have been developed. Net present value and discounted pay-back period have been calculated. The sensitivity of the unit cost of biogas, the cost per unit of useful energy, and the net present value with respect to a number of variables is also reported. (author)

  3. The cost of decommissioning uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report identifies several key operations that are commonly carried out during decommissioning of tailings areas in the Canadian environment. These operations are unit costed for a generic site to provide a base reference case. The unit costs have also been scaled to the quantities required for the decommissioning of four Canadian sites and these scaled quantities compared with site-specific engineering cost estimates and actual costs incurred in carrying out the decommissioning activities. Variances in costing are discussed. The report also recommends a generic monitoring regime upon which both short- and longer-term environmental monitoring costs are calculated. Although every site must be addressed as a site-specific case, and monitoring programs must be tailored to fit a specific site, it would appear that for the conventional decommissioning and monitoring practices that have been employed to date, costs can be reasonably estimated when site-specific conditions are taken into account

  4. Model-based calculations of off-axis ratio of conic beams for a dedicated 6 MV radiosurgery unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, J. N.; Ding, X.; Du, W.; Pino, R. [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Methodist Hospital, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States)

    2010-10-15

    Purpose: Because the small-radius photon beams shaped by cones in stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) lack lateral electronic equilibrium and a detector's finite cross section, direct experimental measurement of dosimetric data for these beams can be subject to large uncertainties. As the dose calculation accuracy of a treatment planning system largely depends on how well the dosimetric data are measured during the machine's commissioning, there is a critical need for an independent method to validate measured results. Therefore, the authors studied the model-based calculation as an approach to validate measured off-axis ratios (OARs). Methods: The authors previously used a two-component analytical model to calculate central axis dose and associated dosimetric data (e.g., scatter factors and tissue-maximum ratio) in a water phantom and found excellent agreement between the calculated and the measured central axis doses for small 6 MV SRS conic beams. The model was based on that of Nizin and Mooij [''An approximation of central-axis absorbed dose in narrow photon beams,'' Med. Phys. 24, 1775-1780 (1997)] but was extended to account for apparent attenuation, spectral differences between broad and narrow beams, and the need for stricter scatter dose calculations for clinical beams. In this study, the authors applied Clarkson integration to this model to calculate OARs for conic beams. OARs were calculated for selected cones with radii from 0.2 to 1.0 cm. To allow comparisons, the authors also directly measured OARs using stereotactic diode (SFD), microchamber, and film dosimetry techniques. The calculated results were machine-specific and independent of direct measurement data for these beams. Results: For these conic beams, the calculated OARs were in excellent agreement with the data measured using an SFD. The discrepancies in radii and in 80%-20% penumbra were within 0.01 cm, respectively. Using SFD-measured OARs as the reference data, the authors found that the calculated OARs were more accurate than those measured with a microchamber or film dosimetry. Conclusions: The model produces sufficiently accurate conic beam dosimetric data that can be used to validate direct measurement results for such beams.

  5. Modeling of the TMI-2 [Three Mile Island Unit-2] accident with MELPROG/TRAC and calculation results for Phases 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Work has been performed to develop a Three Mile Island Unit-2 (TMI-2) simulation model for MELPROG/TRAC capable of predicting the observed plant behavior that took place during the accident of March 1979. A description of the TMI-2 plant model is presented and calculation results through 174 min of the accident are discussed. Using the ICBC boundary conditions, the calculation predicts pressurizer draining and core recovering prior to fuel-rod damage. A parametric calculation (reduced makeup flow) is currently underway and is in better agreement with the observed plant behavior. Efforts are underway to resolve current discrepancies and proceed with an accurate simulation through Phases 3 and 4 of the accident (174-227 min and 227-300 min, respectively). 13 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs

  6. Impact of pharmacist's interventions on cost of drug therapy in intensive care unit / Impacto de las intervenciones de farmacéuticos en el coste del tratamiento farmacológico en una unidad de cuidados intensivos

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Surasak, Saokaew; Sirada, Maphanta; Pornchanok, Thangsomboon.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available La participación del farmacéutico en el equipo de cuidados del paciente ha demostrado reducir la incidencia de eventos adversos medicamentosos, y los costes totales de medicamentos. Sin embargo, el impacto de la participación del farmacéutico en equipos multidisciplinarios de cuidados intensivos sob [...] re el ahorro y la evitación de costes en Tailandia ha sido poco estudiado. Objetivo: Describir las características de las intervenciones y determinar si las intervenciones del farmacéutico condujeron a cambios en ahorro de costes o evitación de costes en una unidad de cuidados intensivos (UCI). Métodos: Se diseñó un estudio prospectivo controlado con cuidados usuales para comparar los ahorros de costes y las evitaciones de costes de pacientes recibiendo cuidados de un equipo de atención a paciente (que incluía un farmacéutico clínico) contra una atención normal (sin farmacéutico en el equipo). Todos los pacientes ingresados en las unidades 1 y 2 de cuidados intensivos médicos fueron incluidos en el estudio. Los resultados medidos eran coste total de medicamentos y duración de la estancia en la UCI. Se documentaron las intervenciones realizadas por el farmacéutico en el grupo de estudio. También se realizaron análisis de aceptación y ahorro de costes y/o evitación de costes. Resultados: Un total e 65 pacientes ingresaron en las UCI 1 o 2 durante las 5 semanas del estudio. El farmacéutico participó en la atención de pacientes y realizó 127 intervenciones para el equipo de la UCI 1. El 98% de las intervenciones fueron aceptadas e implantadas por los médicos. La diferencia del coste total de medicamentos por paciente entre los dos grupos fue de 182,01 USD (1.076,37 USD en el grupo estudio y 1.258,38 USD en el control, p=0.138). La media de duración de estancia entre grupo de estudio y control no fue significativamente diferente (7,16 días vs. 6,18 días, p=0.995). Se evaluaron los ahorros y evitaciones de costes de las 125 intervenciones aceptadas. Las intervenciones del farmacéutico llevaron a un total de 1.971,43 USD de ahorros y a 294,62 USD de coste de eventos adversos evitados. El coste neto ahorrado y evitado por las intervenciones del farmacéutico fue de 2.266,05 USD. Las intervenciones que involucraban el uso de antibióticos significaron el mayor impacto económico (1.958,61 USD). Conclusiones: Aunque, no fue estadísticamente significativo, el haber participado un farmacéutico en el equipo de cuidados de la UCI produjo una tendencia a la reducción global del coste de medicamentos, ahorro de costes y evitación de costes. El mayor impacto en los costes envolvió el uso de antibióticos. Abstract in english Pharmacist participation in patient care team has been shown to reduce incidence of adverse drug events, and overall drug costs. However, impact of pharmacist participation in the multidisciplinary intensive care team on cost saving and cost avoidance has little been studied in Thailand. Objective: [...] To describe the characteristics of the interventions and to determine pharmacist's interventions led to change in cost saving and cost avoidance in intensive care unit (ICU). Methods: A Prospective, standard care-controlled study design was used to compare cost saving and cost avoidance of patients receiving care from patient care team (including a clinical pharmacist) versus standard care (no pharmacist on team). All patients admitted to the medical intensive care unit 1 and 2 during the same period were included in the study. The outcome measures were overall drug cost and length of ICU stay. Interventions made by the pharmacist in the study group were documented. The analyses of acceptance and cost saving and/or cost avoidance were also performed. Results: A total of 65 patients were admitted to either ICU 1 or 2 during the 5 week- study period. The pharmacist participated in patient care and made total of 127 interventions for the ICU-1 team. Ninety-eight percent of the interventions were accepted and implemented by physicians. The difference of overall d

  7. 40 CFR 75.19 - Optional SO2, NOX, and CO2 emissions calculation for low mass emissions (LME) units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... pulsations, internal guide vane (IGV) position, and flame detection or flame scanner condition. The... operation)). Also, under similar operating conditions, the stack or turbine outlet temperature of each unit must be within ±50 degrees Fahrenheit of the average stack or turbine outlet temperature for all of...

  8. LPGC, Levelized Steam Electric Power Generator Cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1 - Description of program or function: LPGC is a set of nine microcomputer programs for estimating power generation costs for large steam-electric power plants. These programs permit rapid evaluation using various sets of economic and technical ground rules. The levelized power generation costs calculated may be used to compare the relative economics of nuclear and coal-fired plants based on life-cycle costs. Cost calculations include capital investment cost, operation and maintenance cost, fuel cycle cost, decommissioning cost, and total levelized power generation cost. These programs can be used for quick analyses of power generation costs using alternative economic parameters, such as interest rate, escalation rate, inflation rate, plant lead times, capacity factor, fuel prices, etc. The two major types of electric generating plants considered are pressurized-water reactor (PWR) and pulverized coal-fired plants. Data are also provided for the Large Scale Prototype Breeder (LSPB) type liquid metal reactor. Costs for plant having either one or two units may be obtained. 2 - Method of solution: LPGC consists of nine individual menu-driven programs controlled by a driver program, MAINPWR. The individual programs are PLANTCAP, for calculating capital investment costs; NUCLOM, for determining operation and maintenance (O and M) costs for nuclear plants; COALOM, for computing O and M costs for coal-fired plants; NFUEL, for calculating levelized fuel costs for nuclear plants; COALCOST, for determining levelized fuel costs for coal-fired plants; FCRATE, for computing the fixed charge rate on the capital investment; LEVEL, for calculating levelized power generation costs; CAPITAL, for determining capitalized cost from overnight cost; and MASSGEN, for generating, deleting, or changing fuel cycle mass balance data for use with NFUEL. LPGC has three modes of operation. In the first, each individual code can be executed independently to determine one aspect of the total levelized power cost, such as fuel or O and M cost. In the second, the integrated code can be run to calculate all aspects of the levelized power cost, and in the third, the integrated code can be used to access an individual code which calculates one aspect of the levelized power generation cost as in the first mode of operation

  9. A 3D superposition pencil beam dose calculation algorithm for a 60Co therapy unit and its verification by MC simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The MCNP Monte Carlo code was used to simulate the collimating system of the 60Co therapy unit to calculate the primary and scattered photon fluences as well as the electron contamination incident to the isocentric plane as the functions of the irradiation field size. Furthermore, a Monte Carlo simulation for the polyenergetic Pencil Beam Kernels (PBKs) generation was performed using the calculated photon and electron spectra. The PBK was analytically fitted to speed up the dose calculation using the convolution technique in the homogeneous media. The quality of the PBK fit was verified by comparing the calculated and simulated 60Co broad beam profiles and depth dose curves in a homogeneous water medium. The inhomogeneity correction coefficients were derived from the PBK simulation of an inhomogeneous slab phantom consisting of various materials. The inhomogeneity calculation model is based on the changes in the PBK radial displacement and on the change of the forward and backward electron scattering. The inhomogeneity correction is derived from the electron density values gained from a complete 3D CT array and considers different electron densities through which the pencil beam is propagated as well as the electron density values located between the interaction point and the point of dose deposition. Important aspects and details of the algorithm implementation are also described in this study. - Highlights: • Monte Carlo simulation of photon and electron spectra for a 60Co therapy unit. • Monte Carlo simulation of a polyenergetic Pencil Beam Kernel (PBK). • Inhomogeneity correction based on Monte Carlo simulation. • Implementation of dose calculation algorithm on the CT matrix with 3D inhomogeneity correction

  10. Use of synthetic series of monthly flows in calculating the marginal cost of energy of the national interconnected power system of Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this research it was determined the feasibility of using synthetic series of monthly average flow for the determination of the average marginal cost of energy in the National Interconnected Electric System of Peru, SEIN, taking as a case study of implementing bar tariff setting in 2004, where it was used the PERSEO model for planning, simulation and optimization of the hydrothermal system in Peru. The model is currently used by the Deputy Manager of tariff regulation (GART) of the Agency for Supervision of Investment in Energy and Mining - OSINERGMIN. The model use as hydrological information the average monthly flow series of tributaries to the historical attractions of the 23 river basins of the SEIN, one of the main is the basin of the Junin Lake, whose water is used by the Mantaro and Restitution hydroelectric, generating almost 20% of the power of our country. With the HEC-4 program, developed by the Hydrological Engineering Center of the USA, from the time series of monthly historical flows tributary to the Junin Lake, 50 series were generated synthetic monthly flow, determined from them a dry series, a average series and a wet series, information that was used in the PERSEO model to calculate the average marginal cost of energy of SEIN for each case. The results obtained from the average marginal cost of energy with the use of synthetic series of monthly flows, for the dry case, average case and wet case, with the PERSEO model, compared to the historical event, are lower in order of 1.14, 1.55 and 0.87 US $/MWh, the results will determine a decline in energy prices for end users, such as the domestic, commercial, industrial and mining users. (author).

  11. Advances and Challenges for Adoption of Activity Based Costing (ABC) by Public Sector: A Comparative Study of Brazil, Colombia, Uruguay and United States

    OpenAIRE

    Luís Paulo F Carmo; Fernando Padovani

    2012-01-01

    This article aims to evaluate the advances and challenges to the adoption of the activity based costing system (ABC) by the public sector of countries like Colombia, Uruguay and Brazil, always keeping a comparative perspective with the historical experience of the United States. Considering the growing demand of citizens-users of public services in terms of quality, accountability and transparency, and also the convergence of international accounting and management practices, such as converge...

  12. The Social Cost of Trading: Measuring the Increased Damages from Sulfur Dioxide Trading in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, David D., III; Muller, Nicholas Z.; Mendelsohn, Robert O.

