WorldWideScience
 
 
1

Environmental remediation cost in Fukushima area. Trial calculation using the unit cost factor method  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to perform environmental remediation in Fukushima area in a swift and adequate way, it is necessary to obtain perspective of total cost and allocate resources adequately. At present such had not been fixed as what decontamination method should be applied to relevant contaminated places in Fukushima area or what disposition and processing process should be applied to radioactive soils and wastes produced by decontamination, it would be difficult to assess the cost exactly. But it would be better to calculate rough cost on trial and then upgrade the accuracy of the cost gradually based on latest knowledge. Cleanup subcommittee of AESJ utilized published process flow and unit cost and based on original proposed scenario: soils produced by decontamination were classified into intermediate storage facility and controllable processing place based on their contamination concentration and with limited reuse, rough estimated cost was obtained as 6 - 9 trillion yen for basic case. (T. Tanaka)

2

The unit cost factors and calculation methods for decommissioning - Cost estimation of nuclear research facilities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

labor costs are figured out by using these factors as parameters of calculation. The accuracy of decommissioning cost estimation results is much higher compared to the real decommissioning works. (authors)

3

Adaptation of activity-based-costing (ABC) to calculate unit costs in Mental Health Care in Spain  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: To date, numerous cost-of-illness studies have been using methodologies that don't provide trustworthy results for decision making in mental health care. Objectives: The aims of this paper are design and implement a cost methodology by process of patient's care to calculate unit costs in mental health in Spain in 2005 and compare the results with the reached ones by traditional methods. Methods: We adapted Activity-Based-Costing to this field analyzing the organizational and manag...

Karen Moreno

2007-01-01

4

Cost Analysis in Hospitals and Calculation of Unit Costs in Medical Rehabilitation Services  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to demonstrate that actual cost values of medical rehabilitation services and cost functions could be estimated by using cost analysis in a physical and rehabilitation medicine (PMR clinic of a third-level hospital. This, in turn, could guide the hospital administrators in their financial planning, performance audit, and quality development issues.Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective study which was conducted by investigating and evaluating the medical, administrative, financial, and technical data. The true population of the study consisted of medical rehabilitation services provided in a PMR clinic of a third-level hospital in 2010. Since sampling was not done, all treatment sessions of outpatients and inpatients done in the PMR unit were included in the study. Results: After analysis, the cost for an outpatient was found to be 72.02 TL, for an inpatient 7.825.54 TL, for patient day 221.05 TL and for a PMR session 49.38 TL. These values were higher than the values paid to medical care providers by the Social Security Institution. Conclusion: Reimbursement institutions need to take cost analysis data into consideration when determining the rates of repayment for medical care providers. Turk J Phys Med Re­hab 2012;58:103-8.

?smail A??rba?

2012-06-01

5

Adaptation of activity-based-costing (ABC to calculate unit costs in Mental Health Care in Spain  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: To date, numerous cost-of-illness studies have been using methodologies that don't provide trustworthy results for decision making in mental health care. Objectives: The aims of this paper are design and implement a cost methodology by process of patient's care to calculate unit costs in mental health in Spain in 2005 and compare the results with the reached ones by traditional methods. Methods: We adapted Activity-Based-Costing to this field analyzing the organizational and management structure of Mental Health's public services in a region of Spain, Navarre, describing the processes of care to patient in each resource and calculating their cost. Results: We implemented this methodology in all resources and obtained unit cost per service. There are great differences between our results and the ones calculated by traditional systems. We display one example of these disparities contrasting our cost with the reached one by the methodology of Diagnostic Related Group (DRG. Conclusions: This cost methodology offers more advantages for management than traditional methods provide.

Karen Moreno

2007-06-01

6

Adaptation of activity-based-costing (ABC) to calculate unit costs in Mental Health Care in Spain  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: English Abstract in english Background: To date, numerous cost-of-illness studies have been using methodologies that don't provide trustworthy results for decision making in mental health care. Objectives: The aims of this paper are design and implement a cost methodology by process of patient's care to calculate unit costs in [...] mental health in Spain in 2005 and compare the results with the reached ones by traditional methods. Methods: We adapted Activity-Based-Costing to this field analyzing the organizational and management structure of Mental Health's public services in a region of Spain, Navarre, describing the processes of care to patient in each resource and calculating their cost. Results: We implemented this methodology in all resources and obtained unit cost per service. There are great differences between our results and the ones calculated by traditional systems. We display one example of these disparities contrasting our cost with the reached one by the methodology of Diagnostic Related Group (DRG). Conclusions: This cost methodology offers more advantages for management than traditional methods provide.

Karen, Moreno.

2007-06-01

7

Adaptation of activity-based-costing (ABC) to calculate unit costs in Mental Health Care in Spain  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: English Abstract in english Background: To date, numerous cost-of-illness studies have been using methodologies that don't provide trustworthy results for decision making in mental health care. Objectives: The aims of this paper are design and implement a cost methodology by process of patient's care to calculate unit costs in [...] mental health in Spain in 2005 and compare the results with the reached ones by traditional methods. Methods: We adapted Activity-Based-Costing to this field analyzing the organizational and management structure of Mental Health's public services in a region of Spain, Navarre, describing the processes of care to patient in each resource and calculating their cost. Results: We implemented this methodology in all resources and obtained unit cost per service. There are great differences between our results and the ones calculated by traditional systems. We display one example of these disparities contrasting our cost with the reached one by the methodology of Diagnostic Related Group (DRG). Conclusions: This cost methodology offers more advantages for management than traditional methods provide.

Karen, Moreno.

8

Estudio retrospectivo de costos de tratamientos intensivos por paciente y día cama / Calculation of costs per inpatient day in an intensive care unit  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish [...] Abstract in english Background: Intensive medicine is especially expensive and requires an efficient management. Aim: To measure the real costs of diseases treated in an intensive care unit and compare them with the costs assigned by the Chilean National Health Fund (FONASA) for 2008. Material and Methods: Retrospectiv [...] e review of 225 patients, representing 82% of discharges from an intensive care unit during 2008. Patients were classified according to their medical conditions as having sepsis, trauma, cardiovascular, respiratory or neurological diseases. Costs were calculated using the cost per activity system. Results: Trauma, sepsis and cardiovascular diseases had the greatest cost per inpatient day, corresponding to 294,779; 253,513 and 244,713 Chilean pesos, respectively. Seventy percent of costs correspond to human resources followed by complementary examinations, that represent up to 15% of costs. Patients with sepsis and cardiovascular diseases absorbed 28 and 26% of intensive care unit resources, respectively. Patients who died with these diseases absorbed 35 and 16% of resources, respectively. Conclusions: All diseases studied had significantly higher costs than those assigned by the National Health Fund.

SANDRA, ALVEAR V; JORGE, CANTEROS G; PATRICIA, RODRÍGUEZ C.

9

SEC Mutual Fund Cost Calculator  

Science.gov (United States)

Because "every investor should know what he or she is paying for a mutual fund," the US Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) provides this cost calculator. Two versions in Windows 3.1/95/98/NT or JavaScript format allow investors to easily estimate and compare mutual fund costs, and the SEC hopes this information will reveal "how costs add up over time."

10

Calculating utility prudency issue costs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The nuclear industry, particularly utilities and their construction, engineering and vendor agents, is faced with a surging increase in prudency management audits. What started as primarily a nuclear project-oriented requirement has spread to encompass most significant utility capital construction projects. Such audits are often a precedent condition to commencement of rate hearings. The cost engineer, a primary major capital construction project participant, is required to develop or critique ''prudency issue'' costs as part of such audits. Although utility costs in the broadest sense are potentially at issue, this paper concentrates on the typical project/construction management costs. The costs of design, procurement and construction are all subject to the calculation process

11

Methodics of Plant Production Cost Calculation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Research object – agricultural enterprises. Research subject – methodics of plant production cost calculation. Research aim – to analyze references and practical methods employed in plant produce cost calculation and to propose methodics improvements of plant production cost calculation. Objectives: 1) to analyze the essence of expenditure and production cost; 5) to examine the structure of production cost and to substantiate the expedience of expenditure calculation into cost; 6) to st...

Deres?kaite?, Rima

2005-01-01

12

Forest management units through cost  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Costs minimizing and profit maximizing make the costs adjustment seems to be a vital necessity when the activity developed within the company does not assure the maintenance and stability of the necessary relation between consuming factors and costs. In such circumstances, approaching differing sides of the production cost and improving the methods of calculation has much significance in determining the most appropriate measures necessary for its adjustment and for profit increasing. The whol...

Cristina Tenovici; Mihaela Albici

2010-01-01

13

Cost calculation in agricultural enterprises in theory and practice  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article is dedicated to evolution of the production costs calculation theory in agriculture from the second half of XVIII century till present times. The author emphasized long lasting dispute among the economists about usefulness of the full account of unit costs of production in evaluation of production profitability. Moreover, utility of the part-costs account in evaluation of production competitiveness, as well as their value in evaluation of the production processes and structure (using optimisation methods was analysed. Additionally article describes current problems of cost calculation in agriculture.

Wojciech Zi?tara

2009-01-01

14

Cost calculation of constructions series of types  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose: The main aim of research was to elaborate methods to estimate costs in construction series of types production process.Design/methodology/approach: Based on manufacturing cost of one element it is possible to determine cost of other elements belonged to the same construction series of types. The four main cost estimating methods were distinguished. The first method is feature-based. The technological operations are dedicated to specified pieces of element. Cost manufacturing of every piece is specified. Based on elementary costs the manufacturing cost of whole part is calculated. The second method uses construction similarity theory. The selected part manufacturing costs are functionally depended on main part manufacturing costs. The CAM method is based on time calculation from manufacturing process simulation. The simplified method uses normalized masses of analyzed parts pieces. The balance coefficients of those pieces are specified.Findings: Manufacturing cost estimation methods were analyzed. Those methods are based on construction and manufacturing technology. The main conclusion is that CAM method is most accurate.Research limitations/implications: The CAM method is limited to analyze only manufacturing process based on numerically controlled machines. The Feature-based method require developed database for analyzed part family.Practical implications: Presented method was applied in hydraulic props manufacturing cost analysis.Originality/value: Described analysis puts together and compares different cost estimating methods which allows choosing most suitable method for analyzed manufacturing process.

P. Gendarz

2010-05-01

15

Applying Activity Based Costing (ABC Method to Calculate Cost Price in Hospital and Remedy Services  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Activity Based Costing (ABC is one of the new methods began appearing as a costing methodology in the 1990. It calculates cost price by determining the usage of resources. In this study, ABC method was used for calculating cost price of remedial services in hospitals.Methods: To apply ABC method, Shahid Faghihi Hospital was selected. First, hospital units were divided into three main departments: administrative, diagnostic, and hospitalized. Second, activity centers were defined by the activity analysis method. Third, costs of administrative activity centers were allocated into diagnostic and operational departments based on the cost driver. Finally, with regard to the usage of cost objectives from services of activity centers, the cost price of medical services was calculated.Results: The cost price from ABC method significantly differs from tariff method. In addition, high amount of indirect costs in the hospital indicates that capacities of resources are not used properly.Conclusion: Cost price of remedial services with tariff method is not properly calculated when compared with ABC method. ABC calculates cost price by applying suitable mechanisms but tariff method is based on the fixed price. In addition, ABC represents useful information about the amount and combination of cost price services.

A Dabiri

2012-04-01

16

Applying Activity Based Costing (ABC) Method to Calculate Cost Price in Hospital and Remedy Services  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Activity Based Costing (ABC) is one of the new methods began appearing as a costing methodology in the 1990’s. It calculates cost price by determining the usage of resources. In this study, ABC method was used for calculating cost price of remedial services in hospitals. Methods: To apply ABC method, Shahid Faghihi Hospital was selected. First, hospital units were divided into three main departments: administrative, diagnostic, and hospitalized. Second, activity centers were defined by the activity analysis method. Third, costs of administrative activity centers were allocated into diagnostic and operational departments based on the cost driver. Finally, with regard to the usage of cost objectives from services of activity centers, the cost price of medical services was calculated. Results: The cost price from ABC method significantly differs from tariff method. In addition, high amount of indirect costs in the hospital indicates that capacities of resources are not used properly. Conclusion: Cost price of remedial services with tariff method is not properly calculated when compared with ABC method. ABC calculates cost price by applying suitable mechanisms but tariff method is based on the fixed price. In addition, ABC represents useful information about the amount and combination of cost price services. PMID:23113171

Rajabi, A; Dabiri, A

2012-01-01

17

[Calculation of workers' health care costs].  

Science.gov (United States)

In different health care systems, there are different schemes of organization and principles of financing activities aimed at ensuring the working population health and safety. Regardless of the scheme and the range of health care provided, economists strive for rationalization of costs (including their reduction). This applies to both employers who include workers' health care costs into indirect costs of the market product manufacture and health care institutions, which provide health care services. In practice, new methods of setting costs of workers' health care facilitate regular cost control, acquisition of detailed information about costs, and better adjustment of information to planning and control needs in individual health care institutions. For economic institutions and institutions specialized in workers' health care, a traditional cost-effect calculation focused on setting costs of individual products (services) is useful only if costs are relatively low and the output of simple products is not very high. But when products form aggregates of numerous actions like those involved in occupational medicine services, the method of activity based costing (ABC), representing the process approach, is much more useful. According to this approach costs are attributed to the product according to resources used during different activities involved in its production. The calculation of costs proceeds through allocation of all direct costs for specific processes in a given institution. Indirect costs are settled on the basis of resources used during the implementation of individual tasks involved in the process of making a new product. In this method, so called map of processes/actions consisted in the manufactured product and their interrelations are of particular importance. Advancements in the cost-effect for the management of health care institutions depend on their managerial needs. Current trends in this regard primarily depend on treating all cost reference subjects as cost objects and taking account of all their interrelations. Final products, specific assignments, resources and activities may all be regarded as cost objects. The ABC method is characterized by a very high informative value in terms of setting prices of products in the area of workers' health care. It also facilitates the assessment of costs of individual activities under a multidisciplinary approach to health care and the setting costs of varied products. The ABC method provides precise data on the consumption of resources, such as human labor or various materials. PMID:17533995

Rydlewska-Liszkowska, Izabela

2006-01-01

18

Expanding the usefulness of unit supply cost  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Unit supply cost is a widely used tool in the energy business for providing a one number-unit cost description. For example, controllable costs such as finding costs, development costs and operating costs have traditionally been described in an average cost per unit of reserves format for the oil and gas industry, however using this approach on more specific applications is not always informative. Projects with widely varying controllable parameters can still yield the same unit cost, making comparisons difficult. The application of unit supply cost can be readily expanded by adding a new unit cost component termed cost of capital. This element introduces the impacts of timing and return on investment into the supply cost determination through discounting annual costs. The cost of capital component adds the ability to represent a project's unique characteristics, particularly reserves' depletion rate and the timing or phasing of development. Introducing the cost of capital element into the supply cost analysis provides additional information and improves the likelihood of drawing correct conclusions when comparing and ranking projects. 4 figs., 6 tabs

19

10 CFR 950.25 - Calculation of covered costs.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-01-01 false Calculation of covered costs. 950.25 Section...Process § 950.25 Calculation of covered costs. (a) The Claims...obligation was included in the calculation of the loan cost; and (2) Costs...

2010-01-01

20

Cost efficiency of neonatal nurseries: the significance of unit size.  

Science.gov (United States)

The cost of neonatal intensive care is high, and human and financial resources are finite. It is therefore essential to provide such care efficiently in terms of costs while still maintaining standards of care. We looked at the relationship of unit size to cost and determined the optimum and minimum size of the unit in terms of cost efficiency. Our data suggest that units with fewer than 6 ventilator cots were less cost-efficient than those with more cots while those with 12 ventilator cots were the most efficient. The calculations were done only up to 16 ventilator cots. Similarly, level II units were most cost-efficient when attached to an intensive care unit and had over 16 cots. PMID:1932331

John, E; Hind, N; Roberts, V; Roberts, S

1991-09-01

 
 
 
 
21

Medicaid: Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Costs.  

Science.gov (United States)

The final report identifies important research and policy issues pertaining to Medicaid and Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) costs. Based on an extensive review of the clinical, cost effectiveness and health policy literature on NICUs, the authors prov...

C. A. Serrato, M. McCormick, D. Richardson, J. Schore, C. Thornton

1991-01-01

22

49 CFR 1152.32 - Calculation of avoidable costs.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-10-01false Calculation of avoidable costs.1152.32 Section...Value§ 1152.32 Calculation of avoidable costs. This section defines...for inclusion in the calculation of avoidable costs; the conditions...

2010-10-01

23

Processor Units Reduce Satellite Construction Costs  

Science.gov (United States)

As part of the effort to build the Fast Affordable Science and Technology Satellite (FASTSAT), Marshall Space Flight Center developed a low-cost telemetry unit which is used to facilitate communication between a satellite and its receiving station. Huntsville, Alabama-based Orbital Telemetry Inc. has licensed the NASA technology and is offering to install the cost-cutting units on commercial satellites.

2014-01-01

24

28 CFR 505.4 - Calculation of assessment by unit staff.  

Science.gov (United States)

... Calculation of assessment by unit staff. 505.4 Section 505.4 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS...JUSTICE GENERAL MANAGEMENT AND ADMINISTRATION COST OF INCARCERATION FEE § 505.4 Calculation of assessment by unit...

2010-07-01

25

United States gas industry and cost of services  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An overview of the United States Gas industry includes the role of industry participants by segment: producer, pipeline and distributor. A scheme of Industry transactions in 1995 shows the connection between the participants. Gross cost of service includes: operation and maintenance; administrative depreciation, non-income taxes, income taxes and return. Other revenues are subtracted to obtain net cost of service. Detailed scheme is shown for calculating the rate base of a single company with the method for calculation of return

26

TTS-Polttopuu - cost calculation model for fuelwood  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The TTS-Institutes's Forestry Department has developed a computer based costcalculation model, 'TTS-Polttopuu', for the calculation of unit costs and resource needs in the harvesting systems for wood chips and split firewood. The model enables to determine the productivity and device cost per operating hour by each working stage of the harvesting system. The calculation model also enables the user to find out how changes in the productivity and cost bases of different harvesting chains influence the unit cost of the whole system. The harvesting chain includes the cutting of delimbed and non-delimbed fuelwood, forest haulage, road transportation chipping and chopping of longwood at storage. This individually operating software was originally developed to serve research needs, but it also serves the needs of the forestry and agricultural education, training and extension as well as individual firewood producers. The system requirements for this cost calculation model are at least 486-level processor with the Windows 95/98 -operating system, 16 MB of memory (RAM) and 5 MB of available hard-disk. This development work was carried out in conjunction with the nation-wide BIOENERGY Research Programme. (orig.)

27

34 CFR Appendix A to Part 300 - Excess Costs Calculation  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 false Excess Costs Calculation A Appendix A to Part 300...Appendix A to Part 300—Excess Costs Calculation Except as otherwise provided...be used only to pay the excess costs of providing special...

2010-07-01

28

48 CFR 1830.7002-2 - Cost of money calculations.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Cost of money calculations. 1830.7002-2 Section...CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS ADMINISTRATION...Construction 1830.7002-2 Cost of money calculations. (a) The interest...

2010-10-01

29

49 CFR 1152.32 - Calculation of avoidable costs.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-10-01false Calculation of avoidable costs.1152.32 Section 1152.32...10903 Standards for Determining Costs, Revenues, and Return on Value§ 1152.32 Calculation of avoidable costs. This section defines: Which...

2010-10-01

30

Finding and development costs in the United States  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The finding and development costs, or reserve replacement costs have become important statistics for benchmarking independent oil and gas companies against one another. However, no standard definition for finding costs exists. Every company reports their costs differently because of different accounting practices. The time period a company uses to calculate its finding costs is also important. Since exploring for a field and developing new properties involves a long lead time, costs should be calculated on an annual basis. Reserve replacement costs should include: acquisition costs, developments costs, exploration costs, geological and geophysical costs, general and administrative costs, drilling costs and improved recovery costs. The importance of independent oil and gas companies was emphasized. They drill 85% of all the wells in the United States and produce 64% of the natural gas and 37% of the crude oil. In the lower 48 states alone, they produce 49% of the crude oil. Lightening of regulatory and legislative burdens, opening up access to more public lands, improving the tax situation, and to obtain royalty relief, were considered essential to providing for the energy needs of Americans in the years to come. 12 figs

31

Petroleum Refinery Hydrogen Production Unit: Exergy and Production Cost Evaluation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Some specific processes are required to obtain pure hydrogen and the most usual one is natural gas reforming, where natural gas reacts with superheated steam producing H2, CO, CO2 and H2O. This paper presents the exergy and production costs evaluation of a complete hydrogen production unit of a petroleum refinery. The hydrogen production unit analysed in this paper has to supply 550,000 Nm3 of hydrogen per day to purify diesel oil. Based on a synthesis plant of the hydrogen production unit, the exergy efficiency of each component and of the overall plant are calculated. The hydrogen production cost is determined by means of a thermoeconomic analysis in which the equality cost partition method is employed, including capital and operational costs, in order to determine the production cost of hydrogen and other products of the plant.

Silvio de Oliveira Júnior

2008-12-01

32

Low-cost inertial measurement unit.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Sandia National Laboratories performs many expensive tests using inertial measurement units (IMUs)--systems that use accelerometers, gyroscopes, and other sensors to measure flight dynamics in three dimensions. For the purpose of this report, the metrics used to evaluate an IMU are cost, size, performance, resolution, upgradeability and testing. The cost of a precision IMU is very high and can cost hundreds of thousands of dollars. Thus the goals and results of this project are as follows: (1) Examine the data flow in an IMU and determine a generic IMU design. (2) Discuss a high cost IMU implementation and its theoretically achievable results. (3) Discuss design modifications that would save money for suited applications. (4) Design and implement a low cost IMU and discuss its theoretically achievable results. (5) Test the low cost IMU and compare theoretical results with empirical results. (6) Construct a more streamlined printed circuit board design reducing noise, increasing capabilities, and constructing a self-contained unit. Using these results, we can compare a high cost IMU versus a low cost IMU using the metrics from above. Further, we can examine and suggest situations where a low cost IMU could be used instead of a high cost IMU for saving cost, size, or both.

Deyle, Travis Jay

2005-03-01

33

Cost estimating for CERCLA remedial alternatives a unit cost methodology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Guidance for Conducting Remedial Investigations and Feasibility Studies Under CERCLA, Interim Final, dated October 1988 (EPA 1988) requires a detailed analysis be conducted of the most promising remedial alternatives against several evaluation criteria, including cost. To complete the detailed analysis, order-of-magnitude cost estimates (having an accuracy of +50 percent to -30 percent) must be developed for each remedial alternative. This paper presents a methodology for developing cost estimates of remedial alternatives comprised of various technology and process options with a wide range of estimated contaminated media quantities. In addition, the cost estimating methodology provides flexibility for incorporating revisions to remedial alternatives and achieves the desired range of accuracy. It is important to note that the cost estimating methodology presented here was developed as a concurrent path to the development of contaminated media quantity estimates. This methodology can be initiated before contaminated media quantities are estimated. As a result, this methodology is useful in developing cost estimates for use in screening and evaluating remedial technologies and process options. However, remedial alternative cost estimates cannot be prepared without the contaminated media quantity estimates. In the conduct of the feasibility study for Operable Unit 5 at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), fourteen remedial alternatives were retained for detailed analysis. Each remedial alternative was composed of combinations of remedial technologies and processes which were earlier determined to be best suited for addressing the media-specific contaminants found at the FEMP site, and achieving desired remedial action objectives

34

31 CFR 205.27 - How are Interest Calculation Costs calculated?  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 false How are Interest Calculation Costs calculated? 205.27 Section...205.27 How are Interest Calculation Costs calculated? (a) We will...b) We may deny an interest calculation cost claim if a State does...

2010-07-01

35

Unit Commitment With Dynamic Cycling Costs  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Increased competition in the electricity sector and the integration of variable renewable energy sources is resulting in more frequent cycling of thermal plant. Thus, the wear-and-tear to generator components and the related costs are a growing concern for plant owners and system operators alike. This paper presents a formulation that can be implemented in a MIP dispatch model to dynamically model cycling costs based on unit operation. When implemented for a test system, the results show that...

Troy, Niamh; Flynn, Damian; Milligan, Michael R.; et al

2012-01-01

36

Indian experience in investment cost in small size nuclear power reactor units  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes the Indian situation and experience in relation to the investment in Small Size Nuclear Power Reactor Units. Data are given on nuclear power investment costs. The characteristics of the Indian experience are also given in detail. Nuclear power generation costs and pricing are discussed. Important parameters used for calculating unit energy cost from nuclear power plants are listed. Nuclear and thermal power costs are compared. The variation of unit energy cost with change in various parameters is explained

37

48 CFR 1830.7002-2 - Cost of money calculations.  

Science.gov (United States)

... 2010-10-01 true Cost of money calculations. ...CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS ADMINISTRATION Facilities Capital Employed for Facilities in...Construction 1830.7002-2 Cost of money...

2010-10-01

38

49 CFR 639.25 - Calculation of lease cost.  

Science.gov (United States)

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CAPITAL LEASES Cost-Effectiveness § 639.25 Calculation...a) For purposes of this part, the lease cost of a capital asset is— (1) The cost to lease the asset for the same use...

2010-10-01

39

10 CFR 950.25 - Calculation of covered costs.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Calculation of covered costs. 950.25 Section...Administration Process § 950.25 Calculation of covered costs. (a) The Claims...the debt obligation was included in the calculation of the loan cost; and (2)...

2010-01-01

40

49 CFR 1152.32 - Calculation of avoidable costs.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01false Calculation of avoidable costs.1152.32 ...and Return on Value§ 1152.32 Calculation of avoidable costs. This section...elements are eligible for inclusion in the calculation of avoidable costs; the...

2010-10-01

 
 
 
 
41

Recursive delay calculation unit for parametric beamformer  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents a recursive approach for parametric delay calculations for a beamformer. The suggested calculation procedure is capable of calculating the delays for any image line defined by an origin and arbitrary direction. It involves only add and shift operations making it suitable for hardware implementation. One delaycalculation unit (DCU) needs 4 parameters, and all operations can be implemented using fixed-point arithmetics. An N-channel system needs N+ 1 DCUs per line - one for the distance from the transmit origin to the image point and N for the distances from the image point to each of the receivers. Each DCU recursively calculates the square of the distance between a transducer element and a point on the beamformed line. Then it finds the approximate square root. The distance to point i is used as an initial guess for point i + 1. Using fixed-point calculations with 36-bit precision gives an error in the delay calculations on the order of 1/64 samples, at a sampling frequency of f s = 40 MHz. The circuit has been synthesized for a Virtex II Pro device speed grade 6 in two versions - a pipelined and a non-pipelined producing 150 and 30 million delays per second, respectively. The non-pipelined circuit occupies about 0.5 % of the FPGA resources and the pipelined one about 1 %. When the square root is found with a pipelined CORDIC processor, 2 % of the FPGA slices are used to deliver 150 million delays per second.

Nikolov, Svetoslav I.; Jensen, Jørgen A.; Tomov, Borislav

2006-03-01

42

Unit Costs for Lunar-Derived Propellants  

Science.gov (United States)

The estimated propellant production cost per metric ton will be derived and presented for solar system transportation waypoints. Background on recent and ongoing space resource propellant supply models will be presented, with a review of architectural assumptions, costs and expected markets. Integrated economic and engineering models (Duke et al., 2003; Duke, Blair and Diaz, 2002; Lamassoure et al. 2003; and Blair et al., 2002) estimate production costs, expected productivity of the mining and processing system, reusable transportation element behavior, fuel depot activity and revenues based on projected market conditions. Results of these economic models are used to derive total and marginal unit costs for propellant at fuel depot facilities for the purpose of facilitating the commercial development of space and to aid program and logistic planning for human space exploration missions.

Blair, Brad R.

2004-02-01

43

31 CFR 205.27 - How are Interest Calculation Costs calculated?  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 false How are Interest Calculation Costs calculated? 205.27 Section...Agreement § 205.27 How are Interest Calculation Costs calculated? (a) We will...clearance patterns in support of interest calculations, pursuant to this subpart A,...

2010-07-01

44

49 CFR 639.25 - Calculation of lease cost.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Calculation of lease cost. 639.25 Section 639.25 Transportation...OF TRANSPORTATION CAPITAL LEASES Cost-Effectiveness § 639.25 Calculation of lease cost. (a) For purposes of this...

2010-10-01

45

Heat Deposit Calculation in Spallation Unit  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study concerns the calculation of the heat deposition in one of the EAP-80 basic units - the spallation module including the beam window, lead-bismuth spallation target and primary liquid metal cooling system. It is assumed that the model of sub-critical reactor under investigation is based on ANSALDO-INFN-ENEA-CRS4 reference configuration1. The calculation have been done by means of a couple computer codes: INCC 2 and GEANT3.21 3. These codes have been preliminary tested on the experimental data obtained in 4 for the case of interaction of proton beam and lead-bismuth targets at the energy Ep= 800MeV which is close to energy range relevant for ADS configuration.

Karmanov, F. I.; Travleev, A. A.; Latysheva, L. N.; Vecchi, M.

2001-11-01

46

Cost unit accounting for power supply companies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cost unit accounting was introduced to the power supply company Energie-Versorgung Schwaben AG (EVS) in the Seventies. The initial method of peak load proportioning was later modified to the so-called VDEW method and further improved in consecutive steps through specific measurements. Here EVS focussed particularly on collecting data in the separate-contract sector. The authors describe the procedure adopted and results obtained. (orig.)

47

Recursive Delay Calculation Unit for Parametric Beamformer  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper presents a recursive approach for parametric delay calculations for a beamformer. The suggested calculation procedure is capable of calculating the delays for any image line defined by an origin and arbitrary direction. It involves only add and shift operations making it suitable for hardware implementation. One delaycalculation unit (DCU) needs 4 parameters, and all operations can be implemented using fixed-point arithmetics. An N -channel system needs N + 1 DCUs per line - one for the distance from the transmit origin to the image point and N for the distances from the image point to each of the receivers. Each DCU recursively calculates the square of the distance between a transducer element and a point on the beamformed line. Then it finds the approximate square root. The distance to point i is used as an initial guess for point i + 1. Using fixed-point calculations with 36-bit precision gives an error in the delay calculations on the order of 1/64 samples, at a sampling frequency of f s = 40 MHz. The circuit has been synthesized for a Virtex II Pro device speed grade 6 in two versions - a pipelined and a non-pipelined producing 150 and 30 million delays per second, respectively. The non-pipelined circuit occupies about 0.5 % of the FPGA resources and the pipelined one about 1 %. When the square root is found with a pipelined CORDIC processor, 2 % of the FPGA slices are used to deliver 150 million delays per second. © (2006) COPYRIGHT SPIE--The International Society for Optical Engineering.

Nikolov, Svetoslav; Jensen, JØrgen Arendt

2006-01-01

48

Method for calculating costs of steam sterilization devised.  

Science.gov (United States)

Through a study at 10 hospitals located throughout the United States, a method for determining the costs of operating steam sterilization equipment was devised and tested. Any hospital central sterile supply manager can use this method to monitor his sterilizers' cost per hour of operation and cost per load. PMID:428958

Sandler, R L; Altman, R D

1979-05-01

49

49 CFR 1152.32 - Calculation of avoidable costs.  

Science.gov (United States)

...accumulated depreciation to original total cost of that type of equipment owned...records. (2) The current nominal cost of capital shall be used in the calculation...shall include the use of the nominal cost of capital for all return on investment...

2010-10-01

50

THEORETICAL AND PRACTICAL CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING THE COST CALCULATION USING DIRECT COSTING  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The definition of the cost of production as applied to inventories refers to the acquisition and production cost, and its determination involves many considerations. This article emphasizes a comparative approach of the calculation of production cost under direct costing and absorption costing, and examines the impact of using these calculation systems on the financial performance of the companies presented in the income statement.

Cristina Aurora, Bunea-Bonta?

2012-01-01

51

Large surface miners - applications and cost calculations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Surface miners find their natural applications in projects where drilling and blasting are prohibited or where selective mining of mineral seams, partings and overburden is required. They also offer, among other things these advantages: less coal loss and dilution; improved coal recovery especially in areas sensitive to blasting; less stress and strain on trucks due to minimum impact of the excavated materials; primary crushing and fragmentation of coal; reduced capacity requirements for coal washing/preparation plants. In this paper, the development of the large Surface Miners within the last two years, their possible applications and the costs of such a system are explained by giving a number of examples. 12 figs., 4 tabs.

Schroeder, D.L. [Krupp Foerdertechnik GmbH, Essen (Germany)

1999-07-01

52

COSTING OF QUALITY IN BUSINESS BASE UNIT SEVERAL PRODUCTIONS, CIENFUEGOS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The calculation of quality costs as a component of the System of Quality Management, is a must for Cuban business managers, to provide a technique identified as an advanced instrument of management, which will lead to improved competitiveness and serve as an informative source. Identify and calculate the costs of quality, as well as propose measured plans, to promote a decrease in operating expenses, which can be used as a tool to improve processes. The Business Unit of Several Base Productions of Cienfuegos presents the fault to give way to Business Improvement and certification of its Quality Management System, according to the norm ISO 9001:2008 and the decree law 281, so that the objective research was to estimate the costs of quality processes in the company. To achieve this level were used empirical methods and techniques such as direct observation, document review and work in groups, which allowed to calculate the costs of quality in all processes. The results obtained are applicable to companies that operate in the Cuban economy and according to the Cuban economic model implemented from the year 2011.

Gómez Alfonso, Elizabeth

2013-01-01

53

31 CFR 205.27 - How are Interest Calculation Costs calculated?  

Science.gov (United States)

...calculation cost claims. We will review all interest calculation...20.106); Federal Transit Capital Improvement Trust Fund (CFDA 20.500); Federal Transit Capital & Operating Assistance Trust Fund (CFDA 20.507); and Social Security—Disability...

2010-07-01

54

Aspects of Costs Calculation in a Vegetable Production Farm  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper deals with the aspects of the issue of costs calculation for a vegetable production farm in terms of theory and practice. Aspects of the active accounting regulations, applicable to vegetable production farms, are presented in the content. Features of the vegetable production are detailed, and the applicability of costs calculation methods is shown by the example of the “to order” method. In terms of accounting, there are presented the records made in the management accounting...

Hada, Teodor

2012-01-01

55

Fusion reactor design studies: standard unit costs and cost scaling rules  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report establishes standard unit costs and scaling rules for estimating costs of material, equipment, land, and labor components used in magnetic confinement fusion reactor plant construction and operation. Use of the standard unit costs and scaling rules will add uniformity to cost estimates, and thus allow valid comparison of the economic characteristics of various reactor concepts

56

External Costs Of Electricity Generation, A Proximate Calculation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Electricity generation cost of a fossil power plant includes capital cost, operation and maintenance costs and fuel cost. For a nuclear power plant the generation cost includes also a post-operation cost (decommissioning cost). The awareness of public health and environmental protection have recently urged to elaborately incorporate those costs borne by the public due to the pollution and negative effects resulting from the Electricity generation, which are called external costs. Methods and computer programs of such calculation have been published and being developed, for example the one that is being developed and promoted by the IAEA, the B-Glad computation program. The method calculates dispersion of emitted pollution to public and environment, assess the doses received and damages thereafter, and then evaluate the damages in monetary quantities. This paper illustrates calculation using the B-Glad taking the input data of nuclear power plant (NPP) of 2 x 900 MWe at the Ujung Lemah Abang site, and two kinds of coal power plants (CPP) of 3 x 600 MWe at the Tanjung Jati site, both sites are located at the coast of the Muria peninsular. The CPPs with Flue Gas Desulphurization (FGD)and without FGD are compared, whereas the NPP eternality assessment includes considerations of risk aversion and accident condition. Calculation results show that external costs amount to 0,9094 mills/KWh for cpr without FGD, 0,8156 mills/KWh for cpr with FGD, and 0,0083 mills/KWh for the NPP, or two to four orders of magnitude less than respective generation costs. Compared to studies for European countries, their figures are smaller, but to the Thailand study these figures are within their lower-upper range

57

Cost and sensitivity exercises with a pocket calculator  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There are a lot of comprehensive programmes and methods to calculate costs and to simulate mining and processing operations. Sometimes they are not available to the whole people. In this paper it is shown how it is possible, with a pocket programmable calculator less than US $ 200 price, to do exercises in order to estimate the magnitude of investment and operation costs and also their ranges for different practical situations. So, geologists and metallurgists could decide either to spend more money or which aspects need more research. Several examples are developed in order to show how to use a type of these small calculators

58

Cost assessment of filmless ultrasound using unit cost analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Filmless ultrasound is a viable operation from a cost standpoint in our division. Substantial cost savings can be recognized in filmless operation by reducing labor intensive activities and consumables and increasing productivity. PACS lends itself to economies of scale make its feasibility at large institutions possible. At our institution, it can not only pay its own way but also provide a reasonable return on investment. This powerful method can be used for cost analysis of other ultrasoun...

Chan, Brandon W.; Dorl, John R.; Dejong, M. Robert; Hamper, Ulrike M.

1998-01-01

59

Cost calculation model concerning small-scale production of chips and split firewood  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The TTS-Institute's Forestry Department has developed a computer-based cost calculation model for the production of wood chips and split firewood. This development work was carried out in conjunction with the nation-wide BIOENERGY -research programme. The said calculation model eases and speeds up the calculation of unit costs and resource needs in harvesting systems for wood chips and split firewood. The model also enables the user to find out how changes in the productivity and costs bases of different harvesting chains influences the unit costs of the system as a whole. The undertaking was composed of the following parts: clarification and modification of productivity bases for application in the model as mathematical models, clarification of machine and device costs bases, designing of the structure and functions of the calculation model, construction and testing of the model's 0-version, model calculations concerning typical chains, review of calculation bases, and charting of development needs focusing on the model. The calculation model was developed to serve research needs, but with further development it could be useful as a tool in forestry and agricultural extension work, related schools and colleges, and in the hands of firewood producers. (author)

60

Unit costs of waste management operations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report provides estimates of generic costs for the management, disposal, and surveillance of various waste types, from the time they are generated to the end of their institutional control. Costs include monitoring and surveillance costs required after waste disposal. Available data on costs for the treatment, storage, disposal, and transportation of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive, low-level radioactive, transuranic radioactive, hazardous, mixed (low-level radioactive plus hazardous), and sanitary wastes are presented. The costs cover all major elements that contribute to the total system life-cycle (i.e., ''cradle to grave'') cost for each waste type. This total cost is the sum of fixed and variable cost components. Variable costs are affected by operating rates and throughput capacities and vary in direct proportion to changes in the level of activity. Fixed costs remain constant regardless of changes in the amount of waste, operating rates, or throughput capacities. Key factors that influence cost, such as the size and throughput capacity of facilities, are identified. In many cases, ranges of values for the key variables are presented. For some waste types, the planned or estimated costs for storage and disposal, projected to the year 2000, are presented as graphics

 
 
 
 
61

Patient experience – the ingredient missing from cost-effectiveness calculations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available David CurtisCentre for Psychiatry, Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, London, UKAbstract: Standard cost-effectiveness calculations as used by the UK National Institute of Clinical Excellence compare the net benefit of an intervention with the financial costs to the health service. Debates about public health interventions also focus on these factors. The subjective experience of the patient, including financial costs and also transient pain, distress, and indignity, is routinely ignored. I carried out an Internet survey which showed that members of the public assign a high financial cost to routine medical interventions such as taking a tablet regularly or attending a clinic for an injection. It is wrong to ignore such costs when attempting to obtain an overall evaluation of the benefit of medical interventions.Keywords: screening, prevention, financial cost, medical interventions

Curtis D

2011-05-01

62

Economic analysis of the cost of Intensive Care Units  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The cost of Intensive Care Units has the greatest impact on overall medical costs and the overall cost for the health of a country and an increasing number of studies from around the world presenting the quantification of these costs. Aim: Review of the Economic Analysis of the Cost of Intensive Care Units. Method: Search was made in the SCOPUS, MEDLINE and CINAHL databases using the key-words “Intensive Care Units (ICU”, “Cost”, “Cost Analysis”, “Health Care Costs”, “Health Resources”, “ICU resources”. The study was based on articles published in English from 2000 to 2011 investigating the Economic Analysis of the Cost of Intensive Care Units. Results: The cost of ICU is a significant percentage of gross domestic product in developed countries. Most cost analysis studies that relate to plans that include the study of staff costs, duration of stay in the ICU, the clinical situations of hospitalized patients, engineering support, medications and diagnostic tests costing scales and in relation to the diagnostic criteria. Conclusions: most studies conclude that the remuneration of staff, particularly nurses, in the ICU is the largest cost of ICU, while for the duration of stay in the ICU results are conflicting. The analysis on the cost-effectiveness of ICU can help to better apply these findings to the therapeutic context of ICU.

Mazetas D.

2014-04-01

63

Calculating communication costs with Sessions Types and Sizes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We present a small object-oriented language with communication primitives. The language allows the assignment of binary session types to communication channels in order to govern the interaction between different objects and to statically calculate communication costs. Class declarations are annotated with size information in order to determine the cost of sending and receiving objects. This paper describes our first steps in the creation of a session-based, object-oriented language for co...

Franco, Juliana; Drossopoulou, Sophia; Yoshida, Nobuko

2014-01-01

64

Aspects of Costs Calculation in a Vegetable Production Farm  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper deals with the aspects of the issue of costs calculation for a vegetable production farm in terms of theory and practice. Aspects of the active accounting regulations, applicable to vegetable production farms, are presented in the content. Features of the vegetable production are detailed, and the applicability of costs calculation methods is shown by the example of the “to order” method. In terms of accounting, there are presented the records made in the management accounting, in the financial accounting and also the conclusions to be drawn in terms of management accounting utility in financial decision making.

Teodor HADA

2012-11-01

65

Cost-benefit of computed tomography application in dosimetry calculations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The cost-benefit analysis of CT-assisted radiation therapy treatment planning is incomplete at the moment. In fact, there are those who argue that the analysis will never be completed and cite the failure to obtain comparable data relative to previous technical innovations, e.g., megavoltage radiation (especially very high energy photon beam machines), computerized treatment planning units, and simulators

66

Comparison of methods to calculate electricity generating costs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Some of the methods used to compare electricity generating costs are ill-adapted to the task. In the following a dynamic cost accounting method is described which can be used to make an informative cost comparison of various electricity generating technologies, in particular nuclear and coal-fired power stations, with differing periods of operation and differing cost structures. The reference power stations assumed for the comparison for basic, medium and peak loads are all regarded as part of a stock of power stations built up over a relatively long period of time. The comparison is based on discounted cash values for dynamic investments and operating costs. The accounting process, which involves complex calculations, is performed with the aid of EDP. (orig.)

67

a review of electricity unit cost estimates  

has been adopted to allocating corporate level costs to individual power plants? \\Unless answers to these ..... Portfolio-Based Electricity Generation Planning: \\Policy Implications for. Renewables and ... House of Commons Trade and. \\Industry ...

68

49 CFR 639.23 - Calculation of purchase or construction cost.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-10-01 false Calculation of purchase or construction cost. 639.23...Cost-Effectiveness § 639.23 Calculation of purchase or construction cost. (a) For purposes of this subpart, the purchase or construction cost of a capital...

2010-10-01

69

47 CFR 65.305 - Calculation of the weighted average cost of capital.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Calculation of the weighted average cost of capital. 65.305 Section 65.305...Calculation of the weighted average cost of capital. (a) The composite weighted average cost of capital is the sum of the cost of...

2010-10-01

70

47 CFR 65.300 - Calculations of the components and weights of the cost of capital.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-10-01 false Calculations of the components and weights of the cost of capital...proceedings. The calculations shall determine...a composite cost of debt, a composite...Excluded from cost of capital calculations made...

