WorldWideScience

Sample records for calculate unit costs

  1. Calculating the Unit Cost Factors for Decommissioning Cost Estimation of the Nuclear Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The estimated decommissioning cost of nuclear research reactor is calculated by applying a unit cost factor-based engineering cost calculation method on which classification of decommissioning works fitted with the features and specifications of decommissioning objects and establishment of composition factors are based. Decommissioning cost of nuclear research reactor is composed of labor cost, equipment and materials cost. Labor cost of decommissioning costs in decommissioning works are calculated on the basis of working time consumed in decommissioning objects. In this paper, the unit cost factors and work difficulty factors which are needed to calculate the labor cost in estimating decommissioning cost of nuclear research reactor are derived and figured out.

  2. The unit cost factors and calculation methods for decommissioning - Cost estimation of nuclear research facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: The uncertainties of decommissioning costs increase high due to several conditions. Decommissioning cost estimation depends on the complexity of nuclear installations, its site-specific physical and radiological inventories. Therefore, the decommissioning costs of nuclear research facilities must be estimated in accordance with the detailed sub-tasks and resources by the tasks of decommissioning activities. By selecting the classified activities and resources, costs are calculated by the items and then the total costs of all decommissioning activities are reshuffled to match with its usage and objectives. And the decommissioning cost of nuclear research facilities is calculated by applying a unit cost factor method on which classification of decommissioning works fitted with the features and specifications of decommissioning objects and establishment of composition factors are based. Decommissioning costs of nuclear research facilities are composed of labor cost, equipment and materials cost. Of these three categorical costs, the calculation of labor costs are very important because decommissioning activities mainly depend on labor force. Labor costs in decommissioning activities are calculated on the basis of working time consumed in decommissioning objects and works. The working times are figured out of unit cost factors and work difficulty factors. Finally, labor costs are figured out by using theselabor costs are figured out by using these factors as parameters of calculation. The accuracy of decommissioning cost estimation results is much higher compared to the real decommissioning works. (authors)

  3. Adaptation of activity-based-costing (ABC to calculate unit costs in Mental Health Care in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Moreno

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: To date, numerous cost-of-illness studies have been using methodologies that don't provide trustworthy results for decision making in mental health care. Objectives: The aims of this paper are design and implement a cost methodology by process of patient's care to calculate unit costs in mental health in Spain in 2005 and compare the results with the reached ones by traditional methods. Methods: We adapted Activity-Based-Costing to this field analyzing the organizational and management structure of Mental Health's public services in a region of Spain, Navarre, describing the processes of care to patient in each resource and calculating their cost. Results: We implemented this methodology in all resources and obtained unit cost per service. There are great differences between our results and the ones calculated by traditional systems. We display one example of these disparities contrasting our cost with the reached one by the methodology of Diagnostic Related Group (DRG. Conclusions: This cost methodology offers more advantages for management than traditional methods provide.

  4. Adaptation of activity-based-costing (ABC) to calculate unit costs in Mental Health Care in Spain

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Karen, Moreno.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: To date, numerous cost-of-illness studies have been using methodologies that don't provide trustworthy results for decision making in mental health care. Objectives: The aims of this paper are design and implement a cost methodology by process of patient's care to calculate unit costs in [...] mental health in Spain in 2005 and compare the results with the reached ones by traditional methods. Methods: We adapted Activity-Based-Costing to this field analyzing the organizational and management structure of Mental Health's public services in a region of Spain, Navarre, describing the processes of care to patient in each resource and calculating their cost. Results: We implemented this methodology in all resources and obtained unit cost per service. There are great differences between our results and the ones calculated by traditional systems. We display one example of these disparities contrasting our cost with the reached one by the methodology of Diagnostic Related Group (DRG). Conclusions: This cost methodology offers more advantages for management than traditional methods provide.

  5. Calculation of the cost per exploration in a Radiodiagnosis Service based on relative value units (RVU)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this report is to present our system for calculating the costs of different products included in our catalogue(cost per exploration), comparing the total expense generated by our Service, as the center of activity, with the total activity performed yearly. In order to make the different catalogue products evaluable, we assigned a number of relative value units to each exploration on the basis of a series of factors that render it more or less costly when compared with the simple exploration carried out in an outpatient which was considered as RVU=1. (Author) 19 refs

  6. SEC Mutual Fund Cost Calculator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Because "every investor should know what he or she is paying for a mutual fund," the US Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) provides this cost calculator. Two versions in Windows 3.1/95/98/NT or JavaScript format allow investors to easily estimate and compare mutual fund costs, and the SEC hopes this information will reveal "how costs add up over time."

  7. Calculating utility prudency issue costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear industry, particularly utilities and their construction, engineering and vendor agents, is faced with a surging increase in prudency management audits. What started as primarily a nuclear project-oriented requirement has spread to encompass most significant utility capital construction projects. Such audits are often a precedent condition to commencement of rate hearings. The cost engineer, a primary major capital construction project participant, is required to develop or critique ''prudency issue'' costs as part of such audits. Although utility costs in the broadest sense are potentially at issue, this paper concentrates on the typical project/construction management costs. The costs of design, procurement and construction are all subject to the calculation process

  8. Applying Activity Based Costing (ABC) Method to Calculate Cost Price in Hospital and Remedy Services

    OpenAIRE

    Dabiri, A.; Rajabi, A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Activity Based Costing (ABC) is one of the new methods began appearing as a costing methodology in the 1990. It calculates cost price by determining the usage of resources. In this study, ABC method was used for calculating cost price of remedial services in hospitals.Methods: To apply ABC method, Shahid Faghihi Hospital was selected. First, hospital units were divided into three main departments: administrative, diagnostic, and hospitalized. Second, activity centers were defined ...

  9. REVIEW OF METHODOLOGIES FOR COSTS CALCULATING OF RUMINANTS IN SLOVAKIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana KRUPOVÁ

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to synthesise and analyse the methodologies and the biological aspects of the costs calculation in ruminants in Slovakia. According to literature, the account classification of cost items is most often considered for construction of costing formula. The costs are mostly divided into fixed (costs independent from volume of herd’s production and variable ones (costs connected with improvement of breeding conditions. Cost for feeds and beddings, labour costs, other direct costs and depreciations were found as the most important cost items in ruminants. It can be assumed that including the depreciations into costs of the basic herd takes into consideration the real costs simultaneously invested into raising of young animals in the given period. Costs are calculated for the unit of the main and by-products and their classification is influenced mainly by the type of livestock and production system. In dairy cows is usually milk defined as the main product, and by- products are live born calf and manure. The base calculation unit is kilogram of milk (basic herd of cows and kilogram of gain and kilogram of live weight (young breeding cattle. In suckler cows is a live-born calf the main product and manure is the by-product. The costs are mostly calculated per suckler cow, live-born calf and per kilogram of live weight of weaned calf. Similar division of products into main and by-products is also in cost calculation for sheep categories. The difference is that clotted cheese is also considered as the main product of basic herd in dairy sheep and greasy wool as the by-products in all categories. Definition of the base calculation units in sheep categories followed the mentioned classification. The value of a by-product in cattle and sheep is usually set according to its quantity and intra- plant price of the by-product. In the calculation of the costs for sheep and cattle the “structural ewe” and “structural cow” proportionally integrate the costs of other categories of the herd into the costs of the basic herd. Subtraction, allocation and combined calculation methods of costs are the most used in breeding of ruminants. It is recommended to consider specific breeding conditions and objective calculation of costs for the relevant category, when picking out the method of calculation.

  10. PROSPECTS OF MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING AND COST CALCULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian ?AICU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Progress in improving production technology requires appropriate measures to achieve an efficient management of costs. This raises the need for continuous improvement of management accounting and cost calculation. Accounting information in general, and management accounting information in particular, have gained importance in the current economic conditions, which are characterized by risk and uncertainty. The future development of management accounting and cost calculation is essential to meet the information needs of management.

  11. Cost calculation in agricultural enterprises in theory and practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Zi?tara

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to evolution of the production costs calculation theory in agriculture from the second half of XVIII century till present times. The author emphasized long lasting dispute among the economists about usefulness of the full account of unit costs of production in evaluation of production profitability. Moreover, utility of the part-costs account in evaluation of production competitiveness, as well as their value in evaluation of the production processes and structure (using optimisation methods was analysed. Additionally article describes current problems of cost calculation in agriculture.

  12. Cost calculation of constructions series of types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Gendarz

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The main aim of research was to elaborate methods to estimate costs in construction series of types production process.Design/methodology/approach: Based on manufacturing cost of one element it is possible to determine cost of other elements belonged to the same construction series of types. The four main cost estimating methods were distinguished. The first method is feature-based. The technological operations are dedicated to specified pieces of element. Cost manufacturing of every piece is specified. Based on elementary costs the manufacturing cost of whole part is calculated. The second method uses construction similarity theory. The selected part manufacturing costs are functionally depended on main part manufacturing costs. The CAM method is based on time calculation from manufacturing process simulation. The simplified method uses normalized masses of analyzed parts pieces. The balance coefficients of those pieces are specified.Findings: Manufacturing cost estimation methods were analyzed. Those methods are based on construction and manufacturing technology. The main conclusion is that CAM method is most accurate.Research limitations/implications: The CAM method is limited to analyze only manufacturing process based on numerically controlled machines. The Feature-based method require developed database for analyzed part family.Practical implications: Presented method was applied in hydraulic props manufacturing cost analysis.Originality/value: Described analysis puts together and compares different cost estimating methods which allows choosing most suitable method for analyzed manufacturing process.

  13. Applying Activity Based Costing (ABC Method to Calculate Cost Price in Hospital and Remedy Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Dabiri

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Activity Based Costing (ABC is one of the new methods began appearing as a costing methodology in the 1990. It calculates cost price by determining the usage of resources. In this study, ABC method was used for calculating cost price of remedial services in hospitals.Methods: To apply ABC method, Shahid Faghihi Hospital was selected. First, hospital units were divided into three main departments: administrative, diagnostic, and hospitalized. Second, activity centers were defined by the activity analysis method. Third, costs of administrative activity centers were allocated into diagnostic and operational departments based on the cost driver. Finally, with regard to the usage of cost objectives from services of activity centers, the cost price of medical services was calculated.Results: The cost price from ABC method significantly differs from tariff method. In addition, high amount of indirect costs in the hospital indicates that capacities of resources are not used properly.Conclusion: Cost price of remedial services with tariff method is not properly calculated when compared with ABC method. ABC calculates cost price by applying suitable mechanisms but tariff method is based on the fixed price. In addition, ABC represents useful information about the amount and combination of cost price services.

  14. Users enlist consultants to calculate costs, savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-05-24

    Consultants who calculate payback provide expertise and a second opinion to back up energy managers' proposals. They can lower the costs of an energy-management investment by making complex comparisons of systems and recommending the best system for a specific application. Examples of payback calculations include simple payback for a school system, a university, and a Disneyland hotel, as well as internal rate of return for a corporate office building and a chain of clothing stores. (DCK)

  15. United States gas industry and cost of services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overview of the United States Gas industry includes the role of industry participants by segment: producer, pipeline and distributor. A scheme of Industry transactions in 1995 shows the connection between the participants. Gross cost of service includes: operation and maintenance; administrative depreciation, non-income taxes, income taxes and return. Other revenues are subtracted to obtain net cost of service. Detailed scheme is shown for calculating the rate base of a single company with the method for calculation of return

  16. TTS-Polttopuu - cost calculation model for fuelwood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The TTS-Institutes's Forestry Department has developed a computer based costcalculation model, 'TTS-Polttopuu', for the calculation of unit costs and resource needs in the harvesting systems for wood chips and split firewood. The model enables to determine the productivity and device cost per operating hour by each working stage of the harvesting system. The calculation model also enables the user to find out how changes in the productivity and cost bases of different harvesting chains influence the unit cost of the whole system. The harvesting chain includes the cutting of delimbed and non-delimbed fuelwood, forest haulage, road transportation chipping and chopping of longwood at storage. This individually operating software was originally developed to serve research needs, but it also serves the needs of the forestry and agricultural education, training and extension as well as individual firewood producers. The system requirements for this cost calculation model are at least 486-level processor with the Windows 95/98 -operating system, 16 MB of memory (RAM) and 5 MB of available hard-disk. This development work was carried out in conjunction with the nation-wide BIOENERGY Research Programme. (orig.)

  17. COMPUTER PROGRAM FOR CALCULATING THE COST OF DRINKING WATER TREATMENT SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This FORTRAN computer program calculates the construction and operation/maintenance costs for 45 centralized unit treatment processes for water supply. The calculated costs are based on various design parameters and raw water quality. These cost data are applicable to small size ...

  18. Petroleum Refinery Hydrogen Production Unit: Exergy and Production Cost Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio de Oliveira Júnior

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Some specific processes are required to obtain pure hydrogen and the most usual one is natural gas reforming, where natural gas reacts with superheated steam producing H2, CO, CO2 and H2O. This paper presents the exergy and production costs evaluation of a complete hydrogen production unit of a petroleum refinery. The hydrogen production unit analysed in this paper has to supply 550,000 Nm3 of hydrogen per day to purify diesel oil. Based on a synthesis plant of the hydrogen production unit, the exergy efficiency of each component and of the overall plant are calculated. The hydrogen production cost is determined by means of a thermoeconomic analysis in which the equality cost partition method is employed, including capital and operational costs, in order to determine the production cost of hydrogen and other products of the plant.

  19. 31 CFR 205.27 - How are Interest Calculation Costs calculated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...Calculation Costs. (1) Interest Calculation Costs do not...or maintaining records for accounting and reconciliation of cash...for upgrading or modernizing accounting systems. (2) Interest Calculation Costs in...

  20. Low-cost inertial measurement unit.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deyle, Travis Jay

    2005-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories performs many expensive tests using inertial measurement units (IMUs)--systems that use accelerometers, gyroscopes, and other sensors to measure flight dynamics in three dimensions. For the purpose of this report, the metrics used to evaluate an IMU are cost, size, performance, resolution, upgradeability and testing. The cost of a precision IMU is very high and can cost hundreds of thousands of dollars. Thus the goals and results of this project are as follows: (1) Examine the data flow in an IMU and determine a generic IMU design. (2) Discuss a high cost IMU implementation and its theoretically achievable results. (3) Discuss design modifications that would save money for suited applications. (4) Design and implement a low cost IMU and discuss its theoretically achievable results. (5) Test the low cost IMU and compare theoretical results with empirical results. (6) Construct a more streamlined printed circuit board design reducing noise, increasing capabilities, and constructing a self-contained unit. Using these results, we can compare a high cost IMU versus a low cost IMU using the metrics from above. Further, we can examine and suggest situations where a low cost IMU could be used instead of a high cost IMU for saving cost, size, or both.

  1. Indian experience in investment cost in small size nuclear power reactor units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the Indian situation and experience in relation to the investment in Small Size Nuclear Power Reactor Units. Data are given on nuclear power investment costs. The characteristics of the Indian experience are also given in detail. Nuclear power generation costs and pricing are discussed. Important parameters used for calculating unit energy cost from nuclear power plants are listed. Nuclear and thermal power costs are compared. The variation of unit energy cost with change in various parameters is explained

  2. Computer Program Development for House Cost Calculation

    OpenAIRE

    Korablev, Maxim

    2010-01-01

    The main purpose of this project was to develop a program, which can calculate the cost of houses. This program should accelerate a matching process between a company and users. Also the program should contain a database of building materials. The program language is PHP. PHP is a modern computer language for the development of web programs. The writing of a program code was based on the official PHP manual and a little support from a programmer in the company. For making the database of...

  3. Unit Commitment With Dynamic Cycling Costs

    OpenAIRE

    Troy, Niamh; Flynn, Damian; Milligan, Michael R.; et al.

    2012-01-01

    Increased competition in the electricity sector and the integration of variable renewable energy sources is resulting in more frequent cycling of thermal plant. Thus, the wear-and-tear to generator components and the related costs are a growing concern for plant owners and system operators alike. This paper presents a formulation that can be implemented in a MIP dispatch model to dynamically model cycling costs based on unit operation. When implemented for a test system, the results show that...

  4. Cost calculation of constructions series of types

    OpenAIRE

    Gendarz, P.; Cielniak, M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The main aim of research was to elaborate methods to estimate costs in construction series of types production process.Design/methodology/approach: Based on manufacturing cost of one element it is possible to determine cost of other elements belonged to the same construction series of types. The four main cost estimating methods were distinguished. The first method is feature-based. The technological operations are dedicated to specified pieces of element. Cost manufacturing of every...

  5. THEORETICAL AND PRACTICAL CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING THE COST CALCULATION USING DIRECT COSTING

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina Aurora, Bunea-bontas?

    2012-01-01

    The definition of the cost of production as applied to inventories refers to the acquisition and production cost, and its determination involves many considerations. This article emphasizes a comparative approach of the calculation of production cost under direct costing and absorption costing, and examines the impact of using these calculation systems on the financial performance of the companies presented in the income statement.

  6. Calculating cost-training billback at WHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westinghouse Hanford Company, in an attempt to understand training costs and to find a make-or-buy tool for training, has constructed a Training Cost Estimator. Among the outputs of this Lotus program are projected numbers of instructor, managers, and secretarial staff, and cost per student (open-quotes tuitionclose quotes)

  7. Cost unit accounting for power supply companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cost unit accounting was introduced to the power supply company Energie-Versorgung Schwaben AG (EVS) in the Seventies. The initial method of peak load proportioning was later modified to the so-called VDEW method and further improved in consecutive steps through specific measurements. Here EVS focussed particularly on collecting data in the separate-contract sector. The authors describe the procedure adopted and results obtained. (orig.)

  8. Calculating cost savings in utilization management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMillan, Donna

    2014-01-01

    A major motivation for managing the utilization of laboratory testing is to reduce the cost of medical care. For this reason it is important to understand the basic principles of cost accounting in the clinical laboratory. The process of laboratory testing includes three distinct components termed the pre-analytic, analytic and post-analytic phases. Utilization management efforts may impact the cost structure of these three phases in different ways depending on the specific details of the initiative. Estimates of cost savings resulting from utilization management programs reported in the literature have often been fundamentally flawed due to a failure to understand basic concepts such as the difference between laboratory costs versus charges and the impact of reducing laboratory test volumes on the average versus marginal cost structure in the laboratory. This article will provide an overview of basic cost accounting principles in the clinical laboratory including both job order and process cost accounting. Specific examples will be presented to illustrate these concepts in various different scenarios. PMID:24084505

  9. Recursive Delay Calculation Unit for Parametric Beamformer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolov, Svetoslav; Jensen, JØrgen Arendt

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a recursive approach for parametric delay calculations for a beamformer. The suggested calculation procedure is capable of calculating the delays for any image line defined by an origin and arbitrary direction. It involves only add and shift operations making it suitable for hardware implementation. One delaycalculation unit (DCU) needs 4 parameters, and all operations can be implemented using fixed-point arithmetics. An N -channel system needs N + 1 DCUs per line - one for the distance from the transmit origin to the image point and N for the distances from the image point to each of the receivers. Each DCU recursively calculates the square of the distance between a transducer element and a point on the beamformed line. Then it finds the approximate square root. The distance to point i is used as an initial guess for point i + 1. Using fixed-point calculations with 36-bit precision gives an error in the delay calculations on the order of 1/64 samples, at a sampling frequency of f s = 40 MHz. The circuit has been synthesized for a Virtex II Pro device speed grade 6 in two versions - a pipelined and a non-pipelined producing 150 and 30 million delays per second, respectively. The non-pipelined circuit occupies about 0.5 % of the FPGA resources and the pipelined one about 1 %. When the square root is found with a pipelined CORDIC processor, 2 % of the FPGA slices are used to deliver 150 million delays per second. © (2006) COPYRIGHT SPIE--The International Society for Optical Engineering.

  10. THEORETICAL AND PRACTICAL CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING THE COST CALCULATION USING DIRECT COSTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Aurora, Bunea-Bonta?

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The definition of the cost of production as applied to inventories refers to the acquisition and production cost, and its determination involves many considerations. This article emphasizes a comparative approach of the calculation of production cost under direct costing and absorption costing, and examines the impact of using these calculation systems on the financial performance of the companies presented in the income statement.

  11. Inbound Logistics Cost and CO2 Calculations

    OpenAIRE

    Ko?kler, Cihan

    2010-01-01

    Business has globalized rapidly during the last decades. Distances between point of origin and point of consumption have increased as a result of globalization. Today’s increased distances mean that companies require faster logistic responses. Air transportation is preferred because it’s worldwide lead-time, of just 1-2 day, fulfill business expectations. However, transportation operation costs have risen dramatically and there are growing concerns about the high CO2 emission levels assoc...

  12. COSTING OF QUALITY IN BUSINESS BASE UNIT SEVERAL PRODUCTIONS, CIENFUEGOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez Alfonso, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The calculation of quality costs as a component of the System of Quality Management, is a must for Cuban business managers, to provide a technique identified as an advanced instrument of management, which will lead to improved competitiveness and serve as an informative source. Identify and calculate the costs of quality, as well as propose measured plans, to promote a decrease in operating expenses, which can be used as a tool to improve processes. The Business Unit of Several Base Productions of Cienfuegos presents the fault to give way to Business Improvement and certification of its Quality Management System, according to the norm ISO 9001:2008 and the decree law 281, so that the objective research was to estimate the costs of quality processes in the company. To achieve this level were used empirical methods and techniques such as direct observation, document review and work in groups, which allowed to calculate the costs of quality in all processes. The results obtained are applicable to companies that operate in the Cuban economy and according to the Cuban economic model implemented from the year 2011.

  13. Unit labour costs in Malta: Trends and international comparisons

    OpenAIRE

    Grech, Aaron George

    2004-01-01

    Appraisals of international competitiveness are increasingly focusing on unit labour costs. In this paper, a unit labour costs measure is derived for the Maltese economy for the last two decades. In order to take into account structural shifts, separate indices are also derived for the effective cost of labour in the private and Government sectors, and in manufacturing. These series indicate that unit labour costs in the overall economy rose by 2.3% per annum during the twenty years to 2003,...

  14. Fusion reactor design studies: standard unit costs and cost scaling rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report establishes standard unit costs and scaling rules for estimating costs of material, equipment, land, and labor components used in magnetic confinement fusion reactor plant construction and operation. Use of the standard unit costs and scaling rules will add uniformity to cost estimates, and thus allow valid comparison of the economic characteristics of various reactor concepts

  15. Composite Cost Function Based Solution to the Unit Commitment Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Srikrishna Subramanian; Radhakrishnan Anandhakumar

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a new approach via composite cost function to solve the unit commitment problem. The unit com-mitment problem involves determining the start-up and shut-down schedules for generating units to meet the fore-casted demand at the minimum cost. The commitment schedule must satisfy the other constraints such as the generating limits, spinning reserve, minimum up and down time, ramp level and individual units. The proposed algorithm gives the committed units and economic load di...

  16. Modern practice of cost estimates for the NPP units decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of analysis of current practices of cost estimates for decommissioning of nuclear power units with different reactor types present is reviewed. Cost estimates intervals are shown for decommissioning of units with PWR,BWR and AP1000 reactors and the main factors influencing the cost amount are analyzed

  17. Manual for Reducing Educational Unit Costs in Latin American Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centro Multinacional de Investigacion Educativa, San Jose (Costa Rica).

    Designed for educational administrators, this manual provides suggestions for reducing educational unit costs in Latin America without reducing the quality of the education. Chapter one defines unit cost concepts and compares the costs of the Latin American countries. Chapter two deals with the different policies which could affect the principal…

  18. Aspects of Costs Calculation in a Vegetable Production Farm

    OpenAIRE

    Teodor HADA

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with the aspects of the issue of costs calculation for a vegetable production farm in terms of theory and practice. Aspects of the active accounting regulations, applicable to vegetable production farms, are presented in the content. Features of the vegetable production are detailed, and the applicability of costs calculation methods is shown by the example of the “to order” method. In terms of accounting, there are presented the records made in the management accounting...

  19. Patient experience – the ingredient missing from cost-effectiveness calculations

    OpenAIRE

    Curtis, David

    2011-01-01

    Standard cost-effectiveness calculations as used by the UK National Institute of Clinical Excellence compare the net benefit of an intervention with the financial costs to the health service. Debates about public health interventions also focus on these factors. The subjective experience of the patient, including financial costs and also transient pain, distress, and indignity, is routinely ignored. I carried out an Internet survey which showed that members of the public assign a high financi...

  20. Calculating the Departmental Credit-Hour Cost for Higher Learning Institutions Using Joint Costing and Activity-Based Costing Systems Simultaneously

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleem Z. Ramadan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The question of how to calculate the effective credit hour costs for different departments in Higher Learning Institutions was approached in this paper using Joint Costing and Activity-Based Costing techniques. The cost of the effective credit hour in the higher learning institutions was treated as joint cost problem. The main advantage of joint cost analysis is its ability to handle multiple faculties who are using common resources up to achieve split off so that each faculty has its own separable cost. The departments within the faculty were also treated as joint cost problem as these departments use common resources up to their split off point as well. The Activity-Based Costing system (ABC then was used because of its ability to allocate the joint costs to the corresponding faculties and departments. Furthermore, the separable costs pertaining the different departments were added to calculate the departments’ costs. We suggest that the annual effective departmental credit-hour cost to be calculated by dividing the annual total cost of the department by the annual effective number of credit hours taught in that department. The Knapsack model was applied at each cost level to determine the optimal cost driver set for the Activity-Based costing analysis such that a tradeoff between the precision and the cost of the information obtained from the analysis was reached. The proposed model was explained using a hypothetical example of a university containing 9 faculties such that the costs incurred for the university were decomposed into four levels: Facility level and it included all the costs that were not directly related to any of the faculties or departments, Product level and it included all the costs that were related to a certain faculty and not related to a specific department within that faculty, Batch level and it included all the costs that were directly related to a specific department, and finally, the Unit level and it included the annual effective number of hours registered in a department. Originally 12 cost drivers were considered for this hypothetical problem, and then a binary programming model utilizing the Knapsack setup was used to select an optimal set of 9 cost drivers such that those who are not selected were combined with the ones that were selected. The results showed that the proposed method offered precise information about the annual departmental credit-hour cost for higher learning institutions.

  1. External Costs Of Electricity Generation, A Proximate Calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electricity generation cost of a fossil power plant includes capital cost, operation and maintenance costs and fuel cost. For a nuclear power plant the generation cost includes also a post-operation cost (decommissioning cost). The awareness of public health and environmental protection have recently urged to elaborately incorporate those costs borne by the public due to the pollution and negative effects resulting from the Electricity generation, which are called external costs. Methods and computer programs of such calculation have been published and being developed, for example the one that is being developed and promoted by the IAEA, the B-Glad computation program. The method calculates dispersion of emitted pollution to public and environment, assess the doses received and damages thereafter, and then evaluate the damages in monetary quantities. This paper illustrates calculation using the B-Glad taking the input data of nuclear power plant (NPP) of 2 x 900 MWe at the Ujung Lemah Abang site, and two kinds of coal power plants (CPP) of 3 x 600 MWe at the Tanjung Jati site, both sites are located at the coast of the Muria peninsular. The CPPs with Flue Gas Desulphurization (FGD)and without FGD are compared, whereas the NPP eternality assessment includes considerations of risk aversion and accident condition. Calculation results show that external costs amount to 0,9094 mills/KWh for cpr without FGD, 0,8156 mills/KWh for cpr with FGD, and 0,0083 mills/KWh for the NP with FGD, and 0,0083 mills/KWh for the NPP, or two to four orders of magnitude less than respective generation costs. Compared to studies for European countries, their figures are smaller, but to the Thailand study these figures are within their lower-upper range

  2. Unit costs of waste management operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides estimates of generic costs for the management, disposal, and surveillance of various waste types, from the time they are generated to the end of their institutional control. Costs include monitoring and surveillance costs required after waste disposal. Available data on costs for the treatment, storage, disposal, and transportation of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive, low-level radioactive, transuranic radioactive, hazardous, mixed (low-level radioactive plus hazardous), and sanitary wastes are presented. The costs cover all major elements that contribute to the total system life-cycle (i.e., ''cradle to grave'') cost for each waste type. This total cost is the sum of fixed and variable cost components. Variable costs are affected by operating rates and throughput capacities and vary in direct proportion to changes in the level of activity. Fixed costs remain constant regardless of changes in the amount of waste, operating rates, or throughput capacities. Key factors that influence cost, such as the size and throughput capacity of facilities, are identified. In many cases, ranges of values for the key variables are presented. For some waste types, the planned or estimated costs for storage and disposal, projected to the year 2000, are presented as graphics

  3. Unit decontamination and dismantlement (D ampersand D) costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of relationships have been developed for estimating unit decontamination and dismantlement (D ampersand D) costs for a number of building types which may be applied in the absence of other data to obtain rough order-of-magnitude (ROM) cost estimates for D ampersand D activities. The relationships were developed using unit D ampersand D costs for a number of building structure types at the Department of Energy Fernald site. These unit costs into account the level of radioactive contamination as well as the, building size

  4. Calculating communication costs with Sessions Types and Sizes

    OpenAIRE

    Franco, Juliana; Drossopoulou, Sophia; Yoshida, Nobuko

    2014-01-01

    We present a small object-oriented language with communication primitives. The language allows the assignment of binary session types to communication channels in order to govern the interaction between different objects and to statically calculate communication costs. Class declarations are annotated with size information in order to determine the cost of sending and receiving objects. This paper describes our first steps in the creation of a session-based, object-oriented language for co...

  5. Commerical electric power cost studies. Capital cost addendum multi-unit coal and nuclear stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is the culmination of a study performed to develop designs and associated capital cost estimates for multi-unit nuclear and coal commercial electric power stations, and to determine the distribution of these costs among the individual units. This report addresses six different types of 2400 MWe (nominal) multi-unit stations as follows: Two Unit PWR Station-1139 MWe Each, Two Unit BWR Station-1190 MWe Each, Two Unit High Sulfur Coal-Fired Station-1232 MWe Each, Two Unit Low Sulfur Coal-Fired Station-1243 MWe Each, Three Unit High Sulfur Coal-Fired Station-794 MWe Each, Three Unit Low Sulfur Coal-Fired Station-801 MWe Each. Recent capital cost studies performed for ERDA/NRC of single unit nuclear and coal stations are used as the basis for developing the designs and costs of the multi-unit stations. This report includes the major study groundrules, a summary of single and multi-unit stations total base cost estimates, details of cost estimates at the three digit account level and plot plan drawings for each multi-unit station identified

  6. Aspects of Costs Calculation in a Vegetable Production Farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodor HADA

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the aspects of the issue of costs calculation for a vegetable production farm in terms of theory and practice. Aspects of the active accounting regulations, applicable to vegetable production farms, are presented in the content. Features of the vegetable production are detailed, and the applicability of costs calculation methods is shown by the example of the “to order” method. In terms of accounting, there are presented the records made in the management accounting, in the financial accounting and also the conclusions to be drawn in terms of management accounting utility in financial decision making.

  7. Comparison of methods to calculate electricity generating costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some of the methods used to compare electricity generating costs are ill-adapted to the task. In the following a dynamic cost accounting method is described which can be used to make an informative cost comparison of various electricity generating technologies, in particular nuclear and coal-fired power stations, with differing periods of operation and differing cost structures. The reference power stations assumed for the comparison for basic, medium and peak loads are all regarded as part of a stock of power stations built up over a relatively long period of time. The comparison is based on discounted cash values for dynamic investments and operating costs. The accounting process, which involves complex calculations, is performed with the aid of EDP. (orig.)

  8. Management Accounting of Costs: Approaches to Calculation of the Target Cost of the Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Y. Sokolov

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the scientific and practical approach to fulfillment of management accounting of targetcosting at the industrial enterprises. We offer algorithm for closing gaps in the process of bringing the plannedand forecasted cost of the product to its target value. Different variants of the integrated management accountingsystem have been studied basing on the method of target cost of the product calculation. Presented are thetechniques of costs optimization on the basis of target rates within the scope of the target cost of the productdefinition.

  9. Cost calculations for decommissioning and dismantling of nuclear research facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, I. (Studsvik Nuclear AB (Sweden)); Backe, S. (Institute for Energy Technology (Norway)); Cato, A.; Lindskog, S. (Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (Sweden)); Efraimsson, H. (Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (Sweden)); Iversen, Klaus (Danish Decommissioning (Denmark)); Salmenhaara, S. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland (Finland)); Sjoeblom, R. (Tekedo AB, (Sweden))

    2008-07-15

    Today, it is recommended that planning of decommission should form an integral part of the activities over the life cycle of a nuclear facility (planning, building and operation), but it was only in the nineteen seventies that the waste issue really surface. Actually, the IAEA guidelines on decommissioning have been issued as recently as over the last ten years, and international advice on finance of decommissioning is even younger. No general international guideline on cost calculations exists at present. This implies that cost calculations cannot be performed with any accuracy or credibility without a relatively detailed consideration of the radiological prerequisites. Consequently, any cost estimates based mainly on the particulars of the building structures and installations are likely to be gross underestimations. The present study has come about on initiative by the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI) and is based on a common need in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. The content of the report may be briefly summarised as follows. The background covers design and operation prerequisites as well as an overview of the various nuclear research facilities in the four participating countries: Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. The purpose of the work has been to identify, compile and exchange information on facilities and on methodologies for cost calculation with the aim of achieving an 80 % level of confidence. The scope has been as follows: 1) to establish a Nordic network 2) to compile dedicated guidance documents on radiological surveying, technical planning and financial risk identification and assessment 3) to compile and describe techniques for precise cost calculations at early stages 4) to compile plant and other relevant data A separate section is devoted in the report to good practice for the specific purpose of early but precise cost calculations for research facilities, and a separate section is devoted to techniques for assessment of cost. Examples are provided for each of the countries of relevant projects. They are as follows: 5) Research reactor DR1 in Denmark 6) The TRIGA research reactor in Finland 7) The uranium reprocessing plant in Norway 8) Research reactor R1 in Sweden The following conclusions were made: 9) IAEA and OECD/NEA documents provide invaluable advice for pertinent approaches. 10) Adequate radiological surveying is needed before precise cost calculations can be made. 11) The same can be said about technical planning including selection of techniques to be used. 12) It is proposed that separate analyses be made regarding the probabilities for conceivable features and events which could lead to significantly higher costs than expected. 13) It is expected that the need for precise cost estimates will dictate the pace of the radiological surveying and technical planning, at least in the early stages. 14) It is important that the validity structure for early cost estimates with regard to type of facility be fully appreciated. E g, the precision is usually less for research facilities. 15) The summation method is treacherous and leads to systematical underestimations in early stages unless compensation is made for the fact that not all items are included. 16) Comparison between different facilities can be made when there is access to information from plants at different stages of planning and when accommodation can be made with regard to differences in features. 17) A simple approach is presented for 'calibration' of a cost estimate against one or more completed projects. 18) Information exchange and co-operations between different plant owners is highly desirable. (au)

  10. Cost calculations for decommissioning and dismantling of nuclear research facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Today, it is recommended that planning of decommission should form an integral part of the activities over the life cycle of a nuclear facility (planning, building and operation), but it was only in the nineteen seventies that the waste issue really surface. Actually, the IAEA guidelines on decommissioning have been issued as recently as over the last ten years, and international advice on finance of decommissioning is even younger. No general international guideline on cost calculations exists at present. This implies that cost calculations cannot be performed with any accuracy or credibility without a relatively detailed consideration of the radiological prerequisites. Consequently, any cost estimates based mainly on the particulars of the building structures and installations are likely to be gross underestimations. The present study has come about on initiative by the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI) and is based on a common need in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. The content of the report may be briefly summarised as follows. The background covers design and operation prerequisites as well as an overview of the various nuclear research facilities in the four participating countries: Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. The purpose of the work has been to identify, compile and exchange information on facilities and on methodologies for cost calculation with the aim of achieving an 80 % level of confidence. The scope has been as follows: 1) to establish a Nordic network 2) to compile dedicated guidance documents on radiological surveying, technical planning and financial risk identification and assessment 3) to compile and describe techniques for precise cost calculations at early stages 4) to compile plant and other relevant data A separate section is devoted in the report to good practice for the specific purpose of early but precise cost calculations for research facilities, and a separate section is devoted to techniques for assessment of cost. Examples are provided for each of the countries of relevant projects. They are as follows: 5) Research reactor DR1 in Denmark 6) The TRIGA research reactor in Finland 7) The uranium reprocessing plant in Norway 8) Research reactor R1 in Sweden The following conclusions were made: 9) IAEA and OECD/NEA documents provide invaluable advice for pertinent approaches. 10) Adequate radiological surveying is needed before precise cost calculations can be made. 11) The same can be said about technical planning including selection of techniques to be used. 12) It is proposed that separate analyses be made regarding the probabilities for conceivable features and events which could lead to significantly higher costs than expected. 13) It is expected that the need for precise cost estimates will dictate the pace of the radiological surveying and technical planning, at least in the early stages. 14) It is important that the validity structure for early cost estimates with regard to type of facility be fully appreciated. E g, the precision is usually less for research facilities. 15) The summation method is treacherous and leads to systematical underestimations in early stages unless compensation is made for the fact that not all items are included. 16) Comparison between different facilities can be made when there is access to information from plants at different stages of planning and when accommodation can be made with regard to differences in features. 17) A simple approach is presented for 'calibration' of a cost estimate against one or more completed projects. 18) Information exchange and co-operations between different plant owners is highly desirable. (au)

  11. Costly Regional Landslide Events in the United States - Direct Download

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer contains information on costly regional landslide events in the 50 United States and Puerto Rico. The extents of the regional events were drawn from...

  12. Costly Landslide Events in the United States - Direct Download

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer shows point locations of costly individual landslide events in the 50 United States and Puerto Rico. Landslide locations were determined from...

  13. COST ESTIMATION MODELS FOR DRINKING WATER TREATMENT UNIT PROCESSES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cost models for unit processes typically utilized in a conventional water treatment plant and in package treatment plant technology are compiled in this paper. The cost curves are represented as a function of specified design parameters and are categorized into four major catego...

  14. Composite Cost Function Based Solution to the Unit Commitment Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srikrishna Subramanian

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new approach via composite cost function to solve the unit commitment problem. The unit com-mitment problem involves determining the start-up and shut-down schedules for generating units to meet the fore-casted demand at the minimum cost. The commitment schedule must satisfy the other constraints such as the generating limits, spinning reserve, minimum up and down time, ramp level and individual units. The proposed algorithm gives the committed units and economic load dispatch for each specific hour of operation. Numerical simulations were carried out using three cases: four-generator, seven-generator, and ten-generator thermal unit power systems over a 24 h period. The produced schedule was compared with several other methods, such as Dynamic programming, Branch and bound, Ant colony system, and traditional Tabu search. The result demonstrated the accuracy of the proposed method.

  15. 49 CFR 639.23 - Calculation of purchase or construction cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...Calculation of purchase or construction cost. 639.23 Section...Calculation of purchase or construction cost. (a) For purposes...subpart, the purchase or construction cost of a capital asset is...Based on realistic current market conditions; and...

  16. THE USE OF CALCULATION OF COSTS FOR ACTIVITIES TO IMPROVE COST MANAGEMENT AND PROFITABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BU?AN GABRIELA

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Dissatisfaction with the classical systems of managerial accounting has led to global acceptance of the ABC, as a result of the many theoretical and applied works, which had as its objective the creation of a system for calculating relevant costs, adapted to the needs of information, in the new context of production organization. Under this method, the task, allowing a new vision in the company and cut cross vision, becomes the Centre of representation and modeling of enterprise and serves as an interface between the resources consumed and cost bearers whose cost you want to measure it. In this way you get a real cost, on the basis of which the strategic decisions by removing non-creative activities and using as the basis for apportionment of costs it generates activity.

  17. Unit production cost of the radar beacon transponder (Rbx)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schust, A.; Lovelace, W.; Peter, K.

    1982-10-01

    On the basis of circuit and equipment designs, the unit factory selling cost of the RBX was determined to be $53,190. Equipment costs derived using the cost estimating method are listed for the various components. All costs are based on 1981 dollars without inflation. A modular transmitter that uses four 1,150-watt amplifier modules was designed. With the appropriate number of amplifier modules, the estimated costs of a 1 kW transmitter and a 2 kW transmitter were $9,580 and $17,530, respectively. On the basis of these costs, an RBX with a 1 kW transmitter would be approximately $33,130; and RBX with a 2 kW transmitter would cost approximately $41,080. However, an RBX with a 1 kW or 2 kW transmitter might be completely different.

  18. Improvement of Cost Calculation in Constructions – Application of the Standard Cost Method

    OpenAIRE

    Adela Breuer; Mihaela Lesconi Frumusanu; Jeanina Ciurea; Monica Rosu

    2010-01-01

    Grace to the analysis of several commercial companies effectively performed “on the field”, we could remark the necessity to change the method of cost calculation, our motivation being related to the simplification of calculations and the reduction of the labour volume, but especially the necessity to know in due time the deviations occurred as well as the causes having led to their apparition. The importance of knowing the deviations in due time results from the very basic characteristic...

  19. Applying activity-based costing to the nuclear medicine unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suthummanon, Sakesun; Omachonu, Vincent K; Akcin, Mehmet

    2005-08-01

    Previous studies have shown the feasibility of using activity-based costing (ABC) in hospital environments. However, many of these studies discuss the general applications of ABC in health-care organizations. This research explores the potential application of ABC to the nuclear medicine unit (NMU) at a teaching hospital. The finding indicates that the current cost averages 236.11 US dollars for all procedures, which is quite different from the costs computed by using ABC. The difference is most significant with positron emission tomography scan, 463 US dollars (an increase of 96%), as well as bone scan and thyroid scan, 114 US dollars (a decrease of 52%). The result of ABC analysis demonstrates that the operational time (machine time and direct labour time) and the cost of drugs have the most influence on cost per procedure. Clearly, to reduce the cost per procedure for the NMU, the reduction in operational time and cost of drugs should be analysed. The result also indicates that ABC can be used to improve resource allocation and management. It can be an important aid in making management decisions, particularly for improving pricing practices by making costing more accurate. It also facilitates the identification of underutilized resources and related costs, leading to cost reduction. The ABC system will also help hospitals control costs, improve the quality and efficiency of the care they provide, and manage their resources better. PMID:16102243

  20. Improvement of Cost Calculation in Constructions – Application of the Standard Cost Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adela Breuer

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Grace to the analysis of several commercial companies effectively performed “on the field”, we could remark the necessity to change the method of cost calculation, our motivation being related to the simplification of calculations and the reduction of the labour volume, but especially the necessity to know in due time the deviations occurred as well as the causes having led to their apparition. The importance of knowing the deviations in due time results from the very basic characteristics of the constructions execution, i.e. the performance of works during several budgetary years, which leads to the modifications of prices and materials, the introduction of new technologies, and to the performance of open air activities, making the execution of constructions works be influenced by the atmospheric condition. But the most important aspect of knowing the deviations is the correct determination of expenses and their inscribing in the corresponding period, in view of determining the result of the budgetary year. Our proposal for the enhancement of the method of cost calculation in constructions is the application of the standard cost method in the variant “single standard cost”.

  1. Accelerating Correlated Quantum Chemistry Calculations Using Graphical Processing Units

    OpenAIRE

    Watson, Mark A.; Olivares-Amaya, Roberto; Edgar, Richard G.; Arias, Tomás; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán

    2010-01-01

    Graphical processing units are now being used with dramatic effect to accelerate quantum chemistry calculations. However, early work exposed challenges involving memory bottlenecks and insufficient numerical precision. This research effort addresses those issues, proposing two new tools for accelerating matrix multiplications of arbitrary size where single-precision accuracy is not enough.

  2. THE USE OF CALCULATION OF COSTS FOR ACTIVITIES TO IMPROVE COST MANAGEMENT AND PROFITABILITY

    OpenAIRE

    BU?AN GABRIELA; CIURL?U LOREDANA

    2012-01-01

    Dissatisfaction with the classical systems of managerial accounting has led to global acceptance of the ABC, as a result of the many theoretical and applied works, which had as its objective the creation of a system for calculating relevant costs, adapted to the needs of information, in the new context of production organization. Under this method, the task, allowing a new vision in the company and cut cross vision, becomes the Centre of representation and modeling of enterprise and serves as...

  3. COSTS AND PROFITABILITY IN FOOD PROCESSING: PASTRY TYPE UNITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DUMITRANA MIHAELA

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available For each company, profitability, products quality and customer satisfaction are the most importanttargets. To attaint these targets, managers need to know all about costs that are used in decision making. Whatkind of costs? How these costs are calculated for a specific sector such as food processing? These are only a fewquestions with answers in our paper. We consider that a case study for this sector may be relevant for all peoplethat are interested to increase the profitability of this specific activity sector.

  4. Cost effectiveness of chest pain unit care in the NHS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wailoo Allan

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute chest pain is responsible for approximately 700,000 patient attendances per year at emergency departments in England and Wales. A single centre study of selected patients suggested that chest pain unit (CPU care could be less costly and more effective than routine care for these patients, although a more recent multi-centre study cast doubt on the generalisability of these findings. Methods Our economic evaluation involved modelling data from the ESCAPE multi-centre trial along with data from other sources to estimate the comparative costs and effects of CPU versus routine care. Cost effectiveness ratios (cost per QALY were generated from our model. Results We found that CPU compared to routine care resulted in a non-significant increase in effectiveness of 0.0075 QALYs per patient and a non-significant cost decrease of £32 per patient and thus a negative incremental cost effectiveness ratio. If we are willing to pay £20,000 for an additional QALY then there is a 70% probability that CPU care will be considered cost-effective. Conclusion Our analysis shows that CPU care is likely to be slightly more effective and less expensive than routine care, however, these estimates are surrounded by a substantial amount of uncertainty. We cannot reliably conclude that establishing CPU care will represent a cost-effective use of health service resources given the substantial amount of investment it would require.

  5. HOW TO CALCULATE THE ENVIRONMENTAL COSTS? CASE COMPANY GRAFICA CIENFUEGOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keitel, Becerra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The world urgently needs to protect the environment, many companies and organizations devote huge resources to reach that goal and achieve sustainable development as the highest standard of achievement for any country or organization. It then becomes imperative to determine how much the companies spend on the environment, taking into account that the Entities have an implicit contract with society and the environment, the product of the resources used and waste and waste pouring, which is why one needs to calculate and record the environmental costs of products to enhance the environmental management of the entity and thus promote an excellent decision-making. The following research seeks a procedure which allows solving this problem, making its composition with the use of various techniques within which highlights the environmental checklists and product life cycle, which also allows knowing separately as each process and product impacts the environment.

  6. 47 CFR 65.305 - Calculation of the weighted average cost of capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...Calculation of the weighted average cost of capital. (a) The composite weighted average cost of capital is the sum of the cost of debt, the...each weighted by its proportion in the capital structure of the telephone companies....

  7. Costs of crashes to government, United States, 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Ted R; Bhattacharya, Soma; Zaloshnja, Eduard; Taylor, Dexter; Bahar, Geni; David, Iuliana

    2011-01-01

    We estimated how much the Federal government and state/local government pay for different kinds of crashes in the United States. Government costs include reductions in an array of public services (emergency, incident management, vocational rehabilitation, coroner court processing of liability litigation), medical payments, social safety net assistance to the injured and their families, and taxes foregone because victims miss work. Government also pays when its employees crash while working and covers fringe benefits for crash-involved employees and their benefit-eligible dependents in non-work hours. We estimated government shares of crash costs by component. We applied those estimates to existing US Department of Transportation estimates of crash costs to society and employers. Government pays an estimated $35 billion annually because of crashes, an estimated 12.6% of the economic cost of crashes (Federal 7.1%, State/local 5.5%). Government bears a higher percentage of the monetary costs of injury crashes than fatal crashes or crashes involving property damage only. Government is increasingly recovering the medical cost of crashes from auto insurers. Nevertheless, medical costs and income and sales tax losses account for 75% of government's crash costs. For State/local government to break even on a 100%-State funded investment in road safety, the intervention would need to have an unrealistically high benefit-cost ratio of 34. Government invests in medical treatment of illness to save lives and improve quality of life. Curing a child's leukemia, for example, is not less costly than leaving that leukemia untreated. Safety should not be held to a different standard. PMID:22105409

  8. Costs of Crashes to Government, United States, 2008

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Ted R.; Bhattacharya, Soma; Zaloshnja, Eduard; Taylor, Dexter; Bahar, Geni; David, Iuliana

    2011-01-01

    We estimated how much the Federal government and state/local government pay for different kinds of crashes in the United States. Government costs include reductions in an array of public services (emergency, incident management, vocational rehabilitation, coroner court processing of liability litigation), medical payments, social safety net assistance to the injured and their families, and taxes foregone because victims miss work. Government also pays when its employees crash while working an...

  9. Cost effectiveness of chest pain unit care in the NHS

    OpenAIRE

    Wailoo Allan; Goodacre Steve; Oluboyede Yemi

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Acute chest pain is responsible for approximately 700,000 patient attendances per year at emergency departments in England and Wales. A single centre study of selected patients suggested that chest pain unit (CPU) care could be less costly and more effective than routine care for these patients, although a more recent multi-centre study cast doubt on the generalisability of these findings. Methods Our economic evaluation involved modelling data from the ESCAPE multi-centre...

  10. Development of Low Cost, High Energy-Per-Unit-Area Solar Cell Modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, G. T.; Chitre, S.

    1977-01-01

    Work on the development of low cost, high energy per unit area solar cell modules was conducted. Hexagonal solar cell and module efficiencies, module packing ratio, and solar cell design calculations were made. The cell grid structure and interconnection pattern was designed and the module substrates were fabricated for the three modules to be used. It was demonstrated that surface macrostructures significantly improve cell power output and photovoltaic energy conversion efficiency.

  11. Nuclear power generation costs in the United States of America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increasing world energy prices and shortages of fuel resources make the utilization of nuclear power extremely important. The United States nuclear power industry represents the largest body of nuclear power experience in the world. Analysis of the recent United States experience of substantial increases in the cost of nuclear power generation provides good insight into the interdependence of technological, financial, and institutional influences and their combined impact on the economic viability of nuclear power generation. The various factors influencing ultimate generation costs, including construction cost, fuel cost, regulatory reviews, and siting considerations are discussed, and their relative impacts are explored, including discussion of design complexity and related regulatory response. A closer look into the recent relatively high escalation of nuclear plant construction costs shows how differing economic conditions can affect the relative cost effectiveness of various methods of power generation. The vulnerability of capital-intensive, long-lead-time projects to changes in economic conditions and uncertainty in future power demands is discussed. Likewise, the pitfalls of new designs and increased sophistication are contrasted to the advantages which result from proven designs, reliable engineering, and shorter lead times. The value of reliable architect-engineers experienced in the design and construction of the plant is discussed. A discussion is presenteant is discussed. A discussion is presented of additional regulatory requirements stemming from public safety aspects of nuclear power. These include recognition of requirements for the very large effort for quality assurance of materials and workmanship during plant construction and operation. Likewise, a discussion is included of the demanding nature of operations, maintenance, and modification of plants during the operational phase because of the need for highly qualified operations and maintenance personnel and strict quality assurance procedures. (author)

  12. Calculation of costs of pregnancy- and puerperium-related care: experience from a hospital in a low-income country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarowar, M G; Medin, E; Gazi, R; Koehlmoos, T P; Rehnberg, C; Saifi, R; Bhuiya, A; Khan, J

    2010-06-01

    Calculation of costs of different medical and surgical services has numerous uses, which include monitoring the performance of service-delivery, setting the efficiency target, benchmarking of services across all sectors, considering investment decisions, commissioning to meet health needs, and negotiating revised levels of funding. The role of private-sector healthcare facilities has been increasing rapidly over the last decade. Despite the overall improvement in the public and private healthcare sectors in Bangladesh, lack of price benchmarking leads to patients facing unexplained price discrimination when receiving healthcare services. The aim of the study was to calculate the hospital-care cost of disease-specific cases, specifically pregnancy- and puerperium-related cases, and to indentify the practical challenges of conducting costing studies in the hospital setting in Bangladesh. A combination of micro-costing and step-down cost allocation was used for collecting information on the cost items and, ultimately, for calculating the unit cost for each diagnostic case. Data were collected from the hospital records of 162 patients having 11 different clinical diagnoses. Caesarean section due to maternal and foetal complications was the most expensive type of case whereas the length of stay due to complications was the major driver of cost. Some constraints in keeping hospital medical records and accounting practices were observed. Despite these constraints, the findings of the study indicate that it is feasible to carry out a large-scale study to further explore the costs of different hospital-care services. PMID:20635637

  13. Using Standard-Sole Cost Method for Performance Gestion Accounting and Calculation Cost in the Machine Building Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Aureliana Geta Roman; Cleopatra Sendroiu; Costantin Roman

    2006-01-01

    The main purpose of improving and varying cost calculation methods in the machine building industry is to make them more operational and efficient in supplying the information necessary to the management in taking its decisions. The present cost calculation methods used in the machine building plants – global method and the method per orders – by which a historical cost is determined a posteriori used in deducting and post factum justification of manufacturing expenses does not offer the ...

  14. Foundations of Financial Accounting Organization and Cost Calculation using Activity-Based Costing Method in Romanian Textile Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Sorinel Capusneanu

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of first part of this article consists in attempting to establish the management accounting and cost calculation basis of the ABC method in Romania. After general characterization of the ABC method and origin establishment of the ABC method the premises analysis are treated which are the basis of management accounting and cost calculation through ABC method in Romania. There are established the role and implications of the processes, activities and cost objects on management accou...

  15. Considerations Regarding Calculation Cost in the Machine Building Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriela Marian

    2010-01-01

    The paper structures the advantages and the disadvantages of the determination method of the standard cost. The need of the enterprises to operate with production scientifically established and verifiable costs is a recognized fact by the practice and standard computer technology cost although meets the technology requirements, keeps the deficiencies traditional techniques.

  16. Considerations Regarding Calculation Cost in the Machine Building Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Marian

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper structures the advantages and the disadvantages of the determination method of the standard cost. The need of the enterprises to operate with production scientifically established and verifiable costs is a recognized fact by the practice and standard computer technology cost although meets the technology requirements, keeps the deficiencies traditional techniques.

  17. Hospital costs of central line-associated bloodstream infections and cost-effectiveness of closed vs. open infusion containers. The case of Intensive Care Units in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Torbica Aleksandra; Tarricone Rosanna; Franzetti Fabio; Rosenthal Victor D

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Objectives The aim was to evaluate direct health care costs of central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSI) and to calculate the cost-effectiveness ratio of closed fully collapsible plastic intravenous infusion containers vs. open (glass) infusion containers. Methods A two-year, prospective case-control study was undertaken in four intensive care units in an Italian teaching hospital. Patients with CLABSI (cases) and patients without CLABSI (controls) were matched for admi...

  18. On calculation of foundation bases for power units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of calculating the stressed-strained state of foundations of three large NPP units are presented. Coulomb-Moor condition is chosen as yield condition for solution of combined problems of elasticity and plasticity theories. Residual strains occurring before the ground achieves the limiting stressed state are added to reversible ones (properly elastic) and linear dependences of Hooke's law are accepted for obtained total deformations. Possibility of occurrence and development of plastic strains, connected with stresses by relations of nonassociated law of plastic flow theory, is assumed in addition to elastic strains in plastic fields. It is concluded that application of elastic-plastic and physically nonlinear ground models when calculating foundation bases enables to obtain rather reliable picture of contact pressure distribution, not conflicting with the data of full-scale measurements

  19. Monitor unit calculations for wedged asymmetric photon beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Algorithms for calculating monitor units (MUs) in wedged asymmetric high-energy photon beams as implemented in treatment planning systems have their limitations. Therefore an independent method for MU calculation is necessary. The aim of this study was to develop an empirical method to determine MUs for points at the centre of wedged fields, asymmetric in two directions. The method is based on the determination of an off-axis factor (OAF) that corrects for the difference in dose between wedged asymmetric and wedged symmetric beams with the same field size. Measurements were performed in a water phantom irradiated with 6 and 18 MV photon beams produced by Elekta accelerators, which are fitted with an internal motorized wedge that has a complex shape. The OAF perpendicular to the wedge direction changed significantly with depth for the 18 MV beam. Dose values measured for a set of 18 test cases were compared with those calculated with our method. The maximum difference found was 6.5% and in 15 cases this figure was smaller than 2.0%. The analytical method of Khan and the empirical method of Georg were also tested and showed errors up to 12.8%. It can be concluded that our simple formalism is able to calculate MUs in wedged asymmetric fields with an acceptable accuracy in most clinical situations. (author)

  20. Some Problems of Calculation and Design of High-Activity Gamma Units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report describes the principal requirements for gamma units intended for various purposes. Several methods of calculating the dose fields for various forms of irradiators are given, as well as graphs, nomograms and formulae to estimate the amount of gamma-ray dose absorbed by the irradiated object from cobalt-60 and caesium-137. Some of the calculated data have been confirmed by experiment. The advantages of irradiators of various geometry employed in experimental and commercial units are discussed. The irradiation technique for various objects is analyzed and the optimum irradiation conditions (radiation utilization factor, dose field homogeneity, etc.) are discussed. Several rational shielding systems are suggested to simplify irradiation process and recharging, and to reduce the cost of design and operation. (author)

  1. Low finding costs calculated in Mississippi's Tuscaloosa, Frio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on a recent study conducted by the Mississippi Office of Geology which examined oil and gas finding costs in southwestern Mississippi for the period from 1986 through 1990. The formations of interest were the Upper Cretaceous Lower Tuscaloosa formation and the Oligocene Frio formation. The model incorporated the following financial considerations for exploratory activity: seismic data acquisition, geologic expenses, leasing and legal fees, and drilling costs. Average drilling and completion costs were also assigned to the development wells. The finding cost formula divided the total exploration and development costs by the recoverable reserves. Reserves were multiplied by a 75% net revenue for the Tuscaloosa and 80% for the Frio leases to account for royalty interests and severance taxes. No field operating expenses were included

  2. An integrated approach to calculate life cycle costs of arms and military equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlada S. Sokolovi?

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION In a situation when government expenditures for defense are more restrictive, any investment in the acquisition of arms and military equipment (AME is a question that does not allow errors in decisions. Accordingly, the economic analysis of the investment must be detailed and unavoidable. In the past, the initial cost of procurement of AME was often the primary, and sometimes the only one criterion in decision-making. Neglecting the analysis of costs throughout the life of assets in prefeasibility studies is the main cause of unplanned investment in the later stages of the life cycle of investment, and also of a number of problems in the functioning and unfulfilling or partially fulfilling the goals of the system. PROCESS OF EQUIPPING THE MoD AND THE SAF WITH AME Legislation governing the process of equipping the Ministry of Defence (MoD and the Serbian Armed Forces (SAF with AME is based on the Regulation on equipping the Yugoslav Army with weapons and military equipment in peacetime, from 1996, and on several Standards of National Defense (SNO 0477/83, SNO 1096/85, SNO 8196/92, SNO 9000/97, etc.. Due to a number of social and organizational changes in the defense system, this regulation is not in full compliance with real-time requirements. The analysis of legal regulations and activities in the process of equipping the MoD and the SAF with AME in practice indicates dominance of technical - technological aspects of the equipping analysis, while the economic aspect (primarily aspect of costs is present, but not detailed enough. At best, there is only a static approach to the analysis and evaluation of investment projects, while a dynamic aspect and the aspect of the total cost over the life of assets are not taken into account. ANALYSIS OF COSTS IN THE LIFETIME OF ASSETS Given the non-profit character of military organizations and the possibility to express explicit costs, but not the benefits of investment in equipping with AME , costs are one of the most dominant parameters in decision-making. Modern trends in this area comprehensively perceive all costs during the life cycle of assets.In general, in the analysis of costs in the life cycle of AME there are two sets of costs: visible and invisible (hidden costs. The visible part of the costs is mainly present in decision-making and usually includes the cost of equipping units or purchase of assets. The invisible part of the costs is far more significant. Although it is larger than the visible part and covers more groups of costs, decision-makers often do not take it into account. The hidden costs include: distribution costs, operating costs, maintenance costs, training costs, inventory costs, information systems costs, the cost of disposal and write-offs, etc. The decision making problem about investment in the AME purchase and equipping is obviously of  multicriteria nature, whether an optimum combination of costs for one  technical system (AME is in question, or whether it is a choice of a system of AME among many offered. COST ANALYSIS OF A PARTICULAR  ASSET For the illustration of an integrated approach to the analysis of the cost of assets in their life-cycle, a model from the US Naval Postgraduate School, was adjusted and applied on an example of a real asset. The model is applied to the case of two  squadrons of identical aircraft based at different airports. With regard to the availability, confidentiality, and the variability of costs and reliability of the elements of AME, the calculations in the model are implemented on the basis of the estimated or orientation parameters. Essentially, the goal is to demonstrate the interdependence, mutual relations and influences of parameters and their ultimate impact on the overall cost of military assets. Applying the model to a particular example points to the fact that, in the first years of asset life, the dominant cost is that of asset procurement (cost of acquisition, cost of assets themselves, the price of equipment for service and maintenance, the costs of initial training of a

  3. Calculating the cost of generating electricity: Which role for nuclear?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear, coal, gas, hydro, other renewable all have various advantages and disadvantages according to different customers and countries. Independent of the specific local and national context, however, economic and financial cost will frequently be the key criterion. Having an idea of the cost of different power plant technologies is thus crucial for developing a vision of the composition of the electricity sector in the years to come. That is why the NEA, in co-operation with its sister agency the IEA, publishes an update approximately every five years of the cost of generating electricity with different technologies in a range of OECD countries. The last of these studies was published in 2005 under the title Projected Costs of Generating Electricity. These studies have always constituted highly respected reference values for the costs of power generation and figure regularly among the best-sellers of both the NEA and the IEA. Since the beginning of 2009, work on a new edition of the Electricity Generating Cost (EGC) study has begun. (A.L.B.)

  4. Thermal analysis of Malaysian double storey housing - low/medium cost unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normah, M. G.; Lau, K. Y.; Yusoff, S. Mohd.

    2012-06-01

    Almost half of the total energy used today is consumed in buildings. In the tropical climate, air-conditioning a housing unit takes much of the energy bill. Malaysia is no exception. Malaysian double storey terrace housing is popular among developers and buyers. Surveys have shown that housing occupants are much dissatisfied with the thermal comfort and artificial cooling is often sought. The objective of this study is to assess the thermal comfort of the low and medium-cost double storey housing in the area surrounding Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. A simulation program using the Weighting Factor Method calculates the heat transfer interaction, temperature distribution, and PMV level in three types of housing units in relation to the size. Fanger's PMV model based on ISO Standard 7730 is used here because it accounts for all parameters that affect the thermal sensation of a human within its equation. Results showed that both the low and medium-cost housing units studied are out of the comfortable range described by ASHRAE Standard 55 with the units all complied with the local bylaws. In view of the uncertainties in energy supply, future housing units should consider natural ventilation as part of the passive energy management.