    2011-01-01

    The sulfur dioxide (SO[subscript 2]) cap and trade program established in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments is celebrated for reducing abatement costs ($0.7 to $2.1 billion per year) by allowing emissions allowances to be traded. Unfortunately, places with high marginal costs also tend to have high marginal damages. Ton-for-ton trading reduces…

  13. Cost-Effectiveness of Home Energy Retrofits in Pre-Code Vintage Homes in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fairey, P.; Parker, D.

    2012-11-01

    This analytical study examines the opportunities for cost-effective energy efficiency and renewable energy retrofits in residential archetypes constructed prior to 1980 (Pre-Code) in fourteen U.S. cities. These fourteen cities are representative of each of the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) climate zones in the contiguous U.S. The analysis is conducted using an in-house version of EnergyGauge USA v.2.8.05 named CostOpt that has been programmed to perform iterative, incremental economic optimization on a large list of residential energy efficiency and renewable energy retrofit measures. The principle objectives of the study are as follows: to determine the opportunities for cost effective source energy reductions in this large cohort of existing residential building stock as a function of local climate and energy costs; and to examine how retrofit financing alternatives impact the source energy reductions that are cost effectively achievable.

  14. The estimated economic burden of genital herpes in the United States. An analysis using two costing approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fisman David N

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Only limited data exist on the costs of genital herpes (GH in the USA. We estimated the economic burden of GH in the USA using two different costing approaches. Methods The first approach was a cross-sectional survey of a sample of primary and secondary care physicians, analyzing health care resource utilization. The second approach was based on the analysis of a large administrative claims data set. Both approaches were used to generate the number of patients with symptomatic GH seeking medical treatment, the average medical expenditures and estimated national costs. Costs were valued from a societal and a third party payer's perspective in 1996 US dollars. Results In the cross-sectional study, based on an estimated 3.1 million symptomatic episodes per year in the USA, the annual direct medical costs were estimated at a maximum of $984 million. Of these costs, 49.7% were caused by drug expenditures, 47.7% by outpatient medical care and 2.6% by hospital costs. Indirect costs accounted for further $214 million. The analysis of 1,565 GH cases from the claims database yielded a minimum national estimate of $283 million direct medical costs. Conclusions GH appears to be an important public health problem from the health economic point of view. The observed difference in direct medical costs may be explained with the influence of compliance to treatment and possible undersampling of subpopulations in the claims data set. The present study demonstrates the validity of using different approaches in estimating the economic burden of a specific disease to the health care system.

  15. Treatment of paediatric burns with a nanocrystalline silver dressing compared with standard wound care in a burns unit: a cost analysis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    S G, Cox; L, Cullingworth; H, Rode.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Burns are a leading cause of non-natural death in South African infants and children. Conventional care of partial-thickness burns often requires painful, time consuming and costly twice-daily dressing changes to clean the wound and apply antimicrobial topical agents. A new topical nanocrystalline s [...] ilver-coated (NS) dressing (Acticoat; Smith & Nephew) has been developed and is the first-line treatment of choice in many burn centres. However, because of its cost the Department of Health has been reluctant to introduce it as a standard of care. We retrospectively studied 4 randomly selected paediatric burn patients, calculating the cost associated with the use of NS dressings and comparing this with the projected costs of three previously standard burn wound treatment regimens. NS dressings were changed every 3 days based on their sustained and slow release of silver ions over 72 hours. Using NS clearly saved costs compared with the three other regimens. The demonstrated cost savings resulted primarily from the decreased number of dressings, and the presumed shorter hospital stay.

  16. 75 FR 9102 - Recovery of Cost of Hospital and Medical Care and Treatment Furnished by the United States...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    ...Treatment Furnished by the United States; Delegation of Authority AGENCY: Department of Justice. ACTION...the ability of United States-based companies to compete with foreign-based companies...0 Accordingly, by virtue of the authority vested in the Attorney General by...

  17. Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations Project: Unit evaluation at Yucca Mountain, Nevada Test Site: Near-field thermal and mechanical calculations using the SANDIA-ADINA code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presented in this report are the results of a comparative study of two candidate horizons, the welded, devitrified Topopah Spring Member ofthe Paintbrush Tuff, and the nonwelded, zeolitized Tuffaceous Beds of Calico Hills. The mechanical and thermomechanical response these two horizons was assessed by conducting thermal and thermomechanical calculations using a two-dimensional room and pillar geometry of the vertical waste emplacement option using average and limit properties for each. A modified version of the computer code ADINA (SANDIA-ADINA) containing a material model for rock masses with ubiquitous jointing was used in the calculations. Results of the calculations are presented as the units' capacity for storage of nuclear waste and stability of the emplacement room and pillar due to excavation and long-term heating. A comparison is made with a similar underground opening geometry sited in Grouse Canyon Tuff, using properties obtained from G-Tunnel - a horizon of known excavation characteristics. Long-term stability of the excavated rooms was predicted for all units, as determined by evaluating regions of predicted joint slip as the result of excavation and subsequent thermal loading, evaluating regions of predicted rock matrix failure as the result of excavation and subsequent thermal loading, and evaluating safety factors against rock matrix failure. These results were derived through considering a wide range in material properties and in situ stresses. 21 refs., 21 figs., 5 tabs

  18. Custo da adequação quantitativa de profissionais de enfermagem em Unidade Neonatal / Cost of nursing staffing adequacy in a neonatal unit / Costo de adecuación cuantitativa de profesionales de enfermería en unidad neonatal

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fernanda Maria Togeiro, Fugulin; Antonio Fernandes Costa, Lima; Valéria, Castilho; Luciana, Bochembuzio; Janaína Anchieta, Costa; Liliana, Castro; Natália Célia Lima, Silva; Raquel Rapone, Gaidzinski.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo descritivo, de natureza quantitativa, visou: identificar o tempo médio de assistência de enfermagem despendido e requerido pelos Recém-Nascidos (RN) internados na Unidade Neonatal do Hospital Universitário da Universidade de São Paulo; calcular o custo do tempo médio de assistência de en [...] fermagem despendido e requerido por RN; verificar o montante financeiro da adequação do quadro de profissionais de enfermagem requerido para assistir os RN. O tempo médio de assistência despendido pela equipe de enfermagem e requerido pelos RN foi calculado por meio de equações disponíveis na literatura e aplicação do Nursing Activities Score. O custo do tempo médio de assistência e do montante financeiro da adequação do quadro de profissionais foi calculado com base no custo/hora dos enfermeiros e dos técnicos de enfermagem. O impacto financeiro da adequação quantitativa de profissionais de enfermagem correspondeu a um acréscimo de 30% no custo do quadro existente. Abstract in spanish Este estudio descriptivo cuantitativo objetivó identificar el tiempo promedio de atención de enfermería dispensado y requerido por Recién Nacidos (RN) internados en Unidad Neonatal de Hospital Universitario de Universidad de São Paulo; calcular costo de tiempo promedio de atención de enfermería disp [...] ensado y requerido por RN, verificar monto financiero de adecuación del cuadro de profesionales de enfermería requerido para atender a RN. Los tiempos promedio de atención dispensados por el equipo y requeridos por los RN fueron calculados mediante ecuaciones disponibles en literatura y aplicación del Nursing Activities Score. El costo de tiempos promedio de atención y monto financiero de adecuación del cuadro de profesionales se calculó con base en costo/hora de enfermeros y técnicos de enfermería. El impacto financiero de adecuación cuantitativa de profesionales de enfermería correspondió a un incremento de 30% sobre el costo del cuadro existente. Abstract in english The objectives of this descriptive, quantitative study were: to identify the mean nursing care time provided and required by newborns (NB) hospitalized at the Neonatal Unit of the University of São Paulo University Hospital; to calculate the cost of the mean nursing care time provided and required, [...] by NB; to assess the cost of the nursing staffing adequacy required to assist the NB. The mean nursing care times, provided by the nursing staff and required by NBs, were calculated using equations available in the literature and by applying the Nursing Activities Score. The costs of the mean nursing care times and to make nursing staffing adequate were calculated based on the hourly cost of nurses and nursing technicians. The financial impact of nursing staffing adequacy accounted for a 30% increase over the cost of the current situation.

  19. Calculations of the radiological impact of disposal of unit activity of selected radionuclides for use in waste management system studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the work described is to provide estimates of the radiological impact following disposal of unit activity via each of several options, including shallow burial, engineered trench disposal, disposal in a geologic repository and disposal on the deep ocean bed. Results are presented for a range of important representative radionuclides. No single option is clearly the best from the radiological point of view. However, in conjunction with waste inventory data the results may be used to provide a preliminary view of the relative radiological merits of the various disposal options. (author)

  20. Impact of clinical pharmacist interventions on the cost of drug therapy in intensive care units of a tertiary care teaching hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucca, Jisha M.; Ramesh, M.; Narahari, Gopalakrishna M.; Minaz, N.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To analyze clinical pharmacist interventions in the intensive care units (ICUs) setting of a tertiary care Indian hospital and to assess the pharmacoeconomic impact on drug-related problems (DRPs). Materials and Methods: A postgraduate clinical pharmacist reviewed drug prescriptions over a period of 7 months. Whenever a DRP is identified, it was discussed with a physician and appropriate suggestions were provided, later it was documented on a preprepared form. Clinical significance of each intervention was graded based on the predicted clinical outcome. Acceptance of the interventions is entirely at the discretion of the medical staff. Each intervention was analyzed with respect to potential cost saving and/or additional cost incurred to existing drug therapy. An independent clinical panel was convened, and all the interventions made by the intervening pharmacist were critically reviewed for potential cost savings. Results: The intervening pharmacist made 117 recommendations, of which 94% was accepted by the medical professionals. The most frequent DRP identified was overdose (24%). The total net cost savings made was Rs. 77260.13 (USD 1796.73). This corresponds with Rs. 965.75 per patient and an annualized savings of Rs. 135205.22. Conclusion: Clinical pharmacist interventions had a significant impact on the cost of drug therapy and the patient outcome in intensive care settings of our hospital. PMID:23129959

  1. Unraveling Higher Education's Costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Gus; Charles, Maria

    1998-01-01

    The activity-based costing (ABC) method of analyzing institutional costs in higher education involves four procedures: determining the various discrete activities of the organization; calculating the cost of each; determining the cost drivers; tracing cost to the cost objective or consumer of each activity. Few American institutions have used the…

  2. Calculation and analysis of environmental costs of the atmospheric pollution from brazilian oil refinery; Calculo e analise dos custos ambientais da poluicao atmosferica emitida por uma refinaria de petroleo brasileira

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariano, Jacqueline [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Programa de Planejamento Energetico

    2004-07-01

    The present study presents a calculation of the environmental costs associated with the atmospheric pollution from a brazilian oil refinery and its analysis (the name of this oil refinery is confidential, for this reason it will not be mentioned). The calculation of the costs was based on a study of north-american researchers, about the environmental costs of five main atmospheric pollutants: particulate matter, sulphur oxides, nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds (VOC's) and carbon monoxide. The original American study offers an statistical analysis of several other American studies about environmental costs of atmospheric pollution, that present maximum, medium and minimum costs. Based on these values, the total environmental costs of the atmospheric pollution from the brazilian oil refinery were calculated, considering a fifty year operational time for the facility. The internalization of the atmospheric pollution environmental costs by the refiners is aligned with the world tendency of enforcement of the environmental limitations faced by the oil refining sector, and therefore, the adoption of a pro-active attitude is recommended by the present study. (author)

  3. Integrating the Carbon and Water Footprints’ Costs in the Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC Full Water Cost Recovery Concept: Basic Principles Towards Their Reliable Calculation and Socially Just Allocation

    OpenAIRE

    Anastasia Papadopoulou; Stavroula Tsitsifli; Vasilis Kanakoudis

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the basic principles for the integration of the water and carbon footprints cost into the resource and environmental costs respectively, taking the suggestions set by the Water Framework Directive (WFD) 2000/60/EC one step forward. WFD states that full water cost recovery (FWCR) should be based on the estimation of the three sub-costs related: direct; environmental; and resource cost. It also strongly suggests the EU Member States develop and apply effective water pricing ...