2010-10-01

71

19 CFR 351.407 - Calculation of constructed value and cost of production.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-04-01 false Calculation of constructed value and cost of production... § 351.407 Calculation of constructed value and cost of production...are common to the calculation of constructed value and the cost of...

2010-04-01

72

Cost calculations for decommissioning and dismantling of nuclear research facilities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Today, it is recommended that planning of decommission should form an integral part of the activities over the life cycle of a nuclear facility (planning, building and operation), but it was only in the nineteen seventies that the waste issue really surface. Actually, the IAEA guidelines on decommissioning have been issued as recently as over the last ten years, and international advice on finance of decommissioning is even younger. No general international guideline on cost calculations exists at present. This implies that cost calculations cannot be performed with any accuracy or credibility without a relatively detailed consideration of the radiological prerequisites. Consequently, any cost estimates based mainly on the particulars of the building structures and installations are likely to be gross underestimations. The present study has come about on initiative by the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI) and is based on a common need in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. The content of the report may be briefly summarised as follows. The background covers design and operation prerequisites as well as an overview of the various nuclear research facilities in the four participating countries: Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. The purpose of the work has been to identify, compile and exchange information on facilities and on methodologies for cost calculation with the aim of achieving an 80 % level of confidence. The scope has been as follows: 1) to establish a Nordic network 2) to compile dedicated guidance documents on radiological surveying, technical planning and financial risk identification and assessment 3) to compile and describe techniques for precise cost calculations at early stages 4) to compile plant and other relevant data A separate section is devoted in the report to good practice for the specific purpose of early but precise cost calculations for research facilities, and a separate section is devoted to techniques for assessment of cost. Examples are provided for each of the countries of relevant projects. They are as follows: 5) Research reactor DR1 in Denmark 6) The TRIGA research reactor in Finland 7) The uranium reprocessing plant in Norway 8) Research reactor R1 in Sweden The following conclusions were made: 9) IAEA and OECD/NEA documents provide invaluable advice for pertinent approaches. 10) Adequate radiological surveying is needed before precise cost calculations can be made. 11) The same can be said about technical planning including selection of techniques to be used. 12) It is proposed that separate analyses be made regarding the probabilities for conceivable features and events which could lead to significantly higher costs than expected. 13) It is expected that the need for precise cost estimates will dictate the pace of the radiological surveying and technical planning, at least in the early stages. 14) It is important that the validity structure for early cost estimates with regard to type of facility be fully appreciated. E g, the precision is usually less for research facilities. 15) The summation method is treacherous and leads to systematical underestimations in early stages unless compensation is made for the fact that not all items are included. 16) Comparison between different facilities can be made when there is access to information from plants at different stages of planning and when accommodation can be made with regard to differences in features. 17) A simple approach is presented for 'calibration' of a cost estimate against one or more completed projects. 18) Information exchange and co-operations between different plant owners is highly desirable. (au)

73

Cost calculations for decommissioning and dismantling of nuclear research facilities  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Today, it is recommended that planning of decommission should form an integral part of the activities over the life cycle of a nuclear facility (planning, building and operation), but it was only in the nineteen seventies that the waste issue really surface. Actually, the IAEA guidelines on decommissioning have been issued as recently as over the last ten years, and international advice on finance of decommissioning is even younger. No general international guideline on cost calculations exists at present. This implies that cost calculations cannot be performed with any accuracy or credibility without a relatively detailed consideration of the radiological prerequisites. Consequently, any cost estimates based mainly on the particulars of the building structures and installations are likely to be gross underestimations. The present study has come about on initiative by the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI) and is based on a common need in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. The content of the report may be briefly summarised as follows. The background covers design and operation prerequisites as well as an overview of the various nuclear research facilities in the four participating countries: Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. The purpose of the work has been to identify, compile and exchange information on facilities and on methodologies for cost calculation with the aim of achieving an 80 % level of confidence. The scope has been as follows: 1) to establish a Nordic network 2) to compile dedicated guidance documents on radiological surveying, technical planning and financial risk identification and assessment 3) to compile and describe techniques for precise cost calculations at early stages 4) to compile plant and other relevant data A separate section is devoted in the report to good practice for the specific purpose of early but precise cost calculations for research facilities, and a separate section is devoted to techniques for assessment of cost. Examples are provided for each of the countries of relevant projects. They are as follows: 5) Research reactor DR1 in Denmark 6) The TRIGA research reactor in Finland 7) The uranium reprocessing plant in Norway 8) Research reactor R1 in Sweden The following conclusions were made: 9) IAEA and OECD/NEA documents provide invaluable advice for pertinent approaches. 10) Adequate radiological surveying is needed before precise cost calculations can be made. 11) The same can be said about technical planning including selection of techniques to be used. 12) It is proposed that separate analyses be made regarding the probabilities for conceivable features and events which could lead to significantly higher costs than expected. 13) It is expected that the need for precise cost estimates will dictate the pace of the radiological surveying and technical planning, at least in the early stages. 14) It is important that the validity structure for early cost estimates with regard to type of facility be fully appreciated. E g, the precision is usually less for research facilities. 15) The summation method is treacherous and leads to systematical underestimations in early stages unless compensation is made for the fact that not all items are included. 16) Comparison between different facilities can be made when there is access to information from plants at different stages of planning and when accommodation can be made with regard to differences in features. 17) A simple approach is presented for 'calibration' of a cost estimate against one or more completed projects. 18) Information exchange and co-operations between different plant owners is highly desirable. (au)

Andersson, I. (Studsvik Nuclear AB (Sweden)); Backe, S. (Institute for Energy Technology (Norway)); Cato, A.; Lindskog, S. (Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (Sweden)); Efraimsson, H. (Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (Sweden)); Iversen, Klaus (Danish Decommissioning (Denmark)); Salmenhaara, S. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland (Finland)); Sjoeblom, R. (Tekedo AB, (Sweden))

2008-07-15

74

Cost calculation and financial measures for high-level waste disposal business  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A study is made on the costs for disposal of high-level wastes, centering on financial problems involving cost calculation for disposal business and methods and systems for funding the business. The first half of the report is focused on calculation of costs for disposal business. Basic equations are shown to calculate the total costs required for a disposal plant and the costs for disposal of one unit of high-level wastes. A model is proposed to calculate the charges to be paid by electric power companies to the plant for disposal of their wastes. Another equation is derived to calculate the disposal charge per kWh of power generation in a power plant. The second half of the report is focused on financial measures concerning expenses for disposal. A financial basis should be established for the implementation of high-level waste disposal. It is insisted that a reasonable method for estimating the disposal costs should be set up and it should be decided who will pay the expenses. Discussions are made on some methods and systems for funding the disposal business. An additional charge should be included in the electricity bill to be paid by electric power users, or it should be included in tax. (Nogami, K.)

75

Cost unit accounting based on a clinical pathway: a practical tool for DRG implementation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Setting up a reliable cost unit accounting system in a hospital is a fundamental necessity for economic survival, given the current general conditions in the healthcare system. Definition of a suitable cost unit is a crucial factor for success. We present here the development and use of a clinical pathway as a cost unit as an alternative to the DRG. Elective coronary artery bypass grafting was selected as an example. Development of the clinical pathway was conducted according to a modular concept that mirrored all the treatment processes across various levels and modules. Using service records and analyses the process algorithms of the clinical pathway were developed and visualized with CorelTM iGrafix Process 2003. A detailed process cost record constituted the basis of the pathway costing, in which financial evaluation of the treatment processes was performed. The result of this study was a structured clinical pathway for coronary artery bypass grafting together with a cost calculation in the form of cost unit accounting. The use of a clinical pathway as a cost unit offers considerable advantages compared to the DRG or clinical case. The variance in the diagnoses and procedures within a pathway is minimal, so the consumption of resources is homogeneous. This leads to a considerable improvement in the value of cost unit accounting as a strategic control instrument in hospitals. PMID:16208610

Feyrer, R; Rösch, J; Weyand, M; Kunzmann, U

2005-10-01

76

THE USE OF CALCULATION OF COSTS FOR ACTIVITIES TO IMPROVE COST MANAGEMENT AND PROFITABILITY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Dissatisfaction with the classical systems of managerial accounting has led to global acceptance of the ABC, as a result of the many theoretical and applied works, which had as its objective the creation of a system for calculating relevant costs, adapted to the needs of information, in the new context of production organization. Under this method, the task, allowing a new vision in the company and cut cross vision, becomes the Centre of representation and modeling of enterprise and serves as an interface between the resources consumed and cost bearers whose cost you want to measure it. In this way you get a real cost, on the basis of which the strategic decisions by removing non-creative activities and using as the basis for apportionment of costs it generates activity.

BU?AN GABRIELA

2012-11-01

77

Unit Cost Data for the Selection of Economics Assessment Indicators  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In order to select indicators for the nuclear fuel cycle economics assessment, fuel cycle components should be defined and their unit costs should be provided. In general a fuel cycle starts from uranium ore mining and ends with geological disposal. The unit cost data surveyed in this study for the typical nuclear fuel cycle can be summarized as follows: - The existing uranium price didn't consider the recent increase of the uranium price. The uranium price exceeded $300/kgU in 2007. Therefore it would be necessary to reflect the recent uranium price change in the future study. - The unit costs of reprocessing and pyro-processing have relatively large uncertainties due to lack of commercial operation experience of these facilities. These costs should be updated either by the conceptual design study or by establishing the recycling fuel cycle. - The cost variation of recycling fuel fabrication is also relatively large. Though MOX fuels are partially used in commercial reactors, the fuel fabrication costs for a fast reactor, a high temperature gas cooled reactor and an accelerator-driven system should be updated in the future as related technologies develop. - The disposal cost of the spent fuel adopts the result of detailed design study. However the variation of the cost is relatively large depending on the country that has performed the detailed design study of the disposal facility and the commercialization of such a facility has not yet been fully implemented. Reviewing unit cost data provided by several organizations, it is judged that they are not much different from those suggested by OECD/NEA though there is a certain amount of variation. Therefore this study suggests the OECD/NEA unit cost data and structure as potential indictors for the fuel cycle economics analysis.

Choi, Hang Bok

2007-08-15

78

49 CFR 639.23 - Calculation of purchase or construction cost.  

Science.gov (United States)

... 2010-10-01 false Calculation of purchase or construction cost. 639.23 Section 639...TRANSPORTATION CAPITAL LEASES Cost-Effectiveness § 639.23 Calculation of purchase or construction cost. (a) For purposes...

2010-10-01

79

42 CFR 413.76 - Direct GME payments: Calculation of payments for GME costs.  

Science.gov (United States)

...false Direct GME payments: Calculation of payments for GME costs. 413.76 Section 413...FACILITIES Specific Categories of Costs § 413.76 Direct GME payments: Calculation of payments for GME costs. A hospital's...

2010-10-01

80

47 CFR 65.305 - Calculation of the weighted average cost of capital.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Calculation of the weighted average cost of capital. 65...CONTINUED) INTERSTATE RATE OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES...Calculation of the weighted average cost of capital. (a) The composite weighted average cost of capital is...

2010-10-01

 
 
 
 
81

COSTS AND PROFITABILITY IN FOOD PROCESSING: PASTRY TYPE UNITS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

For each company, profitability, products quality and customer satisfaction are the most importanttargets. To attaint these targets, managers need to know all about costs that are used in decision making. Whatkind of costs? How these costs are calculated for a specific sector such as food processing? These are only a fewquestions with answers in our paper. We consider that a case study for this sector may be relevant for all peoplethat are interested to increase the profitability of this spec...

DUMITRANA MIHAELA; GL?VAN ELENA MARIANA

2013-01-01

82

Improvement of Cost Calculation in Constructions – Application of the Standard Cost Method  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Grace to the analysis of several commercial companies effectively performed “on the field”, we could remark the necessity to change the method of cost calculation, our motivation being related to the simplification of calculations and the reduction of the labour volume, but especially the necessity to know in due time the deviations occurred as well as the causes having led to their apparition. The importance of knowing the deviations in due time results from the very basic characteristics of the constructions execution, i.e. the performance of works during several budgetary years, which leads to the modifications of prices and materials, the introduction of new technologies, and to the performance of open air activities, making the execution of constructions works be influenced by the atmospheric condition. But the most important aspect of knowing the deviations is the correct determination of expenses and their inscribing in the corresponding period, in view of determining the result of the budgetary year. Our proposal for the enhancement of the method of cost calculation in constructions is the application of the standard cost method in the variant “single standard cost”.

Adela Breuer

2010-12-01

83

Applying activity-based costing to the nuclear medicine unit.  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous studies have shown the feasibility of using activity-based costing (ABC) in hospital environments. However, many of these studies discuss the general applications of ABC in health-care organizations. This research explores the potential application of ABC to the nuclear medicine unit (NMU) at a teaching hospital. The finding indicates that the current cost averages 236.11 US dollars for all procedures, which is quite different from the costs computed by using ABC. The difference is most significant with positron emission tomography scan, 463 US dollars (an increase of 96%), as well as bone scan and thyroid scan, 114 US dollars (a decrease of 52%). The result of ABC analysis demonstrates that the operational time (machine time and direct labour time) and the cost of drugs have the most influence on cost per procedure. Clearly, to reduce the cost per procedure for the NMU, the reduction in operational time and cost of drugs should be analysed. The result also indicates that ABC can be used to improve resource allocation and management. It can be an important aid in making management decisions, particularly for improving pricing practices by making costing more accurate. It also facilitates the identification of underutilized resources and related costs, leading to cost reduction. The ABC system will also help hospitals control costs, improve the quality and efficiency of the care they provide, and manage their resources better. PMID:16102243

Suthummanon, Sakesun; Omachonu, Vincent K; Akcin, Mehmet

2005-08-01

84

45 CFR 1309.34 - Costs of installation of modular unit.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-10-01 false Costs of installation of modular unit. 1309.34 Section 1309.34...PURCHASE, MAJOR RENOVATION AND CONSTRUCTION Modular Units § 1309.34 Costs of installation of modular unit. Consistent with the cost...

2010-10-01

85

10 CFR 503.6 - Cost calculations for new powerplants and installations.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cost calculations for new powerplants and installations...for Exemptions § 503.6 Cost calculations for new powerplants and installations...There are two comparative cost calculations—a general cost test and...

2010-01-01

86

Patterns of costs and spending among orthopedic surgeons across the United States: a national survey.  

Science.gov (United States)

Due to rising medical costs, the purpose of this study was to investigate the spending patterns of orthopedic surgeons across the United States and the financial implications of such behavior. Overall, 2,000 randomly chosen orthopedic surgeons from the American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons (AAOS) were invited to answer web-based surveys on their utilization of healthcare resources; 1,214 (61%) completed the survey. There was a significant difference (P costs were $7,536, computed tomography costs were $2,340, magnetic resonance imaging costs were $14,975, ultrasound costs were $686, laboratory test costs were $969, specialty referral costs were $1,389, biopsy costs were $1,314, and hospital admission costs were $6,808. Significant differences in monthly expenditure existed based on orthopedist practice setting (P 559). The average monthly expenditure for orthopedists nationally was calculated to be $33,436 per physician. Given there are approximately 20,400 practicing orthopedists, the annual United States expenditure in orthopedic surgery was calculated to be $8.2 billion. Orthopedic spending is a significant component of national healthcare expenditure. PMID:24490192

Sathiyakumar, Vasanth; Jahangir, A Alex; Mir, Hassan R; Obremskey, William T; Lee, Young M; Thakore, Rachel V; Sethi, Manish K

2014-01-01

87

IMPROVING MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING AND COST CALCULATION IN DAIRY INDUSTRY USING STANDARD COST METHOD  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper aims to discuss issues related to the improvement of management accounting in the dairy industry by implementing standard cost method. The methods used today do not provide informational satisfaction to managers in order to conduct effectively production activities, which is why we attempted the standard cost method, it responding to the managers needs to obtain the efficiency of production, and all economic entities. The method allows an operative control of how they consume manpower and material resources by pursuing distinct, permanent and complete deviations during the activity and not at the end of the reporting period. Successful implementation of the standard method depends on the accuracy by which standards are developed and promotes consistently anticipated calculation of production costs as well as determination, tracking and controlling deviations from them, leads to increased practical value of accounting information and business improvement.

Bogd?noiu Cristiana-Lumini?a

2013-04-01

88

HOW TO CALCULATE THE ENVIRONMENTAL COSTS? CASE COMPANY GRAFICA CIENFUEGOS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The world urgently needs to protect the environment, many companies and organizations devote huge resources to reach that goal and achieve sustainable development as the highest standard of achievement for any country or organization. It then becomes imperative to determine how much the companies spend on the environment, taking into account that the Entities have an implicit contract with society and the environment, the product of the resources used and waste and waste pouring, which is why one needs to calculate and record the environmental costs of products to enhance the environmental management of the entity and thus promote an excellent decision-making. The following research seeks a procedure which allows solving this problem, making its composition with the use of various techniques within which highlights the environmental checklists and product life cycle, which also allows knowing separately as each process and product impacts the environment.

Keitel, Becerra

2011-01-01

89

Petroleum Refinery Hydrogen Production Unit: Exergy and Production Cost Evaluation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Some specific processes are required to obtain pure hydrogen and the most usual one is natural gas reforming, where natural gas reacts with superheated steam producing H2, CO, CO2 and H2O. This paper presents the exergy and production costs evaluation of a complete hydrogen production unit of a petroleum refinery. The hydrogen production unit analysed in this paper has to supply 550,000 Nm3 of hydrogen per day to purify diesel oil. Based on a synthesis plant of the hydrogen production unit, t...

Silvio de Oliveira Júnior; Cruz, Fla?vio E.

2008-01-01

90

COSTS AND PROFITABILITY IN FOOD PROCESSING: PASTRY TYPE UNITS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available For each company, profitability, products quality and customer satisfaction are the most importanttargets. To attaint these targets, managers need to know all about costs that are used in decision making. Whatkind of costs? How these costs are calculated for a specific sector such as food processing? These are only a fewquestions with answers in our paper. We consider that a case study for this sector may be relevant for all peoplethat are interested to increase the profitability of this specific activity sector.

DUMITRANA MIHAELA

2013-08-01

91

47 CFR 65.305 - Calculation of the weighted average cost of capital.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Calculation of the weighted average cost of capital. 65.305 Section 65...METHODOLOGIES Exchange Carriers § 65.305 Calculation of the weighted average cost of capital. (a) The composite...

2010-10-01

92

Foundations of Financial Accounting Organization and Cost Calculation using Activity-Based Costing Method in Romanian Textile Industry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of first part of this article consists in attempting to establish the management accounting and cost calculation basis of the ABC method in Romania. After general characterization of the ABC method and origin establishment of the ABC method the premises analysis are treated which are the basis of management accounting and cost calculation through ABC method in Romania. There are established the role and implications of the processes, activities and cost objects on management accounting and cost calculation, in the attempt to classify the expenses which accomplish the production cost, accordingly to ABC method.

Sorinel Capusneanu

2006-11-01

93

47 CFR 65.300 - Calculations of the components and weights of the cost of capital.  

Science.gov (United States)

...components and weights of the cost of capital. 65.300 Section 65.300...components and weights of the cost of capital. (a) Sections 65.301...unreasonable. (b) Excluded from cost of capital calculations made pursuant...

2010-10-01

94

42 CFR 413.76 - Direct GME payments: Calculation of payments for GME costs.  

Science.gov (United States)

...payments: Calculation of payments for GME costs. 413.76 Section 413.76 Public...MEDICARE PROGRAM PRINCIPLES OF REASONABLE COST REIMBURSEMENT; PAYMENT FOR END-STAGE...NURSING FACILITIES Specific Categories of Costs § 413.76 Direct GME payments:...

2010-10-01

95

Estimate of the direct and indirect annual cost of bacterial conjunctivitis in the United States  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to estimate both the direct and indirect annual costs of treating bacterial conjunctivitis (BC in the United States. This was a cost of illness study performed from a U.S. healthcare payer perspective. Methods A comprehensive review of the medical literature was supplemented by data on the annual incidence of BC which was obtained from an analysis of the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NAMCS database for the year 2005. Cost estimates for medical visits and laboratory or diagnostic tests were derived from published Medicare CPT fee codes. The cost of prescription drugs was obtained from standard reference sources. Indirect costs were calculated as those due to lost productivity. Due to the acute nature of BC, no cost discounting was performed. All costs are expressed in 2007 U.S. dollars. Results The number of BC cases in the U.S. for 2005 was estimated at approximately 4 million yielding an estimated annual incidence rate of 135 per 10,000. Base-case analysis estimated the total direct and indirect cost of treating patients with BC in the United States at $ 589 million. One- way sensitivity analysis, assuming either a 20% variation in the annual incidence of BC or treatment costs, generated a cost range of $ 469 million to $ 705 million. Two-way sensitivity analysis, assuming a 20% variation in both the annual incidence of BC and treatment costs occurring simultaneously, resulted in an estimated cost range of $ 377 million to $ 857 million. Conclusion The economic burden posed by BC is significant. The findings may prove useful to decision makers regarding the allocation of healthcare resources necessary to address the economic burden of BC in the United States.

Smith Andrew F

2009-11-01

96

Estimating the costs of landslide damage in the United States  

Science.gov (United States)

Landslide damages are one of the most costly natural disasters in the United States. A recent estimate of the total annual cost of landslide damage is in excess of $1 billion {Schuster, 1978}. The damages can be significantly reduced, however, through the combined action of technical experts, government, and the public. Before they can be expected to take action, local governments need to have an appreciation of costs of damage in their areas of responsibility and of the reductions in losses that can be achieved. Where studies of cost of landslide damages have been conducted, it is apparent that {1} costs to the public and private sectors of our economy due to landslide damage are much larger than anticipated; {2} taxpayers and public officials generally are unaware of the magnitude of the cost, owing perhaps to the lack of any centralization of data; and {3} incomplete records and unavailability of records result in lower reported costs than actually were incurred. The U.S. Geological Survey has developed a method to estimate the cost of landslide damages in regional and local areas and has applied the method in three urban areas and one rural area. Costs are for different periods and are unadjusted for inflation; therefore, strict comparisons of data from different years should be avoided. Estimates of the average annual cost of landslide damage for the urban areas studied are $5,900,000 in the San Francisco Bay area; $4,000,000 in Allegheny County, Pa.; and $5,170,000 in Hamilton County, Ohio. Adjusting these figures for the population of each area, the annual cost of damages per capita are $1.30 in the nine-county San Francisco Bay region; $2.50 in Allegheny County, Pa.; and $5.80 in Hamilton County, Ohio. On the basis of data from other sources, the estimated annual damages on a per capita basis for the City of Los Angeles, Calif., are about $1.60. If the costs were available for the damages from landslides in Los Angeles in 1977-78 and 1979-80, the annual per capita costs probably would be much larger. The landslide near the rural community of Manti, Utah, caused an expenditure of about $1,800,000 or about $1,000 per person during the period 1974-76. Because a recurrence for such a landslide cannot be established, it is not possible to develop a meaningful estimate of annual per capita damages. Communities are urged to examine their costs of landslide damage and to evaluate the feasibility of several alternative programs that, for a modest investment, could significantly reduce these losses.

Fleming, Robert W.; Taylor, Fred A.

1980-01-01

97

Considerations Regarding Calculation Cost in the Machine Building Industry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper structures the advantages and the disadvantages of the determination method of the standard cost. The need of the enterprises to operate with production scientifically established and verifiable costs is a recognized fact by the practice and standard computer technology cost although meets the technology requirements, keeps the deficiencies traditional techniques.

Gabriela Marian

2010-12-01

98

Considerations Regarding Calculation Cost in the Machine Building Industry  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The paper structures the advantages and the disadvantages of the determination method of the standard cost. The need of the enterprises to operate with production scientifically established and verifiable costs is a recognized fact by the practice and standard computer technology cost although meets the technology requirements, keeps the deficiencies traditional techniques.

Gabriela Marian

2010-01-01

99

49 CFR 1152.32 - Calculation of avoidable costs.  

Science.gov (United States)

...to on-branch costs(a) Maintenance of way and structures...supplies on the daily costs per GMA...tool assign to maintenance of way 11... Freight car costs per day and per mile:Repair and maintenance Salaries...

2010-10-01

100

49 CFR 1152.32 - Calculation of avoidable costs.  

Science.gov (United States)

...61-22-99Do. Freight car costs per day and per mile:Repair and maintenance Salaries and wages...to develop the cost per car day and per car mile...than return on freight cars”. The costs assigned...expense group—Repair and maintenance Account...

2010-10-01

 
 
 
 
101

19 CFR 351.407 - Calculation of constructed value and cost of production.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-04-01 false Calculation of constructed value and cost of production. 351.407 Section 351...Calculation of Export Price, Constructed Export Price, Fair Value, and Normal Value § 351.407 Calculation of constructed value...

2010-04-01

102

Nuclear power generation costs in the United States of America  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Increasing world energy prices and shortages of fuel resources make the utilization of nuclear power extremely important. The United States nuclear power industry represents the largest body of nuclear power experience in the world. Analysis of the recent United States experience of substantial increases in the cost of nuclear power generation provides good insight into the interdependence of technological, financial, and institutional influences and their combined impact on the economic viability of nuclear power generation. The various factors influencing ultimate generation costs, including construction cost, fuel cost, regulatory reviews, and siting considerations are discussed, and their relative impacts are explored, including discussion of design complexity and related regulatory response. A closer look into the recent relatively high escalation of nuclear plant construction costs shows how differing economic conditions can affect the relative cost effectiveness of various methods of power generation. The vulnerability of capital-intensive, long-lead-time projects to changes in economic conditions and uncertainty in future power demands is discussed. Likewise, the pitfalls of new designs and increased sophistication are contrasted to the advantages which result from proven designs, reliable engineering, and shorter lead times. The value of reliable architect-engineers experienced in the design and construction of the plant is discussed. A discussion is presented of additional regulatory requirements stemming from public safety aspects of nuclear power. These include recognition of requirements for the very large effort for quality assurance of materials and workmanship during plant construction and operation. Likewise, a discussion is included of the demanding nature of operations, maintenance, and modification of plants during the operational phase because of the need for highly qualified operations and maintenance personnel and strict quality assurance procedures. (author)

103

Monitor unit calculations for wedged asymmetric photon beams  

Science.gov (United States)

Algorithms for calculating monitor units (MUs) in wedged asymmetric high-energy photon beams as implemented in treatment planning systems have their limitations. Therefore an independent method for MU calculation is necessary. The aim of this study was to develop an empirical method to determine MUs for points at the centre of wedged fields, asymmetric in two directions. The method is based on the determination of an off-axis factor (OAF) that corrects for the difference in dose between wedged asymmetric and wedged symmetric beams with the same field size. Measurements were performed in a water phantom irradiated with 6 and 18 MV photon beams produced by Elekta accelerators, which are fitted with an internal motorized wedge that has a complex shape. The OAF perpendicular to the wedge direction changed significantly with depth for the 18 MV beam. Dose values measured for a set of 18 test cases were compared with those calculated with our method. The maximum difference found was 6.5% and in 15 cases this figure was smaller than 2.0%. The analytical method of Khan and the empirical method of Georg were also tested and showed errors up to 12.8%. It can be concluded that our simple formalism is able to calculate MUs in wedged asymmetric fields with an acceptable accuracy in most clinical situations.

Smulders, Bob; Bruinvis, Iaïn A. D.; Mijnheer, Ben J.

2002-06-01

104

Monitor unit calculations for wedged asymmetric photon beams  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Algorithms for calculating monitor units (MUs) in wedged asymmetric high-energy photon beams as implemented in treatment planning systems have their limitations. Therefore an independent method for MU calculation is necessary. The aim of this study was to develop an empirical method to determine MUs for points at the centre of wedged fields, asymmetric in two directions. The method is based on the determination of an off-axis factor (OAF) that corrects for the difference in dose between wedged asymmetric and wedged symmetric beams with the same field size. Measurements were performed in a water phantom irradiated with 6 and 18 MV photon beams produced by Elekta accelerators, which are fitted with an internal motorized wedge that has a complex shape. The OAF perpendicular to the wedge direction changed significantly with depth for the 18 MV beam. Dose values measured for a set of 18 test cases were compared with those calculated with our method. The maximum difference found was 6.5% and in 15 cases this figure was smaller than 2.0%. The analytical method of Khan and the empirical method of Georg were also tested and showed errors up to 12.8%. It can be concluded that our simple formalism is able to calculate MUs in wedged asymmetric fields with an acceptable accuracy in most clinical situations. (author)

Smulders, Bob [Department of Radiotherapy, Netherlands Cancer Institute/Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands)]. E-mail: bsmul@nki.nl; Mijnheer, Ben J. [Department of Radiotherapy, Netherlands Cancer Institute/Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Bruinvis, Iain A.D. [Radiotherapy Institute Limburg (Academic Hospital Maastricht), Heerlen (Netherlands)

2002-06-21

105

Monitor unit calculations for wedged asymmetric photon beams  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Algorithms for calculating monitor units (MUs) in wedged asymmetric high-energy photon beams as implemented in treatment planning systems have their limitations. Therefore an independent method for MU calculation is necessary. The aim of this study was to develop an empirical method to determine MUs for points at the centre of wedged fields, asymmetric in two directions. The method is based on the determination of an off-axis factor (OAF) that corrects for the difference in dose between wedged asymmetric and wedged symmetric beams with the same field size. Measurements were performed in a water phantom irradiated with 6 and 18 MV photon beams produced by Elekta accelerators, which are fitted with an internal motorized wedge that has a complex shape. The OAF perpendicular to the wedge direction changed significantly with depth for the 18 MV beam. Dose values measured for a set of 18 test cases were compared with those calculated with our method. The maximum difference found was 6.5% and in 15 cases this figure was smaller than 2.0%. The analytical method of Khan and the empirical method of Georg were also tested and showed errors up to 12.8%. It can be concluded that our simple formalism is able to calculate MUs in wedged asymmetric fields with an acceptable accuracy in most clinical situations. (author)

106

49 CFR 1152.32 - Calculation of avoidable costs.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Deadheading, taxi, and hotel costs...deadheading, taxi, and hotel costs...and car-mile factors, shall...the year or a price quote from the...investment. This will determine the net current...railroad shall first determine which URCS regional...car ownership factor shall be...

2010-10-01

107

Calculation of costs of pregnancy- and puerperium-related care: experience from a hospital in a low-income country.  

Science.gov (United States)

Calculation of costs of different medical and surgical services has numerous uses, which include monitoring the performance of service-delivery, setting the efficiency target, benchmarking of services across all sectors, considering investment decisions, commissioning to meet health needs, and negotiating revised levels of funding. The role of private-sector healthcare facilities has been increasing rapidly over the last decade. Despite the overall improvement in the public and private healthcare sectors in Bangladesh, lack of price benchmarking leads to patients facing unexplained price discrimination when receiving healthcare services. The aim of the study was to calculate the hospital-care cost of disease-specific cases, specifically pregnancy- and puerperium-related cases, and to indentify the practical challenges of conducting costing studies in the hospital setting in Bangladesh. A combination of micro-costing and step-down cost allocation was used for collecting information on the cost items and, ultimately, for calculating the unit cost for each diagnostic case. Data were collected from the hospital records of 162 patients having 11 different clinical diagnoses. Caesarean section due to maternal and foetal complications was the most expensive type of case whereas the length of stay due to complications was the major driver of cost. Some constraints in keeping hospital medical records and accounting practices were observed. Despite these constraints, the findings of the study indicate that it is feasible to carry out a large-scale study to further explore the costs of different hospital-care services. PMID:20635637

Sarowar, M G; Medin, E; Gazi, R; Koehlmoos, T P; Rehnberg, C; Saifi, R; Bhuiya, A; Khan, J

2010-06-01

108

10 CFR 503.6 - Cost calculations for new powerplants and installations.  

Science.gov (United States)

...taxes on cash flow. To demonstrate...petroleum or natural gas until such...OIL)) using Equations 1 through 3...unit using Equations 2 and 3...using oil or natural gas (COST(OIL...unit using Equations 2 and 3....

2010-01-01

109

19 CFR 351.407 - Calculation of constructed value and cost of production.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calculation of constructed value and cost of production...ANTIDUMPING AND COUNTERVAILING DUTIES Calculation of Export Price, Constructed Export...Value, and Normal Value § 351.407 Calculation of constructed value and cost of...

2010-04-01

110

49 CFR 1152.32 - Calculation of avoidable costs.  

Science.gov (United States)

...branch line for deadheading, taxi, and hotel costs. The amounts included under...carrier shall indicate the level of FRA class safety standard to be attained with the...Federal Railroad Administrative class 1 safety standards (49 CFR part...

2010-10-01

111

Economic aspects of severe sepsis: a review of intensive care unit costs, cost of illness and cost effectiveness of therapy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Severe sepsis remains both an important clinical challenge and an economic burden in intensive care. An estimated 750,000 cases occur each year in the US alone (300 cases per 100,000 population). Lower numbers are estimated for most European countries (e.g. Germany and Austria: 54-116 cases per year per 100,000). Sepsis patients are generally treated in intensive care units (ICUs) where close supervision and intensive care treatment by a competent team with adequate equipment can be provided. Staffing costs represent from 40% to >60% of the total ICU budget. Because of the high proportion of fixed costs in ICU treatment, the total cost of ICU care is mainly dependent on the length of ICU stay (ICU-LOS). The average total cost per ICU day is estimated at approximately 1200 Euro for countries with a highly developed healthcare system (based on various studies conducted between 1989 and 2001 and converted at 2003 currency rates). Patients with infections and severe sepsis require a prolonged ICU-LOS, resulting in higher costs of treatment compared with other ICU patients. US cost-of-illness studies focusing on direct costs per sepsis patient have yielded estimates of 34,000 Euro, whereas European studies have given lower cost estimates, ranging from 23,000 Euro to 29,000 Euro. Direct costs, however, make up only about 20-30% of the cost of illness of severe sepsis. Indirect costs associated with severe sepsis account for 70-80% of costs and arise mainly from productivity losses due to mortality. Because of increasing healthcare cost pressures worldwide, economic issues have become important for the introduction of new innovations. This is evident when introducing new biotechnology products, such as drotrecogin-alpha (activated protein C), into specific therapy for severe sepsis. Data so far suggest that when drotrecogin-alpha treatment is targeted to those patients most likely to achieve the greatest benefit, the drug is cost effective by the standards of other well accepted life-saving interventions. PMID:15294012

Burchardi, Hilmar; Schneider, Heinz

2004-01-01

112

An integrated approach to calculate life cycle costs of arms and military equipment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available INTRODUCTION In a situation when government expenditures for defense are more restrictive, any investment in the acquisition of arms and military equipment (AME is a question that does not allow errors in decisions. Accordingly, the economic analysis of the investment must be detailed and unavoidable. In the past, the initial cost of procurement of AME was often the primary, and sometimes the only one criterion in decision-making. Neglecting the analysis of costs throughout the life of assets in prefeasibility studies is the main cause of unplanned investment in the later stages of the life cycle of investment, and also of a number of problems in the functioning and unfulfilling or partially fulfilling the goals of the system. PROCESS OF EQUIPPING THE MoD AND THE SAF WITH AME Legislation governing the process of equipping the Ministry of Defence (MoD and the Serbian Armed Forces (SAF with AME is based on the Regulation on equipping the Yugoslav Army with weapons and military equipment in peacetime, from 1996, and on several Standards of National Defense (SNO 0477/83, SNO 1096/85, SNO 8196/92, SNO 9000/97, etc.. Due to a number of social and organizational changes in the defense system, this regulation is not in full compliance with real-time requirements. The analysis of legal regulations and activities in the process of equipping the MoD and the SAF with AME in practice indicates dominance of technical - technological aspects of the equipping analysis, while the economic aspect (primarily aspect of costs is present, but not detailed enough. At best, there is only a static approach to the analysis and evaluation of investment projects, while a dynamic aspect and the aspect of the total cost over the life of assets are not taken into account. ANALYSIS OF COSTS IN THE LIFETIME OF ASSETS Given the non-profit character of military organizations and the possibility to express explicit costs, but not the benefits of investment in equipping with AME , costs are one of the most dominant parameters in decision-making. Modern trends in this area comprehensively perceive all costs during the life cycle of assets.In general, in the analysis of costs in the life cycle of AME there are two sets of costs: visible and invisible (hidden costs. The visible part of the costs is mainly present in decision-making and usually includes the cost of equipping units or purchase of assets. The invisible part of the costs is far more significant. Although it is larger than the visible part and covers more groups of costs, decision-makers often do not take it into account. The hidden costs include: distribution costs, operating costs, maintenance costs, training costs, inventory costs, information systems costs, the cost of disposal and write-offs, etc. The decision making problem about investment in the AME purchase and equipping is obviously of  multicriteria nature, whether an optimum combination of costs for one  technical system (AME is in question, or whether it is a choice of a system of AME among many offered. COST ANALYSIS OF A PARTICULAR  ASSET For the illustration of an integrated approach to the analysis of the cost of assets in their life-cycle, a model from the US Naval Postgraduate School, was adjusted and applied on an example of a real asset. The model is applied to the case of two  squadrons of identical aircraft based at different airports. With regard to the availability, confidentiality, and the variability of costs and reliability of the elements of AME, the calculations in the model are implemented on the basis of the estimated or orientation parameters. Essentially, the goal is to demonstrate the interdependence, mutual relations and influences of parameters and their ultimate impact on the overall cost of military assets. Applying the model to a particular example points to the fact that, in the first years of asset life, the dominant cost is that of asset procurement (cost of acquisition, cost of assets themselves, the price of equipment for service and maintenance, the costs of initial training of a

Vlada S. Sokolovi?

2013-12-01

113

UET calculation for Kori Units 3 and 4 Power Uprate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Unfavorable Exposure Time (UET) refers to the portion of the operating cycle for which the natural reactivity feedback mechanisms of the reactor core are insufficient to ensure that peak system pressures are less than 3200 psig during an Anticipated Transient Without Scram (ATWS). In an ATWS, a heatup of the primary system occurs due to loss of normal feedwater or loss of load. It is assumed that reactor trip does not occur. As a result, the coolant inlet temperature increases and reactor power drops due to negative moderator feedback. In a core with a sufficient negative moderator temperature coefficient, the core power will decrease enough to ensure that the primary system limiting pressure of 3200 psig is not reached. In this study, the UET was calculated for Kori units 3, 4 assuming 4.5% power uprate

114

Fast calculation of HELAS amplitudes using graphics processing unit (GPU)  

CERN Document Server

We use the graphics processing unit (GPU) for fast calculations of helicity amplitudes of physics processes. As our first attempt, we compute $u\\overline{u}\\to n\\gamma$ ($n=2$ to 8) processes in $pp$ collisions at $\\sqrt{s} = 14$TeV by transferring the MadGraph generated HELAS amplitudes (FORTRAN) into newly developed HEGET ({\\bf H}ELAS {\\bf E}valuation with {\\bf G}PU {\\bf E}nhanced {\\bf T}echnology) codes written in CUDA, a C-platform developed by NVIDIA for general purpose computing on the GPU. Compared with the usual CPU programs, we obtain 40-150 times better performance on the GPU.

Hagiwara, K; Okamura, N; Rainwater, D L; Stelzer, T

2009-01-01

115

Calculating Cost-Return for Investments in Student Success  

Science.gov (United States)

In late 2007, Jobs for the Future (JFF), working with the Delta Project on Postsecondary Costs, Productivity and Accountability, launched "Investing in Student Success", a one-year pilot program. The pilot, conceived of as part of the "Making Opportunity Affordable" initiative and funded by Walmart Foundation and Lumina Foundation for Education,…

Lumina Foundation for Education, 2010

2010-01-01

116

16 CFR Appendix K to Part 305 - Representative Average Unit Energy Costs  

Science.gov (United States)

...Average Unit Energy Costs K Appendix K to Part 305 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION...CONSERVATION ACT (âAPPLIANCE LABELING RULEâ) Pt. 305, App. K Appendix K to Part 305—Representative Average Unit Energy Costs...

2010-01-01

117

Caveat Emptor: Calculating All the Costs of Energy.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper examines the energy problem. Specific topics discussed include the recent history of oil and gas consumption in the United States, conservation, coal, solar energy, and nuclear energy. While solutions to the energy problem differ, there is an urgent need for broad, public debate. Ultimately, the decisions made regarding energy will be…

Zinberg, Dorothy S.

118

49 CFR 1152.32 - Calculation of avoidable costs.  

Science.gov (United States)

...61-31-61 Do.Train and inspection and lubrication...wages11-31-62 Train hours, Sec. 1152...61-31-67 Do.Electric power purchased or produced...wages 11-32-68Electric locomotive unit hours...61-32-99 Do.(3) Train and yard operations...

2010-10-01

119

49 CFR 1152.32 - Calculation of avoidable costs.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Report for Class I railroads filed with the Board prior to the conclusion of the subsidy year, and company records for all non-Class...by the railroad indexed to the midpoint of the year or a price quote from the manufacturer. This unit price...

2010-10-01

120

49 CFR 1152.32 - Calculation of avoidable costs.  

Science.gov (United States)

...used. (4) The return on investment...on the segment to average locomotive unit...develop the system average locomotive...ratio applied to the return on investment...section applied to the average total car fleet...railroad. Second, the return on...

2010-10-01

 
 
 
 
121

The calculation of acceleration costs on construction projects  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A lack of understanding often exists between contractors, client organisations and consultants as to what may, and what may not, be included in acceleration claims on construction projects. The aim of this article is to create a better understanding of the complexity of acceleration claims. It should also lead to new insights into claim procedures and the substantiation of acceleration costs. The impacts and delays which may result in acceleration claims on a project were analysed as they for...