  5. Nuclear power and global warming: a first cost-benefit calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper investigates the costs and benefits of a modest nuclear power programme in the European Union to combat the threat of global warming. The nuclear programme is found to bring a double benefit. The first and more obvious benefit is that the economic impacts of global warming are reduced. The second benefit is counter-intuitive; most people would expect it to be a cost. It comes from the stimulus to the economy from the construction of the nuclear plant, which, with the recycling of carbon tax revenues, offsets its construction and operating costs, and may even cause consumers' expenditure to rise. Calculations in this paper show that over the period to 2100 the mean net present value of the first benefit is 6 billion European Currency Units (ECU; 1 ECU is about Dollars 1), while the second benefit has a mean net present value of 159 billion ECU. However both benefits, particularly the second, are still very uncertain, to the extent that even their sign is not yet definitely established. (author)

  6. Calculating Cost-Return for Investments in Student Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumina Foundation for Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    In late 2007, Jobs for the Future (JFF), working with the Delta Project on Postsecondary Costs, Productivity and Accountability, launched "Investing in Student Success", a one-year pilot program. The pilot, conceived of as part of the "Making Opportunity Affordable" initiative and funded by Walmart Foundation and Lumina Foundation for Education,…

  7. Caveat Emptor: Calculating All the Costs of Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinberg, Dorothy S.

    This paper examines the energy problem. Specific topics discussed include the recent history of oil and gas consumption in the United States, conservation, coal, solar energy, and nuclear energy. While solutions to the energy problem differ, there is an urgent need for broad, public debate. Ultimately, the decisions made regarding energy will be…

  8. 49 CFR 1152.32 - Calculation of avoidable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...61-13-20 Do.Electric power systems Salaries...buildings—freight carsSalaries and wages...61-32-67Do. Electric power purchased or produced...wages 11-32-68Electric locomotive unit hours...operations common: Cleaning car...

  9. 47 CFR 65.300 - Calculations of the components and weights of the cost of capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...weights of the cost of capital. 65.300 Section...weights of the cost of capital. (a) Sections...stock, and financial structure weights for prescription...composite financial structure for all local exchange...Excluded from cost of capital calculations...

  10. Cost of reactive nitrogen release from human activities to the environment in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobota, Daniel J.; Compton, Jana E.; McCrackin, Michelle L.; Singh, Shweta

    2015-02-01

    Leakage of reactive nitrogen (N) from human activities to the environment can cause human health and ecological problems. Often these harmful effects are not reflected in the costs of food, fuel, and fiber that derive from N use. Spatial analyses of damage costs attributable to source at management-relevant scales could inform decisions in areas where anthropogenic N leakage causes harm. We used recently compiled data describing N inputs in the conterminous United States (US) to assess potential damage costs associated with anthropogenic N. We estimated fates of N leaked to the environment (air/deposition, surface freshwater, groundwater, and coastal zones) in the early 2000s by multiplying watershed-level N inputs (8-digit US Geologic Survey Hydrologic Unit Codes; HUC8s) with published coefficients describing nutrient uptake efficiency, leaching losses, and gaseous emissions. We scaled these N leakage estimates with mitigation, remediation, direct damage, and substitution costs associated with human health, agriculture, ecosystems, and climate (per kg of N) to calculate annual damage cost (US dollars in 2008 or as reported) of anthropogenic N per HUC8. Estimates of N leakage by HUC8 ranged from pollution were important across HUC8s. However, significant data gaps remain in our ability to fully assess N damages, such as damage costs from harmful algal blooms and drinking water contamination. Nationally, potential health and environmental damages of anthropogenic N in the early 2000s totaled 210 billion yr?1 USD (range: 81–441 billion yr?1). While a number of gaps and uncertainties remain in these estimates, overall this work represents a starting point to inform decisions and engage stakeholders on the costs of N pollution.

  11. Health care administration in the United States and Canada: micromanagement, macro costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolhandler, Steffie; Campbell, Terry; Himmelstein, David U

    2004-01-01

    A decade ago, U.S. health administration costs greatly exceeded Canada's. Have the computerization of billing and the adoption of a more business-like approach to care cut administrative costs? For the United States and Canada, the authors calculated the 1999 administrative costs of health insurers, employers' health benefit programs, hospitals, practitioners' offices, nursing homes, and home care agencies; they analyzed published data, surveys of physicians, employment data, and detailed cost reports filed by hospitals, nursing homes, and home care agencies; they used census surveys to explore time trends in administrative employment in health care settings. Health administration costs totaled at least dollar 294.3 billion, dollar 1,059 per capita, in the United States vs. dollar 9.4 billion, dollar 307 per capita, in Canada. After exclusions, health administration accounted for 31.0 percent of U.S. health expenditures vs. 16.7 percent of Canadian. Canada's national health insurance program had an overhead of 1.3 percent, but overhead among Canada's private insurers was higher than in the U.S.: 13.2 vs. 11.7 percent. Providers' administrative costs were far lower in Canada. Between 1969 and 1999 administrative workers' share of the U.S. health labor force grew from 18.2 to 27.3 percent; in Canada it grew from 16.0 percent in 1971 to 19.1 percent in 1996. Reducing U.S. administrative costs to Canadian levels would save at least dollar 209 billion annually, enough to fund universal coverage. PMID:15088673

  12. Assessing DRG cost accounting with respect to resource allocation and tariff calculation: the case of Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogl, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the German diagnosis related groups (G-DRG) cost accounting scheme by assessing its resource allocation at hospital level and its tariff calculation at national level. First, the paper reviews and assesses the three steps in the G-DRG resource allocation scheme at hospital level: (1) the groundwork; (2) cost-center accounting; and (3) patient-level costing. Second, the paper reviews and assesses the three steps in G-DRG national tariff calculation: (1) plausibility checks; (2) inlier calculation; and (3) the "one hospital" approach. The assessment is based on the two main goals of G-DRG introduction: improving transparency and efficiency. A further empirical assessment attests high costing quality. The G-DRG cost accounting scheme shows high system quality in resource allocation at hospital level, with limitations concerning a managerially relevant full cost approach and limitations in terms of advanced activity-based costing at patient-level. However, the scheme has serious flaws in national tariff calculation: inlier calculation is normative, and the "one hospital" model causes cost bias, adjustment and representativeness issues. The G-DRG system was designed for reimbursement calculation, but developed to a standard with strategic management implications, generalized by the idea of adapting a hospital's cost structures to DRG revenues. This combination causes problems in actual hospital financing, although resource allocation is advanced at hospital level. PMID:22935314

  13. Capital cost addendum: multi-unit coal and nuclear stations. Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report is the culmination of a study performed to develop designs and associated capital cost estimates for multi-unit nuclear and coal commercial electric power stations, and to determine the distribution of these costs among the individual units. This report addresses six different types of 2400 MWe (nominal) multi-unit stations as follows: -Two Unit PWR Station - 1139 MWe Each; -Two Unit BWR Station - 1190 MWe Each; -Two Unit High Sulfur Coal-Fired Station - 1232 MWe Each; -Two Unit Low Sulfur Coal-Fired Station - 1243 MWe Each; -Three Unit High Sulfur Coal-Fired Station - 794 MWe Each; -Three Unit Low Sulfur Coal-Fired Station - 801 MWe Each. Recent capital cost studies performed for ERDA/NRC of single unit nuclear and coal stations are used as the basis for developing the designs and costs of the multi-unit stations. These single unit capital cost studies are identified in the Foreward of this report. This report includes, the Major Study Groundrules, a Summary of Single and Multi-Unit Stations Total Base Cost Estimates, Details of Cost Estimates at the three digit account level and Plot Plan Drawings for each multi-unit station identified above

  14. An evaluation of airline beta values and their application in calculating the cost of equity capital.

    OpenAIRE

    Turner, Sheelah; Morrell, Peter

    2003-01-01

    This paper focuses on the calculation of the cost of equity capital in a sample of airlines, in comparison to industry-calculated values. The approach usually taken is to apply the Capital Asset Pricing Model to airline stock prices and market indices. The research shows that the calculated b values are sensitive to the precise methodology and calculations used. Further, the low regression model ?ts indicate the Capital Asset Pricing Model may not be the most suitable model for b value calcul...

  15. ANALISA COST SHARING PERHITUNGAN TARIF HEMODIALISIS (HD MASYARAKAT MISKIN DI RUMAH SAKIT UMUM PKU MUHAMMADIYAH UNIT I YOGYAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    . Primandita

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Growing and expanding hopital may be efficiently and effectively managed, it is requiredto be conducted to face the tight competition in world of health service. If the hospital wish to survive in the competition, they need to recount the existing hospital tariff previously, that is by using competitive tariff model calculation. Hospital of PKU Muhammadiyah Unit I Yogyakarta divides HD tariff into two parts, these are Single Use and Re Use tariff. There are cost sharing differences between HD tariff in hospital and government. In this research, the reseacher only focuses on HD tariff of Re Use in order to reduce cost sharing. All this time, the hospital has never counted different cost. It can create lose for the hospital. th s researcher interest to analyze the cost sharing of hemodialisis tariff calculation for poor in public hospital of PKU Muhammadiyah Unit I Yogyakarta. Methode: This research type is descriptive research qualitative which analyzed real expense by using real cost methode and difference which is burdened by patien toward real tariff, meanwhile opinion about cost sharing is taken by interview with superintendent finance and superintendent of hemodialisis unit using interview method. Resulth: this research show the real tariff equal to Rp.912.571 while tariff released by hospital equal to Rp.575.000, and difference between second tariff is Rp.337.751, while tariff given by government is Rp.528.067 and difference with the real tariff equal to Rp.384.684. Conclusion: that unit based cost tariff higher than tariff given by hospital at this time, the biggest expense is component for examines or substance used up wear. The hospital should determine the strategy to decrease the difference. Key Words: cost sharing, real cost method, tariff packet, hemodialisis, poor, society

  16. Manual of Nucost 1.0 - code for calculation of nuclear power generation costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nucost is a computer code developed at CDTN to perform cost calculation of electric power generated in PWR nuclear power plants, based on present worth cost method. The Nucost version 1.0 performs calculations of nuclear fuel cost cycle by cycle during the time life of the power plant. That calculation is performed with enough details permitting optimization and minimization. The code is also a tool to aid reload projects and economic operation of PWR reactors. This manual presents a description of Nucost version 1.0, instruction to enter data preparation and description of the Nucost output. (M.I.)

  17. Forecasting the Unit Cost of a Product with Some Linear Fuzzy Collaborative Forecasting Models

    OpenAIRE

    Toly Chen

    2012-01-01

    Forecasting the unit cost of every product type in a factory is an important task. However, it is not easy to deal with the uncertainty of the unit cost. Fuzzy collaborative forecasting is a very effective treatment of the uncertainty in the distributed environment. This paper presents some linear fuzzy collaborative forecasting models to predict the unit cost of a product. In these models, the experts’ forecasts differ and therefore need to be aggregated through collaboration. Acco...

  18. Calculation of Total Cost, Tolerance Based on Taguchi?s, Asymmetric Quality Loss Function Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, R. S.; Alagumurthi, N.; Ramesh, R.

    2009-01-01

    Problem statement: Current world market force the manufacturing sectors to develop high quality product and process design with minimum possible cost. About 80% of problems in production units may be attributed to 20% of design tolerance causes. While design typically represents the smallest actual cost elements in products (around 5%), it leverages the largest cost influence (around 70%). So design engineers continuously stumble upon problem of design for high quality performance with lower ...

  19. CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF THE MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING SYSTEM AND OF THE COST CALCULATION IN THE ELECTROTECHNICAL INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    POPESCU (Costache LUMINITA NICOLETA

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The contemporary scientific and technical revolution has brought into view the increasingcomplexity of the economic activity in all departments whose current and future management mustnecessarily involve taking into account the efficiency criterion, the economic optimum displaying bothquantitative and qualitative forms. The company is placed in a competitive environment, within a valuechain of providers, on the one hand and suppliers or customers on the other hand. In order to becompetitive, the companies increasingly allocate more resources to doing researches, their target being tomake very good quality products at competitive prices. The methods of cost calculation have seen acontinuous evolution generated by the new problems that cost calculation had to respond to. The decisionon the organization and adoption of either one cost calculation method or another, involves the analysis ofthe main factors that determine the organization of cost calculation.

  20. 48 CFR 9904.410 - Allocation of business unit general and administrative expenses to final cost objectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...false Allocation of business unit general and administrative...Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD...PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.410 Allocation of business unit general and...

  1. Development of radiological concentrations and unit liter doses for TWRS FSAR radiological consequence calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analysis described in this report develops the Unit Liter Doses for use in the TWRS FSAR. The Unit Liter Doses provide a practical way to calculate conservative radiological consequences for a variety of potential accidents for the tank farms

  2. Marginal cost calculation of energy production in hydro thermoelectric systems considering the transmission system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The alternatives for calculation of energy marginal cost in hydroelectric systems, considering the transmission one, was analysed, including fundamental concepts; generation/transmission systems, represented by linear power flow model; production marginal costs in hydrothermal systems and computation aspects. (C.G.C.). 11 refs, 5 figs

  3. Impact of pharmacist’s interventions on cost of drug therapy in intensive care unit. Pharmacy

    OpenAIRE

    Saokaew S; Maphanta S; Thangsomboon P

    2009-01-01

    Pharmacist participation in patient care team has been shown to reduce incidence of adverse drug events, and overall drug costs. However, impact of pharmacist participation in the multidisciplinary intensive care team on cost saving and cost avoidance has little been studied in Thailand.Objective: To describe the characteristics of the interventions and to determine pharmacist’s interventions led to change in cost saving and cost avoidance in intensive care unit (ICU). Methods: A Prospectiv...

  4. ABC estimation of unit costs for emergency department services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, R L; Schroeder, R E

    1996-04-01

    Rapid evolution of the health care industry forces managers to make cost-effective decisions. Typical hospital cost accounting systems do not provide emergency department managers with the information needed, but emergency department settings are so complex and dynamic as to make the more accurate activity-based costing (ABC) system prohibitively expensive. Through judicious use of the available traditional cost accounting information and simple computer spreadsheets. managers may approximate the decision-guiding information that would result from the much more costly and time-consuming implementation of ABC. PMID:10156656

  5. Assessing DRG cost accounting with respect to resource allocation and tariff calculation: the case of Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Vogl, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the German diagnosis related groups (G-DRG) cost accounting scheme by assessing its resource allocation at hospital level and its tariff calculation at national level. First, the paper reviews and assesses the three steps in the G-DRG resource allocation scheme at hospital level: (1) the groundwork; (2) cost-center accounting; and (3) patient-level costing. Second, the paper reviews and assesses the three steps in G-DRG national tariff calculation: (1) ...

  6. Cost Analysis of a Two Dissimilar-Unit Cold Standby Redundant System Subject to Inspection and Random Change in Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. S. Mokaddis

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: This study deled with the cost analysis of a two dissimilar unit cold standby redundant system subject to inspection and random change in units. In this system each unit works in two different modes normal and total failure. Assuming that the failure, repair, post repair, interchange of units and inspection times are stochastically independent random variables each having an arbitrary distribution. Approach: The system was analyzed by semi Markov process technique. Results: The time-dependent availability, steady-state availability, busy period analysis, expected number of visits by the repairman were obtained numerically and cost analysis was obtained numerically and graphically. Conclusion: Expected cost per unit time decreased with respect to the increase of failure rate.

  7. Consideration concerning the costs of the 300 kW wind units developed in Romania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gyulai, F.; Bej, A. [Technical Univ. of Timisoara (Romania). Wind Energy Research Center

    1995-12-31

    A demonstrative wind farm with four research units, 300 kW each, is in developing stage in Romania. The article shows economic analysis of these experimental wind units and their cost structure focusing in component costs, performance, manufacturing technology and installing work. (author)

  8. Consideration concerning the costs of the 300 kW wind units developed in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A demonstrative wind farm with four research units, 300 kW each, is in developing stage in Romania. The article shows economic analysis of these experimental wind units and their cost structure focusing in component costs, performance, manufacturing technology and installing work. (author)

  9. Calculation of Complexity Costs – An Approach for Rationalizing a Product Program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Christian Lindschou; Mortensen, Niels Henrik

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes an operational method for rationalizing a product program based on the calculation of complexity costs. The method takes its starting point in the calculation of complexity costs on a product program level. This is done throughout the value chain ranging from component inventories at the factory sites, all the way to the distribution of finished goods from distribution centers to the customers. The method proposes a step-wise approach including the analysis, quantification and allocation of product program complexity costs by the means of identifying of a number of suggested Life Cycle Complexity Factors (LCCFs). The suggested method has been tested in an action based research study with promising results. The case study shows how the allocation of complexity costs on individual product variants provides previously unknown insights into the true cost structure of a product program. These findings represent an improved decision basis for the planning of reactive and proactive initiatives ofrationalizing a product program.

  10. Methodical approaches to calculation of cost of educating specialists in institutes of higher education in Ukraine ???????????? ??????? ? ??????????? ????????? ?????????? ???????????? ? ????? ???????

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levchenko Olexandr M.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The article considers modern approaches to calculation of cost of educating one student of an institute of higher education of the third and fourth levels of accreditation. It proposes author’s own system of assessment of an average approximate cost of educating one specialist, which includes basic components of costs of institutes of higher education. Introduction of a standard of cost of educating specialists would allow increase of effectiveness of the process of formation and allocation of the state order for staff training on a competitive basis.? ?????? ??????????? ??????????? ??????? ? ??????????? ????????? ?????????? ?????? ???????? ??????? ???????? ????????? ??? – ?V ??????? ???????????. ?????????? ????????? ???????? ?????? ??????? ??????????????? ????????? ?????????? ?????? ???????????, ??????? ???????? ???????? ???????????? ?????? ?????. ????????? ????????? ????????? ?????????? ???????????? ???????? ???????? ????????????? ???????? ???????????? ? ?????????? ???????????????? ?????? ?? ?????????? ?????? ?? ?????????? ???????.

  11. Implementation of Cost Calculation Model in Forest Evaluation of Požega Forest Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stjepan Posavec

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The specific nature of forestry as an economic activity generates problems in realizing the set business plans and executing commercial operations. Business analysis deals with concepts and methods of perceiving the degree of development, as well as with unrealized possibilities of a business entity. The particular character of analyzing business operations of entities dealing with forest management arises, among other things, from the need to assure forest sustainability. In managing forests and forestland, it is not always possible to obey the principle of operational profitability, as the lack of any silvicultural treatments jeopardizes future increment of wood biomass and leads to the decline in the general forest value. Furthermore, the specificity of forest management is particularly evident in a long term cycle of biomass production, and extensive period of time between initial activities and the achieved economic effects, and in investments into forests which frequently exceed the financial possibilities of forest owners. The achieved degree and the unrealized possibilities of developing the forest potential are conditioned by biological factors and by economic and technical treatments. To measure and evaluate the effects of these factors on forest sustainability, specific knowledge is required combined with specific criteria for analytical assessment of the success of business entities dealing with forest management.This paper discusses economic and business analysis in forestry. It presents the results of the research project conducted by the state forest company »Hrvatske šume« d.o.o. and Faculty of Forestry University of Zagreb over a 5 year period. The data regarding the economic value of the forest, annual cut value, biological regeneration costs for all forest management units in Požega Forest Administration, including incomes and costs of forest harvesting have been analyzed together with the data regarding profitability and economic indicators. The actual cutting value method has been used for the analyses of the stand value. The Activity Based Cost Method has been used for the cost analysis. The cost-effectiveness and profitability in forestry have also been calculated.Požega Forest Administration manages the area of 52,025 ha, mainly productive forests in the Municipality of Slavonia and Požega. The total annual cut is 140,991 m3 on the area of 3,615 ha. The total growing stock of the state forests is 9,744,426 m3, which includes 9,200,025 m3 of even-aged forests and 544,401 m³ of uneven aged forests. The annual wood volume increment is 253,947 m3. The average forest stand value is 46,871 HRK/ha, or 54,723 HRK/ha without first age class (see Fig. 1 Forest value per management unit.The total costs of biological regeneration are 1,529 HRK/ha, and without forest management, silviculture, forest protection and wood construction it is 7,029 HRK/ha. The costs of the biological regeneration are shown in Fig. 2. The value of the annual cut for Požega Forest Administration is 10,214 HRK/ha (see Table 1.The costs of forest harvesting in 2007 are 8,460 HRK/ha on average, and 8,659 HRK/ha in 2008. Expenditures and revenues of forest harvesting in Požega Forest Administration 2007/2008 are shown in Fig. 4. If the costs of biological regeneration are included, the cost-effectiveness ratio is less than one (e<1, meaning that the management of the selected forest administration is not cost-effective. However, according to the presented negative economic indicators, profitability in forestry has shown positive forest management results. The possible measures that could lead to the increase in profitability are those affecting the company income. To achieve this goal it is necessary to lower the forest biological regeneration costs, to lower the market sale price, to increase the engaged resources, and to improve the capacity utilization.This research has shown that specific understanding and measuring of forest potentials are conditioned by biological factors and by economic and technical t

  12. Cost-Effectiveness and Cost-Reduction in United States Colleges and Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Richard I.; Miller, Peggy M.

    1991-01-01

    The relationship in college administration between cost effectiveness/cost reduction and planning, management, and evaluation is explored, and approaches to cost accounting and financial ratio analysis are discussed. It is concluded that it is important to emphasize institutional mission and people rather than cost containment and productivity.…

  13. Analysis of a Production Order Quantity Model With Declining Unit Cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rod D. Raehsler

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper improves upon the existing literature surrounding the production order quantity inventory model in which unit cost and daily production are assumed to be constant. By including economies of scale into the model, we examine its impact on production order quantity and total cost. The results suggest that the minimal cost solution derived from the production order quantity model needs to balance out holding, setup and production costs. As a result, a smaller inventory level corresponding to a minimum unit production cost is found to be preferred.

  14. Life cycle costing of waste management systems: overview, calculation principles and case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Sanchez, Veronica; Kromann, Mikkel A; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2015-02-01

    This paper provides a detailed and comprehensive cost model for the economic assessment of solid waste management systems. The model was based on the principles of Life Cycle Costing (LCC) and followed a bottom-up calculation approach providing detailed cost items for all key technologies within modern waste systems. All technologies were defined per tonne of waste input, and each cost item within a technology was characterised by both a technical and an economic parameter (for example amount and cost of fuel related to waste collection), to ensure transparency, applicability and reproducibility. Cost items were classified as: (1) budget costs, (2) transfers (for example taxes, subsidies and fees) and (3) externality costs (for example damage or abatement costs related to emissions and disamenities). Technology costs were obtained as the sum of all cost items (of the same type) within a specific technology, while scenario costs were the sum of all technologies involved in a scenario. The cost model allows for the completion of three types of LCC: a Conventional LCC, for the assessment of financial costs, an Environmental LCC, for the assessment of financial costs whose results are complemented by a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) for the same system, and a Societal LCC, for socio-economic assessments. Conventional and Environmental LCCs includes budget costs and transfers, while Societal LCCs includes budget and externality costs. Critical aspects were found in the existing literature regarding the cost assessment of waste management, namely system boundary equivalency, accounting for temporally distributed emissions and impacts, inclusions of transfers, the internalisation of environmental impacts and the coverage of shadow prices, and there was also significant confusion regarding terminology. The presented cost model was implemented in two case study scenarios assessing the costs involved in the source segregation of organic waste from 100,000 Danish households and the subsequent co-digestion of organic waste with animal manure. Overall, source segregation resulted in higher financial costs than the alternative of incinerating the organic waste with the residual waste: 1.6 M€/year, of which 0.9 M€/year was costs for extra bins and bags used by the households, 1.0 M€/year for extra collections and -0.3 M€/year saved on incineration. PMID:25524749

  15. Life cycle costing of waste management systems: Overview, calculation principles and case studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez-Sanchez, Veronica; Kromann, Mikkel A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides a detailed and comprehensive cost model for the economic assessment of solid waste management systems. The model was based on the principles of Life Cycle Costing (LCC) and followed a bottom-up calculation approach providing detailed cost items for all key technologies within modern waste systems. All technologies were defined per tonne of waste input, and each cost item within a technology was characterised by both a technical and an economic parameter (for example amount and cost of fuel related to waste collection), to ensure transparency, applicability and reproducibility. Cost items were classified as: (1) budget costs, (2) transfers (for example taxes, subsidies and fees) and (3) externality costs (for example damage or abatement costs related to emissions and disamenities). Technology costs were obtained as the sum of all cost items (of the same type) within a specific technology, while scenario costs were the sum of all technologies involved in a scenario. The cost model allows forthe completion of three types of LCC: a Conventional LCC, for the assessment of financial costs, an Environmental LCC, for the assessment of financial costs whose results are complemented by a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) for the same system, and a Societal LCC, for socio-economic assessments. Conventional and Environmental LCCs includes budget costs and transfers, while Societal LCCs includes budget and externality costs. Critical aspects were found in the existing literature regarding the cost assessment of waste management, namely system boundary equivalency, accounting for temporally distributed emissions and impacts, inclusions of transfers, the internalisation of environmental impacts and the coverage of shadow prices, and there was also significant confusion regarding terminology. The presented cost model was implemented in two case study scenarios assessing the costs involved in the source segregation of organic waste from 100,000 Danish households and the subsequent co-digestion of organic waste withanimal manure. Overall, source segregation resulted in higher financial costs than the alternative of incinerating the organic waste with the residual waste: 1.6. M€/year, of which 0.9. M€/year was costs for extra bins and bags used by the households, 1.0. M€/year for extra collections and -0.3. M€/year saved on incineration.

  16. Calculation of two cycles of Kalinin unit-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents an overview of the new library for the Skoda multidimensional static computer program, MOBY-DICK, for core analysis. MOBY-DICK predictive capability was assessed by comparing its predictions of boron concentration and assembly power distributions against appropriate measured data. The first unit of the Kalinin Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) (so called serial version of WWER-1000) represents best documented test for WWER-1000. We have proposed for comparison of MOBY-DICK prediction versus core follow measurement two first cycles of that unit. (author). 4 refs, 2 figs

  17. Hospital costs of central line-associated bloodstream infections and cost-effectiveness of closed vs. open infusion containers. The case of Intensive Care Units in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torbica Aleksandra

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives The aim was to evaluate direct health care costs of central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSI and to calculate the cost-effectiveness ratio of closed fully collapsible plastic intravenous infusion containers vs. open (glass infusion containers. Methods A two-year, prospective case-control study was undertaken in four intensive care units in an Italian teaching hospital. Patients with CLABSI (cases and patients without CLABSI (controls were matched for admission departments, gender, age, and average severity of illness score. Costs were estimated according to micro-costing approach. In the cost effectiveness analysis, the cost component was assessed as the difference between production costs while effectiveness was measured by CLABSI rate (number of CLABSI per 1000 central line days associated with the two infusion containers. Results A total of 43 cases of CLABSI were compared with 97 matched controls. The mean age of cases and controls was 62.1 and 66.6 years, respectively (p = 0.143; 56% of the cases and 57% of the controls were females (p = 0.922. The mean length of stay of cases and controls was 17.41 and 8.55 days, respectively (p Conclusions CLABSI results in considerable and significant increase in utilization of hospital resources. Use of innovative technologies such as closed infusion containers can significantly reduce the incidence of healthcare acquired infection without posing additional burden on hospital budgets.

  18. Use of an expert system for energy cost calculations in the pulp and paper industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, an application for the calculation of energy prices and product energy costs in the pulp and paper industry by using the Xi Plus expert system is presented. The use of expert systems in the energy field and also the Xi Plus expert system and its general features are also discussed. The application has been made after collecting data from several sources. It runs in an IBM AT compatible microcomputer therefore being easily used in mills. The name of the application is PRODUCT ENERGY COST. It has a three level structure: the mill level, the department level and the main equipment level. Currently, the mill level and, in the energy production area, the department level (power plant) and the equipment level (boilers, turbines) are used. The application consists of four knowledge base groups. Altogether there are 52 separate knowledge bases having 534 rules or demons. The knowledge base groups are: BASIC DATA, ENERGY USE, ENERGY PRODUCTION and ENERGY COSTS. The application can be used for various heat and electrical energy price calculations or for energy cost calculations for different pulp and paper products. In this study, the energy prices for kraft pulp, TMP, newsprint and fine paper in different operating conditions and the associated energy costs of the products are calculated. Also, in some cases a sensitivity analysis is done. The expert system is quite suitable for this type of calculation and the method could be further developed for specific industrial needs, e.g. to enhance the energy management systems

  19. Calculation of Total Cost, Tolerance Based on Taguchi?s, Asymmetric Quality Loss Function Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. S. Kumar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Current world market force the manufacturing sectors to develop high quality product and process design with minimum possible cost. About 80% of problems in production units may be attributed to 20% of design tolerance causes. While design typically represents the smallest actual cost elements in products (around 5%, it leverages the largest cost influence (around 70%. So design engineers continuously stumble upon problem of design for high quality performance with lower cost. Objectives of this study where to: (i simultaneous selection of design and manufacturing tolerance (ii minimization of total cost (sum of the manufacturing cost and Taguchi?s asymmetric quality cost (iii minimum cost and its machining tolerance. Approach: Rotor key base assembly was considered as case study to optimize the minimization of assembly total cost and machining tolerance. New global nonlinear optimization techniques called pattern search algorithm had been implemented to find optimal tolerance allocation and total cost. Results: In this study minimum cost arrived was 45.15 Cr and its corresponding tolerances for machining process turning, drilling, face milling, face milling and drilling where 0.063, 0.0508, 0.2127, 0.2127, 0.2540 mm respectively at worst case conditions. Conclusion: Results indicated that optimization by integer programming, sequential quadratic programming and exhaustive search, nonlinear programming, genetic algorithm, simulated annealing, fuzzy logic, number set theory and Monte Carlo simulation did not give much least total cost and also predicted that pattern search algorithm was robust method. Second the method, generally termed as concurrent tolerance synthesis was well suited for engineering environment, where high quality products with low total cost were designed and manufactured.

  20. Drug Prohibition in the United States: Costs, Consequences, and Alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadelmann, Ethan A.

    1989-09-01

    ``Drug legalization'' increasingly merits serious consideration as both an analytical model and a policy option for addressing the ``drug problem.'' Criminal justice approaches to the drug problem have proven limited in their capacity to curtail drug abuse. They also have proven increasingly costly and counterproductive. Drug legalization policies that are wisely implemented can minimize the risks of legalization, dramatically reduce the costs of current policies, and directly address the problems of drug abuse.

  1. Sample size calculation in cost-effectiveness cluster randomized trials: optimal and maximin approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manju, Md Abu; Candel, Math J J M; Berger, Martijn P F

    2014-07-10

    In this paper, the optimal sample sizes at the cluster and person levels for each of two treatment arms are obtained for cluster randomized trials where the cost-effectiveness of treatments on a continuous scale is studied. The optimal sample sizes maximize the efficiency or power for a given budget or minimize the budget for a given efficiency or power. Optimal sample sizes require information on the intra-cluster correlations (ICCs) for effects and costs, the correlations between costs and effects at individual and cluster levels, the ratio of the variance of effects translated into costs to the variance of the costs (the variance ratio), sampling and measuring costs, and the budget. When planning, a study information on the model parameters usually is not available. To overcome this local optimality problem, the current paper also presents maximin sample sizes. The maximin sample sizes turn out to be rather robust against misspecifying the correlation between costs and effects at the cluster and individual levels but may lose much efficiency when misspecifying the variance ratio. The robustness of the maximin sample sizes against misspecifying the ICCs depends on the variance ratio. The maximin sample sizes are robust under misspecification of the ICC for costs for realistic values of the variance ratio greater than one but not robust under misspecification of the ICC for effects. Finally, we show how to calculate optimal or maximin sample sizes that yield sufficient power for a test on the cost-effectiveness of an intervention. PMID:25019136

  2. Cost calculations at early stages of nuclear research facilities in the nordic countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nordic countries Denmark, Norway and Sweden, and to some extent also Finland, had very large nuclear research and development programs for a few decades starting in the nineteen fifties. Today, only some of the facilities are in use. Some have been decommissioned and dismantled while others are at various stages of planning for shutdown. The perspective ranges from imminent to several decades. It eventually became realized that considerable planning for the future decommissioning is warranted and that an integral part of this planning is financial, including how financial funds should be acquired, used and allocated over time. This necessitates that accurate and reliable cost estimates be obtained at all stages. However, this is associated with fundamental difficulties and treacherous complexities, especially for the early ones. Eventually, Denmark and Norway decided not to build any nuclear power plants while Finland and Sweden did. This is reflected in the financing where the latter countries have established systems with special funds in which money is being collected now to cover the future costs for the decommissioning of the research facilities. Nonetheless, the needs for planning for the decommissioning of nuclear research facilities are very similar. However, they differ considerably from those of nuclear power reactors, especially with regard to cost calculations. It has become apparent in the course of work that summation types of cost estimation methodosummation types of cost estimation methodologies give rise to large systematic errors if applied at early stages, in which case comparison based assessments are less biased and may be more reliable. Therefore, in order to achieve the required quality of the cost calculations, it is necessary that data and experience from authentic cases be utilized in models for cost calculations. It also implies that this calculation process should include a well adopted learning process. Thus, a Nordic co-operation has been established for the exchange and evaluation of cost-related information on nuclear research facilities. The aim is to identify good practices, accumulate experience, compile data from actual plants and projects, and to derive methodology for cost calculations, especially for early stages. The work includes the following tasks which constitutes the bulk of the present paper: identification of good practice with regard to the following: - strategy and planning; - methodology selection; - radiological surveying; - uncertainty analysis. - descriptions of relevant plants, features and projects: - decommissioning of reactor DR 1 in Denmark; - decommissioning of reactor R 1 in Sweden; - decommissioning of the pilot scale uranium fuel; reprocessing plant in Norway - planning for the future decommissioning of the TRIGA reactor in Finland. - techniques for assessments of costs introduction. (authors)

  3. Cost index review of new US TPP and NPP units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cost indexes of 44 thermal power plants and NPPs have been considered using ''Electrical World'' journal data, 1982. It is noted that last years coal and nuclear energy are used instead of liquid and gaseous fuel to a greater degree. Fuel costs decrease. Specific number of personnel slightly depends on power plant capacity and constitutes 0.25-0.33 person/MW. Electric power consumption for auxiliary supply amounted to 4.5-6.5% for NPPs, 6-10% for coal-fired thermal power plants

  4. 48 CFR 1845.7101-3 - Unit acquisition cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...included in the original software specifications), the...life of the enhanced software is 2 years or more...indicated above under new software. Costs incurred solely...flaw or perform minor upgrades should not be included...and spare parts and components furnished...

  5. Comparison of unit commitment schedules based on fuel cost and emission minimisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a comparative analysis of unit commitment schedule based on minimization of fuel cost and emission separately. The studies have been carried out using dynamic programming approach considering system equality and inequality constraints. The method and comparison are illustrated through a sample system. Comparison shows that the unit commitment schedule for a particular load profile over 24 hours are different in both the cases. Further it has been observed that minimization of fuel cost over entire scheduling period does not minimise emission from the committed units and vice-versa. Therefore attention needs to be paid to solve the unit commitment problem having a dual objective functions considering both fuel cost/operating cost and emission minimization. (author). 9 refs., 7 tabs., 1 fig., 1 ill

  6. Renewable Energy Cost Modeling: A Toolkit for Establishing Cost-Based Incentives in the United States; March 2010 -- March 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gifford, J. S.; Grace, R. C.; Rickerson, W. H.

    2011-05-01

    This report is intended to serve as a resource for policymakers who wish to learn more about establishing cost-based incentives. The report will identify key renewable energy cost modeling options, highlight the policy implications of choosing one approach over the other, and present recommendations on the optimal characteristics of a model to calculate rates for cost-based incentives, feed-in tariffs (FITs), or similar policies. These recommendations will be utilized in designing the Cost of Renewable Energy Spreadsheet Tool (CREST). Three CREST models will be publicly available and capable of analyzing the cost of energy associated with solar, wind, and geothermal electricity generators. The CREST models will be developed for use by state policymakers, regulators, utilities, developers, and other stakeholders to assist them in current and future rate-setting processes for both FIT and other renewable energy incentive payment structures and policy analyses.

  7. MONNIE 2000: A description of a model to calculate environmental costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new model (MONNIE 2000) was developed by the RIVM in the Netherlands in 2000 to calculate environmental costs on a macro level. The model, it's theoretical backgrounds and the technical aspects are described, making it attractive to both the user and the designer of the model. A user manual on how to calculate with the model is included. The basic principle of the model is the use of a harmonised method for calculating environmental costs, which provides the user with an output that can easily be compared with and used in other economic statistics and macro-economic models in the Netherlands. Input for the model are yearly figures on operational costs, investments and savings from environmental measures. With MONNIE 2000 calculated environmental costs per policy target group, economic sector and theme can be shown, With this model the burden of environmental measures on the economic sectors and the environmental expenditures of the government can be presented as well. MONNIE 2000 is developed in Visual Basic and by using Excel as input and output a user-friendly data exchange is realised. 12 refs

  8. About real cost calculations for biogas from vinasse biodigestion and its energy utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salomon, K.R. [Universidade Federal de Alagoas (UFAL), Maceio, AL (Brazil)]. E-mail: kaka_salomon@yahoo.com.br; Lora , E.E.S.; Rocha, M.H. [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil). Thermal Systems Study Group]. E-mails: electo@unifei.edu.br; mateus.rocha@unifei.edu.br

    2008-07-01

    The sharp increase in ethanol production has drawn attention to the increase in the production of n residues, mainly stillage, a by-product from the ethanol agro-industry. As it is a highly polluting effluent that is generated in great volumes, its transport and disposal is not simple. Stillage Is a product that results from the distillation and fermentation of the sugarcane in the process of ethanol production. Today there are new environmental standards that restrict the disposal of the stillage in the soil. The anaerobic biodigestion comes as an alternative treatment for the stillage. One of the advantages of the biodigestion is that the stillage fertilization potential continues to be the same after the process and, this way, the effluent can be taken to the fields through fertirrigation. The main advantages are the conservation of the nutrients, mainly phosphor and nitrogen contents, and the increase in the pH for the application in the soil. This paper presents a methodology for the calculation of the biogas cost obtained from stillage biodigestion, considering the benefits of the fertirrigation with the effluent generated in the digester. Later an analysis of the economical feasibility of the use of the biogas obtained from the stillage anaerobic digestion in different scenarios is carried out, among them there are: electric power generation with alternative internal combustion, with gas turbines and micro-turbines, with the 'substituted' bagasse burned together with the biogas in the boilers, with the sales of the substituted bagasse (for electric power generation in another unit) and with the use of the biogas in spray dryers with the subsequent sales of dried yeasts. It is also considered an analysis under an environmental point of view of the use of the biogas that includes the possibility of selling the certificates of avoided emissions (carbon credits) due to the use of the biogas in substitution to fossil fuels. The most important results are presented in a comparative table. (author)

  9. The Summed Start-up Costs in a Unit Commitment Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Brandenberg, Rene?; Huber, Matthias; Silbernagl, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    We consider the sum of the incurred start-up costs of a single unit in a Unit Commitment problem. Our major result is a correspondence between the facets of its epigraph and some binary trees for concave start-up cost functions CU, which is bijective if CU is strictly concave. We derive an exponential H-representation of this epigraph, and provide an exact linear separation algorithm. These results significantly reduce the integrality gap of the Mixed Integer formulation of ...

  10. Asset management and the calculation of capital costs for mains-usage fees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article discusses the requirements stipulated in the Swiss Electricity Supply Law that capital costs for all mains-levels must be declared on a yearly basis. The costs are calculated from current market value and depreciation according to technical lifetime. The authors examine the requirements placed on the declaration of capital costs and how they are calculated. The detailed book-keeping needed is discussed as is the large volume of data involved. The role of existing mains information systems is looked at, as are methods of assessing current assets. Experience gained in practice is discussed: This is taken as the basis for future processes. Utilities participating in the project and a number of solutions available are noted

  11. Calculation Of Recycle And Open Cycle Nuclear Fuel Cost Using Lagistase Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    . To be presented the calculation of recycle and open cycle nuclear fuel cost for LWR type that have net power of 600 MWe. This calculation using LEGECOST method developed by IAEA which have characteristics,where i.e. money is stated in constant money (no inflation),discount rate is equalized with interest rate and not consider tax and depreciation.As a conclusion is that open cycle nuclear fuel cost more advantage because it is cheaper than recycle nuclear fuel cost. This is caused that at present, reprocessing process disadvantage because it has not found yet more efficient and cheaper method, besides price of fresh uranium is still cheap. In future, the cost of recycle nuclear fuel cycle will be more competitive toward the cost of open nuclear fuel cycle if is found technology of reprocessing process that more advance, efficient and cheap. Increase of Pu use for reactor fuel especially MOX type will rise Pu price that finally will decrease the cost of recycle nuclear fuel cycle

  12. Extension of the COSYMA-ECONOMICS module - cost calculations based on different economic sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The COSYMA program system for evaluating the off-site consequences of accidental releases of radioactive material to the atmosphere includes an ECONOMICS module for assessing economic consequences. The aim of this module is to convert various consequences (radiation-induced health effects and impacts resulting from countermeasures) caused by an accident into the common framework of economic costs; this allows different effects to be expressed in the same terms and thus to make these effects comparable. With respect to the countermeasure 'movement of people', the dominant cost categories are 'loss-of-income costs' and 'costs of lost capital services'. In the original version of the ECONOMICS module these costs are calculated on the basis of the total number of people moved. In order to take into account also regional or local economic peculiarities of a nuclear site, the ECONOMICS module has been extended: Calculation of the above mentioned cost categories is now based on the number of employees in different economic sectors in the affected area. This extension of the COSYMA ECONOMICS module is described in more detail. (orig.)

  13. Calculation of the cost of Generating Power in a Fast Reactor by the Discounting Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method of calculating the discounted cost of fuel cycles, using a computer, was presented during the 2nd Nuclear Meeting of the Forum Atómico Español held in Madrid during 27-28 October 1966. This method had been developed for optimization studies in relation to a 1000-MW(e) fast reactor under the ''Fast Reactors'' partnership agreement concluded between Euratom and the Belgian Government. The object of the paper is to describe how the method is applied and to analyse the initial results obtained with it. The calculational code, for use with an IBM 360 computer, consists of two parts. In the first part, the reactor characteristics necessary for the economic computations are determined; these consist essentially of the initial and final composition of the fuel (isotopic composition, plutonium content, proportion of inert material, fuel weight) and the time during which the fuel remains in the reactor. These characteristics are computed for each zone of the core, and of the axial and radial breeding blankets. In the second part of the code, the fuel cycle characteristics are first calculated: doubling time and various factors required for feasibility studies (loading and unloading factors, inventory factors in terms of natural uranium or 239Pu equivalent). The various specific costs are then determined by means of sub-routines. The discounting calculations are performed for each reactor zone and combined into two separate groups: costs discounted to the tparate groups: costs discounted to the time of reactor start-up and costs discounted to shut-down. Two approaches are then possible, depending on whether the fissile material is purchased or leased from a national or international organization (this in turn depends on whether private ownership of fissile materials is permitted). The costs, expressed in kWh, are then grouped by zone and by type of operation (transport, manufacture, etc.), and sub-divided into fixed and variable costs, and operating and capital costs. The method has been applied to the German Na-1 reactor, and the results are extremely interesting. The cost breakdown shows the Importance of capital costs in the fuel cycle of a fast reactor. The Influence of various technical and economic parameters is brought out; for example, bum-up (the effect of which can no longer be represented by a simple hyperbola), loading frequency, the rate used for discounting and the price of plutonium. (author)

  14. Criticality safety calculations for Region B of the Millstone Unit No. 2 Spent Fuel Pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) staff performed criticality safety calculations documented herein for the fresh fuel region (Region B) of the Northeast Nuclear Energy Company (NNECO) Millstone Unit No. 2 Spent Fuel Pool. The purpose of these calculations was to verify the results reported by NNECO in their application for revision to the Millstone Unit No. 2 technical specifications. All calculations were performed with the SCALE-4.1 code system developed at ORNL. Specifically, the CSAS25 criticality control sequence, which executes the BONAMI, NITAWL-II, and YENO V.a codes, was used to perform all keff calculations

  15. Models for determining cost of care and length of stay in neonatal intensive care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoshnood, B; Lee, K S; Corpuz, M; Koetting, M; Hsieh, H I; Kim, B I

    1996-01-01

    New models for determining the cost of care and length of stay in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) were developed using financial and clinical data from 588 admissions to our NICU. The model for determining costs explained 71% of the variability in total hospital costs. Models such as the ones developed in this study can be used to compare costs in different institutions, determine temporal trends in costs, and examine the financial impact of using new technologies. Such models can also be useful components of a rational prospective pricing system for the NICU. PMID:8690563

  16. 40 CFR 1065.20 - Units of measure and overview of calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...available on the Internet at http://physics.nist.gov/Pubs/SP811/contents...directly or calculate it as the sum of atmospheric pressure plus a differential pressure that is referenced to atmospheric pressure. (d) Units...

  17. Replacement energy costs for nuclear electricity-generating units in the United States: 1997--2001. Volume 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report updates previous estimates of replacement energy costs for potential short-term shutdowns of 109 US nuclear electricity-generating units. This information was developed to assist the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in its regulatory impact analyses, specifically those that examine the impacts of proposed regulations requiring retrofitting of or safety modifications to nuclear reactors. Such actions might necessitate shutdowns of nuclear power plants while these changes are being implemented. The change in energy cost represents one factor that the NRC must consider when deciding to require a particular modification. Cost estimates were derived from probabilistic production cost simulations of pooled utility system operations. Factors affecting replacement energy costs, such as random unit failures, maintenance and refueling requirements, and load variations, are treated in the analysis. This report describes an abbreviated analytical approach as it was adopted to update the cost estimates published in NUREG/CR-4012, Vol. 3. The updates were made to extend the time frame of cost estimates and to account for recent changes in utility system conditions, such as change in fuel prices, construction and retirement schedules, and system demand projects

  18. Calculating Super Efficiency of DMUs for Ranking Units in Data Envelopment Analysis Based on SBM Model

    OpenAIRE

    E. Zanboori; Rostamy-Malkhalifeh, M.; Jahanshahloo, G. R.; N. Shoja

    2014-01-01

    There are a number of methods for ranking decision making units (DMUs), among which calculating super efficiency and then ranking the units based on the obtained amount of super efficiency are both valid and efficient. Since most of the proposed models do not provide the projection of Pareto efficiency, a model is developed and presented through this paper based on which in the projection of Pareto-efficient is obtained, in addition to calculating the amount of super efficiency. Moreover, the...

  19. Study on the Development of Methodology for Cost Calculations and Financial Planning of Decommissioning Operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following study deals with the development of methodology for cost calculations and financial planning of decommissioning operations. It has been carried out by EDF / FRAMATOME / VUJE / SCK-CEN in the frame of the contract B7-032/2000/291058/MAR/C2 awarded by the European Commission. This study consists of 4 parts. The first task objective is to develop a reliable and transparent methodology for cost assessment and financial planning sufficient precise but without long and in depth investigations and studies. This methodology mainly contains: Calculation methods and algorithms for the elaboration of costs items making up the whole decommissioning cost. Estimated or standard values for the parameters and for the cost factors to be used in the above-mentioned algorithms Financial mechanism to be applied as to establish a financial planning. The second part task is the provision of standard values for the different parameters and costs factors described in the above-mentioned algorithms. This provision of data is based on the own various experience acquired by the members of the working team and on existing international references (databases, publications and reports). As decommissioning operations are spreading over several dozens of years, the scope of this task the description of the financial mechanisms to be applied to the different cost items as to establish a complete financial cost. It takes into account the financial schedule issued in task 1. The scope of this task consists in bringing together in a guideline all the information collected before: algorithms, data and financial mechanisms. (A.L.B.)

  20. Costos reales de tratamientos intensivos por paciente y día cama Real daily costs of patients admitted to public intensive care units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Alvear

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patient care costs in intensive care units are high and should be considered in medical decision making. Aim: To calculate the real disease related costs for patients admitted to intensive care units of public hospitals. Material and Methods: Using an activity associated costs analysis, the expenses of 716 patients with a mean age of 56 years, mean APACHE score of20 (56% males, admitted to intensive care units of two regional public hospitals, were calculated. Patients were classified according to their underlying disease. Results: The costs per day of hospital stay, in Chilean pesos, were $ 426,265for sepsis, $ 423,300for cardiovascular diseases, $ 418,329 for kidney diseases, $ 404,873 for trauma, $ 398,913 for respiratory diseases, $ 379,455for digestive diseases and $ 371,801 for neurologic disease. Human resources and medications determined up to 85 and 12% of costs, respectively. Patients with sepsis and trauma use 32 and 19% of intensive care unit resources, respectively. Twenty seven percent of resources are invested in patients that eventually died. Conclusions: A real cost benefit analysis should be performed to optimize resource allocation in intensive care units.

  1. Costos reales de tratamientos intensivos por paciente y día cama / Real daily costs of patients admitted to public intensive care units

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sandra, Alvear; Jorge, Canteros; Juan, Jara; Patricia, Rodríguez.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english Background: Patient care costs in intensive care units are high and should be considered in medical decision making. Aim: To calculate the real disease related costs for patients admitted to intensive care units of public hospitals. Material and Methods: Using an activity associated costs analysis, [...] the expenses of 716 patients with a mean age of 56 years, mean APACHE score of20 (56% males), admitted to intensive care units of two regional public hospitals, were calculated. Patients were classified according to their underlying disease. Results: The costs per day of hospital stay, in Chilean pesos, were $ 426,265for sepsis, $ 423,300for cardiovascular diseases, $ 418,329 for kidney diseases, $ 404,873 for trauma, $ 398,913 for respiratory diseases, $ 379,455for digestive diseases and $ 371,801 for neurologic disease. Human resources and medications determined up to 85 and 12% of costs, respectively. Patients with sepsis and trauma use 32 and 19% of intensive care unit resources, respectively. Twenty seven percent of resources are invested in patients that eventually died. Conclusions: A real cost benefit analysis should be performed to optimize resource allocation in intensive care units.

  2. Conventional method for the calculation of the global energy cost of buildings; Methode conventionnelle de calcul du cout global energetique des batiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-05-01

    A working group driven by Electricite de France (EdF), Chauffage Fioul and Gaz de France (GdF) companies has been built with the sustain of several building engineering companies in order to clarify the use of the method of calculation of the global energy cost of buildings. This global cost is an economical decision help criterion among others. This press kit presents, first, the content of the method (input data, calculation of annual expenses, calculation of the global energy cost, display of results and limitations of the method). Then it fully describes the method and its appendixes necessary for its implementation: economical and financial context, general data of the project in progress, environmental data, occupation and comfort level, variants, investment cost of energy systems, investment cost for the structure linked with the energy system, investment cost for other invariant elements of the structure, calculation of consumptions (space heating, hot water, ventilation), maintenance costs (energy systems, structure), operation and exploitation costs, tariffs and consumption costs and taxes, actualized global cost, annualized global cost, comparison between variants. The method is applied to a council building of 23 flats taken as an example. (J.S.)

  3. Low-cost, high reliability voice control unit (VCU).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, M D; Narayanan, K; Kurtz, J

    1992-01-01

    A dedicated microcomputer system has been developed to provide voice control over a wide variety of motorized devices. Employing a 8051 microprocessor with 16 kilobytes of ROM and 16 kilobytes of non-volatile RAM, the system potentially realizes an OEM cost of under $100. Other features include: a simplified user interface, a failsafe stop and voice programmable capabilities. This system has the potential to bring voice control into the marketplace in a wide variety of applications. Currently, the system has been adapted to surgical microscopes and is used in controlling several types of hospital beds. PMID:10118352

  4. Personal Finance Calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argo, Mark

    1982-01-01

    Contains explanations and examples of mathematical calculations for a secondary level course on personal finance. How to calculate total monetary cost of an item, monthly payments, different types of interest, annual percentage rates, and unit pricing is explained. (RM)

  5. Unit Commitment Considering Regional Synchronous Reactive Power Requirements : Costs and Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Cuffe, Paul; Lannoye, Eamonn; Keane, Andrew; Tuohy, Aidan

    2012-01-01

    Highly renewable power systems may have to impose regional minima on the number of online synchronous units to ensure appropriate availability of controllable reactive power. Given the declining net loads associated with increasing wind penetration levels, these regional constraints are anticipated to come into effect with greater frequency. Such constraints have a tangible effect on the total cost of unit commitment schedules, with out-of-merit units being committed solely ...

  6. Current estimate of costs of lung cancer screening in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauchley, David C; Mitchell, John D

    2015-05-01

    The United States Preventive Services Task Force recently endorsed the use of low-dose computed tomography for lung cancer screening in high-risk patients because of the potential to reduce deaths. Before implementation on a national level, it will be important to ensure that a safe, high-quality, and accessible service can be adequately provided. It will also be important to make sure that screening is cost-effective. This article summarizes the published analyses of lung cancer screening cost, provides a contemporary estimation of the annual cost of screening in the United States, and identifies areas for improvement in the future. PMID:25901564

  7. Economic impacts of oil spills: Spill unit costs for tankers, pipelines, refineries, and offshore facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The impacts of oil spills -- ranging from the large, widely publicized Exxon Valdez tanker incident to smaller pipeline and refinery spills -- have been costly to both the oil industry and the public. For example, the estimated costs to Exxon of the Valdez tanker spill are on the order of $4 billion, including $2.8 billion (in 1993 dollars) for direct cleanup costs and $1.125 billion (in 1992 dollars) for settlement of damages claims caused by the spill. Application of contingent valuation costs and civil lawsuits pending in the State of Alaska could raise these costs appreciably. Even the costs of the much smaller 1991 oil spill at Texaco's refinery near Anacortes, Washington led to costs of $8 to 9 million. As a result, inexpensive waming, response and remediation technologies could lower oil spin costs, helping both the oil industry, the associated marine industries, and the environment. One means for reducing the impact and costs of oil spills is to undertake research and development on key aspects of the oil spill prevention, warming, and response and remediation systems. To target these funds to their best use, it is important to have sound data on the nature and size of spills, their likely occurrence and their unit costs. This information could then allow scarce R ampersand D dollars to be spent on areas and activities having the largest impact. This report is intended to provide the ''unit cost'' portion of this crucial information. The report examines the three key components of the US oil supply system, namely, tankers and barges; pipelines and refineries; and offshore production facilities. The specific purpose of the study was to establish the unit costs of oil spills. By manipulating this key information into a larger matrix that includes the size and frequency of occurrence of oil spills, it will be possible' to estimate the likely future impacts, costs, and sources of oil spills

  8. Methodology for Calculating Cost-per-Mile for Current and Future Vehicle Powertrain Technologies, with Projections to 2024: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruth, M.; Timbario, T. A.; Timbario, T. J.; Laffen, M.

    2011-01-01

    Currently, several cost-per-mile calculators exist that can provide estimates of acquisition and operating costs for consumers and fleets. However, these calculators are limited in their ability to determine the difference in cost per mile for consumer versus fleet ownership, to calculate the costs beyond one ownership period, to show the sensitivity of the cost per mile to the annual vehicle miles traveled (VMT), and to estimate future increases in operating and ownership costs. Oftentimes, these tools apply a constant percentage increase over the time period of vehicle operation, or in some cases, no increase in direct costs at all over time. A more accurate cost-per-mile calculator has been developed that allows the user to analyze these costs for both consumers and fleets. The calculator was developed to allow simultaneous comparisons of conventional light-duty internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles, mild and full hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), and fuel cell vehicles (FCVs). This paper is a summary of the development by the authors of a more accurate cost-per-mile calculator that allows the user to analyze vehicle acquisition and operating costs for both consumer and fleets. Cost-per-mile results are reported for consumer-operated vehicles travelling 15,000 miles per year and for fleets travelling 25,000 miles per year.

  9. HEPAFIL - a program for the calculation of the fluid dynamics of high efficiency particulate air filter units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With HEPAFIL, LAF II provides a FORTRAN program for the calculation of various parameters associated with the fluid dynamics of high efficiency particulate air filter units. Most of the currently available commercial deep pleat designs have been taken into consideration, e.g., high strength nuclear grade units employing separators with inclined corrugations, units for clean room applications, as well as low and medium efficiency EU 6 and EU 8 types having very low pressure drops. The flow resistance curves obtained from HEPAFIL could be verified in extensive experimental test. A user-friendly PC version with the integrated program library HEPAGAS can serve as a useful tool to the researcher in filter development as well as to the filter manufacturer for cost reduction analyses. Knowledge of the distributions of airstream, pressures and velocities within the flow channels of the filter pack allows more precise investigations of failure mechanisms and filtration characteristics for a wide range of flow conditions. The newest scientific application involves fundamental investigations into the cleanability of HEPA filter units. HEPAFIL offers filter manufacturers the opportunity to improve and optimize filter performance with respect to pressure drop, burst strength, and material costs, with a minimum of prototype fabrication and testing. (orig.)

  10. A calculation program for harvesting and transportation costs of energy wood; Energiapuun korjuun ja kuljetuksen kustannuslaskentaohjelmisto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuitto, P.J.

    1996-12-31

    VTT Energy is compiling a large and versatile calculation program for harvesting and transportation costs of energy wood. The work has been designed and will be carried out in cooperation with Metsaeteho and Finntech Ltd. The program has been realised in Windows surroundings using SQLWindows graphical database application development system, using the SQLBase relational database management system. The objective of the research is to intensify and create new possibilities for comparison of the utilization costs and the profitability of integrated energy wood production chains with each other inside the chains

  11. MS excel computer program for teletherapy treatment time, monitor units and time dose fractionation calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treatment time or monitor units calculations is one of the main routine day-to-day works of medical physicist in the department of radiotherapy. There is a possibility of human error while doing calculations. In order to avoid those errors, this program is developed

  12. Cost calculations for decommissioning and dismantling of nuclear research facilities, Phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Inga [StudsvikNuclear AB (Sweden); Backe, S. [Institute for Energy Technology (Norway); Iversen, Klaus [Danish Decommissioning (Denmark); Lindskog, S [Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (Sweden); Salmenhaara, S. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland (Finland); Sjoeblom, R. [Tekedo AB (Sweden)

    2006-11-15

    Today, it is recommended that planning of decommission should form an integral part of the activities over the life cycle of a nuclear facility. However, no actual international guideline on cost calculations exists at present. Intuitively, it might be tempting to regard costs for decommissioning of a nuclear facility as similar to those of any other plant. However, the presence of radionuclide contamination may imply that the cost is one or more orders of magnitude higher as compared to a corresponding inactive situation, the actual ratio being highly dependent on the level of contamination as well as design features and use of the facility in question. Moreover, the variations in such prerequisites are much larger than for nuclear power plants. This implies that cost calculations cannot be performed with any accuracy or credibility without a relatively detailed consideration of the radiological and other prerequisites. Application of inadequate methodologies especially at early stages has often lead to large underestimations. The goals of the project and the achievements described in the report are as follows: 1) Advice on good practice with regard to: 1a) Strategy and planning; 1b) Methodology selection; 1c) Radiological surveying; 1d) Uncertainty analysis; 2) Techniques for assessment of costs: 2a) Cost structuring; 2b) Cost estimation methodologies; 3) Compilation of data for plants, state of planning, organisations, etc.; 3a) General descriptions of relevant features of the nuclear research facilities; 3b) General plant specific data; 3c) Example of the decommissioning of the R1 research reactor in Sweden; 3d) Example of the decommissioning of the DR1 research reactor in Denmark. In addition, but not described in the present report, is the establishment of a Nordic network in the area including an internet based expert system. It should be noted that the project is planned to exist for at least three years and that the present report is an interim one covering the work for approximately the first 16 months. (au)

  13. Cost calculations for decommissioning and dismantling of nuclear research facilities, Phase 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Today, it is recommended that planning of decommission should form an integral part of the activities over the life cycle of a nuclear facility. However, no actual international guideline on cost calculations exists at present. Intuitively, it might be tempting to regard costs for decommissioning of a nuclear facility as similar to those of any other plant. However, the presence of radionuclide contamination may imply that the cost is one or more orders of magnitude higher as compared to a corresponding inactive situation, the actual ratio being highly dependent on the level of contamination as well as design features and use of the facility in question. Moreover, the variations in such prerequisites are much larger than for nuclear power plants. This implies that cost calculations cannot be performed with any accuracy or credibility without a relatively detailed consideration of the radiological and other prerequisites. Application of inadequate methodologies especially at early stages has often lead to large underestimations. The goals of the project and the achievements described in the report are as follows: 1) Advice on good practice with regard to: 1a) Strategy and planning; 1b) Methodology selection; 1c) Radiological surveying; 1d) Uncertainty analysis; 2) Techniques for assessment of costs: 2a) Cost structuring; 2b) Cost estimation methodologies; 3) Compilation of data for plants, state of planning, organisations, etc.; 3a) General descriptions of relevant features of the nuclear research facilities; 3b) General plant specific data; 3c) Example of the decommissioning of the R1 research reactor in Sweden; 3d) Example of the decommissioning of the DR1 research reactor in Denmark. In addition, but not described in the present report, is the establishment of a Nordic network in the area including an internet based expert system. It should be noted that the project is planned to exist for at least three years and that the present report is an interim one covering the work for approximately the first 16 months. (au)

  14. Production process in radiation therapy and research into cost-inducers in two radiation oncology units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Production process in radiation therapy and research into cost-inducers in two radiation oncology units. Purpose. - To analyse the process of outpatient radiation therapy by dividing it into elementary acts, and to determine the cost-inducers (staff and machine time, equipment) in order to enhance the value of radiotherapy activity. Material and methods. - The care process was analysed from 1 June 1997 to 1 September 1997, in two institutions (Centre hospitalo-universitaire de Saint Etienne and centre de Lutte contre le Cancer de Lyon), in terms of consumption of human and equipment means, representing a cost for the care institution. The valorization was expressed in physics units for material means, and in time units for human and heavy equipment. Parameters able to modify the consumption of means had been defined. The following data had been collected for each activity: patient characteristics, characteristics of the process, specific parameters of each activity, data related to the care staff and care unit. (authors)

  15. The costs of cancer care in the United States: implications for action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuette, H L; Tucker, T C; Brown, M L; Potosky, A L; Samuel, T

    1995-11-01

    The total annual cost of cancer care in the United States (including direct and indirect costs) has been estimated at more than $96 billion. Although third-party payers have led the effort to reduce these costs, such high expenditures must concern society as a whole, since money spent on cancer care, whether through insurance premiums, taxes to support Medicare, or payouts from family savings, could be used for other purposes. In the future, attention may be shifted to more cost-effective strategies, including greater prevention efforts and development of better diagnostic tools to permit early detection. Improved diagnosis, however, presents an anomaly in that with earlier detection, survival is greater but the overall direct treatment costs are higher. This is why when making decisions about allocation of medical resources, the indirect costs of morbidity and mortality (which are reduced with early diagnosis) must be considered as well as the direct cost. PMID:8608052

  16. Critical Analysis of the Cost Calculation System Used in Iron and Steel Industry in Libya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ABDELKARIM Abdelali

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Phased calculation method applied by industrial enterprises with mass production as in the case of companies in the iron and steel industry, characterized by a simple technological process, conducted in successive stages of processing raw materials and materials from which finished product is resulted. Despite the advantages offered, the phases method has several disadvantages indisputable that require improvement of cost calculation in the iron and steel industry enterprises. This paper aims at presenting the inconvenience that the phase method involves and providing solutions for improvement

  17. Comparative costs of coal and nuclear-generated electricity in the united states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper compares the future first-year operating costs and lifetime levelized costs of producing baseload coal- and nuclear-generated electricity under schedules shorter than those recently experienced at U.S. plants. Nuclear appears to have a clear economic advantage. Coal is favorable only when it is assumed that the units will operate at very low capacity factors and/or when the capital cost differential between nuclear and coal is increased far above the recent historical level. Nuclear is therefore a cost-competitive electric energy option for utilities and should be considered as an alternative to coal when large baseload capacity is required. (author)

  18. FAPMAN-IC: a program module calculating the incremental fuel cost of LWR power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fuel loading and operation planning code FAPMAN-8 has been simplified as an independent subroutine module FAPMAN-IC, that is callable from the more overall system integration model like ORSIM. The module calculates the fuel and associated incremental fuel cost for LWR stations, given the cycle operation schedule, cycle energy demand and plant thermal efficiency. Summary of the problem to be solved and interface to ORSIM were presented with sample input and printout. (author)

  19. POPCYCLE: a computer code for calculating nuclear and fossil plant levelized life-cycle power costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    POPCYCLE, a computer code designed to calculate levelized life-cycle power costs for nuclear and fossil electrical generating plants is described. Included are (1) derivations of the equations and a discussion of the methodology used by POPCYCLE, (2) a description of the input required by the code, (3) a listing of the input for a sample case, and (4) the output for a sample case

  20. A Geographical-Origin–Destination Model for Calculating the Cost of Multimodal Forest-Fuel Transportation

    OpenAIRE

    Tapio Ranta; Eero Jäppinen; Olli-Jussi Korpinen

    2013-01-01

    As a consequence of increasing demand for wood fuels, the management of forest-fuel production chains has become an important logistics issue in FinlandandSweden. Truck-based transportation has been the dominant method in fuel supply from the areas around power plants. However, increasing demand has led to enlargement of supply areas and greater variety in supply methods, including also railway and waterway transportation. This study presents a GIS-based calculation model suitable for cost c...