  4. United States biomass energy: An assessment of costs and infrastructure for alternative uses of biomass energy crops as an energy feedstock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, William Russell, III

    Reduction of the negative environmental and human health externalities resulting from both the electricity and transportation sectors can be achieved through technologies such as clean coal, natural gas, nuclear, hydro, wind, and solar photovoltaic technologies for electricity; reformulated gasoline and other fossil fuels, hydrogen, and electrical options for transportation. Negative externalities can also be reduced through demand reductions and efficiency improvements in both sectors. However, most of these options come with cost increases for two primary reasons: (1) most environmental and human health consequences have historically been excluded from energy prices; (2) fossil energy markets have been optimizing costs for over 100 years and thus have achieved dramatic cost savings over time. Comparing the benefits and costs of alternatives requires understanding of the tradeoffs associated with competing technology and lifestyle choices. As bioenergy is proposed as a large-scale feedstock within the United States, a question of "best use" of bioenergy becomes important. Bioenergy advocates propose its use as an alternative energy resource for electricity generation and transportation fuel production, primarily focusing on ethanol. These advocates argue that bioenergy offers environmental and economic benefits over current fossil energy use in each of these two sectors as well as in the U.S. agriculture sector. Unfortunately, bioenergy research has offered very few comparisons of these two alternative uses. This thesis helps fill this gap. This thesis compares the economics of bioenergy utilization by a method for estimating total financial costs for each proposed bioenergy use. Locations for potential feedstocks and bio-processing facilities (co-firing switchgrass and coal in existing coal fired power plants and new ethanol refineries) are estimated and linear programs are developed to estimate large-scale transportation infrastructure costs for each sector. Each linear program minimizes required bioenergy distribution and infrastructure costs. Truck and rail are the only two transportation modes allowed as they are the most likely bioenergy transportation modes. Switchgrass is chosen as a single bioenergy feedstock. All resulting costs are presented in units which reflect current energy markets price norms (¢/kWh, $/gal). The use of a common metric, carbon-dioxide emissions, allows a comparison of the two proposed uses. Additional analysis is provided to address aspects of each proposed use which are not reflected by a carbon-dioxide reduction metric. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  5. Evaluation of the cost effectiveness of exenatide versus insulin glargine in patients with sub-optimally controlled Type 2 diabetes in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetlow Anthony P

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Exenatide belongs to a new therapeutic class in the treatment of diabetes (incretin mimetics, allowing glucose-dependent glycaemic control in Type 2 diabetes. Randomised controlled trial data suggest that exenatide is as effective as insulin glargine at reducing HbA1c in combination therapy with metformin and sulphonylureas; with reduced weight but higher incidence of adverse gastrointestinal events. The objective of this study is to evaluate the cost effectiveness of exenatide versus insulin glargine using RCT data and a previously published model of Type 2 diabetes disease progression that is based on the United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study; the perspective of the health-payer of the United Kingdom National Health Service. Methods The study used a discrete event simulation model designed to forecast the costs and health outcome of a cohort of 1,000 subjects aged over 40 years with sub-optimally-controlled Type 2 diabetes, following initiation of either exenatide, or insulin glargine, in addition to oral hypoglycaemic agents. Sensitivity analysis for a higher treatment discontinuation rate in exenatide patients was applied to the cohort in three different scenarios; (1 either ignored or (2 exenatide-failures excluded or (3 exenatide-failures switched to insulin glargine. Analyses were undertaken to evaluate the price sensitivity of exenatide in terms of relative cost effectiveness. Baseline cohort profiles and effectiveness data were taken from a published randomised controlled trial. Results The relative cost-effectiveness of exenatide and insulin glargine was tested under a variety of conditions, in which insulin glargine was dominant in all cases. Using the most conservative of assumptions, the cost-effectiveness ratio of exenatide vs. insulin glargine at the current UK NHS price was -£29,149/QALY (insulin glargine dominant and thus exenatide is not cost-effective when compared with insulin glargine, at the current UK NHS price. Conclusion This study evaluated the relative cost effectiveness of insulin glargine versus exenatide in the management of Type 2 diabetes using a published model. Given no significant difference in glycaemic control and applying the additional effectiveness of exenatide over insulin glargine, with respect to weight loss, and using the current UK NHS prices, insulin glargine was found to be dominant over exenatide in all modelled scenarios. With current clinical evidence, exenatide does not appear to represent a cost-effective treatment option for patients with Type 2 diabetes when compared to insulin glargine.

  6. SU-E-T-599: The Variation of Hounsfield Unit and Relative Electron Density Determination as a Function of KVp and Its Effect On Dose Calculation Accuracy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohl, A [University of Buffalo, Buffalo, NY (United States); Boer, S De [Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To investigate the differences in relative electron density for different energy (kVp) settings and the effect that these differences have on dose calculations. Methods: A Nuclear Associates 76-430 Mini CT QC Phantom with materials of known relative electron densities was imaged by one multi-slice (16) and one single-slice computed tomography (CT) scanner. The Hounsfield unit (HU) was recorded for each material with energies ranging from 80 to 140 kVp and a representative relative electron density (RED) curve was created. A 5 cm thick inhomogeneity was created in the treatment planning system (TPS) image at a depth of 5 cm. The inhomogeneity was assigned HU for various materials for each kVp calibration curve. The dose was then calculated with the analytical anisotropic algorithm (AAA) at points within and below the inhomogeneity and compared using the 80 kVp beam as a baseline. Results: The differences in RED values as a function of kVp showed the largest variations of 580 and 547 HU for the Aluminum and Bone materials; the smallest differences of 0.6 and 3.0 HU were observed for the air and lung inhomogeneities. The corresponding dose calculations for the different RED values assigned to the 5 cm thick slab revealed the largest differences inside the aluminum and bone inhomogeneities of 2.2 to 6.4% and 4.3 to 7.0% respectively. The dose differences beyond these two inhomogeneities were between 0.4 to 1.6% for aluminum and 1.9 to 2.2 % for bone. For materials with lower HU the calculated dose differences were less than 1.0%. Conclusion: For high CT number materials the dose differences in the phantom calculation as high as 7.0% are significant. This result may indicate that implementing energy specific RED curves can increase dose calculation accuracy.

  7. Selective hydrolysis of wastewater sludge. Part 1, rev.. Model calculations and cost benefit analysis for Esbjerg West waste water treatment plant, Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    OEstergaard, N. (Eurotec West A/S (Denmark)); Thomsen, Anne Belinda; Thygesen, Anders; Bangsoe Nielsen, H. (Risoe DTU, Roskilde (Denmark)); Rasmussen, Soeren (SamRas (Denmark))

    2008-12-15

    This publication is a revised edition of 'Selective hydrolysis of wastewater sludge. Part 1. Model calculations and cost benefit analysis for Esbjerg West waste water treatment plant, Denmark' reporting on the project 'Selective hydrolysis of wastewater sludge' which investigates the possibilities of utilizing selective hydrolysis of sludge at waste water treatment plants to increase the production of biogas based power and heat, and at the same time reduce power consumption for handling and treatment of nitrogen and sludge as well as for disposal of the sludge. The selective hydrolysis system is based on the fact that an anaerobic digestion before a hydrolysis treatment increases the hydrolysis efficiency, as the production of volatile organic components, which might inhibit the hydrolysis efficiency, are not produced to the same extent as may be the case for a hydrolysis made on un-digested material. Furthermore it is possible to separate ammonia from the sludge without using chemicals; it has, however, proven difficult to treat wastewater sludge, as the sludge seems to be difficult to treat in the laboratory using simple equipment. Esbjerg Wastewater Treatment Plant West, Denmark, is used as model plant for the calculations of the benefits using selective hydrolysis of sludge as if established at the existing sludge digester system. The plant is a traditional build plant based on the activated sludge concept in addition to traditional digester technology. The plant treats combined household and factory wastewater with a considerable amount of the wastewater received from the industries. During the project period Esbjerg Treatment Plant West went through considerable process changes, thus the results presented in this report are based on historical plant characteristics and may be viewed as conservative relative to what actually may be obtainable. (BA)

  8. Structures and elements for the decommissioning cost estimations of nuclear research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decommissioning cost estimation is a very important technique when designing and planning a nuclear facilities' decommissioning project. Decommissioning cost estimation should be made according to the phases of the decommissioning activities and the installed components of the nuclear facilities. In this paper, the basic framework for decommissioning cost estimation is completed so that it could be used as a technique for decommissioning cost estimation by specifying the cost items and the group components as well as unit cost factors on which the work time is calculated. Also, the costs elements for the decommissioning cost estimation of the major activities and tasks are considered and reviewed. Specially, the unit cost factors and work difficulty factors for cost calculations are based on the decommissioning empirical data of Korea Research Reactor and the formula and methods using parametrics as these factors are definitely completed. Afterwards, these methods will be utilized as the basic technologies during establishing the decommissioning design and plan of nuclear research reactors

  9. Costs of multigreenhouse gas reduction targets for the USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayhoe, K.; Jain, A.; Pitcher, H.; MacCracken, C.; Gibbs, M.; Wuebbles, D.; Harvey, R.; Kruger, D. [University of Illinois, Urbana, IL (US). Dept. of Atmospheric Sciences

    1999-10-29

    The Kyoto Protocol sets emission targets for an interchangeable basket of greenhouse gases, the two most important of which are carbon dioxide and methane. This paper shows that introducing methane into an abatement scheme using recently-calculated costs for the United States greatly affects the costs of greenhouse gas control strategies. 20 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  10. Application of methods for area calculation of geodesic polygons on Polish administrative units / Zastosowanie metod obliczania pól powierzchni wieloboków geodezyjnych na przyk?adzie jednostek administracyjnych w Polsce

    Science.gov (United States)

    P?dzich, Pawe?; Ku?ma, Marta

    2012-11-01

    The paper presents methods of area calculation, which may be applied for big geodesic polygons on the ellipsoid. Proposal developed by the authors of this paper is discussed. The proposed methods are compared with other, alternative methods of area calculation of such polygons. Test calculations are performed for administrative units in Poland. The obtained results are also compared with areas of those units registered in statistical annals. Utilisation of the equal-area map projections of the ellipsoid onto a plane seems to be the best solution for the discussed task. In the case of small distances between points we may expect accurate results of calculations, since the area size is influenced by the projection reductions only, which are small in such cases. In some cases their influence on results of calculations may be neglected. Then, only re-calculation of co-ordinates from the GRS80 ellipsoid to the cartographic, equal-area projection is required. Umiej?tno?? obliczania pól wieloboków geodezyjnych, czyli takich, których bokami s? odcinki linii geodezyjnych, ma istotne znaczenie w praktyce geodezyjnej i kartograficznej. Jednym z podstawowych zada? wykonywanych przez geodetów i kartografów jest obliczanie pól ró?nych obiektów powierzchniowych takich jak gmina, województwo, obszary u?ytków gruntowych itp. Je?eli zadanie sprowadza si? tylko do powierzchni kuli lub p?aszczyzny to rozwi?zanie jest stosunkowo ?atwe. Zadanie komplikuje si?, je?eli za powierzchni? odniesienia fizycznej powierzchni Ziemi przyjmiemy elipsoid? obrotow?, poniewa? nie ma ?cis?ych wzorów, które pozwala?yby na realizacj? takiego zadania; s? jedynie wzory przybli?one maj?ce zastosowanie dla niewielkich obszarów. Trudno?ci pojawiaj? si? szczególnie w przypadku du?ych wieloboków zlokalizowanych na elipsoidzie obrotowej sp?aszczonej. W artykule przedstawiono metody obliczania pól powierzchni, które mog? by? stosowane dla du?ych wieloboków geodezyjnych na elipsoidzie. Opisano propozycje autorów niniejszego artyku?u. Zaproponowane sposoby skonfrontowano z innymi alternatywnymi metodami obliczania pól powierzchni tych wieloboków. Obliczenia testowe przeprowadzono dla jednostek administracyjnych obszaru Polski. Otrzymane wyniki porównano z powierzchniami tych jednostek zapisanymi w rocznikach statystycznych.

  11. Indirect costs in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: A review of the economic burden on employers and individuals in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel JG

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Jeetvan G Patel,1,2 Saurabh P Nagar,2 Anand A Dalal2 1Pharmacy Administration and Public Health, University of Houston, Houston, TX, 2US Health Outcomes, GlaxoSmithKline, Durham, NC, USA Objective: To review and summarize existing literature on the indirect burden of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD in the US. Methods: Medline, Scopus, and OvidSP databases were searched using defined search terms to identify relevant studies. Eligible studies were published in English between January 2000 and April 2012 and calculated the indirect burden of COPD in a US population in terms of prevalence, incidence or costs of productivity loss, disability, morbidity, or mortality. Results: Of 53 studies identified, eleven met eligibility criteria, with data years spanning 1987–2009. Estimates of workforce participation range from 56% to 69% among individuals with COPD and from 65% to 77% among individuals without COPD. Approximately 13%–18% of those with COPD are limited in the amount or type of work they can do and one-third or more experience general activity limitation. Estimates of restricted activity days range from 27–63 days per year. Estimates of mean annual sick leave and/or disability days among employed individuals with COPD range from 1.3–19.4 days. Estimates of bed confinement range from 13–32 days per year. Estimated mean annual indirect costs were $893–$2,234/person (US dollars with COPD ($1,521–$3,348 in 2010 [US dollars] and varied with the population studied, specific cost outcomes, and economic inputs. In studies that assessed total (direct and indirect costs, indirect costs accounted for 27%–61% of total costs, depending on the population studied. Conclusions: COPD is associated with substantial indirect costs. The disease places a burden on employers in terms of lost productivity and associated costs and on individuals in terms of lost income related to absenteeism, activity limitation, and disability. Consideration of indirect as well as direct costs is necessary to gain a more complete view of the societal burden of COPD. Keywords: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, disability, economics, indirect costs, productivity

  12. Future costs for long-term care: cost projections for long-term care for older people in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Martin; Mayhew, Les; Plumb, Robert; Rickayzen, Ben

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyse the future sustainability of the UK system for provision of long-term care (LTC) due to changes in demography and health status among the older people. It considers how demand for LTC will evolve and to what extent there will be sufficient supply to meet demand. For formal care, this requires an estimate of how much the public purses, and hence taxpayers, will be burdened with LTC costs. For informal care, it involves estimating whether there will be enough carers if current patterns of provision were to continue. The results show that demand for long-term care will start to take off 10 years from now, and reach a peak somewhere after 2040. The research finds that the most significant increase will be in demand for informal care, where the number of recipients are projected to increase from 2.2 million today to 3.0 million in 2050. Relative increases will be similar in all care settings, amounting to between 30 and 50% compared with the levels today; however, the most noticeable increase will be in demand for formal home care, which is projected to be 60% above current levels by 2040. Total expenditure on formal long-term care will increase from 11 billion pounds per year today to approximately 15 billion pounds per year by 2040 (in 2001 prices). Expressed in taxation terms the effective contribution rate will increase from around 1.0% of total wages today to 1.3% in 2050. Availability of informal carers is potentially a big problem, but the extent of the problem is very sensitive to the assumptions made concerning health improvements and care-giving patterns. PMID:16338481