Maritz, M. J.; Schutte, Andries

2009-01-01

122

H2POWER: Development of a methodology to calculate life cycle cost of small and medium-scale hydrogen systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

At this time, hydrogen-based power plants and large hydrogen production facilities are capital intensive and unable to compete financially against hydrocarbon-based energy production facilities. An option to overcome this problem and foster the introduction of hydrogen technology is to introduce small and medium-scale applications such as residential and community hydrogen refueling units. Such units could potentially be used to generate both electricity and heat for the home, as well as hydrogen fuel for the automobile. Cost modeling for the integration of these three forms of energy presents several methodological challenges. This is particularly true since the technology is still in the development phase and both the financial and the environmental cost must be calculated using mainly secondary sources. In order to address these issues and aid in the design of small and medium-scale hydrogen systems, this study presents a computer model to calculate financial and environmental costs of this technology using different hydrogen pathways. The model can design and compare hydrogen refueling units against hydrocarbon-based technologies, including the 'gap' between financial and economic costs. Using the methodology, various penalties and incentives that can foster the introduction of hydrogen-based technologies can be added to the analysis to study their impact on financial cost

123

Nuclear power and global warming: a first cost-benefit calculation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper investigates the costs and benefits of a modest nuclear power programme in the European Union to combat the threat of global warming. The nuclear programme is found to bring a double benefit. The first and more obvious benefit is that the economic impacts of global warming are reduced. The second benefit is counter-intuitive; most people would expect it to be a cost. It comes from the stimulus to the economy from the construction of the nuclear plant, which, with the recycling of carbon tax revenues, offsets its construction and operating costs, and may even cause consumers' expenditure to rise. Calculations in this paper show that over the period to 2100 the mean net present value of the first benefit is 6 billion European Currency Units (ECU; 1 ECU is about Dollars 1), while the second benefit has a mean net present value of 159 billion ECU. However both benefits, particularly the second, are still very uncertain, to the extent that even their sign is not yet definitely established. (author)

124

A practical approach for electron monitor unit calculation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Electron monitor unit (MU) calculation requires measured beam data such as the relative output factor (ROF) of a cone, insert correction factor (ICF) and effective source-to-surface distance (ESD). Measuring the beam data to cover all possible clinical cases is not practical for a busy clinic because it takes tremendous time and labor. In this study, we propose a practical approach to reduce the number of data measurements without affecting accuracy. It is based on two findings of dosimetric properties of electron beams. One is that the output ratio of two inserts is independent of the cone used, and the other is that ESD is a function of field size but independent of cone and jaw opening. For the measurements to prove the findings, a parallel plate ion chamber (Markus, PTW 23343) with an electrometer (Cardinal Health 35040) was used. We measured the outputs to determine ROF, ICF and ESD of different energies (5-21 MeV). Measurements were made in a Plastic Water(TM) phantom or in water. Three linear accelerators were used: Siemens MD2 (S/N 2689), Siemens Primus (S/N 3305) and Varian Clinic 21-EX (S/N 1495). With these findings, the number of data set to be measured can be reduced to less than 20% of the data points. (note)

Choi, David; Patyal, Baldev; Cho, Jongmin; Cheng, Ing Y; Nookala, Prashanth [Department of Radiation Medicine, Loma Linda University Medical Center, Loma Linda, CA (United States)], E-mail: dchoi@llurm.org

2009-08-21

125

A practical approach for electron monitor unit calculation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Electron monitor unit (MU) calculation requires measured beam data such as the relative output factor (ROF) of a cone, insert correction factor (ICF) and effective source-to-surface distance (ESD). Measuring the beam data to cover all possible clinical cases is not practical for a busy clinic because it takes tremendous time and labor. In this study, we propose a practical approach to reduce the number of data measurements without affecting accuracy. It is based on two findings of dosimetric properties of electron beams. One is that the output ratio of two inserts is independent of the cone used, and the other is that ESD is a function of field size but independent of cone and jaw opening. For the measurements to prove the findings, a parallel plate ion chamber (Markus, PTW 23343) with an electrometer (Cardinal Health 35040) was used. We measured the outputs to determine ROF, ICF and ESD of different energies (5-21 MeV). Measurements were made in a Plastic Water(TM) phantom or in water. Three linear accelerators were used: Siemens MD2 (S/N 2689), Siemens Primus (S/N 3305) and Varian Clinic 21-EX (S/N 1495). With these findings, the number of data set to be measured can be reduced to less than 20% of the data points. (note)

126

NOTE: A practical approach for electron monitor unit calculation  

Science.gov (United States)

Electron monitor unit (MU) calculation requires measured beam data such as the relative output factor (ROF) of a cone, insert correction factor (ICF) and effective source-to-surface distance (ESD). Measuring the beam data to cover all possible clinical cases is not practical for a busy clinic because it takes tremendous time and labor. In this study, we propose a practical approach to reduce the number of data measurements without affecting accuracy. It is based on two findings of dosimetric properties of electron beams. One is that the output ratio of two inserts is independent of the cone used, and the other is that ESD is a function of field size but independent of cone and jaw opening. For the measurements to prove the findings, a parallel plate ion chamber (Markus, PTW 23343) with an electrometer (Cardinal Health 35040) was used. We measured the outputs to determine ROF, ICF and ESD of different energies (5-21 MeV). Measurements were made in a Plastic Water™ phantom or in water. Three linear accelerators were used: Siemens MD2 (S/N 2689), Siemens Primus (S/N 3305) and Varian Clinic 21-EX (S/N 1495). With these findings, the number of data set to be measured can be reduced to less than 20% of the data points.

Choi, David; Patyal, Baldev; Cho, Jongmin; Cheng, Ing Y.; Nookala, Prashanth

2009-08-01

127

Estimating nuclear fuel cycle cost using a hand-held programmable calculator  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A program has been developed by which average fuel cycle cost for a single reload batch can be calculated in a few minutes using a hand-held programmable calculator. The program described uses a modification of the so-called seven-page method, wherein the method was expanded to calculate mixed oxide fuel cycle cost, and to calculate the cost of off-site spent fuel storage prior to reprocessing or final spent fuel disposal; a fuel fabrication loss factor was added for plutonium and/or uranium fuel fabrication; and a single payment was used for fuel fabrication instead of several monthly payments

128

Thermal analysis of Malaysian double storey housing - low/medium cost unit  

Science.gov (United States)

Almost half of the total energy used today is consumed in buildings. In the tropical climate, air-conditioning a housing unit takes much of the energy bill. Malaysia is no exception. Malaysian double storey terrace housing is popular among developers and buyers. Surveys have shown that housing occupants are much dissatisfied with the thermal comfort and artificial cooling is often sought. The objective of this study is to assess the thermal comfort of the low and medium-cost double storey housing in the area surrounding Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. A simulation program using the Weighting Factor Method calculates the heat transfer interaction, temperature distribution, and PMV level in three types of housing units in relation to the size. Fanger's PMV model based on ISO Standard 7730 is used here because it accounts for all parameters that affect the thermal sensation of a human within its equation. Results showed that both the low and medium-cost housing units studied are out of the comfortable range described by ASHRAE Standard 55 with the units all complied with the local bylaws. In view of the uncertainties in energy supply, future housing units should consider natural ventilation as part of the passive energy management.

Normah, M. G.; Lau, K. Y.; Yusoff, S. Mohd.

2012-06-01

129

Assessing DRG cost accounting with respect to resource allocation and tariff calculation: the case of Germany.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the German diagnosis related groups (G-DRG) cost accounting scheme by assessing its resource allocation at hospital level and its tariff calculation at national level. First, the paper reviews and assesses the three steps in the G-DRG resource allocation scheme at hospital level: (1) the groundwork; (2) cost-center accounting; and (3) patient-level costing. Second, the paper reviews and assesses the three steps in G-DRG national tariff calculation: (1) plausibility checks; (2) inlier calculation; and (3) the "one hospital" approach. The assessment is based on the two main goals of G-DRG introduction: improving transparency and efficiency. A further empirical assessment attests high costing quality. The G-DRG cost accounting scheme shows high system quality in resource allocation at hospital level, with limitations concerning a managerially relevant full cost approach and limitations in terms of advanced activity-based costing at patient-level. However, the scheme has serious flaws in national tariff calculation: inlier calculation is normative, and the "one hospital" model causes cost bias, adjustment and representativeness issues. The G-DRG system was designed for reimbursement calculation, but developed to a standard with strategic management implications, generalized by the idea of adapting a hospital's cost structures to DRG revenues. This combination causes problems in actual hospital financing, although resource allocation is advanced at hospital level. PMID:22935314

Vogl, Matthias

2012-01-01

130

Burden of disease and costs of aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (aSAH in the United Kingdom  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background To estimate life years and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs lost and the economic burden of aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (aSAH in the United Kingdom including healthcare and non-healthcare costs from a societal perspective. Methods All UK residents in 2005 with aSAH (International Classification of Diseases 10th revision (ICD-10 code I60. Sex and age-specific abridged life tables were generated for a general population and aSAH cohorts. QALYs in each cohort were calculated adjusting the life tables with health-related quality of life (HRQL data. Healthcare costs included hospital expenditure, cerebrovascular rehabilitation, primary care and community health and social services. Non-healthcare costs included informal care and productivity losses arising from morbidity and premature death. Results A total of 80,356 life years and 74,807 quality-adjusted life years were estimated to be lost due to aSAH in the UK in 2005. aSAH costs the National Health Service (NHS £168.2 million annually with hospital inpatient admissions accounting for 59%, community health and social services for 18%, aSAH-related operations for 15% and cerebrovascular rehabilitation for 6% of the total NHS estimated costs. The average per patient cost for the NHS was estimated to be £23,294. The total economic burden (including informal care and using the human capital method to estimate production losses of a SAH in the United Kingdom was estimated to be £510 million annually. Conclusion The economic and disease burden of aSAH in the United Kingdom is reported in this study. Decision-makers can use these results to complement other information when informing prevention policies in this field and to relate health care expenditures to disease categories.

Gray Alastair

2010-04-01

131

CLASSICAL CALCULATION METHODS OF COSTS AND THEIR LIMITS IN ACTUAL FRAME OF ROMANIAN ECONOMY. PRESENT TENDENCIES IN COSTS ACCOUNTANCY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Classical accountancy shaped and coagulated in an informational system grafted on traditional production systems, characterized by mass productions, planning etc. The powerful concentrations and grouping, economies globalization, both as offer and as demand, the new restrictions and economical opportunities and global environment technologies lead to a redefining of enterprises’ objectives. From the well-known “quantity and productivity”, the enterprise faced a new system of objectives: quality’s increase; terms and costs decrease; productivity; flexibility. In such conditions the need of “defining new methods” appeared, the need of adapting the fundamental calculation methods, their improvement – respective the appearance of modern methods of costs calculation.

Simona Dragomirescu

2008-12-01

132

Manual of Nucost 1.0 - code for calculation of nuclear power generation costs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nucost is a computer code developed at CDTN to perform cost calculation of electric power generated in PWR nuclear power plants, based on present worth cost method. The Nucost version 1.0 performs calculations of nuclear fuel cost cycle by cycle during the time life of the power plant. That calculation is performed with enough details permitting optimization and minimization. The code is also a tool to aid reload projects and economic operation of PWR reactors. This manual presents a description of Nucost version 1.0, instruction to enter data preparation and description of the Nucost output. (M.I.)

133

An evaluation of airline beta values and their application in calculating the cost of equity capital.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper focuses on the calculation of the cost of equity capital in a sample of airlines, in comparison to industry-calculated values. The approach usually taken is to apply the Capital Asset Pricing Model to airline stock prices and market indices. The research shows that the calculated b values are sensitive to the precise methodology and calculations used. Further, the low regression model ?ts indicate the Capital Asset Pricing Model may not be the most suitable model for b value calc...

Turner, Sheelah; Morrell, Peter

2003-01-01

134

Calculation of Total Cost, Tolerance Based on Taguchi?s, Asymmetric Quality Loss Function Approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Problem statement: Current world market force the manufacturing sectors to develop high quality product and process design with minimum possible cost. About 80% of problems in production units may be attributed to 20% of design tolerance causes. While design typically represents the smallest actual cost elements in products (around 5%), it leverages the largest cost influence (around 70%). So design engineers continuously stumble upon problem of design for high quality performance with...

Kumar, R. S.; Alagumurthi, N.; Ramesh, R.

2009-01-01

135

CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF THE MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING SYSTEM AND OF THE COST CALCULATION IN THE ELECTROTECHNICAL INDUSTRY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The contemporary scientific and technical revolution has brought into view the increasingcomplexity of the economic activity in all departments whose current and future management mustnecessarily involve taking into account the efficiency criterion, the economic optimum displaying bothquantitative and qualitative forms. The company is placed in a competitive environment, within a valuechain of providers, on the one hand and suppliers or customers on the other hand. In order to becompetitive, the companies increasingly allocate more resources to doing researches, their target being tomake very good quality products at competitive prices. The methods of cost calculation have seen acontinuous evolution generated by the new problems that cost calculation had to respond to. The decisionon the organization and adoption of either one cost calculation method or another, involves the analysis ofthe main factors that determine the organization of cost calculation.

POPESCU (Costache LUMINITA NICOLETA

2013-08-01

136

Benefit/cost analysis of plutonium recycle options in the United States  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Predictable effects of the recycle of plutonium and uranium recovered from spent LWR fuels were assessed in a final environmental statement (GESMO). Five alternative dispositions of LWR-produced plutonium ranging from prompt recycle of recovered plutonium and uranium to no recovery and no recycle are compared. The assessments consider cumulative effects for the period 1975 through 2000, and are centered on a conservative low growth rate resulting in about 500 LWR's in the U.S. in 2000. A more optimistic growth projection resulting in about 800 LWR's in 2000 is also analyzed in order to assess the effects of industry size upon the impacts. Demands for fuel cycle services were calculated with an ERDA program, NUFUEL, which was modified to include penalties for 236U and 242Pu. Unit cost data, including a simulation of market place reaction to supply-demand functions for uranium costs, were combined with the NUFUEL demand data in an economics code, NUCOST. Environmental impacts were also based upon NUFUEL demand data and were developed using a model plant industry concept. Using the most likely unit costs with a 10% discount rate, present worth incentives for prompt recycle over no recycle of $3.2 billion for the lower growth and about $6 billion for the higher growth were indicated. Present worth costs of delays in recycle of up to 5 years were less than $1 billion. Sensitivity of the economic assessments to unit cost variations and discount rates were also evaluated. Environmental impacts other than radiological were lowest for prompt Pu recycle and highest for no recycle. Radiological impacts for the total world wide total body exposure from U.S. industry for the 26 year period were estimated to be: - No recycle-8.2 million person-rem; U only recycle-9.5 million person-rem; Pu and U recycle-8.8 million person-rem. Comparison of the decreased radiological impact of the no recycle option with its increased costs relative to prompt plutonium recycle resulted in a cost/benefit ratio of 0.04. Thus, the benefits of prompt plutonium recycle appear to far outweigh its costs

137

Calculating costs of pig production with the InterPIG network  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This working paper presents objectives, methods and the empirical basis of the international working group InterPIG. The members of the group act within an informal network as a base for a mutual exchange of data needed for a unique way to annually calculate the costs of pig production and to analyse their determinants. The working paper informs on the contributions of the members to the network, explains the method for calculating the production costs and presents results of 2006. Further, i...

Haxsen, Gerhard

2008-01-01

138

Using Standard-Sole Cost Method for Performance Gestion Accounting and Calculation Cost in the Machine Building Industry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The main purpose of improving and varying cost calculation methods in the machine building industry is to make them more operational and efficient in supplying the information necessary to the management in taking its decisions. The present cost calculation methods used in the machine building plants – global method and the method per orders – by which a historical cost is determined a posteriori used in deducting and post factum justification of manufacturing expenses does not offer the management the possibility to fully satisfy its need for information. We are talking about a change of conception in applying certain systems, methods and work techniques, according to the needs of efficient administration of production and the plant seen as a whole. The standard-cost method best answers to the needs of the effective management of the value side of the manufacturing process and raising economic efficiency. We consider that, in the machine building industry, these objectives can be achieved by using the standard - sole cost alternative of the standard-cost method.

Aureliana Geta Roman

2006-09-01

139

ANALISA COST SHARING PERHITUNGAN TARIF HEMODIALISIS (HD MASYARAKAT MISKIN DI RUMAH SAKIT UMUM PKU MUHAMMADIYAH UNIT I YOGYAKARTA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Growing and expanding hopital may be efficiently and effectively managed, it is requiredto be conducted to face the tight competition in world of health service. If the hospital wish to survive in the competition, they need to recount the existing hospital tariff previously, that is by using competitive tariff model calculation. Hospital of PKU Muhammadiyah Unit I Yogyakarta divides HD tariff into two parts, these are Single Use and Re Use tariff. There are cost sharing differences between HD tariff in hospital and government. In this research, the reseacher only focuses on HD tariff of Re Use in order to reduce cost sharing. All this time, the hospital has never counted different cost. It can create lose for the hospital. th s researcher interest to analyze the cost sharing of hemodialisis tariff calculation for poor in public hospital of PKU Muhammadiyah Unit I Yogyakarta. Methode: This research type is descriptive research qualitative which analyzed real expense by using real cost methode and difference which is burdened by patien toward real tariff, meanwhile opinion about cost sharing is taken by interview with superintendent finance and superintendent of hemodialisis unit using interview method. Resulth: this research show the real tariff equal to Rp.912.571 while tariff released by hospital equal to Rp.575.000, and difference between second tariff is Rp.337.751, while tariff given by government is Rp.528.067 and difference with the real tariff equal to Rp.384.684. Conclusion: that unit based cost tariff higher than tariff given by hospital at this time, the biggest expense is component for examines or substance used up wear. The hospital should determine the strategy to decrease the difference. Key Words: cost sharing, real cost method, tariff packet, hemodialisis, poor, society

. Primandita

2013-04-01

140

ABC estimation of unit costs for emergency department services.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rapid evolution of the health care industry forces managers to make cost-effective decisions. Typical hospital cost accounting systems do not provide emergency department managers with the information needed, but emergency department settings are so complex and dynamic as to make the more accurate activity-based costing (ABC) system prohibitively expensive. Through judicious use of the available traditional cost accounting information and simple computer spreadsheets. managers may approximate the decision-guiding information that would result from the much more costly and time-consuming implementation of ABC. PMID:10156656

Holmes, R L; Schroeder, R E

1996-04-01

 
 
 
 
141

Forecasting the Unit Cost of a Product with Some Linear Fuzzy Collaborative Forecasting Models  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Forecasting the unit cost of every product type in a factory is an important task. However, it is not easy to deal with the uncertainty of the unit cost. Fuzzy collaborative forecasting is a very effective treatment of the uncertainty in the distributed environment. This paper presents some linear fuzzy collaborative forecasting models to predict the unit cost of a product. In these models, the experts’ forecasts differ and therefore need to be aggregated through collaboration. According to the experimental results, the effectiveness of forecasting the unit cost was considerably improved through collaboration.

Toly Chen

2012-10-01

142

Calculation of net cost in evaluating the economic effectiveness of outlays of geological exploration  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An examination is made of the technique for calculating the net cost of a single commercial product in evaluating the national economic effectiveness of outlays for geological exploration (E /SUB ge/ ) in examples of enlarged and experimental calculations based on different techniques (VIEMS and according to the formula of M. I. AgoshkovN. A. Khrushchev) for solid mineral fields in the Administration of Geology of the Tajik SSR. It is indicated that the index E /SUB ge/ is influenced by the technique of determining profit, in particular the amount of net cost of the commercial product. It is recommended for correct reflection of profit that the magnitude of actual cost be accurately determined and the incorrect calculation of only the plant net cost be indicated in calculating the profit, since the net cost of the product of the metallurgical enterprise already contains a considerable part of the product for society. The influence of the technique for calculating net cost on the magnitude of the index E /SUB ge/ and the economic effect obtained by the national economy of the republic from the conducted geological work are indicated.

Taramonova, T.A.

1979-01-01

143

Calculation of Complexity Costs – An Approach for Rationalizing a Product Program  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper proposes an operational method for rationalizing a product program based on the calculation of complexity costs. The method takes its starting point in the calculation of complexity costs on a product program level. This is done throughout the value chain ranging from component inventories at the factory sites, all the way to the distribution of finished goods from distribution centers to the customers. The method proposes a step-wise approach including the analysis, quantification and allocation of product program complexity costs by the means of identifying of a number of suggested Life Cycle Complexity Factors (LCCFs). The suggested method has been tested in an action based research study with promising results. The case study shows how the allocation of complexity costs on individual product variants provides previously unknown insights into the true cost structure of a product program. These findings represent an improved decision basis for the planning of reactive and proactive initiatives ofrationalizing a product program.

Hansen, Christian Lindschou; Mortensen, Niels Henrik

2012-01-01

144

Methodical approaches to calculation of cost of educating specialists in institutes of higher education in Ukraine ???????????? ??????? ? ??????????? ????????? ?????????? ???????????? ? ????? ???????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article considers modern approaches to calculation of cost of educating one student of an institute of higher education of the third and fourth levels of accreditation. It proposes author’s own system of assessment of an average approximate cost of educating one specialist, which includes basic components of costs of institutes of higher education. Introduction of a standard of cost of educating specialists would allow increase of effectiveness of the process of formation and allocation of the state order for staff training on a competitive basis.? ?????? ??????????? ??????????? ??????? ? ??????????? ????????? ?????????? ?????? ???????? ??????? ???????? ????????? ??? – ?V ??????? ???????????. ?????????? ????????? ???????? ?????? ??????? ??????????????? ????????? ?????????? ?????? ???????????, ??????? ???????? ???????? ???????????? ?????? ?????. ????????? ????????? ????????? ?????????? ???????????? ???????? ???????? ????????????? ???????? ???????????? ? ?????????? ???????????????? ?????? ?? ?????????? ?????? ?? ?????????? ???????.

Levchenko Olexandr M.

2013-03-01

145

Cost Analysis of a Two Dissimilar-Unit Cold Standby Redundant System Subject to Inspection and Random Change in Units  

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Full Text Available Problem statement: This study deled with the cost analysis of a two dissimilar unit cold standby redundant system subject to inspection and random change in units. In this system each unit works in two different modes normal and total failure. Assuming that the failure, repair, post repair, interchange of units and inspection times are stochastically independent random variables each having an arbitrary distribution. Approach: The system was analyzed by semi Markov process technique. Results: The time-dependent availability, steady-state availability, busy period analysis, expected number of visits by the repairman were obtained numerically and cost analysis was obtained numerically and graphically. Conclusion: Expected cost per unit time decreased with respect to the increase of failure rate.

G. S. Mokaddis

2010-01-01

146

Use of an expert system for energy cost calculations in the pulp and paper industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper, an application for the calculation of energy prices and product energy costs in the pulp and paper industry by using the Xi Plus expert system is presented. The use of expert systems in the energy field and also the Xi Plus expert system and its general features are also discussed. The application has been made after collecting data from several sources. It runs in an IBM AT compatible microcomputer therefore being easily used in mills. The name of the application is PRODUCT ENERGY COST. It has a three level structure: the mill level, the department level and the main equipment level. Currently, the mill level and, in the energy production area, the department level (power plant) and the equipment level (boilers, turbines) are used. The application consists of four knowledge base groups. Altogether there are 52 separate knowledge bases having 534 rules or demons. The knowledge base groups are: BASIC DATA, ENERGY USE, ENERGY PRODUCTION and ENERGY COSTS. The application can be used for various heat and electrical energy price calculations or for energy cost calculations for different pulp and paper products. In this study, the energy prices for kraft pulp, TMP, newsprint and fine paper in different operating conditions and the associated energy costs of the products are calculated. Also, in some cases a sensitivity analysis is done. The expert system is quite suitable for this type of calculation and the method could be further developed for specific industrial needs, e.g. to enhance the energy management systems

147

COMPARISON OF RADIATION SOURCES FOR PLANT GROWING BY LUMINOUS ENERGY UNIT'S COSTS AND ANALOGS  

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Full Text Available The article considers the method of comparison of radiation sources for plant growing by photosynthetic energy units or analogs costs, evaluation of critical values photosynthetic active radiation efficiency at which light-emitting diodes comparable by photosynthetic energy unit's costs with the most common alternative sources for irradiation of plants – high pressure sodium lamps

Kozyreva I. N.

2014-05-01

148

Consideration concerning the costs of the 300 kW wind units developed in Romania  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A demonstrative wind farm with four research units, 300 kW each, is in developing stage in Romania. The article shows economic analysis of these experimental wind units and their cost structure focusing in component costs, performance, manufacturing technology and installing work. (author)

Gyulai, F.; Bej, A. [Technical Univ. of Timisoara (Romania). Wind Energy Research Center

1995-12-31

149

Consideration concerning the costs of the 300 kW wind units developed in Romania  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A demonstrative wind farm with four research units, 300 kW each, is in developing stage in Romania. The article shows economic analysis of these experimental wind units and their cost structure focusing in component costs, performance, manufacturing technology and installing work. (author)

150

Calculation of Total Cost, Tolerance Based on Taguchi?s, Asymmetric Quality Loss Function Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: Current world market force the manufacturing sectors to develop high quality product and process design with minimum possible cost. About 80% of problems in production units may be attributed to 20% of design tolerance causes. While design typically represents the smallest actual cost elements in products (around 5%, it leverages the largest cost influence (around 70%. So design engineers continuously stumble upon problem of design for high quality performance with lower cost. Objectives of this study where to: (i simultaneous selection of design and manufacturing tolerance (ii minimization of total cost (sum of the manufacturing cost and Taguchi?s asymmetric quality cost (iii minimum cost and its machining tolerance. Approach: Rotor key base assembly was considered as case study to optimize the minimization of assembly total cost and machining tolerance. New global nonlinear optimization techniques called pattern search algorithm had been implemented to find optimal tolerance allocation and total cost. Results: In this study minimum cost arrived was 45.15 Cr and its corresponding tolerances for machining process turning, drilling, face milling, face milling and drilling where 0.063, 0.0508, 0.2127, 0.2127, 0.2540 mm respectively at worst case conditions. Conclusion: Results indicated that optimization by integer programming, sequential quadratic programming and exhaustive search, nonlinear programming, genetic algorithm, simulated annealing, fuzzy logic, number set theory and Monte Carlo simulation did not give much least total cost and also predicted that pattern search algorithm was robust method. Second the method, generally termed as concurrent tolerance synthesis was well suited for engineering environment, where high quality products with low total cost were designed and manufactured.

R. S. Kumar

2009-01-01

151

United Kingdom:- UK needs to tackle high cost of mental-ill health, says OECD - OECD  

...UK needs to tackle high cost of mental-ill health, says OECD Mental health issues cost the UK around GBP 70 billion every year,...5% of GDP, in lost productivity at work, benefit payments and health care expenditure. Mental health; UK ; welfare reforms ;...; health care United Kingdom:- UK needs to tackle high cost of mental-ill health, says OECD - OECD Français Follow us E-mail Alerts ...Newsroom OECD Home › United Kingdom › UK needs to tackle high cost of mental-ill health, says OECD UK needs to tackle high cost of ...

152

Analysis of a Production Order Quantity Model With Declining Unit Cost  

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Full Text Available This paper improves upon the existing literature surrounding the production order quantity inventory model in which unit cost and daily production are assumed to be constant. By including economies of scale into the model, we examine its impact on production order quantity and total cost. The results suggest that the minimal cost solution derived from the production order quantity model needs to balance out holding, setup and production costs. As a result, a smaller inventory level corresponding to a minimum unit production cost is found to be preferred.

Rod D. Raehsler

2012-05-01

153

Simple calculation measures NH3 slip for cogeneration units  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports that government regulations restricting NOx emissions for New Stationary Sources have brought about an increased demand for deNOx systems. One such system is selective catalytic reduction (SCR). It uses ammonia in the presence of a catalyst to selectively reduce NOx emissions. Because of inherent inefficiencies in the SCR design, a small amount of NH3 slip becomes an additional exhaust stream pollutant discharged into the atmosphere. This discharge requires monitoring. Normally, ammonia is listed as a pollutant in the environmental permit to construct when an SCR system is specified for NOx reduction. Therefore, a method to report NH3 slip also will be required. Although the Code of Federal Regulations 40 CRF 60 does not specifically addressed NH3 slip, state agencies usually require reporting of NH3 emissions. An ammonia analyzer usually is installed for the measurement. However, other methods to monitor NH3 slip should be considered. One alternative is to calculate it. A cogeneration plant equipped with SCR using a specific configuration of instrumentation hardware and software will allow the NH3 slip to be calculated accurately

154

Sample size calculation in cost-effectiveness cluster randomized trials: optimal and maximin approaches.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, the optimal sample sizes at the cluster and person levels for each of two treatment arms are obtained for cluster randomized trials where the cost-effectiveness of treatments on a continuous scale is studied. The optimal sample sizes maximize the efficiency or power for a given budget or minimize the budget for a given efficiency or power. Optimal sample sizes require information on the intra-cluster correlations (ICCs) for effects and costs, the correlations between costs and effects at individual and cluster levels, the ratio of the variance of effects translated into costs to the variance of the costs (the variance ratio), sampling and measuring costs, and the budget. When planning, a study information on the model parameters usually is not available. To overcome this local optimality problem, the current paper also presents maximin sample sizes. The maximin sample sizes turn out to be rather robust against misspecifying the correlation between costs and effects at the cluster and individual levels but may lose much efficiency when misspecifying the variance ratio. The robustness of the maximin sample sizes against misspecifying the ICCs depends on the variance ratio. The maximin sample sizes are robust under misspecification of the ICC for costs for realistic values of the variance ratio greater than one but not robust under misspecification of the ICC for effects. Finally, we show how to calculate optimal or maximin sample sizes that yield sufficient power for a test on the cost-effectiveness of an intervention. PMID:25019136

Manju, Md Abu; Candel, Math J J M; Berger, Martijn P F

2014-07-10

155

Calculation of the CO2 Emission Reduction Costs in MARKAL Model  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Possible introduction of nuclear power plants is belong to the supply side long term mitigation options. These options are modeled in MARKAL by describing the technical, cost, availability and environmental data of the corresponding technologies. Model MARKAL (an acronym for MARket ALlocation) is a demand-driven, multi-period linear programming model of the technical energy system that deals with supply and demand side options. It is a cost-minimizing energy-environment system planning model used to investigate long-term responses to different future technological options, emissions limitations and policy scenarios of energy systems. Measures for CO2 reduction can be analyzed with MARKAL model in two ways, like conventional approach and forced introduction of technologies that do not appear in the baseline optimal solution. The latter way is used for calculation of the CO2 emission reduction costs in the case of nuclear power plants candidates in Croatian energy system. The differences in marginal costs are shown in the case of nuclear and coal power plants candidates. This analysis are performed in the scope of complete energy system (not only power sector), from supply side to technologies for energy transformation, and to demand side (sectors for energy consumption). This marginal costs are calculated as the ratio between the differences in discounted total system costs and emissions between the baseline and nuclear (coal) scenario. The results show which option is better from the optimality side of emission reduction, associated costs and possible final energy consumption changes in energy system. (author)

156

INTEGRATING THE ABC METHOD OF COSTS CALCULATION AND CASH VALUE ADDED  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In our paper we intend to explore the possibility of integrating the ABC method of cost calculation with cash based value measure, i.e. the Cash Value Added. Our purpose is to develop an instrument for the management of productive companies that will allow them to administrate the process of value creation at the level of individual products or services.The activity based costing (ABC method of cost calculation can be extended to the way of allocating the capital costs to individual products and services. In the same time, the value based measures can register the shareholders’ value creation process only at the company level and not for the individual products or services as they lack the information regarding the assignment of capital costs to those products.By integrating the calculus of Cash Value Added in the ABC method we consider that the managers will get an important managerial tool for the efficient allocation of the investment capital for the various products or services, given their real profitability, which can be determined by including capital costs in the overall cost of the products or services.

Marius Sorin DINCA

2010-01-01

157

Demand of Insurance under the Cost-of-Capital Premium Calculation Principle  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We study the optimal insurance design problem. This is a risk sharing problem between an insured and an insurer. The main novelty in this paper is that we study this optimization problem under a risk-adjusted premium calculation principle for the insurance cover. This risk-adjusted premium calculation principle uses the cost-of-capital approach as it is suggested (and used by the regulator and the insurance industry.

Michael Merz

2014-06-01

158

Accelerating VASP electronic structure calculations using graphic processing units.  

Science.gov (United States)

We present a way to improve the performance of the electronic structure Vienna Ab initio Simulation Package (VASP) program. We show that high-performance computers equipped with graphics processing units (GPUs) as accelerators may reduce drastically the computation time when offloading these sections to the graphic chips. The procedure consists of (i) profiling the performance of the code to isolate the time-consuming parts, (ii) rewriting these so that the algorithms become better-suited for the chosen graphic accelerator, and (iii) optimizing memory traffic between the host computer and the GPU accelerator. We chose to accelerate VASP with NVIDIA GPU using CUDA. We compare the GPU and original versions of VASP by evaluating the Davidson and RMM-DIIS algorithms on chemical systems of up to 1100 atoms. In these tests, the total time is reduced by a factor between 3 and 8 when running on n (CPU core + GPU) compared to n CPU cores only, without any accuracy loss. PMID:22903247

Hacene, Mohamed; Anciaux-Sedrakian, Ani; Rozanska, Xavier; Klahr, Diego; Guignon, Thomas; Fleurat-Lessard, Paul

2012-12-15

159

Cost index review of new US TPP and NPP units  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cost indexes of 44 thermal power plants and NPPs have been considered using ''Electrical World'' journal data, 1982. It is noted that last years coal and nuclear energy are used instead of liquid and gaseous fuel to a greater degree. Fuel costs decrease. Specific number of personnel slightly depends on power plant capacity and constitutes 0.25-0.33 person/MW. Electric power consumption for auxiliary supply amounted to 4.5-6.5% for NPPs, 6-10% for coal-fired thermal power plants

160

Unit cost of CT scan and MRI at a large tertiary care teaching hospital in North India  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Imaging department is an important department of a hospital contributing directly to patient care, providing diagnostic support to all specialties which cannot practice efficiently without their support. Hospital administrators are looking for newer tools to control costs without affecting the quality of patient care. It is well known that the escalation of costs for advanced technology has been dramatic and it has been labeled as one of the culprits for great increase in healthcare costs. A prospective study for a period of six months was carried out for calculation of unit cost of radiological investigations CT head, CT chest, CT abdomen and MRI. Unit costs were computed under direct and indirect costs. The actual cost incurred by the hospital on CT head was Rupees 581.40 (US $10.89, CT abdomen Rupees 2339.20 (US $43.83, CT chest Rupees 2339.20 (US $43.83, and MRI Rupees 4497.50 (US $84.28. However, in the hospital patients are charged Rupees 900 (US $16.86 for CT head, Rupees 1200 (US $22.48 for CT abdomen, Rupees 1200 (US $22.48 for CT chest and Rupees 2500 (US $46.85 for MRI. There is a substantial loss of revenue because of subsidies provided to patients in a tertiary care teaching hospital which needs revision of charges.  

Khurshid Rehana

2013-12-01

 
 
 
 
161

General methodical recommendations with definition of technological costs for nuclear power plants units decommissioning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The methodological approaches with conducting valuation of decommissioning costs for Nuclear Power Plants Units, and the preliminary analysis of possible ways classification outlays are also given in it was described. The methodical recommendations are offered to estimate the major technological costs, the specific gravity of which is the main part of total project value. It's proposed to carry out technological costs evaluation by the special mould formation of determined technological costs elements with corresponding to work and time factors

162

MONNIE 2000: A description of a model to calculate environmental costs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new model (MONNIE 2000) was developed by the RIVM in the Netherlands in 2000 to calculate environmental costs on a macro level. The model, it's theoretical backgrounds and the technical aspects are described, making it attractive to both the user and the designer of the model. A user manual on how to calculate with the model is included. The basic principle of the model is the use of a harmonised method for calculating environmental costs, which provides the user with an output that can easily be compared with and used in other economic statistics and macro-economic models in the Netherlands. Input for the model are yearly figures on operational costs, investments and savings from environmental measures. With MONNIE 2000 calculated environmental costs per policy target group, economic sector and theme can be shown, With this model the burden of environmental measures on the economic sectors and the environmental expenditures of the government can be presented as well. MONNIE 2000 is developed in Visual Basic and by using Excel as input and output a user-friendly data exchange is realised. 12 refs

163

Asset management and the calculation of capital costs for mains-usage fees  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article discusses the requirements stipulated in the Swiss Electricity Supply Law that capital costs for all mains-levels must be declared on a yearly basis. The costs are calculated from current market value and depreciation according to technical lifetime. The authors examine the requirements placed on the declaration of capital costs and how they are calculated. The detailed book-keeping needed is discussed as is the large volume of data involved. The role of existing mains information systems is looked at, as are methods of assessing current assets. Experience gained in practice is discussed: This is taken as the basis for future processes. Utilities participating in the project and a number of solutions available are noted

164

Some applications of calculating the fuel component of production costs in nuclear power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the US the price of fuel in the individual parts of the closed fuel cycle is circulating capital. Costs of fuel consist of the difference between the price of fresh fuel elements and the net price of burnt-up fuel elements, fees for renting the fuel charge including fuel in the reactor core, fuel in the decay tanks and fuel in the storage area, with regard to the time spent by the fuel in these respective areas. In other western countries only the costs for fuel assemblies in the area of the nuclear power plant are financed. Fixed capital is that expended into the first fuel charge. The method of calculating the fuel component of overheads in a WWER type nuclear power plant are derived from known costs of fresh fuel assemblies, the fuel charge, the effective duration of reactor periods. General relations for the calculation of the fuel component are given for all three mentioned approaches. (E.S.)

165

Extension of the COSYMA-ECONOMICS module - cost calculations based on different economic sectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The COSYMA program system for evaluating the off-site consequences of accidental releases of radioactive material to the atmosphere includes an ECONOMICS module for assessing economic consequences. The aim of this module is to convert various consequences (radiation-induced health effects and impacts resulting from countermeasures) caused by an accident into the common framework of economic costs; this allows different effects to be expressed in the same terms and thus to make these effects comparable. With respect to the countermeasure 'movement of people', the dominant cost categories are 'loss-of-income costs' and 'costs of lost capital services'. In the original version of the ECONOMICS module these costs are calculated on the basis of the total number of people moved. In order to take into account also regional or local economic peculiarities of a nuclear site, the ECONOMICS module has been extended: Calculation of the above mentioned cost categories is now based on the number of employees in different economic sectors in the affected area. This extension of the COSYMA ECONOMICS module is described in more detail. (orig.)

166

About real cost calculations for biogas from vinasse biodigestion and its energy utilization  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The sharp increase in ethanol production has drawn attention to the increase in the production of n residues, mainly stillage, a by-product from the ethanol agro-industry. As it is a highly polluting effluent that is generated in great volumes, its transport and disposal is not simple. Stillage Is a product that results from the distillation and fermentation of the sugarcane in the process of ethanol production. Today there are new environmental standards that restrict the disposal of the stillage in the soil. The anaerobic biodigestion comes as an alternative treatment for the stillage. One of the advantages of the biodigestion is that the stillage fertilization potential continues to be the same after the process and, this way, the effluent can be taken to the fields through fertirrigation. The main advantages are the conservation of the nutrients, mainly phosphor and nitrogen contents, and the increase in the pH for the application in the soil. This paper presents a methodology for the calculation of the biogas cost obtained from stillage biodigestion, considering the benefits of the fertirrigation with the effluent generated in the digester. Later an analysis of the economical feasibility of the use of the biogas obtained from the stillage anaerobic digestion in different scenarios is carried out, among them there are: electric power generation with alternative internal combustion, with gas turbines and micro-turbines, with the 'substituted' bagasse burned together with the biogas in the boilers, with the sales of the substituted bagasse (for electric power generation in another unit) and with the use of the biogas in spray dryers with the subsequent sales of dried yeasts. It is also considered an analysis under an environmental point of view of the use of the biogas that includes the possibility of selling the certificates of avoided emissions (carbon credits) due to the use of the biogas in substitution to fossil fuels. The most important results are presented in a comparative table. (author)

Salomon, K.R. [Universidade Federal de Alagoas (UFAL), Maceio, AL (Brazil)]. E-mail: kaka_salomon@yahoo.com.br; Lora , E.E.S.; Rocha, M.H. [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil). Thermal Systems Study Group]. E-mails: electo@unifei.edu.br; mateus.rocha@unifei.edu.br

2008-07-01

167

47 CFR 36.603 - Calculation of rural incumbent local exchange carrier portion of nationwide loop cost expense...  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-10-01 false Calculation of rural incumbent local...portion of nationwide loop cost expense adjustment...TELECOMMUNICATIONS PROPERTY COSTS, REVENUES, EXPENSES...General § 36.603 Calculation of rural incumbent local...portion of nationwide loop cost expense...

2010-10-01

168

47 CFR 36.602 - Calculation of non-rural carrier portion of nationwide loop cost expense adjustment.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-10-01 false Calculation of non-rural carrier portion of nationwide loop cost expense adjustment...TELECOMMUNICATIONS PROPERTY COSTS, REVENUES, EXPENSES...General § 36.602 Calculation of non-rural carrier portion of nationwide loop cost expense...

2010-10-01

169

Renewable Energy Cost Modeling: A Toolkit for Establishing Cost-Based Incentives in the United States; March 2010 -- March 2011  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report is intended to serve as a resource for policymakers who wish to learn more about establishing cost-based incentives. The report will identify key renewable energy cost modeling options, highlight the policy implications of choosing one approach over the other, and present recommendations on the optimal characteristics of a model to calculate rates for cost-based incentives, feed-in tariffs (FITs), or similar policies. These recommendations will be utilized in designing the Cost of Renewable Energy Spreadsheet Tool (CREST). Three CREST models will be publicly available and capable of analyzing the cost of energy associated with solar, wind, and geothermal electricity generators. The CREST models will be developed for use by state policymakers, regulators, utilities, developers, and other stakeholders to assist them in current and future rate-setting processes for both FIT and other renewable energy incentive payment structures and policy analyses.

Gifford, J. S.; Grace, R. C.; Rickerson, W. H.

2011-05-01

170

Study on the calculation methods and computer program development for disposal costs of L/IL solid radwaste  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

By using engineering investment economics and levelized cost calculation method, the disposal cost of low- and intermediate-level (L/IL) solid radwastes is divided into capital investment cost, fixed disposal operation cost, variable disposal operation cost, repository closing cost and cost for monitoring closed repository within 300 years. The calculation method and program development have been studied on the basis of the repository capital investment plants, different quantities and intensities of solid radwastes annually produced in the high, medium and low scenarios of nuclear power development in China

171

The cost of the fuel cycle in the overall cost of nuclear power in the UnitedF Kingdom  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the United Kingdom, the proportion of nuclear power in the total power generation was 14% in 1981. In the midst of stringent world nuclear situation, the nuclear power program in the U.K. has been steadily proceeding. The services of nuclear fuel cycle by BNFL are expanding presently. According to a report by CEGB, the nuclear power generation is the lowest in cost in 1980 and 1981. If all the nuclear power plants are shut down, and their part is taken by burning fossil fuels, the overall power cost in the U.K. will be raised by from 300 to 400 million pounds yearly. BNFL now supplies about 15% of the total world UF6 demands; while uranium enrichment is still performed predominantly by the United States. The cost of fuel reprocessing is not settled yet as compared with other aspects of the fuel cycle. (Mori, K.)

172

19 CFR 351.406 - Calculation of normal value if sales are made at less than cost of production.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-04-01 false Calculation of normal value if sales are made at less than cost of production. 351...COUNTERVAILING DUTIES Calculation of Export Price, Constructed...Value § 351.406 Calculation of normal value if sales are made at less than cost of production....

2010-04-01

173

Conventional method for the calculation of the global energy cost of buildings; Methode conventionnelle de calcul du cout global energetique des batiments  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A working group driven by Electricite de France (EdF), Chauffage Fioul and Gaz de France (GdF) companies has been built with the sustain of several building engineering companies in order to clarify the use of the method of calculation of the global energy cost of buildings. This global cost is an economical decision help criterion among others. This press kit presents, first, the content of the method (input data, calculation of annual expenses, calculation of the global energy cost, display of results and limitations of the method). Then it fully describes the method and its appendixes necessary for its implementation: economical and financial context, general data of the project in progress, environmental data, occupation and comfort level, variants, investment cost of energy systems, investment cost for the structure linked with the energy system, investment cost for other invariant elements of the structure, calculation of consumptions (space heating, hot water, ventilation), maintenance costs (energy systems, structure), operation and exploitation costs, tariffs and consumption costs and taxes, actualized global cost, annualized global cost, comparison between variants. The method is applied to a council building of 23 flats taken as an example. (J.S.)

