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Sample records for calculate unit costs

  1. Unit Cost Compendium Calculations

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Unit Cost Compendium (UCC) Calculations raw data set was designed to provide for greater accuracy and consistency in the use of unit costs across the USEPA...

  2. The unit cost factors and calculation methods for decommissioning - Cost estimation of nuclear research facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: The uncertainties of decommissioning costs increase high due to several conditions. Decommissioning cost estimation depends on the complexity of nuclear installations, its site-specific physical and radiological inventories. Therefore, the decommissioning costs of nuclear research facilities must be estimated in accordance with the detailed sub-tasks and resources by the tasks of decommissioning activities. By selecting the classified activities and resources, costs are calculated by the items and then the total costs of all decommissioning activities are reshuffled to match with its usage and objectives. And the decommissioning cost of nuclear research facilities is calculated by applying a unit cost factor method on which classification of decommissioning works fitted with the features and specifications of decommissioning objects and establishment of composition factors are based. Decommissioning costs of nuclear research facilities are composed of labor cost, equipment and materials cost. Of these three categorical costs, the calculation of labor costs are very important because decommissioning activities mainly depend on labor force. Labor costs in decommissioning activities are calculated on the basis of working time consumed in decommissioning objects and works. The working times are figured out of unit cost factors and work difficulty factors. Finally, labor costs are figured out by using these factors as parameters of calculation. The accuracy of decommissioning cost estimation results is much higher compared to the real decommissioning works. (authors)

  3. Basic Research about Calculation of the Decommissioning Unit Cost based on The KRR-2 Decommissioning Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The KAERI be used to calculate the decommissioning cost and manage the data of decommissioning activity experience through systems such as the decommissioning information management system (DECOMMIS), Decommissioning Facility Characterization DB System (DEFACS), decommissioning work-unit productivity calculation system (DEWOCS). Some country such as Japan and The United States have the information for decommissioning experience of the NPP and publish reports on decommissioning cost analysis. These reports as valuable data be used to compare with the decommissioning unit cost. In particular, need a method to estimate the decommissioning cost of the NPP because there is no decommissioning experience of NPP in case of Korea. makes possible to predict the more precise prediction about the decommissioning unit cost. But still, there are many differences on calculation for the decommissioning unit cost in domestic and foreign country. Typically, it is difficult to compare with data because published not detailed reports. Therefore, field of estimation for decommissioning cost have to use a unified framework in order to the decommissioning cost be provided to exact of the decommissioning cost

  4. Basic Research about Calculation of the Decommissioning Unit Cost based on The KRR-2 Decommissioning Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Chan-Ho; Park, Hee-Seong; Ha, Jea-Hyun; Jin, Hyung-Gon; Park, Seung-Kook [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The KAERI be used to calculate the decommissioning cost and manage the data of decommissioning activity experience through systems such as the decommissioning information management system (DECOMMIS), Decommissioning Facility Characterization DB System (DEFACS), decommissioning work-unit productivity calculation system (DEWOCS). Some country such as Japan and The United States have the information for decommissioning experience of the NPP and publish reports on decommissioning cost analysis. These reports as valuable data be used to compare with the decommissioning unit cost. In particular, need a method to estimate the decommissioning cost of the NPP because there is no decommissioning experience of NPP in case of Korea. makes possible to predict the more precise prediction about the decommissioning unit cost. But still, there are many differences on calculation for the decommissioning unit cost in domestic and foreign country. Typically, it is difficult to compare with data because published not detailed reports. Therefore, field of estimation for decommissioning cost have to use a unified framework in order to the decommissioning cost be provided to exact of the decommissioning cost.

  5. Cost Analysis in Hospitals and Calculation of Unit Costs in Medical Rehabilitation Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ?smail A??rba?

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to demonstrate that actual cost values of medical rehabilitation services and cost functions could be estimated by using cost analysis in a physical and rehabilitation medicine (PMR clinic of a third-level hospital. This, in turn, could guide the hospital administrators in their financial planning, performance audit, and quality development issues.Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective study which was conducted by investigating and evaluating the medical, administrative, financial, and technical data. The true population of the study consisted of medical rehabilitation services provided in a PMR clinic of a third-level hospital in 2010. Since sampling was not done, all treatment sessions of outpatients and inpatients done in the PMR unit were included in the study. Results: After analysis, the cost for an outpatient was found to be 72.02 TL, for an inpatient 7.825.54 TL, for patient day 221.05 TL and for a PMR session 49.38 TL. These values were higher than the values paid to medical care providers by the Social Security Institution. Conclusion: Reimbursement institutions need to take cost analysis data into consideration when determining the rates of repayment for medical care providers. Turk J Phys Med Re­hab 2012;58:103-8.

  6. Adaptation of activity-based-costing (ABC) to calculate unit costs in Mental Health Care in Spain

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Karen, Moreno.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: To date, numerous cost-of-illness studies have been using methodologies that don't provide trustworthy results for decision making in mental health care. Objectives: The aims of this paper are design and implement a cost methodology by process of patient's care to calculate unit costs in [...] mental health in Spain in 2005 and compare the results with the reached ones by traditional methods. Methods: We adapted Activity-Based-Costing to this field analyzing the organizational and management structure of Mental Health's public services in a region of Spain, Navarre, describing the processes of care to patient in each resource and calculating their cost. Results: We implemented this methodology in all resources and obtained unit cost per service. There are great differences between our results and the ones calculated by traditional systems. We display one example of these disparities contrasting our cost with the reached one by the methodology of Diagnostic Related Group (DRG). Conclusions: This cost methodology offers more advantages for management than traditional methods provide.

  7. Adaptation of activity-based-costing (ABC to calculate unit costs in Mental Health Care in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Moreno

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: To date, numerous cost-of-illness studies have been using methodologies that don't provide trustworthy results for decision making in mental health care. Objectives: The aims of this paper are design and implement a cost methodology by process of patient's care to calculate unit costs in mental health in Spain in 2005 and compare the results with the reached ones by traditional methods. Methods: We adapted Activity-Based-Costing to this field analyzing the organizational and management structure of Mental Health's public services in a region of Spain, Navarre, describing the processes of care to patient in each resource and calculating their cost. Results: We implemented this methodology in all resources and obtained unit cost per service. There are great differences between our results and the ones calculated by traditional systems. We display one example of these disparities contrasting our cost with the reached one by the methodology of Diagnostic Related Group (DRG. Conclusions: This cost methodology offers more advantages for management than traditional methods provide.

  8. Calculation of the cost per exploration in a Radiodiagnosis Service based on relative value units (RVU)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this report is to present our system for calculating the costs of different products included in our catalogue(cost per exploration), comparing the total expense generated by our Service, as the center of activity, with the total activity performed yearly. In order to make the different catalogue products evaluable, we assigned a number of relative value units to each exploration on the basis of a series of factors that render it more or less costly when compared with the simple exploration carried out in an outpatient which was considered as RVU=1. (Author) 19 refs

  9. COSTS CALCULATION OF TARGET COSTING METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian UNGUREANU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cost information system plays an important role in every organization in the decision making process. An important task of management is ensuring control of the operations, processes, sectors, and not ultimately on costs. Although in achieving the objectives of an organization compete more control systems (production control, quality control, etc., the cost information system is important because monitors results of the other. Detailed analysis of costs, production cost calculation, quantification of losses, estimate the work efficiency provides a solid basis for financial control. Knowledge of the costs is a decisive factor in taking decisions and planning future activities. Managers are concerned about the costs that will appear in the future, their level underpinning the supply and production decisions as well as price policy. An important factor is the efficiency of cost information system in such a way that the information provided by it may be useful for decisions and planning of the work.

  10. Allocation of product unit calculation of power-dependent costs with the ``Hochlastfenster``-procedure; Kostentraegerrechnung - Zuordnung der leistungsabhaengigen Kosten ueber das Hochlastfensterverfahren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palic, M. [Westdeutsche Licht- und Kraftwerke AG, Erkelenz (Germany)

    1997-07-28

    The requirements of the price-approval authorities of the countries towards electric supply companies to present a qualified product unit calculation in connexion with examination of the current price to control the cost orientation, has led to lively discussions about suitable cost addition proceedures during the last years. Whereas the costs for electrical work, as well as the customer-dependent costs, especially in distributing companies, are comparably simple to allocate, the distribution of power-dependent costs is doubtful because the relevant literature describes more than 50 different proceedures. A special problem is the distribution of such costs, arising with power supply on the customer groups, called product units, with nearly the same consumption behaviour for which different starting points can be found among the offered proceedures. The contribution describes a proceedure combining the advantages of the most applicated proceedures and including at the same time much simplified possibilities of power-measuring. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Anforderungen der Preisgenehmigungsbehoerden der Laender an mittlerweile alle Elektrizitaetsversorgungsunternehmen, im Rahmen der Strompreispruefung zur Kontrolle der Kostenorientierung eine qualifizierte Kostentraegerrechnung vorzulegen, fuehrte in den zurueckliegenden Jahren zu lebhaften Diskussionen ueber geeignete Kostenzurechnungsverfahren. Der Verfasser beschreibt ein Verfahren, dass die Vorteile der gebraeuchlichsten Verfahren vereint und die zwischenzeitlich stark vereinfachten Moeglichkeiten der Lastmessung einbezieht. Dabei formuliert er Qualitaetskriterien und stellt die Ergebnisse, die sich bei der Anwendung der unterschiedlichen Verfahren ergeben, gegenueber. (orig.)

  11. Calculating Units with the HP 48G Calculator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Matthew E.

    1999-05-01

    The Hewlett Packard HP 48G graphing calculator is able to manipulate units as well as perform numerical and symbolic calculations. The HP 48G's units function can make simple calculations, such as converting grams to moles, or more complex unit analysis, such as gas law calculations. Examples and calculator keystrokes for both of these examples are included in this article.

  12. REVIEW OF METHODOLOGIES FOR COSTS CALCULATING OF RUMINANTS IN SLOVAKIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana KRUPOVÁ

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to synthesise and analyse the methodologies and the biological aspects of the costs calculation in ruminants in Slovakia. According to literature, the account classification of cost items is most often considered for construction of costing formula. The costs are mostly divided into fixed (costs independent from volume of herd’s production and variable ones (costs connected with improvement of breeding conditions. Cost for feeds and beddings, labour costs, other direct costs and depreciations were found as the most important cost items in ruminants. It can be assumed that including the depreciations into costs of the basic herd takes into consideration the real costs simultaneously invested into raising of young animals in the given period. Costs are calculated for the unit of the main and by-products and their classification is influenced mainly by the type of livestock and production system. In dairy cows is usually milk defined as the main product, and by- products are live born calf and manure. The base calculation unit is kilogram of milk (basic herd of cows and kilogram of gain and kilogram of live weight (young breeding cattle. In suckler cows is a live-born calf the main product and manure is the by-product. The costs are mostly calculated per suckler cow, live-born calf and per kilogram of live weight of weaned calf. Similar division of products into main and by-products is also in cost calculation for sheep categories. The difference is that clotted cheese is also considered as the main product of basic herd in dairy sheep and greasy wool as the by-products in all categories. Definition of the base calculation units in sheep categories followed the mentioned classification. The value of a by-product in cattle and sheep is usually set according to its quantity and intra- plant price of the by-product. In the calculation of the costs for sheep and cattle the “structural ewe” and “structural cow” proportionally integrate the costs of other categories of the herd into the costs of the basic herd. Subtraction, allocation and combined calculation methods of costs are the most used in breeding of ruminants. It is recommended to consider specific breeding conditions and objective calculation of costs for the relevant category, when picking out the method of calculation.

  13. PROSPECTS OF MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING AND COST CALCULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian ŢAICU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Progress in improving production technology requires appropriate measures to achieve an efficient management of costs. This raises the need for continuous improvement of management accounting and cost calculation. Accounting information in general, and management accounting information in particular, have gained importance in the current economic conditions, which are characterized by risk and uncertainty. The future development of management accounting and cost calculation is essential to meet the information needs of management.

  14. PROSPECTS OF MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING AND COST CALCULATION

    OpenAIRE

    Marian ?AICU

    2014-01-01

    Progress in improving production technology requires appropriate measures to achieve an efficient management of costs. This raises the need for continuous improvement of management accounting and cost calculation. Accounting information in general, and management accounting information in particular, have gained importance in the current economic conditions, which are characterized by risk and uncertainty. The future development of management accounting and cost calculation is essential to me...

  15. Cost calculation in agricultural enterprises in theory and practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Ziętara

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to evolution of the production costs calculation theory in agriculture from the second half of XVIII century till present times. The author emphasized long lasting dispute among the economists about usefulness of the full account of unit costs of production in evaluation of production profitability. Moreover, utility of the part-costs account in evaluation of production competitiveness, as well as their value in evaluation of the production processes and structure (using optimisation methods was analysed. Additionally article describes current problems of cost calculation in agriculture.

  16. Cost calculation of constructions series of types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Gendarz

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The main aim of research was to elaborate methods to estimate costs in construction series of types production process.Design/methodology/approach: Based on manufacturing cost of one element it is possible to determine cost of other elements belonged to the same construction series of types. The four main cost estimating methods were distinguished. The first method is feature-based. The technological operations are dedicated to specified pieces of element. Cost manufacturing of every piece is specified. Based on elementary costs the manufacturing cost of whole part is calculated. The second method uses construction similarity theory. The selected part manufacturing costs are functionally depended on main part manufacturing costs. The CAM method is based on time calculation from manufacturing process simulation. The simplified method uses normalized masses of analyzed parts pieces. The balance coefficients of those pieces are specified.Findings: Manufacturing cost estimation methods were analyzed. Those methods are based on construction and manufacturing technology. The main conclusion is that CAM method is most accurate.Research limitations/implications: The CAM method is limited to analyze only manufacturing process based on numerically controlled machines. The Feature-based method require developed database for analyzed part family.Practical implications: Presented method was applied in hydraulic props manufacturing cost analysis.Originality/value: Described analysis puts together and compares different cost estimating methods which allows choosing most suitable method for analyzed manufacturing process.

  17. Applying Activity Based Costing (ABC Method to Calculate Cost Price in Hospital and Remedy Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Dabiri

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Activity Based Costing (ABC is one of the new methods began appearing as a costing methodology in the 1990. It calculates cost price by determining the usage of resources. In this study, ABC method was used for calculating cost price of remedial services in hospitals.Methods: To apply ABC method, Shahid Faghihi Hospital was selected. First, hospital units were divided into three main departments: administrative, diagnostic, and hospitalized. Second, activity centers were defined by the activity analysis method. Third, costs of administrative activity centers were allocated into diagnostic and operational departments based on the cost driver. Finally, with regard to the usage of cost objectives from services of activity centers, the cost price of medical services was calculated.Results: The cost price from ABC method significantly differs from tariff method. In addition, high amount of indirect costs in the hospital indicates that capacities of resources are not used properly.Conclusion: Cost price of remedial services with tariff method is not properly calculated when compared with ABC method. ABC calculates cost price by applying suitable mechanisms but tariff method is based on the fixed price. In addition, ABC represents useful information about the amount and combination of cost price services.

  18. Road Transport Congestion Costs Calculations-Adaptation to Engineering Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Lep

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The article represents so called “engineering” approach for computing the total road transport congestion costs. According to economic welfare theory, the total costs of transport congestion are defined as dead weight loss (DWL of infrastructure use. With a set of equations DWL could be formulated in a mathematical way. Because such form of equation is not directly applicable for concrete road network calculations it should be transformed into “engineering” form, which comprises transport engineering related data as classified road links, traffic volumes, passenger unit costs, etc. The equation is well applicable on the interurban road network; adaptations are needed for the urban road network cost calculations, where time losses are not so much related to the link travel time. The final equation was derived for the purposes of national road congestion cost calculation.

  19. Expanding the usefulness of unit supply cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unit supply cost is a widely used tool in the energy business for providing a one number-unit cost description. For example, controllable costs such as finding costs, development costs and operating costs have traditionally been described in an average cost per unit of reserves format for the oil and gas industry, however using this approach on more specific applications is not always informative. Projects with widely varying controllable parameters can still yield the same unit cost, making comparisons difficult. The application of unit supply cost can be readily expanded by adding a new unit cost component termed cost of capital. This element introduces the impacts of timing and return on investment into the supply cost determination through discounting annual costs. The cost of capital component adds the ability to represent a project's unique characteristics, particularly reserves' depletion rate and the timing or phasing of development. Introducing the cost of capital element into the supply cost analysis provides additional information and improves the likelihood of drawing correct conclusions when comparing and ranking projects. 4 figs., 6 tabs

  20. Users enlist consultants to calculate costs, savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-05-24

    Consultants who calculate payback provide expertise and a second opinion to back up energy managers' proposals. They can lower the costs of an energy-management investment by making complex comparisons of systems and recommending the best system for a specific application. Examples of payback calculations include simple payback for a school system, a university, and a Disneyland hotel, as well as internal rate of return for a corporate office building and a chain of clothing stores. (DCK)

  1. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS FOR THE PRACTICAL PRACTICE OF COST CALCULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Fenyves

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Basic topic of our treatise is to introduce the system of cost calculation. Our reason for choice of this topic is that, in the economic environment of today, it is very important for a production company to have the most possible accurate knowledge about costs of the activity. This informational demand emerges in case of more and more managing entities since the cost cutback is often the only tool for retaining the competitiveness – of course, within certain frameworks. There is a frequent question among the corporate owners and management: “How could our costs be cut – even if only to a small extent?” One of the devices is the moderation of the activity costs, in order to do this it is essential to know how much the production of the unit of product costs for the company, that is to say, how many its first cost is. Our goal is to aim the attention at values and importance of the management information system as well as information obtained during determination of the cost, the differences in results of the individual cost calculation methods and the reasons of differences. In addition, our intention was to know and acquaint a complex cost calculation procedure in depth during which we endeavoured to form a system theory of a kind.

  2. CALCULATION OF COMPANY COSTS THROUGH THE DIRECT-COSTING CALCULATION METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin-Constantin DIMA

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The cost of production has as its starting point the purchase cost of raw materials and consumables, as well as their processing cost and the calculation of the production cost involves complex aspects. This article is based on the two major concepts of costs calculation, namely the concept of full costs and the concept of partial costs, and it analyses the direct-costing calculation method. Necessity of the Development of calculation methods to ensure rapid determination of the cost of production, and the establishment of indicators broad spectrum of information necessary for making decisions to streamline a business activity conducted by direct-costing method. Direct-costing method appeared in the U.S. for the first time in 1934 (applied by Jonathan Harris and G. Charter Harrison. Subsequently, this method was applied to European countries (England, France, Germany etc.. We stopped on this method because it is considered a modern method of costing. Therefore, we analyzed both advantages and limitations of the method in question

  3. Processor Units Reduce Satellite Construction Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    As part of the effort to build the Fast Affordable Science and Technology Satellite (FASTSAT), Marshall Space Flight Center developed a low-cost telemetry unit which is used to facilitate communication between a satellite and its receiving station. Huntsville, Alabama-based Orbital Telemetry Inc. has licensed the NASA technology and is offering to install the cost-cutting units on commercial satellites.

  4. Unit labor costs in the eurozone

    OpenAIRE

    FELIPE, JESUS.; Kumar, Utsav

    2011-01-01

    Current discussions about the need to reduce unit labor costs (especially through a significant reduction in nominal wages) in some countries of the eurozone (in particular, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Portugal, and Spain) to exit the crisis may not be a panacea. First, historically, there is no relationship between the growth of unit labor costs and the growth of output. This is a well-established empirical result, known in the literature as Kaldor's paradox. Second, construction of unit labor c...

  5. Cost Accounting Methods and Calculation Agricultural Products` Cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saule B. Spatayeva

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In the condition of the current market the effective manage of expenses and calculation accountancy of cost production in agriculture must be aimed to control for resources usage at any level of technology process and getting the accountancy database needed for gaining the management targets.The improving the technologies and set up aspects of business entity activity, taken place for the last decades, which caused a significant influence on condition and structure expenses but could not provide the increase of economic effectiveness in agriculture.

  6. United States gas industry and cost of services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overview of the United States Gas industry includes the role of industry participants by segment: producer, pipeline and distributor. A scheme of Industry transactions in 1995 shows the connection between the participants. Gross cost of service includes: operation and maintenance; administrative depreciation, non-income taxes, income taxes and return. Other revenues are subtracted to obtain net cost of service. Detailed scheme is shown for calculating the rate base of a single company with the method for calculation of return

  7. The antibiotic cost calculator; an expert system for global antibiotic cost calculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, J

    1995-01-01

    An application to cost antibiotic therapy was developed using Object Vision, an object-oriented software development program. The application facilitates calculation of the cost of up to six antibiotics (three oral and three intravenous) in terms of acquisition, delivery, laboratory and complication components. The application consists of two files. The first file allows entry of basic cost data. The second file allows the user to define each antibiotic regimen and the management, and thus the cost, of complications relevant to the antibiotics being costed; costs are automatically calculated and displayed. The program also contains a help system; this comprises extensive explanation of each stage of the calculation process, a summary of recent literature on the percentage incidence of complications for commonly used antibiotics, and a bibliography. The summary and bibliography may be printed. The program is designed for use by hospitals, universities and pharmaceutical companies for calculation of total in-patient charges, marketing and research. It is a user-friendly system which dramatically reduces the inherent complexities of this area of medicine. PMID:7743776

  8. Low-cost inertial measurement unit.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deyle, Travis Jay

    2005-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories performs many expensive tests using inertial measurement units (IMUs)--systems that use accelerometers, gyroscopes, and other sensors to measure flight dynamics in three dimensions. For the purpose of this report, the metrics used to evaluate an IMU are cost, size, performance, resolution, upgradeability and testing. The cost of a precision IMU is very high and can cost hundreds of thousands of dollars. Thus the goals and results of this project are as follows: (1) Examine the data flow in an IMU and determine a generic IMU design. (2) Discuss a high cost IMU implementation and its theoretically achievable results. (3) Discuss design modifications that would save money for suited applications. (4) Design and implement a low cost IMU and discuss its theoretically achievable results. (5) Test the low cost IMU and compare theoretical results with empirical results. (6) Construct a more streamlined printed circuit board design reducing noise, increasing capabilities, and constructing a self-contained unit. Using these results, we can compare a high cost IMU versus a low cost IMU using the metrics from above. Further, we can examine and suggest situations where a low cost IMU could be used instead of a high cost IMU for saving cost, size, or both.

  9. Finding and development costs in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The finding and development costs, or reserve replacement costs have become important statistics for benchmarking independent oil and gas companies against one another. However, no standard definition for finding costs exists. Every company reports their costs differently because of different accounting practices. The time period a company uses to calculate its finding costs is also important. Since exploring for a field and developing new properties involves a long lead time, costs should be calculated on an annual basis. Reserve replacement costs should include: acquisition costs, developments costs, exploration costs, geological and geophysical costs, general and administrative costs, drilling costs and improved recovery costs. The importance of independent oil and gas companies was emphasized. They drill 85% of all the wells in the United States and produce 64% of the natural gas and 37% of the crude oil. In the lower 48 states alone, they produce 49% of the crude oil. Lightening of regulatory and legislative burdens, opening up access to more public lands, improving the tax situation, and to obtain royalty relief, were considered essential to providing for the energy needs of Americans in the years to come. 12 figs

  10. Petroleum Refinery Hydrogen Production Unit: Exergy and Production Cost Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio de Oliveira Júnior

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Some specific processes are required to obtain pure hydrogen and the most usual one is natural gas reforming, where natural gas reacts with superheated steam producing H2, CO, CO2 and H2O. This paper presents the exergy and production costs evaluation of a complete hydrogen production unit of a petroleum refinery. The hydrogen production unit analysed in this paper has to supply 550,000 Nm3 of hydrogen per day to purify diesel oil. Based on a synthesis plant of the hydrogen production unit, the exergy efficiency of each component and of the overall plant are calculated. The hydrogen production cost is determined by means of a thermoeconomic analysis in which the equality cost partition method is employed, including capital and operational costs, in order to determine the production cost of hydrogen and other products of the plant.

  11. Quality assurance of monitor unit calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monitor unit, MU, calculations are performed by a computerized treatment planning system, TPS, or by a MU calculation program run on a separate computer applying tables stored in that system, or a hand calculation applying tables with beam data. Three sources of possible errors will be discussed: 1. discrepancies between the beam data applied in the various calculation systems and actual beam data; 2. systematic errors in the dose calculation method and 3. human mistakes. Quality control, QC, programmes of MU calculations may include various procedures such as a check of the patient data, a check of the machine related input data, an independent recalculation using the same MU calculation program or a completely independent second calculation, without reference to the original one. The data relevant for the calculations should be available for future quality audits. It is therefore recommended that worksheets are designed suitable for both TPS manufacturers and individual institutions. Finally the role of in vivo dosimetry for checking the number of MUs will be elucidated

  12. Calculation of freight externality costs for South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Stefaan Swarts; David King; Zane Simpson; Jan Havenga; Leila Goedhals-Gerber

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to quantify the marginal external costs associated with freight transport in South Africa. Six cost elements are included as externality cost items, namely, costs related to accidents, emissions, roadway land availability, policing, noise and congestion. Inputs in the calculations were a gravity-oriented freight flow model, a road transport cost model, actual transport costs for other modes, a warehousing cost survey, an inventory delay calculation and various nat...

  13. Method development concerning cost calculations for the programme for decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this analysis is to provide an estimated total Net Present Value of the future authorities' costs for the planned decommissioning programme, cf. the Swedish decommissioning legislation. The estimated total shall be usable as part of the calculations of the following year's unit fee and the related safety allowances for nuclear generated electricity to be paid by the owners of the Swedish nuclear power plants. These calculations are conducted by the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, SKI. The calculations in this analysis take account of the recommendations in respect of fees and safety allowances which will come into force in 2004. In addition, the uncertainty associated with the Net Present Value of the authorities' costs and the principal sources of uncertainty are assessed. In the course of two analysis sessions held between May and August 2003, a broad based analysis group examined the existing calculations and their references and preconditions. The group then identified and assessed the potential sources of uncertainty; and finally assessed the impact of these sources of uncertainty on the reference costs and incorporated the corresponding corrections in the analysis. The Successive Principle was used to optimise the quality of the result. Amongst other techniques, this involves using special processes for identifying and handling the sources of uncertainty. These processes allow neutral numerical evaluation results and correct statistical calculations to be obtained. The result includes the probable impact of external developments on the costs in future, albeit excluding any serious force majeure events. Future changes to the current fixed real interest rate are similarly excluded. Given clearly defined preconditions, with allowance being made inter alia for the current fixed real interest rate, the mean value result relating to the Net Present Value of the authorities' costs is 2,487 MSEK (about 350 MUSD) with an uncertainty of ± 674 MSEK, expressed as a standard deviation

  14. Cost estimating for CERCLA remedial alternatives a unit cost methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Guidance for Conducting Remedial Investigations and Feasibility Studies Under CERCLA, Interim Final, dated October 1988 (EPA 1988) requires a detailed analysis be conducted of the most promising remedial alternatives against several evaluation criteria, including cost. To complete the detailed analysis, order-of-magnitude cost estimates (having an accuracy of +50 percent to -30 percent) must be developed for each remedial alternative. This paper presents a methodology for developing cost estimates of remedial alternatives comprised of various technology and process options with a wide range of estimated contaminated media quantities. In addition, the cost estimating methodology provides flexibility for incorporating revisions to remedial alternatives and achieves the desired range of accuracy. It is important to note that the cost estimating methodology presented here was developed as a concurrent path to the development of contaminated media quantity estimates. This methodology can be initiated before contaminated media quantities are estimated. As a result, this methodology is useful in developing cost estimates for use in screening and evaluating remedial technologies and process options. However, remedial alternative cost estimates cannot be prepared without the contaminated media quantity estimates. In the conduct of the feasibility study for Operable Unit 5 at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), fourteen remedial alternatives were retained for detailed analysis. Each remedial alternative was composed of combinations of remedial technologies and processes which were earlier determined to be best suited for addressing the media-specific contaminants found at the FEMP site, and achieving desired remedial action objectives

  15. Cost calculation of constructions series of types

    OpenAIRE

    P. Gendarz; M. Cielniak

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The main aim of research was to elaborate methods to estimate costs in construction series of types production process.Design/methodology/approach: Based on manufacturing cost of one element it is possible to determine cost of other elements belonged to the same construction series of types. The four main cost estimating methods were distinguished. The first method is feature-based. The technological operations are dedicated to specified pieces of element. Cost manufacturing of every...

  16. THE COST CALCULATION AND ANALYSIS BY MEANS OF THE STANDARD COST METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADRIANA MONICAÅ¢EGLEDI

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Originally known as the Estimated Cost System, it has evolved, nowadays being called Standard Cost Accounting. Standard cost calculation method is based on scheduled cost, pre-calculated, set before the start of the manufacturing process itself. This method allows the determination of the elements that influence the amount of costs and their deviations from the predetermined costs.

  17. Calculating Costs for Quality of Security Service

    OpenAIRE

    Sypropoulou, Evdoxia; Levin, Timothy E.; Irvine, Cynthia E.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a Quality of Security Service (QoSS) costing framework and demonstration. A method for quantifying costs related to the security service and for storing and retrieving security information is illustrated. We describe a security model for tasks, which incorporates the ideas of variant security services invoked by the task, dynamic network modes, abstract security level choices and resource utilization costs. The estimated costs can be fed into a resource management system t...

  18. Calculating cost savings in utilization management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMillan, Donna

    2014-01-01

    A major motivation for managing the utilization of laboratory testing is to reduce the cost of medical care. For this reason it is important to understand the basic principles of cost accounting in the clinical laboratory. The process of laboratory testing includes three distinct components termed the pre-analytic, analytic and post-analytic phases. Utilization management efforts may impact the cost structure of these three phases in different ways depending on the specific details of the initiative. Estimates of cost savings resulting from utilization management programs reported in the literature have often been fundamentally flawed due to a failure to understand basic concepts such as the difference between laboratory costs versus charges and the impact of reducing laboratory test volumes on the average versus marginal cost structure in the laboratory. This article will provide an overview of basic cost accounting principles in the clinical laboratory including both job order and process cost accounting. Specific examples will be presented to illustrate these concepts in various different scenarios. PMID:24084505

  19. Rooftop Unit Comparison Calculator User Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, James D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-04-30

    This document serves as a user manual for the Packaged rooftop air conditioners and heat pump units comparison calculator (RTUCC) and is an aggregation of the calculator’s website documentation. Content ranges from new-user guide material like the “Quick Start” to the more technical/algorithmic descriptions of the “Methods Pages.” There is also a section listing all the context-help topics that support the features on the “Controls” page. The appendix has a discussion of the EnergyPlus runs that supported the development of the building-response models.

  20. 28 CFR 505.4 - Calculation of assessment by unit staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Calculation of assessment by unit staff... MANAGEMENT AND ADMINISTRATION COST OF INCARCERATION FEE § 505.4 Calculation of assessment by unit staff. Bureau of Prisons Unit Team staff are responsible for computing the amount of the fee to be paid by...

  1. Unit Costs for Lunar-Derived Propellants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Brad R.

    2004-02-01

    The estimated propellant production cost per metric ton will be derived and presented for solar system transportation waypoints. Background on recent and ongoing space resource propellant supply models will be presented, with a review of architectural assumptions, costs and expected markets. Integrated economic and engineering models (Duke et al., 2003; Duke, Blair and Diaz, 2002; Lamassoure et al. 2003; and Blair et al., 2002) estimate production costs, expected productivity of the mining and processing system, reusable transportation element behavior, fuel depot activity and revenues based on projected market conditions. Results of these economic models are used to derive total and marginal unit costs for propellant at fuel depot facilities for the purpose of facilitating the commercial development of space and to aid program and logistic planning for human space exploration missions.

  2. The cost of nuclear electricity: economic values and political calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The subject is covered in sections: introduction (monetary inflation; US-style rate-base formula; cost escalation); electricity generation costs (rate-base calculation formula; regulatory versus economic costs; inflationary case; cost-of-service rates versus inflation; first year electricity costs); rate shock (A. comparison with oil; B. nuclear case; C. comparison with coal/nuclear system; vintaged electricity costs versus growth and inflation); conclusions. (U.K.)

  3. Comparison of forest machine cost calculation methods on the case of a cableway

    OpenAIRE

    Klun, Jaka; Košir, Boštjan; Krč, Janez; Medved, Mirko

    2007-01-01

    The paper presents results of a comparison of seven different machine cost calculation methods presently used mainly in forest operations cost calculations. The compared methods have a common basis structure, but differ in methodology and item consideration. From the premise of equal inputs and byconsidering yearly productive time on the case of a cableway, the comparisonshows differences in machine costs and thus lesser comparability of machine economy per product unit. Input data for the co...

  4. Inbound Logistics Cost and CO2 Calculations

    OpenAIRE

    Kökler, Cihan

    2010-01-01

    Business has globalized rapidly during the last decades. Distances between point of origin and point of consumption have increased as a result of globalization. Today’s increased distances mean that companies require faster logistic responses. Air transportation is preferred because it’s worldwide lead-time, of just 1-2 day, fulfill business expectations. However, transportation operation costs have risen dramatically and there are growing concerns about the high CO2 emission levels associate...

  5. Calculation of freight externality costs for South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefaan Swarts

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to quantify the marginal external costs associated with freight transport in South Africa. Six cost elements are included as externality cost items, namely, costs related to accidents, emissions, roadway land availability, policing, noise and congestion. Inputs in the calculations were a gravity-oriented freight flow model, a road transport cost model, actual transport costs for other modes, a warehousing cost survey, an inventory delay calculation and various national sources of information such as accident statistics and government budgets. Estimation techniques resulted in advances for externality cost measurement in South Africa. The quantification of the cost elements will be used to update the South African Freight Demand Model. The results show that the cost of transportation would have been 20% more if external factors were taken into account. The marginal rates of externalities can be used to develop scenarios based on alternative choices for South Africa's freight transport infrastructure configuration.

  6. Calculating the cost of heat supply systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The question of whether or not a cogeneration unit will be economically successful when realized is decided early on in the planning stage. Indispensable prerequisites are the exact knowledge of the cold, heat, or electricity demand of consumers on an hourly basis and a detailed analysis of the hydraulic and electrical connection possibilites for such systems. Aspects now increasingly considered when deciding on investments are not only which is the most economical form of energy generation but also comparisons regarding emissions of CO2, NOx, and ozone-depleting substances (refrigerants). (orig.)

  7. THEORETICAL AND PRACTICAL CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING THE COST CALCULATION USING DIRECT COSTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Aurora, Bunea-Bonta?

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The definition of the cost of production as applied to inventories refers to the acquisition and production cost, and its determination involves many considerations. This article emphasizes a comparative approach of the calculation of production cost under direct costing and absorption costing, and examines the impact of using these calculation systems on the financial performance of the companies presented in the income statement.

  8. CO2 transport cost calculation for the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The required pipe diameter was calculated for the postulated CO2 transmission capacity and source/storage site distance, and the pipeline investment and operating costs were calculated. A calculation algorithm was developed and implemented in a simple application in MS Excel

  9. Analysis of Unit Process Cost for an Engineering-Scale Pyroprocess Facility Using a Process Costing Method in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungki Kim

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Pyroprocessing, which is a dry recycling method, converts spent nuclear fuel into U (Uranium/TRU (TRansUranium metal ingots in a high-temperature molten salt phase. This paper provides the unit process cost of a pyroprocess facility that can process up to 10 tons of pyroprocessing product per year by utilizing the process costing method. Toward this end, the pyroprocess was classified into four kinds of unit processes: pretreatment, electrochemical reduction, electrorefining and electrowinning. The unit process cost was calculated by classifying the cost consumed at each process into raw material and conversion costs. The unit process costs of the pretreatment, electrochemical reduction, electrorefining and electrowinning were calculated as 195 US$/kgU-TRU, 310 US$/kgU-TRU, 215 US$/kgU-TRU and 231 US$/kgU-TRU, respectively. Finally the total pyroprocess cost was calculated as 951 US$/kgU-TRU. In addition, the cost driver for the raw material cost was identified as the cost for Li3PO4, needed for the LiCl-KCl purification process, and platinum as an anode electrode in the electrochemical reduction process.

  10. COSTING OF QUALITY IN BUSINESS BASE UNIT SEVERAL PRODUCTIONS, CIENFUEGOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez Alfonso, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The calculation of quality costs as a component of the System of Quality Management, is a must for Cuban business managers, to provide a technique identified as an advanced instrument of management, which will lead to improved competitiveness and serve as an informative source. Identify and calculate the costs of quality, as well as propose measured plans, to promote a decrease in operating expenses, which can be used as a tool to improve processes. The Business Unit of Several Base Productions of Cienfuegos presents the fault to give way to Business Improvement and certification of its Quality Management System, according to the norm ISO 9001:2008 and the decree law 281, so that the objective research was to estimate the costs of quality processes in the company. To achieve this level were used empirical methods and techniques such as direct observation, document review and work in groups, which allowed to calculate the costs of quality in all processes. The results obtained are applicable to companies that operate in the Cuban economy and according to the Cuban economic model implemented from the year 2011.

  11. 48 CFR 1830.7002-2 - Cost of money calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Cost of money calculations. 1830.7002-2 Section 1830.7002-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE... Employed for Facilities in Use and For Facilities Under Construction 1830.7002-2 Cost of money...

  12. Study of decommissioning cost evaluation technique for nuclear reactor dismantlement. Calculation of decommissioning cost by COSMARD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A model for estimating decommissioning costs consisting of labor cost, device cost and expense, was developed for items which OECD/NEA had standardized, and was installed into the computer system for planning and management of reactor decommissioning (COSMARD). Input data files and databases for the decommissioning of JPDR were prepared, and the decommissioning cost was calculated with COSMARD. In addition, the decommissioning cost for a large scale BWR power plant was also calculated on the assumption of the advantage of scale. The calculations have shown that it is useful and efficient for studying the decommissioning costs for nuclear reactors to apply the COSMARD with database for cast estimation to the decommissioning cost calculation. (author)

  13. External Costs Of Electricity Generation, A Proximate Calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electricity generation cost of a fossil power plant includes capital cost, operation and maintenance costs and fuel cost. For a nuclear power plant the generation cost includes also a post-operation cost (decommissioning cost). The awareness of public health and environmental protection have recently urged to elaborately incorporate those costs borne by the public due to the pollution and negative effects resulting from the Electricity generation, which are called external costs. Methods and computer programs of such calculation have been published and being developed, for example the one that is being developed and promoted by the IAEA, the B-Glad computation program. The method calculates dispersion of emitted pollution to public and environment, assess the doses received and damages thereafter, and then evaluate the damages in monetary quantities. This paper illustrates calculation using the B-Glad taking the input data of nuclear power plant (NPP) of 2 x 900 MWe at the Ujung Lemah Abang site, and two kinds of coal power plants (CPP) of 3 x 600 MWe at the Tanjung Jati site, both sites are located at the coast of the Muria peninsular. The CPPs with Flue Gas Desulphurization (FGD)and without FGD are compared, whereas the NPP eternality assessment includes considerations of risk aversion and accident condition. Calculation results show that external costs amount to 0,9094 mills/KWh for cpr without FGD, 0,8156 mills/KWh for cpr with FGD, and 0,0083 mills/KWh for the NPP, or two to four orders of magnitude less than respective generation costs. Compared to studies for European countries, their figures are smaller, but to the Thailand study these figures are within their lower-upper range

  14. Cost and sensitivity exercises with a pocket calculator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are a lot of comprehensive programmes and methods to calculate costs and to simulate mining and processing operations. Sometimes they are not available to the whole people. In this paper it is shown how it is possible, with a pocket programmable calculator less than US $ 200 price, to do exercises in order to estimate the magnitude of investment and operation costs and also their ranges for different practical situations. So, geologists and metallurgists could decide either to spend more money or which aspects need more research. Several examples are developed in order to show how to use a type of these small calculators

  15. Manual for Reducing Educational Unit Costs in Latin American Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centro Multinacional de Investigacion Educativa, San Jose (Costa Rica).

    Designed for educational administrators, this manual provides suggestions for reducing educational unit costs in Latin America without reducing the quality of the education. Chapter one defines unit cost concepts and compares the costs of the Latin American countries. Chapter two deals with the different policies which could affect the principal…

  16. Using Work Breakdown Structure Models to Develop Unit Treatment Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    This article presents a new cost modeling approach called work breakdown structure (WBS), designed to develop unit costs for drinking water technologies. WBS involves breaking the technology into its discrete components for the purposes of estimating unit costs. The article dem...

  17. Fusion reactor design studies: standard unit costs and cost scaling rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report establishes standard unit costs and scaling rules for estimating costs of material, equipment, land, and labor components used in magnetic confinement fusion reactor plant construction and operation. Use of the standard unit costs and scaling rules will add uniformity to cost estimates, and thus allow valid comparison of the economic characteristics of various reactor concepts

  18. Unit costs of waste management operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides estimates of generic costs for the management, disposal, and surveillance of various waste types, from the time they are generated to the end of their institutional control. Costs include monitoring and surveillance costs required after waste disposal. Available data on costs for the treatment, storage, disposal, and transportation of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive, low-level radioactive, transuranic radioactive, hazardous, mixed (low-level radioactive plus hazardous), and sanitary wastes are presented. The costs cover all major elements that contribute to the total system life-cycle (i.e., ''cradle to grave'') cost for each waste type. This total cost is the sum of fixed and variable cost components. Variable costs are affected by operating rates and throughput capacities and vary in direct proportion to changes in the level of activity. Fixed costs remain constant regardless of changes in the amount of waste, operating rates, or throughput capacities. Key factors that influence cost, such as the size and throughput capacity of facilities, are identified. In many cases, ranges of values for the key variables are presented. For some waste types, the planned or estimated costs for storage and disposal, projected to the year 2000, are presented as graphics

  19. Road Transport Congestion Costs Calculations-Adaptation to Engineering Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Marjan Lep; Beno Mesarec

    2008-01-01

    The article represents so called engineering approach for computing the total road transport congestion costs. According to economic welfare theory, the total costs of transport congestion are defined as dead weight loss (DWL) of infrastructure use. With a set of equations DWL could be formulated in a mathematical way. Because such form of equation is not directly applicable for concrete road network calculations it should be transformed into engineering form, which comprises transport engine...

  20. Life Cycle Cost analysis of offshore wind farms and development of a tool for Levelized Cost Energy calculation

    OpenAIRE

    Bertran i Escrig, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    The project presented in this report is aimed to develop a calculation tool for the economic evaluation of offshore wind power projects. This tool calculates the LCOE (levelized cost of energy), which is the total price that the electricity producer has to pay per each unit of electric energy produced. This calculation is based in the characteristics of the evaluated power plant, but also in the estimation of the production and the losses. The LCOE can be used to evaluate the viability of pro...

  1. Rocky Flats Closure Unit Cost Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Rocky Flats Closure Project has completed the process of stabilizing residual nuclear materials, decommissioning nuclear facilities, remediating environmental media and closing the Rocky Flats Site (Site). The project cost approximately $4.1 B and included the decommissioning of over 700 structures including 5 major plutonium facilities and 5 major uranium facilities, shipping over 14,600 cubic meters of transuranic and 565,000 cubic meters of low level radioactive waste, and remediating a 385-acre industrial area and the surrounding land. Actual costs were collected for a large variety of closure activities. These costs can be correlated with metrics associated with the facilities and environmental media to capture cost factors from the project that could be applicable to a variety of other closure projects both within and outside of the Department of Energy's weapons complex. The paper covers four general topics: the process to correlate the actual costs and metrics, an example of the correlated data for one large sub-project, a discussion of the results, and the additional activities that are planned to correlate and make this data available to the public. The process to collect and arrange the project control data of the Closure Project relied on the actual Closure Project cost information. It was used to correlate these actual costs with the metrics for the physical work, such as building area or waste generated, to support the development of parametric cost factors. The example provides cost factors for the Industrial Sites Project. The discussion addresses the strengths and weaknesses of the data, followed by a section identifying future activities to improve and extend the analyses and integrate it within the Department's Environmental Cost Analysis System. (authors)

  2. Costs of Chronic Diseases at the State Level: The Chronic Disease Cost Calculator

    OpenAIRE

    Justin G. Trogdon; Murphy, Louise B.; Khavjou, Olga A.; Li, Rui; Maylahn, Christopher M.; Tangka, Florence K.; Nurmagambetov, Tursynbek A.; Donatus U. Ekwueme; Nwaise, Isaac; Chapman, Daniel P.; Orenstein, Diane

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Many studies have estimated national chronic disease costs, but state-level estimates are limited. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention developed the Chronic Disease Cost Calculator (CDCC), which estimates state-level costs for arthritis, asthma, cancer, congestive heart failure, coronary heart disease, hypertension, stroke, other heart diseases, depression, and diabetes. Methods Using publicly available and restricted secondary data from multiple national data sets fro...

  3. STUDY ON UNIT COST OF CERTIFICATE-TYPE BROILERS

    OpenAIRE

    Minodora TUDORACHE; Ilie VAN; Ioan CUSTURĂ; Elena POPESCU-MICLOŞANU; Antoaneta POPA

    2012-01-01

    A production cost means all costs for inputs consumption performed by the enterprise for goods and services produced and offered. Production costs are very meaningful about business quality and it is a decision-making condition for every producer; lowest cost level is the standard in choosing the right option. These researches were intended to give an overview about these problems. Objectives were first to find unit costs for feeds and kg live weight to broilers type Certificate and second to...

  4. Improvements of Calculating of NPP Aging Management Program Costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NPP(nuclear power plant) AMP(aging management program) involves various costs to carry out plant refurbishments. PLiM(plant lifetime management) consists of many areas including economic evaluation of lifetime extension. In PLiM Phase 1 research project, with PLiMEE(Plant Lifetime Economic Evaluation) computer code we calculated and compared the costs of two cases which have the same assumption that they are providing the same output power for the electric grid. In addition to this assumption, we assumed that the preparation period for plant lie extension is 5 years and beside regular over haul days additional 20 days will be used in the plant refurbishment for that period each year. However, in phase 2, we are going to evaluate the residual life of SSCs(system, structure, components) and AMP will be recommended. In this situation, economic part of project should calculate AMP cost and benefit for plant life extension. In this paper, EPRI and Palisade economic computer codes are reviewed for this purpose, and the algorithms for calculating of NPP AMP costs are found out

  5. Cost calculations for decommissioning and dismantling of nuclear research facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, I. (Studsvik Nuclear AB (Sweden)); Backe, S. (Institute for Energy Technology (Norway)); Cato, A.; Lindskog, S. (Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (Sweden)); Efraimsson, H. (Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (Sweden)); Iversen, Klaus (Danish Decommissioning (Denmark)); Salmenhaara, S. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland (Finland)); Sjoeblom, R. (Tekedo AB, (Sweden))

    2008-07-15

    Today, it is recommended that planning of decommission should form an integral part of the activities over the life cycle of a nuclear facility (planning, building and operation), but it was only in the nineteen seventies that the waste issue really surface. Actually, the IAEA guidelines on decommissioning have been issued as recently as over the last ten years, and international advice on finance of decommissioning is even younger. No general international guideline on cost calculations exists at present. This implies that cost calculations cannot be performed with any accuracy or credibility without a relatively detailed consideration of the radiological prerequisites. Consequently, any cost estimates based mainly on the particulars of the building structures and installations are likely to be gross underestimations. The present study has come about on initiative by the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI) and is based on a common need in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. The content of the report may be briefly summarised as follows. The background covers design and operation prerequisites as well as an overview of the various nuclear research facilities in the four participating countries: Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. The purpose of the work has been to identify, compile and exchange information on facilities and on methodologies for cost calculation with the aim of achieving an 80 % level of confidence. The scope has been as follows: 1) to establish a Nordic network 2) to compile dedicated guidance documents on radiological surveying, technical planning and financial risk identification and assessment 3) to compile and describe techniques for precise cost calculations at early stages 4) to compile plant and other relevant data A separate section is devoted in the report to good practice for the specific purpose of early but precise cost calculations for research facilities, and a separate section is devoted to techniques for assessment of cost. Examples are provided for each of the countries of relevant projects. They are as follows: 5) Research reactor DR1 in Denmark 6) The TRIGA research reactor in Finland 7) The uranium reprocessing plant in Norway 8) Research reactor R1 in Sweden The following conclusions were made: 9) IAEA and OECD/NEA documents provide invaluable advice for pertinent approaches. 10) Adequate radiological surveying is needed before precise cost calculations can be made. 11) The same can be said about technical planning including selection of techniques to be used. 12) It is proposed that separate analyses be made regarding the probabilities for conceivable features and events which could lead to significantly higher costs than expected. 13) It is expected that the need for precise cost estimates will dictate the pace of the radiological surveying and technical planning, at least in the early stages. 14) It is important that the validity structure for early cost estimates with regard to type of facility be fully appreciated. E g, the precision is usually less for research facilities. 15) The summation method is treacherous and leads to systematical underestimations in early stages unless compensation is made for the fact that not all items are included. 16) Comparison between different facilities can be made when there is access to information from plants at different stages of planning and when accommodation can be made with regard to differences in features. 17) A simple approach is presented for 'calibration' of a cost estimate against one or more completed projects. 18) Information exchange and co-operations between different plant owners is highly desirable. (au)

  6. Cost calculations for decommissioning and dismantling of nuclear research facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Today, it is recommended that planning of decommission should form an integral part of the activities over the life cycle of a nuclear facility (planning, building and operation), but it was only in the nineteen seventies that the waste issue really surface. Actually, the IAEA guidelines on decommissioning have been issued as recently as over the last ten years, and international advice on finance of decommissioning is even younger. No general international guideline on cost calculations exists at present. This implies that cost calculations cannot be performed with any accuracy or credibility without a relatively detailed consideration of the radiological prerequisites. Consequently, any cost estimates based mainly on the particulars of the building structures and installations are likely to be gross underestimations. The present study has come about on initiative by the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI) and is based on a common need in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. The content of the report may be briefly summarised as follows. The background covers design and operation prerequisites as well as an overview of the various nuclear research facilities in the four participating countries: Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. The purpose of the work has been to identify, compile and exchange information on facilities and on methodologies for cost calculation with the aim of achieving an 80 % level of confidence. The scope has been as follows: 1) to establish a Nordic network 2) to compile dedicated guidance documents on radiological surveying, technical planning and financial risk identification and assessment 3) to compile and describe techniques for precise cost calculations at early stages 4) to compile plant and other relevant data A separate section is devoted in the report to good practice for the specific purpose of early but precise cost calculations for research facilities, and a separate section is devoted to techniques for assessment of cost. Examples are provided for each of the countries of relevant projects. They are as follows: 5) Research reactor DR1 in Denmark 6) The TRIGA research reactor in Finland 7) The uranium reprocessing plant in Norway 8) Research reactor R1 in Sweden The following conclusions were made: 9) IAEA and OECD/NEA documents provide invaluable advice for pertinent approaches. 10) Adequate radiological surveying is needed before precise cost calculations can be made. 11) The same can be said about technical planning including selection of techniques to be used. 12) It is proposed that separate analyses be made regarding the probabilities for conceivable features and events which could lead to significantly higher costs than expected. 13) It is expected that the need for precise cost estimates will dictate the pace of the radiological surveying and technical planning, at least in the early stages. 14) It is important that the validity structure for early cost estimates with regard to type of facility be fully appreciated. E g, the precision is usually less for research facilities. 15) The summation method is treacherous and leads to systematical underestimations in early stages unless compensation is made for the fact that not all items are included. 16) Comparison between different facilities can be made when there is access to information from plants at different stages of planning and when accommodation can be made with regard to differences in features. 17) A simple approach is presented for 'calibration' of a cost estimate against one or more completed projects. 18) Information exchange and co-operations between different plant owners is highly desirable. (au)

  7. Cost calculation and financial measures for high-level waste disposal business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study is made on the costs for disposal of high-level wastes, centering on financial problems involving cost calculation for disposal business and methods and systems for funding the business. The first half of the report is focused on calculation of costs for disposal business. Basic equations are shown to calculate the total costs required for a disposal plant and the costs for disposal of one unit of high-level wastes. A model is proposed to calculate the charges to be paid by electric power companies to the plant for disposal of their wastes. Another equation is derived to calculate the disposal charge per kWh of power generation in a power plant. The second half of the report is focused on financial measures concerning expenses for disposal. A financial basis should be established for the implementation of high-level waste disposal. It is insisted that a reasonable method for estimating the disposal costs should be set up and it should be decided who will pay the expenses. Discussions are made on some methods and systems for funding the disposal business. An additional charge should be included in the electricity bill to be paid by electric power users, or it should be included in tax. (Nogami, K.)

  8. Commerical electric power cost studies. Capital cost addendum multi-unit coal and nuclear stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is the culmination of a study performed to develop designs and associated capital cost estimates for multi-unit nuclear and coal commercial electric power stations, and to determine the distribution of these costs among the individual units. This report addresses six different types of 2400 MWe (nominal) multi-unit stations as follows: Two Unit PWR Station-1139 MWe Each, Two Unit BWR Station-1190 MWe Each, Two Unit High Sulfur Coal-Fired Station-1232 MWe Each, Two Unit Low Sulfur Coal-Fired Station-1243 MWe Each, Three Unit High Sulfur Coal-Fired Station-794 MWe Each, Three Unit Low Sulfur Coal-Fired Station-801 MWe Each. Recent capital cost studies performed for ERDA/NRC of single unit nuclear and coal stations are used as the basis for developing the designs and costs of the multi-unit stations. This report includes the major study groundrules, a summary of single and multi-unit stations total base cost estimates, details of cost estimates at the three digit account level and plot plan drawings for each multi-unit station identified

  9. THE USE OF CALCULATION OF COSTS FOR ACTIVITIES TO IMPROVE COST MANAGEMENT AND PROFITABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BUŞAN GABRIELA

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Dissatisfaction with the classical systems of managerial accounting has led to global acceptance of the ABC, as a result of the many theoretical and applied works, which had as its objective the creation of a system for calculating relevant costs, adapted to the needs of information, in the new context of production organization. Under this method, the task, allowing a new vision in the company and cut cross vision, becomes the Centre of representation and modeling of enterprise and serves as an interface between the resources consumed and cost bearers whose cost you want to measure it. In this way you get a real cost, on the basis of which the strategic decisions by removing non-creative activities and using as the basis for apportionment of costs it generates activity.

  10. Costly Regional Landslide Events in the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer contains information on costly regional landslide events in the 50 United States and Puerto Rico. The extents of the regional events were drawn from...

  11. Costly Landslide Events in the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer shows point locations of costly individual landslide events in the 50 United States and Puerto Rico. Landslide locations were determined from...

  12. COST ESTIMATION MODELS FOR DRINKING WATER TREATMENT UNIT PROCESSES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cost models for unit processes typically utilized in a conventional water treatment plant and in package treatment plant technology are compiled in this paper. The cost curves are represented as a function of specified design parameters and are categorized into four major catego...

  13. Systematic parametric design/calculation of the piston rod unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacani, V.

    2015-08-01

    In this article a modern and economic method for the strength calculation of the piston rod unit and its components under different operating conditions will be presented. Herefore the commercial FEA - Software will be linked with the company-owned calculation tools. The parametric user input will be followed by an automatic Pre- and Postprocessing. Afterwards the strength calculation is processed on all critical points of the piston rod connection, assisted by an extra module, based on general standards and special codes for reciprocating compressors. In this process most arrangements of the piston rod unit as well as the special geometries of the single-components (piston, piston rod and piston nut) can be considered easily. In this article the modeling of the notches, especially on the piston rod, piston as well as the piston nut will be covered in detail.

  14. HOW TO CALCULATE THE ENVIRONMENTAL COSTS? CASE COMPANY GRAFICA CIENFUEGOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keitel, Becerra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The world urgently needs to protect the environment, many companies and organizations devote huge resources to reach that goal and achieve sustainable development as the highest standard of achievement for any country or organization. It then becomes imperative to determine how much the companies spend on the environment, taking into account that the Entities have an implicit contract with society and the environment, the product of the resources used and waste and waste pouring, which is why one needs to calculate and record the environmental costs of products to enhance the environmental management of the entity and thus promote an excellent decision-making. The following research seeks a procedure which allows solving this problem, making its composition with the use of various techniques within which highlights the environmental checklists and product life cycle, which also allows knowing separately as each process and product impacts the environment.

  15. IMPROVING MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING AND COST CALCULATION IN DAIRY INDUSTRY USING STANDARD COST METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdănoiu Cristiana-Luminiţa

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to discuss issues related to the improvement of management accounting in the dairy industry by implementing standard cost method. The methods used today do not provide informational satisfaction to managers in order to conduct effectively production activities, which is why we attempted the standard cost method, it responding to the managers needs to obtain the efficiency of production, and all economic entities. The method allows an operative control of how they consume manpower and material resources by pursuing distinct, permanent and complete deviations during the activity and not at the end of the reporting period. Successful implementation of the standard method depends on the accuracy by which standards are developed and promotes consistently anticipated calculation of production costs as well as determination, tracking and controlling deviations from them, leads to increased practical value of accounting information and business improvement.

  16. Improvement of Cost Calculation in Constructions – Application of the Standard Cost Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adela Breuer

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Grace to the analysis of several commercial companies effectively performed “on the field”, we could remark the necessity to change the method of cost calculation, our motivation being related to the simplification of calculations and the reduction of the labour volume, but especially the necessity to know in due time the deviations occurred as well as the causes having led to their apparition. The importance of knowing the deviations in due time results from the very basic characteristics of the constructions execution, i.e. the performance of works during several budgetary years, which leads to the modifications of prices and materials, the introduction of new technologies, and to the performance of open air activities, making the execution of constructions works be influenced by the atmospheric condition. But the most important aspect of knowing the deviations is the correct determination of expenses and their inscribing in the corresponding period, in view of determining the result of the budgetary year. Our proposal for the enhancement of the method of cost calculation in constructions is the application of the standard cost method in the variant “single standard cost”.

  17. Petroleum Refinery Hydrogen Production Unit: Exergy and Production Cost Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    de Oliveira Júnior, Silvio; Cruz, Flávio E.

    2008-01-01

    Some specific processes are required to obtain pure hydrogen and the most usual one is natural gas reforming, where natural gas reacts with superheated steam producing H2, CO, CO2 and H2O. This paper presents the exergy and production costs evaluation of a complete hydrogen production unit of a petroleum refinery. The hydrogen production unit analysed in this paper has to supply 550,000 Nm3 of hydrogen per day to purify diesel oil. Based on a synthesis plant of the hydrogen production unit, t...

  18. Monitor unit calculation for Monte Carlo treatment planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, C.-M.; Price, R. A., Jr.; Li, J. S.; Chen, L.; Wang, L.; Fourkal, E.; Qin, L.; Yang, J.

    2004-05-01

    In this work, we investigate a formalism for monitor unit (MU) calculation in Monte Carlo based treatment planning. By relating MU to dose measured under reference calibration conditions (central axis, depth of dose maximum in water, 10 cm × 10 cm field defined at 100 cm source-to-surface distance) our formalism determines the MU required for a treatment plan based on the prescription dose and Monte Carlo calculated dose distribution. Detailed descriptions and formulae are given for various clinical situations including conventional treatments and advanced techniques such as intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and modulated electron radiotherapy (MERT). Analysis is made of the effects of source modelling, beam modifier simulation and patient dose calculation accuracy, all of which are important factors for absolute dose calculations using Monte Carlo simulations. We have tested the formalism through phantom measurements and the predicted MU values were consistent with measured values to within 2%. The formalism has been used for MU calculation and plan comparison for advanced treatment techniques such as MERT, extracranial stereotactic IMRT, MRI-based treatment planning and intensity-modulated laser-proton therapy studies. It is also used for absolute dose calculations using Monte Carlo simulations for treatment verification, which has become part of our comprehensive IMRT quality assurance programme.

