WorldWideScience
 
 
1

Unit cost calculation in the electricity supply industry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In all branches of the economy unit cost calculation forms an important part of the operational accounting. For a cost-oriented price determination, and the requirements of the provincial price referes derived from Para. 12 a BTO Elt, the unit cost calculation has become of special importance. The author at first gives the reasons for the unit cost calculation, then deals with its special functions and problems, and describes the known methods, with their pros and cons. He then describes in rough outline a new process worked out by a working committee of the VDEW and which is simple and comprehensible, is based on planned quantities, and by using characteristic load variations, avoids to a great extent costly measuring procedures and accidents. Here we are dealing with a method which is specially suitable for a logical allocation of costs for the purposes of unit cost calculation. The method will shortly be presented in this journal in detail.

Hausner, O.

1981-08-31

2

The unit cost factors and calculation methods for decommissioning - Cost estimation of nuclear research facilities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: The uncertainties of decommissioning costs increase high due to several conditions. Decommissioning cost estimation depends on the complexity of nuclear installations, its site-specific physical and radiological inventories. Therefore, the decommissioning costs of nuclear research facilities must be estimated in accordance with the detailed sub-tasks and resources by the tasks of decommissioning activities. By selecting the classified activities and resources, costs are calculated by the items and then the total costs of all decommissioning activities are reshuffled to match with its usage and objectives. And the decommissioning cost of nuclear research facilities is calculated by applying a unit cost factor method on which classification of decommissioning works fitted with the features and specifications of decommissioning objects and establishment of composition factors are based. Decommissioning costs of nuclear research facilities are composed of labor cost, equipment and materials cost. Of these three categorical costs, the calculation of labor costs are very important because decommissioning activities mainly depend on labor force. Labor costs in decommissioning activities are calculated on the basis of working time consumed in decommissioning objects and works. The working times are figured out of unit cost factors and work difficulty factors. Finally, labor costs are figured out by using these factors as parameters of calculation. The accuracy of decommissioning cost estimation results is much higher compared to the real decommissioning works. (authors)

2007-01-01

3

Cost Analysis in Hospitals and Calculation of Unit Costs in Medical Rehabilitation Services  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to demonstrate that actual cost values of medical rehabilitation services and cost functions could be estimated by using cost analysis in a physical and rehabilitation medicine (PMR) clinic of a third-level hospital. This, in turn, could guide the hospital administrators in their financial planning, performance audit, and quality development issues.Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective study which was conducted by investigating and evaluating the medical, administrative, financial, and technical data. The true population of the study consisted of medical rehabilitation services provided in a PMR clinic of a third-level hospital in 2010. Since sampling was not done, all treatment sessions of outpatients and inpatients done in the PMR unit were included in the study. Results: After analysis, the cost for an outpatient was found to be 72.02 TL, for an inpatient 7.825.54 TL, for patient day 221.05 TL and for a PMR session 49.38 TL. These values were higher than the values paid to medical care providers by the Social Security Institution. Conclusion: Reimbursement institutions need to take cost analysis data into consideration when determining the rates of repayment for medical care providers. Turk J Phys Med Re­hab 2012;58:103-8.

?smail A??rba?; Haydar Gök; Yasemin Akbulut; Ömer R?fk? Önder

2012-01-01

4

Adaptation of activity-based-costing (ABC) to calculate unit costs in Mental Health Care in Spain  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: To date, numerous cost-of-illness studies have been using methodologies that don't provide trustworthy results for decision making in mental health care. Objectives: The aims of this paper are design and implement a cost methodology by process of patient's care to calculate unit costs in mental health in Spain in 2005 and compare the results with the reached ones by traditional methods. Methods: We adapted Activity-Based-Costing to this field analyzing the organizational and management structure of Mental Health's public services in a region of Spain, Navarre, describing the processes of care to patient in each resource and calculating their cost. Results: We implemented this methodology in all resources and obtained unit cost per service. There are great differences between our results and the ones calculated by traditional systems. We display one example of these disparities contrasting our cost with the reached one by the methodology of Diagnostic Related Group (DRG). Conclusions: This cost methodology offers more advantages for management than traditional methods provide.

Karen Moreno

2007-01-01

5

Adaptation of activity-based-costing (ABC) to calculate unit costs in Mental Health Care in Spain  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Background: To date, numerous cost-of-illness studies have been using methodologies that don't provide trustworthy results for decision making in mental health care. Objectives: The aims of this paper are design and implement a cost methodology by process of patient's care to calculate unit costs in mental health in Spain in 2005 and compare the results with the reached ones by traditional methods. Methods: We adapted Activity-Based-Costing to this field analyzing the org (more) anizational and management structure of Mental Health's public services in a region of Spain, Navarre, describing the processes of care to patient in each resource and calculating their cost. Results: We implemented this methodology in all resources and obtained unit cost per service. There are great differences between our results and the ones calculated by traditional systems. We display one example of these disparities contrasting our cost with the reached one by the methodology of Diagnostic Related Group (DRG). Conclusions: This cost methodology offers more advantages for management than traditional methods provide.

Moreno, Karen

2007-06-01

6

Calculation of the cost per exploration in a Radiodiagnosis Service based on relative value units (RVU)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this report is to present our system for calculating the costs of different products included in our catalogue(cost per exploration), comparing the total expense generated by our Service, as the center of activity, with the total activity performed yearly. In order to make the different catalogue products evaluable, we assigned a number of relative value units to each exploration on the basis of a series of factors that render it more or less costly when compared with the simple exploration carried out in an outpatient which was considered as RVU=1. (Author) 19 refs.

1998-01-01

7

Calculation and unit cost analysis of health care services delivered in shahriar S.A.bakhshi health center by Activity Based Costing; 2006  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Health care unit cost is as base for budgeting of function, determining real tariff, and privatization in health sector. Nevertheless, in our country, there is no specific approach for it. This study used Activity Based Costing (ABC) to calculate unit cost of health care services delivered in pilot health care center. Methods: The present study is a research-practical study and carried out in cross sectional style. The data collection tool was a bound of specific designed forms and tables. Data gathered from 2006 fiscal year and then entered to EXCEL software and finally analyzed by ABC system in 8 steps. Results: There are 120 unit cost quantities in 15 separated tables for any final functional department in health care center. Results showed that Iodometeric of salt has the lowest unit cost (3506Rials) and treatment of Tuberculosis has highest unit cost (1092325 Rials). Conclusions: given to high portion of personnel costs, improvement of staff productivity, merging same department and merging same activity in different health care process have an important role for decreasing total expenditure .Regarding the result of the research, Implementation of ABC system is an effective approach to calculate unit cost in health sector. Because this system is process-oriented, result is more precise than other costing system. Nevertheless current information system in health care centers doesn't meet unit cost analysis, and should be restructured.

F Ebadi Fard Azar F; H A Gorji; R Esmaeili

2006-01-01

8

Decommissioning Unit Cost Data  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The Rocky Flats Closure Site (Site) is in the process of stabilizing residual nuclear materials, decommissioning nuclear facilities, and remediating environmental media. A number of contaminated facilities have been decommissioned, including one building, Building 779, that contained gloveboxes used for plutonium process development but did little actual plutonium processing. The actual costs incurred to decommission this facility formed much of the basis or standards used to estimate the decommissioning of the remaining plutonium-processing buildings. Recent decommissioning activities in the first actual production facility, Building 771, implemented a number of process and procedural improvements. These include methods for handling plutonium contaminated equipment, including size reduction, decontamination, and waste packaging, as well as management improvements to streamline planning and work control. These improvements resulted in a safer working environment and reduced project cost, as demonstrated in the overall project efficiency. The topic of this paper is the analysis of how this improved efficiency is reflected in recent unit costs for activities specific to the decommissioning of plutonium facilities. This analysis will allow the Site to quantify the impacts on future Rocky Flats decommissioning activities, and to develop data for planning and cost estimating the decommissioning of future facilities. The paper discusses the methods used to collect and arrange the project data from the individual work areas within Building 771. Regression and data correlation techniques were used to quantify values for different types of decommissioning activities. The discussion includes the approach to identify and allocate overall project support, waste management, and Site support costs based on the overall Site and project costs to provide a ''burdened'' unit cost. The paper ultimately provides a unit cost basis that can be used to support cost estimates for decommissioning at other facilities with similar equipment and labor costs. It also provides techniques for extracting information from limited data using extrapolation and interpolation techniques

2002-01-01

9

Decommissioning Unit Cost Data  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Rocky Flats Closure Site (Site) is in the process of stabilizing residual nuclear materials, decommissioning nuclear facilities, and remediating environmental media. A number of contaminated facilities have been decommissioned, including one building, Building 779, that contained gloveboxes used for plutonium process development but did little actual plutonium processing. The actual costs incurred to decommission this facility formed much of the basis or standards used to estimate the decommissioning of the remaining plutonium-processing buildings. Recent decommissioning activities in the first actual production facility, Building 771, implemented a number of process and procedural improvements. These include methods for handling plutonium contaminated equipment, including size reduction, decontamination, and waste packaging, as well as management improvements to streamline planning and work control. These improvements resulted in a safer working environment and reduced project cost, as demonstrated in the overall project efficiency. The topic of this paper is the analysis of how this improved efficiency is reflected in recent unit costs for activities specific to the decommissioning of plutonium facilities. This analysis will allow the Site to quantify the impacts on future Rocky Flats decommissioning activities, and to develop data for planning and cost estimating the decommissioning of future facilities. The paper discusses the methods used to collect and arrange the project data from the individual work areas within Building 771. Regression and data correlation techniques were used to quantify values for different types of decommissioning activities. The discussion includes the approach to identify and allocate overall project support, waste management, and Site support costs based on the overall Site and project costs to provide a ''burdened'' unit cost. The paper ultimately provides a unit cost basis that can be used to support cost estimates for decommissioning at other facilities with similar equipment and labor costs. It also provides techniques for extracting information from limited data using extrapolation and interpolation techniques.

Sanford, P. C.; Stevens, J. L.; Brandt, R.

2002-02-26

10

Nuclear fuel cycle cost and cost calculation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Four different methods of calculating the cost of the fuel cycle are explained, starting from the individual cost components with their specific input data. The results (for LWRs) are presented in tabular form and in the form of diagrams. (RB)[de] Es werden vier verschiedene Methoden der Berechnungen von Brennstoffkreislaufkosten erlaeutert, ausgehend von den einzelnen Kostenkomponenten mit ihren spezifischen Input-Daten. Die Ergebnisse (fuer Leichtwasserreaktor-Brennstoffe) werden in Form von Tabellen und Diagrammen wiedergegeben. (RB)

1975-09-08

11

Life cycle cost calculator : phase one  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A life cycle cost (LCC) calculator is an economic method for evaluating project investment alternatives over a designated study period. It entails computing the LCC for all alternative projects having the same purpose over the same time frame and then comparing them to determine which has the lowest LCC for the selected study period. This paper addressed the use of an LCC for evaluating the benefits of green roofs compared to conventional roofs. The LCC method is well suited to determining if the higher initial cost of an investment is justified by reductions in future operating, maintenance and repair costs when compared to an alternative with a lower initial cost but higher future costs. The initial web-based beta version was based on case studies from various regions in the United States and Canada. A focus group interface from this conference will provide additional input that will further help shape the tool. Once the tool has been made available to the general public, additional feed back from the marketplace will enable the LCC sub-committee to incorporate specific needs of the market into the next phase of the tool that will be developed over the coming years. The tool provides feedback on storm water management; water quality; downstream erosion control; reduced municipal infrastructure requirements; reduced water treatment; energy savings; heating load; cooling load; peak demand reductions; reduced air emissions; heat island effect mitigation; pollution abatement; population health effects; improved aesthetics; and, improved building marketability.

Velasquez, R.P. [Tremco Inc., Beachwood, OH (United States)

2007-07-01

12

Forest management units through cost  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Costs minimizing and profit maximizing make the costs adjustment seems to be a vital necessity when the activity developed within the company does not assure the maintenance and stability of the necessary relation between consuming factors and costs. In such circumstances, approaching differing sides of the production cost and improving the methods of calculation has much significance in determining the most appropriate measures necessary for its adjustment and for profit increasing. The whole informational process of costs – formation, control and analysis of costs – involves a careful use the methodological concepts known under the name of classical methods and modern or complementary methods, as well as of other proceedings. Such methods and proceedings cannot be applied separately, only conjugated and integrated in a unitary methodological system, each of these methods and proceedings participating at achieving one or more objectives. Only by their unitary action they can fulfill all the system objective.

Cristina Tenovici; Mihaela Albici

2010-01-01

13

Asynchronous Capacity per Unit Cost  

CERN Document Server

The capacity per unit cost, or equivalently minimum cost to transmit one bit, is a well-studied quantity. It has been studied under the assumption of full synchrony between the transmitter and the receiver. In many applications, such as sensor networks, transmissions are very bursty, with small amounts of bits arriving infrequently at random times. In such scenarios, the cost of acquiring synchronization is significant and one is interested in the fundamental limits on communication without assuming a priori synchronization. In this paper, we show that the minimum cost to transmit B bits of information asynchronously is (B + \\bar{H})k_sync, where k_sync is the synchronous minimum cost per bit and \\bar{H} is a measure of timing uncertainty equal to the entropy for most reasonable arrival time distributions.

Chandar, Venkat; Tse, David

2010-01-01

14

REVIEW OF METHODOLOGIES FOR COSTS CALCULATING OF RUMINANTS IN SLOVAKIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this work was to synthesise and analyse the methodologies and the biological aspects of the costs calculation in ruminants in Slovakia. According to literature, the account classification of cost items is most often considered for construction of costing formula. The costs are mostly divided into fixed (costs independent from volume of herd’s production) and variable ones (costs connected with improvement of breeding conditions). Cost for feeds and beddings, labour costs, other direct costs and depreciations were found as the most important cost items in ruminants. It can be assumed that including the depreciations into costs of the basic herd takes into consideration the real costs simultaneously invested into raising of young animals in the given period. Costs are calculated for the unit of the main and by-products and their classification is influenced mainly by the type of livestock and production system. In dairy cows is usually milk defined as the main product, and by- products are live born calf and manure. The base calculation unit is kilogram of milk (basic herd of cows) and kilogram of gain and kilogram of live weight (young breeding cattle). In suckler cows is a live-born calf the main product and manure is the by-product. The costs are mostly calculated per suckler cow, live-born calf and per kilogram of live weight of weaned calf. Similar division of products into main and by-products is also in cost calculation for sheep categories. The difference is that clotted cheese is also considered as the main product of basic herd in dairy sheep and greasy wool as the by-products in all categories. Definition of the base calculation units in sheep categories followed the mentioned classification. The value of a by-product in cattle and sheep is usually set according to its quantity and intra- plant price of the by-product. In the calculation of the costs for sheep and cattle the “structural ewe” and “structural cow” proportionally integrate the costs of other categories of the herd into the costs of the basic herd. Subtraction, allocation and combined calculation methods of costs are the most used in breeding of ruminants. It is recommended to consider specific breeding conditions and objective calculation of costs for the relevant category, when picking out the method of calculation.

Zuzana KRUPOVÁ; Monika MICHALI?KOVÁ; Emil KRUPA

2012-01-01

15

Cost calculation in agricultural enterprises in theory and practice  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article is dedicated to evolution of the production costs calculation theory in agriculture from the second half of XVIII century till present times. The author emphasized long lasting dispute among the economists about usefulness of the full account of unit costs of production in evaluation of production profitability. Moreover, utility of the part-costs account in evaluation of production competitiveness, as well as their value in evaluation of the production processes and structure (using optimisation methods) was analysed. Additionally article describes current problems of cost calculation in agriculture.

Wojciech Zi?tara

2009-01-01

16

Cost calculation of constructions series of types  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose: The main aim of research was to elaborate methods to estimate costs in construction series of types production process.Design/methodology/approach: Based on manufacturing cost of one element it is possible to determine cost of other elements belonged to the same construction series of types. The four main cost estimating methods were distinguished. The first method is feature-based. The technological operations are dedicated to specified pieces of element. Cost manufacturing of every piece is specified. Based on elementary costs the manufacturing cost of whole part is calculated. The second method uses construction similarity theory. The selected part manufacturing costs are functionally depended on main part manufacturing costs. The CAM method is based on time calculation from manufacturing process simulation. The simplified method uses normalized masses of analyzed parts pieces. The balance coefficients of those pieces are specified.Findings: Manufacturing cost estimation methods were analyzed. Those methods are based on construction and manufacturing technology. The main conclusion is that CAM method is most accurate.Research limitations/implications: The CAM method is limited to analyze only manufacturing process based on numerically controlled machines. The Feature-based method require developed database for analyzed part family.Practical implications: Presented method was applied in hydraulic props manufacturing cost analysis.Originality/value: Described analysis puts together and compares different cost estimating methods which allows choosing most suitable method for analyzed manufacturing process.

P. Gendarz; M. Cielniak

2010-01-01

17

Calculator program aids well cost management  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A TI-59 calculator program designed to track well costs on daily and weekly bases can dramatically facilitate the task of monitoring well expenses. The program computes the day total, cumulative total, cumulative item-row totals, and day-week total. For carrying these costs throughout the drilling project, magnetic cards can store the individual and total cumulative well expenses.

Doyle, C.J.

1982-01-18

18

Applying Activity Based Costing (ABC) Method to Calculate Cost Price in Hospital and Remedy Services  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Activity Based Costing (ABC) is one of the new methods began appearing as a costing methodology in the 1990. It calculates cost price by determining the usage of resources. In this study, ABC method was used for calculating cost price of remedial services in hospitals.Methods: To apply ABC method, Shahid Faghihi Hospital was selected. First, hospital units were divided into three main departments: administrative, diagnostic, and hospitalized. Second, activity centers were defined by the activity analysis method. Third, costs of administrative activity centers were allocated into diagnostic and operational departments based on the cost driver. Finally, with regard to the usage of cost objectives from services of activity centers, the cost price of medical services was calculated.Results: The cost price from ABC method significantly differs from tariff method. In addition, high amount of indirect costs in the hospital indicates that capacities of resources are not used properly.Conclusion: Cost price of remedial services with tariff method is not properly calculated when compared with ABC method. ABC calculates cost price by applying suitable mechanisms but tariff method is based on the fixed price. In addition, ABC represents useful information about the amount and combination of cost price services.

A Rajabi; A Dabiri

2012-01-01

19

Users enlist consultants to calculate costs, savings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Consultants who calculate payback provide expertise and a second opinion to back up energy managers' proposals. They can lower the costs of an energy-management investment by making complex comparisons of systems and recommending the best system for a specific application. Examples of payback calculations include simple payback for a school system, a university, and a Disneyland hotel, as well as internal rate of return for a corporate office building and a chain of clothing stores. (DCK)

1982-05-24

20

Medicaid: Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Costs.  

Science.gov (United States)

The final report identifies important research and policy issues pertaining to Medicaid and Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) costs. Based on an extensive review of the clinical, cost effectiveness and health policy literature on NICUs, the authors prov...

C. A. Serrato M. McCormick D. Richardson J. Schore C. Thornton

1991-01-01

 
 
 
 
21

The antibiotic cost calculator; an expert system for global antibiotic cost calculation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An application to cost antibiotic therapy was developed using Object Vision, an object-oriented software development program. The application facilitates calculation of the cost of up to six antibiotics (three oral and three intravenous) in terms of acquisition, delivery, laboratory and complication components. The application consists of two files. The first file allows entry of basic cost data. The second file allows the user to define each antibiotic regimen and the management, and thus the cost, of complications relevant to the antibiotics being costed; costs are automatically calculated and displayed. The program also contains a help system; this comprises extensive explanation of each stage of the calculation process, a summary of recent literature on the percentage incidence of complications for commonly used antibiotics, and a bibliography. The summary and bibliography may be printed. The program is designed for use by hospitals, universities and pharmaceutical companies for calculation of total in-patient charges, marketing and research. It is a user-friendly system which dramatically reduces the inherent complexities of this area of medicine.

Kerr J

1995-01-01

22

COMPETITIVENESS AND UNIT LABOUR COSTS IN ROMANIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present paper presents aspects related on Romanian competitiveness and its determination by unit labour cost (ULC). After reviewing the determinants of national competitiveness, it is taken into consideration the labour market as being an important de

NAE TATIANA-ROXANA

2009-01-01

23

Low-cost inertial measurement unit.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Sandia National Laboratories performs many expensive tests using inertial measurement units (IMUs)--systems that use accelerometers, gyroscopes, and other sensors to measure flight dynamics in three dimensions. For the purpose of this report, the metrics used to evaluate an IMU are cost, size, performance, resolution, upgradeability and testing. The cost of a precision IMU is very high and can cost hundreds of thousands of dollars. Thus the goals and results of this project are as follows: (1) Examine the data flow in an IMU and determine a generic IMU design. (2) Discuss a high cost IMU implementation and its theoretically achievable results. (3) Discuss design modifications that would save money for suited applications. (4) Design and implement a low cost IMU and discuss its theoretically achievable results. (5) Test the low cost IMU and compare theoretical results with empirical results. (6) Construct a more streamlined printed circuit board design reducing noise, increasing capabilities, and constructing a self-contained unit. Using these results, we can compare a high cost IMU versus a low cost IMU using the metrics from above. Further, we can examine and suggest situations where a low cost IMU could be used instead of a high cost IMU for saving cost, size, or both.

Deyle, Travis Jay

2005-03-01

24

Calculating cost-training billback at WHC  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Westinghouse Hanford Company, in an attempt to understand training costs and to find a make-or-buy tool for training, has constructed a Training Cost Estimator. Among the outputs of this Lotus program are projected numbers of instructor, managers, and secretarial staff, and cost per student ({open_quotes}tuition{close_quotes}).

Gardner, P.R.

1993-11-01

25

Calculating cost-training billback at WHC  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Westinghouse Hanford Company, in an attempt to understand training costs and to find a make-or-buy tool for training, has constructed a Training Cost Estimator. Among the outputs of this Lotus program are projected numbers of instructor, managers, and secretarial staff, and cost per student (open-quotes tuitionclose quotes)

1993-01-01

26

A calculation program for electricity generation costs using LOTUS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This program is designed in order to calculate electricity generation cost by different energy sources, and menu type is adopted for user convenience. This program also graphically shows the share of capital investment cost, O and M cost, and fuel cost. Sensitivity analysis about discount rate can also be carried out by this program, taking into consideration the important role of the discount rate in the generation costs calculation. (Author) 7 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

Kim, Sung Ki; Lee, Man Ki [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

1994-12-01

27

Calculating Cost Savings in Utilization Management.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A major motivation for managing the utilization of laboratory testing is to reduce the cost of medical care. For this reason it is important to understand the basic principles of cost accounting in the clinical laboratory. The process of laboratory testing includes three distinct components termed the pre-analytic, analytic and post-analytic phases. Utilization management efforts may impact the cost structure of these three phases in different ways depending on the specific details of the initiative. Estimates of cost savings resulting from utilization management programs reported in the literature have often been fundamentally flawed due to a failure to understand basic concepts such as the difference between laboratory costs versus charges and the impact of reducing laboratory test volumes on the average versus marginal cost structure in the laboratory. This article will provide an overview of basic cost accounting principles in the clinical laboratory including both job order and process cost accounting. Specific examples will be presented to illustrate these concepts in various different scenarios.

Macmillan D

2013-09-01

28

REVIEW OF METHODOLOGIES FOR COSTS CALCULATING OF RUMINANTS IN SLOVAKIA  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The objective of this work was to synthesise and analyse the methodologies and the biological aspects of the costs calculation in ruminants in Slovakia. According to literature, the account classification of cost items is most often considered for construction of costing formula. The costs are mostl...

Zuzana KRUPOVÁ; Monika MICHALI?KOVÁ; Emil KRUPA

29

Recursive Delay Calculation Unit for Parametric Beamformer  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper presents a recursive approach for parametric delay calculations for a beamformer. The suggested calculation procedure is capable of calculating the delays for any image line defined by an origin and arbitrary direction. It involves only add and shift operations making it suitable for hardware implementation. One delaycalculation unit (DCU) needs 4 parameters, and all operations can be implemented using fixed-point arithmetics. An N -channel system needs N + 1 DCUs per line - one for the distance from the transmit origin to the image point and N for the distances from the image point to each of the receivers. Each DCU recursively calculates the square of the distance between a transducer element and a point on the beamformed line. Then it finds the approximate square root. The distance to point i is used as an initial guess for point i + 1. Using fixed-point calculations with 36-bit precision gives an error in the delay calculations on the order of 1/64 samples, at a sampling frequency of f s = 40 MHz. The circuit has been synthesized for a Virtex II Pro device speed grade 6 in two versions - a pipelined and a non-pipelined producing 150 and 30 million delays per second, respectively. The non-pipelined circuit occupies about 0.5 % of the FPGA resources and the pipelined one about 1 %. When the square root is found with a pipelined CORDIC processor, 2 % of the FPGA slices are used to deliver 150 million delays per second. © (2006) COPYRIGHT SPIE--The International Society for Optical Engineering.

Nikolov, Svetoslav; Jensen, JØrgen Arendt

2006-01-01

30

Nothing's Free: Calculating the Cost of Volunteers  

Science.gov (United States)

Most school district administrators recognize the benefits of using parent and community volunteers, including improved school-community relations. But volunteers are not cost free. At their best, volunteers can be a valuable resource for schools and districts. At their worst, volunteers can consume already limited resources. However, their use…

Ingle, W. Kyle

2010-01-01

31

Fundamentals for cost calculations of X-ray equipment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Economic implications of running an X-ray departement in Switzerland will be illustrated by comparing operating costs of private radiological institutes with and without CT to the operating costs of large radiological departments in hospitals with and without CT and to the operating costs of simple X-ray equipment in general practicioners' offices. - These costs calculations form the basis for cost-benefit analyses.

Bossard, F.

1985-06-01

32

THEORETICAL AND PRACTICAL CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING THE COST CALCULATION USING DIRECT COSTING  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The definition of the cost of production as applied to inventories refers to the acquisition and production cost, and its determination involves many considerations. This article emphasizes a comparative approach of the calculation of production cost under direct costing and absorption costing, and examines the impact of using these calculation systems on the financial performance of the companies presented in the income statement.

Cristina Aurora, Bunea-Bonta?

2012-01-01

33

COSTING OF QUALITY IN BUSINESS BASE UNIT SEVERAL PRODUCTIONS, CIENFUEGOS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The calculation of quality costs as a component of the System of Quality Management, is a must for Cuban business managers, to provide a technique identified as an advanced instrument of management, which will lead to improved competitiveness and serve as an informative source. Identify and calculate the costs of quality, as well as propose measured plans, to promote a decrease in operating expenses, which can be used as a tool to improve processes. The Business Unit of Several Base Productions of Cienfuegos presents the fault to give way to Business Improvement and certification of its Quality Management System, according to the norm ISO 9001:2008 and the decree law 281, so that the objective research was to estimate the costs of quality processes in the company. To achieve this level were used empirical methods and techniques such as direct observation, document review and work in groups, which allowed to calculate the costs of quality in all processes. The results obtained are applicable to companies that operate in the Cuban economy and according to the Cuban economic model implemented from the year 2011.

Gómez Alfonso, Elizabeth

2013-01-01

34

Study of decommissioning cost evaluation technique for nuclear reactor dismantlement. Calculation of decommissioning cost by COSMARD  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A model for estimating decommissioning costs consisting of labor cost, device cost and expense, was developed for items which OECD/NEA had standardized, and was installed into the computer system for planning and management of reactor decommissioning (COSMARD). Input data files and databases for the decommissioning of JPDR were prepared, and the decommissioning cost was calculated with COSMARD. In addition, the decommissioning cost for a large scale BWR power plant was also calculated on the assumption of the advantage of scale. The calculations have shown that it is useful and efficient for studying the decommissioning costs for nuclear reactors to apply the COSMARD with database for cast estimation to the decommissioning cost calculation. (author)

2005-01-01

35

External Costs Of Electricity Generation, A Proximate Calculation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Electricity generation cost of a fossil power plant includes capital cost, operation and maintenance costs and fuel cost. For a nuclear power plant the generation cost includes also a post-operation cost (decommissioning cost). The awareness of public health and environmental protection have recently urged to elaborately incorporate those costs borne by the public due to the pollution and negative effects resulting from the Electricity generation, which are called external costs. Methods and computer programs of such calculation have been published and being developed, for example the one that is being developed and promoted by the IAEA, the B-Glad computation program. The method calculates dispersion of emitted pollution to public and environment, assess the doses received and damages thereafter, and then evaluate the damages in monetary quantities. This paper illustrates calculation using the B-Glad taking the input data of nuclear power plant (NPP) of 2 x 900 MWe at the Ujung Lemah Abang site, and two kinds of coal power plants (CPP) of 3 x 600 MWe at the Tanjung Jati site, both sites are located at the coast of the Muria peninsular. The CPPs with Flue Gas Desulphurization (FGD)and without FGD are compared, whereas the NPP eternality assessment includes considerations of risk aversion and accident condition. Calculation results show that external costs amount to 0,9094 mills/KWh for cpr without FGD, 0,8156 mills/KWh for cpr with FGD, and 0,0083 mills/KWh for the NPP, or two to four orders of magnitude less than respective generation costs. Compared to studies for European countries, their figures are smaller, but to the Thailand study these figures are within their lower-upper range

2000-07-05

36

[Analysis of cost and efficiency of a medical nursing unit using time-driven activity-based costing].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: Time-driven activity-based costing was applied to analyze the nursing activity cost and efficiency of a medical unit. METHODS: Data were collected at a medical unit of a general hospital. Nursing activities were measured using a nursing activities inventory and classified as 6 domains using Easley-Storfjell Instrument. Descriptive statistics were used to identify general characteristics of the unit, nursing activities and activity time, and stochastic frontier model was adopted to estimate true activity time. RESULTS: The average efficiency of the medical unit using theoretical resource capacity was 77%, however the efficiency using practical resource capacity was 96%. According to these results, the portion of non-added value time was estimated 23% and 4% each. The sums of total nursing activity costs were estimated 109,860,977 won in traditional activity-based costing and 84,427,126 won in time-driven activity-based costing. The difference in the two cost calculating methods was 25,433,851 won. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that the time-driven activity-based costing provides useful and more realistic information about the efficiency of unit operation compared to traditional activity-based costing. So time-driven activity-based costing is recommended as a performance evaluation framework for nursing departments based on cost management.

Lim JY; Kim MJ; Park CG

2011-08-01

37

Fusion reactor design studies: standard unit costs and cost scaling rules  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This report establishes standard unit costs and scaling rules for estimating costs of material, equipment, land, and labor components used in magnetic confinement fusion reactor plant construction and operation. Use of the standard unit costs and scaling rules will add uniformity to cost estimates, and thus allow valid comparison of the economic characteristics of various reactor concepts

1979-01-01

38

Unit costs of waste management operations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report provides estimates of generic costs for the management, disposal, and surveillance of various waste types, from the time they are generated to the end of their institutional control. Costs include monitoring and surveillance costs required after waste disposal. Available data on costs for the treatment, storage, disposal, and transportation of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive, low-level radioactive, transuranic radioactive, hazardous, mixed (low-level radioactive plus hazardous), and sanitary wastes are presented. The costs cover all major elements that contribute to the total system life-cycle (i.e., ''cradle to grave'') cost for each waste type. This total cost is the sum of fixed and variable cost components. Variable costs are affected by operating rates and throughput capacities and vary in direct proportion to changes in the level of activity. Fixed costs remain constant regardless of changes in the amount of waste, operating rates, or throughput capacities. Key factors that influence cost, such as the size and throughput capacity of facilities, are identified. In many cases, ranges of values for the key variables are presented. For some waste types, the planned or estimated costs for storage and disposal, projected to the year 2000, are presented as graphics.

1994-01-01

39

Aspects of Costs Calculation in a Vegetable Production Farm  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper deals with the aspects of the issue of costs calculation for a vegetable production farm in terms of theory and practice. Aspects of the active accounting regulations, applicable to vegetable production farms, are presented in the content. Features of the vegetable production are detailed, and the applicability of costs calculation methods is shown by the example of the “to order” method. In terms of accounting, there are presented the records made in the management accounting, in the financial accounting and also the conclusions to be drawn in terms of management accounting utility in financial decision making.

Teodor HADA

2012-01-01

40

Is cost coverage accounting suitable for the power price calculation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Recently opinions have been put forward that utilities should use cost coverage accounting for the calculation of their special contract power prices. Various VDEW committees are analysing this question from the viewpoint of various sectors. The related problems of applied economics were investigated in detail by the workstudy group 'Cost Accounting', which came to the conclusion that cost coverage accounting is fundamentally unsuitable for structuring the power price. At the most it can be used in price evaluation in special, limited circumstances.

1987-08-31

 
 
 
 
41

Cost-effectiveness calculations and policy. Rentabiliteitsberekeningen en beleid  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report deals with the significance and the estimation of the value of the methods used for answering the question if a project is cost-effective in comparison with alternative projects. The author describes the used calculation methods, comments briefly on the methods and exemplifies the procedures with some case studies from the Dutch energy sector. 26 refs.

De Boer, A.A.

1987-01-01

42

Accelerating Dust Temperature Calculations with Graphics Processing Units  

CERN Multimedia

When calculating the infrared spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of galaxies in radiation-transfer models, the calculation of dust grain temperatures is generally the most time-consuming part of the calculation. Because of its highly parallel nature, this calculation is perfectly suited for massively parallel general-purpose Graphics Processing Units (GPUs). This paper presents an implementation of the calculation of dust grain equilibrium temperatures on GPUs in the Monte-Carlo radiation transfer code Sunrise, using the CUDA API. The GPU can perform this calculation 55 times faster than the 8 CPU cores, showing great potential for accelerating calculations of galaxy SEDs.

Jonsson, Patrik

2009-01-01

43

Massively parallel chemical potential calculation on graphics processing units  

Science.gov (United States)

One- and two-stage free energy methods are common approaches for calculating the chemical potential from a molecular dynamics or Monte Carlo molecular simulation trajectory. Although these methods require significant amounts of CPU time spent on post-simulation analysis, this analysis step is well-suited for parallel execution. In this work, we implement this analysis step on graphics processing units (GPUs), an architecture that is optimized for massively parallel computation. A key issue in porting these free energy methods to GPUs is the trade-off between software efficiency and sampling efficiency. In particular, fixed performance costs in the software favor a higher number of insertion moves per configuration. However, higher numbers of moves lead to lower sampling efficiency. We explore this issue in detail, and find that for a dense, strongly interacting system of small molecules like liquid water, the optimal number of insertions per configuration can be as high as 105 for a two-stage approach like Bennett’s method. We also find that our GPU implementation accelerates chemical potential calculations by as much as 60-fold when compared to an efficient, widely available CPU code running on a single CPU core.

Daly, Kevin B.; Benziger, Jay B.; Debenedetti, Pablo G.; Panagiotopoulos, Athanassios Z.

2012-10-01

44

Cost calculations for decommissioning and dismantling of nuclear research facilities  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Today, it is recommended that planning of decommission should form an integral part of the activities over the life cycle of a nuclear facility (planning, building and operation), but it was only in the nineteen seventies that the waste issue really surface. Actually, the IAEA guidelines on decommissioning have been issued as recently as over the last ten years, and international advice on finance of decommissioning is even younger. No general international guideline on cost calculations exists at present. This implies that cost calculations cannot be performed with any accuracy or credibility without a relatively detailed consideration of the radiological prerequisites. Consequently, any cost estimates based mainly on the particulars of the building structures and installations are likely to be gross underestimations. The present study has come about on initiative by the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI) and is based on a common need in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. The content of the report may be briefly summarised as follows. The background covers design and operation prerequisites as well as an overview of the various nuclear research facilities in the four participating countries: Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. The purpose of the work has been to identify, compile and exchange information on facilities and on methodologies for cost calculation with the aim of achieving an 80 % level of confidence. The scope has been as follows: 1) to establish a Nordic network 2) to compile dedicated guidance documents on radiological surveying, technical planning and financial risk identification and assessment 3) to compile and describe techniques for precise cost calculations at early stages 4) to compile plant and other relevant data A separate section is devoted in the report to good practice for the specific purpose of early but precise cost calculations for research facilities, and a separate section is devoted to techniques for assessment of cost. Examples are provided for each of the countries of relevant projects. They are as follows: 5) Research reactor DR1 in Denmark 6) The TRIGA research reactor in Finland 7) The uranium reprocessing plant in Norway 8) Research reactor R1 in Sweden The following conclusions were made: 9) IAEA and OECD/NEA documents provide invaluable advice for pertinent approaches. 10) Adequate radiological surveying is needed before precise cost calculations can be made. 11) The same can be said about technical planning including selection of techniques to be used. 12) It is proposed that separate analyses be made regarding the probabilities for conceivable features and events which could lead to significantly higher costs than expected. 13) It is expected that the need for precise cost estimates will dictate the pace of the radiological surveying and technical planning, at least in the early stages. 14) It is important that the validity structure for early cost estimates with regard to type of facility be fully appreciated. E g, the precision is usually less for research facilities. 15) The summation method is treacherous and leads to systematical underestimations in early stages unless compensation is made for the fact that not all items are included. 16) Comparison between different facilities can be made when there is access to information from plants at different stages of planning and when accommodation can be made with regard to differences in features. 17) A simple approach is presented for 'calibration' of a cost estimate against one or more completed projects. 18) Information exchange and co-operations between different plant owners is highly desirable. (au)

Andersson, I. (Studsvik Nuclear AB (Sweden)); Backe, S. (Institute for Energy Technology (Norway)); Cato, A.; Lindskog, S. (Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (Sweden)); Efraimsson, H. (Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (Sweden)); Iversen, Klaus (Danish Decommissioning (Denmark)); Salmenhaara, S. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland (Finland)); Sjoeblom, R. (Tekedo AB, (Sweden))

2008-07-15

45

Costs for LNG (liquefied natural gas) imports into the United States. Topical report, August 1988  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cost estimates are presented for the liquefaction, transportation and regasification of liquefied natural gas (LNG). These cost estimates are used to calculate a netback gas purchase price at the liquefaction plant gate in the country of origin given the U.S. wellhead and citygate gas prices determined by the 1988 GRI Baseline Analysis. An annual cost-of-service per unit profile for new regasification facilities that would be subject to U.S. traditional rate-making practices is included.

Woods, T.; Vidas, E.H.

1988-08-01

46

Calculating the social cost of illegal drugs: a theoretical approach.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The use of illegal drugs generates a wide range of social harms depending on various ways, according to the policy definition of the problem. The challenge is the way to model the impact of illegal drugs use during a long time period considering the factors that affects the process. Based on these models, estimation could be measured and prediction could be achieved. The illegal drugs use might affect the economic and social structure of the public system leading to direct and effective decisions to overcome the problematic. For that reason, calculation of social cost related to the use of illegal could be introduced over time (t) as a proposed social measure to define the variability of social indicator on society. In this work, a theoretical approach for the calculation of social cost of illegal drugs is proposed and models over time are defined.

Diomidous M; Zimeras S; Mechili A

2013-01-01

47

A practical approach for calculating reliable cost estimates from observational data: application to cost analyses in maternal and child health.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Comparative effectiveness research (CER) and cost-effectiveness analysis are valuable tools for informing health policy and clinical care decisions. Despite the increased availability of rich observational databases with economic measures, few researchers have the skills needed to conduct valid and reliable cost analyses for CER. OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this paper are to (i) describe a practical approach for calculating cost estimates from hospital charges in discharge data using publicly available hospital cost reports, and (ii) assess the impact of using different methods for cost estimation in maternal and child health (MCH) studies by conducting economic analyses on gestational diabetes (GDM) and pre-pregnancy overweight/obesity. METHODS: In Florida, we have constructed a clinically enhanced, longitudinal, encounter-level MCH database covering over 2.3 million infants (and their mothers) born alive from 1998 to 2009. Using this as a template, we describe a detailed methodology to use publicly available data to calculate hospital-wide and department-specific cost-to-charge ratios (CCRs), link them to the master database, and convert reported hospital charges to refined cost estimates. We then conduct an economic analysis as a case study on women by GDM and pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) status to compare the impact of using different methods on cost estimation. RESULTS: Over 60 % of inpatient charges for birth hospitalizations came from the nursery/labor/delivery units, which have very different cost-to-charge markups (CCR = 0.70) than the commonly substituted hospital average (CCR = 0.29). Using estimated mean, per-person maternal hospitalization costs for women with GDM as an example, unadjusted charges ($US14,696) grossly overestimated actual cost, compared with hospital-wide ($US3,498) and department-level ($US4,986) CCR adjustments. However, the refined cost estimation method, although more accurate, did not alter our conclusions that infant/maternal hospitalization costs were significantly higher for women with GDM than without, and for overweight/obese women than for those in a normal BMI range. CONCLUSIONS: Cost estimates, particularly among MCH-related services, vary considerably depending on the adjustment method. Our refined approach will be valuable to researchers interested in incorporating more valid estimates of cost into databases with linked hospital discharge files.

Salemi JL; Comins MM; Chandler K; Mogos MF; Salihu HM

2013-08-01

48

Unit Cost of Medical Services at Different Hospitals in India  

Science.gov (United States)

Institutional care is a growing component of health care costs in low- and middle-income countries, but local health planners in these countries have inadequate knowledge of the costs of different medical services. In India, greater utilisation of hospital services is driven both by rising incomes and by government insurance programmes that cover the cost of inpatient services; however, there is still a paucity of unit cost information from Indian hospitals. In this study, we estimated operating costs and cost per outpatient visit, cost per inpatient stay, cost per emergency room visit, and cost per surgery for five hospitals of different types across India: a 57-bed charitable hospital, a 200-bed private hospital, a 400-bed government district hospital, a 655-bed private teaching hospital, and a 778-bed government tertiary care hospital for the financial year 2010–11. The major cost component varied among human resources, capital costs, and material costs, by hospital type. The outpatient visit cost ranged from Rs. 94 (district hospital) to Rs. 2,213 (private hospital) (USD 1?=?INR 52). The inpatient stay cost was Rs. 345 in the private teaching hospital, Rs. 394 in the district hospital, Rs. 614 in the tertiary care hospital, Rs. 1,959 in the charitable hospital, and Rs. 6,996 in the private hospital. Our study results can help hospital administrators understand their cost structures and run their facilities more efficiently, and we identify areas where improvements in efficiency might significantly lower unit costs. The study also demonstrates that detailed costing of Indian hospital operations is both feasible and essential, given the significant variation in the country’s hospital types. Because of the size and diversity of the country and variations across hospitals, a large-scale study should be undertaken to refine hospital costing for different types of hospitals so that the results can be used for policy purposes, such as revising payment rates under government-sponsored insurance schemes.

Chatterjee, Susmita; Levin, Carol; Laxminarayan, Ramanan

2013-01-01

49

Unit cost of medical services at different hospitals in India.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Institutional care is a growing component of health care costs in low- and middle-income countries, but local health planners in these countries have inadequate knowledge of the costs of different medical services. In India, greater utilisation of hospital services is driven both by rising incomes and by government insurance programmes that cover the cost of inpatient services; however, there is still a paucity of unit cost information from Indian hospitals. In this study, we estimated operating costs and cost per outpatient visit, cost per inpatient stay, cost per emergency room visit, and cost per surgery for five hospitals of different types across India: a 57-bed charitable hospital, a 200-bed private hospital, a 400-bed government district hospital, a 655-bed private teaching hospital, and a 778-bed government tertiary care hospital for the financial year 2010-11. The major cost component varied among human resources, capital costs, and material costs, by hospital type. The outpatient visit cost ranged from Rs. 94 (district hospital) to Rs. 2,213 (private hospital) (USD 1?=?INR 52). The inpatient stay cost was Rs. 345 in the private teaching hospital, Rs. 394 in the district hospital, Rs. 614 in the tertiary care hospital, Rs. 1,959 in the charitable hospital, and Rs. 6,996 in the private hospital. Our study results can help hospital administrators understand their cost structures and run their facilities more efficiently, and we identify areas where improvements in efficiency might significantly lower unit costs. The study also demonstrates that detailed costing of Indian hospital operations is both feasible and essential, given the significant variation in the country's hospital types. Because of the size and diversity of the country and variations across hospitals, a large-scale study should be undertaken to refine hospital costing for different types of hospitals so that the results can be used for policy purposes, such as revising payment rates under government-sponsored insurance schemes.

Chatterjee S; Levin C; Laxminarayan R

2013-01-01

50

Unit heaters cut fuel costs open up needed space  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Converting an old boiler heating system to gas-fired unit heaters at Shenandoah Manufacturing Co., Harrisburg, VA, has yielded expected cost savings as well as pleasant surprises. Energy costs were cut significant, the boiler room was converted to a tool and die shop, and the potential hazard from asbestos that insulated the boiler was eliminated.

Steiner, V.M.

1987-10-08

51

Amount of calculable costs budgeted in the costing system for electricity supply undertakings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Questions of costing in the electricity supply industry have recently become of current interest, especially due to the requirements for increases in tariffs. Here the magnitude and the method of calculating depreciation and interest is of great importance. A special working committee of the supply undertakings has carried out a comprehensive investigation on this point based on generally accepted economic principles and methods.

1980-03-01

52

Process cost calculation - an alternative to cost management?; Prozesskostenrechnung - eine Alternative fuer das Kostenmanagement?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Increasing competition and changing markets in the energy sector make new demands on cost management and at the same time on the quality to be provided by the costing systems. The process cost calculation used today in various branches of industry is able to contribute - by orientating itself to processes and chains of delivered value - to an assignment of costs doing more justice to the causes so that costing information with improved meaningfulness is available for entrepreneurial decisions. The authors introduce process cost calculation and illustrate its function using a practice-related example for its application. Potential fields of utilisation in the electricity supply enterprises are subsequently shown. (orig.) [Deutsch] Zunehmender Wettbewerb und sich wandelnde Maerkte im Energiesektor stellen neue Anforderungen an das Kostenmanagement und damit auch an die Qualitaet der von den Kostenrechnungssystemen bereitzustellenden Informationen. Die heute in verschiedenen Wirtschaftszweigen eingesetzte Prozesskostenrechnung kann - durch Orientierung an Prozessen und Wertschoepfungsketten - zu einer verursachungsgerechteren Kostenzuordnung beitragen, so dass fuer unternehmerische Entscheidungen Kostenrechnungsinformationen mit verbesserter Aussagekraft zur Verfuegung stehen. Die Verfasser stellen die Prozesskostenrechnung vor und veranschaulichen deren Funktionsweise anhand eines praxisbezogenen Anwendungsbeispiels. Im Anschluss werden moegliche Einsatzgebiete fuer Energieversorgungsunternehmen aufgezeigt. (orig.)

Anon.

1998-01-12

53

New equations calculate Claus unit sulfur-recovery efficiency  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A method has been developed that allows direct, accurate calculation of recovery efficiency for Claus sulfur-recovery units (SRU). The calculation combines feed-gas data and tail-gas composition to calculate flow rates for combustion air and tail-gas streams. Because the recovery calculation quantifies tail-gas flow and composition, it allows direct, exact calculation of conversion efficiency, recovery efficiency, and plant sulfur emissions. The recovery-efficiency algorithm or calculation has been design to accommodate a wide variety of plant configurations without need for modification. The method accounts for feed-stream water vapor, hydrocarbons, and ammonia and results in accurate calculation of combustion air and tail-gas flow rates.

Anderson, M. [Brimstone Engineering Services Inc., Chino Hills, CA (United States)

1997-11-17

54

Unit costs in international economic evaluations: resource costing of the Schizophrenia Outpatient Health Outcomes Study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: We present unit costs corresponding to resource information collected in the Schizophrenia Outpatient Health Outcomes (SOHO) Study. METHOD: The SOHO study is a 3-year, prospective, observational study of health outcomes associated with antipsychotic treatment in out-patients treated for schizophrenia. The study is being conducted across 10 European countries (Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain and the UK) and includes over 10,800 patients and over 1000 investigators. To identify the best available unit costs of hospital admissions, day care and psychiatrist out-patient visits, a tariff-based approach was used. RESULTS: Unit costs were obtained for nine of the 10 countries and were adjusted to 2000 price levels by consumer price indices and converted to US dollars using purchasing power parity rates (and on to Euro). CONCLUSION: The paper illustrates the need to balance the search for sound unit costs with pragmatic solutions in the costing of international economic evaluations.

Urdahl H; Knapp M; Edgell ET; Ghandi G; Haro JM

2003-01-01

55

Composite Cost Function Based Solution to the Unit Commitment Problem  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents a new approach via composite cost function to solve the unit commitment problem. The unit com-mitment problem involves determining the start-up and shut-down schedules for generating units to meet the fore-casted demand at the minimum cost. The commitment schedule must satisfy the other constraints such as the generating limits, spinning reserve, minimum up and down time, ramp level and individual units. The proposed algorithm gives the committed units and economic load dispatch for each specific hour of operation. Numerical simulations were carried out using three cases: four-generator, seven-generator, and ten-generator thermal unit power systems over a 24 h period. The produced schedule was compared with several other methods, such as Dynamic programming, Branch and bound, Ant colony system, and traditional Tabu search. The result demonstrated the accuracy of the proposed method.

Srikrishna Subramanian; Radhakrishnan Anandhakumar

2010-01-01

56

Unit Cost Data for the Selection of Economics Assessment Indicators  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In order to select indicators for the nuclear fuel cycle economics assessment, fuel cycle components should be defined and their unit costs should be provided. In general a fuel cycle starts from uranium ore mining and ends with geological disposal. The unit cost data surveyed in this study for the typical nuclear fuel cycle can be summarized as follows: - The existing uranium price didn't consider the recent increase of the uranium price. The uranium price exceeded $300/kgU in 2007. Therefore it would be necessary to reflect the recent uranium price change in the future study. - The unit costs of reprocessing and pyro-processing have relatively large uncertainties due to lack of commercial operation experience of these facilities. These costs should be updated either by the conceptual design study or by establishing the recycling fuel cycle. - The cost variation of recycling fuel fabrication is also relatively large. Though MOX fuels are partially used in commercial reactors, the fuel fabrication costs for a fast reactor, a high temperature gas cooled reactor and an accelerator-driven system should be updated in the future as related technologies develop. - The disposal cost of the spent fuel adopts the result of detailed design study. However the variation of the cost is relatively large depending on the country that has performed the detailed design study of the disposal facility and the commercialization of such a facility has not yet been fully implemented. Reviewing unit cost data provided by several organizations, it is judged that they are not much different from those suggested by OECD/NEA though there is a certain amount of variation. Therefore this study suggests the OECD/NEA unit cost data and structure as potential indictors for the fuel cycle economics analysis.