  13. NNWSI unit evaluation at Yucca Mountain, Nevada Test Site: Near field mechanical calculations using a continuum jointed rock moel in the JAC code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) Project, managed by the Nevada Operations Office of the US Department of Energy, is examining the feasibility of siting a repository for high level nuclear wastes at Yucca Mountain on and adjacent to the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The work reported herein was done to support the selection, on a technical basis, of a single target repository horizon upon which to concentrate future activities. Presented in this report are the results of a comparative study between two candidate horizons: the devitrified Topopah Spring member of the Paintbrush Tuff and the nonwelded, zeolitized Tuffaceous Beds of Calico Hills. Performance of a repository sited in each candidate horizon was assessed by conducting structural calculations using a two-dimensional room-and-pillar geometry and average and limit material properties. The computer code JAC, with a constitutive model for jointed rock masses, was used to make the calculations. Based on analyses of the confining pressures in the pillar and the joint movement near the room, it is concluded that the Topopah Spring unit is more suitable than the Calico Hills unit for the placement of a nuclear waste repository. Finally, a comparison is made with a similar mine geometry sited in the Grouse Canyon Tuff, a horizon of known performance characteristics, using properties from G-Tunnel at NTS

  14. A methodology of Decommissioning Cost Estimation for Nuclear Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Kwan Seong; Lee, Dong Gye; Jung, Chong Hun; Lee, Kune Woo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-07-01

    Decommissioning cost estimation should be made according to the phases of the decommissioning activities and the installed components of the nuclear facilities. In this paper, the basic framework for decommissioning cost estimation is completed so that it could be used as a technique for decommissioning cost estimation by specifying the cost items and the group components as well as unit cost factors on which the work time is calculated. Also, the approach for the decommissioning cost estimation of the major activities and tasks are considered and reviewed. Afterwards, these methods will be utilized as the basic technologies during establishing the decommissioning planning of nuclear research reactor.

  15. The use of the transition cost accounting system in health services research

    OpenAIRE

    Pilote Louise; Caron Joanna; Filion Kristian B; Doris Nadine M; Azoulay Arik; Eisenberg Mark J

    2007-01-01

    Abstract The Transition cost accounting system integrates clinical, resource utilization, and financial information and is currently being used by several hospitals in Canada and the United States to calculate the costs of patient care. Our objectives were to review the use of hospital-based cost accounting systems to measure costs of treatment and discuss potential use of the Transition cost accounting system in health services research. Such systems provide internal reports to administrator...

  16. Data Qualification Report: Calculated Porosity and Porosity-Derived Values for Lithostratigraphic Units for use on the Yucca Mountain Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The qualification is being completed in accordance with the Data Qualification Plan DQP-NBS-GS-000006, Rev. 00 (CRWMS M and O 2001). The purpose of this data qualification activity is to evaluate for qualification the unqualified developed input and porosity output included in Data Tracking Number (DTN) M09910POROCALC.000. The main output of the analyses documented in DTN M09910POROCALC.000 is the calculated total porosity and effective porosity for 40 Yucca Mountain Project boreholes. The porosity data are used as input to Analysis Model Report (AMR) 10040, ''Rock Properties Model'' (MDL-NBS-GS-000004, Rev. 00), Interim Change Notice [ICN] 02 (CRWMS M and O 2000b). The output from the rock properties model is used as input to numerical physical-process modeling within the context of a relationship developed in the AMR between hydraulic conductivity, bound water and zeolitic zones for use in the unsaturated zone model. In accordance with procedure AP-3.15Q, the porosity output is not used in the direct calculation of Principal Factors for post-closure safety or disruptive events. The original source for DTN M09910POROCALC.000 is a Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) Management and Operating Contractor (M and O) report, ''Combined Porosity from Geophysical Logs'' (CRWMS M and O 1999a and hereafter referred to as Rael 1999). That report recalculated porosity results for both the historical boreholes covered in Nelson (1996), and the modern boreholes reported in CRWMS M and O (1996a,b). The porosity computations in Rael (1999) are based on density-porosity mathematical relationships requiring various input parameters, including bulk density, matrix density and air and/or fluid density and volumetric water content. The main output is computed total porosity and effective porosity reported on a foot-by-foot basis for each borehole, although volumetric water content is derived from neutron data as an interim output. This qualification report uses technical assessment and corroboration to evaluate the original subject DTN. Rael (1999) provides many technical details of the technical assessment and corroboration methods and partially satisfies the intent of the qualification plan for this analysis. Rael presents a modified method based on Nelson (1996) to recompute porosity and porosity-derived values and uses some of the same inputs. Rael's (1999) intended purpose was to document porosity output relatively free of biases introduced by differing computational methods or parameter selections used for different boreholes. The qualification report necessarily evaluates the soundness of the pre-Process Validation and Re-engineering (PVAR) analyses and methodology, as reported in Rael (1999)

  17. Data Qualification Report: Calculated Porosity and Porosity-Derived Values for Lithostratigraphic Units for use on the Yucca Mountain Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Sanchez

    2001-05-30

    The qualification is being completed in accordance with the Data Qualification Plan DQP-NBS-GS-000006, Rev. 00 (CRWMS M&O 2001). The purpose of this data qualification activity is to evaluate for qualification the unqualified developed input and porosity output included in Data Tracking Number (DTN) M09910POROCALC.000. The main output of the analyses documented in DTN M09910POROCALC.000 is the calculated total porosity and effective porosity for 40 Yucca Mountain Project boreholes. The porosity data are used as input to Analysis Model Report (AMR) 10040, ''Rock Properties Model'' (MDL-NBS-GS-000004, Rev. 00), Interim Change Notice [ICN] 02 (CRWMS M&O 2000b). The output from the rock properties model is used as input to numerical physical-process modeling within the context of a relationship developed in the AMR between hydraulic conductivity, bound water and zeolitic zones for use in the unsaturated zone model. In accordance with procedure AP-3.15Q, the porosity output is not used in the direct calculation of Principal Factors for post-closure safety or disruptive events. The original source for DTN M09910POROCALC.000 is a Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) Management and Operating Contractor (M&O) report, ''Combined Porosity from Geophysical Logs'' (CRWMS M&O 1999a and hereafter referred to as Rael 1999). That report recalculated porosity results for both the historical boreholes covered in Nelson (1996), and the modern boreholes reported in CRWMS M&O (1996a,b). The porosity computations in Rael (1999) are based on density-porosity mathematical relationships requiring various input parameters, including bulk density, matrix density and air and/or fluid density and volumetric water content. The main output is computed total porosity and effective porosity reported on a foot-by-foot basis for each borehole, although volumetric water content is derived from neutron data as an interim output. This qualification report uses technical assessment and corroboration to evaluate the original subject DTN. Rael (1999) provides many technical details of the technical assessment and corroboration methods and partially satisfies the intent of the qualification plan for this analysis. Rael presents a modified method based on Nelson (1996) to recompute porosity and porosity-derived values and uses some of the same inputs. Rael's (1999) intended purpose was to document porosity output relatively free of biases introduced by differing computational methods or parameter selections used for different boreholes. The qualification report necessarily evaluates the soundness of the pre-Process Validation and Re-engineering (PVAR) analyses and methodology, as reported in Rael (1999).

  18. Accounting of costs in a service of physical health. Relative units of value in dosimetry clinic in teletherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A single - although laborious - start in the economic and clinical management of our units can be come to the knowledge of the time invested in the tasks functional, having to differentiate them, name them and even encrypt them. The time spent in performing the tasks multiplied by the annual number of these will indicate the resources necessary to achieve our objectives. In addition, pooling the values of times that members of the Unit provide analysed inter-workers dispersal, their causes and possible solutions. The establishment of relative units of value in any process benefits all workers involved in the process since it allows to know the dispersion of the times that each person employed in the development of the tasks. (Author)

  19. An evaluation of cost estimates of nuclear power reactor decommissioning in Sweden, Germany and the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nominal base decommissioning cost estimates in Sweden, Germany and the US differ by large amounts. Even after adjustments to normalize the work scopes, significant cost differences remain. Variations in national cost structures, achievable productivity, the extent of preexisting infrastructure and institutional factors all contribute to make up the differences. Exchange rate aberrations are a complication for which appropriate adjustments have to be made in order to achieve a meaningful comparison. Our analyses demonstrate that virtually all these differences between the Swedish, German and US estimates can be explained by these factors. In terms of the overall reasonableness of the Swedish estimate as a basis for making financial provisions, there remain some issues that may warrant further investigation. One is the potential for and financial consequences of a serious interruption to the proposed sea transportation system. Secondly, the limited number of individual system analyses we have performed indicated some significant potential underestimates. For example, dismantling of the reactor pressure vessel costs appear to be underestimated by up to 70 MSEK (about 10 MUSD) per reactor, or up to 900 MSEK for the whole Swedish program of 12 reactors. Overall, the Swedish estimates appear to be built up in a logical and reasonable way. Our analyses indicate that some internal inconsistencies exist and that some specific input data assumptions may not be valid. In summary, the credibility of the estimates would benefit from further refinement of the scenarios and assumptions. 21 refs., 15 figs., 42 tabs

  20. Characteristics and Behavior of Managers towards Cost Consciouness (Empirical studies on Leadership Working Units in Southern Kalimantan Provincial Government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ade Adriani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The research’s  purpose is to test empirically examine the effect of the regional financial accounting information system characteristics and behavior of managers towards cost consciouness in the use of financial information systems area. Manager behavior is proxied by the control decision-making and cost management consciousness as practiced by Abernethy and Emidia. The study will examine whether the phenomenon occurs in Indonesia, particularly in the South Kalimantan provincial government. Concretely influences the characteristics of accounting information systems in this area of financial information systems, it is seen from the behavior of Chief SKPD in the South Kalimantan provincial government in decision-. The Result shows that Characteristics of Financial Accounting Information Systems affect the use of the local financial system to control decision-making and management.  There is a significant relationship between system characteristics financial information to the control area decisions. Financial regionally accounting information system characteristics were positively associated with decision controlling policy. The use of financial information systems area for menajament decisions affect cost consciousness. The effect of control decisions the cost consciousness is significant.

  1. Réduire les coûts de la simulation informatique grâce aux plans d'expériences : un exemple en calcul de procédé Reducing Computer Simulation Costs with Factorial Designs: an Example of Process Calculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murray M.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Cet article est destiné à montrer que la méthode des Plans d'Expériences utilisée dans les laboratoires et les unités de fabrication est également applicable au calcul scientifique et en particulier, à la simulation informatique. Son emploi permet de réduire, dans une forte proportion, le nombre de passages informatiques. Il permet également d'écrire des modèles mathématiques empiriques qui orientent les recherches vers la bonne solution et qui fournissent une bonne image du phénomène étudié. The aim of this article is to show that Factorial Design, which is a commonly used method in laboratories and production units, can also be very successful for designing and computerized simulations. Computer runs can be reduced by a factor as great as four to achieve a comprehensive understanding of how a plant or a process runs. Simple models can then be constructed to provide a good image of the investigated phenomenom. The example given here is that of a plant processing raw Natural Gas whose outputs are a Sales Gas and an NGL which must meet simultaneously five specifications. The operator in charge of the simulations begins by defining the Experimental Range of Investigation (Table 1. Calculations (Table 1, Fig. 2 are set in a pattern defined by Factorial Design (Table 2. These correspond to the apices of the Experimental cube (Fig. 2. Results of the simulations are then reported on Table 3. These require analysis, using Factorial Design Theory, in conjunction with each specification. A graphical approach is used to define the regions for which each specification is met: Fig. 3 shows the zone authorized for the first specification, the Wobbe Index and Fig. 4 gives the results for the outlet pressure of the Turbo-Expander. Figs. 5, 6 and 7 show the zones allowed for the CO2/C2 ratio, the TVP and the C2/C3 ratio. A satisfactory zone is found, for this last ratio, outside of the investigated range. The results acquired so far enable us to define a whole new area where all specifications should simultaneously be met. This area has been found with the help of empirical mathematical models derived from the theory of Factorial Design. An instruction point is proposed (Fig. 8 and a confirmation run for these conditions has been made to show the validity of the model. With the use of Factorial Design, the computing budget was controlled with a number of simulations reduced by a factor of four compared to the more traditionnal approach. In addition to these savings, the engineer in charge now has a clear view of how the plant runs. He can now deal with various related problems without having to re-run simulations.

  2. The Japanese Labor Market in a Comparative Perspective with the United States. A Transaction-Cost Interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Masanori

    A comparison is made of some of the notable features of the Japanese and U.S. labor markets. In Japan, as compared to the United States, for example, levels of employment tenure are higher, employer-employee attachment stronger, earnings-tenure profiles more steeply sloped, layoffs and dismissals much less frequent, and joint consultation and…

  3. Does the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness cost more than routine care? Results from the United Republic of Tanzania.

    OpenAIRE

    Adam, Taghreed; Manzi, Fatuma; Schellenberg, Joanna Armstrong; Mgalula, Leslie; de Savigny, Don; Evans, David B.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) strategy is designed to address the five leading causes of childhood mortality, which together account for 70% of the 10 million deaths occurring among children worldwide annually. Although IMCI is associated with improved quality of care, which is a key determinant of better health outcomes, it has not yet been widely adopted, partly because it is assumed to be more expensive than routine care. Here we report the cost of IMC...