  19. Small scale units testing low cost anaerobic digestion (AD) systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    To evaluate the potential for low technology and low cost digesters for small dairies, BARC and researchers from the University of Maryland installed six modified Taiwanese-model field-scale (FS) digesters near the original dairy manure digester. The FS units receive the same post-separated liquid ...

  20. Foundations of Financial Accounting Organization and Cost Calculation using Activity-Based Costing Method in Romanian Textile Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorinel Capusneanu

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of first part of this article consists in attempting to establish the management accounting and cost calculation basis of the ABC method in Romania. After general characterization of the ABC method and origin establishment of the ABC method the premises analysis are treated which are the basis of management accounting and cost calculation through ABC method in Romania. There are established the role and implications of the processes, activities and cost objects on management accounting and cost calculation, in the attempt to classify the expenses which accomplish the production cost, accordingly to ABC method.

  1. Foundations of Financial Accounting Organization and Cost Calculation using Activity-Based Costing Method in Romanian Textile Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorinel Capusneanu

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of first part of this article consists in attempting to establish the management accounting and cost calculation basis of the ABC method in Romania. After general characterization of the ABC method and origin establishment of the ABC method the premises analysis are treated which are the basis of management accounting and cost calculation through ABC method in Romania. There are established the role and implications of the processes, activities and cost objects on management accounting and cost calculation, in the attempt to classify the expenses which accomplish the production cost, accordingly to ABC method.

  2. Covering the costs of care in neonatal intensive care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imershein, A W; Turner, C; Wells, J G; Pearman, A

    1992-01-01

    The continued rise of health care costs, despite private and governmental control efforts, has sustained cost containment as a central issue for health care researchers and policy makers. In keeping with these concerns, the Florida Health Care Cost Containment Board conducted a study of neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) in Florida to ascertain the costs, charges, and net revenues associated with NICU services in individual hospitals, to document cost shifting and cross-subsidization as a means of financing NICU care for indigent populations, and to assess the fiscal impact of NICUs in state-sponsored vs non-state-sponsored Regional Perinatal Intensive Care Center hospitals providing NICU care. Hospitals in the state-sponsored program reported a loss of approximately $16.5 million in contrast to the non-state-sponsored hospitals, which reported a gain of $1 million. Payment being generated by private-pay patients amounted to almost 60% of total revenues but constituted less than one third of the costs in state-sponsored hospitals, indicating a high level of cost shifting. Government support of state-sponsored NICUs, while substantial, has been insufficient; increasing constraints on this funding source would likely worsen the deficit and increase the necessity of cost shifting. PMID:1728023

  3. Renewable Energy Cost Modeling. A Toolkit for Establishing Cost-Based Incentives in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gifford, Jason S. [Sustainable Energy Advantage, LLC, Framington, MA (United States); Grace, Robert C. [Sustainable Energy Advantage, LLC, Framington, MA (United States); Rickerson, Wilson H. [Meister Consultants Group, Inc., Boston, MA (United States)

    2011-05-01

    This report serves as a resource for policymakers who wish to learn more about levelized cost of energy (LCOE) calculations, including cost-based incentives. The report identifies key renewable energy cost modeling options, highlights the policy implications of choosing one approach over the other, and presents recommendations on the optimal characteristics of a model to calculate rates for cost-based incentives, FITs, or similar policies. These recommendations shaped the design of NREL's Cost of Renewable Energy Spreadsheet Tool (CREST), which is used by state policymakers, regulators, utilities, developers, and other stakeholders to assist with analyses of policy and renewable energy incentive payment structures. Authored by Jason S. Gifford and Robert C. Grace of Sustainable Energy Advantage LLC and Wilson H. Rickerson of Meister Consultants Group, Inc.

  4. Application of the Bn theory to unit cell calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The integral transport equation is solved in square unit cells by assuming the existence of a fundamental mode. The equations governing the Bn method are given without making the small buckling approximation. First, the angular flux is factorized into two parts: a periodic microscopic fine-structure flux and a macroscopic form with no angular dependence. The macroscopic form only depends on a buckling vector with a given orientation. The critical buckling norm, along with the corresponding fine-structure flux, is obtained using collision probability calculations that are repeated until criticality is achieved. The procedure allows the periodic or reflective boundary conditions of the unit cell to be taken into account using closed-form contributions obtained from the cyclic tracking technique. Numerical results are presented for one-group heterogeneous cell problems with isotropic and linearly anisotropic scattering kernels, some of which include void regions

  5. Foundations of Financial Accounting Organization and Cost Calculation using Activity-Based Costing Method in Romanian Textile Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Sorinel Capusneanu

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of first part of this article consists in attempting to establish the management accounting and cost calculation basis of the ABC method in Romania. After general characterization of the ABC method and origin establishment of the ABC method the premises analysis are treated which are the basis of management accounting and cost calculation through ABC method in Romania. There are established the role and implications of the processes, activities and cost objects on management accou...

  6. Using Standard-Sole Cost Method for Performance Gestion Accounting and Calculation Cost in the Machine Building Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Cleopatra Sendroiu; Aureliana Geta Roman; Costantin Roman

    2006-01-01

    The main purpose of improving and varying cost calculation methods in the machine building industry is to make them more operational and efficient in supplying the information necessary to the management in taking its decisions. The present cost calculation methods used in the machine building plants – global method and the method per orders – by which a historical cost is determined a posteriori used in deducting and post factum justification of manufacturing expenses does not offer the mana...

  7. Real unit labour costs in Eurozone countries: Drivers and clusters

    OpenAIRE

    Ordóñez, Javier; Sala, Hector

    2015-01-01

    We examine the trajectories of the real unit labour costs (RULCs) in a selection of Eurozone economies. Strong asymmetries in the convergence process of the RULCs and its components-real wages, capital intensity, and technology-are uncovered through decomposition and cluster analyses. In the last three decades, the PIIGS (Portugal, Ireland, Italy, Greece, and Spain) succeeded in reducing their RULCs by more than their northern partners. With the exception of Ireland, however, technological pr...

  8. Costs of Crashes to Government, United States, 2008

    OpenAIRE

    Ted R. Miller; Bhattacharya, Soma; Zaloshnja, Eduard; Taylor, Dexter; Bahar, Geni; David, Iuliana

    2011-01-01

    We estimated how much the Federal government and state/local government pay for different kinds of crashes in the United States. Government costs include reductions in an array of public services (emergency, incident management, vocational rehabilitation, coroner court processing of liability litigation), medical payments, social safety net assistance to the injured and their families, and taxes foregone because victims miss work. Government also pays when its employees crash while working an...

  9. 47 CFR 65.305 - Calculation of the weighted average cost of capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Carriers § 65.305 Calculation of the weighted average cost of capital. (a) The composite weighted average... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Calculation of the weighted average cost of... Commission determines to the contrary in a prescription proceeding, the composite weighted average cost......

  10. Calculating the cost of generating electricity: Which role for nuclear?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear, coal, gas, hydro, other renewable all have various advantages and disadvantages according to different customers and countries. Independent of the specific local and national context, however, economic and financial cost will frequently be the key criterion. Having an idea of the cost of different power plant technologies is thus crucial for developing a vision of the composition of the electricity sector in the years to come. That is why the NEA, in co-operation with its sister agency the IEA, publishes an update approximately every five years of the cost of generating electricity with different technologies in a range of OECD countries. The last of these studies was published in 2005 under the title Projected Costs of Generating Electricity. These studies have always constituted highly respected reference values for the costs of power generation and figure regularly among the best-sellers of both the NEA and the IEA. Since the beginning of 2009, work on a new edition of the Electricity Generating Cost (EGC) study has begun. (A.L.B.)

  11. Independent calculation of monitor units for VMAT and SPORT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Dose and monitor units (MUs) represent two important facets of a radiation therapy treatment. In current practice, verification of a treatment plan is commonly done in dose domain, in which a phantom measurement or forward dose calculation is performed to examine the dosimetric accuracy and the MU settings of a given treatment plan. While it is desirable to verify directly the MU settings, a computational framework for obtaining the MU values from a known dose distribution has yet to be developed. This work presents a strategy to calculate independently the MUs from a given dose distribution of volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and station parameter optimized radiation therapy (SPORT). Methods: The dose at a point can be expressed as a sum of contributions from all the station points (or control points). This relationship forms the basis of the proposed MU verification technique. To proceed, the authors first obtain the matrix elements which characterize the dosimetric contribution of the involved station points by computing the doses at a series of voxels, typically on the prescription surface of the VMAT/SPORT treatment plan, with unit MU setting for all the station points. An in-house Monte Carlo (MC) software is used for the dose matrix calculation. The MUs of the station points are then derived by minimizing the least-squares difference between doses computed by the treatment planning system (TPS) and that of the MC for the selected set of voxels on the prescription surface. The technique is applied to 16 clinical cases with a variety of energies, disease sites, and TPS dose calculation algorithms. Results: For all plans except the lung cases with large tissue density inhomogeneity, the independently computed MUs agree with that of TPS to within 2.7% for all the station points. In the dose domain, no significant difference between the MC and Eclipse Anisotropic Analytical Algorithm (AAA) dose distribution is found in terms of isodose contours, dose profiles, gamma index, and dose volume histogram (DVH) for these cases. For the lung cases, the MC-calculated MUs differ significantly from that of the treatment plan computed using AAA. However, the discrepancies are reduced to within 3% when the TPS dose calculation algorithm is switched to a transport equation-based technique (Acuros™). Comparison in the dose domain between the MC and Eclipse AAA/Acuros calculation yields conclusion consistent with the MU calculation. Conclusions: A computational framework relating the MU and dose domains has been established. The framework does not only enable them to verify the MU values of the involved station points of a VMAT plan directly in the MU domain but also provide a much needed mechanism to adaptively modify the MU values of the station points in accordance to a specific change in the dose domain

  12. Independent calculation of monitor units for VMAT and SPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xin; Bush, Karl; Ding, Aiping; Xing, Lei, E-mail: lei@stanford.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

    2015-02-15

    Purpose: Dose and monitor units (MUs) represent two important facets of a radiation therapy treatment. In current practice, verification of a treatment plan is commonly done in dose domain, in which a phantom measurement or forward dose calculation is performed to examine the dosimetric accuracy and the MU settings of a given treatment plan. While it is desirable to verify directly the MU settings, a computational framework for obtaining the MU values from a known dose distribution has yet to be developed. This work presents a strategy to calculate independently the MUs from a given dose distribution of volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and station parameter optimized radiation therapy (SPORT). Methods: The dose at a point can be expressed as a sum of contributions from all the station points (or control points). This relationship forms the basis of the proposed MU verification technique. To proceed, the authors first obtain the matrix elements which characterize the dosimetric contribution of the involved station points by computing the doses at a series of voxels, typically on the prescription surface of the VMAT/SPORT treatment plan, with unit MU setting for all the station points. An in-house Monte Carlo (MC) software is used for the dose matrix calculation. The MUs of the station points are then derived by minimizing the least-squares difference between doses computed by the treatment planning system (TPS) and that of the MC for the selected set of voxels on the prescription surface. The technique is applied to 16 clinical cases with a variety of energies, disease sites, and TPS dose calculation algorithms. Results: For all plans except the lung cases with large tissue density inhomogeneity, the independently computed MUs agree with that of TPS to within 2.7% for all the station points. In the dose domain, no significant difference between the MC and Eclipse Anisotropic Analytical Algorithm (AAA) dose distribution is found in terms of isodose contours, dose profiles, gamma index, and dose volume histogram (DVH) for these cases. For the lung cases, the MC-calculated MUs differ significantly from that of the treatment plan computed using AAA. However, the discrepancies are reduced to within 3% when the TPS dose calculation algorithm is switched to a transport equation-based technique (Acuros™). Comparison in the dose domain between the MC and Eclipse AAA/Acuros calculation yields conclusion consistent with the MU calculation. Conclusions: A computational framework relating the MU and dose domains has been established. The framework does not only enable them to verify the MU values of the involved station points of a VMAT plan directly in the MU domain but also provide a much needed mechanism to adaptively modify the MU values of the station points in accordance to a specific change in the dose domain.

  13. Development of Low Cost, High Energy-Per-Unit-Area Solar Cell Modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, G. T.; Chitre, S.

    1977-01-01

    Work on the development of low cost, high energy per unit area solar cell modules was conducted. Hexagonal solar cell and module efficiencies, module packing ratio, and solar cell design calculations were made. The cell grid structure and interconnection pattern was designed and the module substrates were fabricated for the three modules to be used. It was demonstrated that surface macrostructures significantly improve cell power output and photovoltaic energy conversion efficiency.

  14. Steam Technical Brief: How to Calculate the True Cost of Steam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-06-25

    This BestPractice Steam Technical Brief helps you calculate the true cost of steam. Knowing the correct cost is important for many reasons and all of them have to do with improving the company's bottom line.

  15. An integrated approach to calculate life cycle costs of arms and military equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlada S. Sokolović

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION In a situation when government expenditures for defense are more restrictive, any investment in the acquisition of arms and military equipment (AME is a question that does not allow errors in decisions. Accordingly, the economic analysis of the investment must be detailed and unavoidable. In the past, the initial cost of procurement of AME was often the primary, and sometimes the only one criterion in decision-making. Neglecting the analysis of costs throughout the life of assets in prefeasibility studies is the main cause of unplanned investment in the later stages of the life cycle of investment, and also of a number of problems in the functioning and unfulfilling or partially fulfilling the goals of the system. PROCESS OF EQUIPPING THE MoD AND THE SAF WITH AME Legislation governing the process of equipping the Ministry of Defence (MoD and the Serbian Armed Forces (SAF with AME is based on the Regulation on equipping the Yugoslav Army with weapons and military equipment in peacetime, from 1996, and on several Standards of National Defense (SNO 0477/83, SNO 1096/85, SNO 8196/92, SNO 9000/97, etc.. Due to a number of social and organizational changes in the defense system, this regulation is not in full compliance with real-time requirements. The analysis of legal regulations and activities in the process of equipping the MoD and the SAF with AME in practice indicates dominance of technical - technological aspects of the equipping analysis, while the economic aspect (primarily aspect of costs is present, but not detailed enough. At best, there is only a static approach to the analysis and evaluation of investment projects, while a dynamic aspect and the aspect of the total cost over the life of assets are not taken into account. ANALYSIS OF COSTS IN THE LIFETIME OF ASSETS Given the non-profit character of military organizations and the possibility to express explicit costs, but not the benefits of investment in equipping with AME , costs are one of the most dominant parameters in decision-making. Modern trends in this area comprehensively perceive all costs during the life cycle of assets.In general, in the analysis of costs in the life cycle of AME there are two sets of costs: visible and invisible (hidden costs. The visible part of the costs is mainly present in decision-making and usually includes the cost of equipping units or purchase of assets. The invisible part of the costs is far more significant. Although it is larger than the visible part and covers more groups of costs, decision-makers often do not take it into account. The hidden costs include: distribution costs, operating costs, maintenance costs, training costs, inventory costs, information systems costs, the cost of disposal and write-offs, etc. The decision making problem about investment in the AME purchase and equipping is obviously of  multicriteria nature, whether an optimum combination of costs for one  technical system (AME is in question, or whether it is a choice of a system of AME among many offered. COST ANALYSIS OF A PARTICULAR  ASSET For the illustration of an integrated approach to the analysis of the cost of assets in their life-cycle, a model from the US Naval Postgraduate School, was adjusted and applied on an example of a real asset. The model is applied to the case of two  squadrons of identical aircraft based at different airports. With regard to the availability, confidentiality, and the variability of costs and reliability of the elements of AME, the calculations in the model are implemented on the basis of the estimated or orientation parameters. Essentially, the goal is to demonstrate the interdependence, mutual relations and influences of parameters and their ultimate impact on the overall cost of military assets. Applying the model to a particular example points to the fact that, in the first years of asset life, the dominant cost is that of asset procurement (cost of acquisition, cost of assets themselves, the price of equipment for service and maintenance, the costs of initial training of a number of personnel and distribution costs. When assets are new and introduced gradually in phases within the warranty period, the costs of asset maintaining and upgrading are not significant at that period. During this period, the main costs are the costs of personnel and training. Maintenance costs increase over time, and at the half of the life cycle there are special investments in the development and modernization of equipment, as well as in testing the reliability of individual elements, etc.. Due to years of use, the operating costs of assets grow until the expiration of their life cycle, when there is a possibility of selling them and achieving certain profit. When looking at how the dynamics of individual costs affect the overall cost of assets in their life cycle, it is evident that most of the percentage of costs are the costs of asset operating and maintaining - about 66%. The costs of testing and training follow with 16%, 12% is attributed to personnel costs, 6% to training costs, etc.. CONTRIBUTION TO THE OPTIMIZATION OF FUNDS ALLOCATED TO AME PROCUREMENT In order to provide the necessary funds when they are needed and at optimal cost, it is necessary to carry out adequate strategic, managerial, operational and administrative activities. Strategic actions in defense systems, in this sense, include: planning and development of procurement organization and infrastructure, determination of the best use of expertise and procurement resources, identification of the working standards to be achieved, and the establishment of control and reporting mechanisms. Control activities are the identification of modes for the best satisfaction of perceived needs, planning and coordination in procurement, training and staff development as well as acquisition performance  measurement. Operational activities are demanding specifications, examining options of research of the supply of goods or services, bid and supplier evaluation, negotiations, as well as contract and project administration. Administrative activities include processing and dispatching orders, comparing delivery and receipt confirmations, invoice receipt and verification, record-keeping and others. The identified existing and potential failures occurring in the procurement of military assets and affecting the optimization of use of financial resources, include: lack of adequate staff, imprecise legal regulations of procurement, lack of multi-year framework agreements related to the acquisition, insufficient and inadequate market research, incomplete adherence to the existing norms, late placing of funds at the disposal of the procurement service, untimely and inaccurate procurement planning, poor quality technical documentation, disrespect for deadlines, inadequate frequency of purchases, a number of "urgent and confidential procurements,", absence of a system limiting the time of procurement activities, absence of an adequate structure to deal with procurement control, etc. In addition, an integrated information system or a database that would allow access to the data and the analysis of the dynamics of costs would ensure proper assessment of costs of investments in equipping the military with AME.. CONCLUSION Determining AME  life cycle costs should be made at an early phase of asset development because it can repeatedly affect the total amount and cost reduction through project changing. In the cost analysis, it is desirable to use mathematical models and methods developed in the theory and practice to allow accurate calculations of the elements necessary for a cost estimate. The biggest costs occur in the functional competence of logistics which shows that equipping the army must be based on logistic grounds for efficiency and cost saving throughout the life cycle of the asset. The initial cost of assets in relation to the costs that appear at the end of their life cycle is only a few percent and all other expenses are related to support costs. All presented elements are necessary to be analyzed through the existing organization of the military and the logistic support system, because deviations or adjustments to specific operating conditions can bring significant cost saving as well. Due to the multi-disciplinary and multi-criteria character of the process of equipping the military with AME, it is necessary to form project teams that will adequately manage the process. When the equipping is of strategic importance for the country, it is necessary that the Government and relevant ministries  take an adequate role in the process. An integrated approach to the budget and the reduction of AME life cycle costs should follow the general trends in the reform of public (state sector such as: cost and efficiency optimization, team approach to solving complex problems, greater transparency, shorter response time, introduction of a labor-incentive system, reducing administration, public-private partnerships and multinational projects. The aim is to provide a better solution, product or service or a higher level of satisfaction of the public (state interests with lower consumption of resources. In the defense sector, this means sustainable and smart defense and multinational approach in the implementation of costly projects. In order to optimize the AME life cycle costs, it is necessary, at all levels of study and training of personnel, to study certain features of integrated logistic support, to apply proper concepts and approaches and to predict and monitor organizational and technological changes in the defense system. 

  16. Calculating Cost-Return for Investments in Student Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumina Foundation for Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    In late 2007, Jobs for the Future (JFF), working with the Delta Project on Postsecondary Costs, Productivity and Accountability, launched "Investing in Student Success", a one-year pilot program. The pilot, conceived of as part of the "Making Opportunity Affordable" initiative and funded by Walmart Foundation and Lumina Foundation for Education,…

  17. Fuel cost analysis of CANDU-PHWR Wolsung Nuclear Power Plant unit 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Being based on the Segal method, calculation was carried out for the natural uranium nuclear fuel cost with Zircaloy-4 cladding having design parameters of Wolsung Nuclear Power Plant, CANDU-PHWR (Unit 1), currently under construction in Korea aiming at its completion in 1982. An attempt was also made for the sensitivity analysis of each fuel component; i.e., depreciation of fuel manufacturing plant caused by its life time, its load factor, production scale expansion of plant facilities, variations of construction and operating costs of fuel manufacturing plant, fluctuation of interest rates, extent of uranium ore price increases and effect of learning factor. (author)

  18. Cost-Optimal Operation of Energy Storage Units: Benefits of a Problem-Specific Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Siemer, Lars; Kleinhans, David

    2015-01-01

    The integration of large shares of electricity produced by non-dispatchable Renewable Energy Sources (RES) leads to an increasingly volatile energy generation side, with temporary local overproduction. The application of energy storage units has the potential to use this excess electricity from RES efficiently and to prevent curtailment. The objective of this work is to calculate cost-optimal charging strategies for energy storage units used as buffers. For this purpose, a new mathematical optimization method is presented that is applicable to general storage-related problems. Due to a tremendous gain in efficiency of this method compared with standard solvers and proven optimality, calculations of complex problems as well as a high-resolution sensitivity analysis of multiple system combinations are feasible within a very short time. As an example technology, Power-to-Heat converters used in combination with thermal storage units are investigated in detail and optimal system configurations, including storage ...

  19. Caveat Emptor: Calculating All the Costs of Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinberg, Dorothy S.

    This paper examines the energy problem. Specific topics discussed include the recent history of oil and gas consumption in the United States, conservation, coal, solar energy, and nuclear energy. While solutions to the energy problem differ, there is an urgent need for broad, public debate. Ultimately, the decisions made regarding energy will be…

  20. Low-Cost Sensor Units for Measuring Urban Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popoola, O. A.; Mead, M.; Stewart, G.; Hodgson, T.; McLoed, M.; Baldovi, J.; Landshoff, P.; Hayes, M.; Calleja, M.; Jones, R.

    2010-12-01

    Measurements of selected key air quality gases (CO, NO & NO2) have been made with a range of miniature low-cost sensors based on electrochemical gas sensing technology incorporating GPS and GPRS for position and communication respectively. Two types of simple to operate sensors units have been designed to be deployed in relatively large numbers. Mobile handheld sensor units designed for operation by members of the public have been deployed on numerous occasions including in Cambridge, London and Valencia. Static sensor units have also been designed for long-term autonomous deployment on existing street furniture. A study was recently completed in which 45 sensor units were deployed in the Cambridge area for a period of 3 months. Results from these studies indicate that air quality varies widely both spatially and temporally. The widely varying concentrations found suggest that the urban environment cannot be fully understood using limited static site (AURN) networks and that a higher resolution, more dispersed network is required to better define air quality in the urban environment. The results also suggest that higher spatial and temporal resolution measurements could improve knowledge of the levels of individual exposure in the urban environment.

  1. Monte Carlo calculation of monitor unit for electron arc therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Monitor unit (MU) calculations for electron arc therapy were carried out using Monte Carlo simulations and verified by measurements. Variations in the dwell factor (DF), source-to-surface distance (SSD), and treatment arc angle (?) were studied. Moreover, the possibility of measuring the DF, which requires gantry rotation, using a solid water rectangular, instead of cylindrical, phantom was investigated. Methods: A phase space file based on the 9 MeV electron beam with rectangular cutout (physical size=2.6x21 cm2) attached to the block tray holder of a Varian 21 EX linear accelerator (linac) was generated using the EGSnrc-based Monte Carlo code and verified by measurement. The relative output factor (ROF), SSD offset, and DF, needed in the MU calculation, were determined using measurements and Monte Carlo simulations. An ionization chamber, a radiographic film, a solid water rectangular phantom, and a cylindrical phantom made of polystyrene were used in dosimetry measurements. Results: Percentage deviations of ROF, SSD offset, and DF between measured and Monte Carlo results were 1.2%, 0.18%, and 1.5%, respectively. It was found that the DF decreased with an increase in ?, and such a decrease in DF was more significant in the ? range of 0 deg. - 60 deg. than 60 deg. - 120 deg. Moreover, for a fixed ?, the DF increased with an increase in SSD. Comparing the DF determined using the rectangular and cylindrical phantom through measurements and Monte Carlo simulations, it was found that the DF determined by the rectangular phantom agreed well with that by the cylindrical one within ±1.2%. It shows that a simple setup of a solid water rectangular phantom was sufficient to replace the cylindrical phantom using our specific cutout to determine the DF associated with the electron arc. Conclusions: By verifying using dosimetry measurements, Monte Carlo simulations proved to be an alternative way to perform MU calculations effectively for electron arc therapy. Since Monte Carlo simulations can generate a precalculated database of ROF, SSD offset, and DF for the MU calculation, with a reduction in human effort and linac beam-on time, it is recommended that Monte Carlo simulations be partially or completely integrated into the commissioning of electron arc therapy.

  2. Nuclear power and global warming: a first cost-benefit calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper investigates the costs and benefits of a modest nuclear power programme in the European Union to combat the threat of global warming. The nuclear programme is found to bring a double benefit. The first and more obvious benefit is that the economic impacts of global warming are reduced. The second benefit is counter-intuitive; most people would expect it to be a cost. It comes from the stimulus to the economy from the construction of the nuclear plant, which, with the recycling of carbon tax revenues, offsets its construction and operating costs, and may even cause consumers' expenditure to rise. Calculations in this paper show that over the period to 2100 the mean net present value of the first benefit is 6 billion European Currency Units (ECU; 1 ECU is about Dollars 1), while the second benefit has a mean net present value of 159 billion ECU. However both benefits, particularly the second, are still very uncertain, to the extent that even their sign is not yet definitely established. (author)

  3. H2POWER: Development of a methodology to calculate life cycle cost of small and medium-scale hydrogen systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At this time, hydrogen-based power plants and large hydrogen production facilities are capital intensive and unable to compete financially against hydrocarbon-based energy production facilities. An option to overcome this problem and foster the introduction of hydrogen technology is to introduce small and medium-scale applications such as residential and community hydrogen refueling units. Such units could potentially be used to generate both electricity and heat for the home, as well as hydrogen fuel for the automobile. Cost modeling for the integration of these three forms of energy presents several methodological challenges. This is particularly true since the technology is still in the development phase and both the financial and the environmental cost must be calculated using mainly secondary sources. In order to address these issues and aid in the design of small and medium-scale hydrogen systems, this study presents a computer model to calculate financial and environmental costs of this technology using different hydrogen pathways. The model can design and compare hydrogen refueling units against hydrocarbon-based technologies, including the 'gap' between financial and economic costs. Using the methodology, various penalties and incentives that can foster the introduction of hydrogen-based technologies can be added to the analysis to study their impact on financial cost

  4. Assessing DRG cost accounting with respect to resource allocation and tariff calculation: the case of Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogl, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the German diagnosis related groups (G-DRG) cost accounting scheme by assessing its resource allocation at hospital level and its tariff calculation at national level. First, the paper reviews and assesses the three steps in the G-DRG resource allocation scheme at hospital level: (1) the groundwork; (2) cost-center accounting; and (3) patient-level costing. Second, the paper reviews and assesses the three steps in G-DRG national tariff calculation: (1) plausibility checks; (2) inlier calculation; and (3) the "one hospital" approach. The assessment is based on the two main goals of G-DRG introduction: improving transparency and efficiency. A further empirical assessment attests high costing quality. The G-DRG cost accounting scheme shows high system quality in resource allocation at hospital level, with limitations concerning a managerially relevant full cost approach and limitations in terms of advanced activity-based costing at patient-level. However, the scheme has serious flaws in national tariff calculation: inlier calculation is normative, and the "one hospital" model causes cost bias, adjustment and representativeness issues. The G-DRG system was designed for reimbursement calculation, but developed to a standard with strategic management implications, generalized by the idea of adapting a hospital's cost structures to DRG revenues. This combination causes problems in actual hospital financing, although resource allocation is advanced at hospital level. PMID:22935314

  5. Formation of decontamination cost calculation model for severe accident consequence assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In previous studies, the authors developed an index “cost per severe accident” to perform a severe accident consequence assessment that can cover various kinds of accident consequences, namely health effects, economic, social and environmental impacts. Though decontamination cost was identified as a major component, it was taken into account using simple and conservative assumptions, which make it difficult to have further discussions. The decontamination cost calculation model was therefore reconsidered. 99 parameters were selected to take into account all decontamination-related issues, and the decontamination cost calculation model was formed. The distributions of all parameters were determined. A sensitivity analysis using the Morris method was performed in order to identify important parameters that have large influence on the cost per severe accident and large extent of interactions with other parameters. We identified 25 important parameters, and fixed most negligible parameters to the median of their distributions to form a simplified decontamination cost calculation model. Calculations of cost per severe accident with the full model (all parameters distributed), and with the simplified model were performed and compared. The differences of the cost per severe accident and its components were not significant, which ensure the validity of the simplified model. The simplified model is used to perform a full scope calculation of the cost per severe accident and compared with the previous study. The decontamination cost increased its importance significantly. (author)

  6. AN ALGORITMIC APPROACH TO THE TRADITIONAL COST CALCULATION OF THE PLASTIC INJECTION MOULDS

    OpenAIRE

    KARAAĞAÇ, İbrahim; Ahmet ÖZDEMİR

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACTIn this study, the procedure of conventional cost calculation of the plastic injection moulds are programmed via Delphi programming modules. In the calculation, the mass properties of the designed part are directly obtained from AutoCAD program and, the machining periods of the mould parts are interactively estimated by using MasterCAM package. Both the data from MasterCAM and the mass properties from AutoCAD are transferred to the Delphi programming domain to calculate the mould cost...

  7. Effect of the construction cost calculations to the sustainable development of buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Tažiková, Alena; Kozlovská, Mária

    2013-01-01

    The article deals with the approach to the optimal design of construction with an emphasis on environmental load. The load is determined quantifying environmental costs of building materials and environmental costs of finished buildings in their life cycle. The parallel calculation of construction costs and environmental costs have lead to the creation of the next generation of sustainable development buildings. The purpose of th is article is to analyze the current situatio...

  8. What does it cost to prevent on-duty firefighter cardiac events? A content valid method for calculating costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, P Daniel; Suyama, Joe; Reis, Steven E; Weaver, Matthew D; Hostler, David

    2013-01-01

    Cardiac arrest is a leading cause of mortality among firefighters. We sought to develop a valid method for determining the costs of a workplace prevention program for firefighters. In 2012, we developed a draft framework using human resource accounting and in-depth interviews with experts in the firefighting and insurance industries. The interviews produced a draft cost model with 6 components and 26 subcomponents. In 2013, we randomly sampled 100 fire chiefs out of >7,400 affiliated with the International Association of Fire Chiefs. We used the Content Validity Index (CVI) to identify the content valid components of the draft cost model. This was accomplished by having fire chiefs rate the relevancy of cost components using a 4-point Likert scale (highly relevant to not relevant). We received complete survey data from 65 fire chiefs (65% response rate). We retained 5 components and 21 subcomponents based on CVI scores ?0.70. The five main components include, (1) investment costs, (2) orientation and training costs, (3) medical and pharmaceutical costs, (4) education and continuing education costs, and (5) maintenance costs. Data from a diverse sample of fire chiefs has produced a content valid method for calculating the cost of a prevention program among firefighters. PMID:24455288

  9. Cost and usage patterns of antibiotics in a tertiary care neurosurgical unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Singh Sharma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The routine use of prophylactic antibiotics in neurosurgery has been shown to significantly reduce surgical site infection rates. The documentation of non-surgical site, nosocomial infections in neurosurgical patients remains limited, despite this being a stimulus for prolific antibiotic usage. The actual quantum of antibiotic use in neurosurgery and its role in infection control remain both undocumented and controversial. The authors address this issue with a cost-effectiveness study using historical controls. Materials and Methods: Bacteriologically positive body fluid samples were used to quantify infection rates in the year 2006 and compared with those in the year 1997. Itemized drug lists obtained from dedicated neurosurgical intensive care units and wards were used to quantify antibiotic usage and calculate their costs. Results were compared using both historical and internal controls. The monetary conversion factor used was INR 40=US$1. Results: A total of 3114 consecutive elective and emergency neurosurgical procedures were performed during the study period. 329 patients (10.6% were recorded to have bacteriologically positive body fluid samples, and 100,250 units of antibiotics were consumed costing Rs. 14,378,227.5 ($359,455.7. On an average, an operated patient received 32.2 units of antibiotics valued at Rs. 4,617 ($115.4. The crude infection rates were recorded to have reduced significantly in comparison to 1997, but did not differ between mirror intra-departmental units with significantly different antibiotic usage. Conclusions: Antibiotics accounted for 31% of the per capita cost of consumables for performing a craniotomy in the year 2006. This estimate should be factored into projecting future package costs.

  10. Exploring the cost-effectiveness of unit-based health promotion activities for nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Val Palumbo, Mary; Sikorski, Evelyn A; Liberty, Barbara C

    2013-12-01

    The Stepping Stones to Wellness program, offered on one hospital unit by the organization's wellness team and nurse practitioner students, was evaluated for its return on investment (ROI), level of participation, and satisfaction among staff and students. Interventions included (1) biometric screening, (2) participation incentives, and (3) education delivered by staff and nurse practitioner students on the unit. Using the hours of unscheduled absence as a proxy for staff wellness, ROI was calculated using 75% of the difference between the mean hours of unscheduled absence during the intervention compared to the previous 3 years. Average hourly rate (including benefits) was multiplied by unscheduled absence ($11,409.17). The total cost of program delivery ($7,662.50) for 80 employees yielded an ROI of $3,746.67. Participation improved and satisfaction increased. Graduate nursing students and an employer wellness team can deliver a successful unit-based health promotion program and possibly affect absenteeism. PMID:24400378

  11. Burden of disease and costs of aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (aSAH in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gray Alastair

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To estimate life years and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs lost and the economic burden of aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (aSAH in the United Kingdom including healthcare and non-healthcare costs from a societal perspective. Methods All UK residents in 2005 with aSAH (International Classification of Diseases 10th revision (ICD-10 code I60. Sex and age-specific abridged life tables were generated for a general population and aSAH cohorts. QALYs in each cohort were calculated adjusting the life tables with health-related quality of life (HRQL data. Healthcare costs included hospital expenditure, cerebrovascular rehabilitation, primary care and community health and social services. Non-healthcare costs included informal care and productivity losses arising from morbidity and premature death. Results A total of 80,356 life years and 74,807 quality-adjusted life years were estimated to be lost due to aSAH in the UK in 2005. aSAH costs the National Health Service (NHS £168.2 million annually with hospital inpatient admissions accounting for 59%, community health and social services for 18%, aSAH-related operations for 15% and cerebrovascular rehabilitation for 6% of the total NHS estimated costs. The average per patient cost for the NHS was estimated to be £23,294. The total economic burden (including informal care and using the human capital method to estimate production losses of a SAH in the United Kingdom was estimated to be £510 million annually. Conclusion The economic and disease burden of aSAH in the United Kingdom is reported in this study. Decision-makers can use these results to complement other information when informing prevention policies in this field and to relate health care expenditures to disease categories.

  12. Manual of Nucost 1.0 - code for calculation of nuclear power generation costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nucost is a computer code developed at CDTN to perform cost calculation of electric power generated in PWR nuclear power plants, based on present worth cost method. The Nucost version 1.0 performs calculations of nuclear fuel cost cycle by cycle during the time life of the power plant. That calculation is performed with enough details permitting optimization and minimization. The code is also a tool to aid reload projects and economic operation of PWR reactors. This manual presents a description of Nucost version 1.0, instruction to enter data preparation and description of the Nucost output. (M.I.)

  13. Cost of reactive nitrogen release from human activities to the environment in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobota, Daniel J.; Compton, Jana E.; McCrackin, Michelle L.; Singh, Shweta

    2015-02-01

    Leakage of reactive nitrogen (N) from human activities to the environment can cause human health and ecological problems. Often these harmful effects are not reflected in the costs of food, fuel, and fiber that derive from N use. Spatial analyses of damage costs attributable to source at management-relevant scales could inform decisions in areas where anthropogenic N leakage causes harm. We used recently compiled data describing N inputs in the conterminous United States (US) to assess potential damage costs associated with anthropogenic N. We estimated fates of N leaked to the environment (air/deposition, surface freshwater, groundwater, and coastal zones) in the early 2000s by multiplying watershed-level N inputs (8-digit US Geologic Survey Hydrologic Unit Codes; HUC8s) with published coefficients describing nutrient uptake efficiency, leaching losses, and gaseous emissions. We scaled these N leakage estimates with mitigation, remediation, direct damage, and substitution costs associated with human health, agriculture, ecosystems, and climate (per kg of N) to calculate annual damage cost (US dollars in 2008 or as reported) of anthropogenic N per HUC8. Estimates of N leakage by HUC8 ranged from effects of atmospheric N pollution were important across HUC8s. However, significant data gaps remain in our ability to fully assess N damages, such as damage costs from harmful algal blooms and drinking water contamination. Nationally, potential health and environmental damages of anthropogenic N in the early 2000s totaled 210 billion yr-1 USD (range: 81-441 billion yr-1). While a number of gaps and uncertainties remain in these estimates, overall this work represents a starting point to inform decisions and engage stakeholders on the costs of N pollution.

  14. Calculation of Total Cost, Tolerance Based on Taguchis, Asymmetric Quality Loss Function Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, R. S.; N. Alagumurthi; Ramesh, R.

    2009-01-01

    Problem statement: Current world market force the manufacturing sectors to develop high quality product and process design with minimum possible cost. About 80% of problems in production units may be attributed to 20% of design tolerance causes. While design typically represents the smallest actual cost elements in products (around 5%), it leverages the largest cost influence (around 70%). So design engineers continuously stumble upon problem of design for high quality performance with lower ...

  15. Billing and insurance-related administrative costs in United States’ health care: synthesis of micro-costing evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Jiwani, Aliya; Himmelstein, David; Woolhandler, Steffie; James G. Kahn

    2014-01-01

    Background The United States’ multiple-payer health care system requires substantial effort and costs for administration, with billing and insurance-related (BIR) activities comprising a large but incompletely characterized proportion. A number of studies have quantified BIR costs for specific health care sectors, using micro-costing techniques. However, variation in the types of payers, providers, and BIR activities across studies complicates estimation of system-wide costs. Using a consiste...

  16. Using Standard-Sole Cost Method for Performance Gestion Accounting and Calculation Cost in the Machine Building Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aureliana Geta Roman

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of improving and varying cost calculation methods in the machine building industry is to make them more operational and efficient in supplying the information necessary to the management in taking its decisions. The present cost calculation methods used in the machine building plants – global method and the method per orders – by which a historical cost is determined a posteriori used in deducting and post factum justification of manufacturing expenses does not offer the management the possibility to fully satisfy its need for information. We are talking about a change of conception in applying certain systems, methods and work techniques, according to the needs of efficient administration of production and the plant seen as a whole. The standard-cost method best answers to the needs of the effective management of the value side of the manufacturing process and raising economic efficiency. We consider that, in the machine building industry, these objectives can be achieved by using the standard - sole cost alternative of the standard-cost method.

  17. Using Standard-Sole Cost Method for Performance Gestion Accounting and Calculation Cost in the Machine Building Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleopatra Sendroiu

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of improving and varying cost calculation methods in the machine building industry is to make them more operational and efficient in supplying the information necessary to the management in taking its decisions. The present cost calculation methods used in the machine building plants - global method and the method per orders - by which a historical cost is determined a posteriori used in deducting and post factum justification of manufacturing expenses does not offer the management the possibility to fully satisfy its need for information. We are talking about a change of conception in applying certain systems, methods and work techniques, according to the needs of efficient administration of production and the plant seen as a whole. The standard-cost method best answers to the needs of the effective management of the value side of the manufacturing process and raising economic efficiency. We consider that, in the machine building industry, these objectives can be achieved by using the standard - sole cost alternative of the standard-cost method.

  18. Marginal cost calculation of energy production in hydro thermoelectric systems considering the transmission system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The alternatives for calculation of energy marginal cost in hydroelectric systems, considering the transmission one, was analysed, including fundamental concepts; generation/transmission systems, represented by linear power flow model; production marginal costs in hydrothermal systems and computation aspects. (C.G.C.). 11 refs, 5 figs

  19. Development of radiological concentrations and unit liter doses for TWRS FSAR radiological consequence calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analysis described in this report develops the Unit Liter Doses for use in the TWRS FSAR. The Unit Liter Doses provide a practical way to calculate conservative radiological consequences for a variety of potential accidents for the tank farms

  20. Calculational study of NPP turbine unit engine regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advisability of using engine regime (ER) of NPP turbine units in the case of short shutdowns caused by faulty actuations of protection system, and troubles not calling for generator de-energization, was proved. The method for NPP turbine unit ER realization using reactor after-heat, was developed. It is shown that the developed method efficiency is 25-30% higher as compared with standard ER, and enables one to keep the temperature state of turbine flow section at permissible level during 3 h

  1. Assessing DRG cost accounting with respect to resource allocation and tariff calculation: The case of Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Vogl, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the German diagnosis related groups (G-DRG) cost accounting scheme by assessing its resource allocation at hospital level and its tariff calculation at national level. First, the paper reviews and assesses the three steps in the G-DRG resource allocation scheme at hospital level: (1) the groundwork; (2) cost-center accounting; and (3) patient-level costing. Second, the paper reviews and assesses the three steps in G-DRG national tariff calculation: (1) ...

  2. 42 CFR 413.76 - Direct GME payments: Calculation of payments for GME costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Direct GME payments: Calculation of payments for...-STAGE RENAL DISEASE SERVICES; OPTIONAL PROSPECTIVELY DETERMINED PAYMENT RATES FOR SKILLED NURSING FACILITIES Specific Categories of Costs § 413.76 Direct GME payments: Calculation of payments for GME...

  3. Economic analysis of costs associated with a Respiratory Intensive Care Unit in a tertiary care teaching hospital in Northern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumari Shweta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is a paucity of cost analytical studies from resource constrained developing countries defining intensive care costs and their containment. Objective: Economic analysis of costs in a Respiratory Intensive Care Unit (RICU of a tertiary care teaching hospital in northern India. Materials and Methods: A prospective study was conducted in 74 patients admitted in the RICU. Costs were segregated into fixed and variable costs. Total and categorized costs averaged per day and costs incurred on the first day of the RICU stay were calculated. Correlation of the costs was performed with the length of stay, length of mechanical ventilation, survival, and therapeutic intervention scoring system-28 (TISS-28. Results: The total cost per day was Indian rupees (INR 10,364 (US $ 222. 46.4% of the total cost was borne by hospital and rest by patients. The mean cost represented 36.8% of the total cost and 69.8% of the variable cost. Expenditure on personnel salary constituted 37% of the total costs and 86% of the fixed cost. Length of stay in RICU was significantly higher in nonsurvivors (14.73 ± 13.6 days vs. survivors (8.3 ± 7.8 days ( P < 0.05. The TISS-28 score points in survivors was 30.6 vs. nonsurvivors 69.2 per nurse ( P < 0.05 correlating strongly with the total cost (r = 0.91. Conclusion: Although considerably less expensive than in economically developed countries, intensive care in India remains expensive relative to the cost of living. The cost block methodology provides a framework for cost estimation, aids resource allocation and allows international comparisons of economic models.

  4. Benefit/cost analysis of plutonium recycle options in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Predictable effects of the recycle of plutonium and uranium recovered from spent LWR fuels were assessed in a final environmental statement (GESMO). Five alternative dispositions of LWR-produced plutonium ranging from prompt recycle of recovered plutonium and uranium to no recovery and no recycle are compared. The assessments consider cumulative effects for the period 1975 through 2000, and are centered on a conservative low growth rate resulting in about 500 LWR's in the U.S. in 2000. A more optimistic growth projection resulting in about 800 LWR's in 2000 is also analyzed in order to assess the effects of industry size upon the impacts. Demands for fuel cycle services were calculated with an ERDA program, NUFUEL, which was modified to include penalties for 236U and 242Pu. Unit cost data, including a simulation of market place reaction to supply-demand functions for uranium costs, were combined with the NUFUEL demand data in an economics code, NUCOST. Environmental impacts were also based upon NUFUEL demand data and were developed using a model plant industry concept. Using the most likely unit costs with a 10% discount rate, present worth incentives for prompt recycle over no recycle of $3.2 billion for the lower growth and about $6 billion for the higher growth were indicated. Present worth costs of delays in recycle of up to 5 years were less than $1 billion. Sensitivity of the economic assessments to unit cost variations and discount rates were also evaluated. Environmental impacts other than radiological were lowest for prompt Pu recycle and highest for no recycle. Radiological impacts for the total world wide total body exposure from U.S. industry for the 26 year period were estimated to be: - No recycle-8.2 million person-rem; U only recycle-9.5 million person-rem; Pu and U recycle-8.8 million person-rem. Comparison of the decreased radiological impact of the no recycle option with its increased costs relative to prompt plutonium recycle resulted in a cost/benefit ratio of 0.04. Thus, the benefits of prompt plutonium recycle appear to far outweigh its costs

  5. An evaluation of airline beta values and their application in calculating the cost of equity capital.

    OpenAIRE

    Turner, Sheelah; Morrell, Peter

    2003-01-01

    This paper focuses on the calculation of the cost of equity capital in a sample of airlines, in comparison to industry-calculated values. The approach usually taken is to apply the Capital Asset Pricing Model to airline stock prices and market indices. The research shows that the calculated b values are sensitive to the precise methodology and calculations used. Further, the low regression model fits indicate the Capital Asset Pricing Model may not be the most suitable model for b value calcul...

  6. Analysis of Unit Process Cost for an Engineering-Scale Pyroprocess Facility Using a Process Costing Method in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Sungki Kim; Wonil Ko; Sungsig Bang

    2015-01-01

    Pyroprocessing, which is a dry recycling method, converts spent nuclear fuel into U (Uranium)/TRU (TRansUranium) metal ingots in a high-temperature molten salt phase. This paper provides the unit process cost of a pyroprocess facility that can process up to 10 tons of pyroprocessing product per year by utilizing the process costing method. Toward this end, the pyroprocess was classified into four kinds of unit processes: pretreatment, electrochemical reduction, electrorefining and electrowinn...

  7. Life cycle costing of waste management systems: Overview, calculation principles and case studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez-Sanchez, Veronica; Kromann, Mikkel A.; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides a detailed and comprehensive cost model for the economic assessment of solid waste management systems. The model was based on the principles of Life Cycle Costing (LCC) and followed a bottom-up calculation approach providing detailed cost items for all key technologies within...... regarding the cost assessment of waste management, namely system boundary equivalency, accounting for temporally distributed emissions and impacts, inclusions of transfers, the internalisation of environmental impacts and the coverage of shadow prices, and there was also significant confusion regarding...

  8. Methodical approaches to calculation of cost of educating specialists in institutes of higher education in Ukraine ???????????? ??????? ? ??????????? ????????? ?????????? ???????????? ? ????? ???????

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levchenko Olexandr M.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The article considers modern approaches to calculation of cost of educating one student of an institute of higher education of the third and fourth levels of accreditation. It proposes author’s own system of assessment of an average approximate cost of educating one specialist, which includes basic components of costs of institutes of higher education. Introduction of a standard of cost of educating specialists would allow increase of effectiveness of the process of formation and allocation of the state order for staff training on a competitive basis.? ?????? ??????????? ??????????? ??????? ? ??????????? ????????? ?????????? ?????? ???????? ??????? ???????? ????????? ??? – ?V ??????? ???????????. ?????????? ????????? ???????? ?????? ??????? ??????????????? ????????? ?????????? ?????? ???????????, ??????? ???????? ???????? ???????????? ?????? ?????. ????????? ????????? ????????? ?????????? ???????????? ???????? ???????? ????????????? ???????? ???????????? ? ?????????? ???????????????? ?????? ?? ?????????? ?????? ?? ?????????? ???????.

  9. ANALISA COST SHARING PERHITUNGAN TARIF HEMODIALISIS (HD MASYARAKAT MISKIN DI RUMAH SAKIT UMUM PKU MUHAMMADIYAH UNIT I YOGYAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    . Primandita

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Growing and expanding hopital may be efficiently and effectively managed, it is requiredto be conducted to face the tight competition in world of health service. If the hospital wish to survive in the competition, they need to recount the existing hospital tariff previously, that is by using competitive tariff model calculation. Hospital of PKU Muhammadiyah Unit I Yogyakarta divides HD tariff into two parts, these are Single Use and Re Use tariff. There are cost sharing differences between HD tariff in hospital and government. In this research, the reseacher only focuses on HD tariff of Re Use in order to reduce cost sharing. All this time, the hospital has never counted different cost. It can create lose for the hospital. th s researcher interest to analyze the cost sharing of hemodialisis tariff calculation for poor in public hospital of PKU Muhammadiyah Unit I Yogyakarta. Methode: This research type is descriptive research qualitative which analyzed real expense by using real cost methode and difference which is burdened by patien toward real tariff, meanwhile opinion about cost sharing is taken by interview with superintendent finance and superintendent of hemodialisis unit using interview method. Resulth: this research show the real tariff equal to Rp.912.571 while tariff released by hospital equal to Rp.575.000, and difference between second tariff is Rp.337.751, while tariff given by government is Rp.528.067 and difference with the real tariff equal to Rp.384.684. Conclusion: that unit based cost tariff higher than tariff given by hospital at this time, the biggest expense is component for examines or substance used up wear. The hospital should determine the strategy to decrease the difference. Key Words: cost sharing, real cost method, tariff packet, hemodialisis, poor, society

  10. Life cycle costing of waste management systems: Overview, calculation principles and case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We propose a comprehensive model for cost assessment of waste management systems. • The model includes three types of LCC: Conventional, Environmental and Societal LCCs. • The applicability of the proposed model is tested with two case studies. - Abstract: This paper provides a detailed and comprehensive cost model for the economic assessment of solid waste management systems. The model was based on the principles of Life Cycle Costing (LCC) and followed a bottom-up calculation approach providing detailed cost items for all key technologies within modern waste systems. All technologies were defined per tonne of waste input, and each cost item within a technology was characterised by both a technical and an economic parameter (for example amount and cost of fuel related to waste collection), to ensure transparency, applicability and reproducibility. Cost items were classified as: (1) budget costs, (2) transfers (for example taxes, subsidies and fees) and (3) externality costs (for example damage or abatement costs related to emissions and disamenities). Technology costs were obtained as the sum of all cost items (of the same type) within a specific technology, while scenario costs were the sum of all technologies involved in a scenario. The cost model allows for the completion of three types of LCC: a Conventional LCC, for the assessment of financial costs, an Environmental LCC, for the assessment of financial costs whose results are complemented by a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) for the same system, and a Societal LCC, for socio-economic assessments. Conventional and Environmental LCCs includes budget costs and transfers, while Societal LCCs includes budget and externality costs. Critical aspects were found in the existing literature regarding the cost assessment of waste management, namely system boundary equivalency, accounting for temporally distributed emissions and impacts, inclusions of transfers, the internalisation of environmental impacts and the coverage of shadow prices, and there was also significant confusion regarding terminology. The presented cost model was implemented in two case study scenarios assessing the costs involved in the source segregation of organic waste from 100,000 Danish households and the subsequent co-digestion of organic waste with animal manure. Overall, source segregation resulted in higher financial costs than the alternative of incinerating the organic waste with the residual waste: 1.6 M€/year, of which 0.9 M€/year was costs for extra bins and bags used by the households, 1.0 M€/year for extra collections and −0.3 M€/year saved on incineration

  11. Implementation of Cost Calculation Model in Forest Evaluation of Požega Forest Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stjepan Posavec

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The specific nature of forestry as an economic activity generates problems in realizing the set business plans and executing commercial operations. Business analysis deals with concepts and methods of perceiving the degree of development, as well as with unrealized possibilities of a business entity. The particular character of analyzing business operations of entities dealing with forest management arises, among other things, from the need to assure forest sustainability. In managing forests and forestland, it is not always possible to obey the principle of operational profitability, as the lack of any silvicultural treatments jeopardizes future increment of wood biomass and leads to the decline in the general forest value. Furthermore, the specificity of forest management is particularly evident in a long term cycle of biomass production, and extensive period of time between initial activities and the achieved economic effects, and in investments into forests which frequently exceed the financial possibilities of forest owners. The achieved degree and the unrealized possibilities of developing the forest potential are conditioned by biological factors and by economic and technical treatments. To measure and evaluate the effects of these factors on forest sustainability, specific knowledge is required combined with specific criteria for analytical assessment of the success of business entities dealing with forest management.This paper discusses economic and business analysis in forestry. It presents the results of the research project conducted by the state forest company »Hrvatske šume« d.o.o. and Faculty of Forestry University of Zagreb over a 5 year period. The data regarding the economic value of the forest, annual cut value, biological regeneration costs for all forest management units in Požega Forest Administration, including incomes and costs of forest harvesting have been analyzed together with the data regarding profitability and economic indicators. The actual cutting value method has been used for the analyses of the stand value. The Activity Based Cost Method has been used for the cost analysis. The cost-effectiveness and profitability in forestry have also been calculated.Požega Forest Administration manages the area of 52,025 ha, mainly productive forests in the Municipality of Slavonia and Požega. The total annual cut is 140,991 m3 on the area of 3,615 ha. The total growing stock of the state forests is 9,744,426 m3, which includes 9,200,025 m3 of even-aged forests and 544,401 m³ of uneven aged forests. The annual wood volume increment is 253,947 m3. The average forest stand value is 46,871 HRK/ha, or 54,723 HRK/ha without first age class (see Fig. 1 Forest value per management unit.The total costs of biological regeneration are 1,529 HRK/ha, and without forest management, silviculture, forest protection and wood construction it is 7,029 HRK/ha. The costs of the biological regeneration are shown in Fig. 2. The value of the annual cut for Požega Forest Administration is 10,214 HRK/ha (see Table 1.The costs of forest harvesting in 2007 are 8,460 HRK/ha on average, and 8,659 HRK/ha in 2008. Expenditures and revenues of forest harvesting in Požega Forest Administration 2007/2008 are shown in Fig. 4. If the costs of biological regeneration are included, the cost-effectiveness ratio is less than one (e<1, meaning that the management of the selected forest administration is not cost-effective. However, according to the presented negative economic indicators, profitability in forestry has shown positive forest management results. The possible measures that could lead to the increase in profitability are those affecting the company income. To achieve this goal it is necessary to lower the forest biological regeneration costs, to lower the market sale price, to increase the engaged resources, and to improve the capacity utilization.This research has shown that specific understanding and measuring of forest potentials are conditioned by biological factors and by economic and technical t

  12. Life cycle costing of waste management systems: overview, calculation principles and case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Sanchez, Veronica; Kromann, Mikkel A; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2015-02-01

    This paper provides a detailed and comprehensive cost model for the economic assessment of solid waste management systems. The model was based on the principles of Life Cycle Costing (LCC) and followed a bottom-up calculation approach providing detailed cost items for all key technologies within modern waste systems. All technologies were defined per tonne of waste input, and each cost item within a technology was characterised by both a technical and an economic parameter (for example amount and cost of fuel related to waste collection), to ensure transparency, applicability and reproducibility. Cost items were classified as: (1) budget costs, (2) transfers (for example taxes, subsidies and fees) and (3) externality costs (for example damage or abatement costs related to emissions and disamenities). Technology costs were obtained as the sum of all cost items (of the same type) within a specific technology, while scenario costs were the sum of all technologies involved in a scenario. The cost model allows for the completion of three types of LCC: a Conventional LCC, for the assessment of financial costs, an Environmental LCC, for the assessment of financial costs whose results are complemented by a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) for the same system, and a Societal LCC, for socio-economic assessments. Conventional and Environmental LCCs includes budget costs and transfers, while Societal LCCs includes budget and externality costs. Critical aspects were found in the existing literature regarding the cost assessment of waste management, namely system boundary equivalency, accounting for temporally distributed emissions and impacts, inclusions of transfers, the internalisation of environmental impacts and the coverage of shadow prices, and there was also significant confusion regarding terminology. The presented cost model was implemented in two case study scenarios assessing the costs involved in the source segregation of organic waste from 100,000 Danish households and the subsequent co-digestion of organic waste with animal manure. Overall, source segregation resulted in higher financial costs than the alternative of incinerating the organic waste with the residual waste: 1.6 M€/year, of which 0.9 M€/year was costs for extra bins and bags used by the households, 1.0 M€/year for extra collections and -0.3 M€/year saved on incineration. PMID:25524749

  13. Use of an expert system for energy cost calculations in the pulp and paper industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, an application for the calculation of energy prices and product energy costs in the pulp and paper industry by using the Xi Plus expert system is presented. The use of expert systems in the energy field and also the Xi Plus expert system and its general features are also discussed. The application has been made after collecting data from several sources. It runs in an IBM AT compatible microcomputer therefore being easily used in mills. The name of the application is PRODUCT ENERGY COST. It has a three level structure: the mill level, the department level and the main equipment level. Currently, the mill level and, in the energy production area, the department level (power plant) and the equipment level (boilers, turbines) are used. The application consists of four knowledge base groups. Altogether there are 52 separate knowledge bases having 534 rules or demons. The knowledge base groups are: BASIC DATA, ENERGY USE, ENERGY PRODUCTION and ENERGY COSTS. The application can be used for various heat and electrical energy price calculations or for energy cost calculations for different pulp and paper products. In this study, the energy prices for kraft pulp, TMP, newsprint and fine paper in different operating conditions and the associated energy costs of the products are calculated. Also, in some cases a sensitivity analysis is done. The expert system is quite suitable for this type of calculation and the method could be further developed for specific industrial needs, e.g. to enhance the energy management systems

  14. Simple calculation measures NH3 slip for cogeneration units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that government regulations restricting NOx emissions for New Stationary Sources have brought about an increased demand for deNOx systems. One such system is selective catalytic reduction (SCR). It uses ammonia in the presence of a catalyst to selectively reduce NOx emissions. Because of inherent inefficiencies in the SCR design, a small amount of NH3 slip becomes an additional exhaust stream pollutant discharged into the atmosphere. This discharge requires monitoring. Normally, ammonia is listed as a pollutant in the environmental permit to construct when an SCR system is specified for NOx reduction. Therefore, a method to report NH3 slip also will be required. Although the Code of Federal Regulations 40 CRF 60 does not specifically addressed NH3 slip, state agencies usually require reporting of NH3 emissions. An ammonia analyzer usually is installed for the measurement. However, other methods to monitor NH3 slip should be considered. One alternative is to calculate it. A cogeneration plant equipped with SCR using a specific configuration of instrumentation hardware and software will allow the NH3 slip to be calculated accurately

  15. Cost-Effectiveness and Cost-Reduction in United States Colleges and Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Richard I.; Miller, Peggy M.