NONE

2002-05-01

174

Cost calculations for decommissioning and dismantling of nuclear research facilities, Phase 1  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Today, it is recommended that planning of decommission should form an integral part of the activities over the life cycle of a nuclear facility. However, no actual international guideline on cost calculations exists at present. Intuitively, it might be tempting to regard costs for decommissioning of a nuclear facility as similar to those of any other plant. However, the presence of radionuclide contamination may imply that the cost is one or more orders of magnitude higher as compared to a corresponding inactive situation, the actual ratio being highly dependent on the level of contamination as well as design features and use of the facility in question. Moreover, the variations in such prerequisites are much larger than for nuclear power plants. This implies that cost calculations cannot be performed with any accuracy or credibility without a relatively detailed consideration of the radiological and other prerequisites. Application of inadequate methodologies especially at early stages has often lead to large underestimations. The goals of the project and the achievements described in the report are as follows: 1) Advice on good practice with regard to: 1a) Strategy and planning; 1b) Methodology selection; 1c) Radiological surveying; 1d) Uncertainty analysis; 2) Techniques for assessment of costs: 2a) Cost structuring; 2b) Cost estimation methodologies; 3) Compilation of data for plants, state of planning, organisations, etc.; 3a) General descriptions of relevant features of the nuclear research facilities; 3b) General plant specific data; 3c) Example of the decommissioning of the R1 research reactor in Sweden; 3d) Example of the decommissioning of the DR1 research reactor in Denmark. In addition, but not described in the present report, is the establishment of a Nordic network in the area including an internet based expert system. It should be noted that the project is planned to exist for at least three years and that the present report is an interim one covering the work for approximately the first 16 months. (au)

Andersson, Inga [StudsvikNuclear AB (Sweden); Backe, S. [Institute for Energy Technology (Norway); Iversen, Klaus [Danish Decommissioning (Denmark); Lindskog, S [Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (Sweden); Salmenhaara, S. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland (Finland); Sjoeblom, R. [Tekedo AB (Sweden)

2006-11-15

175

Replacement energy costs for nuclear electricity-generating units in the United States: 1997--2001. Volume 4  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report updates previous estimates of replacement energy costs for potential short-term shutdowns of 109 US nuclear electricity-generating units. This information was developed to assist the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in its regulatory impact analyses, specifically those that examine the impacts of proposed regulations requiring retrofitting of or safety modifications to nuclear reactors. Such actions might necessitate shutdowns of nuclear power plants while these changes are being implemented. The change in energy cost represents one factor that the NRC must consider when deciding to require a particular modification. Cost estimates were derived from probabilistic production cost simulations of pooled utility system operations. Factors affecting replacement energy costs, such as random unit failures, maintenance and refueling requirements, and load variations, are treated in the analysis. This report describes an abbreviated analytical approach as it was adopted to update the cost estimates published in NUREG/CR-4012, Vol. 3. The updates were made to extend the time frame of cost estimates and to account for recent changes in utility system conditions, such as change in fuel prices, construction and retirement schedules, and system demand projects.

VanKuiken, J.C.; Guziel, K.A.; Tompkins, M.M.; Buehring, W.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

1997-09-01

176

Replacement energy costs for nuclear electricity-generating units in the United States: 1997--2001. Volume 4  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report updates previous estimates of replacement energy costs for potential short-term shutdowns of 109 US nuclear electricity-generating units. This information was developed to assist the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in its regulatory impact analyses, specifically those that examine the impacts of proposed regulations requiring retrofitting of or safety modifications to nuclear reactors. Such actions might necessitate shutdowns of nuclear power plants while these changes are being implemented. The change in energy cost represents one factor that the NRC must consider when deciding to require a particular modification. Cost estimates were derived from probabilistic production cost simulations of pooled utility system operations. Factors affecting replacement energy costs, such as random unit failures, maintenance and refueling requirements, and load variations, are treated in the analysis. This report describes an abbreviated analytical approach as it was adopted to update the cost estimates published in NUREG/CR-4012, Vol. 3. The updates were made to extend the time frame of cost estimates and to account for recent changes in utility system conditions, such as change in fuel prices, construction and retirement schedules, and system demand projects

177

Methodology for Calculating Cost-per-Mile for Current and Future Vehicle Powertrain Technologies, with Projections to 2024: Preprint  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Currently, several cost-per-mile calculators exist that can provide estimates of acquisition and operating costs for consumers and fleets. However, these calculators are limited in their ability to determine the difference in cost per mile for consumer versus fleet ownership, to calculate the costs beyond one ownership period, to show the sensitivity of the cost per mile to the annual vehicle miles traveled (VMT), and to estimate future increases in operating and ownership costs. Oftentimes, these tools apply a constant percentage increase over the time period of vehicle operation, or in some cases, no increase in direct costs at all over time. A more accurate cost-per-mile calculator has been developed that allows the user to analyze these costs for both consumers and fleets. The calculator was developed to allow simultaneous comparisons of conventional light-duty internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles, mild and full hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), and fuel cell vehicles (FCVs). This paper is a summary of the development by the authors of a more accurate cost-per-mile calculator that allows the user to analyze vehicle acquisition and operating costs for both consumer and fleets. Cost-per-mile results are reported for consumer-operated vehicles travelling 15,000 miles per year and for fleets travelling 25,000 miles per year.

Ruth, M.; Timbario, T. A.; Timbario, T. J.; Laffen, M.

2011-01-01

178

Critical Analysis of the Cost Calculation System Used in Iron and Steel Industry in Libya  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Phased calculation method applied by industrial enterprises with mass production as in the case of companies in the iron and steel industry, characterized by a simple technological process, conducted in successive stages of processing raw materials and materials from which finished product is resulted. Despite the advantages offered, the phases method has several disadvantages indisputable that require improvement of cost calculation in the iron and steel industry enterprises. This paper aims at presenting the inconvenience that the phase method involves and providing solutions for improvement

ABDELKARIM Abdelali

2013-05-01

179

Economics of immunization information systems in the United States: assessing costs and efficiency  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the United States' national health objectives for 2010 is that 95% of children aged Methods Data were collected from a national sampling frame of the 56 states/cities that received federal immunization grants under U.S. Public Health Service Act 317b and completed the federal 1999 Immunization Registry Annual Report. The sampling frame was stratified by IIS functional status, children's enrollment in the IIS, and whether the IIS had been developed as an independent system or was integrated into a larger system. These sites self-reported IIS developmental and operational program costs for calendar years 1998–2002 using a standardized data collection tool and underwent on-site interviews to verify reported data with information from the state/city financial management system and other financial records. A parametric cost-per-patient-record (CPR model was estimated. The model assessed the impact of labor and non-labor resources used in development and operations tasks, as well as the impact of information technology, local providers' participation and compliance with federal IIS performance standards (e.g., ensuring the confidentiality and security of information, ensure timely vaccination data at the time of patient encounter, and produce official immunization records. Given the number of records minimizing CPR, the additional amount of resources needed to meet national health goals for the year 2010 was also calculated. Results Estimated CPR was as high as $10.30 and as low as $0.09 in operating IIS. About 20% of IIS had between 2.9 to 3.2 million records and showed CPR estimates of $0.09. Overall, CPR was highly sensitive to local providers' participation. To achieve the 2010 goals, additional aggregated costs were estimated to be $75.6 million nationwide. Conclusion Efficiently increasing the number of records in IIS would require additional resources and careful consideration of various strategies to minimize CPR, such as boosting providers' participation.

Urquhart Gary A

2006-08-01

180

FAPMAN-IC: a program module calculating the incremental fuel cost of LWR power stations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The fuel loading and operation planning code FAPMAN-8 has been simplified as an independent subroutine module FAPMAN-IC, that is callable from the more overall system integration model like ORSIM. The module calculates the fuel and associated incremental fuel cost for LWR stations, given the cycle operation schedule, cycle energy demand and plant thermal efficiency. Summary of the problem to be solved and interface to ORSIM were presented with sample input and printout. (author)

 
 
 
 
181

Economic impacts of oil spills: Spill unit costs for tankers, pipelines, refineries, and offshore facilities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The impacts of oil spills -- ranging from the large, widely publicized Exxon Valdez tanker incident to smaller pipeline and refinery spills -- have been costly to both the oil industry and the public. For example, the estimated costs to Exxon of the Valdez tanker spill are on the order of $4 billion, including $2.8 billion (in 1993 dollars) for direct cleanup costs and $1.125 billion (in 1992 dollars) for settlement of damages claims caused by the spill. Application of contingent valuation costs and civil lawsuits pending in the State of Alaska could raise these costs appreciably. Even the costs of the much smaller 1991 oil spill at Texaco's refinery near Anacortes, Washington led to costs of $8 to 9 million. As a result, inexpensive waming, response and remediation technologies could lower oil spin costs, helping both the oil industry, the associated marine industries, and the environment. One means for reducing the impact and costs of oil spills is to undertake research and development on key aspects of the oil spill prevention, warming, and response and remediation systems. To target these funds to their best use, it is important to have sound data on the nature and size of spills, their likely occurrence and their unit costs. This information could then allow scarce R ampersand D dollars to be spent on areas and activities having the largest impact. This report is intended to provide the ''unit cost'' portion of this crucial information. The report examines the three key components of the US oil supply system, namely, tankers and barges; pipelines and refineries; and offshore production facilities. The specific purpose of the study was to establish the unit costs of oil spills. By manipulating this key information into a larger matrix that includes the size and frequency of occurrence of oil spills, it will be possible' to estimate the likely future impacts, costs, and sources of oil spills

182

A Geographical-Origin–Destination Model for Calculating the Cost of Multimodal Forest-Fuel Transportation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As a consequence of increasing demand for wood fuels, the management of forest-fuel production chains has become an important logistics issue in FinlandandSweden. Truck-based transportation has been the dominant method in fuel supply from the areas around power plants. However, increasing demand has led to enlargement of supply areas and greater variety in supply methods, including also railway and waterway transportation. This study presents a GIS-based calculation model suitable for cost calculations for power plants’ forest-fuel supply chains. The model has multimodal properties—i.e., it provides transfer of forest-fuel loads between transportation modes—and enables case-specific adjustment of transportation and material-handling cost parameters. The functionality of the model is examined with a case study focusing on a region of intense forest-fuel use. The results indicate that truck transportation is competitive with railway transportation also for long transport distances. However, increasing the proportion of multimodal transportation for other than economic reasons (e.g., for supply security could be reasonable, since the impact on total supply costs is marginal. In addition to honing of the parameters related to biomass availability and transport costs, the model should be developed through inclusion of other means of transportation, such as roundwood carriers.

Tapio Ranta

2013-02-01

183

Audit Calculations of LBLOCA for Ulchin Unit 1 and 2 Power Up rate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The KINS-Realistic Evaluation Model (KINS-REM) was developed for the independent audit calculation in 1991, and the code accuracy and statistical method have been improved. To support the licensing review and to confirm the validity of licensee's calculation, regulatory auditing calculations have been also conducted. Currently, the modification of Ulchin 1 and 2 operating license for 4.5% power up rate is under review. In this study, the regulatory audit calculation for LBLOCA of Ulchin Unit 1 and 2 with 4.5% power up rate was performed by applying KINS-REM. In this study, the regulatory audit calculation for LBLOCA of Ulchin Unit 1 and 2 with 4.5% power up rate was performed by applying KINS-REM. It is confirmed that the analysis results of LBLOCA for Ulchin 1 and 2 power up rate meets the PCT acceptance criteria

184

Audit Calculations of LBLOCA for Ulchin Unit 1 and 2 Power Up rate  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The KINS-Realistic Evaluation Model (KINS-REM) was developed for the independent audit calculation in 1991, and the code accuracy and statistical method have been improved. To support the licensing review and to confirm the validity of licensee's calculation, regulatory auditing calculations have been also conducted. Currently, the modification of Ulchin 1 and 2 operating license for 4.5% power up rate is under review. In this study, the regulatory audit calculation for LBLOCA of Ulchin Unit 1 and 2 with 4.5% power up rate was performed by applying KINS-REM. In this study, the regulatory audit calculation for LBLOCA of Ulchin Unit 1 and 2 with 4.5% power up rate was performed by applying KINS-REM. It is confirmed that the analysis results of LBLOCA for Ulchin 1 and 2 power up rate meets the PCT acceptance criteria.

Kang, Donggu; Huh, Byunggil; Yoo, Seunghunl; Yang, Chaeyong; Seul, Kwangwon [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

2013-05-15

185

Costos reales de tratamientos intensivos por paciente y día cama / Real daily costs of patients admitted to public intensive care units  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish [...] Abstract in english Background: Patient care costs in intensive care units are high and should be considered in medical decision making. Aim: To calculate the real disease related costs for patients admitted to intensive care units of public hospitals. Material and Methods: Using an activity associated costs analysis, [...] the expenses of 716 patients with a mean age of 56 years, mean APACHE score of20 (56% males), admitted to intensive care units of two regional public hospitals, were calculated. Patients were classified according to their underlying disease. Results: The costs per day of hospital stay, in Chilean pesos, were $ 426,265for sepsis, $ 423,300for cardiovascular diseases, $ 418,329 for kidney diseases, $ 404,873 for trauma, $ 398,913 for respiratory diseases, $ 379,455for digestive diseases and $ 371,801 for neurologic disease. Human resources and medications determined up to 85 and 12% of costs, respectively. Patients with sepsis and trauma use 32 and 19% of intensive care unit resources, respectively. Twenty seven percent of resources are invested in patients that eventually died. Conclusions: A real cost benefit analysis should be performed to optimize resource allocation in intensive care units.

Sandra, Alvear; Jorge, Canteros; Juan, Jara; Patricia, Rodríguez.

2013-02-01

186

Literature review of United States utilities computer codes for calculating actinide isotope content in irradiated fuel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reviews the accuracy and precision of methods used by United States electric utilities to determine the actinide isotopic and element content of irradiated fuel. After an extensive literature search, three key code suites were selected for review. Two suites of computer codes, CASMO and ARMP, are used for reactor physics calculations; the ORIGEN code is used for spent fuel calculations. They are also the most widely used codes in the nuclear industry throughout the world. Although none of these codes calculate actinide isotopics as their primary variables intended for safeguards applications, accurate calculation of actinide isotopic content is necessary to fulfill their function

187

Literature review of United States utilities computer codes for calculating actinide isotope content in irradiated fuel  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper reviews the accuracy and precision of methods used by United States electric utilities to determine the actinide isotopic and element content of irradiated fuel. After an extensive literature search, three key code suites were selected for review. Two suites of computer codes, CASMO and ARMP, are used for reactor physics calculations; the ORIGEN code is used for spent fuel calculations. They are also the most widely used codes in the nuclear industry throughout the world. Although none of these codes calculate actinide isotopics as their primary variables intended for safeguards applications, accurate calculation of actinide isotopic content is necessary to fulfill their function.

Horak, W.C.; Lu, Ming-Shih.

1991-12-01

188

Personal Finance Calculations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Contains explanations and examples of mathematical calculations for a secondary level course on personal finance. How to calculate total monetary cost of an item, monthly payments, different types of interest, annual percentage rates, and unit pricing is explained. (RM)

Argo, Mark

1982-01-01

189

Impact of pharmacist’s interventions on cost of drug therapy in intensive care unit. Pharmacy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Pharmacist participation in patient care team has been shown to reduce incidence of adverse drug events, and overall drug costs. However, impact of pharmacist participation in the multidisciplinary intensive care team on cost saving and cost avoidance has little been studied in Thailand.Objective: To describe the characteristics of the interventions and to determine pharmacist’s interventions led to change in cost saving and cost avoidance in intensive care unit (ICU. Methods: A Prospective, standard care-controlled study design was used to compare cost saving and cost avoidance of patients receiving care from patient care team (including a clinical pharmacist versus standard care (no pharmacist on team. All patients admitted to the medical intensive care unit 1 and 2 during the same period were included in the study. The outcome measures were overall drug cost and length of ICU stay. Interventions made by the pharmacist in the study group were documented. The analyses of acceptance and cost saving and/or cost avoidance were also performed. Results: A total of 65 patients were admitted to either ICU 1 or 2 during the 5 week- study period. The pharmacist participated in patient care and made total of 127 interventions for the ICU-1 team. Ninety-eight percent of the interventions were accepted and implemented by physicians. The difference of overall drug cost per patient between two groups was 182.01 USD (1,076.37 USD in study group and 1,258.38 USD in control group, p=0.138. The average length of ICU stay for the intervention group and the control group was not significantly different (7.16 days vs. 6.18 days, p=0.995. The 125 accepted interventions were evaluated for cost saving and cost avoidance. Pharmacist’s interventions yielded a total of 1,971.43 USD from drug cost saving and 294.62 USD from adverse drug event cost avoidance. The net cost saved and avoided from pharmacist interventions was 2,266.05 USD. Interventions involving antibiotic use accounted for the largest economic impact (1,958.61 USD. Conclusions: Although the statistical was not significant, having a pharmacist participated in ICU patient care team tend to reduced overall drug cost, cost saving, and cost avoidance. The largest cost impact and intervention requirement involved antibiotic use.

Saokaew S

2009-06-01

190

The cost-effectiveness of supported employment for adults with autism in the United Kingdom  

Science.gov (United States)

Adults with autism face high rates of unemployment. Supported employment enables individuals with autism to secure and maintain a paid job in a regular work environment. The objective of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of supported employment compared with standard care (day services) for adults with autism in the United Kingdom. Thus, a decision-analytic economic model was developed, which used outcome data from the only trial that has evaluated supported employment for adults with autism in the United Kingdom. The main analysis considered intervention costs, while cost-savings associated with changes in accommodation status and National Health Service and personal social service resource use were examined in secondary analyses. Two outcome measures were used: the number of weeks in employment and the quality-adjusted life year. Supported employment resulted in better outcomes compared with standard care, at an extra cost of £18 per additional week in employment or £5600 per quality-adjusted life year. In secondary analyses that incorporated potential cost-savings, supported employment dominated standard care (i.e. it produced better outcomes at a lower total cost). The analysis suggests that supported employment schemes for adults with autism in the United Kingdom are cost-effective compared with standard care. Further research needs to confirm these findings. PMID:24126866

Megnin-Viggars, Odette; Cheema, Nadir; Howlin, Patricia; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Pilling, Stephen

2014-01-01

191

The cost-effectiveness of supported employment for adults with autism in the United Kingdom.  

Science.gov (United States)

Adults with autism face high rates of unemployment. Supported employment enables individuals with autism to secure and maintain a paid job in a regular work environment. The objective of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of supported employment compared with standard care (day services) for adults with autism in the United Kingdom. Thus, a decision-analytic economic model was developed, which used outcome data from the only trial that has evaluated supported employment for adults with autism in the United Kingdom. The main analysis considered intervention costs, while cost-savings associated with changes in accommodation status and National Health Service and personal social service resource use were examined in secondary analyses. Two outcome measures were used: the number of weeks in employment and the quality-adjusted life year. Supported employment resulted in better outcomes compared with standard care, at an extra cost of £18 per additional week in employment or £5600 per quality-adjusted life year. In secondary analyses that incorporated potential cost-savings, supported employment dominated standard care (i.e. it produced better outcomes at a lower total cost). The analysis suggests that supported employment schemes for adults with autism in the United Kingdom are cost-effective compared with standard care. Further research needs to confirm these findings. PMID:24126866

Mavranezouli, Ifigeneia; Megnin-Viggars, Odette; Cheema, Nadir; Howlin, Patricia; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Pilling, Stephen

2014-11-01

192

A PC-based program for routine calculation of monitoring units in radiotherapy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The last step in the planning procedure for amega voltage radiotherapy treatment is the calculation of the number of monitor units to be set. This may well be provided for in the planning system, but however it is done, it is essential that the final result be independently double checked either in planning or at the point of treatment. In an attempt to reduce the workload associated with manual checking, and to increase independence of the checking process a computer program is presented which does the monitor unit calculation for both x-ray and electron beams. 2 figs

193

Market Value Margin calculations under the Cost of Capital approach within a Bayesian chain ladder framework  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the Solvency II framework, insurance companies need to calculate the Best Estimate valuation of Liabilities (BEL) and the Market Value Margin (MVM) for non-hedgeable insurance-technical risks. The Cost-of-Capital approach defi?nes the MVM as the present value of the current and future Solvency Capital Requirement (SCR) of the non-hedgeable risks to protect against adverse developments in the run-off of the insurance liabilities. However the SCR at time t itself depends on the increase in ...

Robert, Christian

2011-01-01

194

Preoperative calculation of risk for prolonged intensive care unit stay following coronary artery bypass grafting  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Objective Patients who have prolonged stay in intensive care unit (ICU are associated with adverse outcomes. Such patients have cost implications and can lead to shortage of ICU beds. We aimed to develop a preoperative risk prediction tool for prolonged ICU stay following coronary artery surgery (CABG. Methods 5,186 patients who underwent CABG between 1st April 1997 and 31st March 2002 were analysed in a development dataset. Logistic regression was used with forward stepwise technique to identify preoperative risk factors for prolonged ICU stay; defined as patients staying longer than 3 days on ICU. Variables examined included presentation history, co-morbidities, catheter and demographic details. The use of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB was also recorded. The prediction tool was tested on validation dataset (1197 CABG patients between 1st April 2003 and 31st March 2004. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve was calculated to assess the performance of the prediction tool. Results 475(9.2% patients had a prolonged ICU stay in the development dataset. Variables identified as risk factors for a prolonged ICU stay included renal dysfunction, unstable angina, poor ejection fraction, peripheral vascular disease, obesity, increasing age, smoking, diabetes, priority, hypercholesterolaemia, hypertension, and use of CPB. In the validation dataset, 8.1% patients had a prolonged ICU stay compared to 8.7% expected. The ROC curve for the development and validation datasets was 0.72 and 0.74 respectively. Conclusion A prediction tool has been developed which is reliable and valid. The tool is being piloted at our institution to aid resource management.

Dihmis Walid C

2006-05-01

195

The Economic Cost of Methamphetamine Use in the United States, 2005  

Science.gov (United States)

This first national estimate suggests that the economic cost of methamphetamine (meth) use in the United States reached $23.4 billion in 2005. Given the uncertainty in estimating the costs of meth use, this book provides a lower-bound estimate of $16.2 billion and an upper-bound estimate of $48.3 billion. The analysis considers a wide range of…

Nicosia, Nancy; Pacula, Rosalie Liccardo; Kilmer, Beau; Lundberg, Russell; Chiesa, James

2009-01-01

196

Break-Even Cost for Residential Photovoltaics in the United States: Key Drivers and Sensitivities  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Grid parity--or break-even cost--for photovoltaic (PV) technology is defined as the point where the cost of PV-generated electricity equals the cost of electricity purchased from the grid. Break-even cost is expressed in $/W of an installed system. Achieving break-even cost is a function of many variables. Consequently, break-even costs vary by location and time for a country, such as the United States, with a diverse set of resources, electricity prices, and other variables. In this report, we analyze PV break-even costs for U.S. residential customers. We evaluate some key drivers of grid parity both regionally and over time. We also examine the impact of moving from flat to time-of-use (TOU) rates, and we evaluate individual components of the break-even cost, including effect of rate structure and various incentives. Finally, we examine how PV markets might evolve on a regional basis considering the sensitivity of the break-even cost to four major drivers: technical performance, financing parameters, electricity prices and rates, and policies. We find that local incentives rather than ?technical? parameters are in general the key drivers of the break-even cost of PV. Additionally, this analysis provides insight about the potential viability of PV markets.

Denholm, P.; Margolis, R. M.; Ong, S.; Roberts, B.

2009-12-01

197

Evaluation of syngas production unit cost of bio-gasification facility using regression analysis techniques  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Evaluation of economic feasibility of a bio-gasification facility needs understanding of its unit cost under different production capacities. The objective of this study was to evaluate the unit cost of syngas production at capacities from 60 through 1800Nm 3/h using an economic model with three regression analysis techniques (simple regression, reciprocal regression, and log-log regression). The preliminary result of this study showed that reciprocal regression analysis technique had the best fit curve between per unit cost and production capacity, with sum of error squares (SES) lower than 0.001 and coefficient of determination of (R 2) 0.996. The regression analysis techniques determined the minimum unit cost of syngas production for micro-scale bio-gasification facilities of $0.052/Nm 3, under the capacity of 2,880 Nm 3/h. The results of this study suggest that to reduce cost, facilities should run at a high production capacity. In addition, the contribution of this technique could be the new categorical criterion to evaluate micro-scale bio-gasification facility from the perspective of economic analysis.

Deng, Yangyang; Parajuli, Prem B.

2011-08-10

198

GEOCOST-BC, Geothermal Power Plant Electricity Generator Cost, Thermodynamics Calculation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

1 - Description of problem or function: GEOCOST calculates the cost of generating electricity from geothermal energy. The version of GEOCOST in this release, GEOCOST-BC, simulates the production of electricity using a binary fluid cycle based upon a hydrothermal resource. 2 - Method of solution: GEOCOST is a simulation model which combines both technical processes and economic factors into one systematic framework. The simulation is composed of two principal parts: a reservoir model which simulates the exploration, development, and operation of a geothermal reservoir, and a power plant model which simulates the design, construction, and operation of the power plant. Each of these parts is composed of several submodels which treat fluid transmission and disposal, geothermal fluid/working fluid heat exchangers, turbine, generators, working fluid condenser, pumps, heat rejection, and calculation of thermodynamic state points in basic subcritical and supercritical Rankine cycles for a variety of working fluids. Working fluids which are now in the model include isobutane, n-butane, R-ll, R-12, R-22, R-113, R-114, and ammonia. Thermodynamic properties of the working fluids at the state points are calculated using empirical equations of state. The Starling equation of state is used for hydrocarbons and the Martin-Hou equation of state is used for fluorocarbons and ammonia. A wide variety of financial and tax structures can be simulated through varying the rates of return on ed through varying the rates of return on equity and debt, the debt-equity ratio, and tax rates. Using discounted cash flow analyses, GEOCOST calculates the cost of energy by equating the present worth of the revenues and expenses over the economic life of the reservoir and plant. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Current array dimensions provide for a maximum well field size of 625 wells and maximum operating period of 50 years from reservoir exploration through the economic life of the power plant

199

Independent calculation of the monitor units and times of treatment in radiotherapy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this work, an independent verification system of calculations in radiotherapy was developed and applied, using Visual BasicTM programming language. The computational program performs calculations of monitor units and treatment time, based on the algorithm of manual calculation. The calculations executed for the independent system had initially been compared with the manual calculations performed by the medical physicists of the Institute of Radiotherapy of the Hospital das Clinicas da Universidade de Sao Paulo. In this step, the results found for more than two hundred fields studied were similar to those found in the literature; deviations larger than +- 1% were found only in five cases involving errors in manual calculation. The application of the independent system, in this stage, could have identified errors up to +- 2,4%. Based on these data, the system was validated for use in clinical routine. In a second step, calculations were compared with calculations realized by the treatment computerized planning system CadPIanTM. When, again, the results were similar to those published in other works allowing to obtain levels of acceptance of the discrepancies between the calculations executed for the independent system and the calculations developed from the planning system, separated by anatomical region, as recommended according by the recent literature. For beams of 6 MV, the levels of acceptance for deviations between the calculations of monitor units, separated by treatment region were the following; breast +- 1.7%, head and neck +2%; hypophysis +- 2.2%; pelvis +- 4 . 1% and thorax +- 1.5%. For beams of 15 MV, the level suggested for pelvis was of +- 4.5%. (author)

200

Aeraulics: calculation of the service life cost of a filter; Aeraulique: calcul du cout de la vie d'un filtre  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ventilation systems represent an important part of the total energy consumption in a building. The pressure drop generated by the filter contributes for a large part to the total pressure drop of the ventilation system. In order to increase the energy efficiency of aeraulic systems, the Eurovent/Cecomaf European organization has written a guideline document for the calculation of the total life cycle cost (LCC) of a air filter. This calculation takes into account the initial investment, the energy needs of the system, the maintenance and the destruction costs. This short paper presents some examples of calculation including the various correction factors listed above. (J.S.)

Anon.

1999-12-01

 
 
 
 
201

The nth root percent depth dose method for calculating monitor units for irregularly shaped electron fields  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study outlines an improved method for calculating dose per monitor unit values for irregularly shaped electron fields using the nth root percent depth dose method. This method calculates the percent depth dose and output factors for an irregularly shaped electron field directly from the measured electron beam percent depth dose curves and output factors for circular fields. The percent depth dose curves and output factors for circular fields are normalized and measured at a fixed depth of maximum dose for a reference field, respectively. When compared with the sector integral lateral buildup ratio method, the percent depth dose data calculated using the nth root method accounts more accurately for the change in lateral scatter with decreasing field size. Therefore, it provides more accurate values of dose per monitor unit at different depths for all type of field shapes and beam energies. For beam energies in the range of 6-21 MeV, the differences between measured and calculated dose per monitor unit values, at different depths, were found to be within ±1.0% when the nth root percent depth dose method was used for calculation and 12.6% when the sector integral lateral buildup ratio method was used. The nth root percent depth dose method was tested and compared with the sector integral lateral buildup ratio method for ten clinically used irregularly shaped inserts (cutouts). For small irregularly shaped fields, a maximum difference of 2% was found between calculated dose per monitor unit values and measurements when the nth root percent depth dose method was used; this difference changed to 7% when comparisons were made between measurements and calculations based on the sector integral lateral buildup ration method. For large irregular fields this difference was found to be within 1.5% and 3.5%, respectively

202

19 CFR 351.406 - Calculation of normal value if sales are made at less than cost of production.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calculation of normal value if sales are made at less than cost of production...Calculation of Export Price, Constructed Export Price, Fair Value, and Normal Value § 351.406 Calculation of normal value if...

2010-04-01

203

Cost savings of unit-based pricing of household waste; the case of the Netherlands  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Using a panel data set for Dutch municipalities we estimate effects for weight-based, bag-based, frequency-based and volume-based pricing of household waste collection. Unit-based pricing shows to be effective in reducing solid and compostable and increasing recyclable waste. Pricing has no effect on the waste collected in surrounding municipalities (waste tourism). However, unit-based pricing may lead to illegal dumping. While empirical evidence is scarce, a social cost-benefit analysis show...

Dijkgraaf, E.; Gradus, R. H. J. M.

2003-01-01

204

CALCULATION OF POWER AND CHOICE OF BASIC FUNCTIONAL UNITS OF WIND POWER ELECTRIC-INSTALLATION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article discusses the basic analytical expressions for the calculation of power generators and select features basic functional units of wind turbines, allowing the design phase to conduct a preliminary assessment of the effectiveness of wind power stations, which supplies specific consumers of electric power

Kvitko A. V.

2014-04-01

205

Calculation method for the seasonal performance of heat pump compact units and validation. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This comprehensive final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at compact heat pump units that have been developed for the heating of low energy consumption houses built to MINERGIE or MINERGIE-P standards. These units, which combine the functions of space heating, domestic hot water preparation and ventilation in one unit are described. A testing procedure developed at the University of Applied Science in Lucerne, Switzerland, using a test rig for the measurement of the seasonal performance factor (SPF) is described. A calculation method based on temperature classes for the calculation of the SPF of combined heat pump systems for space heating and domestic hot water preparation that was developed by the Institute of Energy in Buildings at the University of Applied Sciences Northwestern Switzerland is examined. Two pilot plants allowing detailed field monitoring of two compact units are described. One pilot plant installed in a single-family house built to MINERGIE standard in Gelterkinden, Switzerland, provided data on a compact unit. These results of measurements made on this and a further installation in a MINERGIE-P ultra-low energy consumption house in Zeiningen, Switzerland, are presented and discussed. Calculation methods, including exergy considerations are reviewed and their validation is discussed.

Wemhoener, C.; Dott, R.; Afjei, Th. [University of Applied Sciences Northwestern Switzerland, Institute of Energy in Buildings, Muttenz (Switzerland); Huber, H.; Helfenfinger, D.; Keller, P.; Furter, R. [University of Applied Sciences Lucerne (HTA), Test center HLKS, Horw (Switzerland)

2007-02-15

206

Economic and social costs of coal and nuclear electric generation, a framework for assessment and illustrative calculations for the coal and nuclear fuel cycles. Discussion paper  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A method is presented for extending economic comparisons of nuclear and coal-fired electric power to include health, safety, and environmental impacts in the same quantitative framework. The method is illustrated by considering the decision between a light water nuclear reactor and a conventional coal-fired power plant to satisfy a 1000 MWe increase in electrical demand in the northeastern United States. For both alternatives, preliminary calculations of the economic and social costs expressed in mills per kilowatt-hour are reported. Economic costs consist of those faced by the utility, including capital charges, operating expenses, and fuel cycle costs. Social costs for each plant and its associated fuel cycle include routine environmental impacts such as air pollution as well as risk to the public from reactor accidents or sabotage

207

How can activity-based costing methodology be performed as a powerful tool to calculate costs and secure appropriate patient care?  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous studies have shown the advantages of using activity-based costing (ABC) methodology in the health care industry. The potential values of ABC methodology in health care are derived from the more accurate cost calculation compared to the traditional step-down costing, and the potentials to evaluate quality or effectiveness of health care based on health care activities. This project used ABC methodology to profile the cost structure of inpatients with surgical procedures at the Department of Colorectal Surgery in a public teaching hospital, and to identify the missing or inappropriate clinical procedures. We found that ABC methodology was able to accurately calculate costs and to identify several missing pre- and post-surgical nursing education activities in the course of treatment. PMID:17489499

Lin, Blossom Yen-Ju; Chao, Te-Hsin; Yao, Yuh; Tu, Shu-Min; Wu, Chun-Ching; Chern, Jin-Yuan; Chao, Shiu-Hsiung; Shaw, Keh-Yuong

2007-04-01

208

Experience with the core protection calculator system at Arkansas Nuclear One - Unit 2  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The first digital reactor reactor protection system installed in a US commercial nuclear power plant has now been operating for 5 years. This system, called the Core Protection Calculator System (CPCS) at Arkansas Nuclear One - Unit 2 (ANO-2) provides automatic reactor shutdown for protection of fuel cladding (departure from nucleate boiling) and protection against fuel center line melting (linear heat rate) for design basis events and anticipated operational occurrences. There are now three other such systems in operation: at Southern California Edison's San-Onofre Units 2 and 3 and at Louisiana Power and Light's Waterford Unit 3. The three nuclear units at Arizona Public Service's Palo-Verde station also employ a functionally identical design utilizing different hardware. The major difficulties encountered in licensing this system with The Nuclear Regulatory Commission are discussed and Arkansas Power and Light Company's experience associated with the installation, operation, modification and maintenance of the CPCS at ANO-2 is highlighted

209

Cost-saving test of electronics control units-ECUs; Kostenguenstige Tests von Steuergeraeten  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

More and more Electronic Control Units -ECUs - are used in vehicles for various applications. With increasing demands in performance the need for more sophisticated test concepts for ECUs increases as well. With ADwin real-time systems a cost-saving method exists to test ECUs for ABS, airbags, motors, etc. This article illustrates basic structures and gives several examples. (orig.)

Beimert, H.P. [Jaeger Computergesteuerte Messtechnik GmbH, Lorsch (Germany)

2005-09-01

210

The Cost-Effectiveness of Supported Employment for Adults with Autism in the United Kingdom  

Science.gov (United States)

Adults with autism face high rates of unemployment. Supported employment enables individuals with autism to secure and maintain a paid job in a regular work environment. The objective of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of supported employment compared with standard care (day services) for adults with autism in the United Kingdom.…

Mavranezouli, Ifigeneia; Megnin-Viggars, Odette; Cheema, Nadir; Howlin, Patricia; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Pilling, Stephen

2014-01-01

211

Fast Calculation of the Lomb-Scargle Periodogram Using Graphics Processing Units  

CERN Document Server

I introduce a new code for fast calculation of the Lomb-Scargle periodogram, that leverages the computing power of graphics processing units (GPUs). After establishing a background to the newly emergent field of GPU computing, I discuss the code design and narrate the key parts of the source. Benchmarking calculations indicate no significant differences in accuracy compared to an equivalent CPU-based code; however, the code is up to 200 times faster than the CPU equivalent. Possible applications include spectral analysis of long photometric time series obtained by ongoing satellite missions; and Monte-Carlo simulation of periodogram statistical properties.

Townsend, R H D

2010-01-01

212

Applying graphics processor units to Monte Carlo dose calculation in radiation therapy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We investigate the potential in using of using a graphics processor unit (GPU) for Monte-Carlo (MC)-based radiation dose calculations. The percent depth dose (PDD) of photons in a medium with known absorption and scattering coefficients is computed using a MC simulation running on both a standard CPU and a GPU. We demonstrate that the GPU's capability for massive parallel processing provides a significant acceleration in the MC calculation, and offers a significant advantage for distributed stochastic simulations on a single computer. Harnessing this potential of GPUs will help in the early adoption of MC for routine planning in a clinical environment. (author)

213

IBFCYC-A computer program for levelized individual batch fuel cycle cost calculations for uranium fuelled pressurized light water reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The work presented is a part of an integrated calculation scheme for fuel cycle material accountability and cost analysis. The survey-type computer program IBFCYC aims at the calculation of the levelized individual batch fuel cycle cost for pressurized light water reactors. It gives as output the flow material requirements for each component of the fuel cycle. It gives also the component direct, indirect, and present worth costs. It helps well in sensitivity analysis and fuel cycle optimization calculations. The computer program is so flexible that it allows the user a variety of choices for the type of calculations he needs. An example for the application of IBFCYC computer program is given through the solution of a sample problem. Among the results obtained, the saving in feed material and separative work requirements due to reprocessing is calculated for the sample problem. It is concluded that reprocessing results in savings of about 20% and 4% in respectively feed material and separative work requirements

214

Generalized monitor unit calculation for the Varian enhanced dynamic wedge field  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The generalized monitor unit (MU) calculation equation for the Varian enhanced dynamic wedge (EDW) is derived. The assumption of this MU calculation method is that the wedge factor of the EDW at the center of the field is a function of field size, the position of the center of the field in the wedge direction, and the final position of the moving jaw. The wedge factors at the center of the field in both symmetric and asymmetric fields are examined. The difference between calculated and measured wedge factors is within 1.0%. The method developed here is easy to implement. The only datum required in addition to the standard set of conventional physical wedge implementation data is the off-axis output factor for the open field in the reference condition. The off-center point calculation is also examined. For the off-center point calculation, the dose profile in the wedge direction for the largest EDW field is used to obtain the relative off-center ratio in any smaller wedge field. The accuracy of the off-center point calculation decreases when the point of calculation is too close to the field edge

215

Tree Based Test Case Generation and Cost Calculation Strategy for Uniform Parametric Pairwise Testing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: Although it is very important to test any system extensively it is usually too expensive to do so owing to the cost and the resources that are involved in it. Software testing is a very important phase of software development to ensure that the developed system is reliable. Some systematic approach for testing is essential to test any system and make it acceptable. Combinatorial software interaction testing is one which tests all possible software interactions. This interaction could be at various levels such as two way interaction (pairwise or three or four or five or six way interactions. Combinatorial interaction testing had been used in several fields. It was reported in literature that pairwise combinatorial interaction testing had identified most of the software faults. Approach: In this study we proposed a new strategy for test suite generation, a tree generation strategy for pairwise combinatorial software testing, with parameters of equal values. The algorithm considered one parameter at a time systematically to generate the tree until all the parameters were considered. This strategy used a cost calculation technique iteratively for each of the leaf nodes to generate the test suite until all the combinations were covered. Results: The experimental data showed that we had achieved about 88% (or more in some cases of reduction in the number of test cases needed for a complete pairwise combinatorial software interaction testing. Conclusion: Thus, the strategy proposed had achieved a significant reduction in minimizing the number of test cases that was generated.

Mohammad F.J. Klaib

2010-01-01

216

Mission Options Scoping Tool for Mars Orbiters: Mass Cost Calculator (MC2)  

Science.gov (United States)

Prior to developing the details of an advanced mission study, the mission architecture trade space is typically explored to assess the scope of feasible options. This paper describes the main features of an Excel-based tool, called the Mass-Cost-Calculator (MC2 ), which is used to perform rapid, high-level mass and cost options analyses of Mars orbiter missions. MC2 consists of a combination of databases, analytical solutions, and parametric relationships to enable quick evaluation of new mission concepts and comparison of multiple architecture options. The tool's outputs provide program management and planning teams with answers to "what if" queries, as well as an understanding of the driving mission elements, during the pre-project planning phase. These outputs have been validated against the outputs generated by the Advanced Projects Design Team (Team X) at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). The architecture of the tool allows for future expansion to other orbiters beyond Mars, and to non-orbiter missions, such as those involving fly-by spacecraft, probes, landers, rovers, or other mission elements.

Sturm, Eric J., II; Deutsch, Marie-Jose; Harmon, Corey; Nakagawa, Roy; Kinsey, Robert; Lopez, Nino; Kudrle, Paul; Evans, Alex

2007-01-01

217

Costeo basado en actividades: una metodología de gestión en tratamientos intensivos / Activity-based costing methodology to manage resources in intensive care units  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish [...] Abstract in english Background: An accurate estimation of resources use by individual patients is crucial in hospital management. Aim: To measure financial costs of health care actions in intensive care units of two public regional hospitals in Chile. Material and Methods: Prospective follow up of 716 patients admitted [...] to two intensive care units during 2011. The financial costs of health care activities was calculated using the Activity-Based Costing methodology. The main activities recorded were procedures and treatments, monitoring, response to patient needs, patient maintenance and coordination. Results: Activity-Based Costs, including human resources and assorted indirect costs correspond to 81 to 88% of costs per disease in one hospital and 69 to 80% in the other. The costs associated to procedures and treatments are the most significant and are approximately $100,000 (Chilean pesos) per day of hospitalization. The second most significant cost corresponds to coordination activities, which fluctuates between $86,000 and 122,000 (Chilean pesos). Conclusions: There are significant differences in resources use between the two hospitals studied. Therefore cost estimation methodologies should be incorporated in the management of these clinical services.

Sandra, Alvear V; Jorge, Canteros G; Juan, Jara M; Patricia, Rodríguez C.

1371-13-01

218

Costeo basado en actividades: una metodología de gestión en tratamientos intensivos / Activity-based costing methodology to manage resources in intensive care units  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish [...] Abstract in english Background: An accurate estimation of resources use by individual patients is crucial in hospital management. Aim: To measure financial costs of health care actions in intensive care units of two public regional hospitals in Chile. Material and Methods: Prospective follow up of 716 patients admitted [...] to two intensive care units during 2011. The financial costs of health care activities was calculated using the Activity-Based Costing methodology. The main activities recorded were procedures and treatments, monitoring, response to patient needs, patient maintenance and coordination. Results: Activity-Based Costs, including human resources and assorted indirect costs correspond to 81 to 88% of costs per disease in one hospital and 69 to 80% in the other. The costs associated to procedures and treatments are the most significant and are approximately $100,000 (Chilean pesos) per day of hospitalization. The second most significant cost corresponds to coordination activities, which fluctuates between $86,000 and 122,000 (Chilean pesos). Conclusions: There are significant differences in resources use between the two hospitals studied. Therefore cost estimation methodologies should be incorporated in the management of these clinical services.

Sandra, Alvear V; Jorge, Canteros G; Juan, Jara M; Patricia, Rodríguez C.

219

Cost of wind energy: comparing distant wind resources to local resources in the midwestern United States.  

Science.gov (United States)

The best wind sites in the United States are often located far from electricity demand centers and lack transmission access. Local sites that have lower quality wind resources but do not require as much power transmission capacity are an alternative to distant wind resources. In this paper, we explore the trade-offs between developing new wind generation at local sites and installing wind farms at remote sites. We first examine the general relationship between the high capital costs required for local wind development and the relatively lower capital costs required to install a wind farm capable of generating the same electrical output at a remote site,with the results representing the maximum amount an investor should be willing to pay for transmission access. We suggest that this analysis can be used as a first step in comparing potential wind resources to meet a state renewable portfolio standard (RPS). To illustrate, we compare the cost of local wind (?50 km from the load) to the cost of distant wind requiring new transmission (?550-750 km from the load) to meet the Illinois RPS. We find that local, lower capacity factor wind sites are the lowest cost option for meeting the Illinois RPS if new long distance transmission is required to access distant, higher capacity factor wind resources. If higher capacity wind sites can be connected to the existing grid at minimal cost, in many cases they will have lower costs. PMID:20931984

Hoppock, David C; Patiño-Echeverri, Dalia

2010-11-15

220

Calculation method for the seasonal performance of heat pump compact units and validation. Appendix  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This appendix to a comprehensive final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of tests made on compact heat pump units that have been developed for the heating of low energy consumption houses built to MINERGIE or MINERGIE-P standards. The tests on these units, which combine the functions of space heating, domestic hot water preparation and ventilation in one unit are presented and discussed. Test conditions are described; these cover ventilation, acoustic, hygiene and safety aspects. Detailed results from the two test objects - buildings built to MINERGIE and MINERGIE-P low energy consumption standards - are presented and discussed. The calculation methods used are examined and discussed.