Choi, Hang Bok

2007-08-15

57

[Real daily costs of patients admitted to public intensive care units].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Patient care costs in intensive care units are high and should be considered in medical decision making. AIM: To calculate the real disease related costs for patients admitted to intensive care units of public hospitals. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Using an activity associated costs analysis, the expenses of 716 patients with a mean age of 56 years, mean APACHE score of 20 (56% males), admitted to intensive care units of two regional public hospitals, were calculated. Patients were classified according to their underlying disease. RESULTS: The costs per day of hospital stay, in Chilean pesos, were $ 426,265 for sepsis, $ 423,300 for cardiovascular diseases, $ 418,329 for kidney diseases, $ 404,873 for trauma, $ 398,913 for respiratory diseases, $ 379,455 for digestive diseases and $ 371,801 for neurologic disease. Human resources and medications determined up to 85 and 12% of costs, respectively. Patients with sepsis and trauma use 32 and 19% of intensive care unit resources, respectively. Twenty seven percent of resources are invested in patients that eventually died. CONCLUSIONS: A real cost benefit analysis should be performed to optimize resource allocation in intensive care units.

Alvear S; Canteros J; Jara J; Rodríguez P

2013-02-01

58

Measured energy consumption and plant investment cost of an airconditioning plant with ceiling induction units  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For an air conditioning plant constructed with ceiling induction units for an office building the running and plant cost is available. The measurements resulted in annual running cost of 15 DM/m/sup 2/ of used floor area. Thereby the favorable values are confirmed that had been calculated previously but were considered to be too low and had therefore been doubted by some experts.

Fitzner, K.

1980-01-01

59

STUDY ON UNIT COST OF CERTIFICATE-TYPE BROILERS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A production cost means all costs for inputs consumption performed by the enterprise for goods and services produced and offered. Production costs are very meaningful about business quality and it is a decision-making condition for every producer; lowest cost level is the standard in choosing the right option. These researches were intended to give an overview about these problems. Objectives were first to find unit costs for feeds and kg live weight to broilers type Certificate and second to reduce unit costs by changing energy and protein content of feeds for these broilers. Experiment was performed with Ross 308 chickens, raised according to the technology to produce ecological poultry meat type Certificate. Three experimental variants were used; respectively three treatments/each variant and experiment design was in pens. Experimental period was of 56 days of age; feeding technology used was bi-phase, as following: group CM, with constant energy and protein level, group C1, with constant energy and variable protein level and group C2, with variable energy and constant protein level. Major production performances were checked and slaughtering was followed by cutting and finally all data were processed and read statistically. Finally unit costs per kg processed feed (1,308 – 1,362 lei) and per kg live weight (5,532 – 5,667 lei) were analyzed.

Minodora TUDORACHE; Ilie VAN; Ioan CUSTUR?; Elena POPESCU-MICLO?ANU; Antoaneta POPA

2012-01-01

60

HOW TO CALCULATE THE ENVIRONMENTAL COSTS? CASE COMPANY GRAFICA CIENFUEGOS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The world urgently needs to protect the environment, many companies and organizations devote huge resources to reach that goal and achieve sustainable development as the highest standard of achievement for any country or organization. It then becomes imperative to determine how much the companies spend on the environment, taking into account that the Entities have an implicit contract with society and the environment, the product of the resources used and waste and waste pouring, which is why one needs to calculate and record the environmental costs of products to enhance the environmental management of the entity and thus promote an excellent decision-making. The following research seeks a procedure which allows solving this problem, making its composition with the use of various techniques within which highlights the environmental checklists and product life cycle, which also allows knowing separately as each process and product impacts the environment.

Keitel, Becerra; Elizabeth, Gómez; Grisel, Pérez; Reynier, Reyes

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Managerial implications of calculating optimal nurse staffing in medical units.  

Science.gov (United States)

A critical managerial decision in health care organizations is the staffing decision. We offer a model to derive an optimum mix of different staff categories that minimizes total cost subject to constraints imposed by the patient acuity system and minimum staffing policies in a medical unit of Fairbanks Memorial Hospital, Alaska. We also indicate several managerial implications on how our results and their sensitivity analyses can be used effectively in decision making in a variety of categories. PMID:11235456

Bordoloi, S K; Weatherby, E J

2000-07-01

62

Managerial implications of calculating optimum nurse staffing in medical units.  

Science.gov (United States)

A critical managerial decision in health care organizations is the staffing decision. We offer a model to derive an optimum mix of different staff categories that minimizes total cost subject to constraints imposed by the patient acuity system and minimum staffing policies in a medical unit of Fairbanks Memorial Hospital, Alaska. We also indicate several managerial implications on how our results and their sensitivity analyses can be used effectively in decision making in a variety of categories. PMID:10572787

Bordoloi, S K; Weatherby, E J

1999-01-01

63

COSTS AND PROFITABILITY IN FOOD PROCESSING: PASTRY TYPE UNITS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available For each company, profitability, products quality and customer satisfaction are the most importanttargets. To attaint these targets, managers need to know all about costs that are used in decision making. Whatkind of costs? How these costs are calculated for a specific sector such as food processing? These are only a fewquestions with answers in our paper. We consider that a case study for this sector may be relevant for all peoplethat are interested to increase the profitability of this specific activity sector.

DUMITRANA MIHAELA; GL?VAN ELENA MARIANA

2013-01-01

64

Foundations of Financial Accounting Organization and Cost Calculation using Activity-Based Costing Method in Romanian Textile Industry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of first part of this article consists in attempting to establish the management accounting and cost calculation basis of the ABC method in Romania. After general characterization of the ABC method and origin establishment of the ABC method the premises analysis are treated which are the basis of management accounting and cost calculation through ABC method in Romania. There are established the role and implications of the processes, activities and cost objects on management accounting and cost calculation, in the attempt to classify the expenses which accomplish the production cost, accordingly to ABC method.

Sorinel Capusneanu

2006-01-01

65

Monetary costs of dementia in the United States.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Dementia affects a large and growing number of older adults in the United States. The monetary costs attributable to dementia are likely to be similarly large and to continue to increase. METHODS: In a subsample (856 persons) of the population in the Health and Retirement Study (HRS), a nationally representative longitudinal study of older adults, the diagnosis of dementia was determined with the use of a detailed in-home cognitive assessment that was 3 to 4 hours in duration and a review by an expert panel. We then imputed cognitive status to the full HRS sample (10,903 persons, 31,936 person-years) on the basis of measures of cognitive and functional status available for all HRS respondents, thereby identifying persons in the larger sample with a high probability of dementia. The market costs associated with care for persons with dementia were determined on the basis of self-reported out-of-pocket spending and the utilization of nursing home care; Medicare claims data were used to identify costs paid by Medicare. Hours of informal (unpaid) care were valued either as the cost of equivalent formal (paid) care or as the estimated wages forgone by informal caregivers. RESULTS: The estimated prevalence of dementia among persons older than 70 years of age in the United States in 2010 was 14.7%. The yearly monetary cost per person that was attributable to dementia was either $56,290 (95% confidence interval [CI], $42,746 to $69,834) or $41,689 (95% CI, $31,017 to $52,362), depending on the method used to value informal care. These individual costs suggest that the total monetary cost of dementia in 2010 was between $157 billion and $215 billion. Medicare paid approximately $11 billion of this cost. CONCLUSIONS: Dementia represents a substantial financial burden on society, one that is similar to the financial burden of heart disease and cancer. (Funded by the National Institute on Aging.).

Hurd MD; Martorell P; Delavande A; Mullen KJ; Langa KM

2013-04-01

66

Calculation method of the power generation costs of a nuclear power plant  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The costs for generating electric power with nuclear power plants are mainly determined by the capital costs, the operating costs and the fuel costs. The author describes the methods which are used to calculate the electric power costs taking into account the inflation.

Koenders, N.J.

1982-09-01

67

A new unit labour cost changes decomposition Four pillars of cost competitiveness recovery  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article presents a new decomposition of unit labour costs into compensation per worker and labour productivity, which, in turn, is decomposed into e ffciency gains, technical progress and capital deepening. Data for Western European countries and the US show that the evolution of labour product...

Dimaria, Charles-Henri; Peronni, Chiara

68

Fast calculation of HELAS amplitudes using graphics processing unit (GPU)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We use the graphics processing unit (GPU) for fast calculations of helicity amplitudes of physics processes. As our first attempt, we compute uu{yields}n{gamma} (n=2 to 8) processes in pp collisions at {radical}(s)=14 TeV by transferring the MadGraph generated HELAS amplitudes (FORTRAN) into newly developed HEGET (HELAS Evaluation with GPU Enhanced Technology) codes written in CUDA, a C-platform developed by NVIDIA for general purpose computing on the GPU. Compared with the usual CPU programs, we obtain a 40-150 times better performance on the GPU. (orig.)

Hagiwara, K. [KEK Theory Center and Sokendai, Tsukuba (Japan); Kanzaki, J.; Okamura, N. [KEK, Tsukuba (Japan); Rainwater, D. [University of Texas, Space and Geophysics Laboratory, Applied Research Laboratories, Austin, TX (United States); Stelzer, T. [University of Illinois, Department of Physics, Urbana, IL (United States)

2010-04-15

69

Monitor unit calculations for wedged asymmetric photon beams  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Algorithms for calculating monitor units (MUs) in wedged asymmetric high-energy photon beams as implemented in treatment planning systems have their limitations. Therefore an independent method for MU calculation is necessary. The aim of this study was to develop an empirical method to determine MUs for points at the centre of wedged fields, asymmetric in two directions. The method is based on the determination of an off-axis factor (OAF) that corrects for the difference in dose between wedged asymmetric and wedged symmetric beams with the same field size. Measurements were performed in a water phantom irradiated with 6 and 18 MV photon beams produced by Elekta accelerators, which are fitted with an internal motorized wedge that has a complex shape. The OAF perpendicular to the wedge direction changed significantly with depth for the 18 MV beam. Dose values measured for a set of 18 test cases were compared with those calculated with our method. The maximum difference found was 6.5% and in 15 cases this figure was smaller than 2.0%. The analytical method of Khan and the empirical method of Georg were also tested and showed errors up to 12.8%. It can be concluded that our simple formalism is able to calculate MUs in wedged asymmetric fields with an acceptable accuracy in most clinical situations. (author)

Smulders, Bob [Department of Radiotherapy, Netherlands Cancer Institute/Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands)]. E-mail: bsmul@nki.nl; Mijnheer, Ben J. [Department of Radiotherapy, Netherlands Cancer Institute/Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Bruinvis, Iain A.D. [Radiotherapy Institute Limburg (Academic Hospital Maastricht), Heerlen (Netherlands)

2002-06-21

70

Accelerated conformational entropy calculations using graphic processing units.  

Science.gov (United States)

Conformational entropy calculation, usually computed by normal-mode analysis (NMA) or quasi harmonic analysis (QHA), is extremely time-consuming. Here, instead of NMA or QHA, a solvent accessible surface area (SASA) based model was employed to compute the conformational entropy, and a new fast GPU-based method called MURCIA (Molecular Unburied Rapid Calculation of Individual Areas) was implemented to accelerate the calculation of SASA for each atom. MURCIA employs two different kernels to determine the neighbors of each atom. The first kernel (K1) uses brute force for the calculation of the neighbors of atoms, while the second one (K2) uses an advanced algorithm involving hardware interpolations via GPU texture memory unit for such purpose. These two kernels yield very similar results. Each kernel has its own advantages depending on the protein size. K1 performs better than K2 when the size is small and vice versa. The algorithm was extensively evaluated for four protein data sets and achieves good results for all of them. This GPU-accelerated version is ?600 times faster than the former sequential algorithm when the number of the atoms in a protein is up to 10(5). PMID:23862733

Zhang, Qian; Wang, Junmei; Guerrero, Ginés D; Cecilia, José M; García, José M; Li, Youyong; Pérez-Sánchez, Horacio; Hou, Tingjun

2013-08-01

71

Low finding costs calculated in Mississippi's Tuscaloosa, Frio  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports on a recent study conducted by the Mississippi Office of Geology which examined oil and gas finding costs in southwestern Mississippi for the period from 1986 through 1990. The formations of interest were the Upper Cretaceous Lower Tuscaloosa formation and the Oligocene Frio formation. The model incorporated the following financial considerations for exploratory activity: seismic data acquisition, geologic expenses, leasing and legal fees, and drilling costs. Average drilling and completion costs were also assigned to the development wells. The finding cost formula divided the total exploration and development costs by the recoverable reserves. Reserves were multiplied by a 75% net revenue for the Tuscaloosa and 80% for the Frio leases to account for royalty interests and severance taxes. No field operating expenses were included

72

UET calculation for Kori Units 3 and 4 Power Uprate  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Unfavorable Exposure Time (UET) refers to the portion of the operating cycle for which the natural reactivity feedback mechanisms of the reactor core are insufficient to ensure that peak system pressures are less than 3200 psig during an Anticipated Transient Without Scram (ATWS). In an ATWS, a heatup of the primary system occurs due to loss of normal feedwater or loss of load. It is assumed that reactor trip does not occur. As a result, the coolant inlet temperature increases and reactor power drops due to negative moderator feedback. In a core with a sufficient negative moderator temperature coefficient, the core power will decrease enough to ensure that the primary system limiting pressure of 3200 psig is not reached. In this study, the UET was calculated for Kori units 3, 4 assuming 4.5% power uprate.

Bae, Seong Man; Lee, Jae Yong; Choi, Yu Sun [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

2006-07-01

73

Fast calculation of HELAS amplitudes using graphics processing unit (GPU)  

CERN Multimedia

We use the graphics processing unit (GPU) for fast calculations of helicity amplitudes of physics processes. As our first attempt, we compute $u\\overline{u}\\to n\\gamma$ ($n=2$ to 8) processes in $pp$ collisions at $\\sqrt{s} = 14$TeV by transferring the MadGraph generated HELAS amplitudes (FORTRAN) into newly developed HEGET ({\\bf H}ELAS {\\bf E}valuation with {\\bf G}PU {\\bf E}nhanced {\\bf T}echnology) codes written in CUDA, a C-platform developed by NVIDIA for general purpose computing on the GPU. Compared with the usual CPU programs, we obtain 40-150 times better performance on the GPU.

Hagiwara, K; Okamura, N; Rainwater, D L; Stelzer, T

2009-01-01

74

Low-Cost Sensor Units for Measuring Urban Air Quality  

Science.gov (United States)

Measurements of selected key air quality gases (CO, NO & NO2) have been made with a range of miniature low-cost sensors based on electrochemical gas sensing technology incorporating GPS and GPRS for position and communication respectively. Two types of simple to operate sensors units have been designed to be deployed in relatively large numbers. Mobile handheld sensor units designed for operation by members of the public have been deployed on numerous occasions including in Cambridge, London and Valencia. Static sensor units have also been designed for long-term autonomous deployment on existing street furniture. A study was recently completed in which 45 sensor units were deployed in the Cambridge area for a period of 3 months. Results from these studies indicate that air quality varies widely both spatially and temporally. The widely varying concentrations found suggest that the urban environment cannot be fully understood using limited static site (AURN) networks and that a higher resolution, more dispersed network is required to better define air quality in the urban environment. The results also suggest that higher spatial and temporal resolution measurements could improve knowledge of the levels of individual exposure in the urban environment.

Popoola, O. A.; Mead, M.; Stewart, G.; Hodgson, T.; McLoed, M.; Baldovi, J.; Landshoff, P.; Hayes, M.; Calleja, M.; Jones, R.

2010-12-01

75

H2POWER: Development of a methodology to calculate life cycle cost of small and medium-scale hydrogen systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

At this time, hydrogen-based power plants and large hydrogen production facilities are capital intensive and unable to compete financially against hydrocarbon-based energy production facilities. An option to overcome this problem and foster the introduction of hydrogen technology is to introduce small and medium-scale applications such as residential and community hydrogen refueling units. Such units could potentially be used to generate both electricity and heat for the home, as well as hydrogen fuel for the automobile. Cost modeling for the integration of these three forms of energy presents several methodological challenges. This is particularly true since the technology is still in the development phase and both the financial and the environmental cost must be calculated using mainly secondary sources. In order to address these issues and aid in the design of small and medium-scale hydrogen systems, this study presents a computer model to calculate financial and environmental costs of this technology using different hydrogen pathways. The model can design and compare hydrogen refueling units against hydrocarbon-based technologies, including the 'gap' between financial and economic costs. Using the methodology, various penalties and incentives that can foster the introduction of hydrogen-based technologies can be added to the analysis to study their impact on financial cost.

2007-01-01

76

Method for calculating marginal cost of environmental protection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A method is evaluated for forecasting the marginal cost of environmental protection of a region with a number of dust pollution sources (e.g. power plants). The following conditions should be met: all the pollution sources are situated in the region, distribution of dust pollution in the region is regular, most of the dust emission affects the analyzed region. The following factors are considered: number of pollution sources, emission level, methods for dust pollution control (coal preparation, use of cyclone separators, use of electrostatic precipitators or combined use of cyclone separators and electrostatic precipitators) and cost of dust pollution control. The method is used for selecting the most economic methods for dust pollution control in a region.

Zajic, J

1987-01-01

77

Nuclear power and global warming: a first cost-benefit calculation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper investigates the costs and benefits of a modest nuclear power programme in the European Union to combat the threat of global warming. The nuclear programme is found to bring a double benefit. The first and more obvious benefit is that the economic impacts of global warming are reduced. The second benefit is counter-intuitive; most people would expect it to be a cost. It comes from the stimulus to the economy from the construction of the nuclear plant, which, with the recycling of carbon tax revenues, offsets its construction and operating costs, and may even cause consumers' expenditure to rise. Calculations in this paper show that over the period to 2100 the mean net present value of the first benefit is 6 billion European Currency Units (ECU; 1 ECU is about Dollars 1), while the second benefit has a mean net present value of 159 billion ECU. However both benefits, particularly the second, are still very uncertain, to the extent that even their sign is not yet definitely established. (author).

1994-01-01

78

[Calculation of the reprocessing costs of single-use tongs used in video-assisted surgeries].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The frequent reuse of disposable forceps instruments is justified by their high cost. However, few studies have been carried out on this topic. The objective of this study was to develop a methodological proposal for calculating the reprocessing costs for these instruments used in video-assisted surgery. A flowchart was developed for each phase of the reprocessing. This allowed subsequent identification of the cost components in terms of labor, materials and indirect expenses. From these data, a methodological proposal for cost calculation could be created, based on the Full Absorption Costing Method, including the spreadsheet for data collection.

Psaltikidis EM; Graziano KU; Frezatti F

2006-06-01

79

Assessing DRG cost accounting with respect to resource allocation and tariff calculation: the case of Germany.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the German diagnosis related groups (G-DRG) cost accounting scheme by assessing its resource allocation at hospital level and its tariff calculation at national level. First, the paper reviews and assesses the three steps in the G-DRG resource allocation scheme at hospital level: (1) the groundwork; (2) cost-center accounting; and (3) patient-level costing. Second, the paper reviews and assesses the three steps in G-DRG national tariff calculation: (1) plausibility checks; (2) inlier calculation; and (3) the "one hospital" approach. The assessment is based on the two main goals of G-DRG introduction: improving transparency and efficiency. A further empirical assessment attests high costing quality. The G-DRG cost accounting scheme shows high system quality in resource allocation at hospital level, with limitations concerning a managerially relevant full cost approach and limitations in terms of advanced activity-based costing at patient-level. However, the scheme has serious flaws in national tariff calculation: inlier calculation is normative, and the "one hospital" model causes cost bias, adjustment and representativeness issues. The G-DRG system was designed for reimbursement calculation, but developed to a standard with strategic management implications, generalized by the idea of adapting a hospital's cost structures to DRG revenues. This combination causes problems in actual hospital financing, although resource allocation is advanced at hospital level.

Vogl M

2012-01-01

80

Assessing DRG cost accounting with respect to resource allocation and tariff calculation: the case of Germany.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the German diagnosis related groups (G-DRG) cost accounting scheme by assessing its resource allocation at hospital level and its tariff calculation at national level. First, the paper reviews and assesses the three steps in the G-DRG resource allocation scheme at hospital level: (1) the groundwork; (2) cost-center accounting; and (3) patient-level costing. Second, the paper reviews and assesses the three steps in G-DRG national tariff calculation: (1) plausibility checks; (2) inlier calculation; and (3) the "one hospital" approach. The assessment is based on the two main goals of G-DRG introduction: improving transparency and efficiency. A further empirical assessment attests high costing quality. The G-DRG cost accounting scheme shows high system quality in resource allocation at hospital level, with limitations concerning a managerially relevant full cost approach and limitations in terms of advanced activity-based costing at patient-level. However, the scheme has serious flaws in national tariff calculation: inlier calculation is normative, and the "one hospital" model causes cost bias, adjustment and representativeness issues. The G-DRG system was designed for reimbursement calculation, but developed to a standard with strategic management implications, generalized by the idea of adapting a hospital's cost structures to DRG revenues. This combination causes problems in actual hospital financing, although resource allocation is advanced at hospital level. PMID:22935314

Vogl, Matthias

2012-08-30

 
 
 
 
81

Thermal analysis of Malaysian double storey housing - low/medium cost unit  

Science.gov (United States)

Almost half of the total energy used today is consumed in buildings. In the tropical climate, air-conditioning a housing unit takes much of the energy bill. Malaysia is no exception. Malaysian double storey terrace housing is popular among developers and buyers. Surveys have shown that housing occupants are much dissatisfied with the thermal comfort and artificial cooling is often sought. The objective of this study is to assess the thermal comfort of the low and medium-cost double storey housing in the area surrounding Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. A simulation program using the Weighting Factor Method calculates the heat transfer interaction, temperature distribution, and PMV level in three types of housing units in relation to the size. Fanger's PMV model based on ISO Standard 7730 is used here because it accounts for all parameters that affect the thermal sensation of a human within its equation. Results showed that both the low and medium-cost housing units studied are out of the comfortable range described by ASHRAE Standard 55 with the units all complied with the local bylaws. In view of the uncertainties in energy supply, future housing units should consider natural ventilation as part of the passive energy management.

Normah, M. G.; Lau, K. Y.; Mohd. Yusoff, S.

2012-06-01

82

How to reduce costs in amine-sweetening units  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To truly minimize capital and operating costs in amine-sweetening units, the designer must examine alternative flow schemes. For example, for streams with high acid gas content, absorbers with multiple feeds are desirable to greatly reduce the amine flow rate to the top of the absorber. Absorbers in series are very useful for sweetening low-pressure gas streams that must be compressed to higher pressures; this scheme calls for lower circulation and steam rates than do other alternatives. A split flow plant is preferable for sweetening gas streams with a high H/sub 2/S/CO/sub 2/ ratio, a low H/sub 2/s specification in the sweet gas, and a low stripper pressure. Significant reductions in equipment sizes and steam requirements can also be realized for this configuration.

Polasek, J.C.; Bullin, J.A.; Donnelly, S.T.

1983-03-01

83

Burden of disease and costs of aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (aSAH) in the United Kingdom  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background To estimate life years and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) lost and the economic burden of aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (aSAH) in the United Kingdom including healthcare and non-healthcare costs from a societal perspective. Methods All UK residents in 2005 with aSAH (International Classification of Diseases 10th revision (ICD-10) code I60). Sex and age-specific abridged life tables were generated for a general population and aSAH cohorts. QALYs in each cohort were calculated adjusting the life tables with health-related quality of life (HRQL) data. Healthcare costs included hospital expenditure, cerebrovascular rehabilitation, primary care and community health and social services. Non-healthcare costs included informal care and productivity losses arising from morbidity and premature death. Results A total of 80,356 life years and 74,807 quality-adjusted life years were estimated to be lost due to aSAH in the UK in 2005. aSAH costs the National Health Service (NHS) £168.2 million annually with hospital inpatient admissions accounting for 59%, community health and social services for 18%, aSAH-related operations for 15% and cerebrovascular rehabilitation for 6% of the total NHS estimated costs. The average per patient cost for the NHS was estimated to be £23,294. The total economic burden (including informal care and using the human capital method to estimate production losses) of a SAH in the United Kingdom was estimated to be £510 million annually. Conclusion The economic and disease burden of aSAH in the United Kingdom is reported in this study. Decision-makers can use these results to complement other information when informing prevention policies in this field and to relate health care expenditures to disease categories.

Rivero-Arias Oliver; Gray Alastair; Wolstenholme Jane

2010-01-01

84

Hepatitis B immunization: cost calculation in a community-based study in India.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND AND AIM: In India, approximately 65% of mothers deliver at home, and a community-based study evaluating the cost of vaccinating newborns with the first dose of hepatitis B vaccine within 48 hours has not been undertaken previously. This policy planning study was done to evaluate the costs of such immunization in India. METHODS: All mothers delivering in the study area (population 65,000) over a 1-year period were tested for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg; ELISA), and babies of positive mothers were vaccinated starting at birth. The cost of such selective vaccination was calculated. The cost of nursing time required for universal immunization was calculated from the data on nursing time required for vaccination in the selective vaccination program. The national cost of universal immunization without testing was calculated as well as cost-benefit and cost-utility in terms of cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) saved. Sensitivity testing considering economies of scale was also factored in. RESULTS: 1100 mothers delivered during the study period. 252 were primiparous. Nationwide universal vaccination would cost Rs 48,000 per QALY saved, which was double the per capita GNP of the country; discounted at 3% the cost was Rs 260,000. CONCLUSIONS: Universal immunization vaccination with hepatitis B vaccine is not cost-beneficial in India, since cost of every life-year gained with it will exceed India's per capita GNP.

Sahni M; Jindal K; Abraham N; Aruldas K; Puliyel JM

2004-01-01

85

Costs of tuberculosis disease in the EU - a systematic analysis and cost calculation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Without better vaccines it is unlikely that tuberculosis (TB) will ever be eliminated. An investment of about €560 million is considered necessary to develop a new, effective vaccine in the European Union (EU). Less is known, however, about the costs of TB disease in the EU. We performed a systematic review of literature and institutional websites addressing the 27 EU members to summarize cost data. We searched Medline, EMBASE and Cochrane bibliographies of relevant articles.Combining direct and indirect costs, we arrived at average per-case TB costs in the old EU-15 states plus Cyprus, Malta and Slovenia of €10,282 for drug-susceptible TB, €57,213 for multidrug resistant (MDR)-TB and €170,744 for extensively drug resistant (XDR)-TB. In the remaining new EU states costs amounted to €3,427 for susceptible TB and €24,166 for MDR-TB/XDR-TB. For the 70,340 susceptible TB cases, 1,488 MDR-TB and 136 XDR-TB cases notified in 2011 total costs of €536,890,315 accumulated in 2012. For the same year, the 103,104 disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) caused by these cases, when stated in monetary terms, amounted to a total of €5,361,408,000.Thus, the resulting economic burden of TB in the EU clearly outweighs the cost of investing in more efficient vaccines against TB.

Diel R; Vandeputte J; de Vries G; Stillo J; Wanlin M; Nienhaus A

2013-08-01

86

CLASSICAL CALCULATION METHODS OF COSTS AND THEIR LIMITS IN ACTUAL FRAME OF ROMANIAN ECONOMY. PRESENT TENDENCIES IN COSTS ACCOUNTANCY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Classical accountancy shaped and coagulated in an informational system grafted on traditional production systems, characterized by mass productions, planning etc. The powerful concentrations and grouping, economies globalization, both as offer and as demand, the new restrictions and economical opportunities and global environment technologies lead to a redefining of enterprises’ objectives. From the well-known “quantity and productivity”, the enterprise faced a new system of objectives: quality’s increase; terms and costs decrease; productivity; flexibility. In such conditions the need of “defining new methods” appeared, the need of adapting the fundamental calculation methods, their improvement – respective the appearance of modern methods of costs calculation.

Simona Dragomirescu; Daniela Solomon

2008-01-01

87

Manual of Nucost 1.0 - code for calculation of nuclear power generation costs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nucost is a computer code developed at CDTN to perform cost calculation of electric power generated in PWR nuclear power plants, based on present worth cost method. The Nucost version 1.0 performs calculations of nuclear fuel cost cycle by cycle during the time life of the power plant. That calculation is performed with enough details permitting optimization and minimization. The code is also a tool to aid reload projects and economic operation of PWR reactors. This manual presents a description of Nucost version 1.0, instruction to enter data preparation and description of the Nucost output. (M.I.).

1989-01-01

88

Calculating costs: a critical assessment of verification costs for a fissile material cutoff treaty  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

One of the most important, and overlooked, aspects relating to a proposed fissile material cutoff is the cost of its verification. Although verification expenses are crucial for the viability of the fissile material cutoff regime, there are few estimates in this regard. To that end, this paper examines in an independent manner the estimated costs of the cutoff, including analyses of configurations of the cutoff itself, and the varying verification systems that may be put in place. This critique will also itemize some of the prominent matters that must be taken into account for the creation of such a verification regime. (author)

MacLean, G. [Univ. of Manitoba, Centre for Defence and Security Studies, Winnipeg, Manitoba (Canada); Keeley, J.F. [Univ. of Calgary, Dept. of Political Science, Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

1998-07-01

89

Economic analysis of costs associated with a Respiratory Intensive Care Unit in a tertiary care teaching hospital in Northern India.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: There is a paucity of cost analytical studies from resource constrained developing countries defining intensive care costs and their containment. OBJECTIVE: Economic analysis of costs in a Respiratory Intensive Care Unit (RICU) of a tertiary care teaching hospital in northern India. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective study was conducted in 74 patients admitted in the RICU. Costs were segregated into fixed and variable costs. Total and categorized costs averaged per day and costs incurred on the first day of the RICU stay were calculated. Correlation of the costs was performed with the length of stay, length of mechanical ventilation, survival, and therapeutic intervention scoring system-28 (TISS-28). RESULTS: The total cost per day was Indian rupees (INR) 10,364 (US $ 222). 46.4% of the total cost was borne by hospital and rest by patients. The mean cost represented 36.8% of the total cost and 69.8% of the variable cost. Expenditure on personnel salary constituted 37% of the total costs and 86% of the fixed cost. Length of stay in RICU was significantly higher in nonsurvivors (14.73 ± 13.6 days) vs. survivors (8.3 ± 7.8 days) (P < 0.05). The TISS-28 score points in survivors was 30.6 vs. nonsurvivors 69.2 per nurse (P < 0.05) correlating strongly with the total cost (r = 0.91). CONCLUSION: Although considerably less expensive than in economically developed countries, intensive care in India remains expensive relative to the cost of living. The cost block methodology provides a framework for cost estimation, aids resource allocation and allows international comparisons of economic models.

Shweta K; Kumar S; Gupta AK; Jindal SK; Kumar A

2013-03-01

90

Marginal cost calculation of energy production in hydro thermoelectric systems considering the transmission system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The alternatives for calculation of energy marginal cost in hydroelectric systems, considering the transmission one, was analysed, including fundamental concepts; generation/transmission systems, represented by linear power flow model; production marginal costs in hydrothermal systems and computation aspects. (C.G.C.). 11 refs, 5 figs.

1989-01-01

91

To the calculation of reduced cost capital component for power objects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The method for calculating capitalized cost component enabling comparison of alternative arrangement variants of power plant, is suggested. It is shown that in order to realize the technical-economical estimates in power industry for determination of capitalized cost component it is necessary to take into account capital construction expenditures as well as deductions for the plant dismountling and elimination of potential accidents

1990-01-01

92

How high the sun: calculating cost performance indicators for solar energy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Solar energy cost analysis has fostered numerous studies concerning the cost effectiveness of alternative energy conservation systems. These studies have in turn precipitated the development of a wide range of economic performance indicators used to determine the competitive position of solar technologies. Although many such procedures exist, they often provide conflicting representations of the delivered energy costs. This report presents a method of calculation that overcomes the problems associated with many of these procedures.

Bezdek, R.M.; Easterling, J.C.

1984-11-01

93

Benefit/cost analysis of plutonium recycle options in the United States  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Predictable effects of the recycle of plutonium and uranium recovered from spent LWR fuels were assessed in a final environmental statement (GESMO). Five alternative dispositions of LWR-produced plutonium ranging from prompt recycle of recovered plutonium and uranium to no recovery and no recycle are compared. The assessments consider cumulative effects for the period 1975 through 2000, and are centered on a conservative low growth rate resulting in about 500 LWR's in the U.S. in 2000. A more optimistic growth projection resulting in about 800 LWR's in 2000 is also analyzed in order to assess the effects of industry size upon the impacts. Demands for fuel cycle services were calculated with an ERDA program, NUFUEL, which was modified to include penalties for 236U and 242Pu. Unit cost data, including a simulation of market place reaction to supply-demand functions for uranium costs, were combined with the NUFUEL demand data in an economics code, NUCOST. Environmental impacts were also based upon NUFUEL demand data and were developed using a model plant industry concept. Using the most likely unit costs with a 10% discount rate, present worth incentives for prompt recycle over no recycle of $3.2 billion for the lower growth and about $6 billion for the higher growth were indicated. Present worth costs of delays in recycle of up to 5 years were less than $1 billion. Sensitivity of the economic assessments to unit cost variations and discount rates were also evaluated. Environmental impacts other than radiological were lowest for prompt Pu recycle and highest for no recycle. Radiological impacts for the total world wide total body exposure from U.S. industry for the 26 year period were estimated to be: - No recycle-8.2 million person-rem; U only recycle-9.5 million person-rem; Pu and U recycle-8.8 million person-rem. Comparison of the decreased radiological impact of the no recycle option with its increased costs relative to prompt plutonium recycle resulted in a cost/benefit ratio of 0.04. Thus, the benefits of prompt plutonium recycle appear to far outweigh its costs

1977-05-13

94

ANALISA COST SHARING PERHITUNGAN TARIF HEMODIALISIS (HD) MASYARAKAT MISKIN DI RUMAH SAKIT UMUM PKU MUHAMMADIYAH UNIT I YOGYAKARTA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Growing and expanding hopital may be efficiently and effectively managed, it is requiredto be conducted to face the tight competition in world of health service. If the hospital wish to survive in the competition, they need to recount the existing hospital tariff previously, that is by using competitive tariff model calculation. Hospital of PKU Muhammadiyah Unit I Yogyakarta divides HD tariff into two parts, these are Single Use and Re Use tariff. There are cost sharing differences between HD tariff in hospital and government. In this research, the reseacher only focuses on HD tariff of Re Use in order to reduce cost sharing. All this time, the hospital has never counted different cost. It can create lose for the hospital. th s researcher interest to analyze the cost sharing of hemodialisis tariff calculation for poor in public hospital of PKU Muhammadiyah Unit I Yogyakarta. Methode: This research type is descriptive research qualitative which analyzed real expense by using real cost methode and difference which is burdened by patien toward real tariff, meanwhile opinion about cost sharing is taken by interview with superintendent finance and superintendent of hemodialisis unit using interview method. Resulth: this research show the real tariff equal to Rp.912.571 while tariff released by hospital equal to Rp.575.000, and difference between second tariff is Rp.337.751, while tariff given by government is Rp.528.067 and difference with the real tariff equal to Rp.384.684. Conclusion: that unit based cost tariff higher than tariff given by hospital at this time, the biggest expense is component for examines or substance used up wear. The hospital should determine the strategy to decrease the difference. Key Words: cost sharing, real cost method, tariff packet, hemodialisis, poor, society

. Primandita; Triyani Marwati; . Solikhah

2013-01-01

95

Development of radiological concentrations and unit liter doses for TWRS FSAR radiological consequence calculations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The analysis described in this report develops the Unit Liter Doses for use in the TWRS FSAR. The Unit Liter Doses provide a practical way to calculate conservative radiological consequences for a variety of potential accidents for the tank farms

1996-01-01

96

Direct cost analysis of intensive care unit stay in four European countries: applying a standardized costing methodology.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: The objective of the present study was to measure and compare the direct costs of intensive care unit (ICU) days at seven ICU departments in Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom by means of a standardized costing methodology. METHODS: A retrospective cost analysis of ICU patients was performed from the hospital's perspective. The standardized costing methodology was developed on the basis of the availability of data at the seven ICU departments. It entailed the application of the bottom-up approach for "hotel and nutrition" and the top-down approach for "diagnostics," "consumables," and "labor." RESULTS: Direct costs per ICU day ranged from €1168 to €2025. Even though the distribution of costs varied by cost component, labor was the most important cost driver at all departments. The costs for "labor" amounted to €1629 at department G but were fairly similar at the other departments (€711 ± 115). CONCLUSIONS: Direct costs of ICU days vary widely between the seven departments. Our standardized costing methodology could serve as a valuable instrument to compare actual cost differences, such as those resulting from differences in patient case-mix.

Tan SS; Bakker J; Hoogendoorn ME; Kapila A; Martin J; Pezzi A; Pittoni G; Spronk PE; Welte R; Hakkaart-van Roijen L

2012-01-01

97

[Opportunity cost for men who visit family medicine units in the city of Queretaro, Mexico].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To determine the opportunity cost for men who seek care in the family medicine units (FMU) of the Mexican Social Security Institute (IMSS, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social) in the city of Querétaro. METHODS: A sample was selected of 807 men, ages 20 to 59 years, who sought care through the family medicine, laboratory, and pharmacy services provided by the FMU at the IMSS in Querétaro. Patients referred for emergency services and those who left the facilities without receiving care were excluded. The sample (n = 807) was calculated using the averages for an infinite population formula, with a confidence interval of 95% (CI95%) and an average opportunity cost of US$5.5 for family medicine, US$3.1 for laboratory services, and US$2.3 for pharmacy services. Estimates included the amount of time spent on travel, waiting, and receiving care; the number of people accompanying the patient, and the cost per minute of paid and unpaid job activities. The opportunity cost was calculated using the estimated cost per minute for travel, waiting, and receiving care for patients and their companions. RESULTS: The opportunity cost for the patient travel was estimated at US$0.97 (CI95%: 0.81-1.15), while wait time was US$5.03 (CI95%: 4.08-6.09) for family medicine, US$0.06 (CI95%: 0.05-0.08) for pharmacy services, and US$1.89 (CI95%: 1.56-2.25) for laboratory services. The average opportunity cost for an unaccompanied patient visit varied between US$1.10 for pharmacy services alone and US$8.64 for family medicine, pharmacy, and laboratory services. The weighted opportunity cost for family medicine was US$6.24. CONCLUSIONS: Given that the opportunity cost for men who seek services in FMU corresponds to more than half of a minimum salary, it should be examined from an institutional perspective whether this is the best alternative for care.

Martínez Carranza EO; Villarreal Ríos E; Vargas Daza ER; Galicia Rodríguez L; Martínez González L

2010-12-01

98

Calculation of Complexity Costs – An Approach for Rationalizing a Product Program  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper proposes an operational method for rationalizing a product program based on the calculation of complexity costs. The method takes its starting point in the calculation of complexity costs on a product program level. This is done throughout the value chain ranging from component inventories at the factory sites, all the way to the distribution of finished goods from distribution centers to the customers. The method proposes a step-wise approach including the analysis, quantification and allocation of product program complexity costs by the means of identifying of a number of suggested Life Cycle Complexity Factors (LCCFs). The suggested method has been tested in an action based research study with promising results. The case study shows how the allocation of complexity costs on individual product variants provides previously unknown insights into the true cost structure of a product program. These findings represent an improved decision basis for the planning of reactive and proactive initiatives ofrationalizing a product program.

Hansen, Christian Lindschou; Mortensen, Niels Henrik

2012-01-01

99

Calculation of life cycle costs including health costs. Life cycle cost, indoor climate, health and productivity; Lifecyclekosten berekening inclusief gezondheidskosten. Life cycle costs, binnenklimaat, gezondheid en productiviteit  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The health and comfort of people in buildings is influenced by the indoor air quality and the thermal comfort. An indoor climate system can create the right conditions. Increasingly, research demonstrates that there is a significant relation between the volume of ventilation air and health and productivity. In this study, the calculation model Prolife was used to simulate a heating and ventilation system for a Swiss block of flats and a detached house. The health-related costs have been included in the simulation. [mk]. [Dutch] De gezondheid en het comfort van mensen in een gebouw of woning worden beinvloed door de binnenluchtkwaliteit en het thermische comfort. Een binnenklimaatsysteem kan zorgen voor de juiste condities. Steeds meer onderzoeken wijzen uit dat er een significante relatie bestaat tussen de hoeveelheid ventilatielucht en de gezondheid en de productiviteit. In dit onderzoek zijn met het rekenmodel Prolife de life cycle costs gesimuleerd van een verwarmings- en een ventilatiesysteem voor ee Zweeds flatgebouw en een vrijstaande woning. De gezondheidsgerelateerde kosten zijn toegevoegd aan de simulatie.

Johansson, D. [Swegon, Department of Building Physics, Lund University, Lund (Sweden)

2008-04-15

100

Calculation of two cycles of Kalinin unit-1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents an overview of the new library for the Skoda multidimensional static computer program, MOBY-DICK, for core analysis. MOBY-DICK predictive capability was assessed by comparing its predictions of boron concentration and assembly power distributions against appropriate measured data. The first unit of the Kalinin Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) (so called serial version of WWER-1000) represents best documented test for WWER-1000. We have proposed for comparison of MOBY-DICK prediction versus core follow measurement two first cycles of that unit. (author). 4 refs, 2 figs.

1992-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Implementation of Cost Calculation Model in Forest Evaluation of Požega Forest Administration  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The specific nature of forestry as an economic activity generates problems in realizing the set business plans and executing commercial operations. Business analysis deals with concepts and methods of perceiving the degree of development, as well as with unrealized possibilities of a business entity. The particular character of analyzing business operations of entities dealing with forest management arises, among other things, from the need to assure forest sustainability. In managing forests and forestland, it is not always possible to obey the principle of operational profitability, as the lack of any silvicultural treatments jeopardizes future increment of wood biomass and leads to the decline in the general forest value. Furthermore, the specificity of forest management is particularly evident in a long term cycle of biomass production, and extensive period of time between initial activities and the achieved economic effects, and in investments into forests which frequently exceed the financial possibilities of forest owners. The achieved degree and the unrealized possibilities of developing the forest potential are conditioned by biological factors and by economic and technical treatments. To measure and evaluate the effects of these factors on forest sustainability, specific knowledge is required combined with specific criteria for analytical assessment of the success of business entities dealing with forest management.This paper discusses economic and business analysis in forestry. It presents the results of the research project conducted by the state forest company »Hrvatske šume« d.o.o. and Faculty of Forestry University of Zagreb over a 5 year period. The data regarding the economic value of the forest, annual cut value, biological regeneration costs for all forest management units in Požega Forest Administration, including incomes and costs of forest harvesting have been analyzed together with the data regarding profitability and economic indicators. The actual cutting value method has been used for the analyses of the stand value. The Activity Based Cost Method has been used for the cost analysis. The cost-effectiveness and profitability in forestry have also been calculated.Požega Forest Administration manages the area of 52,025 ha, mainly productive forests in the Municipality of Slavonia and Požega. The total annual cut is 140,991 m3 on the area of 3,615 ha. The total growing stock of the state forests is 9,744,426 m3, which includes 9,200,025 m3 of even-aged forests and 544,401 m³ of uneven aged forests. The annual wood volume increment is 253,947 m3. The average forest stand value is 46,871 HRK/ha, or 54,723 HRK/ha without first age class (see Fig. 1 Forest value per management unit).The total costs of biological regeneration are 1,529 HRK/ha, and without forest management, silviculture, forest protection and wood construction it is 7,029 HRK/ha. The costs of the biological regeneration are shown in Fig. 2. The value of the annual cut for Požega Forest Administration is 10,214 HRK/ha (see Table 1).The costs of forest harvesting in 2007 are 8,460 HRK/ha on average, and 8,659 HRK/ha in 2008. Expenditures and revenues of forest harvesting in Požega Forest Administration 2007/2008 are shown in Fig. 4. If the costs of biological regeneration are included, the cost-effectiveness ratio is less than one (e<1), meaning that the management of the selected forest administration is not cost-effective. However, according to the presented negative economic indicators, profitability in forestry has shown positive forest management results. The possible measures that could lead to the increase in profitability are those affecting the company income. To achieve this goal it is necessary to lower the forest biological regeneration costs, to lower the market sale price, to increase the engaged resources, and to improve the capacity utilization.This research has shown that specific understanding and measuring of forest potentials are conditioned by biological factors and by economic and technica

Stjepan Posavec; Juraj Zeli?; Ivica Fliszar; Karlo Beljan

2011-01-01

102

Use of an expert system for energy cost calculations in the pulp and paper industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] In this paper, an application for the calculation of energy prices and product energy costs in the pulp and paper industry by using the Xi Plus expert system is presented. The use of expert systems in the energy field and also the Xi Plus expert system and its general features are also discussed. The application has been made after collecting data from several sources. It runs in an IBM AT compatible microcomputer therefore being easily used in mills. The name of the application is PRODUCT ENERGY COST. It has a three level structure: the mill level, the department level and the main equipment level. Currently, the mill level and, in the energy production area, the department level (power plant) and the equipment level (boilers, turbines) are used. The application consists of four knowledge base groups. Altogether there are 52 separate knowledge bases having 534 rules or demons. The knowledge base groups are: BASIC DATA, ENERGY USE, ENERGY PRODUCTION and ENERGY COSTS. The application can be used for various heat and electrical energy price calculations or for energy cost calculations for different pulp and paper products. In this study, the energy prices for kraft pulp, TMP, newsprint and fine paper in different operating conditions and the associated energy costs of the products are calculated. Also, in some cases a sensitivity analysis is done. The expert system is quite suitable for this type of calculation and the method could be further developed for specific industrial needs, e.g. to enhance the energy management systems

1991-01-01

103

Calculation of Total Cost, Tolerance Based on Taguchi?s, Asymmetric Quality Loss Function Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: Current world market force the manufacturing sectors to develop high quality product and process design with minimum possible cost. About 80% of problems in production units may be attributed to 20% of design tolerance causes. While design typically represents the smallest actual cost elements in products (around 5%), it leverages the largest cost influence (around 70%). So design engineers continuously stumble upon problem of design for high quality performance with lower cost. Objectives of this study where to: (i) simultaneous selection of design and manufacturing tolerance (ii) minimization of total cost (sum of the manufacturing cost and Taguchi?s asymmetric quality cost) (iii) minimum cost and its machining tolerance. Approach: Rotor key base assembly was considered as case study to optimize the minimization of assembly total cost and machining tolerance. New global nonlinear optimization techniques called pattern search algorithm had been implemented to find optimal tolerance allocation and total cost. Results: In this study minimum cost arrived was 45.15 Cr and its corresponding tolerances for machining process turning, drilling, face milling, face milling and drilling where 0.063, 0.0508, 0.2127, 0.2127, 0.2540 mm respectively at worst case conditions. Conclusion: Results indicated that optimization by integer programming, sequential quadratic programming and exhaustive search, nonlinear programming, genetic algorithm, simulated annealing, fuzzy logic, number set theory and Monte Carlo simulation did not give much least total cost and also predicted that pattern search algorithm was robust method. Second the method, generally termed as concurrent tolerance synthesis was well suited for engineering environment, where high quality products with low total cost were designed and manufactured.

R. S. Kumar; N. Alagumurthi; R. Ramesh

2009-01-01

104

Consideration concerning the costs of the 300 kW wind units developed in Romania  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A demonstrative wind farm with four research units, 300 kW each, is in developing stage in Romania. The article shows economic analysis of these experimental wind units and their cost structure focusing in component costs, performance, manufacturing technology and installing work. (author)

Gyulai, F.; Bej, A. [Technical Univ. of Timisoara (Romania). Wind Energy Research Center

1995-12-31

105

Electrodialysis unit: optimization and calculation of energy requirements  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The total energy requirement with this unit is about 1.2 kWh/m/sup 3/ for brackish water of 2400 ppm and 3.3kWh/m/sup 3/ for water of 5000 ppm. For sea water desalination the system may be optimized by operating it with tin cells and thin polyethylene membranes. In such a system the energy requirement will be 12 kWh/m/sup 3/ for operation at 20/degree/C and 6.7 kWh/m/sup 3/ at 70/degree/C.

Korngold, E.

1982-01-01

106

[Cost analysis of hospital care for newborns at risk: comparison of an Intermediate Neonatal Care Unit and a Kangaroo Unit].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of this study was to compare the direct costs of implementation of the Kangaroo Method and an Intermediate Neonatal Care Unit, from the perspective of the Brazilian Unified National Health System (SUS) in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Newborns were eligible for inclusion if they were clinically stable and were able to receive care in those two modalities. A decision tree model was developed that incorporated baseline variables and costs into a hypothetical cohort of 1,000 newborns, according to the literature and expert opinions. Daily cost was BR$343.53 for the second stage of the Kangaroo Unit and BR$394.22 for the Intermediate Neonatal Care Unit. The total cost for the hypothetical cohort was BR$5,710,281.66 for the second and third stages of the Kangaroo Unit and R$7,119,865.61 for the Intermediate Neonatal Care Unit. The Intermediate Neonatal Care Unit cost 25% more than the Kangaroo Unit. The study can contribute to decision-making in health, in addition to providing support for studies related to economic evaluation in neonatal health.

Entringer AP; Gomes MA; Pinto M; Caetano R; Magluta C; Lamy ZC

2013-06-01

107

A C++ program to calculate sample sizes for cost-effectiveness trials in a Bayesian framework.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Cost-Effectiveness Analysis (CEA) has become an increasingly important component of clinical trials. However, formal sample size calculations for such studies are not common. One of the reasons for this might be due to the absence of readily available computer software to perform complex calculations, particularly in a Bayesian setting. In this paper, a C++ program (using NAG library functions/subroutines) is presented to estimate the sample sizes for cost-effectiveness clinical trials in a Bayesian framework. The program can equally be used to calculate sample sizes for efficacy trials. The Bayesian approach to sample size calculation is based on that of O'Hagan and Stevens (A. O'Hagan, J.W. Stevens, Bayesian assessment of sample size for clinical trials of cost-effectiveness, Medical Decision Making 21 (2001) 219-230). With this program, the user can calculate sample sizes for various thresholds of willingness to pay and under various assumptions of the correlations between cost and effects. Under some prior, the program produces frequentist sample size as well. The program runs under windows environment and running time is very short.