    1991-01-01

    The relationship in college administration between cost effectiveness/cost reduction and planning, management, and evaluation is explored, and approaches to cost accounting and financial ratio analysis are discussed. It is concluded that it is important to emphasize institutional mission and people rather than cost containment and productivity.…

  16. Calculation of Total Cost, Tolerance Based on Taguchi’s, Asymmetric Quality Loss Function Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. S. Kumar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Current world market force the manufacturing sectors to develop high quality product and process design with minimum possible cost. About 80% of problems in production units may be attributed to 20% of design tolerance causes. While design typically represents the smallest actual cost elements in products (around 5%, it leverages the largest cost influence (around 70%. So design engineers continuously stumble upon problem of design for high quality performance with lower cost. Objectives of this study where to: (i simultaneous selection of design and manufacturing tolerance (ii minimization of total cost (sum of the manufacturing cost and Taguchi’s asymmetric quality cost (iii minimum cost and its machining tolerance. Approach: Rotor key base assembly was considered as case study to optimize the minimization of assembly total cost and machining tolerance. New global nonlinear optimization techniques called pattern search algorithm had been implemented to find optimal tolerance allocation and total cost. Results: In this study minimum cost arrived was 45.15 Cr and its corresponding tolerances for machining process turning, drilling, face milling, face milling and drilling where 0.063, 0.0508, 0.2127, 0.2127, 0.2540 mm respectively at worst case conditions. Conclusion: Results indicated that optimization by integer programming, sequential quadratic programming and exhaustive search, nonlinear programming, genetic algorithm, simulated annealing, fuzzy logic, number set theory and Monte Carlo simulation did not give much least total cost and also predicted that pattern search algorithm was robust method. Second the method, generally termed as concurrent tolerance synthesis was well suited for engineering environment, where high quality products with low total cost were designed and manufactured.

  17. Accelerating VASP electronic structure calculations using graphic processing units

    KAUST Repository

    Hacene, Mohamed

    2012-08-20

    We present a way to improve the performance of the electronic structure Vienna Ab initio Simulation Package (VASP) program. We show that high-performance computers equipped with graphics processing units (GPUs) as accelerators may reduce drastically the computation time when offloading these sections to the graphic chips. The procedure consists of (i) profiling the performance of the code to isolate the time-consuming parts, (ii) rewriting these so that the algorithms become better-suited for the chosen graphic accelerator, and (iii) optimizing memory traffic between the host computer and the GPU accelerator. We chose to accelerate VASP with NVIDIA GPU using CUDA. We compare the GPU and original versions of VASP by evaluating the Davidson and RMM-DIIS algorithms on chemical systems of up to 1100 atoms. In these tests, the total time is reduced by a factor between 3 and 8 when running on n (CPU core + GPU) compared to n CPU cores only, without any accuracy loss. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Health costs from electricity generation in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The attempt in this paper is to assess the health costs associated with electricity generation in the US general population. Health risk figures are used to estimate the total number of persons subjected to pollutant-induced mortality and mobility due to operation of fossil-fuel, nuclear energy, and renewable energy cycles. Health costs for different fuel-cycles are given for the census-divided regions of the US. Total national health costs are estimated to be between $8.7 and $69.4 billion annually for 1989 electricity generation level. Of these, about 95% to 99% are from fossil-fuel cycles. 65 refs., 4 tabs

  19. COMPARISON OF RADIATION SOURCES FOR PLANT GROWING BY LUMINOUS ENERGY UNIT'S COSTS AND ANALOGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozyreva I. N.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the method of comparison of radiation sources for plant growing by photosynthetic energy units or analogs costs, evaluation of critical values photosynthetic active radiation efficiency at which light-emitting diodes comparable by photosynthetic energy unit's costs with the most common alternative sources for irradiation of plants – high pressure sodium lamps

  20. 77 FR 24940 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Representative Average Unit Costs of Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-26

    ...: Representative Average Unit Costs of Energy'', dated March 10, 2011, 76 FR 13168. May 29, 2012, the cost figures... averages for these two fuels. The source for these price data is the March, 2012, Monthly Energy Review DOE... Review (March, 2012), except for propane. \\1\\ Btu stands for British thermal units. \\2\\ kWh stands...

  1. COMPARISON OF RADIATION SOURCES FOR PLANT GROWING BY LUMINOUS ENERGY UNIT'S COSTS AND ANALOGS

    OpenAIRE

    Kozyreva I. N.; Nikitin V. D.

    2014-01-01

    The article considers the method of comparison of radiation sources for plant growing by photosynthetic energy units or analogs costs, evaluation of critical values photosynthetic active radiation efficiency at which light-emitting diodes comparable by photosynthetic energy unit's costs with the most common alternative sources for irradiation of plants – high pressure sodium lamps

  2. Consideration concerning the costs of the 300 kW wind units developed in Romania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gyulai, F.; Bej, A. [Technical Univ. of Timisoara (Romania). Wind Energy Research Center

    1995-12-31

    A demonstrative wind farm with four research units, 300 kW each, is in developing stage in Romania. The article shows economic analysis of these experimental wind units and their cost structure focusing in component costs, performance, manufacturing technology and installing work. (author)

  3. 78 FR 17648 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Representative Average Unit Costs of Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-22

    ... forecasting the representative average unit costs of five residential energy sources for the year 2013 pursuant to the Energy Policy and Conservation Act. The five sources are electricity, natural gas, No. 2... Renewable Energy. Table 1--Representative Average Unit Costs of Energy for Five Residential Energy...

  4. Drug Prohibition in the United States: Costs, Consequences, and Alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadelmann, Ethan A.

    1989-09-01

    ``Drug legalization'' increasingly merits serious consideration as both an analytical model and a policy option for addressing the ``drug problem.'' Criminal justice approaches to the drug problem have proven limited in their capacity to curtail drug abuse. They also have proven increasingly costly and counterproductive. Drug legalization policies that are wisely implemented can minimize the risks of legalization, dramatically reduce the costs of current policies, and directly address the problems of drug abuse.

  5. Sample size calculation in cost-effectiveness cluster randomized trials: optimal and maximin approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manju, Md Abu; Candel, Math J J M; Berger, Martijn P F

    2014-07-10

    In this paper, the optimal sample sizes at the cluster and person levels for each of two treatment arms are obtained for cluster randomized trials where the cost-effectiveness of treatments on a continuous scale is studied. The optimal sample sizes maximize the efficiency or power for a given budget or minimize the budget for a given efficiency or power. Optimal sample sizes require information on the intra-cluster correlations (ICCs) for effects and costs, the correlations between costs and effects at individual and cluster levels, the ratio of the variance of effects translated into costs to the variance of the costs (the variance ratio), sampling and measuring costs, and the budget. When planning, a study information on the model parameters usually is not available. To overcome this local optimality problem, the current paper also presents maximin sample sizes. The maximin sample sizes turn out to be rather robust against misspecifying the correlation between costs and effects at the cluster and individual levels but may lose much efficiency when misspecifying the variance ratio. The robustness of the maximin sample sizes against misspecifying the ICCs depends on the variance ratio. The maximin sample sizes are robust under misspecification of the ICC for costs for realistic values of the variance ratio greater than one but not robust under misspecification of the ICC for effects. Finally, we show how to calculate optimal or maximin sample sizes that yield sufficient power for a test on the cost-effectiveness of an intervention. PMID:25019136

  6. Calculation of the CO2 Emission Reduction Costs in MARKAL Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Possible introduction of nuclear power plants is belong to the supply side long term mitigation options. These options are modeled in MARKAL by describing the technical, cost, availability and environmental data of the corresponding technologies. Model MARKAL (an acronym for MARket ALlocation) is a demand-driven, multi-period linear programming model of the technical energy system that deals with supply and demand side options. It is a cost-minimizing energy-environment system planning model used to investigate long-term responses to different future technological options, emissions limitations and policy scenarios of energy systems. Measures for CO2 reduction can be analyzed with MARKAL model in two ways, like conventional approach and forced introduction of technologies that do not appear in the baseline optimal solution. The latter way is used for calculation of the CO2 emission reduction costs in the case of nuclear power plants candidates in Croatian energy system. The differences in marginal costs are shown in the case of nuclear and coal power plants candidates. This analysis are performed in the scope of complete energy system (not only power sector), from supply side to technologies for energy transformation, and to demand side (sectors for energy consumption). This marginal costs are calculated as the ratio between the differences in discounted total system costs and emissions between the baseline and nuclear (coal) scenario. The results show which option is better from the optimality side of emission reduction, associated costs and possible final energy consumption changes in energy system. (author)

  7. The Weighted Average Cost of Capital (WACC) for firm valuation calculations: A reply

    OpenAIRE

    Ignacio Velez-Pareja

    2009-01-01

    Llano-Ferro (2009) proposes a solution to avoid "significant errors" when the Weighted Average Cost of Capital (WACC) "obtained by the standard formula leads to significant errors in Net Present Value of the Firm calculations; particularly in those that apply to perpetual cash flow series. In this paper we show that there are not "significant errors" but a wrong use of the formula and improper calculations of values.

  8. Cost index review of new US TPP and NPP units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cost indexes of 44 thermal power plants and NPPs have been considered using ''Electrical World'' journal data, 1982. It is noted that last years coal and nuclear energy are used instead of liquid and gaseous fuel to a greater degree. Fuel costs decrease. Specific number of personnel slightly depends on power plant capacity and constitutes 0.25-0.33 person/MW. Electric power consumption for auxiliary supply amounted to 4.5-6.5% for NPPs, 6-10% for coal-fired thermal power plants

  9. Use of a programmable calculator for rapid, low-cost processing of echocardiographic records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lust, R M; Boyer, B B; Lutherer, L O; Calvert, J E; Cooper, M W

    1984-01-01

    A comparative study was performed to determine the accuracy of a programmable calculator with supplemental digitizer in echocardiographic analysis. Twenty separate measurements were collected per heart beat from five different dogs, taking five heart beats from each dog. The measurements were made by an echocardiographic technician (ET), echocomputer (EC), and by a programmable calculator (HP). In a triple comparison (ET-HP, ET-EC, HP-EC) there were no significant differences in the values obtained, suggesting that the programmable calculator can provide a highly accurate and rapid means of processing echocardiographic measurements, thereby providing the advantages of the echocomputer without the cost of such a device. PMID:6509943

  10. MONNIE 2000: A description of a model to calculate environmental costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new model (MONNIE 2000) was developed by the RIVM in the Netherlands in 2000 to calculate environmental costs on a macro level. The model, it's theoretical backgrounds and the technical aspects are described, making it attractive to both the user and the designer of the model. A user manual on how to calculate with the model is included. The basic principle of the model is the use of a harmonised method for calculating environmental costs, which provides the user with an output that can easily be compared with and used in other economic statistics and macro-economic models in the Netherlands. Input for the model are yearly figures on operational costs, investments and savings from environmental measures. With MONNIE 2000 calculated environmental costs per policy target group, economic sector and theme can be shown, With this model the burden of environmental measures on the economic sectors and the environmental expenditures of the government can be presented as well. MONNIE 2000 is developed in Visual Basic and by using Excel as input and output a user-friendly data exchange is realised. 12 refs

  11. 41 CFR 102-117.115 - How do I calculate total delivery costs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I calculate total delivery costs? 102-117.115 Section 102-117.115 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION TRANSPORTATION 117-TRANSPORTATION MANAGEMENT Business Rules To...

  12. Calculation of Complexity Costs – An Approach for Rationalizing a Product Program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Christian Lindschou; Mortensen, Niels Henrik; Hvam, Lars

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes an operational method for rationalizing a product program based on the calculation of complexity costs. The method takes its starting point in the calculation of complexity costs on a product program level. This is done throughout the value chain ranging from component...... inventories at the factory sites, all the way to the distribution of finished goods from distribution centers to the customers. The method proposes a step-wise approach including the analysis, quantification and allocation of product program complexity costs by the means of identifying of a number of...... product program. These findings represent an improved decision basis for the planning of reactive and proactive initiatives of rationalizing a product program....

  13. Asset management and the calculation of capital costs for mains-usage fees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article discusses the requirements stipulated in the Swiss Electricity Supply Law that capital costs for all mains-levels must be declared on a yearly basis. The costs are calculated from current market value and depreciation according to technical lifetime. The authors examine the requirements placed on the declaration of capital costs and how they are calculated. The detailed book-keeping needed is discussed as is the large volume of data involved. The role of existing mains information systems is looked at, as are methods of assessing current assets. Experience gained in practice is discussed: This is taken as the basis for future processes. Utilities participating in the project and a number of solutions available are noted

  14. Calculation Of Recycle And Open Cycle Nuclear Fuel Cost Using Lagistase Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    . To be presented the calculation of recycle and open cycle nuclear fuel cost for LWR type that have net power of 600 MWe. This calculation using LEGECOST method developed by IAEA which have characteristics,where i.e. money is stated in constant money (no inflation),discount rate is equalized with interest rate and not consider tax and depreciation.As a conclusion is that open cycle nuclear fuel cost more advantage because it is cheaper than recycle nuclear fuel cost. This is caused that at present, reprocessing process disadvantage because it has not found yet more efficient and cheaper method, besides price of fresh uranium is still cheap. In future, the cost of recycle nuclear fuel cycle will be more competitive toward the cost of open nuclear fuel cycle if is found technology of reprocessing process that more advance, efficient and cheap. Increase of Pu use for reactor fuel especially MOX type will rise Pu price that finally will decrease the cost of recycle nuclear fuel cycle

  15. Extension of the COSYMA-ECONOMICS module - cost calculations based on different economic sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The COSYMA program system for evaluating the off-site consequences of accidental releases of radioactive material to the atmosphere includes an ECONOMICS module for assessing economic consequences. The aim of this module is to convert various consequences (radiation-induced health effects and impacts resulting from countermeasures) caused by an accident into the common framework of economic costs; this allows different effects to be expressed in the same terms and thus to make these effects comparable. With respect to the countermeasure 'movement of people', the dominant cost categories are 'loss-of-income costs' and 'costs of lost capital services'. In the original version of the ECONOMICS module these costs are calculated on the basis of the total number of people moved. In order to take into account also regional or local economic peculiarities of a nuclear site, the ECONOMICS module has been extended: Calculation of the above mentioned cost categories is now based on the number of employees in different economic sectors in the affected area. This extension of the COSYMA ECONOMICS module is described in more detail. (orig.)

  16. About real cost calculations for biogas from vinasse biodigestion and its energy utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salomon, K.R. [Universidade Federal de Alagoas (UFAL), Maceio, AL (Brazil)]. E-mail: kaka_salomon@yahoo.com.br; Lora , E.E.S.; Rocha, M.H. [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil). Thermal Systems Study Group]. E-mails: electo@unifei.edu.br; mateus.rocha@unifei.edu.br

    2008-07-01

    The sharp increase in ethanol production has drawn attention to the increase in the production of n residues, mainly stillage, a by-product from the ethanol agro-industry. As it is a highly polluting effluent that is generated in great volumes, its transport and disposal is not simple. Stillage Is a product that results from the distillation and fermentation of the sugarcane in the process of ethanol production. Today there are new environmental standards that restrict the disposal of the stillage in the soil. The anaerobic biodigestion comes as an alternative treatment for the stillage. One of the advantages of the biodigestion is that the stillage fertilization potential continues to be the same after the process and, this way, the effluent can be taken to the fields through fertirrigation. The main advantages are the conservation of the nutrients, mainly phosphor and nitrogen contents, and the increase in the pH for the application in the soil. This paper presents a methodology for the calculation of the biogas cost obtained from stillage biodigestion, considering the benefits of the fertirrigation with the effluent generated in the digester. Later an analysis of the economical feasibility of the use of the biogas obtained from the stillage anaerobic digestion in different scenarios is carried out, among them there are: electric power generation with alternative internal combustion, with gas turbines and micro-turbines, with the 'substituted' bagasse burned together with the biogas in the boilers, with the sales of the substituted bagasse (for electric power generation in another unit) and with the use of the biogas in spray dryers with the subsequent sales of dried yeasts. It is also considered an analysis under an environmental point of view of the use of the biogas that includes the possibility of selling the certificates of avoided emissions (carbon credits) due to the use of the biogas in substitution to fossil fuels. The most important results are presented in a comparative table. (author)

  17. ANALISA COST SHARING PERHITUNGAN TARIF HEMODIALISIS (HD) MASYARAKAT MISKIN DI RUMAH SAKIT UMUM PKU MUHAMMADIYAH UNIT I YOGYAKARTA

    OpenAIRE

    . Primandita; Triyani Marwati; . Solikhah

    2013-01-01

    Background: Growing and expanding hopital may be efficiently and effectively managed, it is requiredto be conducted to face the tight competition in world of health service. If the hospital wish to survive in the competition, they need to recount the existing hospital tariff previously, that is by using competitive tariff model calculation. Hospital of PKU Muhammadiyah Unit I Yogyakarta divides HD tariff into two parts, these are Single Use and Re Use tariff. There are cost sharing difference...

  18. General methodical recommendations with definition of technological costs for nuclear power plants units decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The methodological approaches with conducting valuation of decommissioning costs for Nuclear Power Plants Units, and the preliminary analysis of possible ways classification outlays are also given in it was described. The methodical recommendations are offered to estimate the major technological costs, the specific gravity of which is the main part of total project value. It's proposed to carry out technological costs evaluation by the special mould formation of determined technological costs elements with corresponding to work and time factors

  19. Study on the Development of Methodology for Cost Calculations and Financial Planning of Decommissioning Operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following study deals with the development of methodology for cost calculations and financial planning of decommissioning operations. It has been carried out by EDF / FRAMATOME / VUJE / SCK-CEN in the frame of the contract B7-032/2000/291058/MAR/C2 awarded by the European Commission. This study consists of 4 parts. The first task objective is to develop a reliable and transparent methodology for cost assessment and financial planning sufficient precise but without long and in depth investigations and studies. This methodology mainly contains: Calculation methods and algorithms for the elaboration of costs items making up the whole decommissioning cost. Estimated or standard values for the parameters and for the cost factors to be used in the above-mentioned algorithms Financial mechanism to be applied as to establish a financial planning. The second part task is the provision of standard values for the different parameters and costs factors described in the above-mentioned algorithms. This provision of data is based on the own various experience acquired by the members of the working team and on existing international references (databases, publications and reports). As decommissioning operations are spreading over several dozens of years, the scope of this task the description of the financial mechanisms to be applied to the different cost items as to establish a complete financial cost. It takes into account the financial schedule issued in task 1. The scope of this task consists in bringing together in a guideline all the information collected before: algorithms, data and financial mechanisms. (A.L.B.)

  20. Calculation of the cost of Generating Power in a Fast Reactor by the Discounting Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method of calculating the discounted cost of fuel cycles, using a computer, was presented during the 2nd Nuclear Meeting of the Forum Atómico Español held in Madrid during 27-28 October 1966. This method had been developed for optimization studies in relation to a 1000-MW(e) fast reactor under the ''Fast Reactors'' partnership agreement concluded between Euratom and the Belgian Government. The object of the paper is to describe how the method is applied and to analyse the initial results obtained with it. The calculational code, for use with an IBM 360 computer, consists of two parts. In the first part, the reactor characteristics necessary for the economic computations are determined; these consist essentially of the initial and final composition of the fuel (isotopic composition, plutonium content, proportion of inert material, fuel weight) and the time during which the fuel remains in the reactor. These characteristics are computed for each zone of the core, and of the axial and radial breeding blankets. In the second part of the code, the fuel cycle characteristics are first calculated: doubling time and various factors required for feasibility studies (loading and unloading factors, inventory factors in terms of natural uranium or 239Pu equivalent). The various specific costs are then determined by means of sub-routines. The discounting calculations are performed for each reactor zone and combined into two separate groups: costs discounted to the time of reactor start-up and costs discounted to shut-down. Two approaches are then possible, depending on whether the fissile material is purchased or leased from a national or international organization (this in turn depends on whether private ownership of fissile materials is permitted). The costs, expressed in kWh, are then grouped by zone and by type of operation (transport, manufacture, etc.), and sub-divided into fixed and variable costs, and operating and capital costs. The method has been applied to the German Na-1 reactor, and the results are extremely interesting. The cost breakdown shows the Importance of capital costs in the fuel cycle of a fast reactor. The Influence of various technical and economic parameters is brought out; for example, bum-up (the effect of which can no longer be represented by a simple hyperbola), loading frequency, the rate used for discounting and the price of plutonium. (author)

  1. Study on the calculation methods and computer program development for disposal costs of L/IL solid radwaste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By using engineering investment economics and levelized cost calculation method, the disposal cost of low- and intermediate-level (L/IL) solid radwastes is divided into capital investment cost, fixed disposal operation cost, variable disposal operation cost, repository closing cost and cost for monitoring closed repository within 300 years. The calculation method and program development have been studied on the basis of the repository capital investment plants, different quantities and intensities of solid radwastes annually produced in the high, medium and low scenarios of nuclear power development in China

  2. A calculation program for harvesting and transportation costs of energy wood; Energiapuun korjuun ja kuljetuksen kustannuslaskentaohjelmisto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuitto, P.J.

    1996-12-31

    VTT Energy is compiling a large and versatile calculation program for harvesting and transportation costs of energy wood. The work has been designed and will be carried out in cooperation with Metsaeteho and Finntech Ltd. The program has been realised in Windows surroundings using SQLWindows graphical database application development system, using the SQLBase relational database management system. The objective of the research is to intensify and create new possibilities for comparison of the utilization costs and the profitability of integrated energy wood production chains with each other inside the chains

  3. Procedure for the record, calculation and analysis of costs at the Post Company of Cuba.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Luisa Lara Zayas

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Cuban Company is immersed in important changes, which lead to a new economic model that requires to increase the productivity of work and to enlarge the economic efficiency by means of rational use of material resources, financial and humans. In the present work it is proposed a procedure based on the application of cost techniques, for the record, calculation and costs analysis of activities in the Post Company of Cuba in Sancti Spiritus with the objective to obtain a major efficiency from the rational use of resources.

  4. Vertical and lateral flight optimization algorithm and missed approach cost calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murrieta Mendoza, Alejandro

    Flight trajectory optimization is being looked as a way of reducing flight costs, fuel burned and emissions generated by the fuel consumption. The objective of this work is to find the optimal trajectory between two points. To find the optimal trajectory, the parameters of weight, cost index, initial coordinates, and meteorological conditions along the route are provided to the algorithm. This algorithm finds the trajectory where the global cost is the most economical. The global cost is a compromise between fuel burned and flight time, this is determined using a cost index that assigns a cost in terms of fuel to the flight time. The optimization is achieved by calculating a candidate optimal cruise trajectory profile from all the combinations available in the aircraft performance database. With this cruise candidate profile, more cruises profiles are calculated taken into account the climb and descend costs. During cruise, step climbs are evaluated to optimize the trajectory. The different trajectories are compared and the most economical one is defined as the optimal vertical navigation profile. From the optimal vertical navigation profile, different lateral routes are tested. Taking advantage of the meteorological influence, the algorithm looks for the lateral navigation trajectory where the global cost is the most economical. That route is then selected as the optimal lateral navigation profile. The meteorological data was obtained from environment Canada. The new way of obtaining data from the grid from environment Canada proposed in this work resulted in an important computation time reduction compared against other methods such as bilinear interpolation. The algorithm developed here was evaluated in two different aircraft: the Lockheed L-1011 and the Sukhoi Russian regional jet. The algorithm was developed in MATLAB, and the validation was performed using Flight-Sim by Presagis and the FMS CMA-9000 by CMC Electronics -- Esterline. At the end of this work a new method of calculating the missed approach fuel burned and its emissions is developed and explained. This calculation was performed using an emissions database and a Visual Basic for applications code in Excel.

  5. Renewable Energy Cost Modeling: A Toolkit for Establishing Cost-Based Incentives in the United States; March 2010 -- March 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gifford, J. S.; Grace, R. C.; Rickerson, W. H.

    2011-05-01

    This report is intended to serve as a resource for policymakers who wish to learn more about establishing cost-based incentives. The report will identify key renewable energy cost modeling options, highlight the policy implications of choosing one approach over the other, and present recommendations on the optimal characteristics of a model to calculate rates for cost-based incentives, feed-in tariffs (FITs), or similar policies. These recommendations will be utilized in designing the Cost of Renewable Energy Spreadsheet Tool (CREST). Three CREST models will be publicly available and capable of analyzing the cost of energy associated with solar, wind, and geothermal electricity generators. The CREST models will be developed for use by state policymakers, regulators, utilities, developers, and other stakeholders to assist them in current and future rate-setting processes for both FIT and other renewable energy incentive payment structures and policy analyses.

  6. Conventional method for the calculation of the global energy cost of buildings; Methode conventionnelle de calcul du cout global energetique des batiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-05-01

    A working group driven by Electricite de France (EdF), Chauffage Fioul and Gaz de France (GdF) companies has been built with the sustain of several building engineering companies in order to clarify the use of the method of calculation of the global energy cost of buildings. This global cost is an economical decision help criterion among others. This press kit presents, first, the content of the method (input data, calculation of annual expenses, calculation of the global energy cost, display of results and limitations of the method). Then it fully describes the method and its appendixes necessary for its implementation: economical and financial context, general data of the project in progress, environmental data, occupation and comfort level, variants, investment cost of energy systems, investment cost for the structure linked with the energy system, investment cost for other invariant elements of the structure, calculation of consumptions (space heating, hot water, ventilation), maintenance costs (energy systems, structure), operation and exploitation costs, tariffs and consumption costs and taxes, actualized global cost, annualized global cost, comparison between variants. The method is applied to a council building of 23 flats taken as an example. (J.S.)

  7. Cost calculations for decommissioning and dismantling of nuclear research facilities, Phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Inga [StudsvikNuclear AB (Sweden); Backe, S. [Institute for Energy Technology (Norway); Iversen, Klaus [Danish Decommissioning (Denmark); Lindskog, S [Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (Sweden); Salmenhaara, S. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland (Finland); Sjoeblom, R. [Tekedo AB (Sweden)

    2006-11-15

    Today, it is recommended that planning of decommission should form an integral part of the activities over the life cycle of a nuclear facility. However, no actual international guideline on cost calculations exists at present. Intuitively, it might be tempting to regard costs for decommissioning of a nuclear facility as similar to those of any other plant. However, the presence of radionuclide contamination may imply that the cost is one or more orders of magnitude higher as compared to a corresponding inactive situation, the actual ratio being highly dependent on the level of contamination as well as design features and use of the facility in question. Moreover, the variations in such prerequisites are much larger than for nuclear power plants. This implies that cost calculations cannot be performed with any accuracy or credibility without a relatively detailed consideration of the radiological and other prerequisites. Application of inadequate methodologies especially at early stages has often lead to large underestimations. The goals of the project and the achievements described in the report are as follows: 1) Advice on good practice with regard to: 1a) Strategy and planning; 1b) Methodology selection; 1c) Radiological surveying; 1d) Uncertainty analysis; 2) Techniques for assessment of costs: 2a) Cost structuring; 2b) Cost estimation methodologies; 3) Compilation of data for plants, state of planning, organisations, etc.; 3a) General descriptions of relevant features of the nuclear research facilities; 3b) General plant specific data; 3c) Example of the decommissioning of the R1 research reactor in Sweden; 3d) Example of the decommissioning of the DR1 research reactor in Denmark. In addition, but not described in the present report, is the establishment of a Nordic network in the area including an internet based expert system. It should be noted that the project is planned to exist for at least three years and that the present report is an interim one covering the work for approximately the first 16 months. (au)

  8. Cost calculations for decommissioning and dismantling of nuclear research facilities, Phase 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Today, it is recommended that planning of decommission should form an integral part of the activities over the life cycle of a nuclear facility. However, no actual international guideline on cost calculations exists at present. Intuitively, it might be tempting to regard costs for decommissioning of a nuclear facility as similar to those of any other plant. However, the presence of radionuclide contamination may imply that the cost is one or more orders of magnitude higher as compared to a corresponding inactive situation, the actual ratio being highly dependent on the level of contamination as well as design features and use of the facility in question. Moreover, the variations in such prerequisites are much larger than for nuclear power plants. This implies that cost calculations cannot be performed with any accuracy or credibility without a relatively detailed consideration of the radiological and other prerequisites. Application of inadequate methodologies especially at early stages has often lead to large underestimations. The goals of the project and the achievements described in the report are as follows: 1) Advice on good practice with regard to: 1a) Strategy and planning; 1b) Methodology selection; 1c) Radiological surveying; 1d) Uncertainty analysis; 2) Techniques for assessment of costs: 2a) Cost structuring; 2b) Cost estimation methodologies; 3) Compilation of data for plants, state of planning, organisations, etc.; 3a) General descriptions of relevant features of the nuclear research facilities; 3b) General plant specific data; 3c) Example of the decommissioning of the R1 research reactor in Sweden; 3d) Example of the decommissioning of the DR1 research reactor in Denmark. In addition, but not described in the present report, is the establishment of a Nordic network in the area including an internet based expert system. It should be noted that the project is planned to exist for at least three years and that the present report is an interim one covering the work for approximately the first 16 months. (au)

  9. Cost Analysis of an Open Low-Field (0.23T) MRI Unit: Effect of Procedure Shares in Combined Imaging, Interventional, and Neurosurgical Use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To analyze the cost structure of procedures performed in a multipurpose interventional magnetic resonance imaging (IMRI) unit and to analyze the effect of procedure shares on cost structure. Material and Methods: During a 1-year period, 691 procedures were performed in the IMRI unit, of which 563 were diagnostic MRI examinations, 89 MRI-guided interventions, and 39 MRI-guided neurosurgical operations. Three alternative utilization models of IMRI were created to simulate different local institutions by adjusting the proportions of different procedures. The costs of procedures were calculated by activity-based cost analysis. Results: The cost of the main procedure (imaging, biopsy, injection, or operation) was the most significant item in all procedures, accounting for 66-89% of the total costs. The volume of imaging has a major effect on unit costs. Volume is not such a deterministic factor in interventions due to the high material costs. The volume of neurosurgical use of IMRI has a major effect on the costs of radiological procedures due to the long operation times. Conclusion: The volumes of different procedures done on an IMRI unit have significant effects on the unit costs of the procedures

  10. U.S. Army Reserve recruiting : a critical analysis of unit costing and the introduction of a life cycle cost-effectiveness model

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Daniel G.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to review the U.S. Army Reserve (USAR) recruiting process, to analyze unit cost resourcing at the U.S. Army Recruiting Command (USAREC), and to introduce a life cycle cost-effectiveness methodology for evaluating Reserve accession policies. First, we identify the limitations of using unit cost for evaluating and improving USAREC's fiscal performance and as a management tool to allocate resources. Our analysis concludes that current unit cost accounting at USAREC ...

  11. Comparison of unit commitment schedules based on fuel cost and emission minimisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a comparative analysis of unit commitment schedule based on minimization of fuel cost and emission separately. The studies have been carried out using dynamic programming approach considering system equality and inequality constraints. The method and comparison are illustrated through a sample system. Comparison shows that the unit commitment schedule for a particular load profile over 24 hours are different in both the cases. Further it has been observed that minimization of fuel cost over entire scheduling period does not minimise emission from the committed units and vice-versa. Therefore attention needs to be paid to solve the unit commitment problem having a dual objective functions considering both fuel cost/operating cost and emission minimization. (author). 9 refs., 7 tabs., 1 fig., 1 ill

  12. A Geographical-Origin–Destination Model for Calculating the Cost of Multimodal Forest-Fuel Transportation

    OpenAIRE

    Tapio Ranta; Eero Jäppinen; Olli-Jussi Korpinen

    2013-01-01

    As a consequence of increasing demand for wood fuels, the management of forest-fuel production chains has become an important logistics issue in FinlandandSweden. Truck-based transportation has been the dominant method in fuel supply from the areas around power plants. However, increasing demand has led to enlargement of supply areas and greater variety in supply methods, including also railway and waterway transportation. This study presents a GIS-based calculation model suitable for cost c...

  13. POPCYCLE: a computer code for calculating nuclear and fossil plant levelized life-cycle power costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    POPCYCLE, a computer code designed to calculate levelized life-cycle power costs for nuclear and fossil electrical generating plants is described. Included are (1) derivations of the equations and a discussion of the methodology used by POPCYCLE, (2) a description of the input required by the code, (3) a listing of the input for a sample case, and (4) the output for a sample case

  14. Replacement energy costs for nuclear electricity-generating units in the United States: 1997--2001. Volume 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report updates previous estimates of replacement energy costs for potential short-term shutdowns of 109 US nuclear electricity-generating units. This information was developed to assist the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in its regulatory impact analyses, specifically those that examine the impacts of proposed regulations requiring retrofitting of or safety modifications to nuclear reactors. Such actions might necessitate shutdowns of nuclear power plants while these changes are being implemented. The change in energy cost represents one factor that the NRC must consider when deciding to require a particular modification. Cost estimates were derived from probabilistic production cost simulations of pooled utility system operations. Factors affecting replacement energy costs, such as random unit failures, maintenance and refueling requirements, and load variations, are treated in the analysis. This report describes an abbreviated analytical approach as it was adopted to update the cost estimates published in NUREG/CR-4012, Vol. 3. The updates were made to extend the time frame of cost estimates and to account for recent changes in utility system conditions, such as change in fuel prices, construction and retirement schedules, and system demand projects

  15. Audit Calculations of LBLOCA for Ulchin Unit 1 and 2 Power Up rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The KINS-Realistic Evaluation Model (KINS-REM) was developed for the independent audit calculation in 1991, and the code accuracy and statistical method have been improved. To support the licensing review and to confirm the validity of licensee's calculation, regulatory auditing calculations have been also conducted. Currently, the modification of Ulchin 1 and 2 operating license for 4.5% power up rate is under review. In this study, the regulatory audit calculation for LBLOCA of Ulchin Unit 1 and 2 with 4.5% power up rate was performed by applying KINS-REM. In this study, the regulatory audit calculation for LBLOCA of Ulchin Unit 1 and 2 with 4.5% power up rate was performed by applying KINS-REM. It is confirmed that the analysis results of LBLOCA for Ulchin 1 and 2 power up rate meets the PCT acceptance criteria

  16. 45 CFR 1309.34 - Costs of installation of modular unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... in 45 CFR part 74 and 45 CFR part 92, all reasonable costs necessary to the installation of a modular... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Costs of installation of modular unit. 1309.34... FAMILIES, HEAD START PROGRAM HEAD START FACILITIES PURCHASE, MAJOR RENOVATION AND CONSTRUCTION...

  17. HEPAFIL - a program for the calculation of the fluid dynamics of high efficiency particulate air filter units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With HEPAFIL, LAF II provides a FORTRAN program for the calculation of various parameters associated with the fluid dynamics of high efficiency particulate air filter units. Most of the currently available commercial deep pleat designs have been taken into consideration, e.g., high strength nuclear grade units employing separators with inclined corrugations, units for clean room applications, as well as low and medium efficiency EU 6 and EU 8 types having very low pressure drops. The flow resistance curves obtained from HEPAFIL could be verified in extensive experimental test. A user-friendly PC version with the integrated program library HEPAGAS can serve as a useful tool to the researcher in filter development as well as to the filter manufacturer for cost reduction analyses. Knowledge of the distributions of airstream, pressures and velocities within the flow channels of the filter pack allows more precise investigations of failure mechanisms and filtration characteristics for a wide range of flow conditions. The newest scientific application involves fundamental investigations into the cleanability of HEPA filter units. HEPAFIL offers filter manufacturers the opportunity to improve and optimize filter performance with respect to pressure drop, burst strength, and material costs, with a minimum of prototype fabrication and testing. (orig.)

  18. 75 FR 13123 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Representative Average Unit Costs of Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-18

    ...: Representative Average Unit Costs of Energy'', dated June 3, 2009, 74 FR 26675. Effective April 19, 2010, the... 2004-2008 averages for these two fuels. The source for these price data is the December 2009, Monthly... Monthly Energy Review (December 2009) 1. Btu stands for British thermal units. 2. kWh stands for...

  19. 76 FR 13168 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Representative Average Unit Costs of Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-10

    ...: Representative Average Unit Costs of Energy'', dated March 18, 2010, 75 FR 13123. Effective April 11, 2011, the... 2005-2009 averages for these two fuels. The source for these price data is the January, 2011, Monthly...) and Monthly Energy Review (January 2011). 1. Btu stands for British thermal units. 2. kWh stands...

  20. Literature review of United States utilities computer codes for calculating actinide isotope content in irradiated fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews the accuracy and precision of methods used by United States electric utilities to determine the actinide isotopic and element content of irradiated fuel. After an extensive literature search, three key code suites were selected for review. Two suites of computer codes, CASMO and ARMP, are used for reactor physics calculations; the ORIGEN code is used for spent fuel calculations. They are also the most widely used codes in the nuclear industry throughout the world. Although none of these codes calculate actinide isotopics as their primary variables intended for safeguards applications, accurate calculation of actinide isotopic content is necessary to fulfill their function

  1. Literature review of United States utilities computer codes for calculating actinide isotope content in irradiated fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horak, W.C.; Lu, Ming-Shih.

    1991-12-01

    This paper reviews the accuracy and precision of methods used by United States electric utilities to determine the actinide isotopic and element content of irradiated fuel. After an extensive literature search, three key code suites were selected for review. Two suites of computer codes, CASMO and ARMP, are used for reactor physics calculations; the ORIGEN code is used for spent fuel calculations. They are also the most widely used codes in the nuclear industry throughout the world. Although none of these codes calculate actinide isotopics as their primary variables intended for safeguards applications, accurate calculation of actinide isotopic content is necessary to fulfill their function.

  2. Economics of immunization information systems in the United States: assessing costs and efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urquhart Gary A

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the United States' national health objectives for 2010 is that 95% of children aged Methods Data were collected from a national sampling frame of the 56 states/cities that received federal immunization grants under U.S. Public Health Service Act 317b and completed the federal 1999 Immunization Registry Annual Report. The sampling frame was stratified by IIS functional status, children's enrollment in the IIS, and whether the IIS had been developed as an independent system or was integrated into a larger system. These sites self-reported IIS developmental and operational program costs for calendar years 1998–2002 using a standardized data collection tool and underwent on-site interviews to verify reported data with information from the state/city financial management system and other financial records. A parametric cost-per-patient-record (CPR model was estimated. The model assessed the impact of labor and non-labor resources used in development and operations tasks, as well as the impact of information technology, local providers' participation and compliance with federal IIS performance standards (e.g., ensuring the confidentiality and security of information, ensure timely vaccination data at the time of patient encounter, and produce official immunization records. Given the number of records minimizing CPR, the additional amount of resources needed to meet national health goals for the year 2010 was also calculated. Results Estimated CPR was as high as $10.30 and as low as $0.09 in operating IIS. About 20% of IIS had between 2.9 to 3.2 million records and showed CPR estimates of $0.09. Overall, CPR was highly sensitive to local providers' participation. To achieve the 2010 goals, additional aggregated costs were estimated to be $75.6 million nationwide. Conclusion Efficiently increasing the number of records in IIS would require additional resources and careful consideration of various strategies to minimize CPR, such as boosting providers' participation.

  3. Economic impacts of oil spills: Spill unit costs for tankers, pipelines, refineries, and offshore facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The impacts of oil spills -- ranging from the large, widely publicized Exxon Valdez tanker incident to smaller pipeline and refinery spills -- have been costly to both the oil industry and the public. For example, the estimated costs to Exxon of the Valdez tanker spill are on the order of $4 billion, including $2.8 billion (in 1993 dollars) for direct cleanup costs and $1.125 billion (in 1992 dollars) for settlement of damages claims caused by the spill. Application of contingent valuation costs and civil lawsuits pending in the State of Alaska could raise these costs appreciably. Even the costs of the much smaller 1991 oil spill at Texaco's refinery near Anacortes, Washington led to costs of $8 to 9 million. As a result, inexpensive waming, response and remediation technologies could lower oil spin costs, helping both the oil industry, the associated marine industries, and the environment. One means for reducing the impact and costs of oil spills is to undertake research and development on key aspects of the oil spill prevention, warming, and response and remediation systems. To target these funds to their best use, it is important to have sound data on the nature and size of spills, their likely occurrence and their unit costs. This information could then allow scarce R ampersand D dollars to be spent on areas and activities having the largest impact. This report is intended to provide the ''unit cost'' portion of this crucial information. The report examines the three key components of the US oil supply system, namely, tankers and barges; pipelines and refineries; and offshore production facilities. The specific purpose of the study was to establish the unit costs of oil spills. By manipulating this key information into a larger matrix that includes the size and frequency of occurrence of oil spills, it will be possible' to estimate the likely future impacts, costs, and sources of oil spills

  4. The Summed Start-up Costs in a Unit Commitment Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Brandenberg, René; Huber, Matthias; Silbernagl, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    We consider the sum of the incurred start-up costs of a single unit in a Unit Commitment problem. Our major result is a correspondence between the facets of its epigraph and some binary trees for concave start-up cost functions CU, which is bijective if CU is strictly concave. We derive an exponential H-representation of this epigraph, and provide an exact linear separation algorithm. These results significantly reduce the integrality gap of the Mixed Integer formulation of a Unit Commitment ...

  5. Production process in radiation therapy and research into cost-inducers in two radiation oncology units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Production process in radiation therapy and research into cost-inducers in two radiation oncology units. Purpose. - To analyse the process of outpatient radiation therapy by dividing it into elementary acts, and to determine the cost-inducers (staff and machine time, equipment) in order to enhance the value of radiotherapy activity. Material and methods. - The care process was analysed from 1 June 1997 to 1 September 1997, in two institutions (Centre hospitalo-universitaire de Saint Etienne and centre de Lutte contre le Cancer de Lyon), in terms of consumption of human and equipment means, representing a cost for the care institution. The valorization was expressed in physics units for material means, and in time units for human and heavy equipment. Parameters able to modify the consumption of means had been defined. The following data had been collected for each activity: patient characteristics, characteristics of the process, specific parameters of each activity, data related to the care staff and care unit. (authors)

  6. Accelerated molecular dynamics force evaluation on graphics processing units for thermal conductivity calculations

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Zheyong; Siro, Topi; harju, Ari

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a highly efficient molecular dynamics code fully implemented on graphics processing units for thermal conductivity calculations using the Green-Kubo formula. We compare two different schemes for force evaluation, a previously used thread-scheme where a single thread is used for one particle and each thread calculates the total force for the corresponding particle, and a new block-scheme where a whole block is used for one particle and each thread in the block calcula...

  7. Correction of manucal monitor unit calculation for asymmetric fields using varian enhanced dynamic wedge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the correction of manual monitor unit calculation for asymmetric fields using the Varian enhanced dynamic wedge. Methods: Monitor unit (MU) was calculated when the field sizes ranged from 6 cm x 6 cm to 20 cm x 20 cm at a depth of 5 cm using Varian Eclipse and both 6 MV and 10 MV X-rays data from Varian Clinac 23EX for all seven available EDW angles, including 10 degree 15 degree, 20 degree, 25 degree, 30 degree, 45 degree and 60 degree The field size was kept fixed, and the distance between geometry center of field and isocenter was increased in increments of 1 cm, ranging from -9 cm to 4 cm. When the field size was the same, the correction factor was defined as the ratio of MU calculated for asymmetric field to monitor unit calculated for symmetric field. To ensure the correction factors obtained above could be used in routine manual calculation for EDW fields, measurements were made at a depth of 5 cm for 30 degree and 45 degree EDW with field size of 10 cm x 10 cm using 6 MV X-rays. Results: The correction factor was independent of field dimensions, so the average value was adopted to make practical calculation. Without correction, the maximum error was 18% for 30 degree, and 30% for 45. After the results of monitor unit calculation were corrected, the largest error was - 1.8% and - 1.7% for 30 degree and 45 degree EDW, respectively. The magnitude of errors was within the clinical tolerance limits. Conclusions: For asymmetric EDW fields, there is very large difference between the prescribed dose by manual calculation using EDW factors measured for symmetric fields and that delivered during treatment in order to obtain correct dose to reference point. The errors are decreased to be acceptable after correction. The method of correction is simple and independent of machine specific beam parameters. (authors)

  8. Fast Calculation of the Lomb-Scargle Periodogram Using Graphics Processing Units

    OpenAIRE

    Townsend, R. H. D.

    2010-01-01

    I introduce a new code for fast calculation of the Lomb-Scargle periodogram, that leverages the computing power of graphics processing units (GPUs). After establishing a background to the newly emergent field of GPU computing, I discuss the code design and narrate key parts of its source. Benchmarking calculations indicate no significant differences in accuracy compared to an equivalent CPU-based code. However, the differences in performance are pronounced; running on a low-end GPU, the code ...

  9. Comparative costs of coal and nuclear-generated electricity in the united states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper compares the future first-year operating costs and lifetime levelized costs of producing baseload coal- and nuclear-generated electricity under schedules shorter than those recently experienced at U.S. plants. Nuclear appears to have a clear economic advantage. Coal is favorable only when it is assumed that the units will operate at very low capacity factors and/or when the capital cost differential between nuclear and coal is increased far above the recent historical level. Nuclear is therefore a cost-competitive electric energy option for utilities and should be considered as an alternative to coal when large baseload capacity is required. (author)

  10. System incremental cost calculations using the participation factor load-flow formulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The load-flow problem is reformulated such that the use of a slack-bus generator is included only as a special case. This reformulation, known as the participation factor load-flow, includes a total mismatch variable and a defined participation vector, which, in general, distributes this mismatch to all system buses. The slack-bus constraint can still be obtained by defining a particular participation vector. In using the participation factor load-flow in the transpose Jacobian approach to the economic optimal dispatch problem, the paper shows that the value of the system-λ can be controlled such that this value represents the minimal incremental change in generation costs per unit change in system total demand with this demand distributed according to the specified participation vector. Methods using the conventional B-coefficient loss formulas or slack-bus load-flows give system-λ values whereby the unit change in demand must be placed on a fictitious single load-bus or on the slack-bus, respectively. Having a system-λ value which more accurately represents a proposed energy interchange between interconnected systems is very important in developing valid costs for each system. An extensive 28-bus, 8-generator system is included to illustrate these results

  11. GEOCOST-BC, Geothermal Power Plant Electricity Generator Cost, Thermodynamics Calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1 - Description of problem or function: GEOCOST calculates the cost of generating electricity from geothermal energy. The version of GEOCOST in this release, GEOCOST-BC, simulates the production of electricity using a binary fluid cycle based upon a hydrothermal resource. 2 - Method of solution: GEOCOST is a simulation model which combines both technical processes and economic factors into one systematic framework. The simulation is composed of two principal parts: a reservoir model which simulates the exploration, development, and operation of a geothermal reservoir, and a power plant model which simulates the design, construction, and operation of the power plant. Each of these parts is composed of several submodels which treat fluid transmission and disposal, geothermal fluid/working fluid heat exchangers, turbine, generators, working fluid condenser, pumps, heat rejection, and calculation of thermodynamic state points in basic subcritical and supercritical Rankine cycles for a variety of working fluids. Working fluids which are now in the model include isobutane, n-butane, R-ll, R-12, R-22, R-113, R-114, and ammonia. Thermodynamic properties of the working fluids at the state points are calculated using empirical equations of state. The Starling equation of state is used for hydrocarbons and the Martin-Hou equation of state is used for fluorocarbons and ammonia. A wide variety of financial and tax structures can be simulated through varying the rates of return on equity and debt, the debt-equity ratio, and tax rates. Using discounted cash flow analyses, GEOCOST calculates the cost of energy by equating the present worth of the revenues and expenses over the economic life of the reservoir and plant. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Current array dimensions provide for a maximum well field size of 625 wells and maximum operating period of 50 years from reservoir exploration through the economic life of the power plant

  12. Independent calculation of the monitor units and times of treatment in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, an independent verification system of calculations in radiotherapy was developed and applied, using Visual BasicTM programming language. The computational program performs calculations of monitor units and treatment time, based on the algorithm of manual calculation. The calculations executed for the independent system had initially been compared with the manual calculations performed by the medical physicists of the Institute of Radiotherapy of the Hospital das Clinicas da Universidade de Sao Paulo. In this step, the results found for more than two hundred fields studied were similar to those found in the literature; deviations larger than +- 1% were found only in five cases involving errors in manual calculation. The application of the independent system, in this stage, could have identified errors up to +- 2,4%. Based on these data, the system was validated for use in clinical routine. In a second step, calculations were compared with calculations realized by the treatment computerized planning system CadPIanTM. When, again, the results were similar to those published in other works allowing to obtain levels of acceptance of the discrepancies between the calculations executed for the independent system and the calculations developed from the planning system, separated by anatomical region, as recommended according by the recent literature. For beams of 6 MV, the levels of acceptance for deviations between the calculations of monitor units, separated by treatment region were the following; breast +- 1.7%, head and neck +2%; hypophysis +- 2.2%; pelvis +- 4 . 1% and thorax +- 1.5%. For beams of 15 MV, the level suggested for pelvis was of +- 4.5%. (author)

  13. Calculation method for the seasonal performance of heat pump compact units and validation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wemhoener, C.; Dott, R.; Afjei, Th. [University of Applied Sciences Northwestern Switzerland, Institute of Energy in Buildings, Muttenz (Switzerland); Huber, H.; Helfenfinger, D.; Keller, P.; Furter, R. [University of Applied Sciences Lucerne (HTA), Test center HLKS, Horw (Switzerland)

    2007-02-15

    This comprehensive final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at compact heat pump units that have been developed for the heating of low energy consumption houses built to MINERGIE or MINERGIE-P standards. These units, which combine the functions of space heating, domestic hot water preparation and ventilation in one unit are described. A testing procedure developed at the University of Applied Science in Lucerne, Switzerland, using a test rig for the measurement of the seasonal performance factor (SPF) is described. A calculation method based on temperature classes for the calculation of the SPF of combined heat pump systems for space heating and domestic hot water preparation that was developed by the Institute of Energy in Buildings at the University of Applied Sciences Northwestern Switzerland is examined. Two pilot plants allowing detailed field monitoring of two compact units are described. One pilot plant installed in a single-family house built to MINERGIE standard in Gelterkinden, Switzerland, provided data on a compact unit. These results of measurements made on this and a further installation in a MINERGIE-P ultra-low energy consumption house in Zeiningen, Switzerland, are presented and discussed. Calculation methods, including exergy considerations are reviewed and their validation is discussed.

  14. Cost calculators for the procurement of small sized thinning wood, delimbed energy wood, logging residues and stumps for energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laitila, Juha; Asikainen, Antti; Liiri, Harri [Finnish Forest Research Inst., Joensuu (Finland)

    2006-07-15

    The primary aim of Excel based cost calculators is to familiarize the user with the various ways that different factors affect the cost of forest chip production within each working stage of the procurement system. The calculator enables the user to investigate how changes in processed material or in the productivity and hourly cost of machines influence the procurement cost of the whole system. Procurement chains are based on chipping at the roadside landing, in the terrain, at the terminal or at the end use facility. Procurement cost at end use facility is expressed as either Euro/m{sup 3} (solid cubic meter) or Euro/MWh. The herein reported Excel based cost calculator programmes were originally developed to serve research needs, but they are also suitable for energy wood procurement companies, contractors and teaching purposes.

  15. The Economic Cost of Methamphetamine Use in the United States, 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicosia, Nancy; Pacula, Rosalie Liccardo; Kilmer, Beau; Lundberg, Russell; Chiesa, James

    2009-01-01

    This first national estimate suggests that the economic cost of methamphetamine (meth) use in the United States reached $23.4 billion in 2005. Given the uncertainty in estimating the costs of meth use, this book provides a lower-bound estimate of $16.2 billion and an upper-bound estimate of $48.3 billion. The analysis considers a wide range of…

  16. The economic cost of senile dementia in the United States, 1985.

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, L. F.; Cartwright, W S; Hu, T W

    1988-01-01

    Senile dementia is a progressive and irreversible decline of mental functions. The symptoms are mental confusion, memory loss, disorientation, cognitive decline, and inappropriate social behavior. It is one of the most common, costly, and distressful diseases among the elderly in the United States. Information on the economic costs of senile dementia is essential for determining research priorities and the allocation of resources to support aging and medical research. Economic consequences, s...

  17. The Economic Cost of Methamphetamine Use in the United States, 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicosia, Nancy; Pacula, Rosalie Liccardo; Kilmer, Beau; Lundberg, Russell; Chiesa, James

    2009-01-01

    This first national estimate suggests that the economic cost of methamphetamine (meth) use in the United States reached $23.4 billion in 2005. Given the uncertainty in estimating the costs of meth use, this book provides a lower-bound estimate of $16.2 billion and an upper-bound estimate of $48.3 billion. The analysis considers a wide range of…

  18. Break-Even Cost for Residential Photovoltaics in the United States: Key Drivers and Sensitivities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denholm, P.; Margolis, R. M.; Ong, S.; Roberts, B.

    2009-12-01

    Grid parity--or break-even cost--for photovoltaic (PV) technology is defined as the point where the cost of PV-generated electricity equals the cost of electricity purchased from the grid. Break-even cost is expressed in $/W of an installed system. Achieving break-even cost is a function of many variables. Consequently, break-even costs vary by location and time for a country, such as the United States, with a diverse set of resources, electricity prices, and other variables. In this report, we analyze PV break-even costs for U.S. residential customers. We evaluate some key drivers of grid parity both regionally and over time. We also examine the impact of moving from flat to time-of-use (TOU) rates, and we evaluate individual components of the break-even cost, including effect of rate structure and various incentives. Finally, we examine how PV markets might evolve on a regional basis considering the sensitivity of the break-even cost to four major drivers: technical performance, financing parameters, electricity prices and rates, and policies. We find that local incentives rather than ?technical? parameters are in general the key drivers of the break-even cost of PV. Additionally, this analysis provides insight about the potential viability of PV markets.

  19. Evaluation of syngas production unit cost of bio-gasification facility using regression analysis techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Yangyang; Parajuli, Prem B.

    2011-08-10

    Evaluation of economic feasibility of a bio-gasification facility needs understanding of its unit cost under different production capacities. The objective of this study was to evaluate the unit cost of syngas production at capacities from 60 through 1800Nm 3/h using an economic model with three regression analysis techniques (simple regression, reciprocal regression, and log-log regression). The preliminary result of this study showed that reciprocal regression analysis technique had the best fit curve between per unit cost and production capacity, with sum of error squares (SES) lower than 0.001 and coefficient of determination of (R 2) 0.996. The regression analysis techniques determined the minimum unit cost of syngas production for micro-scale bio-gasification facilities of $0.052/Nm 3, under the capacity of 2,880 Nm 3/h. The results of this study suggest that to reduce cost, facilities should run at a high production capacity. In addition, the contribution of this technique could be the new categorical criterion to evaluate micro-scale bio-gasification facility from the perspective of economic analysis.

  20. Market value calculation and the solution of circularity between value and the weighted average cost of capital WACC

    OpenAIRE

    Ignacio Vélez-Pareja; Joseph Tham

    2009-01-01

    Most finance textbooks present the Weighted Average Cost of Capital (WACC) calculation as: WACC = Kd×(1-T)×D% + Ke×E%, where Kd is the cost of debt before taxes, T is the tax rate, D% is the percentage of debt on total value, Ke is the cost of equity and E% is the percentage of equity on total value. All of them precise (but not with enough emphasis) that the values to calculate D% y E% are market values. Although they devote special space and thought to calculate Kd and Ke, little effort is ...

  1. Calculation of the Cost of an Adequate Education in Kentucky: A Professional Judgment Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah A. Verstegen

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available What is an adequate education and how much does it cost? In 1989, Kentucky’s State Supreme Court found the entire system of education unconstitutional-“all of its parts and parcels”. The Court called for all children to have access to an adequate education, one that is uniform and has as its goal the development of seven capacities, including: (i “sufficient oral and written communication skills to enable students to function in a complex and rapidly changing civilization . . . .and (vii sufficient levels of academic or vocational skills to enable public school students to compete favorably with their counterparts in surrounding states, in academics or in the job market”. Now, over a decade later, key questions remain regarding whether these objectives have been fulfilled. This research is designed to calculate the cost of an adequate education by aligning resources to State standards, laws and objectives, using a professional judgment approach. Seven focus groups were convened for this purpose and the scholarly literature was reviewed to provide multiple inputs into study findings. The study produced a per pupil base cost for each of three prototype school districts and an total statewide cost, with the funding gap between existing revenue and the revenue needed for current operations of $1.097 billion per year (2001-02. Additional key resource requirements needed to achieve an adequate education, identified by professional judgment panels, include: (1 extending the school year for students and teachers, (2 adding voluntary half-day preschool for three and four year olds, and (3 raising teacher salaries. This increases the funding gap to $1.23 billion and suggests that significant new funding is required over time if the Commonwealth of Kentucky is to provide an adequate and equitable education of high quality for all children and youth as directed by the State Supreme Court.

  2. Experience with the core protection calculator system at Arkansas Nuclear One - Unit 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first digital reactor reactor protection system installed in a US commercial nuclear power plant has now been operating for 5 years. This system, called the Core Protection Calculator System (CPCS) at Arkansas Nuclear One - Unit 2 (ANO-2) provides automatic reactor shutdown for protection of fuel cladding (departure from nucleate boiling) and protection against fuel center line melting (linear heat rate) for design basis events and anticipated operational occurrences. There are now three other such systems in operation: at Southern California Edison's San-Onofre Units 2 and 3 and at Louisiana Power and Light's Waterford Unit 3. The three nuclear units at Arizona Public Service's Palo-Verde station also employ a functionally identical design utilizing different hardware. The major difficulties encountered in licensing this system with The Nuclear Regulatory Commission are discussed and Arkansas Power and Light Company's experience associated with the installation, operation, modification and maintenance of the CPCS at ANO-2 is highlighted

  3. Cost savings of unit-based pricing of household waste; the case of the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Dijkgraaf, Elbert; Gradus, Raymond

    2003-01-01

    Using a panel data set for Dutch municipalities we estimate effects for weight-based, bag-based, frequency-based and volume-based pricing of household waste collection. Unit-based pricing shows to be effective in reducing solid and compostable and increasing recyclable waste. Pricing has no effect on the waste collected in surrounding municipalities (waste tourism). However, unit-based pricing may lead to illegal dumping. While empirical evidence is scarce, a social cost-benefit analysis show...

  4. How can activity-based costing methodology be performed as a powerful tool to calculate costs and secure appropriate patient care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Blossom Yen-Ju; Chao, Te-Hsin; Yao, Yuh; Tu, Shu-Min; Wu, Chun-Ching; Chern, Jin-Yuan; Chao, Shiu-Hsiung; Shaw, Keh-Yuong

    2007-04-01

    Previous studies have shown the advantages of using activity-based costing (ABC) methodology in the health care industry. The potential values of ABC methodology in health care are derived from the more accurate cost calculation compared to the traditional step-down costing, and the potentials to evaluate quality or effectiveness of health care based on health care activities. This project used ABC methodology to profile the cost structure of inpatients with surgical procedures at the Department of Colorectal Surgery in a public teaching hospital, and to identify the missing or inappropriate clinical procedures. We found that ABC methodology was able to accurately calculate costs and to identify several missing pre- and post-surgical nursing education activities in the course of treatment. PMID:17489499

  5. Cost Effectiveness of Home Energy Retrofits in Pre-Code Vintage Homes in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fairey, Philip [BA-PIRC/Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States); Parker, Danny [BA-PIRC/Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States)

    2012-11-01

    This analytical study examines the opportunities for cost-effective energy efficiency and renewable energy retrofits in residential archetypes constructed prior to 1980 (Pre-Code) in fourteen U.S. cities. These fourteen cities are representative of each of the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) climate zones in the contiguous United States. The analysis is conducted using an in-house version of EnergyGauge USA v.2.8.05 named CostOpt that has been programmed to perform iterative, incremental economic optimization on a large list of residential energy efficiency and renewable energy retrofit measures. The principle objectives of the study are to determine the opportunities for cost effective source energy reductions in this large cohort of existing residential building stock as a function of local climate and energy costs; and to examine how retrofit financing alternatives impact the source energy reductions that are cost effectively achievable.