Wemhoener, C.; Dott, R.; Afjei, Th. [University of Applied Sciences Northwestern Switzerland, Institute of Energy in Buildings, Muttenz (Switzerland); Huber, H.; Helfenfinger, D.; Keller, P.; Furter, R. [University of Applied Sciences Lucerne (HTA), Test center HLKS, Horw (Switzerland)

2007-02-15

 
 
 
 
221

49 CFR 639.23 - Calculation of purchase or construction cost.  

Science.gov (United States)

...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CAPITAL LEASES Cost-Effectiveness § 639...purchase or construction cost of a capital asset is— (1) The estimated...its proposal to obtain the capital asset. (b) The estimated cost to purchase or construct...

2010-10-01

222

Utility system cost evaluation, multi-unit CNSS/PWR comparison  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The primary objective of this study was to develop and compare the total system economic impact of a phased, three stage CNSS implementation program, i.e., three-400 MWe (1200 MWt) units, to the installation of a single 1200 MWe (nominal) PWR into a typical USA utility system. In the preparation of this report, reference has been made to available published information directly related to CNSS and PWR capital costs. In addition, discussions have been held with B and W to obtain cost information related to certain CNSS auxiliary systems relevant to the study.

None

1978-12-01

223

Levelised unit electricity cost comparison of alternate technologies for baseload generation in Ontario  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report provides a comparison of the lifetime cost of constructing, operating and decommissioning new generation suitable for supplying baseload power by early in the next decade. New baseload generation options in Ontario are nuclear, coal-fired steam turbines or combined cycle gas turbines (CCGT). Nuclear and coal-fired units are characterised by high capital costs and low operating costs. As such, they are candidates for baseload operation only. Gas-fired generation is characterised by lower capital costs and higher operating costs and thus may meet the requirements for operation as peaking and/or baseload generation. The comparison of baseload generating technologies is made by reference to the estimated levelised unit electricity cost (LUEC). The LUEC can be thought of as a 'supply cost', where the unit cost is the price needed to recover all costs over the period. It is determined by finding the price that sets the sum of all future discounted cash flows (net present value, or NPV) to zero. It can also be thought of as representing the constant real wholesale price of electricity that meets the financing cost, debt repayment, income tax and cash flow constraints associated with the construction operation and decommissioning of a generating plant. Levelised unit cost comparisons are usually made with different sets of financing assumptions. This report considers two base cases, which we describe as 'merchant' and 'public' financing. The term 'merchant plant' is used to refer to ones that are built and operated by private investors. These investors pay for their capital through debt and by raising equity, and thus pay return on equity and interest on debt throughout their lifetime. These projects include income taxes, both provincial and federal. Publicly financed projects typically are not subject to income taxes or to the same constraints on raising finance through issuing debt and equity. However, they are constrained to provide a rate of return. The rate of return required for projects is subject to some uncertainty. For a merchant project the higher the perceived risk the higher the required return. Publicly financed projects may be evaluated on the basis of a given discount rate or may be able to access funds at lower rates, but the risk of cost overruns is implicitly borne by the taxpayer. There is a third possibility, a public/private partnership. A number of partnership arrangements are possible, for example, public financing of construction and leasing to private owners for operation. All partnership arrangements represent a sharing of risk between the public and private sector. Public/private partnership may provide an attractive model for building new generation in Ontario. This report considers each of the generation options under both merchant and public financing. The base case merchant financing scenario is consistent with one where risk is relatively low, and consequently the real return on equity required by private investors is 12%. We believe a comparison between merchant and public financing to be important in that it shows the effect of taxes and financing assumptions on the economics of a generation project. Since the pure economic assessment of projects does not normally consider financing or tax costs, these being transfer payments not essential to the project itself, the public financing version of our assessments can be interpreted as the underlying economics of different technologies. This report does not include a detailed modelling of financing arrangements that could occur under a public/private partnership. However, we do consider how the cost of generation options compares under a wide range of illustrative assumptions on the required return on equity, debt and the debt/equity ratio. (author)

224

Nemo X: Freeware independent monitor units calculation for external beam radiotherapy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In External Beam Radiotherapy (EBRT) the check of dosimetric calculations is a major concern in the quality assurance of the treatment. This is true not only for conventional conformal techniques but also for special techniques including Intraoperative Radiotherapy (IORT), Total Body Irradiation (TBI) and Intensity Modulation (IMRT). As evidenced by primary international organizations dealing with radiation dosimetry and quality assurance (ESTRO, ICRP, IAEA), a fundamental aspect of the treatment planning process is the independent verification of Monitor Units (MU). Moreover in some situations (backup of commercial planning systems, urgent palliations, TBI and IORT treatments) there is a concrete need for a system of dosimetric calculation alternative to Treatment Planning Systems (TPS). To address this kind of exigency the National Cancer Research Institute of Genova started in year 2000 a research project which put as its main objective the development of a software application (Nemo X) for the independent dosimetric calculation and verification of the MU with the following features: Running on Windows platform; Management of all dosimetric data through graphical user interface; MU calculation for EBRT with photon and electron beams including IMRT; TBI calculations for anterior-posterior and lateral-lateral techniques; MU calculation for IORT treatments; Data interface to commercial Treatment Planning and Record and Verify systems with automatic import of Multileaf Collimator (MLC) shape; Print out of treatment and QA data

225

Acceleration of orbital-free first principles calculation with graphics processing unit GPU  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Computational material design requires efficient algorithms and high-speed computers for calculating and predicting material properties. The orbital-free first principles calculation (OF-FPC) method, which is a tool for calculating and designing material properties, is an O(N) method and is suitable for large-scaled systems. The stagnation in the development of CPU devices with high mobility of electron carriers has driven the development of parallel computing and the production of CPU devices with finer spaced wiring. We, for the first time, propose another method to accelerate the computation using Graphics Processing Unit (GPU). The implementation of the Fast Fourier Transform (CUFFT) library that uses GPU, into our in-house OF-FPC code, reduces the computation time to half of that of the CPU.

226

Efficiency-optimized low-cost TDPAC spectrometer using a versatile routing/coincidence unit  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A highly efficient, reliable, and low-cost ?-? TDPAC spectrometer, PACAr, optimized for 181Hf-implanted low-activity samples, is presented. A versatile EPROM-based routing/coincidence unit was developed and implemented to be use with the memory-card-based multichannel analyzer hosted in a personal computer. The excellent energy resolution and very good overall resolution and efficiency of PACAr are analyzed and compare with advanced and already tested fast-fast and slow-fast PAC spectrometers.

227

United States cost of military force projection in the Persian Gulf, 1976-2007  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents the first estimate of United States military cost for Persian Gulf force (C{sub PGfp}) derived entirely by a quantitative method. An activity-based cost (ABC) model uses geographic distribution of aircraft carriers as a proxy allocator of Department of Defense (DoD) baseline cost to regional operations. Allocation follows simply from DoD data that since 1990 no less than one aircraft carrier has been continuously on-station in the Persian Gulf; that eight are required to keep one on-station there; that the Navy has had eleven-fifteen carriers since 1990; and that Army and Air Force units are virtually never deployed to combat operations without Navy units. For 1976-2007 C{sub PGfp} is estimated to be $6.8 x 10{sup 12} and for 2007 $0.5 x 10{sup 12} (2008$). This substantial military investment is not a remedy for the market failure at the heart of regional security problem, which is oil market power. When C{sub PGfp} is added to economic losses attributed to market power in another recent study, the severity of this market failure becomes more apparent. (author)

Stern, Roger J. [Oil, Energy and the Middle East Program, Department of Near Eastern Studies and Princeton Environmental Institute, Guyot Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

2010-06-15

228

United States cost of military force projection in the Persian Gulf, 1976-2007  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents the first estimate of United States military cost for Persian Gulf force (CPGfp) derived entirely by a quantitative method. An activity-based cost (ABC) model uses geographic distribution of aircraft carriers as a proxy allocator of Department of Defense (DoD) baseline cost to regional operations. Allocation follows simply from DoD data that since 1990 no less than one aircraft carrier has been continuously on-station in the Persian Gulf; that eight are required to keep one on-station there; that the Navy has had eleven-fifteen carriers since 1990; and that Army and Air Force units are virtually never deployed to combat operations without Navy units. For 1976-2007 CPGfp is estimated to be $6.8 x 1012 and for 2007 $0.5 x 1012 (2008$). This substantial military investment is not a remedy for the market failure at the heart of regional security problem, which is oil market power. When CPGfp is added to economic losses attributed to market power in another recent study, the severity of this market failure becomes more apparent. (author)

229

HTR-PROTEUS benchmark calculations. Pt. 1. Unit cell results LEUPRO-1 and LEUPRO-2  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the framework of the IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) on `Validation of Safety Related Physics Calculations for Low-Enriched (LEU) HTGRs` calculational benchmarks are performed on the basis of LEU-HTR pebble-bed critical experiments carried out in the PROTEUS facility at PSI, Switzerland. Of special interest is the treatment of the double heterogeneity of the fuel and the spherical fuel elements of these pebble bed core configurations. Also of interest is the proper calculation of the safety related physics parameters like the effect of water ingress and control rod worth. This document describes the ECN results of the LEUPRO-1 and LEUPRO-2 unitcell calculations performed with the codes WIMS-E, SCALE-4 and MCNP4A. Results of the LEUPRO-1 unit cell with 20% water ingress in the void is also reported for both the single and the double heterogeneous case. Emphasis is put on the intercomparison of the results obtained by the deterministic codes WIMS-E and SCALE-4, and the Monte Carlo code MCNP4A. The LEUPRO whole core calculations will be reported later. (orig.).

Hogenbirk, A.; Stad, R.C.L. van der; Janssen, A.J.; Klippel, H.T.; Kuijper, J.C.

1995-09-01

230

Accelerated molecular dynamics force evaluation on graphics processing units for thermal conductivity calculations  

Science.gov (United States)

Thermal conductivity is a very important property of a material both for testing theoretical models and for designing better practical devices such as more efficient thermoelectrics, and accurate and efficient calculations of thermal conductivity are very desirable. In this paper, we develop a highly efficient molecular dynamics code fully implemented on graphics processing units for thermal conductivity calculations using the Green-Kubo formula. We compare two different schemes for force evaluation, a previously used thread-scheme, where a single thread is used for one particle and each thread calculates the total force for the corresponding particle, and a new block-scheme, where a whole block is used for one particle and each thread in the block calculates one or several pair forces between the particle associated with the given block and its neighbor particle(s) associated with the given thread. For both schemes, two different classical potentials, namely, the Lennard-Jones potential and the rigid-ion potential are implemented. While the thread-scheme performs a little better for relatively large systems, the block-scheme performs much better for relatively small systems. The relative performance of the block-scheme over the thread-scheme also increases with the increasing cutoff radius. We validate the implementation by calculating lattice thermal conductivities of solid argon and lead telluride. The efficiency of our code makes it very promising to study thermal conductivity properties of more complicated materials, especially, materials with interesting nanostructures.

Fan, Zheyong; Siro, Topi; Harju, Ari

2013-05-01

231

HTR-PROTEUS benchmark calculations. Pt. 1. Unit cell results LEUPRO-1 and LEUPRO-2  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the framework of the IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) on 'Validation of Safety Related Physics Calculations for Low-Enriched (LEU) HTGRs' calculational benchmarks are performed on the basis of LEU-HTR pebble-bed critical experiments carried out in the PROTEUS facility at PSI, Switzerland. Of special interest is the treatment of the double heterogeneity of the fuel and the spherical fuel elements of these pebble bed core configurations. Also of interest is the proper calculation of the safety related physics parameters like the effect of water ingress and control rod worth. This document describes the ECN results of the LEUPRO-1 and LEUPRO-2 unitcell calculations performed with the codes WIMS-E, SCALE-4 and MCNP4A. Results of the LEUPRO-1 unit cell with 20% water ingress in the void is also reported for both the single and the double heterogeneous case. Emphasis is put on the intercomparison of the results obtained by the deterministic codes WIMS-E and SCALE-4, and the Monte Carlo code MCNP4A. The LEUPRO whole core calculations will be reported later. (orig.)

232

Spread-out Bragg peak and monitor units calculation with the Monte Carlo Code MCNPX  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this work was to study the dosimetric potential of the Monte Carlo code MCNPX applied to the protontherapy field. For series of clinical configurations a comparison between simulated and experimental data was carried out, using the proton beam line of the MEDICYC isochronous cyclotron installed in the Centre Antoine Lacassagne in Nice. The dosimetric quantities tested were depth-dose distributions, output factors, and monitor units. For each parameter, the simulation reproduced accurately the experiment, which attests the quality of the choices made both in the geometrical description and in the physics parameters for beam definition. These encouraging results enable us today to consider a simplification of quality control measurements in the future. Monitor Units calculation is planned to be carried out with preestablished Monte Carlo simulation data. The measurement, which was until now our main patient dose calibration system, will be progressively replaced by computation based on the MCNPX code. This determination of Monitor Units will be controlled by an independent semi-empirical calculation

233

Lessons learnt from application of the standardized cost calculation code OMEGA in decision making processes and planning in decommissioning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Implementation of the standardised cost structure, as defined in 'A Proposed Standardised List of Costs Items for Decommissioning Purposes' (OECD/NEA, IAEA, EC, 1999), into the decommissioning costing, supports the harmonisation of decommissioning costs. The decision making processes in decommissioning planning can be more effective if there is the possibility to compare the calculated data with the data of other projects, structured in standardised cost structure. The results of the decision making process should be based on evaluation of such a set of decommissioning options which covers the methods of decommissioning, the selected strategy and existing or planned decommissioning infrastructure. Aspects such as impact of time, waste management scenarios, uncertainties of input data and other aspects should be also evaluated. These issues of decision making process were implemented into the decommissioning costing code OMEGA. All activities of a decommissioning project are involved within single compact standardised calculation structure including waste management. The resulting costs have standardised format and no additional data conversion is needed. The calculation process is nuclide resolved and internally linked in such a way that it models the material and radioactivity flow in the decommissioning process. The effect of decay of radioactivity is considered. The options are optimised in the standard MS-Project software as Gantt charts. The bi-directional data link between the standardised calculation structure and the Gantt chart supports the on-line optimisation of the Gantt chart structure. Multi-option work is applied, i.e. decommissioning options, which cover all decommissioning scenarios to be considered, are evaluated individually and multi-attribute analysis is applied for selecting the optimal one. Methods of sensitivity analysis and evaluation of uncertainties of calculated costs were developed for support the decision making process and for definition of contingencies. (author)

234

Infrastructure expenditures and costs. Practical guidelines to calculate total infrastructure costs for five modes of transport. Final report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Transport infrastructures in general, and the Trans European Transport Network (TEN-T) in particular, play an important role in achieving the medium and long-term objectives of the European Union. In view of this, the Commission has recently adopted a revision of the guidelines for the TEN-T. The main consequences of this revision are the need for a better understanding of the investments made by the member states in the TEN-T and the need for ensuring optimal consistency in the reporting by the Members States of such investments. With Regulation number 1108/70 the Council of the European Communities introduced an accounting system for expenditure on infrastructure in respect of transport by rail, road and inland waterways. The purpose of this regulation is to introduce a standard and permanent accounting system for infrastructure expenditures. However maritime and aviation infrastructure were not included. Further, the need for an effective and easy to apply classification for infrastructure investments concerning all five transport modes was still pending. Therefore, DG TREN has commissioned ECORYS Transport and CE Delft to study the expenditures and costs of infrastructure, to propose an adequate classification of expenditures, and to propose a method for translating data on expenditures into data on costs. The objectives of the present study are threefold: To set out a classification of infrastructure expenditures, in order to increase knowledge of expenditures rer to increase knowledge of expenditures related to transport infrastructures. This classification should support a better understanding of fixed and variable infrastructure costs; To detail the various components of such expenditures for five modes of transportation, which would enable the monitoring of infrastructure expenditures and costs; and to set up a methodology to move from annual series of expenditures to costs, including fixed and variable elements.

235

Development and implementation of a software for assessment of calculations in radiotherapy monitor units  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To develop and implement a software based on the manual calculation algorithm for verification of the calculations in radiotherapy monitor units and to establish acceptance levels as a mechanism of quality assurance. Materials and methods: Data were obtained from Clinac 600C and 2100C Varian linear accelerators and the computerized treatment planning system used was CadPlanTM. Results: For the 6 MV beams the acceptance levels for deviations among the calculations of monitor units, divided by treatment area, were the following: breast (0.0%±1.7%), head and neck (1.5%±0.5%), hypophysis (-1.7%±0.5%), pelvis (2.1%±2.1%) and thorax (0.2%±1.3%). For the 15 MV beams the suggested level for pelvis in all the treatment techniques was (3.2%±1.3%). Conclusion: The present data are sufficient to justify the use of the software in the clinical practice as a tool for the quality assurance program. (author)

236

Monitoring the consistency of the dynalyser output via digital display unit and calculated practical peak voltage  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study was carried out to ensure the adequacy and accuracy of the Dynalyser Digital Display unit for measuring the true kVp from the invasive kVp meter unit during calibration of non-invasive kVp meters. An invasive high voltage divider (dynalyser) coupled to the x-ray system measures the true kilo voltage supplied to the x-ray tube. The kVp output measured was displayed via its digital display unit while its waveform was acquired using a calibrated oscilloscope. The waveform was used to calculate the Practical Peak Voltage (PPV) using the International Standard method adapted from IEC 61676 and treated as the true kVp value. The kVp output was measured at 9 points ranging between 40 kV-120 kV with interval steps of 10 kV and monitored every day. The test result was evaluated for variation of output, intrinsic error and limit of variation in compliance with the IEC standard. Results showed that kVp output measured by the display unit everyday is consistent with variations of not more than ±0.45 kV, intrinsic error of not more than ±0.009 kV and limits of variation of less than 1% which comply with the IEC standard requirement. The kVp output via digital display unit has a total uncertainty of not more than 2.8 kV (k=2) while the PPV output via oscilloscope has total uncertainty of not more than 0.75 kV (k=2). As a conclusion, the dynalyser digital display unit complies with standard requirement and can be used to measure the true kVp output during the calibration of non-invasive kVp meters. (author)

237

Market value calculation and the solution of circularity between value and the weighted average cost of capital WACC  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Most finance textbooks present the Weighted Average Cost of Capital (WACC calculation as: WACC = Kd×(1-T×D% + Ke×E%, where Kd is the cost of debt before taxes, T is the tax rate, D% is the percentage of debt on total value, Ke is the cost of equity and E% is the percentage of equity on total value. All of them precise (but not with enough emphasis that the values to calculate D% y E% are market values. Although they devote special space and thought to calculate Kd and Ke, little effort is made to the correct calculation of market values. This means that there are several points that are not sufficiently dealt with: Market values, location in time, occurrence of tax payments, WACC changes in time and the circularity in calculating WACC. The purpose of this note is to clear up these ideas, solve the circularity problem and emphasize in some ideas that usually are looked over. Also, some suggestions are presented on how to calculate, or estimate, the equity cost of capital.

Ignacio Vélez-Pareja

2009-12-01

238

Incidence and costs of defensive medicine among orthopedic surgeons in the United States: a national survey study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Defensive medicine is defined as medical practices that may exonerate physicians from liability without significant benefit to patients. No study has evaluated the United States national incidence of defensive medicine in the field of orthopedic surgery. In the study reported here, we investigated the practice of defensive medicine and the resultant financial implications of such behavior by orthopedic surgeons in the US. A Web-based survey was sent to 2000 orthopedic surgeons in the US. Of the 1214 respondents, 1168 (96%) reported having practiced defensive medicine by ordering imaging, laboratory tests, specialist referrals, or hospital admissions mainly to avoid possible malpractice liability. On average, 24% of all ordered tests were for defensive reasons. Mean national Medicare payment information was used to calculate the cost of defensive medicine per respondent: approximately $100,000 per year. With there being 20,400 practicing orthopedic surgeons in the US, we estimated that the national cost of defensive medicine for the specialty of orthopedic surgery is $2 billion annually. Orthopedic surgeons' defensive medicine is a significant factor in health care costs and is of marginal benefit to patients. Policies aimed at managing liability risk may be useful in containing such practices. PMID:22482090

Sethi, Manish K; Obremskey, William T; Natividad, Hazel; Mir, Hassan R; Jahangir, A Alex

2012-02-01

239

Decommissioning cost recovery in the United States: lessons learned from Connecticut Yankee NPP  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The international audience at ICONE-7 is already familiar with the roles of the owner and the NRC in ensuring the technical and safety performance goals of nuclear plant decommissioning. This paper addresses the role of the economic regulator since the pursuit of technical and safety goals must necessarily carry with them -a price tag- and owners must be concerned with the recovery of those costs. Answers to questions about how to pay and who should pay for decommissioning can very often influence nuclear power plant owner's decision-making. In the United States, most nuclear power plants are privately owned. Nevertheless, their owners are not totally free to determine the plant's economics or profitability. Instead, plant owners must sell their electricity to consumers in a regulated market wherein the price of electricity and terms of sale are controlled by the government. Under this regulatory regime, utilities are generally allowed to recover their investment costs -including decommissioning costs- provided that such costs are prudently, incurred. However, when an owner retires the plant prematurely, the prudence of his actions -up to and including the shutdown- are likely to be challenged. In 1997, for example, the owners of the Connecticut Yankee reactor faced a stiff challenge to the recovery of decommissioning costs when they shut down the plant ten years before license expiration. The Connecticut Yankee case thus provides valuable insights into the role of economic regulation on a nuclear plant's decommissioning strategy. (author)

240

5 CFR 591.220 - How does OPM calculate energy utility cost indexes?  

Science.gov (United States)

...plus all other household energy uses for the COLA survey... OPM surveys utility prices for each major energy type appropriate to the...cost of other household energy uses. (6) Step 6...area cost to produce a price...

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Calculations of the radiological impact of disposal of unit activity of selected radionuclides  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of the work described is to provide estimates of the radiological impact following disposal of unit activity via each of several options, including disposal on the deep ocean bed, shallow burial, engineered trench disposal, disposal in a geologic repository and disposal in off-shore boreholes. Results are presented for a range of important representative radionuclides. In the course of the calculations it was necessary to make a number of simplifying assumptions. The implications of these are discussed in the context of use of the results for comparative assessments of waste management options. (author)

242

Graphics processing unit-assisted density profile calculations in the KSTAR reflectometera)  

Science.gov (United States)

Wavelet transform (WT) is widely used in signal processing. The frequency modulation reflectometer in the KSTAR applies this technique to get the phase information from the mixer output measurements. Since WT is a time consuming process, it is difficult to calculate the density profile in real time. The data analysis time, however, can be significantly reduced by the use of the Graphics Processing Unit (GPU), with its powerful computing capability, in WT. A bottle neck in the KSTAR data processing exists in the data input and output (IO) process between the CPU and its peripheral devices. In this paper, the details of the WT implementation assisted by a GPU in the KSTAR reflectometer are presented and the consequent performance improvement is reported. The real time density profile calculation from the reflectometer measurements is also discussed.

Seo, Seong-Heon; Oh, Dong Keun

2014-11-01

243

A Monte Carlo-based procedure for independent monitor unit calculation in IMRT treatment plans  

Science.gov (United States)

Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) treatment plan verification by comparison with measured data requires having access to the linear accelerator and is time consuming. In this paper, we propose a method for monitor unit (MU) calculation and plan comparison for step and shoot IMRT based on the Monte Carlo code EGSnrc/BEAMnrc. The beamlets of an IMRT treatment plan are individually simulated using Monte Carlo and converted into absorbed dose to water per MU. The dose of the whole treatment can be expressed through a linear matrix equation of the MU and dose per MU of every beamlet. Due to the positivity of the absorbed dose and MU values, this equation is solved for the MU values using a non-negative least-squares fit optimization algorithm (NNLS). The Monte Carlo plan is formed by multiplying the Monte Carlo absorbed dose to water per MU with the Monte Carlo/NNLS MU. Several treatment plan localizations calculated with a commercial treatment planning system (TPS) are compared with the proposed method for validation. The Monte Carlo/NNLS MUs are close to the ones calculated by the TPS and lead to a treatment dose distribution which is clinically equivalent to the one calculated by the TPS. This procedure can be used as an IMRT QA and further development could allow this technique to be used for other radiotherapy techniques like tomotherapy or volumetric modulated arc therapy.

Pisaturo, O.; Moeckli, R.; Mirimanoff, R.-O.; Bochud, F. O.

2009-07-01

244

A Monte Carlo-based procedure for independent monitor unit calculation in IMRT treatment plans  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) treatment plan verification by comparison with measured data requires having access to the linear accelerator and is time consuming. In this paper, we propose a method for monitor unit (MU) calculation and plan comparison for step and shoot IMRT based on the Monte Carlo code EGSnrc/BEAMnrc. The beamlets of an IMRT treatment plan are individually simulated using Monte Carlo and converted into absorbed dose to water per MU. The dose of the whole treatment can be expressed through a linear matrix equation of the MU and dose per MU of every beamlet. Due to the positivity of the absorbed dose and MU values, this equation is solved for the MU values using a non-negative least-squares fit optimization algorithm (NNLS). The Monte Carlo plan is formed by multiplying the Monte Carlo absorbed dose to water per MU with the Monte Carlo/NNLS MU. Several treatment plan localizations calculated with a commercial treatment planning system (TPS) are compared with the proposed method for validation. The Monte Carlo/NNLS MUs are close to the ones calculated by the TPS and lead to a treatment dose distribution which is clinically equivalent to the one calculated by the TPS. This procedure can be used as an IMRT QA and further development could allow this technique to be used for other radiotherapy techniques like tomotherapy or volumetric modulated arc therapy.

Pisaturo, O; Moeckli, R; Bochud, F O [University Institute for Radiation Physics, CHUV and University of Lausanne, Grand-Pre 1, CH-1007 Lausanne (Switzerland); Mirimanoff, R-O [Radio-oncology Department, CHUV and University of Lausanne, Bugnon 21, CH-1011 Lausanne (Switzerland)], E-mail: olivier.pisaturo@chuv.ch

2009-07-07

245

A procedure for calculation of monitor units for passively scattered proton radiotherapy beams  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this study is to validate a monitor unit (MU) calculation procedure for passively scattered proton therapy beams. The output dose per MU (d/MU) of a therapeutic radiation beam is traditionally calibrated under specific reference conditions. These conditions include beam energy, field size, suitable depth in water or water equivalent phantom in a low dose gradient region with known relative depth dose, and source to point of calibration distance. Treatment field settings usually differ from these reference conditions leading to a different d/MU that needs to be determined for delivering the prescribed dose. For passively scattered proton beams, the proton specific parameters, which need to be defined, are related to the energy, lateral scatterers, range modulating wheel, spread out Bragg peak (SOBP) width, thickness of any range shifter, the depth dose value relative to the normalization point in the SOBP, and scatter both from the range compensator and inhomogeneity in the patient. Following the custom for photons or electrons, a set of proton dosimetry factors, representing the changes in the d/MU relative to a reference condition, can be defined as the relative output factor (ROF), SOBP factor (SOBPF), range shifter factor (RSF), SOBP off-center factor (SOBPOCF), off-center ratio (OCR), inverse square factor (ISF), field size factor (FSF), and compensator and patient scatter factor (CPSF). The ROF, SOBPF, and RSF are the major contributors to the d/MURSF are the major contributors to the d/MU and were measured using an ion chamber in water tank during the clinical commissioning of each beam to create a dosimetry beam data table to be used for calculating the monitor units. The following simple formula is found to provide an independent method to determine the d/MU at the point of interest (POI) in the patient, namely, (d/MU)=ROF·SOBPF·RSF·SOBPOCF·OCR·FSF·ISF·CPSF. The monitor units for delivering the intended dose (D) to the POI can be obtained from MU=D divide (d/MU). The accuracy and robustness of the above formula were validated by calculating the d/MU in water for many different combinations of beam parameters and comparing it with the corresponding measured d/MU by an ion chamber in a water or water/plastic phantom. This procedure has been in use for MU calculation for patient treatment fields at our facility since May 2006. The differences in the calculated and measured values of the d/MU for 623 distinct fields used for patient treatment during the period of May 2006 to February 2007 are within 2% for 99% of these fields. The authors conclude that an intuitive formula similar to the one used for monitor unit calculation of therapeutic photon beams can be used to compute the monitor units of passively scattered proton therapy beams.

246

Cost modelling of electricity-producing hot dry rock (HDR) geothermal systems in the United Kingdom  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A detailed and comprehensive cost model for Hot Dry Rock (HDR) electricity producing systems has been developed in this study. The model takes account of the major aspects of the HDR system, parameterized in terms of the main physical and cost parameters of the resource and the utilization system. A doublet configuration is assumed, and the conceptual HDR system which is defined in the study is based upon the UK Department of Energy (DEn) HDR geothermal R and D programme. The model has been used to calculate the costs of HDR electricity for a UK defined base case which represents a consensus view of what might be achieved in Cornwall in the long term. At 14.2 p/kWh (1988 costs) this cost appears to be unacceptably high. A wide-ranging sensitivity study has also been carried out on the main resource, geometrical, and operational parameters of the HDR system centred around the UK base case. The sensitivity study shows the most important parameters to be thermal gradient and depth. The geometrical arrangement and the shape of the reservoir constitute major uncertainties in HDR systems. Their effect on temperature has a major influence on system performance, and therefore a range of theoretically possible geometries have been studied and the importance of geometrical effects on HDR electricity costs assessed. The most cost effective HDR arrangement in terms of optimized volumes and flow rates has been investigated for a world-wide range of thermal settings. The main concl range of thermal settings. The main conclusions from this study suggests that for HDR electricity to be economic, thermal gradients of 55oC/km and above, well depths of 5 km or less, and production fluid temperatures of 210oC and above are required. (UK)

247

Calculation of additional costs in 2011 - for the demolition of the Swedish nuclear power plants and disposal of residues  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report describes the SSM's estimates of future costs for the fee proposal for 2012-2014. The calculation is made according to the Financing Act and includes all additional costs until the residues from the Swedish nuclear power plants are finally stored. According to current estimates, this is assumed to be 2069. The estimation of such a long time is a major uncertainty and SSM uses, like SKB, the successive calculation method to estimate an expected value and the uncertainty of the estimate

248

CNSS plant concept, capital cost, and multi-unit station economics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

United Engineers and Constructors (UE and C) and the Babcock and Wilcox Company (B and W) have performed several studies over the last eight years related to small integral pressurized water reactors. These reactors include the 365 MWt (100 MWe) Consolidated Nuclear Steam Generator (CNSG) and the 1200 MWt Consolidated Nuclear Steam System (CNSS). The studies, mostly performed under contract to the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, have led to a 1250 MWt (400 MWe) Consolidated Nuclear Steam System (CNSS) plant concept, with unique design and cost features. This report contains an update of earlier studies of the CNSS reactor and balance-of-plant concept design, capital costs, and multi-unit plant economics incorporating recent design developments, improvements, and post-TMI-2 upgrades. The economic evaluation compares the total system economic impact of a phased, three stage 400 MWe CNSS implementation program, i.e., a three-unit station, to the installation of a single 1200 MWe Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) into a typical USA utility system

249

Weather data for simplified energy calculation methods. Volume II. Middle United States: TRY data  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of this report is to provide a source of weather data for direct use with a number of simplified energy calculation methods available today. Complete weather data for a number of cities in the United States are provided for use in the following methods: degree hour, modified degree hour, bin, modified bin, and variable degree day. This report contains sets of weather data for 22 cities in the continental United States using Test Reference Year (TRY) source weather data. The weather data at each city has been summarized in a number of ways to provide differing levels of detail necessary for alternative simplified energy calculation methods. Weather variables summarized include dry bulb and wet bulb temperature, percent relative humidity, humidity ratio, wind speed, percent possible sunshine, percent diffuse solar radiation, total solar radiation on horizontal and vertical surfaces, and solar heat gain through standard DSA glass. Monthly and annual summaries, in some cases by time of day, are available. These summaries are produced in a series of nine computer generated tables.

Olsen, A.R.; Moreno, S.; Deringer, J.; Watson, C.R.

1984-08-01

250

Weather data for simplified energy calculation methods. Volume I. Eastern United States: TRY data  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of this report is to provide a source of weather data for direct use with a number of simplified energy calculation methods available today. Complete weather data for a number of cities in the United States are provided for use in the following methods: degree hour, modified degree hour, bin, modified bin, and variable degree day. This report contains sets of weather data for 23 cities in the continental United States using Test Reference Year (TRY) source weather data. The weather data at each city has been summarized in a number of ways to provide differing levels of detail necessary for alternative simplified energy calculation methods. Weather variables summarized include dry bulb and wet bulb temperature, percent relative humidity, humidity ratio, wind speed, percent possible sunshine, percent diffuse solar radiation, total solar radiation on horizontal and vertical surfaces, and solar heat gain through standard DSA glass. Monthly and annual summaries, in some cases by time of day, are available. These summaries are produced in a series of nine computer generated tables.

Olsen, A.R.; Moreno, S.; Deringer, J.; Watson, C.R.

1984-08-01

251

Weather data for simplified energy calculation methods. Volume III. Western United States: TRY data  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective is to provide a source of weather data for direct use with a number of simplified energy calculation methods available today. Complete weather data for a number of cities in the United States are provided for use in the following methods: degree hour, modified degree hour, bin, modified bin, and variable degree day. This report contains sets of weather data for 24 cities in the continental United States using Test Reference Year (TRY) source weather data. The weather data at each city has been summarized in a number of ways to provide differing levels of detail necessary for alternative simplified energy calculation methods. Weather variables summarized include dry bulb and wet bulb temperature, percent relative humidity, humidity ratio, wind speed, percent possible sunshine, percent diffuse solar radiation, total solar radiation on horizontal and vertical surfaces, and solar heat gain through standard DSA glass. Monthly and annual summaries, in some cases by time of day, are available. These summaries are produced in a series of nine computer generated tables.

Olsen, A.R.; Moreno, S.; Deringer, J.; Watson, C.R.

1984-08-01

252

Use of scores to calculate the nursing workload in a pediatric intensive care unit  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective To assess the performance of the Nursing Activities Score in a pediatric intensive care unit, compare its scores expressed as time spent on nursing activities to the corresponding ones calculated using the Simplified Therapeutic Intervention Scoring System, and correlate the results obtained by both instruments with severity, morbidity and mortality. Methods Prospective, observational, and analytical cohort study conducted at a type III general pediatric intensive care unit. The study participants were all the children aged 29 days to 12 years admitted to the investigated pediatric intensive care unit from August 2008 to February 2009. Results A total of 545 patients were studied, which corresponded to 2,951 assessments. The average score of the Simplified Therapeutic Intervention Scoring System was 28.79±10.37 (915±330 minutes), and that of the Nursing Activities Score was 55.6±11.82 (802±161 minutes). The number of minutes that resulted from the conversion of the Simplified Therapeutic Intervention Scoring System score was higher compared to that resulting from the Nursing Activities Score for all the assessments (p<0.001). The correlation between the instruments was significant, direct, positive, and moderate (R=0.564). Conclusions The agreement between the investigated instruments was satisfactory, and both instruments also exhibited satisfactory discrimination of mortality; for that purpose, the best cutoff point was 16 nursing hours/patient day. PMID:24770687

Campagner, Andriza Oliveira Moschetta; Garcia, Pedro Celiny Ramos; Piva, Jefferson Pedro

2014-01-01

253

Admission clinicopathological data, length of stay, cost and mortality in an equine neonatal intensive care unit  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Veterinary internists need to prognosticate patients quickly and accurately in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU. This may depend on laboratory data collected on admission, the cost of hospitalisation, length of stay (LOS and mortality rate experienced in the NICU. Therefore, we conducted a retrospective study of 62 equine neonates admitted to a NICU of a private equine referral hospital to determine the prognostic value of venous clinicopathological data collected on admission before therapy, the cost of hospitalisation, LOS and mortality rate. The WBC count, total CO2 (TCO2 and alkaline phosphatase (ALP were significantly higher (P < 0.05 and anion gap lower in survivors compared with nonsurvivors. A logistic regression model that included WBC count, hematocrit, albumin / globulin ratio, ALP, TCO2, potassium, sodium and lactate, was able to correctly predict mortality in 84 % of cases. Only anion gap proved to be an independent predictor of neonatal mortality in this study. In the study population, the overall mortality rate was 34 % with greatest mortality rates reported in the first 48 hours and again on day 6 of hospitalisation. Amongst the various clinical diagnoses, mortality was highest in foals after forced extraction during correction of dystocia. Median cost per day was higher for nonsurvivors while total cost was higher in survivors.

F.T. Bain

2012-06-01

254

The economic costs and benefits of potassium iodide prophylaxis for a reference LWR facility in the United States  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Policy decisions relating to radiation protection are commonly based on an evaluation in which the benefits of exposure reduction are compared to the economic costs of the protective measure. A generic difficulty countered in cost-benefit analyses, however, is the quantification of major elements that define the costs and the benefits in commensurate units. In this study, the costs of making KI (potassium iodine) available for public use and the avoidance of thyroidal health effects (i.e., the benefit) in the event of nuclear emergency are defined in the commensurate units of dollars. (Authors). 11 refs., 15 tabs

255

Audit Calculations of ATWS for Ulchin Unit 1 and 2 Power Uprate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this study, the regulatory audit calculation for ATWS of Ulchin Unit 1 and 2 with 4.5% power uprate was performed to support the licensing review and to confirm the validity of licensee's calculation. In order to simulate the transient behavior of ATWS initiated by a loss of feed water, the systems of Ulchin Unit 1 and 2 was modeled with MARS-KS 1.3. In this study, the regulatory audit calculation of ATWS for Ulchin 1 and 2 with 4.5% power uprating and 99% MTC in the specific cycle designs was performed. It is conformed that the analysis results of ATWS for Ulchin 1 and 2 power uprate meets the RCS pressure acceptance criteria. An anticipated transient accompanied by a failure in the Reactor Trip System (RTS) to shut down the reactor is defined as an Anticipated Transient Without Scram (ATWS). Under certain postulated conditions, the ATWS could lead to Reactor Coolant system (RCS) pressure boundary fracture and/or core damage. For a conventional pressurized water reactor (PWR), the temperature corresponding to the NSSC notice No.2013.09(Performance Criteria for ECCS of the Pressurized Water Reactor Nuclear Power Plants), 1204 .deg. C and the pressure corresponding to the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code service level C stress, 221.5 bar is assumed to be an unacceptable plant condition against ATWS, above which the RCS pressure boundary could deform to the point of inoperability and the safe shutdown by injection of borated water could be challenged. Such potentially excessive RCS overpressure may occur in the ATWS initiated from a loss of heat sink. Currently, the modification of Ulchin 1 and 2 operating license for 4.5% power uprate is under review

256

Costos directos de la hemodiálisis en unidades públicas y privadas Direct cost analysis of hemodialysis units  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO. Estimar y comparar el costo por sesión de hemodiálisis dentro del sector público y privado en la Ciudad de México. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS. Se calcularon los costos de los insumos utilizados en las hemodiálisis de cuatro hospitales públicos y dos privados de la Ciudad de México, mediante la estrategia de micro-costeo denominada PAATI. Para la obtención de los datos se utilizó el método de sombra; además, se empleó Excel para elaborar cédulas en las que se determina el PAATI para cada sesión. RESULTADOS. El costo anual promedio directo en el sector público por el tratamiento de un individuo en hemodiálisis es de $158 964.00 M. N., y el costo de atender a la población que podría demandar terapia de reemplazo renal se estima en $10 921 788 072.00 M. N. CONCLUSIÓN. La disponibilidad de recursos humanos e infraestructura en el país es muy limitada para el campo de la nefrología en general y, en particular, para ofrecer servicios de hemodiálisis, por lo que sería necesario inyectar más recursos para poder responder ante la demanda por insuficiencia renal terminal.OBJECTIVE. To estimate and compare direct costs per hemodialysis session in public and private units in Mexico City. MATERIAL AND METHODS. PAATI, a microcosting strategy, was used to determine total costs of four public and two private health hospitals in Mexico City. A "shadow study" approach was employed to collect the needed data. Charts containing the "PAATI" information for each session were developed in Microsoft Excel. RESULTS. The average annual cost per patient undergoing hemodialysis in public units is $158 964.00 MX. The estimated cost for the care of all population estimated in need of renal replacement therapy (via hemodialysis was estimated to be $10 921 788 072.00 MX. CONCLUSION. Human resources and infrastructure availability in México are very limited for nephrology, and in consequence for offering hemodialysis services.

Luis Durán-Arenas

2011-01-01

257

Weather data for simplified energy calculation methods. Volume IV. United States: WYEC data  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of this report is to provide a source of weather data for direct use with a number of simplified energy calculation methods available today. Complete weather data for a number of cities in the United States are provided for use in the following methods: degree hour, modified degree hour, bin, modified bin, and variable degree day. This report contains sets of weather data for 23 cities using Weather Year for Energy Calculations (WYEC) source weather data. Considerable overlap is present in cities (21) covered by both the TRY and WYEC data. The weather data at each city has been summarized in a number of ways to provide differing levels of detail necessary for alternative simplified energy calculation methods. Weather variables summarized include dry bulb and wet bulb temperature, percent relative humidity, humidity ratio, wind speed, percent possible sunshine, percent diffuse solar radiation, total solar radiation on horizontal and vertical surfaces, and solar heat gain through standard DSA glass. Monthly and annual summaries, in some cases by time of day, are available. These summaries are produced in a series of nine computer generated tables.

Olsen, A.R.; Moreno, S.; Deringer, J.; Watson, C.R.

1984-08-01

258

Accelerated molecular dynamics force evaluation on graphics processing units for thermal conductivity calculations  

CERN Document Server

In this paper, we develop a highly efficient molecular dynamics code fully implemented on graphics processing units for thermal conductivity calculations using the Green-Kubo formula. We compare two different schemes for force evaluation, a previously used thread-scheme where a single thread is used for one particle and each thread calculates the total force for the corresponding particle, and a new block-scheme where a whole block is used for one particle and each thread in the block calculates one or several pair forces between the particle associated with the given block and its neighbor particle(s) associated with the given thread. For both schemes, two different classical potentials, namely, the Lennard-Jones potential and the rigid-ion potential are implemented. While the thread-scheme performs a little better for relatively large systems, the block-scheme performs much better for relatively small systems. The relative performance of the block-scheme over the thread-scheme also increases with the increa...

Fan, Zheyong; Harju, Ari

2012-01-01

259

Comminution of logging residues with a tub grinder: Calculation of productivity and procurement cost of wood chips  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An experiment on comminution of logging residues with a tub grinder was carried out in order to calculate the productivity and procurement cost of wood chips. At the investigated site, the tub grinder had a hammer mill crusher at the bottom of the tub, and a grapple loaderand a bucket loader worked as auxiliary machines for the grinder. As a result, the productivity of the tub grinder was 60.0 loose m3/PMH0, and the total comminuting cost was calculated as 5.637 US$/m3, indicating that the comminuting cost of a large-sized crusher waslower than that of a small-sized chipper. The percentage of the cost of loaders, that of carrying in, installing, and carrying out the machines, and that of constructing a landing was 53% of the total comminuting cost. When a truck with the capacity of 40 m3 transported wood chips three times a day, the costs of comminution and transportation were71.2 US$/t (DM1, which is almost on a par with those of European countries in which the energy utilization of logging residues is making steady progress. As a result of the discussion about the balance between the processing capacity of the tub grinder and that of othermachines, it seemed reasonable for Japanese forestry to consider the use of one tub grinder at several logging sites.

Takuyuki Yoshioka

2006-12-01

260

Statin cost effectiveness in primary prevention: A systematic review of the recent cost-effectiveness literature in the United States  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The literature on the cost-effectiveness of statin drugs in primary prevention of coronary heart disease is complex. The objective of this study is to compare the disparate results of recent cost-effectiveness analyses of statins. Findings We conducted a systematic review of the literature on statin cost-effectiveness. The four studies that met inclusion criteria reported varying conclusions about the cost-effectiveness of statin treatment, without a clear consensus as to whether statins are cost-effective for primary prevention. However, after accounting for each study’s assumptions about statin costs, we found substantial agreement among the studies. Studies that assumed statins to be more expensive found them to be less cost-effective, and vice-versa. Furthermore, treatment of low-risk groups became cost-effective as statins became less expensive. Conclusions Drug price is the primary determinant of statin cost-effectiveness within a given risk group. As more statin drugs become generic, patients at low risk for coronary disease may be treated cost-effectively. Though many factors must be weighed in any medical decision, from a cost-effectiveness perspective, statins may now be considered an appropriate therapy for many patients at low risk for heart disease.