  4. Self-adaptive Differential Evolution Based Optimal Power Flow for Units with Non-smooth Fuel Cost Functions

    OpenAIRE

    C. Thitithamrongchai; B. Eua-arporn

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a self-adaptive differential evolution with augmented Lagrange multiplier method (SADE_ALM) for solving optimal power flow (OPF) problems with non-smooth generator fuel cost curves. The SADE_ALM is a modified version of conventional differential evolution (DE) by integrating mutation factor (F ) and crossover constant (CR ) as additional control variables.An augmented Lagrange multiplier method (ALM) is applied to handle inequality constraints instead of traditional penalt...

  5. Meal patterns of mice under systematically varying approach and unit costs for food in a closed economy

    OpenAIRE

    Atalayer, Deniz; Rowland, Neil E.

    2009-01-01

    Several field and experimental studies have investigated the behavioral economics of food intake. In the laboratory, operant behavior has been used to emulate cost and to generate demand functions that express the relationship between the price of food and amount consumed. There have been few such studies of motivated food seeking and intake in mice, and none has reported demand functions. Using albino (CD1) male mice, the present study compares food intake and meal patterns across a series o...

  6. Cost Of Services In Medical Imaging Center Of Imam Khomeini Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atefeh Afshari

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Firms are always looking for a way to increase the profitability of products or services. Therefore, the determination of cost of services to achieve this goal seems necessary. Aiming to clarify such costs in governmental units, the present study was designed to explain the allocation of costs based on each unit’s activities. Materials and Methods: This was a descriptive study. Using field methods, the data were obtained from the activities carried out in Medical Imaging Center of Imam Khomeini Hospital in 2010-2011. To calculate the expenses of each unit, both direct and indirect costs of that unit were included. Data were analyzed using activity-based calculations. And ultimately, the cost-benefit of services rendered in each unit was calculated based on the difference between revenues and expenses. Results: With the average revenue of 573,486 rials and a cost of 527,962 rials per service, the benefit per service was computed to be equal to 45,524 rials. Conclusion: With the full implementation of the accrual accounting system, the cost of all services can be obtained, and services will be priced optimally in each unit. Besides, the management of all costs and elimination of unnecessary ones will lead to the reduction of the total cost of services while maintaining the necessary efficiency. Moreover, it will enable the organization to survive and develop based on its strategic activities.

  7. Evaluation of On-Board kV Cone Beam Computed Tomography–Based Dose Calculation With Deformable Image Registration Using Hounsfield Unit Modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to estimate the accuracy of the dose calculation of On-Board Imager (Varian, Palo Alto, CA) cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) with deformable image registration (DIR), using the multilevel-threshold (MLT) algorithm and histogram matching (HM) algorithm in pelvic radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: One pelvis phantom and 10 patients with prostate cancer treated with intensity modulated radiation therapy were studied. To minimize the effect of organ deformation and different Hounsfield unit values between planning CT (PCT) and CBCT, we modified CBCT (mCBCT) with DIR by using the MLT (mCBCTMLT) and HM (mCBCTHM) algorithms. To evaluate the accuracy of the dose calculation, we compared dose differences in dosimetric parameters (mean dose [Dmean], minimum dose [Dmin], and maximum dose [Dmax]) for planning target volume, rectum, and bladder between PCT (reference) and CBCTs or mCBCTs. Furthermore, we investigated the effect of organ deformation compared with DIR and rigid registration (RR). We determined whether dose differences between PCT and mCBCTs were significantly lower than in CBCT by using Student t test. Results: For patients, the average dose differences in all dosimetric parameters of CBCT with DIR were smaller than those of CBCT with RR (eg, rectum; 0.54% for DIR vs 1.24% for RR). For the mCBCTs with DIR, the average dose differences in all dosimetric parameters were less than 1.0%. Conclusions: We evaluated the accuracy of the dose calculation in CBCT, mCBCTMLT, and mCBCTHM with DIR for 10 patients. The results showed that dose differences in Dmean, Dmin, and Dmax in mCBCTs were within 1%, which were significantly better than those in CBCT, especially for the rectum (P<.05). Our results indicate that the mCBCTMLT and mCBCTHM can be useful for improving the dose calculation for adaptive radiation therapy

  8. Reforming Cardiovascular Care in the United States towards High-Quality Care at Lower Cost with Examples from Model Programs in the State of Michigan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Alyeshmerni

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite its status as a world leader in treatment innovation and medical education, a quality chasm exists in American health care. Care fragmentation and poor coordination contribute to expensive care with highly variable quality in the United States. The rising costs of health care since 1990 have had a huge impact on individuals, families, businesses, the federal and state governments, and the national budget deficit. The passage of the Affordable Care Act represents a large shift in how health care is financed and delivered in the United States. The objective of this review is to describe some of the economic and social forces driving health care reform, provide an overview of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA, and review model cardiovascular quality improvement programs underway in the state of Michigan. As health care reorganization occurs at the federal level, local and regional efforts can serve as models to accelerate improvement toward achieving better population health and better care at lower cost. Model programs in Michigan have achieved this goal in cardiovascular care through the systematic application of evidence-based care, the utilization of regional quality improvement collaboratives, community-based childhood wellness promotion, and medical device-based competitive bidding strategies. These efforts are examples of the direction cardiovascular care delivery will need to move in this era of the Affordable Care Act.

  9. Survey of the costs of Peripheric Intravenous Device in the composition of the values of the internment in pediatrics unit - a quantitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tathiana Martins

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Observing in practical daily of the pediatric assistance the puncture of repetition1 for maintenance of a security access in the medicine administration with drawn out period and knowing that the system of payment to the hospital for the SUS (system of health financed by the government is for type of illness, it sharpened me the interest in developing a exploratory, descriptive research with quantitative boarding on the costs of Peripheral Intravenous Device (DIP in the internment in Pediatrics2. Objectives: To raise the costs of DIP used during the internment in a pediatrics unit; To identify the causes of substitution of DIP in the venous accesses during the internment in a pediatrics unit and To correlate the cost of DIP in the composition of the final remuneration of the paid pediatrics internments for the SUS. The scene of the research was a Pediatric Infirmary of a University Hospital (HU. Sample: nineteen children interned in the period of October of 2006 the April of 2007. The research was approved by the Committee of Ethics of the Institution under nº. 071/2006. The date had been analyzed statistical and organized in three categories: I. Demographic profile and Epidemiologist of the Children interned in the Infirmary of Pediatrics of the HU; II The Costs of the DIP in the Process of Hospitalization in Pediatrics in the HU; e III. The Costs of the DIP in the composition of the final remuneration of the paid pediatrics internments for the SUS. In the first category the characterization and the profile of the clientele interned in the Infirmary of Pediatrics had been presented. In the second category the main causes of the loss of a peripheral venous access had been presented, thus tracing a parallel with the average of time of duration of a venous access, the places of effective venous puncture and the deriving costs of the infusions imperfections. In the third category they had been presented the paid time of permanence for the SUS for each illness related to the real time of permanence of each customer, the costs of the venous accesses during the period of each internment and the costs of the DIP when compared with the costs of the internment. Age of preschool pertaining to school is concluded that the majority of the interned children was the masculine sort, resident it are of the city of localization of the HUAP, remaining interned in its majority for a period of 7 the 10 days or 21 the 30 days. Was used a average of 27,3 DIP for child, being the main cause of infusion imperfection the fleabite3;4. The average of permanence of the DIP was of 72 hours, evidencing that raised the quantitative expense of DIP directly was related to the inability and lack of technique of puncture of the nursing team. Had to the quantitative raised one of used DIP, the expenses of exactly in relation to the paid value of the internment for the SUS varied in 52% of the sample between R$25,00 the R$100, 00, many of the 19 times representing of up to 31% of the value received for the hospital for determined illness. Therefore, it urges to continue investigating in this line theoretician-methodological to favor the process of consolidation of the nursing as profession recognized and sanctioned by its components (the professionals and its dependents (the population.

  10. Survey of the costs of Peripheric Intravenous Device in the composition of the values of the internment in pediatrics unit - a quantitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tathiana Martins

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Observing in practical daily of the pediatric assistance the puncture of repetition1 for maintenance of a security access in the medicine administration with drawn out period and knowing that the system of payment to the hospital for the SUS (system of health financed by the government is for type of illness, it sharpened me the interest in developing a exploratory, descriptive research with quantitative boarding on the costs of Peripheral Intravenous Device (DIP in the internment in Pediatrics2. Objectives: To raise the costs of DIP used during the internment in a pediatrics unit; To identify the causes of substitution of DIP in the venous accesses during the internment in a pediatrics unit and To correlate the cost of DIP in the composition of the final remuneration of the paid pediatrics internments for the SUS. The scene of the research was a Pediatric Infirmary of a University Hospital (HU. Sample: nineteen children interned in the period of October of 2006 the April of 2007. The research was approved by the Committee of Ethics of the Institution under nº. 071/2006. The date had been analyzed statistical and organized in three categories: I. Demographic profile and Epidemiologist of the Children interned in the Infirmary of Pediatrics of the HU; II The Costs of the DIP in the Process of Hospitalization in Pediatrics in the HU; e III. The Costs of the DIP in the composition of the final remuneration of the paid pediatrics internments for the SUS. In the first category the characterization and the profile of the clientele interned in the Infirmary of Pediatrics had been presented. In the second category the main causes of the loss of a peripheral venous access had been presented, thus tracing a parallel with the average of time of duration of a venous access, the places of effective venous puncture and the deriving costs of the infusions imperfections. In the third category they had been presented the paid time of permanence for the SUS for each illness related to the real time of permanence of each customer, the costs of the venous accesses during the period of each internment and the costs of the DIP when compared with the costs of the internment. Age of preschool pertaining to school is concluded that the majority of the interned children was the masculine sort, resident it are of the city of localization of the HUAP, remaining interned in its majority for a period of 7 the 10 days or 21 the 30 days. Was used a average of 27,3 DIP for child, being the main cause of infusion imperfection the fleabite3;4. The average of permanence of the DIP was of 72 hours, evidencing that raised the quantitative expense of DIP directly was related to the inability and lack of technique of puncture of the nursing team. Had to the quantitative raised one of used DIP, the expenses of exactly in relation to the paid value of the internment for the SUS varied in 52% of the sample between R$25,00 the R$100, 00, many of the 19 times representing of up to 31% of the value received for the hospital for determined illness. Therefore, it urges to continue investigating in this line theoretician-methodological to favor the process of consolidation of the nursing as profession recognized and sanctioned by its components (the professionals and its dependents (the population.

  11. How to calculate the annual costs of NGO-implemented programmes to support orphans and vulnerable children: a six-step approach

    OpenAIRE

    Larson Bruce A; Wambua Nancy

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Information on the costs of implementing programmes designed to provide support of orphans and vulnerable children (OVC) in sub-Saharan Africa and elsewhere is increasingly being requested by donors for programme evaluation purposes. To date, little information exists to document the costs and structure of costs of OVC programmes as actually implemented "on the ground" by local non-governmental organizations (NGOs). This analysis provides a practical, six-step approach tha...

  12. Calculation of a 900 MW conceptual 700/720ºC coal-fired power unit with an auxiliary extraction-backpressure turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna St?pczy?ska

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the calculations for different configurations of a 900 MW power unit for advanced 700/720°C ultra-supercritical steam parameters with a single and double steam reheat. The use of such high parameters, especially the reheated steam temperature, involves thermodynamic and material problems related to high temperature differences in the feed water heaters. In relation to this, a concept of the modification of the feed water heaters system by using an auxiliary extraction-backpressure turbine fed with steam from the cold reheat steam line is presented. The steam from the bleeds and the turbine outlet is directed to regenerative heaters fed in the classical system from the intermediate pressure turbine, which reduces the temperature differences in these exchangers and simplifies the main turbine IP part structure.

  13. Dose per unit cumulated activity (S-values) for e? and beta emitting radionuclides in cancer cell models calculated by Monte Carlo simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cell dosimetry is relevant regarding new efforts in specific molecular radiotherapy using Auger, CE and beta emitters. Absorbed dose in cells can be obtained by means of the dose per unit cumulated activity (S-values), together with the activity distribution. In this work, Monte Carlo simulation codes PENELOPE and MCNPX were used to obtain cellular S-values for point and extended sources of electrons and beta emitting radionuclides in the nucleus of breast (MDA-MB231, MCF7) and prostate (PC3) cancer cell models. - Highlights: • Cellular S-values were calculated using Penelope and MCPNX Monte Carlo codes. • S-values were obtained for e? and beta emitting radionuclides in cancer cell models. • Breast (MDA-MB231, MCF7) and prostate (PC3) cancer cell models were investigated. • Results are relevant for specific targeted molecular radiotherapy cell dosimetry

  14. Costos secundarios por infecciones nosocomiales en dos unidades pediátricas de cuidados intensivos / Secondary costs due to nosocomial infections in two pediatric intensive care units

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Susana, Navarrete-Navarro; Gerardo, Armengol-Sánchez.