  6. Economic burden of mucormycosis in the United States: can a vaccine be cost-effective?

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim, Ashraf S.; Edwards, John E; Bryant, Richard; Spellberg, Brad

    2009-01-01

    Mucormycosis is a life-threatening infection which causes unacceptably high morbidity and mortality despite treatment. Therefore, a vaccine to prevent mucormycosis is desirable. A major barrier to developing an anti-mucormycosis vaccine is the perception that such a vaccine would not be cost-effective to deploy because the disease is rare. We used data from a recent retrospective study to calculate the annual cost to the US healthcare system caused by mucormycosis infections. We created a mod...

  7. Evaluation of Care Coordination Program on Cost Containment: Cambridge Health Alliance Case in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadir GÜRSOY

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Rising healthcare costs in nearly all nations, particularly in the United States, has been posing major challenges to stakeholders in healthcare industry. Each actor has been developing new strategies to mitigate costs. Care coordination is one of the methods many healthcare providers have been applying to remedy this problem. Cambridge Health Alliance - a public, safety net health care system serving the Greater Boston area- has been piloting a care coordination program for one of its population cohorts since November 2011. This paper evaluates the possible impact of the program on healthcare costs, analyzes cost structure for different subpopulations to understand which groups contribute most to cost reductions, and offer suggestions to achieve the highest saving. The analyses conclude there is room for curbing the cost growth when the program targets the highest cost patient and the program succeeds in changing the cost concentration of healthcare spending. Nevertheless, the analyses need to be developed further, using bigger population and a longer intervention period. Finally, it is important to support the program with other policies such as a gate keeping system, preventive care, and new alternative payment systems to sustain an impact on costs in the long-run.

  8. Cost-saving test of electronics control units-ECUs; Kostenguenstige Tests von Steuergeraeten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beimert, H.P. [Jaeger Computergesteuerte Messtechnik GmbH, Lorsch (Germany)

    2005-09-01

    More and more Electronic Control Units -ECUs - are used in vehicles for various applications. With increasing demands in performance the need for more sophisticated test concepts for ECUs increases as well. With ADwin real-time systems a cost-saving method exists to test ECUs for ABS, airbags, motors, etc. This article illustrates basic structures and gives several examples. (orig.)

  9. Cost of Wind Energy in the United States: Trends from 2007 to 2012 (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hand, M.

    2015-01-01

    This presentation provides an overview of recent technology trends observed in the United States including project size, turbine size, rotor diameter, hub height, annual average wind speed, and annual energy production. It also highlights area where system analysis is required to fully understand how these technology trends relate to the cost of wind energy.

  10. The Cost-Effectiveness of Supported Employment for Adults with Autism in the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavranezouli, Ifigeneia; Megnin-Viggars, Odette; Cheema, Nadir; Howlin, Patricia; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Pilling, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Adults with autism face high rates of unemployment. Supported employment enables individuals with autism to secure and maintain a paid job in a regular work environment. The objective of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of supported employment compared with standard care (day services) for adults with autism in the United Kingdom.…

  11. A method for calculation of dose per unit concentration values for aquatic biota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A dose per unit concentration database has been generated for application to ecosystem assessments within the FASSET framework. Organisms are represented by ellipsoids of appropriate dimensions, and the proportion of radiation absorbed within the organisms is calculated using a numerical method implemented in a series of spreadsheet-based programs. Energy-dependent absorbed fraction functions have been derived for calculating the total dose per unit concentration of radionuclides present in biota or in the media they inhabit. All radionuclides and reference organism dimensions defined within FASSET for marine and freshwater ecosystems are included. The methodology has been validated against more complex dosimetric models and compared with human dosimetry based on ICRP 72. Ecosystem assessments for aquatic biota within the FASSET framework can now be performed simply, once radionuclide concentrations in target organisms are known, either directly or indirectly by deduction from radionuclide concentrations in the surrounding medium

  12. X/Qs and unit dose calculations for Central Waste Complex interim safety basis effort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective for this problem is to calculate the ground-level release dispersion factors (X/Q) and unit doses for onsite facility and offsite receptors at the site boundary and at Highway 240 for plume meander, building wake effect, plume rise, and the combined effect. The release location is at Central Waste Complex Building P4 in the 200 West Area. The onsite facility is located at Building P7. Acute ground level release 99.5 percentile dispersion factors (X/Q) were generated using the GXQ. The unit doses were calculated using the GENII code. The dimensions of Building P4 are 15 m in W x 24 m in L x 6 m in H

  13. IBFCYC-A computer program for levelized individual batch fuel cycle cost calculations for uranium fuelled pressurized light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work presented is a part of an integrated calculation scheme for fuel cycle material accountability and cost analysis. The survey-type computer program IBFCYC aims at the calculation of the levelized individual batch fuel cycle cost for pressurized light water reactors. It gives as output the flow material requirements for each component of the fuel cycle. It gives also the component direct, indirect, and present worth costs. It helps well in sensitivity analysis and fuel cycle optimization calculations. The computer program is so flexible that it allows the user a variety of choices for the type of calculations he needs. An example for the application of IBFCYC computer program is given through the solution of a sample problem. Among the results obtained, the saving in feed material and separative work requirements due to reprocessing is calculated for the sample problem. It is concluded that reprocessing results in savings of about 20% and 4% in respectively feed material and separative work requirements

  14. Simulation analysis of Shadow Factor and unit cost in the booster mirror arrangement for a solar panel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nivas.V

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A simulation and experimental study was attempted to increase the power output from a 75 W mono and multi crystalline solar panel using V Trough solar concentrators, thus estimating its ideal concentration ratio for domestic applications in the absence of automatic tracking. The net radiation falling on the panel due to reflection from concentrators and the shading caused by the reflectors was simulated using TRACE PRO and PV Syst Software, calculating the net power output, losses and output energy. Through the simulated values, the calculated unit cost of energy for the concentrator arrangement with 1 X, 2 X, 3 X and 4 X configurations are found to be 0.81, 0.70, 0.74 and 0.75 $/kWh respectively for the 1st year. It is estimated that 2 X configuration having a surface temperature of less than 70°C, CO2 savings of 28 % higher than the reference model and a unit cost of 0.7 $/kWh is the optimum concentration ratio for a solar V Trough concentrator.

  15. Economic Cost of Campylobacter, Norovirus and Rotavirus Disease in the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Clarence C; O’Brien, Sarah J

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the annual cost to patients, the health service and society of infectious intestinal disease (IID) from Campylobacter, norovirus and rotavirus. Design Secondary data analysis. Setting The United Kingdom population, 2008–9. Main outcome measures Cases and frequency of health services usage due to these three pathogens; associated healthcare costs; direct, out-of-pocket expenses; indirect costs to patients and caregivers. Results The median estimated costs to patients and the health service at 2008–9 prices were: Campylobacter £50 million (95% CI: £33m–£75m), norovirus £81 million (95% CI: £63m–£106m), rotavirus £25m (95% CI: £18m–£35m). The costs per case were approximately £30 for norovirus and rotavirus, and £85 for Campylobacter. This was mostly borne by patients and caregivers through lost income or out-of-pocket expenditure. The cost of Campylobacter-related Guillain-Barré syndrome hospitalisation was £1.26 million (95% CI: £0.4m–£4.2m). Conclusions Norovirus causes greater economic burden than Campylobacter and rotavirus combined. Efforts to control IID must prioritise norovirus. For Campylobacter, estimated costs should be considered in the context of expenditure to control this pathogen in agriculture, food production and retail. Our estimates, prior to routine rotavirus immunisation in the UK, provide a baseline vaccine cost-effectiveness analyses. PMID:26828435

  16. Implementation Of Online Heat Exchanger Efficiency Calculation And Fouling Monitoring At Crude Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Hegazy

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The heat exchangers on crude distillation units need to deliver high heat transfer efficiency and operational reliability. Most of heat exchangers used in crude distillation units are Cross-flow two-stream. The two streams flow at right angles to each other. This flow configuration is intermediate in effectiveness between parallel-flow and counter flow exchangers but it is often simpler to construct owing to the relative simpler to construct owing to the relative simplicity of the inlet and outlet flow ducts. Use of the Smart Online Efficiency online calculation to monitor the heat exchangers performance and efficiency at Crude units in Mina Al-Ahmadi Refinery MAA yielded early results when the tool highlighted a fouling event shortly after it occurred. Fouling formation in any heat exchanger will reduce the online-calculated heat exchanger efficiency result and that can noted from the trend of histories efficiency data and from the fouling indicator. This paper looks at the efficiency calculation and fouling monitoring using DCS software application and the result from the case study.

  17. What Does It Cost to Prevent On-Duty Firefighter Cardiac Events? A Content Valid Method for Calculating Costs

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Patterson, P; Joe Suyama; Reis, Steven E.; Matthew D. Weaver; David Hostler

    2013-01-01

    Cardiac arrest is a leading cause of mortality among firefighters. We sought to develop a valid method for determining the costs of a workplace prevention program for firefighters. In 2012, we developed a draft framework using human resource accounting and in-depth interviews with experts in the firefighting and insurance industries. The interviews produced a draft cost model with 6 components and 26 subcomponents. In 2013, we randomly sampled 100 fire chiefs out of >7,400 affiliated with the...

  18. Cost and results of information systems for health and poverty indicators in the United Republic of Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Rommelmann

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To examine the costs of complementary information generation activities in a resource-constrained setting and compare the costs and outputs of information subsystems that generate the statistics on poverty, health and survival required for monitoring, evaluation and reporting on health programmes in the United Republic of Tanzania. METHODS: Nine systems used by four government agencies or ministries were assessed. Costs were calculated from budgets and expenditure data made available by information system managers. System coverage, quality assurance and information production were reviewed using questionnaires and interviews. Information production was characterized in terms of 38 key sociodemographic indicators required for national programme monitoring. FINDINGS: In 2002-03 approximately US$ 0.53 was spent per Tanzanian citizen on the nine information subsystems that generated information on 37 of the 38 selected indicators. The census and reporting system for routine health service statistics had the largest participating populations and highest total costs. Nationally representative household surveys and demographic surveillance systems (which are not based on nationally representative samples produced more than half the indicators and used the most rigorous quality assurance. Five systems produced fewer than 13 indicators and had comparatively high costs per participant. CONCLUSION: Policy-makers and programme planners should be aware of the many trade-offs with respect to system costs, coverage, production, representativeness and quality control when making investment choices for monitoring and evaluation. In future, formal cost-effectiveness studies of complementary information systems would help guide investments in the monitoring, evaluation and planning needed to demonstrate the impact of poverty-reduction and health programmes.

  19. Cost and results of information systems for health and poverty indicators in the United Republic of Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rommelmann, Vanessa; Setel, Philip W.; Hemed, Yusuf; Angeles, Gustavo; Mponezya, Hamisi; Whiting, David; Boerma, Ties

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the costs of complementary information generation activities in a resource-constrained setting and compare the costs and outputs of information subsystems that generate the statistics on poverty, health and survival required for monitoring, evaluation and reporting on health programmes in the United Republic of Tanzania. METHODS: Nine systems used by four government agencies or ministries were assessed. Costs were calculated from budgets and expenditure data made available by information system managers. System coverage, quality assurance and information production were reviewed using questionnaires and interviews. Information production was characterized in terms of 38 key sociodemographic indicators required for national programme monitoring. FINDINGS: In 2002-03 approximately US$ 0.53 was spent per Tanzanian citizen on the nine information subsystems that generated information on 37 of the 38 selected indicators. The census and reporting system for routine health service statistics had the largest participating populations and highest total costs. Nationally representative household surveys and demographic surveillance systems (which are not based on nationally representative samples) produced more than half the indicators and used the most rigorous quality assurance. Five systems produced fewer than 13 indicators and had comparatively high costs per participant. CONCLUSION: Policy-makers and programme planners should be aware of the many trade-offs with respect to system costs, coverage, production, representativeness and quality control when making investment choices for monitoring and evaluation. In future, formal cost-effectiveness studies of complementary information systems would help guide investments in the monitoring, evaluation and planning needed to demonstrate the impact of poverty-reduction and health programmes. PMID:16184275

  20. Preliminary regulatory audit calculation for Shinkori Units 3 and 4 LBLOCA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study is to perform a preliminary evaluation for Shinkori Units 3 and 4 LBLOCA by applying KINS Realistic Evaluation Methodology (REM). The following results were obtained: (1) From the evaluation for Shinkori Units 3 and 4 LBLOCA, the peak cladding temperature was evaluated to meet the regulatory requirement and the feasibility of the KINS-REM was identified. (2) The input decks that were developed in the previous studies, were reviewed and the evaluation model of the fluidic device was developed and applied for the audit calculation. (3) The treating method for the uncertainty of the gap conductance was developed and applied for the audit calculation. (4) The pre- and post-processing programs were developed for this study. (5) For the more detailed assessments, the information for the gap conductance, etc. should be improved and the effects of coolant bypass during blowdown, steam binding and so on were not sufficiently evaluated. KINS-REM should be advanced to evaluate these effects properly. The KINS methodology that was used in this study, can be further applied for independent regulatory audit calculations related to the licensing application on LOCA best estimate calculation

  1. Cost of wind energy: comparing distant wind resources to local resources in the midwestern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppock, David C; Patiño-Echeverri, Dalia

    2010-11-15

    The best wind sites in the United States are often located far from electricity demand centers and lack transmission access. Local sites that have lower quality wind resources but do not require as much power transmission capacity are an alternative to distant wind resources. In this paper, we explore the trade-offs between developing new wind generation at local sites and installing wind farms at remote sites. We first examine the general relationship between the high capital costs required for local wind development and the relatively lower capital costs required to install a wind farm capable of generating the same electrical output at a remote site,with the results representing the maximum amount an investor should be willing to pay for transmission access. We suggest that this analysis can be used as a first step in comparing potential wind resources to meet a state renewable portfolio standard (RPS). To illustrate, we compare the cost of local wind (∼50 km from the load) to the cost of distant wind requiring new transmission (∼550-750 km from the load) to meet the Illinois RPS. We find that local, lower capacity factor wind sites are the lowest cost option for meeting the Illinois RPS if new long distance transmission is required to access distant, higher capacity factor wind resources. If higher capacity wind sites can be connected to the existing grid at minimal cost, in many cases they will have lower costs. PMID:20931984

  2. Cost-control issues within the hospital environment in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, R

    1993-01-01

    Health care in the United Kingdom is dominated by the National Health Service, which operates under a system in which care is delivered free at the point of need and is funded by taxation. Experimentation with a number of different models has occurred since 1980 and has culminated in recent National Health Service reforms characterized by the separation of purchaser and provider functions. An inescapable result of this is the formal definition of the relationship between need and service provision (contracts or performance arrangements), and the equally unavoidable costing of "patient episodes" or equivalent as a tool for estimating both supply and demand. This change has completely altered the way in which individual capital and revenue costs are viewed in the National Health Service. With regard to drugs, costs can now be seen as part of a patient's consumption of resources as opposed to a hospital budget heading. The new system acknowledges that higher drug costs can be incurred if the overall patient-episode cost is reduced as a result. Such a reduction in average patient costs might then lead to more contract work and a higher revenue for the hospital. Quality of care specifications by purchasers may also affect drug costs. PMID:10123831

  3. The benefits and costs of new fuels and engines for light-duty vehicles in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, Ryan; Griffin, James P; Graham, John D

    2008-10-01

    Rising oil prices and concerns about energy security and climate change are spurring reconsideration of both automobile propulsion systems and the fuels that supply energy to them. In addition to the gasoline internal combustion engine, recent years have seen alternatives develop in the automotive marketplace. Currently, hybrid-electric vehicles, advanced diesels, and flex-fuel vehicles running on a high percentage mixture of ethanol and gasoline (E85) are appearing at auto shows and in driveways. We conduct a rigorous benefit-cost analysis from both the private and societal perspective of the marginal benefits and costs of each technology--using the conventional gasoline engine as a baseline. The private perspective considers only those factors that influence the decisions of individual consumers, while the societal perspective accounts for environmental, energy, and congestion externalities as well. Our analysis illustrates that both hybrids and diesels show promise for particular light-duty applications (sport utility vehicles and pickup trucks), but that vehicles running continuously on E85 consistently have greater costs than benefits. The results for diesels were particularly robust over a wide range of sensitivity analyses. The results from the societal analysis are qualitatively similar to the private analysis, demonstrating that the most relevant factors to the benefit-cost calculations are the factors that drive the individual consumer's decision. We conclude with a brief discussion of marketplace and public policy trends that will both illustrate and influence the relative adoption of these alternative technologies in the United States in the coming decade. PMID:18684162

  4. HTR-PROTEUS benchmark calculations. Pt. 1. Unit cell results LEUPRO-1 and LEUPRO-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hogenbirk, A.; Stad, R.C.L. van der; Janssen, A.J.; Klippel, H.T.; Kuijper, J.C.

    1995-09-01

    In the framework of the IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) on `Validation of Safety Related Physics Calculations for Low-Enriched (LEU) HTGRs` calculational benchmarks are performed on the basis of LEU-HTR pebble-bed critical experiments carried out in the PROTEUS facility at PSI, Switzerland. Of special interest is the treatment of the double heterogeneity of the fuel and the spherical fuel elements of these pebble bed core configurations. Also of interest is the proper calculation of the safety related physics parameters like the effect of water ingress and control rod worth. This document describes the ECN results of the LEUPRO-1 and LEUPRO-2 unitcell calculations performed with the codes WIMS-E, SCALE-4 and MCNP4A. Results of the LEUPRO-1 unit cell with 20% water ingress in the void is also reported for both the single and the double heterogeneous case. Emphasis is put on the intercomparison of the results obtained by the deterministic codes WIMS-E and SCALE-4, and the Monte Carlo code MCNP4A. The LEUPRO whole core calculations will be reported later. (orig.).

  5. HTR-PROTEUS benchmark calculations. Pt. 1. Unit cell results LEUPRO-1 and LEUPRO-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the framework of the IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) on 'Validation of Safety Related Physics Calculations for Low-Enriched (LEU) HTGRs' calculational benchmarks are performed on the basis of LEU-HTR pebble-bed critical experiments carried out in the PROTEUS facility at PSI, Switzerland. Of special interest is the treatment of the double heterogeneity of the fuel and the spherical fuel elements of these pebble bed core configurations. Also of interest is the proper calculation of the safety related physics parameters like the effect of water ingress and control rod worth. This document describes the ECN results of the LEUPRO-1 and LEUPRO-2 unitcell calculations performed with the codes WIMS-E, SCALE-4 and MCNP4A. Results of the LEUPRO-1 unit cell with 20% water ingress in the void is also reported for both the single and the double heterogeneous case. Emphasis is put on the intercomparison of the results obtained by the deterministic codes WIMS-E and SCALE-4, and the Monte Carlo code MCNP4A. The LEUPRO whole core calculations will be reported later. (orig.)

  6. Levelised unit electricity cost comparison of alternate technologies for baseload generation in Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides a comparison of the lifetime cost of constructing, operating and decommissioning new generation suitable for supplying baseload power by early in the next decade. New baseload generation options in Ontario are nuclear, coal-fired steam turbines or combined cycle gas turbines (CCGT). Nuclear and coal-fired units are characterised by high capital costs and low operating costs. As such, they are candidates for baseload operation only. Gas-fired generation is characterised by lower capital costs and higher operating costs and thus may meet the requirements for operation as peaking and/or baseload generation. The comparison of baseload generating technologies is made by reference to the estimated levelised unit electricity cost (LUEC). The LUEC can be thought of as a 'supply cost', where the unit cost is the price needed to recover all costs over the period. It is determined by finding the price that sets the sum of all future discounted cash flows (net present value, or NPV) to zero. It can also be thought of as representing the constant real wholesale price of electricity that meets the financing cost, debt repayment, income tax and cash flow constraints associated with the construction operation and decommissioning of a generating plant. Levelised unit cost comparisons are usually made with different sets of financing assumptions. This report considers two base cases, which we describe as 'merchant' and 'public' financing. The term 'merchant plant' is used to refer to ones that are built and operated by private investors. These investors pay for their capital through debt and by raising equity, and thus pay return on equity and interest on debt throughout their lifetime. These projects include income taxes, both provincial and federal. Publicly financed projects typically are not subject to income taxes or to the same constraints on raising finance through issuing debt and equity. However, they are constrained to provide a rate of return. The rate of return required for projects is subject to some uncertainty. For a merchant project the higher the perceived risk the higher the required return. Publicly financed projects may be evaluated on the basis of a given discount rate or may be able to access funds at lower rates, but the risk of cost overruns is implicitly borne by the taxpayer. There is a third possibility, a public/private partnership. A number of partnership arrangements are possible, for example, public financing of construction and leasing to private owners for operation. All partnership arrangements represent a sharing of risk between the public and private sector. Public/private partnership may provide an attractive model for building new generation in Ontario. This report considers each of the generation options under both merchant and public financing. The base case merchant financing scenario is consistent with one where risk is relatively low, and consequently the real return on equity required by private investors is 12%. We believe a comparison between merchant and public financing to be important in that it shows the effect of taxes and financing assumptions on the economics of a generation project. Since the pure economic assessment of projects does not normally consider financing or tax costs, these being transfer payments not essential to the project itself, the public financing version of our assessments can be interpreted as the underlying economics of different technologies. This report does not include a detailed modelling of financing arrangements that could occur under a public/private partnership. However, we do consider how the cost of generation options compares under a wide range of illustrative assumptions on the required return on equity, debt and the debt/equity ratio. (author)

  7. Infrastructure expenditures and costs. Practical guidelines to calculate total infrastructure costs for five modes of transport. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transport infrastructures in general, and the Trans European Transport Network (TEN-T) in particular, play an important role in achieving the medium and long-term objectives of the European Union. In view of this, the Commission has recently adopted a revision of the guidelines for the TEN-T. The main consequences of this revision are the need for a better understanding of the investments made by the member states in the TEN-T and the need for ensuring optimal consistency in the reporting by the Members States of such investments. With Regulation number 1108/70 the Council of the European Communities introduced an accounting system for expenditure on infrastructure in respect of transport by rail, road and inland waterways. The purpose of this regulation is to introduce a standard and permanent accounting system for infrastructure expenditures. However maritime and aviation infrastructure were not included. Further, the need for an effective and easy to apply classification for infrastructure investments concerning all five transport modes was still pending. Therefore, DG TREN has commissioned ECORYS Transport and CE Delft to study the expenditures and costs of infrastructure, to propose an adequate classification of expenditures, and to propose a method for translating data on expenditures into data on costs. The objectives of the present study are threefold: To set out a classification of infrastructure expenditures, in order to increase knowledge of expenditures related to transport infrastructures. This classification should support a better understanding of fixed and variable infrastructure costs; To detail the various components of such expenditures for five modes of transportation, which would enable the monitoring of infrastructure expenditures and costs; and to set up a methodology to move from annual series of expenditures to costs, including fixed and variable elements.

  8. Lessons learnt from application of the standardized cost calculation code OMEGA in decision making processes and planning in decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Implementation of the standardised cost structure, as defined in 'A Proposed Standardised List of Costs Items for Decommissioning Purposes' (OECD/NEA, IAEA, EC, 1999), into the decommissioning costing, supports the harmonisation of decommissioning costs. The decision making processes in decommissioning planning can be more effective if there is the possibility to compare the calculated data with the data of other projects, structured in standardised cost structure. The results of the decision making process should be based on evaluation of such a set of decommissioning options which covers the methods of decommissioning, the selected strategy and existing or planned decommissioning infrastructure. Aspects such as impact of time, waste management scenarios, uncertainties of input data and other aspects should be also evaluated. These issues of decision making process were implemented into the decommissioning costing code OMEGA. All activities of a decommissioning project are involved within single compact standardised calculation structure including waste management. The resulting costs have standardised format and no additional data conversion is needed. The calculation process is nuclide resolved and internally linked in such a way that it models the material and radioactivity flow in the decommissioning process. The effect of decay of radioactivity is considered. The options are optimised in the standard MS-Project software as Gantt charts. The bi-directional data link between the standardised calculation structure and the Gantt chart supports the on-line optimisation of the Gantt chart structure. Multi-option work is applied, i.e. decommissioning options, which cover all decommissioning scenarios to be considered, are evaluated individually and multi-attribute analysis is applied for selecting the optimal one. Methods of sensitivity analysis and evaluation of uncertainties of calculated costs were developed for support the decision making process and for definition of contingencies. (author)

  9. Health-resource use and costs associated with fibromyalgia in France, Germany, and the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandran A

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Tyler Knight,1 Caroline Schaefer,1 Arthi Chandran,2 Gergana Zlateva,2 Andreas Winkelmann,3 Serge Perrot4 1Health Economics and Outcomes Research, Covance Market Access Services, Gaithersburg, MD, USA; 2Primary Care Health Economics and Outcomes Research, Pfizer Global Health Economics, New York, NY, USA; 3Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University Hospital Munich, Munich, Germany; 4Service de Médecine Interne et Thérapeutique, Université Paris Descartes, Paris, France Background: Fibromyalgia (FM is a chronic disorder characterized by widespread, persistent pain. Prospective and retrospective studies have demonstrated substantial health-care costs associated with FM in a number of countries. This study evaluated and compared health-resource use (HRU and associated costs related to FM in routine clinical practice across the US, France, and Germany. Methods: Two separate, cross-sectional, observational studies of subjects with FM were conducted: one in the US and one in France and Germany. HRU related to prescription medication, physician office visits, diagnostic tests, and hospitalizations was abstracted from chart review; patient out-of-pocket costs and lost productivity were collected via subject self-report. Costs were assigned to HRU based on standard algorithms. Direct and indirect costs were evaluated and compared by simple linear regression. Results: A total of 442 subjects (203 US, 70 France, 169 Germany with FM were analyzed. The mean (standard deviation age in the US, France, and Germany was 47.9 (10.9, 51.2 (9.5, and 49.2 (9.8, respectively (P = 0.085. Most subjects were female (95% US, 83% France, 80% Germany (P < 0.001. Adjusted annual direct costs per subject for FM were significantly higher in the US ($7087 than in France ($481, P < 0.001 or Germany ($2417, P < 0.001. Adjusted mean annual indirect costs per subject for FM were lower in the US ($6431 than in France ($8718 or Germany ($10,001, but represented a significant proportion of total costs in all countries. Conclusion: The significant HRU and costs associated with FM in the US, France, and Germany documented in this study highlight the substantial global economic burden of FM. Indirect costs represented a significant proportion of the total costs, particularly in Europe. Comparisons between the three countries show differences in HRU, with significantly higher direct costs in the US compared with France and Germany. Keywords: fibromyalgia, cost, burden of illness, United States, France, Germany

  10. Access, quality, and costs of care at physician owned hospitals in the United States: observational study

    OpenAIRE

    Blumenthal, Daniel M.; Orav, E. John; Jena, Anupam B; Dudzinski, David M; Le, Sidney T; Ashish K. Jha

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To compare physician owned hospitals (POHs) with non-POHs on metrics around patient populations, quality of care, costs, and payments. Design: Observational study. Setting: Acute care hospitals in 95 hospital referral regions in the United States, 2010. Participants: 2186 US acute care hospitals (219 POHs and 1967 non-POHs). Main outcome measures Proportions of patients using Medicaid and those from ethnic and racial minority groups; hospital performance on patient experience metri...

  11. The cost-effectiveness of supported employment for adults with autism in the United Kingdom

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Adults with autism face high rates of unemployment. Supported employment enables individuals with autism to secure and maintain a paid job in a regular work environment. The objective of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of supported employment compared with standard care (day services) for adults with autism in the United Kingdom. Thus, a decision-analytic economic model was developed, which used outcome data from the only trial that has evaluated supported employment for adult...

  12. Development of a Calculation Methodology for the Ventilation on a Besis of a Mobile Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sechin, A.; Popov, A.; Antonevich, O.

    2016-01-01

    An algorithm for the analysis of safety and efficiency of the processes, which are located inside the mobile unit are developed. It follows from the calculations that the safe concentration of combustible material in the space of industrial premises is about 3.69%. Automation systems must be focused on this value. The time of occurrence of the maximum permissible concentration of pollutant was determined and amounted to 160 seconds. It is shown that the ventilation rate of 0.5 would be sufficient for functioning of the object.

  13. Calculations of the radiological impact of disposal of unit activity of selected radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the work described is to provide estimates of the radiological impact following disposal of unit activity via each of several options, including disposal on the deep ocean bed, shallow burial, engineered trench disposal, disposal in a geologic repository and disposal in off-shore boreholes. Results are presented for a range of important representative radionuclides. In the course of the calculations it was necessary to make a number of simplifying assumptions. The implications of these are discussed in the context of use of the results for comparative assessments of waste management options. (author)

  14. Graphics processing unit-assisted density profile calculations in the KSTAR reflectometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Seong-Heon; Oh, Dong Keun

    2014-11-01

    Wavelet transform (WT) is widely used in signal processing. The frequency modulation reflectometer in the KSTAR applies this technique to get the phase information from the mixer output measurements. Since WT is a time consuming process, it is difficult to calculate the density profile in real time. The data analysis time, however, can be significantly reduced by the use of the Graphics Processing Unit (GPU), with its powerful computing capability, in WT. A bottle neck in the KSTAR data processing exists in the data input and output (IO) process between the CPU and its peripheral devices. In this paper, the details of the WT implementation assisted by a GPU in the KSTAR reflectometer are presented and the consequent performance improvement is reported. The real time density profile calculation from the reflectometer measurements is also discussed.

  15. Market value calculation and the solution of circularity between value and the weighted average cost of capital WACC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Vélez-Pareja

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Most finance textbooks present the Weighted Average Cost of Capital (WACC calculation as: WACC = Kd×(1-T×D% + Ke×E%, where Kd is the cost of debt before taxes, T is the tax rate, D% is the percentage of debt on total value, Ke is the cost of equity and E% is the percentage of equity on total value. All of them precise (but not with enough emphasis that the values to calculate D% y E% are market values. Although they devote special space and thought to calculate Kd and Ke, little effort is made to the correct calculation of market values. This means that there are several points that are not sufficiently dealt with: Market values, location in time, occurrence of tax payments, WACC changes in time and the circularity in calculating WACC. The purpose of this note is to clear up these ideas, solve the circularity problem and emphasize in some ideas that usually are looked over. Also, some suggestions are presented on how to calculate, or estimate, the equity cost of capital.

  16. Total Elbow Arthroplasty in the United States: Evaluation of Cost, Patient Demographics, and Complication Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hanbing; Orvets, Nathan D.; Merlin, Gabriel; Shaw, Joshua; Dines, Joshua S.; Price, Mark D.; Eichinger, Josef K.; Li, Xinning

    2016-01-01

    Total elbow arthroplasty (TEA) is utilized in the treatment of rheumatoid and post-traumatic elbow arthritis. TEA is a relatively low volume surgery in comparison to other types of arthroplasty and therefore little is known about current surgical utilization, patient demographics and complication rates in the United States. The purpose of our study is to evaluate the current practice trends and associated in-patient complications of TEA at academic centers in the United States. We queried the University Health Systems Consortium administrative database from 2007 to 2011 for patients who underwent an elective TEA. A descriptive analysis of demographics was performed which included patient age, sex, race, and insurance status. We also evaluated the following patient clinical benchmarks: hospital length of stay (LOS), hospital direct cost, in-hospital mortality, complications, and 30-day readmission rates. Our cohort consisted of 3146 adult patients (36.5% male and 63.5% female) with an average age of 58 years who underwent a total elbow arthroplasty (159 academic medical centers) in the United States. The racial demographics included 2334 (74%) Caucasian, 285 (9%) black, 236 (7.5%) Hispanic, 16 (0.5%) Asian, and 283 (9%) other patients. The mean LOS was 4.2±5 days and the mean total direct cost for the hospital was 16,300±4000 US Dollars per case. The overall inpatient complication rate was 3.1% and included mortality costs are comparable to the traditional total hip and knee arthroplasty surgeries.

  17. United States cost of military force projection in the Persian Gulf, 1976-2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the first estimate of United States military cost for Persian Gulf force (CPGfp) derived entirely by a quantitative method. An activity-based cost (ABC) model uses geographic distribution of aircraft carriers as a proxy allocator of Department of Defense (DoD) baseline cost to regional operations. Allocation follows simply from DoD data that since 1990 no less than one aircraft carrier has been continuously on-station in the Persian Gulf; that eight are required to keep one on-station there; that the Navy has had eleven-fifteen carriers since 1990; and that Army and Air Force units are virtually never deployed to combat operations without Navy units. For 1976-2007 CPGfp is estimated to be $6.8 x 1012 and for 2007 $0.5 x 1012 (2008$). This substantial military investment is not a remedy for the market failure at the heart of regional security problem, which is oil market power. When CPGfp is added to economic losses attributed to market power in another recent study, the severity of this market failure becomes more apparent. (author)

  18. Calculation of an advanced ultra-supercritical power unit with CO2 capture installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The subject of the analysis was a conceptual 900 MW coal-fired unit with single and double reheat. • Post-combustion CO2 capture by chemical absorption was considered. • Steam to CCU is extracted from IP/LP crossover pipe. Crossover pressure has significant impact on the unit efficiency. • Reduction of the CCU specific heat duty is very important for the power unit efficiency improvement. • Part of the waste heat from the overhead condenser can be use it in the feed water preheating system. - Abstract: An efficiency enhancement of coal-fired power units becomes a basis for the reduction in the consumption of primary fuels and as a result in CO2 emissions. Steam parameters increasing is an effective way to improve the efficiency of electricity generation. The progress in materials engineering has led to the more and more common implementation of the technology of power units for ultra-supercritical parameters. The next generation of this technology – the advanced ultra-supercritical parameters A-USC – opens new perspectives. Obtaining a higher efficiency of electricity generation and exceeding the 50% net efficiency barrier, apart from the increase in the steam parameters, requires an optimisation of the thermodynamic cycle, together with the modernisation of the flow system of steam, condensers, regenerative water heaters. The development of the advanced ultra-supercritical technologies is the subject of European, Japanese, American and Chinese projects, which aims at the completion of a power unit with the live steam parameters of 700 °C and 35 MPa and the net efficiency exceeding 50%. The paper presents the results of the calculations which were performed for a conceptual power unit in two configurations – with single and double steam reheat. The CCS Directive contains a clause providing for the new construction of power installations as “capture ready”. Newly built power unit gives possibility of optimized integration with CO2 capture installation. The power and efficiency loss related with the integration with CO2 capture process can be reduce. Due to the state of knowledge of CO2 capture methods and the ability of its application into the high power unit only the chemical absorption was considered in the paper. The CO2 capture installation requires large amount of heat to solvent regeneration in appropriate quantity and quality, cooling system to discharge waste heat and power to drive CO2 compressor and auxiliary equipment (pump, fans). In the paper the steam to CCU is extracted from IP/LP crossover pipe. The design IP/LP crossover pressure has very significant impact on the power unit efficiency. Its reduction to the level which is required by the CCU can improve power unit efficiency. However, lower crossover pressure results in efficiency looses in part-load operation. Therefore, the analysis of power unit operation with partial load for various design crossover pressure was considered. The slight improvement of power unit efficiency can be gained also through the recovery of waste heat from the overhead condenser and CO2 compressor intercoolers in the feed water preheating system

  19. MARCH calculations performed for the TMI-2 [Three Mile Island Unit] analysis exercise program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of the validation effort for the MARCH portion of the Source Term Code Package, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission has requested Battelle Columbus to participate in the Three Mile Island Unit (TMI-2) Analysis Exercise Program. Previous TMI-2 calculations (1980) had been performed using the original MARCH 1.1 version of the code. MARCH was written to calculate thermal-hydraulic phenomena for reactor accidents leading to core meltdown. The accident sequences normally considered by MARCH users are relatively uncomplicated. For example, multiple changes in emergency core cooling injection, steam generator auxiliary feedwater flow rates, and cycling of primary system steam relief valves are not generally considered in severe-accident analysis. All of these things were done during the TMI-2 accident. In addition, at TMI-2 the core meltdown sequence was interrupted by the restoration of core cooling after achieving significant melting. In order to perform meaningful TMI-2 calculations, it has been found necessary to add a number of modeling enhancements to MARCH. These modeling changes are discussed along with the results of the TMI-2 MARCH calculations in this paper

  20. A Prediction on the Unit Cost Estimation for Decommissioning Activities Using the Experienced Data from DECOMMIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Seung Kook; Park, Hee Seong; Choi, Yoon Dong; Song, Chan Ho; Moon, Jei Kwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) has developed the DECOMMIS (Decommissioning Information Management System) and have been applied for the decommissioning project of the KRR (Korea Research Reactor)-1 and 2 and UCP (Uranium Conversion Plant), as the meaning of the first decommissioning project in Korea. All information and data which are from the decommissioning activities are input, saved, output and managed in the DECOMMIS. This system was consists of the web server and the database server. The users could be access through a web page, depending on the input, processing and output, and be modified the permissions to do such activities can after the decommissioning activities have created the initial system-wide data is stored. When it could be used the experienced data from DECOMMIS, the cost estimation on the new facilities for the decommissioning planning will be established with the basic frame of the WBS structures and its codes. In this paper, the prediction on the cost estimation through using the experienced data which were store in DECOMMIS was studied. For the new decommissioning project on the nuclear facilities in the future, through this paper, the cost estimation for the decommissioning using the experienced data which were WBS codes, unit-work productivity factors and annual governmental unit labor cost is proposed. These data were from the KRR and UCP decommissioning project. The differences on the WBS code sectors and facility characterization between new objected components and experienced dismantled components was reduces as scaling factors. The study on the establishment the scaling factors and cost prediction for the cost estimation is developing with the algorithms from the productivity data, now.

  1. A Prediction on the Unit Cost Estimation for Decommissioning Activities Using the Experienced Data from DECOMMIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) has developed the DECOMMIS (Decommissioning Information Management System) and have been applied for the decommissioning project of the KRR (Korea Research Reactor)-1 and 2 and UCP (Uranium Conversion Plant), as the meaning of the first decommissioning project in Korea. All information and data which are from the decommissioning activities are input, saved, output and managed in the DECOMMIS. This system was consists of the web server and the database server. The users could be access through a web page, depending on the input, processing and output, and be modified the permissions to do such activities can after the decommissioning activities have created the initial system-wide data is stored. When it could be used the experienced data from DECOMMIS, the cost estimation on the new facilities for the decommissioning planning will be established with the basic frame of the WBS structures and its codes. In this paper, the prediction on the cost estimation through using the experienced data which were store in DECOMMIS was studied. For the new decommissioning project on the nuclear facilities in the future, through this paper, the cost estimation for the decommissioning using the experienced data which were WBS codes, unit-work productivity factors and annual governmental unit labor cost is proposed. These data were from the KRR and UCP decommissioning project. The differences on the WBS code sectors and facility characterization between new objected components and experienced dismantled components was reduces as scaling factors. The study on the establishment the scaling factors and cost prediction for the cost estimation is developing with the algorithms from the productivity data, now

  2. A procedure for calculation of monitor units for passively scattered proton radiotherapy beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to validate a monitor unit (MU) calculation procedure for passively scattered proton therapy beams. The output dose per MU (d/MU) of a therapeutic radiation beam is traditionally calibrated under specific reference conditions. These conditions include beam energy, field size, suitable depth in water or water equivalent phantom in a low dose gradient region with known relative depth dose, and source to point of calibration distance. Treatment field settings usually differ from these reference conditions leading to a different d/MU that needs to be determined for delivering the prescribed dose. For passively scattered proton beams, the proton specific parameters, which need to be defined, are related to the energy, lateral scatterers, range modulating wheel, spread out Bragg peak (SOBP) width, thickness of any range shifter, the depth dose value relative to the normalization point in the SOBP, and scatter both from the range compensator and inhomogeneity in the patient. Following the custom for photons or electrons, a set of proton dosimetry factors, representing the changes in the d/MU relative to a reference condition, can be defined as the relative output factor (ROF), SOBP factor (SOBPF), range shifter factor (RSF), SOBP off-center factor (SOBPOCF), off-center ratio (OCR), inverse square factor (ISF), field size factor (FSF), and compensator and patient scatter factor (CPSF). The ROF, SOBPF, and RSF are the major contributors to the d/MU and were measured using an ion chamber in water tank during the clinical commissioning of each beam to create a dosimetry beam data table to be used for calculating the monitor units. The following simple formula is found to provide an independent method to determine the d/MU at the point of interest (POI) in the patient, namely, (d/MU)=ROF·SOBPF·RSF·SOBPOCF·OCR·FSF·ISF·CPSF. The monitor units for delivering the intended dose (D) to the POI can be obtained from MU=D divide (d/MU). The accuracy and robustness of the above formula were validated by calculating the d/MU in water for many different combinations of beam parameters and comparing it with the corresponding measured d/MU by an ion chamber in a water or water/plastic phantom. This procedure has been in use for MU calculation for patient treatment fields at our facility since May 2006. The differences in the calculated and measured values of the d/MU for 623 distinct fields used for patient treatment during the period of May 2006 to February 2007 are within 2% for 99% of these fields. The authors conclude that an intuitive formula similar to the one used for monitor unit calculation of therapeutic photon beams can be used to compute the monitor units of passively scattered proton therapy beams.

  3. Weather data for simplified energy calculation methods. Volume II. Middle United States: TRY data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, A.R.; Moreno, S.; Deringer, J.; Watson, C.R.

    1984-08-01

    The objective of this report is to provide a source of weather data for direct use with a number of simplified energy calculation methods available today. Complete weather data for a number of cities in the United States are provided for use in the following methods: degree hour, modified degree hour, bin, modified bin, and variable degree day. This report contains sets of weather data for 22 cities in the continental United States using Test Reference Year (TRY) source weather data. The weather data at each city has been summarized in a number of ways to provide differing levels of detail necessary for alternative simplified energy calculation methods. Weather variables summarized include dry bulb and wet bulb temperature, percent relative humidity, humidity ratio, wind speed, percent possible sunshine, percent diffuse solar radiation, total solar radiation on horizontal and vertical surfaces, and solar heat gain through standard DSA glass. Monthly and annual summaries, in some cases by time of day, are available. These summaries are produced in a series of nine computer generated tables.

  4. Weather data for simplified energy calculation methods. Volume I. Eastern United States: TRY data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, A.R.; Moreno, S.; Deringer, J.; Watson, C.R.

    1984-08-01

    The objective of this report is to provide a source of weather data for direct use with a number of simplified energy calculation methods available today. Complete weather data for a number of cities in the United States are provided for use in the following methods: degree hour, modified degree hour, bin, modified bin, and variable degree day. This report contains sets of weather data for 23 cities in the continental United States using Test Reference Year (TRY) source weather data. The weather data at each city has been summarized in a number of ways to provide differing levels of detail necessary for alternative simplified energy calculation methods. Weather variables summarized include dry bulb and wet bulb temperature, percent relative humidity, humidity ratio, wind speed, percent possible sunshine, percent diffuse solar radiation, total solar radiation on horizontal and vertical surfaces, and solar heat gain through standard DSA glass. Monthly and annual summaries, in some cases by time of day, are available. These summaries are produced in a series of nine computer generated tables.

  5. Weather data for simplified energy calculation methods. Volume III. Western United States: TRY data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, A.R.; Moreno, S.; Deringer, J.; Watson, C.R.

    1984-08-01

    The objective is to provide a source of weather data for direct use with a number of simplified energy calculation methods available today. Complete weather data for a number of cities in the United States are provided for use in the following methods: degree hour, modified degree hour, bin, modified bin, and variable degree day. This report contains sets of weather data for 24 cities in the continental United States using Test Reference Year (TRY) source weather data. The weather data at each city has been summarized in a number of ways to provide differing levels of detail necessary for alternative simplified energy calculation methods. Weather variables summarized include dry bulb and wet bulb temperature, percent relative humidity, humidity ratio, wind speed, percent possible sunshine, percent diffuse solar radiation, total solar radiation on horizontal and vertical surfaces, and solar heat gain through standard DSA glass. Monthly and annual summaries, in some cases by time of day, are available. These summaries are produced in a series of nine computer generated tables.

  6. Calculation of additional costs in 2011 - for the demolition of the Swedish nuclear power plants and disposal of residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the SSM's estimates of future costs for the fee proposal for 2012-2014. The calculation is made according to the Financing Act and includes all additional costs until the residues from the Swedish nuclear power plants are finally stored. According to current estimates, this is assumed to be 2069. The estimation of such a long time is a major uncertainty and SSM uses, like SKB, the successive calculation method to estimate an expected value and the uncertainty of the estimate

  7. Innovative global approach for high-performance low-cost integral field unit (IFU)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivès, Sébastien; Prieto, Eric; Salaun, Yves

    2007-09-01

    The current Integral Field Units (IFUs) are limited either by their cost/risk or by their performance. In particular, standard glass manufacturing techniques allow reaching high level of performances: accurate roughness (high throughput), sharp edges (about 1 micron), surface form (image quality), etc. in spite of their reputation to be costly and risky. Combining high performances and low costs is challenging. By coupling fast tools specifically developed at LAM to design IFU, and innovative low-cost and low-risk methods of manufacturing, we are able to reach high performances while saving costs and time by an order of magnitude. We have developed a demonstrator which validates our tools and manufacturing methods in terms of optical image quality, slice edges quality and decentring errors. We will present these results and an example of IFU designed with our tools. All these processes of optimization between manufacturing techniques and design can be applied for future ground-based instruments (MUSE, KMOS for the VTL; MOMFIS of the ELT) or into future space instruments (SNAP).

  8. International differences in health care costs in Europe and the United States: Do these affect the cost-effectiveness of diagnostic strategies for pulmonary embolism?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to assess whether potential differences in costs for diagnostic procedures and treatment of pulmonary embolism (PE) among European and U. S. hospitals alter the optimal cost-effective diagnostic strategy for PE. A standardized questionnaire was used to obtain cost data for the diagnosis and treatment of PE in participating European and U. S. hospitals. Costs for diagnostic tests and treatment of PE were then calculated in a standardized manner for all participating hospitals, from the hospital perspective. Costs were used in an existing cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) model to determine the most cost-effective diagnostic strategy in participating hospitals. There were considerable differences in costs for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures for PE among the participating centers. These differences, however, did not affect the most cost-effective strategy based on incremental cost-effectiveness. In all hospitals the most cost-effective strategy appeared to be ultrasound followed by helical CT. International differences in cost of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures certainly exist and should be considered before applying a published CEA. Nevertheless, despite these cost differences, the diagnostic strategy for PE of ultrasound followed by helical CT appears most cost-effective. (orig.)

  9. Audit Calculations of ATWS for Ulchin Unit 1 and 2 Power Uprate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jun Soo; Huh, Byung Gil; Choi, Yong Seog; Seul, Kwang Won [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    In this study, the regulatory audit calculation for ATWS of Ulchin Unit 1 and 2 with 4.5% power uprate was performed to support the licensing review and to confirm the validity of licensee's calculation. In order to simulate the transient behavior of ATWS initiated by a loss of feed water, the systems of Ulchin Unit 1 and 2 was modeled with MARS-KS 1.3. In this study, the regulatory audit calculation of ATWS for Ulchin 1 and 2 with 4.5% power uprating and 99% MTC in the specific cycle designs was performed. It is conformed that the analysis results of ATWS for Ulchin 1 and 2 power uprate meets the RCS pressure acceptance criteria. An anticipated transient accompanied by a failure in the Reactor Trip System (RTS) to shut down the reactor is defined as an Anticipated Transient Without Scram (ATWS). Under certain postulated conditions, the ATWS could lead to Reactor Coolant system (RCS) pressure boundary fracture and/or core damage. For a conventional pressurized water reactor (PWR), the temperature corresponding to the NSSC notice No.2013.09(Performance Criteria for ECCS of the Pressurized Water Reactor Nuclear Power Plants), 1204 .deg. C and the pressure corresponding to the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code service level C stress, 221.5 bar is assumed to be an unacceptable plant condition against ATWS, above which the RCS pressure boundary could deform to the point of inoperability and the safe shutdown by injection of borated water could be challenged. Such potentially excessive RCS overpressure may occur in the ATWS initiated from a loss of heat sink. Currently, the modification of Ulchin 1 and 2 operating license for 4.5% power uprate is under review.

  10. Weather data for simplified energy calculation methods. Volume IV. United States: WYEC data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, A.R.; Moreno, S.; Deringer, J.; Watson, C.R.

    1984-08-01

    The objective of this report is to provide a source of weather data for direct use with a number of simplified energy calculation methods available today. Complete weather data for a number of cities in the United States are provided for use in the following methods: degree hour, modified degree hour, bin, modified bin, and variable degree day. This report contains sets of weather data for 23 cities using Weather Year for Energy Calculations (WYEC) source weather data. Considerable overlap is present in cities (21) covered by both the TRY and WYEC data. The weather data at each city has been summarized in a number of ways to provide differing levels of detail necessary for alternative simplified energy calculation methods. Weather variables summarized include dry bulb and wet bulb temperature, percent relative humidity, humidity ratio, wind speed, percent possible sunshine, percent diffuse solar radiation, total solar radiation on horizontal and vertical surfaces, and solar heat gain through standard DSA glass. Monthly and annual summaries, in some cases by time of day, are available. These summaries are produced in a series of nine computer generated tables.

  11. Initial Assessment of Parallelization of Monte Carlo Calculation using Graphics Processing Units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monte Carlo (MC) simulation is an effective tool for calculating neutron transports in complex geometry. However, because Monte Carlo simulates each neutron behavior one by one, it takes a very long computing time if enough neutrons are used for high precision of calculation. Accordingly, methods that reduce the computing time are required. In a Monte Carlo code, parallel calculation is well-suited since it simulates the behavior of each neutron independently and thus parallel computation is natural. The parallelization of the Monte Carlo codes, however, was done using multi CPUs. By the global demand for high quality 3D graphics, the Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) has developed into a highly parallel, multi-core processor. This parallel processing capability of GPUs can be available to engineering computing once a suitable interface is provided. Recently, NVIDIA introduced CUDATM, a general purpose parallel computing architecture. CUDA is a software environment that allows developers to manage GPU using C/C++ or other languages. In this work, a GPU-based Monte Carlo is developed and the initial assessment of it parallel performance is investigated

  12. Suitable methods for calculating the costs for the back-end of the nuclear fuel-cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present report is devoted to a discussion of what kind of cost calculations the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate should demand from the owners of the Swedish nuclear power plants in order to make a proposal to the Swedish government on a suitable annual fee and a suitable supplementary amount for contingency allowance to cover the future costs of decommissioning the power plants and disposing of the waste. The report was commissioned by the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI) because SKI wanted an independent review of the probabilistic method for cost calculations used by the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co (SKB) since 1996. This method was introduced as a response to some changes of the Swedish legal system regulating the financing of the future costs of decommissioning the nuclear power plants and disposing of the waste. The most important change was that the annual fee paid by the reactor owners should only cover the costs of a certain basic scenario and that the annual fee should be supplemented by a suitable guarantee to cover the occurrence of cost driving unforeseen events. The method used by SKB has been considered feasible for determining a suitable annual fee and suitable guarantees by SKI but SKI has also asked for more information on important matters such as the bases for various calculations and the rationale behind certain probability distributions assumed. The point of departure for the review performed by Alkestis Co is that the basic material employed for the cost calculations should meet a high standard and that the logical and mathematical arguments leading from the basic material to proposals of a certain annual fee and certain amount of guarantees must be transparent. Chapter 1 and appendix A mainly consist of material collected to enable a non-specialist to follow the account in the following sections. However, chapter 1 also contains a general discussion on suitable approaches to handle the problem of calculating the annual fee and the various guarantees. The conclusion reached there is that already quite general considerations cast some doubts on the suitability of using a probabilistic approach in this context. Chapter 2 in conjunction with appendices C and D is devoted to a detailed examination of the method used by SKB to calculate the annual fee and the various guarantees. The conclusion reached there is that both the method itself as well as the present application made of it can be challenged. Hence the introduction of an alternative approach to cost calculations should be considered. A first attempt to provide an alternative approach is therefore presented in chapter 3

  13. CNSS plant concept, capital cost, and multi-unit station economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    United Engineers and Constructors (UE and C) and the Babcock and Wilcox Company (B and W) have performed several studies over the last eight years related to small integral pressurized water reactors. These reactors include the 365 MWt (100 MWe) Consolidated Nuclear Steam Generator (CNSG) and the 1200 MWt Consolidated Nuclear Steam System (CNSS). The studies, mostly performed under contract to the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, have led to a 1250 MWt (400 MWe) Consolidated Nuclear Steam System (CNSS) plant concept, with unique design and cost features. This report contains an update of earlier studies of the CNSS reactor and balance-of-plant concept design, capital costs, and multi-unit plant economics incorporating recent design developments, improvements, and post-TMI-2 upgrades. The economic evaluation compares the total system economic impact of a phased, three stage 400 MWe CNSS implementation program, i.e., a three-unit station, to the installation of a single 1200 MWe Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) into a typical USA utility system

  14. Marketing techniques and cost calculations of radiation vulcanised natural rubber latex (RVNRL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes how RVNRL is promoted to the latex based industries locally and abroad. RVNRL promotion requires patience and very challenging. This is a fact since the product is new to the market. Cost is important in deciding its market and potential usage. The elements that contribute to the cost is described in this paper. (Author)

  15. 5 CFR 591.220 - How does OPM calculate energy utility cost indexes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... and to combine the cost index(es) by energy type (e.g., electricity and natural gas) with cost indexes... water, cooking, cleaning, recreation). (2) Step 2. OPM obtains from the shelter survey, a survey of... of heating and cooling equipment and energy types (e.g., electricity, gas, and oil) in each area....

  16. Cost optimal and nearly zero-energy buildings (nZEB) definitions, calculation principles and case studies

    CERN Document Server

    Kurnitski, Jarek

    2013-01-01

    This book introduces technical definitions, system boundaries, energy calculation methods and input data for setting primary energy based minimum/cost optimal and nZEB requirements in national energy frames. Offers five case studies of nZEB office buildings.

  17. A Self-Instructional Course in Student Financial Aid Administration. Module 7: Calculating Cost of Attendance. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington Consulting Group, Inc., Washington, DC.

    The seventh module in a 17-module self-instructional course on student financial aid administration (designed for novice student financial aid administrators and other personnel) teaches how to calculate the cost of attendance. It provides a systematic introduction to the management of federal financial aid programs authorized by the Higher…

  18. THE APPLICATION OF ACTIVITY BASED COSTING ARE: ELIMINATION IN THE CALCULATION OF COST OF PRODUCTION PT SEMEN TONASA (PERSERO, PANGKEP REGENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firman Menne

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Economic conditions should be viewed as the catalyst for developing the ability to intelligently manage resources so that the people of Indonesia can be out of the condition. Effective management and efficiency is reflected in good planning and good planning requires good information. In order to plan well the utilization of company resources to fold the duplicate spiders, company management requires system information revealed by clearly and precisely the facts relating to the activity. PT Semen Tonasa is a fabrication company doing business in the field of cement industry and produces two types of cement, cement or Portland cement type 1 can (OPC and Portland cement (PPC Pazzolan. The benefits that can be gained if the company implemented the system of Activity-Based Costing are: elimination is obtained more accurate information, among others, to improve the quality of decision making. In the ABC product only burdened costs of resources and activities that are used and does not burdened by the cost of the resources and activities. This method causes the cost per unit of a more stable and consistent with the purposes of the imposition of costs to the product result in activity.

  19. Utilization of transmission probabilities in the calculation of unit-cell by the interface-current method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A widely used but otherwise physically incorrect assumption in unit-cell calculations by the method of interface currents in cylindrical or spherical geometries, is that of that of isotropic fluxes at the surfaces of the cell annular regions, when computing transmission probabilities. In this work, new interface-current relations are developed without making use of this assumption and the effects on calculated integral parameters are shown for an idealized unit-cell example. (author)

  20. The economic costs and benefits of potassium iodide prophylaxis for a reference LWR facility in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Policy decisions relating to radiation protection are commonly based on an evaluation in which the benefits of exposure reduction are compared to the economic costs of the protective measure. A generic difficulty countered in cost-benefit analyses, however, is the quantification of major elements that define the costs and the benefits in commensurate units. In this study, the costs of making KI (potassium iodine) available for public use and the avoidance of thyroidal health effects (i.e., the benefit) in the event of nuclear emergency are defined in the commensurate units of dollars. (Authors). 11 refs., 15 tabs

  1. Calculation of radioactive inventory of activated parts for nuclear power unit and analysis of influence factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the operation characteristics of the nuclear power unit, the radioactive inventory of activated parts was calculated by ORIGEN2, and the effects of bum-up, operation mode and power change on the radioactive inventory for activated parts were analyzed. The results indicated that the radioactive inventory grew with the increasing of burn-up, and when the actual operation time was longer than the effective operation time, the increasing rate of nuclide activity approximated the burn-up increasing; Radioactive inventory of activated parts was influenced directly by the operation modes of the nuclear power unit, and under same reactor load, operation power and bum-up, the radioactive inventory for non-continuous operation mode is less than that for the continuous operation mode. Effects of operation modes on radioactive inventory reversed with half life of nuclides. Under same bum-up and longer operation time, the effect of operation power change on the radioactive inventory is not obvious, (authors)

  2. Energy Savings and Breakeven Costs for Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maguire, Jeff [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Burch, Jay [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Merrigan, Tim [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ong, Sean [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have recently re-emerged in the U.S. residential water heating market and have the potential to provide homeowners with significant energy savings. However, there are questions as to the actual performance and energy savings potential of these units, in particular in regards to the heat pump's performance in unconditioned space and the impact of the heat pump on space heating and cooling loads when it is located in conditioned space. To help answer these questions, NREL performed simulations of a HPWH in both conditioned and unconditioned space at over 900 locations across the continental United States and Hawaii. Simulations included a Building America benchmark home so that any interaction between the HPWH and the home's HVAC equipment could be captured. Comparisons were performed to typical gas and electric water heaters to determine the energy savings potential and cost effectiveness of a HPWH relative to these technologies. HPWHs were found to have a significant source energy savings potential when replacing typical electric water heaters, but only saved source energy relative to gas water heater in the most favorable installation locations in the southern United States. When replacing an electric water heater, the HPWH is likely to break even in California, the southern United States, and parts of the northeast in most situations. However, the HPWH will only break even when replacing a gas water heater in a few southern states.

  3. A guide for the calculation of the maximum permissible costs for shelters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among other things, this paper has the aim to define the scope which is reasonable for shelter costs as well as to inform about their real amount. Various assumptions have been made and examples have been given which seldom coincide with the specific facts. Thus, the possibility of how to find solutions which are precisely appropriate for persons is shown in a formula. The less the income, life expectancy and the number of persons to be considered the less are the maximum permissible costs for shelters. Under certain conditions the permissible costs are lower than the real costs. Thus, taking those assumptions into account, the shelter is not profitable any more. This case, for example, really applies to a couple, 57 years old, without children, with an income of 40,000 DM/year who intend to build an interior shelter. For a family with children who are under age, however, it is always profitable to build an interior basic shelter. (orig.)

  4. Cost calculation - a necessary step towards widespread adoption of advanced radiotherapy technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lievens, Yolande; Borras, Josep M; Grau, Cai

    2015-01-01

    Radiotherapy costs are an often underestimated component of the economic assessment of new radiotherapy treatments and technologies. That the radiotherapy budget only consumes a finite part of the total cancer and healthcare budget does not relieve us from our responsibility to balance the extra...... costs to the additional benefits of new, more advanced, but typically also more expensive treatments we want to deliver. Yet, in contrast to what is the case for oncology drugs, literature evidence remains limited, as well for economic evaluations comparing new radiotherapy interventions as for cost...... accounting lays the basis for the further steps in health technology assessment leading to radiotherapy investments and reimbursement, at the local, the national and the worldwide level. In the current paper we review some evidence from the existing costing literature and discuss how such data can be used to...