Mitchell Aaron P

2012-07-01

 
 
 
 
261

Generalized method for calculating astigmatism of the unit-magnification multipass system.  

Science.gov (United States)

A generalized method to accurately calculate astigmatism of the unit-magnification multipass system (UMS) is proposed. A practical coaxial optical transmission model is developed for the UMS. Astigmatism analysis is then made convenient by a 4 by 4 general transfer matrix. Astigmatism correction is significantly promoted, and hence further improvement in imaging quality can be expected. Good agreement between numerical simulations and Zemax ray tracing results verifies the effectiveness of this method. The resulted RMS spot size of this method is only 25% to 64% of other previous methods based on the golden section search for minimum astigmatism in real design cases. This method is helpful for the optical design of the UMS. PMID:20357882

Chen, Kexin; Yang, Huaidong; Sun, Liqun; Jin, Guofan

2010-04-01

262

Monitor unit calculation by means of a functional representation of output factors and tissue phantom ratios  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Several attempts to represent basic dosimetric data by analytical functions can be found in the literature. The reasons for such an approach are manifold: denoising measured data, discover outliers, better interpolation between data, reduce the amount of measurements, etc. Xiao, et al. proposed a four parameter representation of the tissue phantom ratio (TPR) as a function of depth d and field size s. Their fit works well for d>10 cm and s>10 cm, i.e. in the domain of full electronic equilibrium. It may be useable for smaller fields and shallower depths with less accuracy. Our aim was to achieve a reliable functional representation for s >= 4 mm and all depth. The data serve as high quality input physics data to a treatment planning system, or for calculating monitor units and dose to any point in water for the full range of s and d

263

A methodology for calculating the levelized cost of electricity in nuclear power systems with fuel recycling  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper we show how the traditional definition of the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) can be extended to alternative nuclear fuel cycles in which elements of the fuel are recycled. In particular, we define the LCOE for a cycle with full actinide recycling in fast reactors in which elements of the fuel are reused an indefinite number of times. To our knowledge, ours is the first LCOE formula for this cycle. Others have approached the task of evaluating this cycle using an 'equilibrium cost' concept that is different from a levelized cost. We also show how the LCOE implies a unique price for the recycled elements. This price reflects the ultimate cost of waste disposal postponed through the recycling, as well as other costs in the cycle. We demonstrate the methodology by estimating the LCOE for three classic nuclear fuel cycles: (i) the traditional Once-Through Cycle, (ii) a Twice-Through Cycle, and (iii) a Fast Reactor Recycle. Given our chosen input parameters, we show that the 'equilibrium cost' is typically larger than the levelized cost, and we explain why.

264

Method of selected input calculation data verification and their influence on decommissioning cost in the OMEGA Code  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this contribution is development of methodology for verification of selected input calculation data (performance unit parameters, work group structure, and duration of time-dependent activities) of the OMEGA Code in the individual PSL (Proposed Standardised List) structure parts. (author)

265

Cost-income analysis of oral health units of health care centers in Yazd city  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background and Aims: Increasing demands for health care's services on one hand and limited resources on the other hand brings about pressure over governments to find out a mechanism for fair and appropriate distribution of resources. Economic analysis is one of the appropriate tools for policy making on this priority. The aim of this study was to assess capital and consumption of oral health units of health care centers in Yazd city and comparing it with revenue of these centers and determining of cost effectiveness.Materials and Methods: In this descriptive cross sectional study, all health care centers of Yazd city with active dentistry department were evaluated. The data has been extracted from current documents in health care center of county based issued receipts and daily information registers.Results: Expended cost for providing of oral hygiene services in second half of 2008 in 13 medical health centers of Yazd included active dentistry section was 557.887.500 Rials and revenue to cost ratio was about 34%. The most provided service was related to tooth extraction and the average of tooth restoration in each working day was 0.48.Conclusion: With attention to low tariffs of dentistry services in medical health centers and paying subsidy to target groups, expenses of oral hygiene are always more than its revenue.

Hosein Fallahzadeh

2012-01-01

266

Benefit/cost analysis of plutonium recycle options in the United States of America  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Beginning in 1973, the USAEC started the analysis of the benefit/cost balance of Pu recycling in light-water reactors and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission has continued this effort to the present time. A study of the United States nuclear industry from 1975 until 2000 was summarized in a final environmental statement called GESMO - Generic Environmental Statement on Mixed Oxide, NUREG-0002. Cumulative environmental and economic effects for several industry growth patterns were determined. Five alternatives were evaluated, covering the basic options of recycling uranium and plutonium; recycling uranium; and no recycling. The NRC findings, excluding consideration of proliferation and safeguards questions, are: the safety of reactors and fuel-cycle facilities are not significantly affected by recycle; excluding consideration of radiological effects, the environmental effects of recycle are slightly less than those from a non-recycle system; plutonium recycling extends uranium resources and reduces environmental impacts at the same time requiring reprocessing and Pu-handling facilities; despite uncertainties, recycling has probable economic advantages over other fuel concepts; differences in health effects attributable to recycling provide no basis for selecting a particular fuel-cycle option; no waste-management considerations appear that could be a basis for the selection of any particular option. The NRC studies on health, safety and environmental considerations ofsafety and environmental considerations of Pu recycling in the United States of America show that the differences in benefits/costs between the alternative fuel cycles are small and hence do not provide a clear basis for a decision on Pu recycle at this time. Safeguards and international proliferation implications appear to be the controlling factors in reaching a decision. President Carter's statement indefinitely deferring reprocessing and Pu recycle in the United States of America has resulted in a re-evaluation by NRC of its programme to reach a decision on whether or not to authorize Pu recycling. (author)

267

Reloading operations with fuel cost saving at Unit 1 of the Paks Nuclear Power Plant, Hungary  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Experiences with the seventh reloading campaign of Unit 1 of the Paks Nuclear Power Plant, Hungary are summarized. The nonuniformity limits of low-escape charges were not damaged, and the charge proved to be more economical than anticipated. It was found that calculations by BIPR-5AK code were highly inaccurate, therefore a new computer code called C-PORCA ('sziporka') was developed that yielded better results. New fuel type will be introduced that is expected to last for 4 years, making better fuel saving feasible. (R.P.) 5 refs.; 6 figs

268

A guide for the calculation of the maximum permissible costs for shelters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Among other things, this paper has the aim to define the scope which is reasonable for shelter costs as well as to inform about their real amount. Various assumptions have been made and examples have been given which seldom coincide with the specific facts. Thus, the possibility of how to find solutions which are precisely appropriate for persons is shown in a formula. The less the income, life expectancy and the number of persons to be considered the less are the maximum permissible costs for shelters. Under certain conditions the permissible costs are lower than the real costs. Thus, taking those assumptions into account, the shelter is not profitable any more. This case, for example, really applies to a couple, 57 years old, without children, with an income of 40,000 DM/year who intend to build an interior shelter. For a family with children who are under age, however, it is always profitable to build an interior basic shelter. (orig.)

269

19 CFR 351.407 - Calculation of constructed value and cost of production.  

Science.gov (United States)

...the complete revamping or redesign of the product. Routine model year changes will not be considered a new product. (iii...The Secretary will not consider sales expenses, such as advertising costs, or other general and administrative or...

2010-04-01

270

Low-cost general purpose spectral display unit using an IBM PC  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Many physics experiments require acquisition and analysis of spectral data. commercial minicomputer-based multichannel analyzers collect detected counts at various energies, create a histogram of the counts in memory, and display the resultant spectra. They acquire data and provide the user-to-display interface. The system discussed separates functions into the three modular components of data acquisition, storage, and display. This decoupling of functions allows the experimenter to use any number of detectors for data collection before forwarding up to 64 spectra to the display unit, thereby increasing data throughput over that available with commercial systems. An IBM PC was chosen for the low-cost, general purpose display unit. Up to four spectra may be displayed simultaneously in different colors. The histogram saves 1024 channels per detector, 640 of which may be distinctly displayed per spectra. The IEEE-488 standard provides the data path between the IBM PC and the data collection unit. Data is sent to the PC under interrupt control, using direct memory access. Display manipulations available via keyboard are also discussed

271

Calculation of economic viability of alternative energy sources considering its environmental costs for small communities of Northeast Brazil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There has been an increasing concern about current environmental issues caused by human activity, as the world searches for development. The production of electricity is an extremely relevant factor in this scenario since it is responsible for a large portion of the emissions that cause the greenhouse effect. Due to this fact, a sustainable development with alternative energy sources, which are attractive for such purpose, must be proposed, especially in places that are not supplied by the conventional electricity grid such as many communities in the Northeast Brazil. This work aims to calculate the environmental cost for the alternative sources of energy - solar, wind and biomass - during electricity generation, and to estimate the economic feasibility of those sources in small communities of Northeast Brazil, considering the avoided costs. The externalities must be properly identified and valued so the costs or benefits can be internalized and reflect accurately the economic feasibility or infeasibility of those sources. For this, the method of avoided costs was adopted for the calculation of externalities. This variable was included in the equation developed for all considered alternative energy sources. The calculations of economic feasibility were performed taking the new configurations in consideration, and the new equation was reprogrammed in the Programa de Calculo de Custos de Energias Alternativas, Solar, Eolica e Biomassa (PEASEB). The results demonstrated that the solar photovoltaic energy in isolated systems is the most feasible and broadly applicable source for small communities of Northeast Brazil. (author)

272

Calculation of additional costs in 2010 - for the demolition of the Swedish nuclear power plants and disposal of residues  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report describes the SSM's calculation of additional costs for fee proposal for 2012-2014. The calculation is made pursuant to the Financing Act and includes all additional costs until the residue from the Swedish nuclear power plants is disposed of. According to current calculations, this should be done in 2069. Estimates of such a long time means a great deal of uncertainty and SSM uses, like SKB, the successive calculation method to estimate an expected value and tax association uncertainty. As a starting point for analysis, the SSM has made estimates of the future costs broken down into paragraphs in paragraph 2 Financing Act. The estimates were made after discussions within the organization and representatives of relevant external organizations. Assuming a total annual cost per worker of 1.24 million gave these estimates a total cost of over three billion. It should be emphasized that this sum is only a starting point for analysis and applies in particular circumstances. These circumstances critically reviewed the analysis and the reasonableness of assessments made by a analysis group. The analysis took place for 2.5 days in spring 2010. The analysis group consisted of 17 people including nine from the SSM. Lores Borg and Steen Lichtenberg were moderators. Via a brainstorming process, the analysis group presented a number of uncertainties and made a three-part assessment of their impact on the overall results (minimum, most likely and maximum). The result of the analysis: average in the 2010 monetary value was assessed to 4.24 billion Swedish crowns with a standard deviation of 920 million Swedish crowns. These values are undiscounted

273

Medical costs and productivity losses of cancer survivors--United States, 2008-2011.  

Science.gov (United States)

The number of persons in the United States with a history of cancer has increased from 3 million in 1971 to approximately 13.4 million in 2012, representing 4.6% of the population. Given the advances in early detection and treatment of cancer and the aging of the U.S. population, the number of cancer survivors is projected to increase by >30% during the next decade, to approximately 18 million. Cancer survivors face many challenges with medical care follow-up, managing the long-term and late effects of treatments, monitoring for recurrence, and an increased risk for additional cancers. These survivors also face economic challenges, including limitations in work and daily activities, obtaining health insurance coverage and accessing health care, and increasing medical care costs. To estimate annual medical costs and productivity losses among male and female cancer survivors and persons without a cancer history, CDC, along with other organizations, analyzed data from the 2008-2011 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS), sponsored by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. The results indicate that the economic burden of cancer survivorship is substantial among all survivors. For male cancer survivors, during 2008-2011, average annual medical costs and productivity losses resulting from health problems per person and adjusted to 2011 dollars were significantly higher among cancer survivors than among persons without a cancer history, by $4,187 and $1,459, respectively; for females, the estimated annual costs per person were $3,293 and $1,330 higher among cancer survivors than among persons without a cancer history, respectively. These findings suggest the need to develop and evaluate health and employment intervention programs aimed at improving outcomes for cancer survivors and their families. PMID:24918485

Ekwueme, Donatus U; Yabroff, K Robin; Guy, Gery P; Banegas, Matthew P; de Moor, Janet S; Li, Chunyu; Han, Xuesong; Zheng, Zhiyuan; Soni, Anita; Davidoff, Amy; Rechis, Ruth; Virgo, Katherine S

2014-06-13

274

47 CFR 65.300 - Calculations of the components and weights of the cost of capital.  

Science.gov (United States)

...CONTINUED) INTERSTATE RATE OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Exchange Carriers § 65.300 Calculations of the components...calculations shall be based on data reported to the Commission in FCC Report 43-02. (See 47 CFR 43.21). The results...

2010-10-01

275

Economic impacts of oil spills: Spill unit costs for tankers, pipelines, refineries, and offshore facilities. [Task 1, Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The impacts of oil spills -- ranging from the large, widely publicized Exxon Valdez tanker incident to smaller pipeline and refinery spills -- have been costly to both the oil industry and the public. For example, the estimated costs to Exxon of the Valdez tanker spill are on the order of $4 billion, including $2.8 billion (in 1993 dollars) for direct cleanup costs and $1.125 billion (in 1992 dollars) for settlement of damages claims caused by the spill. Application of contingent valuation costs and civil lawsuits pending in the State of Alaska could raise these costs appreciably. Even the costs of the much smaller 1991 oil spill at Texaco`s refinery near Anacortes, Washington led to costs of $8 to 9 million. As a result, inexpensive waming, response and remediation technologies could lower oil spin costs, helping both the oil industry, the associated marine industries, and the environment. One means for reducing the impact and costs of oil spills is to undertake research and development on key aspects of the oil spill prevention, warming, and response and remediation systems. To target these funds to their best use, it is important to have sound data on the nature and size of spills, their likely occurrence and their unit costs. This information could then allow scarce R&D dollars to be spent on areas and activities having the largest impact. This report is intended to provide the ``unit cost`` portion of this crucial information. The report examines the three key components of the US oil supply system, namely, tankers and barges; pipelines and refineries; and offshore production facilities. The specific purpose of the study was to establish the unit costs of oil spills. By manipulating this key information into a larger matrix that includes the size and frequency of occurrence of oil spills, it will be possible` to estimate the likely future impacts, costs, and sources of oil spills.

1993-10-15

276

Cost-Efficiency of Indigenously Fabricated Mobile-Portable Dental Unit in Delivery of Primary Healthcare in Rural India  

Science.gov (United States)

Aim: Innovation in primary oral healthcare delivery is a potential yet relatively unexplored area in Dental literature. Aim of the present study was to assess the economic gains that can be made by designing and operating an indigenously fabricated portable dental unit in rural areas. Materials and Methods: Cost-efficiency was determined by comparing total revenue (number of patients treated) with total costs (direct – capital cost of fabrication; and indirect – dental materials, disposables, transport, miscellaneous) over a period of seven years (2005 to 2012). Operational efficiency of portable dental units was also compared with dental vans on various categories of performance indicators. Data analysis was based on institutional records of Rajasthan Dental College (RDC), Jaipur, India. Results: Results show that a total of 52,900 patients who attended 223 camps during this period were provided various primary oral healthcare services using four such portable dental units that were developed @ Rs. 24,000 ($ 417) per unit. Based on a cost-efficiency of Rs 35.53 ($ 0.65) per person, which is among the lowest reported from any part of the world, the authors conclude that indigenously fabricated portable dental units provide a cost-efficient service. The other aspects most relevant to portable equipment were ease of transportation and feasibility in domiciliary care provision. Conclusion: The Limitations of productivity due to time spent in setting up the unit and need for additional space/equipment was their main drawbacks vis-à-vis dental vans. PMID:25177627

Goel, Ashok; Torwane, Nilesh Arjun

2014-01-01

277

10 CFR 503.6 - Cost calculations for new powerplants and installations.  

Science.gov (United States)

...prescribed by Federal law in effect (or those tax parameters...certainty will be in effect) at the time a decision...rendered. (However, if an investment tax credit expires in...under the law which is in effect at the time the petition... (e) Evidence in support of the cost...

2010-01-01

278

Calculation of Costs of Pregnancy- and Puerperium-related Care: Experience from a Hospital in a Low-income Country  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Calculation of costs of different medical and surgical services has numerous uses, which include monitoring the performance of service-delivery, setting the efficiency target, benchmarking of services across all sectors, considering investment decisions, commissioning to meet health needs, and negotiating revised levels of funding. The role of private-sector healthcare facilities has been increasing rapidly over the last decade. Despite the overall improvement in the public and private health...

Sarowar, M. G.; Medin, E.; Gazi, R.; Koehlmoos, T. P.; Rehnberg, C.; Saifi, R.; Bhuiya, A.; Khan, J.

2010-01-01

279

Fast unit commitment based on optimal linear approximation to nonlinear fuel cost: Error analysis and applications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) based techniques are among the most widely applied methods for unit commitment (UC) problems. The fuel cost functions are often replaced by their piecewise linear approximations whereas it is more or less disturbing to use piecewise linear approximations without knowing the exact effect on solution deviation from the optima. Therefore, error analysis is important since the optimal solutions are different when different objective functions are adopted. Another important problem is balancing between solution quality and computation efficiency since better solution quality relies on finer discretization with exponentially increased computational efforts. A detailed error analysis is presented in this paper. It is found that the approximation error is inverse proportional to the square of the number of piecewise segments. Lower bounds on the minimum necessary number of discretization segments are also derived. A 2-Stage Procedure is then established to achieve a better balance between solution quality and computation efficiency. Numerical testing to 2 groups of UC problems is exciting. It is found that the operating cost increases no more than 0.6% in all cases while the CPU time is greatly reduced regarding other MILP approaches. The results are still valid in electric power market clearing computation. (author)

280

Cost optimal building performance requirements. Calculation methodology for reporting on national energy performance requirements on the basis of cost optimality within the framework of the EPBD  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

On the European level, the principles for the requirements for the energy performance of buildings are set by the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD). Dating from December 2002, the EPBD has set a common framework from which the individual Member States in the EU developed or adapted their individual national regulations. The EPBD in 2008 and 2009 underwent a recast procedure, with final political agreement having been reached in November 2009. The new Directive was then formally adopted on May 19, 2010. Among other clarifications and new provisions, the EPBD recast introduces a benchmarking mechanism for national energy performance requirements for the purpose of determining cost-optimal levels to be used by Member States for comparing and setting these requirements. The previous EPBD set out a general framework to assess the energy performance of buildings and required Member States to define maximum values for energy delivered to meet the energy demand associated with the standardised use of the building. However it did not contain requirements or guidance related to the ambition level of such requirements. As a consequence, building regulations in the various Member States have been developed by the use of different approaches (influenced by different building traditions, political processes and individual market conditions) and resulted in different ambition levels where in many cases cost optimality principles could justify higher ambitions. The EPBD recast now requests that Member States shall ensure that minimum energy performance requirements for buildings are set 'with a view to achieving cost-optimal levels'. The cost optimum level shall be calculated in accordance with a comparative methodology. The objective of this report is to contribute to the ongoing discussion in Europe around the details of such a methodology by describing possible details on how to calculate cost optimal levels and pointing towards important factors and effects. The methodology described in this report is consistent with the description of the process as presented in the study 'Cost Optimality - Discussing methodology and challenges within the recast Energy Performance of Buildings Directive' published in September 2010 by the Buildings Performance Institute Europe (BPIE). The present document provides additional insights and details.

Boermans, T.; Bettgenhaeuser, K.; Hermelink, A.; Schimschar, S. [Ecofys, Utrecht (Netherlands)

2011-05-15

 
 
 
 
281

A calculation program for harvesting and transportation costs of energy and industrial wood; Energiapuun korjuun ja kuljetuksen kustannuslaskentaohjelmisto  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A computer based model has been developed for calculating the production costs of industrial wood and wood fuel. Several calculation situations, which might be useful for decision-making in energy wood supply, are included into this software. The model will be easy to use for practical purposes and flexible so that different new model and changes in the basis of calculations are easy to implement. Model will offer open interfaces for importing and exporting information. Model includes selected wood delivery chains and open interfaces for adding data from different procurement sources. The cost analysis model is built on Windows-based software, SQLWindows, using different sources of data (ODBC). With the model it is possible to manage these SQLBase databases with SQL-queries. The data included in the databases origins from various energy wood sources (local communities or part of them, forestry boards planning areas or even stands ready for cutting). By knowing the planned share of first thinnings, final cuttings and other harvesting operations it is possible to estimate the potential amount of wood fuel from each area. Also databases from energy wood users, forest and transportation machinery and distances are available in the system. Using the information it is possible to find out the fuel demand of power and heating plants in each moment (e.g., amount and quality), costs of various machines (harvesters, forwarders, trucks) as well as distances between energy wood sources and users. (orig.)

Ranta, T. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

1997-12-01

282

An innovative design of small low head hydropower units for low cost decentralized production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Design allowing turbine operation at heads as low as 1m and operating at a rotational speed of 500 RPM at a flow of 2.6m3/s and a runner diameter of 700 mm. This eliminates the need for a gear box and helps in achieving efficiency of 60% in the case of a 21 kW installation at a 1m head site and 85% with a 69 kW 3.2m head site. Present turbine designs for such low head sites are very expensive to produce and have a low efficiency. The design uses an all plastic waterway, guide vane assembly and reinforced plastic runner blades. There will be a short pay-back period, for example 4.5 years in the case of a 21 kW unit and 2.0 years in case of the 69 kW unit. These payback periods assume a cost per kW of 0.00 ECU. Design is attractive for decentralized production. 3 figs

283

Energy Savings and Breakeven Cost for Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters in the United States  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have recently reemerged in the U.S. residential water heating market and have the potential to provide homeowners with significant energy savings. However, there are questions as to the actual performance and energy savings potential of these units, in particular in regards to the heat pump's performance in unconditioned space and the impact of the heat pump on space heating and cooling loads when it is located in conditioned space. To help answer these questions, simulations were performed of a HPWH in both conditioned and unconditioned space at over 900 locations across the continental United States and Hawaii. Simulations included a Building America benchmark home so that any interaction between the HPWH and the home's HVAC equipment could be captured. Comparisons were performed to typical gas and electric water heaters to determine the energy savings potential and cost effectiveness of a HPWH relative to these technologies. HPWHs were found to have a significant source energy savings potential when replacing typical electric water heaters, but only saved source energy relative to gas water heater in the most favorable installation locations in the southern US. When replacing an electric water heater, the HPWH is likely to break even in California, the southern US, and parts of the northeast in most situations. However, the HPWH will only break even when replacing a gas water heater in a few southern states.

Maguire, J.; Burch, J.; Merrigan, T.; Ong, S.

2013-07-01

284

10 CFR 503.6 - Cost calculations for new powerplants and installations.  

Science.gov (United States)

...capital investment (I) of the unit with the longer life (computed with Equation 3) by the following... EC01OC91.002 where: R=The useful life of the facility with the longer life. Q=The useful life of the facility...

2010-01-01

285

Potential benefits of minimum unit pricing for alcohol versus a ban on below cost selling in England 2014: modelling study  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective To evaluate the potential impact of two alcohol control policies under consideration in England: banning below cost selling of alcohol and minimum unit pricing. Design Modelling study using the Sheffield Alcohol Policy Model version 2.5. Setting England 2014-15. Population Adults and young people aged 16 or more, including subgroups of moderate, hazardous, and harmful drinkers. Interventions Policy to ban below cost selling, which means that the selling price to consumers could not be lower than tax payable on the product, compared with policies of minimum unit pricing at £0.40 (€0.57; $0.75), 45p, and 50p per unit (7.9 g/10 mL) of pure alcohol. Main outcome measures Changes in mean consumption in terms of units of alcohol, drinkers’ expenditure, and reductions in deaths, illnesses, admissions to hospital, and quality adjusted life years. Results The proportion of the market affected is a key driver of impact, with just 0.7% of all units estimated to be sold below the duty plus value added tax threshold implied by a ban on below cost selling, compared with 23.2% of units for a 45p minimum unit price. Below cost selling is estimated to reduce harmful drinkers’ mean annual consumption by just 0.08%, around 3 units per year, compared with 3.7% or 137 units per year for a 45p minimum unit price (an approximately 45 times greater effect). The ban on below cost selling has a small effect on population health—saving an estimated 14 deaths and 500 admissions to hospital per annum. In contrast, a 45p minimum unit price is estimated to save 624 deaths and 23?700 hospital admissions. Most of the harm reductions (for example, 89% of estimated deaths saved per annum) are estimated to occur in the 5.3% of people who are harmful drinkers. Conclusions The ban on below cost selling, implemented in the England in May 2014, is estimated to have small effects on consumption and health harm. The previously announced policy of a minimum unit price, if set at expected levels between 40p and 50p per unit, is estimated to have an approximately 40-50 times greater effect. PMID:25270743

Meng, Yang; Holmes, John; Hill-McManus, Daniel; Meier, Petra S

2014-01-01

286

Cancer in the oropharynx: Cost calculation of different treatment modalities for controlled primaries, relapses and grade III/IV complications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Background and purpose: This paper presents a model for cost calculation using the different treatment modalities for oropharyngeal (OPh) cancers used in our hospital. We compared full hospital costs, the associated costs of localregional relapses (LRR) and/or treatment related grade III/IV complications. Materials and methods: Patients with OPh cancer are treated in the Erasmus MC preferably by an organ function preservation protocol. That is, by external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) followed by a brachytherapy (BT) boost, and neck dissection in case of N+ disease (BT-group: 157 patients). If BT is not feasible, resection with postoperative EBRT (S-group [S=Surgery]: 110 patients) or EBRT-alone (EBRT-group: 77 patients) is being pursued. Actuarial localregional control (LRC), disease free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) at 5-years were calculated according to the Kaplan-Meier method. The mean costs per treatment group for diagnosis, primary Tx per se, follow-up, (salvage of) locoregional relapse (LRR), distant metastasis (DM), and/or grade III/IV complications needing clinical admission, were computed. Results: For the BT-, S-, or EBRT treatment groups, LRC rates at 5-years were 85, 82, and 55%, for the DFS, 61, 48, and 43%, and for the OS 65, 52, and 40%, respectively. The mean costs of primary Tx in case of the BT-group is EURO 13,466; for the S-group EURO 24,219, and EURO 12,502 for the EBRT-group. The mean costs of S (the main salvage modality) for a LRR of the BT group or EBRT-group, were EURO 17,861 and EURO 15,887, respectively. The mean costs of clinical management of Grade III/IV complications were EURO 7184 (BT-group), EURO 16,675 (S-group) and EURO 6437 (EBRT-group). Conclusion: The clinical outcome illustrates excellent LRC rates at 5-years for BT (85%), as well as for S (82%). The relatively low 55% LRC rate at 5-years for EBRT probably reflects a negative selection of patients. It is of interest that the total mean costs of patients alive with no evidence of disease is least for the BT-group: EURO 15,101 as opposed to EURO 25,288 (S) and EURO 18,674 (EBRT). Main underlying cause for the high costs with S as opposed to RT alone is the number of associated clinical admission days, not only during primary treatment, but also at relapse. This might be taken into consideration when treating these patients

287

Cost-Effectiveness of Uterine-Preserving Procedures for the Treatment of Uterine Fibroid Symptoms in the United States  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective To evaluate cost-effectiveness of the following three treatments of uterine fibroids in a population of premenopausal women who wish to preserve their uteri: myomectomy, MR-guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) and uterine artery embolization (UAE). Methods A decision analytic Markov model was constructed. Cost-effectiveness was calculated in terms of U.S. dollars per quality adjusted life year (QALY) over five years. Two types of costs were calculated: direct costs only, and the sum of direct and indirect (productivity) costs. Women in the hypothetical cohort were assessed for treatment type eligibility, were treated based on eligibility, and experienced adequate or inadequate symptom relief. Additional treatment (myomectomy) occurred for inadequate symptom relief or recurrence. Sensitivity analysis was conducted to evaluate uncertainty in the model parameters. Results In the base-case, myomectomy, MRgFUS and UAE had the following combinations of mean cost and mean QALYs, respectively: ($15,459, 3.957), ($15,274, 3.953) and ($18,653, 3.943). When incorporating productivity costs, MRgFUS incurred mean cost of $21,232; myomectomy $22,599; and UAE $22,819. Using probabilistic sensitivity analysis (PSA) and excluding productivity costs, myomectomy was cost-effective at almost every decision threshold. Using PSA and incorporating productivity costs, myomectomy was cost-effective at decision thresholds above $105,000/QALY; MRgFUS between $30,000-$105,000/QALY; and UAE below $30,000/QALY. Conclusions Myomectomy, MRgFUS, and UAE were similarly effective in terms of QALYs gained. Depending on assumptions about costs and willingness-to-pay for additional QALYs, all three treatments can be deemed cost-effective in a five year time frame. PMID:24878319

Cain-Nielsen, Anne H.; Moriarty, James P.; Stewart, Elizabeth A.; Borah, Bijan J.

2014-01-01

288

Calculation of HELAS amplitudes for QCD processes using graphics processing unit (GPU)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We use a graphics processing unit (GPU) for fast calculations of helicity amplitudes of quark and gluon scattering processes in massless QCD. New HEGET (HELAS Evaluation with GPU Enhanced Technology) codes for gluon self-interactions are introduced, and a C++ program to convert the MadGraph generated FORTRAN codes into HEGET codes in CUDA (a C-platform for general purpose computing on GPU) is created. Because of the proliferation of the number of Feynman diagrams and the number of independent color amplitudes, the maximum number of final state jets we can evaluate on a GPU is limited to 4 for pure gluon processes (gg?4g), or 5 for processes with one or more quark lines such as q anti q? 5g and qq?qq+3g. Compared with the usual CPU-based programs, we obtain 60-100 times better performance on the GPU, except for 5-jet production processes and the gg?4g processes for which the GPU gain over the CPU is about 20. (orig.)

289

Calculation of HELAS amplitudes for QCD processes using graphics processing unit (GPU)  

CERN Document Server

We use a graphics processing unit (GPU) for fast calculations of helicity amplitudes of quark and gluon scattering processes in massless QCD. New HEGET ({\\bf H}ELAS {\\bf E}valuation with {\\bf G}PU {\\bf E}nhanced {\\bf T}echnology) codes for gluon self-interactions are introduced, and a C++ program to convert the MadGraph generated FORTRAN codes into HEGET codes in CUDA (a C-platform for general purpose computing on GPU) is created. Because of the proliferation of the number of Feynman diagrams and the number of independent color amplitudes, the maximum number of final state jets we can evaluate on a GPU is limited to 4 for pure gluon processes ($gg\\to 4g$), or 5 for processes with one or more quark lines such as $q\\bar{q}\\to 5g$ and $qq\\to qq+3g$. Compared with the usual CPU-based programs, we obtain 60-100 times better performance on the GPU, except for 5-jet production processes and the $gg\\to 4g$ processes for which the GPU gain over the CPU is about 20.

Hagiwara, K; Okamura, N; Rainwater, D L; Stelzer, T

2009-01-01

290

Reduced computational cost in the calculation of worst case response time for real time systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Modern Real Time Operating Systems require reducing computational costs even though the microprocessors become more powerful each day. It is usual that Real Time Operating Systems for embedded systems have advance features to administrate the resources of the applications that they support. In order to guarantee either the schedulability of the system or the schedulability of a new task in a dynamic Real Time System, it is necessary to know the Worst Case Response Time of the Real Time tasks ...

Urriza, Jose? M.; Schorb, Lucas; Orozco, Javier D.; Cayssials, Ricardo

2009-01-01

291

10 CFR 503.6 - Cost calculations for new powerplants and installations.  

Science.gov (United States)

...for inflation) by using the prices in effect at the time the petition...submitted. Instructions for fuel price calculations are contained in...owns the land, its purchase price may not be included). Note...analysis. (A) Assume the energy produced by the...

2010-01-01

292

42 CFR 447.206 - Cost limit for providers operated by units of government.  

Science.gov (United States)

...provider's Medicare cost report (or Medicaid cost report for intermediate nursing facility care and ICFs/MR consistent with Medicare cost reporting principles, and audited financial statements that will be used in conjunction with...

2010-10-01

293

Costos unitarios laborales verticalmente integrados por rama en México y Estados Unidos, 1970-2000 / Vertically integrated unit labor costs by sector Mexico-USA, 1970-2000  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Los tipos de cambio reales efectivos, en términos de costos unitarios de trabajo, han sido calculados en la economía mundial siguiendo varios métodos. En este trabajo se desarrolla una metodología para estimar los costos unitarios laborales vertical-mente integrados por rama económica utilizando las [...] técnicas de insumo-producto. El modelo se aplica a las economías de México y de Estados Unidos para el periodo 1970-2000. Los resultados obtenidos se comparan con un coeficiente estimado de ventaja comparativa revelada por rama de la economía mexicana a fin de establecer si el comercio exterior de México está relacionado con los costos unitarios laborales relativos en este periodo. Para probar esta relación se utilizó el análisis econométrico para datos en panel. Abstract in english Real effective exchange rates have been calculated by relative unit labor costs for many countries in the world economy. In this work we develop a methodology to estimate vertically integrated unit labor costs by sector, using input-output techniques, for the Mexican and United States economies in t [...] he period 1970-2000. The results are then compared to a measurement of revealed comparative advantage by sector, of the Mexican economy, in order to establish whether Mexican foreign trade by sector was related to its relative labor costs during this period. To test this relationship econometric analysis for panel data is utilized.

Pablo, Ruiz Nápoles.

294

ORGANIZATION OF MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING AND COST CALCULATION OF MINING IN JIU VALLEY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The scientific approach taken, due to the fact that a nationally more acute problem arises regarding mining restructuring, namely the closure of uneconomic mines, in this paper I want to report my finding on how management accounting is organized and which is the costing method currently applied by the seven mines in the Jiu Valley, which are currently functional, as well as to identify their limitations and advantages for improving them and identifying financial and economic solutions, demonstrating that in fact these are viable economic entities.

ILEANA-SORINA BOCA (RAKOS

2011-01-01

295

Comparison of measured and calculated dose rates and activities during pressure tube replacement in Pickering Units 1 and 2  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The shielding codes ORIGEN, DOT3.5, and QAD-CG have been used to calculate specific activities in and the dose rates from fuel channel components removed during the Pickering Units 1 and 2 Large Scale Fuel Channel Replacement (LSFCR) program. The calculated activities and dose rates have been compared with available measurements. The results give confidence that the methodology can be applied to radiation dose assessment associated with LSFCR program for Units 1, 2 and 3, 4 of Pickering reactors or other CANDU nuclear power stations. (author). 6 refs., 7 tabs., 9 figs

296

The DRG Project of the German Transplant Society: 1. Improved Delineation of the Cost of Liver Transplantation under the G-DRG System through Cost Analysis and Calculation of New Cost Separators  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: The first calculation of the Diagnosis Related Groups (DRGs in Germany resulted in a drastic reduction of reimbursements for liver transplantations (LTX. While under the previous reimbursement system, a liver transplantation was calculated with approximately € 125.000, the newly introduced German DRG system calculated for a liver transplantation without complications for 2004 a case weight of 11,9 and hence, based on the base rate utilized a fee of € 35.000 - € 45.000. Since under these circumstances the financing for clinical liver transplantations seemed to be in jeopardy, the Deutsche Transplantationsgesellschaft (German Society for Organ Transplantation conducted an evaluation of the actual costs of liver transplantations. Materials and Methods: The data of 75 transplant admissions from five major transplant centres were collected and 177 cost parameters were captured each day. In addition, the data which is important for the classification of the DRGs (diagnosis, procedures, length of hospital stay and duration of ventilation were recorded and cost comparisons for single parameters were performed using the DKG-NT (Deutsche Krankenhausgesellschaft Normal-Tarif [German hospital association regular price] and Lauer-Tax (drugstore base buying price. With this method the total actual costs per case were determined and also which parameter could be useful as a cost separator. Results: Based on our data, our estimated cost for the DRG liver transplantation was much higher then the actual reimbursement under the new German DRG system. This led us to initiate a discussion with the InEK and subsequently the introduction of weighed hospital days for better allocation of the cost to the liver transplanted patient. Furthermore, based on our findings, additional split criteria were discussed with the InEK, which partially have been included into the DRG 2005 system. Conclusions: The investigation which was performed in cooperation with the InEK underlined that the actual reimbursement for liver transplantations does not mirror the actual cost, and the introduction of new cost separators, new ICD and procedure codes should enable the hospitals in the future to allocate the real cost of liver transplantations to the liver recipient. The changes already implemented have resulted in a significantly higher reimbursement for liver transplantation for 2005, and have reduced the financial gap for liver transplantations considerably.

R. Lohmann

2005-12-01

297

Break-Even Cost for Residential Solar Water Heating in the United States: Key Drivers and Sensitivities  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper examines the break-even cost for residential rooftop solar water heating (SWH) technology, defined as the point where the cost of the energy saved with a SWH system equals the cost of a conventional heating fuel purchased from the grid (either electricity or natural gas). We examine the break-even cost for the largest 1,000 electric and natural gas utilities serving residential customers in the United States as of 2008. Currently, the break-even cost of SWH in the United States varies by more than a factor of five for both electricity and natural gas, despite a much smaller variation in the amount of energy saved by the systems (a factor of approximately one and a half). The break-even price for natural gas is lower than that for electricity due to a lower fuel cost. We also consider the relationship between SWH price and solar fraction and examine the key drivers behind break-even costs. Overall, the key drivers of the break-even cost of SWH are a combination of fuel price, local incentives, and technical factors including the solar resource location, system size, and hot water draw.

Cassard, H.; Denholm, P.; Ong, S.

2011-02-01

298

Energy savings estimates and cost benefit calculations for high performance relocatable classrooms  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report addresses the results of detailed monitoring completed under Program Element 6 of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's High Performance Commercial Building Systems (HPCBS) PIER program. The purpose of the Energy Simulations and Projected State-Wide Energy Savings project is to develop reasonable energy performance and cost models for high performance relocatable classrooms (RCs) across California climates. A key objective of the energy monitoring was to validate DOE2 simulations for comparison to initial DOE2 performance projections. The validated DOE2 model was then used to develop statewide savings projections by modeling base case and high performance RC operation in the 16 California climate zones. The primary objective of this phase of work was to utilize detailed field monitoring data to modify DOE2 inputs and generate performance projections based on a validated simulation model. Additional objectives include the following: (1) Obtain comparative performance data on base case and high performance HVAC systems to determine how they are operated, how they perform, and how the occupants respond to the advanced systems. This was accomplished by installing both HVAC systems side-by-side (i.e., one per module of a standard two module, 24 ft by 40 ft RC) on the study RCs and switching HVAC operating modes on a weekly basis. (2) Develop projected statewide energy and demand impacts based on the validated DOE2 model. (3) Develop cost effectiveness projections for the high performance HVAC system in the 16 California climate zones.

Rainer, Leo I.; Hoeschele, Marc A.; Apte, Michael G.; Shendell, Derek G.; Fisk, Wlliam J.

2003-12-01

299

Verification of monitor unit calculations for non-IMRT clinical radiotherapy: Report of AAPM Task Group 114  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The requirement of an independent verification of the monitor units (MU) or time calculated to deliver the prescribed dose to a patient has been a mainstay of radiation oncology quality assurance. The need for and value of such a verification was obvious when calculations were performed by hand using look-up tables, and the verification was achieved by a second person independently repeating the calculation. However, in a modern clinic using CT/MR/PET simulation, computerized 3D treatment planning, heterogeneity corrections, and complex calculation algorithms such as convolution/superposition and Monte Carlo, the purpose of and methodology for the MU verification have come into question. In addition, since the verification is often performed using a simpler geometrical model and calculation algorithm than the primary calculation, exact or almost exact agreement between the two can no longer be expected. Guidelines are needed to help the physicist set clinically reasonable action levels for agreement. This report addresses the following charges of the task group: (1) To re-evaluate the purpose and methods of the ''independent second check'' for monitor unit calculations for non-IMRT radiation treatment in light of the complexities of modern-day treatment planning. (2) To present recommendations on how to perform verification of monitor unit calculations in a modern clinic. (3) To provide recommendations on establishing action levels for agreement between primary calculevels for agreement between primary calculations and verification, and to provide guidance in addressing discrepancies outside the action levels. These recommendations are to be used as guidelines only and shall not be interpreted as requirements.

300

The Direct Costs of Patients with Traumatic Brain Injury in an Intensive Care Unit (ICU in Cyprus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: The traumatic brain injuries are one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in our country. But studies that relate to the cost of hospitalization in the Unit are very limited.Objectives: To microeconomically assess the direct costs of patients with traumatic brain injury in Nicosia Hospital.Methodology: We got a convenience sample of all patients (7 who were hospitalized from July to September 2010. (a The age, duration of stay, severity of incident and costs of all therapeutic procedures were surveyed using descriptive statistics (b Pearson chi-square was used to investigate correlations between variables. (c Multivariate Regression Analysis was employed for theinvestigation of factors affecting the cost of treatment. Age, duration of hospitalization and the cost of individual treatments were considered as independent variables for the direct cost. All tests were considered to be significant at a 5% level. Analysis was carried out using SPSS 20.0.Results: The average cost of hospitalization of the patients with traumatic brain injury in the Unit was € 18,659.51 (€ 2,936.56-33,330.2 and SD € 11,191.11. The average number of days of hospitalization was 14.14 (4-34 days and SD 10.81 days and the average age was 36 years (13-66 years and SD 20.06 years. Older age was associated with a significant longer stay, p <0.01 and furthermore age and disease severity had statistically significant correlation p <0.001 with the total cost of hospitalization.Conclusions: The cost of hospitalization in the Unit was influenced by age, duration of stay and severity of the patient's status (Glasgow Coma Scale

Despena Andrioti

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Calculational results using a survey type code system for the analysis of the Almaraz Unit 2 PWR benchmark  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The calculations performed for the Almaraz Unit 2 PWR using the code packages of the Atomic Energy Corporation of South Africa Ltd. are summarized. These calculations were done as part of the IAEA Coordinated Research Programme on In-Core Fuel Management Code Package Validation for LWRs. A brief description of the one-dimensional cross section generation package as well as of the Level II (scoping type) global core calculational package which was used is given. Detailed results are presented in several appendices. 29 figs., 20 tabs., 10 refs

302

Costes del dolor neuropático según etiología en las Unidades del Dolor en España / Neurohatic pain costs according it´s etiology the Spanish Pain Units  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo: Realizar un registro etiológico y de costes de pacientes con Dolor Neuropático (DN) en Unidades del Dolor (UD) en España. Métodos: Estudio transversal retrospectivo realizado entre abril y diciembre de 2004 en UDs. Se recogieron datos demográficos, tipo y causa del DN, origen de la derivac [...] ión y la utilización de recursos sanitarios (tratamientos, visitas médicas, hospitalizaciones, etc.), y se computaron los costes médicos directos en el año 2004. Se utilizó estadística descriptiva y modelos ANCOVA. Resultados: Se incluyeron 504 pacientes con DN de etiología variada (44% radiculopatía, 21% neuralgias, 11% neuropatías, 7% atrapamientos, 5% SDRC, 4% dolor central), con una edad de 57,8±0,7 años (Media±EE), 57,6% mujeres, y 29,6±2,2 meses de evolución. El coste medio mensual ajustado fue de 403€ (IC 95%: 333€-473€). Las neuropatías presentaron un coste medio mensual ajustado mayor que la media (580+90€, p=0,011), debido a un mayor número mensual de días de hospitalización (0,6±0,1, p=0,021) y mayor coste farmacológico (162+17€, p=0,001). Las radiculopatías mostraron menor coste que la media; 287+46€, p=0,026, particularmente por un menor coste de hospitalización; 79+38€, p=0,027. Conclusiones: El DN ocasiona una considerable utilización de recursos sanitarios con un coste sustancial para el Sistema Nacional de Salud. La neuropatía es el síndrome etiológico que tiene un mayor coste mensual por paciente, mientras que las radiculopatías muestran un coste significativamente inferior al promedio. Abstract in english Objective: To realize a registry about aetology and costs of patients with Neuropathic Pain (NeP) in Pain Clinics (PC) in Spain. Methods: Retrospective, cross-ssectional study performed between april and december 2004 in PC. Demographic data, NeP type and cause, origin of the derivation, and health [...] resources consumption (treatments, medical visits, hospitalizations, etc) were collected and direct medical costs were calculated in year 2004. A descriptive statistic and ANCOVA models were applied. Results: 504 NeP patients of broad aetiology (44% radiculophaty, 21% neuralgias, 11% neurophaties, 7% entrapment syndromes, 5% CRPS, 4% central pain), 57.8±0.7 years (Mean±SE), 57.6% women, and 29.6±2.2 months of evolution, were enrolled in the study. Adjusted monthly average cost was 403€ (95% CI: 333€-473€). Neuropathies present an adjusted monthly cost significantly higher than average (580+90€, p=0.011), because of the higher number of hospitalization days (0.6+0.1, p=0.021) and the higher pharmacologic cost (162+17€, p=0.001). Radiculophaties showed lower adjusted cost than the average; 287+46€, p=0.026, because of the lower cost of hospitalization; 79+38€, p=0.027. Conclusions: NeP causes a considerable utilization of health resources with a substantial cost for the National Health Service. Neurophaties are the aetiology syndrome which showed the higher monthly cost per patient, while radiculophaties showed a cost significantly lower than the average.