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO. Estimar los costos asociados a infecciones nosocomiales en niños tratados en dos unidades de terapia intensiva. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS. Se realizó un estudio parcial de costos en la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos Neonatales (UCIN) y en la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos Pediátricos (UTIP) de un h [...] ospital infantil de tercer nivel de atención médica. Se investigaron los costos de las pruebas diagnósticas y de los recursos terapéuticos empleados, así como el exceso de estancia hospitalaria debida a la presencia de una infección nosocomial. RESULTADOS. Se detectaron 102 infecciones, 46 en UCIN y 56 en UTIP, en el lapso de un año, tiempo que duró el estudio. El costo promedio por infección fue de 91 698 pesos y el gasto global fue de 9.3 millones de pesos. Neumonía, flebitis y septicemia abarcaron 65% de los costos. En los niños infectados se registró una estancia hospitalaria extra de 9.6 días, 13.7 exámenes de laboratorio y 3.3 cultivos en promedio, debido a la presencia de una infección intrahospitalaria. La estancia hospitalaria representó 97% del gasto total. CONCLUSIONES. Esta evaluación representa una estimación de costos directos de infección. Los resultados justifican el establecimiento de programas preventivos agresivos para reducir las complicaciones dentro de los hospitales. Abstract in english OBJECTIVES. We estimated associated costs to nosocomial infections in two pediatric intensive care units in Mexico City. MATERIAL AND METHODS. A transversal study in the neonatal (NICU) and pediatric (PICU) intensive care units, was done. We reviewed use and cost of diagnostic procedures, medication [...] s, and excess of hospital stay. RESULTS. There were 102 infections, 46 in the NICU and 56 in the PICU. The average cost per infection was $11,682 USD and the overall expense was 1,184.71 USD. Infected children had an excess of hospital stay of 9.6 days, 13.7 more laboratory tests and 3.3 more cultures. Hospital stay represented 97% of the overall cost. CONCLUSIONS. This is one of the first estimations of nosocomial infections cost done in Mexico. These results justify the introduction of infection control programs to decrease these complications.

  15. Costos secundarios por infecciones nosocomiales en dos unidades pediátricas de cuidados intensivos Secondary costs due to nosocomial infections in two pediatric intensive care units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Navarrete-Navarro

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO. Estimar los costos asociados a infecciones nosocomiales en niños tratados en dos unidades de terapia intensiva. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS. Se realizó un estudio parcial de costos en la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos Neonatales (UCIN y en la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos Pediátricos (UTIP de un hospital infantil de tercer nivel de atención médica. Se investigaron los costos de las pruebas diagnósticas y de los recursos terapéuticos empleados, así como el exceso de estancia hospitalaria debida a la presencia de una infección nosocomial. RESULTADOS. Se detectaron 102 infecciones, 46 en UCIN y 56 en UTIP, en el lapso de un año, tiempo que duró el estudio. El costo promedio por infección fue de 91 698 pesos y el gasto global fue de 9.3 millones de pesos. Neumonía, flebitis y septicemia abarcaron 65% de los costos. En los niños infectados se registró una estancia hospitalaria extra de 9.6 días, 13.7 exámenes de laboratorio y 3.3 cultivos en promedio, debido a la presencia de una infección intrahospitalaria. La estancia hospitalaria representó 97% del gasto total. CONCLUSIONES. Esta evaluación representa una estimación de costos directos de infección. Los resultados justifican el establecimiento de programas preventivos agresivos para reducir las complicaciones dentro de los hospitales.OBJECTIVES. We estimated associated costs to nosocomial infections in two pediatric intensive care units in Mexico City. MATERIAL AND METHODS. A transversal study in the neonatal (NICU and pediatric (PICU intensive care units, was done. We reviewed use and cost of diagnostic procedures, medications, and excess of hospital stay. RESULTS. There were 102 infections, 46 in the NICU and 56 in the PICU. The average cost per infection was $11,682 USD and the overall expense was 1,184.71 USD. Infected children had an excess of hospital stay of 9.6 days, 13.7 more laboratory tests and 3.3 more cultures. Hospital stay represented 97% of the overall cost. CONCLUSIONS. This is one of the first estimations of nosocomial infections cost done in Mexico. These results justify the introduction of infection control programs to decrease these complications.

  16. Simulation analysis of Shadow Factor and unit cost in the booster mirror arrangement for a solar panel

    OpenAIRE

    Nivas.V; Saravanan R.

    2013-01-01

    A simulation and experimental study was attempted to increase the power output from a 75 W mono and multi crystalline solar panel using V Trough solar concentrators, thus estimating its ideal concentration ratio for domestic applications in the absence of automatic tracking. The net radiation falling on the panel due to reflection from concentrators and the shading caused by the reflectors was simulated using TRACE PRO and PV Syst Software, calculating the net power output, losses and output ...

  17. Costs and benefits or irradiation and other selected quarantine treatments for fruit and vegetable imports to the United States of America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For plants and plant products considered potential conveyors of exotic pests, fumigation using methyl bromide (MB) is the principal method of import quarantine treatment approved in the United States of America. This and other uses of MB have come into question due to evidence that MB may contribute to ozone depletion in the upper atmosphere. The paper examines the economics costs and benefits of irradiation as an alternative import quarantine treatment to MB fumigation. Costs associated with temperature based methods that are used to treat certain US fruit and vegetable imports, namely, hot water immersion and cold treatment, are also examined. Considerable research on irradiation as a quarantine treatment has focused on determining appropriate dosage levels to ensure phytosanitary protection. Along with evaluating its technical efficacy, the relative costs of irradiation are central to assessing its potential as a treatment alternative. Analysis of selected fruits and vegetables in US markets indicates irradiation is an economically feasible alternative to MB fumigation. Irradiation as an import quarantine treatment can generate net US gains from trade with countries where exotic pests present a phytosanitary risk. These gains range from US $650 million to US $1100 million over the five year period analysed. (author). 8 refs, 5 figs, 6 tabs

  18. Costs and risk factors for ventilator-associated pneumonia in a Turkish University Hospital's Intensive Care Unit: A case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serin Simay

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP which is an important part of all nosocomial infections in intensive care unit (ICU is a serious illness with substantial morbidity and mortality, and increases costs of hospital care. We aimed to evaluate costs and risk factors for VAP in adult ICU. Methods This is a-three year retrospective case-control study. The data were collected between 01 January 2000 and 31 December 2002. During the study period, 132 patients were diagnosed as nosocomial pneumonia of 731 adult medical-surgical ICU patients. Of these only 37 VAP patients were assessed, and multiple nosocomially infected patients were excluded from the study. Sixty non-infected ICU patients were chosen as control patients. Results Median length of stay in ICU in patients with VAP and without were 8.0 (IQR: 6.5 and 2.5 (IQR: 2.0 days respectively (P Conclusion Respiratory failure, coma, depressed consciousness, enteral feeding and length of stay are independent risk factors for developing VAP. The cost of VAP is approximately five-fold higher than non-infected patients.

  19. Multi-sphere Unit Cell model to calculate the effective thermal conductivity in packed pebble beds of mono-sized spheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? A new model to predict the effective thermal conductivity in a packed pebble bed. ? Specifically accounts for the porous structure. ? Enables improved prediction in the near-wall and wall regions. ? Conduction component compares well with experimental data. ? Radiation component compares well for temperatures up to 1200 °C. - Abstract: This paper presents a new approach to the calculation of the effective thermal conductivity in packed pebble bed reactors, namely the Multi-sphere Unit Cell model. The model specifically accounts for the porous structure, which is characterised using the radial variation in porosity, coordination number and contact angles between adjacent spheres. It also accounts for solid and gas thermal conduction, contact area, surface roughness as well as the thermal radiation for pebble temperatures up to 1200 °C. This more rigorous approach to characterising the porous structure enables improved prediction of the effective thermal conductivity in the near-wall and wall regions, resulting in better prediction of the temperatures at the reflector interface. Results obtained with the Multi-sphere Unit Cell model are compared with existing correlations and experimental data including those from the SANA-I experimental test facility.

  20. How to calculate the annual costs of NGO-implemented programmes to support orphans and vulnerable children: a six-step approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larson Bruce A

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Information on the costs of implementing programmes designed to provide support of orphans and vulnerable children (OVC in sub-Saharan Africa and elsewhere is increasingly being requested by donors for programme evaluation purposes. To date, little information exists to document the costs and structure of costs of OVC programmes as actually implemented "on the ground" by local non-governmental organizations (NGOs. This analysis provides a practical, six-step approach that NGOs can incorporate into routine operations to evaluate their costs of implementing their OVC programmes annually. This approach is applied to the Community-Based Care for Orphans and Vulnerable Children (CBCO Program implemented by BIDII (a Kenyan NGO in Eastern Province of Kenya. Methods and results The costing methodology involves the following six steps: accessing and organizing the NGO's annual financial report into logical sub-categories; reorganizing the sub-categories into input cost categories to create a financial cost profile; estimating the annual equivalent payment for programme equipment; documenting donations to the NGO for programme implementation; including a portion of NGO organizational costs not attributed to specific programmes; and including the results of Steps 3-5 into an expanded cost profile. Detailed results are provided for the CBCO programme. Conclusions This paper shows through a concrete example how NGOs implementing OVC programmes (and other public health programmes can organize themselves for data collection and documentation prospectively during the implementation of their OVC programmes so that costing analyses become routine practice to inform programme implementation rather than a painful and flawed retrospective activity. Such information is required if the costs and outcomes achieved by OVC programmes will ever be clearly documented and compared across OVC programmes and other types of programmes (prevention, treatment, etc..

  1. CHARACTERIZING COSTS, SAVINGS AND BENEFITS OF A SELECTION OF ENERGY EFFICIENT EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES IN THE UNITED STATES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, T.; Slaa, J.W.; Sathaye, J.

    2010-12-15

    Implementation and adoption of efficient end-use technologies have proven to be one of the key measures for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions throughout the industries. In many cases, implementing energy efficiency measures is among one of the most cost effective investments that the industry could make in improving efficiency and productivity while reducing CO2 emissions. Over the years, there have been incentives to use resources and energy in a cleaner and more efficient way to create industries that are sustainable and more productive. With the working of energy programs and policies on GHG inventory and regulation, understanding and managing the costs associated with mitigation measures for GHG reductions is very important for the industry and policy makers around the world. Successful implementation of emerging technologies not only can help advance productivities and competitiveness but also can play a significant role in mitigation efforts by saving energy. Providing evaluation and estimation of the costs and energy savings potential of emerging technologies is the focus of our work in this project. The overall goal of the project is to identify and select emerging and under-utilized energy-efficient technologies and practices as they are important to reduce energy consumption in industry while maintaining economic growth. This report contains the results from performing Task 2"Technology evaluation" for the project titled"Research Opportunities in Emerging and Under-Utilized Energy-Efficient Industrial Technologies," which was sponsored by California Energy Commission and managed by CIEE. The project purpose is to analyze market status, market potential, and economic viability of selected technologies applicable to the U.S. In this report, LBNL first performed re-assessments of all of the 33 emerging energy-efficient industrial technologies, including re-evaluation of the 26 technologies that were previously identified by Martin et al. (2000) and their potential significance to energy use in the industries, and new evaluation of additional seven technologies. The re-assessments were essentially updated with recent information that we searched and collected from literature to the extent possible. The progress of selected technologies as they diffused into the marketplace from 2000 to 2010 was then discussed in this report. The report also includes updated detailed characterizations of 15 technologies studied in 2000, with comparisons noted.

  2. Charge and Spin States in Schiff Base Metal Complexes with a Disiloxane Unit Exhibiting a Strong Noninnocent Ligand Character: Synthesis, Structure, Spectroelectrochemistry, and Theoretical Calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazacu, Maria; Shova, Sergiu; Soroceanu, Alina; Machata, Peter; Bucinsky, Lukas; Breza, Martin; Rapta, Peter; Telser, Joshua; Krzystek, J; Arion, Vladimir B

    2015-06-15

    Mononuclear nickel(II), copper(II), and manganese(III) complexes with a noninnocent tetradentate Schiff base ligand containing a disiloxane unit were prepared in situ by reaction of 3,5-di-tert-butyl-2-hydroxybenzaldehyde with 1,3-bis(3-aminopropyl)tetramethyldisiloxane followed by addition of the appropriate metal(II) salt. The ligand H2L resulting from these reactions is a 2:1 condensation product of 3,5-di-tert-butyl-2-hydroxybenzaldehyde with 1,3-bis(3-aminopropyl)tetramethyldisiloxane. The resulting metal complexes, NiL·0.5CH2Cl2, CuL·1.5H2O, and MnL(OAc)·0.15H2O, were characterized by elemental analysis, spectroscopic methods (IR, UV-vis, X-band EPR, HFEPR, (1)H NMR), ESI mass spectrometry, and single crystal X-ray diffraction. Taking into account the well-known strong stabilizing effects of tert-butyl groups in positions 3 and 5 of the aromatic ring on phenoxyl radicals, we studied the one-electron and two-electron oxidation of the compounds using both experimental (chiefly spectroelectrochemistry) and computational (DFT) techniques. The calculated spin-density distribution and localized orbitals analysis revealed the oxidation locus and the effect of the electrochemical electron transfer on the molecular structure of the complexes, while time-dependent DFT calculations helped to explain the absorption spectra of the electrochemically generated species. Hyperfine coupling constants, g-tensors, and zero-field splitting parameters have been calculated at the DFT level of theory. Finally, the CASSCF approach has been employed to theoretically explore the zero-field splitting of the S = 2 MnL(OAc) complex for comparison purposes with the DFT and experimental HFEPR results. It is found that the D parameter sign strongly depends on the metal coordination geometry. PMID:26030801

  3. 2011 Cost of Wind Energy Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tegen, S.; Lantz, E.; Hand, M.; Maples, B.; Smith, A.; Schwabe, P.

    2013-03-01

    This report describes the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) for a typical land-based wind turbine installed in the United States in 2011, as well as the modeled LCOE for a fixed-bottom offshore wind turbine installed in the United States in 2011. Each of the four major components of the LCOE equation are explained in detail, such as installed capital cost, annual energy production, annual operating expenses, and financing, and including sensitivity ranges that show how each component can affect LCOE. These LCOE calculations are used for planning and other purposes by the U.S. Department of Energy's Wind Program.