Sarker SJ; Whitehead A; Khan I

2013-06-01

108

Optimising Join Cost Weights For Unit Selection Speech Synthesis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Unit selection synthesis predominates today, but is not yet of a quality to rival natural speech. Unit selection can be inconsistent in quality and one of the causes are the joins. Earlier research suggested joins are perceived differently according to category. We investigated whether synthesis ...

Woodcock, Steve

109

Analysis of a Production Order Quantity Model With Declining Unit Cost  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper improves upon the existing literature surrounding the production order quantity inventory model in which unit cost and daily production are assumed to be constant. By including economies of scale into the model, we examine its impact on production order quantity and total cost. The results suggest that the minimal cost solution derived from the production order quantity model needs to balance out holding, setup and production costs. As a result, a smaller inventory level corresponding to a minimum unit production cost is found to be preferred.

Rod D. Raehsler; Yifan Zhao; Soong N. Sohng; Chin W. Yang; Paul Kim; Ken Hung

2012-01-01

110

Calculation of the CO2 Emission Reduction Costs in MARKAL Model  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Possible introduction of nuclear power plants is belong to the supply side long term mitigation options. These options are modeled in MARKAL by describing the technical, cost, availability and environmental data of the corresponding technologies. Model MARKAL (an acronym for MARket ALlocation) is a demand-driven, multi-period linear programming model of the technical energy system that deals with supply and demand side options. It is a cost-minimizing energy-environment system planning model used to investigate long-term responses to different future technological options, emissions limitations and policy scenarios of energy systems. Measures for CO2 reduction can be analyzed with MARKAL model in two ways, like conventional approach and forced introduction of technologies that do not appear in the baseline optimal solution. The latter way is used for calculation of the CO2 emission reduction costs in the case of nuclear power plants candidates in Croatian energy system. The differences in marginal costs are shown in the case of nuclear and coal power plants candidates. This analysis are performed in the scope of complete energy system (not only power sector), from supply side to technologies for energy transformation, and to demand side (sectors for energy consumption). This marginal costs are calculated as the ratio between the differences in discounted total system costs and emissions between the baseline and nuclear (coal) scenario. The results show which option is better from the optimality side of emission reduction, associated costs and possible final energy consumption changes in energy system. (author)

2006-01-01

111

Hospital costs of central line-associated bloodstream infections and cost-effectiveness of closed vs. open infusion containers. The case of Intensive Care Units in Italy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Objectives The aim was to evaluate direct health care costs of central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSI) and to calculate the cost-effectiveness ratio of closed fully collapsible plastic intravenous infusion containers vs. open (glass) infusion containers. Methods A two-year, prospective case-control study was undertaken in four intensive care units in an Italian teaching hospital. Patients with CLABSI (cases) and patients without CLABSI (controls) were matched for admission departments, gender, age, and average severity of illness score. Costs were estimated according to micro-costing approach. In the cost effectiveness analysis, the cost component was assessed as the difference between production costs while effectiveness was measured by CLABSI rate (number of CLABSI per 1000 central line days) associated with the two infusion containers. Results A total of 43 cases of CLABSI were compared with 97 matched controls. The mean age of cases and controls was 62.1 and 66.6 years, respectively (p = 0.143); 56% of the cases and 57% of the controls were females (p = 0.922). The mean length of stay of cases and controls was 17.41 and 8.55 days, respectively (p Conclusions CLABSI results in considerable and significant increase in utilization of hospital resources. Use of innovative technologies such as closed infusion containers can significantly reduce the incidence of healthcare acquired infection without posing additional burden on hospital budgets.

Tarricone Rosanna; Torbica Aleksandra; Franzetti Fabio; Rosenthal Victor D

2010-01-01

112

A systematic review of the unit costs of allied health and community services used by older people in Australia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: An economic evaluation of interventions for older people requires accurate assessment of costing and consideration of both acute and long-term services. Accurate information on the unit cost of allied health and community services is not readily available in Australia however. This systematic review therefore aims to synthesise information available in the literature on the unit costs of allied health and community services that may be utilised by an older person living in Australia. METHOD: A comprehensive search of Medline, Embase, CINAHL, Google Scholar and Google was undertaken. Specialised economic databases were also reviewed. In addition Australian Government Department websites were inspected. The search identified the cost of specified allied health services including: physiotherapy, occupational therapy, dietetics, podiatry, counselling and home nursing. The range of community services included: personal care, meals on wheels, transport costs and domestic services. Where the information was not available, direct contact with service providers was made. RESULTS: The number of eligible studies included in the qualitative synthesis was fourty-nine. Calculated hourly rates for Australian allied health services were adjusted to be in equivalent currency and were as follows as follows: physiotherapy $157.75, occupational therapy $150.77, dietetics $163.11, psychological services $165.77, community nursing $105.76 and podiatry $129.72. CONCLUSIONS: Utilisation of the Medicare Benefits Scheduled fee as a broad indicator of the costs of services, may lead to underestimation of the real costs of services and therefore to inaccuracies in economic evaluation.

Farag I; Sherrington C; Ferreira M; Howard K

2013-01-01

113

A systematic review of the unit costs of allied health and community services used by older people in Australia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background An economic evaluation of interventions for older people requires accurate assessment of costing and consideration of both acute and long-term services. Accurate information on the unit cost of allied health and community services is not readily available in Australia however. This systematic review therefore aims to synthesise information available in the literature on the unit costs of allied health and community services that may be utilised by an older person living in Australia. Method A comprehensive search of Medline, Embase, CINAHL, Google Scholar and Google was undertaken. Specialised economic databases were also reviewed. In addition Australian Government Department websites were inspected. The search identified the cost of specified allied health services including: physiotherapy, occupational therapy, dietetics, podiatry, counselling and home nursing. The range of community services included: personal care, meals on wheels, transport costs and domestic services. Where the information was not available, direct contact with service providers was made. Results The number of eligible studies included in the qualitative synthesis was fourty-nine. Calculated hourly rates for Australian allied health services were adjusted to be in equivalent currency and were as follows as follows: physiotherapy $157.75, occupational therapy $150.77, dietetics $163.11, psychological services $165.77, community nursing $105.76 and podiatry $129.72. Conclusions Utilisation of the Medicare Benefits Scheduled fee as a broad indicator of the costs of services, may lead to underestimation of the real costs of services and therefore to inaccuracies in economic evaluation.

Farag Inez; Sherrington Cathie; Ferreira Manuela; Howard Kirsten

2013-01-01

114

Assessing DRG cost accounting with respect to resource allocation and tariff calculation: the case of Germany  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the German diagnosis related groups (G-DRG) cost accounting scheme by assessing its resource allocation at hospital level and its tariff calculation at national level. First, the paper reviews and assesses the three steps in the G-DRG resource allocation schem...

Vogl, Matthias

115

BICYCLE II: a computer code for calculating levelized life-cycle costs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report describes the BICYCLE computer code. BICYCLE was specifically designed to calculate levelized life-cycle costs for plants that produce electricity, heat, gaseous fuels, or liquid fuels. Included are (1) derivations of the equations used by BICYCLE, (2) input instructions, (3) sample case input, and (4) sample case output.

Hardie, R.W.

1981-11-01

116

BICYCLE: a computer code for calculating levelized life-cycle costs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report serves as a user's manual for the BICYCLE computer code. BICYCLE was specifically designed to calculate levelized life-cycle costs for plants that produce electricity, heat, gaseous fuels, or liquid fuels. Included in this report are (1) derivations of the equations used by BICYCLE, (2) input instructions, (3) sample case input, and (4) sample case output.

Hardie, R.W.

1980-08-01

117

Extension of the COSYMA-ECONOMICS module - cost calculations based on different economic sectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The COSYMA program system for evaluating the off-site consequences of accidental releases of radioactive material to the atmosphere includes an ECONOMICS module for assessing economic consequences. The aim of this module is to convert various consequences (radiation-induced health effects and impacts resulting from countermeasures) caused by an accident into the common framework of economic costs; this allows different effects to be expressed in the same terms and thus to make these effects comparable. With respect to the countermeasure 'movement of people', the dominant cost categories are 'loss-of-income costs' and 'costs of lost capital services'. In the original version of the ECONOMICS module these costs are calculated on the basis of the total number of people moved. In order to take into account also regional or local economic peculiarities of a nuclear site, the ECONOMICS module has been extended: Calculation of the above mentioned cost categories is now based on the number of employees in different economic sectors in the affected area. This extension of the COSYMA ECONOMICS module is described in more detail. (orig.)

1994-01-01

118

Study on the calculation methods and computer program development for disposal costs of L/IL solid radwaste  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

By using engineering investment economics and levelized cost calculation method, the disposal cost of low- and intermediate-level (L/IL) solid radwastes is divided into capital investment cost, fixed disposal operation cost, variable disposal operation cost, repository closing cost and cost for monitoring closed repository within 300 years. The calculation method and program development have been studied on the basis of the repository capital investment plants, different quantities and intensities of solid radwastes annually produced in the high, medium and low scenarios of nuclear power development in China.

1994-01-01

119

Criticality safety calculations for Region B of the Millstone Unit No. 2 Spent Fuel Pool  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) staff performed criticality safety calculations documented herein for the fresh fuel region (Region B) of the Northeast Nuclear Energy Company (NNECO) Millstone Unit No. 2 Spent Fuel Pool. The purpose of these calculations was to verify the results reported by NNECO in their application for revision to the Millstone Unit No. 2 technical specifications. All calculations were performed with the SCALE-4.1 code system developed at ORNL. Specifically, the CSAS25 criticality control sequence, which executes the BONAMI, NITAWL-II, and YENO V.a codes, was used to perform all k[sub eff] calculations.

Bowman, S.M.

1993-01-01

120

Criticality safety calculations for Region B of the Millstone Unit No. 2 Spent Fuel Pool  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) staff performed criticality safety calculations documented herein for the fresh fuel region (Region B) of the Northeast Nuclear Energy Company (NNECO) Millstone Unit No. 2 Spent Fuel Pool. The purpose of these calculations was to verify the results reported by NNECO in their application for revision to the Millstone Unit No. 2 technical specifications. All calculations were performed with the SCALE-4.1 code system developed at ORNL. Specifically, the CSAS25 criticality control sequence, which executes the BONAMI, NITAWL-II, and YENO V.a codes, was used to perform all keff calculations

1993-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Criticality safety calculations for Region B of the Millstone Unit No. 2 Spent Fuel Pool  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) staff performed criticality safety calculations documented herein for the fresh fuel region (Region B) of the Northeast Nuclear Energy Company (NNECO) Millstone Unit No. 2 Spent Fuel Pool. The purpose of these calculations was to verify the results reported by NNECO in their application for revision to the Millstone Unit No. 2 technical specifications. All calculations were performed with the SCALE-4.1 code system developed at ORNL. Specifically, the CSAS25 criticality control sequence, which executes the BONAMI, NITAWL-II, and YENO V.a codes, was used to perform all k{sub eff} calculations.

Bowman, S.M.

1993-01-01

122

Study on the Development of Methodology for Cost Calculations and Financial Planning of Decommissioning Operations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The following study deals with the development of methodology for cost calculations and financial planning of decommissioning operations. It has been carried out by EDF / FRAMATOME / VUJE / SCK-CEN in the frame of the contract B7-032/2000/291058/MAR/C2 awarded by the European Commission. This study consists of 4 parts. The first task objective is to develop a reliable and transparent methodology for cost assessment and financial planning sufficient precise but without long and in depth investigations and studies. This methodology mainly contains: Calculation methods and algorithms for the elaboration of costs items making up the whole decommissioning cost. Estimated or standard values for the parameters and for the cost factors to be used in the above-mentioned algorithms Financial mechanism to be applied as to establish a financial planning. The second part task is the provision of standard values for the different parameters and costs factors described in the above-mentioned algorithms. This provision of data is based on the own various experience acquired by the members of the working team and on existing international references (databases, publications and reports). As decommissioning operations are spreading over several dozens of years, the scope of this task the description of the financial mechanisms to be applied to the different cost items as to establish a complete financial cost. It takes into account the financial schedule issued in task 1. The scope of this task consists in bringing together in a guideline all the information collected before: algorithms, data and financial mechanisms. (A.L.B.)

2001-01-01

123

Heating costs. Cost-effective metering and calculation according to the heating cost regulation; Heizkosten. Kostengerechte Verbrauchserfassung und Berechnung nach Heizkostenverordnung  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Policy guidelines for reducing the consumption of fossil fuels and emission of pollutants in the energy consumption result in the promulgation of numerous legal standards. In the practical application, discrepancies occur again and again due to vague rental, energy and economy regulations. Under this perspective, the author of the book under consideration helps to understand and properly apply the current Heating Cost Ordinance and to provide financial incentives to energy conservation. Approaches are described for the calculation of heating costs according to the laws and standards, including the boundary conditions to be observed. The author proposes legally safe and economic sensible practices. The author describes his experiences from the perspective of tenancy law and presents targeted advices on how the cost of heating regulation can be implemented.

Timm, Heinrich

2011-07-01

124

The estimated direct medical cost of selected sexually transmitted infections in the United States, 2008.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Millions of cases of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) occur in the United States each year, resulting in substantial medical costs to the nation. Previous estimates of the total direct cost of STIs are quite dated. We present updated direct medical cost estimates of STIs in the United States. METHODS: We assembled recent (i.e., 2002-2011) cost estimates to determine the lifetime cost per case of 8 major STIs (chlamydia, gonorrhea, hepatitis B virus, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), human papillomavirus, genital herpes simplex virus type 2, trichomoniasis and syphilis). The total direct cost for each STI was computed as the product of the number of new or newly diagnosed cases in 2008 and the estimated discounted lifetime cost per case. All costs were adjusted to 2010 US dollars. RESULTS: Results indicated that the total lifetime direct medical cost of the 19.7 million cases of STIs that occurred among persons of all ages in 2008 in the United States was $15.6 (range, $11.0-$20.6) billion. Total costs were as follows: chlamydia ($516.7 [$258.3-$775.0] million), gonorrhea ($162.1 [$81.1-$243.2] million), hepatitis B virus ($50.7 [$41.3-$55.6] million), HIV ($12.6 [$9.5-$15.7] billion), human papillomavirus ($1.7 [$0.8-$2.9] billion), herpes simplex virus type 2 ($540.7 [$270.3-$811.0] million), syphilis ($39.3 [$19.6-$58.9] million), and trichomoniasis ($24.0 [$12.0-$36.0] million). Costs associated with HIV infection accounted for more than 81% of the total cost. Among the nonviral STIs, chlamydia was the most costly infection. CONCLUSIONS: Sexually transmitted infections continue to impose a substantial cost burden on the payers of medical care in the United States. The burden of STIs would be even greater in the absence of STI prevention and control efforts.

Owusu-Edusei K Jr; Chesson HW; Gift TL; Tao G; Mahajan R; Ocfemia MC; Kent CK

2013-03-01

125

Conventional method for the calculation of the global energy cost of buildings; Methode conventionnelle de calcul du cout global energetique des batiments  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A working group driven by Electricite de France (EdF), Chauffage Fioul and Gaz de France (GdF) companies has been built with the sustain of several building engineering companies in order to clarify the use of the method of calculation of the global energy cost of buildings. This global cost is an economical decision help criterion among others. This press kit presents, first, the content of the method (input data, calculation of annual expenses, calculation of the global energy cost, display of results and limitations of the method). Then it fully describes the method and its appendixes necessary for its implementation: economical and financial context, general data of the project in progress, environmental data, occupation and comfort level, variants, investment cost of energy systems, investment cost for the structure linked with the energy system, investment cost for other invariant elements of the structure, calculation of consumptions (space heating, hot water, ventilation), maintenance costs (energy systems, structure), operation and exploitation costs, tariffs and consumption costs and taxes, actualized global cost, annualized global cost, comparison between variants. The method is applied to a council building of 23 flats taken as an example. (J.S.)

NONE

2002-05-01

126

The cost burden of multiple sclerosis in the United States: a systematic review of the literature.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: To estimate average annual cost per multiple sclerosis (MS) patient in the US using published estimates from the literature. METHODS: A search was performed of English-language literature published between 2007 and June 2012 in PubMed and Embase using the term 'multiple sclerosis' and the subject heading 'healthcare costs'. Included articles were primary studies with MS cost figures that could be converted to per patient per year values. Costs were inflated to 2011 dollars using the medical component of the Consumer Price Index. RESULTS: Fifteen studies met the inclusion criteria. Eight presented only direct cost calculations; the remaining seven presented estimates of total cost, broken down into direct and indirect costs. Total all-cause healthcare costs for MS as reported by studies that included direct and indirect costs ranged from $8528-$54,244 per patient per year. On average, direct costs comprised 77% (range 64-91%) of total costs. Prescription medications accounted for the majority of direct costs. On average, indirect costs comprised 23% (range 9-36%) of total costs. Compared with direct all-cause medical costs for other chronic conditions reported in the literature, MS ranked second behind congestive heart failure. LIMITATIONS: Data sources in these studies were dated, ranging from 1999-2008, and therefore do not include some of the newer, more costly therapies. In addition, this review does not include either assessment of the decrements in quality-of-life associated with MS or costs associated with increasing levels of disability or early retirement. Furthermore, variations in study designs, populations, methodologies, and cost inputs preclude more precise cost estimates. CONCLUSIONS: MS is a costly chronic disease. Further research is needed to understand: costs by MS type, costs associated with increasing disability and early retirement, and the potential impact of new treatments expected to launch in coming years.

Adelman G; Rane SG; Villa KF

2013-01-01

127

A calculation program for harvesting and transportation costs of energy wood; Energiapuun korjuun ja kuljetuksen kustannuslaskentaohjelmisto  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

VTT Energy is compiling a large and versatile calculation program for harvesting and transportation costs of energy wood. The work has been designed and will be carried out in cooperation with Metsaeteho and Finntech Ltd. The program has been realised in Windows surroundings using SQLWindows graphical database application development system, using the SQLBase relational database management system. The objective of the research is to intensify and create new possibilities for comparison of the utilization costs and the profitability of integrated energy wood production chains with each other inside the chains

Kuitto, P.J.

1996-12-31

128

Cost calculations for decommissioning and dismantling of nuclear research facilities, Phase 1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Today, it is recommended that planning of decommission should form an integral part of the activities over the life cycle of a nuclear facility. However, no actual international guideline on cost calculations exists at present. Intuitively, it might be tempting to regard costs for decommissioning of a nuclear facility as similar to those of any other plant. However, the presence of radionuclide contamination may imply that the cost is one or more orders of magnitude higher as compared to a corresponding inactive situation, the actual ratio being highly dependent on the level of contamination as well as design features and use of the facility in question. Moreover, the variations in such prerequisites are much larger than for nuclear power plants. This implies that cost calculations cannot be performed with any accuracy or credibility without a relatively detailed consideration of the radiological and other prerequisites. Application of inadequate methodologies especially at early stages has often lead to large underestimations. The goals of the project and the achievements described in the report are as follows: 1) Advice on good practice with regard to: 1a) Strategy and planning; 1b) Methodology selection; 1c) Radiological surveying; 1d) Uncertainty analysis; 2) Techniques for assessment of costs: 2a) Cost structuring; 2b) Cost estimation methodologies; 3) Compilation of data for plants, state of planning, organisations, etc.; 3a) General descriptions of relevant features of the nuclear research facilities; 3b) General plant specific data; 3c) Example of the decommissioning of the R1 research reactor in Sweden; 3d) Example of the decommissioning of the DR1 research reactor in Denmark. In addition, but not described in the present report, is the establishment of a Nordic network in the area including an internet based expert system. It should be noted that the project is planned to exist for at least three years and that the present report is an interim one covering the work for approximately the first 16 months. (au)

2006-01-01

129

Economic cost of Guillain-Barre syndrome in the United States.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: This study estimated the annual economic cost of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) in the United States in 2004, including the direct costs of medical care and the indirect costs due to lost productivity and premature death. METHODS: The cost-of-illness method was used to determine the costs of medical care and lost productivity, and a modified value of a statistical life approach was used to determine the cost of premature deaths. Data were obtained from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample, the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, the Compressed Mortality File, a telephone survey of 180 adult patients with GBS, and other sources. RESULTS: The estimated annual cost of GBS was $1.7 billion (95% CI, $1.6 to 1.9 billion), including $0.2 billion (14%) in direct medical costs and $1.5 billion (86%) in indirect costs. Most of the medical costs were for community hospital admissions. Most of the indirect costs were due to premature deaths. The mean cost per patient with GBS was $318,966 (95% CI, $278,378 to 359,554). CONCLUSIONS: The economic cost of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) was substantial, and largely due to disability and death. The cost estimate summarizes the lifetime health burden due to GBS in monetary terms, and provides some of the information needed to assess the cost-effectiveness of health measures that affect GBS.

Frenzen PD

2008-07-01

130

The cost of climate policy in the United States  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We re-evaluate prospects for US economic growth and the likely costs of advanced technologies given recent developments, and then apply the MIT Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis (EPPA) model to evaluate three core GHG policy scenarios for the US that cap emissions at different levels. The three policy scenarios involve allowance allocations that through 2050 are: (1) constant at present emissions levels, (2) linearly reduced to 50% below present, (3) linearly reduce emissions to 80% below present. The cumulative allowance allocations over the horizon of the policy are 287, 203 and 167 Gt of CO{sub 2} equivalent, respectively. We compare the results to previous analysis of these same policy scenarios to evaluate how the changed growth and technology prospects affect the results. We focus on 203 and 167 Gt scenarios because current proposals envision deep cuts in emissions from present. The 167 Gt scenario is closest to proposals currently being considered by Congress and supported by the US Administration however we do not attempt to model specific details of actual proposals. We test results to alternative assumptions about program coverage and banking behavior. Measured in terms of changes in economic welfare, the economic cost of 203 and 167 Gt cases is in the range of 2 to 3% by 2050, with CO{sub 2} prices between 48 and 67 in 2015 rising to between 190 and 266 by 2050. Implementation details matter: when an idealized economy-wide cap-and-trade is replaced by coverage omitting some sectors, or if the credibility of long-term target is weak (limiting banking behavior) prices and welfare costs change substantially. (author)

Paltsev, Sergey; Reilly, John M.; Jacoby, Henry D.; Morris, Jennifer F. [Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307 (United States)

2009-07-01

131

Methodology for Calculating Cost-per-Mile for Current and Future Vehicle Powertrain Technologies, with Projections to 2024: Preprint  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Currently, several cost-per-mile calculators exist that can provide estimates of acquisition and operating costs for consumers and fleets. However, these calculators are limited in their ability to determine the difference in cost per mile for consumer versus fleet ownership, to calculate the costs beyond one ownership period, to show the sensitivity of the cost per mile to the annual vehicle miles traveled (VMT), and to estimate future increases in operating and ownership costs. Oftentimes, these tools apply a constant percentage increase over the time period of vehicle operation, or in some cases, no increase in direct costs at all over time. A more accurate cost-per-mile calculator has been developed that allows the user to analyze these costs for both consumers and fleets. The calculator was developed to allow simultaneous comparisons of conventional light-duty internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles, mild and full hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), and fuel cell vehicles (FCVs). This paper is a summary of the development by the authors of a more accurate cost-per-mile calculator that allows the user to analyze vehicle acquisition and operating costs for both consumer and fleets. Cost-per-mile results are reported for consumer-operated vehicles travelling 15,000 miles per year and for fleets travelling 25,000 miles per year.

Ruth, M.; Timbario, T. A.; Timbario, T. J.; Laffen, M.

2011-01-01

132

Chronological probabilistic production costing and wheeling calculations with transmission network modeling  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This paper presents an approach for the integrated analysis of generation and transmission systems in terms of production costing and wheeling rate calculation. The methodology is based on the chronological simulation of system operation. Economic dispatch at each state is provided by linearized optimal power flow routines, which can represent network aspects and export/import contracts amount utilities. Probabilistic aspects are represented by Monte-Carlo sampling of generation capacities, load levels etc. Marginal costs are calculated at bus level, and serve as a basis for the evaluation of wheeling rates. This makes it possible to model complex utility situations for use in power system planning and operations, determination of interchange contracts, and regulatory applications

1992-01-01

133

Replacement energy costs for nuclear electricity-generating units in the United States: 1997--2001. Volume 4  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report updates previous estimates of replacement energy costs for potential short-term shutdowns of 109 US nuclear electricity-generating units. This information was developed to assist the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in its regulatory impact analyses, specifically those that examine the impacts of proposed regulations requiring retrofitting of or safety modifications to nuclear reactors. Such actions might necessitate shutdowns of nuclear power plants while these changes are being implemented. The change in energy cost represents one factor that the NRC must consider when deciding to require a particular modification. Cost estimates were derived from probabilistic production cost simulations of pooled utility system operations. Factors affecting replacement energy costs, such as random unit failures, maintenance and refueling requirements, and load variations, are treated in the analysis. This report describes an abbreviated analytical approach as it was adopted to update the cost estimates published in NUREG/CR-4012, Vol. 3. The updates were made to extend the time frame of cost estimates and to account for recent changes in utility system conditions, such as change in fuel prices, construction and retirement schedules, and system demand projects.

VanKuiken, J.C.; Guziel, K.A.; Tompkins, M.M.; Buehring, W.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

1997-09-01

134

Accelerating modified Shepard interpolated potential energy calculations using graphics processing units  

Science.gov (United States)

The potential energy surfaces constructed with the modified Shepard interpolation scheme have been widely used in studies of chemical reaction dynamics. However, computational costs of interpolation increase rapidly with the size of the system and the number of data points needed to achieve a given accuracy. In this work, we present a naive Graphics Processing Unit (GPU)-accelerated algorithm for modified Shepard interpolated potential energy calculations and its implementation with the PGI CUDA Fortran language. The benchmark tests on a NVIDIA Tesla C2050 using four interpolated potential energy surfaces (one for H+H2O?H2+OH, two for H+NH3?H2+NH2 and one for H+CH4?H2+CH3) demonstrated a speedup of 50-fold over the original CPU implementation on an Intel E5620 processor and the speedup increases with the system size and the number of data points. This work presents a promising GPU application in the field of chemical reaction dynamics.

Fu, Hong; Zheng, Limin; Yang, Minghui

2013-04-01

135

FAPMAN-IC: a program module calculating the incremental fuel cost of LWR power stations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The fuel loading and operation planning code FAPMAN-8 has been simplified as an independent subroutine module FAPMAN-IC, that is callable from the more overall system integration model like ORSIM. The module calculates the fuel and associated incremental fuel cost for LWR stations, given the cycle operation schedule, cycle energy demand and plant thermal efficiency. Summary of the problem to be solved and interface to ORSIM were presented with sample input and printout. (author)

1980-01-01

136

POPCYCLE: a computer code for calculating nuclear and fossil plant levelized life-cycle power costs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

POPCYCLE, a computer code designed to calculate levelized life-cycle power costs for nuclear and fossil electrical generating plants is described. Included are (1) derivations of the equations and a discussion of the methodology used by POPCYCLE, (2) a description of the input required by the code, (3) a listing of the input for a sample case, and (4) the output for a sample case.

Hardie, R.W.

1982-02-01

137

POPCYCLE: a computer code for calculating nuclear and fossil plant levelized life-cycle power costs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

POPCYCLE, a computer code designed to calculate levelized life-cycle power costs for nuclear and fossil electrical generating plants is described. Included are (1) derivations of the equations and a discussion of the methodology used by POPCYCLE, (2) a description of the input required by the code, (3) a listing of the input for a sample case, and (4) the output for a sample case

1982-01-01

138

Efficacy of a low cost protocol in reducing noise levels in the neonatal intensive care unit.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To examine the effectiveness and cost of implementing a noise reduction protocol in a level III neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). METHODS: A prospective longitudinal study was done in a level III NICU, wherein a noise reduction protocol that included behavioral and environmental modification was implemented. The noise levels were measured sequentially every hour for 15 days before and after this intervention. The statistical significance of the reduction in noise levels after implementation of the protocol was tested by paired sample student's t-test. Cost was calculated using the generalized cost effectiveness model of the World Health Organisation. The present study has 80% power with 95% confidence to measure 2 dB differences between groups for the maximum recommended of 50 dB. RESULTS: The protocol in the present study reduced noise levels in all the rooms of the NICU to within 60 dB with high statistical significance (p< 0.001). The extent of noise reduction in the rooms of the NICU was as follows: ventilator room by 9.58 dB (95% confidence interval: 6.73-12.42, p < 0.001), stable room by 6.54 dB (95% confidence interval: 2.92-4.16, p < 0.001), isolation room by 2.26 dB (95% confidence interval: 1.21-3.30, p < 0.001), pre-term room by 2.37 dB(95% confidence interval: 1.22-3.51, p < 0.001) and extreme preterm room by 2.09 dB (95% confidence interval: 1.14-3.02, p < 0.001). The intervention was most cost-effective in the ventilator room, requiring Rs. 81.09 to reduce 1 dB and least effective in the extreme pre-term room requiring Rs. 371.61 to reduce 1 dB. CONCLUSION: The high efficacy and affordability of noise reduction protocols justify the need for implementation of these measures as a standard of care in neonatal intensive care units.

Ramesh A; Suman Rao PN; Sandeep G; Nagapoornima M; Srilakshmi V; Dominic M; Swarnarekha

2009-05-01

139

A Geographical-Origin–Destination Model for Calculating the Cost of Multimodal Forest-Fuel Transportation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As a consequence of increasing demand for wood fuels, the management of forest-fuel production chains has become an important logistics issue in FinlandandSweden. Truck-based transportation has been the dominant method in fuel supply from the areas around power plants. However, increasing demand has led to enlargement of supply areas and greater variety in supply methods, including also railway and waterway transportation. This study presents a GIS-based calculation model suitable for cost calculations for power plants’ forest-fuel supply chains. The model has multimodal properties—i.e., it provides transfer of forest-fuel loads between transportation modes—and enables case-specific adjustment of transportation and material-handling cost parameters. The functionality of the model is examined with a case study focusing on a region of intense forest-fuel use. The results indicate that truck transportation is competitive with railway transportation also for long transport distances. However, increasing the proportion of multimodal transportation for other than economic reasons (e.g., for supply security) could be reasonable, since the impact on total supply costs is marginal. In addition to honing of the parameters related to biomass availability and transport costs, the model should be developed through inclusion of other means of transportation, such as roundwood carriers.

Olli-Jussi Korpinen; Eero Jäppinen; Tapio Ranta

2013-01-01

140

Effects of an acute care for elders unit on costs and 30-day readmissions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

IMPORTANCE: Providing high-quality care while containing cost is essential for the economic stability of our health care system. The United States is experiencing a rapidly growing elderly population. The Acute Care for Elders (ACE) unit interdisciplinary team model of care has been shown to improve outcomes in hospitalized older adults. The University of Alabama at Birmingham ACE unit incorporates evidence-based care processes. We hypothesized that the ACE model would also reduce costs. OBJECTIVE: To examine variable direct costs from an interdisciplinary ACE compared with a multidisciplinary usual care (UC) unit. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Tertiary care academic medical center. PARTICIPANTS: Hospitalists' patients aged 70 years or older spending the entirety of their hospitalization in either the ACE or UC unit in fiscal year 2010. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Using administrative data, we analyzed variable direct costs for ACE and UC patients. We also conducted a subset analysis restricted to the 25 most common diagnosis related groups (DRGs) shared by ACE and UC patients. Generalized linear regression was used to estimate cost ratios and 95% confidence intervals adjusted for age, sex, comorbidity score, and case mix index (CMI). RESULTS: A total of 818 hospitalists' patients met inclusion criteria: 428 from the ACE and 390 from the UC unit. For this study group (all DRGs), the mean (SD) variable direct cost per patient was $2109 ($1870) for ACE and $2480 ($2113) for UC (P = .009). Adjusted cost ratios revealed significant cost savings for patients with low (0.82; 95% CI, 0.72-0.94) or moderate (0.74; 95% CI, 0.62-0.89) CMI scores; care was cost neutral for patients with high CMI scores (1.13; 95% CI, 0.93-1.37). Significantly fewer ACE patients than UC patients were readmitted within 30 days of discharge (7.9% vs 12.8%; P = .02). Subset analysis of the 25 most common DRGs revealed a significantly reduced mean (SD) variable direct cost per patient for ACE compared with UC patients ($1693 [$1063] vs $2138 [$1431]; P < .001); cost ratios for total (0.78; 95% CI, 0.70-0.87) and daily (0.89; 95% CI, 0.85-0.94) variable direct costs remained significant after adjustment. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: The ACE unit team model reduces costs and 30-day readmissions. In an era when improving care processes while reducing costs is a vital objective for the Medicare program and our nation as a whole, the ACE model meets these goals.

Flood KL; Maclennan PA; McGrew D; Green D; Dodd C; Brown CJ

2013-06-01

 
 
 
 
141

HEPAFIL - a program for the calculation of the fluid dynamics of high efficiency particulate air filter units  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

With HEPAFIL, LAF II provides a FORTRAN program for the calculation of various parameters associated with the fluid dynamics of high efficiency particulate air filter units. Most of the currently available commercial deep pleat designs have been taken into consideration, e.g., high strength nuclear grade units employing separators with inclined corrugations, units for clean room applications, as well as low and medium efficiency EU 6 and EU 8 types having very low pressure drops. The flow resistance curves obtained from HEPAFIL could be verified in extensive experimental test. A user-friendly PC version with the integrated program library HEPAGAS can serve as a useful tool to the researcher in filter development as well as to the filter manufacturer for cost reduction analyses. Knowledge of the distributions of airstream, pressures and velocities within the flow channels of the filter pack allows more precise investigations of failure mechanisms and filtration characteristics for a wide range of flow conditions. The newest scientific application involves fundamental investigations into the cleanability of HEPA filter units. HEPAFIL offers filter manufacturers the opportunity to improve and optimize filter performance with respect to pressure drop, burst strength, and material costs, with a minimum of prototype fabrication and testing. (orig.).

1991-01-01

142

Economics of immunization information systems in the United States: assessing costs and efficiency  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the United States' national health objectives for 2010 is that 95% of children aged Methods Data were collected from a national sampling frame of the 56 states/cities that received federal immunization grants under U.S. Public Health Service Act 317b and completed the federal 1999 Immunization Registry Annual Report. The sampling frame was stratified by IIS functional status, children's enrollment in the IIS, and whether the IIS had been developed as an independent system or was integrated into a larger system. These sites self-reported IIS developmental and operational program costs for calendar years 1998–2002 using a standardized data collection tool and underwent on-site interviews to verify reported data with information from the state/city financial management system and other financial records. A parametric cost-per-patient-record (CPR) model was estimated. The model assessed the impact of labor and non-labor resources used in development and operations tasks, as well as the impact of information technology, local providers' participation and compliance with federal IIS performance standards (e.g., ensuring the confidentiality and security of information, ensure timely vaccination data at the time of patient encounter, and produce official immunization records). Given the number of records minimizing CPR, the additional amount of resources needed to meet national health goals for the year 2010 was also calculated. Results Estimated CPR was as high as $10.30 and as low as $0.09 in operating IIS. About 20% of IIS had between 2.9 to 3.2 million records and showed CPR estimates of $0.09. Overall, CPR was highly sensitive to local providers' participation. To achieve the 2010 goals, additional aggregated costs were estimated to be $75.6 million nationwide. Conclusion Efficiently increasing the number of records in IIS would require additional resources and careful consideration of various strategies to minimize CPR, such as boosting providers' participation.

Bartlett Diana L; Molinari Noelle-Angelique M; Ortega-Sanchez Ismael R; Urquhart Gary A

2006-01-01

143

Economic impacts of oil spills: Spill unit costs for tankers, pipelines, refineries, and offshore facilities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The impacts of oil spills -- ranging from the large, widely publicized Exxon Valdez tanker incident to smaller pipeline and refinery spills -- have been costly to both the oil industry and the public. For example, the estimated costs to Exxon of the Valdez tanker spill are on the order of $4 billion, including $2.8 billion (in 1993 dollars) for direct cleanup costs and $1.125 billion (in 1992 dollars) for settlement of damages claims caused by the spill. Application of contingent valuation costs and civil lawsuits pending in the State of Alaska could raise these costs appreciably. Even the costs of the much smaller 1991 oil spill at Texaco's refinery near Anacortes, Washington led to costs of $8 to 9 million. As a result, inexpensive waming, response and remediation technologies could lower oil spin costs, helping both the oil industry, the associated marine industries, and the environment. One means for reducing the impact and costs of oil spills is to undertake research and development on key aspects of the oil spill prevention, warming, and response and remediation systems. To target these funds to their best use, it is important to have sound data on the nature and size of spills, their likely occurrence and their unit costs. This information could then allow scarce R ampersand D dollars to be spent on areas and activities having the largest impact. This report is intended to provide the ''unit cost'' portion of this crucial information. The report examines the three key components of the US oil supply system, namely, tankers and barges; pipelines and refineries; and offshore production facilities. The specific purpose of the study was to establish the unit costs of oil spills. By manipulating this key information into a larger matrix that includes the size and frequency of occurrence of oil spills, it will be possible' to estimate the likely future impacts, costs, and sources of oil spills

1993-01-01

144

Costos reales de tratamientos intensivos por paciente y día cama/ Real daily costs of patients admitted to public intensive care units  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Background: Patient care costs in intensive care units are high and should be considered in medical decision making. Aim: To calculate the real disease related costs for patients admitted to intensive care units of public hospitals. Material and Methods: Using an activity associated costs analysis, the expenses of 716 patients with a mean age of 56 years, mean APACHE score of20 (56% males), admitted to intensive care units of two regional public hospitals, were calculated (more) . Patients were classified according to their underlying disease. Results: The costs per day of hospital stay, in Chilean pesos, were $ 426,265for sepsis, $ 423,300for cardiovascular diseases, $ 418,329 for kidney diseases, $ 404,873 for trauma, $ 398,913 for respiratory diseases, $ 379,455for digestive diseases and $ 371,801 for neurologic disease. Human resources and medications determined up to 85 and 12% of costs, respectively. Patients with sepsis and trauma use 32 and 19% of intensive care unit resources, respectively. Twenty seven percent of resources are invested in patients that eventually died. Conclusions: A real cost benefit analysis should be performed to optimize resource allocation in intensive care units.

Alvear, Sandra; Canteros, Jorge; Jara, Juan; Rodríguez, Patricia

2013-02-01

145

Production process in radiation therapy and research into cost-inducers in two radiation oncology units  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Production process in radiation therapy and research into cost-inducers in two radiation oncology units. Purpose. - To analyse the process of outpatient radiation therapy by dividing it into elementary acts, and to determine the cost-inducers (staff and machine time, equipment) in order to enhance the value of radiotherapy activity. Material and methods. - The care process was analysed from 1 June 1997 to 1 September 1997, in two institutions (Centre hospitalo-universitaire de Saint Etienne and centre de Lutte contre le Cancer de Lyon), in terms of consumption of human and equipment means, representing a cost for the care institution. The valorization was expressed in physics units for material means, and in time units for human and heavy equipment. Parameters able to modify the consumption of means had been defined. The following data had been collected for each activity: patient characteristics, characteristics of the process, specific parameters of each activity, data related to the care staff and care unit. (authors)

1997-06-01

146

[Costs and consumption of material resources in pediatric intensive and semi-intensive care units].  

Science.gov (United States)

Cost management of hospital material resources is a trendy research topic, especially in specialized health units. Nurses are pointed out as the main managers for costs and consumption of hospital materials resources. This study aimed to characterize Pediatric Intensive and Semi-Intensive Care Units of a teaching hospital and investigate costs and consumption of material resources used to treat patients admitted to these units. This is a descriptive exploratory study with retrospective data and quantitative approach. Data were obtained from a Hospital Information System and analyzed according to the ABC classification. The average expenditures were similar in both the neonatal and cardiac units, and lower in Pediatric Intensive and Semi-Intensive care units. There was a significant variation in the monthly consumption of materials. Higher cost materials had a greater impact on the budget of the studied units. The data revealed the importance of using a systematic method for the analysis of materials consumption and expenditure in pediatric units. They subsidize administrative and economic actions. PMID:23559176

Zuliani, Larissa Lenotti; Jericó, Marli de Carvalho; de Castro, Liliana Cristina; Soler, Zaida Aurora Sperli Geraldes

147

[Costs and consumption of material resources in pediatric intensive and semi-intensive care units].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Cost management of hospital material resources is a trendy research topic, especially in specialized health units. Nurses are pointed out as the main managers for costs and consumption of hospital materials resources. This study aimed to characterize Pediatric Intensive and Semi-Intensive Care Units of a teaching hospital and investigate costs and consumption of material resources used to treat patients admitted to these units. This is a descriptive exploratory study with retrospective data and quantitative approach. Data were obtained from a Hospital Information System and analyzed according to the ABC classification. The average expenditures were similar in both the neonatal and cardiac units, and lower in Pediatric Intensive and Semi-Intensive care units. There was a significant variation in the monthly consumption of materials. Higher cost materials had a greater impact on the budget of the studied units. The data revealed the importance of using a systematic method for the analysis of materials consumption and expenditure in pediatric units. They subsidize administrative and economic actions.

Zuliani LL; Jericó Mde C; de Castro LC; Soler ZA

2012-11-01

148

Employment trends of young mothers and the opportunity cost of babies in the United States.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The central concept of microeconomic theories of fertility is opportunity cost--the product of wife's employment lost due to childbearing and the value of her employment. This paper presents a model for analyzing opportunity cost using panel data. The average loss of employment attributable to a second- or higher-order birth, calculated at around age 2, is over 400 hours per year. This time cost represents an income loss of about $1050 in 1969 dollars. Time cost is independent of such demographic factors as birth order and age of oldest sibling. Neither does time cost depend on husband's wage rate or wife's education or potential wage rate. This indicates that many microeconomic models of fertility have been seriously misspecified. The paper also compares results from static and dynamic models, explores possible problems due to simultaneity bias, investigates the relationship between changes in employment (including time cost) and initial employment level, and identifies the difficulties of theorizing about opportunity cost.

Cramer JC

1979-05-01

149

Impact of pharmacist’s interventions on cost of drug therapy in intensive care unit. Pharmacy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Pharmacist participation in patient care team has been shown to reduce incidence of adverse drug events, and overall drug costs. However, impact of pharmacist participation in the multidisciplinary intensive care team on cost saving and cost avoidance has little been studied in Thailand.Objective: To describe the characteristics of the interventions and to determine pharmacist’s interventions led to change in cost saving and cost avoidance in intensive care unit (ICU). Methods: A Prospective, standard care-controlled study design was used to compare cost saving and cost avoidance of patients receiving care from patient care team (including a clinical pharmacist) versus standard care (no pharmacist on team). All patients admitted to the medical intensive care unit 1 and 2 during the same period were included in the study. The outcome measures were overall drug cost and length of ICU stay. Interventions made by the pharmacist in the study group were documented. The analyses of acceptance and cost saving and/or cost avoidance were also performed. Results: A total of 65 patients were admitted to either ICU 1 or 2 during the 5 week- study period. The pharmacist participated in patient care and made total of 127 interventions for the ICU-1 team. Ninety-eight percent of the interventions were accepted and implemented by physicians. The difference of overall drug cost per patient between two groups was 182.01 USD (1,076.37 USD in study group and 1,258.38 USD in control group, p=0.138). The average length of ICU stay for the intervention group and the control group was not significantly different (7.16 days vs. 6.18 days, p=0.995). The 125 accepted interventions were evaluated for cost saving and cost avoidance. Pharmacist’s interventions yielded a total of 1,971.43 USD from drug cost saving and 294.62 USD from adverse drug event cost avoidance. The net cost saved and avoided from pharmacist interventions was 2,266.05 USD. Interventions involving antibiotic use accounted for the largest economic impact (1,958.61 USD). Conclusions: Although the statistical was not significant, having a pharmacist participated in ICU patient care team tend to reduced overall drug cost, cost saving, and cost avoidance. The largest cost impact and intervention requirement involved antibiotic use.

Saokaew S; Maphanta S; Thangsomboon P

2009-01-01

150

Societal costs of prescription opioid abuse, dependence, and misuse in the United States.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to estimate the societal costs of prescription opioid abuse, dependence, and misuse in the United States. METHODS: Costs were grouped into three categories: health care, workplace, and criminal justice. Costs were estimated by 1) quantity method, which multiplies the number of opioid abuse patients by cost per opioid abuse patient; and 2) apportionment method, which begins with overall costs of drug abuse per component and apportions the share associated with prescription opioid abuse based on relative prevalence of prescription opioid to overall drug abuse. Excess health care costs per patient were based on claims data analysis of privately insured and Medicaid beneficiaries. Other data/information were derived from publicly available survey and other secondary sources. RESULTS: Total US societal costs of prescription opioid abuse were estimated at $55.7 billion in 2007 (USD in 2009). Workplace costs accounted for $25.6 billion (46%), health care costs accounted for $25.0 billion (45%), and criminal justice costs accounted for $5.1 billion (9%). Workplace costs were driven by lost earnings from premature death ($11.2 billion) and reduced compensation/lost employment ($7.9 billion). Health care costs consisted primarily of excess medical and prescription costs ($23.7 billion). Criminal justice costs were largely comprised of correctional facility ($2.3 billion) and police costs ($1.5 billion). CONCLUSIONS: ? The costs of prescription opioid abuse represent a substantial and growing economic burden for the society. The increasing prevalence of abuse suggests an even greater societal burden in the future.

Birnbaum HG; White AG; Schiller M; Waldman T; Cleveland JM; Roland CL

2011-04-01

151

Calculation of the cost of Generating Power in a Fast Reactor by the Discounting Method  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] A method of calculating the discounted cost of fuel cycles, using a computer, was presented during the 2nd Nuclear Meeting of the Forum Atómico Español held in Madrid during 27-28 October 1966. This method had been developed for optimization studies in relation to a 1000-MW(e) fast reactor under the ''Fast Reactors'' partnership agreement concluded between Euratom and the Belgian Government. The object of the paper is to describe how the method is applied and to analyse the initial results obtained with it. The calculational code, for use with an IBM 360 computer, consists of two parts. In the first part, the reactor characteristics necessary for the economic computations are determined; these consist essentially of the initial and final composition of the fuel (isotopic composition, plutonium content, proportion of inert material, fuel weight) and the time during which the fuel remains in the reactor. These characteristics are computed for each zone of the core, and of the axial and radial breeding blankets. In the second part of the code, the fuel cycle characteristics are first calculated: doubling time and various factors required for feasibility studies (loading and unloading factors, inventory factors in terms of natural uranium or 239Pu equivalent). The various specific costs are then determined by means of sub-routines. The discounting calculations are performed for each reactor zone and combined into two separate groups: costs discounted to the time of reactor start-up and costs discounted to shut-down. Two approaches are then possible, depending on whether the fissile material is purchased or leased from a national or international organization (this in turn depends on whether private ownership of fissile materials is permitted). The costs, expressed in kWh, are then grouped by zone and by type of operation (transport, manufacture, etc.), and sub-divided into fixed and variable costs, and operating and capital costs. The method has been applied to the German Na-1 reactor, and the results are extremely interesting. The cost breakdown shows the Importance of capital costs in the fuel cycle of a fast reactor. The Influence of various technical and economic parameters is brought out; for example, bum-up (the effect of which can no longer be represented by a simple hyperbola), loading frequency, the rate used for discounting and the price of plutonium. (author)[fr] Une méthode de calcul sur ordinateur du coût actualisé des cycles de combustibles a été présentée lors des lournées nucléaires du Forum atómico español, qui se sont tenues â Madrid les 27 et 28 octobre 1966. Cette méthode avait été mise au point en vue d'études d'optimisation d'un réacteur rapide de 1000 MW(e) dans le cadre du contrat d'association «Réacteurs rapides » Buratom-Belgique. Le but du mémoire est d'exposer la mise en application de la méthode et d'analyser les premiers résultats de calcul. Le code de calcul sur ordinateur IBM-360 comprend deux parties. Dans la première, les caractéristiques du réacteur nésessaires pour le calcul économique sont déterminées. Il s'agit essentiellement des compositions initiales et finales du combustible (compositions isotopiques, teneur en plutonium, fraction de matière inerte, poids de combustible) et des temps de séjour du combustible dans le réacteur. Ces caractéristiques sont calculées pour chaque zone du coeur et des couvertures axiale et radiale. Dans la seconde, les caractéristiques du cycle du combustible sont d'abord calculées: temps de doublement et divers facteurs requis pour les études de prospective (facteurs de chargement et de déchargement et facteurs d'inventaires en équivalent uranium naturel ou plutonium -239). Les divers coûts spécifiques sont ensuite déterminés dans des sous-routines, puis les calculs d'actualisation sont effectués pour chaque zon et réunis en deux groupes distincts: frais actualisés au moment du démarrage du réacteur et frais actualisés a l'arrêt de celui-ci. Une alternative est alors possible selon le mode

152

Aeraulics: calculation of the service life cost of a filter; Aeraulique: calcul du cout de la vie d'un filtre  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ventilation systems represent an important part of the total energy consumption in a building. The pressure drop generated by the filter contributes for a large part to the total pressure drop of the ventilation system. In order to increase the energy efficiency of aeraulic systems, the Eurovent/Cecomaf European organization has written a guideline document for the calculation of the total life cycle cost (LCC) of a air filter. This calculation takes into account the initial investment, the energy needs of the system, the maintenance and the destruction costs. This short paper presents some examples of calculation including the various correction factors listed above. (J.S.)

Anon.