  1. Audit Calculations of LBLOCA for Ulchin Unit 1 and 2 Power Up rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The KINS-Realistic Evaluation Model (KINS-REM) was developed for the independent audit calculation in 1991, and the code accuracy and statistical method have been improved. To support the licensing review and to confirm the validity of licensee's calculation, regulatory auditing calculations have been also conducted. Currently, the modification of Ulchin 1 and 2 operating license for 4.5% power up rate is under review. In this study, the regulatory audit calculation for LBLOCA of Ulchin Unit 1 and 2 with 4.5% power up rate was performed by applying KINS-REM. In this study, the regulatory audit calculation for LBLOCA of Ulchin Unit 1 and 2 with 4.5% power up rate was performed by applying KINS-REM. It is confirmed that the analysis results of LBLOCA for Ulchin 1 and 2 power up rate meets the PCT acceptance criteria

  2. Comparison of costs of brick construction and concrete structure based on functional units

    OpenAIRE

    Sazedj, Soheyl; Morais, António; Jalali, Said

    2013-01-01

    In the context of economic sustainability of building construction, it is an issue to decide which constructive solution is more reasonable without loosing quality. This study is about the comparison of the costs of construction of structural walls; conventional reticulated reinforced concrete structure filled with ceramic blocks versus unreinforced masonry with ceramic blocks. Functional units are defined as inner and outer walls to enable a further specification of the costs in order to per...

  3. The Economic Cost of Methamphetamine Use in the United States, 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicosia, Nancy; Pacula, Rosalie Liccardo; Kilmer, Beau; Lundberg, Russell; Chiesa, James

    2009-01-01

    This first national estimate suggests that the economic cost of methamphetamine (meth) use in the United States reached $23.4 billion in 2005. Given the uncertainty in estimating the costs of meth use, this book provides a lower-bound estimate of $16.2 billion and an upper-bound estimate of $48.3 billion. The analysis considers a wide range of…

  4. Evaluation of syngas production unit cost of bio-gasification facility using regression analysis techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Yangyang; Parajuli, Prem B.

    2011-08-10

    Evaluation of economic feasibility of a bio-gasification facility needs understanding of its unit cost under different production capacities. The objective of this study was to evaluate the unit cost of syngas production at capacities from 60 through 1800Nm 3/h using an economic model with three regression analysis techniques (simple regression, reciprocal regression, and log-log regression). The preliminary result of this study showed that reciprocal regression analysis technique had the best fit curve between per unit cost and production capacity, with sum of error squares (SES) lower than 0.001 and coefficient of determination of (R 2) 0.996. The regression analysis techniques determined the minimum unit cost of syngas production for micro-scale bio-gasification facilities of $0.052/Nm 3, under the capacity of 2,880 Nm 3/h. The results of this study suggest that to reduce cost, facilities should run at a high production capacity. In addition, the contribution of this technique could be the new categorical criterion to evaluate micro-scale bio-gasification facility from the perspective of economic analysis.

  5. An analysis of cost effects of United States regional power pools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gungor, Ali

    Early studies that analyzed the effects of interutility coordination of electric utilities in the United States were largely criticized due to their lack of analytic vigor and their inconsequential findings; no further research has been conducted since the early 1980s. In contrast to previous research, this project investigates the cost effects of U.S. power pools, not only at the generation level, but at the transmission and distribution levels as well, using a different cost function approach and more recent data. A panel data analysis of investor-owned utilities between the years 1983 and 1991 is used to estimate multistage quadratic cost functions. The fixed costs, power pool, and vertical economies parameters for each of these estimations are of major interest in testing the relevant hypotheses about the cost effects of power pooling. Results from this investigation confirm that power pooling does not help investor-owned utilities to lower their costs. On the contrary, pooling utilities experience higher fixed and variable costs, because the costs of power pooling exceed its benefits. Cost efficiencies seem to occur mostly due to vertical integration and cost complementarities. Some efficiencies are also found in the case of holding company utilities.

  6. Numerical-analytical method of calculating insulated double-glazed units deflection under climatic (internal load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plotnikov Aleksandr Aleksandrovich

    Full Text Available Glass unit consists of glasses hermetically-united together. The cavity of an insulating glass unit contains a fixed volume of air (gas. In the process of production regular air with atmospheric pressure and temperature is sealed inside a glass unit. During operation the atmospheric pressure is constantly changing, but the pressure inside remains constant (at a constant temperature. A change of temperature or of the external air pressure results in a pressure difference and therefore in a load on the glass panes. The action may exceed the usual load considerably. This pressure effects the glasses of the unit, deforms them, lowers the thermotechnical properties of glass units and can lead to their destruction. The action of the inside pressure can be seen all around as convex and concaved glasses, which destroys the architectural look of buildings. It is obvious that it is incorrect to calculate thin glass plates on such a load only by classical methods of strength of materials theory. In this case we need a special calculation method. The effects of a change in temperature, altitude or meteorological pressure are easily covered by the definition of an isochore pressure. This is necessary, to determine the change of pressure due to the temperature induced gas expansion in the cavity of the insulating glass according to the ideal gas law. After the integration of the analytical plate solution and the ideal gas law, the final pressure states can easily be calculated by coupling the change of volume and the change of pressure.

  7. Economic and social costs of coal and nuclear electric generation, a framework for assessment and illustrative calculations for the coal and nuclear fuel cycles. Discussion paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method is presented for extending economic comparisons of nuclear and coal-fired electric power to include health, safety, and environmental impacts in the same quantitative framework. The method is illustrated by considering the decision between a light water nuclear reactor and a conventional coal-fired power plant to satisfy a 1000 MWe increase in electrical demand in the northeastern United States. For both alternatives, preliminary calculations of the economic and social costs expressed in mills per kilowatt-hour are reported. Economic costs consist of those faced by the utility, including capital charges, operating expenses, and fuel cycle costs. Social costs for each plant and its associated fuel cycle include routine environmental impacts such as air pollution as well as risk to the public from reactor accidents or sabotage

  8. A Realistic Approach for Phasor Measurement Unit Placement : Consideration of Hidden Practical Costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rather, Zakir Hussain; Chen, Zhe

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a realistic cost-effectivemodel for optimal placement of phasor measurement units (PMUs) for complete observability of a power system considering practical cost implications. The proposed model considers hidden or otherwise unaccounted practical costs involved in PMU installation. Consideration of these hidden but significant and integral part of total PMU installation costs was inspired from practical experience on a real-life project. The proposedmodel focuses on the minimization of total realistic costs instead of a widely used theoretical concept of a minimal number of PMUs. The proposed model has been applied to IEEE 14-bus, IEEE 24-bus, IEEE 30-bus, New England 39-bus, and large power system of 300 buses and real life Danish grid. A comparison of the presented results with those reported by traditionalmethods has also been shown to justify the effectiveness of the proposed model with regard to its realistic and practical nature.

  9. Evaluation of Care Coordination Program on Cost Containment: Cambridge Health Alliance Case in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadir GÜRSOY

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Rising healthcare costs in nearly all nations, particularly in the United States, has been posing major challenges to stakeholders in healthcare industry. Each actor has been developing new strategies to mitigate costs. Care coordination is one of the methods many healthcare providers have been applying to remedy this problem. Cambridge Health Alliance - a public, safety net health care system serving the Greater Boston area- has been piloting a care coordination program for one of its population cohorts since November 2011. This paper evaluates the possible impact of the program on healthcare costs, analyzes cost structure for different subpopulations to understand which groups contribute most to cost reductions, and offer suggestions to achieve the highest saving. The analyses conclude there is room for curbing the cost growth when the program targets the highest cost patient and the program succeeds in changing the cost concentration of healthcare spending. Nevertheless, the analyses need to be developed further, using bigger population and a longer intervention period. Finally, it is important to support the program with other policies such as a gate keeping system, preventive care, and new alternative payment systems to sustain an impact on costs in the long-run.

  10. 19 CFR 351.406 - Calculation of normal value if sales are made at less than cost of production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calculation of normal value if sales are made at less than cost of production...Calculation of Export Price, Constructed Export Price, Fair Value, and Normal Value § 351.406 Calculation of normal value if...

  11. Simulation analysis of Shadow Factor and unit cost in the booster mirror arrangement for a solar panel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nivas.V

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A simulation and experimental study was attempted to increase the power output from a 75 W mono and multi crystalline solar panel using V Trough solar concentrators, thus estimating its ideal concentration ratio for domestic applications in the absence of automatic tracking. The net radiation falling on the panel due to reflection from concentrators and the shading caused by the reflectors was simulated using TRACE PRO and PV Syst Software, calculating the net power output, losses and output energy. Through the simulated values, the calculated unit cost of energy for the concentrator arrangement with 1 X, 2 X, 3 X and 4 X configurations are found to be 0.81, 0.70, 0.74 and 0.75 $/kWh respectively for the 1st year. It is estimated that 2 X configuration having a surface temperature of less than 70°C, CO2 savings of 28 % higher than the reference model and a unit cost of 0.7 $/kWh is the optimum concentration ratio for a solar V Trough concentrator.

  12. Target costing in the sales area of an energy supplier. market-oriented calculation of services; Target Costing im Vertriebsbereich von EVU. Marktorientierte Kalkulation von Dienst- und Serviceleistungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Held, Stephan [Duisburg-Essen Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Betriebswirtschaftslehre, insb. Umweltwirtschaft und Controlling; Bucksteeg, Michael [Duisburg-Essen Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Energiewirtschaft

    2010-06-15

    The targeted steering of cost positions is becoming an increasingly decisive success factor for companies of the energy sector. However the traditional method of cost accounting and result accounts for merely operative purposes is not or only insufficiently able to generate the information required for this. Of greater service here are methods of strategic cost management which are aimed at shaping potentials, processes and products on the basis of cost criteria. Using this as a basis the present article documents the essential results of an empirical study carried out at the chair for business administration, in particular environmental management and controlling, of Duisburg-Essen University on the state of application of cost calculation systems and cost management methods among German energy supply companies. The article also presents conceptual deliberations on the use of target costing in the sales area.

  13. Cost of Wind Energy in the United States: Trends from 2007 to 2012 (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hand, M.

    2015-01-01

    This presentation provides an overview of recent technology trends observed in the United States including project size, turbine size, rotor diameter, hub height, annual average wind speed, and annual energy production. It also highlights area where system analysis is required to fully understand how these technology trends relate to the cost of wind energy.

  14. Incidence, Prevalence, and Cost of Sexually Transmitted Infections in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    CDC FACT SHEET Incidence, Prevalence, and Cost of Sexually Transmitted Infections in the United States FEBRUARY 2013 National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention Centers for Disease Control and Prevention In February 2013, CDC published two analyses1,2 that provide an in-depth ...

  15. Independent calculation of the monitor units and times of treatment in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, an independent verification system of calculations in radiotherapy was developed and applied, using Visual BasicTM programming language. The computational program performs calculations of monitor units and treatment time, based on the algorithm of manual calculation. The calculations executed for the independent system had initially been compared with the manual calculations performed by the medical physicists of the Institute of Radiotherapy of the Hospital das Clinicas da Universidade de Sao Paulo. In this step, the results found for more than two hundred fields studied were similar to those found in the literature; deviations larger than +- 1% were found only in five cases involving errors in manual calculation. The application of the independent system, in this stage, could have identified errors up to +- 2,4%. Based on these data, the system was validated for use in clinical routine. In a second step, calculations were compared with calculations realized by the treatment computerized planning system CadPIanTM. When, again, the results were similar to those published in other works allowing to obtain levels of acceptance of the discrepancies between the calculations executed for the independent system and the calculations developed from the planning system, separated by anatomical region, as recommended according by the recent literature. For beams of 6 MV, the levels of acceptance for deviations between the calculations of monitor units, separated by treatment region were the following; breast +- 1.7%, head and neck +2%; hypophysis +- 2.2%; pelvis +- 4 . 1% and thorax +- 1.5%. For beams of 15 MV, the level suggested for pelvis was of +- 4.5%. (author)

  16. Calculation method for the seasonal performance of heat pump compact units and validation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wemhoener, C.; Dott, R.; Afjei, Th. [University of Applied Sciences Northwestern Switzerland, Institute of Energy in Buildings, Muttenz (Switzerland); Huber, H.; Helfenfinger, D.; Keller, P.; Furter, R. [University of Applied Sciences Lucerne (HTA), Test center HLKS, Horw (Switzerland)

    2007-02-15

    This comprehensive final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at compact heat pump units that have been developed for the heating of low energy consumption houses built to MINERGIE or MINERGIE-P standards. These units, which combine the functions of space heating, domestic hot water preparation and ventilation in one unit are described. A testing procedure developed at the University of Applied Science in Lucerne, Switzerland, using a test rig for the measurement of the seasonal performance factor (SPF) is described. A calculation method based on temperature classes for the calculation of the SPF of combined heat pump systems for space heating and domestic hot water preparation that was developed by the Institute of Energy in Buildings at the University of Applied Sciences Northwestern Switzerland is examined. Two pilot plants allowing detailed field monitoring of two compact units are described. One pilot plant installed in a single-family house built to MINERGIE standard in Gelterkinden, Switzerland, provided data on a compact unit. These results of measurements made on this and a further installation in a MINERGIE-P ultra-low energy consumption house in Zeiningen, Switzerland, are presented and discussed. Calculation methods, including exergy considerations are reviewed and their validation is discussed.

  17. GEOCOST-BC, Geothermal Power Plant Electricity Generator Cost, Thermodynamics Calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1 - Description of problem or function: GEOCOST calculates the cost of generating electricity from geothermal energy. The version of GEOCOST in this release, GEOCOST-BC, simulates the production of electricity using a binary fluid cycle based upon a hydrothermal resource. 2 - Method of solution: GEOCOST is a simulation model which combines both technical processes and economic factors into one systematic framework. The simulation is composed of two principal parts: a reservoir model which simulates the exploration, development, and operation of a geothermal reservoir, and a power plant model which simulates the design, construction, and operation of the power plant. Each of these parts is composed of several submodels which treat fluid transmission and disposal, geothermal fluid/working fluid heat exchangers, turbine, generators, working fluid condenser, pumps, heat rejection, and calculation of thermodynamic state points in basic subcritical and supercritical Rankine cycles for a variety of working fluids. Working fluids which are now in the model include isobutane, n-butane, R-ll, R-12, R-22, R-113, R-114, and ammonia. Thermodynamic properties of the working fluids at the state points are calculated using empirical equations of state. The Starling equation of state is used for hydrocarbons and the Martin-Hou equation of state is used for fluorocarbons and ammonia. A wide variety of financial and tax structures can be simulated through varying the rates of return on ed through varying the rates of return on equity and debt, the debt-equity ratio, and tax rates. Using discounted cash flow analyses, GEOCOST calculates the cost of energy by equating the present worth of the revenues and expenses over the economic life of the reservoir and plant. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Current array dimensions provide for a maximum well field size of 625 wells and maximum operating period of 50 years from reservoir exploration through the economic life of the power plant

  18. Costeo basado en actividades: una metodología de gestión en tratamientos intensivos / Activity-based costing methodology to manage resources in intensive care units

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sandra, Alvear V; Jorge, Canteros G; Juan, Jara M; Patricia, Rodríguez C.

    1371-13-01

    Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english Background: An accurate estimation of resources use by individual patients is crucial in hospital management. Aim: To measure financial costs of health care actions in intensive care units of two public regional hospitals in Chile. Material and Methods: Prospective follow up of 716 patients admitted [...] to two intensive care units during 2011. The financial costs of health care activities was calculated using the Activity-Based Costing methodology. The main activities recorded were procedures and treatments, monitoring, response to patient needs, patient maintenance and coordination. Results: Activity-Based Costs, including human resources and assorted indirect costs correspond to 81 to 88% of costs per disease in one hospital and 69 to 80% in the other. The costs associated to procedures and treatments are the most significant and are approximately $100,000 (Chilean pesos) per day of hospitalization. The second most significant cost corresponds to coordination activities, which fluctuates between $86,000 and 122,000 (Chilean pesos). Conclusions: There are significant differences in resources use between the two hospitals studied. Therefore cost estimation methodologies should be incorporated in the management of these clinical services.

  19. A Research on Unit Costs and Factors Effective on Performance of Laserplane Grade Control System in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Can Burak Sisman

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research, 0 and 3% slopes were given to laserplane grade control system for two different soil conditions. Effect of different soil conditions on landlevelling was investigated. Unit operating cost and accuracy of machine were found. For this aim soil resistance, volume weight and specific gravity were found for two different soil conditions. Human factor wasn`t considered because operator wasn`t changed. Accuracy of landlevelling for sellected two grade angles was tested using with nodal network system. Excavation-filling amount was determined for two field and two grade during landlevelling. Operating costs for unit time and unit area were calculated at the end of operations. Based on the experiment results, it has been found that a variation for first field is more than second field to excavation-filling amount. Desired grades for two field were obtained. These trials were performed at Trakya University Tekirdag Agricultural Faculty Research and Application Fields that have 40x20 m dimensions. In these trials Fiat Mara model laserplane grade control machine that has got 3 m work with and New Holland M 95 traktor was used for pulling of laserplane grade control machine.

  20. Experience with the core protection calculator system at Arkansas Nuclear One - Unit 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first digital reactor reactor protection system installed in a US commercial nuclear power plant has now been operating for 5 years. This system, called the Core Protection Calculator System (CPCS) at Arkansas Nuclear One - Unit 2 (ANO-2) provides automatic reactor shutdown for protection of fuel cladding (departure from nucleate boiling) and protection against fuel center line melting (linear heat rate) for design basis events and anticipated operational occurrences. There are now three other such systems in operation: at Southern California Edison's San-Onofre Units 2 and 3 and at Louisiana Power and Light's Waterford Unit 3. The three nuclear units at Arizona Public Service's Palo-Verde station also employ a functionally identical design utilizing different hardware. The major difficulties encountered in licensing this system with The Nuclear Regulatory Commission are discussed and Arkansas Power and Light Company's experience associated with the installation, operation, modification and maintenance of the CPCS at ANO-2 is highlighted

  1. A Probability analysis of the Generating Cost of APR+ Dual Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the probabilistic analysis of generating cost results in the final of the process of the APR+ standard detailed design. In this simulation, the results of the generating cost (COE, Cost of Electricity) of APR+ dual unit were determined using the probability cost analysis technique, the COE range was shown to be 39.60 won/kWh?52.82 won/kWh. As a part of a national long-term R and D program, the Advanced Power Reactor plus (APR+) project was launched in 2007. The APR+ project consists of three phases. In the first phase, the basic design was developed. the second phase involves the development of the standard detailed design and the submittal of the request for Standard Design Approval (SDA) to the Korean nuclear regulatory body. The third phase is the completion of the APR+ design optimizing core part

  2. Calculation of the Cost of an Adequate Education in Kentucky: A Professional Judgment Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah A. Verstegen

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available What is an adequate education and how much does it cost? In 1989, Kentucky’s State Supreme Court found the entire system of education unconstitutional-“all of its parts and parcels”. The Court called for all children to have access to an adequate education, one that is uniform and has as its goal the development of seven capacities, including: (i “sufficient oral and written communication skills to enable students to function in a complex and rapidly changing civilization . . . .and (vii sufficient levels of academic or vocational skills to enable public school students to compete favorably with their counterparts in surrounding states, in academics or in the job market”. Now, over a decade later, key questions remain regarding whether these objectives have been fulfilled. This research is designed to calculate the cost of an adequate education by aligning resources to State standards, laws and objectives, using a professional judgment approach. Seven focus groups were convened for this purpose and the scholarly literature was reviewed to provide multiple inputs into study findings. The study produced a per pupil base cost for each of three prototype school districts and an total statewide cost, with the funding gap between existing revenue and the revenue needed for current operations of $1.097 billion per year (2001-02. Additional key resource requirements needed to achieve an adequate education, identified by professional judgment panels, include: (1 extending the school year for students and teachers, (2 adding voluntary half-day preschool for three and four year olds, and (3 raising teacher salaries. This increases the funding gap to $1.23 billion and suggests that significant new funding is required over time if the Commonwealth of Kentucky is to provide an adequate and equitable education of high quality for all children and youth as directed by the State Supreme Court.

  3. Cost of wind energy: comparing distant wind resources to local resources in the midwestern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppock, David C; Patiño-Echeverri, Dalia

    2010-11-15

    The best wind sites in the United States are often located far from electricity demand centers and lack transmission access. Local sites that have lower quality wind resources but do not require as much power transmission capacity are an alternative to distant wind resources. In this paper, we explore the trade-offs between developing new wind generation at local sites and installing wind farms at remote sites. We first examine the general relationship between the high capital costs required for local wind development and the relatively lower capital costs required to install a wind farm capable of generating the same electrical output at a remote site,with the results representing the maximum amount an investor should be willing to pay for transmission access. We suggest that this analysis can be used as a first step in comparing potential wind resources to meet a state renewable portfolio standard (RPS). To illustrate, we compare the cost of local wind (?50 km from the load) to the cost of distant wind requiring new transmission (?550-750 km from the load) to meet the Illinois RPS. We find that local, lower capacity factor wind sites are the lowest cost option for meeting the Illinois RPS if new long distance transmission is required to access distant, higher capacity factor wind resources. If higher capacity wind sites can be connected to the existing grid at minimal cost, in many cases they will have lower costs. PMID:20931984

  4. Monitor unit calculation for large wedged high-energy photon beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With modern high-energy linear accelerators, the following beam characteristics have to be taken into account in the monitor unit (MU) calculation of a wedged treatment: (i) the field size dependence of wedge factors; (ii) the changes in depth dose and maximum build-up depth (dmax) induced by wedges; and (iii) the field size dependence of dmax. The incorporation of a field size specific wedge factor in an MU calculation is straightforward. Effects (ii) and (iii) however, often cause confusion and inconsistency in the choices of the reference depth for wedge factors and the normalization depth for wedged depth dose, and consequently can lead to inconsistent MU calculation formalism with additional errors of up to 7% in the delivered dose. In this note, we illustrate a derivation of an exact central axis MU calculation for wedged treatments, which correctly accounts for the effects mentioned above. (author)

  5. IBFCYC-A computer program for levelized individual batch fuel cycle cost calculations for uranium fuelled pressurized light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work presented is a part of an integrated calculation scheme for fuel cycle material accountability and cost analysis. The survey-type computer program IBFCYC aims at the calculation of the levelized individual batch fuel cycle cost for pressurized light water reactors. It gives as output the flow material requirements for each component of the fuel cycle. It gives also the component direct, indirect, and present worth costs. It helps well in sensitivity analysis and fuel cycle optimization calculations. The computer program is so flexible that it allows the user a variety of choices for the type of calculations he needs. An example for the application of IBFCYC computer program is given through the solution of a sample problem. Among the results obtained, the saving in feed material and separative work requirements due to reprocessing is calculated for the sample problem. It is concluded that reprocessing results in savings of about 20% and 4% in respectively feed material and separative work requirements

  6. Levelised unit electricity cost comparison of alternate technologies for baseload generation in Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides a comparison of the lifetime cost of constructing, operating and decommissioning new generation suitable for supplying baseload power by early in the next decade. New baseload generation options in Ontario are nuclear, coal-fired steam turbines or combined cycle gas turbines (CCGT). Nuclear and coal-fired units are characterised by high capital costs and low operating costs. As such, they are candidates for baseload operation only. Gas-fired generation is characterised by lower capital costs and higher operating costs and thus may meet the requirements for operation as peaking and/or baseload generation. The comparison of baseload generating technologies is made by reference to the estimated levelised unit electricity cost (LUEC). The LUEC can be thought of as a 'supply cost', where the unit cost is the price needed to recover all costs over the period. It is determined by finding the price that sets the sum of all future discounted cash flows (net present value, or NPV) to zero. It can also be thought of as representing the constant real wholesale price of electricity that meets the financing cost, debt repayment, income tax and cash flow constraints associated with the construction operation and decommissioning of a generating plant. Levelised unit cost comparisons are usually made with different sets of financing assumptions. This report considers two base cases, which we describe as 'merchant' and 'public' financing. The term 'merchant plant' is used to refer to ones that are built and operated by private investors. These investors pay for their capital through debt and by raising equity, and thus pay return on equity and interest on debt throughout their lifetime. These projects include income taxes, both provincial and federal. Publicly financed projects typically are not subject to income taxes or to the same constraints on raising finance through issuing debt and equity. However, they are constrained to provide a rate of return. The rate of return required for projects is subject to some uncertainty. For a merchant project the higher the perceived risk the higher the required return. Publicly financed projects may be evaluated on the basis of a given discount rate or may be able to access funds at lower rates, but the risk of cost overruns is implicitly borne by the taxpayer. There is a third possibility, a public/private partnership. A number of partnership arrangements are possible, for example, public financing of construction and leasing to private owners for operation. All partnership arrangements represent a sharing of risk between the public and private sector. Public/private partnership may provide an attractive model for building new generation in Ontario. This report considers each of the generation options under both merchant and public financing. The base case merchant financing scenario is consistent with one where risk is relatively low, and consequently the real return on equity required by private investors is 12%. We believe a comparison between merchant and public financing to be important in that it shows the effect of taxes and financing assumptions on the economics of a generation project. Since the pure economic assessment of projects does not normally consider financing or tax costs, these being transfer payments not essential to the project itself, the public financing version of our assessments can be interpreted as the underlying economics of different technologies. This report does not include a detailed modelling of financing arrangements that could occur under a public/private partnership. However, we do consider how the cost of generation options compares under a wide range of illustrative assumptions on the required return on equity, debt and the debt/equity ratio. (author)

  7. Levelised unit electricity cost comparison of alternate technologies for baseload generation in Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayres, M.; McRae, M.; Stogran, M.

    2004-08-15

    This report provides a comparison of the lifetime cost of constructing, operating and decommissioning new generation suitable for supplying baseload power by early in the next decade. New baseload generation options in Ontario are nuclear, coal-fired steam turbines or combined cycle gas turbines (CCGT). Nuclear and coal-fired units are characterised by high capital costs and low operating costs. As such, they are candidates for baseload operation only. Gas-fired generation is characterised by lower capital costs and higher operating costs and thus may meet the requirements for operation as peaking and/or baseload generation. The comparison of baseload generating technologies is made by reference to the estimated levelised unit electricity cost (LUEC). The LUEC can be thought of as a 'supply cost', where the unit cost is the price needed to recover all costs over the period. It is determined by finding the price that sets the sum of all future discounted cash flows (net present value, or NPV) to zero. It can also be thought of as representing the constant real wholesale price of electricity that meets the financing cost, debt repayment, income tax and cash flow constraints associated with the construction operation and decommissioning of a generating plant. Levelised unit cost comparisons are usually made with different sets of financing assumptions. This report considers two base cases, which we describe as 'merchant' and 'public' financing. The term 'merchant plant' is used to refer to ones that are built and operated by private investors. These investors pay for their capital through debt and by raising equity, and thus pay return on equity and interest on debt throughout their lifetime. These projects include income taxes, both provincial and federal. Publicly financed projects typically are not subject to income taxes or to the same constraints on raising finance through issuing debt and equity. However, they are constrained to provide a rate of return. The rate of return required for projects is subject to some uncertainty. For a merchant project the higher the perceived risk the higher the required return. Publicly financed projects may be evaluated on the basis of a given discount rate or may be able to access funds at lower rates, but the risk of cost overruns is implicitly borne by the taxpayer. There is a third possibility, a public/private partnership. A number of partnership arrangements are possible, for example, public financing of construction and leasing to private owners for operation. All partnership arrangements represent a sharing of risk between the public and private sector. Public/private partnership may provide an attractive model for building new generation in Ontario. This report considers each of the generation options under both merchant and public financing. The base case merchant financing scenario is consistent with one where risk is relatively low, and consequently the real return on equity required by private investors is 12%. We believe a comparison between merchant and public financing to be important in that it shows the effect of taxes and financing assumptions on the economics of a generation project. Since the pure economic assessment of projects does not normally consider financing or tax costs, these being transfer payments not essential to the project itself, the public financing version of our assessments can be interpreted as the underlying economics of different technologies. This report does not include a detailed modelling of financing arrangements that could occur under a public/private partnership. However, we do consider how the cost of generation options compares under a wide range of illustrative assumptions on the required return on equity, debt and the debt/equity ratio. (author)

  8. Applying graphics processor units to Monte Carlo dose calculation in radiation therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakhtiari M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the potential in using of using a graphics processor unit (GPU for Monte-Carlo (MC-based radiation dose calculations. The percent depth dose (PDD of photons in a medium with known absorption and scattering coefficients is computed using a MC simulation running on both a standard CPU and a GPU. We demonstrate that the GPU?s capability for massive parallel processing provides a significant acceleration in the MC calculation, and offers a significant advantage for distributed stochastic simulations on a single computer. Harnessing this potential of GPUs will help in the early adoption of MC for routine planning in a clinical environment.

  9. X/Qs and unit dose calculations for Central Waste Complex interim safety basis effort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective for this problem is to calculate the ground-level release dispersion factors (X/Q) and unit doses for onsite facility and offsite receptors at the site boundary and at Highway 240 for plume meander, building wake effect, plume rise, and the combined effect. The release location is at Central Waste Complex Building P4 in the 200 West Area. The onsite facility is located at Building P7. Acute ground level release 99.5 percentile dispersion factors (X/Q) were generated using the GXQ. The unit doses were calculated using the GENII code. The dimensions of Building P4 are 15 m in W x 24 m in L x 6 m in H

  10. Screening, isolation, and decolonisation strategies in the control of meticillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus in intensive care units: cost effectiveness evaluation.

    OpenAIRE

    Robotham, Jv; Graves, N.; Cookson, Bd; Barnett, Ag; Wilson, Ja; Edgeworth, Jd; Batra, R.; Cuthbertson, Bh; Cooper, Bs

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the cost effectiveness of screening, isolation, and decolonisation strategies in the control of meticillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in intensive care units. DESIGN: Economic evaluation based on a dynamic transmission model. SETTING: England and Wales. Population Theoretical population of patients on an intensive care unit. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Infections, deaths, costs, quality adjusted life years (QALYs), incremental cost effectiveness ratios for alternat...

  11. Physician response to the United Mine Workers' cost-sharing program: the other side of the coin.

    OpenAIRE

    Fahs, M C

    1992-01-01

    The effect of cost sharing on health services utilization is analyzed from a new perspective, that is, its effects on physician response to cost sharing. A primary data set was constructed using medical records and billing files from a large multispecialty group practice during the three-year period surrounding the introduction of cost sharing to the United Mine Workers Health and Retirement Fund. This same group practice also served an equally large number of patients covered by United Steel...

  12. Health-resource use and costs associated with fibromyalgia in France, Germany, and the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandran A

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Tyler Knight,1 Caroline Schaefer,1 Arthi Chandran,2 Gergana Zlateva,2 Andreas Winkelmann,3 Serge Perrot4 1Health Economics and Outcomes Research, Covance Market Access Services, Gaithersburg, MD, USA; 2Primary Care Health Economics and Outcomes Research, Pfizer Global Health Economics, New York, NY, USA; 3Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University Hospital Munich, Munich, Germany; 4Service de Médecine Interne et Thérapeutique, Université Paris Descartes, Paris, France Background: Fibromyalgia (FM is a chronic disorder characterized by widespread, persistent pain. Prospective and retrospective studies have demonstrated substantial health-care costs associated with FM in a number of countries. This study evaluated and compared health-resource use (HRU and associated costs related to FM in routine clinical practice across the US, France, and Germany. Methods: Two separate, cross-sectional, observational studies of subjects with FM were conducted: one in the US and one in France and Germany. HRU related to prescription medication, physician office visits, diagnostic tests, and hospitalizations was abstracted from chart review; patient out-of-pocket costs and lost productivity were collected via subject self-report. Costs were assigned to HRU based on standard algorithms. Direct and indirect costs were evaluated and compared by simple linear regression. Results: A total of 442 subjects (203 US, 70 France, 169 Germany with FM were analyzed. The mean (standard deviation age in the US, France, and Germany was 47.9 (10.9, 51.2 (9.5, and 49.2 (9.8, respectively (P = 0.085. Most subjects were female (95% US, 83% France, 80% Germany (P < 0.001. Adjusted annual direct costs per subject for FM were significantly higher in the US ($7087 than in France ($481, P < 0.001 or Germany ($2417, P < 0.001. Adjusted mean annual indirect costs per subject for FM were lower in the US ($6431 than in France ($8718 or Germany ($10,001, but represented a significant proportion of total costs in all countries. Conclusion: The significant HRU and costs associated with FM in the US, France, and Germany documented in this study highlight the substantial global economic burden of FM. Indirect costs represented a significant proportion of the total costs, particularly in Europe. Comparisons between the three countries show differences in HRU, with significantly higher direct costs in the US compared with France and Germany. Keywords: fibromyalgia, cost, burden of illness, United States, France, Germany

  13. The cost-effectiveness of supported employment for adults with autism in the United Kingdom

    OpenAIRE

    Mavranezouli, Ifigeneia; Megnin-viggars, Odette; Cheema, Nadir; Howlin, Patricia; Baron-cohen, Simon; Pilling, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Adults with autism face high rates of unemployment. Supported employment enables individuals with autism to secure and maintain a paid job in a regular work environment. The objective of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of supported employment compared with standard care (day services) for adults with autism in the United Kingdom. Thus, a decision-analytic economic model was developed, which used outcome data from the only trial that has evaluated supported employment for adult...

  14. Admission clinicopathological data, length of stay, cost and mortality in an equine neonatal intensive care unit

    OpenAIRE

    Bain, F T; MacGillivray, K.; Frazer, M.; Byars, T.D.; Slovis, N.M.; B. Gummow; Saulez, M.N.

    2012-01-01

    Veterinary internists need to prognosticate patients quickly and accurately in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). This may depend on laboratory data collected on admission, the cost of hospitalisation, length of stay (LOS) and mortality rate experienced in the NICU. Therefore, we conducted a retrospective study of 62 equine neonates admitted to a NICU of a private equine referral hospital to determine the prognostic value of venous clinicopathological data collected on admission before th...

  15. United States cost of military force projection in the Persian Gulf, 1976-2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the first estimate of United States military cost for Persian Gulf force (CPGfp) derived entirely by a quantitative method. An activity-based cost (ABC) model uses geographic distribution of aircraft carriers as a proxy allocator of Department of Defense (DoD) baseline cost to regional operations. Allocation follows simply from DoD data that since 1990 no less than one aircraft carrier has been continuously on-station in the Persian Gulf; that eight are required to keep one on-station there; that the Navy has had eleven-fifteen carriers since 1990; and that Army and Air Force units are virtually never deployed to combat operations without Navy units. For 1976-2007 CPGfp is estimated to be $6.8 x 1012 and for 2007 $0.5 x 1012 (2008$). This substantial military investment is not a remedy for the market failure at the heart of regional security problem, which is oil market power. When CPGfp is added to economic losses attributed to market power in another recent study, the severity of this market failure becomes more apparent. (author)

  16. COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS OF A SINGLE UNIT SYSTEM WITH SCHEDULED MAINTENANCE AND VARIATION IN DEMAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulshan Taneja

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper analyses the reliability and cost-benefit for a single unit system with scheduled maintenance and variation in demand. As Change in demand affects the production of system also, hence sometimes, the system needs to be shut down when the number of produces are in excess as compared to those demanded. Revenue in case of both types of up states i.e., when demand is greater than or equal to production and when demand is less than production have also been taken under consideration while carrying out the cost-benefit analysis. The loss incurred to the system when it is kept shut down due to less demand has also been taken into account. Optimized reliability indices of the system effectiveness are estimated numerically using semi-Markov processes and regenerative point technique. Expression for the expected profit is obtained after obtaining various measures of system effectiveness. We can conclude that cut off points for various rates/probabilities/revenue per unit up time/costs can be obtained which help in deciding the upper/lower acceptable values of rates/costs so that the system is profitable.

  17. Cost effective interprofessional training : an evaluation of a training unit in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Torben Bæk; Jakobsen, Flemming Bandholm

    2009-01-01

    In 2004, the first Danish undergraduate interprofessional training unit (ITU) was established at the Regional Hospital Holstebro, inspired by experiences from Sweden. In this unit, medical, nursing, occupational therapy and physiotherapy students are given responsibility, under supervision by trained and motivated personnel, for rehabilitation and care of patients in a subunit of an orthopaedic department. The aim of this study was to see whether the ITU was cost effective in treating patients compared with a conventional orthopaedic ward. One-hundred and thirty-four patients admitted for primary hip or knee replacement surgery were included in the study. All costs were recorded in the ITU and in the conventional ward. Follow-up was done by a quality of life questionnaire three months after the operation. Comparison was done by univariable and multivariable testing of costs and effect. In both, the ITU was more cost effective than the conventional ward. No difference was found in complications and patient-reported quality of life. In conclusion, clinical training can be given to students in an ITU without reducing productivity in a hospital environment if pedagogic principles, clinical tutors and patient logistics all adapt to the challenge of the teaching environment.

  18. Preliminary regulatory audit calculation for Shinkori Units 3 and 4 LBLOCA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study is to perform a preliminary evaluation for Shinkori Units 3 and 4 LBLOCA by applying KINS Realistic Evaluation Methodology (REM). The following results were obtained: (1) From the evaluation for Shinkori Units 3 and 4 LBLOCA, the peak cladding temperature was evaluated to meet the regulatory requirement and the feasibility of the KINS-REM was identified. (2) The input decks that were developed in the previous studies, were reviewed and the evaluation model of the fluidic device was developed and applied for the audit calculation. (3) The treating method for the uncertainty of the gap conductance was developed and applied for the audit calculation. (4) The pre- and post-processing programs were developed for this study. (5) For the more detailed assessments, the information for the gap conductance, etc. should be improved and the effects of coolant bypass during blowdown, steam binding and so on were not sufficiently evaluated. KINS-REM should be advanced to evaluate these effects properly. The KINS methodology that was used in this study, can be further applied for independent regulatory audit calculations related to the licensing application on LOCA best estimate calculation

  19. A Prediction on the Unit Cost Estimation for Decommissioning Activities Using the Experienced Data from DECOMMIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) has developed the DECOMMIS (Decommissioning Information Management System) and have been applied for the decommissioning project of the KRR (Korea Research Reactor)-1 and 2 and UCP (Uranium Conversion Plant), as the meaning of the first decommissioning project in Korea. All information and data which are from the decommissioning activities are input, saved, output and managed in the DECOMMIS. This system was consists of the web server and the database server. The users could be access through a web page, depending on the input, processing and output, and be modified the permissions to do such activities can after the decommissioning activities have created the initial system-wide data is stored. When it could be used the experienced data from DECOMMIS, the cost estimation on the new facilities for the decommissioning planning will be established with the basic frame of the WBS structures and its codes. In this paper, the prediction on the cost estimation through using the experienced data which were store in DECOMMIS was studied. For the new decommissioning project on the nuclear facilities in the future, through this paper, the cost estimation for the decommissioning using the experienced data which were WBS codes, unit-work productivity factors and annual governmental unit labor cost is proposed. These data were from the KRR and UCP decommissioning project. The differences on the WBS code sectors and facility characterization between new objected components and experienced dismantled components was reduces as scaling factors. The study on the establishment the scaling factors and cost prediction for the cost estimation is developing with the algorithms from the productivity data, now

  20. Optimal Multi Server Using Time Based Cost Calculation in Cloud Computing?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kattera Srinivasa Rao

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available As cloud computing becomes additional and additional standard, understanding the economic science of cloud computing becomes critically necessary. To maximize the profit, a service supplier ought to perceive each charge and business prices, and the way they're determined by the characteristics of the applications and also the configuration of a multi server system. The matter of best multi server configuration for profit maximization in an exceedingly cloud computing setting is studied. Our valuation model takes such factors into concerns because the quantity of a service, the work of AN application setting, the configuration of a multi server system, the service-level agreement, the satisfaction of a shopper, the standard of a service, the penalty of a low-quality service, the value of dealing, the value of energy consumption, and a service provider’s margin and profit. Our approach is to treat a multi server system as AN M/M/m queuing model, such our improvement downside are often developed and resolved analytically. 2 server speed and power consumption models square measure thought-about, namely, the idle-speed model and also the constant-speed model. The likelihood density operate of the waiting time of a freshly arrived service request comes. The expected charge to a service request is calculated. The expected web business gain in one unit of your time is obtained. Numerical calculations of the best server size and also the best server speed square measure incontestable.

  1. International differences in health care costs in Europe and the United States: Do these affect the cost-effectiveness of diagnostic strategies for pulmonary embolism?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to assess whether potential differences in costs for diagnostic procedures and treatment of pulmonary embolism (PE) among European and U. S. hospitals alter the optimal cost-effective diagnostic strategy for PE. A standardized questionnaire was used to obtain cost data for the diagnosis and treatment of PE in participating European and U. S. hospitals. Costs for diagnostic tests and treatment of PE were then calculated in a standardized manner for all participating hospitals, from the hospital perspective. Costs were used in an existing cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) model to determine the most cost-effective diagnostic strategy in participating hospitals. There were considerable differences in costs for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures for PE among the participating centers. These differences, however, did not affect the most cost-effective strategy based on incremental cost-effectiveness. In all hospitals the most cost-effective strategy appeared to be ultrasound followed by helical CT. International differences in cost of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures certainly exist and should be considered before applying a published CEA. Nevertheless, despite these cost differences, the diagnostic strategy for PE of ultrasound followed by helical CT appears most cost-effective. (orig.)

  2. Lessons learnt from application of the standardized cost calculation code OMEGA in decision making processes and planning in decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Implementation of the standardised cost structure, as defined in 'A Proposed Standardised List of Costs Items for Decommissioning Purposes' (OECD/NEA, IAEA, EC, 1999), into the decommissioning costing, supports the harmonisation of decommissioning costs. The decision making processes in decommissioning planning can be more effective if there is the possibility to compare the calculated data with the data of other projects, structured in standardised cost structure. The results of the decision making process should be based on evaluation of such a set of decommissioning options which covers the methods of decommissioning, the selected strategy and existing or planned decommissioning infrastructure. Aspects such as impact of time, waste management scenarios, uncertainties of input data and other aspects should be also evaluated. These issues of decision making process were implemented into the decommissioning costing code OMEGA. All activities of a decommissioning project are involved within single compact standardised calculation structure including waste management. The resulting costs have standardised format and no additional data conversion is needed. The calculation process is nuclide resolved and internally linked in such a way that it models the material and radioactivity flow in the decommissioning process. The effect of decay of radioactivity is considered. The options are optimised in the standard MS-Project software as Gantt charts. The bi-directional data las Gantt charts. The bi-directional data link between the standardised calculation structure and the Gantt chart supports the on-line optimisation of the Gantt chart structure. Multi-option work is applied, i.e. decommissioning options, which cover all decommissioning scenarios to be considered, are evaluated individually and multi-attribute analysis is applied for selecting the optimal one. Methods of sensitivity analysis and evaluation of uncertainties of calculated costs were developed for support the decision making process and for definition of contingencies. (author)

  3. 78 FR 7718 - Review of the General Purpose Costing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-04

    ...standardized costing model; to...carrier's system. URCS develops...of railroad activities were estimated...calculating the system-average unit...s Gen. Costing Sys., EP...calculates system-average unit...is used when costing all movements...computed by URCS based on data...

  4. Accelerated molecular dynamics force evaluation on graphics processing units for thermal conductivity calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Zheyong; Siro, Topi; Harju, Ari

    2013-05-01

    Thermal conductivity is a very important property of a material both for testing theoretical models and for designing better practical devices such as more efficient thermoelectrics, and accurate and efficient calculations of thermal conductivity are very desirable. In this paper, we develop a highly efficient molecular dynamics code fully implemented on graphics processing units for thermal conductivity calculations using the Green-Kubo formula. We compare two different schemes for force evaluation, a previously used thread-scheme, where a single thread is used for one particle and each thread calculates the total force for the corresponding particle, and a new block-scheme, where a whole block is used for one particle and each thread in the block calculates one or several pair forces between the particle associated with the given block and its neighbor particle(s) associated with the given thread. For both schemes, two different classical potentials, namely, the Lennard-Jones potential and the rigid-ion potential are implemented. While the thread-scheme performs a little better for relatively large systems, the block-scheme performs much better for relatively small systems. The relative performance of the block-scheme over the thread-scheme also increases with the increasing cutoff radius. We validate the implementation by calculating lattice thermal conductivities of solid argon and lead telluride. The efficiency of our code makes it very promising to study thermal conductivity properties of more complicated materials, especially, materials with interesting nanostructures.

  5. Market value calculation and the solution of circularity between value and the weighted average cost of capital WACC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Vélez-Pareja

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Most finance textbooks present the Weighted Average Cost of Capital (WACC calculation as: WACC = Kd×(1-T×D% + Ke×E%, where Kd is the cost of debt before taxes, T is the tax rate, D% is the percentage of debt on total value, Ke is the cost of equity and E% is the percentage of equity on total value. All of them precise (but not with enough emphasis that the values to calculate D% y E% are market values. Although they devote special space and thought to calculate Kd and Ke, little effort is made to the correct calculation of market values. This means that there are several points that are not sufficiently dealt with: Market values, location in time, occurrence of tax payments, WACC changes in time and the circularity in calculating WACC. The purpose of this note is to clear up these ideas, solve the circularity problem and emphasize in some ideas that usually are looked over. Also, some suggestions are presented on how to calculate, or estimate, the equity cost of capital.

  6. Infrastructure expenditures and costs. Practical guidelines to calculate total infrastructure costs for five modes of transport. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transport infrastructures in general, and the Trans European Transport Network (TEN-T) in particular, play an important role in achieving the medium and long-term objectives of the European Union. In view of this, the Commission has recently adopted a revision of the guidelines for the TEN-T. The main consequences of this revision are the need for a better understanding of the investments made by the member states in the TEN-T and the need for ensuring optimal consistency in the reporting by the Members States of such investments. With Regulation number 1108/70 the Council of the European Communities introduced an accounting system for expenditure on infrastructure in respect of transport by rail, road and inland waterways. The purpose of this regulation is to introduce a standard and permanent accounting system for infrastructure expenditures. However maritime and aviation infrastructure were not included. Further, the need for an effective and easy to apply classification for infrastructure investments concerning all five transport modes was still pending. Therefore, DG TREN has commissioned ECORYS Transport and CE Delft to study the expenditures and costs of infrastructure, to propose an adequate classification of expenditures, and to propose a method for translating data on expenditures into data on costs. The objectives of the present study are threefold: To set out a classification of infrastructure expenditures, in order to increase knowledge of expenditures rer to increase knowledge of expenditures related to transport infrastructures. This classification should support a better understanding of fixed and variable infrastructure costs; To detail the various components of such expenditures for five modes of transportation, which would enable the monitoring of infrastructure expenditures and costs; and to set up a methodology to move from annual series of expenditures to costs, including fixed and variable elements.

  7. CNSS plant concept, capital cost, and multi-unit station economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    United Engineers and Constructors (UE and C) and the Babcock and Wilcox Company (B and W) have performed several studies over the last eight years related to small integral pressurized water reactors. These reactors include the 365 MWt (100 MWe) Consolidated Nuclear Steam Generator (CNSG) and the 1200 MWt Consolidated Nuclear Steam System (CNSS). The studies, mostly performed under contract to the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, have led to a 1250 MWt (400 MWe) Consolidated Nuclear Steam System (CNSS) plant concept, with unique design and cost features. This report contains an update of earlier studies of the CNSS reactor and balance-of-plant concept design, capital costs, and multi-unit plant economics incorporating recent design developments, improvements, and post-TMI-2 upgrades. The economic evaluation compares the total system economic impact of a phased, three stage 400 MWe CNSS implementation program, i.e., a three-unit station, to the installation of a single 1200 MWe Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) into a typical USA utility system

  8. Calculations of the radiological impact of disposal of unit activity of selected radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the work described is to provide estimates of the radiological impact following disposal of unit activity via each of several options, including disposal on the deep ocean bed, shallow burial, engineered trench disposal, disposal in a geologic repository and disposal in off-shore boreholes. Results are presented for a range of important representative radionuclides. In the course of the calculations it was necessary to make a number of simplifying assumptions. The implications of these are discussed in the context of use of the results for comparative assessments of waste management options. (author)

  9. Calculation of radiation quantities for the medical products sterilization unit by gamma ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medical products sterilization unit using 60Co will be in operation starting from in 1991, at the Atomic Energy Commission of Syria. The irradiator produced by USSR and exported by Technoexport. Intial activity of the 6OCo source is 100 Kci. In order to calculate the utilization factor, non-homogeneity factor, shielding, activity and exposure, a computure program written in BASIC language is used. The programe operates on version 3.2 MS DOS using IBM compatable microcomputers. 6 refs., 7 figs. (author)

  10. Calculation of an advanced ultra-supercritical power unit with CO2 capture installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The subject of the analysis was a conceptual 900 MW coal-fired unit with single and double reheat. • Post-combustion CO2 capture by chemical absorption was considered. • Steam to CCU is extracted from IP/LP crossover pipe. Crossover pressure has significant impact on the unit efficiency. • Reduction of the CCU specific heat duty is very important for the power unit efficiency improvement. • Part of the waste heat from the overhead condenser can be use it in the feed water preheating system. - Abstract: An efficiency enhancement of coal-fired power units becomes a basis for the reduction in the consumption of primary fuels and as a result in CO2 emissions. Steam parameters increasing is an effective way to improve the efficiency of electricity generation. The progress in materials engineering has led to the more and more common implementation of the technology of power units for ultra-supercritical parameters. The next generation of this technology – the advanced ultra-supercritical parameters A-USC – opens new perspectives. Obtaining a higher efficiency of electricity generation and exceeding the 50% net efficiency barrier, apart from the increase in the steam parameters, requires an optimisation of the thermodynamic cycle, together with the modernisation of the flow system of steam, condensers, regenerative water heaters. The development of the advanced ultra-supercritical technologies is the subject of European, Japanese, American and Chinese projects, which aims at the completion of a power unit with the live steam parameters of 700 °C and 35 MPa and the net efficiency exceeding 50%. The paper presents the results of the calculations which were performed for a conceptual power unit in two configurations – with single and double steam reheat. The CCS Directive contains a clause providing for the new construction of power installations as “capture ready”. Newly built power unit gives possibility of optimized integration with CO2 capture installation. The power and efficiency loss related with the integration with CO2 capture process can be reduce. Due to the state of knowledge of CO2 capture methods and the ability of its application into the high power unit only the chemical absorption was considered in the paper. The CO2 capture installation requires large amount of heat to solvent regeneration in appropriate quantity and quality, cooling system to discharge waste heat and power to drive CO2 compressor and auxiliary equipment (pump, fans). In the paper the steam to CCU is extracted from IP/LP crossover pipe. The design IP/LP crossover pressure has very significant impact on the power unit efficiency. Its reduction to the level which is required by the CCU can improve power unit efficiency. However, lower crossover pressure results in efficiency looses in part-load operation. Therefore, the analysis of power unit operation with partial load for various design crossover pressure was considered. The slight improvement of power unit efficiency can be gained also through the recovery of waste heat from the overhead condenser and CO2 compressor intercoolers in the feed water preheating system

  11. Impacts of renewable generation on fossil fuel unit cycling. Costs and emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brinkman, G.; Lew, D. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kumar, N.; Lefton, S. [Intertek-APTECH, Sunnyvale, CA (United States); Venkataraman, S.; Jordan, G. [GE Energy, Schenectady, NY (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Recently, wind and solar have become two of the fastest growing electricity generating technologies. As the penetration of wind and solar increases on the power system, conventional generation will be displaced. Because wind and solar are variable (output varies over different timescales) and uncertain (their output cannot be perfectly forecasted), their impact on the grid is complex and dependent on the specifics of each power system. Regional integration studies that simulate system operations have shown that ramping and on/off cycling of conventional generation tends to increase with wind and solar penetrations. Studies have demonstrated that cycling conventional generation leads to increased operation and maintenance costs due to thermal stresses on various parts. Several studies have also hypothesized that emissions reductions from variable generation (VG) such as wind and solar, will be smaller than expected due to the impacts of ramping and cycling of fossil-fueled power plants. As part of phase 2 of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS), we are studying the cost and emissions impact of cycling in high renewable penetration scenarios. We estimated the cost and emissions impacts of cycling and ramping fossil-fueled units using detailed operation and maintenance cost data and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Continuous Emissions Monitoring (CEM) data. We performed a re-analysis of the modeled dispatch of the Western U.S. electric power system from phase 1 of WWSIS. The new estimates for cycling cost and emissions were used to estimate the total system impacts of cycling. Scenarios with high and low renewable penetration were analyzed to estimate the impact of renewable generation on the cost and emissions impacts of cycling fossil-fueled generators. The results of this work show that the impacts of generator cycling and part-loading can be significant (e.g., for CC generators); however, these impacts are modest compared with the overall benefits of replacing fossil-fueled generation with variable renewable generation. (orig.)

  12. Comminution of logging residues with a tub grinder: Calculation of productivity and procurement cost of wood chips

    OpenAIRE

    Takuyuki Yoshioka; Rin Sakurai; Kazuhiro Aruga; Toshio Nitami; Hideo Sakai; Hiroshi Kobayashi

    2006-01-01

    An experiment on comminution of logging residues with a tub grinder was carried out in order to calculate the productivity and procurement cost of wood chips. At the investigated site, the tub grinder had a hammer mill crusher at the bottom of the tub, and a grapple loaderand a bucket loader worked as auxiliary machines for the grinder. As a result, the productivity of the tub grinder was 60.0 loose m3/PMH0, and the total comminuting cost was calculated as 5.637 US$/m3, indicating that the co...

  13. Calculation of additional costs in 2011 - for the demolition of the Swedish nuclear power plants and disposal of residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the SSM's estimates of future costs for the fee proposal for 2012-2014. The calculation is made according to the Financing Act and includes all additional costs until the residues from the Swedish nuclear power plants are finally stored. According to current estimates, this is assumed to be 2069. The estimation of such a long time is a major uncertainty and SSM uses, like SKB, the successive calculation method to estimate an expected value and the uncertainty of the estimate

  14. Dose monitor unit calculation correcting for dependence of wedge factor on field size and phantom depth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The wedge factor is defined as the attenuation ratio between absorbed doses with and without a wedge filter in an X-ray beam. It changes depending upon X-ray field size and depth in a patient or a phantom. However, it is common to perform dose calculations using a single wedge factor value for an individual wedge filter in combination with the beam data set for open fields. This can lead to errors of several percent in the dose delivered to a patient. This study presents a practical correction method for calculating dose monitor unit taking account of the dependence of wedge factor on filed size and depth when a wedge filter is placed in the path of an X-ray beam. The variation of relative wedge factor (RWF) with field size was relatively small with a 10 MV X-ray beam from the linear accelerator used in the present work. Therefore the author proposes that the RWF for the reference field (10 cm x 10 cm) be measured and used for the calculations of dose monitor unit in the course of treatment planning involving a wedge filter. The differences between the wedge factor at the reference depth for the reference field and the wedge factor obtained in the direct measurement were up to 4.6, 5.3 and 5.2% for the 30, 45 and 60 degree wedge, respectively. These values were decreased to 1.1, 0.8 and 2.3% of the respective wedges when the wedge factor derived from the calculation method presented in this work was compared to the measured value. (author)lue. (author)

  15. A procedure for calculation of monitor units for passively scattered proton radiotherapy beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to validate a monitor unit (MU) calculation procedure for passively scattered proton therapy beams. The output dose per MU (d/MU) of a therapeutic radiation beam is traditionally calibrated under specific reference conditions. These conditions include beam energy, field size, suitable depth in water or water equivalent phantom in a low dose gradient region with known relative depth dose, and source to point of calibration distance. Treatment field settings usually differ from these reference conditions leading to a different d/MU that needs to be determined for delivering the prescribed dose. For passively scattered proton beams, the proton specific parameters, which need to be defined, are related to the energy, lateral scatterers, range modulating wheel, spread out Bragg peak (SOBP) width, thickness of any range shifter, the depth dose value relative to the normalization point in the SOBP, and scatter both from the range compensator and inhomogeneity in the patient. Following the custom for photons or electrons, a set of proton dosimetry factors, representing the changes in the d/MU relative to a reference condition, can be defined as the relative output factor (ROF), SOBP factor (SOBPF), range shifter factor (RSF), SOBP off-center factor (SOBPOCF), off-center ratio (OCR), inverse square factor (ISF), field size factor (FSF), and compensator and patient scatter factor (CPSF). The ROF, SOBPF, and RSF are the major contributors to the d/MURSF are the major contributors to the d/MU and were measured using an ion chamber in water tank during the clinical commissioning of each beam to create a dosimetry beam data table to be used for calculating the monitor units. The following simple formula is found to provide an independent method to determine the d/MU at the point of interest (POI) in the patient, namely, (d/MU)=ROF·SOBPF·RSF·SOBPOCF·OCR·FSF·ISF·CPSF. The monitor units for delivering the intended dose (D) to the POI can be obtained from MU=D divide (d/MU). The accuracy and robustness of the above formula were validated by calculating the d/MU in water for many different combinations of beam parameters and comparing it with the corresponding measured d/MU by an ion chamber in a water or water/plastic phantom. This procedure has been in use for MU calculation for patient treatment fields at our facility since May 2006. The differences in the calculated and measured values of the d/MU for 623 distinct fields used for patient treatment during the period of May 2006 to February 2007 are within 2% for 99% of these fields. The authors conclude that an intuitive formula similar to the one used for monitor unit calculation of therapeutic photon beams can be used to compute the monitor units of passively scattered proton therapy beams.

  16. Costos directos de la hemodiálisis en unidades públicas y privadas / Direct cost analysis of hemodialysis units

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luis, Durán-Arenas; Paula D, Ávila-Palomares; Rodrigo, Zendejas-Villanueva; María Magaly, Vargas-Ruiz; Laura L, Tirado-Gómez; Malaquías, López-Cervantes.

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO. Estimar y comparar el costo por sesión de hemodiálisis dentro del sector público y privado en la Ciudad de México. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS. Se calcularon los costos de los insumos utilizados en las hemodiálisis de cuatro hospitales públicos y dos privados de la Ciudad de México, mediante la est [...] rategia de micro-costeo denominada PAATI. Para la obtención de los datos se utilizó el método de sombra; además, se empleó Excel para elaborar cédulas en las que se determina el PAATI para cada sesión. RESULTADOS. El costo anual promedio directo en el sector público por el tratamiento de un individuo en hemodiálisis es de $158 964.00 M. N., y el costo de atender a la población que podría demandar terapia de reemplazo renal se estima en $10 921 788 072.00 M. N. CONCLUSIÓN. La disponibilidad de recursos humanos e infraestructura en el país es muy limitada para el campo de la nefrología en general y, en particular, para ofrecer servicios de hemodiálisis, por lo que sería necesario inyectar más recursos para poder responder ante la demanda por insuficiencia renal terminal. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE. To estimate and compare direct costs per hemodialysis session in public and private units in Mexico City. MATERIAL AND METHODS. PAATI, a microcosting strategy, was used to determine total costs of four public and two private health hospitals in Mexico City. A "shadow study" approach was e [...] mployed to collect the needed data. Charts containing the "PAATI" information for each session were developed in Microsoft Excel. RESULTS. The average annual cost per patient undergoing hemodialysis in public units is $158 964.00 MX. The estimated cost for the care of all population estimated in need of renal replacement therapy (via hemodialysis) was estimated to be $10 921 788 072.00 MX. CONCLUSION. Human resources and infrastructure availability in México are very limited for nephrology, and in consequence for offering hemodialysis services.

  17. The cost of nuclear power stations; comparison test between France and the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comparison, even if roughly made, between the investment costs of nuclear power stations quoted in literature for France and the United States cannot be made with consideration. While in the United States these amounts corresponded to the total expense in standard currency, in France they are applicable only to an estimate intended to justify a development at the level of national planning by comparing its profitability compared with schemes of different nature (coal power stations, hydraulic plants or new energies), on 'normating' (or 'pseudo-fictive') bases. It is shown how a comparison is nevertheless possible the shift of a factor close to 2 between two amounts found in the literature is due to different accounting practices which have been taken into account and to the differences in the inflational rates we can now observe

  18. Improving Accuracy and Efficiency of Start-up Cost Formulations in MIP Unit Commitment by Modeling Power Plant Temperatures

    OpenAIRE

    Silbernagl, Matthias; Huber, Matthias; Brandenberg, René

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an improved mixed-integer model for the Thermal Unit Commitment Problem. By introducing new variables for the temperature of each thermal unit, the off-time-dependent start-up costs are modeled accurately and with a lower integrality gap than state-of-the-art formulations. This new approach significantly improves computational efficiency compared to existing formulations, even if they only model a rough approximation of the start-up costs. Our findings we...