  4. Calculation of economic viability of alternative energy sources considering its environmental costs for small communities of Northeast Brazil; Calculo de viabilidade economica de fontes alternativas de energia considerando seus custos ambientais para pequenas comuidades da regiao nordeste brasileira

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stecher, Luiza Chourkalo

    2014-09-01

    There has been an increasing concern about current environmental issues caused by human activity, as the world searches for development. The production of electricity is an extremely relevant factor in this scenario since it is responsible for a large portion of the emissions that cause the greenhouse effect. Due to this fact, a sustainable development with alternative energy sources, which are attractive for such purpose, must be proposed, especially in places that are not supplied by the conventional electricity grid such as many communities in the Northeast Brazil. This work aims to calculate the environmental cost for the alternative sources of energy - solar, wind and biomass - during electricity generation, and to estimate the economic feasibility of those sources in small communities of Northeast Brazil, considering the avoided costs. The externalities must be properly identified and valued so the costs or benefits can be internalized and reflect accurately the economic feasibility or infeasibility of those sources. For this, the method of avoided costs was adopted for the calculation of externalities. This variable was included in the equation developed for all considered alternative energy sources. The calculations of economic feasibility were performed taking the new configurations in consideration, and the new equation was reprogrammed in the Programa de Calculo de Custos de Energias Alternativas, Solar, Eolica e Biomassa (PEASEB). The results demonstrated that the solar photovoltaic energy in isolated systems is the most feasible and broadly applicable source for small communities of Northeast Brazil. (author)

  5. The model for the calculation of the dispersed iron ore resource purchase cost in the world class manufacturing (WCM logistics pillar context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dudek

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the blast-furnace production, raw materials may account for approx. 50 % of the pig-iron manufacture costs. Therefore, any, even small, saving in the sphere of raw material purchasing will translate into the reduction in the cost of the pig-iron manufacture. The selection of appropriate supply sources and the associated raw material quality influencing the economic viability of the charge blend constitutes a multi-faceted optimization task. The paper presents a modified model for production cost estimation at the moment of making raw material purchasing, which is possible to be used in the logistics pillar of the WCM concept.

  6. Management of sacroiliac joint disruption and degenerative sacroiliitis with nonoperative care is medical resource-intensive and costly in a United States commercial payer population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ackerman SJ

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Stacey J Ackerman,1 David W Polly Jr,2 Tyler Knight,3 Tim Holt,4 John Cummings5 1Covance Market Access Services Inc, San Diego, CA, USA; 2University of Minnesota, Orthopaedic Surgery, Minneapolis, MN, USA; 3Covance Market Access Services Inc, Gaithersburg, MD, USA; 4Montgomery Spine Center, Orthopaedic Surgery, Montgomery, AL, USA; 5Community Health Network, Neurosurgery, Indianapolis, IN, USA Introduction: Low back pain is common and originates in the sacroiliac (SI joint in 15%–30% of cases. Traditional SI joint disruption/degenerative sacroiliitis treatments include nonoperative care or open SI joint fusion. To evaluate the usefulness of newly developed minimally-invasive technologies, the costs of traditional treatments must be better understood. We assessed the costs of nonoperative care for SI joint disruption to commercial payers in the United States (US. Methods: A retrospective study of claim-level medical resource use and associated costs used the MarketScan® Commercial Claims and Encounters as well as Medicare Supplemental Databases of Truven Healthcare. Patients with a primary ICD-9-CM diagnosis code for SI joint disruption (720.2, 724.6, 739.4, 846.9, or 847.3, an initial date of diagnosis from January 1, 2005 to December 31, 2007 (index date, and continuous enrollment for ?1 year before and 3 years after the index date were included. Claims attributable to SI joint disruption with a primary or secondary ICD-9-CM diagnosis code of 71x.xx, 72x.xx, 73x.xx, or 84x.xx were identified; the 3-year medical resource use-associated reimbursement and outpatient pain medication costs (measured in 2011 US dollars were tabulated across practice settings. A subgroup analysis was performed among patients with lumbar spinal fusion. Results: The mean 3-year direct, attributable medical costs were $16,196 (standard deviation [SD] $28,592 per privately-insured patient (N=78,533. Among patients with lumbar spinal fusion (N=434, attributable 3-year mean costs were $91,720 (SD $75,502 per patient compared to $15,776 (SD $27,542 per patient among patients without lumbar spinal fusion (N=78,099. Overall, inpatient hospitalizations (19.4%, hospital outpatient visits and procedures (14.0%, and outpatient pain medications (9.6% accounted for the largest proportion of costs. The estimated 3-year insurance payments attributable to SI joint disruption were $1.6 billion per 100,000 commercial payer beneficiaries. Conclusion: The economic burden of SI joint disruption among privately-insured patients in the US is substantial, highlighting the need for more cost-effective therapies. Keywords: cost, epidural injection, lumbar spinal fusion surgery

  7. Documentation for calculating CO{sub 2} reduction costs of using bio diesel; Dokumentation for beregning af CO{sub 2}-reduktionsomkostningen ved anvendelse af biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-01-01

    In connection to the European Commission's proposal for a directive on the promotion of biofuels for transport and the new climate strategy for Denmark, the Danish Energy Authority has evaluated the potential for and economics of production of biodiesel in Denmark. This note is documentation for the Danish Energy Authority's socio-economic analysis regarding rape-based biodiesel. The analysis consists of two parts: 1. Costs of producing biodiesel, 2. Costs of cultivating rape. The main conclusion is that the socio-economic CO{sub 2} reduction costs of producing biodiesel in Denmark are subject to some uncertainty. The uncertainty is primarily linked to difficulty in determining central parameters, e.g. stating the socio-economic costs of producing rape-seed, including stating prices of production factors and by-products. (ba)

  8. Optimal performance characteristics of a two-stage irreversible combined refrigeration system under maximum cooling load per unit total cost conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahin, Bahri [Yildiz Technical Univ., Dept. of Naval Architecture, Istanbul (Turkey); Kodal, Ali [Istanbul Technical Univ., Dept. of Aeronautical Engineering, Istanbul (Turkey); Koyun, Ahmet [Yildiz Technical Univ., Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2001-03-01

    In this paper, we report a study on the thermoeconomical performance optimisation of a two-stage irreversible combined refrigeration system affected by the irreversibility of heat transfer across finite temperature differences, the heat leak loss between the external heat reservoirs and the internal dissipation of the working fluids. The cooling load per unit total cost is taken as an objective function for the optimisation. The maximum of the objective function and the corresponding optimal performance and design parameters have been derived analytically. The global and the optimal performance characteristics curves are presented in terms of technical and economical parameters. The effects of the major irreversibilities and the economical parameters on the general and optimal performances have been investigated. Some new results, which may play an important role in determining the economical design conditions of real two-stage refrigeration systems, are obtained. (Author)

  9. Methodology of cost analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The method presented in this report is used for calculating and comparing the cost of electricity generation of nuclear and conventional thermal stations. It is not intended to be substituted for establishing budgets and financial requirements by each electricity utility for its own needs. The present worth values are employed in the cost evaluation and the levelized discounted electricity generation costs are calculated

  10. Integrating the Carbon and Water Footprints’ Costs in the Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC Full Water Cost Recovery Concept: Basic Principles Towards Their Reliable Calculation and Socially Just Allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Papadopoulou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the basic principles for the integration of the water and carbon footprints cost into the resource and environmental costs respectively, taking the suggestions set by the Water Framework Directive (WFD 2000/60/EC one step forward. WFD states that full water cost recovery (FWCR should be based on the estimation of the three sub-costs related: direct; environmental; and resource cost. It also strongly suggests the EU Member States develop and apply effective water pricing policies to achieve FWCR. These policies must be socially just to avoid any social injustice phenomena. This is a very delicate task to handle, especially within the fragile economic conditions that the EU is facing today. Water losses play a crucial role for the FWC estimation. Water losses should not be neglected since they are one of the major “water uses” in any water supply network. A methodology is suggested to reduce water losses and the related Non Revenue Water (NRW index. An Expert Decision Support System is proposed to assess the FWC incorporating the Water and Carbon Footprint costs.

  11. Computerized cost model for pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A computerized cost model has been developed in order to allow utility users to improve their familiarity with pressurized water reactor overnight capital costs and the various factors which influence them. This model organizes its cost data in the standard format of the Energy Economic Data Base (EEDB), and encapsulates simplified relationships between physical plant design information and capital cost information in a computer code. Model calculations are initiated from a base case, which was established using traditional cost calculation techniques. The user enters a set of plant design parameters, selected to allow consideration of plant models throughout the typical three- and four-loop PWR power range, and for plant sites in Japan, Europe, and the United States. Calculation of the new capital cost is then performed in a very brief time. The presentation of the program's output allows comparison of various cases with each other or with separately calculated baseline data. The user can start at a high level summary, and by selecting values of interest on a display grid show progressively more and more detailed information, including links to background information such as individual cost driver accounts and physical plant variables for each case. Graphical presentation of the comparison summaries is provided, and the numerical results may be exported to a spreadsheet for further processing. (author)

  12. SU-F-BRD-15: The Impact of Dose Calculation Algorithm and Hounsfield Units Conversion Tables On Plan Dosimetry for Lung SBRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To assess dosimetric differences in IMRT lung stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) plans calculated with Varian AAA and Acuros (AXB) and with vendor-supplied (V) versus in-house (IH) measured Hounsfield units (HU) to mass and HU to electron density conversion tables. Methods: In-house conversion tables were measured using Gammex 472 density-plug phantom. IMRT plans (6 MV, Varian TrueBeam, 6–9 coplanar fields) meeting departmental coverage and normal tissue constraints were retrospectively generated for 10 lung SBRT cases using Eclipse Vn 10.0.28 AAA with in-house tables (AAA/IH). Using these monitor units and MLC sequences, plans were recalculated with AAA and vendor tables (AAA/V) and with AXB with both tables (AXB/IH and AXB/V). Ratios to corresponding AAA/IH values were calculated for PTV D95, D01, D99, mean-dose, total and ipsilateral lung V20 and chestwall V30. Statistical significance of differences was judged by Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test (p<0.05). Results: For HU

  13. The Quality Costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsenie Constantin PAULIC?

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Quality has a cost and this fact cannot be denied. In the same time, it is true that non-quality is more expensive. Quality is considered asbeing expensive because no one tries to calculate non-quality costs. Out of the final cost of a product, non-quality stands for 20% up to 35%.According to this idea all the economic sectors contain error costs caused by the mistakes made during the production process. To have a realconsummation situation, it is necessary to know the cost quantum. The final quality cost is the result of the following costs: prevention costs,necessary to preclude errors; evaluation costs, as results of a final product evaluation, and failure costs, generated by the non – attainment ofproduct’s purpose. The gross of these costs stand for the total quality costs. Nowadays, the problem inheres in how much this quality cost representsout of the final cost.

  14. CÁLCULO DO CUSTO DAS ATIVIDADES DE GESTÃO AMBIENTAL: APLICAÇÃO DO CUSTEIO BASEADO EM ATIVIDADES NUMA MONTADORA DE ÔNIBUS / ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT COST CALCULATION: ACTIVITY BASED COSTING APPLIED TO BUS ASSEMBLY PROCESS

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Orlando, Durán; Jorge, Telles; Liziane, Lanza.

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta os resultados da aplicação da metodologia de custeio baseado em atividades para medir o impacto que as atividades de gestão ambiental podem ter no custo industrial dos produtos. Um estudo de caso é apresentado junto com a utilização de um software comercial para o cálculo dos [...] custos. Abstract in english This manuscript presents an Activity Based Costing application in an environmental protection context. The aim of this work is measuring the impact of environmental management activities on product costs. Also, a case study is discussed and the utilization of commercial software is presented. [...

  15. CÁLCULO DO CUSTO DAS ATIVIDADES DE GESTÃO AMBIENTAL: APLICAÇÃO DO CUSTEIO BASEADO EM ATIVIDADES NUMA MONTADORA DE ÔNIBUS ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT COST CALCULATION: ACTIVITY BASED COSTING APPLIED TO BUS ASSEMBLY PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Durán

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta os resultados da aplicação da metodologia de custeio baseado em atividades para medir o impacto que as atividades de gestão ambiental podem ter no custo industrial dos produtos. Um estudo de caso é apresentado junto com a utilização de um software comercial para o cálculo dos custos.This manuscript presents an Activity Based Costing application in an environmental protection context. The aim of this work is measuring the impact of environmental management activities on product costs. Also, a case study is discussed and the utilization of commercial software is presented.