1999-12-01

153

An assessment of the cost-effectiveness of midwife-led care in the United Kingdom.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: to analyse the existing evidence on the cost-effectiveness of midwife-led care compared with consultant-led care in settings potentially generalisable to the United Kingdom, and to estimate the potential cost savings accruing from an expansion of midwife-led care in the United Kingdom. DESIGN: a systematic review of the literature was conducted across twelve electronic databases for papers relating to the costs of midwife-led models of care. Randomised controlled trials, controlled clinical trials, controlled before and after studies and interrupted time series studies were considered for inclusion. The methods specified by the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence to assess the cost-effectiveness of midwife-led care were broadly used. Multiple simple one-way sensitivity analyses were undertaken to examine the robustness of findings to varying scenarios. FINDINGS: based on scant existing evidence, the mean cost saving for each eligible maternity was estimated at approximately ST£12.38 (sterling). If midwife-led services were expanded to 50% of all eligible women in the UK, as assumed in the main set of results, this would result in an aggregate cost saving of ST£1.16 million per year. In the sensitivity analyses, cost changes per maternity vary from a saving of ST£253.38 to a cost increase of ST£108.12 depending on the assumptions used, corresponding to aggregate savings of ST£23.75 million and a cost increase of ST£10.13 million. KEY CONCLUSIONS: expanding midwife-led maternity services for eligible women may offer a means of reducing costs compared to the current leading model of care. However, firm conclusions are elusive due to the paucity of evidence. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: there is a clear need for further economic evaluations of models of maternity care in the United Kingdom context to guide the better use of scarce resources.

Ryan P; Revill P; Devane D; Normand C

2013-04-01

154

THE HARMONIZATION OF THE RELATION COSTS – QUALITY – PERFORMANCE AT THE TOURISM UNITS LEVEL  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The global competition determined the tourism units to be more focused over the quality services, so they lose their reputation or even risk to cease their activity. A series of studies shows that in general, the costs that involve the correction of non quality and those for prevention and evaluation, represents in average 25% by their incomes and 5-15% by their production costs. In the case pf the tourism units, the specialists appreciate that the weight of these costs is even greater. The services quality divide the managers interests for insuring the quality necessary for the functioning of the tourism unit, the climate, the staff preparation and also the relation with the tourists and the suppliers.

BOGDAN R?VA?; ALIN MONEA

2008-01-01

155

Cost calculators for the procurement of small sized thinning wood, delimbed energy wood, logging residues and stumps for energy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The primary aim of Excel based cost calculators is to familiarize the user with the various ways that different factors affect the cost of forest chip production within each working stage of the procurement system. The calculator enables the user to investigate how changes in processed material or in the productivity and hourly cost of machines influence the procurement cost of the whole system. Procurement chains are based on chipping at the roadside landing, in the terrain, at the terminal or at the end use facility. Procurement cost at end use facility is expressed as either Euro/m{sup 3} (solid cubic meter) or Euro/MWh. The herein reported Excel based cost calculator programmes were originally developed to serve research needs, but they are also suitable for energy wood procurement companies, contractors and teaching purposes.

Laitila, Juha; Asikainen, Antti; Liiri, Harri [Finnish Forest Research Inst., Joensuu (Finland)

2006-07-15

156

[Physical activity and healthcare cost of type 2 diabetic patients seen at basic units of healthcare].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: To observe differences in healthcare costs according to the level of physical activity in type 2 diabetes mellitus. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A total of 121 type 2 diabetic patients were interviewed in two basic units of healthcare in Bauru, Brazil. Physical activity level was assessed by a questionnaire carried out during an interview. Costs of exams, medications and doctor and nurse visits were assessed for the previous year using invoices obtained from basic units of healthcare. RESULTS: Sedentary type 2 diabetic patients presented higher costs for doctor visits (63%; p = 0.017) and medication to treat diseases other than diabetes (p = 0.001) than active patients. CONCLUSIONS: Sedentary type 2 diabetic patients presented higher healthcare costs related to doctor visits and medicine purchase.

Codogno JS; Fernandes RA; Monteiro HL

2012-02-01

157

Independent calculation of the monitor units and times of treatment in radiotherapy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this work, an independent verification system of calculations in radiotherapy was developed and applied, using Visual BasicTM programming language. The computational program performs calculations of monitor units and treatment time, based on the algorithm of manual calculation. The calculations executed for the independent system had initially been compared with the manual calculations performed by the medical physicists of the Institute of Radiotherapy of the Hospital das Clinicas da Universidade de Sao Paulo. In this step, the results found for more than two hundred fields studied were similar to those found in the literature; deviations larger than +- 1% were found only in five cases involving errors in manual calculation. The application of the independent system, in this stage, could have identified errors up to +- 2,4%. Based on these data, the system was validated for use in clinical routine. In a second step, calculations were compared with calculations realized by the treatment computerized planning system CadPIanTM. When, again, the results were similar to those published in other works allowing to obtain levels of acceptance of the discrepancies between the calculations executed for the independent system and the calculations developed from the planning system, separated by anatomical region, as recommended according by the recent literature. For beams of 6 MV, the levels of acceptance for deviations between the calculations of monitor units, separated by treatment region were the following; breast +- 1.7%, head and neck +2%; hypophysis +- 2.2%; pelvis +- 4 . 1% and thorax +- 1.5%. For beams of 15 MV, the level suggested for pelvis was of +- 4.5%. (author)

2005-01-01

158

Economic and social costs of coal and nuclear electric generation, a framework for assessment and illustrative calculations for the coal and nuclear fuel cycles. Discussion paper  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] A method is presented for extending economic comparisons of nuclear and coal-fired electric power to include health, safety, and environmental impacts in the same quantitative framework. The method is illustrated by considering the decision between a light water nuclear reactor and a conventional coal-fired power plant to satisfy a 1000 MWe increase in electrical demand in the northeastern United States. For both alternatives, preliminary calculations of the economic and social costs expressed in mills per kilowatt-hour are reported. Economic costs consist of those faced by the utility, including capital charges, operating expenses, and fuel cycle costs. Social costs for each plant and its associated fuel cycle include routine environmental impacts such as air pollution as well as risk to the public from reactor accidents or sabotage

1976-01-01

159

Life cycle costs for indoor climate systems. Calculation model for the selection of a climate system; Life cycle costs voor binnenklimaatsystemen. Berekeningsmodel voor selectie klimaatsysteem  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In Sweden a calculation model was developed to calculate the life cycle costs (LCC) of an indoor climate system. This includes all costs incurred during the entire life cycle of a system. The model can be used for system selection and the development of systems with low LCC. (mk) [Dutch] In Zweden is een rekenmodel ontwikkeld om de life cycle costs (LCC) van een binnenklimaatsysteem te berekenen. Hierbij worden alle kosten in beeld gebracht die gedurende de gehele levenscyclus van een systeem worden gemaakt. Het model kan worden gebruikt bij de systeemselectie en bij de ontwikkeling van systemen met lage LCC.

Johansson, D. [Swegon, Department of Building Physics, Lund University, Lund (Sweden)

2008-03-15

160

Statin cost-effectiveness in the United States for people at different vascular risk levels.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Statins reduce the rates of heart attacks, strokes, and revascularization procedures (ie, major vascular events) in a wide range of circumstances. Randomized controlled trial data from 20,536 adults have been used to estimate the cost-effectiveness of prescribing statin therapy in the United States for people at different levels of vascular disease risk and to explore whether wider use of generic statins beyond the populations currently recommended for treatment in clinical guidelines is indicated. METHODS AND RESULTS: Randomized controlled trial data, an internally validated vascular disease model, and US costs of statin therapy and other medical care were used to project lifetime risks of vascular events and evaluate the cost-effectiveness of 40 mg simvastatin daily. For an average of 5 years, allocation to simvastatin reduced the estimated US costs of hospitalizations for vascular events by approximately 20% (95% CI, 15 to 24) in the different subcategories of participants studied. At a daily cost of $1 for 40 mg generic simvastatin, the estimated costs of preventing a vascular death within the 5-year study period ranged from a net saving of $1300 (95% CI, $15,600 saving to $13,200 cost) among participants with a 42% 5-year major vascular event risk to a net cost of $216,500 ($123,700 to $460,000 cost) among those with a 12% 5-year risk. The costs per life year gained with lifetime simvastatin treatment ranged from $2500 (-$40 to $3820) in people aged 40 to 49 years with a 42% 5-year major vascular event risk to $10,990 ($9430 to $14,700) in people aged 70 years and older with a 12% 5-year risk. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with generic simvastatin appears to be cost-effective for a much wider population in the United States than that recommended by current guidelines.

2009-03-01

 
 
 
 
161

Calculation method for the seasonal performance of heat pump compact units and validation. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This comprehensive final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at compact heat pump units that have been developed for the heating of low energy consumption houses built to MINERGIE or MINERGIE-P standards. These units, which combine the functions of space heating, domestic hot water preparation and ventilation in one unit are described. A testing procedure developed at the University of Applied Science in Lucerne, Switzerland, using a test rig for the measurement of the seasonal performance factor (SPF) is described. A calculation method based on temperature classes for the calculation of the SPF of combined heat pump systems for space heating and domestic hot water preparation that was developed by the Institute of Energy in Buildings at the University of Applied Sciences Northwestern Switzerland is examined. Two pilot plants allowing detailed field monitoring of two compact units are described. One pilot plant installed in a single-family house built to MINERGIE standard in Gelterkinden, Switzerland, provided data on a compact unit. These results of measurements made on this and a further installation in a MINERGIE-P ultra-low energy consumption house in Zeiningen, Switzerland, are presented and discussed. Calculation methods, including exergy considerations are reviewed and their validation is discussed.

Wemhoener, C.; Dott, R.; Afjei, Th. [University of Applied Sciences Northwestern Switzerland, Institute of Energy in Buildings, Muttenz (Switzerland); Huber, H.; Helfenfinger, D.; Keller, P.; Furter, R. [University of Applied Sciences Lucerne (HTA), Test center HLKS, Horw (Switzerland)

2007-02-15

162

Societal cost of workplace homicides in the United States, 1992-2001.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries (CFOI) reported 8,672 workplace homicide victims between 1992 and 2001. Although rarely calculated, cost estimates are important for prevention and research efforts. METHODS: Societal costs were estimated using the cost-of-illness approach applied to CFOI data. The cost calculation model incorporated medical expenses, future earnings summed from the year of death until the year the decedent would have been 67, and household production losses (includes activities such as child care and housework). RESULTS: Workplace homicide had a total cost of nearly 6.5 billion dollars and a mean cost of 800,000 dollars between 1992 and 2001. The retail trade industry division had the highest number of homicides and total cost, 2.1 billion dollars, for males and 556,000 dollars for females. CONCLUSIONS: Estimates of the cost of work-related homicides can be used to improve occupational injury prevention and control program planning, policy analysis, evaluation of safety and health interventions, and advocacy for a safer work environment.

Hartley D; Biddle EA; Jenkins EL

2005-06-01

163

Challenges of unit cost Control of higher education in B.T.A.D  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper tries to evaluate the problem of unit cost control for graduating a student in BTAD. The study conducted in the various higher education institute in the 4 district of B.T.A.D( Bodoland territorial area districts ) brought to light various cause and reasons for increasing of cost of educating a student in the institute of BTAD area. The study evaluated that the cost of higher education is higher in BTAD because of various factor and lack of management ability of the institute to impart education in the area.

Subhash Saha

2013-01-01

164

Calculation of the Cost of an Adequate Education in Kentucky: A Professional Judgment Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available What is an adequate education and how much does it cost? In 1989, Kentucky’s State Supreme Court found the entire system of education unconstitutional-“all of its parts and parcels”. The Court called for all children to have access to an adequate education, one that is uniform and has as its goal the development of seven capacities, including: (i) “sufficient oral and written communication skills to enable students to function in a complex and rapidly changing civilization . . . .and (vii) sufficient levels of academic or vocational skills to enable public school students to compete favorably with their counterparts in surrounding states, in academics or in the job market”. Now, over a decade later, key questions remain regarding whether these objectives have been fulfilled. This research is designed to calculate the cost of an adequate education by aligning resources to State standards, laws and objectives, using a professional judgment approach. Seven focus groups were convened for this purpose and the scholarly literature was reviewed to provide multiple inputs into study findings. The study produced a per pupil base cost for each of three prototype school districts and an total statewide cost, with the funding gap between existing revenue and the revenue needed for current operations of $1.097 billion per year (2001-02). Additional key resource requirements needed to achieve an adequate education, identified by professional judgment panels, include: (1) extending the school year for students and teachers, (2) adding voluntary half-day preschool for three and four year olds, and (3) raising teacher salaries. This increases the funding gap to $1.23 billion and suggests that significant new funding is required over time if the Commonwealth of Kentucky is to provide an adequate and equitable education of high quality for all children and youth as directed by the State Supreme Court.

Deborah A. Verstegen

2004-01-01

165

Nurse staffing and patient care costs in acute inpatient nursing units.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Studies suggest that a business case for improving nurse staffing can be made to increase registered nurse (RN) skill mix without changing total licensed nursing hours. It is unclear whether a business case for increasing RN skill mix can be justified equally among patients of varying health needs. This study evaluated whether nursing hours per patient day (HPPD) and skill mix are associated with higher inpatient care costs within acute medical/surgical inpatient units using data from the Veterans Health Administration. METHODS: Retrospective cross-sectional study, including 139,360 inpatient admissions to 292 acute medical/surgical units at 125 Veterans Health Administration medical centers between February and June 2003, was conducted. Dependent variables were inpatient costs per admission and costs per patient day. RESULTS: The average costs per surgical and medical admission were $18,624 and $6,636, respectively. Costs per admission were positively associated with total nursing HPPD among medical admissions ($164.49 per additional HPPD, P<0.001), but not among surgical admissions. Total nursing HPPD and RN skill mix were associated with higher costs per hospital day for both medical admissions ($79.02 per additional HPPD and $5.64 per 1% point increase in nursing skill mix, both P<0.001) and surgical admissions ($112.47 per additional HPPD and $13.31 per 1% point increase in nursing skill mix, both P<0.001). Patients experiencing complications or transferring to an intensive care unit had higher inpatient costs than other patients. CONCLUSIONS: The association of nurse staffing level with costs per admission differed for medical versus surgical admissions.

Li YF; Wong ES; Sales AE; Sharp ND; Needleman J; Maciejewski ML; Lowy E; Alt-White AC; Liu CF

2011-08-01

166

Density functional theory calculation on many-cores hybrid central processing unit-graphic processing unit architectures  

Science.gov (United States)

We present the implementation of a full electronic structure calculation code on a hybrid parallel architecture with graphic processing units (GPUs). This implementation is performed on a free software code based on Daubechies wavelets. Such code shows very good performances, systematic convergence properties, and an excellent efficiency on parallel computers. Our GPU-based acceleration fully preserves all these properties. In particular, the code is able to run on many cores which may or may not have a GPU associated, and thus on parallel and massive parallel hybrid machines. With double precision calculations, we may achieve considerable speedup, between a factor of 20 for some operations and a factor of 6 for the whole density functional theory code.

Genovese, Luigi; Ospici, Matthieu; Deutsch, Thierry; Méhaut, Jean-François; Neelov, Alexey; Goedecker, Stefan

2009-07-01

167

Density functional theory calculation on many-cores hybrid central processing unit-graphic processing unit architectures.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We present the implementation of a full electronic structure calculation code on a hybrid parallel architecture with graphic processing units (GPUs). This implementation is performed on a free software code based on Daubechies wavelets. Such code shows very good performances, systematic convergence properties, and an excellent efficiency on parallel computers. Our GPU-based acceleration fully preserves all these properties. In particular, the code is able to run on many cores which may or may not have a GPU associated, and thus on parallel and massive parallel hybrid machines. With double precision calculations, we may achieve considerable speedup, between a factor of 20 for some operations and a factor of 6 for the whole density functional theory code.

Genovese L; Ospici M; Deutsch T; Méhaut JF; Neelov A; Goedecker S

2009-07-01

168

An Alternative Method for Computing Unit Costs and Productivity Ratios. AIR 1984 Annual Forum Paper.  

Science.gov (United States)

An alternative measure for evaluating the performance of academic departments was studied. A comparison was made with the traditional manner for computing unit costs and productivity ratios: prorating the salary and effort of each faculty member to each course level based on the personal mix of course taught. The alternative method used averaging…

Winstead, Wayland H.; And Others

169

Kalman-Filter Based Join Cost for Unit-Selection Speech Synthesis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We introduce a new method for computing join cost in unit-selection speech synthesis which uses a linear dynamical model (also known as a Kalman filter) to model line spectral frequency trajectories. The model uses an underlying subspace in which it makes smooth, continuous trajectories. This subspa...

Vepa, Jithendra; King, Simon

170

78 FR 17648 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Representative Average Unit Costs of Energy  

Science.gov (United States)

In this notice, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is forecasting the representative average unit costs of five residential energy sources for the year 2013 pursuant to the Energy Policy and Conservation Act. The five sources are electricity, natural gas, No. 2 heating oil, propane, and...

2013-03-22

171

COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS OF A SINGLE UNIT SYSTEM WITH SCHEDULED MAINTENANCE AND VARIATION IN DEMAND  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present paper analyses the reliability and cost-benefit for a single unit system with scheduled maintenance and variation in demand. As Change in demand affects the production of system also, hence sometimes, the system needs to be shut down when the number of produces are in excess as compared ...

Gulshan Taneja; Reetu Malhotra

172

[Study cost/effectiveness of portable fridges in the mobile unit of emergencies of Alcaniz (Teruel)].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

UNLABELLED: The maintenance of cold chain can result difficult in Emergency Mobil Units that's why the aim of this study is to value the effectiveness of portable fridges with/without compressor and its cost-effectiveness by a computer simulation. METHODOLOGY: This descriptive, transversal and cost effectiveness analysis was developed in two Emergency Mobil Units of 061 Aragón of Alcañiz (Teruel) along a year. RESULTS: The results showed that in the fridge with compressor, the 93'8% of the temperatures was between 2 and 8 degrees C, where as in the fridge without compressor was of the 35,7%.The global and specific cost effectiveness ratio of the fridge with and without compressor were of 0,063 and 7,411 and of 0,080 and 147,55 respectively. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Fridge with compressor was more cost-effective, amortizing quickly its initial cost. This fridge had a better and more efficient thermoregulation what supposed a better conservation of drugs and lower costs, according to the model of simulation.

Mir Ramos E; Martínez Tofé J; Castro Salanova R; Azón López E; Corcuera Cantabrana A; Sancho Pellicer A

2012-09-01

173

A Research on Unit Costs and Factors Effective on Performance of Laserplane Grade Control System in Turkey  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this research, 0 and 3% slopes were given to laserplane grade control system for two different soil conditions. Effect of different soil conditions on landlevelling was investigated. Unit operating cost and accuracy of machine were found. For this aim soil resistance, volume weight and specific gravity were found for two different soil conditions. Human factor wasn`t considered because operator wasn`t changed. Accuracy of landlevelling for sellected two grade angles was tested using with nodal network system. Excavation-filling amount was determined for two field and two grade during landlevelling. Operating costs for unit time and unit area were calculated at the end of operations. Based on the experiment results, it has been found that a variation for first field is more than second field to excavation-filling amount. Desired grades for two field were obtained. These trials were performed at Trakya University Tekirdag Agricultural Faculty Research and Application Fields that have 40x20 m dimensions. In these trials Fiat Mara model laserplane grade control machine that has got 3 m work with and New Holland M 95 traktor was used for pulling of laserplane grade control machine.

Can Burak Sisman; Giyasettin Cicek; Selcuk Arin

2003-01-01

174

Tree Based Test Case Generation and Cost Calculation Strategy for Uniform Parametric Pairwise Testing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: Although it is very important to test any system extensively it is usually too expensive to do so owing to the cost and the resources that are involved in it. Software testing is a very important phase of software development to ensure that the developed system is reliable. Some systematic approach for testing is essential to test any system and make it acceptable. Combinatorial software interaction testing is one which tests all possible software interactions. This interaction could be at various levels such as two way interaction (pairwise) or three or four or five or six way interactions. Combinatorial interaction testing had been used in several fields. It was reported in literature that pairwise combinatorial interaction testing had identified most of the software faults. Approach: In this study we proposed a new strategy for test suite generation, a tree generation strategy for pairwise combinatorial software testing, with parameters of equal values. The algorithm considered one parameter at a time systematically to generate the tree until all the parameters were considered. This strategy used a cost calculation technique iteratively for each of the leaf nodes to generate the test suite until all the combinations were covered. Results: The experimental data showed that we had achieved about 88% (or more in some cases) of reduction in the number of test cases needed for a complete pairwise combinatorial software interaction testing. Conclusion: Thus, the strategy proposed had achieved a significant reduction in minimizing the number of test cases that was generated.

Mohammad F.J. Klaib; Sangeetha Muthuraman; Noraziah Ahmad; Roslina Sidek

2010-01-01

175

Design of a computer software for calculation of required barrier against radiation at the diagnostic x-ray units  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background and purpose : Instalation of protective barrier against diagnostic x-ray is generally done based on the recommendations of NCRP49. There are analytic methods for designing protective barriers howerer, they lack sufficient efficiency and considering the NCRP49 reports, designing mechanical protective barrier in order to protect the initial x-ray radiation and absorption of the ray quality of such radiation is different.Therefore, the protective barrier for each radiation is measured separately. In this study, a computer software was designed to calculate the needed barrier with high accuracy.Materials and methods: Calculation of required protective barrier particularly when two or more generators are in use at diagnostic x-ray units and or installed diagnostic equipments do not have proper room space and the limitations for other clanges in parameters which are time- consuming and impossible to be manually calculated. For proper determination of thichness of the protective barrier, relevant information about curves of radiation weakness, dose limit etc should be entered. This program was done in windows and designed in such a way that the operator works easily, flexibility of the program is acceptable and its accuracy and sensitivity is high.Results : Results of this program indicate that, in most cases, in x-ray units required protective barrier was not used. Meanwhile sometimes shielding is more than what required which lacks technical standards and cost effectiveness. When the application index is contrasting zero, thichness of NCRP49 calculation is about 20% less than the calculated rate done by the method of this study. When the applied index is equal to zero (that is the only situation where the second barrier is considered), thickness of requined barrier is about 15% less than the lead barrier and concrete barrier calculated in this project is 8% less than that calculated by McGuire method.Conclusion : In this study proper determination of required protective thickness for weakening of radiation to the permitable level is proposed. The multi radiation sources in a single room are considered and non garanteed radiation of NCRP49 hypothesis are removed. Difference between the the oritical and calculated rates this of method is X2=10-5 which indicates accuracy and high efficiency of this software.

S.A. Rahimi; S. Sarkar; M.J. Abolhasani; S. Salar

2005-01-01

176

Applying graphics processor units to Monte Carlo dose calculation in radiation therapy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We investigate the potential in using of using a graphics processor unit (GPU) for Monte-Carlo (MC)-based radiation dose calculations. The percent depth dose (PDD) of photons in a medium with known absorption and scattering coefficients is computed using a MC simulation running on both a standard CPU and a GPU. We demonstrate that the GPU?s capability for massive parallel processing provides a significant acceleration in the MC calculation, and offers a significant advantage for distributed stochastic simulations on a single computer. Harnessing this potential of GPUs will help in the early adoption of MC for routine planning in a clinical environment.

Bakhtiari M; Malhotra H; Jones M; Chaudhary V; Walters J; Nazareth D

2010-01-01

177

Cost unit accounting as basis of price control at the Bewag  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Since Section 12a of the Decree of General Tariffs for the Supply of Electricity came into force on January, 30sup(th), 1980, questions on the cost-oriented price structure in the power economy have become the topic of spirited discussions. In addition, since the introduction of the ''Guideline for showing Costs and Profit Development in Power Supply (Questionnaire K)'' into the approval procedure, numerous differences of opinion have arisen as to its legitimacy in power and in applied economics and especially in view of its contents on cost definition. Agreement does exist on one point: that the issuance of a cost unit accounting is necessary to fulfill legal requirements for balanced and costoriented power tariffs and that this invoice must reflect the conditions of individual companies.

Schrader, P.

1984-05-08

178

A method for calculation of dose per unit concentration values for aquatic biota  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A dose per unit concentration database has been generated for application to ecosystem assessments within the FASSET framework. Organisms are represented by ellipsoids of appropriate dimensions, and the proportion of radiation absorbed within the organisms is calculated using a numerical method implemented in a series of spreadsheet-based programs. Energy-dependent absorbed fraction functions have been derived for calculating the total dose per unit concentration of radionuclides present in biota or in the media they inhabit. All radionuclides and reference organism dimensions defined within FASSET for marine and freshwater ecosystems are included. The methodology has been validated against more complex dosimetric models and compared with human dosimetry based on ICRP 72. Ecosystem assessments for aquatic biota within the FASSET framework can now be performed simply, once radionuclide concentrations in target organisms are known, either directly or indirectly by deduction from radionuclide concentrations in the surrounding medium.

2004-12-01

179

A method for calculation of dose per unit concentration values for aquatic biota within FASSET  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A dose per unit concentration database has been generated for application to ecosystem assessments within the FASSET framework. Organisms are represented by ellipsoids of appropriate dimensions, and the proportion of radiation absorbed within the organisms is calculated using a numerical method implemented in a series of spreadsheet-based programs. Energy-dependent absorbed fraction functions were derived for calculating the total dose per unit concentration of radionuclides present in biota or their surrounding medium. All radionuclides and reference organism dimensions defined within FASSET for marine and freshwater ecosystems are included. With regard to the applicability of the method, it is assumed that differences in density between the organism and the surrounding environmental media may be ignored; for the aquatic environment this is an extremely good approximation. (author)

2003-09-01

180

The benefits and costs of new fuels and engines for light-duty vehicles in the United States.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Rising oil prices and concerns about energy security and climate change are spurring reconsideration of both automobile propulsion systems and the fuels that supply energy to them. In addition to the gasoline internal combustion engine, recent years have seen alternatives develop in the automotive marketplace. Currently, hybrid-electric vehicles, advanced diesels, and flex-fuel vehicles running on a high percentage mixture of ethanol and gasoline (E85) are appearing at auto shows and in driveways. We conduct a rigorous benefit-cost analysis from both the private and societal perspective of the marginal benefits and costs of each technology--using the conventional gasoline engine as a baseline. The private perspective considers only those factors that influence the decisions of individual consumers, while the societal perspective accounts for environmental, energy, and congestion externalities as well. Our analysis illustrates that both hybrids and diesels show promise for particular light-duty applications (sport utility vehicles and pickup trucks), but that vehicles running continuously on E85 consistently have greater costs than benefits. The results for diesels were particularly robust over a wide range of sensitivity analyses. The results from the societal analysis are qualitatively similar to the private analysis, demonstrating that the most relevant factors to the benefit-cost calculations are the factors that drive the individual consumer's decision. We conclude with a brief discussion of marketplace and public policy trends that will both illustrate and influence the relative adoption of these alternative technologies in the United States in the coming decade.

Keefe R; Griffin JP; Graham JD

2008-10-01

 
 
 
 
181

NUCIRC Single Channel Analysis for Calculating the Power Coefficient of Wolsong Unit 1  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report describes the NUCIRC modeling to calculate the power coefficient at 0 EFPD(Effective Full Power Day) after the refurbishment of Wolsong Unit 1, which is also a part of revising the chapter 4.3 of FSAR(Final Safety Analysis Report). Additionally, NUCIRC single channel analyses for aged CANDU reactors at 1700 EFPD and 3100 EFPD after retubing will be described.

Yoon, Churl; Jun, Ji Su; Park, Joo Hwan

2009-02-15

182

NUCIRC Single Channel Analysis for Calculating the Power Coefficient of Wolsong Unit 1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report describes the NUCIRC modeling to calculate the power coefficient at 0 EFPD(Effective Full Power Day) after the refurbishment of Wolsong Unit 1, which is also a part of revising the chapter 4.3 of FSAR(Final Safety Analysis Report). Additionally, NUCIRC single channel analyses for aged CANDU reactors at 1700 EFPD and 3100 EFPD after retubing will be described

2009-01-01

183

Cost–Benefit Analyses of Mitigation Measures Aimed at Reducing Collisions with Large Ungulates in the United States and Canada: a Decision Support Tool  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Wildlife–vehicle collisions, especially with deer (Odocoileus spp.), elk (Cervus elaphus), and moose (Alces alces) are numerous and have shown an increasing trend over the last several decades in the United States and Canada. We calculated the costs associated with the average deer–, elk–, and moose–vehicle collision, including vehicle repair costs, human injuries and fatalities, towing, accident attendance and investigation, monetary value to hunters of the animal killed in the collision, and cost of disposal of the animal carcass. In addition, we reviewed the effectiveness and costs of 13 mitigation measures considered effective in reducing collisions with large ungulates. We conducted cost–benefit analyses over a 75-year period using discount rates of 1%, 3%, and 7% to identify the threshold values (in 2007 U.S. dollars) above which individual mitigation measures start generating benefits in excess of costs. These threshold values were translated into the number of deer–, elk–, or moose–vehicle collisions that need to occur per kilometer per year for a mitigation measure to start generating economic benefits in excess of costs. In addition, we calculated the costs associated with large ungulate–vehicle collisions on 10 road sections throughout the United States and Canada and compared these to the threshold values. Finally, we conducted a more detailed cost analysis for one of these road sections to illustrate that even though the average costs for large ungulate–vehicle collisions per kilometer per year may not meet the thresholds of many of the mitigation measures, specific locations on a road section can still exceed thresholds. We believe the cost–benefit model presented in this paper can be a valuable decision support tool for determining mitigation measures to reduce ungulate–vehicle collisions.

Marcel P. Huijser; John W. Duffield; Anthony P. Clevenger; Robert J. Ament; Pat T. McGowen

2009-01-01

184

Cost of wind energy: comparing distant wind resources to local resources in the midwestern United States.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The best wind sites in the United States are often located far from electricity demand centers and lack transmission access. Local sites that have lower quality wind resources but do not require as much power transmission capacity are an alternative to distant wind resources. In this paper, we explore the trade-offs between developing new wind generation at local sites and installing wind farms at remote sites. We first examine the general relationship between the high capital costs required for local wind development and the relatively lower capital costs required to install a wind farm capable of generating the same electrical output at a remote site,with the results representing the maximum amount an investor should be willing to pay for transmission access. We suggest that this analysis can be used as a first step in comparing potential wind resources to meet a state renewable portfolio standard (RPS). To illustrate, we compare the cost of local wind (?50 km from the load) to the cost of distant wind requiring new transmission (?550-750 km from the load) to meet the Illinois RPS. We find that local, lower capacity factor wind sites are the lowest cost option for meeting the Illinois RPS if new long distance transmission is required to access distant, higher capacity factor wind resources. If higher capacity wind sites can be connected to the existing grid at minimal cost, in many cases they will have lower costs.

Hoppock DC; Patiño-Echeverri D

2010-11-01

185

Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of blood pressure screening in adolescents in the United States.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To compare the long-term effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of 3 approaches to managing elevated blood pressure (BP) in adolescents in the United States: no intervention, "screen-and-treat," and population-wide strategies to lower the entire BP distribution. STUDY DESIGN: We used a simulation model to combine several data sources to project the lifetime costs and cardiovascular outcomes for a cohort of 15-year-old U.S. adolescents under different BP approaches and conducted cost-effectiveness analysis. We obtained BP distributions from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2004 and used childhood-to-adult longitudinal correlation analyses to simulate the tracking of BP. We then used the coronary heart disease policy model to estimate lifetime coronary heart disease events, costs, and quality-adjusted life years (QALY). RESULTS: Among screen-and-treat strategies, finding and treating the adolescents at highest risk (eg, left ventricular hypertrophy) was most cost-effective ($18000/QALY [boys] and $47000/QALY [girls]). However, all screen-and-treat strategies were dominated by population-wide strategies such as salt reduction (cost-saving [boys] and $650/QALY [girls]) and increasing physical education ($11000/QALY [boys] and $35000/QALY [girls]). CONCLUSIONS: Routine adolescents BP screening is moderately effective, but population-based BP interventions with broader reach could potentially be less costly and more effective for early cardiovascular disease prevention and should be implemented in parallel.

Wang YC; Cheung AM; Bibbins-Domingo K; Prosser LA; Cook NR; Goldman L; Gillman MW

2011-02-01

186

Calculation method for the seasonal performance of heat pump compact units and validation. Appendix  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This appendix to a comprehensive final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of tests made on compact heat pump units that have been developed for the heating of low energy consumption houses built to MINERGIE or MINERGIE-P standards. The tests on these units, which combine the functions of space heating, domestic hot water preparation and ventilation in one unit are presented and discussed. Test conditions are described; these cover ventilation, acoustic, hygiene and safety aspects. Detailed results from the two test objects - buildings built to MINERGIE and MINERGIE-P low energy consumption standards - are presented and discussed. The calculation methods used are examined and discussed.

Wemhoener, C.; Dott, R.; Afjei, Th. [University of Applied Sciences Northwestern Switzerland, Institute of Energy in Buildings, Muttenz (Switzerland); Huber, H.; Helfenfinger, D.; Keller, P.; Furter, R. [University of Applied Sciences Lucerne (HTA), Test center HLKS, Horw (Switzerland)

2007-02-15

187

Cost-effectiveness of screening for chronic hepatitis C infection in the United States.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is the most common chronic blood-borne infection in the United States and will become an increasing source of morbidity and mortality with aging of the infected population. Our objective was to develop decision analytic models to explore the cost-effectiveness of screening in populations with varying prevalence of HCV and risks for fibrosis progression. METHODS: We developed a Markov state transition model to examine screening of an asymptomatic community-based population in the United States. The base case was an ethnically and gender-mixed adult population with no prior knowledge of HCV status. Interventions were screening followed by guideline-based treatment, or no screening. Effectiveness was measured in quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), and costs were measured in 2011 US dollars. RESULTS: In the base case (US population, 49% male, 78% white, 13% African American, and 9% Hispanic, mean age, 46 years), screening followed by guideline-based treatment (using boceprevir as the direct-acting antiviral agent) of those with chronic HCV infection costs $47 276 per QALY. The overall HCV prevalence in the United States is reported to be 1.3%-1.9%, but prevalence varies markedly among patients with different numbers and types of risk factors. The marginal cost-effectiveness ratio (mCER) of screening decreases as prevalence increases. Below a prevalence of 0.84%, the mCER is greater than the generally accepted societal willingness-to-pay threshold of $50 000 per QALY and thus is not considered highly cost-effective. CONCLUSIONS: Targeted screening is cost-effective when prevalence of HCV exceeds 0.84%. Prospective evaluation of a screening tool is warranted and should include comparisons with other screening strategies.

Eckman MH; Talal AH; Gordon SC; Schiff E; Sherman KE

2013-05-01

188

Levelised unit electricity cost comparison of alternate technologies for baseload generation in Ontario  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report provides a comparison of the lifetime cost of constructing, operating and decommissioning new generation suitable for supplying baseload power by early in the next decade. New baseload generation options in Ontario are nuclear, coal-fired steam turbines or combined cycle gas turbines (CCGT). Nuclear and coal-fired units are characterised by high capital costs and low operating costs. As such, they are candidates for baseload operation only. Gas-fired generation is characterised by lower capital costs and higher operating costs and thus may meet the requirements for operation as peaking and/or baseload generation. The comparison of baseload generating technologies is made by reference to the estimated levelised unit electricity cost (LUEC). The LUEC can be thought of as a 'supply cost', where the unit cost is the price needed to recover all costs over the period. It is determined by finding the price that sets the sum of all future discounted cash flows (net present value, or NPV) to zero. It can also be thought of as representing the constant real wholesale price of electricity that meets the financing cost, debt repayment, income tax and cash flow constraints associated with the construction operation and decommissioning of a generating plant. Levelised unit cost comparisons are usually made with different sets of financing assumptions. This report considers two base cases, which we describe as 'merchant' and 'public' financing. The term 'merchant plant' is used to refer to ones that are built and operated by private investors. These investors pay for their capital through debt and by raising equity, and thus pay return on equity and interest on debt throughout their lifetime. These projects include income taxes, both provincial and federal. Publicly financed projects typically are not subject to income taxes or to the same constraints on raising finance through issuing debt and equity. However, they are constrained to provide a rate of return. The rate of return required for projects is subject to some uncertainty. For a merchant project the higher the perceived risk the higher the required return. Publicly financed projects may be evaluated on the basis of a given discount rate or may be able to access funds at lower rates, but the risk of cost overruns is implicitly borne by the taxpayer. There is a third possibility, a public/private partnership. A number of partnership arrangements are possible, for example, public financing of construction and leasing to private owners for operation. All partnership arrangements represent a sharing of risk between the public and private sector. Public/private partnership may provide an attractive model for building new generation in Ontario. This report considers each of the generation options under both merchant and public financing. The base case merchant financing scenario is consistent with one where risk is relatively low, and consequently the real return on equity required by private investors is 12%. We believe a comparison between merchant and public financing to be important in that it shows the effect of taxes and financing assumptions on the economics of a generation project. Since the pure economic assessment of projects does not normally consider financing or tax costs, these being transfer payments not essential to the project itself, the public financing version of our assessments can be interpreted as the underlying economics of different technologies. This report does not include a detailed modelling of financing arrangements that could occur under a public/private partnership. However, we do consider how the cost of generation options compares under a wide range of illustrative assumptions on the required return on equity, debt and the debt/equity ratio. (author)

2004-01-01

189

Levelised unit electricity cost comparison of alternate technologies for baseload generation in Ontario  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report provides a comparison of the lifetime cost of constructing, operating and decommissioning new generation suitable for supplying baseload power by early in the next decade. New baseload generation options in Ontario are nuclear, coal-fired steam turbines or combined cycle gas turbines (CCGT). Nuclear and coal-fired units are characterised by high capital costs and low operating costs. As such, they are candidates for baseload operation only. Gas-fired generation is characterised by lower capital costs and higher operating costs and thus may meet the requirements for operation as peaking and/or baseload generation. The comparison of baseload generating technologies is made by reference to the estimated levelised unit electricity cost (LUEC). The LUEC can be thought of as a 'supply cost', where the unit cost is the price needed to recover all costs over the period. It is determined by finding the price that sets the sum of all future discounted cash flows (net present value, or NPV) to zero. It can also be thought of as representing the constant real wholesale price of electricity that meets the financing cost, debt repayment, income tax and cash flow constraints associated with the construction operation and decommissioning of a generating plant. Levelised unit cost comparisons are usually made with different sets of financing assumptions. This report considers two base cases, which we describe as 'merchant' and 'public' financing. The term 'merchant plant' is used to refer to ones that are built and operated by private investors. These investors pay for their capital through debt and by raising equity, and thus pay return on equity and interest on debt throughout their lifetime. These projects include income taxes, both provincial and federal. Publicly financed projects typically are not subject to income taxes or to the same constraints on raising finance through issuing debt and equity. However, they are constrained to provide a rate of return. The rate of return required for projects is subject to some uncertainty. For a merchant project the higher the perceived risk the higher the required return. Publicly financed projects may be evaluated on the basis of a given discount rate or may be able to access funds at lower rates, but the risk of cost overruns is implicitly borne by the taxpayer. There is a third possibility, a public/private partnership. A number of partnership arrangements are possible, for example, public financing of construction and leasing to private owners for operation. All partnership arrangements represent a sharing of risk between the public and private sector. Public/private partnership may provide an attractive model for building new generation in Ontario. This report considers each of the generation options under both merchant and public financing. The base case merchant financing scenario is consistent with one where risk is relatively low, and consequently the real return on equity required by private investors is 12%. We believe a comparison between merchant and public financing to be important in that it shows the effect of taxes and financing assumptions on the economics of a generation project. Since the pure economic assessment of projects does not normally consider financing or tax costs, these being transfer payments not essential to the project itself, the public financing version of our assessments can be interpreted as the underlying economics of different technologies. This report does not include a detailed modelling of financing arrangements that could occur under a public/private partnership. However, we do consider how the cost of generation options compares under a wide range of illustrative assumptions on the required return on equity, debt and the debt/equity ratio. (author)

Ayres, M.; McRae, M.; Stogran, M.

2004-08-15

190

Mobile dental units: leasing or buying? A dollar-cost analysis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: The decision to acquire a mobile dental unit is based on a standard capital budgeting analysis. The next step is to determine whether to obtain the use of the mobile dental unit by borrowing and purchasing or by leasing. As a financing mechanism, leases are simply another way of borrowing money to pay for the asset. OBJECTIVE: To compare lease vs. debt as financial vehicles to acquiring a mobile dental unit. METHODS: An estimate for a new mobile unit was obtained. Lease and loan proposals from financial lenders were collected. A cost of capital rate was chosen for comparison. Cash flows associated with borrowing and leasing vs. buying were determined fortwo different scenarios: for profit (FP) vs. not-for-profit (NFP), at 5 years. A dollar-cost analysis was utilized to determine the option with the lowest capitalized value. RESULTS: There was a net advantage to buying vs. leasing for both for FP and NFP organizations. Due to tax advantages, owning and leasing were substantially less expensive for FP than for NFP. Slight decreases in the monthly lease payments would make leasing competitive to the buying approach. CONCLUSION: Exploring alternative financing vehicles may allow dental programs to expand their services through the acquisition of a mobile unit. Though programs generally own assets, it is the use of the asset which is important rather than the ownership. Dental programs can find leasing an attractive alternative by offering access to capital with cash-flow advantages.

Arevalo O; Saman DM; Bonaime A; Skelton J

2010-01-01

191

Cost-effective GPU-grid for genome-wide epistasis calculations.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Until recently, genotype studies were limited to the investigation of single SNP effects due to the computational burden incurred when studying pairwise interactions of SNPs. However, some genetic effects as simple as coloring (in plants and animals) cannot be ascribed to a single locus but only understood when epistasis is taken into account [1]. It is expected that such effects are also found in complex diseases where many genes contribute to the clinical outcome of affected individuals. Only recently have such problems become feasible computationally. OBJECTIVES: The inherently parallel structure of the problem makes it a perfect candidate for massive parallelization on either grid or cloud architectures. Since we are also dealing with confidential patient data, we were not able to consider a cloud-based solution but had to find a way to process the data in-house and aimed to build a local GPU-based grid structure. METHODS: Sequential epistatsis calculations were ported to GPU using CUDA at various levels. Parallelization on the CPU was compared to corresponding GPU counterparts with regards to performance and cost. RESULTS: A cost-effective solution was created by combining custom-built nodes equipped with relatively inexpensive consumer-level graphics cards with highly parallel GPUs in a local grid. The GPU method outperforms current cluster-based systems on a price/performance criterion, as a single GPU shows speed performance comparable up to 200 CPU cores. CONCLUSION: The outlined approach will work for problems that easily lend themselves to massive parallelization. Code for various tasks has been made available and ongoing development of tools will further ease the transition from sequential to parallel algorithms.

Pütz B; Kam-Thong T; Karbalai N; Altmann A; Müller-Myhsok B

2013-01-01

192

Health-resource use and costs associated with fibromyalgia in France, Germany, and the United States  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Tyler Knight,1 Caroline Schaefer,1 Arthi Chandran,2 Gergana Zlateva,2 Andreas Winkelmann,3 Serge Perrot4 1Health Economics and Outcomes Research, Covance Market Access Services, Gaithersburg, MD, USA; 2Primary Care Health Economics and Outcomes Research, Pfizer Global Health Economics, New York, NY, USA; 3Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University Hospital Munich, Munich, Germany; 4Service de Médecine Interne et Thérapeutique, Université Paris Descartes, Paris, France Background: Fibromyalgia (FM) is a chronic disorder characterized by widespread, persistent pain. Prospective and retrospective studies have demonstrated substantial health-care costs associated with FM in a number of countries. This study evaluated and compared health-resource use (HRU) and associated costs related to FM in routine clinical practice across the US, France, and Germany. Methods: Two separate, cross-sectional, observational studies of subjects with FM were conducted: one in the US and one in France and Germany. HRU related to prescription medication, physician office visits, diagnostic tests, and hospitalizations was abstracted from chart review; patient out-of-pocket costs and lost productivity were collected via subject self-report. Costs were assigned to HRU based on standard algorithms. Direct and indirect costs were evaluated and compared by simple linear regression. Results: A total of 442 subjects (203 US, 70 France, 169 Germany) with FM were analyzed. The mean (standard deviation) age in the US, France, and Germany was 47.9 (10.9), 51.2 (9.5), and 49.2 (9.8), respectively (P = 0.085). Most subjects were female (95% US, 83% France, 80% Germany) (P < 0.001). Adjusted annual direct costs per subject for FM were significantly higher in the US ($7087) than in France ($481, P < 0.001) or Germany ($2417, P < 0.001). Adjusted mean annual indirect costs per subject for FM were lower in the US ($6431) than in France ($8718) or Germany ($10,001), but represented a significant proportion of total costs in all countries. Conclusion: The significant HRU and costs associated with FM in the US, France, and Germany documented in this study highlight the substantial global economic burden of FM. Indirect costs represented a significant proportion of the total costs, particularly in Europe. Comparisons between the three countries show differences in HRU, with significantly higher direct costs in the US compared with France and Germany. Keywords: fibromyalgia, cost, burden of illness, United States, France, Germany

Knight T; Schaefer C; Chandran A; Zlateva G; Winkelmann A; Perrot S

2013-01-01

193

Estimating the unit costs of public hospitals and primary healthcare centers.  

Science.gov (United States)

BACKGROUND: Many factors have affected the rise of health expenditures, such as high-cost medical technologies, changes in disease patterns and increasing demand for health services. All countries allocate a significant portion of resources to the health sector. In 2008, the gross domestic product of Palestine was estimated to be at $6.108bn (current price) or about $1697 per capita. Health expenditures are estimated at 15.6% of the gross domestic product, almost as much as those of Germany, Japan and other developed countries. The numbers of hospitals, hospital beds and primary healthcare centers in the country have all increased. The Ministry of Health (MOH) currently operates 27 of 76 hospitals, with a total of 3074 beds, which represent 61% of total beds of all hospitals in the Palestinian Authorities area. Also, the MOH is operating 453 of 706 Primary Health Care facilities. By 2007, about 40?000 people were employed in different sectors of the health system, with 33% employed by the MOH. AIM: This purpose of this study was to develop a financing strategy to help cover some or all of the costs involved in operating such institutions and to estimate the unit cost of primary and secondary programs and departments. METHODS: A retrospective study was carried out on data from government hospitals and primary healthcare centers to identify and analyze the costs and output (patient-related services) and to estimate the unit cost of health services provided by hospitals and PHCs during the year 2008. All operating costs are assigned and allocated to the departments at MOH hospitals and primary health care centers (PPHCs) and are identified as overhead departments, intermediate-service and final-service departments. Intermediate-service departments provide procedures and services to patients in the final-service departments. The costs of the overhead departments are distributed to the intermediate-service and final-service departments through a step-down method, according to allocation criteria devised to resemble as closely as possible the actual use of resources by each of the departments. The data were analyzed using spss. Data cleaning was carried out by cross-validating the results through conducting cross-tabulations between the hospital/center and section/program to identify errors from the data collection or entry process. Depreciation of assets and the consumption of capital costs are ignored in this study, as it is difficult to evaluate the MOH facilities owing to a lack of recording of depreciation of assets or other costs of servicing capital assets. RESULTS: Inpatient costs contributed about 75% of all costs, whereas outpatient services contributed the remaining 25% of total costs. The average cost per visit was $13.00 for outpatient departments, whereas the average cost per patient day for inpatient departments was $90.00. As for the unit cost for each department, intensive care unit and intermediate care unit services were the highest among all categories of daily hospital services ($208.00). This is in contrast to surgical operations ($124.00), specialized surgeries ($106.00), delivery department ($99.00), orthopedics ($98.50) and general surgery ($85.00). The lowest unit cost was found in the neonatology department ($72.00). In PHCs, the unit cost per visit was highest for psychiatry programs ($26.00), followed by other programs ($21.50), chronic diseases ($21.00), maternal and child health ($11.50), preventive programs ($9.00) and general medicine ($6.50). The exchange rate listed by The Wall Street Journal as of Wednesday August 25, 2010 is 1 US dollar?=?3.82 new Israeli shekel (NIS). CONCLUSION: The findings have implications for policy and decision making in the health sector in Palestine concerning the cost of services provided by hospitals and PHCs. The availability of a standardized data set for cost assessment would greatly enhance and improve the quality of financial information as well as efficiency in the use of scarce resources. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:23125096

Younis, Mustafa Z; Jaber, Samer; Mawson, Anthony R; Hartmann, Michael

2012-11-01

194

Estimating the unit costs of public hospitals and primary healthcare centers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Many factors have affected the rise of health expenditures, such as high-cost medical technologies, changes in disease patterns and increasing demand for health services. All countries allocate a significant portion of resources to the health sector. In 2008, the gross domestic product of Palestine was estimated to be at $6.108bn (current price) or about $1697 per capita. Health expenditures are estimated at 15.6% of the gross domestic product, almost as much as those of Germany, Japan and other developed countries. The numbers of hospitals, hospital beds and primary healthcare centers in the country have all increased. The Ministry of Health (MOH) currently operates 27 of 76 hospitals, with a total of 3074 beds, which represent 61% of total beds of all hospitals in the Palestinian Authorities area. Also, the MOH is operating 453 of 706 Primary Health Care facilities. By 2007, about 40?000 people were employed in different sectors of the health system, with 33% employed by the MOH. AIM: This purpose of this study was to develop a financing strategy to help cover some or all of the costs involved in operating such institutions and to estimate the unit cost of primary and secondary programs and departments. METHODS: A retrospective study was carried out on data from government hospitals and primary healthcare centers to identify and analyze the costs and output (patient-related services) and to estimate the unit cost of health services provided by hospitals and PHCs during the year 2008. All operating costs are assigned and allocated to the departments at MOH hospitals and primary health care centers (PPHCs) and are identified as overhead departments, intermediate-service and final-service departments. Intermediate-service departments provide procedures and services to patients in the final-service departments. The costs of the overhead departments are distributed to the intermediate-service and final-service departments through a step-down method, according to allocation criteria devised to resemble as closely as possible the actual use of resources by each of the departments. The data were analyzed using spss. Data cleaning was carried out by cross-validating the results through conducting cross-tabulations between the hospital/center and section/program to identify errors from the data collection or entry process. Depreciation of assets and the consumption of capital costs are ignored in this study, as it is difficult to evaluate the MOH facilities owing to a lack of recording of depreciation of assets or other costs of servicing capital assets. RESULTS: Inpatient costs contributed about 75% of all costs, whereas outpatient services contributed the remaining 25% of total costs. The average cost per visit was $13.00 for outpatient departments, whereas the average cost per patient day for inpatient departments was $90.00. As for the unit cost for each department, intensive care unit and intermediate care unit services were the highest among all categories of daily hospital services ($208.00). This is in contrast to surgical operations ($124.00), specialized surgeries ($106.00), delivery department ($99.00), orthopedics ($98.50) and general surgery ($85.00). The lowest unit cost was found in the neonatology department ($72.00). In PHCs, the unit cost per visit was highest for psychiatry programs ($26.00), followed by other programs ($21.50), chronic diseases ($21.00), maternal and child health ($11.50), preventive programs ($9.00) and general medicine ($6.50). The exchange rate listed by The Wall Street Journal as of Wednesday August 25, 2010 is 1 US dollar?=?3.82 new Israeli shekel (NIS). CONCLUSION: The findings have implications for policy and decision making in the health sector in Palestine concerning the cost of services provided by hospitals and PHCs. The availability of a standardized data set for cost assessment would greatly enhance and improve the quality of financial information as well as efficiency in the use of scarce resources. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Younis MZ; Jaber S; Mawson AR; Hartmann M

2012-11-01

195

ERISA, agency costs, and the future of health care in the United States.  