  19. A preliminary design and BOP cost analysis of M-C Power`s MCFC commerical unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, T.P. [Bechtel Corp, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    M-C Power Corporation plans to introduce its molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) market entry unit in the year 2000 for distributed and on-site power generation. Extensive efforts have been made to analyze the cell stack manufacturing costs. The major objective of this study is to conduct a detailed analysis of BOP costs based on an initial design of the market entry unit.

  20. Suitable methods for calculating the costs for the back-end of the nuclear fuel-cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present report is devoted to a discussion of what kind of cost calculations the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate should demand from the owners of the Swedish nuclear power plants in order to make a proposal to the Swedish government on a suitable annual fee and a suitable supplementary amount for contingency allowance to cover the future costs of decommissioning the power plants and disposing of the waste. The report was commissioned by the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI) because SKI wanted an independent review of the probabilistic method for cost calculations used by the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co (SKB) since 1996. This method was introduced as a response to some changes of the Swedish legal system regulating the financing of the future costs of decommissioning the nuclear power plants and disposing of the waste. The most important change was that the annual fee paid by the reactor owners should only cover the costs of a certain basic scenario and that the annual fee should be supplemented by a suitable guarantee to cover the occurrence of cost driving unforeseen events. The method used by SKB has been considered feasible for determining a suitable annual fee and suitable guarantees by SKI but SKI has also asked for more information on important matters such as the bases for various calculations and the rationale behind certain probability distributions assumed. The point of departure for the review performed by Alkestis Co is that the basic material employed for the cost calculations should meet a high standard and that the logical and mathematical arguments leading from the basic material to proposals of a certain annual fee and certain amount of guarantees must be transparent. Chapter 1 and appendix A mainly consist of material collected to enable a non-specialist to follow the account in the following sections. However, chapter 1 also contains a general discussion on suitable approaches to handle the problem of calculating the annual fee and the various guarantees. The conclusion reached there is that already quite general considerations cast some doubts on the suitability of using a probabilistic approach in this context. Chapter 2 in conjunction with appendices C and D is devoted to a detailed examination of the method used by SKB to calculate the annual fee and the various guarantees. The conclusion reached there is that both the method itself as well as the present application made of it can be challenged. Hence the introduction of an alternative approach to cost calculations should be considered. A first attempt to provide an alternative approach is therefore presented in chapter 3

  1. Weather data for simplified energy calculation methods. Volume I. Eastern United States: TRY data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, A.R.; Moreno, S.; Deringer, J.; Watson, C.R.

    1984-08-01

    The objective of this report is to provide a source of weather data for direct use with a number of simplified energy calculation methods available today. Complete weather data for a number of cities in the United States are provided for use in the following methods: degree hour, modified degree hour, bin, modified bin, and variable degree day. This report contains sets of weather data for 23 cities in the continental United States using Test Reference Year (TRY) source weather data. The weather data at each city has been summarized in a number of ways to provide differing levels of detail necessary for alternative simplified energy calculation methods. Weather variables summarized include dry bulb and wet bulb temperature, percent relative humidity, humidity ratio, wind speed, percent possible sunshine, percent diffuse solar radiation, total solar radiation on horizontal and vertical surfaces, and solar heat gain through standard DSA glass. Monthly and annual summaries, in some cases by time of day, are available. These summaries are produced in a series of nine computer generated tables.

  2. Evaluation of a rapid LMP-based approach for calculating marginal unit emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • Pollutant emissions estimated based on locational marginal price and eGRID data. • Stochastic model using IEEE RTS-96 system used to evaluate LMP approach. • Incorporating membership function enhanced reliability of pollutant estimate. • Error in pollutant estimate typically 2 and X and SO2. - Abstract: To evaluate the sustainability of systems that draw power from electrical grids there is a need to rapidly and accurately quantify pollutant emissions associated with power generation. Air emissions resulting from electricity generation vary widely among power plants based on the types of fuel consumed, the efficiency of the plant, and the type of pollution control systems in service. To address this need, methods for estimating real-time air emissions from power generation based on locational marginal prices (LMPs) have been developed. Based on LMPs the type of the marginal generating unit can be identified and pollutant emissions are estimated. While conceptually demonstrated, this LMP approach has not been rigorously tested. The purpose of this paper is to (1) improve the LMP method for predicting pollutant emissions and (2) evaluate the reliability of this technique through power system simulations. Previous LMP methods were expanded to include marginal emissions estimates using an LMP Emissions Estimation Method (LEEM). The accuracy of emission estimates was further improved by incorporating a probability distribution function that characterize generator fuel costs and a membership function (MF) capable of accounting for multiple marginal generation units. Emission estimates were compared to those predicted from power flow simulations. The improved LEEM was found to predict the marginal generation type approximately 70% of the time based on typical system conditions (e.g. loads and fuel costs) without the use of a MF. With the addition of a MF, the LEEM was found to provide emission estimates with errors typically less than 25% for CO2, and less than 50% for SO2 and NOX. Overall, the LEEM presented provides a means of incorporating pollutant emissions into demand side decisions

  3. Audit Calculations of ATWS for Ulchin Unit 1 and 2 Power Uprate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jun Soo; Huh, Byung Gil; Choi, Yong Seog; Seul, Kwang Won [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    In this study, the regulatory audit calculation for ATWS of Ulchin Unit 1 and 2 with 4.5% power uprate was performed to support the licensing review and to confirm the validity of licensee's calculation. In order to simulate the transient behavior of ATWS initiated by a loss of feed water, the systems of Ulchin Unit 1 and 2 was modeled with MARS-KS 1.3. In this study, the regulatory audit calculation of ATWS for Ulchin 1 and 2 with 4.5% power uprating and 99% MTC in the specific cycle designs was performed. It is conformed that the analysis results of ATWS for Ulchin 1 and 2 power uprate meets the RCS pressure acceptance criteria. An anticipated transient accompanied by a failure in the Reactor Trip System (RTS) to shut down the reactor is defined as an Anticipated Transient Without Scram (ATWS). Under certain postulated conditions, the ATWS could lead to Reactor Coolant system (RCS) pressure boundary fracture and/or core damage. For a conventional pressurized water reactor (PWR), the temperature corresponding to the NSSC notice No.2013.09(Performance Criteria for ECCS of the Pressurized Water Reactor Nuclear Power Plants), 1204 .deg. C and the pressure corresponding to the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code service level C stress, 221.5 bar is assumed to be an unacceptable plant condition against ATWS, above which the RCS pressure boundary could deform to the point of inoperability and the safe shutdown by injection of borated water could be challenged. Such potentially excessive RCS overpressure may occur in the ATWS initiated from a loss of heat sink. Currently, the modification of Ulchin 1 and 2 operating license for 4.5% power uprate is under review.

  4. Audit Calculations of ATWS for Ulchin Unit 1 and 2 Power Uprate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, the regulatory audit calculation for ATWS of Ulchin Unit 1 and 2 with 4.5% power uprate was performed to support the licensing review and to confirm the validity of licensee's calculation. In order to simulate the transient behavior of ATWS initiated by a loss of feed water, the systems of Ulchin Unit 1 and 2 was modeled with MARS-KS 1.3. In this study, the regulatory audit calculation of ATWS for Ulchin 1 and 2 with 4.5% power uprating and 99% MTC in the specific cycle designs was performed. It is conformed that the analysis results of ATWS for Ulchin 1 and 2 power uprate meets the RCS pressure acceptance criteria. An anticipated transient accompanied by a failure in the Reactor Trip System (RTS) to shut down the reactor is defined as an Anticipated Transient Without Scram (ATWS). Under certain postulated conditions, the ATWS could lead to Reactor Coolant system (RCS) pressure boundary fracture and/or core damage. For a conventional pressurized water reactor (PWR), the temperature corresponding to the NSSC notice No.2013.09(Performance Criteria for ECCS of the Pressurized Water Reactor Nuclear Power Plants), 1204 .deg. C and the pressure corresponding to the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code service level C stress, 221.5 bar is assumed to be an unacceptable plant condition against ATWS, above which the RCS pressure boundary could deform to the point of inoperability and the safe shutdown by injection of borated water could be challenged. Such potentially excessive RCS overpressure may occur in the ATWS initiated from a loss of heat sink. Currently, the modification of Ulchin 1 and 2 operating license for 4.5% power uprate is under review

  5. THE APPLICATION OF ACTIVITY BASED COSTING ARE: ELIMINATION IN THE CALCULATION OF COST OF PRODUCTION PT SEMEN TONASA (PERSERO, PANGKEP REGENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firman Menne

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Economic conditions should be viewed as the catalyst for developing the ability to intelligently manage resources so that the people of Indonesia can be out of the condition. Effective management and efficiency is reflected in good planning and good planning requires good information. In order to plan well the utilization of company resources to fold the duplicate spiders, company management requires system information revealed by clearly and precisely the facts relating to the activity. PT Semen Tonasa is a fabrication company doing business in the field of cement industry and produces two types of cement, cement or Portland cement type 1 can (OPC and Portland cement (PPC Pazzolan. The benefits that can be gained if the company implemented the system of Activity-Based Costing are: elimination is obtained more accurate information, among others, to improve the quality of decision making. In the ABC product only burdened costs of resources and activities that are used and does not burdened by the cost of the resources and activities. This method causes the cost per unit of a more stable and consistent with the purposes of the imposition of costs to the product result in activity.

  6. The Estimation of an Average Cost Frontier to Calculate Benchmark Tariffs for Electricity Distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Filippini, Massimo; Wild, Jörg

    1998-01-01

    In this paper we have examined the scale and cost inefficiency of a sample of Swiss electricity distribution utilities. To do so, we have considered estimation of a stochastic frontier average cost model using the approach suggested by Schmidt and Sickles (1984) for panel data. A translog cost function was estimated using panel data for a sample of 30 municipal utilities over the period 1992-1996. The results indicate the existence of economies of output and customer density and economies of ...

  7. Comminution of logging residues with a tub grinder: Calculation of productivity and procurement cost of wood chips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuyuki Yoshioka

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available An experiment on comminution of logging residues with a tub grinder was carried out in order to calculate the productivity and procurement cost of wood chips. At the investigated site, the tub grinder had a hammer mill crusher at the bottom of the tub, and a grapple loaderand a bucket loader worked as auxiliary machines for the grinder. As a result, the productivity of the tub grinder was 60.0 loose m3/PMH0, and the total comminuting cost was calculated as 5.637 US$/m3, indicating that the comminuting cost of a large-sized crusher waslower than that of a small-sized chipper. The percentage of the cost of loaders, that of carrying in, installing, and carrying out the machines, and that of constructing a landing was 53% of the total comminuting cost. When a truck with the capacity of 40 m3 transported wood chips three times a day, the costs of comminution and transportation were71.2 US$/t (DM1, which is almost on a par with those of European countries in which the energy utilization of logging residues is making steady progress. As a result of the discussion about the balance between the processing capacity of the tub grinder and that of othermachines, it seemed reasonable for Japanese forestry to consider the use of one tub grinder at several logging sites.

  8. Weather data for simplified energy calculation methods. Volume IV. United States: WYEC data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, A.R.; Moreno, S.; Deringer, J.; Watson, C.R.

    1984-08-01

    The objective of this report is to provide a source of weather data for direct use with a number of simplified energy calculation methods available today. Complete weather data for a number of cities in the United States are provided for use in the following methods: degree hour, modified degree hour, bin, modified bin, and variable degree day. This report contains sets of weather data for 23 cities using Weather Year for Energy Calculations (WYEC) source weather data. Considerable overlap is present in cities (21) covered by both the TRY and WYEC data. The weather data at each city has been summarized in a number of ways to provide differing levels of detail necessary for alternative simplified energy calculation methods. Weather variables summarized include dry bulb and wet bulb temperature, percent relative humidity, humidity ratio, wind speed, percent possible sunshine, percent diffuse solar radiation, total solar radiation on horizontal and vertical surfaces, and solar heat gain through standard DSA glass. Monthly and annual summaries, in some cases by time of day, are available. These summaries are produced in a series of nine computer generated tables.

  9. Accelerated molecular dynamics force evaluation on graphics processing units for thermal conductivity calculations

    CERN Document Server

    Fan, Zheyong; Harju, Ari

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a highly efficient molecular dynamics code fully implemented on graphics processing units for thermal conductivity calculations using the Green-Kubo formula. We compare two different schemes for force evaluation, a previously used thread-scheme where a single thread is used for one particle and each thread calculates the total force for the corresponding particle, and a new block-scheme where a whole block is used for one particle and each thread in the block calculates one or several pair forces between the particle associated with the given block and its neighbor particle(s) associated with the given thread. For both schemes, two different classical potentials, namely, the Lennard-Jones potential and the rigid-ion potential are implemented. While the thread-scheme performs a little better for relatively large systems, the block-scheme performs much better for relatively small systems. The relative performance of the block-scheme over the thread-scheme also increases with the increa...

  10. Cost-income analysis of oral health units of health care centers in Yazd city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosein Fallahzadeh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Increasing demands for health care's services on one hand and limited resources on the other hand brings about pressure over governments to find out a mechanism for fair and appropriate distribution of resources. Economic analysis is one of the appropriate tools for policy making on this priority. The aim of this study was to assess capital and consumption of oral health units of health care centers in Yazd city and comparing it with revenue of these centers and determining of cost effectiveness.Materials and Methods: In this descriptive cross sectional study, all health care centers of Yazd city with active dentistry department were evaluated. The data has been extracted from current documents in health care center of county based issued receipts and daily information registers.Results: Expended cost for providing of oral hygiene services in second half of 2008 in 13 medical health centers of Yazd included active dentistry section was 557.887.500 Rials and revenue to cost ratio was about 34%. The most provided service was related to tooth extraction and the average of tooth restoration in each working day was 0.48.Conclusion: With attention to low tariffs of dentistry services in medical health centers and paying subsidy to target groups, expenses of oral hygiene are always more than its revenue.

  11. Antibiotic prescription and cost patterns in a general intensive care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krivoy N

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic prescription habits, cost pattern, and the prospective intervention in an Intensive Care Unit were analyzed. Methods: Data on antibiotic utilization and costs were collected prospectively from individual electronic charts from August 2003 to January 2004, and retrospectively from August to December 2002. Results: A total of 180 and 107 patients were surveyed in 2002 and 2003. In 2002, Piperacillin-Tazobactam (13.8% and Imipenem/Cilastin (11.2% were the most prescribed medications; while, in 2003, Vancomycin (12.6% and Imipenem/Cilastin (11.3% were prescribed, respectively. Total defined daily dose (DDD and Drug Utilization 90% (DU90% index for 2002 and 2003 were 2031.15 and 2325.90 DDDs (p>0.1 and 1777.57 and 2079.61 DU90%, respectively (p>0.1. The Median Total Cost /100 admission days (CI 95% were NIS13,310 (11,110;18,420 and NIS13,860 (6,710;18,020 (p=0.66, respectively. Conclusions: Interventional programs should focus on promoting infectious control with rational antibiotic prescription aimed at minimizing the future emergence of bacterial resistance and futile expenses.

  12. Benefit/cost analysis of plutonium recycle options in the United States of America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beginning in 1973, the USAEC started the analysis of the benefit/cost balance of Pu recycling in light-water reactors and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission has continued this effort to the present time. A study of the United States nuclear industry from 1975 until 2000 was summarized in a final environmental statement called GESMO - Generic Environmental Statement on Mixed Oxide, NUREG-0002. Cumulative environmental and economic effects for several industry growth patterns were determined. Five alternatives were evaluated, covering the basic options of recycling uranium and plutonium; recycling uranium; and no recycling. The NRC findings, excluding consideration of proliferation and safeguards questions, are: the safety of reactors and fuel-cycle facilities are not significantly affected by recycle; excluding consideration of radiological effects, the environmental effects of recycle are slightly less than those from a non-recycle system; plutonium recycling extends uranium resources and reduces environmental impacts at the same time requiring reprocessing and Pu-handling facilities; despite uncertainties, recycling has probable economic advantages over other fuel concepts; differences in health effects attributable to recycling provide no basis for selecting a particular fuel-cycle option; no waste-management considerations appear that could be a basis for the selection of any particular option. The NRC studies on health, safety and environmental considerations ofsafety and environmental considerations of Pu recycling in the United States of America show that the differences in benefits/costs between the alternative fuel cycles are small and hence do not provide a clear basis for a decision on Pu recycle at this time. Safeguards and international proliferation implications appear to be the controlling factors in reaching a decision. President Carter's statement indefinitely deferring reprocessing and Pu recycle in the United States of America has resulted in a re-evaluation by NRC of its programme to reach a decision on whether or not to authorize Pu recycling. (author)

  13. Economic impacts of oil spills: Spill unit costs for tankers, pipelines, refineries, and offshore facilities. [Task 1, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-15

    The impacts of oil spills -- ranging from the large, widely publicized Exxon Valdez tanker incident to smaller pipeline and refinery spills -- have been costly to both the oil industry and the public. For example, the estimated costs to Exxon of the Valdez tanker spill are on the order of $4 billion, including $2.8 billion (in 1993 dollars) for direct cleanup costs and $1.125 billion (in 1992 dollars) for settlement of damages claims caused by the spill. Application of contingent valuation costs and civil lawsuits pending in the State of Alaska could raise these costs appreciably. Even the costs of the much smaller 1991 oil spill at Texaco`s refinery near Anacortes, Washington led to costs of $8 to 9 million. As a result, inexpensive waming, response and remediation technologies could lower oil spin costs, helping both the oil industry, the associated marine industries, and the environment. One means for reducing the impact and costs of oil spills is to undertake research and development on key aspects of the oil spill prevention, warming, and response and remediation systems. To target these funds to their best use, it is important to have sound data on the nature and size of spills, their likely occurrence and their unit costs. This information could then allow scarce R&D dollars to be spent on areas and activities having the largest impact. This report is intended to provide the ``unit cost`` portion of this crucial information. The report examines the three key components of the US oil supply system, namely, tankers and barges; pipelines and refineries; and offshore production facilities. The specific purpose of the study was to establish the unit costs of oil spills. By manipulating this key information into a larger matrix that includes the size and frequency of occurrence of oil spills, it will be possible` to estimate the likely future impacts, costs, and sources of oil spills.

  14. Low-cost general purpose spectral display unit using an IBM PC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many physics experiments require acquisition and analysis of spectral data. commercial minicomputer-based multichannel analyzers collect detected counts at various energies, create a histogram of the counts in memory, and display the resultant spectra. They acquire data and provide the user-to-display interface. The system discussed separates functions into the three modular components of data acquisition, storage, and display. This decoupling of functions allows the experimenter to use any number of detectors for data collection before forwarding up to 64 spectra to the display unit, thereby increasing data throughput over that available with commercial systems. An IBM PC was chosen for the low-cost, general purpose display unit. Up to four spectra may be displayed simultaneously in different colors. The histogram saves 1024 channels per detector, 640 of which may be distinctly displayed per spectra. The IEEE-488 standard provides the data path between the IBM PC and the data collection unit. Data is sent to the PC under interrupt control, using direct memory access. Display manipulations available via keyboard are also discussed

  15. Marketing techniques and cost calculations of radiation vulcanised natural rubber latex (RVNRL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes how RVNRL is promoted to the latex based industries locally and abroad. RVNRL promotion requires patience and very challenging. This is a fact since the product is new to the market. Cost is important in deciding its market and potential usage. The elements that contribute to the cost is described in this paper. (Author)

  16. Method of selected input calculation data verification and their influence on decommissioning cost in the OMEGA Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this contribution is development of methodology for verification of selected input calculation data (performance unit parameters, work group structure, and duration of time-dependent activities) of the OMEGA Code in the individual PSL (Proposed Standardised List) structure parts. (author)

  17. Calculations of the radiological impact of disposal of unit activity of selected radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the work described is to provide estimates of the radiological impact following disposal of unit activity via each of several options, including disposal on the deep ocean bed, shallow burial, engineered trench disposal, disposal in a geologic repository and disposal in off-shore boreholes. Results are presented for a range of important representative radionuclides (3H, 14C, 60Co, 63Ni, 90Sr, 99Tc, 106Ru, 129I, 137Cs, 237N, 238U, 239Pu, 241Pu, 241Am). These results may be used in conjunction with waste inventory data to obtain a preliminary view of the relative radiological merits of various disposal options. In the course of the calculations it was necessary to make a number of simplifying assumptions. The implications of these are discussed in the context of use of the results for comparative assessments of systems of waste management (author)

  18. Antibiotic prescription and cost patterns in a general intensive care unit

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Norberto, Krivoy; Wissam, Abed El-Ahal; Yaron, Bar-Lavie; Salim, Haddad.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Se analizaron los hábitos de prescripción de antibióticos, el modelo de costes, y las intervenciones prospectivas en una Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos. Métodos: Se recogieron prospectivamente datos sobre utilización y costes de antibióticos de los registros electrónicos individuales desde agosto de [...] 2003 a enero de 2004, y retrospectivamente hasta diciembre 2002. Resultados: Se investigó un total de 180 y 107 pacientes en 2002 y 2003. En 2002, la Piperacilina-Tazobactam (13,8%) y el Imipenem/Cilastina (11,2%) fue los más prescritos, mientras que en 2003, se prescribieron vancomicina (12,%) e Imipenem/Cilastina (11,3%). Las dosis diarias definidas (DDD) totales y el índice utilización 90% (DU90%) para 2002 y 2003 fueron 2031,15 y 2325,90 DDD (p>0,1). La mediana de coste total /100 días de internamiento (IC95%) fue 13.310NIS (11.110;18.420) y 13.860NIS (6.710;18.020) (p=0,66), respectivamente. Conclusiones: Los programas de intervención deberían enfocarse en promover el control de las infecciones con una prescripción racional de antibióticos centrada en minimizar las futuras apariciones de resistencia bacteriana y los gastos inútiles. Abstract in english Antibiotic prescription habits, cost pattern, and the prospective intervention in an Intensive Care Unit were analyzed. Methods: Data on antibiotic utilization and costs were collected prospectively from individual electronic charts from August 2003 to January 2004, and retrospectively from August t [...] o December 2002. Results: A total of 180 and 107 patients were surveyed in 2002 and 2003. In 2002, Piperacillin-Tazobactam (13.8%) and Imipenem/Cilastin (11.2%) were the most prescribed medications; while, in 2003, Vancomycin (12.6%) and Imipenem/Cilastin (11.3%) were prescribed, respectively. Total defined daily dose (DDD) and Drug Utilization 90% (DU90%) index for 2002 and 2003 were 2031.15 and 2325.90 DDDs (p>0.1) and 1777.57 and 2079.61 DU90%, respectively (p>0.1). The Median Total Cost /100 admission days (CI 95%) were NIS13,310 (11,110;18,420) and NIS13,860 (6,710;18,020) (p=0.66), respectively. Conclusions: Interventional programs should focus on promoting infectious control with rational antibiotic prescription aimed at minimizing the future emergence of bacterial resistance and futile expenses.

  19. Calculation of economic viability of alternative energy sources considering its environmental costs for small communities of Northeast Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There has been an increasing concern about current environmental issues caused by human activity, as the world searches for development. The production of electricity is an extremely relevant factor in this scenario since it is responsible for a large portion of the emissions that cause the greenhouse effect. Due to this fact, a sustainable development with alternative energy sources, which are attractive for such purpose, must be proposed, especially in places that are not supplied by the conventional electricity grid such as many communities in the Northeast Brazil. This work aims to calculate the environmental cost for the alternative sources of energy - solar, wind and biomass - during electricity generation, and to estimate the economic feasibility of those sources in small communities of Northeast Brazil, considering the avoided costs. The externalities must be properly identified and valued so the costs or benefits can be internalized and reflect accurately the economic feasibility or infeasibility of those sources. For this, the method of avoided costs was adopted for the calculation of externalities. This variable was included in the equation developed for all considered alternative energy sources. The calculations of economic feasibility were performed taking the new configurations in consideration, and the new equation was reprogrammed in the Programa de Calculo de Custos de Energias Alternativas, Solar, Eolica e Biomassa (PEASEB). The results demonstrated that the solar photovoltaic energy in isolated systems is the most feasible and broadly applicable source for small communities of Northeast Brazil. (author)

  20. Calculation of radioactive inventory of activated parts for nuclear power unit and analysis of influence factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the operation characteristics of the nuclear power unit, the radioactive inventory of activated parts was calculated by ORIGEN2, and the effects of bum-up, operation mode and power change on the radioactive inventory for activated parts were analyzed. The results indicated that the radioactive inventory grew with the increasing of burn-up, and when the actual operation time was longer than the effective operation time, the increasing rate of nuclide activity approximated the burn-up increasing; Radioactive inventory of activated parts was influenced directly by the operation modes of the nuclear power unit, and under same reactor load, operation power and bum-up, the radioactive inventory for non-continuous operation mode is less than that for the continuous operation mode. Effects of operation modes on radioactive inventory reversed with half life of nuclides. Under same bum-up and longer operation time, the effect of operation power change on the radioactive inventory is not obvious, (authors)

  1. Intoxicated children at an intensive care unit: popular medicine risks, complications and costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Consuelo de Rovetto

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The Hospital Universitario del Valle (HUV at the Pediatrics Intensive Care Unit (PICU admits intoxicated patients, erroneously medicated by «teguas» or family members with serious aggravation of basic diseases or generating severe intoxications. Absent reports of these practices in Colombia motivated the publication of this case seriesObjective: To report a series of pediatric intoxication cases secondary to oral or dermatological application of varied substances by healers («teguas» or family members, leading to admission at the PICU, and to describe complications and hospital costs of these events.Methodology: Clinical charts of patients admitted to the PICU with diagnosis of exogenous intoxication during May 2001 to September 2004, were reviewed. Of 28 registered cases during that time, only 14 clinical charts were recovered. Variables evaluated included: age, gender, proceeding, administered substance, person responsible for the administration, complications, days of mechanical ventilation, total days at the intensive care unit and average costs. Of the 14 medical records with exogenous intoxications only 5 cases were involuntary and 9 were related to the administration of substances by quacks or family members; these are the ones reported in this series.Results: We report a total of 9 intoxicated patients, 5 girls and 4 boys, with an age range from 1 to 24 months, all from Cali. Topical administered substances: alcohol 6/9, vinegar 1/9; oral: aspirin 2/9, paico 1/9, and unidentified herbs 1/9. Administered substances by teguas: 6 patients; 3 by family members. All patients had metabolic acidosis with an increased anion gap: 27 in average (range from 21 to 32. All required mechanical ventilation (2 to 32 day range. Average hospital day costs were $6’657,800 pesos (around U$3,000.oo. Three patients died and 4 presented acute renal failure, 2 convulsions, 2 nosocomial infections, 1 subglotic stenosis.Conclusions and recommendations: Those practices are a high risk for children and have high health costs. Mortality and severe complications are high. Educational campaigns should be started in the community to prevent these cases.

  2. Calculation of additional costs in 2010 - for the demolition of the Swedish nuclear power plants and disposal of residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the SSM's calculation of additional costs for fee proposal for 2012-2014. The calculation is made pursuant to the Financing Act and includes all additional costs until the residue from the Swedish nuclear power plants is disposed of. According to current calculations, this should be done in 2069. Estimates of such a long time means a great deal of uncertainty and SSM uses, like SKB, the successive calculation method to estimate an expected value and tax association uncertainty. As a starting point for analysis, the SSM has made estimates of the future costs broken down into paragraphs in paragraph 2 Financing Act. The estimates were made after discussions within the organization and representatives of relevant external organizations. Assuming a total annual cost per worker of 1.24 million gave these estimates a total cost of over three billion. It should be emphasized that this sum is only a starting point for analysis and applies in particular circumstances. These circumstances critically reviewed the analysis and the reasonableness of assessments made by a analysis group. The analysis took place for 2.5 days in spring 2010. The analysis group consisted of 17 people including nine from the SSM. Lores Borg and Steen Lichtenberg were moderators. Via a brainstorming process, the analysis group presented a number of uncertainties and made a three-part assessment of their impact on the overall results (minimum, most likely and maximum). The result of the analysis: average in the 2010 monetary value was assessed to 4.24 billion Swedish crowns with a standard deviation of 920 million Swedish crowns. These values are undiscounted

  3. Evaluation of Targeted Mass Cholera Vaccination Strategies in Bangladesh: A Demonstration of a New Cost-Effectiveness Calculator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troeger, Christopher; Sack, David A.; Chao, Dennis L.

    2014-01-01

    Growing interest in mass vaccination with oral cholera vaccine in endemic and epidemic settings will require policymakers to evaluate how to allocate these vaccines in the most efficient manner. Because cholera, when treated properly, has a low case fatality rate, it may not be economically feasible to vaccinate an entire population. Using a new publicly available calculator for estimating the cost-effectiveness of mass vaccination, we show how targeting high-risk subpopulations for vaccination could be cost-effective in Bangladesh. The approach described here is general enough to adapt to different settings or to other vaccine-preventable diseases. PMID:25294614

  4. An integrated approach to calculate life cycle costs of arms and military equipment

    OpenAIRE

    Vlada S. Sokolovi?; Marko D. Andreji?; Sr?an D. Ljubojevi?

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION In a situation when government expenditures for defense are more restrictive, any investment in the acquisition of arms and military equipment (AME) is a question that does not allow errors in decisions. Accordingly, the economic analysis of the investment must be detailed and unavoidable. In the past, the initial cost of procurement of AME was often the primary, and sometimes the only one criterion in decision-making. Neglecting the analysis of costs throughout the life of asset...

  5. A Cost-Benefit Calculator for RFID Implementations in the Apparel Retail Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Jasser Al-Kassab; Nezar Mahmoud; Frederic Thiesse; Elgar Fleisch

    2009-01-01

    The apparel retail industry is on the one hand facing challenges from increasing competition, consolidations, and thus increasing pressure to reduce costs. On the other hand, customers are getting more demanding, resulting in shorter fashion cycles, and demands for new customer experience. RFID technology is supposed to raise efficiency and to enable innovative customer service offerings. Besides cost savings, benefits are expected to arise from newly designed RFID applications and customer i...

  6. Cost accounting in ECN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A five year planning is made in which the available money is distributed to the expected programmes. This five year plan is used as basis for working plan and budget for the next year. In the working plan all financial means are divided into kinds of costs, cost centres and cost units. Based on this working plan and the relevant budgets the tariffs are calculated per working centre (cost centre). The tariffs are fixed for a whole year. Up till now these tariffs are also basis for the cost unit accounting at the end of the year together with the results of the time registration. The estimated work shop services for the working centres are included in the tariffs. For the allocation of overhead costs ECN uses dynamic keys. Depreciation costs with respect to instruments, investments etc. are determined per working centre according to a computer programme. The cost unit related costs are charged directly to cost unit. This implies that project related in instruments are looked upon as running costs. In the future we will try to refine the present cost accounting system still further in this way that we will look upon a cost centre as a profit centre. Furthermore we will try to analyse the tariff and calculation deviations and under/over occupation deviations afterwards (post calculation). The information provided to the management knows a hierachic construction: project information to projectleader, programme (compound projects) information to programme coordinator, cost nformation to programme coordinator, cost centre summary to department heads, attention area (compound programme) information to programme coordinator and managing director, ECN research (compound attention areas) information to general management, information re kind of costs to relevant persons, f.e. surveys of expenditure for part time personnel to personnel bureau. The information is provided by the department of Finance and Administrative Organisation. The entire scope of cost accounting is the responsibility of the head of the department of Finance and Administrative Organisation. (author)

  7. Costos unitarios laborales verticalmente integrados por rama en México y Estados Unidos, 1970-2000 / Vertically integrated unit labor costs by sector Mexico-USA, 1970-2000

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Pablo, Ruiz Nápoles.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Los tipos de cambio reales efectivos, en términos de costos unitarios de trabajo, han sido calculados en la economía mundial siguiendo varios métodos. En este trabajo se desarrolla una metodología para estimar los costos unitarios laborales vertical-mente integrados por rama económica utilizando las [...] técnicas de insumo-producto. El modelo se aplica a las economías de México y de Estados Unidos para el periodo 1970-2000. Los resultados obtenidos se comparan con un coeficiente estimado de ventaja comparativa revelada por rama de la economía mexicana a fin de establecer si el comercio exterior de México está relacionado con los costos unitarios laborales relativos en este periodo. Para probar esta relación se utilizó el análisis econométrico para datos en panel. Abstract in english Real effective exchange rates have been calculated by relative unit labor costs for many countries in the world economy. In this work we develop a methodology to estimate vertically integrated unit labor costs by sector, using input-output techniques, for the Mexican and United States economies in t [...] he period 1970-2000. The results are then compared to a measurement of revealed comparative advantage by sector, of the Mexican economy, in order to establish whether Mexican foreign trade by sector was related to its relative labor costs during this period. To test this relationship econometric analysis for panel data is utilized.

  8. Fast unit commitment based on optimal linear approximation to nonlinear fuel cost: Error analysis and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) based techniques are among the most widely applied methods for unit commitment (UC) problems. The fuel cost functions are often replaced by their piecewise linear approximations whereas it is more or less disturbing to use piecewise linear approximations without knowing the exact effect on solution deviation from the optima. Therefore, error analysis is important since the optimal solutions are different when different objective functions are adopted. Another important problem is balancing between solution quality and computation efficiency since better solution quality relies on finer discretization with exponentially increased computational efforts. A detailed error analysis is presented in this paper. It is found that the approximation error is inverse proportional to the square of the number of piecewise segments. Lower bounds on the minimum necessary number of discretization segments are also derived. A 2-Stage Procedure is then established to achieve a better balance between solution quality and computation efficiency. Numerical testing to 2 groups of UC problems is exciting. It is found that the operating cost increases no more than 0.6% in all cases while the CPU time is greatly reduced regarding other MILP approaches. The results are still valid in electric power market clearing computation. (author)

  9. A New Improved Hybrid Meta-Heuristics Method for Unit Commitment with Nonlinear Fuel Cost Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okawa, Kenta; Mori, Hiroyuki

    In this paper, a new improved hybrid meta-heuristic method is proposed to solve the unit commitment problem effectively. The objective is to minimize operation cost while satisfying the power balance constraints and so on. It may be formulated as a nonlinear mixed-integer problem. In other words, the unit commitment problem is hard to solve. Therefore, this paper makes use of a hybrid meta-heuristic method with two layers. Layer 1 determines the on/off conditions of generators with tabu search (TS) while Layer 2 evaluates output of generators with evolutionary particle swarm optimization (EPSO). The construction phase of Greedy Randomized Adaptive Search Procedure (GRASP) is used to create initial feasible solutions efficiently. Three kinds of meta-heuristic methods such as TS, EPSO and GRASP are combined to solve the problem. In addition, a parallel scheme of EPSO is developed to improve the computational efficient as well as the accuracy. The effectiveness of the proposed method is tested in sample systems.

  10. Energy Savings and Breakeven Cost for Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maguire, J.; Burch, J.; Merrigan, T.; Ong, S.

    2013-07-01

    Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have recently reemerged in the U.S. residential water heating market and have the potential to provide homeowners with significant energy savings. However, there are questions as to the actual performance and energy savings potential of these units, in particular in regards to the heat pump's performance in unconditioned space and the impact of the heat pump on space heating and cooling loads when it is located in conditioned space. To help answer these questions, simulations were performed of a HPWH in both conditioned and unconditioned space at over 900 locations across the continental United States and Hawaii. Simulations included a Building America benchmark home so that any interaction between the HPWH and the home's HVAC equipment could be captured. Comparisons were performed to typical gas and electric water heaters to determine the energy savings potential and cost effectiveness of a HPWH relative to these technologies. HPWHs were found to have a significant source energy savings potential when replacing typical electric water heaters, but only saved source energy relative to gas water heater in the most favorable installation locations in the southern US. When replacing an electric water heater, the HPWH is likely to break even in California, the southern US, and parts of the northeast in most situations. However, the HPWH will only break even when replacing a gas water heater in a few southern states.

  11. User's guide to SERICPAC: A computer program for calculating electric-utility avoided costs rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wirtshafter, R.; Abrash, M.; Koved, M.; Feldman, S.

    1982-05-01

    SERICPAC is a computer program developed to calculate average avoided cost rates for decentralized power producers and cogenerators that sell electricity to electric utilities. SERICPAC works in tandem with SERICOST, a program to calculate avoided costs, and determines the appropriate rates for buying and selling of electricity from electric utilities to qualifying facilities (QF) as stipulated under Section 210 of PURA. SERICPAC contains simulation models for eight technologies including wind, hydro, biogas, and cogeneration. The simulations are converted in a diversified utility production which can be either gross production or net production, which accounts for an internal electricity usage by the QF. The program allows for adjustments to the production to be made for scheduled and forced outages. The final output of the model is a technology-specific average annual rate. The report contains a description of the technologies and the simulations as well as complete user's guide to SERICPAC.

  12. Calculation of Costs of Pregnancy- and Puerperium-related Care: Experience from a Hospital in a Low-income Country

    OpenAIRE

    Sarowar, M.G.; Medin, E.; Gazi, R.; Koehlmoos, T.P.; Rehnberg, C.; Saifi, R.; Bhuiya, A.; Khan, J

    2010-01-01

    Calculation of costs of different medical and surgical services has numerous uses, which include monitoring the performance of service-delivery, setting the efficiency target, benchmarking of services across all sectors, considering investment decisions, commissioning to meet health needs, and negotiating revised levels of funding. The role of private-sector healthcare facilities has been increasing rapidly over the last decade. Despite the overall improvement in the public and private health...

  13. Cost optimal building performance requirements. Calculation methodology for reporting on national energy performance requirements on the basis of cost optimality within the framework of the EPBD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boermans, T.; Bettgenhaeuser, K.; Hermelink, A.; Schimschar, S. [Ecofys, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2011-05-15

    On the European level, the principles for the requirements for the energy performance of buildings are set by the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD). Dating from December 2002, the EPBD has set a common framework from which the individual Member States in the EU developed or adapted their individual national regulations. The EPBD in 2008 and 2009 underwent a recast procedure, with final political agreement having been reached in November 2009. The new Directive was then formally adopted on May 19, 2010. Among other clarifications and new provisions, the EPBD recast introduces a benchmarking mechanism for national energy performance requirements for the purpose of determining cost-optimal levels to be used by Member States for comparing and setting these requirements. The previous EPBD set out a general framework to assess the energy performance of buildings and required Member States to define maximum values for energy delivered to meet the energy demand associated with the standardised use of the building. However it did not contain requirements or guidance related to the ambition level of such requirements. As a consequence, building regulations in the various Member States have been developed by the use of different approaches (influenced by different building traditions, political processes and individual market conditions) and resulted in different ambition levels where in many cases cost optimality principles could justify higher ambitions. The EPBD recast now requests that Member States shall ensure that minimum energy performance requirements for buildings are set 'with a view to achieving cost-optimal levels'. The cost optimum level shall be calculated in accordance with a comparative methodology. The objective of this report is to contribute to the ongoing discussion in Europe around the details of such a methodology by describing possible details on how to calculate cost optimal levels and pointing towards important factors and effects. The methodology described in this report is consistent with the description of the process as presented in the study 'Cost Optimality - Discussing methodology and challenges within the recast Energy Performance of Buildings Directive' published in September 2010 by the Buildings Performance Institute Europe (BPIE). The present document provides additional insights and details.

  14. Levelized Product Cost: Concept and Decision Relevance

    OpenAIRE

    Reichelstein, Stefan; Rohlfing-bastian, Anna

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines a life-cycle cost concept that applies to both manufacturing and service industries in which upfront capacity investments are essential. Borrowing from the energy literature, we refer to this cost measure as the levelized product cost (LC). Per unit of output, the levelized cost aggregates a share of the initial capacity expenditure with periodic fixed and variable operating costs. The resulting cost figure exceeds the full cost of a product, as commonly calculated in mana...

  15. Cost-effectiveness of social marketing of insecticide-treated nets for malaria control in the United Republic of Tanzania.

    OpenAIRE

    Hanson Kara; Kikumbih Nassor; Schellenberg Joanna Armstrong; Mponda Haji; Nathan Rose; Lake Sally; Mills Anne; Tanner Marcel; Lengeler Christian

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the costs and consequences of a social marketing approach to malaria control in children by means of insecticide-treated nets in two rural districts of the United Republic of Tanzania, compared with no net use. METHODS: Project cost data were collected prospectively from accounting records. Community effectiveness was estimated on the basis of a nested case-control study and a cross-sectional cluster sample survey. FINDINGS: The social marketing approach to the distributi...

  16. The Direct Costs of Patients with Traumatic Brain Injury in an Intensive Care Unit (ICU in Cyprus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Despena Andrioti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The traumatic brain injuries are one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in our country. But studies that relate to the cost of hospitalization in the Unit are very limited.Objectives: To microeconomically assess the direct costs of patients with traumatic brain injury in Nicosia Hospital.Methodology: We got a convenience sample of all patients (7 who were hospitalized from July to September 2010. (a The age, duration of stay, severity of incident and costs of all therapeutic procedures were surveyed using descriptive statistics (b Pearson chi-square was used to investigate correlations between variables. (c Multivariate Regression Analysis was employed for theinvestigation of factors affecting the cost of treatment. Age, duration of hospitalization and the cost of individual treatments were considered as independent variables for the direct cost. All tests were considered to be significant at a 5% level. Analysis was carried out using SPSS 20.0.Results: The average cost of hospitalization of the patients with traumatic brain injury in the Unit was € 18,659.51 (€ 2,936.56-33,330.2 and SD € 11,191.11. The average number of days of hospitalization was 14.14 (4-34 days and SD 10.81 days and the average age was 36 years (13-66 years and SD 20.06 years. Older age was associated with a significant longer stay, p <0.01 and furthermore age and disease severity had statistically significant correlation p <0.001 with the total cost of hospitalization.Conclusions: The cost of hospitalization in the Unit was influenced by age, duration of stay and severity of the patient's status (Glasgow Coma Scale

  17. Calculation of HELAS amplitudes for QCD processes using graphics processing unit (GPU)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We use a graphics processing unit (GPU) for fast calculations of helicity amplitudes of quark and gluon scattering processes in massless QCD. New HEGET (HELAS Evaluation with GPU Enhanced Technology) codes for gluon self-interactions are introduced, and a C++ program to convert the MadGraph generated FORTRAN codes into HEGET codes in CUDA (a C-platform for general purpose computing on GPU) is created. Because of the proliferation of the number of Feynman diagrams and the number of independent color amplitudes, the maximum number of final state jets we can evaluate on a GPU is limited to 4 for pure gluon processes (gg?4g), or 5 for processes with one or more quark lines such as q anti q? 5g and qq?qq+3g. Compared with the usual CPU-based programs, we obtain 60-100 times better performance on the GPU, except for 5-jet production processes and the gg?4g processes for which the GPU gain over the CPU is about 20. (orig.)

  18. The DRG Project of the German Transplant Society: 1. Improved Delineation of the Cost of Liver Transplantation under the G-DRG System through Cost Analysis and Calculation of New Cost Separators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Lohmann

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The first calculation of the Diagnosis Related Groups (DRGs in Germany resulted in a drastic reduction of reimbursements for liver transplantations (LTX. While under the previous reimbursement system, a liver transplantation was calculated with approximately € 125.000, the newly introduced German DRG system calculated for a liver transplantation without complications for 2004 a case weight of 11,9 and hence, based on the base rate utilized a fee of € 35.000 - € 45.000. Since under these circumstances the financing for clinical liver transplantations seemed to be in jeopardy, the Deutsche Transplantationsgesellschaft (German Society for Organ Transplantation conducted an evaluation of the actual costs of liver transplantations. Materials and Methods: The data of 75 transplant admissions from five major transplant centres were collected and 177 cost parameters were captured each day. In addition, the data which is important for the classification of the DRGs (diagnosis, procedures, length of hospital stay and duration of ventilation were recorded and cost comparisons for single parameters were performed using the DKG-NT (Deutsche Krankenhausgesellschaft Normal-Tarif [German hospital association regular price] and Lauer-Tax (drugstore base buying price. With this method the total actual costs per case were determined and also which parameter could be useful as a cost separator. Results: Based on our data, our estimated cost for the DRG liver transplantation was much higher then the actual reimbursement under the new German DRG system. This led us to initiate a discussion with the InEK and subsequently the introduction of weighed hospital days for better allocation of the cost to the liver transplanted patient. Furthermore, based on our findings, additional split criteria were discussed with the InEK, which partially have been included into the DRG 2005 system. Conclusions: The investigation which was performed in cooperation with the InEK underlined that the actual reimbursement for liver transplantations does not mirror the actual cost, and the introduction of new cost separators, new ICD and procedure codes should enable the hospitals in the future to allocate the real cost of liver transplantations to the liver recipient. The changes already implemented have resulted in a significantly higher reimbursement for liver transplantation for 2005, and have reduced the financial gap for liver transplantations considerably.

  19. Comparison of measured and calculated dose rates and activities during pressure tube replacement in Pickering Units 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The shielding codes ORIGEN, DOT3.5, and QAD-CG have been used to calculate specific activities in and the dose rates from fuel channel components removed during the Pickering Units 1 and 2 Large Scale Fuel Channel Replacement (LSFCR) program. The calculated activities and dose rates have been compared with available measurements. The results give confidence that the methodology can be applied to radiation dose assessment associated with LSFCR program for Units 1, 2 and 3, 4 of Pickering reactors or other CANDU nuclear power stations. (author). 6 refs., 7 tabs., 9 figs

  20. Accelerating quantum chemistry calculations with graphical processing units - toward in high-density (HD) silico drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagiwara, Yohsuke; Ohno, Kazuki; Orita, Masaya; Koga, Ryota; Endo, Toshio; Akiyama, Yutaka; Sekijima, Masakazu

    2013-09-01

    The growing power of central processing units (CPU) has made it possible to use quantum mechanical (QM) calculations for in silico drug discovery. However, limited CPU power makes large-scale in silico screening such as virtual screening with QM calculations a challenge. Recently, general-purpose computing on graphics processing units (GPGPU) has offered an alternative, because of its significantly accelerated computational time over CPU. Here, we review a GPGPU-based supercomputer, TSUBAME2.0, and its promise for next generation in silico drug discovery, in high-density (HD) silico drug discovery. PMID:24010935

  1. Calculation of economic viability and environmental costs of photovoltaic solar energy for the Brazilian Northeast region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The availability of energy resources is a central point to economic development. The energy matrix of most countries is based on the consumption of fossil fuels, which adds annually over 5 billion tons of carbon into the atmosphere. The energy consumption in developing countries has quadrupled since the 60s further aggravating global environmental conditions. The need to implement alternative energy sources to the energy matrix was proved. In addition, Brazil has a large number of people without access to electricity, which affects the quality of life of these populations. In this context, it is necessary to think in economic development way, and then the sustainable and alternative sources appear as an option for its features and its availability in Brazil. The solar energy captured by photovoltaic cells can be highlighted in the Brazilian scenario because of its wide availability, especially in the Northeast. The aim of this paper is to estimate the economic feasibility of insertion of solar systems in small communities in the Brazilian Northeast, considering environmental costs involved in electricity generation. The methodology is based on economic concepts and economic valuation of environmental resources. The results shows that solar power is becoming increasingly competitive due to reduced costs of components and due to the environmental costs reduced when compared with fossil fuels. (author)

  2. Calculation of economic viability and environmental costs of photovoltaic solar energy for the Brazilian Northeast region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stecher, Luiza C.; Sabundjian, Gaianes; Menzel, Francine, E-mail: luizastecher@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The availability of energy resources is a central point to economic development. The energy matrix of most countries is based on the consumption of fossil fuels, which adds annually over 5 billion tons of carbon into the atmosphere. The energy consumption in developing countries has quadrupled since the 60s further aggravating global environmental conditions. The need to implement alternative energy sources to the energy matrix was proved. In addition, Brazil has a large number of people without access to electricity, which affects the quality of life of these populations. In this context, it is necessary to think in economic development way, and then the sustainable and alternative sources appear as an option for its features and its availability in Brazil. The solar energy captured by photovoltaic cells can be highlighted in the Brazilian scenario because of its wide availability, especially in the Northeast. The aim of this paper is to estimate the economic feasibility of insertion of solar systems in small communities in the Brazilian Northeast, considering environmental costs involved in electricity generation. The methodology is based on economic concepts and economic valuation of environmental resources. The results shows that solar power is becoming increasingly competitive due to reduced costs of components and due to the environmental costs reduced when compared with fossil fuels. (author)

  3. DUCKS: Low cost thermal monitoring units for near-vent deployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Andrew; Pirie, Dawn; Horton, Keith; Garbeil, Harold; Pilger, Eric; Ramm, Hans; Hoblitt, Rick; Thornber, Carl; Ripepe, Maurizio; Marchetti, Emanuele; Poggi, Pasquale

    2005-05-01

    During 1999 we designed and tested a thermal monitoring system to provide a cheap, robust, modular, real-time system capable of surviving the hostile conditions encountered proximal to active volcanic vents. In November 2000 the first system was deployed at Pu'u 'O'o (Kilauea, Hawai'i) to target persistently active vents. Aside from some minor problems, such as sensor damage due to tampering, this system remained operational until January 2004. The success of the prototype system led us to use the blueprint for a second installation at Stromboli (Aeolian Islands, Italy). This was deployed, dug into a bomb-proof bunker, during May 2002 and survived the April 2003 paroxysmal eruption despite being located just 250 m from the vent. In both cases, careful waterproofing of connectors and selection of suitable protection has prevented water damage and corrosion in the harsh atmosphere encountered at the crater rim. The Pu'u 'O'o system cost ˜US10,000 and comprises four modules: sensors, transmission and power hub, repeater station and reception site. The sensor component consists of three thermal infrared thermometers housed in Pelican™ cases fitted with Germanium-Arsenide-Selenium windows. Two 1° field of view (FOV) sensors allow specific vents to be targeted and a 60° FOV sensor provides a crater floor overview. A hard wire connection links to a Pelican™-case-housed microprocessor, modem and power module. From here data are transmitted, via a repeater site, to a dedicated PC at the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory. Here data are displayed with a delay of ˜3 s between acquisition and display. The modular design allows for great flexibility. At Stromboli, 1° and 15° FOV sensor modules can be switched depending changes in activity style and crater geometry. In addition a direct line of site to the Stromboli reception center negates the repeater site requirement, reducing the cost to US5500 for a single sensor system. We have also constructed self-contained units with internal data loggers for US$1500/unit. These have been tested at Kilauea, Stromboli, Etna, Masaya, Santiaguito, Fuego, Pacaya, Poas, Soufriere Hills, Villarrica and Erta Ale. These instruments have proved capable of detecting thermal signals associated with: (1) gas emission; (2) gas jetting events; (3) crater floor collapse; (4) lava effusion; (5) lava flow in tubes; (6) lava lake activity; (7) lava dome activity; and (8) crater lake skin temperature.

  4. Costes del dolor neuropático según etiología en las Unidades del Dolor en España / Neurohatic pain costs according it´s etiology the Spanish Pain Units

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M. J., Rodríguez; A. J., García.

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Realizar un registro etiológico y de costes de pacientes con Dolor Neuropático (DN) en Unidades del Dolor (UD) en España. Métodos: Estudio transversal retrospectivo realizado entre abril y diciembre de 2004 en UDs. Se recogieron datos demográficos, tipo y causa del DN, origen de la derivac [...] ión y la utilización de recursos sanitarios (tratamientos, visitas médicas, hospitalizaciones, etc.), y se computaron los costes médicos directos en el año 2004. Se utilizó estadística descriptiva y modelos ANCOVA. Resultados: Se incluyeron 504 pacientes con DN de etiología variada (44% radiculopatía, 21% neuralgias, 11% neuropatías, 7% atrapamientos, 5% SDRC, 4% dolor central), con una edad de 57,8±0,7 años (Media±EE), 57,6% mujeres, y 29,6±2,2 meses de evolución. El coste medio mensual ajustado fue de 403€ (IC 95%: 333€-473€). Las neuropatías presentaron un coste medio mensual ajustado mayor que la media (580+90€, p=0,011), debido a un mayor número mensual de días de hospitalización (0,6±0,1, p=0,021) y mayor coste farmacológico (162+17€, p=0,001). Las radiculopatías mostraron menor coste que la media; 287+46€, p=0,026, particularmente por un menor coste de hospitalización; 79+38€, p=0,027. Conclusiones: El DN ocasiona una considerable utilización de recursos sanitarios con un coste sustancial para el Sistema Nacional de Salud. La neuropatía es el síndrome etiológico que tiene un mayor coste mensual por paciente, mientras que las radiculopatías muestran un coste significativamente inferior al promedio. Abstract in english Objective: To realize a registry about aetology and costs of patients with Neuropathic Pain (NeP) in Pain Clinics (PC) in Spain. Methods: Retrospective, cross-ssectional study performed between april and december 2004 in PC. Demographic data, NeP type and cause, origin of the derivation, and health [...] resources consumption (treatments, medical visits, hospitalizations, etc) were collected and direct medical costs were calculated in year 2004. A descriptive statistic and ANCOVA models were applied. Results: 504 NeP patients of broad aetiology (44% radiculophaty, 21% neuralgias, 11% neurophaties, 7% entrapment syndromes, 5% CRPS, 4% central pain), 57.8±0.7 years (Mean±SE), 57.6% women, and 29.6±2.2 months of evolution, were enrolled in the study. Adjusted monthly average cost was 403€ (95% CI: 333€-473€). Neuropathies present an adjusted monthly cost significantly higher than average (580+90€, p=0.011), because of the higher number of hospitalization days (0.6+0.1, p=0.021) and the higher pharmacologic cost (162+17€, p=0.001). Radiculophaties showed lower adjusted cost than the average; 287+46€, p=0.026, because of the lower cost of hospitalization; 79+38€, p=0.027. Conclusions: NeP causes a considerable utilization of health resources with a substantial cost for the National Health Service. Neurophaties are the aetiology syndrome which showed the higher monthly cost per patient, while radiculophaties showed a cost significantly lower than the average.

  5. Costes del dolor neuropático según etiología en las Unidades del Dolor en España Neurohatic pain costs according it´s etiology the Spanish Pain Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Rodríguez

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Realizar un registro etiológico y de costes de pacientes con Dolor Neuropático (DN en Unidades del Dolor (UD en España. Métodos: Estudio transversal retrospectivo realizado entre abril y diciembre de 2004 en UDs. Se recogieron datos demográficos, tipo y causa del DN, origen de la derivación y la utilización de recursos sanitarios (tratamientos, visitas médicas, hospitalizaciones, etc., y se computaron los costes médicos directos en el año 2004. Se utilizó estadística descriptiva y modelos ANCOVA. Resultados: Se incluyeron 504 pacientes con DN de etiología variada (44% radiculopatía, 21% neuralgias, 11% neuropatías, 7% atrapamientos, 5% SDRC, 4% dolor central, con una edad de 57,8±0,7 años (Media±EE, 57,6% mujeres, y 29,6±2,2 meses de evolución. El coste medio mensual ajustado fue de 403€ (IC 95%: 333€-473€. Las neuropatías presentaron un coste medio mensual ajustado mayor que la media (580+90€, p=0,011, debido a un mayor número mensual de días de hospitalización (0,6±0,1, p=0,021 y mayor coste farmacológico (162+17€, p=0,001. Las radiculopatías mostraron menor coste que la media; 287+46€, p=0,026, particularmente por un menor coste de hospitalización; 79+38€, p=0,027. Conclusiones: El DN ocasiona una considerable utilización de recursos sanitarios con un coste sustancial para el Sistema Nacional de Salud. La neuropatía es el síndrome etiológico que tiene un mayor coste mensual por paciente, mientras que las radiculopatías muestran un coste significativamente inferior al promedio.Objective: To realize a registry about aetology and costs of patients with Neuropathic Pain (NeP in Pain Clinics (PC in Spain. Methods: Retrospective, cross-ssectional study performed between april and december 2004 in PC. Demographic data, NeP type and cause, origin of the derivation, and health resources consumption (treatments, medical visits, hospitalizations, etc were collected and direct medical costs were calculated in year 2004. A descriptive statistic and ANCOVA models were applied. Results: 504 NeP patients of broad aetiology (44% radiculophaty, 21% neuralgias, 11% neurophaties, 7% entrapment syndromes, 5% CRPS, 4% central pain, 57.8±0.7 years (Mean±SE, 57.6% women, and 29.6±2.2 months of evolution, were enrolled in the study. Adjusted monthly average cost was 403€ (95% CI: 333€-473€. Neuropathies present an adjusted monthly cost significantly higher than average (580+90€, p=0.011, because of the higher number of hospitalization days (0.6+0.1, p=0.021 and the higher pharmacologic cost (162+17€, p=0.001. Radiculophaties showed lower adjusted cost than the average; 287+46€, p=0.026, because of the lower cost of hospitalization; 79+38€, p=0.027. Conclusions: NeP causes a considerable utilization of health resources with a substantial cost for the National Health Service. Neurophaties are the aetiology syndrome which showed the higher monthly cost per patient, while radiculophaties showed a cost significantly lower than the average.

  6. Automatic teeth axes calculation for well-aligned teeth using cost profile analysis along teeth center arch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gyehyun; Lee, Jeongjin; Seo, Jinwook; Lee, Wooshik; Shin, Yeong-Gil; Kim, Bohyoung

    2012-04-01

    In dental implantology and virtual dental surgery planning using computed tomography (CT) images, the examination of the axes of neighboring and/or biting teeth is important to improve the performance of the masticatory system as well as the aesthetic beauty. However, due to its high connectivity to neighboring teeth and jawbones, a tooth and/or its axis is very elusive to automatically identify in dental CT images. This paper presents a novel method of automatically calculating individual teeth axes. The planes separating the individual teeth are automatically calculated using cost profile analysis along the teeth center arch. In this calculation, a novel plane cost function, which considers the intensity and the gradient, is proposed to favor the teeth separation planes crossing the teeth interstice and suppress the possible inappropriately detected separation planes crossing the soft pulp. The soft pulp and dentine of each individually separated tooth are then segmented by a fast marching method with two newly proposed speed functions considering their own specific anatomical characteristics. The axis of each tooth is finally calculated using principal component analysis on the segmented soft pulp and dentine. In experimental results using 20 clinical datasets, the average angle and minimum distance differences between the teeth axes manually specified by two dentists and automatically calculated by the proposed method were 1.94° ± 0.61° and 1.13 ± 0.56 mm, respectively. The proposed method identified the individual teeth axes accurately, demonstrating that it can give dentists substantial assistance during dental surgery such as dental implant placement and orthognathic surgery. PMID:22287231

  7. On tentative decommissioning cost analysis with specific authentic cost calculations with the application of the Omega code on a case linked to the Intermediate storage facility for spent fuel in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presented report is focused on tentative calculations of basic decommissioning parameters such as costs, manpower and exposure of personnel for activities of older nuclear facility decommissioning in Sweden represented by Intermediate storage facility for spent fuel in Studsvik, by means of calculation code OMEGA. This report continuously follows up two previous projects, which described methodology of cost estimates of decommissioning with an emphasis to derive cost functions for alpha contaminated material and implementation of the advanced decommissioning costing methodology for Intermediate Storage facility for Spent Fuel in Studsvik. The main purpose of the presented study is to demonstrate the trial application of the advanced costing methodology using OMEGA code for Intermediate Storage Facility for Spent Fuel in Studsvik. Basic work packages presented in report are as follows: 1. Analysis and validation input data on Intermediate Storage Facility for Spent Fuel and assemble a database suitable for standardised decommissioning cost calculations including radiological parameters, 2. Proposal of range of decommissioning calculations and define an extent of decommissioning activities, 3. Defining waste management scenarios for particular material waste streams from Intermediate Storage Facility for Spent Fuel, 4. Developing standardised cost calculation structure applied for Intermediate Storage Facility for Spent Fuel decommissioning calculation and 5. Performing tentative decommissioning calculations for Intermediate Storage Facility for Spent Fuel by OMEGA code. Calculated parameters of decommissioning are presented in structure according to Proposed Standardized List of Items for Costing Purposes. All parameters are documented and summed up in both table and graphic forms in text and Annexes. The presented report documents availability and applicability of methodology for evaluation of costs and other parameters of decommissioning in a form implemented within calculation code OMEGA for calculations of Intermediate Storage for Spent Fuel in Studsvik

  8. On tentative decommissioning cost analysis with specific authentic cost calculations with the application of the Omega code on a case linked to the Intermediate storage facility for spent fuel in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasko, Marek; Daniska, Vladimir; Ondra, Frantisek; Bezak, Peter; Kristofova, Kristina; Tatransky, Peter; Zachar, Matej [DECOM Slovakia, spol. s.r.o., J. Bottu 2, SK-917 01 Trnava (Slovakia); Lindskog, Staffan [Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2007-03-15

    The presented report is focused on tentative calculations of basic decommissioning parameters such as costs, manpower and exposure of personnel for activities of older nuclear facility decommissioning in Sweden represented by Intermediate storage facility for spent fuel in Studsvik, by means of calculation code OMEGA. This report continuously follows up two previous projects, which described methodology of cost estimates of decommissioning with an emphasis to derive cost functions for alpha contaminated material and implementation of the advanced decommissioning costing methodology for Intermediate Storage facility for Spent Fuel in Studsvik. The main purpose of the presented study is to demonstrate the trial application of the advanced costing methodology using OMEGA code for Intermediate Storage Facility for Spent Fuel in Studsvik. Basic work packages presented in report are as follows: 1. Analysis and validation input data on Intermediate Storage Facility for Spent Fuel and assemble a database suitable for standardised decommissioning cost calculations including radiological parameters, 2. Proposal of range of decommissioning calculations and define an extent of decommissioning activities, 3. Defining waste management scenarios for particular material waste streams from Intermediate Storage Facility for Spent Fuel, 4. Developing standardised cost calculation structure applied for Intermediate Storage Facility for Spent Fuel decommissioning calculation and 5. Performing tentative decommissioning calculations for Intermediate Storage Facility for Spent Fuel by OMEGA code. Calculated parameters of decommissioning are presented in structure according to Proposed Standardized List of Items for Costing Purposes. All parameters are documented and summed up in both table and graphic forms in text and Annexes. The presented report documents availability and applicability of methodology for evaluation of costs and other parameters of decommissioning in a form implemented within calculation code OMEGA for calculations of Intermediate Storage for Spent Fuel in Studsvik.