  16. Calculating Program for Decommissioning Work Productivity based on Decommissioning Activity Experience Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KAERI is performing research to calculate a coefficient for decommissioning work unit productivity to calculate the estimated time decommissioning work and estimated cost based on decommissioning activity experience data for KRR-2. KAERI used to calculate the decommissioning cost and manage decommissioning activity experience data through systems such as the decommissioning information management system (DECOMMIS), Decommissioning Facility Characterization DB System (DEFACS), decommissioning work-unit productivity calculation system (DEWOCS). In particular, KAERI used to based data for calculating the decommissioning cost with the form of a code work breakdown structure (WBS) based on decommissioning activity experience data for KRR-2.. Defined WBS code used to each system for calculate decommissioning cost. In this paper, we developed a program that can calculate the decommissioning cost using the decommissioning experience of KRR-2, UCP, and other countries through the mapping of a similar target facility between NPP and KRR-2. This paper is organized as follows. Chapter 2 discusses the decommissioning work productivity calculation method, and the mapping method of the decommissioning target facility will be described in the calculating program for decommissioning work productivity. At KAERI, research on various decommissioning methodologies of domestic NPPs will be conducted in the near future. In particular, It is difficult to determine the cost of decommissioning because such as NPP facility have the number of variables, such as the material of the target facility decommissioning, size, radiographic conditions exist

  17. Calculating Program for Decommissioning Work Productivity based on Decommissioning Activity Experience Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Chan-Ho; Park, Seung-Kook; Park, Hee-Seong; Moon, Jei-kwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    KAERI is performing research to calculate a coefficient for decommissioning work unit productivity to calculate the estimated time decommissioning work and estimated cost based on decommissioning activity experience data for KRR-2. KAERI used to calculate the decommissioning cost and manage decommissioning activity experience data through systems such as the decommissioning information management system (DECOMMIS), Decommissioning Facility Characterization DB System (DEFACS), decommissioning work-unit productivity calculation system (DEWOCS). In particular, KAERI used to based data for calculating the decommissioning cost with the form of a code work breakdown structure (WBS) based on decommissioning activity experience data for KRR-2.. Defined WBS code used to each system for calculate decommissioning cost. In this paper, we developed a program that can calculate the decommissioning cost using the decommissioning experience of KRR-2, UCP, and other countries through the mapping of a similar target facility between NPP and KRR-2. This paper is organized as follows. Chapter 2 discusses the decommissioning work productivity calculation method, and the mapping method of the decommissioning target facility will be described in the calculating program for decommissioning work productivity. At KAERI, research on various decommissioning methodologies of domestic NPPs will be conducted in the near future. In particular, It is difficult to determine the cost of decommissioning because such as NPP facility have the number of variables, such as the material of the target facility decommissioning, size, radiographic conditions exist.

  18. A Framework of Decommissioning Cost Estimation for Nuclear Research Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Kwan Seong; Lee, Dong Gyu; Lee, Kune Woo; Oh, Won Zin; Jung, Chong Hun; Park, Jin Ho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-06-15

    Decommissioning cost estimation is a very important technique in designing and planning of nuclear facilities' decommissioning. Decommissioning cost estimation should be made according to the phases of decommissioning activities and installed components of nuclear facilities. In this paper, the basic framework necessary for decommissioning cost estimation is completed so that it could be used as a technique for decommissioning costs estimation by specifying cost items and group components and unit cost factors on which work time is calculated. Also, factors to be considered for decommissioning cost estimation of major activities and tasks are reviewed. Afterwards, these techniques will be utilized as a basic technology to establish methodology of decommissioning cost estimation and evaluation.

  19. British Committee on Radiation Units and Measurements: RBE values for the retrospective calculation of risk to specific organs as a result of neutron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In radiological protection, the physical quantity, absorbed dose, is weighted to account for the biological effectiveness of the radiation depositing energy in human tissue. In the past, this weighting factor has been called the quality factor, Q, and the weighted absorbed dose was called the dose equivalent, H. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publication 60 (ICRP 60), which replaces ICRP Publication 26 (ICRP 26), represents a very significant departure from this approach in that the weighting factors for setting dose limits and for operational use are no longer the same. In ICRP 60, a new radiation weighting factor WR, was introduced for the protection quantities. The method of weighting proposed by International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) for the operational quantities remains the Q(L)-L relationship, where Q is the quality factor and L is the linear energy transfer (LET in water: a new Q(L)-L relationship is proposed in ICRP 60. It is important to note that WR is determined by the incident radiation and is applied to the mean absorbed dose in the organ of interest, whereas L and Q are determined by the incident radiation and is applied to the mean absorbed dose in the organ of interest, whereas L and Q are determined at the point of interest and applied to the absorbed dose at that point. In this paper the British Committee on Radiation Units (BCRU) sets out the concepts in ICRP 60 which are the cause of concern and which stem from the use of the WR concept for neutron radiation. The ICRP is unlikely to change the concept of WR in the near future and therefore it is important to recognise that problems may arise in specialist areas and consider the remedies within the spirit of the ICRP and ICRU recommendations. Thus we seek to provide recommendations on the assessment of organ doses where the conceptual approach in ICRP 60 could result in substantial overestimates of risk to particular individuals in calculations for compensation scheme and legal cases

  20. Design of automated oil sludge treatment unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chukhareva, N.; Korotchenko, T.; Yurkin, A.

    2015-11-01

    The article provides the feasibility study of contemporary oil sludge treatment methods. The basic parameters of a new resource-efficient oil sludge treatment unit that allows extracting as much oil as possible and disposing other components in efficient way have been outlined. Based on the calculation results, it has been revealed that in order to reduce the cost of the treatment unit and the expenses related to sludge disposal, it is essential to apply various combinations of the existing treatment methods.

  1. Market value calculation and the solution of circularity between value and the weighted average cost of capital WACC / Cálculo do valor de mercado e a solução da circularidade entre valor e custo médio ponderado de capital CMEPC

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ignacio, Vélez-Pareja; Joseph, Tham.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A maioria dos livros apresenta o cálculo do custo médio ponderado de capital como: CMePC = Kd×(1-T)×D% + Ke×E%, em que Kd é o custo de capital de terceiros antes dos tributos; T, alíquota de imposto; D%, o porcentual dos empréstimos em relação ao ativo total; Ke, o custo do capital próprio; e E%, o [...] porcentual do patrimônio líquido sobre o ativo total. Todos eles necessitam (mas não com suficiente ênfase) que os valores para calcular D% e E% sejam valores de mercado. Muito embora se dedique atenção especial para calcular Kd e Ke, pouco esforço é destinado ao cálculo correto de seus valores de mercado. Isso significa que há inúmeros pontos que não são suficientemente esclarecidos: valores de mercado, localização no tempo, ocorrência do pagamento de tributos, a variação do CMePC ao longo do tempo e circularidade no cálculo do CMePC. O objetivo deste artigo é esclarecer esses conceitos, resolver o problema da circularidade e discutir alguns ideias geralmente ainda obscuras. Igualmente, algumas sugestões são apresentadas para o cálculo ou estimação do custo do capital próprio. Abstract in english Most finance textbooks present the Weighted Average Cost of Capital (WACC) calculation as: WACC = Kd×(1-T)×D% + Ke×E%, where Kd is the cost of debt before taxes, T is the tax rate, D% is the percentage of debt on total value, Ke is the cost of equity and E% is the percentage of equity on total value [...] . All of them precise (but not with enough emphasis) that the values to calculate D% y E% are market values. Although they devote special space and thought to calculate Kd and Ke, little effort is made to the correct calculation of market values. This means that there are several points that are not sufficiently dealt with: Market values, location in time, occurrence of tax payments, WACC changes in time and the circularity in calculating WACC. The purpose of this note is to clear up these ideas, solve the circularity problem and emphasize in some ideas that usually are looked over. Also, some suggestions are presented on how to calculate, or estimate, the equity cost of capital.

  2. Réduire les coûts de la simulation informatique grâce aux plans d'expériences : un exemple en calcul de procédé Reducing Computer Simulation Costs with Factorial Designs: an Example of Process Calculation

    OpenAIRE

    Murray M.; Goupy J.

    2006-01-01

    Cet article est destiné à montrer que la méthode des Plans d'Expériences utilisée dans les laboratoires et les unités de fabrication est également applicable au calcul scientifique et en particulier, à la simulation informatique. Son emploi permet de réduire, dans une forte proportion, le nombre de passages informatiques. Il permet également d'écrire des modèles mathématiques empiriques qui orientent les recherches vers la bonne solution et qui fournissent une bonne image du phénomène étudié....

  3. Calculation saves costs. Pt. 1. Mathematical proof of thermal bridges in the practice; Rechnen spart Kosten. T. 1. Rechnerischer Waermebrueckennachweis in der Praxis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kretzschmar, Klaus

    2012-10-15

    A good construction and renovation a accompanied by an avoidance of thermal bridges. However, the mathematical proof of this may be time consuming and very complex. The two-dimensional simulation has proved itself as a tool for this purpose. The necessary software is free of cost or available at affordable prices. fundamental considerations are helpful for the performing a differentiated mathematical proof of thermal bridges. Only then do the identification of the thermal bridges follow.

  4. Contractor-style tunnel cost estimating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keeping pace with recent advances in construction technology is a challenge for the cost estimating engineer. Using an estimating style that simulates the actual construction process and is similar in style to the contractor's estimate will give a realistic view of underground construction costs. For a contractor-style estimate, a mining method is chosen; labor crews, plant and equipment are selected, and advance rates are calculated for the various phases of work which are used to determine the length of time necessary to complete each phase of work. The durations are multiplied by the cost or labor and equipment per unit of time and, along with the costs for materials and supplies, combine to complete the estimate. Variations in advance rates, ground support, labor crew size, or other areas are more easily analyzed for their overall effect on the cost and schedule of a project. 14 figs

  5. Life Cycle Costing Model for Solid Waste Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez-Sanchez, Veronica; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2014-01-01

    To ensure sustainability of solid waste management, there is a need for cost assessment models which are consistent with environmental and social assessments. However, there is a current lack of standardized terminology and methodology to evaluate economic performances and this complicates the performance of new studies as well as the understanding of similarities and singularities between the different types of cost assessment applied in literature. This investigation develops a systematic framework for performing various types of cost assessments with different cost perspectives. Most of the cost assessments in literature can be classified into: 1) Conventional Life Cycle Costing (LCC), 2) Environmental LCC and 3) Societal LCC. While the first two LCCs are financial assessments, the third one is asocio-economic assessment. The three LCCs included marketed goods, but they handle differently nonmarketed goods (i.e. externalities). While non-marketed goods are beyond the scope of the Conventional LCC; the Environmental LCC included environmental externalities in a parallel LCA and the Societal LCC internalizes all the externalities into monetary terms. Different cost perspectives can be applied in each LCC, e.g. waste generator, waste operator and public finances and the perspective often defines the systemboundaries of the study, e.g. waste operators often focus on her/his own cost, i.e. technology based,whereas waste generators and public finances often focus on the entire waste system, i.e. system based. Figure 1 illustrates the proposed modeling framework that distinguishes between: a) budget cost, b) externality costs and 3) transfers and defines unit costs of each technology (per ton of input waste). Unitcosts are afterwards combined with a mass balance to calculate the technology cost. Later, the costs of individual technologies can be combined to calculate the system or scenario costs. In the technology definition, each cost item is defined with a unit cost per item, which is calculated with two types of parameters: 1) economic (e.g. unit prices and depreciation periods) and 2) technical (e.g. usage rate andconsumptions of commodities).The investigation provides an overview of which cost items should be included in each pair of LCC perspective and common calculations to estimate technical parameters for main waste technologies. The applicability of the cost assessment model is illustrated with a fictive case study focusing on source segregation of organic waste in Denmark.

  6. Modelagem de redes logísticas com custos de inventário calculados a partir da cobertura de estoque Logistic networks modeling with inventory carrying costs calculated using inventory turnover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Hamad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A consideração dos custos de inventário tem se tornado cada vez mais importante na análise dos trade-offs e na tomada de decisões sobre redes logísticas. O artigo propõe uma metodologia para tratamento do custo de inventário a partir da cobertura de estoque esperada em cada instalação, incorporada na modelagem matemática da localização de fábricas e/ou centros de distribuição em redes logísticas com vários elos, representando uma nova versão do modelo apresentado em Hamad e Gualda (2008. As principais contribuições desta metodologia em relação a outros métodos encontrados na literatura são a facilidade de aplicação do método, a inclusão de restrições ligadas à capacidade de armazenagem e a consideração do custo total de inventário, e não apenas do custo relacionado aos produtos modelados.Inventory carrying cost has become very important in the analysis of the trade-offs and an important component to be considered when taking decisions about a logistic network. This paper proposes a methodology incorporated in a multi-echelon sourcing decision model, to be considered as a new version of the model presented in Hamad, Gualda (2008. It treats the carrying costs using the inventory Days-on-hand estimate in each echelon of the chain (plants and/or Distribution Centers. The main contributions of this methodology compared to other options found in the literature are the simplicity of its application, the consideration of all inventory costs (not only the ones related to the products being modeled and, also, the inclusion of constraints related to warehousing capacity.

  7. Modelagem de redes logísticas com custos de inventário calculados a partir da cobertura de estoque / Logistic networks modeling with inventory carrying costs calculated using inventory turnover

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ricardo, Hamad; Nicolau Dionísio Fares, Gualda.

    Full Text Available A consideração dos custos de inventário tem se tornado cada vez mais importante na análise dos trade-offs e na tomada de decisões sobre redes logísticas. O artigo propõe uma metodologia para tratamento do custo de inventário a partir da cobertura de estoque esperada em cada instalação, incorporada n [...] a modelagem matemática da localização de fábricas e/ou centros de distribuição em redes logísticas com vários elos, representando uma nova versão do modelo apresentado em Hamad e Gualda (2008). As principais contribuições desta metodologia em relação a outros métodos encontrados na literatura são a facilidade de aplicação do método, a inclusão de restrições ligadas à capacidade de armazenagem e a consideração do custo total de inventário, e não apenas do custo relacionado aos produtos modelados. Abstract in english Inventory carrying cost has become very important in the analysis of the trade-offs and an important component to be considered when taking decisions about a logistic network. This paper proposes a methodology incorporated in a multi-echelon sourcing decisio