Science.gov (United States)

Because so many Americans receive health insurance through their employers, the Employee Retirement Income Security Act (ERISA) of 1974 plays a dominant role in the delivery of health care in the United States. The ERISA system enables employers and insurers to save money by providing inadequate health care to employees, thereby creating incentives for these agents to act contrary to the interests of their principals. Such agency costs play a significant role in the current health care crisis and require attention when considering reform. We evaluate the two major health care reform movements by exploring the extent to which each reduces agency costs. We find that agency cost analysis clarifies the benefits, limits, and uncertainties of each approach. PMID:18524070

Bronsteen, John; Maher, Brendan S; Stris, Peter K

2008-04-01

196

ERISA, agency costs, and the future of health care in the United States.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Because so many Americans receive health insurance through their employers, the Employee Retirement Income Security Act (ERISA) of 1974 plays a dominant role in the delivery of health care in the United States. The ERISA system enables employers and insurers to save money by providing inadequate health care to employees, thereby creating incentives for these agents to act contrary to the interests of their principals. Such agency costs play a significant role in the current health care crisis and require attention when considering reform. We evaluate the two major health care reform movements by exploring the extent to which each reduces agency costs. We find that agency cost analysis clarifies the benefits, limits, and uncertainties of each approach.

Bronsteen J; Maher BS; Stris PK

2008-04-01

197

COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS OF A SINGLE UNIT SYSTEM WITH SCHEDULED MAINTENANCE AND VARIATION IN DEMAND  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present paper analyses the reliability and cost-benefit for a single unit system with scheduled maintenance and variation in demand. As Change in demand affects the production of system also, hence sometimes, the system needs to be shut down when the number of produces are in excess as compared to those demanded. Revenue in case of both types of up states i.e., when demand is greater than or equal to production and when demand is less than production have also been taken under consideration while carrying out the cost-benefit analysis. The loss incurred to the system when it is kept shut down due to less demand has also been taken into account. Optimized reliability indices of the system effectiveness are estimated numerically using semi-Markov processes and regenerative point technique. Expression for the expected profit is obtained after obtaining various measures of system effectiveness. We can conclude that cut off points for various rates/probabilities/revenue per unit up time/costs can be obtained which help in deciding the upper/lower acceptable values of rates/costs so that the system is profitable.

Gulshan Taneja; Reetu Malhotra

2013-01-01

198

Spend Less, Get More? Using Low-Cost Accelerometers to Calculate Building Responses  

Science.gov (United States)

We present a new technique for predicting the earthquake responses of various structures, and we demonstrate its effectiveness by applying the method to several buildings, including several newly instrumented buildings around the Stanford University campus. While the use of ambient noise recordings to determine structural qualities of buildings is not new, our technique produces robust results that are independent of the noise sources. The process of averaging 10-minute inter-station transfer functions for a long duration (approximately 14 days) generates robust building responses comparable to those generated with earthquake data. The method allows us to employ large volumes of data recorded from low-gain accelerometers such as those currently used by the Quake-Catcher Network. Furthermore, as we can obtain the phase information, we can Fourier transform the transfer functions into the time domain to calculate the Impulse Response Function (IRF). The IRF can then be used to approximate a building’s response to a moderate earthquake. Using small, inexpensive accelerometers means that there is the exciting potential of being able to perform minimally invasive campaign-style state-of-health monitoring for many buildings at low cost. The increased data volume will provide useful and dependable results for many structures, thereby improving our understanding of building responses.

Chung, A. I.; Lawrence, J. F.; Prieto, G.; Kohler, M. D.; Cochran, E. S.

2009-12-01

199

Development and implementation of a software for assessment of calculations in radiotherapy monitor units  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Objective: To develop and implement a software based on the manual calculation algorithm for verification of the calculations in radiotherapy monitor units and to establish acceptance levels as a mechanism of quality assurance. Materials and methods: Data were obtained from Clinac 600C and 2100C Varian linear accelerators and the computerized treatment planning system used was CadPlanTM. Results: For the 6 MV beams the acceptance levels for deviations among the calculations of monitor units, divided by treatment area, were the following: breast (0.0%±1.7%), head and neck (1.5%±0.5%), hypophysis (-1.7%±0.5%), pelvis (2.1%±2.1%) and thorax (0.2%±1.3%). For the 15 MV beams the suggested level for pelvis in all the treatment techniques was (3.2%±1.3%). Conclusion: The present data are sufficient to justify the use of the software in the clinical practice as a tool for the quality assurance program. (author)

2005-01-01

200

Probabilistic Simulation of Multiple Energy Storage Devices for Production Cost Calculations. Final Report.  

Science.gov (United States)

A computationally feasible probabilistic production cost model capable of evaluating the impact on the operating cost of an electric utility of multiple energy storage technologies such as pumped-storage hydroelectric, storage batteries, cryogenic storage...

B. Manhire

1980-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

A load flow based method for calculating embedded, incremental and marginal cost of transmission capacity  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes the principles of a load flow based method for allocating the cost of transmission capacity. The method estimates the usage of each transmission facility with cost defined on a per facility basis. Embedded, incremental and marginal cost of transmission capacity are defined and compared to each other. A discussion of other load flow based methods and their application to marginal cost is included.

Kovacs, R.R.; Leverett, A.L. (Southern Co. Services, Inc., Birmingham, AL (United States))

1994-02-01

202

International differences in health care costs in Europe and the United States: Do these affect the cost-effectiveness of diagnostic strategies for pulmonary embolism?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this study was to assess whether potential differences in costs for diagnostic procedures and treatment of pulmonary embolism (PE) among European and U. S. hospitals alter the optimal cost-effective diagnostic strategy for PE. A standardized questionnaire was used to obtain cost data for the diagnosis and treatment of PE in participating European and U. S. hospitals. Costs for diagnostic tests and treatment of PE were then calculated in a standardized manner for all participating hospitals, from the hospital perspective. Costs were used in an existing cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) model to determine the most cost-effective diagnostic strategy in participating hospitals. There were considerable differences in costs for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures for PE among the participating centers. These differences, however, did not affect the most cost-effective strategy based on incremental cost-effectiveness. In all hospitals the most cost-effective strategy appeared to be ultrasound followed by helical CT. International differences in cost of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures certainly exist and should be considered before applying a published CEA. Nevertheless, despite these cost differences, the diagnostic strategy for PE of ultrasound followed by helical CT appears most cost-effective. (orig.)

1999-01-01

203

Calculations of the radiological impact of disposal of unit activity of selected radionuclides  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of the work described is to provide estimates of the radiological impact following disposal of unit activity via each of several options, including disposal on the deep ocean bed, shallow burial, engineered trench disposal, disposal in a geologic repository and disposal in off-shore boreholes. Results are presented for a range of important representative radionuclides. In the course of the calculations it was necessary to make a number of simplifying assumptions. The implications of these are discussed in the context of use of the results for comparative assessments of waste management options. (author)

1985-01-01

204

A Monte Carlo-based procedure for independent monitor unit calculation in IMRT treatment plans.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) treatment plan verification by comparison with measured data requires having access to the linear accelerator and is time consuming. In this paper, we propose a method for monitor unit (MU) calculation and plan comparison for step and shoot IMRT based on the Monte Carlo code EGSnrc/BEAMnrc. The beamlets of an IMRT treatment plan are individually simulated using Monte Carlo and converted into absorbed dose to water per MU. The dose of the whole treatment can be expressed through a linear matrix equation of the MU and dose per MU of every beamlet. Due to the positivity of the absorbed dose and MU values, this equation is solved for the MU values using a non-negative least-squares fit optimization algorithm (NNLS). The Monte Carlo plan is formed by multiplying the Monte Carlo absorbed dose to water per MU with the Monte Carlo/NNLS MU. Several treatment plan localizations calculated with a commercial treatment planning system (TPS) are compared with the proposed method for validation. The Monte Carlo/NNLS MUs are close to the ones calculated by the TPS and lead to a treatment dose distribution which is clinically equivalent to the one calculated by the TPS. This procedure can be used as an IMRT QA and further development could allow this technique to be used for other radiotherapy techniques like tomotherapy or volumetric modulated arc therapy.

Pisaturo O; Moeckli R; Mirimanoff RO; Bochud FO

2009-07-01

205

A Monte Carlo-based procedure for independent monitor unit calculation in IMRT treatment plans  

Science.gov (United States)

Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) treatment plan verification by comparison with measured data requires having access to the linear accelerator and is time consuming. In this paper, we propose a method for monitor unit (MU) calculation and plan comparison for step and shoot IMRT based on the Monte Carlo code EGSnrc/BEAMnrc. The beamlets of an IMRT treatment plan are individually simulated using Monte Carlo and converted into absorbed dose to water per MU. The dose of the whole treatment can be expressed through a linear matrix equation of the MU and dose per MU of every beamlet. Due to the positivity of the absorbed dose and MU values, this equation is solved for the MU values using a non-negative least-squares fit optimization algorithm (NNLS). The Monte Carlo plan is formed by multiplying the Monte Carlo absorbed dose to water per MU with the Monte Carlo/NNLS MU. Several treatment plan localizations calculated with a commercial treatment planning system (TPS) are compared with the proposed method for validation. The Monte Carlo/NNLS MUs are close to the ones calculated by the TPS and lead to a treatment dose distribution which is clinically equivalent to the one calculated by the TPS. This procedure can be used as an IMRT QA and further development could allow this technique to be used for other radiotherapy techniques like tomotherapy or volumetric modulated arc therapy.

Pisaturo, O.; Moeckli, R.; Mirimanoff, R.-O.; Bochud, F. O.

2009-07-01

206

A Monte Carlo-based procedure for independent monitor unit calculation in IMRT treatment plans  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) treatment plan verification by comparison with measured data requires having access to the linear accelerator and is time consuming. In this paper, we propose a method for monitor unit (MU) calculation and plan comparison for step and shoot IMRT based on the Monte Carlo code EGSnrc/BEAMnrc. The beamlets of an IMRT treatment plan are individually simulated using Monte Carlo and converted into absorbed dose to water per MU. The dose of the whole treatment can be expressed through a linear matrix equation of the MU and dose per MU of every beamlet. Due to the positivity of the absorbed dose and MU values, this equation is solved for the MU values using a non-negative least-squares fit optimization algorithm (NNLS). The Monte Carlo plan is formed by multiplying the Monte Carlo absorbed dose to water per MU with the Monte Carlo/NNLS MU. Several treatment plan localizations calculated with a commercial treatment planning system (TPS) are compared with the proposed method for validation. The Monte Carlo/NNLS MUs are close to the ones calculated by the TPS and lead to a treatment dose distribution which is clinically equivalent to the one calculated by the TPS. This procedure can be used as an IMRT QA and further development could allow this technique to be used for other radiotherapy techniques like tomotherapy or volumetric modulated arc therapy.

Pisaturo, O; Moeckli, R; Bochud, F O [University Institute for Radiation Physics, CHUV and University of Lausanne, Grand-Pre 1, CH-1007 Lausanne (Switzerland); Mirimanoff, R-O [Radio-oncology Department, CHUV and University of Lausanne, Bugnon 21, CH-1011 Lausanne (Switzerland)], E-mail: olivier.pisaturo@chuv.ch

2009-07-07

207

A Monte Carlo-based procedure for independent monitor unit calculation in IMRT treatment plans.  

Science.gov (United States)

Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) treatment plan verification by comparison with measured data requires having access to the linear accelerator and is time consuming. In this paper, we propose a method for monitor unit (MU) calculation and plan comparison for step and shoot IMRT based on the Monte Carlo code EGSnrc/BEAMnrc. The beamlets of an IMRT treatment plan are individually simulated using Monte Carlo and converted into absorbed dose to water per MU. The dose of the whole treatment can be expressed through a linear matrix equation of the MU and dose per MU of every beamlet. Due to the positivity of the absorbed dose and MU values, this equation is solved for the MU values using a non-negative least-squares fit optimization algorithm (NNLS). The Monte Carlo plan is formed by multiplying the Monte Carlo absorbed dose to water per MU with the Monte Carlo/NNLS MU. Several treatment plan localizations calculated with a commercial treatment planning system (TPS) are compared with the proposed method for validation. The Monte Carlo/NNLS MUs are close to the ones calculated by the TPS and lead to a treatment dose distribution which is clinically equivalent to the one calculated by the TPS. This procedure can be used as an IMRT QA and further development could allow this technique to be used for other radiotherapy techniques like tomotherapy or volumetric modulated arc therapy. PMID:19531844

Pisaturo, O; Moeckli, R; Mirimanoff, R-O; Bochud, F O

2009-06-17

208

MARCH calculations performed for the TMI-2 [Three Mile Island Unit] analysis exercise program  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As part of the validation effort for the MARCH portion of the Source Term Code Package, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission has requested Battelle Columbus to participate in the Three Mile Island Unit (TMI-2) Analysis Exercise Program. Previous TMI-2 calculations (1980) had been performed using the original MARCH 1.1 version of the code. MARCH was written to calculate thermal-hydraulic phenomena for reactor accidents leading to core meltdown. The accident sequences normally considered by MARCH users are relatively uncomplicated. For example, multiple changes in emergency core cooling injection, steam generator auxiliary feedwater flow rates, and cycling of primary system steam relief valves are not generally considered in severe-accident analysis. All of these things were done during the TMI-2 accident. In addition, at TMI-2 the core meltdown sequence was interrupted by the restoration of core cooling after achieving significant melting. In order to perform meaningful TMI-2 calculations, it has been found necessary to add a number of modeling enhancements to MARCH. These modeling changes are discussed along with the results of the TMI-2 MARCH calculations in this paper

1988-11-04

209

A dedicated cardioversion unit for the treatment of atrial fibrillation. Reducing costs by optimizing processes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most frequent arrhythmia seen in man. Many patients are admitted to the hospital to undergo transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) for thrombus exclusion and subsequent electrical cardioversion (ECV) under deep sedation to restore sinus rhythm. The present study investigated prospectively how workflow optimization can contribute to reducing time and costs in AF patients scheduled for ECV in an outpatient setting. METHODS: A cardioversion unit (CU) was established and equipped to perform all ECV-associated procedures. Between November 2007 and January 2009, ECV was performed in 115 patients in an outpatient setting. Three different settings were tested for ECV: (1) usual care (n?=?19): preparation/follow-up in the outpatient clinic, blood testing in the central hospital laboratory (CHL), TEE in the echocardiography laboratory, and ECV in the intensive care unit; (2) optimized process 1 (n?=?41): preparation/follow-up, TEE?+?ECV during one sedation in the CU, blood testing in the CHL; (3) optimized process 2 (n?=?55): preparation/follow-up, TEE?+?ECV and point of care (POC) blood testing in the CU. All procedure-related costs were listed and classified according to material, human resources, and infrastructure. RESULTS: From setting 1 to 3, there was a significant decrease in procedural time from 480?±?105 min to 205?±?85 min (p?costs could be reduced from 683?±?104  to 299?±?63  (p?costs. A combination of TEE and ECV in one sedation and POC testing in the CU were the major contributors to this time and cost reduction.

Knackstedt C; Becker M; Mischke K; Pauling R; Brunner-La Rocca HP; Schauerte P

2012-08-01

210

Direct costs of opioid abuse in an insured population in the United States.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To (a) describe the demographics of opioid abusers; (b) compare the prevalence rates of selected comorbidities and the medical and drug utilization patterns of opioid abusers with patients from a control group, for the period from 1998 to 2002; and (c) calculate the mean annual per-patient total health care costs (e.g., inpatient, outpatient, emergency room, drug, other) from the perspective of a private payer. METHODS: An administrative database of medical and pharmacy claims from 1998 to 2002 of 16 self-insured employer health plans with approximately 2 million lives was used to identify "opioid abusers"--patients with claims associated with ICD-9-CM (International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification) codes for opioid abuse (304.0, 304.7, 305.5, and 965.0 [excluding 965.01]). A control group of nonabusers was selected using a matched sample (by age, gender, employment status, and census region) in a 3:1 ratio. Per-patient annual health care costs (mean total medical and drug costs) were measured in 2003 U.S. dollars. Multivariate regression techniques were also used to control for comorbidities and to compare costs with a benchmark of depressed patients. RESULTS: 740 patients were identified as opioid abusers, a prevalence of 8 in 10,000 persons aged 12 to 64 years continuously enrolled in health care plans for whom 12 months of data were available for calculating costs. Opioid abusers, compared with nonabusers, had significantly higher prevalence rates for a number of specific comorbidities, including nonopioid poisoning, hepatitis (A, B, or C), psychiatric illnesses, and pancreatitis, which were approximately 78, 36, 9, and 21 (P<0.01) times higher, respectively, compared with nonabusers. Opioid abusers also had higher levels of medical and prescription drug utilization. Almost 60% of opioid abusers had prescription drug claims for opioids compared with approximately 20% for nonabusers. Prevalence rates for hospital inpatient visits for opioid abusers were more than 12 times higher compared with nonabusers (P<0.01). Mean annual direct health care costs for opioid abusers were more than 8 times higher than for nonabusers ($15,884 versus $1,830, respectively, P < 0.01). Hospital inpatient and physician-outpatient costs accounted for 46% ($7,239) and 31% ($5,000) of opioid abusers. health care costs, compared with 17% ($310) and 50% ($906), respectively, for nonabusers. Mean drug costs for opioid abusers were more than 5 times higher than costs for nonabusers ($2,034 vs. $386, respectively, P<0.01), driven by higher drug utilization (including opioids) for opioid abusers. Even when controlling for comorbidities using a multivariate regression model of a matched control of depressed patients, the average health care costs of opioid abusers were 1.8 times higher than the average health care costs of depressed patients. CONCLUSION: The high costs of opioid abuse were driven primarily by high prevalence rates of costly comorbidites and high utilization rates of medical services and prescription drugs.

White AG; Birnbaum HG; Mareva MN; Daher M; Vallow S; Schein J; Katz N

2005-07-01

211

Weather data for simplified energy calculation methods. Volume II. Middle United States: TRY data  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of this report is to provide a source of weather data for direct use with a number of simplified energy calculation methods available today. Complete weather data for a number of cities in the United States are provided for use in the following methods: degree hour, modified degree hour, bin, modified bin, and variable degree day. This report contains sets of weather data for 22 cities in the continental United States using Test Reference Year (TRY) source weather data. The weather data at each city has been summarized in a number of ways to provide differing levels of detail necessary for alternative simplified energy calculation methods. Weather variables summarized include dry bulb and wet bulb temperature, percent relative humidity, humidity ratio, wind speed, percent possible sunshine, percent diffuse solar radiation, total solar radiation on horizontal and vertical surfaces, and solar heat gain through standard DSA glass. Monthly and annual summaries, in some cases by time of day, are available. These summaries are produced in a series of nine computer generated tables.

Olsen, A.R.; Moreno, S.; Deringer, J.; Watson, C.R.

1984-08-01

212

Weather data for simplified energy calculation methods. Volume III. Western United States: TRY data  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective is to provide a source of weather data for direct use with a number of simplified energy calculation methods available today. Complete weather data for a number of cities in the United States are provided for use in the following methods: degree hour, modified degree hour, bin, modified bin, and variable degree day. This report contains sets of weather data for 24 cities in the continental United States using Test Reference Year (TRY) source weather data. The weather data at each city has been summarized in a number of ways to provide differing levels of detail necessary for alternative simplified energy calculation methods. Weather variables summarized include dry bulb and wet bulb temperature, percent relative humidity, humidity ratio, wind speed, percent possible sunshine, percent diffuse solar radiation, total solar radiation on horizontal and vertical surfaces, and solar heat gain through standard DSA glass. Monthly and annual summaries, in some cases by time of day, are available. These summaries are produced in a series of nine computer generated tables.

Olsen, A.R.; Moreno, S.; Deringer, J.; Watson, C.R.

1984-08-01

213

CNSS plant concept, capital cost, and multi-unit station economics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

United Engineers and Constructors (UE and C) and the Babcock and Wilcox Company (B and W) have performed several studies over the last eight years related to small integral pressurized water reactors. These reactors include the 365 MWt (100 MWe) Consolidated Nuclear Steam Generator (CNSG) and the 1200 MWt Consolidated Nuclear Steam System (CNSS). The studies, mostly performed under contract to the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, have led to a 1250 MWt (400 MWe) Consolidated Nuclear Steam System (CNSS) plant concept, with unique design and cost features. This report contains an update of earlier studies of the CNSS reactor and balance-of-plant concept design, capital costs, and multi-unit plant economics incorporating recent design developments, improvements, and post-TMI-2 upgrades. The economic evaluation compares the total system economic impact of a phased, three stage 400 MWe CNSS implementation program, i.e., a three-unit station, to the installation of a single 1200 MWe Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) into a typical USA utility system.

1984-01-01

214

Impacts of renewable generation on fossil fuel unit cycling. Costs and emissions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Recently, wind and solar have become two of the fastest growing electricity generating technologies. As the penetration of wind and solar increases on the power system, conventional generation will be displaced. Because wind and solar are variable (output varies over different timescales) and uncertain (their output cannot be perfectly forecasted), their impact on the grid is complex and dependent on the specifics of each power system. Regional integration studies that simulate system operations have shown that ramping and on/off cycling of conventional generation tends to increase with wind and solar penetrations. Studies have demonstrated that cycling conventional generation leads to increased operation and maintenance costs due to thermal stresses on various parts. Several studies have also hypothesized that emissions reductions from variable generation (VG) such as wind and solar, will be smaller than expected due to the impacts of ramping and cycling of fossil-fueled power plants. As part of phase 2 of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS), we are studying the cost and emissions impact of cycling in high renewable penetration scenarios. We estimated the cost and emissions impacts of cycling and ramping fossil-fueled units using detailed operation and maintenance cost data and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Continuous Emissions Monitoring (CEM) data. We performed a re-analysis of the modeled dispatch of the Western U.S. electric power system from phase 1 of WWSIS. The new estimates for cycling cost and emissions were used to estimate the total system impacts of cycling. Scenarios with high and low renewable penetration were analyzed to estimate the impact of renewable generation on the cost and emissions impacts of cycling fossil-fueled generators. The results of this work show that the impacts of generator cycling and part-loading can be significant (e.g., for CC generators); however, these impacts are modest compared with the overall benefits of replacing fossil-fueled generation with variable renewable generation. (orig.)

Brinkman, G.; Lew, D. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kumar, N.; Lefton, S. [Intertek-APTECH, Sunnyvale, CA (United States); Venkataraman, S.; Jordan, G. [GE Energy, Schenectady, NY (United States)

2012-07-01

215

Economic costs of the foot and mouth disease outbreak in the United Kingdom in 2001.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The authors present estimates of the economic costs to agriculture and industries affected by tourism of the outbreak of foot and mouth disease (FMD) in the United Kingdom (UK) in 2001. The losses to agriculture and the food chain amount to about Pound Sterling3.1 billion. The majority of the costs to agriculture have been met by the Government through compensation for slaughter and disposal as well as clean-up costs. Nonetheless, agricultural producers will have suffered losses, estimated at Pound Sterling355 million, which represents about 20% of the estimated total income from farming in 2001. Based on data from surveys of tourism, businesses directly affected by tourist expenditure are estimated to have lost a similar total amount (between Pound Sterling2.7 and Pound Sterling3.2 billion) as a result of reduced numbers of people visiting the countryside. The industries which supply agriculture, the food industries and tourist-related businesses will also have suffered losses. However, the overall costs to the UK economy are substantially less than the sum of these components, as much of the expenditure by tourists was not lost, but merely displaced to other sectors of the economy. Overall, the net effect of FMD is estimated to have reduced the gross domestic product in the UK by less than 0.2% in 2001.

Thompson D; Muriel P; Russell D; Osborne P; Bromley A; Rowland M; Creigh-Tyte S; Brown C

2002-12-01

216

Admission clinicopathological data, length of stay, cost and mortality in an equine neonatal intensive care unit  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Veterinary internists need to prognosticate patients quickly and accurately in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). This may depend on laboratory data collected on admission, the cost of hospitalisation, length of stay (LOS) and mortality rate experienced in the NICU. Therefore, we conducted a retrospective study of 62 equine neonates admitted to a NICU of a private equine referral hospital to determine the prognostic value of venous clinicopathological data collected on admission before therapy, the cost of hospitalisation, LOS and mortality rate. The WBC count, total CO2 (TCO2) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were significantly higher (P < 0.05) and anion gap lower in survivors compared with nonsurvivors. A logistic regression model that included WBC count, hematocrit, albumin / globulin ratio, ALP, TCO2, potassium, sodium and lactate, was able to correctly predict mortality in 84 % of cases. Only anion gap proved to be an independent predictor of neonatal mortality in this study. In the study population, the overall mortality rate was 34 % with greatest mortality rates reported in the first 48 hours and again on day 6 of hospitalisation. Amongst the various clinical diagnoses, mortality was highest in foals after forced extraction during correction of dystocia. Median cost per day was higher for nonsurvivors while total cost was higher in survivors.

M.N. Saulez; B. Gummow; N.M. Slovis; T.D. Byars; M. Frazer; K. MacGillivray; F.T. Bain

2012-01-01

217

[Hospital costs of acute headaches in a Brazilian public emergency room unit  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Headache is one of the most frequent complain in the medical practice and a very common cause of medical assistance searching in emergency rooms, leading to considerable high costs. The headache cases assisted during the year of 1996 of an emergency room unit (UE - USP) at Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil, had been retrospectively studied. During that year a number of 1254 patients searched the UE - USP with major complain of acute headache, among which 64 needed hospitalization. The estimated costs due to consultation, investigation and clinical treatment of the acute headaches was in the order of R$ 138 573.31 (US$ 76 985.17). The expenses related only to laboratorial exams were R$ 23 801.54 (US$ 13 223.07). The surgical expenses were R$ 5 817.90 (US$ 3 232.17). The total cost was R$ 144 391.21 (US$ 80 217.34) which corresponds to R$ 115.14 (US$ 63.97) per patient. This calculus instigates an additional discussion about the costs and effectiveness of the current public health policy, where the financial resources are less abundant than the State dependant population's needs.

Bigal ME; Fernandes LC; Bordini CA; Speciali JG

2000-09-01

218

Weather data for simplified energy calculation methods. Volume IV. United States: WYEC data  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of this report is to provide a source of weather data for direct use with a number of simplified energy calculation methods available today. Complete weather data for a number of cities in the United States are provided for use in the following methods: degree hour, modified degree hour, bin, modified bin, and variable degree day. This report contains sets of weather data for 23 cities using Weather Year for Energy Calculations (WYEC) source weather data. Considerable overlap is present in cities (21) covered by both the TRY and WYEC data. The weather data at each city has been summarized in a number of ways to provide differing levels of detail necessary for alternative simplified energy calculation methods. Weather variables summarized include dry bulb and wet bulb temperature, percent relative humidity, humidity ratio, wind speed, percent possible sunshine, percent diffuse solar radiation, total solar radiation on horizontal and vertical surfaces, and solar heat gain through standard DSA glass. Monthly and annual summaries, in some cases by time of day, are available. These summaries are produced in a series of nine computer generated tables.

Olsen, A.R.; Moreno, S.; Deringer, J.; Watson, C.R.

1984-08-01

219

Initial Assessment of Parallelization of Monte Carlo Calculation using Graphics Processing Units  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Monte Carlo (MC) simulation is an effective tool for calculating neutron transports in complex geometry. However, because Monte Carlo simulates each neutron behavior one by one, it takes a very long computing time if enough neutrons are used for high precision of calculation. Accordingly, methods that reduce the computing time are required. In a Monte Carlo code, parallel calculation is well-suited since it simulates the behavior of each neutron independently and thus parallel computation is natural. The parallelization of the Monte Carlo codes, however, was done using multi CPUs. By the global demand for high quality 3D graphics, the Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) has developed into a highly parallel, multi-core processor. This parallel processing capability of GPUs can be available to engineering computing once a suitable interface is provided. Recently, NVIDIA introduced CUDATM, a general purpose parallel computing architecture. CUDA is a software environment that allows developers to manage GPU using C/C++ or other languages. In this work, a GPU-based Monte Carlo is developed and the initial assessment of it parallel performance is investigated.

Choi, Sung Hoon; Joo, Han Gyu [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2009-10-15

220

Comminution of logging residues with a tub grinder: Calculation of productivity and procurement cost of wood chips  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An experiment on comminution of logging residues with a tub grinder was carried out in order to calculate the productivity and procurement cost of wood chips. At the investigated site, the tub grinder had a hammer mill crusher at the bottom of the tub, and a grapple loaderand a bucket loader worked as auxiliary machines for the grinder. As a result, the productivity of the tub grinder was 60.0 loose m3/PMH0, and the total comminuting cost was calculated as 5.637 US$/m3, indicating that the comminuting cost of a large-sized crusher waslower than that of a small-sized chipper. The percentage of the cost of loaders, that of carrying in, installing, and carrying out the machines, and that of constructing a landing was 53% of the total comminuting cost. When a truck with the capacity of 40 m3 transported wood chips three times a day, the costs of comminution and transportation were71.2 US$/t (DM1), which is almost on a par with those of European countries in which the energy utilization of logging residues is making steady progress. As a result of the discussion about the balance between the processing capacity of the tub grinder and that of othermachines, it seemed reasonable for Japanese forestry to consider the use of one tub grinder at several logging sites.

Takuyuki Yoshioka; Rin Sakurai; Kazuhiro Aruga; Toshio Nitami; Hideo Sakai; Hiroshi Kobayashi

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Costos directos de la hemodiálisis en unidades públicas y privadas/ Direct cost analysis of hemodialysis units  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO. Estimar y comparar el costo por sesión de hemodiálisis dentro del sector público y privado en la Ciudad de México. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS. Se calcularon los costos de los insumos utilizados en las hemodiálisis de cuatro hospitales públicos y dos privados de la Ciudad de México, mediante la estrategia de micro-costeo denominada PAATI. Para la obtención de los datos se utilizó el método de sombra; además, se empleó Excel para elaborar cédulas en las que (more) se determina el PAATI para cada sesión. RESULTADOS. El costo anual promedio directo en el sector público por el tratamiento de un individuo en hemodiálisis es de $158 964.00 M. N., y el costo de atender a la población que podría demandar terapia de reemplazo renal se estima en $10 921 788 072.00 M. N. CONCLUSIÓN. La disponibilidad de recursos humanos e infraestructura en el país es muy limitada para el campo de la nefrología en general y, en particular, para ofrecer servicios de hemodiálisis, por lo que sería necesario inyectar más recursos para poder responder ante la demanda por insuficiencia renal terminal. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE. To estimate and compare direct costs per hemodialysis session in public and private units in Mexico City. MATERIAL AND METHODS. PAATI, a microcosting strategy, was used to determine total costs of four public and two private health hospitals in Mexico City. A "shadow study" approach was employed to collect the needed data. Charts containing the "PAATI" information for each session were developed in Microsoft Excel. RESULTS. The average annual cost per patient u (more) ndergoing hemodialysis in public units is $158 964.00 MX. The estimated cost for the care of all population estimated in need of renal replacement therapy (via hemodialysis) was estimated to be $10 921 788 072.00 MX. CONCLUSION. Human resources and infrastructure availability in México are very limited for nephrology, and in consequence for offering hemodialysis services.

Durán-Arenas, Luis; Ávila-Palomares, Paula D; Zendejas-Villanueva, Rodrigo; Vargas-Ruiz, María Magaly; Tirado-Gómez, Laura L; López-Cervantes, Malaquías

2011-01-01

222

Prevalence and Cost of Hospital Medical Errors in the General and Elderly United States Populations.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Abstract Objective: The primary objective of this study was to quantify the differences in the prevalence rate and costs of hospital medical errors between the general population and an elderly population aged ? 65 years. Methods: Methods from an actuarial study of medical errors were modified to identify medical errors in the Premier Hospital Database using data from 2009. Visits with more than 4 medical errors were removed from the population to avoid overestimation of cost. Prevalence rates were calculated based on the total number of inpatient visits. Results: There were 3,466,596 total inpatient visits in 2009. Of these, 1,230,836 (36%) occurred in people age ? 65. The prevalence rate was 49 medical errors per 1,000 inpatient visits in the general cohort and 79 medical errors per 1,000 inpatient visits for the elderly cohort. The top ten medical errors accounted for more than 80% of the total in the general cohort and the 65+ cohort. The most costly medical error for the general population was postoperative infection ($569,287,000) and pressure ulcers were most costly ($347,166,257) in the elderly population. Limitations: This study was conducted with a hospital administrative database, and assumptions were necessary to identify medical errors in the database. Further, there was no method to identify errors of omission or misdiagnoses within the database. Conclusions: This study indicates that prevalence of hospital medical errors for the elderly is greater than the general population and the associated cost of medical errors in the elderly population is quite substantial. Hospitals which further focus their attention on medical errors in the elderly population may see a significant reduction in costs due to medical errors as a disproportionate percentage of medical errors occur in this age group.

Mallow PJ; Pandya B; Horblyuk R; Kaplan HS

2013-09-01

223

Marketing techniques and cost calculations of radiation vulcanised natural rubber latex (RVNRL)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes how RVNRL is promoted to the latex based industries locally and abroad. RVNRL promotion requires patience and very challenging. This is a fact since the product is new to the market. Cost is important in deciding its market and potential usage. The elements that contribute to the cost is described in this paper. (Author)

2005-01-01

224

A methodology for calculating the levelized cost of electricity in nuclear power systems with fuel recycling  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] In this paper we show how the traditional definition of the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) can be extended to alternative nuclear fuel cycles in which elements of the fuel are recycled. In particular, we define the LCOE for a cycle with full actinide recycling in fast reactors in which elements of the fuel are reused an indefinite number of times. To our knowledge, ours is the first LCOE formula for this cycle. Others have approached the task of evaluating this cycle using an 'equilibrium cost' concept that is different from a levelized cost. We also show how the LCOE implies a unique price for the recycled elements. This price reflects the ultimate cost of waste disposal postponed through the recycling, as well as other costs in the cycle. We demonstrate the methodology by estimating the LCOE for three classic nuclear fuel cycles: (i) the traditional Once-Through Cycle, (ii) a Twice-Through Cycle, and (iii) a Fast Reactor Recycle. Given our chosen input parameters, we show that the 'equilibrium cost' is typically larger than the levelized cost, and we explain why.

2011-01-01

225

A methodology for calculating the levelized cost of electricity in nuclear power systems with fuel recycling  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper we show how the traditional definition of the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) can be extended to alternative nuclear fuel cycles in which elements of the fuel are recycled. In particular, we define the LCOE for a cycle with full actinide recycling in fast reactors in which elements of the fuel are reused an indefinite number of times. To our knowledge, ours is the first LCOE formula for this cycle. Others have approached the task of evaluating this cycle using an 'equilibrium cost' concept that is different from a levelized cost. We also show how the LCOE implies a unique price for the recycled elements. This price reflects the ultimate cost of waste disposal postponed through the recycling, as well as other costs in the cycle. We demonstrate the methodology by estimating the LCOE for three classic nuclear fuel cycles: (i) the traditional Once-Through Cycle, (ii) a Twice-Through Cycle, and (iii) a Fast Reactor Recycle. Given our chosen input parameters, we show that the 'equilibrium cost' is typically larger than the levelized cost, and we explain why.

De Roo, Guillaume, E-mail: guillaume.deroo@alum.mit.edu [MIT Technology and Policy Program, MIT Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, and the MIT Center for Energy and Environmental Policy Research, MIT, E19-411, 77 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Parsons, John E., E-mail: jparsons@mit.edu [MIT Sloan School of Management, MIT Center for Energy and Environmental Policy Research, and MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change, E19-411, 77 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

2011-09-15

226

Statin cost effectiveness in primary prevention: A systematic review of the recent cost-effectiveness literature in the United States  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The literature on the cost-effectiveness of statin drugs in primary prevention of coronary heart disease is complex. The objective of this study is to compare the disparate results of recent cost-effectiveness analyses of statins. Findings We conducted a systematic review of the literature on statin cost-effectiveness. The four studies that met inclusion criteria reported varying conclusions about the cost-effectiveness of statin treatment, without a clear consensus as to whether statins are cost-effective for primary prevention. However, after accounting for each study’s assumptions about statin costs, we found substantial agreement among the studies. Studies that assumed statins to be more expensive found them to be less cost-effective, and vice-versa. Furthermore, treatment of low-risk groups became cost-effective as statins became less expensive. Conclusions Drug price is the primary determinant of statin cost-effectiveness within a given risk group. As more statin drugs become generic, patients at low risk for coronary disease may be treated cost-effectively. Though many factors must be weighed in any medical decision, from a cost-effectiveness perspective, statins may now be considered an appropriate therapy for many patients at low risk for heart disease.

Mitchell Aaron P; Simpson Ross J

2012-01-01

227

A preliminary design and BOP cost analysis of M-C Power`s MCFC commerical unit  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

M-C Power Corporation plans to introduce its molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) market entry unit in the year 2000 for distributed and on-site power generation. Extensive efforts have been made to analyze the cell stack manufacturing costs. The major objective of this study is to conduct a detailed analysis of BOP costs based on an initial design of the market entry unit.

Chen, T.P. [Bechtel Corp, San Francisco, CA (United States)

1996-12-31

228

Guide for the calculation of the maximum permissible costs for shelters  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Among other things, this paper has the aim to define the scope which is reasonable for shelter costs as well as to inform about their real amount. Various assumptions have been made and examples have been given which seldom coincide with the specific facts. Thus, the possibility of how to find solutions which are precisely appropriate for persons is shown in a formula. The less the income, life expectancy and the number of persons to be considered the less are the maximum permissible costs for shelters. Under certain conditions the permissible costs are lower than the real costs. Thus, taking those assumptions into account, the shelter is not profitable any more. This case, for example, really applies to a couple, 57 years old, without children, with an income of 40,000 DM/year who intend to build an interior shelter. For a family with children who are under age, however, it is always profitable to build an interior basic shelter.

Schwarzlose, H.

1981-01-01

229

The costs of peripheral intravascular device in the values of hospitalization in a pediatric unit  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: to raise the costs of dispositive intravascular peripheric (DIP) used during the internment in a pediatric unit. Methodology: this is a descriptive and exploratory study, from quantitative approach. The sample consisted of nineteen children who were using intravenous therapy for a period exceeding seven days and whose guardians signed a consent form. To data collect was used a formularie composed of variables related to the patient and causes the change of DIP. The data were analyzed using simple statistics. This study was approved by the Ethics Committee and Research of the Hospital Universitário Antônio Pedro (HUAP)/UFF with protocol number 071/2006. Results: it was found that most of the children lived outside the city of location of the hospital, each child used an average of 27.3 DIP, the main failure was the infusion of phlebitis and the cost of the device in relation to the total costs of hospitalization ranged between R$ 25,00 and 100,00. Conclusions: this study contributed to broader investigation, incorporating technology in vascular access and intravenous therapy, with respect to customer pediatric hospital.

Tathiana Silva Martins, Zenith Rosa Silvino

2010-01-01

230

Incidence and costs of adverse drug reactions in a tertiary care pediatric intensive care unit.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) increase morbidity, mortality, and hospital costs in children treated in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU). Few studies have reported the incidence and risk factors of ADRs in PICU. Our study aimed to evaluate incidence, risk factors, and economic burden of ADRs in PICU. An intensive ADR surveillance was conducted at the PICU of Children's Hospital of Michigan between November 1, 2010 and May 31, 2011. A trigger list was used to screen for suspected ADR cases. Of the 697 consecutive PICU admissions reviewed, 13.1% experienced at least one episode of ADR. The ADR incidence was 22% in patients with cardiovascular (CV) surgery and 11.5% in other patients. The most frequently detected ADR was electrolyte imbalance associated with diuretic exposure. Mean age at admission was 4 years (interquartile range: 9 months-13 years). Risk factors for ADR included young age (<1 year), Pediatric Risk of Mortality (PRISM) score upon admission ?3, and administration of ?16 medications. ADRs increased total ICU costs by 3.5-fold and length of ICU stay by 3.8-fold. Increased ADR surveillance of high risk patients in conjunction with early intervention may reduce drug related morbidity and costs in the PICU.

Du W; Tutag Lehr V; Caverly M; Kelm L; Reeves J; Lieh-Lai M

2013-05-01

231

Cost-income analysis of oral health units of health care centers in Yazd city  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background and Aims: Increasing demands for health care's services on one hand and limited resources on the other hand brings about pressure over governments to find out a mechanism for fair and appropriate distribution of resources. Economic analysis is one of the appropriate tools for policy making on this priority. The aim of this study was to assess capital and consumption of oral health units of health care centers in Yazd city and comparing it with revenue of these centers and determining of cost effectiveness.Materials and Methods: In this descriptive cross sectional study, all health care centers of Yazd city with active dentistry department were evaluated. The data has been extracted from current documents in health care center of county based issued receipts and daily information registers.Results: Expended cost for providing of oral hygiene services in second half of 2008 in 13 medical health centers of Yazd included active dentistry section was 557.887.500 Rials and revenue to cost ratio was about 34%. The most provided service was related to tooth extraction and the average of tooth restoration in each working day was 0.48.Conclusion: With attention to low tariffs of dentistry services in medical health centers and paying subsidy to target groups, expenses of oral hygiene are always more than its revenue.

Hosein Fallahzadeh; Ahmad Haerian; Nader Bahrami

2012-01-01

232

Conventional method for the calculation of the global energy cost of buildings; Methode conventionnelle de calcul du cout global energetique des batiments  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article presents a calculation tool developed by a working group involving Electricite de France (EdF), Chauffage Fioul, Gaz de France (GdF) with the sustain of the CFE (French center of electric power). This tool aims at evaluating the global energy costs (actualized and annualized) of a building in the domain of space heating, hot water production and ventilation taking into account the structure of the building. This method can be used at any stage of a building project and is compatible with all possible energy sources. (J.S.)

Anon.

2002-09-01

233

Calculation method for computer-generated holograms with cylindrical basic object light by using a graphics processing unit.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

It takes an enormous amount of time to calculate a computer-generated hologram (CGH). A fast calculation method for a CGH using precalculated object light has been proposed in which the light waves of an arbitrary object are calculated using transform calculations of the precalculated object light. However, this method requires a huge amount of memory. This paper proposes the use of a method that uses a cylindrical basic object light to reduce the memory requirement. Furthermore, it is accelerated by using a graphics processing unit (GPU). Experimental results show that the calculation speed on a GPU is about 65 times faster than that on a CPU.

Sakata H; Hosoyachi K; Yang CY; Sakamoto Y

2011-12-01

234

Economic impacts of oil spills: Spill unit costs for tankers, pipelines, refineries, and offshore facilities. [Task 1, Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The impacts of oil spills -- ranging from the large, widely publicized Exxon Valdez tanker incident to smaller pipeline and refinery spills -- have been costly to both the oil industry and the public. For example, the estimated costs to Exxon of the Valdez tanker spill are on the order of $4 billion, including $2.8 billion (in 1993 dollars) for direct cleanup costs and $1.125 billion (in 1992 dollars) for settlement of damages claims caused by the spill. Application of contingent valuation costs and civil lawsuits pending in the State of Alaska could raise these costs appreciably. Even the costs of the much smaller 1991 oil spill at Texaco`s refinery near Anacortes, Washington led to costs of $8 to 9 million. As a result, inexpensive waming, response and remediation technologies could lower oil spin costs, helping both the oil industry, the associated marine industries, and the environment. One means for reducing the impact and costs of oil spills is to undertake research and development on key aspects of the oil spill prevention, warming, and response and remediation systems. To target these funds to their best use, it is important to have sound data on the nature and size of spills, their likely occurrence and their unit costs. This information could then allow scarce R&D dollars to be spent on areas and activities having the largest impact. This report is intended to provide the ``unit cost`` portion of this crucial information. The report examines the three key components of the US oil supply system, namely, tankers and barges; pipelines and refineries; and offshore production facilities. The specific purpose of the study was to establish the unit costs of oil spills. By manipulating this key information into a larger matrix that includes the size and frequency of occurrence of oil spills, it will be possible` to estimate the likely future impacts, costs, and sources of oil spills.

1993-10-15

235

Antibiotic prescription and cost patterns in a general intensive care unit  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Se analizaron los hábitos de prescripción de antibióticos, el modelo de costes, y las intervenciones prospectivas en una Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos. Métodos: Se recogieron prospectivamente datos sobre utilización y costes de antibióticos de los registros electrónicos individuales desde agosto de 2003 a enero de 2004, y retrospectivamente hasta diciembre 2002. Resultados: Se investigó un total de 180 y 107 pacientes en 2002 y 2003. En 2002, la Piperacilina-Tazob (more) actam (13,8%) y el Imipenem/Cilastina (11,2%) fue los más prescritos, mientras que en 2003, se prescribieron vancomicina (12,%) e Imipenem/Cilastina (11,3%). Las dosis diarias definidas (DDD) totales y el índice utilización 90% (DU90%) para 2002 y 2003 fueron 2031,15 y 2325,90 DDD (p>0,1). La mediana de coste total /100 días de internamiento (IC95%) fue 13.310NIS (11.110;18.420) y 13.860NIS (6.710;18.020) (p=0,66), respectivamente. Conclusiones: Los programas de intervención deberían enfocarse en promover el control de las infecciones con una prescripción racional de antibióticos centrada en minimizar las futuras apariciones de resistencia bacteriana y los gastos inútiles. Abstract in english Antibiotic prescription habits, cost pattern, and the prospective intervention in an Intensive Care Unit were analyzed. Methods: Data on antibiotic utilization and costs were collected prospectively from individual electronic charts from August 2003 to January 2004, and retrospectively from August to December 2002. Results: A total of 180 and 107 patients were surveyed in 2002 and 2003. In 2002, Piperacillin-Tazobactam (13.8%) and Imipenem/Cilastin (11.2%) were the most p (more) rescribed medications; while, in 2003, Vancomycin (12.6%) and Imipenem/Cilastin (11.3%) were prescribed, respectively. Total defined daily dose (DDD) and Drug Utilization 90% (DU90%) index for 2002 and 2003 were 2031.15 and 2325.90 DDDs (p>0.1) and 1777.57 and 2079.61 DU90%, respectively (p>0.1). The Median Total Cost /100 admission days (CI 95%) were NIS13,310 (11,110;18,420) and NIS13,860 (6,710;18,020) (p=0.66), respectively. Conclusions: Interventional programs should focus on promoting infectious control with rational antibiotic prescription aimed at minimizing the future emergence of bacterial resistance and futile expenses.

Krivoy, Norberto; Abed El-Ahal, Wissam; Bar-Lavie, Yaron; Haddad, Salim

2007-06-01

236

User's guide to SERICPAC: A computer program for calculating electric-utility avoided costs rates  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

SERICPAC is a computer program developed to calculate average avoided cost rates for decentralized power producers and cogenerators that sell electricity to electric utilities. SERICPAC works in tandem with SERICOST, a program to calculate avoided costs, and determines the appropriate rates for buying and selling of electricity from electric utilities to qualifying facilities (QF) as stipulated under Section 210 of PURA. SERICPAC contains simulation models for eight technologies including wind, hydro, biogas, and cogeneration. The simulations are converted in a diversified utility production which can be either gross production or net production, which accounts for an internal electricity usage by the QF. The program allows for adjustments to the production to be made for scheduled and forced outages. The final output of the model is a technology-specific average annual rate. The report contains a description of the technologies and the simulations as well as complete user's guide to SERICPAC.

Wirtshafter, R.; Abrash, M.; Koved, M.; Feldman, S.

1982-05-01

237

Intoxicated children at an intensive care unit: popular medicine risks, complications and costs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: The Hospital Universitario del Valle (HUV) at the Pediatrics Intensive Care Unit (PICU) admits intoxicated patients, erroneously medicated by «teguas» or family members with serious aggravation of basic diseases or generating severe intoxications. Absent reports of these practices in Colombia motivated the publication of this case seriesObjective: To report a series of pediatric intoxication cases secondary to oral or dermatological application of varied substances by healers («teguas») or family members, leading to admission at the PICU, and to describe complications and hospital costs of these events.Methodology: Clinical charts of patients admitted to the PICU with diagnosis of exogenous intoxication during May 2001 to September 2004, were reviewed. Of 28 registered cases during that time, only 14 clinical charts were recovered. Variables evaluated included: age, gender, proceeding, administered substance, person responsible for the administration, complications, days of mechanical ventilation, total days at the intensive care unit and average costs. Of the 14 medical records with exogenous intoxications only 5 cases were involuntary and 9 were related to the administration of substances by quacks or family members; these are the ones reported in this series.Results: We report a total of 9 intoxicated patients, 5 girls and 4 boys, with an age range from 1 to 24 months, all from Cali. Topical administered substances: alcohol 6/9, vinegar 1/9; oral: aspirin 2/9, paico 1/9, and unidentified herbs 1/9. Administered substances by teguas: 6 patients; 3 by family members. All patients had metabolic acidosis with an increased anion gap: 27 in average (range from 21 to 32). All required mechanical ventilation (2 to 32 day range). Average hospital day costs were $6’657,800 pesos (around U$3,000.oo). Three patients died and 4 presented acute renal failure, 2 convulsions, 2 nosocomial infections, 1 subglotic stenosis.Conclusions and recommendations: Those practices are a high risk for children and have high health costs. Mortality and severe complications are high. Educational campaigns should be started in the community to prevent these cases.