  5. Evaluation of a rapid LMP-based approach for calculating marginal unit emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • Pollutant emissions estimated based on locational marginal price and eGRID data. • Stochastic model using IEEE RTS-96 system used to evaluate LMP approach. • Incorporating membership function enhanced reliability of pollutant estimate. • Error in pollutant estimate typically 2 and X and SO2. - Abstract: To evaluate the sustainability of systems that draw power from electrical grids there is a need to rapidly and accurately quantify pollutant emissions associated with power generation. Air emissions resulting from electricity generation vary widely among power plants based on the types of fuel consumed, the efficiency of the plant, and the type of pollution control systems in service. To address this need, methods for estimating real-time air emissions from power generation based on locational marginal prices (LMPs) have been developed. Based on LMPs the type of the marginal generating unit can be identified and pollutant emissions are estimated. While conceptually demonstrated, this LMP approach has not been rigorously tested. The purpose of this paper is to (1) improve the LMP method for predicting pollutant emissions and (2) evaluate the reliability of this technique through power system simulations. Previous LMP methods were expanded to include marginal emissions estimates using an LMP Emissions Estimation Method (LEEM). The accuracy of emission estimates was further improved by incorporating a probability distribution function that characterize generator fuel costs and a membership function (MF) capable of accounting for multiple marginal generation units. Emission estimates were compared to those predicted from power flow simulations. The improved LEEM was found to predict the marginal generation type approximately 70% of the time based on typical system conditions (e.g. loads and fuel costs) without the use of a MF. With the addition of a MF, the LEEM was found to provide emission estimates with errors typically less than 25% for CO2, and less than 50% for SO2 and NOX. Overall, the LEEM presented provides a means of incorporating pollutant emissions into demand side decisions

  6. Calculation of economic viability of alternative energy sources considering its environmental costs for small communities of Northeast Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There has been an increasing concern about current environmental issues caused by human activity, as the world searches for development. The production of electricity is an extremely relevant factor in this scenario since it is responsible for a large portion of the emissions that cause the greenhouse effect. Due to this fact, a sustainable development with alternative energy sources, which are attractive for such purpose, must be proposed, especially in places that are not supplied by the conventional electricity grid such as many communities in the Northeast Brazil. This work aims to calculate the environmental cost for the alternative sources of energy - solar, wind and biomass - during electricity generation, and to estimate the economic feasibility of those sources in small communities of Northeast Brazil, considering the avoided costs. The externalities must be properly identified and valued so the costs or benefits can be internalized and reflect accurately the economic feasibility or infeasibility of those sources. For this, the method of avoided costs was adopted for the calculation of externalities. This variable was included in the equation developed for all considered alternative energy sources. The calculations of economic feasibility were performed taking the new configurations in consideration, and the new equation was reprogrammed in the Programa de Calculo de Custos de Energias Alternativas, Solar, Eolica e Biomassa (PEASEB). The results demonstrated that the solar photovoltaic energy in isolated systems is the most feasible and broadly applicable source for small communities of Northeast Brazil. (author)

  7. Calculation of additional costs in 2010 - for the demolition of the Swedish nuclear power plants and disposal of residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the SSM's calculation of additional costs for fee proposal for 2012-2014. The calculation is made pursuant to the Financing Act and includes all additional costs until the residue from the Swedish nuclear power plants is disposed of. According to current calculations, this should be done in 2069. Estimates of such a long time means a great deal of uncertainty and SSM uses, like SKB, the successive calculation method to estimate an expected value and tax association uncertainty. As a starting point for analysis, the SSM has made estimates of the future costs broken down into paragraphs in paragraph 2 Financing Act. The estimates were made after discussions within the organization and representatives of relevant external organizations. Assuming a total annual cost per worker of 1.24 million gave these estimates a total cost of over three billion. It should be emphasized that this sum is only a starting point for analysis and applies in particular circumstances. These circumstances critically reviewed the analysis and the reasonableness of assessments made by a analysis group. The analysis took place for 2.5 days in spring 2010. The analysis group consisted of 17 people including nine from the SSM. Lores Borg and Steen Lichtenberg were moderators. Via a brainstorming process, the analysis group presented a number of uncertainties and made a three-part assessment of their impact on the overall results (minimum, most likely and maximum). The result of the analysis: average in the 2010 monetary value was assessed to 4.24 billion Swedish crowns with a standard deviation of 920 million Swedish crowns. These values are undiscounted

  8. A preliminary design and BOP cost analysis of M-C Power`s MCFC commerical unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, T.P. [Bechtel Corp, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    M-C Power Corporation plans to introduce its molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) market entry unit in the year 2000 for distributed and on-site power generation. Extensive efforts have been made to analyze the cell stack manufacturing costs. The major objective of this study is to conduct a detailed analysis of BOP costs based on an initial design of the market entry unit.

  9. Improving Accuracy and Efficiency of Start-up Cost Formulations in MIP Unit Commitment by Modeling Power Plant Temperatures

    OpenAIRE

    Silbernagl, Matthias; Huber, Matthias; Brandenberg, René

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an improved mixed-integer model for the Thermal Unit Commitment Problem. By introducing new variables for the temperature of each thermal unit, the off-time-dependent start-up costs are modeled accurately and with a lower integrality gap than state-of-the-art formulations. This new approach significantly improves computational efficiency compared to existing formulations, even if they only model a rough approximation of the start-up costs. Our findings were validated on re...

  10. The costs of peripheral intravascular device in the values of hospitalization in a pediatric unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tathiana Silva Martins, Zenith Rosa Silvino

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to raise the costs of dispositive intravascular peripheric (DIP used during the internment in a pediatric unit. Methodology: this is a descriptive and exploratory study, from quantitative approach. The sample consisted of nineteen children who were using intravenous therapy for a period exceeding seven days and whose guardians signed a consent form. To data collect was used a formularie composed of variables related to the patient and causes the change of DIP. The data were analyzed using simple statistics. This study was approved by the Ethics Committee and Research of the Hospital Universitário Antônio Pedro (HUAP/UFF with protocol number 071/2006. Results: it was found that most of the children lived outside the city of location of the hospital, each child used an average of 27.3 DIP, the main failure was the infusion of phlebitis and the cost of the device in relation to the total costs of hospitalization ranged between R$ 25,00 and 100,00. Conclusions: this study contributed to broader investigation, incorporating technology in vascular access and intravenous therapy, with respect to customer pediatric hospital.

  11. Cost-income analysis of oral health units of health care centers in Yazd city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosein Fallahzadeh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Increasing demands for health care's services on one hand and limited resources on the other hand brings about pressure over governments to find out a mechanism for fair and appropriate distribution of resources. Economic analysis is one of the appropriate tools for policy making on this priority. The aim of this study was to assess capital and consumption of oral health units of health care centers in Yazd city and comparing it with revenue of these centers and determining of cost effectiveness.Materials and Methods: In this descriptive cross sectional study, all health care centers of Yazd city with active dentistry department were evaluated. The data has been extracted from current documents in health care center of county based issued receipts and daily information registers.Results: Expended cost for providing of oral hygiene services in second half of 2008 in 13 medical health centers of Yazd included active dentistry section was 557.887.500 Rials and revenue to cost ratio was about 34%. The most provided service was related to tooth extraction and the average of tooth restoration in each working day was 0.48.Conclusion: With attention to low tariffs of dentistry services in medical health centers and paying subsidy to target groups, expenses of oral hygiene are always more than its revenue.

  12. The influence of capacity management on the unit cost of production: a case study in a flexible plastic packaging company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tálita Floriano Goulart Silva

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the relationship between capacity management and cost management in determining the unit cost. The objective was to show how the use of effective capacity decreases the unit cost of manufacturing. For this, follow these steps: 1 Knowledge and analysis of production process and PPPC; 2 Data Collection; 3 Application of the Method Cost Center; 4Verification of the relationship between the Capacity Management and Cost Management. Through the company’s accounting reports, observations and interviews, the following results was possible: knowledge of the production process and functioning of PPCP, measuring the cost of each step of the production process and the unit cost of each product. Subsequently, we compared the unit cost using the effective capacity and normal capacity. The results showed that the unit costs decrease with the use of effective capacity, while increasing the margin for each product, even with the lower sale price, thus establishing a virtuous circle: effective capacity utilization, reduced unit cost, most competitive prices and increase in the number of requests.

  13. Benefit/cost analysis of plutonium recycle options in the United States of America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beginning in 1973, the USAEC started the analysis of the benefit/cost balance of Pu recycling in light-water reactors and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission has continued this effort to the present time. A study of the United States nuclear industry from 1975 until 2000 was summarized in a final environmental statement called GESMO - Generic Environmental Statement on Mixed Oxide, NUREG-0002. Cumulative environmental and economic effects for several industry growth patterns were determined. Five alternatives were evaluated, covering the basic options of recycling uranium and plutonium; recycling uranium; and no recycling. The NRC findings, excluding consideration of proliferation and safeguards questions, are: the safety of reactors and fuel-cycle facilities are not significantly affected by recycle; excluding consideration of radiological effects, the environmental effects of recycle are slightly less than those from a non-recycle system; plutonium recycling extends uranium resources and reduces environmental impacts at the same time requiring reprocessing and Pu-handling facilities; despite uncertainties, recycling has probable economic advantages over other fuel concepts; differences in health effects attributable to recycling provide no basis for selecting a particular fuel-cycle option; no waste-management considerations appear that could be a basis for the selection of any particular option. The NRC studies on health, safety and environmental considerations of Pu recycling in the United States of America show that the differences in benefits/costs between the alternative fuel cycles are small and hence do not provide a clear basis for a decision on Pu recycle at this time. Safeguards and international proliferation implications appear to be the controlling factors in reaching a decision. President Carter's statement indefinitely deferring reprocessing and Pu recycle in the United States of America has resulted in a re-evaluation by NRC of its programme to reach a decision on whether or not to authorize Pu recycling. (author)

  14. Low-cost general purpose spectral display unit using an IBM PC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many physics experiments require acquisition and analysis of spectral data. commercial minicomputer-based multichannel analyzers collect detected counts at various energies, create a histogram of the counts in memory, and display the resultant spectra. They acquire data and provide the user-to-display interface. The system discussed separates functions into the three modular components of data acquisition, storage, and display. This decoupling of functions allows the experimenter to use any number of detectors for data collection before forwarding up to 64 spectra to the display unit, thereby increasing data throughput over that available with commercial systems. An IBM PC was chosen for the low-cost, general purpose display unit. Up to four spectra may be displayed simultaneously in different colors. The histogram saves 1024 channels per detector, 640 of which may be distinctly displayed per spectra. The IEEE-488 standard provides the data path between the IBM PC and the data collection unit. Data is sent to the PC under interrupt control, using direct memory access. Display manipulations available via keyboard are also discussed

  15. A low-cost general purpose spectral display unit using an IBM PC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many physics experiments require acquisition and analysis of spectral data. Commercial minicomputer-based multichannel analyzers collect detected counts at various energies, create a histogram of the counts in memory, and display the resultant spectra. They acquire data and provide the user-to-display interface. The system discussed separates functions into the three modular components of data acquisition, storage, and display. This decoupling of functions allows the experimenter to use any number of detectors for data collection before forwarding up to 64 spectra to the display unit, thereby increasing data throughput over that available with commercial systems. An IBM PC was chosen for the low-cost, general purpose display unit. Up to four spectra may be displayed simultaneously in different colors. The histogram saves 1024 channels per detector, 640 of which may be distinctly displayed per spectra. The IEEE-488 standard provides the data path between the IBM PC and the data collection unit. Data is sent to the PC under interrupt control, using direct memory access. Display manipulations available via keyboard are also discussed

  16. Policy, technical plan and cost estimate for the decommissioning of the Olkiluoto BWR units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1989-1990 a detailed decommissioning plan was compiled for the power plant units TVO I and II. The units are supposed to be operated for 40 years, i.e. until the year 2020. The decommissioning plan is based on deferred dismantling after safe storage of 30 years. At dismantling, all the structures and systems classified radioactive will be removed and handled as radioactive waste. Radioactive wastes accumulating from dismantling and other wastes (activated core components etc.) to be disposed of at the time of dismantling are classified into three main categories: activated waste, contaminated waste and very low-active concrete. The total volume of waste is approximately 29.300 m3 and the activity at the time of disposal 3*1016 Bq. Wastes are emplaced in the final repository to b constructed in the bedrock of the power plant site. Cost estimate for decommissioning of the two units, including final disposal, is FIM 840 million. (author) 5 refs.; 4 figs.; 2 tabs

  17. Analysis of Unit Costs in a University. The Fribourg Example. Program on Institutional Management in Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquier, Jacques; Sachse, Matthias

    Costing principles are applied to a university by estimating unit costs and their component factors for the university's different inputs, activities, and outputs. The information system used is designed for Fribourg University but could be applicable to other Swiss universities and could serve Switzerland's universities policy. In general, it…

  18. Intoxicated children at an intensive care unit: popular medicine risks, complications and costs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Consuelo de Rovetto

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The Hospital Universitario del Valle (HUV at the Pediatrics Intensive Care Unit (PICU admits intoxicated patients, erroneously medicated by «teguas» or family members with serious aggravation of basic diseases or generating severe intoxications. Absent reports of these practices in Colombia motivated the publication of this case series Objective: To report a series of pediatric intoxication cases secondary to oral or dermatological application of varied substances by healers («teguas» or family members, leading to admission at the PICU, and to describe complications and hospital costs of these events. Methodology: Clinical charts of patients admitted to the PICU with diagnosis of exogenous intoxication during May 2001 to September 2004, were reviewed. Of 28 registered cases during that time, only 14 clinical charts were recovered. Variables evaluated included: age, gender, proceeding, administered substance, person responsible for the administration, complications, days of mechanical ventilation, total days at the intensive care unit and average costs. Of the 14 medical records with exogenous intoxications only 5 cases were involuntary and 9 were related to the administration of substances by quacks or family members; these are the ones reported in this series. Results: We report a total of 9 intoxicated patients, 5 girls and 4 boys, with an age range from 1 to 24 months, all from Cali. Topical administered substances: alcohol 6/9, vinegar 1/9; oral: aspirin 2/9, paico 1/9, and unidentified herbs 1/9. Administered substances by teguas: 6 patients; 3 by family members. All patients had metabolic acidosis with an increased anion gap: 27 in average (range from 21 to 32. All required mechanical ventilation (2 to 32 day range. Average hospital day costs were $6’657,800 pesos (around U$3,000.oo. Three patients died and 4 presented acute renal failure, 2 convulsions, 2 nosocomial infections, 1 subglotic stenosis. Conclusions and recommendations: Those practices are a high risk for children and have high health costs. Mortality and severe complications are high. Educational campaigns should be started in the community to prevent these cases.

  19. Intoxicated children at an intensive care unit: popular medicine risks, complications and costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Consuelo de Rovetto

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The Hospital Universitario del Valle (HUV at the Pediatrics Intensive Care Unit (PICU admits intoxicated patients, erroneously medicated by «teguas» or family members with serious aggravation of basic diseases or generating severe intoxications. Absent reports of these practices in Colombia motivated the publication of this case seriesObjective: To report a series of pediatric intoxication cases secondary to oral or dermatological application of varied substances by healers («teguas» or family members, leading to admission at the PICU, and to describe complications and hospital costs of these events.Methodology: Clinical charts of patients admitted to the PICU with diagnosis of exogenous intoxication during May 2001 to September 2004, were reviewed. Of 28 registered cases during that time, only 14 clinical charts were recovered. Variables evaluated included: age, gender, proceeding, administered substance, person responsible for the administration, complications, days of mechanical ventilation, total days at the intensive care unit and average costs. Of the 14 medical records with exogenous intoxications only 5 cases were involuntary and 9 were related to the administration of substances by quacks or family members; these are the ones reported in this series.Results: We report a total of 9 intoxicated patients, 5 girls and 4 boys, with an age range from 1 to 24 months, all from Cali. Topical administered substances: alcohol 6/9, vinegar 1/9; oral: aspirin 2/9, paico 1/9, and unidentified herbs 1/9. Administered substances by teguas: 6 patients; 3 by family members. All patients had metabolic acidosis with an increased anion gap: 27 in average (range from 21 to 32. All required mechanical ventilation (2 to 32 day range. Average hospital day costs were $6’657,800 pesos (around U$3,000.oo. Three patients died and 4 presented acute renal failure, 2 convulsions, 2 nosocomial infections, 1 subglotic stenosis.Conclusions and recommendations: Those practices are a high risk for children and have high health costs. Mortality and severe complications are high. Educational campaigns should be started in the community to prevent these cases.

  20. A calculation program for harvesting and transportation costs of energy and industrial wood; Energiapuun korjuun ja kuljetuksen kustannuslaskentaohjelmisto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranta, T. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    A computer based model has been developed for calculating the production costs of industrial wood and wood fuel. Several calculation situations, which might be useful for decision-making in energy wood supply, are included into this software. The model will be easy to use for practical purposes and flexible so that different new model and changes in the basis of calculations are easy to implement. Model will offer open interfaces for importing and exporting information. Model includes selected wood delivery chains and open interfaces for adding data from different procurement sources. The cost analysis model is built on Windows-based software, SQLWindows, using different sources of data (ODBC). With the model it is possible to manage these SQLBase databases with SQL-queries. The data included in the databases origins from various energy wood sources (local communities or part of them, forestry boards planning areas or even stands ready for cutting). By knowing the planned share of first thinnings, final cuttings and other harvesting operations it is possible to estimate the potential amount of wood fuel from each area. Also databases from energy wood users, forest and transportation machinery and distances are available in the system. Using the information it is possible to find out the fuel demand of power and heating plants in each moment (e.g., amount and quality), costs of various machines (harvesters, forwarders, trucks) as well as distances between energy wood sources and users. (orig.)

  1. Calculation of HELAS amplitudes for QCD processes using graphics processing unit (GPU)

    CERN Document Server

    Hagiwara, K; Okamura, N; Rainwater, D L; Stelzer, T

    2009-01-01

    We use a graphics processing unit (GPU) for fast calculations of helicity amplitudes of quark and gluon scattering processes in massless QCD. New HEGET ({\\bf H}ELAS {\\bf E}valuation with {\\bf G}PU {\\bf E}nhanced {\\bf T}echnology) codes for gluon self-interactions are introduced, and a C++ program to convert the MadGraph generated FORTRAN codes into HEGET codes in CUDA (a C-platform for general purpose computing on GPU) is created. Because of the proliferation of the number of Feynman diagrams and the number of independent color amplitudes, the maximum number of final state jets we can evaluate on a GPU is limited to 4 for pure gluon processes ($gg\\to 4g$), or 5 for processes with one or more quark lines such as $q\\bar{q}\\to 5g$ and $qq\\to qq+3g$. Compared with the usual CPU-based programs, we obtain 60-100 times better performance on the GPU, except for 5-jet production processes and the $gg\\to 4g$ processes for which the GPU gain over the CPU is about 20.

  2. Calculation of HELAS amplitudes for QCD processes using graphics processing unit (GPU)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We use a graphics processing unit (GPU) for fast calculations of helicity amplitudes of quark and gluon scattering processes in massless QCD. New HEGET (HELAS Evaluation with GPU Enhanced Technology) codes for gluon self-interactions are introduced, and a C++ program to convert the MadGraph generated FORTRAN codes into HEGET codes in CUDA (a C-platform for general purpose computing on GPU) is created. Because of the proliferation of the number of Feynman diagrams and the number of independent color amplitudes, the maximum number of final state jets we can evaluate on a GPU is limited to 4 for pure gluon processes (gg→4g), or 5 for processes with one or more quark lines such as q anti q→ 5g and qq→qq+3g. Compared with the usual CPU-based programs, we obtain 60-100 times better performance on the GPU, except for 5-jet production processes and the gg→4g processes for which the GPU gain over the CPU is about 20. (orig.)

  3. Cost optimal building performance requirements. Calculation methodology for reporting on national energy performance requirements on the basis of cost optimality within the framework of the EPBD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boermans, T.; Bettgenhaeuser, K.; Hermelink, A.; Schimschar, S. [Ecofys, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2011-05-15

    On the European level, the principles for the requirements for the energy performance of buildings are set by the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD). Dating from December 2002, the EPBD has set a common framework from which the individual Member States in the EU developed or adapted their individual national regulations. The EPBD in 2008 and 2009 underwent a recast procedure, with final political agreement having been reached in November 2009. The new Directive was then formally adopted on May 19, 2010. Among other clarifications and new provisions, the EPBD recast introduces a benchmarking mechanism for national energy performance requirements for the purpose of determining cost-optimal levels to be used by Member States for comparing and setting these requirements. The previous EPBD set out a general framework to assess the energy performance of buildings and required Member States to define maximum values for energy delivered to meet the energy demand associated with the standardised use of the building. However it did not contain requirements or guidance related to the ambition level of such requirements. As a consequence, building regulations in the various Member States have been developed by the use of different approaches (influenced by different building traditions, political processes and individual market conditions) and resulted in different ambition levels where in many cases cost optimality principles could justify higher ambitions. The EPBD recast now requests that Member States shall ensure that minimum energy performance requirements for buildings are set 'with a view to achieving cost-optimal levels'. The cost optimum level shall be calculated in accordance with a comparative methodology. The objective of this report is to contribute to the ongoing discussion in Europe around the details of such a methodology by describing possible details on how to calculate cost optimal levels and pointing towards important factors and effects. The methodology described in this report is consistent with the description of the process as presented in the study 'Cost Optimality - Discussing methodology and challenges within the recast Energy Performance of Buildings Directive' published in September 2010 by the Buildings Performance Institute Europe (BPIE). The present document provides additional insights and details.

  4. Economic impacts of oil spills: Spill unit costs for tankers, pipelines, refineries, and offshore facilities. [Task 1, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-15

    The impacts of oil spills -- ranging from the large, widely publicized Exxon Valdez tanker incident to smaller pipeline and refinery spills -- have been costly to both the oil industry and the public. For example, the estimated costs to Exxon of the Valdez tanker spill are on the order of $4 billion, including $2.8 billion (in 1993 dollars) for direct cleanup costs and $1.125 billion (in 1992 dollars) for settlement of damages claims caused by the spill. Application of contingent valuation costs and civil lawsuits pending in the State of Alaska could raise these costs appreciably. Even the costs of the much smaller 1991 oil spill at Texaco`s refinery near Anacortes, Washington led to costs of $8 to 9 million. As a result, inexpensive waming, response and remediation technologies could lower oil spin costs, helping both the oil industry, the associated marine industries, and the environment. One means for reducing the impact and costs of oil spills is to undertake research and development on key aspects of the oil spill prevention, warming, and response and remediation systems. To target these funds to their best use, it is important to have sound data on the nature and size of spills, their likely occurrence and their unit costs. This information could then allow scarce R&D dollars to be spent on areas and activities having the largest impact. This report is intended to provide the ``unit cost`` portion of this crucial information. The report examines the three key components of the US oil supply system, namely, tankers and barges; pipelines and refineries; and offshore production facilities. The specific purpose of the study was to establish the unit costs of oil spills. By manipulating this key information into a larger matrix that includes the size and frequency of occurrence of oil spills, it will be possible` to estimate the likely future impacts, costs, and sources of oil spills.

  5. Reduced computational cost in the calculation of worst case response time for real time systems

    OpenAIRE

    Urriza, José M.; Schorb, Lucas; Orozco, Javier D.; Cayssials, Ricardo

    2009-01-01

    Modern Real Time Operating Systems require reducing computational costs even though the microprocessors become more powerful each day. It is usual that Real Time Operating Systems for embedded systems have advance features to administrate the resources of the applications that they support. In order to guarantee either the schedulability of the system or the schedulability of a new task in a dynamic Real Time System, it is necessary to know the Worst Case Response Time of the Real Time tasks ...

  6. Calculation of economic viability and environmental costs of photovoltaic solar energy for the Brazilian Northeast region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The availability of energy resources is a central point to economic development. The energy matrix of most countries is based on the consumption of fossil fuels, which adds annually over 5 billion tons of carbon into the atmosphere. The energy consumption in developing countries has quadrupled since the 60s further aggravating global environmental conditions. The need to implement alternative energy sources to the energy matrix was proved. In addition, Brazil has a large number of people without access to electricity, which affects the quality of life of these populations. In this context, it is necessary to think in economic development way, and then the sustainable and alternative sources appear as an option for its features and its availability in Brazil. The solar energy captured by photovoltaic cells can be highlighted in the Brazilian scenario because of its wide availability, especially in the Northeast. The aim of this paper is to estimate the economic feasibility of insertion of solar systems in small communities in the Brazilian Northeast, considering environmental costs involved in electricity generation. The methodology is based on economic concepts and economic valuation of environmental resources. The results shows that solar power is becoming increasingly competitive due to reduced costs of components and due to the environmental costs reduced when compared with fossil fuels. (author)

  7. Calculation of economic viability and environmental costs of photovoltaic solar energy for the Brazilian Northeast region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stecher, Luiza C.; Sabundjian, Gaianes; Menzel, Francine, E-mail: luizastecher@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The availability of energy resources is a central point to economic development. The energy matrix of most countries is based on the consumption of fossil fuels, which adds annually over 5 billion tons of carbon into the atmosphere. The energy consumption in developing countries has quadrupled since the 60s further aggravating global environmental conditions. The need to implement alternative energy sources to the energy matrix was proved. In addition, Brazil has a large number of people without access to electricity, which affects the quality of life of these populations. In this context, it is necessary to think in economic development way, and then the sustainable and alternative sources appear as an option for its features and its availability in Brazil. The solar energy captured by photovoltaic cells can be highlighted in the Brazilian scenario because of its wide availability, especially in the Northeast. The aim of this paper is to estimate the economic feasibility of insertion of solar systems in small communities in the Brazilian Northeast, considering environmental costs involved in electricity generation. The methodology is based on economic concepts and economic valuation of environmental resources. The results shows that solar power is becoming increasingly competitive due to reduced costs of components and due to the environmental costs reduced when compared with fossil fuels. (author)

  8. 47 CFR 65.300 - Calculations of the components and weights of the cost of capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Commission in FCC Report 43-02. (See 47 CFR 43.21). The results of the calculations shall be used in the... (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) INTERSTATE RATE OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND... of financing that are not investor supplied, or that are otherwise subtracted from a carrier's...

  9. 19 CFR 351.407 - Calculation of constructed value and cost of production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... ANTIDUMPING AND COUNTERVAILING DUTIES Calculation of Export Price, Constructed Export Price, Fair Value, and... purchased from an affiliated person based on the higher of: (1) The price paid by the exporter or producer... production machinery or the equivalent rebuilding of existing machinery. (ii) A “new product” is...

  10. Does a single specialty intensive care unit make better business sense than a multi-specialty intensive care unit? A costing study in a trauma center in India

    OpenAIRE

    Parmeshwar Kumar; Vishwanathan Jithesh; Shakti Kumar Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Context: Though intensive care units (ICUs) only account for 10% of hospital beds, they consume nearly 22% of hospital resources. Few definitive costing studies have been conducted in Indian settings that would help determine appropriate resource allocation. Aim: To evaluate and compare the cost of intensive care delivery between multi-specialty and neurosurgery ICU in an apex trauma care facility in India. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in a polytrauma and neurosurgery ICU at...

  11. Fast unit commitment based on optimal linear approximation to nonlinear fuel cost: Error analysis and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) based techniques are among the most widely applied methods for unit commitment (UC) problems. The fuel cost functions are often replaced by their piecewise linear approximations whereas it is more or less disturbing to use piecewise linear approximations without knowing the exact effect on solution deviation from the optima. Therefore, error analysis is important since the optimal solutions are different when different objective functions are adopted. Another important problem is balancing between solution quality and computation efficiency since better solution quality relies on finer discretization with exponentially increased computational efforts. A detailed error analysis is presented in this paper. It is found that the approximation error is inverse proportional to the square of the number of piecewise segments. Lower bounds on the minimum necessary number of discretization segments are also derived. A 2-Stage Procedure is then established to achieve a better balance between solution quality and computation efficiency. Numerical testing to 2 groups of UC problems is exciting. It is found that the operating cost increases no more than 0.6% in all cases while the CPU time is greatly reduced regarding other MILP approaches. The results are still valid in electric power market clearing computation. (author)

  12. The financial cost of treating polytrauma: implications for tertiary referral centres in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikand, M; Williams, K; White, C; Moran, C G

    2005-06-01

    This observational study was designed to evaluate the financial cost and resources needed to treat a polytrauma patient at a tertiary care centre in the United Kingdom. Sixty-nine patients, from outside the normal hospital catchment area, were referred to a University Hospital and treated for polytrauma (injury severity score>15). Fifty-one patients had head injuries in addition to other injuries. Fourteen patients died in hospital. Forty-seven patients spent 316 ITU days with a total of 832 hospital days. One hundred and ninety-six operating hours were used for their surgical treatment and only 13 patients required neurosurgical intervention. There were 580 radiological and 2967 blood investigations. The total cost of treating these patients was 974,874 pounds. The money received by the hospital from the respective primary care trusts was an average of 1500 pounds per patient for the full treatment including follow up. Thus, the fiscal deficit was 871,375 pounds. This study indicates that the financial accounting for complex cases is antiquated and inaccurate within the NHS. Tertiary referral centres receive only 10% of the appropriate money for treatment of polytrauma patients. The number of patients is relatively small, but their impact on the local services is very high. PMID:15910825

  13. Does the Dispersion of Unit Labor Cost Dynamics in the EMU Imply Long-run Divergence? Results from a Comparison with the United States of America and Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Dullien, Sebastian; Fritsche, Ulrich

    2007-01-01

    Using unit labor cost (ULC) data from Euro area countries as well as US States and German L¨ander we investigate inflation convergence using different approaches, namely panel unit root tests, cointegration tests and error-correction models. All in all we cannot reject convergence of ULC growth in EMU, however, country-specific deviations from the rest of the currency union are much more pronounced and much more persistent in Europe. This holds before and after the introduction of the common ...

  14. Energy Savings and Breakeven Cost for Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maguire, J.; Burch, J.; Merrigan, T.; Ong, S.

    2013-07-01

    Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have recently reemerged in the U.S. residential water heating market and have the potential to provide homeowners with significant energy savings. However, there are questions as to the actual performance and energy savings potential of these units, in particular in regards to the heat pump's performance in unconditioned space and the impact of the heat pump on space heating and cooling loads when it is located in conditioned space. To help answer these questions, simulations were performed of a HPWH in both conditioned and unconditioned space at over 900 locations across the continental United States and Hawaii. Simulations included a Building America benchmark home so that any interaction between the HPWH and the home's HVAC equipment could be captured. Comparisons were performed to typical gas and electric water heaters to determine the energy savings potential and cost effectiveness of a HPWH relative to these technologies. HPWHs were found to have a significant source energy savings potential when replacing typical electric water heaters, but only saved source energy relative to gas water heater in the most favorable installation locations in the southern US. When replacing an electric water heater, the HPWH is likely to break even in California, the southern US, and parts of the northeast in most situations. However, the HPWH will only break even when replacing a gas water heater in a few southern states.

  15. An innovative design of small low head hydropower units for low cost decentralized production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Design allowing turbine operation at heads as low as 1m and operating at a rotational speed of 500 RPM at a flow of 2.6m3/s and a runner diameter of 700 mm. This eliminates the need for a gear box and helps in achieving efficiency of 60% in the case of a 21 kW installation at a 1m head site and 85% with a 69 kW 3.2m head site. Present turbine designs for such low head sites are very expensive to produce and have a low efficiency. The design uses an all plastic waterway, guide vane assembly and reinforced plastic runner blades. There will be a short pay-back period, for example 4.5 years in the case of a 21 kW unit and 2.0 years in case of the 69 kW unit. These payback periods assume a cost per kW of 0.00 ECU. Design is attractive for decentralized production. 3 figs

  16. Does a single specialty intensive care unit make better business sense than a multi-specialty intensive care unit? A costing study in a trauma center in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parmeshwar Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Though intensive care units (ICUs only account for 10% of hospital beds, they consume nearly 22% of hospital resources. Few definitive costing studies have been conducted in Indian settings that would help determine appropriate resource allocation. Aim: To evaluate and compare the cost of intensive care delivery between multi-specialty and neurosurgery ICU in an apex trauma care facility in India. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in a polytrauma and neurosurgery ICU at a 203 bedded level IV trauma care facility in New Delhi, India from May, 2012 to June 2012. The study was cross-sectional, retrospective, and record-based. Traditional costing was used to arrive at the cost for both direct and indirect cost estimates. The cost centers included in study were building cost, equipment cost, human resources, materials and supplies, clinical and nonclinical support services, engineering maintenance cost, and biomedical waste management. Statistical Analysis: Fisher′s two-tailed t-test. Results: Total cost/bed/day for the multi-specialty ICU was Rs. 14,976.9/- and for the neurosurgery ICU was Rs. 14,306.7/-, manpower constituting nearly half of the expenditure in both ICUs. The cost center wise and overall difference in the cost among the ICUs were statistically significant. Conclusions: Quantification of expenditure in running an ICU in a trauma center would assist healthcare decision makers in better allocation of resources. Although multi-specialty ICUs are more expensive, other factors will also play a role in defining the kind of ICU that need to be designed.

  17. Increasing the competitiveness of maintenance contract rates by using an alternative methodology for the calculation of average vehicle maintenance costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Carstens

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Companies tend to outsource transport to fleet management companies to increase efficiencies if transport is a non-core activity. The provision of fleet management services on contract introduces a certain amount of financial risk to the fleet management company, specifically fixed rate maintenance contracts. The quoted rate needs to be sufficient and also competitive in the market. Currently the quoted maintenance rates are based on the maintenance specifications of the manufacturer and the risk management approach of the fleet management company. This is usually reflected in a contingency that is included in the quoted maintenance rate. An alternative methodology for calculating the average maintenance cost for a vehicle fleet is proposed based on the actual maintenance expenditures of the vehicles and accepted statistical techniques. The proposed methodology results in accurate estimates (and associated confidence limits of the true average maintenance cost and can beused as a basis for the maintenance quote.

  18. Calculational results using a survey type code system for the analysis of the Almaraz Unit 2 PWR benchmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The calculations performed for the Almaraz Unit 2 PWR using the code packages of the Atomic Energy Corporation of South Africa Ltd. are summarized. These calculations were done as part of the IAEA Coordinated Research Programme on In-Core Fuel Management Code Package Validation for LWRs. A brief description of the one-dimensional cross section generation package as well as of the Level II (scoping type) global core calculational package which was used is given. Detailed results are presented in several appendices. 29 figs., 20 tabs., 10 refs

  19. Generation expansion planning and long run marginal cost calculations using the ENPEP-(WASP) computer package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The association of the Electricity Authority of Cyprus (EAC) with the IAEA commenced with a training course on Electric System Expansion Planning and the use of WASP-III at Argonne National Laboratory, late in 1984. At that time, both the Government of Cyprus and EAC relied mostly on external Consultants for conduct of energy and electricity planning studies. A great effort was therefore required to establish this, new for Cyprus, planning methodology. The release of ENPEP which is an integrated PC-based Energy and Power Evaluation package made the use of WASP very much easier and accessible to power system planners. Through continuous efforts these computer models have now been established in the Planning Procedures of EAC and are sued extensively to a degree that it was difficult to imagine five years ago. This paper contains some of the experiences gained in the use of these models in electric system expansion planning and the long run marginal cost analysis. (author). Figs and tabs

  20. Norwegian electricity market liberalisation: questions of cost calculation and price definition by grid operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a study carried out on the Norwegian electricity market 10 years after its liberalisation. The similarity of the Norwegian market to the Swiss electricity market is discussed. Similarly to the proposed situation in Switzerland, the liberalisation in Norway foresaw no privatisation of public utilities and a model for the regulation of grid access was introduced. The report describes and comments on the various phases in which the liberalisation occurred and examines the various instruments used, e.g. to ensure that individual grid operators did not make undue profits from their monopoly. The methods used for the monitoring of grid operators' costs are described and the mechanisms involved in the definition of prices for grid services are examined, including measures taken when profits were too high or too low. The report is concluded with a discussion of the conclusions that can be drawn from the Norwegian model for Swiss market opening efforts

  1. Break-Even Cost for Residential Solar Water Heating in the United States: Key Drivers and Sensitivities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassard, H.; Denholm, P.; Ong, S.

    2011-02-01

    This paper examines the break-even cost for residential rooftop solar water heating (SWH) technology, defined as the point where the cost of the energy saved with a SWH system equals the cost of a conventional heating fuel purchased from the grid (either electricity or natural gas). We examine the break-even cost for the largest 1,000 electric and natural gas utilities serving residential customers in the United States as of 2008. Currently, the break-even cost of SWH in the United States varies by more than a factor of five for both electricity and natural gas, despite a much smaller variation in the amount of energy saved by the systems (a factor of approximately one and a half). The break-even price for natural gas is lower than that for electricity due to a lower fuel cost. We also consider the relationship between SWH price and solar fraction and examine the key drivers behind break-even costs. Overall, the key drivers of the break-even cost of SWH are a combination of fuel price, local incentives, and technical factors including the solar resource location, system size, and hot water draw.

  2. Radioimmunoassay evaluation and quality control by use of a simple computer program for a low cost desk top calculator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple computer program for the data processing and quality control of radioimmunoassays is presented. It is written for low cost programmable desk top calculator (Hewlett Packard 97), which can be afforded by smaller laboratories. The untreated counts from the scintillation spectrometer are entered manually; the printout gives the following results: initial data, logit-log transformed calibration points, parameters of goodness of fit and of the position of the standard curve, control and unknown samples dose estimates (mean value from single dose interpolations and scatter of replicates) together with the automatic calculation of within assay variance and, by use of magnetic cards holding the control parameters of all previous assays, between assay variance. (orig.)

  3. Cost-effectiveness of social marketing of insecticide-treated nets for malaria control in the United Republic of Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Hanson Kara; Kikumbih Nassor; Schellenberg Joanna Armstrong; Mponda Haji; Nathan Rose; Lake Sally; Mills Anne; Tanner Marcel; Lengeler Christian

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the costs and consequences of a social marketing approach to malaria control in children by means of insecticide-treated nets in two rural districts of the United Republic of Tanzania, compared with no net use. METHODS: Project cost data were collected prospectively from accounting records. Community effectiveness was estimated on the basis of a nested case-control study and a cross-sectional cluster sample survey. FINDINGS: The social marketing approach to the distributi...

  4. Potential benefits of minimum unit pricing for alcohol versus a ban on below cost selling in England 2014: modelling study

    OpenAIRE

    A. Brennan; Meng, Y; Holmes, J.; Hill-Mcmanus, D; Meier, P. S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the potential impact of two alcohol control policies under consideration in England: banning below cost selling of alcohol and minimum unit pricing. Design Modelling study using the Sheffield Alcohol Policy Model version 2.5. Setting England 2014-15. Population Adults and young people aged 16 or more, including subgroups of moderate, hazardous, and harmful drinkers. Interventions Policy to ban below cost selling, which means that the selli...

  5. Peculiarities of Calculating the Cost of Public Goods (from the Necessary to the Desired: Domestic Realities and European Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksieieva N. I.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Social needs and instruments for their satisfaction — public goods — have been studied. Attention is drawn to the fact that social needs are composed of individual and collective needs of economic entities. They are interrelated and complementary. An important difference between individual and collective needs is in their personification (individualization and divisibility. Proper consideration has been paid to concepts related to the needs of society — the public interest (as a form of social needs, public goods (all the goods, services that can satisfy social needs. For studying social needs and benefits in this work there was taken one of the most popular of their classification, which lies in their division into primary and secondary ones. Emphasis is placed on importance of its use in determining the priority of financing public goods. The focus is on the approach to calculating the cost of public goods. It is regarded as one of the stages in satisfying social needs (along with planning and analysis of the degree for their satisfaction. An approach to determining the structure of financing the total volume of public goods, calculating minimum admissible and desired volume of financing has been presented. The current interest in the European experience prompted the authors to analyze the cost and structure of financing public goods in France, the available statistical base allowing it to be implemented. The determined dependence between the indicators enabled conducting calculations of the desired volumes of financing the public needs per person according to three scenarios: optimistic, satisfactory and critical relevant to phases of the economic cycle. This simulation is aimed at being used in management decisionmaking, development of social and economic policy, etc. There have been noted serious shortcomings related to the lack of quality and reliable statistical information on Ukraine, which hamper the calculation and consideration of foreign experience

  6. On tentative decommissioning cost analysis with specific authentic cost calculations with the application of the Omega code on a case linked to the Intermediate storage facility for spent fuel in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasko, Marek; Daniska, Vladimir; Ondra, Frantisek; Bezak, Peter; Kristofova, Kristina; Tatransky, Peter; Zachar, Matej [DECOM Slovakia, spol. s.r.o., J. Bottu 2, SK-917 01 Trnava (Slovakia); Lindskog, Staffan [Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2007-03-15

    The presented report is focused on tentative calculations of basic decommissioning parameters such as costs, manpower and exposure of personnel for activities of older nuclear facility decommissioning in Sweden represented by Intermediate storage facility for spent fuel in Studsvik, by means of calculation code OMEGA. This report continuously follows up two previous projects, which described methodology of cost estimates of decommissioning with an emphasis to derive cost functions for alpha contaminated material and implementation of the advanced decommissioning costing methodology for Intermediate Storage facility for Spent Fuel in Studsvik. The main purpose of the presented study is to demonstrate the trial application of the advanced costing methodology using OMEGA code for Intermediate Storage Facility for Spent Fuel in Studsvik. Basic work packages presented in report are as follows: 1. Analysis and validation input data on Intermediate Storage Facility for Spent Fuel and assemble a database suitable for standardised decommissioning cost calculations including radiological parameters, 2. Proposal of range of decommissioning calculations and define an extent of decommissioning activities, 3. Defining waste management scenarios for particular material waste streams from Intermediate Storage Facility for Spent Fuel, 4. Developing standardised cost calculation structure applied for Intermediate Storage Facility for Spent Fuel decommissioning calculation and 5. Performing tentative decommissioning calculations for Intermediate Storage Facility for Spent Fuel by OMEGA code. Calculated parameters of decommissioning are presented in structure according to Proposed Standardized List of Items for Costing Purposes. All parameters are documented and summed up in both table and graphic forms in text and Annexes. The presented report documents availability and applicability of methodology for evaluation of costs and other parameters of decommissioning in a form implemented within calculation code OMEGA for calculations of Intermediate Storage for Spent Fuel in Studsvik.

  7. On tentative decommissioning cost analysis with specific authentic cost calculations with the application of the Omega code on a case linked to the Intermediate storage facility for spent fuel in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presented report is focused on tentative calculations of basic decommissioning parameters such as costs, manpower and exposure of personnel for activities of older nuclear facility decommissioning in Sweden represented by Intermediate storage facility for spent fuel in Studsvik, by means of calculation code OMEGA. This report continuously follows up two previous projects, which described methodology of cost estimates of decommissioning with an emphasis to derive cost functions for alpha contaminated material and implementation of the advanced decommissioning costing methodology for Intermediate Storage facility for Spent Fuel in Studsvik. The main purpose of the presented study is to demonstrate the trial application of the advanced costing methodology using OMEGA code for Intermediate Storage Facility for Spent Fuel in Studsvik. Basic work packages presented in report are as follows: 1. Analysis and validation input data on Intermediate Storage Facility for Spent Fuel and assemble a database suitable for standardised decommissioning cost calculations including radiological parameters, 2. Proposal of range of decommissioning calculations and define an extent of decommissioning activities, 3. Defining waste management scenarios for particular material waste streams from Intermediate Storage Facility for Spent Fuel, 4. Developing standardised cost calculation structure applied for Intermediate Storage Facility for Spent Fuel decommissioning calculation and 5. Performing tentative decommissioning calculations for Intermediate Storage Facility for Spent Fuel by OMEGA code. Calculated parameters of decommissioning are presented in structure according to Proposed Standardized List of Items for Costing Purposes. All parameters are documented and summed up in both table and graphic forms in text and Annexes. The presented report documents availability and applicability of methodology for evaluation of costs and other parameters of decommissioning in a form implemented within calculation code OMEGA for calculations of Intermediate Storage for Spent Fuel in Studsvik

  8. Calculation of shielding needed at the wall where cobalt therapy unit Alcyon II is installed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calculations of shielding at the wall to avoid scattering radiation for the personnel and population were performed. The position of the shielding door was corrected because before it had been placed in front of the beams, thus producing excessive radiation to the operator and personnel and patients. The calculations were based on the German standard (DIN)

  9. Estimates of the direct and indirect costs of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in the United States, 1985, 1986, and 1991.

    OpenAIRE

    Scitovsky, A A; Rice, D. P.

    1987-01-01

    This study presents three estimates--ranging from low to high--of the direct and indirect costs of the AIDS epidemic in the United States in 1985, 1986, and 1991, based on prevalence estimates provided by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC). According to what the authors consider their best estimates, personal medical care costs of AIDS in current dollars will rise from $630 million in 1985 to $1.1 billion in 1986 to $8.5 billion in 1991. Nonpersonal costs (for research, screening, educatio...

  10. Cost analysis of a commercial pyroprocess facility on the basis of a conceptual design in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Pyroprocess facility’s direct cost was calculated based on the conceptual design. • The unit cost of pyroprocess was calculated as $781/kgHM. • The unit cost was increased by 3%, considering labor allocation standards. • The operating and maintenance cost was identified as a main cost driver. - Abstract: This study postulated a commercial pyroprocess facility (KAPF+: Korea Advanced Pyroprocess Facility Plus) with a processing capacity of 400 tons/year as a cost object, and utilized an engineering cost estimation method based on a conceptual design to present the results of the total cost and unit cost estimation. According to the calculation results, the total cost and unit cost were calculated with k$779,386 and $781/kgHM, respectively. Moreover, the key cost driver was manifested as the operating and maintenance costs. In particular, equipment replacement cost was identified as an important cost driver. In addition, for an increasingly accurate cost estimation, the calculation results and allocation method of the indirect cost were reanalyzed. Finally the pyroprocess unit cost increased $5 when calculated the indirect cost using the labor time as the allocation standard. Meanwhile, the pyroprocess unit cost increased $22 as a result of allocating the indirect cost using the uniform labor cost as the cost allocation standard. Accordingly, an indirect cost allocation standard was manifested as the factor that exerts a significant effect on the pyroprocess unit cost

  11. Cost Analysis of MRI Services in Iran: An Application of Activity Based Costing Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Bayati; Mahboub Ahari; Badakhshan; Gholipour; Joulaei

    2015-01-01

    Background Considerable development of MRI technology in diagnostic imaging, high cost of MRI technology and controversial issues concerning official charges (tariffs) have been the main motivations to define and implement this study. Objectives The present study aimed to calculate the unit-cost of MRI services using activity-based costing (ABC) as a modern cost accounting system and to fairly compare calculated unit-costs with of...

  12. Review of cost estimates and the calculation of the 2014 Act (1988:1597) on the financing of the management of certain radioactive waste, etc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation Safety Authority (SSM) has based on the licensee's submitted cost estimates for 2013 and SSM cost-adjustments to those rates calculated under the Act (1988:1597) on the financing of the management of certain radioactive waste, etc. (Studsvik Act) to 0.12 SEK per kWh delivered nuclear electricity for the period 2014 to 2017. The fee calculation has not taken into account the remaining uncertainties in the data. SSM's calculations show that the net present value for measures under Studsvik Act amounts to 1743 million Swedish kronor. This amount is in turn composed of two subtotals. The first installment amounting to 1512 million Swedish kronor and indicates the present value of the costs that have been submitted by the licensee in their cost estimates for 2013. The second partial sum represents the present value of the adjusted cost of 231 million Swedish kronor that SSM chosen to add to the submitted cost estimates

  13. Life cycle assessment of renewables: present issues, future outlook and implications for the calculation of external costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In principle, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is certainly appropriate for estimating external costs of renewables, since major environmental impacts of the latter are generated in phases of the life cycle other than use. In practice however, several issues still remain. They are related to the availability and quality of Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) data, to the frit technological development of renewable energy technologies (RET), to the existence of many different applications of the latter and to a strong dependency on local conditions. Moreover, a 'static' picture of present technologies is not enough for policy indications. Therefore some kind of dynamic LCA is needed. These LCA issues are reflected in the calculation of external costs. First, the paper discusses these issues on the examples of two main technologies, namely photovoltaic (PV) and wind. Second, it discusses the results of ExternE for these two specific technologies and gives an outlook for the future. Future needs for a better use of LCA as a support tool for the calcination of external costs are identified. Finally, a new research project funded by the European Commission focused on LCI of renewables is briefly introduced and presented. (author)

  14. Nuclide Inventory Calculation Using MCNPX for Wolsung Unit 1 Reactor Decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CINDER90 computation process involves utilizing linear Markovian chains to determine the time dependent nuclide densities. The CINDER90 depletion algorithm is implemented the MCNPX code package. The coupled depletion process involves a Monte-Carlo steady-state reaction rate calculation linked to a deterministic depletion calculation. The process is shown in Fig.1. MCNPX runs a steady state calculation to determine the system eigenvalue collision densities, recoverable energies from fission and neutrons per fission events. In order to generate number densities for the next time step, the CINDER90 code takes the MCNPX generated values and performs a depletion calculation. MCNPX then takes the new number densities and caries out a new steady-stated calculation. The process repeats itself until the final time step. This paper describe the preliminary source term and nuclide inventory calculation of Candu single fuel channel using MCNPX, as a part of the activities to support the equilibrium core model development and decommissioning evaluation process of a Candu reactor. The aim of this study was to apply the MCNPX code for source term and nuclide inventory calculation of Candu single fuel channel. Nuclide inventories as a function of burnup will be used to model an equilibrium core for Candu reactor. The core lifetime neutron fluence obtained from the model is used to estimate radioactivity at the stage of decommisioning. In general, as expected, the actinides and fission products build up increase with increasing burnup. Despite the fact that the MCNPX code is still in development we can conclude that the code is capable of obtaining relevant results in burnup and source term calculation. It is recommended that in the future work, the calculation has to be verified on the basis of experimental data or comparison with other codes

  15. Nuclide Inventory Calculation Using MCNPX for Wolsung Unit 1 Reactor Decommissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabir, Mohamad Hairie; Noh, Kyoung Ho; Hah, Chang Joo [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The CINDER90 computation process involves utilizing linear Markovian chains to determine the time dependent nuclide densities. The CINDER90 depletion algorithm is implemented the MCNPX code package. The coupled depletion process involves a Monte-Carlo steady-state reaction rate calculation linked to a deterministic depletion calculation. The process is shown in Fig.1. MCNPX runs a steady state calculation to determine the system eigenvalue collision densities, recoverable energies from fission and neutrons per fission events. In order to generate number densities for the next time step, the CINDER90 code takes the MCNPX generated values and performs a depletion calculation. MCNPX then takes the new number densities and caries out a new steady-stated calculation. The process repeats itself until the final time step. This paper describe the preliminary source term and nuclide inventory calculation of Candu single fuel channel using MCNPX, as a part of the activities to support the equilibrium core model development and decommissioning evaluation process of a Candu reactor. The aim of this study was to apply the MCNPX code for source term and nuclide inventory calculation of Candu single fuel channel. Nuclide inventories as a function of burnup will be used to model an equilibrium core for Candu reactor. The core lifetime neutron fluence obtained from the model is used to estimate radioactivity at the stage of decommisioning. In general, as expected, the actinides and fission products build up increase with increasing burnup. Despite the fact that the MCNPX code is still in development we can conclude that the code is capable of obtaining relevant results in burnup and source term calculation. It is recommended that in the future work, the calculation has to be verified on the basis of experimental data or comparison with other codes.

  16. Low-cost accelerograph units as earthquake alert devices for Mexico City: how well would they work?

    OpenAIRE

    C. Valdés; L. Quintanar; Iglesias, A.; Singh, S. K.; García, D.

    2009-01-01

    Recently, low-cost accelerograph units have been proposed as earthquake alert devices for Mexico City. These units would trigger when the acceleration reaches a pre-established level, presumably 4 gal. For significant earthquakes, this would occur during P wave or in the early part of its coda. We test the performance of such a unit on accelerograms recorded in the period 1985 - 2008 at SCT and CDAO, two lake-bed sites in Mexico City. As expected, the alert time (the time of arrival of intens...

  17. Development of a power-period calculation unit for nuclear reactor Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The apparatus studied is a digital calculating assembly which makes it possible to prepare and to present numerically the period and power of a nuclear reactor during operation, from start-up to nominal power. The pulses from a fission chamber are analyzed continuously, using real time. A small number of elements is required because of the systematic use of a calculation technique comprising the determination of a base 2 logarithm by a linear approximation. The accuracy obtained for the period is of the order of 14%; the response time of the order of the calculated period value. An approximate value of the power (30%) is given at each calculation cycle together with the power thresholds required for the control. (author)

  18. An analysis of unit repair costs as a function of mileage of vehicles in a selected transport company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawe? DRO?DZIEL

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a statistical analyses which was performed for actual data associated with unit material costs of repairs of vehicles operated by the Polish Mail branch in Lublin in the period of three consecutive years. Conducted analyses allowed to determine the parameter values of prepared model of vehicles operating efficiency for considered transport system.

  19. Accelerating Resolution-of-the-Identity Second Order Møller-Plesset Quantum Chemistry Calculations with Graphical Processing Units

    OpenAIRE

    Vogt, Leslie Ann; Olivares-Amaya, Roberto; Kermes, Sean; Shao, Yihan; Amador-Bedolla, Carlos; Aspuru-Guzik, Alan

    2008-01-01

    The modification of a general purpose code for quantum mechanical calculations of molecular properties (Q-Chem) to use a graphical processing unit (GPU) is reported. A 4.3x speedup of the resolution-of-the-identity second-order Møller−Plesset perturbation theory (RI-MP2) execution time is observed in single point energy calculations of linear alkanes. The code modification is accomplished using the compute unified basic linear algebra subprograms (CUBLAS) library for an NVIDIA Quadro FX 5600 ...

  20. Cost accounting in ECN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A five year planning is made in which the available money is distributed to the expected programmes. This five year plan is used as basis for working plan and budget for the next year. In the working plan all financial means are divided into kinds of costs, cost centres and cost units. Based on this working plan and the relevant budgets the tariffs are calculated per working centre (cost centre). The tariffs are fixed for a whole year. Up till now these tariffs are also basis for the cost unit accounting at the end of the year together with the results of the time registration. The estimated work shop services for the working centres are included in the tariffs. For the allocation of overhead costs ECN uses dynamic keys. Depreciation costs with respect to instruments, investments etc. are determined per working centre according to a computer programme. The cost unit related costs are charged directly to cost unit. This implies that project related in instruments are looked upon as running costs. In the future we will try to refine the present cost accounting system still further in this way that we will look upon a cost centre as a profit centre. Furthermore we will try to analyse the tariff and calculation deviations and under/over occupation deviations afterwards (post calculation). The information provided to the management knows a hierachic construction: project information to projectleader, programme (compound projects) information to programme coordinator, cost centre summary to department heads, attention area (compound programme) information to programme coordinator and managing director, ECN research (compound attention areas) information to general management, information re kind of costs to relevant persons, f.e. surveys of expenditure for part time personnel to personnel bureau. The information is provided by the department of Finance and Administrative Organisation. The entire scope of cost accounting is the responsibility of the head of the department of Finance and Administrative Organisation. (author)

  1. Primer: The DOE Wind Energy Program's Approach to Calculating Cost of Energy: July 9, 2005 - July 8, 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, K.; Schweizer, T.

    2008-01-01

    This report details the methodology used by DOE to calculate levelized cost of wind energy and demonstrates the variation in COE estimates due to different financing assumptions independent of wind generation technology.

  2. Classification of geokhod units and systems based on product cost analysis and estimation for a prototype model production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksenov, V. V.; Walter, A. V.; Gordeyev, A. A.; Kosovets, A. V.

    2015-09-01

    The paper considers data systematization on a new shield-type heading machine - geokhod. The target of the paper is to classify geokhod components on the basis of their technical and economical production parameters. A prototype model reveals the structure of a geokhod as an assembly unit and identifies its basic characteristics. The paper overviews the methods of product cost estimations, justifies the application of an operation-based approach for a prototype model, provides the results containing product cost data for various geokhod components and technological processes, and gives the data for a material cost structure. Taking into consideration the product cost analysis, geokhod components are classified according to their technical and economical production parameters. Moreover the paper outlines the ways of a classification application for a geokhod manufacturing techniques improvement.

  3. Health care cost containment strategies used in four other high-income countries hold lessons for the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stabile, Mark; Thomson, Sarah; Allin, Sara; Boyle, Seán; Busse, Reinhard; Chevreul, Karine; Marchildon, Greg; Mossialos, Elias

    2013-04-01

    Around the world, rising health care costs are claiming a larger share of national budgets. This article reviews strategies developed to contain costs in health systems in Canada, England, France, and Germany in 2000-10. We used a comprehensive analysis of health systems and reforms in each country, compiled by the European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies. These countries rely on a number of budget and price-setting mechanisms to contain health care costs. Our review revealed trends in all four countries toward more use of technology assessments and payment based on diagnosis-related groups and the value of products or services. These policies may result in a more efficient use of health care resources, but we argue that they need to be combined with volume and price controls--measures unlikely to be adopted in the United States--if they are also to meet cost containment goals. PMID:23569043

  4. Accelerating Correlated Quantum Chemistry Calculations Using Graphical Processing Units and a Mixed Precision Matrix Multiplication Library

    OpenAIRE

    Olivares-Amaya, Roberto; Watson, Mark A.; Edgar, Richard G.; Vogt, Leslie Ann; Shao, Yihan; Aspuru-Guzik, Alan

    2010-01-01

    Two new tools for the acceleration of computational chemistry codes using graphical processing units (GPUs) are presented. First, we propose a general black-box approach for the efficient GPU acceleration of matrix−matrix multiplications where the matrix size is too large for the whole computation to be held in the GPU’s onboard memory. Second, we show how to improve the accuracy of matrix multiplications when using only single-precision GPU devices by proposing a heterogeneous computing mode...

  5. CRC DEPLETION CALCULATIONS FOR THE RODDED ASSEMBLIES IN BATCHES 1, 2, 3, AND 1X OF CRYSTAL RIVER UNIT 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenneth D. Wright

    1997-09-03

    The purpose of this design analysis is to document the SAS2H depletion calculations of certain rodded fuel assemblies from batches 1, 2, 3, and 1X of the Crystal River Unit 3 pressurized water reactor (PWR) that are required for Commercial Reactor Critical (CRC) evaluations to support the development of the disposal criticality methodology. A rodded assembly is one that contains a control rod assembly (CRA) or an axial power shaping rod assembly (APSRA) for some period of time during its irradiation history. The objective of this analysis is to provide SAS2H calculated isotopic compositions of depleted fuel and depleted burnable poison for each fuel assembly to be used in subsequent CRC reactivity calculations containing the fuel assemblies.