M. J., Rodríguez; A. J., García.

2007-08-01

303

On tentative decommissioning cost analysis with specific authentic cost calculations with the application of the Omega code on a case linked to the Intermediate storage facility for spent fuel in Sweden  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The presented report is focused on tentative calculations of basic decommissioning parameters such as costs, manpower and exposure of personnel for activities of older nuclear facility decommissioning in Sweden represented by Intermediate storage facility for spent fuel in Studsvik, by means of calculation code OMEGA. This report continuously follows up two previous projects, which described methodology of cost estimates of decommissioning with an emphasis to derive cost functions for alpha contaminated material and implementation of the advanced decommissioning costing methodology for Intermediate Storage facility for Spent Fuel in Studsvik. The main purpose of the presented study is to demonstrate the trial application of the advanced costing methodology using OMEGA code for Intermediate Storage Facility for Spent Fuel in Studsvik. Basic work packages presented in report are as follows: 1. Analysis and validation input data on Intermediate Storage Facility for Spent Fuel and assemble a database suitable for standardised decommissioning cost calculations including radiological parameters, 2. Proposal of range of decommissioning calculations and define an extent of decommissioning activities, 3. Defining waste management scenarios for particular material waste streams from Intermediate Storage Facility for Spent Fuel, 4. Developing standardised cost calculation structure applied for Intermediate Storage Facility for Spent Fuel decommissioning calculation and 5. Performing tentative decommissioning calculations for Intermediate Storage Facility for Spent Fuel by OMEGA code. Calculated parameters of decommissioning are presented in structure according to Proposed Standardized List of Items for Costing Purposes. All parameters are documented and summed up in both table and graphic forms in text and Annexes. The presented report documents availability and applicability of methodology for evaluation of costs and other parameters of decommissioning in a form implemented within calculation code OMEGA for calculations of Intermediate Storage for Spent Fuel in Studsvik.

Vasko, Marek; Daniska, Vladimir; Ondra, Frantisek; Bezak, Peter; Kristofova, Kristina; Tatransky, Peter; Zachar, Matej [DECOM Slovakia, spol. s.r.o., J. Bottu 2, SK-917 01 Trnava (Slovakia); Lindskog, Staffan [Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, Stockholm (Sweden)

2007-03-15

304

Radioimmunoassay evaluation and quality control by use of a simple computer program for a low cost desk top calculator  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A simple computer program for the data processing and quality control of radioimmunoassays is presented. It is written for low cost programmable desk top calculator (Hewlett Packard 97), which can be afforded by smaller laboratories. The untreated counts from the scintillation spectrometer are entered manually; the printout gives the following results: initial data, logit-log transformed calibration points, parameters of goodness of fit and of the position of the standard curve, control and unknown samples dose estimates (mean value from single dose interpolations and scatter of replicates) together with the automatic calculation of within assay variance and, by use of magnetic cards holding the control parameters of all previous assays, between assay variance. (orig.)

305

Generation expansion planning and long run marginal cost calculations using the ENPEP-(WASP) computer package  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The association of the Electricity Authority of Cyprus (EAC) with the IAEA commenced with a training course on Electric System Expansion Planning and the use of WASP-III at Argonne National Laboratory, late in 1984. At that time, both the Government of Cyprus and EAC relied mostly on external Consultants for conduct of energy and electricity planning studies. A great effort was therefore required to establish this, new for Cyprus, planning methodology. The release of ENPEP which is an integrated PC-based Energy and Power Evaluation package made the use of WASP very much easier and accessible to power system planners. Through continuous efforts these computer models have now been established in the Planning Procedures of EAC and are sued extensively to a degree that it was difficult to imagine five years ago. This paper contains some of the experiences gained in the use of these models in electric system expansion planning and the long run marginal cost analysis. (author). Figs and tabs

306

Norwegian electricity market liberalisation: questions of cost calculation and price definition by grid operators  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a study carried out on the Norwegian electricity market 10 years after its liberalisation. The similarity of the Norwegian market to the Swiss electricity market is discussed. Similarly to the proposed situation in Switzerland, the liberalisation in Norway foresaw no privatisation of public utilities and a model for the regulation of grid access was introduced. The report describes and comments on the various phases in which the liberalisation occurred and examines the various instruments used, e.g. to ensure that individual grid operators did not make undue profits from their monopoly. The methods used for the monitoring of grid operators' costs are described and the mechanisms involved in the definition of prices for grid services are examined, including measures taken when profits were too high or too low. The report is concluded with a discussion of the conclusions that can be drawn from the Norwegian model for Swiss market opening efforts

307

On tentative decommissioning cost analysis with specific authentic cost calculations with the application of the Omega code on a case linked to the Intermediate storage facility for spent fuel in Sweden  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

decommissioning calculation and 5. Performing tentative decommissioning calculations for Intermediate Storage Facility for Spent Fuel by OMEGA code. Calculated parameters of decommissioning are presented in structure according to Proposed Standardized List of Items for Costing Purposes. All parameters are documented and summed up in both table and graphic forms in text and Annexes. The presented report documents availability and applicability of methodology for evaluation of costs and other parameters of decommissioning in a form implemented within calculation code OMEGA for calculations of Intermediate Storage for Spent Fuel in Studsvik

308

Cost accounting in ECN  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A five year planning is made in which the available money is distributed to the expected programmes. This five year plan is used as basis for working plan and budget for the next year. In the working plan all financial means are divided into kinds of costs, cost centres and cost units. Based on this working plan and the relevant budgets the tariffs are calculated per working centre (cost centre). The tariffs are fixed for a whole year. Up till now these tariffs are also basis for the cost unit accounting at the end of the year together with the results of the time registration. The estimated work shop services for the working centres are included in the tariffs. For the allocation of overhead costs ECN uses dynamic keys. Depreciation costs with respect to instruments, investments etc. are determined per working centre according to a computer programme. The cost unit related costs are charged directly to cost unit. This implies that project related in instruments are looked upon as running costs. In the future we will try to refine the present cost accounting system still further in this way that we will look upon a cost centre as a profit centre. Furthermore we will try to analyse the tariff and calculation deviations and under/over occupation deviations afterwards (post calculation). The information provided to the management knows a hierachic construction: project information to projectleader, programme (compound projects) information to programme coordinator, cost centre summary to department heads, attention area (compound programme) information to programme coordinator and managing director, ECN research (compound attention areas) information to general management, information re kind of costs to relevant persons, f.e. surveys of expenditure for part time personnel to personnel bureau. The information is provided by the department of Finance and Administrative Organisation. The entire scope of cost accounting is the responsibility of the head of the department of Finance and Administrative Organisation. (author)

309

En plena crisis económica: coste y efectividad de las unidades de estancia corta hospitalarias / Economic crisis: cost and effectiveness of short stay hospital units  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Fundamento. La duración de la estancia es el principal determinante del coste de una hospitalización, por lo que se deben implementar estrategias para reducir la estancia hospitalaria convencional manteniéndose los niveles de calidad. Las Unidades de Estancia Corta (UEC) nacen con el objetivo de dis [...] minuir la estancia hospitalaria en un grupo de patologias y pacientes determinados. El objetivo de este original es evaluar la bibliografía existente sobre la evidencia de la disminución del periodo de estancia, eficiencia, reconsultas en los servicios de urgencias, coste-efectividad, y mortalidad de estas unidades. Método. Se realizó una revisión sistemática de las publicaciones que aparecen en la literatura, utilizando los términos MeSH "Observation Unit", "Short-Stay Ward", "Monday to Friday Clinic", "Monaday to Friday Surgery Ward", "Short Stay Hospitalization", "Alternative to Convencional Hospitalization", "Alternative Admissions" en la base de datos MEDLINE, Web of Knowledge y la Cochrane Library desde el 1 de enero de 1960 al 1 de enero del 2012. Los estudios revisados se seleccionaron según la US Preventive Services Task Force Protocol. Resultados. Las UEC permiten en grupos determinados de pacientes, disminuir el periodo de estancia, mantener la eficiencia, no mostrando incrementos de los reingresos por urgencias, ni la mortalidad. Conclusiones. Las UEC pueden ser un instrumento para disminuir el coste del proceso sanitario en un grupo de patologias determinadas. Abstract in english Background. Length of stay is the main determinant of the cost of hospitalization, which is why strategies must be implemented to reduce conventional hospital stays while maintaining quality levels. Short Stay Units (SSU) were created with the aim of reducing hospital stays in a certain group of pat [...] ients and pathologies. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the literature on the evidence of decreased length of stay, efficiency, readmissions in the emergency department, cost-effectiveness, and mortality of these units. Methods. We made a systematic review of the literature, using the MeSH terms "Observation Unit", "Short-Stay Ward", "Monday to Friday Clinic", "Monday to Friday Surgery Ward", "Short Stay Hospitalization", "Alternative to Conventional Hospitalization", "Alternative Admissions" in the MEDLINE database, Web of Knowledge and the Cochrane Library from January 1 1960 to January 1 2012. The studies reviewed were selected according to the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Protocol. Results. The SSU made it possible in certain groups of patients to reduce the period of stay and maintain efficiency, showing no increases in emergency readmissions or mortality. Conclusions. The SSU can be an instrument to reduce the cost of the health process in a certain group of pathologies.

F., Epelde; M.L., Iglesias-Lepine; L., Anarte.

2012-12-01

310

En plena crisis económica: coste y efectividad de las unidades de estancia corta hospitalarias / Economic crisis: cost and effectiveness of short stay hospital units  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Fundamento. La duración de la estancia es el principal determinante del coste de una hospitalización, por lo que se deben implementar estrategias para reducir la estancia hospitalaria convencional manteniéndose los niveles de calidad. Las Unidades de Estancia Corta (UEC) nacen con el objetivo de dis [...] minuir la estancia hospitalaria en un grupo de patologias y pacientes determinados. El objetivo de este original es evaluar la bibliografía existente sobre la evidencia de la disminución del periodo de estancia, eficiencia, reconsultas en los servicios de urgencias, coste-efectividad, y mortalidad de estas unidades. Método. Se realizó una revisión sistemática de las publicaciones que aparecen en la literatura, utilizando los términos MeSH "Observation Unit", "Short-Stay Ward", "Monday to Friday Clinic", "Monaday to Friday Surgery Ward", "Short Stay Hospitalization", "Alternative to Convencional Hospitalization", "Alternative Admissions" en la base de datos MEDLINE, Web of Knowledge y la Cochrane Library desde el 1 de enero de 1960 al 1 de enero del 2012. Los estudios revisados se seleccionaron según la US Preventive Services Task Force Protocol. Resultados. Las UEC permiten en grupos determinados de pacientes, disminuir el periodo de estancia, mantener la eficiencia, no mostrando incrementos de los reingresos por urgencias, ni la mortalidad. Conclusiones. Las UEC pueden ser un instrumento para disminuir el coste del proceso sanitario en un grupo de patologias determinadas. Abstract in english Background. Length of stay is the main determinant of the cost of hospitalization, which is why strategies must be implemented to reduce conventional hospital stays while maintaining quality levels. Short Stay Units (SSU) were created with the aim of reducing hospital stays in a certain group of pat [...] ients and pathologies. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the literature on the evidence of decreased length of stay, efficiency, readmissions in the emergency department, cost-effectiveness, and mortality of these units. Methods. We made a systematic review of the literature, using the MeSH terms "Observation Unit", "Short-Stay Ward", "Monday to Friday Clinic", "Monday to Friday Surgery Ward", "Short Stay Hospitalization", "Alternative to Conventional Hospitalization", "Alternative Admissions" in the MEDLINE database, Web of Knowledge and the Cochrane Library from January 1 1960 to January 1 2012. The studies reviewed were selected according to the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Protocol. Results. The SSU made it possible in certain groups of patients to reduce the period of stay and maintain efficiency, showing no increases in emergency readmissions or mortality. Conclusions. The SSU can be an instrument to reduce the cost of the health process in a certain group of pathologies.

F., Epelde; M.L., Iglesias-Lepine; L., Anarte.

311

En plena crisis económica: coste y efectividad de las unidades de estancia corta hospitalarias Economic crisis: cost and effectiveness of short stay hospital units  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fundamento. La duración de la estancia es el principal determinante del coste de una hospitalización, por lo que se deben implementar estrategias para reducir la estancia hospitalaria convencional manteniéndose los niveles de calidad. Las Unidades de Estancia Corta (UEC nacen con el objetivo de disminuir la estancia hospitalaria en un grupo de patologias y pacientes determinados. El objetivo de este original es evaluar la bibliografía existente sobre la evidencia de la disminución del periodo de estancia, eficiencia, reconsultas en los servicios de urgencias, coste-efectividad, y mortalidad de estas unidades. Método. Se realizó una revisión sistemática de las publicaciones que aparecen en la literatura, utilizando los términos MeSH "Observation Unit", "Short-Stay Ward", "Monday to Friday Clinic", "Monaday to Friday Surgery Ward", "Short Stay Hospitalization", "Alternative to Convencional Hospitalization", "Alternative Admissions" en la base de datos MEDLINE, Web of Knowledge y la Cochrane Library desde el 1 de enero de 1960 al 1 de enero del 2012. Los estudios revisados se seleccionaron según la US Preventive Services Task Force Protocol. Resultados. Las UEC permiten en grupos determinados de pacientes, disminuir el periodo de estancia, mantener la eficiencia, no mostrando incrementos de los reingresos por urgencias, ni la mortalidad. Conclusiones. Las UEC pueden ser un instrumento para disminuir el coste del proceso sanitario en un grupo de patologias determinadas.Background. Length of stay is the main determinant of the cost of hospitalization, which is why strategies must be implemented to reduce conventional hospital stays while maintaining quality levels. Short Stay Units (SSU were created with the aim of reducing hospital stays in a certain group of patients and pathologies. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the literature on the evidence of decreased length of stay, efficiency, readmissions in the emergency department, cost-effectiveness, and mortality of these units. Methods. We made a systematic review of the literature, using the MeSH terms "Observation Unit", "Short-Stay Ward", "Monday to Friday Clinic", "Monday to Friday Surgery Ward", "Short Stay Hospitalization", "Alternative to Conventional Hospitalization", "Alternative Admissions" in the MEDLINE database, Web of Knowledge and the Cochrane Library from January 1 1960 to January 1 2012. The studies reviewed were selected according to the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Protocol. Results. The SSU made it possible in certain groups of patients to reduce the period of stay and maintain efficiency, showing no increases in emergency readmissions or mortality. Conclusions. The SSU can be an instrument to reduce the cost of the health process in a certain group of pathologies.

F. Epelde

2012-12-01

312

Low cost solar array project production process and equipment task. A Module Experimental Process System Development Unit (MEPSDU)  

Science.gov (United States)

Technical readiness for the production of photovoltaic modules using single crystal silicon dendritic web sheet material is demonstrated by: (1) selection, design and implementation of solar cell and photovoltaic module process sequence in a Module Experimental Process System Development Unit; (2) demonstration runs; (3) passing of acceptance and qualification tests; and (4) achievement of a cost effective module.

1981-01-01

313

Life cycle assessment of renewables: present issues, future outlook and implications for the calculation of external costs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In principle, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is certainly appropriate for estimating external costs of renewables, since major environmental impacts of the latter are generated in phases of the life cycle other than use. In practice however, several issues still remain. They are related to the availability and quality of Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) data, to the frit technological development of renewable energy technologies (RET), to the existence of many different applications of the latter and to a strong dependency on local conditions. Moreover, a 'static' picture of present technologies is not enough for policy indications. Therefore some kind of dynamic LCA is needed. These LCA issues are reflected in the calculation of external costs. First, the paper discusses these issues on the examples of two main technologies, namely photovoltaic (PV) and wind. Second, it discusses the results of ExternE for these two specific technologies and gives an outlook for the future. Future needs for a better use of LCA as a support tool for the calcination of external costs are identified. Finally, a new research project funded by the European Commission focused on LCI of renewables is briefly introduced and presented. (author)

314

Cost Savings of Universal Decolonization to Prevent Intensive Care Unit Infection: Implications of the REDUCE MRSA Trial.  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective.?To estimate and compare the impact on healthcare costs of 3 alternative strategies for reducing bloodstream infections in the intensive care unit (ICU): methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) nares screening and isolation, targeted decolonization (ie, screening, isolation, and decolonization of MRSA carriers or infections), and universal decolonization (ie, no screening and decolonization of all ICU patients). Design.?Cost analysis using decision modeling. Methods.?We developed a decision-analysis model to estimate the health care costs of targeted decolonization and universal decolonization strategies compared with a strategy of MRSA nares screening and isolation. Effectiveness estimates were derived from a recent randomized trial of the 3 strategies, and cost estimates were derived from the literature. Results.?In the base case, universal decolonization was the dominant strategy and was estimated to have both lower intervention costs and lower total ICU costs than either screening and isolation or targeted decolonization. Compared with screening and isolation, universal decolonization was estimated to save $171,000 and prevent 9 additional bloodstream infections for every 1,000 ICU admissions. The dominance of universal decolonization persisted under a wide range of cost and effectiveness assumptions. Conclusions.?A strategy of universal decolonization for patients admitted to the ICU would both reduce bloodstream infections and likely reduce healthcare costs compared with strategies of MRSA nares screening and isolation or screening and isolation coupled with targeted decolonization. PMID:25222894

Huang, Susan S; Septimus, Edward; Avery, Taliser R; Lee, Grace M; Hickok, Jason; Weinstein, Robert A; Moody, Julia; Hayden, Mary K; Perlin, Jonathan B; Platt, Richard; Ray, G Thomas

2014-10-01

315

The method of the unit costs. A method for CHP plants cost allocation on both types of energy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the first part of the paper we try to explain why the production of electricity is more expansive than the production of heat. In the last part of the paper we propose a new method for fuel consumption allocation between the two forms of energy. The method leads to a scientifically higher cost for electricity but on the other hand presents some important advantages: - It establishes a correct price for both types of energy, increasing the competitiveness of the CHP plant on the heat market; - It facilitates the implementation of the energy efficiency methods focusing on electricity savings and that leads to higher fuel savings and lower greenhouse gasses emissions; - It facilitates the rehabilitation methods that lead to a higher electricity production efficiency

316

An econometric analysis of the major determinants of nursing home costs in the United States.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study presents statistical cost function estimates based on data from the 1973-74 National Nursing Home Survey. Using multiple regression techniques, multiplicative and additive models of both total cost and operating cost are presented. Findings from the analysis contribute to the growing literature on nursing home costs and provide added insight to a number of important topics. Economies to scale are indicated with an optimum size in the 300-400 bed range. Flat-rate reimbursement systems and other systems which set rates prospectively are shown to be associated with significantly lower nursing home costs when compared to the incentives of cost based systems with or without limits and the incentives of private financing. Increases in both the admission rate and the occupancy rate are associated with higher costs though only the latter relationship proves of much practical significance, with the cost savings more pronounced for facilities starting with low occupancy rates. The profit motive is confirmed as an important incentive for containing costs. Holding several important level or scope of service indicators constant, proprietary nursing homes were found to have total costs 7% lower and operating costs 11% lower than in the voluntary non-profit nursing homes. The range of therapeutic services available and the type of staff coverage of the daily shifts provided in the nursing homes are confirmed as key cost determinants. Evidence is also provided which suggests that residents with mid-level dependency are relatively more costly to treat than those who are completely dependent or independent. The usefulness of other facility descriptions and quality proxy measures as cost determinants is also explored. The results are compared to those from other recent nursing home cost function studies. PMID:7101004

Meiners, M R

1982-01-01

317

NUCIRC Single Channel Analysis for Calculating the Power Coefficients of the Wolsong Unit1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Wolsong Unit 1 is a CANDU(CANadian Deuterium Uranium) reactor imported from Canada, which has been generated 2061.4 MW(th) and 678.7 MWe since April 1983. Because the design lifetime of this reactor is 30 years, KHNP(Korea Hydro Nuclear Power) Co. decided to operate the Wolsong Unit 1 continuously under the confirmation of safety and economic efficiency after the refurbishment. As a part of Refurbishment Project of the Wolsong Unit 1, the nuclear design part(Chapter 4.3) of FSAR(Final Safety Analysis Report) has been revised and re-written. This paper describes the NUCIRC single channel analysis model developed for evaluating the power coefficient of the Wolsong Unit 1

318

EconoMe-Develop - a calculation tool for multi-risk assessment and benefit-cost-analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

Public money is used to finance the protection of human life, material assets and the environment against natural hazards. This limited resource should be used in a way that it achieves the maximum possible effect by minimizing as many risks as possible. Hence, decision-makers are facing the question which mitigation measures should be prioritised. Benefit-Cost-Analysis (BCA) is a recognized method for determining the economic efficiency of investments in mitigation measures. In Switzerland, the Federal Office for the Environment (FOEN) judges the benefit-cost-ratio of mitigation projects on the base of the results of the calculation tool "EconoMe" [1]. The check of the economic efficiency of mitigation projects with an investment of more than 1 million CHF (800,000 EUR) by using "EconoMe" is mandatory since 2008 in Switzerland. Within "EconoMe", most calculation parameters cannot be changed by the user allowing for comparable results. Based on the risk guideline "RIKO" [2] an extended version of the operational version of "EconoMe", called "EconoMe-Develop" was developed. "EconoMe-Develop" is able to deal with various natural hazard processes and thus allows multi-risk assessments, since all restrictions of the operational version of "EconoMe" like e.g. the number of scenarios and expositions, vulnerability, spatial probability of processes and probability of presence of objects, are not existing. Additionally, the influences of uncertainty of calculation factors, like e.g. vulnerability, on the final results can be determined. "EconoMe-Develop" offers import and export of data, e.g. results of GIS-analysis. The possibility for adapting the tool to user specific requirements makes EconoMe-Develop an easy-to-use tool for risk assessment and assessment of economic efficiency of mitigation projects for risk experts. In the paper we will present the most important features of the tool and we will illustrate the application by a practical example.

Bründl, M.

2012-04-01

319

Levelized Product Cost: Concept and Decision Relevance  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper examines a life-cycle cost concept that applies to both manufacturing and service industries in which upfront capacity investments are essential. Borrowing from the energy literature, we refer to this cost measure as the levelized product cost (LC). Per unit of output, the levelized cost aggregates a share of the initial capacity expenditure with periodic fixed and variable operating costs. The resulting cost figure exceeds the full cost of a product, as commonly calculated in mana...

Reichelstein, Stefan; Rohlfing-bastian, Anna

2014-01-01

320

Cost-effectiveness of social marketing of insecticide-treated nets for malaria control in the United Republic of Tanzania  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the costs and consequences of a social marketing approach to malaria control in children by means of insecticide-treated nets in two rural districts of the United Republic of Tanzania, compared with no net use. METHODS: Project cost data were collected prospectively from accounting records. Community effectiveness was estimated on the basis of a nested case-control study and a cross-sectional cluster sample survey. FINDINGS: The social marketing approach to the distribution of insecticide-treated nets was estimated to cost US$ 1560 per death averted and US$ 57 per disability-adjusted life year averted. These figures fell to US$ 1018 and US$ 37, respectively, when the costs and consequences of untreated nets were taken into account. CONCLUSION: The social marketing of insecticide-treated nets is an attractive intervention for preventing childhood deaths from malaria.

Hanson Kara

2003-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

RELAP5/MOD3.3 code calculation for preoperational tests of safety injection tanks in SKN unit 3  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Shin Kori nuclear power plant (SKN) unit 3 and 4 are now being constructed as a first plant of APR1400. APR1400 has adopted a new design feature, called fluidic device (FD), in safety injection tanks (SITs) to optimize the emergency core cooling (ECC) flow rate. Before starting the commercial operation, the safety systems have to be tested to ensure their performances of safety functions. The object of preoperational tests for SITs is to confirm whether the performance of SITs satisfies the design requirement which is defined by a design basis accidents analysis. The design requirement can be expressed as pressure loss coefficient, called K factor, which can convert to discharge flow rate of SITs from a certain pressure condition of SITs. Preoperational tests of four SITs were performed in March 2012. To evaluate the K factor, the pressure and water level of SITs are measured. The results of evaluated K factor are bounded at the lowest value of the design requirement due to measurement uncertainty. Therefore, KHNP expanded the design requirement to embrace the measurement uncertainty. A consistency between the evaluated K factor and code calculation results has to be verified through code calculation although KINS agrees with validity of expanded requirement. This paper deals with benchmark calculations of preoperational tests for SITs in SKN unit 3 using RELAP5/MOD3.3 code. Calculation results are compared with measured data and show a consistency between the calculation data and measured data.

Lim, Sang Gyu [KHNP, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

2012-10-15

322

Health Care Use and Costs for Participants in a Diabetes Disease Management Program, United States, 2007-2008  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available IntroductionThe Disease Management Association of America identifies diabetes as one of the chronic conditions with the greatest potential for management. TRICARE Management Activity, which administers health care benefits for US military service personnel, retirees, and their dependents, created a disease management program for beneficiaries with diabetes. The objective of this study was to determine whether participation intensity and prior indication of uncontrolled diabetes were associated with health care use and costs for participants enrolled in TRICARE’s diabetes management program.MethodsThis ongoing, opt-out study used a quasi-experimental approach to assess program impact for beneficiaries (n = 37,370 aged 18 to 64 living in the United States. Inclusion criteria were any diabetes-related emergency department visits or hospitalizations, more than 10 diabetes-related ambulatory visits, or more than twenty 30-day prescriptions for diabetes drugs in the previous year. Beginning in June 2007, all participants received educational mailings. Participants who agreed to receive a baseline telephone assessment and telephone counseling once per month in addition to educational mailings were considered active, and those who did not complete at least the baseline telephone assessment were considered passive. We categorized the diabetes status of each participant as “uncontrolled” or “controlled” on the basis of medical claims containing diagnosis codes for uncontrolled diabetes in the year preceding program eligibility. We compared observed outcomes to outcomes predicted in the absence of diabetes management. Prediction equations were based on regression analysis of medical claims for a historical control group (n = 23,818 that in October 2004 met the eligibility criteria for TRICARE’s program implemented June 2007. We conducted regression analysis comparing historical control group patient outcomes after October 2004 with these baseline characteristics.ResultsPer-person total annual medical savings for program participants, calculated as the difference between observed and predicted outcomes, averaged $783. Active participants had larger reductions in inpatient days and emergency department visits, larger increases in ambulatory visits, and larger increases in receiving retinal examinations, hemoglobin A1c tests, and urine microalbumin tests compared with passive participants. Participants with prior indication of uncontrolled diabetes had higher per-person total annual medical savings, larger reduction in inpatient days, and larger increases in ambulatory visits than did participants with controlled diabetes.ConclusionGreater intensity of participation in TRICARE’s diabetes management program was associated with lower medical costs and improved receipt of recommended testing. That patients who were categorized as having uncontrolled diabetes realized greater program benefits suggests diabetes management programs should consider indication of uncontrolled diabetes in their program candidate identification criteria.

Timothy M. Dall, MS

2011-05-01

323

Primer: The DOE Wind Energy Program's Approach to Calculating Cost of Energy: July 9, 2005 - July 8, 2006  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report details the methodology used by DOE to calculate levelized cost of wind energy and demonstrates the variation in COE estimates due to different financing assumptions independent of wind generation technology.

George, K.; Schweizer, T.

2008-01-01

324

Development of DUST: A computer code that calculates release rates from a LLW disposal unit  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Performance assessment of a Low-Level Waste (LLW) disposal facility begins with an estimation of the rate at which radionuclides migrate out of the facility (i.e., the disposal unit source term). The major physical processes that influence the source term are water flow, container degradation, waste form leaching, and radionuclide transport. A computer code, DUST (Disposal Unit Source Term) has been developed which incorporates these processes in a unified manner. The DUST code improves upon existing codes as it has the capability to model multiple container failure times, multiple waste form release properties, and radionuclide specific transport properties. Verification studies performed on the code are discussed

325

Site Evaluation and Diffusion Calculation Procedures in the United States Of America  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

atmospheric diffusion, plus reduction factors due to the engineered safeguards. Dose ratios with and without various systems are given in a parameter study to show that the reliability and redundancy of a system must increase as its dose reduction factor increases, A tabulation of data is given for a number of approved reactor sites and facilities in the United States. (author)

326

Cost calculation of CO2-removal via underground storage. KOCA-CO2; Kostencalculatie van CO2-verwijdering via ondergrondse opslag. KOCA-CO2  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Storage of CO2 is one of the options to realize the CO2-reduction target of 6% in the Netherlands. The aim of the study on the title subject is to calculate of the variations of the costs of CO2-removal from the atrmosphere by means of underground storage. The variable costs concern catch, compression, transport and storage of CO2 and the total costs of different removal scenarios. 37 refs.

Wildenborg, A.F.B.; Van Wees, J.D.; Loris, F.; Van der Meer, L.G.H.; Schuppers, J.; Parker-Witmans, N. [Nederlands Instituut voor Geowetenschappen TNO-NITG, Haarlem (Netherlands); Hendriks, C.; Blok, K. [Ecofys, Utrecht (Netherlands)

1999-07-01

327

Excess costs associated with common healthcare-associated infections in an Iranian cardiac surgical unit.  

Science.gov (United States)

Healthcare-associated infection (HCAI) following open heart surgery is not only a major cause of mortality and morbidity, but also carries higher costs. There are limited data on the additional costs due to HCAI in non-western countries. To estimate the direct cost of the four most common HCAIs in an Iranian sample, we studied 1191 patients admitted for elective open heart surgery. HCAIs were defined using the National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance criteria (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA). The financial costs of length of stay per day in hospital, paraclinical services, medications, instruments, and operating room were provided by the hospital's finance department. The contribution of HCAI to excess direct medical costs in patients with HCAI was assessed by multivariable linear regression. In the study population, the mean age was 57.3±11.9 years, 857 (72.0%) were men, and 64 (5.4%) developed HCAI. In total there were 73 infections of which the most common was surgical site infection (49.3%), followed by urinary tract infection (20.5%), bloodstream infection (16.5%), and pneumonia (13.7%). After adjustment for other confounders HCAI remained associated with excess direct medical costs (?=1707.06, SE=90.84; P < 0.001). The medical costs in patients with HCAI were almost twice those in patients without HCAI. More than half of the excess cost was attributable to prolonged hospitalisation. PMID:20833445

Nosrati, M; Boroumand, M; Tahmasebi, S; Sotoudeh, M; Sheikhfathollahi, M; Goodarzynejad, H

2010-12-01

328

26 CFR 1.263A-9 - The avoided cost method.  

Science.gov (United States)

...required to) make the avoided cost calculation on the basis of a full taxable...computation period, a single avoided cost calculation is made for each unit of designated...full taxable year, an avoided cost calculation is made for each unit...

2010-04-01

329

A simple theoretical verification of monitor unit calculation for intensity modulated beams using dynamic mini-multileaf collimation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A spreadsheet based program is presented to perform an independent Monitor Unit (MU) calculation verification for the Quality Assurance (QA) of Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) using Dynamic MultiLeaf Collimation (DMLC). The computed dose value is compared to the planned dose by calculating the percent dose difference per Intensity Modulated Beam (IMB) and absolute dose difference per IMB. The proposed acceptability levels are ±5.0% or ±2.0 cGy for the percent dose difference per IMB and the absolute dose difference per IMB, respectively. For percent dose difference per treatment, an acceptability level of ±2.0% is proposed. The presented program is considered adequate for checking the treatment plans calculated for IMRT treatments using DMLC as a part of the QA procedure

330

CRC DEPLETION CALCULATIONS FOR THE RODDED ASSEMBLIES IN BATCHES 1, 2, 3, AND 1X OF CRYSTAL RIVER UNIT 3  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this design analysis is to document the SAS2H depletion calculations of certain rodded fuel assemblies from batches 1, 2, 3, and 1X of the Crystal River Unit 3 pressurized water reactor (PWR) that are required for Commercial Reactor Critical (CRC) evaluations to support the development of the disposal criticality methodology. A rodded assembly is one that contains a control rod assembly (CRA) or an axial power shaping rod assembly (APSRA) for some period of time during its irradiation history. The objective of this analysis is to provide SAS2H calculated isotopic compositions of depleted fuel and depleted burnable poison for each fuel assembly to be used in subsequent CRC reactivity calculations containing the fuel assemblies.

Kenneth D. Wright

1997-09-03

331

The EURISOL Multi-MW Target Unit: Neutronics, Dose Rate, Shielding and Activation Calculations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

d storage of the fission targets is considered. The results obtained using the state-of-the-art Monte Carlo codes MCNPX and FLUKA are presented. The neutronics, dose rate, shielding and activation calculations, needed for radiological protection and safety assessment purposes are discussed.

332

Trends in fuel and O-M costs in the United States  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Main results of analysis of average fuel-, operation- and maintenance costs for all the USA operating NPPs and coal-fired thermal power stations from 1968 to 1980 are summarized. It is noted that the fuel component of electricity cost for NPPs has increased about 2.5 times durin 12 years. This agrees with he inflation growth in the country during the same period. It is concluded that, if the existing trends not changed, the operation component for NPPs will become the second in magnitude after the capital component cost of electricity production to have exceeded the fuel component

333

INTEGRATION OF THE ACTIVITY BASED COSTING AND THE UNITS OF PRODUCTION METHOD: A CASE STUDY INTEGRAÇÃO DO CUSTEIO ABC COM O MÉTODO UP: UM ESTUDO DE CASO  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A competitive environment suggests changes in the form of costs management to able the company to remain in the market. Within this perspective, the objective of this article is to describe the integration of the activity based costing (ABC and the units of production (UP method in a food plant. The former is used for an appropriation of administrative and commercial expenses as a perfected form of allocating operational expenses; the latter, for the allocation of production variable expenses, marginal cost and fixed costs of production. This research methodology consists of an exploratory study, accomplished through a case study with a quantitative approach. The results of the research have demonstrated that the UP method considers a single measure to calculate production efforts, contemplating exclusively the transformation costs. In turn, by the application of the ABC to allocate operational expenses, the vision of processes and activities expands. It has been concluded that, in spite of different degrees of emphasis, the integration of the two costing methodologies increases quality of information, providing subsidies to the management to improve the classification of activities and the measurement of productivity. Keywords: Integration. The Activity Based Costing. The Units of Production Method. O ambiente competitivo sugere mudanças na forma de administrar os custos para possibilitar a continuidade da empresa no mercado. Nesta perspectiva, o objetivo deste artigo é descrever a integração do custeio baseado em atividades com o método das unidades de produção em uma indústria do setor de alimentos. O primeiro, usado para apropriação das despesas administrativas e despesas comerciais, como uma forma mais acurada de alocar as despesas operacionais. O segundo, para alocação dos gastos variáveis de fabricação, custo marginal e custos fixos de fabricação. A metodologia da pesquisa consubstancia-se de um estudo exploratório, realizado por meio de um estudo de caso, com abordagem quantitativa. Os resultados da pesquisa evidenciam que o método das unidades de produção considera uma única medida para mensurar os esforços de produção, contemplando exclusivamente os custos de transformação. Por sua vez, a aplicação do custeio baseado em atividades para alocação das despesas operacionais expande a visão de processos e atividades. Concluiu-se que, mesmo com diferentes ênfases, a integração das duas metodologias de custeio adicionam maior qualidade na informação, fornecendo subsídios à gestão para melhorar a classificação das atividades e a medição de produtividade. Palavras chave: Integração. Custeio baseado em atividades. Método das unidades de produção.

Anderson Léo Sabadin

2007-07-01

334

Woody biomass production costs in the United States: an economic summary of commercial Populus plantation systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Production costs for commercial-sized Populus plantations were developed from a series of research programs sponsored by the US Department of Energy's Short Rotation Woody Crops Program. Populus hybrid planted on good quality agricultural sites at a density of 2100 cuttings ha-1 was projected to yield an average of 16 Mg (OD) ha-1yr-1. Discounted cash flow analysis of multiple rotations showed production costs of $17 (US) mg -1 (OD). (author)

335

Clinical Effectiveness and Cost-Effectiveness of HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis in Men Who Have Sex with Men: Risk Calculators for Real-World Decision-Making  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) can be clinically effective and cost-effective for HIV prevention in high-risk men who have sex with men (MSM). However, individual patients have different risk profiles, real-world populations vary, and no practical tools exist to guide clinical decisions or public health strategies. We introduce a practical model of HIV acquisition, including both a personalized risk calculator for clinical management and a cost-effectiveness calculator for population-level decisions. Methods We developed a decision-analytic model of PrEP for MSM. The primary clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness outcomes were the number needed to treat (NNT) to prevent one HIV infection, and the cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained. We characterized patients according to risk factors including PrEP adherence, condom use, sexual frequency, background HIV prevalence and antiretroviral therapy use. Results With standard PrEP adherence and national epidemiologic parameters, the estimated NNT was 64 (95% uncertainty range: 26, 176) at a cost of $160,000 (cost saving, $740,000) per QALY – comparable to other published models. With high (35%) HIV prevalence, the NNT was 35 (21, 57), and cost per QALY was $27,000 (cost saving, $160,000), and with high PrEP adherence, the NNT was 30 (14, 69), and cost per QALY was $3,000 (cost saving, $200,000). In contrast, for monogamous, serodiscordant relationships with partner antiretroviral therapy use, the NNT was 90 (39, 157) and cost per QALY was $280,000 ($14,000, $670,000). Conclusions PrEP results vary widely across individuals and populations. Risk calculators may aid in patient education, clinical decision-making, and cost-effectiveness evaluation. PMID:25285793

Chen, Anders; Dowdy, David W.

2014-01-01

336

Level II Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Cost Avoidance in the Colorado Springs Catchment Area.  

Science.gov (United States)

Due to increased utilization of neonatal intensive care services in the Colorado Springs catchment, the elimination of Fitzsimons Army Medical Center's neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), a monopoly market for NICU services in Colorado Springs, and the h...

R. S. Ellenberger

1995-01-01

337

Cálculo del Costo Comparativo de la Obtención de Concentrados de Boratos / Comparative Cost Calculation in the Obtaining of Borate Concentrates  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Este trabajo muestra la similitud existente entre los diagramas de flujo, balances de materia y equipos empleados en la concentración de boratos para obtener refinados y boratos de alto valor agregado. Se usa una planilla de cálculo para determinar el costo de producción para distintas condiciones d [...] e operación, a fin de determinar la oportunidad y conveniencia de cambiar el producto final, empleando la misma planta productora. Se analiza un caso particular que compara la producción de 10 tn/hr de concentrado de ulexita o de hidroboracita. Se obtiene un costo de producción por tonelada de B2O3 de 94.3 US dólares para la concentración de ulexita, que se reduce a 67.5 US dólares para la concentración de hidroboracita. Se concluye que el método propuesto es una herramienta que facilita el análisis económico del proceso productivo estudiado. Abstract in english This paper presents the similitude found between flow sheets, material balances and equipments employed in the concentration of borates, to obtain base refined borates and to obtain high added value borates. Spread sheet calculations are used to determine the production costs for different operating [...] conditions and to analyze the opportunity and convenience of changing the final product, using the same process plant. A study case is considered in which 10 tn/hr of ulexite concentrate or the same amount of hydroboracite are produced. The cost per ton of B2O3 was 94.3 US dollars for the concentrated ulexite and 67.5 US dollars for concentrated hydroboracite. It is concluded that the proposed method is an useful tool for the economic analysis of the productive process considered in this study.

Horacio R, Flores; María de los Á, Tinte.

338

On exergy costing in exergoeconomics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Existing methods of the exergoeconomic analysis and optimization of energy systems operate with single average or marginal cost values per exergy unit for each material stream in the system being considered. These costs do not contain detailed information on (a) how much exergy, and (b) at what cost the exergy was supplied in each of the previous process steps. The cost of supplying the same exergy form, however, might vary significantly from one step to the other. Knowledge of the exergy addition and the corresponding cost at each previous step can be used to improve the costing process. This paper presents a new approach to exergy costing in exergoeconomics. The monetary flow rate associated with the thermal, mechanical and chemical exergy of a material stream at a given state is calculated by considering the complete previous history of supplying and removing units of the corresponding exergy form to and from the stream being considered. When exergy is supplied to a stream, the cost of adding each exergy unit to the stream is calculated using the cost of product exergy unit for the process or device in which the exergy addition occurs. When exergy is supplied to a stream, the cost of adding each exergy unit to the stream is calculated using the cost of product exergy unit for the process or device in which the exergy addition occurs the stream being considered supplies exergy to another exergy carrier, the last-in-first-out principle of accounting is used for the s principle of accounting is used for the spent exergy units to calculate the cost of exergy supply to the carrier

339

Health resource utilization and cost associated with myeloproliferative neoplasms in a large United States health plan.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract Myelofibrosis (MF), polycythemia vera (PV) and essential thrombocythemia (ET) may lead to bone marrow fibrosis. Because the disease course of ET and PV are long and the disease course of MF may be fatal, healthcare resource utilization (HRU) associated costs of these neoplasms are especially important to understand. We used a large US health insurance claim database to describe the costs of these diseases. Compared to age-gender matched comparisons without myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN), all aspects of HRU that we examined, including inpatient, outpatient and emergency room visits and pharmacy, as well as overall healthcare expenditures, were significantly higher in patients with MF, PV and ET (e.g. MF total costs = $54 168 vs. $10 203; PV = $14 903 vs. $7913; ET = $29 553 vs. $8026) than in matched comparisons. In order to reduce the burden of illness associated with these diseases, continued efforts in the development of more efficacious treatments for these disorders are needed. PMID:24450579

Mehta, Jyotsna; Wang, Hongwei; Fryzek, Jon P; Iqbal, Sheikh Usman; Mesa, Ruben

2014-10-01

340

Capital and operating cost estimation for milling of uranium ores in United States  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The strategic importance of uranium as an energy source must be a major consideration in the formulation of a comprehensive energy policy by U.S. decision makers. Accurate cost estimating is an integral step in the evaluation process of a potential mineral deposit for the milling of uranium ores in the production of the uranium concentrate yellowcake. Capital and operating cost estimates were developed for conventional milling techniques between 500 and 8,000 tons of ore per day using standard engineering methods. The operating parameters of U.S. uranium mills were the basis for the findings in this study. To facilitate the application to site-specific situations, the cost estimates presented herein may be adjusted to include the site-specific parameters for four conventional milling methods

 
 
 
 
341

Light ion facility projects in Europe: methodological aspects for the calculation of the treatment cost per protocol.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the framework of the European Network for Research in Light Ion Hadron Therapy (ENLIGHT), the health economics group develops a methodology for assessing important investment and operating costs of this innovative treatment against its expected benefits. The main task is to estimate the cost per treated patient. The cost analysis is restricted to the therapeutic phase from the hospital point of view. An original methodology for cost assessment per treatment protocol is developed based on standard costs. Costs related to direct medical activity are based on the production process analysis, whereas indirect and non direct medical costs are allocated to each protocol using relevant cost-drivers. The resulting cost model will take into account the specificities of each therapeutic protocol as well as the particularities of each of the European projects. PMID:15971339

Pommier, Pascal; Zucca, Luciano; Näslund, Ingemar; Auberger, Thomas; Combs, Stephanie E; François, Guy; Heeren, Germaine; Rochat, Joël; Perrier, Lionel

2004-12-01

342

CRC DEPLETION CALCULATIONS FOR THE NON-RODDED ASSEMBLIES IN BATCHES 8 AND 9 CRYSTAL RIVER UNIT 3  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this design analysis is to document the SAS2H depletion calculations of certain non-rodded fuel assemblies from batches 8 and 9 of the Crystal River Unit 3 pressurized water reactor (PWR) that are required for Commercial Reactor Critical (CRC) evaluations to support the development of the disposal criticality methodology. A non-rodded assembly is one which never contains a control rod assembly (CRA) or an axial power shaping rod assembly (APSRA) during its irradiation history. The objective of this analysis is to provide SAS2H generated isotopic compositions for each fuel assembly's depleted fuel and depleted burnable poison materials. These SAS2H generated isotopic compositions are acceptable for use in CRC benchmark reactivity calculations containing the various fuel assemblies.