Consuelo de Rovetto; Sandra Concha

2009-01-01

238

NUFCO-A computer program for levelized fuel cost calculations for on-load natural uranium fueled reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This work is a part of an integrated calculation scheme, conducted by nuclear power plants authority, aiming at the development of the necessary tools for complete economic and material analysis of various nuclear fuel cycles. NUFCO is an adaptation of NUFCCAMA computer cods, developed previously by the authors; for nuclear fuel cycle cost and material analysis. Nufco allows for the analysis subject to on-load refueling concept as applied in uranium fueled pressure tube reactors. It is based on the levelized batch fuel cycle cost technique using the continuous energy discounting. This program can deal with time dependent plant capacity factor and escalation of the fuel material cost items. Sample case study is presented including input data, output results, and conclusions. 6 tab.

1992-01-01

239

Calculation of the Cost of an Adequate Education in Kentucky: A Professional Judgment Approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

What is an adequate education and how much does it cost? In 1989, Kentucky’s State Supreme Court found the entire system of education unconstitutional-“all of its parts and parcels”. The Court called for all children to have access to an adequate education, one that is uniform and has as its goal th...

Deborah A. Verstegen

240

A calculation program for harvesting and transportation costs of energy and industrial wood; Energiapuun korjuun ja kuljetuksen kustannuslaskentaohjelmisto  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A computer based model has been developed for calculating the production costs of industrial wood and wood fuel. Several calculation situations, which might be useful for decision-making in energy wood supply, are included into this software. The model will be easy to use for practical purposes and flexible so that different new model and changes in the basis of calculations are easy to implement. Model will offer open interfaces for importing and exporting information. Model includes selected wood delivery chains and open interfaces for adding data from different procurement sources. The cost analysis model is built on Windows-based software, SQLWindows, using different sources of data (ODBC). With the model it is possible to manage these SQLBase databases with SQL-queries. The data included in the databases origins from various energy wood sources (local communities or part of them, forestry boards planning areas or even stands ready for cutting). By knowing the planned share of first thinnings, final cuttings and other harvesting operations it is possible to estimate the potential amount of wood fuel from each area. Also databases from energy wood users, forest and transportation machinery and distances are available in the system. Using the information it is possible to find out the fuel demand of power and heating plants in each moment (e.g., amount and quality), costs of various machines (harvesters, forwarders, trucks) as well as distances between energy wood sources and users. (orig.)

Ranta, T. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

1997-12-01

 
 
 
 
241

Incidence and costs of adverse drug reactions in a tertiary care pediatric intensive care unit.  

Science.gov (United States)

Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) increase morbidity, mortality, and hospital costs in children treated in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU). Few studies have reported the incidence and risk factors of ADRs in PICU. Our study aimed to evaluate incidence, risk factors, and economic burden of ADRs in PICU. An intensive ADR surveillance was conducted at the PICU of Children's Hospital of Michigan between November 1, 2010 and May 31, 2011. A trigger list was used to screen for suspected ADR cases. Of the 697 consecutive PICU admissions reviewed, 13.1% experienced at least one episode of ADR. The ADR incidence was 22% in patients with cardiovascular (CV) surgery and 11.5% in other patients. The most frequently detected ADR was electrolyte imbalance associated with diuretic exposure. Mean age at admission was 4 years (interquartile range: 9 months-13 years). Risk factors for ADR included young age (PICU. PMID:23553619

Du, Wei; Tutag Lehr, Victoria; Caverly, Mary; Kelm, Lauren; Reeves, Jaxk; Lieh-Lai, Mary

2013-03-28

242

Range and modulation dependencies for proton beam dose per monitor unit calculations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Calculations of dose per monitor unit (D/MU) are required in addition to measurements to increase patient safety in the clinical practice of proton radiotherapy. As in conventional photon and electron therapy, the D/MU depends on several factors. This study focused on obtaining range and modulation dependence factors used in D/MU calculations for the double scattered proton beam line at the Midwest Proton Radiotherapy Institute. Three dependencies on range and one dependency on modulation were found. A carefully selected set of measurements was performed to discern these individual dependencies. Dependencies on range were due to: (1) the stopping power of the protons passing through the monitor chamber; (2) the reduction of proton fluence due to nuclear interactions within the patient; and (3) the variation of proton fluence passing through the monitor chamber due to different source-to-axis distances (SADs) for different beam ranges. Different SADs are produced by reconfigurations of beamline elements to provide different field sizes and ranges. The SAD effect on the D/MU varies smoothly as the beam range is varied, except at the beam range for which the first scatterers are exchanged and relocated to accommodate low and high beam ranges. A geometry factor was devised to model the SAD variation effect on the D/MU. The measured D/MU variation as a function of range can be predicted within 1% using the three modeled dependencies on range. Investigation of modulated beams showed that an analytical formula can predict the D/MU dependency as a function of modulation to within 1.5%. Special attention must be applied when measuring the D/MU dependence on modulation to avoid interplay between range and SAD effects.

Hsi, Wen C.; Schreuder, Andries N.; Moyers, Michael F.; Allgower, Chris E.; Farr, Jonathan B.; Mascia, Anthony E. [Midwest Proton Radiotherapy Institute, Bloomington, Indiana 47408 and University Florida Proton Therapy Institute, Jacksonville, Florida 32206 (United States); ProCure Treatment Centers, Inc., Bloomington, Indiana 47404 (United States); Proton Therapy, Inc., Colton, California 92324 (United States); Midwest Proton Radiotherapy Institute, Bloomington, Indiana 47408 (United States); Midwest Proton Radiotherapy Institute, Bloomington, Indiana 47408 and Westdeutsches Protonentherapiezentrum, Universitaetsklinikum, Hufelandstrasse 55, 45147 Essen (Germany); Midwest Proton Radiotherapy Institute, Bloomington, Indiana 47408 (United States)

2009-02-15

243

Analysis of skin cancer treatment and costs in the United States Medicare population, 1996-2008.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: There is a skin cancer epidemic in the United States. OBJECTIVE: To examine skin cancer treatment modality, location, and cost and physician specialty in the Medicare population from 1996 to 2008. METHODS: Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services databases were used to examine skin cancer treatment procedures performed for Medicare beneficiaries. RESULTS: From 1996 to 2008, the total number of skin cancer treatment procedures [malignant excision, destruction, and Mohs micrographic surgery (MMS)] increased from 1,480,645 to 2,152,615 (53% increase). The numbers of skin cancers treated by excision and destruction increased modestly (20% and 39%, respectively), but the number of MMS procedures increased more rapidly (248% increase). Dermatologists treated an increasing percentage (75-82%) of skin cancers during these years, followed by plastic and general surgery. In 2008, more than 90% of all skin cancers were treated in the office, with the remainder being treated in facility-based settings. Allowable charges paid to physicians by Medicare Part B for skin cancer treatments increased 137% from 1996 to 2008, from $266,960,673 to $633,448,103. CONCLUSIONS: The number of skin cancer treatment procedures increased substantially from 1996 to 2008, as did overall costs to Medicare. Dermatologists treated the vast majority of skin cancers in the Medicare population, using a mix of treatment modalities, almost exclusively in the office setting.

Rogers HW; Coldiron BM

2013-01-01

244

Calculation of HELAS amplitudes for QCD processes using graphics processing unit (GPU)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We use a graphics processing unit (GPU) for fast calculations of helicity amplitudes of quark and gluon scattering processes in massless QCD. New HEGET (HELAS Evaluation with GPU Enhanced Technology) codes for gluon self-interactions are introduced, and a C++ program to convert the MadGraph generated FORTRAN codes into HEGET codes in CUDA (a C-platform for general purpose computing on GPU) is created. Because of the proliferation of the number of Feynman diagrams and the number of independent color amplitudes, the maximum number of final state jets we can evaluate on a GPU is limited to 4 for pure gluon processes (gg?4g), or 5 for processes with one or more quark lines such as q anti q? 5g and qq?qq+3g. Compared with the usual CPU-based programs, we obtain 60-100 times better performance on the GPU, except for 5-jet production processes and the gg?4g processes for which the GPU gain over the CPU is about 20. (orig.)

2010-01-01

245

Calculation of HELAS amplitudes for QCD processes using graphics processing unit (GPU)  

CERN Multimedia

We use a graphics processing unit (GPU) for fast calculations of helicity amplitudes of quark and gluon scattering processes in massless QCD. New HEGET ({\\bf H}ELAS {\\bf E}valuation with {\\bf G}PU {\\bf E}nhanced {\\bf T}echnology) codes for gluon self-interactions are introduced, and a C++ program to convert the MadGraph generated FORTRAN codes into HEGET codes in CUDA (a C-platform for general purpose computing on GPU) is created. Because of the proliferation of the number of Feynman diagrams and the number of independent color amplitudes, the maximum number of final state jets we can evaluate on a GPU is limited to 4 for pure gluon processes ($gg\\to 4g$), or 5 for processes with one or more quark lines such as $q\\bar{q}\\to 5g$ and $qq\\to qq+3g$. Compared with the usual CPU-based programs, we obtain 60-100 times better performance on the GPU, except for 5-jet production processes and the $gg\\to 4g$ processes for which the GPU gain over the CPU is about 20.

Hagiwara, K; Okamura, N; Rainwater, D L; Stelzer, T

2009-01-01

246

Calculation of HELAS amplitudes for QCD processes using graphics processing unit (GPU)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We use a graphics processing unit (GPU) for fast calculations of helicity amplitudes of quark and gluon scattering processes in massless QCD. New HEGET (HELAS Evaluation with GPU Enhanced Technology) codes for gluon self-interactions are introduced, and a C++ program to convert the MadGraph generated FORTRAN codes into HEGET codes in CUDA (a C-platform for general purpose computing on GPU) is created. Because of the proliferation of the number of Feynman diagrams and the number of independent color amplitudes, the maximum number of final state jets we can evaluate on a GPU is limited to 4 for pure gluon processes (gg{yields}4g), or 5 for processes with one or more quark lines such as q anti q{yields} 5g and qq{yields}qq+3g. Compared with the usual CPU-based programs, we obtain 60-100 times better performance on the GPU, except for 5-jet production processes and the gg{yields}4g processes for which the GPU gain over the CPU is about 20. (orig.)

Hagiwara, K. [KEK Theory Center and Sokendai, Tsukuba (Japan); Kanzaki, J.; Okamura, N. [KEK, Tsukuba (Japan); Rainwater, D. [University of Texas, Space and Geophysics Laboratory, Applied Research Laboratories, Austin, TX (United States); Stelzer, T. [University of Illinois, Department of Physics, Urbana, IL (United States)

2010-11-15

247

Australia's 'fourth hurdle' drug review comparing costs and benefits holds lessons for the United States.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Two decades ago Australia introduced an assessment of value as a prerequisite for adding new medicines to its national drug formulary. Australia's program--a "fourth hurdle" process after a drug is assessed for safety, efficacy, and quality--stands in stark contrast to the situation in the United States, where comparing the clinical and economic value of a proposed new drug to those of existing ones only rarely plays a role in the drug coverage determination process. This article describes the role that Australia's Pharmaceutical Benefits Advisory Committee, a statutory independent expert committee, plays in determining which new drugs the government will help pay for in the nation's pharmaceutical benefit program. The program does not directly control drug prices or ration prescription drugs-policy options that are widely opposed in the United States. Australia's program supports patients' access to important, innovative medications deemed to be cost-effective. The US system could benefit if policy makers examined Australia's experience and adopted a comparative clinical and value review suited to the US political and economic landscape.

Lopert R; Elshaug AG

2013-04-01

248

Energy Savings and Breakeven Cost for Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters in the United States  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have recently reemerged in the U.S. residential water heating market and have the potential to provide homeowners with significant energy savings. However, there are questions as to the actual performance and energy savings potential of these units, in particular in regards to the heat pump's performance in unconditioned space and the impact of the heat pump on space heating and cooling loads when it is located in conditioned space. To help answer these questions, simulations were performed of a HPWH in both conditioned and unconditioned space at over 900 locations across the continental United States and Hawaii. Simulations included a Building America benchmark home so that any interaction between the HPWH and the home's HVAC equipment could be captured. Comparisons were performed to typical gas and electric water heaters to determine the energy savings potential and cost effectiveness of a HPWH relative to these technologies. HPWHs were found to have a significant source energy savings potential when replacing typical electric water heaters, but only saved source energy relative to gas water heater in the most favorable installation locations in the southern US. When replacing an electric water heater, the HPWH is likely to break even in California, the southern US, and parts of the northeast in most situations. However, the HPWH will only break even when replacing a gas water heater in a few southern states.

Maguire, J.; Burch, J.; Merrigan, T.; Ong, S.

2013-07-01

249

A cost-benefit analysis of lipid standardization in the United States.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: By improving lipid standardization, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC's) Lipid Standardization Program and Cholesterol Reference Method Laboratory Network have contributed to the marked reduction in heart disease deaths since 1980. The objective of this study was to estimate the benefits (ie, the value of reductions in heart disease deaths) and costs attributable to these lipid standardization programs. METHODS: We developed a logic model that shows how the inputs and activities of the lipid standardization programs produce short- and medium-term outcomes that in turn lead to improvements in rates of cardiovascular disease and death. To calculate improvements in long-term outcomes, we applied previous estimates of the change in heart disease deaths between 1980 and 2000 that was attributable to statin treatment and to the reduction in total cholesterol during the period. Experts estimated the share of cholesterol reduction that could be attributed to lipid standardization. We applied alternative assumptions about the value of a life-year saved to estimate the value of life-years saved attributable to the programs. RESULTS: Assuming that 5% of the cholesterol-related benefits were attributable to the programs and a $113,000 value per life-year, the annual benefit attributable to the programs was $7.6 billion. With more conservative assumptions (0.5% of cholesterol-related benefits attributable to the programs and a $50,000 value per life-year), the benefit attributable to the programs was $338 million. In 2007, the CDC lipid standardization programs cost $1.7 million. CONCLUSION: Our estimates suggest that the benefits of CDC's lipid standardization programs greatly exceed their costs.

Hoerger TJ; Wittenborn JS; Young W

2011-11-01

250

The DRG Project of the German Transplant Society: 1. Improved Delineation of the Cost of Liver Transplantation under the G-DRG System through Cost Analysis and Calculation of New Cost Separators  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: The first calculation of the Diagnosis Related Groups (DRGs) in Germany resulted in a drastic reduction of reimbursements for liver transplantations (LTX). While under the previous reimbursement system, a liver transplantation was calculated with approximately € 125.000, the newly introduced German DRG system calculated for a liver transplantation without complications for 2004 a case weight of 11,9 and hence, based on the base rate utilized a fee of € 35.000 - € 45.000. Since under these circumstances the financing for clinical liver transplantations seemed to be in jeopardy, the Deutsche Transplantationsgesellschaft (German Society for Organ Transplantation) conducted an evaluation of the actual costs of liver transplantations. Materials and Methods: The data of 75 transplant admissions from five major transplant centres were collected and 177 cost parameters were captured each day. In addition, the data which is important for the classification of the DRGs (diagnosis, procedures, length of hospital stay and duration of ventilation) were recorded and cost comparisons for single parameters were performed using the DKG-NT (Deutsche Krankenhausgesellschaft Normal-Tarif [German hospital association regular price]) and Lauer-Tax (drugstore base buying price). With this method the total actual costs per case were determined and also which parameter could be useful as a cost separator. Results: Based on our data, our estimated cost for the DRG liver transplantation was much higher then the actual reimbursement under the new German DRG system. This led us to initiate a discussion with the InEK and subsequently the introduction of weighed hospital days for better allocation of the cost to the liver transplanted patient. Furthermore, based on our findings, additional split criteria were discussed with the InEK, which partially have been included into the DRG 2005 system. Conclusions: The investigation which was performed in cooperation with the InEK underlined that the actual reimbursement for liver transplantations does not mirror the actual cost, and the introduction of new cost separators, new ICD and procedure codes should enable the hospitals in the future to allocate the real cost of liver transplantations to the liver recipient. The changes already implemented have resulted in a significantly higher reimbursement for liver transplantation for 2005, and have reduced the financial gap for liver transplantations considerably.

J. M. Langrehr; D. Hölzel; A. Billing; T. Krauss; R. Lück; J. Fangmann; B. Krämer; R. Lohmann

2005-01-01

251

Putting the environment into the NPV calculation -- Quantifying pipeline environmental costs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pipeline projects impact the environment through soil and habitat disturbance, noise during construction and compressor operation, river crossing disturbance and the risk of rupture. Assigning monetary value to these negative project consequences enables the environment to be represented in the project cost-benefit analysis. This paper presents the mechanics and implications of two environmental valuation techniques: (1) the contingent valuation method and (2) the stated preference method. The use of environmental value at the project economic-evaluation stage is explained. A summary of research done on relevant environmental attribute valuation is presented and discussed. Recommendations for further research in the field are made.

Dott, D.R.; Wirasinghe, S.C.; Chakma, A. [Univ. of Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

1996-12-31

252

ORGANIZATION OF MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING AND COST CALCULATION OF MINING IN JIU VALLEY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The scientific approach taken, due to the fact that a nationally more acute problem arises regarding mining restructuring, namely the closure of uneconomic mines, in this paper I want to report my finding on how management accounting is organized and which is the costing method currently applied by the seven mines in the Jiu Valley, which are currently functional, as well as to identify their limitations and advantages for improving them and identifying financial and economic solutions, demonstrating that in fact these are viable economic entities.

ILEANA-SORINA BOCA (RAKOS)

2011-01-01

253

Costos unitarios laborales verticalmente integrados por rama en México y Estados Unidos, 1970-2000/ Vertically integrated unit labor costs by sector Mexico-USA, 1970-2000  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Los tipos de cambio reales efectivos, en términos de costos unitarios de trabajo, han sido calculados en la economía mundial siguiendo varios métodos. En este trabajo se desarrolla una metodología para estimar los costos unitarios laborales vertical-mente integrados por rama económica utilizando las técnicas de insumo-producto. El modelo se aplica a las economías de México y de Estados Unidos para el periodo 1970-2000. Los resultados obtenidos se comparan con un c (more) oeficiente estimado de ventaja comparativa revelada por rama de la economía mexicana a fin de establecer si el comercio exterior de México está relacionado con los costos unitarios laborales relativos en este periodo. Para probar esta relación se utilizó el análisis econométrico para datos en panel. Abstract in english Real effective exchange rates have been calculated by relative unit labor costs for many countries in the world economy. In this work we develop a methodology to estimate vertically integrated unit labor costs by sector, using input-output techniques, for the Mexican and United States economies in the period 1970-2000. The results are then compared to a measurement of revealed comparative advantage by sector, of the Mexican economy, in order to establish whether Mexican f (more) oreign trade by sector was related to its relative labor costs during this period. To test this relationship econometric analysis for panel data is utilized.

Ruiz Nápoles, Pablo

2010-09-01

254

Variance analysis by use of a low cost desk top calculator.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A simple program for an HP-97 desk top calculator, which can be adapted to an HP-67, is presented. This program detects the presence of an added component of variance in any series classified with a unique criterion. Each series can be formed by any number of data. The program supplies additional information about this component. A brief theoretical description and a practical example are also included.

González Revaldería J; Villafruela JJ; Sabater J; Lamas S; Ortuño J

1986-01-01

255

Variance analysis by use of a low cost desk top calculator.  

Science.gov (United States)

A simple program for an HP-97 desk top calculator, which can be adapted to an HP-67, is presented. This program detects the presence of an added component of variance in any series classified with a unique criterion. Each series can be formed by any number of data. The program supplies additional information about this component. A brief theoretical description and a practical example are also included. PMID:3755668

González Revaldería, J; Villafruela, J J; Sabater, J; Lamas, S; Ortuño, J

1986-01-01

256

Accelerating Quantum Chemistry Calculations with Graphical Processing Units - Toward in High-Density (HD) Silico Drug Discovery.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The growing power of central processing units (CPU) has made it possible to use quantum mechanical (QM) calculations for in silico drug discovery. However, limited CPU power makes large-scale in silico screening such as virtual screening with QM calculations a challenge. Recently, general-purpose computing on graphics processing units (GPGPU) has offered an alternative, because of its significantly accelerated computational time over CPU. Here, we review a GPGPU-based supercomputer, TSUBAME2.0, and its promise for next generation in silico drug discovery, in high-density (HD) silico drug discovery.

Hagiwara Y; Ohno K; Orita M; Koga R; Endo T; Akiyama Y; Sekijima M

2013-09-01

257

Design of Optimized Decimator for Distortion Removal in Wireless Communication & Calculation of Cost Function  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In digital signal processing, decimation is a technique for reducing the number of samples in discrete-time signal used for multi-rate signal processing in wireless communication systems. In this paper optimized decimator has been presented to improve the implementation complexity. The proposed decimator is implemented using MATLAB as standard FIR, Half Band FIR and Nyquist FIR by using the multistage design techniques. The performance of different decimator designs is compared in terms of error and hardware requirements. The results show that the performance of all designs is almost identical but their implementation cost varies greatly in terms of hardware requirements. The hardware saving of 80% to 90% can be achieved by using multistage Nyquist decimator design.

Manpreet kaur, Mandeep Singh Saini

2012-01-01

258

Cost calculation of unfurnished kWh; Calculo do custo do kWh nao fornecido  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents a survey performed by CEMIG close to its main industrial consumers that aims to collect information in order to make possible to quantify the costs of the unfurnished kWh when the electric power furnishing is discontinued. In this work a methodology for survey data analysis and processing, based mainly on the product`s aggregate value concept, is proposed. As a conclusion, the authors point out the importance of considering not only the electric power utilities losses but also the consumer`s losses when there is an electric power furnishing interruption. This must be considered as an important economical aspect when reliability studies are performed 2 refs., 2 figs.

Souza, D.C.C.; Andrade, E.L. [Companhia Energetica de Minas Gerais (CEMIG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

1987-12-31

259

DUCKS: Low cost thermal monitoring units for near-vent deployment  

Science.gov (United States)

During 1999 we designed and tested a thermal monitoring system to provide a cheap, robust, modular, real-time system capable of surviving the hostile conditions encountered proximal to active volcanic vents. In November 2000 the first system was deployed at Pu'u 'O'o (Kilauea, Hawai'i) to target persistently active vents. Aside from some minor problems, such as sensor damage due to tampering, this system remained operational until January 2004. The success of the prototype system led us to use the blueprint for a second installation at Stromboli (Aeolian Islands, Italy). This was deployed, dug into a bomb-proof bunker, during May 2002 and survived the April 2003 paroxysmal eruption despite being located just 250 m from the vent. In both cases, careful waterproofing of connectors and selection of suitable protection has prevented water damage and corrosion in the harsh atmosphere encountered at the crater rim. The Pu'u 'O'o system cost ???US$10,000 and comprises four modules: sensors, transmission and power hub, repeater station and reception site. The sensor component consists of three thermal infrared thermometers housed in Pelican??? cases fitted with Germanium-Arsenide-Selenium windows. Two 1?? field of view (FOV) sensors allow specific vents to be targeted and a 60?? FOV sensor provides a crater floor overview. A hard wire connection links to a Pelican???-case-housed microprocessor, modem and power module. From here data are transmitted, via a repeater site, to a dedicated PC at the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory. Here data are displayed with a delay of ???3 s between acquisition and display. The modular design allows for great flexibility. At Stromboli, 1?? and 15?? FOV sensor modules can be switched depending changes in activity style and crater geometry. In addition a direct line of site to the Stromboli reception center negates the repeater site requirement, reducing the cost to US$5500 for a single sensor system. We have also constructed self-contained units w ith internal data loggers for US$1500/unit. These have been tested at Kilauea, Stromboli, Etna, Masaya, Santiaguito, Fuego, Pacaya, Poas, Soufriere Hills, Villarrica and Erta Ale. These instruments have proved capable of detecting thermal signals associated with: (1) gas emission; (2) gas jetting events; (3) crater floor collapse; (4) lava effusion; (5) lava flow in tubes; (6) lava lake activity; (7) lava dome activity; and (8) crater lake skin temperature. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Harris, A.; Pirie, D.; Horton, K.; Garbeil, H.; Pilger, E.; Ramm, H.; Hoblitt, R.; Thornber, C.; Ripepe, M.; Marchetti, E.; Poggi, P.

2005-01-01

260

The cost of nuclear power stations; comparison test between France and the United States  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] A comparison, even if roughly made, between the investment costs of nuclear power stations quoted in literature for France and the United States cannot be made with consideration. While in the United States these amounts corresponded to the total expense in standard currency, in France they are applicable only to an estimate intended to justify a development at the level of national planning by comparing its profitability compared with schemes of different nature (coal power stations, hydraulic plants or new energies), on 'normating' (or 'pseudo-fictive') bases. It is shown how a comparison is nevertheless possible the shift of a factor close to 2 between two amounts found in the literature is due to different accounting practices which have been taken into account and to the differences in the inflational rates we can now observe[fr] La comparaison, meme grossiere, des couts d'investissement des centrales nucleaires que l'on trouve dans la litterature concernant la France et les Etats-Unis ne peut etre abordee sans une certaines reflexion. Alors qu'aux Etats-Unis ces montants correspondent a la depense totale en monnaie courante, en France ils ne s'appliquent qu'a une evaluation destinee a justifier la realisation au niveau de la planification nationale en comparant sa rentabilite a celle de realisations de nature differente (centrales au charbon, installations hydrauliques ou energies nouvelles) sur des bases 'normatives' (ou pseudo-fictives). On montre comment une comparaison est cependant possible: l'ecart d'un facteur voisin de 2 entre les montants trouves dans la litterature provient de la prise en compte des habitudes comptables differentes et des consequences de l'inflation observee actuellement

1977-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

On tentative decommissioning cost analysis with specific authentic cost calculations with the application of the Omega code on a case linked to the Intermediate storage facility for spent fuel in Sweden  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The presented report is focused on tentative calculations of basic decommissioning parameters such as costs, manpower and exposure of personnel for activities of older nuclear facility decommissioning in Sweden represented by Intermediate storage facility for spent fuel in Studsvik, by means of calculation code OMEGA. This report continuously follows up two previous projects, which described methodology of cost estimates of decommissioning with an emphasis to derive cost functions for alpha contaminated material and implementation of the advanced decommissioning costing methodology for Intermediate Storage facility for Spent Fuel in Studsvik. The main purpose of the presented study is to demonstrate the trial application of the advanced costing methodology using OMEGA code for Intermediate Storage Facility for Spent Fuel in Studsvik. Basic work packages presented in report are as follows: 1. Analysis and validation input data on Intermediate Storage Facility for Spent Fuel and assemble a database suitable for standardised decommissioning cost calculations including radiological parameters, 2. Proposal of range of decommissioning calculations and define an extent of decommissioning activities, 3. Defining waste management scenarios for particular material waste streams from Intermediate Storage Facility for Spent Fuel, 4. Developing standardised cost calculation structure applied for Intermediate Storage Facility for Spent Fuel decommissioning calculation and 5. Performing tentative decommissioning calculations for Intermediate Storage Facility for Spent Fuel by OMEGA code. Calculated parameters of decommissioning are presented in structure according to Proposed Standardized List of Items for Costing Purposes. All parameters are documented and summed up in both table and graphic forms in text and Annexes. The presented report documents availability and applicability of methodology for evaluation of costs and other parameters of decommissioning in a form implemented within calculation code OMEGA for calculations of Intermediate Storage for Spent Fuel in Studsvik

2007-01-01

262

Accelerating resolution-of-the-identity second-order Møller-Plesset quantum chemistry calculations with graphical processing units.  

Science.gov (United States)

The modification of a general purpose code for quantum mechanical calculations of molecular properties (Q-Chem) to use a graphical processing unit (GPU) is reported. A 4.3x speedup of the resolution-of-the-identity second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (RI-MP2) execution time is observed in single point energy calculations of linear alkanes. The code modification is accomplished using the compute unified basic linear algebra subprograms (CUBLAS) library for an NVIDIA Quadro FX 5600 graphics card. Furthermore, speedups of other matrix algebra based electronic structure calculations are anticipated as a result of using a similar approach. PMID:18229900

Vogt, Leslie; Olivares-Amaya, Roberto; Kermes, Sean; Shao, Yihan; Amador-Bedolla, Carlos; Aspuru-Guzik, Alan

2008-01-30

263

Accelerating resolution-of-the-identity second-order Moller-Plesset quantum chemistry calculations with graphical processing units.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The modification of a general purpose code for quantum mechanical calculations of molecular properties (Q-Chem) to use a graphical processing unit (GPU) is reported. A 4.3x speedup of the resolution-of-the-identity second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (RI-MP2) execution time is observed in single point energy calculations of linear alkanes. The code modification is accomplished using the compute unified basic linear algebra subprograms (CUBLAS) library for an NVIDIA Quadro FX 5600 graphics card. Furthermore, speedups of other matrix algebra based electronic structure calculations are anticipated as a result of using a similar approach.

Vogt L; Olivares-Amaya R; Kermes S; Shao Y; Amador-Bedolla C; Aspuru-Guzik A

2008-03-01

264

Calculational results using a survey type code system for the analysis of the Almaraz Unit 2 PWR benchmark  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The calculations performed for the Almaraz Unit 2 PWR using the code packages of the Atomic Energy Corporation of South Africa Ltd. are summarized. These calculations were done as part of the IAEA Coordinated Research Programme on In-Core Fuel Management Code Package Validation for LWRs. A brief description of the one-dimensional cross section generation package as well as of the Level II (scoping type) global core calculational package which was used is given. Detailed results are presented in several appendices. 29 figs., 20 tabs., 10 refs

1991-01-01

265

Cost comparison of selected coal mines from Australia, Canada, Colombia, South Africa, and the United States. Special pub  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The report presents production and delivered costs for coal exports from the five major Western coal-exporting countries: Australia, Canada, Colombia, South Africa, and the United States. Cost data were compiled from visits to 43 mines by U.S. Bureau of Mines engineers between 1985 and 1990. All report costs are in January 1989 U.S. dollars per short ton. In the report, the Bureau updates and combines information from four earlier reports. These studies provide basic insights into the competitiveness of the U.S. coal industry with those of major coal-exporting countries.

1993-08-01

266

Norwegian electricity market liberalisation: questions of cost calculation and price definition by grid operators  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a study carried out on the Norwegian electricity market 10 years after its liberalisation. The similarity of the Norwegian market to the Swiss electricity market is discussed. Similarly to the proposed situation in Switzerland, the liberalisation in Norway foresaw no privatisation of public utilities and a model for the regulation of grid access was introduced. The report describes and comments on the various phases in which the liberalisation occurred and examines the various instruments used, e.g. to ensure that individual grid operators did not make undue profits from their monopoly. The methods used for the monitoring of grid operators' costs are described and the mechanisms involved in the definition of prices for grid services are examined, including measures taken when profits were too high or too low. The report is concluded with a discussion of the conclusions that can be drawn from the Norwegian model for Swiss market opening efforts

2002-01-01

267

Costes del dolor neuropático según etiología en las Unidades del Dolor en España Neurohatic pain costs according it´s etiology the Spanish Pain Units  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objetivo: Realizar un registro etiológico y de costes de pacientes con Dolor Neuropático (DN) en Unidades del Dolor (UD) en España. Métodos: Estudio transversal retrospectivo realizado entre abril y diciembre de 2004 en UDs. Se recogieron datos demográficos, tipo y causa del DN, origen de la derivación y la utilización de recursos sanitarios (tratamientos, visitas médicas, hospitalizaciones, etc.), y se computaron los costes médicos directos en el año 2004. Se utilizó estadística descriptiva y modelos ANCOVA. Resultados: Se incluyeron 504 pacientes con DN de etiología variada (44% radiculopatía, 21% neuralgias, 11% neuropatías, 7% atrapamientos, 5% SDRC, 4% dolor central), con una edad de 57,8±0,7 años (Media±EE), 57,6% mujeres, y 29,6±2,2 meses de evolución. El coste medio mensual ajustado fue de 403€ (IC 95%: 333€-473€). Las neuropatías presentaron un coste medio mensual ajustado mayor que la media (580+90€, p=0,011), debido a un mayor número mensual de días de hospitalización (0,6±0,1, p=0,021) y mayor coste farmacológico (162+17€, p=0,001). Las radiculopatías mostraron menor coste que la media; 287+46€, p=0,026, particularmente por un menor coste de hospitalización; 79+38€, p=0,027. Conclusiones: El DN ocasiona una considerable utilización de recursos sanitarios con un coste sustancial para el Sistema Nacional de Salud. La neuropatía es el síndrome etiológico que tiene un mayor coste mensual por paciente, mientras que las radiculopatías muestran un coste significativamente inferior al promedio.Objective: To realize a registry about aetology and costs of patients with Neuropathic Pain (NeP) in Pain Clinics (PC) in Spain. Methods: Retrospective, cross-ssectional study performed between april and december 2004 in PC. Demographic data, NeP type and cause, origin of the derivation, and health resources consumption (treatments, medical visits, hospitalizations, etc) were collected and direct medical costs were calculated in year 2004. A descriptive statistic and ANCOVA models were applied. Results: 504 NeP patients of broad aetiology (44% radiculophaty, 21% neuralgias, 11% neurophaties, 7% entrapment syndromes, 5% CRPS, 4% central pain), 57.8±0.7 years (Mean±SE), 57.6% women, and 29.6±2.2 months of evolution, were enrolled in the study. Adjusted monthly average cost was 403€ (95% CI: 333€-473€). Neuropathies present an adjusted monthly cost significantly higher than average (580+90€, p=0.011), because of the higher number of hospitalization days (0.6+0.1, p=0.021) and the higher pharmacologic cost (162+17€, p=0.001). Radiculophaties showed lower adjusted cost than the average; 287+46€, p=0.026, because of the lower cost of hospitalization; 79+38€, p=0.027. Conclusions: NeP causes a considerable utilization of health resources with a substantial cost for the National Health Service. Neurophaties are the aetiology syndrome which showed the higher monthly cost per patient, while radiculophaties showed a cost significantly lower than the average.

M. J. Rodríguez; A. J. García

2007-01-01

268

Costes del dolor neuropático según etiología en las Unidades del Dolor en España/ Neurohatic pain costs according it´s etiology the Spanish Pain Units  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Objetivo: Realizar un registro etiológico y de costes de pacientes con Dolor Neuropático (DN) en Unidades del Dolor (UD) en España. Métodos: Estudio transversal retrospectivo realizado entre abril y diciembre de 2004 en UDs. Se recogieron datos demográficos, tipo y causa del DN, origen de la derivación y la utilización de recursos sanitarios (tratamientos, visitas médicas, hospitalizaciones, etc.), y se computaron los costes médicos directos en el año 2004. Se u (more) tilizó estadística descriptiva y modelos ANCOVA. Resultados: Se incluyeron 504 pacientes con DN de etiología variada (44% radiculopatía, 21% neuralgias, 11% neuropatías, 7% atrapamientos, 5% SDRC, 4% dolor central), con una edad de 57,8±0,7 años (Media±EE), 57,6% mujeres, y 29,6±2,2 meses de evolución. El coste medio mensual ajustado fue de 403? (IC 95%: 333?-473?). Las neuropatías presentaron un coste medio mensual ajustado mayor que la media (580+90?, p=0,011), debido a un mayor número mensual de días de hospitalización (0,6±0,1, p=0,021) y mayor coste farmacológico (162+17?, p=0,001). Las radiculopatías mostraron menor coste que la media; 287+46?, p=0,026, particularmente por un menor coste de hospitalización; 79+38?, p=0,027. Conclusiones: El DN ocasiona una considerable utilización de recursos sanitarios con un coste sustancial para el Sistema Nacional de Salud. La neuropatía es el síndrome etiológico que tiene un mayor coste mensual por paciente, mientras que las radiculopatías muestran un coste significativamente inferior al promedio. Abstract in english Objective: To realize a registry about aetology and costs of patients with Neuropathic Pain (NeP) in Pain Clinics (PC) in Spain. Methods: Retrospective, cross-ssectional study performed between april and december 2004 in PC. Demographic data, NeP type and cause, origin of the derivation, and health resources consumption (treatments, medical visits, hospitalizations, etc) were collected and direct medical costs were calculated in year 2004. A descriptive statistic and ANCO (more) VA models were applied. Results: 504 NeP patients of broad aetiology (44% radiculophaty, 21% neuralgias, 11% neurophaties, 7% entrapment syndromes, 5% CRPS, 4% central pain), 57.8±0.7 years (Mean±SE), 57.6% women, and 29.6±2.2 months of evolution, were enrolled in the study. Adjusted monthly average cost was 403? (95% CI: 333?-473?). Neuropathies present an adjusted monthly cost significantly higher than average (580+90?, p=0.011), because of the higher number of hospitalization days (0.6+0.1, p=0.021) and the higher pharmacologic cost (162+17?, p=0.001). Radiculophaties showed lower adjusted cost than the average; 287+46?, p=0.026, because of the lower cost of hospitalization; 79+38?, p=0.027. Conclusions: NeP causes a considerable utilization of health resources with a substantial cost for the National Health Service. Neurophaties are the aetiology syndrome which showed the higher monthly cost per patient, while radiculophaties showed a cost significantly lower than the average.

Rodríguez, M. J.; García, A. J.

2007-08-01

269

Costs and benefits of rapid screening of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus carriage in intensive care units: a prospective multicenter study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: Pre-emptive isolation of suspected methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) carriers is a cornerstone of successful MRSA control policies. Implementation of such strategies is hampered when using conventional cultures with diagnostic delays of three to five days, as many non-carriers remain unnecessarily isolated. Rapid diagnostic testing (RDT) reduces the amount of unnecessary isolation days, but costs and benefits have not been accurately determined in intensive care units (ICUs). METHODS: Embedded in a multi-center hospital-wide study in 12 Dutch hospitals we quantified cost per isolation day avoided using RDT for MRSA, added to conventional cultures, in ICUs. BD GeneOhm™ MRSA PCR (IDI) and Xpert MRSA (GeneXpert) were subsequently used during 17 and 14 months, and their test characteristics were calculated with conventional culture results as reference. We calculated the number of pre-emptive isolation days avoided and incremental costs of adding RDT. RESULTS: A total of 163 patients at risk for MRSA carriage were screened and MRSA prevalence was 3.1% (n=5). Duration of isolation was 27.6 and 21.4 hours with IDI and GeneXpert, respectively, and would have been 96.0 hours when based on conventional cultures. The negative predictive value was 100% for both tests. Numbers of isolation days were reduced by 44.3% with PCR-based screening at the additional costs of €327.84 (IDI) and €252.14 (GeneXpert) per patient screened. Costs per isolation day avoided were €136.04 (IDI) and €121.76 (GeneXpert). CONCLUSIONS: In a low endemic setting for MRSA, RDT safely reduced the number of unnecessary isolation days on ICUs by 44%, at the costs of €121.76 to €136.04 per isolation day avoided.

Wassenberg M; Kluytmans J; Erdkamp S; Bosboom R; Buiting A; van Elzakker E; Melchers W; Thijsen S; Troelstra A; Vandenbroucke-Grauls C; Visser C; Voss A; Wolffs P; Wulf M; van Zwet T; de Wit A; Bonten M

2012-01-01

270

Impact of selection of cord blood units from the United States and swiss registries on the cost of banking operations.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Over the last 2 decades, cord blood (CB) has become an important source of blood stem cells. Clinical experience has shown that CB is a viable source for blood stem cells in the field of unrelated hematopoietic blood stem cell transplantation. METHODS: Studies of CB units (CBUs) stored and ordered from the US (National Marrow Donor Program (NMDP) and Swiss (Swiss Blood Stem Cells (SBSQ)) CB registries were conducted to assess whether these CBUs met the needs of transplantation patients, as evidenced by units being selected for transplantation. These data were compared to international banking and selection data (Bone Marrow Donors Worldwide (BMDW), World Marrow Donor Association (WMDA)). Further analysis was conducted on whether current CB banking practices were economically viable given the units being selected from the registries for transplant. It should be mentioned that our analysis focused on usage, deliberately omitting any information about clinical outcomes of CB transplantation. RESULTS: A disproportionate number of units with high total nucleated cell (TNC) counts are selected, compared to the distribution of units by TNC available. Therefore, the decision to use a low threshold for banking purposes cannot be supported by economic analysis and may limit the economic viability of future public CB banking. CONCLUSIONS: We suggest significantly raising the TNC level used to determine a bankable unit. A level of 125 × 10(7) TNCs, maybe even 150 × 10(7) TNCs, might be a viable banking threshold. This would improve the return on inventory investments while meeting transplantation needs based on current selection criteria.

Bart T; Boo M; Balabanova S; Fischer Y; Nicoloso G; Foeken L; Oudshoorn M; Passweg J; Tichelli A; Kindler V; Kurtzberg J; Price T; Regan D; Shpall EJ; Schwabe R

2013-02-01

271

Att Styra Foersvaret: Balanserade Styrkort och Foerbandsvaerdering (Controlling the Defence-Balanced Scorecards and Cost Effect Ratios for Military Units.)  

Science.gov (United States)

In this report the possibilities of using key ratios as systematic tools of the Defence Ministry to manage the defense sector are studied. Balanced scorecards and an integrated cost and effect evaluation of military units have been identified as being of ...

A. Nordlander P. Asplund P. Nordlund

2008-01-01

272

Cost consideration in the clinical guidance documents of physician specialty societies in the United States.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

IMPORTANCE: Despite increasing concerns regarding the cost of health care, the consideration of costs in the development of clinical guidance documents by physician specialty societies has received little analysis. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the approach to consideration of cost in publicly available clinical guidance documents and methodological statements produced between 2008 and 2012 by the 30 largest US physician specialty societies. DESIGN: Qualitative document review. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Whether costs are considered in clinical guidance development, mechanism of cost consideration, and the way that cost issues were used in support of specific clinical practice recommendations. RESULTS: Methodological statements for clinical guidance documents indicated that 17 of 30 physician societies (57%) explicitly integrated costs, 4 (13%) implicitly considered costs, 3 (10%) intentionally excluded costs, and 6 (20%) made no mention. Of the 17 societies that explicitly integrated costs, 9 (53%) consistently used a formal system in which the strength of recommendation was influenced in part by costs, whereas 8 (47%) were inconsistent in their approach or failed to mention the exact mechanism for considering costs. Among the 138 specific recommendations in these guidance documents that included cost as part of the rationale, the most common form of recommendation (50 [36%]) encouraged the use of a specific medical service because of equal effectiveness and lower cost. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Slightly more than half of the largest US physician societies explicitly consider costs in developing their clinical guidance documents; among these, approximately half use an explicit mechanism for integrating costs into the strength of recommendations. Many societies remain vague in their approach. Physician specialty societies should demonstrate greater transparency and rigor in their approach to cost consideration in documents meant to influence care decisions.

Schwartz JA; Pearson SD

2013-06-01

273

Comparative cost-effectiveness analysis of descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty versus penetrating keratoplasty in the United States.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: To perform a comparative cost-effectiveness analysis of Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK) and penetrating keratoplasty (PK) for corneal endothelial disease. DESIGN: Retrospective cost-effectiveness analysis. METHODS: This cost-effectiveness analysis was performed from a third-party payer perspective with a 5-year time horizon. Probabilities of outcomes and complications of each of the procedures were calculated based on review of the published literature. A model was constructed to compare the costs and utilities associated with DSAEK and PK. Costs of donor tissue preparation, surgery, follow-up, postoperative complications, and procedures were considered. Utility values were based on quality-adjusted life years associated with visual acuity outcomes. Both costs and utilities were discounted at 3% per year. Sensitivity analyses were performed on key model inputs. RESULTS: Base case analysis found DSAEK to be less costly compared with PK ($9362 vs $10 239), with greater utility (3.15 vs 2.47 quality-adjusted life years). Sensitivity analyses revealed that even at graft failure rates for DSAEK approaching the rates for PK, DSAEK would still reduce costs. Varying the dislocation rate in our model showed that even at dislocation rates approaching 50%, DSAEK remained less costly. Further, with DSAEK rejection rates as high as 28%, DSAEK would remain a dominant procedure over PK. CONCLUSIONS: Comparative cost-effectiveness analysis of DSAEK versus PK indicates favorable cost and utility outcomes associated with DSAEK for treatment of corneal endothelial disease. Longer follow-up of DSAEK outcomes will provide more accurate information regarding long-term cost-effectiveness of the procedure.

Prabhu SS; Kaakeh R; Sugar A; Smith DG; Shtein RM

2013-01-01

274

The pilot plant in Geiselbullach for the gamma irradiation of sewage sludge - design, operation experience and cost calculations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The pilot plant for sewage sludge irradiation in Geiselbullach near Munich has been in operation from July '73 to October '75 with a capacity of 30 m3 per day. Successful experiences during this period resulted in an increase of the installed radiation energy and in several improvements for the technique and the efficiency. From December 1975 on the plant has been operating with a daily capacity of 120 m3 of sludge per day. The experience with this plant brought several problems which caused interruptions of the continuous operation and that had to be solved with new measures. But although the facility at Geiselbullach is a pilot plant the availability was more than 350 days per year. Due to the simple design of the plant and of the fully automatic operation no special trained personal is necessary for the maintenance. Beside the effect of the hygienization the irradiation caused improved sedimentation properties of the sludge. Presently investigations are undertaken to prove better mechanical sludge dewatering properties. Cost calculations resulted in about DM 2.30 for operating expenses and DM 2.25 for capital costs per m3 of sludge for the fully charged plant. The capital costs will be less in commercial plants. The conditioning effect on the sludge by the irradiation means savings of about DM 1.00 per m3. The irradiation of sewage sludge proved to be possible at about equal costs compared to the wellknown heat treatment (pasteurization at 700C during 30 minutes.). Further investigations have to be done to overcome the contrary development of the plant capacity, limited by the decaying radiation energy and the normally rising sludge quantities of a sewage water treatment plant. (author)

1976-06-11

275

The method of the unit costs. A method for CHP plants cost allocation on both types of energy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the first part of the paper we try to explain why the production of electricity is more expansive than the production of heat. In the last part of the paper we propose a new method for fuel consumption allocation between the two forms of energy. The method leads to a scientifically higher cost for electricity but on the other hand presents some important advantages: - It establishes a correct price for both types of energy, increasing the competitiveness of the CHP plant on the heat market; - It facilitates the implementation of the energy efficiency methods focusing on electricity savings and that leads to higher fuel savings and lower greenhouse gasses emissions; - It facilitates the rehabilitation methods that lead to a higher electricity production efficiency

2004-01-01

276

A Variable Condition Calculation Method for Thermal Power Units Sliding Pressure Operation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper first analyzes how thermodynamic system state parameters are affected when main steam’s pressure changes under sliding pressure operation .Then a new state distribution equation of sliding pressure operation based on thermo-economy equation of state of thermal power unit is given .With the help of this equation, a new algorithm is proposed to determine the state parameters distribution for variable working condition under sliding pressure operation. Experiment of one supercritical unit is provided to validate the effectiveness of our approach under sliding pressure operation. Simulation results show that this algorithm is beneficial for analyzing the security and economy of thermal power unit with deep fast variable loads. It also has vital important significance for thermal power unit to develop its peak shaving ability.

Wei Liu; Jizhen Liu; Wei Wang; Deliang Zeng; Taihua Chang

2013-01-01

277

NUCIRC Single Channel Analysis for Calculating the Power Coefficients of the Wolsong Unit1  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Wolsong Unit 1 is a CANDU(CANadian Deuterium Uranium) reactor imported from Canada, which has been generated 2061.4 MW(th) and 678.7 MWe since April 1983. Because the design lifetime of this reactor is 30 years, KHNP(Korea Hydro Nuclear Power) Co. decided to operate the Wolsong Unit 1 continuously under the confirmation of safety and economic efficiency after the refurbishment. As a part of Refurbishment Project of the Wolsong Unit 1, the nuclear design part(Chapter 4.3) of FSAR(Final Safety Analysis Report) has been revised and re-written. This paper describes the NUCIRC single channel analysis model developed for evaluating the power coefficient of the Wolsong Unit 1.

Yoon, Churl; Jun, Ji Su; Park, Joo Hwan [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

2009-05-15

278

NUCIRC Single Channel Analysis for Calculating the Power Coefficients of the Wolsong Unit1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Wolsong Unit 1 is a CANDU(CANadian Deuterium Uranium) reactor imported from Canada, which has been generated 2061.4 MW(th) and 678.7 MWe since April 1983. Because the design lifetime of this reactor is 30 years, KHNP(Korea Hydro Nuclear Power) Co. decided to operate the Wolsong Unit 1 continuously under the confirmation of safety and economic efficiency after the refurbishment. As a part of Refurbishment Project of the Wolsong Unit 1, the nuclear design part(Chapter 4.3) of FSAR(Final Safety Analysis Report) has been revised and re-written. This paper describes the NUCIRC single channel analysis model developed for evaluating the power coefficient of the Wolsong Unit 1

2009-01-01

279

Cost of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease to the employer: a perspective from the United States.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Employers pay more than just salary for their employees. Previous studies have largely focused on direct medical and prescription drug costs of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD), and few have reported on total absenteeism costs. AIMS: To examine the annual cost of illness of GERD in an employed US population by benefit category and by place of service for direct medical costs. METHODS: Retrospective data analysis from 2001 to 2004. International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-9 codes (530.1, 530.10, 530.11, 530.12, 530.19, 530.81, 787.1x, 787.2x or 251.5x) were used to identify employees with and without GERD (the control group). Measures included medical and prescription drug claims, plus indirect costs for sick leave, short- and long-term disability, and workers' compensation. For a subset of the population, the direct medical claims were analysed by place of service. RESULTS: Data were available for 267,269 eligible employees of which 11,653 had gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. GERD was associated with a mean incremental cost of US $3,355 per employee of which direct medical costs accounted for 65%, prescription drug costs 17%, and indirect costs 19%. The place of service 'out-patient hospital or clinic' accounted for the largest part (47%) of the difference in medical costs. CONCLUSIONS: GERD is associated with substantial direct and indirect costs, which highlight the importance of managing the disease effectively.