  6. CRC DEPLETION CALCULATIONS FOR THE RODDED ASSEMBLIES IN BATCHES 1, 2, 3, AND 1X OF CRYSTAL RIVER UNIT 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this design analysis is to document the SAS2H depletion calculations of certain rodded fuel assemblies from batches 1, 2, 3, and 1X of the Crystal River Unit 3 pressurized water reactor (PWR) that are required for Commercial Reactor Critical (CRC) evaluations to support the development of the disposal criticality methodology. A rodded assembly is one that contains a control rod assembly (CRA) or an axial power shaping rod assembly (APSRA) for some period of time during its irradiation history. The objective of this analysis is to provide SAS2H calculated isotopic compositions of depleted fuel and depleted burnable poison for each fuel assembly to be used in subsequent CRC reactivity calculations containing the fuel assemblies

  7. Calculation of transient thermal imbalance within crystal units following exposure to pulse irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study has been made of temperature rises in quartz resonators using a combined photon-electron Monte Carlo transport code. This code was used to compute the energy deposited in resonator materials by pulsed (70 nanoseconds) 10 Me V Bremsstrahlung x-rays and 30 MeV electrons in geometries which model 5 MHz and 125 MHz 5th overtone quarz resonators. In general for the radiation sources considered, and for resonators operating near their frequency vs. temperature turnover point, calculations indicate that thermal shock is a significant factor in causing transient frequency shifts. Frequency shifts in MHz resonators of tenths of parts per million lasting fractions of a second are calculated for resonators exposed to a radiation pulse of 105 rad. (author)

  8. An efficient algorithm for the calculation of reserves for non-unit linked life policies

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Tucker; J. Mark Bull

    2014-01-01

    The underlying stochastic nature of the requirements for the Solvency II regulations has introduced significant challenges if the required calculations are to be performed correctly, without resorting to excessive approximations, within practical timescales. It is generally acknowledged by practising actuaries within UK life offices that it is currently impossible to correctly fulfil the requirements imposed by Solvency II using existing computational techniques based on commercially availabl...

  9. Calculating and analyzing the technical and economic indicators of the TGMP-204 boiler of an 800 megawatt unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larionova, L.; Khoroshilov, A.I.

    1979-01-01

    In 1977, an automated technological process control system for an 800 MWt power unit was introduced into test industrial operation at the Uglegorsk State Regional Electric Power Plant. One of the functions of the system is to calculate and analyze the technical and economic indicators (TEP) of the unit, including the analysis of the TEP of the TGMP-204 boiler. Five algorithms are developed for calculating and analyzing the TEP of the boiler: calculation of the heat production, identification of the gross efficiency, identification of the net efficiency of the boiler, analysis of the operation of the RVP and the exposure of fuel overruns. An algorithm for testing the reliability of the output information, which links the economy with the specific expenditure of fuel, was developed and included in the system in the operational process. It also provides a link with the boiler efficiency and the like. The operational information produced by the automated control system every 15 minutes greatly assists in the operation of the boiler and makes it possible to correct the industrial process in order to achieve more economical operation of the equipment. The information for analyzing the operation of the basic and auxiliary boiler equipment is output every hour and every 8 hours. The indicators of the operation of the power unit as a whole are printed on an alpha-numeric device at intervals of 8 hours, 1 day and a subtotal (two, three and so on days). The output of forms for the administrative personnel and for accounting documentation is provided. The developed algorithms make it possible to determine the economy of operation and the state of the TGMP-204 boiler in a wide range of loads, to evaluate the effectiveness of conducting on-going and major repairs, to increase the operational reliability of the boiler unit and to automate the collection, processing and compilation of accounting documentation.

  10. BIOMASS TO ENERGY IN THE SOUTHERN UNITED STATES: SUPPLY CHAIN AND DELIVERED COST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronalds W. Gonzalez

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Supply chain and delivered cost models for seven feedstocks (loblolly pine, Eucalyptus, natural hardwood, switchgrass, Miscanthus, sweet sorghum, and corn stover were built, simulating a supply of 453,597 dry tons per year to a biorefinery. Delivered cost of forest-based feedstocks ranged from $69 to $71 per dry ton. On the other hand, delivered cost of agricultural biomass ranged from $77.60 to $102.50 per dry ton. The total production area required for fast growing feedstocks was estimated as between 22,500 to 27,000 hectares, while the total production area for feedstocks with lower biomass productivity ranged from 101,200 to 202,300 hectares (corn stover and natural hardwood, respectively. Lower delivered cost per ton of carbohydrate and million BTU were found for loblolly pine, Eucalyptus, and natural hardwood. In addition, agricultural biomass had higher delivered costs for carbohydrate and energy value.

  11. Health care costs before and after diagnosis of depression in patients with unexplained pain: a retrospective cohort study using the United Kingdom General Practice Research Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reed C

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Catherine Reed,1 Jihyung Hong,2 Diego Novick,1 Alan Lenox-Smith,3 Michael Happich41Global Health Outcomes, Eli Lilly and Company, Windlesham, Surrey, UK; 2Personal Social Services Research Unit, London School of Economics and Political Science, London, UK; 3Eli Lilly UK, Basingstoke, UK; 4Eli Lilly and Company, Bad Homburg, GermanyPurpose: To assess the impact of pain severity and time to diagnosis of depression on health care costs for primary care patients with pre-existing unexplained pain symptoms who subsequently received a diagnosis of depression.Patients and methods: This retrospective cohort study analyzed 4000 adults with unexplained pain (defined as painful physical symptoms [PPS] without any probable organic cause and a subsequent diagnosis of depression, identified from the UK General Practice Research Database using diagnostic codes. Patients were categorized into four groups based on pain severity (milder or more severe; based on number of pain-relief medications and use of opioids and time to diagnosis of depression (?1 year or >1 year from PPS index date. Annual health care costs were calculated (2009 values and included general practitioner (GP consultations, secondary care referrals, and prescriptions for pain-relief medications for the 12 months before depression diagnosis and in the subsequent 2 years. Multivariate models of cost included time period as a main independent variable, and adjusted for age, gender, and comorbidities.Results: Total annual health care costs before and after depression diagnosis for the four patient groups were higher for the groups with more severe pain (£819–£988 versus £565–£628; P < 0.001 for all pairwise comparisons and highest for the group with more severe pain and longer time to depression diagnosis in the subsequent 2 years (P < 0.05. Total GP costs were highest in the group with more severe pain and longer time to depression diagnosis both before and after depression diagnosis (P < 0.05. In the second year following depression diagnosis, this group also had the highest secondary care referral costs (P < 0.01. The highest drug costs were in the groups with more severe pain (P < 0.001, although costs within each group were similar before and after depression diagnosis.Conclusion: Among patients with unexplained pain symptoms, significant pain in combination with longer time from pain symptoms to depression diagnosis contribute to higher costs for the UK health care system.Keywords: depression, pain, cost, GPRD, UK

  12. BIOMASS TO ENERGY IN THE SOUTHERN UNITED STATES: SUPPLY CHAIN AND DELIVERED COST

    OpenAIRE

    Ronalds W. Gonzalez; Richard Phillips; Hasan Jameel; Robert Abt; Adrian Pirraglia,; Daniel Saloni,; Jeff Wright

    2011-01-01

    Supply chain and delivered cost models for seven feedstocks (loblolly pine, Eucalyptus, natural hardwood, switchgrass, Miscanthus, sweet sorghum, and corn stover) were built, simulating a supply of 453,597 dry tons per year to a biorefinery. Delivered cost of forest-based feedstocks ranged from $69 to $71 per dry ton. On the other hand, delivered cost of agricultural biomass ranged from $77.60 to $102.50 per dry ton. The total production area required for fast growing feedstocks was estimated...

  13. Monte Carlo method for neutron transport calculations in graphics processing units (GPUs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monte Carlo simulation is well suited for solving the Boltzmann neutron transport equation in an inhomogeneous media for complicated geometries. However, routine applications require the computation time to be reduced to hours and even minutes in a desktop PC. The interest in adopting Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) for Monte Carlo acceleration is rapidly growing. This is due to the massive parallelism provided by the latest GPU technologies which is the most promising solution to the challenge of performing full-size reactor core analysis on a routine basis. In this study, Monte Carlo codes for a fixed-source neutron transport problem were developed for GPU environments in order to evaluate issues associated with computational speedup using GPUs. Results obtained in this work suggest that a speedup of several orders of magnitude is possible using the state-of-the-art GPU technologies. (author)

  14. Monitor unit calculation for radiotherapy treatments using the Monte Carlo method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study aims to develop a methodology to quantify and assess the monitor unit (MU) for a radiotherapy treatment simulation using the Monte Carlo method. For this study was reproduced two standard treatments considering that the patient has low or high risk prostate cancer. In low risk prostate cancer, the Clinical Target Volume (CT V) should be restricted to the prostate only and the Planning Target Volume (PTV) was considered 1 cm beyond the CT V. An additional 0.6 cm margin is added to account for penumbra. In the high risk prostate cancer, we use Whole Pelvic Radiotherapy (WPRT). Here we consider bony landmarks to determine the field size. In both treatments we use 15 MV photons, the four-field box technique and 2 Gy daily fractions. The irradiations were performed using the Siemens Oncor Expression linear accelerator belonging to the service of the Oncological Clinics (COI/R J), modeled and validated using the MCNP code

  15. The Cost of Financial Regulation in The United States of America: A Study of Operational Impact on Banks

    OpenAIRE

    Ngo, Kevin Stefan

    2013-01-01

    The banking system in the United States of American is a critical element of world economy. History has shown that if U.S. banks were left to their own devices the result would be turmoil in the global marketplace. Politicians, businesses, consumers and society as a whole agree that some system of checks and balances in the form of regulation is required to subdue a bank’s profit maximize motivates. This paper examines the relationship between the cost of regulatory compliance ...

  16. Tracking the Sun III; The Installed Cost of Photovoltaics in the United States from 1998-2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbose, Galen; Darghouth, Naim; Wiser, Ryan

    2010-12-13

    Installations of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems have been growing at a rapid pace in recent years. In 2009, approximately 7,500 megawatts (MW) of PV were installed globally, up from approximately 6,000 MW in 2008, consisting primarily of grid-connected applications. With 335 MW of grid-connected PV capacity added in 2009, the United States was the world's fourth largest PV market in 2009, behind Germany, Italy, and Japan. The market for PV in the United States is driven by national, state, and local government incentives, including up-front cash rebates, production-based incentives, requirements that electricity suppliers purchase a certain amount of solar energy, and federal and state tax benefits. These programs are, in part, motivated by the popular appeal of solar energy, and by the positive attributes of PV - modest environmental impacts, avoidance of fuel price risks, coincidence with peak electrical demand, and the possible deployment of PV at the point of use. Given the relatively high cost of PV, however, a key goal of these policies is to encourage cost reductions over time. Therefore, as policy incentives have become more significant and as PV deployment has accelerated, so too has the desire to track the installed cost of PV systems over time, by system characteristics, by system location, and by component. Despite the significant year-on-year growth, however, the share of global and U.S. electricity supply met with PV remains small, and annual PV additions are currently modest in the context of the overall electric system. To address this need, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory initiated a report series focused on describing trends in the installed cost of grid-connected PV systems in the United States. The present report, the third in the series, describes installed cost trends from 1998 through 2009, and provides preliminary cost data for systems installed in 2010. The analysis is based on project-level cost data from approximately 78,000 residential and non-residential PV systems in the U.S., all of which are installed at end-use customer facilities (herein referred to as 'customer-sited' systems). The combined capacity of systems in the data sample totals 874 MW, equal to 70% of all grid-connected PV capacity installed in the United States through 2009 and representing one of the most comprehensive sources of installed PV cost data for the U.S. The report also briefly compares recent PV installed costs in the United States to those in Germany and Japan. Finally, it should be noted that the analysis presented here focuses on descriptive trends in the underlying data, serving primarily to summarize the data in tabular and graphical form; later analysis may explore some of these trends with more-sophisticated statistical techniques. The report begins with a summary of the data collection methodology and resultant dataset (Section 2). The primary findings of the analysis are presented in Section 3, which describes trends in installed costs prior to receipt of any financial incentives: over time and by system size, component, state, system ownership type (customer-owned vs. third party-owned), host customer segment (residential vs. commercial vs. public-sector vs. non-profit), application (new construction vs. retrofit), and technology type (building-integrated vs. rack-mounted, crystalline silicon vs. thin-film, and tracking vs. fixed-axis). Section 4 presents additional findings related to trends in PV incentive levels over time and among states (focusing specifically on state and utility incentive programs as well as state and federal tax credits), and trends in the net installed cost paid by system owners after receipt of such incentives. Brief conclusions are offered in the final section, and several appendices provide additional details on the analysis methodology and additional tabular summaries of the data.

  17. Examining Health Care Costs: Opportunities to Provide Value in the Intensive Care Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Beverly; Lorenzo, Javier; Macario, Alex

    2015-12-01

    As health care costs threaten the economic stability of American society, increasing pressures to focus on value-based health care have led to the development of protocols for fast-track cardiac surgery and for delirium management. Critical care services can be led by anesthesiologists with the goal of improving ICU outcomes and at the same time decreasing the rising cost of ICU medicine. PMID:26610628

  18. En plena crisis económica: coste y efectividad de las unidades de estancia corta hospitalarias Economic crisis: cost and effectiveness of short stay hospital units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Epelde

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento. La duración de la estancia es el principal determinante del coste de una hospitalización, por lo que se deben implementar estrategias para reducir la estancia hospitalaria convencional manteniéndose los niveles de calidad. Las Unidades de Estancia Corta (UEC nacen con el objetivo de disminuir la estancia hospitalaria en un grupo de patologias y pacientes determinados. El objetivo de este original es evaluar la bibliografía existente sobre la evidencia de la disminución del periodo de estancia, eficiencia, reconsultas en los servicios de urgencias, coste-efectividad, y mortalidad de estas unidades. Método. Se realizó una revisión sistemática de las publicaciones que aparecen en la literatura, utilizando los términos MeSH "Observation Unit", "Short-Stay Ward", "Monday to Friday Clinic", "Monaday to Friday Surgery Ward", "Short Stay Hospitalization", "Alternative to Convencional Hospitalization", "Alternative Admissions" en la base de datos MEDLINE, Web of Knowledge y la Cochrane Library desde el 1 de enero de 1960 al 1 de enero del 2012. Los estudios revisados se seleccionaron según la US Preventive Services Task Force Protocol. Resultados. Las UEC permiten en grupos determinados de pacientes, disminuir el periodo de estancia, mantener la eficiencia, no mostrando incrementos de los reingresos por urgencias, ni la mortalidad. Conclusiones. Las UEC pueden ser un instrumento para disminuir el coste del proceso sanitario en un grupo de patologias determinadas.Background. Length of stay is the main determinant of the cost of hospitalization, which is why strategies must be implemented to reduce conventional hospital stays while maintaining quality levels. Short Stay Units (SSU were created with the aim of reducing hospital stays in a certain group of patients and pathologies. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the literature on the evidence of decreased length of stay, efficiency, readmissions in the emergency department, cost-effectiveness, and mortality of these units. Methods. We made a systematic review of the literature, using the MeSH terms "Observation Unit", "Short-Stay Ward", "Monday to Friday Clinic", "Monday to Friday Surgery Ward", "Short Stay Hospitalization", "Alternative to Conventional Hospitalization", "Alternative Admissions" in the MEDLINE database, Web of Knowledge and the Cochrane Library from January 1 1960 to January 1 2012. The studies reviewed were selected according to the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Protocol. Results. The SSU made it possible in certain groups of patients to reduce the period of stay and maintain efficiency, showing no increases in emergency readmissions or mortality. Conclusions. The SSU can be an instrument to reduce the cost of the health process in a certain group of pathologies.

  19. Surface heating uniformity calculations of the silicon wafers in the chamber of the rapid thermal treatment unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calculations were made of the heating uniformity of the silicon wafers area – wise in the chamber of the rapid thermal treatment unit. It has been shown, that the temperature deviation from the average value does not depend on the time parameter and is uniform both at the start and at the end of the rapid thermal treatment by means of the light pulses of a second duration, coinciding with the un-uniformity of the light flow as per the area of a wafer. (authors)

  20. Length of stay and cost analysis of neonates undergoing surgery at a tertiary neonatal unit in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, S; Kennea, N; Desai, P; Giuliani, S; Richards, J

    2016-01-01

    Introduction There is a lack of knowledge on the average length of stay (LOS) in neonatal units after surgical repair of common congenital anomalies. There are few if any publications reporting the activity performed by units undertaking neonatal surgery. Such activity is important for contracting arrangements, commissioning specialist services and counselling parents. The aim of this study was to describe postnatal LOS for infants admitted to a single tertiary referral neonatal unit with congenital malformations requiring surgery. Methods Data on nine conditions were collected prospectively for babies on the neonatal unit over a five-year period (2006-2011). For those transferred back to their local unit following surgery, the local unit was contacted to determine the total LOS. Only those babies who had surgery during their first admission to our unit and who survived to discharge were included in the study. Cost estimates were based on the tariffs agreed for neonatal care between our trust and the London specialised commissioning group in 2011-2012. Results The median LOS for the conditions studied was: gastroschisis 35 days (range: 19-154 days), oesophageal atresia 33 days (range: 9-133 days), congenital diaphragmatic hernia 28 days (range: 7-99 days), intestinal atresia 24 days (range: 6-168 days), Hirschsprung's disease 21 days (range: 15-36 days), sacrococcygeal teratoma 17 days (range: 12-55 days), myelomeningocoele 15.5 days (range: 8-24 days), anorectal malformation 15 days (range: 6-90 days) and exomphalos 12 days (range: 3-228 days). The total neonatal bed day costs for the median LOS ranged from £8,701 (myelomeningocoele) to £23,874 (gastroschisis). The cost of surgery was not included. Conclusions There is wide variation in LOS for the same conditions in a single neonatal unit. This can be explained by different types and severity within the same congenital anomalies, different surgeons and other clinical confounders (eg sepsis, surgical complications, associated anomalies). These data will enable us to give more detailed information to families following prenatal or postnatal diagnosis. They also allow more detailed planning of resource allocation for neonatal admissions. PMID:26688402

  1. Control engineering and water-side control in one unit. Less complaints and lower maintenance cost; Regeltechniek en waterzijdig inregelen in een unit. Minder klachten en lagere onderhoudskosten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huisman, P.J.; Edes, R.J. [Tour and Andersson, Alphen a/d Rijn (Netherlands)

    2008-05-15

    The TA-HUB (Tour and Anderson - Hydronic User-friendly Balancing) joins advanced control engineering and water-side control in one unit. As a result of this combination, the operation and flexibility of the installation improves. By applying adjustable modulating post regulation and a pressure difference regulator, the control engineering functions according to expectations and the installation can function at minimal energy cost. [mk]. [Dutch] De TA-HUB (Tour and Anderson - Hydronic User-friendly Balancing) brengt geavanceerde regeltechniek en waterzijdig inregelen samen in 1 unit. Met deze combinatie verbetert de werking en de flexibiliteit van de installatie. Door instelbare, modulerende naregelingen en een drukverschilregelaar toe te passen, functioneert de regeltechniek volgens verwachting en kan de installatie tegen minimale energiekosten functioneren.

  2. CRC DEPLETION CALCULATIONS FOR THE NON-RODDED ASSEMBLIES IN BATCHES 1, 2, AND 3 OF CRYSTAL RIVER UNIT 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenneth D. Wright

    1997-07-29

    The purpose of this design analysis is to document the SAS2H depletion calculations of certain non-rodded fuel assemblies from batches 1, 2, and 3 of the Crystal River Unit 3 pressurized water reactor (PWR) that are required for Commercial Reactor Critical (CRC) evaluations to support development of the disposal criticality methodology. A non-rodded assembly is one which never contains a control rod assembly (CRA) or an axial power shaping rod assembly (APSRA) during its irradiation history. The objective of this analysis is to provide SAS2H generated isotopic compositions for each fuel assembly's depleted fuel and depleted burnable poison materials. These SAS2H generated isotopic compositions are acceptable for use in CRC benchmark reactivity calculations containing the various fuel assemblies.

  3. CRC DEPLETION CALCULATIONS FOR THE NON-RODDED ASSEMBLIES IN BATCHES 8 AND 9 CRYSTAL RIVER UNIT 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael L. Wilson

    2001-02-08

    The purpose of this design analysis is to document the SAS2H depletion calculations of certain non-rodded fuel assemblies from batches 8 and 9 of the Crystal River Unit 3 pressurized water reactor (PWR) that are required for Commercial Reactor Critical (CRC) evaluations to support the development of the disposal criticality methodology. A non-rodded assembly is one which never contains a control rod assembly (CRA) or an axial power shaping rod assembly (APSRA) during its irradiation history. The objective of this analysis is to provide SAS2H generated isotopic compositions for each fuel assembly's depleted fuel and depleted burnable poison materials. These SAS2H generated isotopic compositions are acceptable for use in CRC benchmark reactivity calculations containing the various fuel assemblies.

  4. CRC DEPLETION CALCULATIONS FOR THE NON-RODDED ASSEMBLIES IN BATCHES 4 AND 5 OF CRYSTAL RIVER UNIT 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this design analysis is to document the SAS2H depletion calculations of certain non-rodded fuel assemblies from batches 4 and 5 of the Crystal River Unit 3 pressurized water reactor (PWR) that are required for commercial Reactor Critical (CRC) evaluations to support the development of the disposal criticality methodology. A non-rodded assembly is one which never contains a control rod assembly (CRA) or an axial power shaping rod assembly (APSRA) during its irradiation history. The objective of this analysis is to provide SAS2H generated isotopic compositions for each fuel assembly's depleted fuel and depleted burnable poison materials. These SAS2H generated isotopic compositions are acceptable for use in CRC benchmark reactivity calculations containing the various fuel assemblies

  5. CRC DEPLETION CALCULATIONS FOR THE NON-RODDED ASSEMBLIES IN BATCHES 1, 2, AND 3 OF CRYSTAL RIVER UNIT 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this design analysis is to document the SAS2H depletion calculations of certain non-rodded fuel assemblies from batches 1, 2, and 3 of the Crystal River Unit 3 pressurized water reactor (PWR) that are required for Commercial Reactor Critical (CRC) evaluations to support development of the disposal criticality methodology. A non-rodded assembly is one which never contains a control rod assembly (CRA) or an axial power shaping rod assembly (APSRA) during its irradiation history. The objective of this analysis is to provide SAS2H generated isotopic compositions for each fuel assembly's depleted fuel and depleted burnable poison materials. These SAS2H generated isotopic compositions are acceptable for use in CRC benchmark reactivity calculations containing the various fuel assemblies

  6. CRC DEPLETION CALCULATIONS FOR THE NON-RODDED ASSEMBLIES IN BATCHES 8 AND 9 CRYSTAL RIVER UNIT 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this design analysis is to document the SAS2H depletion calculations of certain non-rodded fuel assemblies from batches 8 and 9 of the Crystal River Unit 3 pressurized water reactor (PWR) that are required for Commercial Reactor Critical (CRC) evaluations to support the development of the disposal criticality methodology. A non-rodded assembly is one which never contains a control rod assembly (CRA) or an axial power shaping rod assembly (APSRA) during its irradiation history. The objective of this analysis is to provide SAS2H generated isotopic compositions for each fuel assembly's depleted fuel and depleted burnable poison materials. These SAS2H generated isotopic compositions are acceptable for use in CRC benchmark reactivity calculations containing the various fuel assemblies

  7. Water use for electricity in the United States: an analysis of reported and calculated water use information for 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Water use by the electricity sector represents a significant portion of the United States water budget (41% of total freshwater withdrawals; 3% consumed). Sustainable management of water resources necessitates an accurate accounting of all water demands, including water use for generation of electricity. Since 1985, the Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Information Administration (EIA) has collected self-reported data on water consumption and withdrawals from individual power generators. These data represent the only annual collection of water consumption and withdrawals by the electricity sector. Here, we compile publically available information into a comprehensive database and then calculate water withdrawals and consumptive use for power plants in the US. In effect, we evaluate the quality of water use data reported by EIA for the year 2008. Significant differences between reported and calculated water data are evident, yet no consistent reason for the discrepancies emerges. (letter)

  8. Total elbow arthroplasty in the United States: evaluation of cost, patient demographics, and complication rates

    OpenAIRE

    Hanbing Zhou; Orvets, Nathan D.; Gabriel Merlin; Joshua Shaw; Joshua S. Dines; Price, Mark D.; Eichinger, Josef K.; Xinning Li

    2016-01-01

    Total elbow arthroplasty (TEA) is utilized in the treatment of rheumatoid and post-traumatic elbow arthritis. TEA is a relatively low volume surgery in comparison to other types of arthroplasty and therefore little is known about current surgical utilization, patient demographics and complication rates in the United States. The purpose of our study is to evaluate the current practice trends and associated inpatient complications of TEA at academic centers in the United States. We queried the ...

  9. Calculation of resonance reaction rates for the Ghana Research Reactor-1 fuel lattice unit cell using the WIMS lattice code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resonance reaction rates for different nuclear reactions (absorption, fission, fission yield) have been calculated at room temperature(2930 K) for six different resonance absorbers or isotopes U234,U235,U238, Pu239, Pu240 and Pu241 of the fuel lattices cell of the Ghana Research Reactor-1 facility using WIMSPC, the PC version of the versatile WIMSD/4 transport lattice code written in FORTRAN and designed for performing reactor physics lattice cell calculations. The calculations were performed in the full 69-energy group library structure of the WIMS code and presented in a condensed 4-energy few group structure. The Ludwig Boltzmann multigroup neutron transport equation was solved for this exercise using the discrete ordinate spatial model (DSN) which provides solution to the differential form of the transport equation by the Carlson-Sn. The reaction rates were computed for all the different lattice cell materials in the five-region fuel lattice cell and also for the sixty-five lattice mesh points selected for the unit cell analysis. The corresponding actual events or nuclear reactions occurring in each cell material have also been calculated for each resonance absorber (author)

  10. Social cost of CO2 abatement from energy efficiency and solar power in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frequently cited empirical analysis ask whether we should make the transition from reliance on fossil fuels to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and conclude that the transition is too costly so we should, instead, focus policy on how to adapt to global warming. This paper makes two improvements in the analysis. First, this empirical analysis accounts for existing low-cost alternatives that are substitutes for fossil fuels. Second, this empirical analysis incorporates existing estimates of externalities from fossil fuels. These two basic improvements in the analysis alter the conclusion; policy should focus on how rapidly and extensively to make the transition from reliance on fossil fuels to the alternatives. The corollary is that we should focus on the efficacy and cost of policy options that are designed to accomplish the transition. 4 tabs., 1 app., 45 refs

  11. The Impact of Food Inflation on Urban Poverty and Its Monetary Cost : Some Back-of-the-Envelope Calculations

    OpenAIRE

    Dessus, Sébastien; Santiago HERRERA; De Hoyos, Rafael

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses a sample of 73 developing countries to estimate the change in the cost of alleviating urban poverty brought about by the recent increase in food prices. This cost is approximated by the change in the poverty deficit, that is, the variation in financial resources required to eliminate poverty under perfect targeting. The results show that, for most countries, the cost repres...

  12. Cost and benefit including value of life, health and environmental damage measured in time units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager; Friis-Hansen, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Key elements of the authors' work on money equivalent time allocation to costs and benefits in risk analysis are put together as an entity. This includes the data supported dimensionless analysis of an equilibrium relation between total population work time and gross domestic product leading to the...

  13. An unit cost adjusting heuristic algorithm for the integrated planning and scheduling of a two-stage supply chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhua Wang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The stable relationship of one-supplier-one-customer is replaced by a dynamic relationship of multi-supplier-multi-customer in current market gradually, and efficient scheduling techniques are important tools of the dynamic supply chain relationship establishing process. This paper studies the optimization of the integrated planning and scheduling problem of a two-stage supply chain with multiple manufacturers and multiple retailers to obtain a minimum supply chain operating cost, whose manufacturers have different production capacities, holding and producing cost rates, transportation costs to retailers.Design/methodology/approach: As a complex task allocation and scheduling problem, this paper sets up an INLP model for it and designs a Unit Cost Adjusting (UCA heuristic algorithm that adjust the suppliers’ supplying quantity according to their unit costs step by step to solve the model.Findings: Relying on the contrasting analysis between the UCA and the Lingo solvers for optimizing many numerical experiments, results show that the INLP model and the UCA algorithm can obtain its near optimal solution of the two-stage supply chain’s planning and scheduling problem within very short CPU time.Research limitations/implications: The proposed UCA heuristic can easily help managers to optimizing the two-stage supply chain scheduling problems which doesn’t include the delivery time and batch of orders. For two-stage supply chains are the most common form of actual commercial relationships, so to make some modification and study on the UCA heuristic should be able to optimize the integrated planning and scheduling problems of a supply chain with more reality constraints.Originality/value: This research proposes an innovative UCA heuristic for optimizing the integrated planning and scheduling problem of two-stage supply chains with the constraints of suppliers’ production capacity and the orders’ delivering time, and has a great practical significance to the dynamic relationship establishment of multi-supplier-multi-customer in current market.

  14. Using the WIMS-DIREN bigroup and multigroup methodology for Cernavoda Unit 1 and Unit 2 adjuster rods comparative reactivity calculations at Phase B commissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the most important CANDU reactor regulation system is the Adjuster Rods System (ADJ). The individual and bank calibration and performance evaluation of this system is carried out during the Phase B commissioning. The ADJ rods are grouped into seven banks based on full power reactivity control requirements. The Cernavoda Unit 2 adjuster rods characteristics were designed more than twenty years ago at INR Pitesti in the end of a fruitful collaboration between INR Pitesti (as designer) and Bristol Aerospace Limited (as manufacturer). In 1996, during the Phase B commissioning tests only AECL diffusion and Westcott approximation methodology was used. An alternative integral transport and high-modes diffusion approximation methodology was developed in INR Pitesti during the last years. As a result, the first collision probability code PIJXYZ was created and developed to carry out the supercell calculations as well as the code DIREN for 3D diffusion-based core simulations. The aim of this work was to evaluate comparatively the two adjuster rods systems (from Unit 1 and 2) in commissioning conditions. The concrete results will consist of individual, bank and total adjuster rods reactivity estimations with an emphasis on the differences and similarities between them. (authors)

  15. Consumption and Response Output as a Function of Unit Price: Manipulation of Cost and Benefit Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delmendo, Xeres; Borrero, John C.; Beauchamp, Kenneth L.; Francisco, Monica T.

    2009-01-01

    We conducted preference assessments with 4 typically developing children to identify potential reinforcers and assessed the reinforcing efficacy of those stimuli. Next, we tested two predictions of economic theory: that overall consumption (reinforcers obtained) would decrease as the unit price (response requirement per reinforcer) increased and…

  16. On exergy costing in exergoeconomics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Existing methods of the exergoeconomic analysis and optimization of energy systems operate with single average or marginal cost values per exergy unit for each material stream in the system being considered. These costs do not contain detailed information on (a) how much exergy, and (b) at what cost the exergy was supplied in each of the previous process steps. The cost of supplying the same exergy form, however, might vary significantly from one step to the other. Knowledge of the exergy addition and the corresponding cost at each previous step can be used to improve the costing process. This paper presents a new approach to exergy costing in exergoeconomics. The monetary flow rate associated with the thermal, mechanical and chemical exergy of a material stream at a given state is calculated by considering the complete previous history of supplying and removing units of the corresponding exergy form to and from the stream being considered. When exergy is supplied to a stream, the cost of adding each exergy unit to the stream is calculated using the cost of product exergy unit for the process or device in which the exergy addition occurs. When exergy is supplied to a stream, the cost of adding each exergy unit to the stream is calculated using the cost of product exergy unit for the process or device in which the exergy addition occurs the stream being considered supplies exergy to another exergy carrier, the last-in-first-out principle of accounting is used for the spent exergy units to calculate the cost of exergy supply to the carrier

  17. QUABOX/CUBBOX Code Validation For The Calculations Of The Ignalina NPP 1 Unit Reactor Core Composition Changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At present, at the Ignalina NPP the process of a wider use of the new uranium-erbium fuel is going on. The loading process of the new uranium-erbium fuel assemblies into the reactor cores is accompanied by experiments and analytical investigation of the behaviour of the main neutron-physical characteristics of the reactors. The article presents the results of independent calculations of different core states of the reactor of the 1 unit of the Ignalina NPP, obtained using the German code QUABOX/CUBBOX. Ale data are compared with the results of similar calculations performed using the codes SADCO and STEPAN, as well as with experimental data. This is one of the further steps in the process of validation of the code QUABOX/CUBBOX. This article is a continuation of the discussion of the results of calculations performed in the process of verification of the German code QUABOX/CUBBOX for the modeling of the processes taking place in RBMK-1500 reactors. (author)

  18. Cost of Power Interruptions to Electricity Consumers in the UnitedStates (U.S.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamachi LaCommare, Kristina; Eto, Joseph H.

    2006-02-16

    The massive electric power blackout in the northeastern U.S.and Canada on August 14-15, 2003 catalyzed discussions about modernizingthe U.S. electricity grid. Industry sources suggested that investments of$50 to $100 billion would be needed. This work seeks to better understandan important piece of information that has been missing from thesediscussions: What do power interruptions and fluctuations in powerquality (power-quality events) cost electricity consumers? We developed abottom-up approach for assessing the cost to U.S. electricity consumersof power interruptions and power-quality events (referred to collectivelyas "reliability events"). The approach can be used to help assess thepotential benefits of investments in improving the reliability of thegrid. We developed a new estimate based on publicly availableinformation, and assessed how uncertainties in these data affect thisestimate using sensitivity analysis.

  19. Cost of Power Interruptions to Electricity Consumers in the United States (U.S.)

    OpenAIRE

    Hamachi LaCommare, Kristina; Eto, Joseph H.

    2006-01-01

    The massive electric power blackout in the northeastern U.S. and Canada on August 14-15, 2003 catalyzed discussions about modernizing the U.S. electricity grid. Industry sources suggested that investments of $50 to $100 billion would be needed. This work seeks to better understand an important piece of information that has been missing from these discussions: What do power interruptions and fluctuations in power quality (power-quality events) cost electricity consumers? We developed a bo...

  20. The included benefits during the units shutdowns: a new approach of costs reduction and shutdowns control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The economical context of a nuclear power plant operation encourages the operators to improve the productivity by reducing the maintenance costs as they increase the safety, the reliability and the quality. Two examples are given: the nuclear power plant of Cattenom where the financial gain was 8%, and the nuclear power plant of Nogent during the operation of the tank cover replacement where the dosimetry has been reduced by 15%. (N.C.)

  1. Unit costs for delivery of antiretroviral treatment and prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV: a systematic review for low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galárraga, Omar; Wirtz, Veronika J; Figueroa-Lara, Alejandro; Santa-Ana-Tellez, Yared; Coulibaly, Ibrahima; Viisainen, Kirsi; Medina-Lara, Antonieta; Korenromp, Eline L

    2011-07-01

    As antiretroviral treatment (ART) for HIV/AIDS is scaled up globally, information on per-person costs is critical to improve efficiency in service delivery and to maximize coverage and health impact. The objective of this study was to review studies on unit costs for delivery of adult and paediatric ART per patient-year, and prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) interventions per mother-infant pair screened or treated, in low- and middle-income countries. A systematic review was conducted of English, French and Spanish publications from 2001 to 2009, reporting empirical costing that accounted for at least antiretroviral (ARV) medicines, laboratory testing and personnel. Expenditures were analysed by country-income level and cost component. All costs were standardized to $US, year 2009 values. Several sensitivity analyses were conducted. Analyses covered 29 eligible, comprehensive, costing studies. In the base case, in low-income countries (LIC), median ART cost per patient-year was $US792 (mean: 839, range: 682-1089); for lower-middle-income countries (LMIC), the median was $US932 (mean: 1246, range: 156-3904); and, for upper-middle-income countries (UMIC), the median was $US1454 (mean: 2783, range: 1230-5667). ARV drugs were the largest component of overall ART costs in all settings (64%, 50% and 47% in LIC, LMIC and UMIC, respectively). Of 26 ART studies, 14 reported the drug regimes used, and only one study explicitly reported second-line treatment costs. The second cost driver was laboratory cost in LIC and LMIC (14% and 20%), and personnel costs in UMIC (26%). Two ART studies specified the types of laboratory tests costed, and three studies specifically included above facility-level personnel costs. Three studies reported detailed PMTCT costs, and three studies reported on paediatric ART. There is a paucity of data on the full unit costs for delivery of ART and PMTCT, particularly for LIC and middle-income countries. Heterogeneity in activities costed, and insufficient detail regarding components included in the costing, hampers standardization of unit cost measures. Evaluation of programme-level unit costs would benefit from international guidance on standardized costing methods, and expenditure categories and definitions. Future work should help elucidate the sources of the large variations in delivery unit costs across settings with similar income and epidemiological characteristics. PMID:21671687

  2. Quality and Cost of Diabetes Mellitus Care in Community Health Centers in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Patrick; Shin, Peter; Beeson, Tishra; Burke, Laura S.; Wood, Susan F.; Rosenbaum, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine variations in the quality and cost of care provided to patients with diabetes mellitus by Community Health Centers (CHCs) compared to other primary care settings. Research Design and Methods We used data from the 2005–2008 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (N = 2,108). We used two dependent variables: quality of care and ambulatory care expenditures. Our primary independent variable was whether the respondent received care in a Community Health Centers (CHCs) or not. We estimated logistic regression models to determine the probability of quality of care, and used generalized linear models with log link and gamma distribution to predict expenditures for CHC users compared to non-users of CHCs, conditional on patients with positive expenditures. Results Results showed that variations of quality between CHC users and non-CHC users were not statistically significant. Patients with diabetes mellitus who used CHCs saved payers and individuals approximately $1,656 in ambulatory care costs compared to non-users of CHCs. Conclusions These findings suggest an opportunity for policymakers to control costs for diabetes mellitus patients without having a negative impact on quality of care. PMID:26636324

  3. Formulas for estimating the costs averted by sexually transmitted infection (STI prevention programs in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koski Kathryn

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sexually transmitted infection (STI prevention programs can mitigate the health and economic burden of STIs. A tool to estimate the economic benefits of STI programs could prove useful to STI program personnel. Methods We developed formulas that can be applied to estimate the direct medical costs and indirect costs (lost productivity averted by STI programs in the United States. Costs and probabilities for these formulas were based primarily on published studies. Results We present a series of formulas that can be used to estimate the economic benefits of STI prevention (in 2006 US dollars, using data routinely collected by STI programs. For example, the averted sequelae costs associated with treating women for chlamydia is given as (Cw(0.16(0.925(0.70($1,995, where Cw is the number of infected women treated for chlamydia, 0.16 is the absolute reduction in the probability of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID as a result of treatment, 0.925 is an adjustment factor to prevent double-counting of PID averted in women with both chlamydia and gonorrhea, 0.70 is an adjustment factor to account for the possibility of re-infection, and $1,995 is the average cost per case of PID, based on published sources. Conclusion The formulas developed in this study can be a useful tool for STI program personnel to generate evidence-based estimates of the economic impact of their program and can facilitate the assessment of the cost-effectiveness of their activities.

  4. Feasibility Analysis of Low Cost Graphical Processing Units for Electromagnetic Field Simulations by Finite Difference Time Domain Method

    CERN Document Server

    Choudhari, A V; Gupta, M R

    2013-01-01

    Among several techniques available for solving Computational Electromagnetics (CEM) problems, the Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method is one of the best suited approaches when a parallelized hardware platform is used. In this paper we investigate the feasibility of implementing the FDTD method using the NVIDIA GT 520, a low cost Graphical Processing Unit (GPU), for solving the differential form of Maxwell's equation in time domain. Initially a generalized benchmarking problem of bandwidth test and another benchmarking problem of 'matrix left division is discussed for understanding the correlation between the problem size and the performance on the CPU and the GPU respectively. This is further followed by the discussion of the FDTD method, again implemented on both, the CPU and the GT520 GPU. For both of the above comparisons, the CPU used is Intel E5300, a low cost dual core CPU.

  5. Creating a Multi-Dimensional Model for Analyzing Costs in a Health Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu LIXANDROIU

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to develop a model based on existing historical financial data in a health unit, with a view to facilitating the decision-maker’s task, who, starting from the analysis of historical data, can better manage the present decisions. Also the publication of reports on the Internet of the use of public money can increase the transparency of the public institutions concerned.

  6. An independent monitor unit calculation by commercial software as a part of a radiotherapy treatment planning system quality control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the independent calculation of the monitored unit (MU) the commercial software RadCalc (Lifeline Software Inc., Tyler TX) was used as the choice of some available similar programs. The program was configured and used to verify the doses calculated by commercially accessible planning system Eclipse version 8.6.17 (Varian Medical System Inc., Palo Alto). This system is being used during the clinical running for the creation of the treatment plans. The results of each plan were compared to the dose phantom measurements by the ionization chamber at the same point in which the calculation were done (Eclipse, RadCalc) - in the izocentre. TPS is configured by the beam data (PDD and OAR). Those beam data were exported and afterwards the same data were imported to the program RadCalc. The consistent and independent data between TPS and RadCalc were gained by this process. The reference conditions were set the identical in RadCalc as in TPS, so the consistency between TPS and RadCalc output factors has been achieved (Collimator Scatter Factor: Sc, Phantom Scatter Factor: Sp). Those output factors were also measured by the ionizing chamber in the water phantom and compared with the TPS. Based on the clinical data of the response to the doses, ICRU recommends ensuring the ability of dosimetric systems to deliver the doses with accuracy of at least 5%. Many factors, such as layout of anatomic structures, positioning of a patient, factors related to an accelerator (a dose calibration and mechanic parameters) cause random and systematic failures in a dose delivery. The source of some problems can be also caused by the system databases and relating information transfer; and the TPS containing besides other things other dose calculation algorithms. (authors)

  7. Coverage Range and Cost Comparison of Remote Antenna Unit Designs for In-building Radio over Fiber Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razali Ngah

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Future communication needs to be ubiquitous, broadband, convergent, and seamless. Radio over fiber (RoF technology is one of the most important enabler in access network for the technologies. Adoption of RoF faces bottleneck in optoelectronics, that they are still expensive, high power consumption, and limited in bandwidth. To solve the problem, transceiver in remote antenna unit (RAU is developed, i.e. electroabsorption transceiver (EAT and asymmetric Fabry-Perot modulator (AFPM. This paper compares their coverage range and cost in providing WCDMA and WLAN services. Needed gain of RF amplifier for supporting picocell is also discussed.

  8. Internalizing social costs in power plant siting: some examples for coal and nuclear plants in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selected aspects of the United States experience in one particular type of energy development project, the siting of nuclear and fossil fueled power generating facilities, are examined in terms of how well community-level impacts are internalized. New institutional arrangements being devised and new requirements being made at local, state, regional, and federal levels in response to these dissociations of cost and benefits from large energy development projects are discussed. Selected examples of these new institutional responses are analyzed for adequacy and significance

  9. Suitable methods for calculating the costs for the back-end of the nuclear fuel-cycle; Laempliga metoder foer att beraekna kostnaderna foer kaernkraftens slutsteg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malmnaes, P.E.; Thorbioernson, Johan [Alkestis AB (Sweden)

    2000-06-15

    The present report is devoted to a discussion of what kind of cost calculations the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate should demand from the owners of the Swedish nuclear power plants in order to make a proposal to the Swedish government on a suitable annual fee and a suitable supplementary amount for contingency allowance to cover the future costs of decommissioning the power plants and disposing of the waste. The report was commissioned by the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI) because SKI wanted an independent review of the probabilistic method for cost calculations used by the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co (SKB) since 1996. This method was introduced as a response to some changes of the Swedish legal system regulating the financing of the future costs of decommissioning the nuclear power plants and disposing of the waste. The most important change was that the annual fee paid by the reactor owners should only cover the costs of a certain basic scenario and that the annual fee should be supplemented by a suitable guarantee to cover the occurrence of cost driving unforeseen events. The method used by SKB has been considered feasible for determining a suitable annual fee and suitable guarantees by SKI but SKI has also asked for more information on important matters such as the bases for various calculations and the rationale behind certain probability distributions assumed. The point of departure for the review performed by Alkestis Co is that the basic material employed for the cost calculations should meet a high standard and that the logical and mathematical arguments leading from the basic material to proposals of a certain annual fee and certain amount of guarantees must be transparent. Chapter 1 and appendix A mainly consist of material collected to enable a non-specialist to follow the account in the following sections. However, chapter 1 also contains a general discussion on suitable approaches to handle the problem of calculating the annual fee and the various guarantees. The conclusion reached there is that already quite general considerations cast some doubts on the suitability of using a probabilistic approach in this context. Chapter 2 in conjunction with appendices C and D is devoted to a detailed examination of the method used by SKB to calculate the annual fee and the various guarantees. The conclusion reached there is that both the method itself as well as the present application made of it can be challenged. Hence the introduction of an alternative approach to cost calculations should be considered. A first attempt to provide an alternative approach is therefore presented in chapter 3.

  10. Utility-Scale Solar 2014. An Empirical Analysis of Project Cost, Performance, and Pricing Trends in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolinger, Mark [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Seel, Joachim [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Other than the nine Solar Energy Generation Systems (“SEGS”) parabolic trough projects built in the 1980s, virtually no large-scale or “utility-scale” solar projects – defined here to include any groundmounted photovoltaic (“PV”), concentrating photovoltaic (“CPV”), or concentrating solar thermal power (“CSP”) project larger than 5 MWAC – existed in the United States prior to 2007. By 2012 – just five years later – utility-scale had become the largest sector of the overall PV market in the United States, a distinction that was repeated in both 2013 and 2014 and that is expected to continue for at least the next few years. Over this same short period, CSP also experienced a bit of a renaissance in the United States, with a number of large new parabolic trough and power tower systems – some including thermal storage – achieving commercial operation. With this critical mass of new utility-scale projects now online and in some cases having operated for a number of years (generating not only electricity, but also empirical data that can be mined), the rapidly growing utility-scale sector is ripe for analysis. This report, the third edition in an ongoing annual series, meets this need through in-depth, annually updated, data-driven analysis of not just installed project costs or prices – i.e., the traditional realm of solar economics analyses – but also operating costs, capacity factors, and power purchase agreement (“PPA”) prices from a large sample of utility-scale solar projects in the United States. Given its current dominance in the market, utility-scale PV also dominates much of this report, though data from CPV and CSP projects are presented where appropriate.

  11. Correlations between calculated surveillance dosimeter activities and pressure vessel fluxes in the Arkansas Nuclear One Unit 1 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An illustration of the magnitudes of the cross-correlations between cavity dosimetry and fluxes at an important location in the pressure vessel is given for the case of the Arkansas Nuclear One Unit 1 reactor and provides a correspondence with previously reported flux covariance reduction factors. These correlations are seen to extend over energy regions far wider than would be intuitively expected because of the highly correlated nature of the calculated pressure vessel fluxes themselves, thus enhancing the range of pressure vessel flux information that is provided by the dosimetry. Finally, the high degree of correlation between the cavity dosimeters and pressure vessel fluxes shows that ex-vessel dosimetry can be successfully applied to reactor pressure vessel damage surveillance programs

  12. Mapping water availability, projected use and cost in the western United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New demands for water can be satisfied through a variety of source options. In some basins surface and/or groundwater may be available through permitting with the state water management agency (termed unappropriated water), alternatively water might be purchased and transferred out of its current use to another (termed appropriated water), or non-traditional water sources can be captured and treated (e.g., wastewater). The relative availability and cost of each source are key factors in the development decision. Unfortunately, these measures are location dependent with no consistent or comparable set of data available for evaluating competing water sources. With the help of western water managers, water availability was mapped for over 1200 watersheds throughout the western US. Five water sources were individually examined, including unappropriated surface water, unappropriated groundwater, appropriated water, municipal wastewater and brackish groundwater. Also mapped was projected change in consumptive water use from 2010 to 2030. Associated costs to acquire, convey and treat the water, as necessary, for each of the five sources were estimated. These metrics were developed to support regional water planning and policy analysis with initial application to electric transmission planning in the western US. (papers)

  13. Cost effective modular unit for cleaning oil and gas field waste water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zinberg, M.B.; Nenasheva, M.N.; Gafarov, N.A.

    1996-12-31

    Problems of environmental control involving conservation of water resources are vital for the development of giant oil and gas condensate fields near Caspian Sea (Russia) characterized by water shortages. One of the urgent tasks of oil production industry is to use all field waste water consisting of underground, processing and rain water. It was necessary to construct a new highly effective equipment which could be used in local waste water treatment. Now we have at our disposal a technology and equipment to meet the requirements to the treated water quality. Thus we have installed a modular unit of 100 m{sup 3}/a day capacity to clean waste water from oil products, suspended matter and other organic pollutants at Orenburg oil and gas condensate field, Russia. The unit provides with a full treatment of produced water and comprises a settling tank with adhesive facility, the number of sorption filters, Trofactor bioreactors and a disinfecting facility. The equipment is fitted into three boxes measuring 9 x 3.2 x 2.7 in each. The equipment is simple in design that enables to save money, time and space. Sorption filters, bioreactors as well as the Trofactor process are a part of know-how. While working on the unit construction we applied well known methods of settling and sorption. The process of mechanic cleaning is undergoing in the following succession: (1) the gravitational separation in a settling tank where the floated film oil products are constantly gathered and the sediment is periodically taken away, (2) the settled water treatment in sorption Filters of a special kind.

  14. Analysis of calculation methodologies of electric power deficit cost; Analise das metodologias de calculo do custo do deficit de energia eletrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira Junior, Amaro Olimpio; David, Pedro A.M-S.; Spera, Marilia Ribeiro [Empresa de Pesquisa Energetica (EPE), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Diretoria de Estudos de Energia Eletrica. Superintendencia de Planejamento de Geracao

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents a methodology review of electric power deficit cost calculation, which is a fundamental parameter for planning of operation and expansion of a hydrothermal system, in a way to contribute with compatibilizing in procedures of planning and operation, and of methodological improvement as well.

  15. MpUL-multi: Software for Calculation of Amyloid Fibril Mass per Unit Length from TB-TEM Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iadanza, Matthew G; Jackson, Matthew P; Radford, Sheena E; Ranson, Neil A

    2016-01-01

    Structure determination for amyloid fibrils presents many challenges due to the high variability exhibited by fibrils and heterogeneous morphologies present, even in single samples. Mass per unit length (MPL) estimates can be used to differentiate amyloid fibril morphologies and provide orthogonal evidence for helical symmetry parameters determined by other methods. In addition, MPL data can provide insight on the arrangement of subunits in a fibril, especially for more complex fibrils assembled with multiple parallel copies of the asymmetric unit or multiple twisted protofilaments. By detecting only scattered electrons, which serve as a relative measure of total scattering, and therefore protein mass, dark field imaging gives an approximation of the total mass of protein present in any given length of fibril. When compared with a standard of known MPL, such as Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV), MPL of the fibrils in question can be determined. The program suite MpUL-multi was written for rapid semi-automated processing of TB-TEM dark field data acquired using this method. A graphical user interface allows for simple designation of fibrils and standards. A second program averages intensities from multiple TMV molecules for accurate standard determination, makes multiple measurements along a given fibril, and calculates the MPL. PMID:26867957

  16. Methods for Calculating Salary and Fringe Benefit Cost Comparisons, 1985-86 to 1994-95. A Revision of the Commission's 1977 Methodology for Preparing Its Annual Reports on Faculty and Administrative Salaries and Fringe Benefit Costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Postsecondary Education Commission, Sacramento.

    A revised methodology for calculating faculty salary and fringe benefit cost comparisons for California public higher education for 1985-1986 to 1994-1995 is discussed. The history of the California Postsecondary Education Commission's salary reports and the work of its Technical Advisory Committee is also traced. The following aspects of the…

  17. A Low-Cost Energy-Efficient Cableless Geophone Unit for Passive Surface Wave Surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaoshan Dai

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The passive surface wave survey is a practical, non-invasive seismic exploration method that has increasingly been used in geotechnical engineering. However, in situ deployment of traditional wired geophones is labor intensive for a dense sensor array. Alternatively, stand-alone seismometers can be used, but they are bulky, heavy, and expensive because they are usually designed for long-term monitoring. To better facilitate field applications of the passive surface wave survey, a low-cost energy-efficient geophone system was developed in this study. The hardware design is presented in this paper. To validate the system’s functionality, both laboratory and field experiments were conducted. The unique feature of this newly-developed cableless geophone system allows for rapid field applications of the passive surface wave survey with dense array measurements.

  18. The Scales of Time, Length, Mass, Energy, and Other Fundamental Physical Quantities in the Atomic World and the Use of Atomic Units in Quantum Mechanical Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Boon K.; Li, Wai-Kee

    2011-01-01

    This article is divided into two parts. In the first part, the atomic unit (au) system is introduced and the scales of time, space (length), and speed, as well as those of mass and energy, in the atomic world are discussed. In the second part, the utility of atomic units in quantum mechanical and spectroscopic calculations is illustrated with…

  19. The Scales of Time, Length, Mass, Energy, and Other Fundamental Physical Quantities in the Atomic World and the Use of Atomic Units in Quantum Mechanical Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Boon K.; Li, Wai-Kee

    2011-01-01

    This article is divided into two parts. In the first part, the atomic unit (au) system is introduced and the scales of time, space (length), and speed, as well as those of mass and energy, in the atomic world are discussed. In the second part, the utility of atomic units in quantum mechanical and spectroscopic calculations is illustrated with…

  20. Wind Technology, Cost, and Performance Trends in Denmark, Germany, Ireland, Norway, the European Union, and the United States: 2007 - 2012; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hand, Maureen

    2015-06-15

    This presentation provides a summary of IEA Wind Task 26 report on Wind Technology, Cost, and Performance Trends in Denmark, Germany, Ireland, Norway, the European Union, and the United States: 2007-2012

  1. Monitor Unit Calculation for the Multileaf Intensity Modulating Collimator (MIMiCTM) in the PeacockTM Plan System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A finite-size pencil beam method has been chosen for dose modelling in conformal radiotherapy when the Multileaf Intensity Modulating Collimator (MIMiC) is used to deliver the treatment. The MIMiC has two rows of 20 tungsten leaves which retract toward or away from the accelerator gantry, producing two intensity-modulated transaxial treatment slices which are 20 cm x 1 or 2 cm at isocenter. The treatment field is thus a fan beam made up of 40 sub-beams or finite-size pencil beams, leading to the choice of the model. Rotational treatments with the MIMiC are modelled in Peacock Plan as a set of ports spaced at gantry angle increments of 5 deg. to 10 deg. . The fractional time spent by the leaf in the beam during the gantry angle increment determines the intensity. The intensities from each leaf for each port are optimized in Peacock Plan, one treatment slice at a time, and then the dose from all slices is combined. The treatment planning system uses a two-dimensional measured pencil beam profile from one leaf at a selected reference depth along with measured open field, broad beam profiles at several depths. This makes beam data collection simple and dosimetrically flexible. The nature of the measured data imposes some conditions on calculation of Monitor Units (MU). The calculation must also take into consideration that two independent slices are delivered at the same time, and that multiple slices may be used to treat targets which are longer in the inferior-superior direction than the field produced by two slices. The MU calculation method is derived and presented as an enhancement of the traditional method of MU determination for treatments based on static ports. Experimental results indicative of the validity and limitations of the model will be demonstrated

  2. Can enteral antibiotics be used to treat pneumonia in the surgical intensive care unit? A clinical outcomes and cost comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elofson, Kathryn A; Forbes, Rachel C; Gerlach, Anthony T

    2015-01-01

    Background: Controlling healthcare costs without compromising patient care is a focus given recent healthcare changes in the United States. The purpose of this study was to assess clinical improvement in surgical intensive care unit (SICU) patients initiated on or transitioned to enteral antibiotics compared to those who solely receive intravenous (IV) antibiotic therapy for treatment of bacterial pneumonia. Materials and Methods: This retrospective cohort study included patients with a positive quantitative respiratory culture being treated for bacterial pneumonia in a SICU from 1/1/09 to 3/31/11. Two distinct patient groups were identified: Those treated with IV antibiotics exclusively (IV) and those either initiated on or transitioned to enteral antibiotics within 4 days of antibiotic initiation (PO). The primary endpoint of clinical improvement was assessed on day of antibiotic discontinuation. Results: A total of 647 patients were evaluated; 124 met inclusion criteria (30 patients PO group and 94 IV group). There was no difference in clinical improvement (86.7 PO vs 72.3% IV, P = 0.14) or recurrence (10 PO vs. 12.8% IV, P > 0.99) between groups. Secondary outcomes of duration of mechanical ventilation, ICU and hospital length of stay, and all-cause mortality were also similar. Antibiotic and infection-related costs were significantly decreased in the PO group ($1,042 vs $697, P = 0.04; $20,776 vs $17,381, P = 0.012, respectively). Conclusions: SICU patients initiated on or transitioned to PO antibiotics for pneumonia had similar clinical outcomes, but significantly less infection-related and antibiotic costs compared to those receiving IV therapy. Further, prospective studies are warranted. PMID:26557484

  3. Unit Sizing and Cost Analysis of Renewable Energy based Hybrid Power Generation System - A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin AGARWAL

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A simulation model is developed for optimal sizing and analysis of a PV-diesel-battery based hybrid power generation system with the objectives to minimize life cycle cost and CO2 emission, while maintaining the desired system autonomy. A case study of a boy’s hostel in Moradabad district is taken for analysis purposes. It has 91 rooms with a capacity of 3 boys in each room. The decision variables included in the optimization methodology are total PV area, number of PV modules of 600 Wp, diesel generator power, fuel consumption per year and number of 24 V and 150 Ah batteries. The simulation result shows that the PV percentage of 86 % and diesel penetration of 14 % gives the most optimized solution with minimum LCC of $110,547 and average CO2 emission of 28 kg/day. The developed model has been validated by comparing its results with earlier research work.doi:10.14456/WJST.2014.24

  4. Fuel miles and the blend wall: costs and emissions from ethanol distribution in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strogen, Bret; Horvath, Arpad; McKone, Thomas E

    2012-05-15

    From 1991 to 2009, U.S. production of ethanol increased 10-fold, largely due to government programs motivated by climate change, energy security, and economic development goals. As low-level ethanol-gasoline blends have not consistently outperformed ethanol-free gasoline in vehicle performance or tailpipe emissions, national-level economic and environmental goals could be accomplished more efficiently by concentrating consumption of gasoline containing 10% ethanol (i.e., E10) near producers to minimize freight activity. As the domestic transportation of ethanol increased 10-fold in metric ton-kilometers (t-km) from 2000 to 2009, the portion of t-km potentially justified by the E10 blend wall increased from less than 40% to 80%. However, we estimate 10 billion t-km took place annually from 2004 to 2009 for reasons other than the blend wall. This "unnecessary" transportation resulted in more than $240 million in freight costs, 90 million L of diesel consumption, 300,000 metric tons of CO(2)-e emissions, and 440 g of human intake of PM(2.5). By 2009, the marginal savings from enabling Iowa to surpass E10 would have exceeded 2.5 g CO(2)-e/MJ and $0.12/gallon of ethanol, as the next-closest customer was 1600 km away. The use of a national network model enables estimation of marginal transportation impacts from subnational policies, and benefits from policies encouraging concentrated consumption of renewable fuels. PMID:22506875

  5. Low-cost accelerograph units as earthquake alert devices for Mexico City: how well would they work?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Valdés

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Recently, low-cost accelerograph units have been proposed as earthquake alert devices for Mexico City. These units would trigger when the acceleration reaches a pre-established level, presumably 4 gal. For significant earthquakes, this would occur during P wave or in the early part of its coda. We test the performance of such a unit on accelerograms recorded in the period 1985 - 2008 at SCT and CDAO, two lake-bed sites in Mexico City. As expected, the alert time (the time of arrival of intense ground motion minus the trigger time, TA, for regional earthquakes is found to increase with the PGA. TA of the recorded accelerograms (with PGA > 4 gal ranges between about -20 and 45 sec; the largest values of TA correspond to the 1985 Michoacan earthquake. With some exceptions, TA is greater than ~15 sec for earthquakes which produced PGA > 20 gal. The device may be useful in mitigating injuries and loss of lives if an alert time of 15 to 45 sec is sufficient to put in to effect pre-established safety measures. This may be practical for one- to three-storey public school buildings. The device would be useful for shutting critical facilities before the arrival of large- amplitude ground motion.