  9. En plena crisis económica: coste y efectividad de las unidades de estancia corta hospitalarias / Economic crisis: cost and effectiveness of short stay hospital units

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    F., Epelde; M.L., Iglesias-Lepine; L., Anarte.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento. La duración de la estancia es el principal determinante del coste de una hospitalización, por lo que se deben implementar estrategias para reducir la estancia hospitalaria convencional manteniéndose los niveles de calidad. Las Unidades de Estancia Corta (UEC) nacen con el objetivo de dis [...] minuir la estancia hospitalaria en un grupo de patologias y pacientes determinados. El objetivo de este original es evaluar la bibliografía existente sobre la evidencia de la disminución del periodo de estancia, eficiencia, reconsultas en los servicios de urgencias, coste-efectividad, y mortalidad de estas unidades. Método. Se realizó una revisión sistemática de las publicaciones que aparecen en la literatura, utilizando los términos MeSH "Observation Unit", "Short-Stay Ward", "Monday to Friday Clinic", "Monaday to Friday Surgery Ward", "Short Stay Hospitalization", "Alternative to Convencional Hospitalization", "Alternative Admissions" en la base de datos MEDLINE, Web of Knowledge y la Cochrane Library desde el 1 de enero de 1960 al 1 de enero del 2012. Los estudios revisados se seleccionaron según la US Preventive Services Task Force Protocol. Resultados. Las UEC permiten en grupos determinados de pacientes, disminuir el periodo de estancia, mantener la eficiencia, no mostrando incrementos de los reingresos por urgencias, ni la mortalidad. Conclusiones. Las UEC pueden ser un instrumento para disminuir el coste del proceso sanitario en un grupo de patologias determinadas. Abstract in english Background. Length of stay is the main determinant of the cost of hospitalization, which is why strategies must be implemented to reduce conventional hospital stays while maintaining quality levels. Short Stay Units (SSU) were created with the aim of reducing hospital stays in a certain group of pat [...] ients and pathologies. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the literature on the evidence of decreased length of stay, efficiency, readmissions in the emergency department, cost-effectiveness, and mortality of these units. Methods. We made a systematic review of the literature, using the MeSH terms "Observation Unit", "Short-Stay Ward", "Monday to Friday Clinic", "Monday to Friday Surgery Ward", "Short Stay Hospitalization", "Alternative to Conventional Hospitalization", "Alternative Admissions" in the MEDLINE database, Web of Knowledge and the Cochrane Library from January 1 1960 to January 1 2012. The studies reviewed were selected according to the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Protocol. Results. The SSU made it possible in certain groups of patients to reduce the period of stay and maintain efficiency, showing no increases in emergency readmissions or mortality. Conclusions. The SSU can be an instrument to reduce the cost of the health process in a certain group of pathologies.

  10. Review of cost estimates and the calculation of the 2014 Act (1988:1597) on the financing of the management of certain radioactive waste, etc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation Safety Authority (SSM) has based on the licensee's submitted cost estimates for 2013 and SSM cost-adjustments to those rates calculated under the Act (1988:1597) on the financing of the management of certain radioactive waste, etc. (Studsvik Act) to 0.12 SEK per kWh delivered nuclear electricity for the period 2014 to 2017. The fee calculation has not taken into account the remaining uncertainties in the data. SSM's calculations show that the net present value for measures under Studsvik Act amounts to 1743 million Swedish kronor. This amount is in turn composed of two subtotals. The first installment amounting to 1512 million Swedish kronor and indicates the present value of the costs that have been submitted by the licensee in their cost estimates for 2013. The second partial sum represents the present value of the adjusted cost of 231 million Swedish kronor that SSM chosen to add to the submitted cost estimates

  11. Calculating Optimal Cost of Using DGs in Micro Grids by Using Imperialistic Competitive Algorithm (ICA?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navid Javidtash

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available How to use renewable sources has been a great problem for many years. Researchers haveinvented and developed Microgrids, flexible networks with a central control system; nevertheless, forinstalling renewable sources on them there is still questions. As a result, researchers started to use differentalgorithms in order to solve problems and find best answers for electrical functions. One of the most novelalgorithms for this purpose is Imperialistic Competitive Algorithm (ICA. It is based on historical events andprovides marvelous results and speed in comparison with similar algorithms such as Genetic Algorithm orPSO. In this paper we will investigate best answers for cost function in a 14-Bus Microgrid by using ICAalgorithm. Finally answers will be compared with GA and PSO so that it can be shown that proposedalgorithm is more efficient than its counterparts.

  12. Radioimmunoassay evaluation and quality control by use of a simple computer program for a low cost desk top calculator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple computer program for the data processing and quality control of radioimmunoassays is presented. It is written for low cost programmable desk top calculator (Hewlett Packard 97), which can be afforded by smaller laboratories. The untreated counts from the scintillation spectrometer are entered manually; the printout gives the following results: initial data, logit-log transformed calibration points, parameters of goodness of fit and of the position of the standard curve, control and unknown samples dose estimates (mean value from single dose interpolations and scatter of replicates) together with the automatic calculation of within assay variance and, by use of magnetic cards holding the control parameters of all previous assays, between assay variance. (orig.)

  13. Norwegian electricity market liberalisation: questions of cost calculation and price definition by grid operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a study carried out on the Norwegian electricity market 10 years after its liberalisation. The similarity of the Norwegian market to the Swiss electricity market is discussed. Similarly to the proposed situation in Switzerland, the liberalisation in Norway foresaw no privatisation of public utilities and a model for the regulation of grid access was introduced. The report describes and comments on the various phases in which the liberalisation occurred and examines the various instruments used, e.g. to ensure that individual grid operators did not make undue profits from their monopoly. The methods used for the monitoring of grid operators' costs are described and the mechanisms involved in the definition of prices for grid services are examined, including measures taken when profits were too high or too low. The report is concluded with a discussion of the conclusions that can be drawn from the Norwegian model for Swiss market opening efforts

  14. Health care costs before and after diagnosis of depression in patients with unexplained pain: a retrospective cohort study using the United Kingdom General Practice Research Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reed C

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Catherine Reed,1 Jihyung Hong,2 Diego Novick,1 Alan Lenox-Smith,3 Michael Happich41Global Health Outcomes, Eli Lilly and Company, Windlesham, Surrey, UK; 2Personal Social Services Research Unit, London School of Economics and Political Science, London, UK; 3Eli Lilly UK, Basingstoke, UK; 4Eli Lilly and Company, Bad Homburg, GermanyPurpose: To assess the impact of pain severity and time to diagnosis of depression on health care costs for primary care patients with pre-existing unexplained pain symptoms who subsequently received a diagnosis of depression.Patients and methods: This retrospective cohort study analyzed 4000 adults with unexplained pain (defined as painful physical symptoms [PPS] without any probable organic cause and a subsequent diagnosis of depression, identified from the UK General Practice Research Database using diagnostic codes. Patients were categorized into four groups based on pain severity (milder or more severe; based on number of pain-relief medications and use of opioids and time to diagnosis of depression (?1 year or >1 year from PPS index date. Annual health care costs were calculated (2009 values and included general practitioner (GP consultations, secondary care referrals, and prescriptions for pain-relief medications for the 12 months before depression diagnosis and in the subsequent 2 years. Multivariate models of cost included time period as a main independent variable, and adjusted for age, gender, and comorbidities.Results: Total annual health care costs before and after depression diagnosis for the four patient groups were higher for the groups with more severe pain (£819–£988 versus £565–£628; P < 0.001 for all pairwise comparisons and highest for the group with more severe pain and longer time to depression diagnosis in the subsequent 2 years (P < 0.05. Total GP costs were highest in the group with more severe pain and longer time to depression diagnosis both before and after depression diagnosis (P < 0.05. In the second year following depression diagnosis, this group also had the highest secondary care referral costs (P < 0.01. The highest drug costs were in the groups with more severe pain (P < 0.001, although costs within each group were similar before and after depression diagnosis.Conclusion: Among patients with unexplained pain symptoms, significant pain in combination with longer time from pain symptoms to depression diagnosis contribute to higher costs for the UK health care system.Keywords: depression, pain, cost, GPRD, UK

  15. Life cycle assessment of renewables: present issues, future outlook and implications for the calculation of external costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In principle, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is certainly appropriate for estimating external costs of renewables, since major environmental impacts of the latter are generated in phases of the life cycle other than use. In practice however, several issues still remain. They are related to the availability and quality of Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) data, to the frit technological development of renewable energy technologies (RET), to the existence of many different applications of the latter and to a strong dependency on local conditions. Moreover, a 'static' picture of present technologies is not enough for policy indications. Therefore some kind of dynamic LCA is needed. These LCA issues are reflected in the calculation of external costs. First, the paper discusses these issues on the examples of two main technologies, namely photovoltaic (PV) and wind. Second, it discusses the results of ExternE for these two specific technologies and gives an outlook for the future. Future needs for a better use of LCA as a support tool for the calcination of external costs are identified. Finally, a new research project funded by the European Commission focused on LCI of renewables is briefly introduced and presented. (author)

  16. On exergy costing in exergoeconomics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Existing methods of the exergoeconomic analysis and optimization of energy systems operate with single average or marginal cost values per exergy unit for each material stream in the system being considered. These costs do not contain detailed information on (a) how much exergy, and (b) at what cost the exergy was supplied in each of the previous process steps. The cost of supplying the same exergy form, however, might vary significantly from one step to the other. Knowledge of the exergy addition and the corresponding cost at each previous step can be used to improve the costing process. This paper presents a new approach to exergy costing in exergoeconomics. The monetary flow rate associated with the thermal, mechanical and chemical exergy of a material stream at a given state is calculated by considering the complete previous history of supplying and removing units of the corresponding exergy form to and from the stream being considered. When exergy is supplied to a stream, the cost of adding each exergy unit to the stream is calculated using the cost of product exergy unit for the process or device in which the exergy addition occurs. When exergy is supplied to a stream, the cost of adding each exergy unit to the stream is calculated using the cost of product exergy unit for the process or device in which the exergy addition occurs the stream being considered supplies exergy to another exergy carrier, the last-in-first-out principle of accounting is used for the s principle of accounting is used for the spent exergy units to calculate the cost of exergy supply to the carrier

  17. Primer: The DOE Wind Energy Program's Approach to Calculating Cost of Energy: July 9, 2005 - July 8, 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, K.; Schweizer, T.

    2008-01-01

    This report details the methodology used by DOE to calculate levelized cost of wind energy and demonstrates the variation in COE estimates due to different financing assumptions independent of wind generation technology.

  18. NUCIRC Single Channel Analysis for Calculating the Power Coefficients of the Wolsong Unit1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Wolsong Unit 1 is a CANDU(CANadian Deuterium Uranium) reactor imported from Canada, which has been generated 2061.4 MW(th) and 678.7 MWe since April 1983. Because the design lifetime of this reactor is 30 years, KHNP(Korea Hydro Nuclear Power) Co. decided to operate the Wolsong Unit 1 continuously under the confirmation of safety and economic efficiency after the refurbishment. As a part of Refurbishment Project of the Wolsong Unit 1, the nuclear design part(Chapter 4.3) of FSAR(Final Safety Analysis Report) has been revised and re-written. This paper describes the NUCIRC single channel analysis model developed for evaluating the power coefficient of the Wolsong Unit 1

  19. THE NECESSITY OF LOWERING PRODUCTION COST IN THE MANAGEMENT OF COAL MINING UNITS

    OpenAIRE

    IONELA-CLAUDIA DINA; GABRIELA BU?AN

    2009-01-01

    In the current economic conditions, cost is a key instrument in decisionson resource allocation, which are often limited, on the volume and structure of production,increase or withdraw supply of goods or services market, etc. In these circumstances the bestchoice is to choose a minimum cost. In its universal acceptance, the cost of production is aneconomic category that provides information about the work done by an operator and is a keyfactor of economic and financial analysis of the efficie...

  20. Surgical volume, hospital quality, and hospitalization cost in congenital heart surgery in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Titus; Kim, Jaewhan; Minich, L LuAnn; Pinto, Nelangi M; Waitzman, Norman J

    2015-01-01

    Hospital volume has been associated with improved outcomes in congenital cardiac surgery. However, the relationship between hospital volume and hospitalization cost remains unclear. This study examines the relationship between hospital surgical volume and hospitalization costs, while accounting for measures of quality, in children undergoing congenital heart surgery. A retrospective, repeated cross-sectional analysis was performed, using discharges from the 2006 and 2009 Kids' Inpatient Database. All pediatric admissions (cost/charge data were included. Multivariate, linear mixed regression models were run on hospitalization costs, with and without adjustment for indicators of quality (hospital mortality rate and complication rate). Both medium and high-volume hospitals (200-400 cases/year and >400 cases/year, respectively) were associated with lower odds of mortality but not occurrence of a complication. Hospital mortality was associated with the largest increase in hospitalization costs. High-volume hospitals (>400 cases/year) were associated with the lowest hospitalization costs per discharge ($37,775, p cost savings. When adjusting for hospital complication rate, high-volume hospitals continued to have the lowest hospitalization costs. High-volume hospitals are associated with a reduction in hospitalization costs that appear to be mediated through improvements in quality. PMID:25099030

  1. Cost implications of African swine fever in smallholder farrow-to-finish units : economic benefits of disease prevention through biosecurity

    OpenAIRE

    Fasina, Folorunso Oludayo; Lazarus, David D.; Spencer, B. T.; Makinde, Adesoji A.; Bastos, Armanda D. S.

    2012-01-01

    African swine fever remains the greatest limitation to the development of the pig industry in Africa, and parts of Asia and Europe. It is especially important in West and Central African countries where the disease has become endemic. Biosecurity is the implementation of a set of measures that reduce the risk of infection through segregation, cleaning and disinfection. Using a 122-sow piggery unit, a financial model and costing were used to estimate the economic benefits of ...

  2. Tracking the Sun III; The Installed Cost of Photovoltaics in the United States from 1998-2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbose, Galen; Darghouth, Naim; Wiser, Ryan

    2010-12-13

    Installations of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems have been growing at a rapid pace in recent years. In 2009, approximately 7,500 megawatts (MW) of PV were installed globally, up from approximately 6,000 MW in 2008, consisting primarily of grid-connected applications. With 335 MW of grid-connected PV capacity added in 2009, the United States was the world's fourth largest PV market in 2009, behind Germany, Italy, and Japan. The market for PV in the United States is driven by national, state, and local government incentives, including up-front cash rebates, production-based incentives, requirements that electricity suppliers purchase a certain amount of solar energy, and federal and state tax benefits. These programs are, in part, motivated by the popular appeal of solar energy, and by the positive attributes of PV - modest environmental impacts, avoidance of fuel price risks, coincidence with peak electrical demand, and the possible deployment of PV at the point of use. Given the relatively high cost of PV, however, a key goal of these policies is to encourage cost reductions over time. Therefore, as policy incentives have become more significant and as PV deployment has accelerated, so too has the desire to track the installed cost of PV systems over time, by system characteristics, by system location, and by component. Despite the significant year-on-year growth, however, the share of global and U.S. electricity supply met with PV remains small, and annual PV additions are currently modest in the context of the overall electric system. To address this need, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory initiated a report series focused on describing trends in the installed cost of grid-connected PV systems in the United States. The present report, the third in the series, describes installed cost trends from 1998 through 2009, and provides preliminary cost data for systems installed in 2010. The analysis is based on project-level cost data from approximately 78,000 residential and non-residential PV systems in the U.S., all of which are installed at end-use customer facilities (herein referred to as 'customer-sited' systems). The combined capacity of systems in the data sample totals 874 MW, equal to 70% of all grid-connected PV capacity installed in the United States through 2009 and representing one of the most comprehensive sources of installed PV cost data for the U.S. The report also briefly compares recent PV installed costs in the United States to those in Germany and Japan. Finally, it should be noted that the analysis presented here focuses on descriptive trends in the underlying data, serving primarily to summarize the data in tabular and graphical form; later analysis may explore some of these trends with more-sophisticated statistical techniques. The report begins with a summary of the data collection methodology and resultant dataset (Section 2). The primary findings of the analysis are presented in Section 3, which describes trends in installed costs prior to receipt of any financial incentives: over time and by system size, component, state, system ownership type (customer-owned vs. third party-owned), host customer segment (residential vs. commercial vs. public-sector vs. non-profit), application (new construction vs. retrofit), and technology type (building-integrated vs. rack-mounted, crystalline silicon vs. thin-film, and tracking vs. fixed-axis). Section 4 presents additional findings related to trends in PV incentive levels over time and among states (focusing specifically on state and utility incentive programs as well as state and federal tax credits), and trends in the net installed cost paid by system owners after receipt of such incentives. Brief conclusions are offered in the final section, and several appendices provide additional details on the analysis methodology and additional tabular summaries of the data.

  3. Strict hand hygiene and other practices shortened stays and cut costs and mortality in a pediatric intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Bradford D; Hanson, Cherissa; Christy, Claudia; Adams, Tina; Banks, Andrew; Willis, Tina Schade; Maciejewski, Matthew L

    2011-09-01

    Efforts to reduce infections acquired during a hospital stay through improvements in the quality of care have had measurable results in many hospital settings. In pediatric intensive care units, the right quality interventions can save lives and money. We found that improving practices of hand hygiene, oral care, and central-line catheter care reduced hospital-acquired infections and improved mortality rates among children admitted to a large pediatric intensive care unit in 2007-09. In addition, on average patients admitted after the quality interventions were fully implemented spent 2.3 fewer days in the hospital, their hospitalization cost $12,136 less, and mortality was 2.3 percentage points lower, compared to patients admitted before the interventions. The projected annual cost savings for the single pediatric intensive care unit studied was approximately $12 million. Given the modest expenses incurred for these improvements-which mainly consisted of posters for an educational campaign, a training "fair," roughly $21 per day for oral care kits, about $0.60 per day for chlorhexidine antiseptic patches, and hand sanitizers attached to the walls outside patients' rooms-this represents a significant return on investment. Used on a larger scale, these quality improvements could save lives and reduce costs for patients, hospitals, and payers around the country, provided that sustained efforts ensure compliance with new protocols and achieve long-lasting changes. PMID:21900667

  4. Development of a power-period calculation unit for nuclear reactor Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The apparatus studied is a digital calculating assembly which makes it possible to prepare and to present numerically the period and power of a nuclear reactor during operation, from start-up to nominal power. The pulses from a fission chamber are analyzed continuously, using real time. A small number of elements is required because of the systematic use of a calculation technique comprising the determination of a base 2 logarithm by a linear approximation. The accuracy obtained for the period is of the order of 14%; the response time of the order of the calculated period value. An approximate value of the power (30%) is given at each calculation cycle together with the power thresholds required for the control. (author)

  5. Research on MCNP4C2 Code for calculation of gamma dose distribution for Dalat Co-60 Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents the results of Institutional R and D project ''Research on MCNP4C2 Code for calculation of gamma dose distribution for Dalat Co-60 Unit '' performed by Dalat Nuclear Research Institute (DNRI). In the field of irradiation, it has been special importance for an estimation of dose distribution since every point in chamber needs to be determined so as to apply for appropriate dose-level irradiation of particular objects. It is meaningful in case of irradiating for small-size samples. Several of methods used to determine dose distribution, among those the ways being carried out mainly are using TLD or Fricke dosimeter so far. These dosimeters were positioned at points of interest, from that referring gamma dose rate at certain position through some of calibrated and measured steps. The other effective-approved approach is doing by MCNP Code in replaceable for the above-mentioned classical ways. Results from MCNP calculation in comparison with Fricke experimental results (error about 11%) affirm the feasibility of using modern-calculated programme in dose distribution calculation for any irradiated unit. (author)

  6. Strategies used by adults to reduce their prescription drug costs: United States, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Robin A; Villarroel, Maria A

    2015-01-01

    Among U.S. adults aged 18-64, strategies for reducing prescription drug costs were more commonly practiced by those who were uninsured than those who had public or private coverage. Lack of health insurance coverage and poverty are recognized risk factors for not taking medication as prescribed due to cost. This cost-saving strategy may result in poorer health status and increased emergency room use and hospitalizations, compared with adults who follow their recommended pharmacotherapy. It is unknown whether adverse health outcomes and higher health care costs are also associated with the cost-reduction strategies of alternative therapy use or obtaining prescription drugs from abroad. Among adults aged 65 and over, those covered by both Medicare and Medicaid were more likely to have not taken their medication as prescribed to save money, but were less likely to have asked their doctor for a lower-cost prescription, than those who had private insurance coverage. Differences in cost-saving strategies by insurance coverage may be interrelated with socioeconomic and other patient characteristics. Belief that the recommended pharmacotherapy is needed, and an understanding of the recommended treatment, have been found to be lower among older adults who are economically vulnerable, compared with those with higher income. Income was also associated with the use of cost-reduction strategies. Among adults aged 65 and over, those living with incomes at 139%-400% FPL were more likely than adults living in lower or higher income thresholds to have asked their provider for a lower-cost prescription to save money. These patterns in the estimates by insurance status and poverty level are similar to those previously reported using the 2011 NHIS data. PMID:25633356

  7. CRC DEPLETION CALCULATIONS FOR THE RODDED ASSEMBLIES IN BATCHES 1, 2, 3, AND 1X OF CRYSTAL RIVER UNIT 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenneth D. Wright

    1997-09-03

    The purpose of this design analysis is to document the SAS2H depletion calculations of certain rodded fuel assemblies from batches 1, 2, 3, and 1X of the Crystal River Unit 3 pressurized water reactor (PWR) that are required for Commercial Reactor Critical (CRC) evaluations to support the development of the disposal criticality methodology. A rodded assembly is one that contains a control rod assembly (CRA) or an axial power shaping rod assembly (APSRA) for some period of time during its irradiation history. The objective of this analysis is to provide SAS2H calculated isotopic compositions of depleted fuel and depleted burnable poison for each fuel assembly to be used in subsequent CRC reactivity calculations containing the fuel assemblies.

  8. Comparison of calculated and measured values of fuel assembly relative power for units 3 and 4 of the Kola NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is discussed the results of investigations on comparison of the calculated and measured fuel assemblies relative power distribution based on thermocouples data in the WWER-440 cores. All main results were obtained during 5 last years in the RRC 'Kurchatov Institute' and are based on the measurements and calculations which have been performed for the third and fourth units of the Kola NPP. Fuel loadings of various compositions were analyzed for various cycle moments. In all, about 1200 core conditions were studied. Experimental data were used for validation of the CFD code PHOENICS and modernized program SC-1 that is analogue of COBRA-IV one. In the future the modernized SC-1 code was used for calculation analysis of the thermocouples data that were obtained from third and fourth units of the Kola NPP. At the results of this analysis were developed the method of the insertion of incomplete coolant mixing correction in the top nozzle of WWER-440 assembly. The developed corrective functions were used for compare of calculated and measured relative power assemblies using thermocouples readings. Also it was shown that the problem of comparison of calculated and measured fuel assemblies powers is the complex problem since the comparison results consist of the methodical and measuring errors. The main result of comparison is next: the difference between calculated and measured relative fuel assembly powers (for the high power fuel assemblies) are reduced from (6-7.5) to (3-4.5) % if the corrective functions for the thermocouples readings were applied (Authors)

  9. A cost-effectiveness analysis of a residential radon remediation programme in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, C A; Gray, A M; Denman, A R; Phillips, P S

    1999-12-01

    As residential radon programmes of identification and remediation have proceeded, so questions have been raised about their costs and benefits. This study presents a generalizable model for estimating the cost-effectiveness of a radon mitigation programme using the methodological framework now considered appropriate in the economic evaluation of health interventions. Its use will help to inform future discussion of radon remediation and lung cancer prevention programmes. Data from Northamptonshire were analysed, resulting in a societal cost-effectiveness ratio of Pounds Sterling 13250 per life-year gained in 1997. The percentage of houses found to be over the action level, and the percentage of householders who decide to remediate are shown to be important parameters for the cost-effectiveness analysis. Questions are raised about the particular importance of perspective in this type of analysis and suggestions are made for future research directions. PMID:10584889

  10. A cost-effectiveness analysis of a residential radon remediation programme in the United Kingdom

    OpenAIRE

    Kennedy, C. A.; Gray, A. M.; Denman, A. R.; Phillips, P. S.

    1999-01-01

    As residential radon programmes of identification and remediation have proceeded, so questions have been raised about their costs and benefits. This study presents a generalizable model for estimating the cost-effectiveness of a radon mitigation programme using the methodological framework now considered appropriate in the economic evaluation of health interventions. Its use will help to inform future discussion of radon remediation and lung cancer prevention programmes. Data from Northampton...

  11. An unit cost adjusting heuristic algorithm for the integrated planning and scheduling of a two-stage supply chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhua Wang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The stable relationship of one-supplier-one-customer is replaced by a dynamic relationship of multi-supplier-multi-customer in current market gradually, and efficient scheduling techniques are important tools of the dynamic supply chain relationship establishing process. This paper studies the optimization of the integrated planning and scheduling problem of a two-stage supply chain with multiple manufacturers and multiple retailers to obtain a minimum supply chain operating cost, whose manufacturers have different production capacities, holding and producing cost rates, transportation costs to retailers.Design/methodology/approach: As a complex task allocation and scheduling problem, this paper sets up an INLP model for it and designs a Unit Cost Adjusting (UCA heuristic algorithm that adjust the suppliers’ supplying quantity according to their unit costs step by step to solve the model.Findings: Relying on the contrasting analysis between the UCA and the Lingo solvers for optimizing many numerical experiments, results show that the INLP model and the UCA algorithm can obtain its near optimal solution of the two-stage supply chain’s planning and scheduling problem within very short CPU time.Research limitations/implications: The proposed UCA heuristic can easily help managers to optimizing the two-stage supply chain scheduling problems which doesn’t include the delivery time and batch of orders. For two-stage supply chains are the most common form of actual commercial relationships, so to make some modification and study on the UCA heuristic should be able to optimize the integrated planning and scheduling problems of a supply chain with more reality constraints.Originality/value: This research proposes an innovative UCA heuristic for optimizing the integrated planning and scheduling problem of two-stage supply chains with the constraints of suppliers’ production capacity and the orders’ delivering time, and has a great practical significance to the dynamic relationship establishment of multi-supplier-multi-customer in current market.

  12. Economical analysis and study on a solar desalination unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Based on the calculation of the single-factor impact values of the parameters of a triple tower-type solar desalination unit on the cost of fresh water production by utilizing a single-factor analyzing method, the influences of the cost of solar heating system, the cost of hot water tank, the costs of desalination unit and electrical power, the life time of solar desalination unit and the yearly yield of fresh water, on the cost of the fresh water production of the solar desalination unit are studied. It is helpful for the further investigation of solar desalination and for reducing the cost of fresh water production for solar desalination units.

  13. Capital and operating cost estimation for milling of uranium ores in United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The strategic importance of uranium as an energy source must be a major consideration in the formulation of a comprehensive energy policy by U.S. decision makers. Accurate cost estimating is an integral step in the evaluation process of a potential mineral deposit for the milling of uranium ores in the production of the uranium concentrate yellowcake. Capital and operating cost estimates were developed for conventional milling techniques between 500 and 8,000 tons of ore per day using standard engineering methods. The operating parameters of U.S. uranium mills were the basis for the findings in this study. To facilitate the application to site-specific situations, the cost estimates presented herein may be adjusted to include the site-specific parameters for four conventional milling methods

  14. Simulation and calculation of ferrotantalumniobium chlorination in a shaft type unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Physicochemical and technological aspects of ferroalloy chlorination in fixed bed are observed. Compositions of liquid and gas phases forming in chlorination process are determined on the base of material balance and phase equilibrium conditions. Estimation of chlorination time for particles of rare metal raw material in piled layer was calculated and productivity of continuously operating reactor for ferrotantalumniobium was determined. The stated shaft type chlorinator makes it possible to solve the problem of processing 1000 t ferroalloy a year with 20 % productivity

  15. Variación del Costo Unitario en una Institución de Seguridad Social en Querétaro, México Unit cost variation in a social security company in Querétaro, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Villarreal-Ríos

    Full Text Available Objetivo Estimar e identificar la variación del costo unitario por departamento final y motivo de atención, en unidades de medicina familiar de una institución de seguridad social en Querétaro, México. Métodos Se trata de un estudio de costo (dólares americanos $US en unidades de medicina familiar para el año 2004. El costo unitario fijo se estimó utilizando la departamentalización ajustada por productividad para un año, se identificaron departamentos finales y generales. Se incluyeron recursos materiales, físicos y de consumo, se construyeron ponderadores para asignar los recursos invertidos en los departamentos generales a cada uno de los finales. La estimación del costo unitario variable se realizó mediante la técnica de micro-costeo apoyado por grupos de expertos, se consideraron como insumos variables los medicamentos, el material de curación y los reactivos. El costo unitario se integró con la suma del costo unitario fijo y el costo unitario variable correspondiente para el motivo de atención. El análisis contempló la comparación de los costos unitarios entre las unidades médicas. Resultados El costo unitario para un mes de manejo del diabético varió entre $US 34,8, $US 32,2 y $US 34,0; el costo de la detección de cáncer cervicouterino se encontró entre $US 7,2, $US 8,7 y $US 7,3; y el costo unitario de la atención de la caries fluctuó entre $US 27,0, $US 33,6 y $US 28,7. Conclusión La variación del costo unitario es más importante en el departamento de urgencias y dental.Objective Comparing unit cost variation between departments and reasons for consultation in outpatient health services provided by a social security company from Querétaro, México. Methods A study of costs (in US$ was carried out in outpatient health service units during 2004. Fixed unit costs were estimated per department and adjusted for one year’s productivity. Material, physical and consumer resources were included. Weighting was assigned to resources invested in each department. Unit cost was estimated by using the micro cost technique; medicaments, materials used during treatment and reagents were considered to be consumer items. Unit cost resulted from adding fixed unit cost to the variable unit cost corresponding to the reason for consulting. Units costs were then compared between the medical units. Results Unit cost per month for diabetic treatment varied from US$ 34.8, US$ 32,2 to US$ 34, pap smear screening test costs were US$ 7,2, US$ 8,7 and $US 7,3 and dental treatment US$ 27, US$ 33,6 and US$ 28,7. Conclusion Unit cost variation was more important in the emergency room and the dental service.

  16. Cálculo del Costo Comparativo de la Obtención de Concentrados de Boratos / Comparative Cost Calculation in the Obtaining of Borate Concentrates

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Horacio R, Flores; María de los Á, Tinte.

    Full Text Available Este trabajo muestra la similitud existente entre los diagramas de flujo, balances de materia y equipos empleados en la concentración de boratos para obtener refinados y boratos de alto valor agregado. Se usa una planilla de cálculo para determinar el costo de producción para distintas condiciones d [...] e operación, a fin de determinar la oportunidad y conveniencia de cambiar el producto final, empleando la misma planta productora. Se analiza un caso particular que compara la producción de 10 tn/hr de concentrado de ulexita o de hidroboracita. Se obtiene un costo de producción por tonelada de B2O3 de 94.3 US dólares para la concentración de ulexita, que se reduce a 67.5 US dólares para la concentración de hidroboracita. Se concluye que el método propuesto es una herramienta que facilita el análisis económico del proceso productivo estudiado. Abstract in english This paper presents the similitude found between flow sheets, material balances and equipments employed in the concentration of borates, to obtain base refined borates and to obtain high added value borates. Spread sheet calculations are used to determine the production costs for different operating [...] conditions and to analyze the opportunity and convenience of changing the final product, using the same process plant. A study case is considered in which 10 tn/hr of ulexite concentrate or the same amount of hydroboracite are produced. The cost per ton of B2O3 was 94.3 US dollars for the concentrated ulexite and 67.5 US dollars for concentrated hydroboracite. It is concluded that the proposed method is an useful tool for the economic analysis of the productive process considered in this study.

  17. COST- BENEFIT ANALYSIS OF A SINGLE-UNIT SYSTEM SUBJECT TO RANDOM SHOCKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.K. Chhillar

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study is to carry out co st-benefit analysis of a single-unit system subject to random shocks. The operative unit may be affected by the impact of random shocks with some probabilities. The unit may fail c ompletely due to the reasons other than shocks. There is a single server who visits the sys tem immediately. The maintenance of the unit is carried out by the server if it is affected by t he impact of a shock. However, repair of the unit i s done at its failure. Maintenance and repair are per fect. All the random variables are statistically independent. The shock and failure times of the uni t are exponentially distributed whereas distributions of maintenance and repair times are t aken as arbitrary. The expressions for various reliability measures are evaluated in steady state using semi-Markov process and regenerative point technique. The values of MTSF, availability a nd profit functions are obtained for a particular case to depict their graphical behavior with respect to shock rate.

  18. International trade and air pollution: estimating the economic costs of air emissions from waterborne commerce vessels in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Kevin P

    2005-10-01

    Although there is a burgeoning literature on the effects of international trade on the environment, relatively little work has been done on where trade most directly effects the environment: the transportation sector. This article shows how international trade is affecting air pollution emissions in the United States' shipping sector. Recent work has shown that cargo ships have been long overlooked regarding their contribution to air pollution. Indeed, ship emissions have recently been deemed "the last unregulated source of traditional air pollutants". Air pollution from ships has a number of significant local, national, and global environmental effects. Building on past studies, we examine the economic costs of this increasing and unregulated form of environmental damage. We find that total emissions from ships are largely increasing due to the increase in foreign commerce (or international trade). The economic costs of SO2 pollution range from dollars 697 million to dollars 3.9 billion during the period examined, or dollars 77 to dollars 435 million on an annual basis. The bulk of the cost is from foreign commerce, where the annual costs average to dollars 42 to dollars 241 million. For NOx emissions the costs are dollars 3.7 billion over the entire period or dollars 412 million per year. Because foreign trade is driving the growth in US shipping, we also estimate the effect of the Uruguay Round on emissions. Separating out the effects of global trade agreements reveals that the trade agreement-led emissions amounted to dollars 96 to dollars 542 million for SO2 between 1993 and 2001, or dollars 10 to dollars 60 million per year. For NOx they were dollars 745 million for the whole period or dollars 82 million per year. Without adequate policy responses, we predict that these trends and costs will continue into the future. PMID:15992989

  19. Formulas for estimating the costs averted by sexually transmitted infection (STI prevention programs in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koski Kathryn

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sexually transmitted infection (STI prevention programs can mitigate the health and economic burden of STIs. A tool to estimate the economic benefits of STI programs could prove useful to STI program personnel. Methods We developed formulas that can be applied to estimate the direct medical costs and indirect costs (lost productivity averted by STI programs in the United States. Costs and probabilities for these formulas were based primarily on published studies. Results We present a series of formulas that can be used to estimate the economic benefits of STI prevention (in 2006 US dollars, using data routinely collected by STI programs. For example, the averted sequelae costs associated with treating women for chlamydia is given as (Cw(0.16(0.925(0.70($1,995, where Cw is the number of infected women treated for chlamydia, 0.16 is the absolute reduction in the probability of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID as a result of treatment, 0.925 is an adjustment factor to prevent double-counting of PID averted in women with both chlamydia and gonorrhea, 0.70 is an adjustment factor to account for the possibility of re-infection, and $1,995 is the average cost per case of PID, based on published sources. Conclusion The formulas developed in this study can be a useful tool for STI program personnel to generate evidence-based estimates of the economic impact of their program and can facilitate the assessment of the cost-effectiveness of their activities.

  20. Water use for electricity in the United States: an analysis of reported and calculated water use information for 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Water use by the electricity sector represents a significant portion of the United States water budget (41% of total freshwater withdrawals; 3% consumed). Sustainable management of water resources necessitates an accurate accounting of all water demands, including water use for generation of electricity. Since 1985, the Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Information Administration (EIA) has collected self-reported data on water consumption and withdrawals from individual power generators. These data represent the only annual collection of water consumption and withdrawals by the electricity sector. Here, we compile publically available information into a comprehensive database and then calculate water withdrawals and consumptive use for power plants in the US. In effect, we evaluate the quality of water use data reported by EIA for the year 2008. Significant differences between reported and calculated water data are evident, yet no consistent reason for the discrepancies emerges. (letter)

  1. CRC DEPLETION CALCULATIONS FOR THE NON-RODDED ASSEMBLIES IN BATCHES 4 AND 5 OF CRYSTAL RIVER UNIT 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this design analysis is to document the SAS2H depletion calculations of certain non-rodded fuel assemblies from batches 4 and 5 of the Crystal River Unit 3 pressurized water reactor (PWR) that are required for commercial Reactor Critical (CRC) evaluations to support the development of the disposal criticality methodology. A non-rodded assembly is one which never contains a control rod assembly (CRA) or an axial power shaping rod assembly (APSRA) during its irradiation history. The objective of this analysis is to provide SAS2H generated isotopic compositions for each fuel assembly's depleted fuel and depleted burnable poison materials. These SAS2H generated isotopic compositions are acceptable for use in CRC benchmark reactivity calculations containing the various fuel assemblies

  2. Assessment of the direct medical costs of diabetes mellitus and its complications in the United Arab Emirates

    OpenAIRE

    Nagelkerke Nicholas; El-Sadig Mohammed; Al-Maskari Fatma

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a major health problem in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and is well recognized as a major and increasing burden to the country's resources due to its severe, long term debilitating effects on individuals, families and the society at large. The aim of the study was to estimate the direct annual treatment costs of DM and its related complications among patients in Al-Ain city, UAE. Methods A sample of 150 DM patients were enrolled during 2004-2005,...

  3. Coverage Range and Cost Comparison of Remote Antenna Unit Designs for In-building Radio over Fiber Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razali Ngah

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Future communication needs to be ubiquitous, broadband, convergent, and seamless. Radio over fiber (RoF technology is one of the most important enabler in access network for the technologies. Adoption of RoF faces bottleneck in optoelectronics, that they are still expensive, high power consumption, and limited in bandwidth. To solve the problem, transceiver in remote antenna unit (RAU is developed, i.e. electroabsorption transceiver (EAT and asymmetric Fabry-Perot modulator (AFPM. This paper compares their coverage range and cost in providing WCDMA and WLAN services. Needed gain of RF amplifier for supporting picocell is also discussed.

  4. Effect of PACS/CR on cost of care and length of stay in a medical intensive care unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlotz, Curtis P.; Kundel, Harold L.; Brikman, Inna; Pratt, Hugh M.; Redfern, Regina O.; Horii, Steven C.; Schwartz, J. Sanford

    1996-05-01

    Our purpose was to determine the economic effects associated with the introduction of PACS and computed radiology (CR) in a medical intensive care unit (MICU). Clinical and financial data were collected over a period of 6 months, both before and after the introduction of PACS/CR in our medical intensive care unit. Administrative claims data resulting from the MICU stay of each patient enrolled in our study were transferred online to our research database from the administrative databases of our hospital and its affiliated clinical practices. These data included all charge entries, sociodemographic data, admissions/discharge/transfer chronologies, ICD9 diagnostic and procedure codes, and diagnostic related groups. APACHE III scores and other case mix adjusters were computed from the diagnostic codes, and from the contemporaneous medical record. Departmental charge to cost ratios and the Medicare Resource-Based Relative Value Scale fee schedule were used to estimate costs from hospital and professional charges. Data were analyzed using both the patient and the exam as the unit of analysis. Univariate analyses by patient show that patients enrolled during the PACS periods were similar to those enrolled during the Film periods in age, sex, APACHE III score, and other measures of case mix. No significant differences in unadjusted median length of stay between the two Film and two PACS periods were detected. Likewise, no significant differences in unadjusted total hospital and professional costs were found between the Film and PACS periods. In our univariate analyses by exam, we focused on the subgroup of exams that had triggered primary clinical actions in any period. Those action-triggering exams were divided into two groups according to whether the referring clinician elected to obtain imaging results from the workstation or from the usual channels. Patients whose imaging results were obtain from the workstation had significantly lower professional costs in the 7 days following the action-triggering exam compared with patients whose exam information was obtained through the usual channels. No significant differences in patient age or APACHE score were noted between these two groups. Our preliminary results show possible evidence of a reduction in unadjusted cost of care for the subgroup of patients whose action-triggering exams were first encountered on the PACS workstation. Whether these results represent clinicians' differential workstation utilization patterns or true effects of PACS/CR will be determined by further data analysis, including case mix adjustment, subgroup analysis, and multivariate modeling.

  5. Working with Electron Microprobe Data from a High Pressure Experiment - Calculating Mineral Formulas, Unit Cell Content, and Geothermometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandon Schwab

    This exercise provides students the opportunity to work with real microprobe data to perform a series of common calculations. It also provides a brief glimpse into a high-pressure experiment. (I hope to expand this opportunity in the future via web activities...stay tuned.) The exercise can be used as a laboratory activity or a problem set. It is ideally suited for the use of a spreadsheet like Excel, but can be completed by hand. This is a great opportunity for students who are unfamiliar with spreadsheets to get their feet wet. For me, trial by fire is the best way to learn a new software program. The exercise could be used in any undergraduate petrology or mineralogy course and assumes only a general background in mineral chemistry. The goals are for students to: 1) work with real data from an experiment, 2) learn/remind themselves of the relationship between chemistry and crystal structure as displayed in mineral formula, 3) use a geothermometer to see how phase equilibria can be used to decipher physical properties of rocks. The exercises include: - Mineral formula recalculation - Unit cell content calculation - Calculating end-member percentage - Plotting data on a ternary plot - Geothermometer calculation The exercise could easily be modified to include other "pet" analyses or questions.

  6. Calculation of resonance reaction rates for the Ghana Research Reactor-1 fuel lattice unit cell using the WIMS lattice code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resonance reaction rates for different nuclear reactions (absorption, fission, fission yield) have been calculated at room temperature(2930 K) for six different resonance absorbers or isotopes U234,U235,U238, Pu239, Pu240 and Pu241 of the fuel lattices cell of the Ghana Research Reactor-1 facility using WIMSPC, the PC version of the versatile WIMSD/4 transport lattice code written in FORTRAN and designed for performing reactor physics lattice cell calculations. The calculations were performed in the full 69-energy group library structure of the WIMS code and presented in a condensed 4-energy few group structure. The Ludwig Boltzmann multigroup neutron transport equation was solved for this exercise using the discrete ordinate spatial model (DSN) which provides solution to the differential form of the transport equation by the Carlson-Sn. The reaction rates were computed for all the different lattice cell materials in the five-region fuel lattice cell and also for the sixty-five lattice mesh points selected for the unit cell analysis. The corresponding actual events or nuclear reactions occurring in each cell material have also been calculated for each resonance absorber (author)

  7. Monitor unit calculations for external photon and electron beams: Report of the AAPM Therapy Physics Committee Task Group No. 71

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A protocol is presented for the calculation of monitor units (MU) for photon and electron beams, delivered with and without beam modifiers, for constant source-surface distance (SSD) and source-axis distance (SAD) setups. This protocol was written by Task Group 71 of the Therapy Physics Committee of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) and has been formally approved by the AAPM for clinical use. The protocol defines the nomenclature for the dosimetric quantities used in these calculations, along with instructions for their determination and measurement. Calculations are made using the dose per MU under normalization conditions, D0?, that is determined for each user's photon and electron beams. For electron beams, the depth of normalization is taken to be the depth of maximum dose along the central axis for the same field incident on a water phantom at the same SSD, where D0? = 1 cGy/MU. For photon beams, this task group recommends that a normalization depth of 10 cm be selected, where an energy-dependent D0? ? 1 cGy/MU is required. This recommendation differs from the more common approach of a normalization depth of dm, with D0? = 1 cGy/MU, although both systems are acceptable within the current protocol. For photon beams, the formalism includes the use of blocked fields, physical or dynamic wedges, and (static) multileaf collimation. No formalism is provided for intensity modulated radiation therapy calculations, although some general considerations and a review of current calculation techniques are included. For electron beams, the formalism provides for calculations at the standard and extended SSDs using either an effective SSD or an air-gap correction factor. Example tables and problems are included to illustrate the basic concepts within the presented formalism

  8. Monitor unit calculations for external photon and electron beams: Report of the AAPM Therapy Physics Committee Task Group No. 71

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibbons, John P., E-mail: john.gibbons@marybird.com [Department of Physics, Mary Bird Perkins Cancer Center, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70809 (United States); Antolak, John A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota 55905 (United States); Followill, David S. [Department of Radiation Physics, UT M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Huq, M. Saiful [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15232 (United States); Klein, Eric E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri 63110 (United States); Lam, Kwok L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Palta, Jatinder R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23298 (United States); Roback, Donald M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Centers of North Carolina, Raleigh, North Carolina 27607 (United States); Reid, Mark [Department of Medical Physics, Fletcher-Allen Health Care, Burlington, Vermont 05401 (United States); Khan, Faiz M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States)

    2014-03-15

    A protocol is presented for the calculation of monitor units (MU) for photon and electron beams, delivered with and without beam modifiers, for constant source-surface distance (SSD) and source-axis distance (SAD) setups. This protocol was written by Task Group 71 of the Therapy Physics Committee of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) and has been formally approved by the AAPM for clinical use. The protocol defines the nomenclature for the dosimetric quantities used in these calculations, along with instructions for their determination and measurement. Calculations are made using the dose per MU under normalization conditions, D{sub 0}{sup ?}, that is determined for each user's photon and electron beams. For electron beams, the depth of normalization is taken to be the depth of maximum dose along the central axis for the same field incident on a water phantom at the same SSD, where D{sub 0}{sup ?} = 1 cGy/MU. For photon beams, this task group recommends that a normalization depth of 10 cm be selected, where an energy-dependent D{sub 0}{sup ?} ? 1 cGy/MU is required. This recommendation differs from the more common approach of a normalization depth of d{sub m}, with D{sub 0}{sup ?} = 1 cGy/MU, although both systems are acceptable within the current protocol. For photon beams, the formalism includes the use of blocked fields, physical or dynamic wedges, and (static) multileaf collimation. No formalism is provided for intensity modulated radiation therapy calculations, although some general considerations and a review of current calculation techniques are included. For electron beams, the formalism provides for calculations at the standard and extended SSDs using either an effective SSD or an air-gap correction factor. Example tables and problems are included to illustrate the basic concepts within the presented formalism.

  9. 77 FR 123 - Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; North Hollywood Operable Unit of the San...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-03

    ...Unit of the San Fernando Valley Area 1 Superfund Site, and EPA Docket No. 9-2011-0015 and should be addressed to Michael Massey, EPA Region 9, 75 Hawthorne Street, Mail Stop ORC-3, San Francisco, CA 94105. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT:...

  10. 76 FR 79678 - Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; North Hollywood Operable Unit of the San...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-22

    ...Unit of the San Fernando Valley Area 1 Superfund Site, and EPA Docket No. 9-2011-0019 and should be addressed to Michael Massey, EPA Region 9, 75 Hawthorne Street, Mail Stop ORC-3, San Francisco, CA 94105. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT:...

  11. 76 FR 77528 - Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; North Hollywood Operable Unit of the San...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-13

    ...Unit of the San Fernando Valley Area 1 Superfund Site, and EPA Docket No. 9-2011-0019 and should be addressed to Michael Massey, EPA Region 9, 75 Hawthorne Street, Mail Stop ORC-3, San Francisco, CA 94105. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT:...

  12. Accelerating Electrostatic Surface Potential Calculation with Multiscale Approximation on Graphics Processing Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anandakrishnan, Ramu; Scogland, Tom R. W.; Fenley, Andrew T.; Gordon, John C.; Feng, Wu-chun; Onufriev, Alexey V.

    2010-01-01

    Tools that compute and visualize biomolecular electrostatic surface potential have been used extensively for studying biomolecular function. However, determining the surface potential for large biomolecules on a typical desktop computer can take days or longer using currently available tools and methods. Two commonly used techniques to speed up these types of electrostatic computations are approximations based on multi-scale coarse-graining and parallelization across multiple processors. This paper demonstrates that for the computation of electrostatic surface potential, these two techniques can be combined to deliver significantly greater speed-up than either one separately, something that is in general not always possible. Specifically, the electrostatic potential computation, using an analytical linearized Poisson Boltzmann (ALPB) method, is approximated using the hierarchical charge partitioning (HCP) multiscale method, and parallelized on an ATI Radeon 4870 graphical processing unit (GPU). The implementation delivers a combined 934-fold speed-up for a 476,040 atom viral capsid, compared to an equivalent non-parallel implementation on an Intel E6550 CPU without the approximation. This speed-up is significantly greater than the 42-fold speed-up for the HCP approximation alone or the 182-fold speed-up for the GPU alone. PMID:20452792

  13. Evaluation of plug-in electric vehicles impact on cost-based unit commitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talebizadeh, Ehsan; Rashidinejad, Masoud; Abdollahi, Amir

    2014-02-01

    Incorporating plug in electric vehicles (PEVs) to power systems may address both additional demand as well as mobile storage to support electric grid spatially. Better utilization of such potential depends on the optimal scheduling of charging and discharging PEVs. Charging management malfunction of PEVs may increase the peak load which leads to additional generation. Therefore, charging and discharging of PEVs must be scheduled intelligently to prevent overloading of the network at peak hours, take advantages of off peak charging benefits and delaying any load shedding. A charging and discharging schedule of PEVs with respect to load curve variations is proposed in this paper. The proposed methodology incorporates integrated PEVs; the so-called parking lots; into the unit commitment problem. An IEEE 10-unit test system is employed to investigate the impacts of PEVs on generation scheduling. The results obtained from simulation analysis show a significant techno-economic saving.

  14. Antibiotic surveillance on a paediatric intensive care unit: easy attainable strategy at low costs and resources

    OpenAIRE

    Stocker Martin; Ferrao Eduardo; Banya Winston; Cheong Jamie; Macrae Duncan; Furck Anke

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Antibiotic surveillance is mandatory to optimise antibiotic therapy. Our objectives were to evaluate antibiotic use in our pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) and to implement a simple achievable intervention aimed at improving antibiotic therapy. Method Prospective, 3 months surveillance of antibiotic use on PICU (phase I) and evaluation according to the CDC 12-step campaign with development of an attainable intervention. 3 months surveillance (phase II) after implementa...

  15. Management of acute kidney injury in the intensive care unit: a cost-effectiveness analysis of daily vs alternative-day hemodialysis

    OpenAIRE

    Desai, Amar A.; Baras, Jacqueline; Berk, Benjamin B.; Nakajima, Aya; Garber, Alan M; Owens, Douglas; CHERTOW, GLENN M.

    2008-01-01

    Background Although evidence suggests that a higher hemodialysis dose and/or frequency may be associated with improved outcomes, the cost-effectiveness of a daily hemodialysis strategy for critically ill patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) is unknown. Methods We developed a Markov model of the cost, quality of life, survival, and incremental cost-effectiveness of daily hemodialysis, compared with alternate-day hemodialysis, for patients with AKI in the intensive care unit (ICU). We ...

  16. Monte Carlo calculated output factors of a Leksell Gamma Knife unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Leksell Gamma Knife is a standard radiosurgical tool for treating brain lesions by directing beams of gamma radiation to a specific region. The diameter of the gamma beams is confined by collimator systems and available collimator sizes are 4, 8, 14 and 18 mm. The reduction in dose rate for each collimator helmet is called the output factor (OPF). Experimental determination of OPFs is difficult due to the extremely narrow beams for which the dose is determined. In the present work, the PRESTA version of the EGS4 Monte Carlo code was used to obtain relative OPFs for the Leksell Gamma Knife for collimator sizes of 14, 8 and 4 mm (relative to that of the 18 mm collimator). A spherical probe with a radius of 1 mm was utilized in this computer experiment. Our Monte Carlo results gave OPFs of 0.974, 0.951 and 0.872 for the 14 mm, 8 mm and 4 mm collimators respectively, relative to the 18 mm collimator. Our calculated OPF for the 4 mm collimator helmet was more than 8% higher than the value currently used, but in good agreement with the average of experimental values obtained by various Gamma Knife centres throughout the world and with the value now recommended by the manufacturer, Elekta (Elekta Instrument AB, Skeppargatan 8, S-114 52 Stockholm, Sweden). (author)

  17. Efficiency in the United States electric industry: Transaction costs, deregulation, and governance structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Carl

    Transaction costs economics (TCE) posits that firms have an incentive to bypass the market mechanisms in situations where the cost of using the market is prohibitive. Vertical integration, among other governance mechanisms, can be used to minimize the transactions costs associated with the market mechanism. The study analyses different governance mechanisms, which range from complete vertical integration to the use of market mechanisms, for firms in the US electric sector. This sector has undergone tremendous change in the past decade including the introduction of retail competition in some jurisdictions. As a result of the push toward deregulation of the industry, vertically integration, while still significant in the sector, has steadily been replaced by alternative governance structures. Using a sample of 136 investor-owned electric utilities that reported data the US Federal Energy Regulatory Commission between 1996 and 2002, this study estimates firm level efficiency using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) and relates these estimates to governance structure and public policies. The analysis finds that vertical integration is positively related to firm efficiency, although in a non-linear fashion suggesting that hybrid governance structures tend to be associated with lower efficiency scores. In addition, while some evidence is found for negative short-term effects on firm efficiency from the choice to deregulate, this result is sensitive to DEA model choice. Further, competition in retail markets is found to be positively related to firm level efficiency, but the retreat from deregulation, which occurred after 2000, is negatively associated with firm-level efficiency. These results are important in the ongoing academic and public policy debates concerning deregulation of the electric section and indicate that vertical economies remain in the industry, but that competition has provided incentives for improving firm level efficiency.

  18. Unit Sizing and Cost Analysis of Renewable Energy based Hybrid Power Generation System - A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Nitin AGARWAL; Kumar, Anoop; Varun GOEL

    2014-01-01

    A simulation model is developed for optimal sizing and analysis of a PV-diesel-battery based hybrid power generation system with the objectives to minimize life cycle cost and CO2 emission, while maintaining the desired system autonomy. A case study of a boy’s hostel in Moradabad district is taken for analysis purposes. It has 91 rooms with a capacity of 3 boys in each room. The decision variables included in the optimization methodology are total PV area, number of PV modules of 600 Wp, dies...

  19. Cost estimating methodology and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Economic Modeling Working Group (EMWG) was created by Generation IV International Forum (GIF) early in 2003. The Group was charged with developing a simplified cost estimating methodology appropriate for Generation IV systems in various stages of development. The Cost Estimating Methodology consists of (1) the Generation IV Cost Estimating Guidelines and (2) a software package, G4-ECONS, to facilitate the implementation of the Guidelines. The Guidelines provide detailed processes for developing the total capital investment cost and calculating the leveled unit electric cost. The central feature of the methodology is the comprehensive Code of Accounts. The Code of Accounts provides a disciplined structure for capturing and categorizing all appropriate costs in the development of consistent system cost estimates. To facilitate implementation of the Cost Estimating Guidelines, the EMWG developed an EXCEL based spread-sheet package, G4-ECONS. The software package facilitates the input of total capital cost at a high level to prevent the inadvertent disclosure of proprietary data. Leveled unit electric cost is also calculated. The methodology, particularly the G4-ECONS software, compared well with published results. The leveled cost of electricity calculated by G4-ECONS was within 1% of the published figure. (A.C.)

  20. Cálculo de los costos de calidad en la Unidad Empresarial de Base Producciones Varias, Cienfuegos / Costing of quality in Business Base Unit Several Productions, Cienfuegos

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Elizabeth, Gómez Alfonso.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available El cálculo de los costos de calidad como elemento integrante del Sistema de Gestión de la Calidad, es una necesidad para los directivos de las empresas cubanas, al constituir una técnica identificada como instrumento avanzado de gestión, que permitirá mejorar la competitividad y servir de fuente inf [...] ormativa. Identificar y calcular los costos de calidad, así como proponer planes de medidas, que propicien una disminución de los gastos operativos, lo cual puede ser utilizado como herramienta para mejorar los procesos. La Unidad Empresarial de Base Producciones Varias de Cienfuegos presenta el diagnóstico para dar paso al Perfeccionamiento Empresarial y a la certificación de su Sistema de Gestión de la Calidad, según la Norma NC-ISO 9001:2008 y el decreto Ley 281, por lo que el objetivo de la investigación fue calcular los costos de calidad por procesos en dicha empresa. Para lograrlo se utilizaron métodos de nivel empírico y técnicas como la observación directa, revisión documental y el trabajo en grupos, lo cual permitió calcular los costos de calidad en todos los procesos. Los resultados alcanzados son aplicables a empresas que operan en la economía cubana y según el modelo económico cubano puesto en práctica a partir del año 2011. Abstract in english The calculation of quality costs as a component of the System of Quality Management, is a must for Cuban business managers, to provide a technique identified as an advanced instrument of management, which will lead to improved competitiveness and serve as an informative source. Identify and calculat [...] e the costs of quality, as well as propose measured plans, to promote a decrease in operating expenses, which can be used as a tool to improve processes. The Business Unit of Several Base Productions of Cienfuegos presents the fault to give way to Business Improvement and certification of its Quality Management System, according to the norm ISO 9001:2008 and the decree law 281, so that the objective research was to estimate the costs of quality processes in the company. To achieve this level were used empirical methods and techniques such as direct observation, document review and work in groups, which allowed to calculate the costs of quality in all processes. The results obtained are applicable to companies that operate in the Cuban economy and according to the Cuban economic model implemented from the year 2011.

  1. Estudo comparativo envolvendo três métodos de cálculo de custo operacional do caminhão bitrem Comparative study of three methods for calculating operational cost of Bitrem truck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Carlos de Freitas

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho trata do estudo comparativo de três metodologias utilizadas para o cálculo do custo operacional de veículos de transporte florestal, a saber: FAO - América do Norte, FAO/ECE/KWF e Battistella/Scânia. Para tanto, considerou-se um caminhão bitrem, um dos mais utilizados no transporte de carga florestal no Brasil. Nos dois primeiros métodos, o custo foi calculado por hora efetiva de trabalho (he, sendo no último calculado por quilômetro (km, em que se utilizou um fator para converter o custo de km em custo por hora efetiva de trabalho (he. O custo operacional, no método FAO - América do Norte e FAO/ECE/KWF foi dado pelo somatório dos seguintes custos: de maquinário (custos fixos e variáveis, administrativo (custo de administração e de pessoal (custo de mão-de-obra. No método Battistella/Scânia, esse custo foi resultante do somatório dos custos de maquinário e administrativo. O método FAO - América do Norte foi o mais expressivo em termos de custo operacional (US$ 50,47/he, sendo o mais indicado no caso em estudo, em razão, principalmente, da grande aproximação em relação ao custo real. O custo de maquinário representou mais de 85% do custo total em todas as metodologias, destacando-se o custo variável devido ao alto custo do combustível. Observou-se que o custo operacional apresentou valores distintos, uma vez que nesses métodos se utilizam fórmulas diferenciadas num mesmo custo.The present work deals with the comparative study of three methodologies used for calculating the operational cost of forest transport vehicles such as: FAO - North America; FAO/ECE/KWF e Battistella /Scânia. For this the, Bitrem truck was considered as it is one of the most used for forest load transport in Brazil. The two first methods had the operational cost calculated per effective hour of work (eh, and the latter had the cost calculated per kilometer (km. Thus, for this method, a factor to convert kilometer cost to cost per effective hours of work (eh was used. The operational cost, for FAO - North America and FAO/ECE/KWF, was obtained by the sum of the following costs: machine (fixed and variable costs; administrative (administration cost and worker (workmanship hand cost. For the Battistella/Scânia method, the operacional cost was obtained by the sum of machine and administrative costs. The FAO method - North America was the most expressive in terms of operational cost (USS 50,47/he. This method was the most indicated for the case in study, due mainly to the large approximation in relation to the real cost. The machine costs represented more than 85% of the total cost in all methodologies, with the variable cost standing out, due the high fuel cost. The operational costs presented distinct values, probably due to the fact that these methods present different formulas for the same cost.

  2. Estudo comparativo envolvendo três métodos de cálculo de custo operacional do caminhão bitrem / Comparative study of three methods for calculating operational cost of Bitrem truck

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luís Carlos de, Freitas; Gláucio Marcelino, Marques; Márcio Lopes da, Silva; Raiane Ribeiro, Machado; Carlos Cardoso, Machado.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho trata do estudo comparativo de três metodologias utilizadas para o cálculo do custo operacional de veículos de transporte florestal, a saber: FAO - América do Norte, FAO/ECE/KWF e Battistella/Scânia. Para tanto, considerou-se um caminhão bitrem, um dos mais utilizados no transpor [...] te de carga florestal no Brasil. Nos dois primeiros métodos, o custo foi calculado por hora efetiva de trabalho (he), sendo no último calculado por quilômetro (km), em que se utilizou um fator para converter o custo de km em custo por hora efetiva de trabalho (he). O custo operacional, no método FAO - América do Norte e FAO/ECE/KWF foi dado pelo somatório dos seguintes custos: de maquinário (custos fixos e variáveis), administrativo (custo de administração) e de pessoal (custo de mão-de-obra). No método Battistella/Scânia, esse custo foi resultante do somatório dos custos de maquinário e administrativo. O método FAO - América do Norte foi o mais expressivo em termos de custo operacional (US$ 50,47/he), sendo o mais indicado no caso em estudo, em razão, principalmente, da grande aproximação em relação ao custo real. O custo de maquinário representou mais de 85% do custo total em todas as metodologias, destacando-se o custo variável devido ao alto custo do combustível. Observou-se que o custo operacional apresentou valores distintos, uma vez que nesses métodos se utilizam fórmulas diferenciadas num mesmo custo. Abstract in english The present work deals with the comparative study of three methodologies used for calculating the operational cost of forest transport vehicles such as: FAO - North America; FAO/ECE/KWF e Battistella /Scânia. For this the, Bitrem truck was considered as it is one of the most used for forest load tra [...] nsport in Brazil. The two first methods had the operational cost calculated per effective hour of work (eh), and the latter had the cost calculated per kilometer (km). Thus, for this method, a factor to convert kilometer cost to cost per effective hours of work (eh) was used. The operational cost, for FAO - North America and FAO/ECE/KWF, was obtained by the sum of the following costs: machine (fixed and variable costs); administrative (administration cost) and worker (workmanship hand cost). For the Battistella/Scânia method, the operacional cost was obtained by the sum of machine and administrative costs. The FAO method - North America was the most expressive in terms of operational cost (USS 50,47/he). This method was the most indicated for the case in study, due mainly to the large approximation in relation to the real cost. The machine costs represented more than 85% of the total cost in all methodologies, with the variable cost standing out, due the high fuel cost. The operational costs presented distinct values, probably due to the fact that these methods present different formulas for the same cost.