Brook RA; Wahlqvist P; Kleinman NL; Wallander MA; Campbell SM; Smeeding JE

2007-09-01

280

Primer: The DOE Wind Energy Program's Approach to Calculating Cost of Energy: July 9, 2005 - July 8, 2006  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report details the methodology used by DOE to calculate levelized cost of wind energy and demonstrates the variation in COE estimates due to different financing assumptions independent of wind generation technology.

George, K.; Schweizer, T.

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Cost-effectiveness of social marketing of insecticide-treated nets for malaria control in the United Republic of Tanzania  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the costs and consequences of a social marketing approach to malaria control in children by means of insecticide-treated nets in two rural districts of the United Republic of Tanzania, compared with no net use. METHODS: Project cost data were collected prospectively from accounting records. Community effectiveness was estimated on the basis of a nested case-control study and a cross-sectional cluster sample survey. FINDINGS: The social marketing approach to the distribution of insecticide-treated nets was estimated to cost US$ 1560 per death averted and US$ 57 per disability-adjusted life year averted. These figures fell to US$ 1018 and US$ 37, respectively, when the costs and consequences of untreated nets were taken into account. CONCLUSION: The social marketing of insecticide-treated nets is an attractive intervention for preventing childhood deaths from malaria.

Hanson Kara; Kikumbih Nassor; Schellenberg Joanna Armstrong; Mponda Haji; Nathan Rose; Lake Sally; Mills Anne; Tanner Marcel; Lengeler Christian

2003-01-01

282

Health-resource use and costs associated with fibromyalgia in France, Germany, and the United States.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Fibromyalgia (FM) is a chronic disorder characterized by widespread, persistent pain. Prospective and retrospective studies have demonstrated substantial health-care costs associated with FM in a number of countries. This study evaluated and compared health-resource use (HRU) and associated costs related to FM in routine clinical practice across the US, France, and Germany. METHODS: Two separate, cross-sectional, observational studies of subjects with FM were conducted: one in the US and one in France and Germany. HRU related to prescription medication, physician office visits, diagnostic tests, and hospitalizations was abstracted from chart review; patient out-of-pocket costs and lost productivity were collected via subject self-report. Costs were assigned to HRU based on standard algorithms. Direct and indirect costs were evaluated and compared by simple linear regression. RESULTS: A total of 442 subjects (203 US, 70 France, 169 Germany) with FM were analyzed. The mean (standard deviation) age in the US, France, and Germany was 47.9 (10.9), 51.2 (9.5), and 49.2 (9.8), respectively (P = 0.085). Most subjects were female (95% US, 83% France, 80% Germany) (P < 0.001). Adjusted annual direct costs per subject for FM were significantly higher in the US ($7087) than in France ($481, P < 0.001) or Germany ($2417, P < 0.001). Adjusted mean annual indirect costs per subject for FM were lower in the US ($6431) than in France ($8718) or Germany ($10,001), but represented a significant proportion of total costs in all countries. CONCLUSION: The significant HRU and costs associated with FM in the US, France, and Germany documented in this study highlight the substantial global economic burden of FM. Indirect costs represented a significant proportion of the total costs, particularly in Europe. Comparisons between the three countries show differences in HRU, with significantly higher direct costs in the US compared with France and Germany.

Knight T; Schaefer C; Chandran A; Zlateva G; Winkelmann A; Perrot S

2013-01-01

283

Vitamin D testing patterns among six Veterans Medical Centers in the southeastern United States: links with medical costs.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Veterans have a profound degree of vitamin D deficiency that may contribute to adverse health outcomes. Some veterans, especially African Americans at high risk of vitamin D deficiency, may not be receiving appropriate attention. We hypothesized variations in vitamin D status and monitoring across six different VAMCs and that these differences are associated with health care costs. A retrospective analysis of the medical data in the Veterans Integrated Service Network 9 (Southeastern United States) was performed, yielding a sample of 15,340 veterans. Monitoring of vitamin D, vitamin D levels, and medical costs and services in all categories varied greatly by site. Memphis tested vitamin D levels less often despite the increased minority presence and high levels of deficiency. Vitamin D deficiency and lack of monitoring predicted increased inpatient health care costs at all sites, but did not fully account for site-cost variations in controlled analyses. Vitamin D deficiency remains a significant problem among veterans in the Southeastern United States and is closely linked to increased health care costs. We recommend protocols that recognize site differences and facilitate testing and monitoring of vitamin D levels, especially in high-risk groups of veterans.

Bailey BA; Manning T; Peiris AN

2012-01-01

284

[Influence of acute pain management service on analgesic drugs cost and consumption in the post-anesthetic recovery unit.].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: It is known that acute postoperative pain has a major influence on surgical patients recovery. Early movements, shorter hospital stay, lower costs and higher satisfaction are results of adequate pain management. There is a world trend toward specialized postoperative pain management services. This study aimed at describing the influence of an acute postoperative pain treatment service on analgesics cost and consumption in the post-anesthetic recovery unit. METHODS: Data were prospectively collected in the period 2000/2001, through computerized expert systems of the Controller Department of our institution, on analgesic drugs consumption and cost in the recovery unit and the number of surgical procedures performed during that time. RESULTS: There has been increased analgesics consumption and costs, as well as a change in their utilization profile. CONCLUSIONS: The creation of an Acute Pain Management Service (APMS) in our institution has determined a change in analgesics profile. There has been increased consumption and cost of such drugs, suggesting that patients had a better postoperative pain control.

Gomes ME; Evangelista PE; Mendes FF

2003-12-01

285

Health care costs before and after diagnosis of depression in patients with unexplained pain: a retrospective cohort study using the United Kingdom General Practice Research Database  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Catherine Reed,1 Jihyung Hong,2 Diego Novick,1 Alan Lenox-Smith,3 Michael Happich41Global Health Outcomes, Eli Lilly and Company, Windlesham, Surrey, UK; 2Personal Social Services Research Unit, London School of Economics and Political Science, London, UK; 3Eli Lilly UK, Basingstoke, UK; 4Eli Lilly and Company, Bad Homburg, GermanyPurpose: To assess the impact of pain severity and time to diagnosis of depression on health care costs for primary care patients with pre-existing unexplained pain symptoms who subsequently received a diagnosis of depression.Patients and methods: This retrospective cohort study analyzed 4000 adults with unexplained pain (defined as painful physical symptoms [PPS] without any probable organic cause) and a subsequent diagnosis of depression, identified from the UK General Practice Research Database using diagnostic codes. Patients were categorized into four groups based on pain severity (milder or more severe; based on number of pain-relief medications and use of opioids) and time to diagnosis of depression (?1 year or >1 year from PPS index date). Annual health care costs were calculated (2009 values) and included general practitioner (GP) consultations, secondary care referrals, and prescriptions for pain-relief medications for the 12 months before depression diagnosis and in the subsequent 2 years. Multivariate models of cost included time period as a main independent variable, and adjusted for age, gender, and comorbidities.Results: Total annual health care costs before and after depression diagnosis for the four patient groups were higher for the groups with more severe pain (£819–£988 versus £565–£628; P < 0.001 for all pairwise comparisons) and highest for the group with more severe pain and longer time to depression diagnosis in the subsequent 2 years (P < 0.05). Total GP costs were highest in the group with more severe pain and longer time to depression diagnosis both before and after depression diagnosis (P < 0.05). In the second year following depression diagnosis, this group also had the highest secondary care referral costs (P < 0.01). The highest drug costs were in the groups with more severe pain (P < 0.001), although costs within each group were similar before and after depression diagnosis.Conclusion: Among patients with unexplained pain symptoms, significant pain in combination with longer time from pain symptoms to depression diagnosis contribute to higher costs for the UK health care system.Keywords: depression, pain, cost, GPRD, UK

Reed C; Hong J; Novick D; Lenox-Smith A; Happich M

2013-01-01

286

Cost-effectiveness of sensor-augmented pump therapy in adults with type 1 diabetes in the United States.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: A recent randomized trial demonstrated significant reductions in hemoglobin A(1c) levels with sensor-augmented pump therapy (SAPT) compared with multiple daily injections of insulin (MDI) in type 1 diabetes. We analyzed resource use in the trial and estimated the long-term cost-effectiveness of SAPT from the perspective of the US health care system. METHODS: We undertook a cost-effectiveness analysis combining estimates from the trial and the literature to populate the previously validated Center for Outcomes Research (CORE) Diabetes Model. Results represent the use of 3-day sensors, as in the trial, and 6-day sensors, approved in most markets but not yet approved in the United States. RESULTS: Within-trial hospital days, emergency department visits, and outpatient visits did not differ significantly between the treatment groups. Assuming 65% use of 3-day sensors, treatment-related costs in year 1 were an estimated $10,760 for SAPT and $5072 for MDI. Discounted lifetime estimates were $253,493 in direct medical costs and 10.794 quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) for SAPT and $167,170 in direct medical costs and 10.418 QALYs for MDI. For 3-day and 6-day sensors, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were $229,675 per QALY (95% confidence interval $139,071-$720,865) and $168,104 per QALY (95% confidence interval $102,819-$523,161), respectively. The ratios ranged from $69,837 to $211,113 per QALY with different strategies for incorporating utility benefits resulting from less fear of hypoglycemia with SAPT. CONCLUSION: Despite superior clinical benefits of SAPT compared with MDI, SAPT does not appear to be economically attractive in the United States for adults with type 1 diabetes in its current state of development. However, further clinical developments reducing disposable costs of the system could significantly improve its economic attractiveness.

Kamble S; Schulman KA; Reed SD

2012-07-01

287

Research on MCNP4C2 Code for calculation of gamma dose distribution for Dalat Co-60 Unit  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The paper presents the results of Institutional R and D project ''Research on MCNP4C2 Code for calculation of gamma dose distribution for Dalat Co-60 Unit '' performed by Dalat Nuclear Research Institute (DNRI). In the field of irradiation, it has been special importance for an estimation of dose distribution since every point in chamber needs to be determined so as to apply for appropriate dose-level irradiation of particular objects. It is meaningful in case of irradiating for small-size samples. Several of methods used to determine dose distribution, among those the ways being carried out mainly are using TLD or Fricke dosimeter so far. These dosimeters were positioned at points of interest, from that referring gamma dose rate at certain position through some of calibrated and measured steps. The other effective-approved approach is doing by MCNP Code in replaceable for the above-mentioned classical ways. Results from MCNP calculation in comparison with Fricke experimental results (error about 11%) affirm the feasibility of using modern-calculated programme in dose distribution calculation for any irradiated unit. (author)

2007-01-01

288

Cost-effectiveness analysis evaluating fidaxomicin versus oral vancomycin for the treatment of Clostridium difficile infection in the United States.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: Fidaxomicin is a novel treatment for Clostridium difficile infections (CDIs). This new treatment, however, is associated with a higher acquisition cost compared with alternatives. The objective of this study was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of fidaxomicin or oral vancomycin for the treatment of CDIs. METHODS: We performed a cost-utility analysis comparing fidaxomicin with oral vancomycin for the treatment of CDIs in the United States by creating a decision analytic model from the third-party payer perspective. RESULTS: The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio with fidaxomicin compared with oral vancomycin was $67,576/quality-adjusted life-year. A probabilistic Monte Carlo sensitivity analysis showed that fidaxomicin had an 80.2% chance of being cost-effective at a willingness-to-pay threshold of $100,000/quality-adjusted life-year. Fidaxomicin remained cost-effective under all fluctuations of both fidaxomicin and oral vancomycin costs. The decision analytic model was sensitive to variations in clinical cure and recurrence rates. Secondary analyses revealed that fidaxomicin was cost-effective in patients receiving concominant antimicrobials, in patients with mild to moderate CDIs, and when compared with oral metronidazole in patients with mild to moderate disease. Fidaxomicin was dominated by oral vancomycin if CDI was caused by the NAP1/Bl/027 Clostridium difficile strain and was dominant in institutions that did not compound oral vancomycin. CONCLUSION: Results of our model showed that fidaxomicin may be a more cost-effective option for the treatment of CDIs when compared with oral vancomycin under most scenarios tested.

Stranges PM; Hutton DW; Collins CD

2013-03-01

289

A simple theoretical verification of monitor unit calculation for intensity modulated beams using dynamic mini-multileaf collimation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A spreadsheet based program is presented to perform an independent Monitor Unit (MU) calculation verification for the Quality Assurance (QA) of Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) using Dynamic MultiLeaf Collimation (DMLC). The computed dose value is compared to the planned dose by calculating the percent dose difference per Intensity Modulated Beam (IMB) and absolute dose difference per IMB. The proposed acceptability levels are ±5.0% or ±2.0 cGy for the percent dose difference per IMB and the absolute dose difference per IMB, respectively. For percent dose difference per treatment, an acceptability level of ±2.0% is proposed. The presented program is considered adequate for checking the treatment plans calculated for IMRT treatments using DMLC as a part of the QA procedure.

2004-05-01

290

BIOMASS TO ENERGY IN THE SOUTHERN UNITED STATES: SUPPLY CHAIN AND DELIVERED COST  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Supply chain and delivered cost models for seven feedstocks (loblolly pine, Eucalyptus, natural hardwood, switchgrass, Miscanthus, sweet sorghum, and corn stover) were built, simulating a supply of 453,597 dry tons per year to a biorefinery. Delivered cost of forest-based feedstocks ranged from $69 to $71 per dry ton. On the other hand, delivered cost of agricultural biomass ranged from $77.60 to $102.50 per dry ton. The total production area required for fast growing feedstocks was estimated as between 22,500 to 27,000 hectares, while the total production area for feedstocks with lower biomass productivity ranged from 101,200 to 202,300 hectares (corn stover and natural hardwood, respectively). Lower delivered cost per ton of carbohydrate and million BTU were found for loblolly pine, Eucalyptus, and natural hardwood. In addition, agricultural biomass had higher delivered costs for carbohydrate and energy value.

Ronalds W. Gonzalez; Richard Phillips; Hasan Jameel; Robert Abt; Adrian Pirraglia; Daniel Saloni; Jeff Wright

2011-01-01

291

INTEGRATION OF THE ACTIVITY BASED COSTING AND THE UNITS OF PRODUCTION METHOD: A CASE STUDY INTEGRAÇÃO DO CUSTEIO ABC COM O MÉTODO UP: UM ESTUDO DE CASO  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A competitive environment suggests changes in the form of costs management to able the company to remain in the market. Within this perspective, the objective of this article is to describe the integration of the activity based costing (ABC) and the units of production (UP) method in a food plant. The former is used for an appropriation of administrative and commercial expenses as a perfected form of allocating operational expenses; the latter, for the allocation of production variable expenses, marginal cost and fixed costs of production. This research methodology consists of an exploratory study, accomplished through a case study with a quantitative approach. The results of the research have demonstrated that the UP method considers a single measure to calculate production efforts, contemplating exclusively the transformation costs. In turn, by the application of the ABC to allocate operational expenses, the vision of processes and activities expands. It has been concluded that, in spite of different degrees of emphasis, the integration of the two costing methodologies increases quality of information, providing subsidies to the management to improve the classification of activities and the measurement of productivity. Keywords: Integration. The Activity Based Costing. The Units of Production Method. O ambiente competitivo sugere mudanças na forma de administrar os custos para possibilitar a continuidade da empresa no mercado. Nesta perspectiva, o objetivo deste artigo é descrever a integração do custeio baseado em atividades com o método das unidades de produção em uma indústria do setor de alimentos. O primeiro, usado para apropriação das despesas administrativas e despesas comerciais, como uma forma mais acurada de alocar as despesas operacionais. O segundo, para alocação dos gastos variáveis de fabricação, custo marginal e custos fixos de fabricação. A metodologia da pesquisa consubstancia-se de um estudo exploratório, realizado por meio de um estudo de caso, com abordagem quantitativa. Os resultados da pesquisa evidenciam que o método das unidades de produção considera uma única medida para mensurar os esforços de produção, contemplando exclusivamente os custos de transformação. Por sua vez, a aplicação do custeio baseado em atividades para alocação das despesas operacionais expande a visão de processos e atividades. Concluiu-se que, mesmo com diferentes ênfases, a integração das duas metodologias de custeio adicionam maior qualidade na informação, fornecendo subsídios à gestão para melhorar a classificação das atividades e a medição de produtividade. Palavras chave: Integração. Custeio baseado em atividades. Método das unidades de produção.

Anderson Léo Sabadin; Aloísio Grunow; Francisco Carlos Fernandes

2007-01-01

292

Tracking the Sun III; The Installed Cost of Photovoltaics in the United States from 1998-2009  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Installations of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems have been growing at a rapid pace in recent years. In 2009, approximately 7,500 megawatts (MW) of PV were installed globally, up from approximately 6,000 MW in 2008, consisting primarily of grid-connected applications. With 335 MW of grid-connected PV capacity added in 2009, the United States was the world's fourth largest PV market in 2009, behind Germany, Italy, and Japan. The market for PV in the United States is driven by national, state, and local government incentives, including up-front cash rebates, production-based incentives, requirements that electricity suppliers purchase a certain amount of solar energy, and federal and state tax benefits. These programs are, in part, motivated by the popular appeal of solar energy, and by the positive attributes of PV - modest environmental impacts, avoidance of fuel price risks, coincidence with peak electrical demand, and the possible deployment of PV at the point of use. Given the relatively high cost of PV, however, a key goal of these policies is to encourage cost reductions over time. Therefore, as policy incentives have become more significant and as PV deployment has accelerated, so too has the desire to track the installed cost of PV systems over time, by system characteristics, by system location, and by component. Despite the significant year-on-year growth, however, the share of global and U.S. electricity supply met with PV remains small, and annual PV additions are currently modest in the context of the overall electric system. To address this need, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory initiated a report series focused on describing trends in the installed cost of grid-connected PV systems in the United States. The present report, the third in the series, describes installed cost trends from 1998 through 2009, and provides preliminary cost data for systems installed in 2010. The analysis is based on project-level cost data from approximately 78,000 residential and non-residential PV systems in the U.S., all of which are installed at end-use customer facilities (herein referred to as 'customer-sited' systems). The combined capacity of systems in the data sample totals 874 MW, equal to 70% of all grid-connected PV capacity installed in the United States through 2009 and representing one of the most comprehensive sources of installed PV cost data for the U.S. The report also briefly compares recent PV installed costs in the United States to those in Germany and Japan. Finally, it should be noted that the analysis presented here focuses on descriptive trends in the underlying data, serving primarily to summarize the data in tabular and graphical form; later analysis may explore some of these trends with more-sophisticated statistical techniques. The report begins with a summary of the data collection methodology and resultant dataset (Section 2). The primary findings of the analysis are presented in Section 3, which describes trends in installed costs prior to receipt of any financial incentives: over time and by system size, component, state, system ownership type (customer-owned vs. third party-owned), host customer segment (residential vs. commercial vs. public-sector vs. non-profit), application (new construction vs. retrofit), and technology type (building-integrated vs. rack-mounted, crystalline silicon vs. thin-film, and tracking vs. fixed-axis). Section 4 presents additional findings related to trends in PV incentive levels over time and among states (focusing specifically on state and utility incentive programs as well as state and federal tax credits), and trends in the net installed cost paid by system owners after receipt of such incentives. Brief conclusions are offered in the final section, and several appendices provide additional details on the analysis methodology and additional tabular summaries of the data.

Barbose, Galen; Darghouth, Naim; Wiser, Ryan

2010-12-13

293

Taxes, divorce-transactions costs, economic conditions, and divorce rates: an exploratory empirical inquiry for the United States.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

"This study argues that, given the tax deductibility of alimony payments in the United States, higher marginal federal income tax rates may reduce the expected transactions costs of divorce and act thereby to increase the divorce rate. After allowing for a variety of other factors, including inflation, female labor force participation, AIDS, the Vietnam War, age, the availability of legal assistance, and transfer payments, both first-differences estimates and Granger-causality tests strongly support the hypothesis."

Cebula RJ; Belton WJ

1995-01-01

294

Impacts of intra-day rescheduling of unit commitment and cross border exchange on operational costs in European power systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Wilmar Planning tool was used to study market rule parameters directly influencing the functioning of the internal European electricity market. These parameters are the efficiency of the cross-border allocation mechanism (spatial dimension) and the flexibility in time that is offered by the markets (time dimension). Simulations were carried out for a European power system covering 25 countries and two target years (2020 and 2030) characterized by installed wind power capacity, electricity demand, available interconnector capacity and energy economic boundary conditions. Four model runs for each target year were carried out investigating the consequences of having different degrees of market integration between countries and having different amounts of well functioning intra-day power markets for the operation of the European power market in terms of system costs and CO{sub 2} emissions. Model results show large system cost increases connected with fixing unit commitment of slow units day-ahead, and smaller but still significant system cost increases with fixing cross-border exchange day-ahead. Cross-border exchange of reserves induced very small costs savings due to model limitations. (orig.)

Meibom, Peter [Technical Univ. of Denmark (DTU), Roskilde (Denmark). Risoe National Lab. for Sustainable Energy; Weber, Christoph [Duisburg-Essen Univ., Essen (Germany). Chair for Management Sciences and Energy Economics

2009-07-01

295

Woody biomass production costs in the United States: an economic summary of commercial Populus plantation systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Production costs for commercial-sized Populus plantations were developed from a series of research programs sponsored by the US Department of Energy's Short Rotation Woody Crops Program. Populus hybrid planted on good quality agricultural sites at a density of 2100 cuttings ha-1 was projected to yield an average of 16 Mg (OD) ha-1yr-1. Discounted cash flow analysis of multiple rotations showed production costs of $17 (US) mg -1 (OD). (author)

1990-01-01

296

Return to 1990: The cost of mitigating United States carbon emissions in the post-2000 period  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Second Generation Model (SGM) is employed to examine four hypothetical agreements to reduce emissions in Annex 1 nations (OECD nations plus most of the nations of Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union) to levels in the neighborhood of those which existed in 1990, with obligations taking effect in the year 2010. The authors estimate the cost to the US of complying with such agreements under three distinct conditions: no trading of emissions rights, trading of emissions rights only among Annex 1 nations, and a fully global trading regime. The authors find that the marginal cost of returning to 1990 emissions levels in the US in the absence of trading opportunities is approximately $108 per metric ton carbon in 2010. The total cost in that year is approximately 0.2% of GDP. International trade in emissions permits lowers the cost of achieving any mitigation objective by equalizing the marginal cost of carbon mitigation among countries. For the four mitigation scenarios in this study, economic costs to the US remain below 1% of GDP through at least the year 2020.

Edmonds, J.A.; Kim, S.H.; MacCracken, C.N.; Sands, R.D.; Wise, M.A.

1997-10-01

297

Cálculo del Costo Comparativo de la Obtención de Concentrados de Boratos Comparative Cost Calculation in the Obtaining of Borate Concentrates  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Este trabajo muestra la similitud existente entre los diagramas de flujo, balances de materia y equipos empleados en la concentración de boratos para obtener refinados y boratos de alto valor agregado. Se usa una planilla de cálculo para determinar el costo de producción para distintas condiciones de operación, a fin de determinar la oportunidad y conveniencia de cambiar el producto final, empleando la misma planta productora. Se analiza un caso particular que compara la producción de 10 tn/hr de concentrado de ulexita o de hidroboracita. Se obtiene un costo de producción por tonelada de B2O3 de 94.3 US dólares para la concentración de ulexita, que se reduce a 67.5 US dólares para la concentración de hidroboracita. Se concluye que el método propuesto es una herramienta que facilita el análisis económico del proceso productivo estudiado.This paper presents the similitude found between flow sheets, material balances and equipments employed in the concentration of borates, to obtain base refined borates and to obtain high added value borates. Spread sheet calculations are used to determine the production costs for different operating conditions and to analyze the opportunity and convenience of changing the final product, using the same process plant. A study case is considered in which 10 tn/hr of ulexite concentrate or the same amount of hydroboracite are produced. The cost per ton of B2O3 was 94.3 US dollars for the concentrated ulexite and 67.5 US dollars for concentrated hydroboracite. It is concluded that the proposed method is an useful tool for the economic analysis of the productive process considered in this study.

Horacio R Flores; María de los Á Tinte

2008-01-01

298

Dosimetric measurements and dose calculation in certain routine studies with different computed tomography units  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The European Commission recently published a White Paper proposing reference values of dosimetric magnitude for several types of CT studies. The objective of the present report is to characterize, in terms of dosimetry, a Ct unit and establish reference values for the doses used in CT in Spain. We took dosimetric measurements in 15 models of the CT Pace line, analyzing the data obtained in patients subjected to brain, chest, abdomen and lumbar spine CT with these units. The CT dose indices (CTDI) for theoretic thicknesses of 2 to 10 mm were 0.094 to 0.098 mGy/mA.s (body phantom) and 0.203 to 0.205 mGy/mA.s (head phantom), and the values for a 1 mm thickness were 0.134 mGy/mA.s (body) and 0.260 mGy/mA.s (head). In patient studies, the following values were found: the weighted CT dose (CTDIw) ranged from 44 to 74 mGy for brain, 27 to 48 mGy in chest, 19 to 33 mGy in lumbar spine and 21 to 33 mGy in abdomen: the dose-length product (DLP) was 499 to 918 mGy.cm in brain studies, 446 to 765 mGy.cm in chest, 188 to 333 mGy.cm in spine and 406 to 613 mGy.cm in abdomen. The effective dose (E) was 1.09 to 2.14 mSv in brain, 7.13 to 12 mSv in chest, 3.16 to 4.97 mSv in lumbar spine and 6.95 to 8.76 mSv in abdomen. The units analyzed processes similar dosimetric behaviors except for certain differences when 1 mm-thick sections were used. With respect to patient dose, the CTDIw, DLP and E obtained in our series were very similar, equal to or greater than the reference values proposed by the European paper. Thus, efforts should be made to optimize CT tests for the purpose of reducing the dose. According to our results, there is a lack of correlation between the values proposed in the document in question for CTDIw and the DLP, suggesting. (Author) 13 refs.

1998-01-01

299

Antibiotic surveillance on a paediatric intensive care unit: easy attainable strategy at low costs and resources  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Antibiotic surveillance is mandatory to optimise antibiotic therapy. Our objectives were to evaluate antibiotic use in our pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) and to implement a simple achievable intervention aimed at improving antibiotic therapy. Method<...

Stocker Martin; Ferrao Eduardo; Banya Winston; Cheong Jamie; Macrae Duncan; Furck Anke

300

Level II Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Cost Avoidance in the Colorado Springs Catchment Area.  

Science.gov (United States)

Due to increased utilization of neonatal intensive care services in the Colorado Springs catchment, the elimination of Fitzsimons Army Medical Center's neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), a monopoly market for NICU services in Colorado Springs, and the h...

R. S. Ellenberger

1995-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Social cost of CO2 abatement from energy efficiency and solar power in the United States  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Frequently cited empirical analysis ask whether we should make the transition from reliance on fossil fuels to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and conclude that the transition is too costly so we should, instead, focus policy on how to adapt to global warming. This paper makes two improvements in the analysis. First, this empirical analysis accounts for existing low-cost alternatives that are substitutes for fossil fuels. Second, this empirical analysis incorporates existing estimates of externalities from fossil fuels. These two basic improvements in the analysis alter the conclusion; policy should focus on how rapidly and extensively to make the transition from reliance on fossil fuels to the alternatives. The corollary is that we should focus on the efficacy and cost of policy options that are designed to accomplish the transition. 4 tabs., 1 app., 45 refs.

1992-01-01

302

Woody biomass production costs in the United States: An economic summary of commercial Populus plantation systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Production costs for commercial-sized Populus plantations were developed from a series of research programs sponsored by the US Department of Energy's Short Rotation Woody Crops Program. Populus hybrid planted on good quality agricultural sites at a density of 2,100 cuttings ha-1 was projected to yield an average of 16 ovendry metric tons of biomass per hectare per year (Mg (OD) ha-1yr-1). A discounted cash flow analysis of multiple rotations showed production costs of $17 (US) Mg-1 (OD). Site preparation and planting were 30% of this cost, with annual management and maintenance contributing another 28%. Land rent and property taxes were major expenses, representing 42% of the total

1990-02-02

303

CRC DEPLETION CALCULATIONS FOR THE NON-RODDED ASSEMBLIES IN BATCHES 8 AND 9 CRYSTAL RIVER UNIT 3  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The purpose of this design analysis is to document the SAS2H depletion calculations of certain non-rodded fuel assemblies from batches 8 and 9 of the Crystal River Unit 3 pressurized water reactor (PWR) that are required for Commercial Reactor Critical (CRC) evaluations to support the development of the disposal criticality methodology. A non-rodded assembly is one which never contains a control rod assembly (CRA) or an axial power shaping rod assembly (APSRA) during its irradiation history. The objective of this analysis is to provide SAS2H generated isotopic compositions for each fuel assembly's depleted fuel and depleted burnable poison materials. These SAS2H generated isotopic compositions are acceptable for use in CRC benchmark reactivity calculations containing the various fuel assemblies

2001-01-01

304

CRC DEPLETION CALCULATIONS FOR THE NON-RODDED ASSEMBLIES IN BATCHES 4 AND 5 OF CRYSTAL RIVER UNIT 3  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this design analysis is to document the SAS2H depletion calculations of certain non-rodded fuel assemblies from batches 4 and 5 of the Crystal River Unit 3 pressurized water reactor (PWR) that are required for commercial Reactor Critical (CRC) evaluations to support the development of the disposal criticality methodology. A non-rodded assembly is one which never contains a control rod assembly (CRA) or an axial power shaping rod assembly (APSRA) during its irradiation history. The objective of this analysis is to provide SAS2H generated isotopic compositions for each fuel assembly's depleted fuel and depleted burnable poison materials. These SAS2H generated isotopic compositions are acceptable for use in CRC benchmark reactivity calculations containing the various fuel assemblies.

1997-01-01

305

A cost-effectiveness analysis of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) prophylaxis in infants in the United Kingdom  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a common cause of respiratory infection that is highly prevalent in infants. Severe cases of RSV infection require hospitalisation; this is most likely to occur in infant populations at high risk. The study assesses the cost-effectiveness of palivizumab versus no prophylaxis in infants at high risk of hospitalisation with RSV in the United Kingdom (UK). Methods A decision tree model was developed to reflect the clinical pathway of infants at high risk of severe RSV infection who receive either prophylaxis with palivizumab or no prophylaxis. The main outcome was the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER). One-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed to assess the degree of uncertainty surrounding the results. A threshold analysis considered the impact of clinical and environmental risk factors on the cost-effectiveness in the subgroup of preterm infants 33–35 weeks gestational age (wGA). Results Prophylaxis with palivizumab compared with no prophylaxis is associated with the following ICERs; £33,216 for infants with congenital heart disease; £19,168 for infants with chronic lung disease; £3,845 for preterm infants < 29 wGA; £30,205 for preterm infants 29–32 wGA; and £99,056 for preterm infants 33–35 wGA. One-way sensitivity analysis suggests that these results are highly sensitive to the input data. Threshold analysis in the preterm 33–35 wGA subgroup demonstrates that an adjusted RSV-hospitalisation baseline risk of 17.94% or higher would result in an ICER below the £30,000 per quality-adjusted life-year threshold. Discussion Palivizumab is cost-effective compared to no prophylaxis in the United Kingdom in many of the subgroups considered, showing that palivizumab would be a cost-effective use of National Health Service resources.

2013-01-01

306

A cost-effectiveness analysis of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) prophylaxis in infants in the United Kingdom.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a common cause of respiratory infection that is highly prevalent in infants. Severe cases of RSV infection require hospitalisation; this is most likely to occur in infant populations at high risk. The study assesses the cost-effectiveness of palivizumab versus no prophylaxis in infants at high risk of hospitalisation with RSV in the United Kingdom (UK). METHODS: A decision tree model was developed to reflect the clinical pathway of infants at high risk of severe RSV infection who receive either prophylaxis with palivizumab or no prophylaxis. The main outcome was the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER). One-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed to assess the degree of uncertainty surrounding the results. A threshold analysis considered the impact of clinical and environmental risk factors on the cost-effectiveness in the subgroup of preterm infants 33-35 weeks gestational age (wGA). RESULTS: Prophylaxis with palivizumab compared with no prophylaxis is associated with the following ICERs; £33,216 for infants with congenital heart disease; £19,168 for infants with chronic lung disease; £3,845 for preterm infants < 29 wGA; £30,205 for preterm infants 29-32 wGA; and £99,056 for preterm infants 33-35 wGA. One-way sensitivity analysis suggests that these results are highly sensitive to the input data. Threshold analysis in the preterm 33-35 wGA subgroup demonstrates that an adjusted RSV-hospitalisation baseline risk of 17.94% or higher would result in an ICER below the £30,000 per quality-adjusted life-year threshold. DISCUSSION: Palivizumab is cost-effective compared to no prophylaxis in the United Kingdom in many of the subgroups considered, showing that palivizumab would be a cost-effective use of National Health Service resources.

Bentley A; Filipovic I; Gooch K; Büsch K

2013-01-01

307

Pharmacoeconomics of medical abortion: a review of cost in the United States, Europe and Asia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Procedures for the termination of pregnancy have existed for many years. Vacuum aspiration, otherwise referred to as 'surgical' abortion, is a very common and safe procedure. Its efficacy and acceptability has been established and its complication rate is low. Medical abortion is a much more recent phenomenon. It is defined as early pregnancy termination with the use of abortion inducing medications, without surgery [1]. In contrast to surgical abortion, medical abortion is not as routinely offered, nor are many providers comfortable with its use. Medical abortion regimens currently available throughout the world include mifepristone (Mifeprex trade mark, Aventis Pharma AG) and a prostaglandin analogue (usually misoprostol), methotrexate and misoprostol and misoprostol (Cytotec trade mark, CD Searle & Co.) alone. In the US, minimal information exists directly comparing medical to surgical abortion. Most abortion surveillance data was collected by the Centers for Disease Control prior to the approval of mifepristone. In contrast, there is over a decade's worth of experience from Europe with both the use and provision of medical abortion. A complete review of these issues must include background information on the history and incidence of abortion, who chooses to get an abortion, who provides that service and at what cost. The cost issue is discussed using three different viewpoints: cost to the patient, cost to the provider, cost to society - mainly in the form of government expenditure and savings. Following the cost analysis, there is a summary of relevant information from countries in Europe, primarily the UK, France, Sweden and countries in Asia, mainly China and India.

Murthy A; Creinin MD

2003-04-01

308

Lifetime cost-effectiveness of trial of labor after cesarean in the United States.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the cost-effectiveness of a trial of labor after one previous cesarean (TOLAC) when incorporating long-term events and outcomes. METHODS: A Markov model comparing TOLAC with elective repeat cesarean delivery (ERCD) was developed for a hypothetical cohort with no contraindication to a TOLAC. Women were selected from a prospective study to derive probability estimates for potential events through three subsequent pregnancies. Probabilities for cerebral palsy and stress urinary incontinence, cost data, and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) were obtained from the literature. The primary outcome was cost-effectiveness measured as the marginal cost per QALY gained, with a $50,000 threshold per QALY used to define cost-effectiveness. RESULTS: The TOLAC strategy dominated the ERCD strategy at baseline, with $164.2 million saved and 500 QALYs gained per 100,000 women. The model was sensitive to six variables: the probability of uterine rupture and successful TOLAC among women with no prior vaginal delivery, the frequency of stress urinary incontinence, and the costs of failed TOLAC, successful TOLAC, and ERCD. When the probability of TOLAC success was at the base value, 67.2%, TOLAC was preferred if the probability of uterine rupture was 3.1% or less. When the probability of uterine rupture was at the base value, 0.8%, the TOLAC strategy was preferred as long as the probability of success was 47.2% or more. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis confirmed the base-case analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Under baseline circumstances, TOLAC is less expensive and more effective than an ERCD when considering long-term consequences when the likelihood of success is 47.2% or more.

Gilbert SA; Grobman WA; Landon MB; Varner MW; Wapner RJ; Sorokin Y; Sibai BM; Thorp JM; Ramin SM; Mercer BM

2013-09-01

309

The technology of calculation and manufacturing of units for formation of proton beam in radiotherapy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] At the real irradiation of patients, the therapeutic proton beam is formed with the help of an individual collimator made of Cerrobend. To make the dose distribution of the proton beam conformal to the distal edge of the target, a bolus - a range shifter of complex shape - is calculated and then manufactured. The shape of the bolus takes into account the heterogeneous structures of the patient's tissue and organs that are located at the beam pass. This article describes the main stages of verification of a technology of boluses manufacture developed at the Medical-Technical Complex of the DLNP, JINR. It is performed by comparing the spatial distributions of the dose field received by the computer simulation of proton irradiation and actually measured in the experiment

2012-01-01

310

What reductions in dependency costs result from treatment in an inpatient neurological rehabilitation unit for people with stroke?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper examines the reductions in care costs that result from inpatient multidisciplinary rehabilitation for younger people with acquired brain injury. Thirty-five consecutive patients admitted following a stroke over one year were recruited to this observational study. Physical ability, dependency and potential community care costs were measured on admission and discharge. Fifty-one community-dwelling patients were transferred to rehabilitation from acute medical wards in a large teaching hospital; 35 met the inclusion criteria. After a median of 59 days of rehabilitation, 29 patients were discharged home and six to nursing homes. Patients made highly significant gains in physical ability (median Barthel index 50 to 64; p < 0.001). Dependency decreased; median calculated costs for care were reduced from pounds 1900 to pounds 1100 per week, a saving of pounds 868 per week. Total annualised care costs reduced from pounds 3,358,056 to pounds 1,807,208, a potential saving of pounds 1,550,848. The median time to repay rehabilitation costs was 21 weeks. Savings occurred in those with moderate and severe disability and they have the potential to continue to accrue for over 12 years. Similar results will probably be found for rehabilitation in other forms of acquired brain injury.

O'Connor RJ; Beden R; Pilling A; Chamberlain MA

2011-02-01

311

Environmental licensing as an alternative to calculate internal environmental costs; O licenciamento ambiental como alternativa de internalizacao dos custos ambientais  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper discusses the Brazilian environmental legislation concerning environmental costs of electric sector undertakings. The work analyses, based on two case studies and a brief discussion of the environmental costs concepts, some of the main implications of the internal environmental costs in the electric sector planning process 9 refs.

Vilele Junior, A.; Uhlig, A. [Companhia Energetica de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

1993-12-31

312

Cost-effectiveness of 3-years of adjuvant imatinib in gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) in the United States.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Recent clinical trial data have demonstrated that 3 years vs 1 year of adjuvant imatinib therapy for patients with surgically resected Kit+ Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors (GIST) leads to a significant improvement in recurrence-free survival and overall survival. This study assesses the cost-effectiveness of treating patients with 3 years vs 1 year of imatinib from a US payer's perspective. METHODS: A Markov model was developed to predict GIST recurrence and treatment costs. Patients enter the model after surgery and transition among three health states: free of recurrence, recurrence, and death. Recurrence, mortality, costs, and utilities were derived from clinical trial and published literature. Expected costs and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) were estimated and discounted at 3%/year. Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were conducted. RESULTS: Patients receiving 3 years of imatinib had higher QALYs (8.53 vs 7.18) than those receiving 1 year of imatinib. Total lifetime per-patient cost was $302,100 for 3 years vs $217,800 for 1 year of imatinib. Incremental cost effectiveness ratio of 3 years vs 1 year of imatinib was $62,600/QALY. Model results were sensitive to long-term rate of GIST recurrence (beyond 5 years) and cost of imatinib. At a threshold of $100,000/QALY, 3 years vs 1 year of imatinib was cost-effective in 100% of simulations. LIMITATIONS: The model is a simplified representation of disease natural history and may not account for all possible health states and complications associated with disease. Resource utilization on treatment was estimated using the resource use data from previous trials, therefore calculated medical costs might be over-estimated compared to the real-world setting. CONCLUSIONS: Model results suggest that treatment with 3 years vs 1 year of imatinib is cost-effective at a $100,000/QALY threshold. Clinical and economic results suggest treating surgically resected Kit+ GIST patients with 3 years of imatinib would result in improved quality-adjusted survival.

Sanon M; Taylor DC; Parthan A; Coombs J; Paolantonio M; Sasane M

2013-01-01

313

Structure of alginate gels: interaction of diuronate units with divalent cations from density functional calculations.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The complexation of (1?4) linked ?-L-guluronate (G) and ?-D-mannuronate (M) disaccharides with Mg(2+), Ca(2+), Sr(2+), Mn(2+), Co(2+), Cu(2+), and Zn(2+) cations have been studied with quantum chemical density functional theory (DFT)-based method. A large number of possible cation-diuronate complexes, with one and two GG or MM disaccharide units and with or without water molecules in the inner coordination shells have been considered. The computed bond distances, cation interaction energies, and molecular orbital composition analysis revealed that the complexation of the transition metal (TM) ions to the disaccharides occurs via the formation of strong coordination-covalent bonds. On the contrary, the alkaline earth cations form ionic bonds with the uronates. The unidentate binding is found to be the most favored one in the TM hydrated and water-free complexes. By removing water molecules, the bidentate chelating binding also occurs, although it is found to be energetically less favored by 1 to 1.5 eV than the unidentate one. A good correlation is obtained between the alginate affinity trend toward TM cations and the interaction energies of the TM cations in all studied complexes, which suggests that the alginate affinities are strongly related to the chemical interaction strength of TM cations-uronate complexes. The trend of the interaction energies of the alkaline earth cations in the ionic complexes is opposite to the alginate affinity order. The binding strength is thus not a limiting factor in the alginate gelation in the presence of alkaline earth cations at variance with the TM cations.

Agulhon P; Markova V; Robitzer M; Quignard F; Mineva T

2012-06-01

314

Structure of alginate gels: interaction of diuronate units with divalent cations from density functional calculations.  

Science.gov (United States)

The complexation of (1?4) linked ?-L-guluronate (G) and ?-D-mannuronate (M) disaccharides with Mg(2+), Ca(2+), Sr(2+), Mn(2+), Co(2+), Cu(2+), and Zn(2+) cations have been studied with quantum chemical density functional theory (DFT)-based method. A large number of possible cation-diuronate complexes, with one and two GG or MM disaccharide units and with or without water molecules in the inner coordination shells have been considered. The computed bond distances, cation interaction energies, and molecular orbital composition analysis revealed that the complexation of the transition metal (TM) ions to the disaccharides occurs via the formation of strong coordination-covalent bonds. On the contrary, the alkaline earth cations form ionic bonds with the uronates. The unidentate binding is found to be the most favored one in the TM hydrated and water-free complexes. By removing water molecules, the bidentate chelating binding also occurs, although it is found to be energetically less favored by 1 to 1.5 eV than the unidentate one. A good correlation is obtained between the alginate affinity trend toward TM cations and the interaction energies of the TM cations in all studied complexes, which suggests that the alginate affinities are strongly related to the chemical interaction strength of TM cations-uronate complexes. The trend of the interaction energies of the alkaline earth cations in the ionic complexes is opposite to the alginate affinity order. The binding strength is thus not a limiting factor in the alginate gelation in the presence of alkaline earth cations at variance with the TM cations. PMID:22571325

Agulhon, Pierre; Markova, Velina; Robitzer, Mike; Quignard, Françoise; Mineva, Tzonka

2012-05-22

315

Estimating the cost-effectiveness of onabotulinumtoxinA for neurogenic detrusor overactivity in the United States.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Urinary incontinence (UI) secondary to a neurogenic pathology, including spinal cord injury and multiple sclerosis, is termed neurogenic detrusor overactivity (NDO). Patients with NDO experience decreased quality of life and are at risk for upper urinary tract damage. Two recent trials demonstrated that onabotulinumtoxinA significantly reduced UI, improved urodynamic parameters, and improved quality of life relative to placebo. However, the economic impact of onabotulinumtoxinA treatment for UI due to NDO in the United States remains unknown. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this analysis was to evaluate whether the benefit observed in NDO patients receiving onabotulinumtoxinA provides good value for money. METHODS: We developed a Markov state transition model to estimate population outcomes and costs for anticholinergic-refractory NDO patients who received either onabotulinumtoxinA or best supportive care (use of incontinence pads with either an anticholinergic drug, clean intermittent self-catheterization, or both). Nonresponding patients (<50% reduction in UI episodes at 6 weeks) were eligible to receive invasive procedures, including augmentation cystoplasty or sacral neuromodulation. Patients could transition through 6 health states, 3 defined based on response to initial treatment, 2 capturing patients who underwent invasive procedures, and death. Time in each health state was adjusted for patient quality of life and summed to estimate quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs). The model included direct medical costs related to initial and subsequent drug and invasive treatments, physician visits, and catheterization. Outcomes and costs were summed and compared across intervention groups by using the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER; cost per QALY). The time horizon of the model was 3 years, and results were discounted at 3%. Scenario, 1-way, and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed to test the robustness of the model results. RESULTS: In the base case, onabotulinumtoxinA increased QALYs by 0.059 and costs by $1466 compared with best supportive care, which resulted in an estimated ICER of $24,720/QALY. OnabotulinumtoxinA also decreased mean UI episodes per person-year by 398, resulting in a cost of $4 per UI episode avoided. Model results were most sensitive to the probability of treatment response. The probabilistic sensitivity analysis indicated that at a willingness to pay of $50,000/QALY, onabotulinumtoxinA has a 97% probability of being cost-effective. In subgroup analyses of each etiology, onabotulinumtoxinA yielded an ICER of $32,268/QALY in multiple sclerosis and $2182 in spinal cord injury. CONCLUSION: OnabotulinumtoxinA seems to be a cost-effective intervention for UI due to NDO compared with best supportive care.

Carlson JJ; Hansen RN; Dmochowski RR; Globe DR; Colayco DC; Sullivan SD

2013-04-01

316

Catacol, a low cost reactive distillation technology for ether production and for revamping existing units  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper outlines the advantages of Catacol (tm) and describes this new technology. Some applications of Catacol (tm) such as debottlenecking of existing etherification units are developed. Technological considerations for the production of ETBE are also provided in this paper and the conversion of MTBE plants to ETBE manufacture is addressed. (author). 3 figs.

Nocca, J.L.; Travers, P.; Koskas, A.

1996-12-31

317

Estimated cost of stress corrosion cracking in continuous Kraft digesters between 1980 and 1983 in the United States  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Using cracking statistics generated by two independent studies, estimated repair costs and estimated lost profits, the cost of stress corrosion cracking in continuous Kraft digesters was estimated for a three year period between late 1980 and early 1983. It was found from averaging the two studies, that 36% of the digester vessels had crack depths in excess of 0.25 inches and required structural repair (Class 1), 45% had crack depths less than 0.25 inches and did not require structural repair (Class 2), and 19% reportedly had no cracks at all (Class 3). Based on average repair costs and down time estimates, repair and lost profit costs in the United States were estimated to total in excess of a billion dollars for 110 vessels had good market conditions prevailed. This greater than $333 M/year loss is not only significant because of its size, but it is also greater than the estimated energy savings of $325 M/year associated with continuous versus batch digester operation.

Olson, N.J.

1984-10-01

318

Cost of Power Interruptions to Electricity Consumers in the UnitedStates (U.S.)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The massive electric power blackout in the northeastern U.S.and Canada on August 14-15, 2003 catalyzed discussions about modernizingthe U.S. electricity grid. Industry sources suggested that investments of$50 to $100 billion would be needed. This work seeks to better understandan important piece of information that has been missing from thesediscussions: What do power interruptions and fluctuations in powerquality (power-quality events) cost electricity consumers? We developed abottom-up approach for assessing the cost to U.S. electricity consumersof power interruptions and power-quality events (referred to collectivelyas "reliability events"). The approach can be used to help assess thepotential benefits of investments in improving the reliability of thegrid. We developed a new estimate based on publicly availableinformation, and assessed how uncertainties in these data affect thisestimate using sensitivity analysis.

Hamachi LaCommare, Kristina; Eto, Joseph H.

2006-02-16

319

The cost-effectiveness of expanded HIV screening in the United States.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: The current Centers of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) guidelines from 2006 recommend a one-time test for low-risk individuals and annual testing for those at high risk. These guidelines may not be aggressive enough, even for those at low risk of infection, due to the earlier initiation of HAART and a movement towards a test-and-treat environment. We evaluated the optimal testing frequencies for various risk groups in comparison to the CDC recommendations. METHODS: We build a deterministic mathematical model optimizing the tradeoff between the societal cost of testing and the benefits over a patient's lifetime of earlier diagnosis. RESULTS: Under a test-and-treat scenario with immediate initiation of HAART, the optimal testing frequency is every 2.4 years for low-risk (0.01% annual incidence) individuals; every 9 months for moderate risk (0.1% incidence) individuals; and every 3 months for high-risk (1.0% incidence) individuals. The incremental cost-effectiveness of the optimal policy is $ 36?,342/quality-adjusted life-years (QALY) for low-risk individuals and $ 45?,074/QALY for high-risk individuals compared with 20-year and annual testing, respectively. CONCLUSION: The current CDC guidelines for HIV testing are too conservative, and more frequent testing is cost-effective for all risk groups.