Michael L. Wilson

2001-02-08

343

Monitor unit calculation on the beam axis of open and wedged asymmetric high-energy photon beams  

Science.gov (United States)

An ESTRO booklet and a report of the Netherlands Commission on Radiation Dosimetry have been published recently describing empirical methods for monitor unit (MU) calculations in symmetrical high-energy photon beams. Both documents support the same basic ideas; firstly the separation of head scatter and volume scatter components and secondly the determination of head scatter quantities in a mini-phantom. Based on these ideas the methods previously described for MU calculations in symmetrical beams are extended to asymmetrical open and wedged beams in isocentric treatment conditions. All required dosimetric parameters (normalized head scatter factors, phantom scatter correction factors, wedge factors, off-axis ratios, quality index, and depth dose parameters) are determined as a function of beam axis position in order to study their off-axis dependence. Measurements are performed for 6 MV and 18 MV photon beams provided by two different dual-energy linear accelerators, a GE Saturne 42 and a Varian 2100 CD linac.

Georg, Dietmar

1999-12-01

344

Quantum-chemical calculations of bonding energy and the unit-cell parameters of crystalline magnesium difluoride  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Quantum-chemical calculations of the bonding energy of the crystal lattice, the unit-cell parameters, and the coordinates of the anions in crystalline magnesium difluoride have been performed in the framework of the Loewdin model. An expression for the energy of the three-particle interactions in rutile-like crystals has been obtained. The calculations were carried out in three successive approximations. A comparison with the experimental data shows that the best description of the interatomic interactions in rutile-like magnesium fluoride (in the framework of the Loewdin model) is achieved in an approximation which takes into account the non-Madelung interactions only in the first coordination sphere. Consideration of the short-range interactions with more distant ions worsens the agreement between theory and experiment

345

CRC DEPLETION CALCULATIONS FOR THE NON-RODDED ASSEMBLIES IN BATCHES 4 AND 5 OF CRYSTAL RIVER UNIT 3  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this design analysis is to document the SAS2H depletion calculations of certain non-rodded fuel assemblies from batches 4 and 5 of the Crystal River Unit 3 pressurized water reactor (PWR) that are required for commercial Reactor Critical (CRC) evaluations to support the development of the disposal criticality methodology. A non-rodded assembly is one which never contains a control rod assembly (CRA) or an axial power shaping rod assembly (APSRA) during its irradiation history. The objective of this analysis is to provide SAS2H generated isotopic compositions for each fuel assembly's depleted fuel and depleted burnable poison materials. These SAS2H generated isotopic compositions are acceptable for use in CRC benchmark reactivity calculations containing the various fuel assemblies

346

CRC DEPLETION CALCULATIONS FOR THE NON-RODDED ASSEMBLIES IN BATCHES 8 AND 9 CRYSTAL RIVER UNIT 3  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this design analysis is to document the SAS2H depletion calculations of certain non-rodded fuel assemblies from batches 8 and 9 of the Crystal River Unit 3 pressurized water reactor (PWR) that are required for Commercial Reactor Critical (CRC) evaluations to support the development of the disposal criticality methodology. A non-rodded assembly is one which never contains a control rod assembly (CRA) or an axial power shaping rod assembly (APSRA) during its irradiation history. The objective of this analysis is to provide SAS2H generated isotopic compositions for each fuel assembly's depleted fuel and depleted burnable poison materials. These SAS2H generated isotopic compositions are acceptable for use in CRC benchmark reactivity calculations containing the various fuel assemblies

347

CRC DEPLETION CALCULATIONS FOR THE NON-RODDED ASSEMBLIES IN BATCHES 1, 2, AND 3 OF CRYSTAL RIVER UNIT 3  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this design analysis is to document the SAS2H depletion calculations of certain non-rodded fuel assemblies from batches 1, 2, and 3 of the Crystal River Unit 3 pressurized water reactor (PWR) that are required for Commercial Reactor Critical (CRC) evaluations to support development of the disposal criticality methodology. A non-rodded assembly is one which never contains a control rod assembly (CRA) or an axial power shaping rod assembly (APSRA) during its irradiation history. The objective of this analysis is to provide SAS2H generated isotopic compositions for each fuel assembly's depleted fuel and depleted burnable poison materials. These SAS2H generated isotopic compositions are acceptable for use in CRC benchmark reactivity calculations containing the various fuel assemblies.

Kenneth D. Wright

1997-07-29

348

CRC DEPLETION CALCULATIONS FOR THE NON-RODDED ASSEMBLIES IN BATCHES 1, 2, AND 3 OF CRYSTAL RIVER UNIT 3  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this design analysis is to document the SAS2H depletion calculations of certain non-rodded fuel assemblies from batches 1, 2, and 3 of the Crystal River Unit 3 pressurized water reactor (PWR) that are required for Commercial Reactor Critical (CRC) evaluations to support development of the disposal criticality methodology. A non-rodded assembly is one which never contains a control rod assembly (CRA) or an axial power shaping rod assembly (APSRA) during its irradiation history. The objective of this analysis is to provide SAS2H generated isotopic compositions for each fuel assembly's depleted fuel and depleted burnable poison materials. These SAS2H generated isotopic compositions are acceptable for use in CRC benchmark reactivity calculations containing the various fuel assemblies

349

CRC DEPLETION CALCULATIONS FOR THE NON-RODDED ASSEMBLIES IN BATCHES 4 AND 5 OF CRYSTAL RIVER UNIT 3  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this design analysis is to document the SAS2H depletion calculations of certain non-rodded fuel assemblies from batches 4 and 5 of the Crystal River Unit 3 pressurized water reactor (PWR) that are required for commercial Reactor Critical (CRC) evaluations to support the development of the disposal criticality methodology. A non-rodded assembly is one which never contains a control rod assembly (CRA) or an axial power shaping rod assembly (APSRA) during its irradiation history. The objective of this analysis is to provide SAS2H generated isotopic compositions for each fuel assembly's depleted fuel and depleted burnable poison materials. These SAS2H generated isotopic compositions are acceptable for use in CRC benchmark reactivity calculations containing the various fuel assemblies.

Kenneth D. Wright

1997-07-30

350

Monitor unit calculations for external photon and electron beams: Report of the AAPM Therapy Physics Committee Task Group No. 71.  

Science.gov (United States)

A protocol is presented for the calculation of monitor units (MU) for photon and electron beams, delivered with and without beam modifiers, for constant source-surface distance (SSD) and source-axis distance (SAD) setups. This protocol was written by Task Group 71 of the Therapy Physics Committee of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) and has been formally approved by the AAPM for clinical use. The protocol defines the nomenclature for the dosimetric quantities used in these calculations, along with instructions for their determination and measurement. Calculations are made using the dose per MU under normalization conditions, D'0, that is determined for each user's photon and electron beams. For electron beams, the depth of normalization is taken to be the depth of maximum dose along the central axis for the same field incident on a water phantom at the same SSD, where D'0 = 1 cGy/MU. For photon beams, this task group recommends that a normalization depth of 10 cm be selected, where an energy-dependent D'0 ? 1 cGy/MU is required. This recommendation differs from the more common approach of a normalization depth of dm, with D'0 = 1 cGy/MU, although both systems are acceptable within the current protocol. For photon beams, the formalism includes the use of blocked fields, physical or dynamic wedges, and (static) multileaf collimation. No formalism is provided for intensity modulated radiation therapy calculations, although some general considerations and a review of current calculation techniques are included. For electron beams, the formalism provides for calculations at the standard and extended SSDs using either an effective SSD or an air-gap correction factor. Example tables and problems are included to illustrate the basic concepts within the presented formalism. PMID:24593704

Gibbons, John P; Antolak, John A; Followill, David S; Huq, M Saiful; Klein, Eric E; Lam, Kwok L; Palta, Jatinder R; Roback, Donald M; Reid, Mark; Khan, Faiz M

2014-03-01

351

Calculation of resonance reaction rates for the Ghana Research Reactor-1 fuel lattice unit cell using the WIMS lattice code  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Resonance reaction rates for different nuclear reactions (absorption, fission, fission yield) have been calculated at room temperature(2930 K) for six different resonance absorbers or isotopes U234,U235,U238, Pu239, Pu240 and Pu241 of the fuel lattices cell of the Ghana Research Reactor-1 facility using WIMSPC, the PC version of the versatile WIMSD/4 transport lattice code written in FORTRAN and designed for performing reactor physics lattice cell calculations. The calculations were performed in the full 69-energy group library structure of the WIMS code and presented in a condensed 4-energy few group structure. The Ludwig Boltzmann multigroup neutron transport equation was solved for this exercise using the discrete ordinate spatial model (DSN) which provides solution to the differential form of the transport equation by the Carlson-Sn. The reaction rates were computed for all the different lattice cell materials in the five-region fuel lattice cell and also for the sixty-five lattice mesh points selected for the unit cell analysis. The corresponding actual events or nuclear reactions occurring in each cell material have also been calculated for each resonance absorber (author)

352

Arsenic in the Shallow Ground Waters of Conterminous United States: Assessment, Health Risks, and Costs for MCL Compliance  

Science.gov (United States)

A methodology consisting of ordinal logistic regression (OLR) is used to predict the probability of occurrence of arsenic concentrations in different threshold limits in shallow ground waters of the conterminous United States (CONUS) subject to a set of influencing variables. The analysis considered a number of maximum contaminant level (MCL) options as threshold values to estimate the probabilities of occurrence of arsenic in ranges defined by a given MCL of 3, 5, 10, 20, and 50 µg/l and a detection limit of 1 µg/l. The fit between the observed and predicted probability of occurrence was around 83 percent for all MCL options. The estimated probabilities were used to estimate the median background concentration of arsenic in the CONUS. The shallow ground water of the western United States is more vulnerable than the eastern United States. Arizona, Utah, Nevada, and California in particular are hotspots for arsenic contamination. The risk assessment showed that counties in southern California, Arizona, Florida, and Washington and a few others scattered throughout the CONUS face a high risk from arsenic exposure through untreated ground water consumption. A simple cost effectiveness analysis was performed to understand the household costs for MCL compliance in using arsenic contaminated ground water. The results showed that the current MCL of 10 µg/l is a good compromise based on existing treatment technologies.

Twarakavi, Navin Kumar C.; Kaluarachchi, Jagath J.

2006-04-01

353

Catacol, a low cost reactive distillation technology for ether production and for revamping existing units  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper outlines the advantages of Catacol (tm) and describes this new technology. Some applications of Catacol (tm) such as debottlenecking of existing etherification units are developed. Technological considerations for the production of ETBE are also provided in this paper and the conversion of MTBE plants to ETBE manufacture is addressed. (author). 3 figs.

Nocca, J.L.; Travers, P.; Koskas, A.

1996-12-31

354

Consumption and Response Output as a Function of Unit Price: Manipulation of Cost and Benefit Components  

Science.gov (United States)

We conducted preference assessments with 4 typically developing children to identify potential reinforcers and assessed the reinforcing efficacy of those stimuli. Next, we tested two predictions of economic theory: that overall consumption (reinforcers obtained) would decrease as the unit price (response requirement per reinforcer) increased and…

Delmendo, Xeres; Borrero, John C.; Beauchamp, Kenneth L.; Francisco, Monica T.

2009-01-01

355

A MORE COST-EFFECTIVE EMAP-W BENTHIC MACROFAUNAL SAMPLE UNIT  

Science.gov (United States)

The standard EPA West Coast Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP-W) benthic macrofaunal sampling protocol is to collect 30-50 random benthic samples per reporting unit (e.g., estuary, region) using a 0.1 m2 grab and to sort out macrofauna using a 1.0 mm mesh scre...

356

Poor Prescription: The Costs of Imprisoning Drug Offenders in the United States. Policy Report.  

Science.gov (United States)

Using data from the National Corrections Reporting Program, this study examined trends in imprisoning drug offenders in the United States, focusing on the numbers of incarcerated drug offenders and the relationship between incarceration for drug use and rates of drug use. Overall, the increase in drug admissions to prison from 1986 to 1996 is…

Schiraldi, Vincent; Holman, Barry; Beatty, Phillip

357

NOTE: Monte Carlo calculated output factors of a Leksell Gamma Knife unit  

Science.gov (United States)

The Leksell Gamma Knife is a standard radiosurgical tool for treating brain lesions by directing beams of gamma radiation to a specific region. The diameter of the gamma beams is confined by collimator systems and available collimator sizes are 4, 8, 14 and 18 mm. The reduction in dose rate for each collimator helmet is called the output factor (OPF). Experimental determination of OPFs is difficult due to the extremely narrow beams for which the dose is determined. In the present work, the PRESTA version of the EGS4 Monte Carlo code was used to obtain relative OPFs for the Leksell Gamma Knife for collimator sizes of 14, 8 and 4 mm (relative to that of the 18 mm collimator). A spherical probe with a radius of 1 mm was utilized in this computer experiment. Our Monte Carlo results gave OPFs of 0.974, 0.951 and 0.872 for the 14 mm, 8 mm and 4 mm collimators respectively, relative to the 18 mm collimator. Our calculated OPF for the 4 mm collimator helmet was more than 8% higher than the value currently used, but in good agreement with the average of experimental values obtained by various Gamma Knife centres throughout the world and with the value now recommended by the manufacturer, Elekta (Elekta Instrument AB, Skeppargatan 8, S-114 52 Stockholm, Sweden).

Cheung, Joel Y. C.; Yu, K. N.; Ho, Robert T. K.; Yu, C. P.

1999-12-01

358

Monte Carlo calculated output factors of a Leksell Gamma Knife unit  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Leksell Gamma Knife is a standard radiosurgical tool for treating brain lesions by directing beams of gamma radiation to a specific region. The diameter of the gamma beams is confined by collimator systems and available collimator sizes are 4, 8, 14 and 18 mm. The reduction in dose rate for each collimator helmet is called the output factor (OPF). Experimental determination of OPFs is difficult due to the extremely narrow beams for which the dose is determined. In the present work, the PRESTA version of the EGS4 Monte Carlo code was used to obtain relative OPFs for the Leksell Gamma Knife for collimator sizes of 14, 8 and 4 mm (relative to that of the 18 mm collimator). A spherical probe with a radius of 1 mm was utilized in this computer experiment. Our Monte Carlo results gave OPFs of 0.974, 0.951 and 0.872 for the 14 mm, 8 mm and 4 mm collimators respectively, relative to the 18 mm collimator. Our calculated OPF for the 4 mm collimator helmet was more than 8% higher than the value currently used, but in good agreement with the average of experimental values obtained by various Gamma Knife centres throughout the world and with the value now recommended by the manufacturer, Elekta (Elekta Instrument AB, Skeppargatan 8, S-114 52 Stockholm, Sweden). (author)

359

Expanded HIV Testing in Low-Prevalence, High-Income Countries: A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis for the United Kingdom  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective In many high-income countries with low HIV prevalence, significant numbers of persons living with HIV (PLHIV) remain undiagnosed. Identification of PLHIV via HIV testing offers timely access to lifesaving antiretroviral therapy (ART) and decreases HIV transmission. We estimated the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of HIV testing in the United Kingdom (UK), where 25% of PLHIV are estimated to be undiagnosed. Design We developed a dynamic compartmental model to analyze strategies to expand HIV testing and treatment in the UK, with particular focus on men who have sex with men (MSM), people who inject drugs (PWID), and individuals from HIV-endemic countries. Methods We estimated HIV prevalence, incidence, quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), and health care costs over 10 years, and cost-effectiveness. Results Annual HIV testing of all adults could avert 5% of new infections, even with no behavior change following HIV diagnosis because of earlier ART initiation, or up to 18% if risky behavior is halved. This strategy costs £67,000–£106,000/QALY gained. Providing annual testing only to MSM, PWID, and people from HIV-endemic countries, and one-time testing for all other adults, prevents 4–15% of infections, requires one-fourth as many tests to diagnose each PLHIV, and costs £17,500/QALY gained. Augmenting this program with increased ART access could add 145,000 QALYs to the population over 10 years, at £26,800/QALY gained. Conclusions Annual HIV testing of key populations in the UK is very cost-effective. Additional one-time testing of all other adults could identify the majority of undiagnosed PLHIV. These findings are potentially relevant to other low-prevalence, high-income countries. PMID:24763373

Long, Elisa F.; Mandalia, Roshni; Mandalia, Sundhiya; Alistar, Sabina S.

2014-01-01

360

International trade and air pollution: estimating the economic costs of air emissions from waterborne commerce vessels in the United States.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although there is a burgeoning literature on the effects of international trade on the environment, relatively little work has been done on where trade most directly effects the environment: the transportation sector. This article shows how international trade is affecting air pollution emissions in the United States' shipping sector. Recent work has shown that cargo ships have been long overlooked regarding their contribution to air pollution. Indeed, ship emissions have recently been deemed "the last unregulated source of traditional air pollutants". Air pollution from ships has a number of significant local, national, and global environmental effects. Building on past studies, we examine the economic costs of this increasing and unregulated form of environmental damage. We find that total emissions from ships are largely increasing due to the increase in foreign commerce (or international trade). The economic costs of SO2 pollution range from dollars 697 million to dollars 3.9 billion during the period examined, or dollars 77 to dollars 435 million on an annual basis. The bulk of the cost is from foreign commerce, where the annual costs average to dollars 42 to dollars 241 million. For NOx emissions the costs are dollars 3.7 billion over the entire period or dollars 412 million per year. Because foreign trade is driving the growth in US shipping, we also estimate the effect of the Uruguay Round on emissions. Separating out the effects of global trade agreements reveals that the trade agreement-led emissions amounted to dollars 96 to dollars 542 million for SO2 between 1993 and 2001, or dollars 10 to dollars 60 million per year. For NOx they were dollars 745 million for the whole period or dollars 82 million per year. Without adequate policy responses, we predict that these trends and costs will continue into the future. PMID:15992989

Gallagher, Kevin P

2005-10-01

 
 
 
 
361

Assessment of the direct medical costs of diabetes mellitus and its complications in the United Arab Emirates  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes mellitus (DM is a major health problem in the United Arab Emirates (UAE and is well recognized as a major and increasing burden to the country's resources due to its severe, long term debilitating effects on individuals, families and the society at large. The aim of the study was to estimate the direct annual treatment costs of DM and its related complications among patients in Al-Ain city, UAE. Methods A sample of 150 DM patients were enrolled during 2004-2005, and their medical costs over the ensuing 12 months was measured, quantified, analyzed and extrapolated to the population in Al-Ain and UAE, using conventional and inference statistics. The costs were converted from UAE Dirhams to US Dollar, using the official conversion rate of US$ (1 USD = 3.68 AED. Results The total annual direct treatment costs of DM among patients without complications in Al Ain-UAE, was US $1,605 (SD = 1,206 which is 3.2 times higher than the per capita expenditure for health care in the UAE (US$ 497 during 2004 (WHO, 2004. However, this cost increased 2.2 times with the presence of DM related complications for patients with microvascular complications, by 6.4 times for patients with macrovascular complications and 9.4 times for patients with both micro and macrovascular complications. Likewise, the annual direct hospitalization costs of DM patients increased by 3.7 times for patients with microvascular complications, by 6.6 times for patients with macrovascular complications and by 5 times for patients with both micro and macrovascualr complications. Overall, costs increased with age, diabetes duration and were higher for patients treated with insulin compared to those treated with oral hypoglycemic agents or with diet control only. Conclusions DM direct treatment costs increased with the presence and progression of chronic DM related complications. Hospitalisation costs constituted a large proportion and were increasingly higher with the presence and progression of DM related complications. To reduce the impact on healthcare resources, efforts should be made to prevent progression to DM complications, by implementing guidelines for diabetes care, screening for complications and better management.

Nagelkerke Nicholas

2010-11-01

362

Cost of Power Interruptions to Electricity Consumers in the UnitedStates (U.S.)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The massive electric power blackout in the northeastern U.S.and Canada on August 14-15, 2003 catalyzed discussions about modernizingthe U.S. electricity grid. Industry sources suggested that investments of$50 to $100 billion would be needed. This work seeks to better understandan important piece of information that has been missing from thesediscussions: What do power interruptions and fluctuations in powerquality (power-quality events) cost electricity consumers? We developed abottom-up approach for assessing the cost to U.S. electricity consumersof power interruptions and power-quality events (referred to collectivelyas "reliability events"). The approach can be used to help assess thepotential benefits of investments in improving the reliability of thegrid. We developed a new estimate based on publicly availableinformation, and assessed how uncertainties in these data affect thisestimate using sensitivity analysis.

Hamachi LaCommare, Kristina; Eto, Joseph H.

2006-02-16

363

Microelectromechnical Systems Inertial Measurement Unit Error Modelling and Error Analysis for Low-cost Strapdown Inertial Navigation System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents error modelling and error analysis of microelectromechnical systems (MEMS inertial measurement unit (IMU for a low-cost strapdown inertial navigation system (INS. The INS consists of IMU and navigation processor. The IMU provides acceleration and angular rate of the vehicle in all the three axes. In this paper, errors that affect the MEMS IMU, which is of low cost and less volume, are stochastically modelled and analysed using Allan variance. Wavelet decomposition has been introduced to remove the high frequency noise that affects the sensors to obtain the original values of angular rates and accelerations with less noise. This increases the accuracy of the strapdown INS. The results show the effect of errors in the output of sensors, easy interpretation of random errors by Allan variance, the increase in the accuracy when wavelet decomposition is used for denoising inertial sensor raw data.

R. Ramalingam

2009-11-01

364

Vital signs: health burden and medical costs of nonfatal injuries to motor vehicle occupants - United States, 2012.  

Science.gov (United States)

Motor vehicle crashes are a leading cause of injury and death. Previous research has shown that motor vehicle crashes result in substantial mortality, with 22,912 motor vehicle occupants killed in 2012 in the United States, and an estimated 265,000 years of potential life lost in 2011 (CDC's Web-Based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System [WISQARS], unpublished data, 2014). The estimated medical cost of such fatalities was $226 million. Because the burden of nonfatalinjuries caused by motor vehicle crashes has been less well documented, this report estimates the U.S. health burden and medical and work loss costs of nonfatal motor vehicle crash injuries; the most recent available data on emergency department (ED) visits and hospitalizations were examined. PMID:25299606

Bergen, Gwen; Peterson, Cora; Ederer, David; Florence, Curtis; Haileyesus, Tadesse; Kresnow, Marcie-Jo; Xu, Likang

2014-10-10

365

Internalizing social costs in power plant siting: some examples for coal and nuclear plants in the United States  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Selected aspects of the United States experience in one particular type of energy development project, the siting of nuclear and fossil fueled power generating facilities, are examined in terms of how well community-level impacts are internalized. New institutional arrangements being devised and new requirements being made at local, state, regional, and federal levels in response to these dissociations of cost and benefits from large energy development projects are discussed. Selected examples of these new institutional responses are analyzed for adequacy and significance

366

Evaluation of plug-in electric vehicles impact on cost-based unit commitment  

Science.gov (United States)

Incorporating plug in electric vehicles (PEVs) to power systems may address both additional demand as well as mobile storage to support electric grid spatially. Better utilization of such potential depends on the optimal scheduling of charging and discharging PEVs. Charging management malfunction of PEVs may increase the peak load which leads to additional generation. Therefore, charging and discharging of PEVs must be scheduled intelligently to prevent overloading of the network at peak hours, take advantages of off peak charging benefits and delaying any load shedding. A charging and discharging schedule of PEVs with respect to load curve variations is proposed in this paper. The proposed methodology incorporates integrated PEVs; the so-called parking lots; into the unit commitment problem. An IEEE 10-unit test system is employed to investigate the impacts of PEVs on generation scheduling. The results obtained from simulation analysis show a significant techno-economic saving.

Talebizadeh, Ehsan; Rashidinejad, Masoud; Abdollahi, Amir

2014-02-01

367

¿Cómo calcular los Costos Medioambientales?: Caso: Empresa Gráfica de Cienfuegos / How to Calculate the Environmental Costs?: Case Company Grafica Cienfuegos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El mundo necesita urgentemente que se proteja el medio ambiente, muchas empresas y organizaciones destinan grandes recursos para lograr ese fin y lograr un Desarrollo Sostenible como máxima a alcanzar por cualquier país u organización. Se hace entonces imprescindible determinar cuánto le dedican las [...] Empresas al medio ambiente, teniendo en cuenta que las Entidades tienen un contrato implícito con la sociedad y el medio, producto de los recursos que utiliza y los desechos y desperdicios que vierte, es por eso que se necesitan calcular y registrar los costos medioambientales por productos, para enriquecer la gestión medioambiental de la entidad y favorecer de esta manera una excelente toma de decisiones. La siguiente investigación busca un procedimiento que permita dar solución a esta problemática, logrando su conformación con el uso de diversas técnicas dentro de las que se destacan las listas de chequeos medioambientales y el ciclo de vida del producto, que permite además poder conocer por separado como cada proceso y producto impacta en el medioambiente. Abstract in english The world urgently needs to protect the environment, many companies and organizations devote huge resources to reach that goal and achieve sustainable development as the highest standard of achievement for any country or organization. It then becomes imperative to determine how much the companies sp [...] end on the environment, taking into account that the Entities have an implicit contract with society and the environment, the product of the resources used and waste and waste pouring, which is why one needs to calculate and record the environmental costs of products to enhance the environmental management of the entity and thus promote an excellent decision-making. The following research seeks a procedure which allows solving this problem, making its composition with the use of various techniques within which highlights the environmental checklists and product life cycle, which also allows knowing separately as each process and product impacts the environment.

Keitel, Becerra; Elizabeth, Gómez; Grisel, Pérez; Reynier, Reyes.

368

¿Cómo calcular los Costos Medioambientales?: Caso: Empresa Gráfica de Cienfuegos / How to Calculate the Environmental Costs?: Case Company Grafica Cienfuegos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El mundo necesita urgentemente que se proteja el medio ambiente, muchas empresas y organizaciones destinan grandes recursos para lograr ese fin y lograr un Desarrollo Sostenible como máxima a alcanzar por cualquier país u organización. Se hace entonces imprescindible determinar cuánto le dedican las [...] Empresas al medio ambiente, teniendo en cuenta que las Entidades tienen un contrato implícito con la sociedad y el medio, producto de los recursos que utiliza y los desechos y desperdicios que vierte, es por eso que se necesitan calcular y registrar los costos medioambientales por productos, para enriquecer la gestión medioambiental de la entidad y favorecer de esta manera una excelente toma de decisiones. La siguiente investigación busca un procedimiento que permita dar solución a esta problemática, logrando su conformación con el uso de diversas técnicas dentro de las que se destacan las listas de chequeos medioambientales y el ciclo de vida del producto, que permite además poder conocer por separado como cada proceso y producto impacta en el medioambiente. Abstract in english The world urgently needs to protect the environment, many companies and organizations devote huge resources to reach that goal and achieve sustainable development as the highest standard of achievement for any country or organization. It then becomes imperative to determine how much the companies sp [...] end on the environment, taking into account that the Entities have an implicit contract with society and the environment, the product of the resources used and waste and waste pouring, which is why one needs to calculate and record the environmental costs of products to enhance the environmental management of the entity and thus promote an excellent decision-making. The following research seeks a procedure which allows solving this problem, making its composition with the use of various techniques within which highlights the environmental checklists and product life cycle, which also allows knowing separately as each process and product impacts the environment.

Keitel, Becerra; Elizabeth, Gómez; Grisel, Pérez; Reynier, Reyes.

2011-12-01

369

Living Costs, The Quality of Life, and the "Sunbelt" vs "Frostbelt" Battle in the United states  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This empirical study identifies factors that have contributed to the differential growth rates between the so-called "sun-belt" states on the one hand and the so-called "frost-belt" states on the other hand. The model deals with the 48 contiguous states and the 1975-1980 time period. It finds that the lower living costs in the sun-belt states have contributed a great deal to their growth rate by attracting migrants. Furthermore, the the generally warmer temperatures and greater presence of su...

Cebula, Richard

1984-01-01

370

Analysis of Garment Production Methods. Part 1: Comparison of Cost and Production Between a Traditional Bundle System and a Unit Production System Installation.  

Science.gov (United States)

This report compares the costs and productivity relationships between the traditional bundle system method of apparel production with the new production method referred to as the Unit Production System (UPS). In the former system large bundles (quantities...

J. Korngruen

1992-01-01

371

Suitable methods for calculating the costs for the back-end of the nuclear fuel-cycle; Laempliga metoder foer att beraekna kostnaderna foer kaernkraftens slutsteg  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present report is devoted to a discussion of what kind of cost calculations the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate should demand from the owners of the Swedish nuclear power plants in order to make a proposal to the Swedish government on a suitable annual fee and a suitable supplementary amount for contingency allowance to cover the future costs of decommissioning the power plants and disposing of the waste. The report was commissioned by the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI) because SKI wanted an independent review of the probabilistic method for cost calculations used by the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co (SKB) since 1996. This method was introduced as a response to some changes of the Swedish legal system regulating the financing of the future costs of decommissioning the nuclear power plants and disposing of the waste. The most important change was that the annual fee paid by the reactor owners should only cover the costs of a certain basic scenario and that the annual fee should be supplemented by a suitable guarantee to cover the occurrence of cost driving unforeseen events. The method used by SKB has been considered feasible for determining a suitable annual fee and suitable guarantees by SKI but SKI has also asked for more information on important matters such as the bases for various calculations and the rationale behind certain probability distributions assumed. The point of departure for the review performed by Alkestis Co is that the basic material employed for the cost calculations should meet a high standard and that the logical and mathematical arguments leading from the basic material to proposals of a certain annual fee and certain amount of guarantees must be transparent. Chapter 1 and appendix A mainly consist of material collected to enable a non-specialist to follow the account in the following sections. However, chapter 1 also contains a general discussion on suitable approaches to handle the problem of calculating the annual fee and the various guarantees. The conclusion reached there is that already quite general considerations cast some doubts on the suitability of using a probabilistic approach in this context. Chapter 2 in conjunction with appendices C and D is devoted to a detailed examination of the method used by SKB to calculate the annual fee and the various guarantees. The conclusion reached there is that both the method itself as well as the present application made of it can be challenged. Hence the introduction of an alternative approach to cost calculations should be considered. A first attempt to provide an alternative approach is therefore presented in chapter 3.

Malmnaes, P.E.; Thorbioernson, Johan [Alkestis AB (Sweden)

2000-06-15

372

Mapping water availability, projected use and cost in the western United States  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

New demands for water can be satisfied through a variety of source options. In some basins surface and/or groundwater may be available through permitting with the state water management agency (termed unappropriated water), alternatively water might be purchased and transferred out of its current use to another (termed appropriated water), or non-traditional water sources can be captured and treated (e.g., wastewater). The relative availability and cost of each source are key factors in the development decision. Unfortunately, these measures are location dependent with no consistent or comparable set of data available for evaluating competing water sources. With the help of western water managers, water availability was mapped for over 1200 watersheds throughout the western US. Five water sources were individually examined, including unappropriated surface water, unappropriated groundwater, appropriated water, municipal wastewater and brackish groundwater. Also mapped was projected change in consumptive water use from 2010 to 2030. Associated costs to acquire, convey and treat the water, as necessary, for each of the five sources were estimated. These metrics were developed to support regional water planning and policy analysis with initial application to electric transmission planning in the western US.

Vincent C. Tidwell; Barbara D. Moreland; Katie M. Zemlick; Barry L. Roberts; Howard D. Passell; Daniel Jensen; Christopher Forsgren; Gerald Sehlke; Margaret A. Cook; Carey W. King

2014-06-01

373

Mapping water availability, projected use and cost in the western United States  

Science.gov (United States)

New demands for water can be satisfied through a variety of source options. In some basins surface and/or groundwater may be available through permitting with the state water management agency (termed unappropriated water), alternatively water might be purchased and transferred out of its current use to another (termed appropriated water), or non-traditional water sources can be captured and treated (e.g., wastewater). The relative availability and cost of each source are key factors in the development decision. Unfortunately, these measures are location dependent with no consistent or comparable set of data available for evaluating competing water sources. With the help of western water managers, water availability was mapped for over 1200 watersheds throughout the western US. Five water sources were individually examined, including unappropriated surface water, unappropriated groundwater, appropriated water, municipal wastewater and brackish groundwater. Also mapped was projected change in consumptive water use from 2010 to 2030. Associated costs to acquire, convey and treat the water, as necessary, for each of the five sources were estimated. These metrics were developed to support regional water planning and policy analysis with initial application to electric transmission planning in the western US.

Tidwell, Vincent C.; Moreland, Barbara D.; Zemlick, Katie M.; Roberts, Barry L.; Passell, Howard D.; Jensen, Daniel; Forsgren, Christopher; Sehlke, Gerald; Cook, Margaret A.; King, Carey W.; Larsen, Sara

2014-05-01

374

Estudo comparativo envolvendo três métodos de cálculo de custo operacional do caminhão bitrem Comparative study of three methods for calculating operational cost of Bitrem truck  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O presente trabalho trata do estudo comparativo de três metodologias utilizadas para o cálculo do custo operacional de veículos de transporte florestal, a saber: FAO - América do Norte, FAO/ECE/KWF e Battistella/Scânia. Para tanto, considerou-se um caminhão bitrem, um dos mais utilizados no transporte de carga florestal no Brasil. Nos dois primeiros métodos, o custo foi calculado por hora efetiva de trabalho (he, sendo no último calculado por quilômetro (km, em que se utilizou um fator para converter o custo de km em custo por hora efetiva de trabalho (he. O custo operacional, no método FAO - América do Norte e FAO/ECE/KWF foi dado pelo somatório dos seguintes custos: de maquinário (custos fixos e variáveis, administrativo (custo de administração e de pessoal (custo de mão-de-obra. No método Battistella/Scânia, esse custo foi resultante do somatório dos custos de maquinário e administrativo. O método FAO - América do Norte foi o mais expressivo em termos de custo operacional (US$ 50,47/he, sendo o mais indicado no caso em estudo, em razão, principalmente, da grande aproximação em relação ao custo real. O custo de maquinário representou mais de 85% do custo total em todas as metodologias, destacando-se o custo variável devido ao alto custo do combustível. Observou-se que o custo operacional apresentou valores distintos, uma vez que nesses métodos se utilizam fórmulas diferenciadas num mesmo custo.The present work deals with the comparative study of three methodologies used for calculating the operational cost of forest transport vehicles such as: FAO - North America; FAO/ECE/KWF e Battistella /Scânia. For this the, Bitrem truck was considered as it is one of the most used for forest load transport in Brazil. The two first methods had the operational cost calculated per effective hour of work (eh, and the latter had the cost calculated per kilometer (km. Thus, for this method, a factor to convert kilometer cost to cost per effective hours of work (eh was used. The operational cost, for FAO - North America and FAO/ECE/KWF, was obtained by the sum of the following costs: machine (fixed and variable costs; administrative (administration cost and worker (workmanship hand cost. For the Battistella/Scânia method, the operacional cost was obtained by the sum of machine and administrative costs. The FAO method - North America was the most expressive in terms of operational cost (USS 50,47/he. This method was the most indicated for the case in study, due mainly to the large approximation in relation to the real cost. The machine costs represented more than 85% of the total cost in all methodologies, with the variable cost standing out, due the high fuel cost. The operational costs presented distinct values, probably due to the fact that these methods present different formulas for the same cost.

Luís Carlos de Freitas

2004-12-01

375

Estudo comparativo envolvendo três métodos de cálculo de custo operacional do caminhão bitrem / Comparative study of three methods for calculating operational cost of Bitrem truck  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O presente trabalho trata do estudo comparativo de três metodologias utilizadas para o cálculo do custo operacional de veículos de transporte florestal, a saber: FAO - América do Norte, FAO/ECE/KWF e Battistella/Scânia. Para tanto, considerou-se um caminhão bitrem, um dos mais utilizados no transpor [...] te de carga florestal no Brasil. Nos dois primeiros métodos, o custo foi calculado por hora efetiva de trabalho (he), sendo no último calculado por quilômetro (km), em que se utilizou um fator para converter o custo de km em custo por hora efetiva de trabalho (he). O custo operacional, no método FAO - América do Norte e FAO/ECE/KWF foi dado pelo somatório dos seguintes custos: de maquinário (custos fixos e variáveis), administrativo (custo de administração) e de pessoal (custo de mão-de-obra). No método Battistella/Scânia, esse custo foi resultante do somatório dos custos de maquinário e administrativo. O método FAO - América do Norte foi o mais expressivo em termos de custo operacional (US$ 50,47/he), sendo o mais indicado no caso em estudo, em razão, principalmente, da grande aproximação em relação ao custo real. O custo de maquinário representou mais de 85% do custo total em todas as metodologias, destacando-se o custo variável devido ao alto custo do combustível. Observou-se que o custo operacional apresentou valores distintos, uma vez que nesses métodos se utilizam fórmulas diferenciadas num mesmo custo. Abstract in english The present work deals with the comparative study of three methodologies used for calculating the operational cost of forest transport vehicles such as: FAO - North America; FAO/ECE/KWF e Battistella /Scânia. For this the, Bitrem truck was considered as it is one of the most used for forest load tra [...] nsport in Brazil. The two first methods had the operational cost calculated per effective hour of work (eh), and the latter had the cost calculated per kilometer (km). Thus, for this method, a factor to convert kilometer cost to cost per effective hours of work (eh) was used. The operational cost, for FAO - North America and FAO/ECE/KWF, was obtained by the sum of the following costs: machine (fixed and variable costs); administrative (administration cost) and worker (workmanship hand cost). For the Battistella/Scânia method, the operacional cost was obtained by the sum of machine and administrative costs. The FAO method - North America was the most expressive in terms of operational cost (USS 50,47/he). This method was the most indicated for the case in study, due mainly to the large approximation in relation to the real cost. The machine costs represented more than 85% of the total cost in all methodologies, with the variable cost standing out, due the high fuel cost. The operational costs presented distinct values, probably due to the fact that these methods present different formulas for the same cost.

Luís Carlos de, Freitas; Gláucio Marcelino, Marques; Márcio Lopes da, Silva; Raiane Ribeiro, Machado; Carlos Cardoso, Machado.

376

19 CFR 351.406 - Calculation of normal value if sales are made at less than cost of production.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calculation of normal value if sales are made at...ANTIDUMPING AND COUNTERVAILING DUTIES Calculation of Export Price, Constructed Export...Value, and Normal Value § 351.406 Calculation of normal value if sales are made...

2010-04-01

377

Correlations between calculated surveillance dosimeter activities and pressure vessel fluxes in the Arkansas Nuclear One Unit 1 reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An illustration of the magnitudes of the cross-correlations between cavity dosimetry and fluxes at an important location in the pressure vessel is given for the case of the Arkansas Nuclear One Unit 1 reactor and provides a correspondence with previously reported flux covariance reduction factors. These correlations are seen to extend over energy regions far wider than would be intuitively expected because of the highly correlated nature of the calculated pressure vessel fluxes themselves, thus enhancing the range of pressure vessel flux information that is provided by the dosimetry. Finally, the high degree of correlation between the cavity dosimeters and pressure vessel fluxes shows that ex-vessel dosimetry can be successfully applied to reactor pressure vessel damage surveillance programs

378

The MULTISENSOR inertial measurement unit (MIMU) - A low-cost technology for tactical applications  

Science.gov (United States)

The design, development, and performance of MIMU, a strapdown digital inertial measurement device for midcourse guidance and navigation of short-range tactical missiles, are described and illustrated with photographs, diagrams, and graphs. MIMU comprises two gyro-accelerometers; gyro-wheel power-supply electronics; an A/D conversion card; and a digital-signal-processing, microprocessor, and I/O card and has a total volume of 60 cubic inches. The development history of the gyro-accelerometer units is traced in detail; analog, DYCAM, and prototype-digital versions of MIMU are characterized; the operation of the present MIMU digital demodulation components is explained; and the results of motor-on/off, system-stability, calibration, static-navigation-accuracy, and flight (Doppler-inertial, GPS-inertial, and transfer-alignment) tests are summarized.

Pick, T.

1986-08-01

379

The Scales of Time, Length, Mass, Energy, and Other Fundamental Physical Quantities in the Atomic World and the Use of Atomic Units in Quantum Mechanical Calculations  

Science.gov (United States)

This article is divided into two parts. In the first part, the atomic unit (au) system is introduced and the scales of time, space (length), and speed, as well as those of mass and energy, in the atomic world are discussed. In the second part, the utility of atomic units in quantum mechanical and spectroscopic calculations is illustrated with…

Teo, Boon K.; Li, Wai-Kee

2011-01-01

380

Constructing the universal characteristic of a compressor based on the results of thermal tests of gas turbine units and using it to calculate variable operating modes  

Science.gov (United States)

A procedure for constructing the universal characteristic of a compressor at different positions of its inlet guide vane using experimentally obtained characteristics of the compressor and turbine, and a computer program for simulating variable operating modes of a gas turbine unit are described. Results from a comparison between calculated data and data obtained from tests of similar types of gas turbines units are presented.

Ol'Khovskii, G. G.; Trushechkin, V. P.; Chadovskaya, I. I.

2010-09-01

 
 
 
 
381

LIFE Cost of Electricity, Capital and Operating Costs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Successful commercialization of fusion energy requires economic viability as well as technical and scientific feasibility. To assess economic viability, we have conducted a pre-conceptual level evaluation of LIFE economics. Unit costs are estimated from a combination of bottom-up costs estimates, working with representative vendors, and scaled results from previous studies of fission and fusion plants. An integrated process model of a LIFE power plant was developed to integrate and optimize unit costs and calculate top level metrics such as cost of electricity and power plant capital cost. The scope of this activity was the entire power plant site. Separately, a development program to deliver the required specialized equipment has been assembled. Results show that LIFE power plant cost of electricity and plant capital cost compare favorably to estimates for new-build LWR's, coal and gas - particularly if indicative costs of carbon capture and sequestration are accounted for.

Anklam, T

2011-04-14