  3. Mapping water availability, projected use and cost in the western United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vincent C. Tidwell; Barbara D. Moreland; Katie M. Zemlick; Barry L. Roberts; Howard D. Passell; Daniel Jensen; Christopher Forsgren; Gerald Sehlke; Margaret A. Cook; Carey W. King

    2014-06-01

    New demands for water can be satisfied through a variety of source options. In some basins surface and/or groundwater may be available through permitting with the state water management agency (termed unappropriated water), alternatively water might be purchased and transferred out of its current use to another (termed appropriated water), or non-traditional water sources can be captured and treated (e.g., wastewater). The relative availability and cost of each source are key factors in the development decision. Unfortunately, these measures are location dependent with no consistent or comparable set of data available for evaluating competing water sources. With the help of western water managers, water availability was mapped for over 1200 watersheds throughout the western US. Five water sources were individually examined, including unappropriated surface water, unappropriated groundwater, appropriated water, municipal wastewater and brackish groundwater. Also mapped was projected change in consumptive water use from 2010 to 2030. Associated costs to acquire, convey and treat the water, as necessary, for each of the five sources were estimated. These metrics were developed to support regional water planning and policy analysis with initial application to electric transmission planning in the western US.

  4. Cost and benefit including value of life, health and environmental damage measured in time units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager; Friis-Hansen, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Key elements of the authors' work on money equivalent time allocation to costs and benefits in risk analysis are put together as an entity. This includes the data supported dimensionless analysis of an equilibrium relation between total population work time and gross domestic product leading to the definition of the life quality time allocation index (LQTAI). On the basis of a postulate of invariance of the LQTAI, a rule is obtained for allocating societal value in terms of time to avoid life shortening fatalities as well as serious injuries that shorten the life in good health. The excess of this societal value over the actual costs, used by the owner for economically optimizing an activity, motivates a simple risk accept criterion suited to be imposed on the owner by the public. An illustration is given concerning allocation of economical means for mitigation of loss of life and health on a ferry in fire. Finally a definition is suggested for a nature preservation willingness index, which by an invariance postulate leads to a rational format for allocating means to avoid pollution accidents.

  5. Análisis de las obligaciones en materia de cálculo de costes en las administraciones públicas españolas / Analysis of Obligations Regarding Cost Calculation in Spanish Public Administrations / Análise das obrigações em matéria de cálculo de custos nas administrações públicas espanholas

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    María Beatriz, González-Sánchez; Ernesto, López-Valeiras Sampedro; Jacobo, Gómez-Conde; Estefanía, Rodríguez-González.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho é rever as tentativas legisladoras destinadas a estabelecer obrigatoriedade no custeio das administrações públicas. Apesar dos múltiplos esforços normativos, a aplicação da contabilidade de custos não é generalizada no campo do setor público, pois bem poucas instituições de [...] terminam seus custos. Na atualidade, está se produzindo grande impulso na aplicação desta ferramenta, devido à exigência de apresentar um resumo dos custos na memória das entidades do setor público administrativo. Abstract in spanish El objetivo de este trabajo es realizar una revisión de los intentos legisladores encaminados a establecer la obligatoriedad del cálculo de costes en las administraciones públicas. A pesar de los múltiples esfuerzos normativos, la aplicación de la contabilidad de costes no se ha generalizado en el á [...] mbito del sector público, pues muy pocas instituciones determinan sus costes. En la actualidad, se está produciendo un gran impulso en la aplicación de esta herramienta, debido a la exigencia de presentar un resumen de costes en la memoria de las entidades pertenecientes al sector público administrativo. Abstract in english The aim of this paper is to review the regulation attempts aimed at making cost calculation compulsory in public administrations. Despite many policy efforts, the application of cost accounting is not widespread in the public sector, for very few institutions determine their costs. Nowadays there is [...] a big boost for the application of this tool, due to the requirement to present a summary of costs in the memory of the entities belonging to the public administration sector.

  6. ¿Cómo calcular los Costos Medioambientales?: Caso: Empresa Gráfica de Cienfuegos / How to Calculate the Environmental Costs?: Case Company Grafica Cienfuegos

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Keitel, Becerra; Elizabeth, Gómez; Grisel, Pérez; Reynier, Reyes.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El mundo necesita urgentemente que se proteja el medio ambiente, muchas empresas y organizaciones destinan grandes recursos para lograr ese fin y lograr un Desarrollo Sostenible como máxima a alcanzar por cualquier país u organización. Se hace entonces imprescindible determinar cuánto le dedican las [...] Empresas al medio ambiente, teniendo en cuenta que las Entidades tienen un contrato implícito con la sociedad y el medio, producto de los recursos que utiliza y los desechos y desperdicios que vierte, es por eso que se necesitan calcular y registrar los costos medioambientales por productos, para enriquecer la gestión medioambiental de la entidad y favorecer de esta manera una excelente toma de decisiones. La siguiente investigación busca un procedimiento que permita dar solución a esta problemática, logrando su conformación con el uso de diversas técnicas dentro de las que se destacan las listas de chequeos medioambientales y el ciclo de vida del producto, que permite además poder conocer por separado como cada proceso y producto impacta en el medioambiente. Abstract in english The world urgently needs to protect the environment, many companies and organizations devote huge resources to reach that goal and achieve sustainable development as the highest standard of achievement for any country or organization. It then becomes imperative to determine how much the companies sp [...] end on the environment, taking into account that the Entities have an implicit contract with society and the environment, the product of the resources used and waste and waste pouring, which is why one needs to calculate and record the environmental costs of products to enhance the environmental management of the entity and thus promote an excellent decision-making. The following research seeks a procedure which allows solving this problem, making its composition with the use of various techniques within which highlights the environmental checklists and product life cycle, which also allows knowing separately as each process and product impacts the environment.

  7. Low-cost accelerograph units as earthquake alert devices for Mexico City: how well would they work?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Valdés

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Recently, low-cost accelerograph units have been proposed as earthquake alert devices for Mexico City. These units would trigger when the acceleration reaches a pre-established level, presumably 4 gal. For significant earthquakes, this would occur during P wave or in the early part of its coda. We test the performance of such a unit on accelerograms recorded in the period 1985 - 2008 at SCT and CDAO, two lake-bed sites in Mexico City. As expected, the alert time (the time of arrival of intense ground motion minus the trigger time, TA, for regional earthquakes is found to increase with the PGA. TA of the recorded accelerograms (with PGA > 4 gal ranges between about -20 and 45 sec; the largest values of TA correspond to the 1985 Michoacan earthquake. With some exceptions, TA is greater than ~15 sec for earthquakes which produced PGA > 20 gal. The device may be useful in mitigating injuries and loss of lives if an alert time of 15 to 45 sec is sufficient to put in to effect pre-established safety measures. This may be practical for one- to three-storey public school buildings. The device would be useful for shutting critical facilities before the arrival of large- amplitude ground motion.

  8. The Scales of Time, Length, Mass, Energy, and Other Fundamental Physical Quantities in the Atomic World and the Use of Atomic Units in Quantum Mechanical Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Boon K.; Li, Wai-Kee

    2011-01-01

    This article is divided into two parts. In the first part, the atomic unit (au) system is introduced and the scales of time, space (length), and speed, as well as those of mass and energy, in the atomic world are discussed. In the second part, the utility of atomic units in quantum mechanical and spectroscopic calculations is illustrated with…

  9. The role of cost accounting in the university performance measurement in Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Marques, Maria Da Conceic?a?o Da Costa

    2010-01-01

    Cost accounting is aimed at emphasising those elements of costs and profits of original importance to the management board of an organizational unit. Therefore, cost accounting was initially understood as mere collector of costs and profits, using the traditional system of costing everything, a budget with a limited base. Originally, it was designed to calculate real costs with the aim to determine the results. In public organizations, the aim of cost accounting, costs or management, c...

  10. Comparative study of the variables for determining unit processing cost of irradiated food products in developing countries : case study of Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method for estimating unit cost of gamma treated food products in a developing country like Ghana is presented. The method employs the cost of cobalt source requirement, capital and operating costs, dose requirements etc. and relates these variables to various annual throughput at a gamma processing facility. In situations where the cost of foreign components or devices are required, the assumptions have been based on those of Kunstadt and Steeves. Otherwise, the prevailing conditions existing in Ghana have been used. The study reveals that the unit processing cost for gamma treatment foods in such a facility is between 8.0 to 147.2 US dollars per tonne. (author). 9 refs., 4 figs

  11. The methodological steps in management accounting and cost calculation - A comparative analysis between the traditional methods used in Romania and the Activity-Based Costing (ABC) method

    OpenAIRE

    Ca?pus?neanu, Sorinel I.; Lepa?datu, Gheorghe V.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, I discuss the methodological steps taken in the Romanian management accounting, according to the specifics of the ABC method. I also make a comparative analysis between the custom (ordered-based) method and Activity-Based Costing (ABC) method. I bring my own comments on the similarities and differences between the custom method and the ABC method.

  12. Monte Carlo calculations and measurements of absorbed dose per monitor unit for the treatment of uveal melanoma with proton therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The treatment of uveal melanoma with proton radiotherapy has provided excellent clinical outcomes. However, contemporary treatment planning systems use simplistic dose algorithms that limit the accuracy of relative dose distributions. Further, absolute predictions of absorbed dose per monitor unit are not yet available in these systems. The purpose of this study was to determine if Monte Carlo methods could predict dose per monitor unit (D/MU) value at the center of a proton spread-out Bragg peak (SOBP) to within 1% on measured values for a variety of treatment fields relevant to ocular proton therapy. The MCNPX Monte Carlo transport code, in combination with realistic models for the ocular beam delivery apparatus and a water phantom, was used to calculate dose distributions and D/MU values, which were verified by the measurements. Measured proton beam data included central-axis depth dose profiles, relative cross-field profiles and absolute D/MU measurements under several combinations of beam penetration ranges and range-modulation widths. The Monte Carlo method predicted D/MU values that agreed with measurement to within 1% and dose profiles that agreed with measurement to within 3% of peak dose or within 0.5 mm distance-to-agreement. Lastly, a demonstration of the clinical utility of this technique included calculations of dose distributions and D/MU values in a realistic model of the human eye. It is possible to predict D/MU values accurately for clinical relevantMU values accurately for clinical relevant range-modulated proton beams for ocular therapy using the Monte Carlo method. It is thus feasible to use the Monte Carlo method as a routine absolute dose algorithm for ocular proton therapy

  13. Unit Sizing and Cost Analysis of Renewable Energy based Hybrid Power Generation System - A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin AGARWAL

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A simulation model is developed for optimal sizing and analysis of a PV-diesel-battery based hybrid power generation system with the objectives to minimize life cycle cost and CO2 emission, while maintaining the desired system autonomy. A case study of a boy’s hostel in Moradabad district is taken for analysis purposes. It has 91 rooms with a capacity of 3 boys in each room. The decision variables included in the optimization methodology are total PV area, number of PV modules of 600 Wp, diesel generator power, fuel consumption per year and number of 24 V and 150 Ah batteries. The simulation result shows that the PV percentage of 86 % and diesel penetration of 14 % gives the most optimized solution with minimum LCC of $110,547 and average CO2 emission of 28 kg/day. The developed model has been validated by comparing its results with earlier research work.doi:10.14456/WJST.2014.24

  14. Restriction techniques for the unit-commitment problem with total procurement costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many discrete optimization problems may be solved much easier, if the solution space can be restricted in a convenient way. For a given specific problem, the restriction techniques can be helpful if an available optimization solver, perceived as a black box, is capable of solving quickly only reduced subproblems of a limited size. For the family of hard unit-commitment problems we investigate a hierarchical search algorithm, which is based on decomposition of the problem into two subproblems. The upper-level subproblem is a relatively small decision ''kernel'' of the problem that can be solved approximately by a search algorithm. We define an appropriate restricted decision space for this subproblem. The lower-level subproblem is an appropriate restriction of the original problem that can be solved efficiently by a dedicated solver. Our approach was analyzed on a set of historical data from the Polish electrical balancing market and the best known solutions were improved by the average of about 2-5%. (author)

  15. Monitor Unit Calculation for the Multileaf Intensity Modulating Collimator (MIMiCTM) in the PeacockTM Plan System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A finite-size pencil beam method has been chosen for dose modelling in conformal radiotherapy when the Multileaf Intensity Modulating Collimator (MIMiC) is used to deliver the treatment. The MIMiC has two rows of 20 tungsten leaves which retract toward or away from the accelerator gantry, producing two intensity-modulated transaxial treatment slices which are 20 cm x 1 or 2 cm at isocenter. The treatment field is thus a fan beam made up of 40 sub-beams or finite-size pencil beams, leading to the choice of the model. Rotational treatments with the MIMiC are modelled in Peacock Plan as a set of ports spaced at gantry angle increments of 5 deg. to 10 deg. . The fractional time spent by the leaf in the beam during the gantry angle increment determines the intensity. The intensities from each leaf for each port are optimized in Peacock Plan, one treatment slice at a time, and then the dose from all slices is combined. The treatment planning system uses a two-dimensional measured pencil beam profile from one leaf at a selected reference depth along with measured open field, broad beam profiles at several depths. This makes beam data collection simple and dosimetrically flexible. The nature of the measured data imposes some conditions on calculation of Monitor Units (MU). The calculation must also take into consideration that two independent slices are delivered at the same time, and that multiple slices may be used to treat targets which are longer in the inferior-superior which are longer in the inferior-superior direction than the field produced by two slices. The MU calculation method is derived and presented as an enhancement of the traditional method of MU determination for treatments based on static ports. Experimental results indicative of the validity and limitations of the model will be demonstrated

  16. Microelectromechnical Systems Inertial Measurement Unit Error Modelling and Error Analysis for Low-cost Strapdown Inertial Navigation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ramalingam

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents error modelling and error analysis of microelectromechnical systems (MEMS inertial measurement unit (IMU for a low-cost strapdown inertial navigation system (INS. The INS consists of IMU and navigation processor. The IMU provides acceleration and angular rate of the vehicle in all the three axes. In this paper, errors that affect the MEMS IMU, which is of low cost and less volume, are stochastically modelled and analysed using Allan variance. Wavelet decomposition has been introduced to remove the high frequency noise that affects the sensors to obtain the original values of angular rates and accelerations with less noise. This increases the accuracy of the strapdown INS. The results show the effect of errors in the output of sensors, easy interpretation of random errors by Allan variance, the increase in the accuracy when wavelet decomposition is used for denoising inertial sensor raw data.Defence Science Journal, 2009, 59(6, pp.650-658, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.59.1571

  17. United States experience in environmental cost-benefit analysis for nuclear power plants with implications for developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental cost-benefit analysis in the United States involves a comparison of diverse societal impacts of the proposed developments and its alternatives. Regarding nuclear power plant licensing actions, such analyses include the need for base-load electrical generating capacity versus the no-action alternative; alternative sources of energy; alternative sites for the proposed nuclear plants; and alternative technologies for mitigating environmental impacts. Many U.S. experiences and environmental assessment practices and comparative resource requirements presented in this report will not provide a wholly reliable reflection of the precise situation of each country. Nevertheless, the procedural and substantive issues encountered by the United States in nuclear power plant licensing may exhibit a number of important, if rough, parallelisms for other countries. Procedural issues dealt with include: the scoping of alternatives and impact issues; the problem of balancing incommensurable impacts; and treating uncertainty in measuring or forecasting certain kinds of environmental impacts. Although substantive environmental impact issues will vary appreciably among nations, it is to be expected that many of the substantive impact issues such as impacts on biota, community-related effects, and aesthetic impacts will also have some measure of universal interest to other countries

  18. Costo-beneficio en una unidad de cuidados intensivos neonatales / The cost-benefit in a neonatal intensive care unit

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rafael, Amador Morán; Alberto, Labrada Despaigne; Ana, Campo González; Rosa, Díaz Aguilar.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN. El Sistema Nacional de Salud de Cuba ha desarrollado un conjunto de reformas encaminadas a lograr una mayor eficiencia en la prestación de servicios, para preservar logros como la efectividad y la accesibilidad. El objetivo de esta investigación fue identificar los costos en la Unidad [...] de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal del Hospital Ginecoobstétrico de Guanabacoa en el período de un año. MÉTODOS. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo prospectivo del período de enero a diciembre del 2009. La muestra quedo constituida por 65 recién nacidos graves y críticos. Las variables independientes estudiadas fueron: antibióticos, inmunomoduladores, fármacos vasoactivos, soluciones para hidratación, yodo, peróxido de hidrógeno, vitaminas y minerales, oxígeno, material desechable, material de oficina y medios diagnósticos. La información recogida se introdujo en una base de datos, y se procesó con el programa Epidat 3.0. RESULTADOS. Existió un costo total de 70 605,83 CU, que representó unos 2 824,23 CUC, con costo total por paciente de 74,32 CUC. El mayor gasto correspondió al uso de materiales desechables, las soluciones para hidratación y los antibióticos. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION. The Cuban National Health System has developed a series of reforms aimed to achieve a great efficiency in services provision to protect achievements as effectiveness and accessibility. The aim of present research was to identify the costs in the Neonatal Intensive Therapy Unit of the G [...] ynecology and Obstetrics Hospital of Guanabacoa municipality within one year. METHODS. A prospective and descriptive study was conducted from January to December, 2009. Sample included 65 severe and critically ill newborns. The independent study variables were: antibiotics, immunological therapy, vasoactive drugs, solutions for hydration, iodine, hydrogen peroxide, vitamins and minerals, oxygen, waste material, office stationery and diagnostic means. Information capture was entered in a database and processed with Epidat 3.0 program. RESULTS. The total cost of 70 605,83 Currency Unit (CU) accounted for 2 824,23 Cuban Convertible Pesos (CUC) with a total cost by patient of 74,32 CUC. The great expense was for waste materials, solutions for hydration and antibiotics use.

  19. Conceptual design and cost analysis of hydraulic output unit for 15 kW free-piston Stirling engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, M. A.

    1982-01-01

    A long-life hydraulic converter with unique features was conceptually designed to interface with a specified 15 kW(e) free-piston Stirling engine in a solar thermal dish application. Hydraulic fluid at 34.5 MPa (5000 psi) is produced to drive a conventional hydraulic motor and rotary alternator. Efficiency of the low-maintenance converter design was calculated at 93.5% for a counterbalanced version and 97.0% without the counterbalance feature. If the converter were coupled to a Stirling engine with design parameters more typcial of high-technology Stirling engines, counterbalanced converter efficiency could be increased to 99.6%. Dynamic computer simulation studies were conducted to evaluate performance and system sensitivities. Production costs of the complete Stirling hydraulic/electric power system were evaluated at $6506 which compared with $8746 for an alternative Stirling engine/linear alternator system.

  20. Cost-effectiveness model comparing olanzapine and other oral atypical antipsychotics in the treatment of schizophrenia in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Smolen Lee J; Klein Robert W; Ascher-Svanum Haya; Furiak Nicolas M; Lawson Anthony H; Conley Robert R; Culler Steven D

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Schizophrenia is often a persistent and costly illness that requires continued treatment with antipsychotics. Differences among antipsychotics on efficacy, safety, tolerability, adherence, and cost have cost-effectiveness implications for treating schizophrenia. This study compares the cost-effectiveness of oral olanzapine, oral risperidone (at generic cost, primary comparator), quetiapine, ziprasidone, and aripiprazole in the treatment of patients with schizophrenia from ...

  1. [Quality management (TQM) in public health-care (PHC): principles for cost-performance calculations and cost reductions with better quality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergholz, W

    2008-11-01

    In many high-tech industries, quality management (QM) has enabled improvements of quality by a factor of 100 or more, in combination with significant cost reductions. Compared to this, the application of QM methods in health care is in its initial stages. It is anticipated that stringent process management, embedded in an effective QM system will lead to significant improvements in health care in general and in the German public health service in particular. Process management is an ideal platform for controlling in the health care sector, and it will significantly improve the leverage of controlling to bring down costs. Best practice sharing in industry has led to quantum leap improvements. Process management will enable best practice sharing also in the public health service, in spite of the highly diverse portfolio of services that the public health service offers in different German regions. Finally, it is emphasised that "technical" QM, e.g., on the basis of the ISO 9001 standard is not sufficient to reach excellence. It is necessary to integrate soft factors, such as patient or employee satisfaction, and leadership quality into the system. The EFQM model for excellence can serve as proven tool to reach this goal. PMID:19039720

  2. Maternal Opioid Drug Use during Pregnancy and Its Impact on Perinatal Morbidity, Mortality, and the Costs of Medical Care in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Whiteman, Valerie E.; Jason L. Salemi; Mogos, Mulubrhan F.; Mary Ashley Cain; Aliyu, Muktar H; Salihu, Hamisu M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To identify factors associated with opioid use during pregnancy and to compare perinatal morbidity, mortality, and healthcare costs between opioid users and nonusers. Methods. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of pregnancy-related discharges from 1998 to 2009 using the largest publicly available all-payer inpatient database in the United States. We scanned ICD-9-CM codes for opioid use and perinatal outcomes. Costs of care were estimated from hospital charges. Survey logistic...

  3. Variación del Costo Unitario en una Institución de Seguridad Social en Querétaro, México / Unit cost variation in a social security company in Querétaro, México

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Enrique, Villarreal-Ríos; Maribel, Campos-Esparza; María E, Garza-Elizondo; Lidia, Martínez-González; Georgina M, Núñez-Rocha; Néstor R, Romero-Islas.

    2006-07-30

    Full Text Available Objetivo Estimar e identificar la variación del costo unitario por departamento final y motivo de atención, en unidades de medicina familiar de una institución de seguridad social en Querétaro, México. Métodos Se trata de un estudio de costo (dólares americanos $US) en unidades de medicina familiar [...] para el año 2004. El costo unitario fijo se estimó utilizando la departamentalización ajustada por productividad para un año, se identificaron departamentos finales y generales. Se incluyeron recursos materiales, físicos y de consumo, se construyeron ponderadores para asignar los recursos invertidos en los departamentos generales a cada uno de los finales. La estimación del costo unitario variable se realizó mediante la técnica de micro-costeo apoyado por grupos de expertos, se consideraron como insumos variables los medicamentos, el material de curación y los reactivos. El costo unitario se integró con la suma del costo unitario fijo y el costo unitario variable correspondiente para el motivo de atención. El análisis contempló la comparación de los costos unitarios entre las unidades médicas. Resultados El costo unitario para un mes de manejo del diabético varió entre $US 34,8, $US 32,2 y $US 34,0; el costo de la detección de cáncer cervicouterino se encontró entre $US 7,2, $US 8,7 y $US 7,3; y el costo unitario de la atención de la caries fluctuó entre $US 27,0, $US 33,6 y $US 28,7. Conclusión La variación del costo unitario es más importante en el departamento de urgencias y dental. Abstract in english Objective Comparing unit cost variation between departments and reasons for consultation in outpatient health services provided by a social security company from Querétaro, México. Methods A study of costs (in US$) was carried out in outpatient health service units during 2004. Fixed unit costs were [...] estimated per department and adjusted for one year’s productivity. Material, physical and consumer resources were included. Weighting was assigned to resources invested in each department. Unit cost was estimated by using the micro cost technique; medicaments, materials used during treatment and reagents were considered to be consumer items. Unit cost resulted from adding fixed unit cost to the variable unit cost corresponding to the reason for consulting. Units costs were then compared between the medical units. Results Unit cost per month for diabetic treatment varied from US$ 34.8, US$ 32,2 to US$ 34, pap smear screening test costs were US$ 7,2, US$ 8,7 and $US 7,3 and dental treatment US$ 27, US$ 33,6 and US$ 28,7. Conclusion Unit cost variation was more important in the emergency room and the dental service.

  4. Variación del costo unitario en una institución de seguridad social en Querétaro, México / Unit cost variation in a social security company in Querétaro, México

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Enrique, Villarreal-Ríos; Maribel, Campos-Esparza; María E., Garza-Elizondo; Lidia, Martínez-González; Georgina M., Núñez-Rocha; Néstor R., Romero-Islas.

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estimar e identificar la variación del costo unitario por departamento final y motivo de atención, en unidades de medicina familiar de una institución de seguridad social en Querétaro, México. MÉTODOS: Se trata de un estudio de costo (dólares americanos $US) en unidades de medicina familia [...] r para el año 2004. El costo unitario fijo se estimó utilizando la departamentalización ajustada por productividad para un año, se identificaron departamentos finales y generales. Se incluyeron recursos materiales, físicos y de consumo, se construyeron ponderadores para asignar los recursos invertidos en los departamentos generales a cada uno de los finales. La estimación del costo unitario variable se realizó mediante la técnica de micro-costeo apoyado por grupos de expertos, se consideraron como insumos variables los medicamentos, el material de curación y los reactivos. El costo unitario se integró con la suma del costo unitario fijo y el costo unitario variable correspondiente para el motivo de atención. El análisis contempló la comparación de los costos unitarios entre las unidades médicas. RESULTADOS: El costo unitario para un mes de manejo del diabético varió entre $US 34,8, $US 32,2 y $US 34,0; el costo de la detección de cáncer cervicouterino se encontró entre $US 7,2, $US 8,7 y $US 7,3; y el costo unitario de la atención de la caries fluctuó entre $US 27,0, $US 33,6 y $US 28,7. CONCLUSION: La variación del costo unitario es más importante en el departamento de urgencias y dental. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: Comparing unit cost variation between departments and reasons for consultation in outpatient health services provided by a social security company from Querétaro, México. METHODS: A study of costs (in US$) was carried out in outpatient health service units during 2004. Fixed unit costs we [...] re estimated per department and adjusted for one year's productivity. Material, physical and consumer resources were included. Weighting was assigned to resources invested in each department. Unit cost was estimated by using the micro cost technique; medicaments, materials used during treatment and reagents were considered to be consumer items. Unit cost resulted from adding fixed unit cost to the variable unit cost corresponding to the reason for consulting. Units costs were then compared between the medical units. RESULTS: Unit cost per month for diabetic treatment varied from US$ 34.8, US$ 32,2 to US$ 34, pap smear screening test costs were US$ 7,2, US$ 8,7 and $US 7,3 and dental treatment US$ 27, US$ 33,6 and US$ 28,7. CONCLUSION: Unit cost variation was more important in the emergency room and the dental service.

  5. A case study using the United Republic of Tanzania: costing nationwide HPV vaccine delivery using the WHO Cervical Cancer Prevention and Control Costing Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hutubessy Raymond

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose, methods, data sources and assumptions behind the World Health Organization (WHO Cervical Cancer Prevention and Control Costing (C4P tool that was developed to assist low- and middle-income countries (LMICs with planning and costing their nationwide human papillomavirus (HPV vaccination program are presented. Tanzania is presented as a case study where the WHO C4P tool was used to cost and plan the roll-out of HPV vaccines nationwide as part of the national comprehensive cervical cancer prevention and control strategy. Methods The WHO C4P tool focuses on estimating the incremental costs to the health system of vaccinating adolescent girls through school-, health facility- and/or outreach-based strategies. No costs to the user (school girls, parents or caregivers are included. Both financial (or costs to the Ministry of Health and economic costs are estimated. The cost components for service delivery include training, vaccination (health personnel time and transport, stationery for tally sheets and vaccination cards, and so on, social mobilization/IEC (information, education and communication, supervision, and monitoring and evaluation (M&E. The costs of all the resources used for HPV vaccination are totaled and shown with and without the estimated cost of the vaccine. The total cost is also divided by the number of doses administered and number of fully immunized girls (FIGs to estimate the cost per dose and cost per FIG. Results Over five years (2011 to 2015, the cost of establishing an HPV vaccine program that delivers three doses of vaccine to girls at schools via phased national introduction (three regions in year 1, ten regions in year 2 and all 26 regions in years 3 to 5 in Tanzania is estimated to be US$9.2 million (excluding vaccine costs and US$31.5 million (with vaccine assuming a vaccine price of US$5 (GAVI 2011, formerly the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunizations. This is equivalent to a financial cost of US$5.77 per FIG, excluding the vaccine cost. The most important costs of service delivery are social mobilization/IEC and service delivery operational costs. Conclusions When countries expand their immunization schedules with new vaccines such as the HPV vaccine, they face initial costs to fund critical pre-introduction activities, as well as incremental system costs to deliver the vaccines on an ongoing basis. In anticipation, governments need to plan ahead for non-vaccine costs so they will be financed adequately. Existing human resources need to be re-allocated or new staff need to be recruited for the program to be implemented successfully in a sustainable and long-term manner. Reaching a target group not routinely served by national immunization programs previously with three doses of vaccine requires new delivery strategies, more transport of vaccines and health workers and more intensive IEC activities leading to new delivery costs for the immunization program that are greater than the costs incurred when a new infant vaccine is added to the existing infant immunization schedule. The WHO C4P tool is intended to help LMICs to plan ahead and estimate the programmatic and operational costs of HPV vaccination.

  6. Cost evaluation of cardiovascular magnetic resonance versus coronary angiography for the diagnostic work-up of coronary artery disease: Application of the European Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance registry data to the German, United Kingdom, Swiss, and United States health care systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moschetti Karine

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR has favorable characteristics for diagnostic evaluation and risk stratification of patients with known or suspected CAD. CMR utilization in CAD detection is growing fast. However, data on its cost-effectiveness are scarce. The goal of this study is to compare the costs of two strategies for detection of significant coronary artery stenoses in patients with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD: 1 Performing CMR first to assess myocardial ischemia and/or infarct scar before referring positive patients (defined as presence of ischemia and/or infarct scar to coronary angiography (CXA versus 2 a hypothetical CXA performed in all patients as a single test to detect CAD. Methods A subgroup of the European CMR pilot registry was used including 2,717 consecutive patients who underwent stress-CMR. From these patients, 21% were positive for CAD (ischemia and/or infarct scar, 73% negative, and 6% uncertain and underwent additional testing. The diagnostic costs were evaluated using invoicing costs of each test performed. Costs analysis was performed from a health care payer perspective in German, United Kingdom, Swiss, and United States health care settings. Results In the public sectors of the German, United Kingdom, and Swiss health care systems, cost savings from the CMR-driven strategy were 50%, 25% and 23%, respectively, versus outpatient CXA. If CXA was carried out as an inpatient procedure, cost savings were 46%, 50% and 48%, respectively. In the United States context, cost savings were 51% when compared with inpatient CXA, but higher for CMR by 8% versus outpatient CXA. Conclusion This analysis suggests that from an economic perspective, the use of CMR should be encouraged as a management option for patients with suspected CAD.

  7. Tracking the Sun IV: An Historical Summary of the Installed Cost of Photovoltaics in the United States from 1998 to 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darghouth, Naim; Wiser, Ryan

    2011-09-07

    The present report describes installed cost trends for grid-connected PV projects installed from 1998 through 2010 (with some limited and preliminary results presented for projects installed in the first six months of 2011). The analysis is based on project-level cost data from approximately 116,500 residential, non-residential, and utility-sector PV systems in the United States. The inclusion of utility-sector PV is a new element in this year’s report. The combined capacity of all systems in the data sample totals 1,685 MW, equal to 79% of all grid-connected PV capacity installed in the United States through 2010 and representing one of the most comprehensive sources of installed PV cost data for the U.S. Based on this dataset, the report describes historical installed cost trends over time, and by location, market segment, technology type, and component. The report also briefly compares recent PV installed costs in the United States to those in Germany and Japan, and describes trends in customer incentives for PV installations and net installed costs after receipt of such incentives. The analysis presented here focuses on descriptive trends in the underlying data, serving primarily to summarize the data in tabular and graphical form.

  8. IMPROVING COST CALCULATION IN THE IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY IN LIBYA USING THE STANDARD COST METHOD ÎMBUN?T??IREA CALCULA?IEI COSTURILOR ÎN INDUSTRIA DE FIER ?I O?EL DIN LIBIA PRIN FOLOSIREA METODEI STANDARD COST

    OpenAIRE

    Mohmed Abdelali, Abdelkarim S.

    2013-01-01

    The iron and steel industry has a strategic role in each country`s economy as there is a direct connection between its production level and economic development. In the countries with developed market economy, the standard cost reflects the efficiency of the production process. In this context, the use of the standard cost method represents an instrument for research and estimation. This paper`s intention is to present the advantages offered by the application of the standard cost method in t...

  9. A case study using the United Republic of Tanzania: costing nationwide HPV vaccine delivery using the WHO Cervical Cancer Prevention and Control Costing Tool

    OpenAIRE

    Hutubessy Raymond; Levin Ann; Wang Susan; Morgan Winthrop; Ally Mariam; John Theopista; Broutet Nathalie

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The purpose, methods, data sources and assumptions behind the World Health Organization (WHO) Cervical Cancer Prevention and Control Costing (C4P) tool that was developed to assist low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) with planning and costing their nationwide human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination program are presented. Tanzania is presented as a case study where the WHO C4P tool was used to cost and plan the roll-out of HPV vaccines nationwide as part of the national...

  10. Theoretical and scaling factors methods to calculate the radioactivity in operational waste streams from Unit 1 at Cernavoda NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main goal of this paper is to present a methodology for calculating the radioactivity in the moderator and heat transport systems of Cernavoda NPP Unit 1, with the intention to improve the knowledge on the radionuclides inventories in the operational waste streams, and to aid the licensing process of new near surface repository. In the present paper we describe our methodology for estimating H-3 and C-14 production rates in the heavy-water moderator and heat transport systems using the capacity factors from 1997 to 2007 years. The radioactivity of the difficult-to-measure nuclides is predicted by scaling method using measured concentration in reference CANDU 6 reactor Gentilly-2. The difficult-to-measure radionuclides of primary interest in this study were those with long half-lives which have a significant role for post-closure safety assessment. The equation used to scale fission products (parents and daughters) is based on the equilibrium solution of the time dependent equation governing the number of atoms of the fission products. The measured activity of Co-60 was used for scaling activities of the actinides. (authors)

  11. Phase coexistence calculations via a unit-cell Gibbs ensemble formalism for melts of reversibly bonded block copolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mester, Zoltan; Lynd, Nathaniel; Fredrickson, Glenn

    2013-03-01

    Melts of block copolymer blends can exhibit coexistence between compositionally and morphologically distinct phases. We derived a unit-cell approach for a field theoretic Gibbs ensemble formalism to rapidly map out such coexistence regions. We also developed a canonical ensemble model for the reversible reaction of supramolecular polymers and integrated it into the Gibbs ensemble scheme. This creates a faster method for generating phase diagrams in complex supramolecular systems than the usual grand canonical ensemble method and allows us to specify the system in experimentally accessible volume fractions rather than chemical potentials. The integrated approach is used to calculate phase diagrams for AB diblock copolymers reversibly reacting with B homopolymers to form a new diblocks we term ``ABB.'' For our case, we use a diblock that is sixty percent A monomer and a homopolymer that is the same length as the diblock. In the limits of infinite reaction favorability (large equilibrium constant), the system approaches cases of an ABB diblock-B homopolymer blend when the AB diblock is the limiting reactant and AB diblock-ABB diblock blend when the homopolymer is the limiting reactant. As reaction favorability is decreased, the phase boundaries shift towards higher homopolymer compositions so that sufficient reaction can take place to produce the ABB diblock that has a deciding role stabilizing the observed phases.

  12. The use of phenological data to calculate chilling units in Olea europaea L. in relation to the onset of reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlandi, F.; Fornaciari, M.; Romano, B.

    2002-02-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a practical method to evaluate the effective relationship between the amount of winter chilling and the response expressed as the spring reproductive re-starting dates in the olive ( Olea europaea L.). Two olive cultivars growing in a special olive orchard in Umbria (central Italy) were studied over a 3-year period (1998-2000): the cultivar Ascolana, typical of central Italy, and the cultivar Giarraffa, typical of southern Italy. The spring reproductive re-starts were assessed using data from detailed phenological observations made on 60 trees of each cultivar in an effort to establish the exact date of reproductive bud swelling. The chilling phenomenon was evaluated by using 341 functions derived from a formula developed by researchers at Utah State University to calculate chilling units. The mathematical functions are defined, and show the very close relationship between the amount of winter chilling and the spring reproductive response in the two cultivars in the orchard studied. The results can be used to define the relationship between local climate and plant development, and the mathematical approach can be used to draw maps that can show the suitability of different cultivars on the basis of local climatic conditions.

  13. It is time to study the costs and benefits of regulating continuing medical education in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazmanian, Paul E

    2009-01-01

    There is a dual system of continuing medical education (CME) accreditation in the United States, with developmental milestones dating back four decades. The Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME) approves national providers of CME. State medical societies (SMS) approve intrastate providers. The ACCME recognizes SMS to approve intrastate providers of CME. Both types of accredited providers, national and intrastate, designate the same credit, American Medical Association, Physician Recognition Award Category 1 Credit, which is trademarked by the AMA. The ACCME collects data to help the AMA monitor use of AMA PRA Category 1 Credit. The AMA is a nationally accredited provider of the ACCME. The AMA retains the right to act unilaterally to remove the privilege of any organization to designate Category 1 Credit. Although intrastate providers typically are charged through SMS, both types of providers, national and intrastate, pay fees for accreditation services provided by the ACCME. Select fee increases of the ACCME for 2009 through 2011 are estimated at $4.3M. Actions taken in June 2009 by the AMA House of Delegates suggest the value of accreditation and credit systems in the US should be studied with regard to costs and benefits that might further align CME with patients' interests and physicians' incentives. PMID:19998479

  14. IMPROVING COST CALCULATION IN THE IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY IN LIBYA USING THE STANDARD COST METHOD ÎMBUN?T??IREA CALCULA?IEI COSTURILOR ÎN INDUSTRIA DE FIER ?I O?EL DIN LIBIA PRIN FOLOSIREA METODEI STANDARD COST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelkarim S.Mohmed Abdelali

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The iron and steel industry has a strategic role in each country`s economy as there is a direct connection between its production level and economic development. In the countries with developed market economy, the standard cost reflects the efficiency of the production process. In this context, the use of the standard cost method represents an instrument for research and estimation. This paper`s intention is to present the advantages offered by the application of the standard cost method in the iron and steel industry.

  15. cost-benefit analysis of legumes irradiation processing in egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the economics of legumes irradiation such as Chickpea,Lupin,Kidny Bean and broad and the effect of various parameters on unit processing costs. It provides a model for calculating specific unit processing costs by correlating known capital costs with annual operation cost an annual throughputs. We analysed the cost-benefit of the proposed grain irradiation facility. We took into account the cost of the capital investment, operation and other additional parameters and then estimated the unit processing cost. The investment criteria utilized for commercial evaluation were internal rate of return (I.I.R), pay back period (P.B.P), and average rate of return (A.R.R). The irradiation cost and the additional income are also discussed. The results of this analysis showed that the installation of an irradiation unit for legumes processing in Egypt would be economically feasible

  16. Low-cost accelerograph units as earthquake alert devices for Mexico City: how well would they work?

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    D., García; S. K., Singh; A., Iglesias; L., Quintanar; C., Valdés.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Recientemente se ha propuesto la utilización de unidades acelerográficas de bajo coste como dispositivo de alerta sísmica para la Ciudad de México. Este tipo de unidades dispararía la alarma cuando la aceleración del suelo alcanzara un nivel prefijado, en principio 4 gal, lo que para sismos importan [...] tes sucedería durante la onda P o en el inicio de su coda. En este trabajo se ha evaluado el desempeño de este tipo de unidades a partir de los acelerogramas registrados en el periodo 1985 - 2008 en las estaciones SCT y CDAO, ubicadas en la zona de lago de Ciudad de México. Como se preveía, el tiempo de alerta (la diferencia entre el tiempo de disparo del dispositivo y el de inicio de la parte intensa del movimiento), T A, aumenta, para sismos regionales, con la aceleración máxima, PGA. Para los registros analizados (con PGA > 4 gal) T A varía entre -20 y 45 s, correspondiendo el máximo T A al terremoto de Michoacán de 1985. Salvo algunas excepciones T A es superior a 15 s para todos aquellos sismos que produjeron PGA > 20 gal. Este dispositivo podría ser útil para mitigar los daños humanos de un sismo siempre y cuando un tiempo de alerta entre 15 y 45 s fuese suficiente para poner en práctica medidas de seguridad previamente establecidas, lo cual podría ser práctico para escuelas de una a tres plantas. Además el dispositivo podría utilizarse para detener y/o cerrar de forma segura instalaciones críticas antes de la llegada del movimiento sísmico de mayor amplitud. Abstract in english Recently, low-cost accelerograph units have been proposed as earthquake alert devices for Mexico City. These units would trigger when the acceleration reaches a pre-established level, presumably 4 gal. For significant earthquakes, this would occur during P wave or in the early part of its coda. We t [...] est the performance of such a unit on accelerograms recorded in the period 1985 - 2008 at SCT and CDAO, two lake-bed sites in Mexico City. As expected, the alert time (the time of arrival of intense ground motion minus the trigger time), T A, for regional earthquakes is found to increase with the PGA. T A of the recorded accelerograms (with PGA > 4 gal) ranges between about -20 and 45 sec; the largest values of T A correspond to the 1985 Michoacan earthquake. With some exceptions, T A is greater than 15 sec for earthquakes which produced PGA > 20 gal. The device may be useful in mitigating injuries and loss of lives if an alert time of 15 to 45 sec is sufficient to put in to effect pre-established safety measures. This may be practical for one- to three-storey public school buildings. The device would be useful for shutting critical facilities before the arrival of large-amplitude ground motion.

  17. A Framework of Decommissioning Cost Estimation for Nuclear Research Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decommissioning cost estimation is a very important technique in designing and planning of nuclear facilities' decommissioning. Decommissioning cost estimation should be made according to the phases of decommissioning activities and installed components of nuclear facilities. In this paper, the basic framework necessary for decommissioning cost estimation is completed so that it could be used as a technique for decommissioning costs estimation by specifying cost items and group components and unit cost factors on which work time is calculated. Also, factors to be considered for decommissioning cost estimation of major activities and tasks are reviewed. Afterwards, these techniques will be utilized as a basic technology to establish methodology of decommissioning cost estimation and evaluation.

  18. Deterministic Assessment of Future Costs for Dismantling (FA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasko, Marek [DECOM, Trnava (Slovakia)

    2012-11-01

    The main objective of the report is to provide an re-evaluation of cost calculations by OMEGA code for the Intermediate Storage for Spent Fuel in Studsvik (FA facility) using up-to-date Swedish labour cost unit factors and available up-to-date Swedish (or international) cost unit factors for consumables, materials and substances. Furthermore, evolution of other OMEGA database parameters concerning cost calculations e.g. manpower unit factors and workgroups parameters are taken into account. This report follows up former project which introduced tentative calculations of main decommissioning parameters such as costs, manpower and exposure of personnel for activities of older nuclear facility decommissioning in Sweden represented by FA Facility in Studsvik by means of calculation code OMEGA. The project demonstrated an implementation of advanced costing methodology based on PSL structure format to achieve transparent, traceable and comparable estimates even for older nuclear facilities like FA Facility in Studsvik. This former project used Slovak origin labour costs unit factors and other cost unit factors. After successful completion of this project, there was an intent of SSM to reevaluate calculations using an up-to-date Swedish labour cost data and also available Swedish consumables and materials cost data if available. Within this report re-calculations of main decommissioning parameters using available Swedish data are presented in structure according to Proposed Standardized List of Items for Costing Purposes. Calculations are made for decommissioning scenario with post-dismantling decontamination and steel radwaste melting technologies available at the site. All parameters are documented and summed up in both table and graphic forms in text and Annexes. Further, comparison of calculated results with previous calculations together with discussion is provided.

  19. Deterministic Assessment of Future Costs for Dismantling (FA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objective of the report is to provide an re-evaluation of cost calculations by OMEGA code for the Intermediate Storage for Spent Fuel in Studsvik (FA facility) using up-to-date Swedish labour cost unit factors and available up-to-date Swedish (or international) cost unit factors for consumables, materials and substances. Furthermore, evolution of other OMEGA database parameters concerning cost calculations e.g. manpower unit factors and workgroups parameters are taken into account. This report follows up former project which introduced tentative calculations of main decommissioning parameters such as costs, manpower and exposure of personnel for activities of older nuclear facility decommissioning in Sweden represented by FA Facility in Studsvik by means of calculation code OMEGA. The project demonstrated an implementation of advanced costing methodology based on PSL structure format to achieve transparent, traceable and comparable estimates even for older nuclear facilities like FA Facility in Studsvik. This former project used Slovak origin labour costs unit factors and other cost unit factors. After successful completion of this project, there was an intent of SSM to reevaluate calculations using an up-to-date Swedish labour cost data and also available Swedish consumables and materials cost data if available. Within this report re-calculations of main decommissioning parameters using available Swedish data are presented in structure according to Proposed Standardized List of Items for Costing Purposes. Calculations are made for decommissioning scenario with post-dismantling decontamination and steel radwaste melting technologies available at the site. All parameters are documented and summed up in both table and graphic forms in text and Annexes. Further, comparison of calculated results with previous calculations together with discussion is provided

  20. MODELS SELECTED FOR CALCULATION OF DOSES, HEALTH EFFECTS AND ECONOMIC COSTS DUE TO ACCIDENTAL RADIONUCLIDE RELEASES FROM NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strenge, D L; Baker, D A; Droppo, J G; McPherson, R B; Napier, B A; Nieves, L A; Soldat, J K

    1980-05-01

    Models are described for use in site-specific environmental consequence analysis of nuclear reactor accidents of Classes 3 through 9. The models presented relate radioactivity released to resulting doses, health effects, and costs of remedial actions. Specific models are presented for the major exposure pathways of airborne releases, waterborne releases and direct irradiation from activity within the facility buildings, such as the containment. Time-dependent atmospheric dispersion parameters, crop production parameters and other variable parameters are used in the models. The environmental effects are analyzed for several accident start times during the year.

  1. The pilot plant in Geiselbullach for the gamma irradiation of sewage sludge - design, operation experience and cost calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamma irradiation of sewage sludge is possible with facilities of simple design and great availability; they can be working fully automatically 24 hours on 350 days a year or more. No specially trained service staff is necessary. The costs for gamma irradiation of sewage sludge are slightly higher than for heat treatment, but several secondary effects speak in favour of the irradiated sludge. The hygienization of sewage sludge by gamma irradiation is normally only useful when sludge has to be disinfected during the whole year. (orig.)

  2. Custo médio do Módulo de Coleta de sangue total pelo método ABC / The mean cost of collection of whole blood units by the ABC method

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Eugênia M. A., Ubiali; Divaldo A., Sampaio; Patrícia F., Pinho; Dimas T., Covas.

    Full Text Available Os procedimentos em hemoterapia são complexos e caros. Exigem processos controlados e validados, equipamentos calibrados e monitorados e insumos qualificados, validados e inspecionados antes e durante o uso. Isto acarreta, além dos gastos diretos, gastos indiretos especificamente relacionados à gara [...] ntia da qualidade e da segurança transfusionais, além dos gastos indiretos usuais de qualquer produto ou serviço. Procurando avaliar com maior aproximação estes custos e buscando evitar as distorções das apropriações de custos por rateios, o presente estudo utilizou o sistema de Custeio Baseado em Atividades - ABC, para apurar o custo médio do Módulo de Coleta de sangue total no Hemocentro de Ribeirão Preto - SP, unidade sede, no primeiro semestre de 2006. O maior impacto no custo médio apurado se deveu aos custos monetários diretos, entretanto os custos indiretos não foram desprezíveis. O custo médio obtido para desempenho das atividades que compõem o Módulo de Coleta foi de R$ 35,20, que é 68,75% superior ao valor pago na tabela SIA/SUS para este módulo. A metodologia desenvolvida pode ser aplicada aos outros procedimentos dos serviços de hemoterapia, permitindo a avaliação dos custos de seus processos, evitando desperdícios, aprimorando o seu funcionamento e gerando evidências objetivas que demonstrem os custos reais da hemoterapia de qualidade para as instâncias financiadoras públicas e privadas. Abstract in english The procedures in hemotherapy are complex and expensive. They demand a controlled and validated process. They also require calibrated and monitored equipment and qualified and validated materials, inspected before and during use. This causes, apart from direct expenses, indirect expenses related to [...] the guarantee of quality and transfusional safety, as well as the usual indirect costs of any product or service. The present study used the Activity-Based Costing system - ABC, to find the mean cost of collection of whole blood units in a Regional Blood Center in Ribeirão Preto, during the first semester of 2006, in order to assess these costs more carefully and to try to avoid the cost distortions due to separation of blood components. Although the indirect costs were not negligible, the major impact on the mean cost was related to direct monetary costs. The mean cost to perform the activities that compose the collection of blood units was R$ 35.20, which is 68.75% higher than the value paid by the Brazilian government for this unit. The developed methodology can be applied to other procedures of services in hemotherapy allowing the evaluation of process costs, avoiding waste, improving performance and generating objective evidence to demonstrate the real cost of quality hemotherapy activities for public and private fund source.

  3. Custo médio do Módulo de Coleta de sangue total pelo método ABC The mean cost of collection of whole blood units by the ABC method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugênia M. A. Ubiali

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Os procedimentos em hemoterapia são complexos e caros. Exigem processos controlados e validados, equipamentos calibrados e monitorados e insumos qualificados, validados e inspecionados antes e durante o uso. Isto acarreta, além dos gastos diretos, gastos indiretos especificamente relacionados à garantia da qualidade e da segurança transfusionais, além dos gastos indiretos usuais de qualquer produto ou serviço. Procurando avaliar com maior aproximação estes custos e buscando evitar as distorções das apropriações de custos por rateios, o presente estudo utilizou o sistema de Custeio Baseado em Atividades - ABC, para apurar o custo médio do Módulo de Coleta de sangue total no Hemocentro de Ribeirão Preto - SP, unidade sede, no primeiro semestre de 2006. O maior impacto no custo médio apurado se deveu aos custos monetários diretos, entretanto os custos indiretos não foram desprezíveis. O custo médio obtido para desempenho das atividades que compõem o Módulo de Coleta foi de R$ 35,20, que é 68,75% superior ao valor pago na tabela SIA/SUS para este módulo. A metodologia desenvolvida pode ser aplicada aos outros procedimentos dos serviços de hemoterapia, permitindo a avaliação dos custos de seus processos, evitando desperdícios, aprimorando o seu funcionamento e gerando evidências objetivas que demonstrem os custos reais da hemoterapia de qualidade para as instâncias financiadoras públicas e privadas.The procedures in hemotherapy are complex and expensive. They demand a controlled and validated process. They also require calibrated and monitored equipment and qualified and validated materials, inspected before and during use. This causes, apart from direct expenses, indirect expenses related to the guarantee of quality and transfusional safety, as well as the usual indirect costs of any product or service. The present study used the Activity-Based Costing system - ABC, to find the mean cost of collection of whole blood units in a Regional Blood Center in Ribeirão Preto, during the first semester of 2006, in order to assess these costs more carefully and to try to avoid the cost distortions due to separation of blood components. Although the indirect costs were not negligible, the major impact on the mean cost was related to direct monetary costs. The mean cost to perform the activities that compose the collection of blood units was R$ 35.20, which is 68.75% higher than the value paid by the Brazilian government for this unit. The developed methodology can be applied to other procedures of services in hemotherapy allowing the evaluation of process costs, avoiding waste, improving performance and generating objective evidence to demonstrate the real cost of quality hemotherapy activities for public and private fund source.

  4. Avoidable waste management costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the activity based costing method used to acquire variable (volume dependent or avoidable) waste management cost data for routine operations at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. Waste volumes from environmental restoration, facility stabilization activities, and legacy waste were specifically excluded from this effort. A core team consisting of Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, and Oak Ridge Reservation developed and piloted the methodology, which can be used to determine avoidable waste management costs. The method developed to gather information was based on activity based costing, which is a common industrial engineering technique. Sites submitted separate flow diagrams that showed the progression of work from activity to activity for each waste type or treatability group. Each activity on a flow diagram was described in a narrative, which detailed the scope of the activity. Labor and material costs based on a unit quantity of waste being processed were then summed to generate a total cost for that flow diagram. Cross-complex values were calculated by determining a weighted average for each waste type or treatability group based on the volume generated. This study will provide DOE and contractors with a better understanding of waste management processes and their associated costs. Other potential benefits include providing cost data for sites to perform consistent cost/benefit analysis of waste minimization and pollution prevention (WMIN/PP) options identified during pollution prevention opportunity assessments and providing a means for prioritizing and allocating limited resources for WMIN/PP

  5. Residential, Commercial, and Utility-Scale Photovoltaic (PV) System Prices in the United States: Current Drivers and Cost-Reduction Opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodrich, A.; James, T.; Woodhouse, M.

    2012-02-01

    The price of photovoltaic (PV) systems in the United States (i.e., the cost to the system owner) has dropped precipitously in recent years, led by substantial reductions in global PV module prices. However, system cost reductions are not necessarily realized or realized in a timely manner by many customers. Many reasons exist for the apparent disconnects between installation costs, component prices, and system prices; most notable is the impact of fair market value considerations on system prices. To guide policy and research and development strategy decisions, it is necessary to develop a granular perspective on the factors that underlie PV system prices and to eliminate subjective pricing parameters. This report's analysis of the overnight capital costs (cash purchase) paid for PV systems attempts to establish an objective methodology that most closely approximates the book value of PV system assets.

  6. An economic model demonstrating the long-term cost benefits of incorporating fertility control into wild horse (Equus caballus) management programs on public lands in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Seve, Charles W; Griffin, Stephanie L Boyles

    2013-12-01

    In recent years, the Bureau of Land Management's (BLM) Wild Horse and Burro Management program costs have increased dramatically due to a rise in the number of animals removed from public lands coupled with significantly decreased adoption rates. To assist with development and implementation of effective, cost-containing management programs, a robust economic model to project the costs and optimize outcomes of various management scenarios was created. For example, preliminary demonstration model runs show that by gradually replacing "removal-only" programs with contraception-and-removal programs on one hypothetical Herd Management Area (HMA), the BLM could save about US$8 million over 12 years while maintaining an area target population of 874 horses. Because the BLM estimates that more than 38,000 wild horses roam on 179 HMAs in the United States, the use of this economic model could result in a cost-savings of tens of millions of dollars if applied broadly across all HMAs. PMID:24437083

  7. Life Expectancy and Health Care Expenditures in the 21st Century: A New Calculation for Germany Using the Costs of Dying

    OpenAIRE

    Breyer, Friedrich; Felder, Stefan

    2004-01-01

    Some people believe that the impact of population ageing on future health care ex-penditures will be quite moderate due to the high costs of dying. If not age per se but proximity to death determines the bulk of expenditures, a shift in the mortality risk to higher ages will not affect lifetime health care expenditures as death occurs only once in every life. We attempt to take this effect into account when we calculate the demographic impact on health care expenditures in Germany. From a Swi...

  8. 40 CFR 75.19 - Optional SO2, NOX, and CO2 emissions calculation for low mass emissions (LME) units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...conjunction with projections of unit operating hours or fuel type and fuel usage...of annual or ozone season unit operating hours for the future year (or years... emission rate for base load operating hours and 1.15 times that...

  9. Cost-effectiveness model comparing olanzapine and other oral atypical antipsychotics in the treatment of schizophrenia in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smolen Lee J

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Schizophrenia is often a persistent and costly illness that requires continued treatment with antipsychotics. Differences among antipsychotics on efficacy, safety, tolerability, adherence, and cost have cost-effectiveness implications for treating schizophrenia. This study compares the cost-effectiveness of oral olanzapine, oral risperidone (at generic cost, primary comparator, quetiapine, ziprasidone, and aripiprazole in the treatment of patients with schizophrenia from the perspective of third-party payers in the U.S. health care system. Methods A 1-year microsimulation economic decision model, with quarterly cycles, was developed to simulate the dynamic nature of usual care of schizophrenia patients who switch, continue, discontinue, and restart their medications. The model captures clinical and cost parameters including adherence levels, relapse with and without hospitalization, quality-adjusted life years (QALYs, treatment discontinuation by reason, treatment-emergent adverse events, suicide, health care resource utilization, and direct medical care costs. Published medical literature and a clinical expert panel were used to develop baseline model assumptions. Key model outcomes included mean annual total direct cost per treatment, cost per stable patient, and incremental cost-effectiveness values per QALY gained. Results The results of the microsimulation model indicated that olanzapine had the lowest mean annual direct health care cost ($8,544 followed by generic risperidone ($9,080. In addition, olanzapine resulted in more QALYs than risperidone (0.733 vs. 0.719. The base case and multiple sensitivity analyses found olanzapine to be the dominant choice in terms of incremental cost-effectiveness per QALY gained. Conclusion The utilization of olanzapine is predicted in this model to result in better clinical outcomes and lower total direct health care costs compared to generic risperidone, quetiapine, ziprasidone, and aripiprazole. Olanzapine may, therefore, be a cost-effective therapeutic option for patients with schizophrenia.

  10. Survey of the costs of peripheric intravenous device in the composition of the values of the internment in pediatrics unit ? a quantitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tathiana Silva de Souza Martins, Zenith Rosa Silvino

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Martins TSS. Survey of the costs of peripheric intravenous device in the composition of the values of the internment in pediatrics unit ? a quantitative study (dissertation. Rio de Janeiro (RJ: Mestrado Profissional de Enfermagem Assistencial, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Cfarma Serviços Farmacêuticos Ltda; 2007.The venous puncture in pediatrics is for the child a painful and strain procedure for the family companions. Observing in practical daily of the pediatric assistance the puncture of repetition for maintenance of a security access in the medicine administration with drawn out period and knowing that the system of payment to the hospital for the SUS (system of health financed by the government is for type of illness, it sharpened me the interest in developing a exploratory, descriptive research with quantitative boarding on the costs of Peripheral Intravenous Device (DIP in the internment in Pediatrics. Objectives: To raise the costs of DIP used during the internment in a pediatrics unit; To identify the causes of substitution of DIP in the venous accesses during the internment in a pediatrics unit and To correlate the cost of DIP in the composition of the final remuneration of the paid pediatrics internments for the SUS. The scene of the research was a Pediatric Infirmary of a University Hospital (HU. Sample: nineteen children interned in the period of October of 2006 the April of 2007. The research was approved by the Committee of Ethics of the Institution under nº. 071/2006. The date had been analyzed statistical and organized in three categories: I. Demographic profile and Epidemiologist of the Children interned in the Infirmary of Pediatrics of the HU; II The Costs of the DIP in the Process of Hospitalization in Pediatrics in the HU; e III. The Costs of the DIP in the composition of the final remuneration of the paid pediatrics internments for the SUS.

  11. RELAP5/MOD3.2 sensitivity calculations of loss-of-feed water (LOFW) transient at Unit 6 of Kozloduy NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlova, M.P. [Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Tzarigradsko Shaussee 72, Sofia 1784 (Bulgaria)]. E-mail: pavlova@inrne.bas.bg; Groudev, P.P. [Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Tzarigradsko Shaussee 72, Sofia 1784 (Bulgaria)]. E-mail: pavlinpg@inrne.bas.bg; Stefanova, A.E. [Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Tzarigradsko Shaussee 72, Sofia 1784 (Bulgaria)]. E-mail: antoanet@inrne.bas.bg; Gencheva, R.V. [Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Tzarigradsko Shaussee 72, Sofia 1784 (Bulgaria)]. E-mail: roseh@inrne.bas.bg

    2006-02-15

    This paper provides a comparison between the real plant data obtained by Unit 6 of Kozloduy nuclear power plant (NPP) during the loss-of-feed water (LOFW) transient and the calculation results received by RELAP5/MOD3.2 computer model of the same NPP unit. RELAP5/MOD3.2 computer model of the VVER-1000 has been developed at the Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy-Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (INRNE-BAS) based on Unit 6 of Kozloduy NPP. This model has been used for simulation the behavior of the real VVER-1000 NPP during the LOFW transient. Several calculations have been provided to describe how the different boundary conditions reflect on the prediction of real plant parameters. This paper discusses the results of the thermal-hydraulic sensitivity calculations of loss-of-feed water transient for VVER-1000 reactor design. The report also contains a brief summary of the main NPP systems included in the RELAP5 VVER model and the LOFW transient sequences. This report was possible through the participation of leading specialists from Kozloduy NPP and with the assistance of Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) for the United States Department of Energy (US DOE), International Nuclear Safety Program (INSP)

  12. The cost of decommissioning uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report identifies several key operations that are commonly carried out during decommissioning of tailings areas in the Canadian environment. These operations are unit costed for a generic site to provide a base reference case. The unit costs have also been scaled to the quantities required for the decommissioning of four Canadian sites and these scaled quantities compared with site-specific engineering cost estimates and actual costs incurred in carrying out the decommissioning activities. Variances in costing are discussed. The report also recommends a generic monitoring regime upon which both short- and longer-term environmental monitoring costs are calculated. Although every site must be addressed as a site-specific case, and monitoring programs must be tailored to fit a specific site, it would appear that for the conventional decommissioning and monitoring practices that have been employed to date, costs can be reasonably estimated when site-specific conditions are taken into account

  13. A precise and cost-effective method to calculate the stresses and deformations of pipe bends with realistic boundary conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transfer matrix of a pipe bend is derived by the semi-bending theory. Thereby realistic boundary conditions of the bends like connected flanges, cylindrical and conical pipes and concentrated or distributed loads will be considered in pipeline calculations. Furthermore, this transfer matrix of the pipe bend is converted into a stiffness matrix and is incorporated into an existing FE program. This way the exact stiffness as well as realistic boundary conditions of pipe bends may be considered for the stress and deformation analysis of complex piping systems. Several comparisons between analytical and test results of pipe bends demonstrate a very good agreement. As it can be shown this transfer matrix method is highly economical and is very precise as well. (orig.)

  14. Benchmarking dispersion and geometrical counterpoise corrections for cost-effective large-scale DFT calculations of water adsorption on graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Marco; Civalleri, Bartolomeo; Maschio, Lorenzo; Sgroi, Mauro; Pullini, Daniele

    2014-09-15

    The physisorption of water on graphene is investigated with the hybrid density functional theory (DFT)-functional B3LYP combined with empirical corrections, using moderate-sized basis sets such as 6-31G(d). This setup allows to model the interaction of water with graphene going beyond the quality of classical or semiclassical simulations, while still keeping the computational costs under control. Good agreement with respect to Coupled Cluster with singles and doubles excitations and perturbative triples (CCSD(T)) results is achieved for the adsorption of a single water molecule in a benchmark with two DFT-functionals (Perdew/Burke/Ernzerhof (PBE), B3LYP) and Grimme's empirical dispersion and counterpoise corrections. We apply the same setting to graphene supported by epitaxial hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), leading to an increased interaction energy. To further demonstrate the achievement of the empirical corrections, we model, entirely from first principles, the electronic properties of graphene and graphene supported by h-BN covered with different amounts of water (one, 10 water molecules per cell and full coverage). The effect of h-BN on these properties turns out to be negligibly small, making it a good candidate for a substrate to grow graphene on. PMID:25056422

  15. Comparison of the APA-H (Westinghouse) calculations with the operational data for ZpNPP unit 3 cycles 16-19

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The computer simulation of ZpNPP Unit 3 (WWER-1000) Cycles 16-19 core depletion has been performed on the basis of the operational data. The changes in reactor heat rate, lead bank position and inlet temperature during the core operation have been taken into account. These calculations were performed by using Westinghouse APA-H (ALPHA/PHOENIX/ ANC-H) code system. The main objectives of the calculations were the comparison with operational data for core loading with TVS-M (Cycle 16) and transition core loading with TVS-A (Cycle 17-19). The calculation results were compared with the results of Critical boric acid concentration vs. Cycle Burnup measurements and Start up Physics Test measurements (at HZP, BOC, NoXe core conditions). Additionally, the comparison between the results of assemblies power calculation performed by ANC-H and BIPR-7A codes is presented (Authors)

  16. The economic costs of progressive supranuclear palsy and multiple system atrophy in France, Germany and the United Kingdom

    OpenAIRE

    Vladimir N Uversky; McCrone, Paul R.; Payan, Christine Anne Mary; KNAPP, MARTIN; Ludolph, Albert; Agid, Yves; Leigh, P. Nigel; Bensimon, Gilbert

    2011-01-01

    Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and multiple system atrophy (MSA) are progressive disabling neurological conditions usually fatal within 10 years of onset. Little is known about the economic costs of these conditions. This paper reports service use and costs from France, Germany and the UK and identifies patient characteristics that are associated with cost. 767 patients were recruited, and 760 included in the study, from 44 centres as part of the NNIPPS trial. Service use during the pre...