Lucas A; Armbruster B

2013-03-01

320

Serologic testing for syphilis in the United States: a cost-effectiveness analysis of two screening algorithms.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The introduction of automated treponemal enzyme immunoassays and chemiluminescence assays (EIA/CA) tests has led some laboratories in the United States to use new syphilis screening algorithms that start with a treponemal test. We compared the economic and health outcomes of this new algorithm with the standard algorithm from the perspective of the United States health system. METHODS: We used a cohort decision analysis to estimate the expected costs and effects (including follow-ups and overtreatment) of the 2 algorithms from a health-care system perspective. In the standard algorithm, rapid plasma reagin (RPR) is followed (if reactive) by EIA/CA (Nontreponemal-First). In the new algorithm, EIA/CA is followed (if reactive) by RPR. If the RPR is negative, Treponema pallidum passive particle agglutination assay (TP-PA) test is used (Treponemal-First). RESULTS: For a cohort of 200,000 individuals (1000 current infections and 10,000 previous infections), the net costs were $1.6 m (Treponemal-First) and $1.4 m (Nontreponemal-First). The Treponemal-First option treated 118 more cases (986 vs. 868) but resulted in a substantially higher number of follow-ups (11,450 vs. 3756) and overtreatment (964 vs. 38). Treating the additional 118 cases might prevent 1 case of tertiary syphilis. The estimated cost-effectiveness ratios were $1671 (Treponemal-First) and $1621 (Nontreponemal-First) per case treated. The overtreatment was a function of the specificity of the EIA/CA and the lack of independence of EIA/CA and TP-PA. CONCLUSION: The Treponemal-First option costs slightly more and results in more unnecessary treatment.

Owusu-Edusei K Jr; Peterman TA; Ballard RC

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

¿Cómo calcular los Costos Medioambientales?: Caso: Empresa Gráfica de Cienfuegos/ How to Calculate the Environmental Costs?: Case Company Grafica Cienfuegos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish El mundo necesita urgentemente que se proteja el medio ambiente, muchas empresas y organizaciones destinan grandes recursos para lograr ese fin y lograr un Desarrollo Sostenible como máxima a alcanzar por cualquier país u organización. Se hace entonces imprescindible determinar cuánto le dedican las Empresas al medio ambiente, teniendo en cuenta que las Entidades tienen un contrato implícito con la sociedad y el medio, producto de los recursos que utiliza y los desec (more) hos y desperdicios que vierte, es por eso que se necesitan calcular y registrar los costos medioambientales por productos, para enriquecer la gestión medioambiental de la entidad y favorecer de esta manera una excelente toma de decisiones. La siguiente investigación busca un procedimiento que permita dar solución a esta problemática, logrando su conformación con el uso de diversas técnicas dentro de las que se destacan las listas de chequeos medioambientales y el ciclo de vida del producto, que permite además poder conocer por separado como cada proceso y producto impacta en el medioambiente. Abstract in english The world urgently needs to protect the environment, many companies and organizations devote huge resources to reach that goal and achieve sustainable development as the highest standard of achievement for any country or organization. It then becomes imperative to determine how much the companies spend on the environment, taking into account that the Entities have an implicit contract with society and the environment, the product of the resources used and waste and waste (more) pouring, which is why one needs to calculate and record the environmental costs of products to enhance the environmental management of the entity and thus promote an excellent decision-making. The following research seeks a procedure which allows solving this problem, making its composition with the use of various techniques within which highlights the environmental checklists and product life cycle, which also allows knowing separately as each process and product impacts the environment.

Becerra, Keitel; Gómez, Elizabeth; Pérez, Grisel; Reyes, Reynier

2011-12-01

322

Coverage Range and Cost Comparison of Remote Antenna Unit Designs for In-building Radio over Fiber Technology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Future communication needs to be ubiquitous, broadband, convergent, and seamless. Radio over fiber (RoF) technology is one of the most important enabler in access network for the technologies. Adoption of RoF faces bottleneck in optoelectronics, that they are still expensive, high power consumption, and limited in bandwidth. To solve the problem, transceiver in remote antenna unit (RAU) is developed, i.e. electroabsorption transceiver (EAT) and asymmetric Fabry-Perot modulator (AFPM). This paper compares their coverage range and cost in providing WCDMA and WLAN services. Needed gain of RF amplifier for supporting picocell is also discussed.

Razali Ngah; Teguh Prakoso; Tharek Abdul Rahman

2008-01-01

323

A high efficiency, low cost, permanent magnet generator for an electric vehicle auxiliary power unit  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Although electric vehicles offer the most potential to reduce environmental pollution, their limited range of 70-100 km remains a major obstacle. The situation is aggravated by unpredictable reductions in range, as a consequence of severe ambient conditions (e.g. low temperature) or incomplete charging of the batteries. To overcome these problems, and improve consumer acceptance of electric vehicles, a small lightweight auxiliary power unit (APU), consisting of an electric generator and its associated power electronics, driven by a compact internal combustion engine operating at optimum conditions to minimise emissions, is being developed. This paper will concentrate on the design synthesis and electromagnetic analysis of a 3-phase, buried permanent magnet generator and will present preliminary experimental results obtained from a prototype unit. (author)

Mitchell, J.K.; Jewell, G.W.; Howe, D. [University of Sheffield (United Kingdom)

1999-07-01

324

Creating a Multi-Dimensional Model for Analyzing Costs in a Health Unit  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper aims to develop a model based on existing historical financial data in a health unit, with a view to facilitating the decision-maker’s task, who, starting from the analysis of historical data, can better manage the present decisions. Also the publication of reports on the Internet of the use of public money can increase the transparency of the public institutions concerned.

Radu LIXANDROIU

2012-01-01

325

Estudo comparativo envolvendo três métodos de cálculo de custo operacional do caminhão bitrem Comparative study of three methods for calculating operational cost of Bitrem truck  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O presente trabalho trata do estudo comparativo de três metodologias utilizadas para o cálculo do custo operacional de veículos de transporte florestal, a saber: FAO - América do Norte, FAO/ECE/KWF e Battistella/Scânia. Para tanto, considerou-se um caminhão bitrem, um dos mais utilizados no transporte de carga florestal no Brasil. Nos dois primeiros métodos, o custo foi calculado por hora efetiva de trabalho (he), sendo no último calculado por quilômetro (km), em que se utilizou um fator para converter o custo de km em custo por hora efetiva de trabalho (he). O custo operacional, no método FAO - América do Norte e FAO/ECE/KWF foi dado pelo somatório dos seguintes custos: de maquinário (custos fixos e variáveis), administrativo (custo de administração) e de pessoal (custo de mão-de-obra). No método Battistella/Scânia, esse custo foi resultante do somatório dos custos de maquinário e administrativo. O método FAO - América do Norte foi o mais expressivo em termos de custo operacional (US$ 50,47/he), sendo o mais indicado no caso em estudo, em razão, principalmente, da grande aproximação em relação ao custo real. O custo de maquinário representou mais de 85% do custo total em todas as metodologias, destacando-se o custo variável devido ao alto custo do combustível. Observou-se que o custo operacional apresentou valores distintos, uma vez que nesses métodos se utilizam fórmulas diferenciadas num mesmo custo.The present work deals with the comparative study of three methodologies used for calculating the operational cost of forest transport vehicles such as: FAO - North America; FAO/ECE/KWF e Battistella /Scânia. For this the, Bitrem truck was considered as it is one of the most used for forest load transport in Brazil. The two first methods had the operational cost calculated per effective hour of work (eh), and the latter had the cost calculated per kilometer (km). Thus, for this method, a factor to convert kilometer cost to cost per effective hours of work (eh) was used. The operational cost, for FAO - North America and FAO/ECE/KWF, was obtained by the sum of the following costs: machine (fixed and variable costs); administrative (administration cost) and worker (workmanship hand cost). For the Battistella/Scânia method, the operacional cost was obtained by the sum of machine and administrative costs. The FAO method - North America was the most expressive in terms of operational cost (USS 50,47/he). This method was the most indicated for the case in study, due mainly to the large approximation in relation to the real cost. The machine costs represented more than 85% of the total cost in all methodologies, with the variable cost standing out, due the high fuel cost. The operational costs presented distinct values, probably due to the fact that these methods present different formulas for the same cost.

Luís Carlos de Freitas; Gláucio Marcelino Marques; Márcio Lopes da Silva; Raiane Ribeiro Machado; Carlos Cardoso Machado

2004-01-01

326

Estudo comparativo envolvendo três métodos de cálculo de custo operacional do caminhão bitrem/ Comparative study of three methods for calculating operational cost of Bitrem truck  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O presente trabalho trata do estudo comparativo de três metodologias utilizadas para o cálculo do custo operacional de veículos de transporte florestal, a saber: FAO - América do Norte, FAO/ECE/KWF e Battistella/Scânia. Para tanto, considerou-se um caminhão bitrem, um dos mais utilizados no transporte de carga florestal no Brasil. Nos dois primeiros métodos, o custo foi calculado por hora efetiva de trabalho (he), sendo no último calculado por quilômetro (km), em (more) que se utilizou um fator para converter o custo de km em custo por hora efetiva de trabalho (he). O custo operacional, no método FAO - América do Norte e FAO/ECE/KWF foi dado pelo somatório dos seguintes custos: de maquinário (custos fixos e variáveis), administrativo (custo de administração) e de pessoal (custo de mão-de-obra). No método Battistella/Scânia, esse custo foi resultante do somatório dos custos de maquinário e administrativo. O método FAO - América do Norte foi o mais expressivo em termos de custo operacional (US$ 50,47/he), sendo o mais indicado no caso em estudo, em razão, principalmente, da grande aproximação em relação ao custo real. O custo de maquinário representou mais de 85% do custo total em todas as metodologias, destacando-se o custo variável devido ao alto custo do combustível. Observou-se que o custo operacional apresentou valores distintos, uma vez que nesses métodos se utilizam fórmulas diferenciadas num mesmo custo. Abstract in english The present work deals with the comparative study of three methodologies used for calculating the operational cost of forest transport vehicles such as: FAO - North America; FAO/ECE/KWF e Battistella /Scânia. For this the, Bitrem truck was considered as it is one of the most used for forest load transport in Brazil. The two first methods had the operational cost calculated per effective hour of work (eh), and the latter had the cost calculated per kilometer (km). Thus, f (more) or this method, a factor to convert kilometer cost to cost per effective hours of work (eh) was used. The operational cost, for FAO - North America and FAO/ECE/KWF, was obtained by the sum of the following costs: machine (fixed and variable costs); administrative (administration cost) and worker (workmanship hand cost). For the Battistella/Scânia method, the operacional cost was obtained by the sum of machine and administrative costs. The FAO method - North America was the most expressive in terms of operational cost (USS 50,47/he). This method was the most indicated for the case in study, due mainly to the large approximation in relation to the real cost. The machine costs represented more than 85% of the total cost in all methodologies, with the variable cost standing out, due the high fuel cost. The operational costs presented distinct values, probably due to the fact that these methods present different formulas for the same cost.

Freitas, Luís Carlos de; Marques, Gláucio Marcelino; Silva, Márcio Lopes da; Machado, Raiane Ribeiro; Machado, Carlos Cardoso

2004-12-01

327

Análisis de las obligaciones en materia de cálculo de costes en las administraciones públicas españolas/ Analysis of Obligations Regarding Cost Calculation in Spanish Public Administrations/ Análise das obrigações em matéria de cálculo de custos nas administrações públicas espanholas  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho é rever as tentativas legisladoras destinadas a estabelecer obrigatoriedade no custeio das administrações públicas. Apesar dos múltiplos esforços normativos, a aplicação da contabilidade de custos não é generalizada no campo do setor público, pois bem poucas instituições determinam seus custos. Na atualidade, está se produzindo grande impulso na aplicação desta ferramenta, devido à exigência de apresentar um resumo dos custos na memória das entidades do setor público administrativo. Abstract in spanish El objetivo de este trabajo es realizar una revisión de los intentos legisladores encaminados a establecer la obligatoriedad del cálculo de costes en las administraciones públicas. A pesar de los múltiples esfuerzos normativos, la aplicación de la contabilidad de costes no se ha generalizado en el ámbito del sector público, pues muy pocas instituciones determinan sus costes. En la actualidad, se está produciendo un gran impulso en la aplicación de esta herramient (more) a, debido a la exigencia de presentar un resumen de costes en la memoria de las entidades pertenecientes al sector público administrativo. Abstract in english The aim of this paper is to review the regulation attempts aimed at making cost calculation compulsory in public administrations. Despite many policy efforts, the application of cost accounting is not widespread in the public sector, for very few institutions determine their costs. Nowadays there is a big boost for the application of this tool, due to the requirement to present a summary of costs in the memory of the entities belonging to the public administration sector.

González-Sánchez, María Beatriz; López-Valeiras Sampedro, Ernesto; Gómez-Conde, Jacobo; Rodríguez-González, Estefanía

2012-06-01

328

Calculation of marginal costs in composite generation and transmission systems - a probabilistic approach; Calculo de custos marginais em sistemas compostos de geracao e transmissao - uma abordagem probabilistica  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article describes an integrated environment for calculation of short-term marginal costs in hydrothermal systems, considering the chronological aspects of the reservoirs operation, transmission restraints, equipment failures, hydrologic variations and load uncertainty. Some results concerning the Brazilian North-Northeastern system are presented and discussed 17 refs., 13 figs.

Mello, Joao Carlos O.; Granvile, Sergio [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Pereira, Mario Veiga F.; Lima, Maria Candida A. [PSR Consultoria, XX (Brazil); Alvarenga Filho, Stenio [ELETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

1995-12-31

329

Analysis of calculation methodologies of electric power deficit cost; Analise das metodologias de calculo do custo do deficit de energia eletrica  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents a methodology review of electric power deficit cost calculation, which is a fundamental parameter for planning of operation and expansion of a hydrothermal system, in a way to contribute with compatibilizing in procedures of planning and operation, and of methodological improvement as well.

Pereira Junior, Amaro Olimpio; David, Pedro A.M-S.; Spera, Marilia Ribeiro [Empresa de Pesquisa Energetica (EPE), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Diretoria de Estudos de Energia Eletrica. Superintendencia de Planejamento de Geracao

2010-07-01

330

Compliance with hand hygiene on surgical, medical, and neurologic intensive care units: direct observation versus calculated disinfectant usage.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Hand hygiene (HH) is considered the single most effective measure to prevent and control health care-associated infections (HAIs). Although there have been several reports on compliance rates (CRs) to HH recommendations, data for intensive care units (ICUs) in general and for shift- and indication-specific opportunities in particular are scarce. METHODS: The aim of this study was to collect data on ICU-, shift-, and indication-specific opportunities, activities and CRs at a surgical ICU (SICU), a medical ICU (MICU), and a neurologic ICU (NICU) at the University Hospital Aachen based on direct observation (DO) and calculated disinfectant usage (DU). RESULTS: Opportunities for HH recorded over a 24-hour period were significantly higher for the SICU (188 per patient day [PD]) and MICU (163 per PD) than for the NICU (124 per PD). Directly observed CRs were 39% (73/188) in the SICU, 72% (117/163) in the MICU, and 73% (90/124) in the NICU. However, CRs calculated as a measure of DU were considerably lower: 16% (29/188) in the SICU, 21% (34/163) in the MICU, and 25% (31/124) in the NICU. Notably, CRs calculated from DO were lowest before aseptic tasks and before patient contact. CONCLUSIONS: To the best of our knowledge, this study provides the first data picturing a complete day, including shift- and indication-specific analyses, and comparing directly observed CRs with those calculated based on DU, the latter of which revealed a 2.75-fold difference. Worrisomely, CRs were very low, especially concerning indications of greatest impact in preventing HAIs, such as before aseptic task. Thus, the gathering of additional data on CRs and the reasons for noncompliance is warranted.

Scheithauer S; Haefner H; Schwanz T; Schulze-Steinen H; Schiefer J; Koch A; Engels A; Lemmen SW

2009-12-01

331

LIFE Cost of Electricity, Capital and Operating Costs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Successful commercialization of fusion energy requires economic viability as well as technical and scientific feasibility. To assess economic viability, we have conducted a pre-conceptual level evaluation of LIFE economics. Unit costs are estimated from a combination of bottom-up costs estimates, working with representative vendors, and scaled results from previous studies of fission and fusion plants. An integrated process model of a LIFE power plant was developed to integrate and optimize unit costs and calculate top level metrics such as cost of electricity and power plant capital cost. The scope of this activity was the entire power plant site. Separately, a development program to deliver the required specialized equipment has been assembled. Results show that LIFE power plant cost of electricity and plant capital cost compare favorably to estimates for new-build LWR's, coal and gas - particularly if indicative costs of carbon capture and sequestration are accounted for.

Anklam, T

2011-04-14

332

Manual de utilizacao de Nucost 1.0, codigo de calculo de custo de geracao nucleoeletrica. (Manual of Nucost 1.0 - code for calculation of nuclear power generation costs).  

Science.gov (United States)

Nucost is a computer code developed at CDTN to perform cost calculation of electric power generated in PWR nuclear power plants, based on present worth cost method. The Nucost version 1.0 performs calculations of nuclear fuel cost cycle by cycle during th...

H. A. Mascarenhas

1989-01-01

333

Reduced coated-tubing failures cut costs at Dickinson Heath Sand Unit  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the Dickinson Heath Sand Unit waterflood, corrosion-related failures of coated injection tubing began accelerating in 1979 with the increased water production attributed to waterflood response. The trend peaked in 1984 when $164,000 was spent pulling failed tubing (34 workovers). Starting in 1983, the selection of coatings, coating-application-process quality control, and handling/installation procedures were examined, modified, and refined. The author discusses how these changes and improvements resulted in fewer pulling jobs and less money spent on associated workovers during 1988.

Brus, K.R. (Conoco, Inc., Casper, WY (USA))

1990-03-01

334

Intensive care unit versus non-intensive care unit postoperative management of head and neck free flaps: Comparative effectiveness and cost comparisons.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Despite its widespread use, there is no consensus on the postoperative management in patients undergoing free flap reconstructions. We report the largest study comparing flap outcomes, morbidity, and cost in patients with head and neck cancer free flaps who recovered in the intensive care unit (ICU) versus a "specialty floor" setting. METHODS: This was a retrospective review of patients undergoing free flap surgery for head and neck defects over a 4-year period. Patients before a certain date went to the ICU for immediate postoperative care and after to a non-ICU setting. Postoperative medical and surgical complications and hospital charges were analyzed. RESULTS: Patients in the ICU group had a longer length of stay (LOS) and incurred greater hospital costs than the patients in the non-ICU setting. There was no difference in the flap failure rate between the 2 groups. CONCLUSION: Consideration should be given to a floor-based postoperative management regimen for this patient population. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck, 2013.

Arshad H; Ozer HG; Thatcher A; Old M; Ozer E; Agarwal A; Jafari H; Birkheimer D; Basinger H; Forest LA; Schuller DE; Teknos TN

2013-06-01

335

Development of a method for calculating steady-state equipment sensible heat ratio of direct expansion air conditioning units  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A complete set of calculation method for steady-state equipment sensible heat ratio (SHR) for a direct expansion (DX) cooling coil has been developed and reported. The method was based on the fundamentals of energy conservation and heat and mass transfer taking place in the DX cooling coil, and was experimentally validated using an experimental DX A/C rig. With the method developed, the effect of refrigerant evaporating temperature at fixed inlet air conditions on equipment SHR has been theoretically analyzed. The validated method can be useful in further studying the inherent operating characteristics of a DX air conditioning (A/C) unit and in developing suitable control strategies for achieving higher energy efficiency and better indoor thermal environment.

Xia Liang; Chan, M.Y. [Department of Building Services Engineering, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Deng Shiming [Department of Building Services Engineering, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)], E-mail: besmd@polyu.edu.hk

2008-12-15

336

Development of a method for calculating steady-state equipment sensible heat ratio of direct expansion air conditioning units  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A complete set of calculation method for steady-state equipment sensible heat ratio (SHR) for a direct expansion (DX) cooling coil has been developed and reported. The method was based on the fundamentals of energy conservation and heat and mass transfer taking place in the DX cooling coil, and was experimentally validated using an experimental DX A/C rig. With the method developed, the effect of refrigerant evaporating temperature at fixed inlet air conditions on equipment SHR has been theoretically analyzed. The validated method can be useful in further studying the inherent operating characteristics of a DX air conditioning (A/C) unit and in developing suitable control strategies for achieving higher energy efficiency and better indoor thermal environment.

2008-01-01

337

Building a market for small wind: The break-even turnkey cost of residential wind systems in the United States  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Although small wind turbine technology and economics have improved in recent years, the small wind market in the United States continues to be driven in large part by state incentives, such as cash rebates, favorable loan programs, and tax credits. This paper examines the state-by-state economic attractiveness of small residential wind systems. Economic attractiveness is evaluated primarily using the break-even turnkey cost (BTC) of a residential wind system as the figure of merit. The BTC is defined here as the aggregate installed cost of a small wind system that could be supported such that the system owner would break even (and receive a specified return on investment) over the life of the turbine, taking into account current available incentives, the wind resource, and the retail electricity rate offset by on-site generation. Based on the analysis presented in this paper, we conclude that: (1) the economics of residential, grid-connected small wind systems is highly variable by state and wind resource class, (2) significant cost reductions will be necessary to stimulate widespread market acceptance absent significant changes in the level of policy support, and (3) a number of policies could help stimulate the market, but state cash incentives currently have the most significant impact, and will be a critical element of continued growth in this market.

Edwards, Jennifer L.; Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark; Forsyth, Trudy

2004-03-01

338

Constructing the universal characteristic of a compressor based on the results of thermal tests of gas turbine units and using it to calculate variable operating modes  

Science.gov (United States)

A procedure for constructing the universal characteristic of a compressor at different positions of its inlet guide vane using experimentally obtained characteristics of the compressor and turbine, and a computer program for simulating variable operating modes of a gas turbine unit are described. Results from a comparison between calculated data and data obtained from tests of similar types of gas turbines units are presented.

Ol'Khovskii, G. G.; Trushechkin, V. P.; Chadovskaya, I. I.

2010-09-01

339

Economical analysis and study on a solar desalination unit  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Based on the calculation of the single-factor impact values of the parameters of a triple tower-type solar desalination unit on the cost of fresh water production by utilizing a single-factor analyzing method, the influences of the cost of solar heating system, the cost of hot water tank, the costs of desalination unit and electrical power, the life time of solar desalination unit and the yearly yield of fresh water, on the cost of the fresh water production of the solar desalination unit are studied. It is helpful for the further investigation of solar desalination and for reducing the cost of fresh water production for solar desalination units.

340

Photolysis of caged calcium using a low-cost flash unit: efficacy analysis with a calcium selective electrode.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Photolysis of caged calcium (Nitr5, Calbiochem) can be used to study calcium dependent processes such as excitation-contraction coupling and muscular mechanics. Expensive high energy light sources are routinely used for UV light exposure, but this study describes an alternative low cost xenon flash unit constructed in our laboratory. A 300 J short arc xenon flash lamp (Heimann) was mounted in an elliptical reflector and driven by a modified Metz 60 CT 4 photoflash unit up to 240 J input energy and 4 ms flash duration. A 20 microliters cuvette containing a test solution was placed in a complementary elliptical reflector. An ion selective calcium electrode was used to measure the free calcium concentration [Ca2+] before and after flash in test solutions containing 1.00 mM Nitr5 in combination with different added [Ca2+]s. Using this technique we estimated that 1 flash on 1.00 mM Nitr5 increased the free [Ca2+] from 10(-7) to 1.1 x 10(-5) M. When the added [Ca2+] was less than 2.3 x 10(-4) M, the used Nitr5 behaved as a strong calcium chelator because 23% of it was unloaded with calcium. It is concluded that a physiologically relevant change in free [Ca2+] can be evoked by photolysis of Nitr5 using a low cost (approximately $1500) xenon flash unit, and that ion selective Ca electrodes can be adequately used to monitor the resulting changes in [Ca2+].

Van Koeveringe GA; Van Mastrigt R

1994-05-01

 
 
 
 
341

A Historical Analysis of Attitudes toward the Use of Calculators in Junior High and High School Math Classrooms in the United States since 1975  

Science.gov (United States)

This thesis explored the history of calculator usage in mathematics classrooms in the United States since 1975 with a focus on the attitudes of parents, educators, and national organizations. The influence of historical events, people, organizations, research, and trends was explored in depth. Studying the changes that calculators have brought to…

Banks, Sarah A.

2011-01-01

342

Preliminary calculations of average storm duration and seasonal precipitation rates for the northeast sector of the United States  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Regional and seasonal averages of storm duration and precipitation rates are needed as input variables in models aimed at describing precipitation processes relating to acid rain and other problems. Hourly precipitation data for 77 first order weather stations were used to calculate the summer and winter regional average storm duration and average precipitation rates over the northeastern United States. Average storm duration for summer (June-July-August), and winter (December-January-February) seasons considered periods of up to three dry hours in summer storms, and up to 6 dry hours in winter storms to be part of the same storm. Thus, each storm consisted of one or more precipitation periods. The average precipitation event rates for summer and winter storms were calculated. By considering storm duration on an hourly basis, the 3-h summer storm was found to contribute the greatest fraction to total summer precipitation. Similarly, the 26-h winter storm was found to contribute the greatest fraction to winter precipitation. The summer storms typically consisted of one rain event lasting about three hours with rain rates averaging 2.5 mmh/sup -1/. The 25-h winter storm averaged about 3 precipitation periods (or rain bands). Each period lasted about seven hours and had an average precipitation rate of 1.0 mmh /sup -1/.

Thorp, J.M.; Scott, B.C.

1982-01-01

343

Fuel miles and the blend wall: costs and emissions from ethanol distribution in the United States.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

From 1991 to 2009, U.S. production of ethanol increased 10-fold, largely due to government programs motivated by climate change, energy security, and economic development goals. As low-level ethanol-gasoline blends have not consistently outperformed ethanol-free gasoline in vehicle performance or tailpipe emissions, national-level economic and environmental goals could be accomplished more efficiently by concentrating consumption of gasoline containing 10% ethanol (i.e., E10) near producers to minimize freight activity. As the domestic transportation of ethanol increased 10-fold in metric ton-kilometers (t-km) from 2000 to 2009, the portion of t-km potentially justified by the E10 blend wall increased from less than 40% to 80%. However, we estimate 10 billion t-km took place annually from 2004 to 2009 for reasons other than the blend wall. This "unnecessary" transportation resulted in more than $240 million in freight costs, 90 million L of diesel consumption, 300,000 metric tons of CO(2)-e emissions, and 440 g of human intake of PM(2.5). By 2009, the marginal savings from enabling Iowa to surpass E10 would have exceeded 2.5 g CO(2)-e/MJ and $0.12/gallon of ethanol, as the next-closest customer was 1600 km away. The use of a national network model enables estimation of marginal transportation impacts from subnational policies, and benefits from policies encouraging concentrated consumption of renewable fuels.

Strogen B; Horvath A; McKone TE

2012-05-01

344

Antibiotic surveillance on a paediatric intensive care unit: easy attainable strategy at low costs and resources  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Antibiotic surveillance is mandatory to optimise antibiotic therapy. Our objectives were to evaluate antibiotic use in our pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) and to implement a simple achievable intervention aimed at improving antibiotic therapy. Method Prospective, 3 months surveillance of antibiotic use on PICU (phase I) and evaluation according to the CDC 12-step campaign with development of an attainable intervention. 3 months surveillance (phase II) after implementation of intervention with comparison of antibiotic use. Results Appropriate antibiotic use for culture-negative infection-like symptoms and targeted therapy for proven infections were the main areas for potential improvement. The intervention was a mandatory checklist requiring indication and recording likelihood of infection at start of antibiotic therapy and a review of the continuing need for therapy at 48?h and 5 days, reasons for continuation and possible target pathogen. The percentage of appropriate empiric antibiotic therapy courses for culture-negative infection-like symptoms increased from 18% (10/53) to 74% (42/57; p Conclusions Antibiotic surveillance using the CDC 12-step campaign can help to evaluate institutional antibiotic therapy. Development of an attainable intervention using a checklist can show improved antibiotic use with minimal expense.

Stocker Martin; Ferrao Eduardo; Banya Winston; Cheong Jamie; Macrae Duncan; Furck Anke

2012-01-01

345

Restriction techniques for the unit-commitment problem with total procurement costs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Many discrete optimization problems may be solved much easier, if the solution space can be restricted in a convenient way. For a given specific problem, the restriction techniques can be helpful if an available optimization solver, perceived as a black box, is capable of solving quickly only reduced subproblems of a limited size. For the family of hard unit-commitment problems we investigate a hierarchical search algorithm, which is based on decomposition of the problem into two subproblems. The upper-level subproblem is a relatively small decision ''kernel'' of the problem that can be solved approximately by a search algorithm. We define an appropriate restricted decision space for this subproblem. The lower-level subproblem is an appropriate restriction of the original problem that can be solved efficiently by a dedicated solver. Our approach was analyzed on a set of historical data from the Polish electrical balancing market and the best known solutions were improved by the average of about 2-5%. (author)

Kaleta, Mariusz; Toczylowski, Eugeniusz [Institute of Control and Computation Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, ul. Nowowiejska 15/19, 00-665 Warsaw (Poland)

2008-07-15

346

Cost estimating methodology and application  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The Economic Modeling Working Group (EMWG) was created by Generation IV International Forum (GIF) early in 2003. The Group was charged with developing a simplified cost estimating methodology appropriate for Generation IV systems in various stages of development. The Cost Estimating Methodology consists of (1) the Generation IV Cost Estimating Guidelines and (2) a software package, G4-ECONS, to facilitate the implementation of the Guidelines. The Guidelines provide detailed processes for developing the total capital investment cost and calculating the leveled unit electric cost. The central feature of the methodology is the comprehensive Code of Accounts. The Code of Accounts provides a disciplined structure for capturing and categorizing all appropriate costs in the development of consistent system cost estimates. To facilitate implementation of the Cost Estimating Guidelines, the EMWG developed an EXCEL based spread-sheet package, G4-ECONS. The software package facilitates the input of total capital cost at a high level to prevent the inadvertent disclosure of proprietary data. Leveled unit electric cost is also calculated. The methodology, particularly the G4-ECONS software, compared well with published results. The leveled cost of electricity calculated by G4-ECONS was within 1% of the published figure. (A.C.)

2009-01-01

347

Comparative study of the variables for determining unit processing cost of irradiated food products in developing countries : case study of Ghana  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A method for estimating unit cost of gamma treated food products in a developing country like Ghana is presented. The method employs the cost of cobalt source requirement, capital and operating costs, dose requirements etc. and relates these variables to various annual throughput at a gamma processing facility. In situations where the cost of foreign components or devices are required, the assumptions have been based on those of Kunstadt and Steeves. Otherwise, the prevailing conditions existing in Ghana have been used. The study reveals that the unit processing cost for gamma treatment foods in such a facility is between 8.0 to 147.2 US dollars per tonne. (author). 9 refs., 4 figs

1997-01-01

348

Cost-effectiveness of boceprevir in patients previously treated for chronic hepatitis C genotype 1 infection in the United States.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: The phase 3 trial, Serine Protease Inhibitor Boceprevir and PegIntron/Rebetol-2 (RESPOND-2), demonstrated that the addition of boceprevir (BOC) to peginterferon-ribavirin (PR) resulted in significantly higher rates of sustained virologic response (SVR) in previously treated patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype-1 infection as compared with PR alone. We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of treatment with BOC in previously treated patients with chronic hepatitis C in the United States using treatment-related data from RESPOND-2 and PROVIDE studies. METHODS: We developed a Markov cohort model to project the burden of HCV disease, lifetime costs, and quality-adjusted life-years associated with PR and two BOC-based therapies-response-guided therapy (BOC/RGT) and fixed-duration therapy for 48 weeks (BOC/PR48). We estimated treatment-related inputs (efficacy, adverse events, and discontinuations) from clinical trials and obtained disease progression rates, costs, and quality-of-life data from published studies. We estimated the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) for BOC-based regimens as studied in RESPOND-2, as well as by patient's prior response to treatment and the IL-28B genotype. RESULTS: BOC-based regimens were projected to reduce the lifetime incidence of liver-related complications by 43% to 53% in comparison with treatment with PR. The ICER of BOC/RGT in comparison with that of PR was $30,200, and the ICER of BOC/PR48 in comparison with that of BOC/RGT was $91,500. At a willingness-to-pay threshold of $50,000, the probabilities of BOC/RGT and BOC/PR48 being the preferred option were 0.74 and 0.25, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: In patients previously treated for chronic HCV genotype-1 infection, BOC was projected to increase quality-adjusted life-years and reduce the lifetime incidence of liver complications. In addition, BOC-based therapies were projected to be cost-effective in comparison with PR alone at commonly used willingness-to-pay thresholds.

Chhatwal J; Ferrante SA; Brass C; El Khoury AC; Burroughs M; Bacon B; Esteban-Mur R; Elbasha EH

2013-09-01

349

Cost and appropriateness of treating asthma with fixed-combination drugs in local health care units in Italy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Isabella Ruggeri,1 Donatello Bragato,2 Giorgio L Colombo,3,4 Emanuela Valla,3 Sergio Di Matteo41Servizio Governo Area Farmaceutica, Azienda Sanitaria Locale, Milano, Binasco, 2Data Solution Provider, Milan, 3University of Pavia, Department of Drug Sciences, School of Pharmacy, 4Studi Analisi Valutazioni Economiche, MilanBackground: Bronchial asthma is a chronic airways disease and is considered to be one of the major health problems in the Western world. During the last decade, a significant increase in the use of ?2-agonists in combination with inhaled corticosteroids has been observed. The aim of this study was to assess the appropriateness of expenditure on these agents in an asthmatic population treated in a real practice setting.Methods: This study used data for a resident population of 635,906 citizens in the integrated patient database (Banca Dati Assistito) of a local health care unit (Milano 2 Azienda Sanitaria Locale) in the Lombardy region over 3 years (2007–2009). The sample included 3787–4808 patients selected from all citizens aged ? 18 years entitled to social security benefits, having a prescription for a corticosteroid + ?2-agonist combination, and an ATC code corresponding to R03AK, divided into three groups, ie, pressurized (spray) drugs, inhaled powders, and extrafine formulations. Patients with chronic obstructive lung disease were excluded. Indicators of appropriateness were 1–3 packs per year (underdosed, inappropriate), 4–12 packs per year (presumably appropriate), and ?13 packs per year (overtreatment, inappropriate).Results: The corticosteroid + ?2-agonist combination per treated asthmatic patient increased from 37% in 2007 to 45% in 2009 for the total of prescribed antiasthma drugs, and 28%–32% of patients used the drugs in an appropriate manner (4–12 packs per years). The cost of inappropriately used packs increased combination drug expenditure by about 40%, leading to inefficient use of health care resources. This trend improved during the 3-year observation period. The mean annual cost per patient was higher for powders (€223.95) and sprays (€224.83) than for extrafine formulation (€142.71).Conclusion: Based on this analysis, we suggest implementation of better health care planning and more appropriate prescription practices aimed at optimizing use of health care resources for the treatment of bronchial asthma. The results of our study should be extended to other regional/national reference local health care units, in order to define and compare average standard costs per pathology, and consolidated through the wide sample considered.Keywords: asthma, antiasthma drugs, general medicine, appropriateness, pharmacoeconomics, health economics

Ruggeri I; Bragato D; Colombo GL; Valla E; Di Matteo S

2012-01-01

350

Costo-beneficio en una unidad de cuidados intensivos neonatales/ The cost-benefit in a neonatal intensive care unit  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish INTRODUCCIÓN. El Sistema Nacional de Salud de Cuba ha desarrollado un conjunto de reformas encaminadas a lograr una mayor eficiencia en la prestación de servicios, para preservar logros como la efectividad y la accesibilidad. El objetivo de esta investigación fue identificar los costos en la Unidad de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal del Hospital Ginecoobstétrico de Guanabacoa en el período de un año. MÉTODOS. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo prospectivo del período d (more) e enero a diciembre del 2009. La muestra quedo constituida por 65 recién nacidos graves y críticos. Las variables independientes estudiadas fueron: antibióticos, inmunomoduladores, fármacos vasoactivos, soluciones para hidratación, yodo, peróxido de hidrógeno, vitaminas y minerales, oxígeno, material desechable, material de oficina y medios diagnósticos. La información recogida se introdujo en una base de datos, y se procesó con el programa Epidat 3.0. RESULTADOS. Existió un costo total de 70 605,83 CU, que representó unos 2 824,23 CUC, con costo total por paciente de 74,32 CUC. El mayor gasto correspondió al uso de materiales desechables, las soluciones para hidratación y los antibióticos. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION. The Cuban National Health System has developed a series of reforms aimed to achieve a great efficiency in services provision to protect achievements as effectiveness and accessibility. The aim of present research was to identify the costs in the Neonatal Intensive Therapy Unit of the Gynecology and Obstetrics Hospital of Guanabacoa municipality within one year. METHODS. A prospective and descriptive study was conducted from January to December, 2009. Sample (more) included 65 severe and critically ill newborns. The independent study variables were: antibiotics, immunological therapy, vasoactive drugs, solutions for hydration, iodine, hydrogen peroxide, vitamins and minerals, oxygen, waste material, office stationery and diagnostic means. Information capture was entered in a database and processed with Epidat 3.0 program. RESULTS. The total cost of 70 605,83 Currency Unit (CU) accounted for 2 824,23 Cuban Convertible Pesos (CUC) with a total cost by patient of 74,32 CUC. The great expense was for waste materials, solutions for hydration and antibiotics use.

Amador Morán, Rafael; Labrada Despaigne, Alberto; Campo González, Ana; Díaz Aguilar, Rosa

2011-06-01

351

Costo-beneficio en una unidad de cuidados intensivos neonatales The cost-benefit in a neonatal intensive care unit  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN. El Sistema Nacional de Salud de Cuba ha desarrollado un conjunto de reformas encaminadas a lograr una mayor eficiencia en la prestación de servicios, para preservar logros como la efectividad y la accesibilidad. El objetivo de esta investigación fue identificar los costos en la Unidad de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal del Hospital Ginecoobstétrico de Guanabacoa en el período de un año. MÉTODOS. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo prospectivo del período de enero a diciembre del 2009. La muestra quedo constituida por 65 recién nacidos graves y críticos. Las variables independientes estudiadas fueron: antibióticos, inmunomoduladores, fármacos vasoactivos, soluciones para hidratación, yodo, peróxido de hidrógeno, vitaminas y minerales, oxígeno, material desechable, material de oficina y medios diagnósticos. La información recogida se introdujo en una base de datos, y se procesó con el programa Epidat 3.0. RESULTADOS. Existió un costo total de 70 605,83 CU, que representó unos 2 824,23 CUC, con costo total por paciente de 74,32 CUC. El mayor gasto correspondió al uso de materiales desechables, las soluciones para hidratación y los antibióticos.INTRODUCTION. The Cuban National Health System has developed a series of reforms aimed to achieve a great efficiency in services provision to protect achievements as effectiveness and accessibility. The aim of present research was to identify the costs in the Neonatal Intensive Therapy Unit of the Gynecology and Obstetrics Hospital of Guanabacoa municipality within one year. METHODS. A prospective and descriptive study was conducted from January to December, 2009. Sample included 65 severe and critically ill newborns. The independent study variables were: antibiotics, immunological therapy, vasoactive drugs, solutions for hydration, iodine, hydrogen peroxide, vitamins and minerals, oxygen, waste material, office stationery and diagnostic means. Information capture was entered in a database and processed with Epidat 3.0 program. RESULTS. The total cost of 70 605,83 Currency Unit (CU) accounted for 2 824,23 Cuban Convertible Pesos (CUC) with a total cost by patient of 74,32 CUC. The great expense was for waste materials, solutions for hydration and antibiotics use.

Rafael Amador Morán; Alberto Labrada Despaigne; Ana Campo González; Rosa Díaz Aguilar

2011-01-01

352

Phase coexistence calculations via a unit-cell Gibbs ensemble formalism for melts of reversibly bonded block copolymers  

Science.gov (United States)

Melts of block copolymer blends can exhibit coexistence between compositionally and morphologically distinct phases. We derived a unit-cell approach for a field theoretic Gibbs ensemble formalism to rapidly map out such coexistence regions. We also developed a canonical ensemble model for the reversible reaction of supramolecular polymers and integrated it into the Gibbs ensemble scheme. This creates a faster method for generating phase diagrams in complex supramolecular systems than the usual grand canonical ensemble method and allows us to specify the system in experimentally accessible volume fractions rather than chemical potentials. The integrated approach is used to calculate phase diagrams for AB diblock copolymers reversibly reacting with B homopolymers to form a new diblocks we term ``ABB.'' For our case, we use a diblock that is sixty percent A monomer and a homopolymer that is the same length as the diblock. In the limits of infinite reaction favorability (large equilibrium constant), the system approaches cases of an ABB diblock-B homopolymer blend when the AB diblock is the limiting reactant and AB diblock-ABB diblock blend when the homopolymer is the limiting reactant. As reaction favorability is decreased, the phase boundaries shift towards higher homopolymer compositions so that sufficient reaction can take place to produce the ABB diblock that has a deciding role stabilizing the observed phases.

Mester, Zoltan; Lynd, Nathaniel; Fredrickson, Glenn

2013-03-01

353

A case study using the United Republic of Tanzania: costing nationwide HPV vaccine delivery using the WHO Cervical Cancer Prevention and Control Costing Tool  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose, methods, data sources and assumptions behind the World Health Organization (WHO) Cervical Cancer Prevention and Control Costing (C4P) tool that was developed to assist low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) with planning and costing their nationwide human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination program are presented. Tanzania is presented as a case study where the WHO C4P tool was used to cost and plan the roll-out of HPV vaccines nationwide as part of the national comprehensive cervical cancer prevention and control strategy. Methods The WHO C4P tool focuses on estimating the incremental costs to the health system of vaccinating adolescent girls through school-, health facility- and/or outreach-based strategies. No costs to the user (school girls, parents or caregivers) are included. Both financial (or costs to the Ministry of Health) and economic costs are estimated. The cost components for service delivery include training, vaccination (health personnel time and transport, stationery for tally sheets and vaccination cards, and so on), social mobilization/IEC (information, education and communication), supervision, and monitoring and evaluation (M&E). The costs of all the resources used for HPV vaccination are totaled and shown with and without the estimated cost of the vaccine. The total cost is also divided by the number of doses administered and number of fully immunized girls (FIGs) to estimate the cost per dose and cost per FIG. Results Over five years (2011 to 2015), the cost of establishing an HPV vaccine program that delivers three doses of vaccine to girls at schools via phased national introduction (three regions in year 1, ten regions in year 2 and all 26 regions in years 3 to 5) in Tanzania is estimated to be US$9.2 million (excluding vaccine costs) and US$31.5 million (with vaccine) assuming a vaccine price of US$5 (GAVI 2011, formerly the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunizations). This is equivalent to a financial cost of US$5.77 per FIG, excluding the vaccine cost. The most important costs of service delivery are social mobilization/IEC and service delivery operational costs. Conclusions When countries expand their immunization schedules with new vaccines such as the HPV vaccine, they face initial costs to fund critical pre-introduction activities, as well as incremental system costs to deliver the vaccines on an ongoing basis. In anticipation, governments need to plan ahead for non-vaccine costs so they will be financed adequately. Existing human resources need to be re-allocated or new staff need to be recruited for the program to be implemented successfully in a sustainable and long-term manner. Reaching a target group not routinely served by national immunization programs previously with three doses of vaccine requires new delivery strategies, more transport of vaccines and health workers and more intensive IEC activities leading to new delivery costs for the immunization program that are greater than the costs incurred when a new infant vaccine is added to the existing infant immunization schedule. The WHO C4P tool is intended to help LMICs to plan ahead and estimate the programmatic and operational costs of HPV vaccination.

Hutubessy Raymond; Levin Ann; Wang Susan; Morgan Winthrop; Ally Mariam; John Theopista; Broutet Nathalie

2012-01-01

354

Calculation of the Unit Normal Vector Using the Cross-Curve Moving Mask for Measurement Data Obtained from a Coordinate Measuring Machine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study presents a cross-curve moving mask method to calculate the unit normal vector based on 5 or 9 data points of a freeform surface measurement. The middle point and 4 or 8 neighboring points can be constructed as two crossed curves - longitude and latitude. The unit normal vector at the middle point can be determined by calculating the cross product of two tangent vectors along these 2 crossed curves. Different curve fitting methods passing 5 or 9 data points, such as Lagrange, parametric polynomial, Bezier and B-spline methodologies, are investigated. Two kinds of surfaces, namely, a sphere surface and a shoe-shaped geometric surface are selected for evaluating the accuracy of the calculated unit normal vectors.

2006-01-01

355

Utilization and cost of antibacterial drugs in 2 general surgery units in Palestine measured using anatomical therapeutic chemical classification and defined daily dose methodology.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study compared the utilization and cost of antibacterial agents in surgical units of 2 government hospitals in Palestine. The consumption and cost of drugs was estimated in the units over a 1-month period in 2010 using the anatomical therapeutic chemical classification and defined daily doses (DDD) per 100 bed-days. The total consumption of antibacterial agents was 414.1 DDD and 591.5 DDD at Thabet and Rafidia hospitals respectively. These corresponded to 133.6 DDD/100 bed-days and 162.2 DDD/100 bed-days respectively, figures that were higher than those reported in surgical units in many other countries. Total cost of antibacterial agents during the study period was 24 800 and 23481 NIS for Rafidia and Thabet hospitals respectively. Approximately 11.2% and 18.0% of the total antibiotic DDD in Rafidia and Thabet hospitals were given to patients with clean surgeries in which antibiotic prophylaxis is not indicated.

Sweileh WM; Adas SO; Sawalha AF; Taha AS

2012-06-01

356

Use of Global Visual Acuity Data in a time trade-off approach to calculate the cost utility of cataract surgery.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To determine the cost utility of cataract surgery worldwide using visual acuity (VA) outcomes and utility values determined by the time trade-off (TTO) method. DATA SOURCES: Some cost data were taken from a previous search conducted for 1995 to 2006 and we searched MEDLINE and Scopus and Google for more recent data (2006 and 2007). STUDY SELECTION: Articles were identified from the literature using "cataract surgery" in combination with the terms outcome or visual acuity. Additional searches were conducted using individual countries as a term in combination with VA, outcome, or cost. Regression curves were constructed from utility values derived from a TTO study and VA data. Gains in quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) were calculated based on life expectancy tables from the World Health Organization and discounts of 3% for both cost and benefit. Sensitivity analyses explored the effect of changes in discounting, life expectancy, preoperative VA, and cost. DATA EXTRACTION: If the data were usable, they were kept; otherwise they were discarded. DATA SYNTHESIS: Preoperative VA (logMAR) correlated with increasing gross national income per capita (Pearson correlation coefficient, -0.784; P < .001) and showed that in developing countries preoperative vision is much poorer compared with developed countries. Cost utility data ranged from $3.5 to $834/QALY in developing countries to $159 to $1356/QALY in developed countries. Sensitivity analysis showed that changing life expectancy, VA, and discount rate resulted in moderate changes. CONCLUSIONS: The TTO approach demonstrates that cataract surgery is extremely cost-effective.

Lansingh VC; Carter MJ

2009-09-01

357

IMPROVING COST CALCULATION IN THE IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY IN LIBYA USING THE STANDARD COST METHOD ÎMBUN?T??IREA CALCULA?IEI COSTURILOR ÎN INDUSTRIA DE FIER ?I O?EL DIN LIBIA PRIN FOLOSIREA METODEI STANDARD COST  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The iron and steel industry has a strategic role in each country`s economy as there is a direct connection between its production level and economic development. In the countries with developed market economy, the standard cost reflects the efficiency of the production process. In this context, the use of the standard cost method represents an instrument for research and estimation. This paper`s intention is to present the advantages offered by the application of the standard cost method in the iron and steel industry.

Abdelkarim S.Mohmed Abdelali

2013-01-01

358

Joint U.S./Russian Study on the Development of a Preliminary Cost Estimate of the SAFSTOR Decommissioning Alternative for the Leningrad Nuclear Power Plant Unit #1  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objectives of the two joint Russian/U.S. Leningrad Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) Unit #1 studies were the development of a safe, technically feasible, economically acceptable decom missioning strategy, and the preliminary cost evaluation of the developed strategy. The first study, resulting in the decommissioning strategy, was performed in 1996 and 1997. The preliminary cost estimation study, described in this report, was performed in 1997 and 1998. The decommissioning strategy study included the analyses of three basic RBM.K decommission- ing alternatives, refined for the Leningrad NPP Unit #1. The analyses included analysis of the requirements for the planning and preparation as well as the decommissioning phases.

SM Garrett

1998-09-28

359

Tracking the Sun IV: An Historical Summary of the Installed Cost of Photovoltaics in the United States from 1998 to 2010  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present report describes installed cost trends for grid-connected PV projects installed from 1998 through 2010 (with some limited and preliminary results presented for projects installed in the first six months of 2011). The analysis is based on project-level cost data from approximately 116,500 residential, non-residential, and utility-sector PV systems in the United States. The inclusion of utility-sector PV is a new element in this year’s report. The combined capacity of all systems in the data sample totals 1,685 MW, equal to 79% of all grid-connected PV capacity installed in the United States through 2010 and representing one of the most comprehensive sources of installed PV cost data for the U.S. Based on this dataset, the report describes historical installed cost trends over time, and by location, market segment, technology type, and component. The report also briefly compares recent PV installed costs in the United States to those in Germany and Japan, and describes trends in customer incentives for PV installations and net installed costs after receipt of such incentives. The analysis presented here focuses on descriptive trends in the underlying data, serving primarily to summarize the data in tabular and graphical form.

Darghouth, Naim; Wiser, Ryan

2011-09-07

360

[Analysis of health care costs of patients with diabetes mellitus and hypertension in a public health reference unit in Recife--Brazil].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To analyze health care costs of patients with diabetes mellitus and hypertension, and to estimate the cost of medium complexity outpatient procedures, compared with the standard reimbursement values used in Brazil. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed direct health costs in a public health reference unit in Recife/PE, in 2007. Costs were determined and allocated using the techniques of absorption costing and apportionment. RESULTS: Direct costs and the amount reimbursed by the SUS totaled R$ 4,855,291.82 and R$ 2.118.893,56, respectively. The greatest groups of expenditure were medications, with R$ 1,762,424.42 (36.3%), outsourced services, with R$ 996,637.82 (20.5%); and personnel, with R$ 978,096.10 (20.1%). All procedures had higher estimated costs than what is reimbursed by the SUS. CONCLUSIONS: Drugs were associated with the highest health care costs, a considerable difference was observed between estimated costs and the amount reimbursed by the SUS.

Marinho MG; Cesse EÂ; Bezerra AF; Sousa IM; Fontbonne A; Carvalho EF

2011-08-01