  6. Food costs, diet quality and energy balance in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Andrea; Frazão, Elizabeth

    2014-07-01

    The high obesity rates and poor diet quality in the United States, particularly among low income populations, are often attributed to low income, low food access, and high food prices of healthy foods. This paper discusses these associations and questions some of the metrics used to measure food prices. The paper argues that 1. On average, Americans consume diets that need improvement and there is only a very limited relationship between income and diet quality; 2. The way the food price is measured makes a difference in the perception of how expensive healthy and less healthy food is; 3. The way Americans allocate their food budgets between healthy and less healthy foods is not in line with healthy diets; and 4. At any food spending level there are households that purchase healthy (and unhealthy) diets, including budgets at or below the maximum allotment for the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) which provides a means for low-income households to purchase food. Our key finding is that healthy foods and diets are affordable, but policy makers, nutrition educators, researchers and the media need to focus on promoting this message, and providing additional guidance on making the changes for Americans to switch to a healthy and affordable diet. PMID:24631301

  7. Cálculo de los costos de calidad en la Unidad Empresarial de Base Producciones Varias, Cienfuegos / Costing of quality in Business Base Unit Several Productions, Cienfuegos

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Elizabeth, Gómez Alfonso.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available El cálculo de los costos de calidad como elemento integrante del Sistema de Gestión de la Calidad, es una necesidad para los directivos de las empresas cubanas, al constituir una técnica identificada como instrumento avanzado de gestión, que permitirá mejorar la competitividad y servir de fuente inf [...] ormativa. Identificar y calcular los costos de calidad, así como proponer planes de medidas, que propicien una disminución de los gastos operativos, lo cual puede ser utilizado como herramienta para mejorar los procesos. La Unidad Empresarial de Base Producciones Varias de Cienfuegos presenta el diagnóstico para dar paso al Perfeccionamiento Empresarial y a la certificación de su Sistema de Gestión de la Calidad, según la Norma NC-ISO 9001:2008 y el decreto Ley 281, por lo que el objetivo de la investigación fue calcular los costos de calidad por procesos en dicha empresa. Para lograrlo se utilizaron métodos de nivel empírico y técnicas como la observación directa, revisión documental y el trabajo en grupos, lo cual permitió calcular los costos de calidad en todos los procesos. Los resultados alcanzados son aplicables a empresas que operan en la economía cubana y según el modelo económico cubano puesto en práctica a partir del año 2011. Abstract in english The calculation of quality costs as a component of the System of Quality Management, is a must for Cuban business managers, to provide a technique identified as an advanced instrument of management, which will lead to improved competitiveness and serve as an informative source. Identify and calculat [...] e the costs of quality, as well as propose measured plans, to promote a decrease in operating expenses, which can be used as a tool to improve processes. The Business Unit of Several Base Productions of Cienfuegos presents the fault to give way to Business Improvement and certification of its Quality Management System, according to the norm ISO 9001:2008 and the decree law 281, so that the objective research was to estimate the costs of quality processes in the company. To achieve this level were used empirical methods and techniques such as direct observation, document review and work in groups, which allowed to calculate the costs of quality in all processes. The results obtained are applicable to companies that operate in the Cuban economy and according to the Cuban economic model implemented from the year 2011.

  8. Levelized nuclear fueling cost in Israel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basic nuclear fuel cycle mode options are discussed as they apply to PWR-type reactors. Forecast fueling costs have been computed and are reported for the two main choices - basic front-end cost supplemented by either a throw- away mode option or a reprocessing mode option. It is concluded that reprocessing could result in total unit fueling costs ranging from a minimum slightly lower, through a maximum about 30% higher than the total unit fueling cost using the throw-away mode option. Moreover, in massive breeder development the total unit fueling cost can extend even below the numerically calculated limit. (H.K.)

  9. LIFE Cost of Electricity, Capital and Operating Costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Successful commercialization of fusion energy requires economic viability as well as technical and scientific feasibility. To assess economic viability, we have conducted a pre-conceptual level evaluation of LIFE economics. Unit costs are estimated from a combination of bottom-up costs estimates, working with representative vendors, and scaled results from previous studies of fission and fusion plants. An integrated process model of a LIFE power plant was developed to integrate and optimize unit costs and calculate top level metrics such as cost of electricity and power plant capital cost. The scope of this activity was the entire power plant site. Separately, a development program to deliver the required specialized equipment has been assembled. Results show that LIFE power plant cost of electricity and plant capital cost compare favorably to estimates for new-build LWR's, coal and gas - particularly if indicative costs of carbon capture and sequestration are accounted for.

  10. Comparative study of the variables for determining unit processing cost of irradiated food products in developing countries : case study of Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method for estimating unit cost of gamma treated food products in a developing country like Ghana is presented. The method employs the cost of cobalt source requirement, capital and operating costs, dose requirements etc. and relates these variables to various annual throughput at a gamma processing facility. In situations where the cost of foreign components or devices are required, the assumptions have been based on those of Kunstadt and Steeves. Otherwise, the prevailing conditions existing in Ghana have been used. The study reveals that the unit processing cost for gamma treatment foods in such a facility is between 8.0 to 147.2 US dollars per tonne. (author). 9 refs., 4 figs

  11. Economical analysis and study on a solar desalination unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Based on the calculation of the single-factor impact values of the parameters of a triple tower-type solar desalination unit on the cost of fresh water production by utilizing a single-factor analyzing method, the influences of the cost of solar heating system, the cost of hot water tank, the costs...... of desalination unit and electrical power, the life time of solar desalination unit and the yearly yield of fresh water, on the cost of the fresh water production of the solar desalination unit are studied. It is helpful for the further investigation of solar desalination and for reducing the cost of...... fresh water production for solar desalination units....

  12. United States experience in environmental cost-benefit analysis for nuclear power plants with implications for developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental cost-benefit analysis in the United States involves a comparison of diverse societal impacts of the proposed developments and its alternatives. Regarding nuclear power plant licensing actions, such analyses include the need for base-load electrical generating capacity versus the no-action alternative; alternative sources of energy; alternative sites for the proposed nuclear plants; and alternative technologies for mitigating environmental impacts. Many U.S. experiences and environmental assessment practices and comparative resource requirements presented in this report will not provide a wholly reliable reflection of the precise situation of each country. Nevertheless, the procedural and substantive issues encountered by the United States in nuclear power plant licensing may exhibit a number of important, if rough, parallelisms for other countries. Procedural issues dealt with include: the scoping of alternatives and impact issues; the problem of balancing incommensurable impacts; and treating uncertainty in measuring or forecasting certain kinds of environmental impacts. Although substantive environmental impact issues will vary appreciably among nations, it is to be expected that many of the substantive impact issues such as impacts on biota, community-related effects, and aesthetic impacts will also have some measure of universal interest to other countries

  13. Determination of ideal blending for Tandem fuel cycle between Angra-1 reactor (Brazil) and Embalse reactor (Argentina) by fuel cycle cost calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this work is to determine by means of a fuel cycle cost calculation, the ideal percentage of natural uranium (blending) to be used with irradiated and decontaminated fuel of Angra-I reactor. This blending will be used in the argentinian reactor of Embalse (Tandem cycle). This work confirm previous study where an ideal percentage of natural uranium was determined by minimizing its use. (author)

  14. Cost and appropriateness of treating asthma with fixed-combination drugs in local health care units in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruggeri I

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Isabella Ruggeri,1 Donatello Bragato,2 Giorgio L Colombo,3,4 Emanuela Valla,3 Sergio Di Matteo41Servizio Governo Area Farmaceutica, Azienda Sanitaria Locale, Milano, Binasco, 2Data Solution Provider, Milan, 3University of Pavia, Department of Drug Sciences, School of Pharmacy, 4Studi Analisi Valutazioni Economiche, MilanBackground: Bronchial asthma is a chronic airways disease and is considered to be one of the major health problems in the Western world. During the last decade, a significant increase in the use of β2-agonists in combination with inhaled corticosteroids has been observed. The aim of this study was to assess the appropriateness of expenditure on these agents in an asthmatic population treated in a real practice setting.Methods: This study used data for a resident population of 635,906 citizens in the integrated patient database (Banca Dati Assistito of a local health care unit (Milano 2 Azienda Sanitaria Locale in the Lombardy region over 3 years (2007–2009. The sample included 3787–4808 patients selected from all citizens aged ≥ 18 years entitled to social security benefits, having a prescription for a corticosteroid + β2-agonist combination, and an ATC code corresponding to R03AK, divided into three groups, ie, pressurized (spray drugs, inhaled powders, and extrafine formulations. Patients with chronic obstructive lung disease were excluded. Indicators of appropriateness were 1–3 packs per year (underdosed, inappropriate, 4–12 packs per year (presumably appropriate, and ≥13 packs per year (overtreatment, inappropriate.Results: The corticosteroid + β2-agonist combination per treated asthmatic patient increased from 37% in 2007 to 45% in 2009 for the total of prescribed antiasthma drugs, and 28%–32% of patients used the drugs in an appropriate manner (4–12 packs per years. The cost of inappropriately used packs increased combination drug expenditure by about 40%, leading to inefficient use of health care resources. This trend improved during the 3-year observation period. The mean annual cost per patient was higher for powders (€223.95 and sprays (€224.83 than for extrafine formulation (€142.71.Conclusion: Based on this analysis, we suggest implementation of better health care planning and more appropriate prescription practices aimed at optimizing use of health care resources for the treatment of bronchial asthma. The results of our study should be extended to other regional/national reference local health care units, in order to define and compare average standard costs per pathology, and consolidated through the wide sample considered.Keywords: asthma, antiasthma drugs, general medicine, appropriateness, pharmacoeconomics, health economics

  15. Cost and appropriateness of treating asthma with fixed-combination drugs in local health care units in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggeri, Isabella; Bragato, Donatello; Colombo, Giorgio L; Valla, Emanuela; Di Matteo, Sergio

    2012-01-01

    Background Bronchial asthma is a chronic airways disease and is considered to be one of the major health problems in the Western world. During the last decade, a significant increase in the use of β2-agonists in combination with inhaled corticosteroids has been observed. The aim of this study was to assess the appropriateness of expenditure on these agents in an asthmatic population treated in a real practice setting. Methods This study used data for a resident population of 635,906 citizens in the integrated patient database (Banca Dati Assistito) of a local health care unit (Milano 2 Azienda Sanitaria Locale) in the Lombardy region over 3 years (2007–2009). The sample included 3787–4808 patients selected from all citizens aged ≥ 18 years entitled to social security benefits, having a prescription for a corticosteroid + β2-agonist combination, and an ATC code corresponding to R03AK, divided into three groups, ie, pressurized (spray) drugs, inhaled powders, and extrafine formulations. Patients with chronic obstructive lung disease were excluded. Indicators of appropriateness were 1–3 packs per year (underdosed, inappropriate), 4–12 packs per year (presumably appropriate), and ≥13 packs per year (overtreatment, inappropriate). Results The corticosteroid + β2-agonist combination per treated asthmatic patient increased from 37% in 2007 to 45% in 2009 for the total of prescribed antiasthma drugs, and 28%–32% of patients used the drugs in an appropriate manner (4–12 packs per years). The cost of inappropriately used packs increased combination drug expenditure by about 40%, leading to inefficient use of health care resources. This trend improved during the 3-year observation period. The mean annual cost per patient was higher for powders (€223.95) and sprays (€224.83) than for extrafine formulation (€142.71). Conclusion Based on this analysis, we suggest implementation of better health care planning and more appropriate prescription practices aimed at optimizing use of health care resources for the treatment of bronchial asthma. The results of our study should be extended to other regional/national reference local health care units, in order to define and compare average standard costs per pathology, and consolidated through the wide sample considered. PMID:23233808

  16. A case study using the United Republic of Tanzania: costing nationwide HPV vaccine delivery using the WHO Cervical Cancer Prevention and Control Costing Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hutubessy Raymond

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose, methods, data sources and assumptions behind the World Health Organization (WHO Cervical Cancer Prevention and Control Costing (C4P tool that was developed to assist low- and middle-income countries (LMICs with planning and costing their nationwide human papillomavirus (HPV vaccination program are presented. Tanzania is presented as a case study where the WHO C4P tool was used to cost and plan the roll-out of HPV vaccines nationwide as part of the national comprehensive cervical cancer prevention and control strategy. Methods The WHO C4P tool focuses on estimating the incremental costs to the health system of vaccinating adolescent girls through school-, health facility- and/or outreach-based strategies. No costs to the user (school girls, parents or caregivers are included. Both financial (or costs to the Ministry of Health and economic costs are estimated. The cost components for service delivery include training, vaccination (health personnel time and transport, stationery for tally sheets and vaccination cards, and so on, social mobilization/IEC (information, education and communication, supervision, and monitoring and evaluation (M&E. The costs of all the resources used for HPV vaccination are totaled and shown with and without the estimated cost of the vaccine. The total cost is also divided by the number of doses administered and number of fully immunized girls (FIGs to estimate the cost per dose and cost per FIG. Results Over five years (2011 to 2015, the cost of establishing an HPV vaccine program that delivers three doses of vaccine to girls at schools via phased national introduction (three regions in year 1, ten regions in year 2 and all 26 regions in years 3 to 5 in Tanzania is estimated to be US$9.2 million (excluding vaccine costs and US$31.5 million (with vaccine assuming a vaccine price of US$5 (GAVI 2011, formerly the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunizations. This is equivalent to a financial cost of US$5.77 per FIG, excluding the vaccine cost. The most important costs of service delivery are social mobilization/IEC and service delivery operational costs. Conclusions When countries expand their immunization schedules with new vaccines such as the HPV vaccine, they face initial costs to fund critical pre-introduction activities, as well as incremental system costs to deliver the vaccines on an ongoing basis. In anticipation, governments need to plan ahead for non-vaccine costs so they will be financed adequately. Existing human resources need to be re-allocated or new staff need to be recruited for the program to be implemented successfully in a sustainable and long-term manner. Reaching a target group not routinely served by national immunization programs previously with three doses of vaccine requires new delivery strategies, more transport of vaccines and health workers and more intensive IEC activities leading to new delivery costs for the immunization program that are greater than the costs incurred when a new infant vaccine is added to the existing infant immunization schedule. The WHO C4P tool is intended to help LMICs to plan ahead and estimate the programmatic and operational costs of HPV vaccination.

  17. MODELS SELECTED FOR CALCULATION OF DOSES, HEALTH EFFECTS AND ECONOMIC COSTS DUE TO ACCIDENTAL RADIONUCLIDE RELEASES FROM NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strenge, D L; Baker, D A; Droppo, J G; McPherson, R B; Napier, B A; Nieves, L A; Soldat, J K

    1980-05-01

    Models are described for use in site-specific environmental consequence analysis of nuclear reactor accidents of Classes 3 through 9. The models presented relate radioactivity released to resulting doses, health effects, and costs of remedial actions. Specific models are presented for the major exposure pathways of airborne releases, waterborne releases and direct irradiation from activity within the facility buildings, such as the containment. Time-dependent atmospheric dispersion parameters, crop production parameters and other variable parameters are used in the models. The environmental effects are analyzed for several accident start times during the year.

  18. An united method for calculating neutron fluence attenuation and gamma-ray self-absorption in a large cylindrical sample for (n, xγ) experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An united formula is proposed for calculating neutron fluence attenuation and gamma-ray self-absorption in a large cylindrical sample, it can be used in measurements of gamma-ray production cross sections from fast neutron induced (n,x γ) reactions. The position correlation of these two effects is taken into account in the deduction. The preliminary calculations are completed at an IBM-PC microcomputer. This methos is proved both fast and reliable

  19. THE IMPACT OF DEPRECIATION ON COSTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIANA RADU

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available It is known that depreciation is calculated in financial accounting by regulated criteria, depending on a conventional fixed life. Excluding depreciation depending on units produced (applied to buildings and special construction of mines, salt mines, quarries where it is calculated per unit based on the exploitable reserve of useful mineral substance, the other depreciation methods do not always lead to fair and justified calculation of production costs. In this paper I will show how to record depreciation expenses in management accounting in Romania, the influence of methods of depreciation on costs, which are the restatements that depreciation expenses should be subject to for an accurate determination of production costs.

  20. Tracking the Sun IV: An Historical Summary of the Installed Cost of Photovoltaics in the United States from 1998 to 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darghouth, Naim; Wiser, Ryan

    2011-09-07

    The present report describes installed cost trends for grid-connected PV projects installed from 1998 through 2010 (with some limited and preliminary results presented for projects installed in the first six months of 2011). The analysis is based on project-level cost data from approximately 116,500 residential, non-residential, and utility-sector PV systems in the United States. The inclusion of utility-sector PV is a new element in this year’s report. The combined capacity of all systems in the data sample totals 1,685 MW, equal to 79% of all grid-connected PV capacity installed in the United States through 2010 and representing one of the most comprehensive sources of installed PV cost data for the U.S. Based on this dataset, the report describes historical installed cost trends over time, and by location, market segment, technology type, and component. The report also briefly compares recent PV installed costs in the United States to those in Germany and Japan, and describes trends in customer incentives for PV installations and net installed costs after receipt of such incentives. The analysis presented here focuses on descriptive trends in the underlying data, serving primarily to summarize the data in tabular and graphical form.

  1. A precise and cost-effective method to calculate the stresses and deformations of pipe bends with realistic boundary conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transfer matrix of a pipe bend is derived by the semi-bending theory. Thereby realistic boundary conditions of the bends like connected flanges, cylindrical and conical pipes and concentrated or distributed loads will be considered in pipeline calculations. Furthermore, this transfer matrix of the pipe bend is converted into a stiffness matrix and is incorporated into an existing FE program. This way the exact stiffness as well as realistic boundary conditions of pipe bends may be considered for the stress and deformation analysis of complex piping systems. Several comparisons between analytical and test results of pipe bends demonstrate a very good agreement. As it can be shown this transfer matrix method is highly economical and is very precise as well. (orig.)

  2. IEA Wind Task 26. Wind Technology, Cost, and Performance Trends in Denmark, Germany, Ireland, Norway, the European Union, and the United States: 2007–2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitina, Aisma [Ea Energy Analyses, Copenhagen (Denmark); Lüers, Silke [Deutsche WindGuard, Varel (Germany); Wallasch, Anna-Kathrin [Deutsche WindGuard, Varel (Germany); Berkhout, Volker [Fraunhofer IWES, Kassel (Germany); Duffy, Aidan [Dublin Inst. of Technology and Dublin Energy Lab. (Ireland); Cleary, Brendan [Dublin Inst. of Technology and Dublin Energy Lab. (Ireland); Husabø, Lief I. [Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate (NVE), Oslo (Norway); Weir, David E. [Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate (NVE), Oslo (Norway); Lacal-Arántegui, Roberto [European Commission, Ispra (Italy). Joint Research Centre; Hand, Maureen [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lantz, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Belyeu, Kathy [Belyeu Consulting, Takoma Park, MD (United States); Wiser, Ryan H [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Bolinger, Mark [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hoen, Ben [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-06-01

    The International Energy Agency Implementing Agreement for cooperation in Research, Development, and Deployment of Wind Energy Systems (IEA Wind) Task 26—The Cost of Wind Energy represents an international collaboration dedicated to exploring past, present and future cost of wind energy. This report provides an overview of recent trends in wind plant technology, cost, and performance in those countries that are currently represented by participating organizations in IEA Wind Task 26: Denmark, Germany, Ireland, Norway, and the United States as well as the European Union.

  3. Calculation of economic viability and environmental costs of biomass from dende oil for small communities of Brazilian northeast region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stecher, Luiza C.; Pacheco, Rafael R.; Sabundjian, Gaiane, E-mail: luizastecher@usp.br, E-mail: rafaelrade@gmail.com, E-mail: gdjian@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The current environmental problems caused by human activity has been gaining attention in society, i.e., as it has influenced in the growth and development of the global economic. The availability of energy resources is central point to economic development and the generation of energy is responsible for a significant portion of the emissions causing the greenhouse effect nowadays. The Brazil, a developing country, still has a large number of people without access to electricity, which affects the quality of life of individuals. In this context, it should think in the sustainable economic development, so the alternative energy sources emerge as an option for power generation. Can highlight biomass as a source in the Brazilian scenario by its wide availability and variety. Therefore, the objective of this work is to estimate the economic viability of the decentralized generation of electricity based on the use of biomass from dende oil in small communities in the Brazilian Northeast considering the environmental costs involved for the source in question. The methodology is based on economic concepts and economic evaluation of environmental resources. The biomass from dende oil was adopted in this work by its characteristics and availability in the studied region. The results show that the generation of energy by biomass from dende oil, it will contribute significantly to the sustainable development of the region, already that it will bring gains environmental, social and financial to society. (author)

  4. Calculation of economic viability and environmental costs of biomass from dende oil for small communities of Brazilian northeast region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current environmental problems caused by human activity has been gaining attention in society, i.e., as it has influenced in the growth and development of the global economic. The availability of energy resources is central point to economic development and the generation of energy is responsible for a significant portion of the emissions causing the greenhouse effect nowadays. The Brazil, a developing country, still has a large number of people without access to electricity, which affects the quality of life of individuals. In this context, it should think in the sustainable economic development, so the alternative energy sources emerge as an option for power generation. Can highlight biomass as a source in the Brazilian scenario by its wide availability and variety. Therefore, the objective of this work is to estimate the economic viability of the decentralized generation of electricity based on the use of biomass from dende oil in small communities in the Brazilian Northeast considering the environmental costs involved for the source in question. The methodology is based on economic concepts and economic evaluation of environmental resources. The biomass from dende oil was adopted in this work by its characteristics and availability in the studied region. The results show that the generation of energy by biomass from dende oil, it will contribute significantly to the sustainable development of the region, already that it will bring gains environmental, social and financial to society. (author)

  5. Minimizing costs while meeting safety requirements: Modeling deterministic (imperfect) staggered tests using standard Markov models for SIL calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouvroye, Jan L; Wiegerinck, Jan A M

    2006-10-01

    In industry, potentially hazardous (technical) structures are equipped with safety systems in order to protect people, the environment, and assets from the consequences of accidents by reducing the probability of incidents occurring. Not only companies but also society will want to know what the effect of these safety measures is: society in terms of "likelihood of undesired events" and companies in addition in terms of "value for money," the expected benefits per dollar or euro invested that these systems provide. As a compromise between demands from society (the safer the better) and industry (but against what cost), in many countries government has decided to impose standards to industry with respect to safety requirements. These standards use the average probability of failure on demand as the main performance indicator for these systems, and require, for the societal reason given before, that this probability remain below a certain value depending on a given risk. The main factor commonly used in industry to "fine-tune" the average probability of failure on demand for a given system configuration in order to comply with these standards against financial risk for the company is "optimizing" the test strategy (interval, coverage, and procedure). In industry, meeting the criterion on the average probability of failure on demand is often demonstrated by using well accepted mathematical models such as Markov models from literature and adapting them for the actual situation. This paper shows the implications and potential pitfalls when using this commonly used practical approach for a situation where the test strategy is changed. Adapting an existing Markov model can lead to unexpected results, and this paper will demonstrate that a different model has to be developed. In addition, the authors propose an approach that can be applied in industry without suffering from the problems mentioned above. PMID:17063942

  6. Pressure Vessel Fluence Calculations for the Hungarian VVER-440 Units for the Power Uprate and the Llifetime Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hordósy, Gábor; Hegyi, György; Keresztúri, András; Maráczy, Csaba; Temesvári, Emese; Zsolnay, Éva M.

    2016-02-01

    A major project was launched at Paks NPP, Hungary, to investigate the possibility of lifetime extension up to 60 years. At the same time, new fuel types with higher enrichment and containing pins with gadolinium have been introduced. Due to these plans, the radiation load of the pressure vessel was evaluated up to 60 years irradiation, taking into account the past and planned future cycles. The computational procedure, elaborated and validated earlier for the fast flux calculation in the pressure vessel was modified for the new fuel types. The neutron source at the core boundaries was taken from core design calculations and the neutron transport from the source to and through the pressure vessel was followed by Monte Carlo calculations. A number of calculations were performed to adequately follow the change of the neutron source. The paper details this procedure, the used Monte Carlo model, the influence of the different reloading schemes on the radiation load and the calculated results.

  7. The role of cost accounting in the university performance measurement in Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Marques, Maria da Conceição da Costa

    2010-01-01

    Cost accounting is aimed at emphasising those elements of costs and profits of original importance to the management board of an organizational unit. Therefore, cost accounting was initially understood as mere collector of costs and profits, using the traditional system of costing everything, a budget with a limited base. Originally, it was designed to calculate real costs with the aim to determine the results. In public organizations, the aim of cost accounting, costs or management, c...

  8. Avoided costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Controversies that surround the calculation of avoided costs in many parts of the U.S. are alive and well in Canada too. Ontario Hydro regularly estimates avoided costs primarily for use in evaluating some design, operating, planning and domestic marketing alternatives. Avoided costs reflect the expected cost of increased of decreased use of existing facilities or the expected cost of delaying or advancing additional resources. Avoided costs are estimated to be about 2 cents/kW.h (in $1988) to the mid 1990s. Costs increase to 3 to 4 cents/kW.h towards the late 90s (in $1988) as the nuclear construction program is completed and acid gas emission regulations become more costly to meet. Future avoided costs projections change from time to time because they are sensitive to projections of electricity demand and fuel costs and to the timing and cost of resource expansion plans. As in many other jurisdictions, regulatory and policy making bodies in Ontario and developers of cogeneration and small hydro are interested in calculations of avoided costs. This paper explains how Ontario Hydro calculates avoided costs. The paper includes a brief review of various methods proposed for calculating avoided costs. The discussion then refers to the theoretical basis for the methods used and lists in detail the assumptions used by Ontario Hydro

  9. 48 CFR 9904.410 - Allocation of business unit general and administrative expenses to final cost objectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allocation of business... Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST...

  10. Calculation of profitability in computer tomography (CT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The comments do not refer to a specific type of whole body computer tomography which made it necessary to base the calculations on mean values with regard to both initial costs and operating costs. The calculation of the receipts was based on the resulting costs, mean long-term utilization of the unit and on a reasonable period of amortization. The model calculation indicates that the break-even point is reached with 1,920 annual examinations and a five-year amortization period. (orig.) 891 MG/orig. 892 MB

  11. Temporary evolution of the hounsfield units and dosimetric impact the calculation of distributions made on images of megavoltage of the tomopherapy unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this work is to evaluate the stability of the curve and how is affected after changes of parts, such as the magnetron, the target and/or the linac, that can change the energy of the beam, and therefore alter units Hounsfield images of MVCT. Also discusses the dosimetric error that it would be if such variations were not taken into account in the calibration curve. (Author)

  12. Preliminary UKAEA reactor physics calculations on CYCLE 1 and part of CYCLE 2 of Zion Unit 2 PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calculations were made using the UKAEA reactor physics code package LWRWIMS/JOSHUA, to provide comparisons with similar calculations on the first two cycles of Sizewell B. In Zion cycle 1, the channel power distributions agree quite well with measurement, but there is less good agreement for low burnups in cycle 2. Core axial power profile calculations for cycle 1 also agree quite well with measurement, although the agreement is less good at intermediate cycle burnups. In cycle 2, these do not show the same trends as the measured axial offset. (U.K.)

  13. Development of a method for calculating the cost of the program for decommissioning of nuclear power plants. Prognosis of future costs for the authorities including the corresponding net present value. Analysis performed May 6-7 and June 8 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this report is to present a calculation of the authorities' total future costs in terms of their activities to monitor a safe and prudent decommission of the power plants, including the long term storage of the used fuel. An assessment of the inherent uncertainty in this estimate is also made. The study forms an integrated part of the total monitoring into the financial assessment of the whole programme of decommissioning and demolition of the Swedish nuclear power plants that continuously is made by SKI. Hence, the estimate is presented with the additional function of supporting SKI's annual calculations of fees and contingencies in accordance with the Swedish Finance Act. Main result The expected Net Present Value of the authorities' costs as at January 2004 price level have consequently been estimated as follows: Mean Value (M): 2303 MSEK Standard deviation (S): 538 MSEK 8 This result tallies with the corresponding prognoses for the last two years. An additional clarification of a number of key figures resulted in some reduction of the total Net Present Value. By way of supplement to this main result, the undiscounted costs have been estimated (calculation 2). Besides, a tentative estimate has also been made by incorporating the official view on the future development on real rate of return in a long time perspective (calculation 3). The uncertainty of the result is significant in terms of the final budget figures and of the scale of the supplementary amounts in those situations where the budgets must be prudent and conservative. There may be a potential for further reduction of the current uncertainty in that the greatest causes of uncertainty now have been identified and ranked in order of priority. The greatest causes of uncertainty are set out in the table below. No. Cause of uncertainty Uncertainty group 1 Priority 2 1 Correction allowing for the uncertainty of the real interest rate N 55 % 2 Productivity E2 8 % 3 Uncertainty in the current base values 6 % 4 Analysis-specific uncertainty Y 6 % 5 Base value of other organisations' undiscounted costs 4 % 6 Relations with SKB and authorities C 4 % 7 Classification rules for waste L 4 % 8 Political, economic and social factors A 3 % 9 Organisation and management B 2 % 10 Base value, undiscounted interfaces 2 % 1The main objectives of the study to present a transparent and robust probabilistic estimate and an equivalent report have been achieved. Furthermore, the analysis process has also contributed to the building up of a systematic knowledge base in this area by means of regular meetings with the expert group since the spring of 2002. It is also satisfying that the mean value of the estimates remains stable and that there has been a degree of reduction of the uncertainty. Integration with SKB's procurement of bases for charges and contingencies The mean derived from this analysis can correctly be added to the mean of the remaining discounted costs, i.e. mean values of the 40 main cost items which are set out in SKB's 'PLAN 2004'. A somewhat more accurate processing of the uncertainty is, however, encumbered with a number of principal methodological difficulties. These minor obstacles are dealt with in some depth in section 7.3. Three days of analysis proved to be sufficient for an examination of all the relevant specifications, discussions and more detailed evaluations. It was ascertained that, with improved preparation, the time needed for future analyses could be reduced to two days. This is important, as the process requires between 10 a nd 15 highly qualified individuals to be assembled to perform the analyses

  14. Project of processing of 4 million tone in year of mixture of Mangyshlak, Maryshy and Tengiz oils. Calculation of vacuum gas-oil hydrocracking unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For increase of petroleum processing depth at Aturau petroleum refinery plant a variant of mass-line scheme of fuel profile on 4 million tone per year is offered. Processing raw mixture consists of 40 % of Mangyshlak petroleum , 40 % Martyshy one, 20 % Tengiz. Calculation of two stepped unit of vacuum gas-oil hydrocracking is carried out. Taking into operation of pilot unit allow to solve number of tasks: petroleum processing depth by means increase light petroleum products yield, including gasoline; attainment higher quality of products namely receive high-octane component of car gasoline

  15. Cost-effectiveness model comparing olanzapine and other oral atypical antipsychotics in the treatment of schizophrenia in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smolen Lee J

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Schizophrenia is often a persistent and costly illness that requires continued treatment with antipsychotics. Differences among antipsychotics on efficacy, safety, tolerability, adherence, and cost have cost-effectiveness implications for treating schizophrenia. This study compares the cost-effectiveness of oral olanzapine, oral risperidone (at generic cost, primary comparator, quetiapine, ziprasidone, and aripiprazole in the treatment of patients with schizophrenia from the perspective of third-party payers in the U.S. health care system. Methods A 1-year microsimulation economic decision model, with quarterly cycles, was developed to simulate the dynamic nature of usual care of schizophrenia patients who switch, continue, discontinue, and restart their medications. The model captures clinical and cost parameters including adherence levels, relapse with and without hospitalization, quality-adjusted life years (QALYs, treatment discontinuation by reason, treatment-emergent adverse events, suicide, health care resource utilization, and direct medical care costs. Published medical literature and a clinical expert panel were used to develop baseline model assumptions. Key model outcomes included mean annual total direct cost per treatment, cost per stable patient, and incremental cost-effectiveness values per QALY gained. Results The results of the microsimulation model indicated that olanzapine had the lowest mean annual direct health care cost ($8,544 followed by generic risperidone ($9,080. In addition, olanzapine resulted in more QALYs than risperidone (0.733 vs. 0.719. The base case and multiple sensitivity analyses found olanzapine to be the dominant choice in terms of incremental cost-effectiveness per QALY gained. Conclusion The utilization of olanzapine is predicted in this model to result in better clinical outcomes and lower total direct health care costs compared to generic risperidone, quetiapine, ziprasidone, and aripiprazole. Olanzapine may, therefore, be a cost-effective therapeutic option for patients with schizophrenia.

  16. Model-based calculations of off-axis ratio of conic beams for a dedicated 6 MV radiosurgery unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Because the small-radius photon beams shaped by cones in stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) lack lateral electronic equilibrium and a detector's finite cross section, direct experimental measurement of dosimetric data for these beams can be subject to large uncertainties. As the dose calculation accuracy of a treatment planning system largely depends on how well the dosimetric data are measured during the machine's commissioning, there is a critical need for an independent method to validate measured results. Therefore, the authors studied the model-based calculation as an approach to validate measured off-axis ratios (OARs). Methods: The authors previously used a two-component analytical model to calculate central axis dose and associated dosimetric data (e.g., scatter factors and tissue-maximum ratio) in a water phantom and found excellent agreement between the calculated and the measured central axis doses for small 6 MV SRS conic beams. The model was based on that of Nizin and Mooij [''An approximation of central-axis absorbed dose in narrow photon beams,'' Med. Phys. 24, 1775-1780 (1997)] but was extended to account for apparent attenuation, spectral differences between broad and narrow beams, and the need for stricter scatter dose calculations for clinical beams. In this study, the authors applied Clarkson integration to this model to calculate OARs for conic beams. OARs were calculated for selected cones with radii from 0.2 to 1.0 cm. To allow comparisons, the authors also directly measured OARs using stereotactic diode (SFD), microchamber, and film dosimetry techniques. The calculated results were machine-specific and independent of direct measurement data for these beams. Results: For these conic beams, the calculated OARs were in excellent agreement with the data measured using an SFD. The discrepancies in radii and in 80%-20% penumbra were within 0.01 cm, respectively. Using SFD-measured OARs as the reference data, the authors found that the calculated OARs were more accurate than those measured with a microchamber or film dosimetry. Conclusions: The model produces sufficiently accurate conic beam dosimetric data that can be used to validate direct measurement results for such beams.

  17. On the contribution of external cost calculations to energy system governance: The case of a potential large-scale nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The contribution of nuclear power to a sustainable energy future is a contested issue. This paper presents a critical review of an attempt to objectify this debate through the calculation of the external costs of a potential large-scale nuclear accident in the ExternE project. A careful dissection of the ExternE approach resulted in a list of 30 calculation steps and assumptions, from which the 6 most contentious ones were selected through a stakeholder internet survey. The policy robustness and relevance of these key assumptions were then assessed in a workshop using the concept of a 'pedigree of knowledge'. Overall, the workshop outcomes revealed the stakeholder and expert panel's scepticism about the assumptions made: generally these were considered not very plausible, subjected to disagreement, and to a large extent inspired by contextual factors. Such criticism indicates a limited validity and useability of the calculated nuclear accident externality as a trustworthy sustainability indicator. Furthermore, it is our contention that the ExternE project could benefit greatly - in terms of gaining public trust - from employing highly visible procedures of extended peer review such as the pedigree assessment applied to our specific case of the external costs of a potential large-scale nuclear accident. - Highlights: → Six most contentious assumptions were selected through a stakeholder internet survey. → Policy robustness of these assumptions was assessed in a pedigree assessment workshop. → Assumptions were considered implausible, controversial, and inspired by contextual factors. → This indicates a limited validity and useability as a trustworthy sustainability indicator.

  18. An united method calculating neutron fluence attenuation and gamma-ray self-absorption in a large cylindrical sample for (n,xγ) experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An united formula calculating neutron fluence attenuation and gamma-ray self-absorption in a large cylindrical sample was proposed, which can be used in measurements of gamma-ray production cross sections from fast neutron induced (n,xγ) reactions. The position correlation of these two effects was taken into account in the deduction. The formula has obvious physical meaning. The preliminary calculations were completed at a IBM-PC microcomputer, the comparisons with some other methods were made, and satisfactory results were obtained. (author)

  19. Custo médio do Módulo de Coleta de sangue total pelo método ABC / The mean cost of collection of whole blood units by the ABC method

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Eugênia M. A., Ubiali; Divaldo A., Sampaio; Patrícia F., Pinho; Dimas T., Covas.

    Full Text Available Os procedimentos em hemoterapia são complexos e caros. Exigem processos controlados e validados, equipamentos calibrados e monitorados e insumos qualificados, validados e inspecionados antes e durante o uso. Isto acarreta, além dos gastos diretos, gastos indiretos especificamente relacionados à gara [...] ntia da qualidade e da segurança transfusionais, além dos gastos indiretos usuais de qualquer produto ou serviço. Procurando avaliar com maior aproximação estes custos e buscando evitar as distorções das apropriações de custos por rateios, o presente estudo utilizou o sistema de Custeio Baseado em Atividades - ABC, para apurar o custo médio do Módulo de Coleta de sangue total no Hemocentro de Ribeirão Preto - SP, unidade sede, no primeiro semestre de 2006. O maior impacto no custo médio apurado se deveu aos custos monetários diretos, entretanto os custos indiretos não foram desprezíveis. O custo médio obtido para desempenho das atividades que compõem o Módulo de Coleta foi de R$ 35,20, que é 68,75% superior ao valor pago na tabela SIA/SUS para este módulo. A metodologia desenvolvida pode ser aplicada aos outros procedimentos dos serviços de hemoterapia, permitindo a avaliação dos custos de seus processos, evitando desperdícios, aprimorando o seu funcionamento e gerando evidências objetivas que demonstrem os custos reais da hemoterapia de qualidade para as instâncias financiadoras públicas e privadas. Abstract in english The procedures in hemotherapy are complex and expensive. They demand a controlled and validated process. They also require calibrated and monitored equipment and qualified and validated materials, inspected before and during use. This causes, apart from direct expenses, indirect expenses related to [...] the guarantee of quality and transfusional safety, as well as the usual indirect costs of any product or service. The present study used the Activity-Based Costing system - ABC, to find the mean cost of collection of whole blood units in a Regional Blood Center in Ribeirão Preto, during the first semester of 2006, in order to assess these costs more carefully and to try to avoid the cost distortions due to separation of blood components. Although the indirect costs were not negligible, the major impact on the mean cost was related to direct monetary costs. The mean cost to perform the activities that compose the collection of blood units was R$ 35.20, which is 68.75% higher than the value paid by the Brazilian government for this unit. The developed methodology can be applied to other procedures of services in hemotherapy allowing the evaluation of process costs, avoiding waste, improving performance and generating objective evidence to demonstrate the real cost of quality hemotherapy activities for public and private fund source.

  20. IEA Wind Task 26. Wind Technology, Cost and Performance Trends in Denmark, Germany, Ireland, Norway, the European Union, and the United States. 2007 - 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitina, Aisma [Ea Energy Analyses, Copenhagen (Denmark); Luers, Silke [Deutsche WindGuard, Varel (Germany); Wallasch, Anna-Kathrin [Deutsche WindGuard, Varel (Germany); Berkhout, Volker [Fraunhofer IWES (Germany); Duffy, Aidan [Dublin Inst. of Technology and Dublin Energy Lab (Ireland); Cleary, Brendan [Dublin Inst. of Technology and Dublin Energy Lab (Ireland); Husabo, Leif I. [Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate (NVE), Oslo (Norway); Weir, David E. [Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate (NVE), Oslo (Norway); Lacal-Arantegui, Roberto [European Commission, Ispra (Italy). Joint Research Centre; Hand, M. Maureen [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lantz, Eric [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Belyeu, Kathy [Belyeu Consulting, Tacoma Park, MD (United States); Wiser, Ryan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Bolinger, Mark [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hoen, Ben [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-06-12

    This report builds from a similar previous analysis (Schwabe et al., 2011) exploring the differences in cost of wind energy in 2008 among countries participating in IEA Wind Task 26 at that time. The levelized cost of energy (LCOE) is a widely recognized metric for understanding how technology, capital investment, operations, and financing impact the life-cycle cost of building and operating a wind plant. Schwabe et al. (2011) apply a spreadsheet-based cash flow model developed by the Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN) to estimate LCOE. This model is a detailed, discounted cash flow model used to represent the various cost structures in each of the participating countries from the perspective of a financial investor in a domestic wind energy project. This model is used for the present analysis as well, and comparisons are made for those countries who contributed to both reports, Denmark, Germany, and the United States.

  1. Residential, Commercial, and Utility-Scale Photovoltaic (PV) System Prices in the United States: Current Drivers and Cost-Reduction Opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodrich, A.; James, T.; Woodhouse, M.

    2012-02-01

    The price of photovoltaic (PV) systems in the United States (i.e., the cost to the system owner) has dropped precipitously in recent years, led by substantial reductions in global PV module prices. However, system cost reductions are not necessarily realized or realized in a timely manner by many customers. Many reasons exist for the apparent disconnects between installation costs, component prices, and system prices; most notable is the impact of fair market value considerations on system prices. To guide policy and research and development strategy decisions, it is necessary to develop a granular perspective on the factors that underlie PV system prices and to eliminate subjective pricing parameters. This report's analysis of the overnight capital costs (cash purchase) paid for PV systems attempts to establish an objective methodology that most closely approximates the book value of PV system assets.

  2. 40 CFR 75.19 - Optional SO2, NOX, and CO2 emissions calculation for low mass emissions (LME) units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... pulsations, internal guide vane (IGV) position, and flame detection or flame scanner condition. The... operation)). Also, under similar operating conditions, the stack or turbine outlet temperature of each unit must be within ±50 degrees Fahrenheit of the average stack or turbine outlet temperature for all of...

  3. Cost Analysis of MRI Services in Iran: An Application of Activity Based Costing Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayati

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Considerable development of MRI technology in diagnostic imaging, high cost of MRI technology and controversial issues concerning official charges (tariffs have been the main motivations to define and implement this study. Objectives The present study aimed to calculate the unit-cost of MRI services using activity-based costing (ABC as a modern cost accounting system and to fairly compare calculated unit-costs with official charges (tariffs. Materials and Methods We included both direct and indirect costs of MRI services delivered in fiscal year 2011 in Shiraz Shahid Faghihi hospital. Direct allocation method was used for distribution of overhead costs. We used micro-costing approach to calculate unit-cost of all different MRI services. Clinical cost data were retrieved from the hospital registering system. Straight-line method was used for depreciation cost estimation. To cope with uncertainty and to increase the robustness of study results, unit costs of 33 MRI services was calculated in terms of two scenarios. Results Total annual cost of MRI activity center (AC was calculated at USD 400,746 and USD 532,104 based on first and second scenarios, respectively. Ten percent of the total cost was allocated from supportive departments. The annual variable costs of MRI center were calculated at USD 295,904. Capital costs measured at USD 104,842 and USD 236, 200 resulted from the first and second scenario, respectively. Existing tariffs for more than half of MRI services were above the calculated costs. Conclusion As a public hospital, there are considerable limitations in both financial and administrative databases of Shahid Faghihi hospital. Labor cost has the greatest share of total annual cost of Shahid Faghihi hospital. The gap between unit costs and tariffs implies that the claim for extra budget from health providers may not be relevant for all services delivered by the studied MRI center. With some adjustments, ABC could be implemented in MRI centers. With the settlement of a reliable cost accounting system such as ABC technique, hospitals would be able to generate robust evidences for financial management of their overhead, intermediate and final ACs.

  4. The cost of electrocoagulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donini, J.C.; Kan, J.; Szynkarczuk, J.; Hassan, T.A.; Kar, K.L.

    1993-01-01

    Electrocoagulation could be an attractive and suitable method for separating solids from waste water. The electrocoagulation of kaolinite and bentonite suspensions was studied in a pilot electrocoagulation unit to assess the cost and efficiency of the process. Factors affecting cost such as the formation of passivation layers on electrode plates and the recirculation and concentration of sodium chloride were examined. Colorimetry was used to analyze aluminum content in the suspension. The results were used to calculate the cost due to consumption of electrode material (aluminium) during the process. Total cost was assumed to comprise the energy cost and the cost of electrode material. Comparison was based on the settling properties of the treated product: turbidity, settling rate, and cake height. In most cases, aluminium efficiency averaged around 200% and material cost accounted for 80% of total cost. Although higher concentrations of sodium chloride could only slightly increase aluminium efficiency and electrode efficiency, the higher concentrations resulted in much greater total cost, due to the greater current generated by the increased suspension conductivity, which in turn dissolved a larger amount of aluminium. The recirculation loop increased the flow rate by 3-10 times, enhancing the mass transport between the electrodes and resulting in lower cost and better settling properties. Over the course of two months the electrodes coatings became thicker while efficiency decreased. The electrode efficiency was found to be as high as 94% for virgin electrodes and as low as 10% after two months. 8 refs., 25 figs., 9 tabs.

  5. Cost-Benefit Analysis of Nanoparticle Albumin-Bound Paclitaxel versus Solvent-Based Paclitaxel for the Treatment of Metastatic Breast Cancer in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vichansavakul, Kittaya

    Breast cancer is the second leading cause of death among women in the US. Although early detection and treatment help to increase survival rates, some unfortunate patients develop metastatic breast cancer that has no cure. Palliative treatment is the main objective in this group of patients in order to prolong life and reduce toxicities from interventions. In the advancement of treatment for metastatic breast cancer, solvent-based paclitaxel has been widely used. However, solvent-based paclitaxel often causes adverse reactions. Therefore, researchers have developed a new chemotherapy based on nanotechnology. One of these drugs is the Nanoparticle albumin-bound Paclitaxel. This nanodrug aims to increase therapeutic index by reducing adverse reactions from solvents and to improve efficacy of conventional cytotoxic chemotherapy. Breast cancer is a disease with high epidemiological and economic burden. The treatment of metastatic breast cancer has not only high direct costs but also high indirect costs. Breast cancer affects mass populations, especially women younger than 50 years of age. It relates to high indirect costs due to lost productivity and premature death because the majority of these patients are in the workforce. Because of the high cost of breast cancer therapies and short survival rates, the question is raised whether the costs and benefits are worth paying or not. Due to the rising costs in healthcare and new financing policies that have been developed to address this issue, economic evaluation is an important aspect of the development and use of any new interventions. To guide policy makers on how to allocate limited healthcare resources in the most efficient and effective manner, many economic evaluation methods can be used to measure the costs, benefits, and impacts of healthcare innovations. Currently, economic evaluation and health outcomes studies have focused greatly on cost-effectiveness and cost-utility analysis. However, the previous studies had some limitations because they were conducted from a narrow perspective such as payer and provider point of views. The studies also considered only direct costs in their analysis. In fact, conducting economic evaluations from a narrow perspective and leaving out indirect costs might undermine the true benefit of the interventions for society. A cost-benefit analysis measures all costs and benefits in monetary units. It incorporates both health outcomes gained from individuals and the value gained to society in order to maximize the usage of resources effectively. This thesis conducted a cost-benefit analysis to compare nab-paclitaxel and generic paclitaxel in treating metastatic breast cancer from a societal perspective in the United States. The results showed that nab-paclitaxel is a cost-benefit strategy regardless of the different costs and benefits due to the extra 3 years of living it provides. In all models, when nab-paclitaxel was compared to generic paclitaxel, nab-paclitaxel showed cost-benefit to society. However, the results of generic paclitaxel were dependent on the total medical costs. Performing a cost-benefit analysis of nab-paclitaxel from a societal perspective is important to understand the true benefit of interventions. Furthermore, considering both direct and indirect costs, as well as benefits, of this drug is vital because the economic profile of nab-paclitaxel would be improved.

  6. Calculation of a 900 MW conceptual 700/720ºC coal-fired power unit with an auxiliary extraction-backpressure turbine

    OpenAIRE

    Katarzyna St?pczy?ska; ?ukasz Kowalczyk; S?awomir Dykas; Witold Elsner

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the calculations for different configurations of a 900 MW power unit for advanced 700/720°C ultra-supercritical steam parameters with a single and double steam reheat. The use of such high parameters, especially the reheated steam temperature, involves thermodynamic and material problems related to high temperature differences in the feed water heaters. In relation to this, a concept of the modification of the feed water heaters system by using an auxiliary extraction-back...

  7. Relation between diet cost and Healthy Eating Index 2010 scores among adults in the United States 2007-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehm, Colin D.; Monsivais, Pablo; Drewnowski, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Background Food prices may be one reason for the growing socioeconomic disparities in diet quality. Objective To evaluate the association between diet costs and the Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI-2010). Methods Cross-sectional study based on 11,181 adults from the 2007-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, analyzed in spring 2014. Diet cost was estimated by linking dietary data with a national food price database. The HEI-2010, a measure of adherence to the Dietary Guidelines, was the outcome. The population ratio method was used to estimate the average HEI-2010 scores by quintile of energy-adjusted diet cost. Additional analyses evaluated the association between cost and HEI-2010 components. Results There was a strong positive association between lower energy-adjusted diet costs and lower HEI-2010 scores. The association was stronger among women (p-interaction=0.003). Lower diet costs were associated with lower consumption of vegetables, fruit, whole grains, and seafood, and higher consumption of refined grains and solid fat, alcohol and added sugars. Conclusions Lower energy-adjusted diet costs were associated with lower-quality diets. Future efforts to improve the nutritional status of the US public should take food prices and diet costs into account. PMID:25625693

  8. The Social Cost of Trading: Measuring the Increased Damages from Sulfur Dioxide Trading in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, David D., III; Muller, Nicholas Z.; Mendelsohn, Robert O.

    2011-01-01

    The sulfur dioxide (SO[subscript 2]) cap and trade program established in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments is celebrated for reducing abatement costs ($0.7 to $2.1 billion per year) by allowing emissions allowances to be traded. Unfortunately, places with high marginal costs also tend to have high marginal damages. Ton-for-ton trading reduces…

  9. The Social Cost of Trading: Measuring the Increased Damages from Sulfur Dioxide Trading in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, David D., III; Muller, Nicholas Z.; Mendelsohn, Robert O.

    2011-01-01

    The sulfur dioxide (SO[subscript 2]) cap and trade program established in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments is celebrated for reducing abatement costs ($0.7 to $2.1 billion per year) by allowing emissions allowances to be traded. Unfortunately, places with high marginal costs also tend to have high marginal damages. Ton-for-ton trading reduces…

  10. Highway crash costs in the United States by driver age, blood alcohol level, victim age, and restraint use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, T R; Lestina, D C; Spicer, R S

    1998-03-01

    This paper estimates 1993 U.S. highway crash incidence and costs by driver age, alcohol use, victim age, occupant status, and restraint use. Notable findings are: (1) crash costs of novice drivers are high enough to yield preliminary benefit-cost ratios around 4-8 for a provisional licensing system that restricts driving after midnight and 11 for zero alcohol tolerance for young drivers with violators receiving a 6-month suspension; (2) the costs to people other than the intoxicated driver per mile driven at BACs of 0.08-0.099% exceed the value of driver mobility; (3) the safety costs of drunk driving appear to exceed $5.80 per mile, compared with $2.50 per mile driven at BACs of 0.08-0.099%, and $0.11 per mile driven sober; (4) highway crashes cause an estimated 3.2% of U.S. medical spending, including more than 14% of medical spending for ages 15-24; (5) ignoring crash-involved occupants whose restraint use is unknown, the 13% of occupants who police reported were traveling unrestrained accounted for an estimated 42% of the crash costs; and (6) if these unrestrained occupants buckled up, the medical costs of crashes would decline by an estimated 18% (almost $4 billion annually) and the comprehensive costs by 24%. PMID:9450118

  11. Comparison of alterations in frequency and cost of antibiotic use in neonatal and pediatric intensive care units of a hospital following protocol to an education and research hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Dogan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available AiM: The objective of this study is to show the alterations in frequency and cost of antibiotic use in neonatal and pediatric intensive care units of a state hospital after it started to service as an education and research hospital. We also aimed to raise an awareness related to rational antibiotic use. METHODS: The surveillance of antibiotic use and comparison of costs were evaluated in 392 patients in between August 2013-January 2014. The rate and cost of antibiotic use during last 90 days before the protocol of state hospital to research and education hospital and the first 90 days after protocol were evaluated. Antibiotics were assessed according to the treatment protocols of the Committee of Rational Drug Use, Infection Control Committee and Antibiotic Control Committee. Antibiotics were provided from administrative system and the data related to costs were obtained from Ministry of Health and Ministry of Finance. The demographic data and the data related to indication for admission to intensive care units, antibiotic dosages and pathogens causing infections were also obtained. For statistical analysis, SPSS program was used and descriptive analysis were made. In comparison of the groups, Mann Whitney U and chi-square tests were used. The data were evaluated within a 95% confidence interval. RESULTS: In first and second period, 143 patients were hospitalized for 3.18+/-1.13 days and 105 patients were hospitalized for 2.69+/-4.14 days in pediatric intensive care unit(PICU; 79 patients were hospitalized for 17.29+/-3.61 days and 65 patients stayed for 21.29+/-3.29 days in neonatal intensive care unit(NICU, respectively. In the first and second period, cost of antibiotics in PICU was found 341.81+/-744.49 (med:14.91 and 585.35+/-796.62 (med:256.44 (p=0.02 Turkish Liras (TL; in NICU 137.92+/-178.78 (med:14.59 and 247.40+/-370.13(med:19.23 (p=0.76 TL respectively. CONCLUSiON: In the second period, in PICU, duration of hospitalization was found to decrease and costs of antibiotics were higher. In NICU, the duration of hospitalization was longer and although statistically insignificant, costs of antibiotics were slightly higher. Differences between the two periods in term of cost showed that, PICUs and ICUs should revisit their antibiotic preferences from the viewpoint of a pediatric infectious disease physician. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2015; 14(2.000: 107-112

  12. Cost-Effectiveness of Home Energy Retrofits in Pre-Code Vintage Homes in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fairey, P.; Parker, D.

    2012-11-01

    This analytical study examines the opportunities for cost-effective energy efficiency and renewable energy retrofits in residential archetypes constructed prior to 1980 (Pre-Code) in fourteen U.S. cities. These fourteen cities are representative of each of the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) climate zones in the contiguous U.S. The analysis is conducted using an in-house version of EnergyGauge USA v.2.8.05 named CostOpt that has been programmed to perform iterative, incremental economic optimization on a large list of residential energy efficiency and renewable energy retrofit measures. The principle objectives of the study are as follows: to determine the opportunities for cost effective source energy reductions in this large cohort of existing residential building stock as a function of local climate and energy costs; and to examine how retrofit financing alternatives impact the source energy reductions that are cost effectively achievable.

  13. The estimated economic burden of genital herpes in the United States. An analysis using two costing approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fisman David N

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Only limited data exist on the costs of genital herpes (GH in the USA. We estimated the economic burden of GH in the USA using two different costing approaches. Methods The first approach was a cross-sectional survey of a sample of primary and secondary care physicians, analyzing health care resource utilization. The second approach was based on the analysis of a large administrative claims data set. Both approaches were used to generate the number of patients with symptomatic GH seeking medical treatment, the average medical expenditures and estimated national costs. Costs were valued from a societal and a third party payer's perspective in 1996 US dollars. Results In the cross-sectional study, based on an estimated 3.1 million symptomatic episodes per year in the USA, the annual direct medical costs were estimated at a maximum of $984 million. Of these costs, 49.7% were caused by drug expenditures, 47.7% by outpatient medical care and 2.6% by hospital costs. Indirect costs accounted for further $214 million. The analysis of 1,565 GH cases from the claims database yielded a minimum national estimate of $283 million direct medical costs. Conclusions GH appears to be an important public health problem from the health economic point of view. The observed difference in direct medical costs may be explained with the influence of compliance to treatment and possible undersampling of subpopulations in the claims data set. The present study demonstrates the validity of using different approaches in estimating the economic burden of a specific disease to the health care system.

  14. A 3D superposition pencil beam dose calculation algorithm for a 60Co therapy unit and its verification by MC simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The MCNP Monte Carlo code was used to simulate the collimating system of the 60Co therapy unit to calculate the primary and scattered photon fluences as well as the electron contamination incident to the isocentric plane as the functions of the irradiation field size. Furthermore, a Monte Carlo simulation for the polyenergetic Pencil Beam Kernels (PBKs) generation was performed using the calculated photon and electron spectra. The PBK was analytically fitted to speed up the dose calculation using the convolution technique in the homogeneous media. The quality of the PBK fit was verified by comparing the calculated and simulated 60Co broad beam profiles and depth dose curves in a homogeneous water medium. The inhomogeneity correction coefficients were derived from the PBK simulation of an inhomogeneous slab phantom consisting of various materials. The inhomogeneity calculation model is based on the changes in the PBK radial displacement and on the change of the forward and backward electron scattering. The inhomogeneity correction is derived from the electron density values gained from a complete 3D CT array and considers different electron densities through which the pencil beam is propagated as well as the electron density values located between the interaction point and the point of dose deposition. Important aspects and details of the algorithm implementation are also described in this study. - Highlights: • Monte Carlo simulation of photon and electron spectra for a 60Co therapy unit. • Monte Carlo simulation of a polyenergetic Pencil Beam Kernel (PBK). • Inhomogeneity correction based on Monte Carlo simulation. • Implementation of dose calculation algorithm on the CT matrix with 3D inhomogeneity correction

  15. QUABOX/CUBBOX code verification for the calculations of the Ignalina unit 2 reactor core composition changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At present at the Ignalina NPP the process of extensive use of the new uranium - erbium fuel is going on. The loading process of the new uranium - erbium fuel assemblies into the reactor cores is accompanied by experiments and analytical investigation of the behaviour of the main neutron - physical characteristics of the reactor. This article presents the results of independent calculations of different core states obtained using the German code QUABOX/CUBBOX which are compared with the results of similar calculations performed using codes SADCO and STEPAN as well as with experimental data. This is one of the steps in the process of validation of the code QUABOX/CUBBOX for the modeling of the process taking place in RBMK-1500 reactors. (author)

  16. Purex co-processing of spent LWR fuels: comparative fuel cycle cost analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear fuel cycle costs for purex reprocessing and co-processing cycles are to be evaluated, by calculating unit costs of recovered, accordingly treated and fabricated products and then comparing those to the unit cost of fresh uranium fuel ready to be loaded into a typical LWR on the once-through cycle

  17. Cost-Effectiveness of Alternative Blood-Screening Strategies for West Nile Virus in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: West Nile virus (WNV is endemic in the US, varying seasonally and by geographic region. WNV can be transmitted by blood transfusion, and mandatory screening of blood for WNV was recently introduced throughout the US. Guidelines for selecting cost-effective strategies for screening blood for WNV do not exist. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a cost-effectiveness analysis for screening blood for WNV using a computer-based mathematical model, and using data from prospective studies, retrospective studies, and published literature. For three geographic areas with varying WNV-transmission intensity and length of transmission season, the model was used to estimate lifetime costs, quality-adjusted life expectancy, and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios associated with alternative screening strategies in a target population of blood-transfusion recipients. We compared the status quo (baseline screening using a donor questionnaire to several strategies which differed by nucleic acid testing of either pooled or individual samples, universal versus targeted screening of donations designated for immunocompromised patients, and seasonal versus year-long screening. In low-transmission areas with short WNV seasons, screening by questionnaire alone was the most cost-effective strategy. In areas with high levels of WNV transmission, seasonal screening of individual samples and restricting screening to blood donations designated for immunocompromised recipients was the most cost-effective strategy. Seasonal screening of the entire recipient pool added minimal clinical benefit, with incremental cost-effectiveness ratios exceeding US$1.7 million per quality-adjusted life-year gained. Year-round screening offered no additional benefit compared to seasonal screening in any of the transmission settings. CONCLUSIONS: In areas with high levels of WNV transmission, seasonal screening of individual samples and restricting screening to blood donations designated for immunocompromised recipients is cost saving. In areas with low levels of infection, a status-quo strategy using a standard questionnaire is cost-effective.