  17. Impact of pharmacist's interventions on cost of drug therapy in intensive care unit / Impacto de las intervenciones de farmacéuticos en el coste del tratamiento farmacológico en una unidad de cuidados intensivos

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Surasak, Saokaew; Sirada, Maphanta; Pornchanok, Thangsomboon.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available La participación del farmacéutico en el equipo de cuidados del paciente ha demostrado reducir la incidencia de eventos adversos medicamentosos, y los costes totales de medicamentos. Sin embargo, el impacto de la participación del farmacéutico en equipos multidisciplinarios de cuidados intensivos sob [...] re el ahorro y la evitación de costes en Tailandia ha sido poco estudiado. Objetivo: Describir las características de las intervenciones y determinar si las intervenciones del farmacéutico condujeron a cambios en ahorro de costes o evitación de costes en una unidad de cuidados intensivos (UCI). Métodos: Se diseñó un estudio prospectivo controlado con cuidados usuales para comparar los ahorros de costes y las evitaciones de costes de pacientes recibiendo cuidados de un equipo de atención a paciente (que incluía un farmacéutico clínico) contra una atención normal (sin farmacéutico en el equipo). Todos los pacientes ingresados en las unidades 1 y 2 de cuidados intensivos médicos fueron incluidos en el estudio. Los resultados medidos eran coste total de medicamentos y duración de la estancia en la UCI. Se documentaron las intervenciones realizadas por el farmacéutico en el grupo de estudio. También se realizaron análisis de aceptación y ahorro de costes y/o evitación de costes. Resultados: Un total e 65 pacientes ingresaron en las UCI 1 o 2 durante las 5 semanas del estudio. El farmacéutico participó en la atención de pacientes y realizó 127 intervenciones para el equipo de la UCI 1. El 98% de las intervenciones fueron aceptadas e implantadas por los médicos. La diferencia del coste total de medicamentos por paciente entre los dos grupos fue de 182,01 USD (1.076,37 USD en el grupo estudio y 1.258,38 USD en el control, p=0.138). La media de duración de estancia entre grupo de estudio y control no fue significativamente diferente (7,16 días vs. 6,18 días, p=0.995). Se evaluaron los ahorros y evitaciones de costes de las 125 intervenciones aceptadas. Las intervenciones del farmacéutico llevaron a un total de 1.971,43 USD de ahorros y a 294,62 USD de coste de eventos adversos evitados. El coste neto ahorrado y evitado por las intervenciones del farmacéutico fue de 2.266,05 USD. Las intervenciones que involucraban el uso de antibióticos significaron el mayor impacto económico (1.958,61 USD). Conclusiones: Aunque, no fue estadísticamente significativo, el haber participado un farmacéutico en el equipo de cuidados de la UCI produjo una tendencia a la reducción global del coste de medicamentos, ahorro de costes y evitación de costes. El mayor impacto en los costes envolvió el uso de antibióticos. Abstract in english Pharmacist participation in patient care team has been shown to reduce incidence of adverse drug events, and overall drug costs. However, impact of pharmacist participation in the multidisciplinary intensive care team on cost saving and cost avoidance has little been studied in Thailand. Objective: [...] To describe the characteristics of the interventions and to determine pharmacist's interventions led to change in cost saving and cost avoidance in intensive care unit (ICU). Methods: A Prospective, standard care-controlled study design was used to compare cost saving and cost avoidance of patients receiving care from patient care team (including a clinical pharmacist) versus standard care (no pharmacist on team). All patients admitted to the medical intensive care unit 1 and 2 during the same period were included in the study. The outcome measures were overall drug cost and length of ICU stay. Interventions made by the pharmacist in the study group were documented. The analyses of acceptance and cost saving and/or cost avoidance were also performed. Results: A total of 65 patients were admitted to either ICU 1 or 2 during the 5 week- study period. The pharmacist participated in patient care and made total of 127 interventions for the ICU-1 team. Ninety-eight percent of the interventions were accepted and implemented by physicians. The difference of overall d

  18. ANALISIS SUBSIDI SILANG ANTAR UNIT PRODUKSI DI RSUD WONOGIRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagus Trihandoyo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Cost Recovery Rate (CRR for production unit at District Hospital was influenced each income level to expect establishing cross-subsidy concept for equity of health care service. The case research performed at 1 (one District Hospital in Central Java Province Wonogiri District Hospital. The data is collected by observing available research result of writer in 2000 and the financial data collection 2001 by applies adjustment with Consumption Price Index (CPI of budget 2000. There are 2 methods of cost calculation namely full cost and direct cost. The research result shows tha the highest production unit income at Wonogiri Distric Hospital 2000 is from hospital wards and the lowest from electrical diagnostic, in 2001 the highest also from hospital wards and the lowest from operation room (OK. Full cost calculation defind that biggest total cost at production unit of year 2000 at Wonogiri Distric Hospital is hospital wards and the lowest electro diagnostic, in 2001 the biggest and the lowest are also from hospital ward and electro diagnostic. If calculation with direct cost the bigest and the lowest in 2000 are hospital wards and electro diagnostic, in 2001 the bigest and the lowest also from hospital wards and electro diagnostic. CRR at Wonogiri Distric Hospital full cost calculation difine that there are 2 production units having CRR > 100%, CRR percentage of retribution at Wonogiri District Hospital 35.27 and 29.95%, and direct cost calculation define also 2 production units having CRR > 100%, CRR percentage of distribution at Wonogiri District Hospital 56.98 and 47.09%. Full cost calculation business yield remaining (SHU of production unit at Wonogiri District hospital in 2000 and 2001 almost never have positive SHU that there are some production units having positive SHU where such cross subsidy is establish among production units. However total SHU from total retribution show negative result.   Keywords: hospital, production unit, cross subsidy

  19. Advances and Challenges for Adoption of Activity Based Costing (ABC) by Public Sector: A Comparative Study of Brazil, Colombia, Uruguay and United States

    OpenAIRE

    Carmo, Lui?s Paulo F.; Fernando Padovani

    2012-01-01

    This article aims to evaluate the advances and challenges to the adoption of the activity based costing system (ABC) by the public sector of countries like Colombia, Uruguay and Brazil, always keeping a comparative perspective with the historical experience of the United States. Considering the growing demand of citizens-users of public services in terms of quality, accountability and transparency, and also the convergence of international accounting and management practices, such as converge...

  20. Cost accounting and public reimbursement schemes in Spanish hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Martínez, Fernando; Abellán-Perpiñán, José-María; Martínez-Pérez, Jorge-Eduardo; Puig-Junoy, Jaume

    2006-08-01

    The objective of this paper is to provide a description and analysis of the main costing and pricing (reimbursement) systems employed by hospitals in the Spanish National Health System (NHS). Hospitals cost calculations are mostly based on a full costing approach as opposite to other systems like direct costing or activity based costing. Regional and hospital differences arise on the method used to allocate indirect costs to cost centres and also on the approach used to measure resource consumption. Costs are typically calculated by disaggregating expenditure and allocating it to cost centres, and then to patients and DRGs. Regarding public reimbursement systems, the impression is that unit costs are ignored, except for certain type of high technology processes and treatments. PMID:17016928

  1. Calculation of a 900 MW conceptual 700/720ºC coal-fired power unit with an auxiliary extraction-backpressure turbine

    OpenAIRE

    Katarzyna St?pczy?ska; ?ukasz Kowalczyk; S?awomir Dykas; Witold Elsner

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the calculations for different configurations of a 900 MW power unit for advanced 700/720°C ultra-supercritical steam parameters with a single and double steam reheat. The use of such high parameters, especially the reheated steam temperature, involves thermodynamic and material problems related to high temperature differences in the feed water heaters. In relation to this, a concept of the modification of the feed water heaters system by using an auxiliary extraction-bac...

  2. Cost-Effectiveness of Home Energy Retrofits in Pre-Code Vintage Homes in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fairey, P.; Parker, D.

    2012-11-01

    This analytical study examines the opportunities for cost-effective energy efficiency and renewable energy retrofits in residential archetypes constructed prior to 1980 (Pre-Code) in fourteen U.S. cities. These fourteen cities are representative of each of the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) climate zones in the contiguous U.S. The analysis is conducted using an in-house version of EnergyGauge USA v.2.8.05 named CostOpt that has been programmed to perform iterative, incremental economic optimization on a large list of residential energy efficiency and renewable energy retrofit measures. The principle objectives of the study are as follows: to determine the opportunities for cost effective source energy reductions in this large cohort of existing residential building stock as a function of local climate and energy costs; and to examine how retrofit financing alternatives impact the source energy reductions that are cost effectively achievable.

  3. The estimated economic burden of genital herpes in the United States. An analysis using two costing approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fisman David N

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Only limited data exist on the costs of genital herpes (GH in the USA. We estimated the economic burden of GH in the USA using two different costing approaches. Methods The first approach was a cross-sectional survey of a sample of primary and secondary care physicians, analyzing health care resource utilization. The second approach was based on the analysis of a large administrative claims data set. Both approaches were used to generate the number of patients with symptomatic GH seeking medical treatment, the average medical expenditures and estimated national costs. Costs were valued from a societal and a third party payer's perspective in 1996 US dollars. Results In the cross-sectional study, based on an estimated 3.1 million symptomatic episodes per year in the USA, the annual direct medical costs were estimated at a maximum of $984 million. Of these costs, 49.7% were caused by drug expenditures, 47.7% by outpatient medical care and 2.6% by hospital costs. Indirect costs accounted for further $214 million. The analysis of 1,565 GH cases from the claims database yielded a minimum national estimate of $283 million direct medical costs. Conclusions GH appears to be an important public health problem from the health economic point of view. The observed difference in direct medical costs may be explained with the influence of compliance to treatment and possible undersampling of subpopulations in the claims data set. The present study demonstrates the validity of using different approaches in estimating the economic burden of a specific disease to the health care system.

  4. Inflation Calculator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, S. Morgan.

    This simple inflation calculator uses the Consumer Price Index to adjust any given amount of money, from 1800 to 1998. Creator S. Morgan Friedman uses data from the Historical Statistics of the United States for statistics predating 1975 and the annual Statistics Abstracts of the United States for data from 1975 to 1998. Links to other online inflation information are also included.

  5. Treatment of paediatric burns with a nanocrystalline silver dressing compared with standard wound care in a burns unit: a cost analysis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    S G, Cox; L, Cullingworth; H, Rode.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Burns are a leading cause of non-natural death in South African infants and children. Conventional care of partial-thickness burns often requires painful, time consuming and costly twice-daily dressing changes to clean the wound and apply antimicrobial topical agents. A new topical nanocrystalline s [...] ilver-coated (NS) dressing (Acticoat; Smith & Nephew) has been developed and is the first-line treatment of choice in many burn centres. However, because of its cost the Department of Health has been reluctant to introduce it as a standard of care. We retrospectively studied 4 randomly selected paediatric burn patients, calculating the cost associated with the use of NS dressings and comparing this with the projected costs of three previously standard burn wound treatment regimens. NS dressings were changed every 3 days based on their sustained and slow release of silver ions over 72 hours. Using NS clearly saved costs compared with the three other regimens. The demonstrated cost savings resulted primarily from the decreased number of dressings, and the presumed shorter hospital stay.

  6. Cost -Benefit Analysis of a Single-Unit System with Preventive Maintenance and Weibull Distribution for Failure and Repair Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Ashish

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with a reliability model developed for a single-unit system which goes for preventive maintenance after a pre-specific time ‘t’ up to which no failure occurs. There is a single server who takes some time to arrive at the system for doing repair activities. The unit does not work as new after repair at complete failure and so called the degraded unit. The degraded unit is replaced by new one after its failure with some replacement time. The failure time, preventive maintenance time, replacement time and repair time of the unit are taken as Weibull distributed with common shape parameter and different scale parameters. The switching devices are perfect. The system is observed at suitable regenerative epochs to obtain various measures of system effectiveness of interest to system designers and operation managers.

  7. Treatment Cost for Typhoid Fever at Two Hospitals in Kolkata, India

    OpenAIRE

    Sur, Dipika; Chatterjee, Susmita; Riewpaiboon, Arthorn; Manna, Byomkesh; Kanungo, Suman; Bhattacharya, Sujit K.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate treatment cost for typhoid fever at two hospitals in Kolkata, India. This study was an incidence-based cost-of-illness analysis from the providers’ perspective. Micro-costing approach was employed for calculating patient-specific data. Unit costs of medical services used in the calculation were directly measured from the study hospital by standard method. The study hospitals were selected based on accessibility to data and cooperation. Eighty-three ...

  8. Boron dilution event analysis for Maanshan Units 1 and 2 using hand calculation method and RETRAN-02 code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boron dilution event may be caused by a malfunction of the Chemical and Volume Control System (CVCS), e.g., an inadvertent opening of primary water makeup control valve, which can result in a decrease in boron concentration in the reactor coolant with subsequent reactivity insertion anomalies. If the reactor coolant system is not isolated from the potential source of unborated water in time, the reactor may lose shutdown margin and become critical. A hand calculation method for determining the time to loss of shutdown margin has been developed and verified by the RETRAN-02 best-estimate analysis and FSAR results. It is believed that the hand calculation method can be easily adopted by the operator to calculate the time to loss of shutdown margin during occurrence of boron dilution event and therefore provide great help to the operator in taking corrective actions in no hurry. (author)

  9. Evaluation of the cost effectiveness of exenatide versus insulin glargine in patients with sub-optimally controlled Type 2 diabetes in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetlow Anthony P

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Exenatide belongs to a new therapeutic class in the treatment of diabetes (incretin mimetics, allowing glucose-dependent glycaemic control in Type 2 diabetes. Randomised controlled trial data suggest that exenatide is as effective as insulin glargine at reducing HbA1c in combination therapy with metformin and sulphonylureas; with reduced weight but higher incidence of adverse gastrointestinal events. The objective of this study is to evaluate the cost effectiveness of exenatide versus insulin glargine using RCT data and a previously published model of Type 2 diabetes disease progression that is based on the United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study; the perspective of the health-payer of the United Kingdom National Health Service. Methods The study used a discrete event simulation model designed to forecast the costs and health outcome of a cohort of 1,000 subjects aged over 40 years with sub-optimally-controlled Type 2 diabetes, following initiation of either exenatide, or insulin glargine, in addition to oral hypoglycaemic agents. Sensitivity analysis for a higher treatment discontinuation rate in exenatide patients was applied to the cohort in three different scenarios; (1 either ignored or (2 exenatide-failures excluded or (3 exenatide-failures switched to insulin glargine. Analyses were undertaken to evaluate the price sensitivity of exenatide in terms of relative cost effectiveness. Baseline cohort profiles and effectiveness data were taken from a published randomised controlled trial. Results The relative cost-effectiveness of exenatide and insulin glargine was tested under a variety of conditions, in which insulin glargine was dominant in all cases. Using the most conservative of assumptions, the cost-effectiveness ratio of exenatide vs. insulin glargine at the current UK NHS price was -£29,149/QALY (insulin glargine dominant and thus exenatide is not cost-effective when compared with insulin glargine, at the current UK NHS price. Conclusion This study evaluated the relative cost effectiveness of insulin glargine versus exenatide in the management of Type 2 diabetes using a published model. Given no significant difference in glycaemic control and applying the additional effectiveness of exenatide over insulin glargine, with respect to weight loss, and using the current UK NHS prices, insulin glargine was found to be dominant over exenatide in all modelled scenarios. With current clinical evidence, exenatide does not appear to represent a cost-effective treatment option for patients with Type 2 diabetes when compared to insulin glargine.

  10. United States biomass energy: An assessment of costs and infrastructure for alternative uses of biomass energy crops as an energy feedstock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, William Russell, III

    Reduction of the negative environmental and human health externalities resulting from both the electricity and transportation sectors can be achieved through technologies such as clean coal, natural gas, nuclear, hydro, wind, and solar photovoltaic technologies for electricity; reformulated gasoline and other fossil fuels, hydrogen, and electrical options for transportation. Negative externalities can also be reduced through demand reductions and efficiency improvements in both sectors. However, most of these options come with cost increases for two primary reasons: (1) most environmental and human health consequences have historically been excluded from energy prices; (2) fossil energy markets have been optimizing costs for over 100 years and thus have achieved dramatic cost savings over time. Comparing the benefits and costs of alternatives requires understanding of the tradeoffs associated with competing technology and lifestyle choices. As bioenergy is proposed as a large-scale feedstock within the United States, a question of "best use" of bioenergy becomes important. Bioenergy advocates propose its use as an alternative energy resource for electricity generation and transportation fuel production, primarily focusing on ethanol. These advocates argue that bioenergy offers environmental and economic benefits over current fossil energy use in each of these two sectors as well as in the U.S. agriculture sector. Unfortunately, bioenergy research has offered very few comparisons of these two alternative uses. This thesis helps fill this gap. This thesis compares the economics of bioenergy utilization by a method for estimating total financial costs for each proposed bioenergy use. Locations for potential feedstocks and bio-processing facilities (co-firing switchgrass and coal in existing coal fired power plants and new ethanol refineries) are estimated and linear programs are developed to estimate large-scale transportation infrastructure costs for each sector. Each linear program minimizes required bioenergy distribution and infrastructure costs. Truck and rail are the only two transportation modes allowed as they are the most likely bioenergy transportation modes. Switchgrass is chosen as a single bioenergy feedstock. All resulting costs are presented in units which reflect current energy markets price norms (¢/kWh, $/gal). The use of a common metric, carbon-dioxide emissions, allows a comparison of the two proposed uses. Additional analysis is provided to address aspects of each proposed use which are not reflected by a carbon-dioxide reduction metric. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  11. WIMS-IST/DRAGON-IST side-step calculation of reactivity device and structural material incremental cross sections for Wolsong NPP Unit 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the calculation of two-group incremental cross sections for all of the reactivity devices and incore structural materials for an RFSP-IST full-core model of Wolsong NPP Unit 1, in support of the conversion of the reference plant model to two energy groups. This is of particular interest since the calculation used the new standard 'side-step' approach, which is a three-dimensional supercell method that employs the Industry Standard Toolset (IST) codes DRAGON-IST and WIMS-IST with the ENDF/B-VI nuclear data library. In this technique, the macroscopic cross sections for the fuel regions and the device material specifications are first generated using the lattice code WIMS-IST with 89 energy groups. DRAGON-IST then uses this data with a standard supercell modelling approach for the three-dimensional calculations. Incremental cross sections are calculated for the stainless-steel adjuster rods (SS-ADJ), the liquid zone control units (LZCU), the shutoff rods (SOR), the mechanical control absorbers (MCA) and various structural materials, such as guide tubes, springs, locators, brackets, adjuster cables and support bars and the moderator inlet nozzle deflectors. Isotopic compositions of the Zircaloy-2, stainless steel and Inconel X-750 alloys in these items are derived from Wolsong NPP Unit 1 history dockets. Their geometrical layouts are based on applicable design drawings. Mid-burnup fuel with no moderator poison was assumed. The incremental cross sectio was assumed. The incremental cross sections and key aspects of the modelling are summarized in this paper. (author)

  12. Vibrational models for a crystal with 36 water molecules in the unit cell: IR spectra from experiment and calculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitev, Pavlin D; Eriksson, Anders; Boily, Jean-François; Hermansson, Kersti

    2015-04-01

    We present experimental and calculated IR spectra of the water molecules in crystalline aluminium nitrate nonahydrate and a method to generate a realistic and well resolved isotope-isolated spectrum from periodic DFT calculations. Our sample crystal contains 18 structurally different OH groups and is a perfect benchmark compound to validate vibrational models and the structure-property relationship of bound water molecules. FTIR spectra (ATR technique) were recorded for the Al(NO3)3·9H2O crystal at 138 and 298 K, and due to a multitude of OH contributions and couplings, they are naturally poorly resolved and yield a broad OH band in the range 3500 to 2700 cm(-1) at both temperatures. Isotope-isolated IR spectra have the clear advantage over non-deuterated spectra that they are better resolved and easier to interpret - here we have extended the experimental study by simulating the isotope-isolated IR spectrum, using PBE-D2 and auxiliary B3LYP calculations and an anharmonic OH vibrational model. We find excellent agreement between the shapes and frequency ranges of the experimental and calculated OH spectral bands. We make use of four different vibrational models: (i) a harmonic lattice-dynamical model for the isotope-isolated crystal with 1 H among 71 D, (ii) a harmonic lattice-dynamical model for the normal undeuterated crystal involving all the vibrational couplings, (iii) a harmonic 1-dimensional uncoupled OH vibrational model, and (iv) the anharmonic variant of the previous model, which yields the final spectrum. We also use the individual frequencies, resolved by the calculations, to quantify new or extended relationships involving OH frequencies versus local electric fields and H-bond distances. We explore the correlation between OH frequency and molecular dipole moment for bound water molecules. PMID:25805117

  13. The costs of completing unfinished US nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A cost benefit analysis is performed to assess the costs of completing unfinished nuclear power plants in four regions of the United States of America, (north-east, south-east, mid-west and west). The analysis is in five main sections: the projection of the cost to complete nuclear plants under construction, the forecast of future operations and maintenance costs, the forecast of price of fuels, the evaluation of future electricity demand and capacity growth, and calculation of the financial cost-benefit ratio based on the preceding figures. It was found that in the north-east, mid-west and west, because the demand for the power will not be made before the year 2000, finishing the units is not the least-cost supply option. Therefore, most of the units should not be finished unless over 90% completed already, in which case it may be cost-effective to finish them. (author)

  14. Integrated Risk Assessment for the LaSalle Unit 2 Nuclear Power Plant, Phenomenology and Risk Uncertainty Evaluation Program (PRUEP), MELCOR code calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Level III Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) has been performed for LaSalle Unit 2 under the Risk Methods Integration and Evaluation Program (RMIEP) and the Phenomenology and Risk Uncertainty Evaluation Program (PRUEP). This report documents the phenomenological calculations and sources of. uncertainty in the calculations performed with HELCOR in support of the Level II portion of the PRA. These calculations are an integral part of the Level II analysis since they provide quantitative input to the Accident Progression Event Tree (APET) and Source Term Model (LASSOR). However, the uncertainty associated with the code results must be considered in the use of the results. The MELCOR calculations performed include four integrated calculations: (1) a high-pressure short-term station blackout, (2) a low-pressure short-term station blackout, (3) an intermediate-term station blackout, and (4) a long-term station blackout. Several sensitivity studies investigating the effect of variations in containment failure size and location, as well as hydrogen ignition concentration are also documented

  15. A 3D superposition pencil beam dose calculation algorithm for a 60Co therapy unit and its verification by MC simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koncek, O.; Krivonoska, J.

    2014-11-01

    The MCNP Monte Carlo code was used to simulate the collimating system of the 60Co therapy unit to calculate the primary and scattered photon fluences as well as the electron contamination incident to the isocentric plane as the functions of the irradiation field size. Furthermore, a Monte Carlo simulation for the polyenergetic Pencil Beam Kernels (PBKs) generation was performed using the calculated photon and electron spectra. The PBK was analytically fitted to speed up the dose calculation using the convolution technique in the homogeneous media. The quality of the PBK fit was verified by comparing the calculated and simulated 60Co broad beam profiles and depth dose curves in a homogeneous water medium. The inhomogeneity correction coefficients were derived from the PBK simulation of an inhomogeneous slab phantom consisting of various materials. The inhomogeneity calculation model is based on the changes in the PBK radial displacement and on the change of the forward and backward electron scattering. The inhomogeneity correction is derived from the electron density values gained from a complete 3D CT array and considers different electron densities through which the pencil beam is propagated as well as the electron density values located between the interaction point and the point of dose deposition. Important aspects and details of the algorithm implementation are also described in this study.

  16. A study of the concept of non-radioactive unit-dosed reagent kits [cold unit doses (CUDs)] as an efficient and cost-saving method for 99mTc radiopharmaceutical preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of unit-dosing non-radioactive reagent kits and storing these cold unit doses (CUDs) for eventual labeling with 99m Tc. Unit doses were prepared from reagent kits of medronate (MDP) and pentetate (DTPA). The specific variables studied were the effects of storage time, storage temperature and reconstitution volume (dilution) on the unit doses. These effects were monitored by measuring the radiochemical and biodistribution properties of the unit doses following their final reconstitution with [99mTc] pertechnetate. The labelling efficiency was determined using instant thin layer chromatography (ITLC),and the biodistribution patterns of these radiolabeled CUDs were studied in mice. The results showed that MDP- and DTPA-CUDs stored at -18oC retained the properties which resulted in acceptable radiochemical purity and biodistribution in mice for as long as 30 days. On the other hand, the radiochemical purity of MDP and DTPA unit doses stored at 25oC deteriorated rapidly. Mean radiochemical purities as low as 0.58-19.4% were observed on day 30. Altered biodistributions were observed in a manner consistent with the decreased labeling efficiencies. The CUDs of lower dilution (3mL) appeared to be more stable than the CUDs of higher dilution (10 mL). However, the effect of reconstitution volume was much less significant than the temperature effect on the CUDs. In conclusion, tature effect on the CUDs. In conclusion, the concept of unit-dosing non-radioactive reagent kits appears to provide an efficient and cost-saving method for preparing infrequent and emergency radiopharmaceutical doses. (Author)

  17. Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations Project: Unit evaluation at Yucca Mountain, Nevada Test Site: Near-field thermal and mechanical calculations using the SANDIA-ADINA code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presented in this report are the results of a comparative study of two candidate horizons, the welded, devitrified Topopah Spring Member ofthe Paintbrush Tuff, and the nonwelded, zeolitized Tuffaceous Beds of Calico Hills. The mechanical and thermomechanical response these two horizons was assessed by conducting thermal and thermomechanical calculations using a two-dimensional room and pillar geometry of the vertical waste emplacement option using average and limit properties for each. A modified version of the computer code ADINA (SANDIA-ADINA) containing a material model for rock masses with ubiquitous jointing was used in the calculations. Results of the calculations are presented as the units' capacity for storage of nuclear waste and stability of the emplacement room and pillar due to excavation and long-term heating. A comparison is made with a similar underground opening geometry sited in Grouse Canyon Tuff, using properties obtained from G-Tunnel - a horizon of known excavation characteristics. Long-term stability of the excavated rooms was predicted for all units, as determined by evaluating regions of predicted joint slip as the result of excavation and subsequent thermal loading, evaluating regions of predicted rock matrix failure as the result of excavation and subsequent thermal loading, and evaluating safety factors against rock matrix failure. These results were derived through considering a wide range in material properties and in situ stresses. 21 refal properties and in situ stresses. 21 refs., 21 figs., 5 tabs

  18. The Transmission Line Cost Calculation

    OpenAIRE

    Yli-Hannuksela, Juho

    2011-01-01

    Tämän opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena oli laatia laskentamallit siirtokapasiteetiltaan ja nimellisjännitteiltään erikokoisten suurjännitelinjojen asennuskustannusten laskentaan. Tutkittavina jännitealueina oli 72.5 kV, 145 kV, 245 kV ja 400 kV. Opinnäytetyössä oli käytettävissä Wärtsilä Power Plantsin asennuskustannusten laskentaan käyttämä WICE-ME-työkalu. Työkaluun on mallinnettuna asiakkaalle tarjottavien tuotteiden asennustyö ja asennusmateriaalin määrä sekä ase...

  19. Calculating the neutron flux distribution in the channels of biological shield of the first unit at the Armenia nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of testing the RNZ program complex efficiency are considered. The programs are intended for calculating nuclear reactor shield configurations on the base of the full-scale neutron flux experimental investigations in the biological shield of the first unit at the Armenia NPP. The following neutron flux characteristics are calculated: line-of-sight radiation, inleakage and albedo. The data, characterizing the spatial dependence of these component contributions into the total neutron flux density in energy ranges above 2.5 and 0.8 MeV are given. The RNZ program complex is used for calculating the components of albedo inleakage radiation. For calculation the Monte Carlo method is used in combination with the differential albedo conception. Together with the RNZ complex the ROZ-6 program has been used according to which in 2D7P5 approximation the neutron transport in continuum shield is calculated. The same program is used to determine the equivalent source characteristics when calculating the albedo inleakage radiation component. The analysis of the results obtained shows that at the distances of l/a > 15, where a is a channel radius, l-a distance up to the measurement point, more than 90% of radiation flux density is determined by line-of-sight radiation components. The inleakage component provides the greatest contribution up to l/a=5-8. The reflected radiation component constitutes not more than 30-35% of the total flux density. The aln 30-35% of the total flux density. The albedo inleakage radiation component constitutes more than 75 % of the albedo component. The conclusion is drawn that by means of the RNZ program complex the correct calculation of neutron flux in nuclear reactor real shield configuration is possible

  20. SU-E-T-351: Verification of Monitor Unit Calculation for Lung Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy Using a Secondary Independent Planning System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuruta, Y; Nakata, M; Higashimura, K [Kyoto University Hospital, Kyoto, Kyoto (Japan); Nakamura, M; Miyabe, Y; Akimoto, M; Ono, T; Mukumoto, N; Ishihara, Y; Matsuo, Y; Mizowaki, T; Hiraoka, M [Kyoto University, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To compare isocenter (IC) dose between X-ray Voxel Monte Carlo (XVMC) and Acuros XB (AXB) as part of an independent verification of monitor unit (MU) calculation for lung stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) using a secondary independent treatment planning system (TPS). Methods: Treatment plans of 110 lesions from 101 patients who underwent lung SBRT with Vero4DRT (Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Japan, and BrainLAB, Feldkirchen, Germany) were evaluated retrospectively. Dose distribution was calculated with X-ray Voxel Monte Carlo (XVMC) in iPlan 4.5.1 (BrainLAB, Feldkirchen, Germany) on averaged intensity projection images. A spatial resolution and mean variance were 2 mm and 2%, respectively. The clinical treatment plans were transferred from iPlan to Eclipse (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA, USA), and doses were recalculated with well commissioned AXB ver. 11.0.31 while maintaining the XVMC-calculated MUs and beam arrangement. Dose calculations were made in the dose-to-medium dose reporting mode with the calculation grid size of 2.5 mm. The mean and standard deviation (SD) of the IC dose difference between XVMC and AXB were calculated. The tolerance level was defined as |mean|+2SD. Additionally, the relationship between IC dose difference and the size of planning target volume (PTV) or computed tomography (CT) value of internal target volume (ITV) was evaluated. Results: The mean±SD of the IC dose difference between XVMC and AXB was ?0.32±0.73%. The tolerance level was 1.8%. Absolute IC dose differences exceeding the tolerance level were observed in 3 patients (2.8%). There were no strong correlations between IC dose difference and PTV size (R=?0.14) or CT value of ITV (R=?0.33). Conclusion: The present study suggested that independent verification of MU calculation for lung SBRT using a secondary TPS is useful.

  1. COST DIGEST: COST SUMMARIES OF SELECTED ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report summarizes cost data on over 20 environmental control technologies. The cost parameters presented include total capital investment, net annual operating expenses, and unit annualized costs. These cost estimates are given over an appropriate range of system capacities f...

  2. The use of the transition cost accounting system in health services research

    OpenAIRE

    Pilote Louise; Caron Joanna; Filion Kristian B; Doris Nadine M; Azoulay Arik; Eisenberg Mark J

    2007-01-01

    Abstract The Transition cost accounting system integrates clinical, resource utilization, and financial information and is currently being used by several hospitals in Canada and the United States to calculate the costs of patient care. Our objectives were to review the use of hospital-based cost accounting systems to measure costs of treatment and discuss potential use of the Transition cost accounting system in health services research. Such systems provide internal reports to administrator...

  3. Assessing the costs and benefits of an oral vaccine for raccoon rabies: a possible model.

    OpenAIRE

    Meltzer, M. I.

    1996-01-01

    Any cost-benefit analysis of the use of an oral vaccine to control raccoon rabies should include calculating both costs and benefits in terms of $/unit area. Further, cost savings must be adjusted to match the stages of an epizootic: pre-epizootic, epizootic, and post-epizootic. A generic model, which can be adapted to different sites, illustrates the use of threshold analysis to link distribution costs, cost savings, bait density, and vaccine price. Initial results indicate the need to lower...

  4. 75 FR 9102 - Recovery of Cost of Hospital and Medical Care and Treatment Furnished by the United States...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    ...medical, surgical, or dental care. During the intervening period, the cost of medical care and treatment has increased...in an annual effect on the economy of $100 million or more...CFR Part 43 Claims, Health care. 0 Accordingly, by...

  5. An evaluation of cost estimates of nuclear power reactor decommissioning in Sweden, Germany and the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nominal base decommissioning cost estimates in Sweden, Germany and the US differ by large amounts. Even after adjustments to normalize the work scopes, significant cost differences remain. Variations in national cost structures, achievable productivity, the extent of preexisting infrastructure and institutional factors all contribute to make up the differences. Exchange rate aberrations are a complication for which appropriate adjustments have to be made in order to achieve a meaningful comparison. Our analyses demonstrate that virtually all these differences between the Swedish, German and US estimates can be explained by these factors. In terms of the overall reasonableness of the Swedish estimate as a basis for making financial provisions, there remain some issues that may warrant further investigation. One is the potential for and financial consequences of a serious interruption to the proposed sea transportation system. Secondly, the limited number of individual system analyses we have performed indicated some significant potential underestimates. For example, dismantling of the reactor pressure vessel costs appear to be underestimated by up to 70 MSEK (about 10 MUSD) per reactor, or up to 900 MSEK for the whole Swedish program of 12 reactors. Overall, the Swedish estimates appear to be built up in a logical and reasonable way. Our analyses indicate that some internal inconsistencies exist and that some specific input data assumptions may not be valid. In summary, the credibility of the estimates would benefit from further refinement of the scenarios and assumptions. 21 refs., 15 figs., 42 tabs

  6. Characteristics and Behavior of Managers towards Cost Consciouness (Empirical studies on Leadership Working Units in Southern Kalimantan Provincial Government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ade Adriani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The research’s  purpose is to test empirically examine the effect of the regional financial accounting information system characteristics and behavior of managers towards cost consciouness in the use of financial information systems area. Manager behavior is proxied by the control decision-making and cost management consciousness as practiced by Abernethy and Emidia. The study will examine whether the phenomenon occurs in Indonesia, particularly in the South Kalimantan provincial government. Concretely influences the characteristics of accounting information systems in this area of financial information systems, it is seen from the behavior of Chief SKPD in the South Kalimantan provincial government in decision-. The Result shows that Characteristics of Financial Accounting Information Systems affect the use of the local financial system to control decision-making and management.  There is a significant relationship between system characteristics financial information to the control area decisions. Financial regionally accounting information system characteristics were positively associated with decision controlling policy. The use of financial information systems area for menajament decisions affect cost consciousness. The effect of control decisions the cost consciousness is significant.

  7. Efficient linear-scaling quantum transport calculations on graphics processing units and applications on electron transport in graphene

    CERN Document Server

    Fan, Zheyong; Siro, Topi; Harju, Ari

    2013-01-01

    We implement, optimize, and validate the linear-scaling Kubo-Greenwood quantum transport simulation on graphics processing units by examining resonant scattering in graphene. We consider two practical representations of the Kubo-Greenwood formula: a Green-Kubo formula based on the velocity auto-correlation and an Einstein formula based on the mean square displacement. The code is fully implemented on graphics processing units with a speedup factor of up to 16 (using double-precision) relative to our CPU implementation. We compare the kernel polynomial method and the Fourier transform method for the approximation of the Dirac delta function and conclude that the former is more efficient. In the ballistic regime, the Einstein formula can produce the correct quantized conductance of one-dimensional graphene nanoribbons except for an overshoot near the band edges. In the diffusive regime, the Green-Kubo and the Einstein formalisms are demonstrated to be equivalent. A comparison of the length-dependence of the con...

  8. Costs of Rapid HIV Screening in an Urban Emergency Department and a Nearby County Jail in the Southeastern United States

    OpenAIRE

    Spaulding, Anne C.; MacGowan, Robin J.; Copeland, Brittney; Shrestha, Ram K; Bowden, Chava J.; Kim, Min J; Margolis, Andrew; Mustaafaa, Genetha; Reid, Laurie C.; Heilpern, Katherine L.; Shah, Bijal B.

    2015-01-01

    Emergency departments and jails provide medical services to persons at risk for HIV infection and are recommended venues for HIV screening. Our main objective in this study was to analyze the cost per new HIV diagnosis associated with the HIV screening program in these two venues. The emergency department’s parallel testing program was conducted at Grady Memorial Hospital in Atlanta, Georgia starting in 2008; the jail’s integrated testing program began at the Fulton County (GA) Jail in 2011. ...

  9. Self-adaptive Differential Evolution Based Optimal Power Flow for Units with Non-smooth Fuel Cost Functions

    OpenAIRE

    C. Thitithamrongchai; B. Eua-arporn

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a self-adaptive differential evolution with augmented Lagrange multiplier method (SADE_ALM) for solving optimal power flow (OPF) problems with non-smooth generator fuel cost curves. The SADE_ALM is a modified version of conventional differential evolution (DE) by integrating mutation factor (F ) and crossover constant (CR ) as additional control variables.An augmented Lagrange multiplier method (ALM) is applied to handle inequality constraints instead of traditional penalt...

  10. Cost Of Services In Medical Imaging Center Of Imam Khomeini Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atefeh Afshari

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Firms are always looking for a way to increase the profitability of products or services. Therefore, the determination of cost of services to achieve this goal seems necessary. Aiming to clarify such costs in governmental units, the present study was designed to explain the allocation of costs based on each unit’s activities. Materials and Methods: This was a descriptive study. Using field methods, the data were obtained from the activities carried out in Medical Imaging Center of Imam Khomeini Hospital in 2010-2011. To calculate the expenses of each unit, both direct and indirect costs of that unit were included. Data were analyzed using activity-based calculations. And ultimately, the cost-benefit of services rendered in each unit was calculated based on the difference between revenues and expenses. Results: With the average revenue of 573,486 rials and a cost of 527,962 rials per service, the benefit per service was computed to be equal to 45,524 rials. Conclusion: With the full implementation of the accrual accounting system, the cost of all services can be obtained, and services will be priced optimally in each unit. Besides, the management of all costs and elimination of unnecessary ones will lead to the reduction of the total cost of services while maintaining the necessary efficiency. Moreover, it will enable the organization to survive and develop based on its strategic activities.

  11. Role of lignin in reducing life-cycle carbon emissions, water use, and cost for United States cellulosic biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scown, Corinne D; Gokhale, Amit A; Willems, Paul A; Horvath, Arpad; McKone, Thomas E

    2014-08-01

    Cellulosic ethanol can achieve estimated greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reductions greater than 80% relative to gasoline, largely as a result of the combustion of lignin for process heat and electricity in biorefineries. Most studies assume lignin is combusted onsite, but exporting lignin to be cofired at coal power plants has the potential to substantially reduce biorefinery capital costs. We assess the life-cycle GHG emissions, water use, and capital costs associated with four representative biorefinery test cases. Each case is evaluated in the context of a U.S. national scenario in which corn stover, wheat straw, and Miscanthus are converted to 1.4 EJ (60 billion liters) of ethanol annually. Life-cycle GHG emissions range from 4.7 to 61 g CO2e/MJ of ethanol (compared with ? 95 g CO2e/MJ of gasoline), depending on biorefinery configurations and marginal electricity sources. Exporting lignin can achieve GHG emission reductions comparable to onsite combustion in some cases, reduce life-cycle water consumption by up to 40%, and reduce combined heat and power-related capital costs by up to 63%. However, nearly 50% of current U.S. coal-fired power generating capacity is expected to be retired by 2050, which will limit the capacity for lignin cofiring and may double transportation distances between biorefineries and coal power plants. PMID:24988448

  12. A simple method to calculate spatial dose distribution produced by a beam of caesium-137 teletherapy unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present study, a computational method is used to determine the dose at any point in tissue-equivalent medium when it is irradiated by an external beam of gamma rays using different field sizes. The central axis percentage depth dose at any depth and the central plane percentage depth dose, at the same depth, were measured using a water phantom and a Farmer dosimeter. The measured results were compared to the mathematical expressions and the fitting parameters and off-axis ratios were determined. Thus the depth dose at any point in the medium could then be calculated and compared to the experimentally measured one. The contribution of the percentage scattered depth dose to the total depth dose was determined and was found to increase with the increase in depth and the off-axis distance. (author). 13 refs., 9 figures, 2 tables

  13. NNWSI unit evaluation at Yucca Mountain, Nevada Test Site: Near field mechanical calculations using a continuum jointed rock moel in the JAC code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) Project, managed by the Nevada Operations Office of the US Department of Energy, is examining the feasibility of siting a repository for high level nuclear wastes at Yucca Mountain on and adjacent to the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The work reported herein was done to support the selection, on a technical basis, of a single target repository horizon upon which to concentrate future activities. Presented in this report are the results of a comparative study between two candidate horizons: the devitrified Topopah Spring member of the Paintbrush Tuff and the nonwelded, zeolitized Tuffaceous Beds of Calico Hills. Performance of a repository sited in each candidate horizon was assessed by conducting structural calculations using a two-dimensional room-and-pillar geometry and average and limit material properties. The computer code JAC, with a constitutive model for jointed rock masses, was used to make the calculations. Based on analyses of the confining pressures in the pillar and the joint movement near the room, it is concluded that the Topopah Spring unit is more suitable than the Calico Hills unit for the placement of a nuclear waste repository. Finally, a comparison is made with a similar mine geometry sited in the Grouse Canyon Tuff, a horizon of known performance characteristics, using properties from G-Tunnel at NTS

  14. [Implementation of the multi-center basis documentation CL-BaDo for conciliar and liaison services: generating data for internal quality management and cost calculation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Barbara; Fritzsche, Kurt; Schäfer, Christine; Pedrosa Gil, Francisco; Vitinius, Frank; von Wachter, Martin; Häfner, Steffen; Loew, Thomas; Herzog, Thomas; Söllner, Wolfgang

    2006-01-01

    In the German DRG system the funding of CL services is not ensured. The documentation of psychiatric comorbidity and CL care delivery is a pre-condition to the development of funding models for CL-services. A task force of several German psychosomatic associations (German College of Psychosomatic Medicine, German Society of Psychosomatic Medicine and Psychotherapy, General Medical Society for Psychotherapy) developed a new documentation form for CL-services (CL-BaDo). The pilot study explored the multicenter implementation of CL-BaDo and the use of the documentation form for quality management and cost calculation. Over a period of at least three months, participating CL-services documented all CL cases consecutively with the CL-BaDo. One site applied full electronic data processing. 2116 CL cases from eight psychosomatic CL-services were analysed. The CL-BaDo is a time-efficient, feasible and acceptable documentation form for CL-service delivery. The full electronic data processing enables networking with a hospital information system to produce higher data quality. The data of CL-BaDo can be used locally for quality management, development of management strategies and communication with consultants, as well as nationwide for health policy questions and research. PMID:16790164

  15. Survey of the costs of Peripheric Intravenous Device in the composition of the values of the internment in pediatrics unit - a quantitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tathiana Martins

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Observing in practical daily of the pediatric assistance the puncture of repetition1 for maintenance of a security access in the medicine administration with drawn out period and knowing that the system of payment to the hospital for the SUS (system of health financed by the government is for type of illness, it sharpened me the interest in developing a exploratory, descriptive research with quantitative boarding on the costs of Peripheral Intravenous Device (DIP in the internment in Pediatrics2. Objectives: To raise the costs of DIP used during the internment in a pediatrics unit; To identify the causes of substitution of DIP in the venous accesses during the internment in a pediatrics unit and To correlate the cost of DIP in the composition of the final remuneration of the paid pediatrics internments for the SUS. The scene of the research was a Pediatric Infirmary of a University Hospital (HU. Sample: nineteen children interned in the period of October of 2006 the April of 2007. The research was approved by the Committee of Ethics of the Institution under nº. 071/2006. The date had been analyzed statistical and organized in three categories: I. Demographic profile and Epidemiologist of the Children interned in the Infirmary of Pediatrics of the HU; II The Costs of the DIP in the Process of Hospitalization in Pediatrics in the HU; e III. The Costs of the DIP in the composition of the final remuneration of the paid pediatrics internments for the SUS. In the first category the characterization and the profile of the clientele interned in the Infirmary of Pediatrics had been presented. In the second category the main causes of the loss of a peripheral venous access had been presented, thus tracing a parallel with the average of time of duration of a venous access, the places of effective venous puncture and the deriving costs of the infusions imperfections. In the third category they had been presented the paid time of permanence for the SUS for each illness related to the real time of permanence of each customer, the costs of the venous accesses during the period of each internment and the costs of the DIP when compared with the costs of the internment. Age of preschool pertaining to school is concluded that the majority of the interned children was the masculine sort, resident it are of the city of localization of the HUAP, remaining interned in its majority for a period of 7 the 10 days or 21 the 30 days. Was used a average of 27,3 DIP for child, being the main cause of infusion imperfection the fleabite3;4. The average of permanence of the DIP was of 72 hours, evidencing that raised the quantitative expense of DIP directly was related to the inability and lack of technique of puncture of the nursing team. Had to the quantitative raised one of used DIP, the expenses of exactly in relation to the paid value of the internment for the SUS varied in 52% of the sample between R$25,00 the R$100, 00, many of the 19 times representing of up to 31% of the value received for the hospital for determined illness. Therefore, it urges to continue investigating in this line theoretician-methodological to favor the process of consolidation of the nursing as profession recognized and sanctioned by its components (the professionals and its dependents (the population.

  16. Survey of the costs of Peripheric Intravenous Device in the composition of the values of the internment in pediatrics unit - a quantitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tathiana Martins

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Observing in practical daily of the pediatric assistance the puncture of repetition1 for maintenance of a security access in the medicine administration with drawn out period and knowing that the system of payment to the hospital for the SUS (system of health financed by the government is for type of illness, it sharpened me the interest in developing a exploratory, descriptive research with quantitative boarding on the costs of Peripheral Intravenous Device (DIP in the internment in Pediatrics2. Objectives: To raise the costs of DIP used during the internment in a pediatrics unit; To identify the causes of substitution of DIP in the venous accesses during the internment in a pediatrics unit and To correlate the cost of DIP in the composition of the final remuneration of the paid pediatrics internments for the SUS. The scene of the research was a Pediatric Infirmary of a University Hospital (HU. Sample: nineteen children interned in the period of October of 2006 the April of 2007. The research was approved by the Committee of Ethics of the Institution under nº. 071/2006. The date had been analyzed statistical and organized in three categories: I. Demographic profile and Epidemiologist of the Children interned in the Infirmary of Pediatrics of the HU; II The Costs of the DIP in the Process of Hospitalization in Pediatrics in the HU; e III. The Costs of the DIP in the composition of the final remuneration of the paid pediatrics internments for the SUS. In the first category the characterization and the profile of the clientele interned in the Infirmary of Pediatrics had been presented. In the second category the main causes of the loss of a peripheral venous access had been presented, thus tracing a parallel with the average of time of duration of a venous access, the places of effective venous puncture and the deriving costs of the infusions imperfections. In the third category they had been presented the paid time of permanence for the SUS for each illness related to the real time of permanence of each customer, the costs of the venous accesses during the period of each internment and the costs of the DIP when compared with the costs of the internment. Age of preschool pertaining to school is concluded that the majority of the interned children was the masculine sort, resident it are of the city of localization of the HUAP, remaining interned in its majority for a period of 7 the 10 days or 21 the 30 days. Was used a average of 27,3 DIP for child, being the main cause of infusion imperfection the fleabite3;4. The average of permanence of the DIP was of 72 hours, evidencing that raised the quantitative expense of DIP directly was related to the inability and lack of technique of puncture of the nursing team. Had to the quantitative raised one of used DIP, the expenses of exactly in relation to the paid value of the internment for the SUS varied in 52% of the sample between R$25,00 the R$100, 00, many of the 19 times representing of up to 31% of the value received for the hospital for determined illness. Therefore, it urges to continue investigating in this line theoretician-methodological to favor the process of consolidation of the nursing as profession recognized and sanctioned by its components (the professionals and its dependents (the population.

  17. The costs of fluid overload in the adult intensive care unit: is a small-volume infusion model a proactive solution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child, Debra L; Cao, Zhun; Seiberlich, Laura E; Brown, Harold; Greenberg, Jordan; Swanson, Anne; Sewall, Martha R; Robinson, Scott B

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Fluid overload (FO) in critically ill patients remains a challenging clinical dilemma, and many continuous intravenous (IV) medications in the US are being delivered as a dilute solution, adding significantly to a patient’s daily intake. This study describes the costs and outcomes of FO in patients receiving multiple continuous infusions. Materials and methods A retrospective study was conducted using a hospital administrative database covering >500 US hospitals. An FO cohort included adult intensive care unit (ICU) patients with a central line receiving IV loop diuretics and 2+ continuous IV infusions on 50%+ of their ICU days; a directly matched non-FO cohort included patients without IV diuretic use. The primary outcome of the study was total hospitalization costs per visit. Additional outcomes were ICU costs, mortality, total and ICU length of stay (LOS), 30-day readmission rates, and ventilator use. Unadjusted descriptive analysis was performed using chi-squared or paired t-tests to compare outcomes between the two cohorts. Results A total of 63,974 patients were identified in each cohort. The total hospitalization cost per visit for the FO cohort was US$15,344 higher than the non-FO cohort (US$42,386 vs US$27,042), and the ICU cost for the FO cohort was US$5,243 higher than the non-FO cohort (US$10,902 vs US$5,659). FO patients had higher mortality (20% vs 16.8%), prolonged LOS (11.5 vs 8.0 days), longer ICU LOS (6.2 vs 3.6 days), higher risk of 30-day readmission (21.8% vs 21.3%), and ventilator usage (47.7% vs 28.3%) than the non-FO cohort (all P<0.05). Conclusion In patients receiving multiple continuous infusions, FO is associated with increased health care resources and costs. Maximally concentrating medications and proactively providing continuous medications in small-volume infusions (SVI) could be a potential solution to prevent iatrogenic FO in critically ill patients. Further prospective research is warranted to assess the impact of the SVI dispensing model on patient outcomes and health care costs. PMID:25548524

  18. Data Qualification Report: Calculated Porosity and Porosity-Derived Values for Lithostratigraphic Units for use on the Yucca Mountain Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Sanchez

    2001-05-30

    The qualification is being completed in accordance with the Data Qualification Plan DQP-NBS-GS-000006, Rev. 00 (CRWMS M&O 2001). The purpose of this data qualification activity is to evaluate for qualification the unqualified developed input and porosity output included in Data Tracking Number (DTN) M09910POROCALC.000. The main output of the analyses documented in DTN M09910POROCALC.000 is the calculated total porosity and effective porosity for 40 Yucca Mountain Project boreholes. The porosity data are used as input to Analysis Model Report (AMR) 10040, ''Rock Properties Model'' (MDL-NBS-GS-000004, Rev. 00), Interim Change Notice [ICN] 02 (CRWMS M&O 2000b). The output from the rock properties model is used as input to numerical physical-process modeling within the context of a relationship developed in the AMR between hydraulic conductivity, bound water and zeolitic zones for use in the unsaturated zone model. In accordance with procedure AP-3.15Q, the porosity output is not used in the direct calculation of Principal Factors for post-closure safety or disruptive events. The original source for DTN M09910POROCALC.000 is a Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) Management and Operating Contractor (M&O) report, ''Combined Porosity from Geophysical Logs'' (CRWMS M&O 1999a and hereafter referred to as Rael 1999). That report recalculated porosity results for both the historical boreholes covered in Nelson (1996), and the modern boreholes reported in CRWMS M&O (1996a,b). The porosity computations in Rael (1999) are based on density-porosity mathematical relationships requiring various input parameters, including bulk density, matrix density and air and/or fluid density and volumetric water content. The main output is computed total porosity and effective porosity reported on a foot-by-foot basis for each borehole, although volumetric water content is derived from neutron data as an interim output. This qualification report uses technical assessment and corroboration to evaluate the original subject DTN. Rael (1999) provides many technical details of the technical assessment and corroboration methods and partially satisfies the intent of the qualification plan for this analysis. Rael presents a modified method based on Nelson (1996) to recompute porosity and porosity-derived values and uses some of the same inputs. Rael's (1999) intended purpose was to document porosity output relatively free of biases introduced by differing computational methods or parameter selections used for different boreholes. The qualification report necessarily evaluates the soundness of the pre-Process Validation and Re-engineering (PVAR) analyses and methodology, as reported in Rael (1999).

  19. Data Qualification Report: Calculated Porosity and Porosity-Derived Values for Lithostratigraphic Units for use on the Yucca Mountain Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The qualification is being completed in accordance with the Data Qualification Plan DQP-NBS-GS-000006, Rev. 00 (CRWMS M and O 2001). The purpose of this data qualification activity is to evaluate for qualification the unqualified developed input and porosity output included in Data Tracking Number (DTN) M09910POROCALC.000. The main output of the analyses documented in DTN M09910POROCALC.000 is the calculated total porosity and effective porosity for 40 Yucca Mountain Project boreholes. The porosity data are used as input to Analysis Model Report (AMR) 10040, ''Rock Properties Model'' (MDL-NBS-GS-000004, Rev. 00), Interim Change Notice [ICN] 02 (CRWMS M and O 2000b). The output from the rock properties model is used as input to numerical physical-process modeling within the context of a relationship developed in the AMR between hydraulic conductivity, bound water and zeolitic zones for use in the unsaturated zone model. In accordance with procedure AP-3.15Q, the porosity output is not used in the direct calculation of Principal Factors for post-closure safety or disruptive events. The original source for DTN M09910POROCALC.000 is a Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) Management and Operating Contractor (M and O) report, ''Combined Porosity from Geophysical Logs'' (CRWMS M and O 1999a and hereafter referred to as Rael 1999). That report recalculated porosity results for both the historical boreholes covered in Nelson (1996), and the modern boreholes reported in CRWMS M and O (1996a,b). The porosity computations in Rael (1999) are based on density-porosity mathematical relationships requiring various input parameters, including bulk density, matrix density and air and/or fluid density and volumetric water content. The main output is computed total porosity and effective porosity reported on a foot-by-foot basis for each borehole, although volumetric water content is derived from neutron data as an interim output. This qualification report uses technical assessment and corroboration to evaluate the original subject DTN. Rael (1999) provides many technical details of the technical assessment and corroboration methods and partially satisfies the intent of the qualification plan for this analysis. Rael presents a modified method based on Nelson (1996) to recompute porosity and porosity-derived values and uses some of the same inputs. Rael's (1999) intended purpose was to document porosity output relatively free of biases introduced by differing computational methods or parameter selections used for different boreholes. The qualification report necessarily evaluates the soundness of the pre-Process Validation and Re-engineering (PVAR) analyses and methodology, as reported in Rael (1999)

  20. Costs and risk factors for ventilator-associated pneumonia in a Turkish University Hospital's Intensive Care Unit: A case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serin Simay

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP which is an important part of all nosocomial infections in intensive care unit (ICU is a serious illness with substantial morbidity and mortality, and increases costs of hospital care. We aimed to evaluate costs and risk factors for VAP in adult ICU. Methods This is a-three year retrospective case-control study. The data were collected between 01 January 2000 and 31 December 2002. During the study period, 132 patients were diagnosed as nosocomial pneumonia of 731 adult medical-surgical ICU patients. Of these only 37 VAP patients were assessed, and multiple nosocomially infected patients were excluded from the study. Sixty non-infected ICU patients were chosen as control patients. Results Median length of stay in ICU in patients with VAP and without were 8.0 (IQR: 6.5 and 2.5 (IQR: 2.0 days respectively (P Conclusion Respiratory failure, coma, depressed consciousness, enteral feeding and length of stay are independent risk factors for developing VAP. The cost of VAP is approximately five-fold higher than non-infected patients.

  1. Costs and benefits or irradiation and other selected quarantine treatments for fruit and vegetable imports to the United States of America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For plants and plant products considered potential conveyors of exotic pests, fumigation using methyl bromide (MB) is the principal method of import quarantine treatment approved in the United States of America. This and other uses of MB have come into question due to evidence that MB may contribute to ozone depletion in the upper atmosphere. The paper examines the economics costs and benefits of irradiation as an alternative import quarantine treatment to MB fumigation. Costs associated with temperature based methods that are used to treat certain US fruit and vegetable imports, namely, hot water immersion and cold treatment, are also examined. Considerable research on irradiation as a quarantine treatment has focused on determining appropriate dosage levels to ensure phytosanitary protection. Along with evaluating its technical efficacy, the relative costs of irradiation are central to assessing its potential as a treatment alternative. Analysis of selected fruits and vegetables in US markets indicates irradiation is an economically feasible alternative to MB fumigation. Irradiation as an import quarantine treatment can generate net US gains from trade with countries where exotic pests present a phytosanitary risk. These gains range from US $650 million to US $1100 million over the five year period analysed. (author). 8 refs, 5 figs, 6 tabs

  2. Principles and methods of managerial cost-accounting systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suver, J D; Cooper, J C

    1988-01-01

    An introduction to cost-accounting systems for pharmacy managers is provided; terms are defined and examples of specific applications are given. Cost-accounting systems determine, record, and report the resources consumed in providing services. An effective cost-accounting system must provide the information needed for both internal and external reports. In accounting terms, cost is the value given up to secure an asset. In determining how volumes of activity affect costs, fixed costs and variable costs are calculated; applications include pricing strategies, cost determinations, and break-even analysis. Also discussed are the concepts of direct and indirect costs, opportunity costs, and incremental and sunk costs. For most pharmacy department services, process costing, an accounting of intermediate outputs and homogeneous units, is used; in determining the full cost of providing a product or service (e.g., patient stay), job-order costing is used. Development of work-performance standards is necessary for monitoring productivity and determining product costs. In allocating pharmacy department costs, a ratio of costs to charges can be used; this method is convenient, but microcosting (specific identification of the costs of products) is more accurate. Pharmacy managers can use cost-accounting systems to evaluate the pharmacy's strategies, policies, and services and to improve budgets and reports. PMID:3348229

  3. A practical sequence and inhomogeneity correction method for use in blocked equivalent square calculations in consideration of reducing the discrepancy rates for 3d planning monitor unit checks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In 3D planning checks the BEQS (Blocked Equivalent Square) calculation is sometimes the most challenging part of the work, as geometric size estimation does not always reflect real tissue volume involved in a 3D treatment field. This is especially so for the tangent field with obliquity. This study attempts to develop a practical method in order to more easily handle the estimation for BEQS in 3D clinical planning checks to reduce the discrepancy caused by a simple geometric BEQS estimation. A combined BEQS estimation procedure involving Geometric + Inhomogeneity + Irregular Skin Surface correction is presented. This procedure is sequentially managed by an in-house developed software as: A blocked field shape (MLC or shielding blocks) is loaded from planning system export or directly drawn in the screen picture box by user; Clarkson calculation or Irregular Rectangular Shape estimation can be performed as an option by selecting the functions to receive the geometric BEQS for the shape; Inhomogeneity Correction for the tissues involved at the level of the beam weight point depth; Irregular Skin Surface correction is then processed for the surface level of the beam entry point. The BEQS calculated by this procedure sometimes shows a very different result compared with the BEQS simply calculated by geometric estimation, especially for the tangent beam entry fields or the field involved with significant inhomogeneity tissues. The different result causes differessues. The different result causes different TPR and Sp values to be selected in the planning monitor unit check. In comparison, by using this BEQS correcting sequence, the planning check result discrepancy could be reduced on average by 1.5% - 2.0% for the tangent beam entry fields such as breast or head and neck cases. The BEQS calculation in 3D planning is not a simple geometric size estimation but is an integration, voxel by voxel, for inhomogeneity tissues distributed in the field volume. If these corrections are incorporated into 3D monitor unit checking, then there will be reduction in discrepancy between simple geometric estimation methods and the method presented by this study. Copyright (2004) Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine

  4. CHARACTERIZING COSTS, SAVINGS AND BENEFITS OF A SELECTION OF ENERGY EFFICIENT EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES IN THE UNITED STATES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, T.; Slaa, J.W.; Sathaye, J.

    2010-12-15

    Implementation and adoption of efficient end-use technologies have proven to be one of the key measures for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions throughout the industries. In many cases, implementing energy efficiency measures is among one of the most cost effective investments that the industry could make in improving efficiency and productivity while reducing CO2 emissions. Over the years, there have been incentives to use resources and energy in a cleaner and more efficient way to create industries that are sustainable and more productive. With the working of energy programs and policies on GHG inventory and regulation, understanding and managing the costs associated with mitigation measures for GHG reductions is very important for the industry and policy makers around the world. Successful implementation of emerging technologies not only can help advance productivities and competitiveness but also can play a significant role in mitigation efforts by saving energy. Providing evaluation and estimation of the costs and energy savings potential of emerging technologies is the focus of our work in this project. The overall goal of the project is to identify and select emerging and under-utilized energy-efficient technologies and practices as they are important to reduce energy consumption in industry while maintaining economic growth. This report contains the results from performing Task 2"Technology evaluation" for the project titled"Research Opportunities in Emerging and Under-Utilized Energy-Efficient Industrial Technologies," which was sponsored by California Energy Commission and managed by CIEE. The project purpose is to analyze market status, market potential, and economic viability of selected technologies applicable to the U.S. In this report, LBNL first performed re-assessments of all of the 33 emerging energy-efficient industrial technologies, including re-evaluation of the 26 technologies that were previously identified by Martin et al. (2000) and their potential significance to energy use in the industries, and new evaluation of additional seven technologies. The re-assessments were essentially updated with recent information that we searched and collected from literature to the extent possible. The progress of selected technologies as they diffused into the marketplace from 2000 to 2010 was then discussed in this report. The report also includes updated detailed characterizations of 15 technologies studied in 2000, with comparisons noted.

  5. Réduire les coûts de la simulation informatique grâce aux plans d'expériences : un exemple en calcul de procédé Reducing Computer Simulation Costs with Factorial Designs: an Example of Process Calculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murray M.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Cet article est destiné à montrer que la méthode des Plans d'Expériences utilisée dans les laboratoires et les unités de fabrication est également applicable au calcul scientifique et en particulier, à la simulation informatique. Son emploi permet de réduire, dans une forte proportion, le nombre de passages informatiques. Il permet également d'écrire des modèles mathématiques empiriques qui orientent les recherches vers la bonne solution et qui fournissent une bonne image du phénomène étudié. The aim of this article is to show that Factorial Design, which is a commonly used method in laboratories and production units, can also be very successful for designing and computerized simulations. Computer runs can be reduced by a factor as great as four to achieve a comprehensive understanding of how a plant or a process runs. Simple models can then be constructed to provide a good image of the investigated phenomenom. The example given here is that of a plant processing raw Natural Gas whose outputs are a Sales Gas and an NGL which must meet simultaneously five specifications. The operator in charge of the simulations begins by defining the Experimental Range of Investigation (Table 1. Calculations (Table 1, Fig. 2 are set in a pattern defined by Factorial Design (Table 2. These correspond to the apices of the Experimental cube (Fig. 2. Results of the simulations are then reported on Table 3. These require analysis, using Factorial Design Theory, in conjunction with each specification. A graphical approach is used to define the regions for which each specification is met: Fig. 3 shows the zone authorized for the first specification, the Wobbe Index and Fig. 4 gives the results for the outlet pressure of the Turbo-Expander. Figs. 5, 6 and 7 show the zones allowed for the CO2/C2 ratio, the TVP and the C2/C3 ratio. A satisfactory zone is found, for this last ratio, outside of the investigated range. The results acquired so far enable us to define a whole new area where all specifications should simultaneously be met. This area has been found with the help of empirical mathematical models derived from the theory of Factorial Design. An instruction point is proposed (Fig. 8 and a confirmation run for these conditions has been made to show the validity of the model. With the use of Factorial Design, the computing budget was controlled with a number of simulations reduced by a factor of four compared to the more traditionnal approach. In addition to these savings, the engineer in charge now has a clear view of how the plant runs. He can now deal with various related problems without having to re-run simulations.

  6. 2011 Cost of Wind Energy Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tegen, S.; Lantz, E.; Hand, M.; Maples, B.; Smith, A.; Schwabe, P.

    2013-03-01

    This report describes the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) for a typical land-based wind turbine installed in the United States in 2011, as well as the modeled LCOE for a fixed-bottom offshore wind turbine installed in the United States in 2011. Each of the four major components of the LCOE equation are explained in detail, such as installed capital cost, annual energy production, annual operating expenses, and financing, and including sensitivity ranges that show how each component can affect LCOE. These LCOE calculations are used for planning and other purposes by the U.S. Department of Energy's Wind Program.

  7. Management of sacroiliac joint disruption and degenerative sacroiliitis with nonoperative care is medical resource-intensive and costly in a United States commercial payer population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ackerman SJ

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Stacey J Ackerman,1 David W Polly Jr,2 Tyler Knight,3 Tim Holt,4 John Cummings5 1Covance Market Access Services Inc, San Diego, CA, USA; 2University of Minnesota, Orthopaedic Surgery, Minneapolis, MN, USA; 3Covance Market Access Services Inc, Gaithersburg, MD, USA; 4Montgomery Spine Center, Orthopaedic Surgery, Montgomery, AL, USA; 5Community Health Network, Neurosurgery, Indianapolis, IN, USA Introduction: Low back pain is common and originates in the sacroiliac (SI joint in 15%–30% of cases. Traditional SI joint disruption/degenerative sacroiliitis treatments include nonoperative care or open SI joint fusion. To evaluate the usefulness of newly developed minimally-invasive technologies, the costs of traditional treatments must be better understood. We assessed the costs of nonoperative care for SI joint disruption to commercial payers in the United States (US. Methods: A retrospective study of claim-level medical resource use and associated costs used the MarketScan® Commercial Claims and Encounters as well as Medicare Supplemental Databases of Truven Healthcare. Patients with a primary ICD-9-CM diagnosis code for SI joint disruption (720.2, 724.6, 739.4, 846.9, or 847.3, an initial date of diagnosis from January 1, 2005 to December 31, 2007 (index date, and continuous enrollment for ?1 year before and 3 years after the index date were included. Claims attributable to SI joint disruption with a primary or secondary ICD-9-CM diagnosis code of 71x.xx, 72x.xx, 73x.xx, or 84x.xx were identified; the 3-year medical resource use-associated reimbursement and outpatient pain medication costs (measured in 2011 US dollars were tabulated across practice settings. A subgroup analysis was performed among patients with lumbar spinal fusion. Results: The mean 3-year direct, attributable medical costs were $16,196 (standard deviation [SD] $28,592 per privately-insured patient (N=78,533. Among patients with lumbar spinal fusion (N=434, attributable 3-year mean costs were $91,720 (SD $75,502 per patient compared to $15,776 (SD $27,542 per patient among patients without lumbar spinal fusion (N=78,099. Overall, inpatient hospitalizations (19.4%, hospital outpatient visits and procedures (14.0%, and outpatient pain medications (9.6% accounted for the largest proportion of costs. The estimated 3-year insurance payments attributable to SI joint disruption were $1.6 billion per 100,000 commercial payer beneficiaries. Conclusion: The economic burden of SI joint disruption among privately-insured patients in the US is substantial, highlighting the need for more cost-effective therapies. Keywords: cost, epidural injection, lumbar spinal fusion surgery

  8. Numerical calculation of the growth of InP by the travelling heater method in the first mission of the Space Flyer Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, K.; Adachi, Satoshi; Watanabe, M.; Ikegami, Y.; Ochiai, J.; Kuribayashi, M.; Sakai, H.

    1992-08-01

    The possibility of constitutional supercooling occurring in InP crystals grown in space and on the ground by the Travelling Heater Method (THM) was determined by numerical computation. This was done in preparation for the growth of these crystals using the image mirror furnace on the first mission of the Space Flyer Unit in 1994. In THM the quality of the crystals depends on whether or not constitutional supercooling occurs. For this purpose, thermal convection, Marangoni convection, diffusion, solute (posphrous) transport, and isotherms in solution zone of InP were calculated using the model of cylindrical coordination. It was anticipated that a free surface would appear in the center of the solvent surface and a linear pattern would be assumed for that temperature distribution at the solvent surface.

  9. Biotic, water-quality, and hydrologic metrics calculated for the analysis of temporal trends in National Water Quality Assessment Program Data in the Western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiele, Stephen M.; Brasher, Anne M.D.; Miller, Matthew P.; May, Jason T.; Carpenter, Kurt D.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program was established by Congress in 1991 to collect long-term, nationally consistent information on the quality of the Nation's streams and groundwater. The NAWQA Program utilizes interdisciplinary and dynamic studies that link the chemical and physical conditions of streams (such as flow and habitat) with ecosystem health and the biologic condition of algae, aquatic invertebrates, and fish communities. This report presents metrics derived from NAWQA data and the U.S. Geological Survey streamgaging network for sampling sites in the Western United States, as well as associated chemical, habitat, and streamflow properties. The metrics characterize the conditions of algae, aquatic invertebrates, and fish. In addition, we have compiled climate records and basin characteristics related to the NAWQA sampling sites. The calculated metrics and compiled data can be used to analyze ecohydrologic trends over time.

  10. Calculation of a 900 MW conceptual 700/720ºC coal-fired power unit with an auxiliary extraction-backpressure turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna St?pczy?ska

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the calculations for different configurations of a 900 MW power unit for advanced 700/720°C ultra-supercritical steam parameters with a single and double steam reheat. The use of such high parameters, especially the reheated steam temperature, involves thermodynamic and material problems related to high temperature differences in the feed water heaters. In relation to this, a concept of the modification of the feed water heaters system by using an auxiliary extraction-backpressure turbine fed with steam from the cold reheat steam line is presented. The steam from the bleeds and the turbine outlet is directed to regenerative heaters fed in the classical system from the intermediate pressure turbine, which reduces the temperature differences in these exchangers and simplifies the main turbine IP part structure.

  11. Advances and Challenges for Adoption of Activity Based Costing (ABC by Public Sector: A Comparative Study of Brazil, Colombia, Uruguay and United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Paulo F Carmo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to evaluate the advances and challenges to the adoption of the activity based costing system (ABC by the public sector of countries like Colombia, Uruguay and Brazil, always keeping a comparative perspective with the historical experience of the United States. Considering the growing demand of citizens-users of public services in terms of quality, accountability and transparency, and also the convergence of international accounting and management practices, such as convergence on IPSAS by the public sector and the adoption of IFRS in the private sector, encouraged by economic globalization, the study in comparative perspective between different experiences  become relevant to public sector organizations, in order to inspire public policies in that direction. The results found by the present research reinforces the conclusions of previous papers (Nunes 1995, IFAC 2000, 2002, 2003, Duarte Martins Mauss and Souza 2008, reaffirming the relevance of the ABC system information for the decision-making process also in the public sector.

  12. Multi-sphere Unit Cell model to calculate the effective thermal conductivity in packed pebble beds of mono-sized spheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? A new model to predict the effective thermal conductivity in a packed pebble bed. ? Specifically accounts for the porous structure. ? Enables improved prediction in the near-wall and wall regions. ? Conduction component compares well with experimental data. ? Radiation component compares well for temperatures up to 1200 °C. - Abstract: This paper presents a new approach to the calculation of the effective thermal conductivity in packed pebble bed reactors, namely the Multi-sphere Unit Cell model. The model specifically accounts for the porous structure, which is characterised using the radial variation in porosity, coordination number and contact angles between adjacent spheres. It also accounts for solid and gas thermal conduction, contact area, surface roughness as well as the thermal radiation for pebble temperatures up to 1200 °C. This more rigorous approach to characterising the porous structure enables improved prediction of the effective thermal conductivity in the near-wall and wall regions, resulting in better prediction of the temperatures at the reflector interface. Results obtained with the Multi-sphere Unit Cell model are compared with existing correlations and experimental data including those from the SANA-I experimental test facility.

  13. Cost of nuclear power generation judged by power rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to estimation guidance, power rates in general are the proper cost plus the specific compensation and adjustment addition. However, the current system of power rates is of power-source development promotion type involving its tax. The structure of power rate determination must be restudied now especially in connection of nuclear power generation. The cost of nuclear power generation as viewed from power rate is discussed as follows: the fear of military application of power plants, rising plant construction costs, the loophole in fuel cost calculation, unreasonable unit power cost, depreciation and repair cost, business compensation, undue business compensation in nuclear power, the costs of nuclear waste management, doubt concerning nuclear power cost, personnel, pumping-up and power transmission costs in nuclear power, energy balance analysis, nuclear power viewed in entropy, the suppression of power consumption. (J.P.N.)

  14. The use of the transition cost accounting system in health services research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilote Louise

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Transition cost accounting system integrates clinical, resource utilization, and financial information and is currently being used by several hospitals in Canada and the United States to calculate the costs of patient care. Our objectives were to review the use of hospital-based cost accounting systems to measure costs of treatment and discuss potential use of the Transition cost accounting system in health services research. Such systems provide internal reports to administrators for formulating major policies and strategic plans for future activities. Our review suggests that the Transition cost accounting information system may useful for estimating in-hospital costs of treatment.

  15. Charge and Spin States in Schiff Base Metal Complexes with a Disiloxane Unit Exhibiting a Strong Noninnocent Ligand Character: Synthesis, Structure, Spectroelectrochemistry, and Theoretical Calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazacu, Maria; Shova, Sergiu; Soroceanu, Alina; Machata, Peter; Bucinsky, Lukas; Breza, Martin; Rapta, Peter; Telser, Joshua; Krzystek, J; Arion, Vladimir B

    2015-06-15

    Mononuclear nickel(II), copper(II), and manganese(III) complexes with a noninnocent tetradentate Schiff base ligand containing a disiloxane unit were prepared in situ by reaction of 3,5-di-tert-butyl-2-hydroxybenzaldehyde with 1,3-bis(3-aminopropyl)tetramethyldisiloxane followed by addition of the appropriate metal(II) salt. The ligand H2L resulting from these reactions is a 2:1 condensation product of 3,5-di-tert-butyl-2-hydroxybenzaldehyde with 1,3-bis(3-aminopropyl)tetramethyldisiloxane. The resulting metal complexes, NiL·0.5CH2Cl2, CuL·1.5H2O, and MnL(OAc)·0.15H2O, were characterized by elemental analysis, spectroscopic methods (IR, UV-vis, X-band EPR, HFEPR, (1)H NMR), ESI mass spectrometry, and single crystal X-ray diffraction. Taking into account the well-known strong stabilizing effects of tert-butyl groups in positions 3 and 5 of the aromatic ring on phenoxyl radicals, we studied the one-electron and two-electron oxidation of the compounds using both experimental (chiefly spectroelectrochemistry) and computational (DFT) techniques. The calculated spin-density distribution and localized orbitals analysis revealed the oxidation locus and the effect of the electrochemical electron transfer on the molecular structure of the complexes, while time-dependent DFT calculations helped to explain the absorption spectra of the electrochemically generated species. Hyperfine coupling constants, g-tensors, and zero-field splitting parameters have been calculated at the DFT level of theory. Finally, the CASSCF approach has been employed to theoretically explore the zero-field splitting of the S = 2 MnL(OAc) complex for comparison purposes with the DFT and experimental HFEPR results. It is found that the D parameter sign strongly depends on the metal coordination geometry. PMID:26030801

  16. Methodology of cost analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The method presented in this report is used for calculating and comparing the cost of electricity generation of nuclear and conventional thermal stations. It is not intended to be substituted for establishing budgets and financial requirements by each electricity utility for its own needs. The present worth values are employed in the cost evaluation and the levelized discounted electricity generation costs are calculated

  17. Calculation of economic viability of alternative energy sources considering its environmental costs for small communities of Northeast Brazil; Calculo de viabilidade economica de fontes alternativas de energia considerando seus custos ambientais para pequenas comuidades da regiao nordeste brasileira

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stecher, Luiza Chourkalo

    2014-09-01

    There has been an increasing concern about current environmental issues caused by human activity, as the world searches for development. The production of electricity is an extremely relevant factor in this scenario since it is responsible for a large portion of the emissions that cause the greenhouse effect. Due to this fact, a sustainable development with alternative energy sources, which are attractive for such purpose, must be proposed, especially in places that are not supplied by the conventional electricity grid such as many communities in the Northeast Brazil. This work aims to calculate the environmental cost for the alternative sources of energy - solar, wind and biomass - during electricity generation, and to estimate the economic feasibility of those sources in small communities of Northeast Brazil, considering the avoided costs. The externalities must be properly identified and valued so the costs or benefits can be internalized and reflect accurately the economic feasibility or infeasibility of those sources. For this, the method of avoided costs was adopted for the calculation of externalities. This variable was included in the equation developed for all considered alternative energy sources. The calculations of economic feasibility were performed taking the new configurations in consideration, and the new equation was reprogrammed in the Programa de Calculo de Custos de Energias Alternativas, Solar, Eolica e Biomassa (PEASEB). The results demonstrated that the solar photovoltaic energy in isolated systems is the most feasible and broadly applicable source for small communities of Northeast Brazil. (author)

  18. The model for the calculation of the dispersed iron ore resource purchase cost in the world class manufacturing (WCM logistics pillar context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dudek

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the blast-furnace production, raw materials may account for approx. 50 % of the pig-iron manufacture costs. Therefore, any, even small, saving in the sphere of raw material purchasing will translate into the reduction in the cost of the pig-iron manufacture. The selection of appropriate supply sources and the associated raw material quality influencing the economic viability of the charge blend constitutes a multi-faceted optimization task. The paper presents a modified model for production cost estimation at the moment of making raw material purchasing, which is possible to be used in the logistics pillar of the WCM concept.

  19. User manual for PACTOLUS: a code for computing power costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PACTOLUS is a computer code for calculating the cost of generating electricity. Through appropriate definition of the input data, PACTOLUS can calculate the cost of generating electricity from a wide variety of power plants, including nuclear, fossil, geothermal, solar, and other types of advanced energy systems. The purpose of PACTOLUS is to develop cash flows and calculate the unit busbar power cost (mills/kWh) over the entire life of a power plant. The cash flow information is calculated by two principal models: the Fuel Model and the Discounted Cash Flow Model. The Fuel Model is an engineering cost model which calculates the cash flow for the fuel cycle costs over the project lifetime based on input data defining the fuel material requirements, the unit costs of fuel materials and processes, the process lead and lag times, and the schedule of the capacity factor for the plant. For nuclear plants, the Fuel Model calculates the cash flow for the entire nuclear fuel cycle. For fossil plants, the Fuel Model calculates the cash flow for the fossil fuel purchases. The Discounted Cash Flow Model combines the fuel costs generated by the Fuel Model with input data on the capital costs, capital structure, licensing time, construction time, rates of return on capital, tax rates, operating costs, and depreciation method of the plant to calculate the cash flow for the entire lifetime of the project. The financial and tax structure for both investor-owned utilities and municipal utilities can be simulated through varying the rates of return on equity and debt, the debt-equity ratios, and tax rates. The Discounted Cash Flow Model uses the principal that the present worth of the revenues will be equal to the present worth of the expenses including the return on investment over the economic life of the project. This manual explains how to prepare the input data, execute cases, and interpret the output results with the updated version of PACTOLUS. 11 figures, 2 tables

  20. Integrating the Carbon and Water Footprints’ Costs in the Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC Full Water Cost Recovery Concept: Basic Principles Towards Their Reliable Calculation and Socially Just Allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Papadopoulou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the basic principles for the integration of the water and carbon footprints cost into the resource and environmental costs respectively, taking the suggestions set by the Water Framework Directive (WFD 2000/60/EC one step forward. WFD states that full water cost recovery (FWCR should be based on the estimation of the three sub-costs related: direct; environmental; and resource cost. It also strongly suggests the EU Member States develop and apply effective water pricing policies to achieve FWCR. These policies must be socially just to avoid any social injustice phenomena. This is a very delicate task to handle, especially within the fragile economic conditions that the EU is facing today. Water losses play a crucial role for the FWC estimation. Water losses should not be neglected since they are one of the major “water uses” in any water supply network. A methodology is suggested to reduce water losses and the related Non Revenue Water (NRW index. An Expert Decision Support System is proposed to assess the FWC incorporating the Water and Carbon Footprint costs.

  1. How much does it cost to achieve coverage targets for primary healthcare services? A costing model from Aceh, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Asnawi; Hort, Krishna; Abidin, Azwar Zaenal; Amin, Fadilah M

    2012-01-01

    Despite significant investment in improving service infrastructure and training of staff, public primary healthcare services in low-income and middle-income countries tend to perform poorly in reaching coverage targets. One of the factors identified in Aceh, Indonesia was the lack of operational funds for service provision. The objective of this study was to develop a simple and transparent costing tool that enables health planners to calculate the unit costs of providing basic health services to estimate additional budgets required to deliver services in accordance with national targets. The tool was developed using a standard economic approach that linked the input activities to achieving six national priority programs at primary healthcare level: health promotion, sanitation and environment health, maternal and child health and family planning, nutrition, immunization and communicable diseases control, and treatment of common illness. Costing was focused on costs of delivery of the programs that need to be funded by local government budgets. The costing tool consisting of 16 linked Microsoft Excel worksheets was developed and tested in several districts enabled the calculation of the unit costs of delivering of the six national priority programs per coverage target of each program (such as unit costs of delivering of maternal and child health program per pregnant mother). This costing tool can be used by health planners to estimate additional money required to achieve a certain level of coverage of programs, and it can be adjusted for different costs and program delivery parameters in different settings. PMID:22887349

  2. EURISOL-DS multi-MW target unit: Neutronics performance and shielding assessment, dose rate and material activation calculations for the MAFF configuration

    CERN Document Server

    Romanets, Y; Kadi, Y; Luis, R; Goncalves, I F; Tecchio, L; Kharoua, C; Vaz, P; Ene, D; David, J C; Rocca, R; Negoita, F

    2010-01-01

    One of the objectives of the EURISOL (EURopean Isotope Separation On-Line Radioactive Ion Beam) Design Study consisted of providing a safe and reliable facility layout and design for the following operational parameters and characteristics: (a) a 4 MW proton beam of 1 GeV energy impinging on a mercury target (the converter); (b) high neutron fluxes (similar to 3 x 10(16) neutrons/s) generated by spallation reactions of the protons impinging in the converter and (c) fission rate on fissile U-235 targets in excess of 10(15) fissions/s. In this work, the state-of-the-art Monte Carlo codes MCNPX (Pelowitz, 2005) and FLUKA (Vlachoudis, 2009; Ferrari et al., 2008) were used to characterize the neutronics performance and to perform the shielding assessment (Herrera-Martinez and Kadi, 2006; Cornell, 2003) of the EURISOLTarget Unit and to provide estimations of dose rate and activation of different components, in view of the radiation safety assessment of the facility. Dosimetry and activation calculations were perfor...

  3. The hounsfield unit value calculated with the aid of non-contrast computed tomography and its effect on the outcome of percutaneous nephrolithotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gok, Alper; Polat, Haci; Cift, Ali; Yucel, Mehmet Ozgur; Gok, Bahri; Sirik, Mehmet; Benlioglu, Can; Kalyenci, Bedreddin

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate the effect of the Hounsfield unit (HU) value, calculated with the aid of non-contrast computed tomography, on the outcome of percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL). Data for 83 patients evaluated in our clinic between November 2011 and February 2014 that had similar stone sizes, localizations, and radio opacities were retrospectively reviewed. The patients were grouped according to their HU value, in a low HU group (HU ? 1000) or a high HU group (HU > 1000). The two groups were compared based on their PCNL success rates, complications, duration of surgery, duration of fluoroscopy, and decrease in the hematocrit. There were no significant differences in terms of mean age, female-male ratio, or mean body mass index between the two groups (p > 0.05). The stone size and stone surface area did not differ significantly between the groups (p = 0.820 and p = 0.394, respectively). The unsuccessful PCNL rate and the prevalence of complications did not differ significantly between the two groups (p > 0.05). The duration of surgery, duration of fluoroscopy, and decrease in the hematocrit were significantly greater in the high HU group compared to the low HU group (p PCNL. PMID:25820292

  4. CÁLCULO DO CUSTO DAS ATIVIDADES DE GESTÃO AMBIENTAL: APLICAÇÃO DO CUSTEIO BASEADO EM ATIVIDADES NUMA MONTADORA DE ÔNIBUS ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT COST CALCULATION: ACTIVITY BASED COSTING APPLIED TO BUS ASSEMBLY PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Durán

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta os resultados da aplicação da metodologia de custeio baseado em atividades para medir o impacto que as atividades de gestão ambiental podem ter no custo industrial dos produtos. Um estudo de caso é apresentado junto com a utilização de um software comercial para o cálculo dos custos.This manuscript presents an Activity Based Costing application in an environmental protection context. The aim of this work is measuring the impact of environmental management activities on product costs. Also, a case study is discussed and the utilization of commercial software is presented.

  5. CÁLCULO DO CUSTO DAS ATIVIDADES DE GESTÃO AMBIENTAL: APLICAÇÃO DO CUSTEIO BASEADO EM ATIVIDADES NUMA MONTADORA DE ÔNIBUS / ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT COST CALCULATION: ACTIVITY BASED COSTING APPLIED TO BUS ASSEMBLY PROCESS

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Orlando, Durán; Jorge, Telles; Liziane, Lanza.

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta os resultados da aplicação da metodologia de custeio baseado em atividades para medir o impacto que as atividades de gestão ambiental podem ter no custo industrial dos produtos. Um estudo de caso é apresentado junto com a utilização de um software comercial para o cálculo dos [...] custos. Abstract in english This manuscript presents an Activity Based Costing application in an environmental protection context. The aim of this work is measuring the impact of environmental management activities on product costs. Also, a case study is discussed and the utilization of commercial software is presented. [...

  6. Contractor-style tunnel cost estimating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keeping pace with recent advances in construction technology is a challenge for the cost estimating engineer. Using an estimating style that simulates the actual construction process and is similar in style to the contractor's estimate will give a realistic view of underground construction costs. For a contractor-style estimate, a mining method is chosen; labor crews, plant and equipment are selected, and advance rates are calculated for the various phases of work which are used to determine the length of time necessary to complete each phase of work. The durations are multiplied by the cost or labor and equipment per unit of time and, along with the costs for materials and supplies, combine to complete the estimate. Variations in advance rates, ground support, labor crew size, or other areas are more easily analyzed for their overall effect on the cost and schedule of a project. 14 figs

  7. Calculating Program for Decommissioning Work Productivity based on Decommissioning Activity Experience Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Chan-Ho; Park, Seung-Kook; Park, Hee-Seong; Moon, Jei-kwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    KAERI is performing research to calculate a coefficient for decommissioning work unit productivity to calculate the estimated time decommissioning work and estimated cost based on decommissioning activity experience data for KRR-2. KAERI used to calculate the decommissioning cost and manage decommissioning activity experience data through systems such as the decommissioning information management system (DECOMMIS), Decommissioning Facility Characterization DB System (DEFACS), decommissioning work-unit productivity calculation system (DEWOCS). In particular, KAERI used to based data for calculating the decommissioning cost with the form of a code work breakdown structure (WBS) based on decommissioning activity experience data for KRR-2.. Defined WBS code used to each system for calculate decommissioning cost. In this paper, we developed a program that can calculate the decommissioning cost using the decommissioning experience of KRR-2, UCP, and other countries through the mapping of a similar target facility between NPP and KRR-2. This paper is organized as follows. Chapter 2 discusses the decommissioning work productivity calculation method, and the mapping method of the decommissioning target facility will be described in the calculating program for decommissioning work productivity. At KAERI, research on various decommissioning methodologies of domestic NPPs will be conducted in the near future. In particular, It is difficult to determine the cost of decommissioning because such as NPP facility have the number of variables, such as the material of the target facility decommissioning, size, radiographic conditions exist.

  8. Calculating Program for Decommissioning Work Productivity based on Decommissioning Activity Experience Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KAERI is performing research to calculate a coefficient for decommissioning work unit productivity to calculate the estimated time decommissioning work and estimated cost based on decommissioning activity experience data for KRR-2. KAERI used to calculate the decommissioning cost and manage decommissioning activity experience data through systems such as the decommissioning information management system (DECOMMIS), Decommissioning Facility Characterization DB System (DEFACS), decommissioning work-unit productivity calculation system (DEWOCS). In particular, KAERI used to based data for calculating the decommissioning cost with the form of a code work breakdown structure (WBS) based on decommissioning activity experience data for KRR-2.. Defined WBS code used to each system for calculate decommissioning cost. In this paper, we developed a program that can calculate the decommissioning cost using the decommissioning experience of KRR-2, UCP, and other countries through the mapping of a similar target facility between NPP and KRR-2. This paper is organized as follows. Chapter 2 discusses the decommissioning work productivity calculation method, and the mapping method of the decommissioning target facility will be described in the calculating program for decommissioning work productivity. At KAERI, research on various decommissioning methodologies of domestic NPPs will be conducted in the near future. In particular, It is difficult to determine the cost of decommissioning because such as NPP facility have the number of variables, such as the material of the target facility decommissioning, size, radiographic conditions exist

  9. Life Cycle Costing Model for Solid Waste Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez-Sanchez, Veronica; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2014-01-01

    To ensure sustainability of solid waste management, there is a need for cost assessment models which are consistent with environmental and social assessments. However, there is a current lack of standardized terminology and methodology to evaluate economic performances and this complicates the performance of new studies as well as the understanding of similarities and singularities between the different types of cost assessment applied in literature. This investigation develops a systematic framework for performing various types of cost assessments with different cost perspectives. Most of the cost assessments in literature can be classified into: 1) Conventional Life Cycle Costing (LCC), 2) Environmental LCC and 3) Societal LCC. While the first two LCCs are financial assessments, the third one is asocio-economic assessment. The three LCCs included marketed goods, but they handle differently nonmarketed goods (i.e. externalities). While non-marketed goods are beyond the scope of the Conventional LCC; the Environmental LCC included environmental externalities in a parallel LCA and the Societal LCC internalizes all the externalities into monetary terms. Different cost perspectives can be applied in each LCC, e.g. waste generator, waste operator and public finances and the perspective often defines the systemboundaries of the study, e.g. waste operators often focus on her/his own cost, i.e. technology based,whereas waste generators and public finances often focus on the entire waste system, i.e. system based. Figure 1 illustrates the proposed modeling framework that distinguishes between: a) budget cost, b) externality costs and 3) transfers and defines unit costs of each technology (per ton of input waste). Unitcosts are afterwards combined with a mass balance to calculate the technology cost. Later, the costs of individual technologies can be combined to calculate the system or scenario costs. In the technology definition, each cost item is defined with a unit cost per item, which is calculated with two types of parameters: 1) economic (e.g. unit prices and depreciation periods) and 2) technical (e.g. usage rate andconsumptions of commodities).The investigation provides an overview of which cost items should be included in each pair of LCC perspective and common calculations to estimate technical parameters for main waste technologies. The applicability of the cost assessment model is illustrated with a fictive case study focusing on source segregation of organic waste in Denmark.

  10. Costo de oportunidad en hombres que acuden a las unidades de medicina familiar en la ciudad de Querétaro, México / Opportunity cost for men who visit family medicine units in the city of Querétaro, Mexico

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Edith Olimpia, Martínez Carranza; Enrique, Villarreal Ríos; Emma Rosa, Vargas Daza; Liliana, Galicia Rodríguez; Lidia, Martínez González.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar el costo de oportunidad en hombres que solicitan atención en las unidades de medicina familiar (UMF) del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS) en la ciudad de Querétaro. MÉTODOS: Se seleccionó una muestra de 807 hombres de 20 a 59 años de edad que solicitaban atención en l [...] os servicios de medicina familiar, laboratorio y farmacia, proporcionados por UMF del IMSS en Querétaro. Se excluyeron los pacientes referidos a urgencias y los que se retiraron sin recibir atención. La muestra (n = 807) se calculó mediante la fórmula de promedios para población infinita, con un intervalo de confianza de 95% (IC95%) y un costo de oportunidad promedio de US$ 5,5 para medicina familiar, US$ 3,1 para laboratorio y de US$ 2,3 para farmacia. Las estimaciones incluyeron el tiempo invertido en traslado, espera y atención; el número de acompañantes, y el costo del minuto para la actividad remunerada y no remunerada. El costo de oportunidad se calculó a través del costo por minuto estimado para traslado, espera y atención de pacientes y acompañantes. RESULTADOS: El costo de oportunidad correspondiente al traslado del paciente se estimó en US$ 0,97 (IC95%: 0,81-1,15), mientras que el de espera fue de US$ 5,03 (IC95%: 4,08-6,09) en medicina familiar, US$ 0,06 (IC95%: 0,05-0,08) en farmacia y US$ 1,89 (IC95%: 1,56- 2,25) en laboratorio. El costo de oportunidad promedio cuando el paciente acudió sin compañía osciló entre US$ 1,10 para el servicio de farmacia solo y US$ 8,64 para medicina familiar, farmacia y laboratorio. El costo de oportunidad ponderado para medicina familiar fue de US$ 6,24. CONCLUSIONES: Dado que el costo de oportunidad de los hombres que demandan servicios en las unidades de medicina familiar corresponde a más de la mitad de un salario mínimo, desde el enfoque institucional correspondería establecer si esa es la mejor alternativa de atención. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To determine the opportunity cost for men who seek care in the family medicine units (FMU) of the Mexican Social Security Institute (IMSS, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social) in the city of Querétaro. METHODS: A sample was selected of 807 men, ages 20 to 59 years, who sought care throug [...] h the family medicine, laboratory, and pharmacy services provided by the FMU at the IMSS in Querétaro. Patients referred for emergency services and those who left the facilities without receiving care were excluded. The sample (n = 807) was calculated using the averages for an infinite population formula, with a confidence interval of 95% (CI95%) and an average opportunity cost of US$5.5 for family medicine, US$3.1 for laboratory services, and US$2.3 for pharmacy services. Estimates included the amount of time spent on travel, waiting, and receiving care; the number of people accompanying the patient, and the cost per minute of paid and unpaid job activities. The opportunity cost was calculated using the estimated cost per minute for travel, waiting, and receiving care for patients and their companions. RESULTS: The opportunity cost for the patient travel was estimated at US$0.97 (CI95%: 0.81-1.15), while wait time was US$5.03 (CI95%: 4.08-6.09) for family medicine, US$0.06 (CI95%: 0.05-0.08) for pharmacy services, and US$1.89 (CI95%: 1.56-2.25) for laboratory services. The average opportunity cost for an unaccompanied patient visit varied between US$1.10 for pharmacy services alone and US$8.64 for family medicine, pharmacy, and laboratory services. The weighted opportunity cost for family medicine was US$6.24. CONCLUSIONS: Given that the opportunity cost for men who seek services in FMU corresponds to more than half of a minimum salary, it should be examined from an institutional perspective whether this is the best alternative for care.

  11. Costo de oportunidad en hombres que acuden a las unidades de medicina familiar en la ciudad de Querétaro, México Opportunity cost for men who visit family medicine units in the city of Querétaro, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith Olimpia Martínez Carranza

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar el costo de oportunidad en hombres que solicitan atención en las unidades de medicina familiar (UMF del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS en la ciudad de Querétaro. MÉTODOS: Se seleccionó una muestra de 807 hombres de 20 a 59 años de edad que solicitaban atención en los servicios de medicina familiar, laboratorio y farmacia, proporcionados por UMF del IMSS en Querétaro. Se excluyeron los pacientes referidos a urgencias y los que se retiraron sin recibir atención. La muestra (n = 807 se calculó mediante la fórmula de promedios para población infinita, con un intervalo de confianza de 95% (IC95% y un costo de oportunidad promedio de US$ 5,5 para medicina familiar, US$ 3,1 para laboratorio y de US$ 2,3 para farmacia. Las estimaciones incluyeron el tiempo invertido en traslado, espera y atención; el número de acompañantes, y el costo del minuto para la actividad remunerada y no remunerada. El costo de oportunidad se calculó a través del costo por minuto estimado para traslado, espera y atención de pacientes y acompañantes. RESULTADOS: El costo de oportunidad correspondiente al traslado del paciente se estimó en US$ 0,97 (IC95%: 0,81-1,15, mientras que el de espera fue de US$ 5,03 (IC95%: 4,08-6,09 en medicina familiar, US$ 0,06 (IC95%: 0,05-0,08 en farmacia y US$ 1,89 (IC95%: 1,56- 2,25 en laboratorio. El costo de oportunidad promedio cuando el paciente acudió sin compañía osciló entre US$ 1,10 para el servicio de farmacia solo y US$ 8,64 para medicina familiar, farmacia y laboratorio. El costo de oportunidad ponderado para medicina familiar fue de US$ 6,24. CONCLUSIONES: Dado que el costo de oportunidad de los hombres que demandan servicios en las unidades de medicina familiar corresponde a más de la mitad de un salario mínimo, desde el enfoque institucional correspondería establecer si esa es la mejor alternativa de atención.OBJECTIVE: To determine the opportunity cost for men who seek care in the family medicine units (FMU of the Mexican Social Security Institute (IMSS, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social in the city of Querétaro. METHODS: A sample was selected of 807 men, ages 20 to 59 years, who sought care through the family medicine, laboratory, and pharmacy services provided by the FMU at the IMSS in Querétaro. Patients referred for emergency services and those who left the facilities without receiving care were excluded. The sample (n = 807 was calculated using the averages for an infinite population formula, with a confidence interval of 95% (CI95% and an average opportunity cost of US$5.5 for family medicine, US$3.1 for laboratory services, and US$2.3 for pharmacy services. Estimates included the amount of time spent on travel, waiting, and receiving care; the number of people accompanying the patient, and the cost per minute of paid and unpaid job activities. The opportunity cost was calculated using the estimated cost per minute for travel, waiting, and receiving care for patients and their companions. RESULTS: The opportunity cost for the patient travel was estimated at US$0.97 (CI95%: 0.81-1.15, while wait time was US$5.03 (CI95%: 4.08-6.09 for family medicine, US$0.06 (CI95%: 0.05-0.08 for pharmacy services, and US$1.89 (CI95%: 1.56-2.25 for laboratory services. The average opportunity cost for an unaccompanied patient visit varied between US$1.10 for pharmacy services alone and US$8.64 for family medicine, pharmacy, and laboratory services. The weighted opportunity cost for family medicine was US$6.24. CONCLUSIONS: Given that the opportunity cost for men who seek services in FMU corresponds to more than half of a minimum salary, it should be examined from an institutional perspective whether this is the best alternative for care.

  12. ORCOST-2, PWR, BWR, HTGR, Fossil Fuel Power Plant Cost and Economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1 - Description of problem or function: ORCOST2 estimates the cost of electrical energy production from single-unit steam-electric power plants. Capital costs and operating and maintenance costs are calculated using base cost models which are included in the program for each of the following types of plants: PWR, BWR, HTGR, coal, oil, and gas. The user may select one of several input/output options for calculation of capital cost, operating and maintenance cost, levelized energy costs, fixed charge rate, annual cash flows, cumulative cash flows, and cumulative discounted cash flows. Options include the input of capital cost and/or fixed charge rate to override the normal calculations. Transmission and distribution costs are not included. Fuel costs must be input by the user. 2 - Method of solution: The code follows the guidelines of AEC Report NUS-531. A base capital-cost model and a base operating- and maintenance-cost model are selected and adjusted for desired size, location, date, etc. Costs are discounted to the year of first commercial operation and levelized to provide annual cost of electric power generation. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: The capital cost models are of doubtful validity outside the 500 to 1500 MW(e) range

  13. Utilizing United States Coast Guard data to calculate incidence rates and identify risk factors for occupational fishing injuries in New Jersey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Emily Ruth; Lefkowitz, Daniel K; Marshall, Elizabeth G; Hovinga, Mary

    2010-10-01

    Commercial fishing has high rates of work-related injury and death and needs preventive strategies. Work-related fatal and nonfatal injury rates for New Jersey (NJ) commercial fishermen who suffered unintentional traumatic injuries from 2001 to 2007 are calculated using data from the United States Coast Guard (USCG) Marine Safety and Pollution Database and estimated denominator data. Fatalities were compared to those ascertained by the NJ Fatality Assessment Control and Evaluation (FACE) surveillance system. For the study years, 225 nonfatal injuries and 31 fatal injuries were reported. Among nonfatal injuries, the causes by frequency were fall onto surface, crushed between objects, struck by moving object, line handling/caught in lines, collision with fixed objects, fall into water, and other noncontact injuries. The distribution of fatal injuries differed, with the most frequent cause as crushed between objects. Falls into water and several noncontact injuries accounted for most of the other fatalities. The large majority (96%) of nonfatal injuries were contact injuries, whereas only 68% of fatalities were classified as contact. The overall incidence rate of nonfatal injuries was 1188 per 100,000 full-time equivalents (FTEs) per year. The rate varied considerably by year, from a low of 286 per 100,000 FTEs in 2001 and 2007 to 3806 per 100,000 FTEs in 2003. The overall occupational fatality rate over the period 2001-2007 was 164 per 100,000 FTEs per year. These results can aid in targeting the commercial fishing industry for injury prevention strategies and interventions, especially for falls, crushing injuries, and drownings. PMID:20954031

  14. Market value calculation and the solution of circularity between value and the weighted average cost of capital WACC / Cálculo do valor de mercado e a solução da circularidade entre valor e custo médio ponderado de capital CMEPC

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ignacio, Vélez-Pareja; Joseph, Tham.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A maioria dos livros apresenta o cálculo do custo médio ponderado de capital como: CMePC = Kd×(1-T)×D% + Ke×E%, em que Kd é o custo de capital de terceiros antes dos tributos; T, alíquota de imposto; D%, o porcentual dos empréstimos em relação ao ativo total; Ke, o custo do capital próprio; e E%, o [...] porcentual do patrimônio líquido sobre o ativo total. Todos eles necessitam (mas não com suficiente ênfase) que os valores para calcular D% e E% sejam valores de mercado. Muito embora se dedique atenção especial para calcular Kd e Ke, pouco esforço é destinado ao cálculo correto de seus valores de mercado. Isso significa que há inúmeros pontos que não são suficientemente esclarecidos: valores de mercado, localização no tempo, ocorrência do pagamento de tributos, a variação do CMePC ao longo do tempo e circularidade no cálculo do CMePC. O objetivo deste artigo é esclarecer esses conceitos, resolver o problema da circularidade e discutir alguns ideias geralmente ainda obscuras. Igualmente, algumas sugestões são apresentadas para o cálculo ou estimação do custo do capital próprio. Abstract in english Most finance textbooks present the Weighted Average Cost of Capital (WACC) calculation as: WACC = Kd×(1-T)×D% + Ke×E%, where Kd is the cost of debt before taxes, T is the tax rate, D% is the percentage of debt on total value, Ke is the cost of equity and E% is the percentage of equity on total value [...] . All of them precise (but not with enough emphasis) that the values to calculate D% y E% are market values. Although they devote special space and thought to calculate Kd and Ke, little effort is made to the correct calculation of market values. This means that there are several points that are not sufficiently dealt with: Market values, location in time, occurrence of tax payments, WACC changes in time and the circularity in calculating WACC. The purpose of this note is to clear up these ideas, solve the circularity problem and emphasize in some ideas that usually are looked over. Also, some suggestions are presented on how to calculate, or estimate, the equity cost of capital.

  15. Operational costs induced by fluctuating wind power production in Germany and Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meibom, Peter; Weber, C.

    2009-01-01

    Adding wind power generation in a power system changes the operational patterns of the existing units due to the variability and partial predictability of wind power production. For large amounts of wind power production, the expectation is that the specific operational costs (fuel costs, start-up costs, variable operation and maintenance costs, costs of consuming CO2 emission permits) of the other power plants will increase due to more operation time in part-load and more start-ups. The change in operational costs induced by the wind power production can only be calculated by comparing the operational costs in two power system configurations: with wind power production and with alternative wind production having properties such as conventional production, that is, being predictable and less variable. The choice of the characteristics of the alternative production is not straightforward and will therefore influence the operational costs induced by wind power production. A method is applied for calculating thechange in operational costs due to wind power production using a stochastic optimisation model covering the power systems in Germany and the Nordic countries. Two cases of alternative production are used to calculate the change in operational costs, namely perfectly predictable wind power production enabling the calculation of the costs connected to partial predictability and constant wind power production enabling the calculation of the operational costs connected to variability of wind power production. A 2010 case with three different wind power production penetration levels is analysed.

  16. Cost of asthma in the Asia-Pacific region

    OpenAIRE

    Lai, C. K. W.; Y-y, Kim; S-h, Kuo; Spencer, M.; Williams, A. E.; Asthma Insights and Reality in Asia Pacific Steering Committee

    2006-01-01

    The substantial morbidity caused by asthma suggests that the disease is associated with a large economic burden. The current study analysed the burden of asthma in eight countries in the Asia-Pacific region. Responses to questions regarding resource use from a survey of people with asthma were analysed. Unit costs were obtained for each resource use element. Individual patient costs were estimated and means calculated for each country. A multivariate model was developed to identify potential ...

  17. Development of simplified decommissioning cost estimation code for nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The simplified decommissioning cost estimation code for nuclear facilities (DECOST code) was developed in consideration of features and structures of nuclear facilities and similarity of dismantling methods. The DECOST code could calculate 8 evaluation items of decommissioning cost. Actual dismantling in the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) was evaluated; unit conversion factors used to calculate the manpower of dismantling activities were evaluated. Consequently, unit conversion factors of general components could be classified into three kinds. Weights of components and structures of the facility were necessary for calculation of manpower. Methods for evaluating weights of components and structures of the facility were studied. Consequently, the weight of components in the facility was proportional to the weight of structures of the facility. The weight of structures of the facility was proportional to the total area of floors in the facility. Decommissioning costs of 7 nuclear facilities in the JAEA were calculated by using the DECOST code. To verify the calculated results, the calculated manpower was compared with the manpower gained from actual dismantling. Consequently, the calculated manpower and actual manpower were almost equal. The outline of the DECOST code, evaluation results of unit conversion factors, the evaluation method of the weights of components and structures of the facility are described in this report. (author)(author)

  18. Avaliação de danos às edificações causados por inundações e obtenção dos custos de recuperação / Evaluation of flood damage on buildings and calculation of recovery costs

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Cristiane Machado Parisi, Jonov; Nilo de Oliveira, Nascimento; Adriano de Paula e, Silva.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo descreve uma metodologia de desenvolvimento de curvas de danos de inundação (FDC) na Região do Barreiro, no Município de Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais. Foi realizado um estudo de caso a partir da de dados de danos causados a edificações atingidas pelas enchentes de 31 de dezembro de [...] 2008 e 22 de janeiro de 2009 nessa região. Embora o tema venha sendo bastante pesquisado em âmbito internacional, não existem ainda no Brasil estudos de avaliação do efeito da inundação sobre as construções e da extensão dos danos provocados pela ação da água. Para o desenvolvimento do trabalho, foram realizadas vistorias a 62 edificações e identificadas as manifestações patológicas provocadas pelas inundações. Isso possibilitou o levantamento dos serviços necessários para recuperação das patologias observadas e a elaboração de orçamentos para a obtenção dos custos de sua recuperação. Os custos finais para recuperação das 62 casas foram obtidos considerando-se a profundidade da água de inundação, a tipologia de projeto adotada e os custos indiretos e margem de lucro. As curvas obtidas indicam que, para o padrão construtivo normal, o aumento da profundidade de inundação não tem impacto significativo nos danos causados às edificações e que, para os padrões construtivos baixo e proletário, observa-se uma tendência de aumento dos custos de recuperação dos danos na medida em que se aumenta a profundidade da inundação. Abstract in english This article describes a methodology for developing flooding damage curves (FDC) in the region of Barreiro, Belo Horizonte city (Minas Gerais State). A case study was conducted based on data of damages caused by the floods of 31 December 2008 and January 22, 2009 in that region. Although this theme [...] has been widely investigated internationally, there are no studies evaluating the effect of flooding on buildings and the extent of the damage caused by water in Brazil. This research has used data from inspection surveys conducted on 62 buildings, in which the pathological manifestations caused by the floods were identified. The necessary repair measures were assessed and their costs estimated. The total costs for repairing those 62 homes were obtained by taking into account the depth of the floodwater, the type of building, and the indirect costs and profit margin. The curves indicate that, for middle-class building, the depth of the flooding does not have a significant impact on the cost of damages, while for lower middle-class and poor households it has a significant influence on the extent of the damage and, consequently, of repair costs.

  19. Activity ? based costing method

    OpenAIRE

    Èuchranová Katarína; Floreková ¼ubica

    2001-01-01

    Activity based costing is a method of identifying and tracking the operating costs directly associated with processing items. It is the practice of focusing on some unit of output, such as a purchase order or an assembled automobile and attempting to determine its total as precisely as poccible based on the fixed and variable costs of the inputs.You use ABC to identify, quantify and analyze the various cost drivers (such as labor, materials, administrative overhead, rework.) and to determine ...

  20. Modelagem de redes logísticas com custos de inventário calculados a partir da cobertura de estoque / Logistic networks modeling with inventory carrying costs calculated using inventory turnover

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ricardo, Hamad; Nicolau Dionísio Fares, Gualda.

    Full Text Available A consideração dos custos de inventário tem se tornado cada vez mais importante na análise dos trade-offs e na tomada de decisões sobre redes logísticas. O artigo propõe uma metodologia para tratamento do custo de inventário a partir da cobertura de estoque esperada em cada instalação, incorporada n [...] a modelagem matemática da localização de fábricas e/ou centros de distribuição em redes logísticas com vários elos, representando uma nova versão do modelo apresentado em Hamad e Gualda (2008). As principais contribuições desta metodologia em relação a outros métodos encontrados na literatura são a facilidade de aplicação do método, a inclusão de restrições ligadas à capacidade de armazenagem e a consideração do custo total de inventário, e não apenas do custo relacionado aos produtos modelados. Abstract in english Inventory carrying cost has become very important in the analysis of the trade-offs and an important component to be considered when taking decisions about a logistic network. This paper proposes a methodology incorporated in a multi-echelon sourcing decision model, to be considered as a new version [...] of the model presented in Hamad, Gualda (2008). It treats the carrying costs using the inventory Days-on-hand estimate in each echelon of the chain (plants and/or Distribution Centers). The main contributions of this methodology compared to other options found in the literature are the simplicity of its application, the consideration of all inventory costs (not only the ones related to the products being modeled) and, also, the inclusion of constraints related to warehousing capacity.

  1. Rethinking sunk costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As typically practiced in the petroleum/ natural gas industry, most economic calculations leave out sunk costs. Integrated businesses can be hurt by the omission of sunk costs because profits and costs are not allocated properly among the various business segments. Not only can the traditional sunk-cost practice lead to predictably bad decisions, but a company that operates under such a policy will have no idea how to allocate resources among its operating components; almost none of its calculated returns will be correct. This paper reports that the solution is to include asset value as part of the investment in the calculation

  2. Models selected for calculation of doses, health effects and economic costs due to accidental radionuclide releases from nuclear power plants. Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Models are described for use in site-specific environmental consequence analysis of nuclear reactor accidents of Classes 3 through 9. The models presented relate radioactivity released to resulting doses, health effects, and costs of remedial actions. Specific models are presented for the major exposure pathways of airborne releases, waterborne releases and direct irradiation from activity within the facility buildings, such as the containment. Time-dependent atmospheric dispersion parameters, crop production parameters, and other variable parameters are used in the models. The environmental effects are analyzed for several accident start times during the year. Several remedial actions are considered

  3. Discrepancies between real costs and prices

    OpenAIRE

    Melendez-plumed, Vicenc

    2011-01-01

    We support labour contents as an absolute and reliable measurement unit and as an accounting procedure that expresses the real costs and profits of the economic system. As far as the labour capacity of expressing real social costs and profits is concerned, we highlight the inaccuracy in the basic economic data derived from the deviation of the rate of profit in terms of prices with regard to that which is calculated for labour values and we also demonstrate that the price system far from...

  4. Cost optimization of passive house external walls

    OpenAIRE

    Krylov, Ivan

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to optimize the costs of Passive House external walls, using ISOVER insulation materials. The aim was to compare 5 different timber structures and 2 main ISOVER insulation products: KL-33 and KL-37. Thus, 10 wall structures were studied in this thesis. The methodology is based on Life-Cycle Cost analysis. It consists of material costs calculation (initial costs) and energy losses’ costs calculation (life-cycle costs). Material costs were calculated for the...

  5. The technical-economical optimization of the improvement of the safety level of the PWR 900 MWe units for their third ten-yearly outage thanks to the cost - benefit analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to maximize the improvement of the safety level of its units while controlling the cost of safety assessment, EDF, within the scope of the third ten-yearly outage of the 900 MWe PWR series, decided to implement a method for ranking the modifications according to the ratio 'safety benefit gained from the modification' over the 'cost of the modification'. The exercise showed the true interest of this type of method, of which the principles should be shared between the Safety Authority and plant operators and, once certain adjustments have been made, should then become an irreplaceable element in the safety assessment process. (authors)

  6. Power plant removal costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The financial, regulatory, and political significance of the estimated high removal costs of nuclear power plants has generated considerable interest in recent years, and the political significance has resulted in the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) eliminating the use of conventional depreciation accounting for the decontamination portion of the removal (decommissioning). The realization that steam generating units will be expensive to remove, relative to their original cost, predates the realization that nuclear units will be expensive. However, the nuclear issues have overshadowed this realization, but are unlikely to continue to do so. Numerous utilities have prepared cost estimates for steam generating units, and this presentation discusses the implications of a number of such estimates that are a matter of public record. These estimates cover nearly 400 gas, oil, coal, and lignite generating units. The earliest estimate was made in 1978, and for analysis purposes the author has segregated them between gas and oil units, and coal and lignite units

  7. Cost estimation of CO2 removal in HYSYS

    OpenAIRE

    Kallevik, Ove Braut

    2010-01-01

    A Hysys simulation of a CO2 capture process by absorption in a monoethanol amine (MEA) solution from the flue gas from a 500 MW natural gas power plant has been developed as a verification of earlier simulations at TUC. The major improvements in this work are new calculation methods for make-up water and MEA and simulation of a direct contact cooler (DCC) unit. For cost estimation purposes, calculations of overall heat transfer coefficient and correction factor for heat exchan...

  8. Cost Drivers. Evolution and Benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Cokins, Gary; C?pu?neanu, Sorinel

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to capture the evolution of applying cost drivers in calculating costs since their initial occurrence until the present times. There are different conceptual approaches of cost drivers, and new insights from applying cost modeling techniques from the Activity-Based Costing method (ABC). The article looks at the typology, criteria for selection of cost drivers and their benefits. The cost allocation method is also presented with specific steps corresponding to th...

  9. Unit Conversions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha Mzoughi

    This resource is a digital tool for performing unit conversions. It provides the additional feature of displaying cancellation of terms, enabling users to gain a deeper understanding of the mathematical processes involved in converting units. Users can convert among 25 quantities, including units such as force, temperature, energy, and current. Also available are less commonly used units, such as illuminance and magnetic flux. In addition, the calculations respect the number of significant figures. It is part of Web-Based Computer Aided Instruction, a set of free resources for teachers and learners.

  10. Reductions in anesthesia direct costs is not the right way for racionalization of anesthesia costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majstorovi? Branislava M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Anesthesia management is characterized by salary limiting and pressure for decreasing anesthetics and other drug budget. The aim of this paper is to determine the possibility of reducing the direct costs in anesthesia. Materials and methods. This paper is a part of a five-year (2005-2009, academic, pharmaco-economic retrospective- prospective study (phase IV. The study was done according to European Union Directive for Clinical Research. We retrospectively calculated and analyzed all anesthesia direct costs (personnel costs, anesthetics and other drug costs, materials, laboratory analyses, and machines at the Institute For Ane- sthesia and Reanimation, Clinical Center of Serbia in relation to the costs refunded by National Health Insurance in all patients who underwent anesthesia in 2006. Results. Out of 70 195 anesthesia services rendered to 32 267 patients in one-year period, 47% were general anesthesia, 23% were local anesthesia, and 30% were anesthetic procedures. Our results of highly significant association between personnel costs (r = 0.980, p = 0.000 and consumption of anesthetics and drugs (r = 0.885, p = 0.000 with the direct costs do not provide an opportunity for further cost reduction due to disassociation of direct costs and the ”unit price” of National Health Insurance issued in terms of the restricted maximum budget for health. Conclusion. There is no space for direct cost reduction in anesthesia.

  11. Calculation model for digital building automation. The added value of a building management system and reduced exploitation cost; Rekenmodel voor digitale gebouwautomatisering. GBS voegt waarde toe en verlaagt exploitatiekosten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeffnagel, R.

    2006-11-15

    A brief overview is given of the benefits of a building management system investment. A model is discussed by means of which the cost for investment and exploitation of the system can be calculated. [Dutch] Hoewel we in Nederland vaak de neiging hebben enkel en alleen te denken in termen van kostenbesparing, levert toepassing van een digitaal regelsysteem voor gebouwautomatisering vaak juist waardegroei op. Een gebouw dat voorzien is van digitale gebouwautomatisering kent namelijk lagere exploitatiekosten. Goed voor de eigenaar en de gebruiker. Een rekenmodel helpt om grip op de cijfers te krijgen.

  12. Factors Impacting Decommissioning Costs - 13576

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) studied United States experience with decommissioning cost estimates and the factors that impact the actual cost of decommissioning projects. This study gathered available estimated and actual decommissioning costs from eight nuclear power plants in the United States to understand the major components of decommissioning costs. Major costs categories for decommissioning a nuclear power plant are removal costs, radioactive waste costs, staffing costs, and other costs. The technical factors that impact the costs were analyzed based on the plants' decommissioning experiences. Detailed cost breakdowns by major projects and other cost categories from actual power plant decommissioning experiences will be presented. Such information will be useful in planning future decommissioning and designing new plants. (authors)

  13. Nuclear power generating costs: Korean experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The general methodology of calculating power generating costs is explained to the extent necessary for understanding the comparison of generating costs. This paper is intended to identify the reasons why investments were increased in Korea's first nuclear power plant, which was put into commercial operation in April 1978, and also in the second nuclear unit being constructed on a basis quite similar in various aspects to the first unit. A similar exercise was also conducted for KNU 5 and 6, 950 MW(e) reactors currently under construction. Based on estimated capital investments, predicted economics of nuclear and fossil-fired power plants included in the long-term power development programme are introduced. As Korea is heavily dependent on costly imported oil, the supply of which is highly vulnerable to disruption, a comparison of the expenses of nuclear and fossil-fired power plants over the plant construction and operation period was undertaken to better foresee the role of nuclear power in Korea. Actual generating costs of the first nuclear unit in Korea are compared with the costs of fossil-fired power plants of the Korean electric power system. (author)

  14. Análise de custos da atenção hospitalar a recém-nascidos de risco: uma comparação entre Unidade Intermediária Convencional e Unidade Canguru Análisis de los costes de la atención hospitalaria para los recién nacidos en riesgo: una comparación entre la Unidad Intermedia Neonatal y la Unidad Canguro Cost analysis of hospital care for newborns at risk: comparison of an Intermediate Neonatal Care Unit and a Kangaroo Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Magluta

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi realizar uma análise comparativa entre o custo da Unidade Canguru e da Unidade Intermediária Convencional sob a perspectiva do SUS, no Município do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. A população de referência é de recém-nascidos estáveis clinicamente, que podem receber assistência nas duas modalidades de cuidado. Um modelo de análise de decisão para uma coorte hipotética de mil recém-nascidos elegíveis foi elaborado para comparar os custos em cada estratégia avaliada. As probabilidades dos eventos e o consumo de recursos de saúde foram incorporados ao modelo com base na literatura e consulta a especialistas. O custo da diária foi de R$343,53 para a 2ª etapa da Unidade Canguru e de R$394,22 para a Unidade Intermediária Convencional. O custo para a coorte hipotética foi de R$5.710.281,66 para a assistência na 2ª e 3ª etapa da Unidade Canguru e de R$7.119.865,61 para a Unidade Intermediária Convencional. A Unidade Intermediária Convencional apresentou custos 25% superiores aos da Unidade Canguru. O estudo pode contribuir para a tomada de decisão na área da saúde, além de fornecer subsídios para pesquisas relacionadas à avaliação econômica na área neonatal.El objetivo de este estudio fue realizar un análisis comparativo entre el coste de la Unidad Canguro y la Unidad Intermedia Convencional, dentro de la perspectiva del Sistema Único de Salud (SUS en el municipio de Río de Janeiro, Brasil. La población de referencia son los recién nacidos clínicamente estables, que pueden recibir asistencia en ambas modalidades de atención. Se diseñó un modelo de análisis de decisión para una cohorte hipotética de 1.000 bebés elegibles, con el fin de comparar los costes de cada estrategia evaluada. Las probabilidades de ocurrencias y consumo de recursos sanitarios se incorporaron al modelo de la literatura y la consulta con expertos. El coste diario fue de R$343,53 en la 2ª etapa de la Unidad Canguro y R$394,22 en la Unidad Intermedia Convencional. El coste de la cohorte hipotética fue R$5,710,281.66 para la asistencia en la segunda y tercera etapa de la Unidad Canguro y R$7,119,865.61 para la Unidad Intermedia Convencional. La Unidad Intermedia Convencional tiene costes un 25% más altos que la Unidad Canguro. El presente estudio puede contribuir a la toma de decisiones en el cuidado de la salud.The aim of this study was to compare the direct costs of implementation of the Kangaroo Method and an Intermediate Neonatal Care Unit, from the perspective of the Brazilian Unified National Health System (SUS in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Newborns were eligible for inclusion if they were clinically stable and were able to receive care in those two modalities. A decision tree model was developed that incorporated baseline variables and costs into a hypothetical cohort of 1,000 newborns, according to the literature and expert opinions. Daily cost was BR$343.53 for the second stage of the Kangaroo Unit and BR$394.22 for the Intermediate Neonatal Care Unit. The total cost for the hypothetical cohort was BR$5,710,281.66 for the second and third stages of the Kangaroo Unit and R$7,119,865.61 for the Intermediate Neonatal Care Unit. The Intermediate Neonatal Care Unit cost 25% more than the Kangaroo Unit. The study can contribute to decision-making in health, in addition to providing support for studies related to economic evaluation in neonatal health.

  15. Cost Drivers. Evolution and Benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary COKINS

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to capture the evolution of applying cost drivers in calculating costs since their initial occurrence until the present times. There are different conceptual approaches of cost drivers, and new insights from applying cost modeling techniques from the Activity-Based Costing method (ABC. The article looks at the typology, criteria for selection of cost drivers and their benefits. The cost allocation method is also presented with specific steps corresponding to the ABC calculation method. In the end, the authors conclusions on the benefits of cost drivers are presented.

  16. Nuclear power generation cost methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simplified calculational procedure for the estimation of nuclear power generation cost is outlined. The report contains a discussion of the various components of power generation cost and basic equations for calculating that cost. An example calculation is given. The basis of the fixed-charge rate, the derivation of the levelized fuel cycle cost equation, and the heavy water charge rate are included as appendixes

  17. Costs and persistence of alpha-2 adrenergic agonists versus carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, both associated with prostaglandin analogues, for glaucoma as recorded by The United Kingdom General Practitioner Research Database

    OpenAIRE

    Philippe Denis; Antoine Lafuma; Gilles Berdeaux

    2008-01-01

    Philippe Denis1, Antoine Lafuma2, Gilles Berdeaux31Hôpital Edouard Herriot, Lyon, France; 2Cemka, Bourg-la-Reine, France; 3Alcon France, Rueil-Malmaison, FranceAbstract: The persistence and costs of carbonic anhydrase inhibitors + prostaglandin analogues (CAIs + PGAs) vs alpha-2 adrenergic agonists + prostaglandin analogues (alpha-2 agonists + PGAs) were compared, based on The United Kingdom General Practitioner Research Database. Patients with a diagnosis of ocular hypertension, gl...

  18. Nuclear fuel cycle costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The costs for the back-end of the nuclear fuel cycle, which were developed as part of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program (NASAP), are presented. Total fuel cycle costs are given for the pressurized water reactor once-through and fuel recycle systems, and for the liquid-metal fast breeder reactor system. These calculations show that fuel cycle costs are a small part of the total power costs. For breeder reactors, fuel cycle costs are about half that of the present once-through system. The total power cost of the breeder reactor system is greater than that of light-water reactor at today's prices for uranium and enrichment

  19. Mensuração dos custos e avaliação de rendas em sistemas de produção de leite caprino nos Cariris Paraibanos / Calculation of the costs and evaluation of incomes in different systems of production of goat milk in Cariris Paraibanos

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Hélio Luiz Beretta, Dal Monte; Roberto Germano, Costa; Evandro Vasconcelos, Holanda Júnior; E