  18. Cost-Effectiveness of Helicopter Versus Ground Emergency Medical Services for Trauma Scene Transport in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, M. Kit; Staudenmayer, Kristan L.; Wang, N. Ewen; Spain, David A.; Weir, Sharada; Owens, Douglas K.; Goldhaber-Fiebert, Jeremy D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective We determined the minimum mortality reduction that helicopter emergency medical services (HEMS) should provide relative to ground EMS for the scene transport of trauma victims to offset higher costs, inherent transport risks, and inevitable overtriage of minor injury patients. Methods We developed a decision-analytic model to compare the costs and outcomes of helicopter versus ground EMS transport to a trauma center from a societal perspective over a patient's lifetime. We determined the mortality reduction needed to make helicopter transport cost less than $100,000 and $50,000 per quality adjusted life year (QALY) gained compared to ground EMS. Model inputs were derived from the National Study on the Costs and Outcomes of Trauma (NSCOT), National Trauma Data Bank, Medicare reimbursements, and literature. We assessed robustness with probabilistic sensitivity analyses. Results HEMS must provide a minimum of a 17% relative risk reduction in mortality (1.6 lives saved/100 patients with the mean characteristics of the NSCOT cohort) to cost less than $100,000 per QALY gained and a reduction of at least 33% (3.7 lives saved/100 patients) to cost less than $50,000 per QALY. HEMS becomes more cost-effective with significant reductions in minor injury patients triaged to air transport or if long-term disability outcomes are improved. Conclusions HEMS needs to provide at least a 17% mortality reduction or a measurable improvement in long-term disability to compare favorably to other interventions considered cost-effective. Given current evidence, it is not clear that HEMS achieves this mortality or disability reduction. Reducing overtriage of minor injury patients to HEMS would improve its cost-effectiveness. PMID:23582619

  19. Calculations of the radiological impact of disposal of unit activity of selected radionuclides for use in waste management system studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the work described is to provide estimates of the radiological impact following disposal of unit activity via each of several options, including shallow burial, engineered trench disposal, disposal in a geologic repository and disposal on the deep ocean bed. Results are presented for a range of important representative radionuclides. No single option is clearly the best from the radiological point of view. However, in conjunction with waste inventory data the results may be used to provide a preliminary view of the relative radiological merits of the various disposal options. (author)

  20. Cost-Effectiveness Osteoporosis Treatment Thresholds: The United States Perspective from the National Osteoporosis Foundation Guide Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: Rapid growth of the elderly United States population will result in so many at risk of osteoporosis that economically efficient approaches to osteoporosis care warrant consideration.Methods: A Markov-cohort model of annual United States age-specific incidence of hip, wrist, clinical s...

  1. WIMS-IST/DRAGON-IST side-step calculation of reactivity device and structural material incremental cross sections for Wolsong NPP Unit 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahmani, M.; McArthur, R. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Mississauga, Ontario (Canada)], E-mail: dahmanim@aecl.ca, mcarthurr@aecl.ca; Kim, B.G. [Korea Power Engineering Co., Inc. Daejon (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: kimbg@kopec.co.kr; Kim, S.M. [Nuclear Engineering and Tech. Inst. (NETEC), Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: wolsong@khnp.co.kr; Seo, H.-B. [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd., Gyeong Buk (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: shbsar@khnp.co.kr

    2008-07-01

    This paper describes the calculation of two-group incremental cross sections for all of the reactivity devices and incore structural materials for an RFSP-IST full-core model of Wolsong NPP Unit 1, in support of the conversion of the reference plant model to two energy groups. This is of particular interest since the calculation used the new standard 'side-step' approach, which is a three-dimensional supercell method that employs the Industry Standard Toolset (IST) codes DRAGON-IST and WIMS-IST with the ENDF/B-VI nuclear data library. In this technique, the macroscopic cross sections for the fuel regions and the device material specifications are first generated using the lattice code WIMS-IST with 89 energy groups. DRAGON-IST then uses this data with a standard supercell modelling approach for the three-dimensional calculations. Incremental cross sections are calculated for the stainless-steel adjuster rods (SS-ADJ), the liquid zone control units (LZCU), the shutoff rods (SOR), the mechanical control absorbers (MCA) and various structural materials, such as guide tubes, springs, locators, brackets, adjuster cables and support bars and the moderator inlet nozzle deflectors. Isotopic compositions of the Zircaloy-2, stainless steel and Inconel X-750 alloys in these items are derived from Wolsong NPP Unit 1 history dockets. Their geometrical layouts are based on applicable design drawings. Mid-burnup fuel with no moderator poison was assumed. The incremental cross sections and key aspects of the modelling are summarized in this paper. (author)

  2. WIMS-IST/DRAGON-IST side-step calculation of reactivity device and structural material incremental cross sections for Wolsong NPP Unit 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the calculation of two-group incremental cross sections for all of the reactivity devices and incore structural materials for an RFSP-IST full-core model of Wolsong NPP Unit 1, in support of the conversion of the reference plant model to two energy groups. This is of particular interest since the calculation used the new standard 'side-step' approach, which is a three-dimensional supercell method that employs the Industry Standard Toolset (IST) codes DRAGON-IST and WIMS-IST with the ENDF/B-VI nuclear data library. In this technique, the macroscopic cross sections for the fuel regions and the device material specifications are first generated using the lattice code WIMS-IST with 89 energy groups. DRAGON-IST then uses this data with a standard supercell modelling approach for the three-dimensional calculations. Incremental cross sections are calculated for the stainless-steel adjuster rods (SS-ADJ), the liquid zone control units (LZCU), the shutoff rods (SOR), the mechanical control absorbers (MCA) and various structural materials, such as guide tubes, springs, locators, brackets, adjuster cables and support bars and the moderator inlet nozzle deflectors. Isotopic compositions of the Zircaloy-2, stainless steel and Inconel X-750 alloys in these items are derived from Wolsong NPP Unit 1 history dockets. Their geometrical layouts are based on applicable design drawings. Mid-burnup fuel with no moderator poison was assumed. The incremental cross sections and key aspects of the modelling are summarized in this paper. (author)

  3. Cost -Benefit Analysis of a Single-Unit System with Preventive Maintenance and Weibull Distribution for Failure and Repair Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Ashish

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with a reliability model developed for a single-unit system which goes for preventive maintenance after a pre-specific time ‘t’ up to which no failure occurs. There is a single server who takes some time to arrive at the system for doing repair activities. The unit does not work as new after repair at complete failure and so called the degraded unit. The degraded unit is replaced by new one after its failure with some replacement time. The failure time, preventive maintenance time, replacement time and repair time of the unit are taken as Weibull distributed with common shape parameter and different scale parameters. The switching devices are perfect. The system is observed at suitable regenerative epochs to obtain various measures of system effectiveness of interest to system designers and operation managers.

  4. Avoidable waste management costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, K.; Burns, M.; Priebe, S.; Robinson, P.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes the activity based costing method used to acquire variable (volume dependent or avoidable) waste management cost data for routine operations at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. Waste volumes from environmental restoration, facility stabilization activities, and legacy waste were specifically excluded from this effort. A core team consisting of Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, and Oak Ridge Reservation developed and piloted the methodology, which can be used to determine avoidable waste management costs. The method developed to gather information was based on activity based costing, which is a common industrial engineering technique. Sites submitted separate flow diagrams that showed the progression of work from activity to activity for each waste type or treatability group. Each activity on a flow diagram was described in a narrative, which detailed the scope of the activity. Labor and material costs based on a unit quantity of waste being processed were then summed to generate a total cost for that flow diagram. Cross-complex values were calculated by determining a weighted average for each waste type or treatability group based on the volume generated. This study will provide DOE and contractors with a better understanding of waste management processes and their associated costs. Other potential benefits include providing cost data for sites to perform consistent cost/benefit analysis of waste minimization and pollution prevention (WMIN/PP) options identified during pollution prevention opportunity assessments and providing a means for prioritizing and allocating limited resources for WMIN/PP.

  5. Avoidable waste management costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the activity based costing method used to acquire variable (volume dependent or avoidable) waste management cost data for routine operations at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. Waste volumes from environmental restoration, facility stabilization activities, and legacy waste were specifically excluded from this effort. A core team consisting of Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, and Oak Ridge Reservation developed and piloted the methodology, which can be used to determine avoidable waste management costs. The method developed to gather information was based on activity based costing, which is a common industrial engineering technique. Sites submitted separate flow diagrams that showed the progression of work from activity to activity for each waste type or treatability group. Each activity on a flow diagram was described in a narrative, which detailed the scope of the activity. Labor and material costs based on a unit quantity of waste being processed were then summed to generate a total cost for that flow diagram. Cross-complex values were calculated by determining a weighted average for each waste type or treatability group based on the volume generated. This study will provide DOE and contractors with a better understanding of waste management processes and their associated costs. Other potential benefits include providing cost data for sites to perform consistent cost/benefit analysis of waste minimization and pollution prevention (WMIN/PP) options identified during pollution prevention opportunity assessments and providing a means for prioritizing and allocating limited resources for WMIN/PP

  6. Advances and Challenges for Adoption of Activity Based Costing (ABC) by Public Sector: A Comparative Study of Brazil, Colombia, Uruguay and United States

    OpenAIRE

    Luís Paulo F Carmo; Fernando Padovani

    2012-01-01

    This article aims to evaluate the advances and challenges to the adoption of the activity based costing system (ABC) by the public sector of countries like Colombia, Uruguay and Brazil, always keeping a comparative perspective with the historical experience of the United States. Considering the growing demand of citizens-users of public services in terms of quality, accountability and transparency, and also the convergence of international accounting and management practices, such as converge...

  7. Characteristics and Behavior of Managers towards Cost Consciouness (Empirical studies on Leadership Working Units in Southern Kalimantan Provincial Government)

    OpenAIRE

    Ade Adriani; Norlena Norlena

    2014-01-01

    The research’s  purpose is to test empirically examine the effect of the regional financial accounting information system characteristics and behavior of managers towards cost consciouness in the use of financial information systems area. Manager behavior is proxied by the control decision-making and cost management consciousness as practiced by Abernethy and Emidia. The study will examine whether the phenomenon occurs in Indonesia, particularly in the South Kalimantan provincial government. ...

  8. The association of willingness-to-pay and patient attributes: a cost-volume-profit analysis of cardiac catheter unit services in Ramallah Hospital, Palestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabr, Samer F K; Younis, Mustafa Mike Z; Forgione, Dana A

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the association of willingness-to-pay and patient attributes in relation to the multi-service cost-volume-profit structure of a cardiac catheter unit in Ramallah Hospital. This article contributes to the literature by providing primary evidence on patient willingness-to-pay, by identifying the specific break-even parameters of three hospital cardiac catheter unit service types (diagnosis, balloon, and pacemaker), and by demonstrating the cross-subsidization of patient income groups that is inherent in the existing hospital rate structure. Our results provide information useful for (1) evidence-based policy making with respect to hospital rate setting and cross-subsidies of patient income groups; (2) the advancement of hospital management, by demonstrating the estimated variable and fixed cost parameters and the impact of patient revenue mix on the profitability of cardiac catheter unit services; and (3) the advancement of theory, by documenting the relationship of patient demand and the cost of supply in a multi-patient-group, multi-service hospital setting. PMID:19891208

  9. Deterministic Assessment of Future Costs for Dismantling (FA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasko, Marek [DECOM, Trnava (Slovakia)

    2012-11-01

    The main objective of the report is to provide an re-evaluation of cost calculations by OMEGA code for the Intermediate Storage for Spent Fuel in Studsvik (FA facility) using up-to-date Swedish labour cost unit factors and available up-to-date Swedish (or international) cost unit factors for consumables, materials and substances. Furthermore, evolution of other OMEGA database parameters concerning cost calculations e.g. manpower unit factors and workgroups parameters are taken into account. This report follows up former project which introduced tentative calculations of main decommissioning parameters such as costs, manpower and exposure of personnel for activities of older nuclear facility decommissioning in Sweden represented by FA Facility in Studsvik by means of calculation code OMEGA. The project demonstrated an implementation of advanced costing methodology based on PSL structure format to achieve transparent, traceable and comparable estimates even for older nuclear facilities like FA Facility in Studsvik. This former project used Slovak origin labour costs unit factors and other cost unit factors. After successful completion of this project, there was an intent of SSM to reevaluate calculations using an up-to-date Swedish labour cost data and also available Swedish consumables and materials cost data if available. Within this report re-calculations of main decommissioning parameters using available Swedish data are presented in structure according to Proposed Standardized List of Items for Costing Purposes. Calculations are made for decommissioning scenario with post-dismantling decontamination and steel radwaste melting technologies available at the site. All parameters are documented and summed up in both table and graphic forms in text and Annexes. Further, comparison of calculated results with previous calculations together with discussion is provided.

  10. Deterministic Assessment of Future Costs for Dismantling (FA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objective of the report is to provide an re-evaluation of cost calculations by OMEGA code for the Intermediate Storage for Spent Fuel in Studsvik (FA facility) using up-to-date Swedish labour cost unit factors and available up-to-date Swedish (or international) cost unit factors for consumables, materials and substances. Furthermore, evolution of other OMEGA database parameters concerning cost calculations e.g. manpower unit factors and workgroups parameters are taken into account. This report follows up former project which introduced tentative calculations of main decommissioning parameters such as costs, manpower and exposure of personnel for activities of older nuclear facility decommissioning in Sweden represented by FA Facility in Studsvik by means of calculation code OMEGA. The project demonstrated an implementation of advanced costing methodology based on PSL structure format to achieve transparent, traceable and comparable estimates even for older nuclear facilities like FA Facility in Studsvik. This former project used Slovak origin labour costs unit factors and other cost unit factors. After successful completion of this project, there was an intent of SSM to reevaluate calculations using an up-to-date Swedish labour cost data and also available Swedish consumables and materials cost data if available. Within this report re-calculations of main decommissioning parameters using available Swedish data are presented in structure according to Proposed Standardized List of Items for Costing Purposes. Calculations are made for decommissioning scenario with post-dismantling decontamination and steel radwaste melting technologies available at the site. All parameters are documented and summed up in both table and graphic forms in text and Annexes. Further, comparison of calculated results with previous calculations together with discussion is provided

  11. Generalisability and Cost-Impact of Antibiotic-Impregnated Central Venous Catheters for Reducing Risk of Bloodstream Infection in Paediatric Intensive Care Units in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harron, Katie; Mok, Quen; Hughes, Dyfrig; Muller-Pebody, Berit; Parslow, Roger; Ramnarayan, Padmanabhan; Gilbert, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    Background We determined the generalisability and cost-impact of adopting antibiotic-impregnated CVCs in all paediatric intensive care units (PICUs) in England, based on results from a large randomised controlled trial (the CATCH trial; ISRCTN34884569). Methods BSI rates using standard CVCs were estimated through linkage of national PICU audit data (PICANet) with laboratory surveillance data. We estimated the number of BSI averted if PICUs switched from standard to antibiotic-impregnated CVCs by applying the CATCH trial rate-ratio (0.40; 95% CI 0.17,0.97) to the BSI rate using standard CVCs. The value of healthcare resources made available by averting one BSI as estimated from the trial economic analysis was £10,975; 95% CI -£2,801,£24,751. Results The BSI rate using standard CVCs was 4.58 (95% CI 4.42,4.74) per 1000 CVC-days in 2012. Applying the rate-ratio gave 232 BSI averted using antibiotic CVCs. The additional cost of purchasing antibiotic-impregnated compared with standard CVCs was £36 for each child, corresponding to additional costs of £317,916 for an estimated 8831 CVCs required in PICUs in 2012. Based on 2012 BSI rates, management of BSI in PICUs cost £2.5 million annually (95% uncertainty interval: -£160,986, £5,603,005). The additional cost of antibiotic CVCs would be less than the value of resources associated with managing BSI in PICUs with standard BSI rates >1.2 per 1000 CVC-days. Conclusions The cost of introducing antibiotic-impregnated CVCs is less than the cost associated with managing BSIs occurring with standard CVCs. The long-term benefits of preventing BSI could mean that antibiotic CVCs are cost-effective even in PICUs with extremely low BSI rates. PMID:26999045

  12. SU-E-T-351: Verification of Monitor Unit Calculation for Lung Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy Using a Secondary Independent Planning System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuruta, Y; Nakata, M; Higashimura, K [Kyoto University Hospital, Kyoto, Kyoto (Japan); Nakamura, M; Miyabe, Y; Akimoto, M; Ono, T; Mukumoto, N; Ishihara, Y; Matsuo, Y; Mizowaki, T; Hiraoka, M [Kyoto University, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To compare isocenter (IC) dose between X-ray Voxel Monte Carlo (XVMC) and Acuros XB (AXB) as part of an independent verification of monitor unit (MU) calculation for lung stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) using a secondary independent treatment planning system (TPS). Methods: Treatment plans of 110 lesions from 101 patients who underwent lung SBRT with Vero4DRT (Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Japan, and BrainLAB, Feldkirchen, Germany) were evaluated retrospectively. Dose distribution was calculated with X-ray Voxel Monte Carlo (XVMC) in iPlan 4.5.1 (BrainLAB, Feldkirchen, Germany) on averaged intensity projection images. A spatial resolution and mean variance were 2 mm and 2%, respectively. The clinical treatment plans were transferred from iPlan to Eclipse (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA, USA), and doses were recalculated with well commissioned AXB ver. 11.0.31 while maintaining the XVMC-calculated MUs and beam arrangement. Dose calculations were made in the dose-to-medium dose reporting mode with the calculation grid size of 2.5 mm. The mean and standard deviation (SD) of the IC dose difference between XVMC and AXB were calculated. The tolerance level was defined as |mean|+2SD. Additionally, the relationship between IC dose difference and the size of planning target volume (PTV) or computed tomography (CT) value of internal target volume (ITV) was evaluated. Results: The mean±SD of the IC dose difference between XVMC and AXB was ?0.32±0.73%. The tolerance level was 1.8%. Absolute IC dose differences exceeding the tolerance level were observed in 3 patients (2.8%). There were no strong correlations between IC dose difference and PTV size (R=?0.14) or CT value of ITV (R=?0.33). Conclusion: The present study suggested that independent verification of MU calculation for lung SBRT using a secondary TPS is useful.

  13. SU-E-T-351: Verification of Monitor Unit Calculation for Lung Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy Using a Secondary Independent Planning System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To compare isocenter (IC) dose between X-ray Voxel Monte Carlo (XVMC) and Acuros XB (AXB) as part of an independent verification of monitor unit (MU) calculation for lung stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) using a secondary independent treatment planning system (TPS). Methods: Treatment plans of 110 lesions from 101 patients who underwent lung SBRT with Vero4DRT (Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Japan, and BrainLAB, Feldkirchen, Germany) were evaluated retrospectively. Dose distribution was calculated with X-ray Voxel Monte Carlo (XVMC) in iPlan 4.5.1 (BrainLAB, Feldkirchen, Germany) on averaged intensity projection images. A spatial resolution and mean variance were 2 mm and 2%, respectively. The clinical treatment plans were transferred from iPlan to Eclipse (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA, USA), and doses were recalculated with well commissioned AXB ver. 11.0.31 while maintaining the XVMC-calculated MUs and beam arrangement. Dose calculations were made in the dose-to-medium dose reporting mode with the calculation grid size of 2.5 mm. The mean and standard deviation (SD) of the IC dose difference between XVMC and AXB were calculated. The tolerance level was defined as |mean|+2SD. Additionally, the relationship between IC dose difference and the size of planning target volume (PTV) or computed tomography (CT) value of internal target volume (ITV) was evaluated. Results: The mean±SD of the IC dose difference between XVMC and AXB was ?0.32±0.73%. The tolerance level was 1.8%. Absolute IC dose differences exceeding the tolerance level were observed in 3 patients (2.8%). There were no strong correlations between IC dose difference and PTV size (R=?0.14) or CT value of ITV (R=?0.33). Conclusion: The present study suggested that independent verification of MU calculation for lung SBRT using a secondary TPS is useful

  14. cost-benefit analysis of legumes irradiation processing in egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the economics of legumes irradiation such as Chickpea,Lupin,Kidny Bean and broad and the effect of various parameters on unit processing costs. It provides a model for calculating specific unit processing costs by correlating known capital costs with annual operation cost an annual throughputs. We analysed the cost-benefit of the proposed grain irradiation facility. We took into account the cost of the capital investment, operation and other additional parameters and then estimated the unit processing cost. The investment criteria utilized for commercial evaluation were internal rate of return (I.I.R), pay back period (P.B.P), and average rate of return (A.R.R). The irradiation cost and the additional income are also discussed. The results of this analysis showed that the installation of an irradiation unit for legumes processing in Egypt would be economically feasible

  15. CRISTO I and II. Qualification experiments of criticality calculations for water cooled reactor fuel element storage units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To expand the capacity of storage and so decrease the problems linked to a possible delay in the reprocessing of important quantities of spent fuels, the solution is to reduce the storage space between the fuel element clusters from 41 cm to 28 cm. To compensate the increase of reactivity, it is necessary to immerse the fuel assemblies in strongly neutron absorber housings. The CRISTO program consists of a serie of criticality experiments on fuel assemblies separated by a water gap of which the thickness is variable and by neutron absorber plates of different natures. These experiments allow to qualify neutron calculation methods used for the dimensioning of the storage cells and to verify the behavior of the reactivity at a low water density for safety-criticality studies

  16. Cost analysis in a clinical microbiology laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brezmes, M F; Ochoa, C; Eiros, J M

    2002-08-01

    The use of models for business management and cost control in public hospitals has led to a need for microbiology laboratories to know the real cost of the different products they offer. For this reason, a catalogue of microbiological products was prepared, and the costs (direct and indirect) for each product were analysed, along with estimated profitability. All tests performed in the microbiology laboratory of the "Virgen de la Concha" Hospital in Zamora over a 2-year period (73192 tests) were studied. The microbiological product catalogue was designed using homogeneity criteria with respect to procedures used, workloads and costs. For each product, the direct personnel costs (estimated from workloads following the method of the College of American Pathologists, 1992 version), the indirect personnel costs, the direct and indirect material costs and the portion of costs corresponding to the remaining laboratory costs (capital and structural costs) were calculated. The average product cost was 16.05 euros. The average cost of a urine culture (considered, for purposes of this study, as a relative value unit) reached 13.59 euros, with a significant difference observed between positive and negative cultures (negative urine culture, 10.72 euros; positive culture, 29.65 euros). Significant heterogeneity exists, both in the costs of different products and especially in the cost per positive test. The application of a detailed methodology of cost analysis facilitates the calculation of the real cost of microbiological products. This information provides a basic tool for establishing clinical management strategies. PMID:12226688

  17. Data Qualification Report: Calculated Porosity and Porosity-Derived Values for Lithostratigraphic Units for use on the Yucca Mountain Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The qualification is being completed in accordance with the Data Qualification Plan DQP-NBS-GS-000006, Rev. 00 (CRWMS M and O 2001). The purpose of this data qualification activity is to evaluate for qualification the unqualified developed input and porosity output included in Data Tracking Number (DTN) M09910POROCALC.000. The main output of the analyses documented in DTN M09910POROCALC.000 is the calculated total porosity and effective porosity for 40 Yucca Mountain Project boreholes. The porosity data are used as input to Analysis Model Report (AMR) 10040, ''Rock Properties Model'' (MDL-NBS-GS-000004, Rev. 00), Interim Change Notice [ICN] 02 (CRWMS M and O 2000b). The output from the rock properties model is used as input to numerical physical-process modeling within the context of a relationship developed in the AMR between hydraulic conductivity, bound water and zeolitic zones for use in the unsaturated zone model. In accordance with procedure AP-3.15Q, the porosity output is not used in the direct calculation of Principal Factors for post-closure safety or disruptive events. The original source for DTN M09910POROCALC.000 is a Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) Management and Operating Contractor (M and O) report, ''Combined Porosity from Geophysical Logs'' (CRWMS M and O 1999a and hereafter referred to as Rael 1999). That report recalculated porosity results for both the historical boreholes covered in Nelson (1996), and the modern boreholes reported in CRWMS M and O (1996a,b). The porosity computations in Rael (1999) are based on density-porosity mathematical relationships requiring various input parameters, including bulk density, matrix density and air and/or fluid density and volumetric water content. The main output is computed total porosity and effective porosity reported on a foot-by-foot basis for each borehole, although volumetric water content is derived from neutron data as an interim output. This qualification report uses technical assessment and corroboration to evaluate the original subject DTN. Rael (1999) provides many technical details of the technical assessment and corroboration methods and partially satisfies the intent of the qualification plan for this analysis. Rael presents a modified method based on Nelson (1996) to recompute porosity and porosity-derived values and uses some of the same inputs. Rael's (1999) intended purpose was to document porosity output relatively free of biases introduced by differing computational methods or parameter selections used for different boreholes. The qualification report necessarily evaluates the soundness of the pre-Process Validation and Re-engineering (PVAR) analyses and methodology, as reported in Rael (1999)

  18. Data Qualification Report: Calculated Porosity and Porosity-Derived Values for Lithostratigraphic Units for use on the Yucca Mountain Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Sanchez

    2001-05-30

    The qualification is being completed in accordance with the Data Qualification Plan DQP-NBS-GS-000006, Rev. 00 (CRWMS M&O 2001). The purpose of this data qualification activity is to evaluate for qualification the unqualified developed input and porosity output included in Data Tracking Number (DTN) M09910POROCALC.000. The main output of the analyses documented in DTN M09910POROCALC.000 is the calculated total porosity and effective porosity for 40 Yucca Mountain Project boreholes. The porosity data are used as input to Analysis Model Report (AMR) 10040, ''Rock Properties Model'' (MDL-NBS-GS-000004, Rev. 00), Interim Change Notice [ICN] 02 (CRWMS M&O 2000b). The output from the rock properties model is used as input to numerical physical-process modeling within the context of a relationship developed in the AMR between hydraulic conductivity, bound water and zeolitic zones for use in the unsaturated zone model. In accordance with procedure AP-3.15Q, the porosity output is not used in the direct calculation of Principal Factors for post-closure safety or disruptive events. The original source for DTN M09910POROCALC.000 is a Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) Management and Operating Contractor (M&O) report, ''Combined Porosity from Geophysical Logs'' (CRWMS M&O 1999a and hereafter referred to as Rael 1999). That report recalculated porosity results for both the historical boreholes covered in Nelson (1996), and the modern boreholes reported in CRWMS M&O (1996a,b). The porosity computations in Rael (1999) are based on density-porosity mathematical relationships requiring various input parameters, including bulk density, matrix density and air and/or fluid density and volumetric water content. The main output is computed total porosity and effective porosity reported on a foot-by-foot basis for each borehole, although volumetric water content is derived from neutron data as an interim output. This qualification report uses technical assessment and corroboration to evaluate the original subject DTN. Rael (1999) provides many technical details of the technical assessment and corroboration methods and partially satisfies the intent of the qualification plan for this analysis. Rael presents a modified method based on Nelson (1996) to recompute porosity and porosity-derived values and uses some of the same inputs. Rael's (1999) intended purpose was to document porosity output relatively free of biases introduced by differing computational methods or parameter selections used for different boreholes. The qualification report necessarily evaluates the soundness of the pre-Process Validation and Re-engineering (PVAR) analyses and methodology, as reported in Rael (1999).

  19. Cálculo del Costo Comparativo de la Obtención de Concentrados de Boratos Comparative Cost Calculation in the Obtaining of Borate Concentrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horacio R Flores

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo muestra la similitud existente entre los diagramas de flujo, balances de materia y equipos empleados en la concentración de boratos para obtener refinados y boratos de alto valor agregado. Se usa una planilla de cálculo para determinar el costo de producción para distintas condiciones de operación, a fin de determinar la oportunidad y conveniencia de cambiar el producto final, empleando la misma planta productora. Se analiza un caso particular que compara la producción de 10 tn/hr de concentrado de ulexita o de hidroboracita. Se obtiene un costo de producción por tonelada de B2O3 de 94.3 US dólares para la concentración de ulexita, que se reduce a 67.5 US dólares para la concentración de hidroboracita. Se concluye que el método propuesto es una herramienta que facilita el análisis económico del proceso productivo estudiado.This paper presents the similitude found between flow sheets, material balances and equipments employed in the concentration of borates, to obtain base refined borates and to obtain high added value borates. Spread sheet calculations are used to determine the production costs for different operating conditions and to analyze the opportunity and convenience of changing the final product, using the same process plant. A study case is considered in which 10 tn/hr of ulexite concentrate or the same amount of hydroboracite are produced. The cost per ton of B2O3 was 94.3 US dollars for the concentrated ulexite and 67.5 US dollars for concentrated hydroboracite. It is concluded that the proposed method is an useful tool for the economic analysis of the productive process considered in this study.

  20. Reconciling quality and cost: A case study in interventional radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To provide a method to calculate delay cost and examine the relationship between quality and total cost. The total cost including capacity, supply and delay cost for running an interventional radiology suite was calculated. The capacity cost, consisting of labour, lease and overhead costs, was derived based on expenses per unit time. The supply cost was calculated according to actual procedural material use. The delay cost and marginal delay cost derived from queueing models was calculated based on waiting times of inpatients for their procedures. Quality improvement increased patient safety and maintained the outcome. The average daily delay costs were reduced from 1275 EUR to 294 EUR, and marginal delay costs from approximately 2000 EUR to 500 EUR, respectively. The one-time annual cost saved from the transfer of surgical to radiological procedures was approximately 130,500 EUR. The yearly delay cost saved was approximately 150,000 EUR. With increased revenue of 10,000 EUR in project phase 2, the yearly total cost saved was approximately 290,000 EUR. Optimal daily capacity of 4.2 procedures was determined. An approach for calculating delay cost toward optimal capacity allocation was presented. An overall quality improvement was achieved at reduced costs. (orig.)

  1. Reconciling quality and cost: A case study in interventional radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Li; Mahnken, Andreas [University Hospital Giessen and Marburg, Philipps University of Marburg, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Baldinger Strasse, Marburg (Germany); Domroese, Sascha [University Hospital Giessen and Marburg, Philipps University of Marburg, Division of Controlling, Baldinger Strasse, Marburg (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    To provide a method to calculate delay cost and examine the relationship between quality and total cost. The total cost including capacity, supply and delay cost for running an interventional radiology suite was calculated. The capacity cost, consisting of labour, lease and overhead costs, was derived based on expenses per unit time. The supply cost was calculated according to actual procedural material use. The delay cost and marginal delay cost derived from queueing models was calculated based on waiting times of inpatients for their procedures. Quality improvement increased patient safety and maintained the outcome. The average daily delay costs were reduced from 1275 EUR to 294 EUR, and marginal delay costs from approximately 2000 EUR to 500 EUR, respectively. The one-time annual cost saved from the transfer of surgical to radiological procedures was approximately 130,500 EUR. The yearly delay cost saved was approximately 150,000 EUR. With increased revenue of 10,000 EUR in project phase 2, the yearly total cost saved was approximately 290,000 EUR. Optimal daily capacity of 4.2 procedures was determined. An approach for calculating delay cost toward optimal capacity allocation was presented. An overall quality improvement was achieved at reduced costs. (orig.)

  2. Parallelizing flow-accumulation calculations on graphics processing units—From iterative DEM preprocessing algorithm to recursive multiple-flow-direction algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Cheng-Zhi; Zhan, Lijun

    2012-06-01

    As one of the important tasks in digital terrain analysis, the calculation of flow accumulations from gridded digital elevation models (DEMs) usually involves two steps in a real application: (1) using an iterative DEM preprocessing algorithm to remove the depressions and flat areas commonly contained in real DEMs, and (2) using a recursive flow-direction algorithm to calculate the flow accumulation for every cell in the DEM. Because both algorithms are computationally intensive, quick calculation of the flow accumulations from a DEM (especially for a large area) presents a practical challenge to personal computer (PC) users. In recent years, rapid increases in hardware capacity of the graphics processing units (GPUs) provided in modern PCs have made it possible to meet this challenge in a PC environment. Parallel computing on GPUs using a compute-unified-device-architecture (CUDA) programming model has been explored to speed up the execution of the single-flow-direction algorithm (SFD). However, the parallel implementation on a GPU of the multiple-flow-direction (MFD) algorithm, which generally performs better than the SFD algorithm, has not been reported. Moreover, GPU-based parallelization of the DEM preprocessing step in the flow-accumulation calculations has not been addressed. This paper proposes a parallel approach to calculate flow accumulations (including both iterative DEM preprocessing and a recursive MFD algorithm) on a CUDA-compatible GPU. For the parallelization of an MFD algorithm (MFD-md), two different parallelization strategies using a GPU are explored. The first parallelization strategy, which has been used in the existing parallel SFD algorithm on GPU, has the problem of computing redundancy. Therefore, we designed a parallelization strategy based on graph theory. The application results show that the proposed parallel approach to calculate flow accumulations on a GPU performs much faster than either sequential algorithms or other parallel GPU-based algorithms based on existing parallelization strategies.

  3. SU-E-T-599: The Variation of Hounsfield Unit and Relative Electron Density Determination as a Function of KVp and Its Effect On Dose Calculation Accuracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To investigate the differences in relative electron density for different energy (kVp) settings and the effect that these differences have on dose calculations. Methods: A Nuclear Associates 76-430 Mini CT QC Phantom with materials of known relative electron densities was imaged by one multi-slice (16) and one single-slice computed tomography (CT) scanner. The Hounsfield unit (HU) was recorded for each material with energies ranging from 80 to 140 kVp and a representative relative electron density (RED) curve was created. A 5 cm thick inhomogeneity was created in the treatment planning system (TPS) image at a depth of 5 cm. The inhomogeneity was assigned HU for various materials for each kVp calibration curve. The dose was then calculated with the analytical anisotropic algorithm (AAA) at points within and below the inhomogeneity and compared using the 80 kVp beam as a baseline. Results: The differences in RED values as a function of kVp showed the largest variations of 580 and 547 HU for the Aluminum and Bone materials; the smallest differences of 0.6 and 3.0 HU were observed for the air and lung inhomogeneities. The corresponding dose calculations for the different RED values assigned to the 5 cm thick slab revealed the largest differences inside the aluminum and bone inhomogeneities of 2.2 to 6.4% and 4.3 to 7.0% respectively. The dose differences beyond these two inhomogeneities were between 0.4 to 1.6% for aluminum and 1.9 to 2.2 % for bone. For materials with lower HU the calculated dose differences were less than 1.0%. Conclusion: For high CT number materials the dose differences in the phantom calculation as high as 7.0% are significant. This result may indicate that implementing energy specific RED curves can increase dose calculation accuracy

  4. Integrating the Carbon and Water Footprints’ Costs in the Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC Full Water Cost Recovery Concept: Basic Principles Towards Their Reliable Calculation and Socially Just Allocation

    OpenAIRE

    Anastasia Papadopoulou; Stavroula Tsitsifli; Vasilis Kanakoudis

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the basic principles for the integration of the water and carbon footprints cost into the resource and environmental costs respectively, taking the suggestions set by the Water Framework Directive (WFD) 2000/60/EC one step forward. WFD states that full water cost recovery (FWCR) should be based on the estimation of the three sub-costs related: direct; environmental; and resource cost. It also strongly suggests the EU Member States develop and apply effective water pricing ...

  5. Candidemia in the intensive care unit: analysis of direct treatment costs and clinical outcome in patients treated with echinocandins or fluconazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimann, S M; Cornely, O A; Wisplinghoff, H; Kochanek, M; Stippel, D; Padosch, S A; Langebartels, G; Reuter, H; Reiner, M; Vierzig, A; Seifert, H; Vehreschild, M J G T; Glossmann, J; Franke, B; Vehreschild, J J

    2015-02-01

    Direct treatment costs caused by candidemia in German intensive care unit (ICU) patients are currently unknown. We analyzed treatment costs and the impact of antifungal drug choice. Comprehensive data of patients who had at least one episode of candidemia while staying in the ICU between 01/2005 and 12/2010 were documented in a database using the technology of the Cologne Cohort of Neutropenic Patients (CoCoNut). A detailed analysis of all disease-associated treatment costs was performed. Patients treated with echinocandins (i.e., anidulafungin, caspofungin, micafungin) or fluconazole were analyzed separately and compared. Forty-one and 64 patients received echinocandins and fluconazole, respectively. The mean Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) IV score was 114 (95 % confidence interval [CI]: 106-122) vs. 95 (95 % CI: 90-101, p?=?20,338 (95 % CI: 12,893-27,883) vs. 11,932 (95 % CI: 8,016-15,849, p?=?0.110), and the total direct treatment costs per patient were 37,995 (95 % CI: 26,614-49,376) vs. 22,305 (95 % CI: 16,817-27,793, p?=?0.012), resulting in daily costs per patient of 1,158 (95 % CI: 1,036-1,280) vs. 927 (95 % CI: 828-1,026, p?=?0.001). Our health economic analysis shows the high treatment costs of patients with candidemia in the ICU. Sicker patients had a prolonged hospitalization and were more likely to receive echinocandins, leading to higher treatment costs. Outcomes were comparable to those achieved in less sick patients with fluconazole. PMID:25213718

  6. The effectiveness of thermoluminescent crystals for calculation of required barrier against radiation at the diagnostic X-ray units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this research was the measurement of the surface skin doses of the patients concerning examination chest and skull radiographic and the comparison of the measures with National and International organization standards. In this cross sectional study, six X-ray generators in six Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences Hospitals were studied. 120 patients who were referred to the radiology wards for radiographic examinations of chest and skull with normal BMI were chosen, (20 patients for each radiography unit). In addition, six generators were matched for mAs, kvp, type of amplifier sheets, and technical conditions as much as possible, so the amount of surface dose would not depend on the mentioned items. We used thermo luminescence dosimeters for measurement of the surface skin dose (Lif-100). Calibrated Thermo luminescence dosimeters (TLD) were placed on the back skin of patients and then the results were read by TLD readers after radiation. The results of the measurement of the surface skin dose were 0.51 milli Gray for 1PA 2CXR, 3.36 milli Gray for 3LAT CXR, 7.25 milli Gray for 4AP or PA skull X-rays, and 7.59 milli Gray for LAT skull X-rays. The measured values were higher than the National and International organization standards. The results of this research revealed that the condition of the X-ray generators have to be evaluated and modified periodically. With modifying of the X-ray generators and also the promotion of the technician's skills, the radiation exposure and its side effects would reduce in patients concerning radiographic examination. (author)

  7. Evaluation of the cost effectiveness of exenatide versus insulin glargine in patients with sub-optimally controlled Type 2 diabetes in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetlow Anthony P

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Exenatide belongs to a new therapeutic class in the treatment of diabetes (incretin mimetics, allowing glucose-dependent glycaemic control in Type 2 diabetes. Randomised controlled trial data suggest that exenatide is as effective as insulin glargine at reducing HbA1c in combination therapy with metformin and sulphonylureas; with reduced weight but higher incidence of adverse gastrointestinal events. The objective of this study is to evaluate the cost effectiveness of exenatide versus insulin glargine using RCT data and a previously published model of Type 2 diabetes disease progression that is based on the United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study; the perspective of the health-payer of the United Kingdom National Health Service. Methods The study used a discrete event simulation model designed to forecast the costs and health outcome of a cohort of 1,000 subjects aged over 40 years with sub-optimally-controlled Type 2 diabetes, following initiation of either exenatide, or insulin glargine, in addition to oral hypoglycaemic agents. Sensitivity analysis for a higher treatment discontinuation rate in exenatide patients was applied to the cohort in three different scenarios; (1 either ignored or (2 exenatide-failures excluded or (3 exenatide-failures switched to insulin glargine. Analyses were undertaken to evaluate the price sensitivity of exenatide in terms of relative cost effectiveness. Baseline cohort profiles and effectiveness data were taken from a published randomised controlled trial. Results The relative cost-effectiveness of exenatide and insulin glargine was tested under a variety of conditions, in which insulin glargine was dominant in all cases. Using the most conservative of assumptions, the cost-effectiveness ratio of exenatide vs. insulin glargine at the current UK NHS price was -£29,149/QALY (insulin glargine dominant and thus exenatide is not cost-effective when compared with insulin glargine, at the current UK NHS price. Conclusion This study evaluated the relative cost effectiveness of insulin glargine versus exenatide in the management of Type 2 diabetes using a published model. Given no significant difference in glycaemic control and applying the additional effectiveness of exenatide over insulin glargine, with respect to weight loss, and using the current UK NHS prices, insulin glargine was found to be dominant over exenatide in all modelled scenarios. With current clinical evidence, exenatide does not appear to represent a cost-effective treatment option for patients with Type 2 diabetes when compared to insulin glargine.

  8. United States biomass energy: An assessment of costs and infrastructure for alternative uses of biomass energy crops as an energy feedstock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, William Russell, III

    Reduction of the negative environmental and human health externalities resulting from both the electricity and transportation sectors can be achieved through technologies such as clean coal, natural gas, nuclear, hydro, wind, and solar photovoltaic technologies for electricity; reformulated gasoline and other fossil fuels, hydrogen, and electrical options for transportation. Negative externalities can also be reduced through demand reductions and efficiency improvements in both sectors. However, most of these options come with cost increases for two primary reasons: (1) most environmental and human health consequences have historically been excluded from energy prices; (2) fossil energy markets have been optimizing costs for over 100 years and thus have achieved dramatic cost savings over time. Comparing the benefits and costs of alternatives requires understanding of the tradeoffs associated with competing technology and lifestyle choices. As bioenergy is proposed as a large-scale feedstock within the United States, a question of "best use" of bioenergy becomes important. Bioenergy advocates propose its use as an alternative energy resource for electricity generation and transportation fuel production, primarily focusing on ethanol. These advocates argue that bioenergy offers environmental and economic benefits over current fossil energy use in each of these two sectors as well as in the U.S. agriculture sector. Unfortunately, bioenergy research has offered very few comparisons of these two alternative uses. This thesis helps fill this gap. This thesis compares the economics of bioenergy utilization by a method for estimating total financial costs for each proposed bioenergy use. Locations for potential feedstocks and bio-processing facilities (co-firing switchgrass and coal in existing coal fired power plants and new ethanol refineries) are estimated and linear programs are developed to estimate large-scale transportation infrastructure costs for each sector. Each linear program minimizes required bioenergy distribution and infrastructure costs. Truck and rail are the only two transportation modes allowed as they are the most likely bioenergy transportation modes. Switchgrass is chosen as a single bioenergy feedstock. All resulting costs are presented in units which reflect current energy markets price norms (¢/kWh, $/gal). The use of a common metric, carbon-dioxide emissions, allows a comparison of the two proposed uses. Additional analysis is provided to address aspects of each proposed use which are not reflected by a carbon-dioxide reduction metric. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  9. An evaluation of cost estimates of nuclear power reactor decommissioning in Sweden, Germany and the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, S.O.; Varley, G.; Heibel, R.; Rusch, C. [NAC International, Zurich (Switzerland)

    1995-11-01

    Nominal base decommissioning cost estimates in Sweden, Germany and the US differ by large amounts. Even after adjustments to normalize the work scopes, significant cost differences remain. Variations in national cost structures, achievable productivity, the extent of preexisting infrastructure and institutional factors all contribute to make up the differences. Exchange rate aberrations are a complication for which appropriate adjustments have to be made in order to achieve a meaningful comparison. Our analyses demonstrate that virtually all these differences between the Swedish, German and US estimates can be explained by these factors. In terms of the overall reasonableness of the Swedish estimate as a basis for making financial provisions, there remain some issues that may warrant further investigation. One is the potential for and financial consequences of a serious interruption to the proposed sea transportation system. Secondly, the limited number of individual system analyses we have performed indicated some significant potential underestimates. For example, dismantling of the reactor pressure vessel costs appear to be underestimated by up to 70 MSEK (about 10 MUSD) per reactor, or up to 900 MSEK for the whole Swedish program of 12 reactors. Overall, the Swedish estimates appear to be built up in a logical and reasonable way. Our analyses indicate that some internal inconsistencies exist and that some specific input data assumptions may not be valid. In summary, the credibility of the estimates would benefit from further refinement of the scenarios and assumptions. 21 refs., 15 figs., 42 tabs.

  10. An evaluation of cost estimates of nuclear power reactor decommissioning in Sweden, Germany and the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nominal base decommissioning cost estimates in Sweden, Germany and the US differ by large amounts. Even after adjustments to normalize the work scopes, significant cost differences remain. Variations in national cost structures, achievable productivity, the extent of preexisting infrastructure and institutional factors all contribute to make up the differences. Exchange rate aberrations are a complication for which appropriate adjustments have to be made in order to achieve a meaningful comparison. Our analyses demonstrate that virtually all these differences between the Swedish, German and US estimates can be explained by these factors. In terms of the overall reasonableness of the Swedish estimate as a basis for making financial provisions, there remain some issues that may warrant further investigation. One is the potential for and financial consequences of a serious interruption to the proposed sea transportation system. Secondly, the limited number of individual system analyses we have performed indicated some significant potential underestimates. For example, dismantling of the reactor pressure vessel costs appear to be underestimated by up to 70 MSEK (about 10 MUSD) per reactor, or up to 900 MSEK for the whole Swedish program of 12 reactors. Overall, the Swedish estimates appear to be built up in a logical and reasonable way. Our analyses indicate that some internal inconsistencies exist and that some specific input data assumptions may not be valid. In summary, the credibility of the estimates would benefit from further refinement of the scenarios and assumptions. 21 refs., 15 figs., 42 tabs

  11. Accounting of costs in a service of physical health. Relative units of value in dosimetry clinic in teletherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A single - although laborious - start in the economic and clinical management of our units can be come to the knowledge of the time invested in the tasks functional, having to differentiate them, name them and even encrypt them. The time spent in performing the tasks multiplied by the annual number of these will indicate the resources necessary to achieve our objectives. In addition, pooling the values of times that members of the Unit provide analysed inter-workers dispersal, their causes and possible solutions. The establishment of relative units of value in any process benefits all workers involved in the process since it allows to know the dispersion of the times that each person employed in the development of the tasks. (Author)

  12. The Japanese Labor Market in a Comparative Perspective with the United States. A Transaction-Cost Interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Masanori

    A comparison is made of some of the notable features of the Japanese and U.S. labor markets. In Japan, as compared to the United States, for example, levels of employment tenure are higher, employer-employee attachment stronger, earnings-tenure profiles more steeply sloped, layoffs and dismissals much less frequent, and joint consultation and…

  13. The cost of decommissioning uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report identifies several key operations that are commonly carried out during decommissioning of tailings areas in the Canadian environment. These operations are unit costed for a generic site to provide a base reference case. The unit costs have also been scaled to the quantities required for the decommissioning of four Canadian sites and these scaled quantities compared with site-specific engineering cost estimates and actual costs incurred in carrying out the decommissioning activities. Variances in costing are discussed. The report also recommends a generic monitoring regime upon which both short- and longer-term environmental monitoring costs are calculated. Although every site must be addressed as a site-specific case, and monitoring programs must be tailored to fit a specific site, it would appear that for the conventional decommissioning and monitoring practices that have been employed to date, costs can be reasonably estimated when site-specific conditions are taken into account

  14. Costs of deep Geothermal Energy in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Straathof, D.H.L.

    2012-01-01

    The costs of deep geothermal energy in the Netherlands are analysed. A database is constructed using data from the existing projects in the Netherlands and nearby countries, producing an equation for costs of drilling. A model is developed in Java, building on prior models developed by TNO, using the methodology for calculating SDE+ subsidies by ECN. This model primarily calculates the Unit Technical Costs of deep geothermal projects. This allows for rapid assessment of the economic attractiv...

  15. Indirect costs in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: A review of the economic burden on employers and individuals in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel JG

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Jeetvan G Patel,1,2 Saurabh P Nagar,2 Anand A Dalal2 1Pharmacy Administration and Public Health, University of Houston, Houston, TX, 2US Health Outcomes, GlaxoSmithKline, Durham, NC, USA Objective: To review and summarize existing literature on the indirect burden of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD in the US. Methods: Medline, Scopus, and OvidSP databases were searched using defined search terms to identify relevant studies. Eligible studies were published in English between January 2000 and April 2012 and calculated the indirect burden of COPD in a US population in terms of prevalence, incidence or costs of productivity loss, disability, morbidity, or mortality. Results: Of 53 studies identified, eleven met eligibility criteria, with data years spanning 1987–2009. Estimates of workforce participation range from 56% to 69% among individuals with COPD and from 65% to 77% among individuals without COPD. Approximately 13%–18% of those with COPD are limited in the amount or type of work they can do and one-third or more experience general activity limitation. Estimates of restricted activity days range from 27–63 days per year. Estimates of mean annual sick leave and/or disability days among employed individuals with COPD range from 1.3–19.4 days. Estimates of bed confinement range from 13–32 days per year. Estimated mean annual indirect costs were $893–$2,234/person (US dollars with COPD ($1,521–$3,348 in 2010 [US dollars] and varied with the population studied, specific cost outcomes, and economic inputs. In studies that assessed total (direct and indirect costs, indirect costs accounted for 27%–61% of total costs, depending on the population studied. Conclusions: COPD is associated with substantial indirect costs. The disease places a burden on employers in terms of lost productivity and associated costs and on individuals in terms of lost income related to absenteeism, activity limitation, and disability. Consideration of indirect as well as direct costs is necessary to gain a more complete view of the societal burden of COPD. Keywords: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, disability, economics, indirect costs, productivity

  16. Unit cost of providing and utilizing contraception services for newly married couples in Satara district of Maharashtra, India

    OpenAIRE

    Swapnil Vishnu Lale; Asha K. Pratinidhi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Since 2007, Satara district is implementing a pilot project named "Second Honeymoon Package" (SHP). SHP gives cash incentives to encourage postponement of first pregnancy in newly married couples. At the same time, contraception services are also provided under National family welfare program. There requires a significant amount of commitment and expenditure from the beneficiaries to avail the benefits of governmental programs, which is often overlooked by the system. The costs of...

  17. The Relationship between Unit Cost and Cumulative Quantity and the Evidence for Organizational Learning-by-Doing

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Thompson

    2012-01-01

    The concept of a learning curve for individuals has been around since the beginning of the twentieth century. The idea that an analogous phenomenon might also apply at the level of the organization took longer to emerge, but it had begun to figure prominently in military procurement and scheduling at least a decade before Wright's (1936) classic paper providing evidence that the cost of producing an airframe declined as cumulative output increased. Wright (1936) was careful not to describe hi...

  18. Costs of Rapid HIV Screening in an Urban Emergency Department and a Nearby County Jail in the Southeastern United States

    OpenAIRE

    Spaulding, Anne C.; MacGowan, Robin J.; Copeland, Brittney; Shrestha, Ram K.; Bowden, Chava J.; Kim, Min J; Margolis, Andrew; Mustaafaa, Genetha; Reid, Laurie C.; Heilpern, Katherine L.; Shah, Bijal B.

    2015-01-01

    Emergency departments and jails provide medical services to persons at risk for HIV infection and are recommended venues for HIV screening. Our main objective in this study was to analyze the cost per new HIV diagnosis associated with the HIV screening program in these two venues. The emergency department’s parallel testing program was conducted at Grady Memorial Hospital in Atlanta, Georgia starting in 2008; the jail’s integrated testing program began at the Fulton County (GA) Jail in 2011. ...

  19. LPGC, Levelized Steam Electric Power Generator Cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1 - Description of program or function: LPGC is a set of nine microcomputer programs for estimating power generation costs for large steam-electric power plants. These programs permit rapid evaluation using various sets of economic and technical ground rules. The levelized power generation costs calculated may be used to compare the relative economics of nuclear and coal-fired plants based on life-cycle costs. Cost calculations include capital investment cost, operation and maintenance cost, fuel cycle cost, decommissioning cost, and total levelized power generation cost. These programs can be used for quick analyses of power generation costs using alternative economic parameters, such as interest rate, escalation rate, inflation rate, plant lead times, capacity factor, fuel prices, etc. The two major types of electric generating plants considered are pressurized-water reactor (PWR) and pulverized coal-fired plants. Data are also provided for the Large Scale Prototype Breeder (LSPB) type liquid metal reactor. Costs for plant having either one or two units may be obtained. 2 - Method of solution: LPGC consists of nine individual menu-driven programs controlled by a driver program, MAINPWR. The individual programs are PLANTCAP, for calculating capital investment costs; NUCLOM, for determining operation and maintenance (O and M) costs for nuclear plants; COALOM, for computing O and M costs for coal-fired plants; NFUEL, for calculating levelized fuel costs for nuclear plants; COALCOST, for determining levelized fuel costs for coal-fired plants; FCRATE, for computing the fixed charge rate on the capital investment; LEVEL, for calculating levelized power generation costs; CAPITAL, for determining capitalized cost from overnight cost; and MASSGEN, for generating, deleting, or changing fuel cycle mass balance data for use with NFUEL. LPGC has three modes of operation. In the first, each individual code can be executed independently to determine one aspect of the total levelized power cost, such as fuel or O and M cost. In the second, the integrated code can be run to calculate all aspects of the levelized power cost, and in the third, the integrated code can be used to access an individual code which calculates one aspect of the levelized power generation cost as in the first mode of operation

  20. Role of lignin in reducing life-cycle carbon emissions, water use, and cost for United States cellulosic biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scown, Corinne D; Gokhale, Amit A; Willems, Paul A; Horvath, Arpad; McKone, Thomas E

    2014-01-01

    Cellulosic ethanol can achieve estimated greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reductions greater than 80% relative to gasoline, largely as a result of the combustion of lignin for process heat and electricity in biorefineries. Most studies assume lignin is combusted onsite, but exporting lignin to be cofired at coal power plants has the potential to substantially reduce biorefinery capital costs. We assess the life-cycle GHG emissions, water use, and capital costs associated with four representative biorefinery test cases. Each case is evaluated in the context of a U.S. national scenario in which corn stover, wheat straw, and Miscanthus are converted to 1.4 EJ (60 billion liters) of ethanol annually. Life-cycle GHG emissions range from 4.7 to 61 g CO2e/MJ of ethanol (compared with ? 95 g CO2e/MJ of gasoline), depending on biorefinery configurations and marginal electricity sources. Exporting lignin can achieve GHG emission reductions comparable to onsite combustion in some cases, reduce life-cycle water consumption by up to 40%, and reduce combined heat and power-related capital costs by up to 63%. However, nearly 50% of current U.S. coal-fired power generating capacity is expected to be retired by 2050, which will limit the capacity for lignin cofiring and may double transportation distances between biorefineries and coal power plants. PMID:24988448

  1. Comparison of values of traditionally measured venous bicarbonate with calculated arterial bicarbonate in intensive care unit patients of a hospital in a third-world country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waheeda Nargis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Measurement of serum or plasma bicarbonate (HCO3? from a sample of peripheral venous blood is routinely practiced in hospital patient managements. HCO3? status can also be obtained by a simple calculation during blood gas analysis requiring arterial blood as sample which is cumbersome for both patient and doctor. This study compared the measured bicarbonate levels with calculated arterial values in intensive care unit (ICU patients to determine whether traditionally measured venous HCO3? and calculated HCO3? values [from arterial blood gas (ABG analyzers] can be used interchangeably. Materials and Methods: This prospective study was carried out at a tertiary care teaching hospital in Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh. A total of 56 adult patients with diverse medical conditions, presenting at the ICU of the health centre were enrolled in this study when deemed by the treating physician to have an ABG analysis. Arterial and venous samples were taken as close in time as possible for gas analysis and routine blood tests. Results: The HCO3? levels from ABG and traditionally measured serum showed acceptably narrow 95% limits of agreement using the Bland-Altman method. Conclusions: More widely prescribed venous HCO3? measurements can also be a useful substitute for an expensive ABG analyzer in resource-constrained health care sectors when required. However, accuracy of venous blood in assessment of additional ABG parameters is yet to be discovered.

  2. A methodology for financial evaluation of biogas technology in India using cost functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A methodology for financial evaluation of biogas technology for domestic use in India using recently developed cost functions is reported. Analytical expressions for the unit cost of biogas and cost per unit of useful energy delivered by a biogas plant in combination with other suitable technologies have been developed. Net present value and discounted pay-back period have been calculated. The sensitivity of the unit cost of biogas, the cost per unit of useful energy, and the net present value with respect to a number of variables is also reported. (author)

  3. Estimating the Population Benefits and Costs of Rituximab Therapy in the United States from 1998 to 2013 Using Real-World Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Carolina M.; Gleeson, Michelle L.; Halperin, Marc; Skettino, Sandra L.; Mikhael, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Background: Rituximab was approved in 1997 and is regularly one of the largest drug expenditures for Medicare; however, its benefits and costs have not been estimated from a population perspective. Objectives: To estimate both the clinical and the economic outcomes of rituximab for its approved hematological uses at the population level. Research Design: Analyses using cancer registry incidence data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program, and outcomes data from SEER data linked with Medicare administrative claims (SEER-Medicare data). These results were incorporated into an epidemiological simulation model of the population over time. Subjects: We modeled all United States patients from 1998 to 2013 diagnosed with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, follicular lymphoma, or chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Measures: Using this model, we estimated the life-years saved, as well as their economic benefit, in the United States population. We also estimated the incremental cost of adding rituximab to chemotherapy. All economic inputs were based on Medicare reimbursed amounts inflated to 2013 dollars. Results: There were 279,704 cumulative life-years saved which were valued at $25.44 billion. The incremental direct medical cost of rituximab was estimated to be $8.92 billion, resulting in an incremental economic gain of $16.52 billion. Conclusions: These analyses, based on real-world evidence, show that the introduction of rituximab into clinical practice has produced a substantial number of incremental life-years. Importantly, the economic benefit of the life-years gained greatly exceeds the added costs of treatment. PMID:26759977

  4. Evaluation of On-Board kV Cone Beam Computed Tomography–Based Dose Calculation With Deformable Image Registration Using Hounsfield Unit Modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to estimate the accuracy of the dose calculation of On-Board Imager (Varian, Palo Alto, CA) cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) with deformable image registration (DIR), using the multilevel-threshold (MLT) algorithm and histogram matching (HM) algorithm in pelvic radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: One pelvis phantom and 10 patients with prostate cancer treated with intensity modulated radiation therapy were studied. To minimize the effect of organ deformation and different Hounsfield unit values between planning CT (PCT) and CBCT, we modified CBCT (mCBCT) with DIR by using the MLT (mCBCTMLT) and HM (mCBCTHM) algorithms. To evaluate the accuracy of the dose calculation, we compared dose differences in dosimetric parameters (mean dose [Dmean], minimum dose [Dmin], and maximum dose [Dmax]) for planning target volume, rectum, and bladder between PCT (reference) and CBCTs or mCBCTs. Furthermore, we investigated the effect of organ deformation compared with DIR and rigid registration (RR). We determined whether dose differences between PCT and mCBCTs were significantly lower than in CBCT by using Student t test. Results: For patients, the average dose differences in all dosimetric parameters of CBCT with DIR were smaller than those of CBCT with RR (eg, rectum; 0.54% for DIR vs 1.24% for RR). For the mCBCTs with DIR, the average dose differences in all dosimetric parameters were less than 1.0%. Conclusions: We evaluated the accuracy of the dose calculation in CBCT, mCBCTMLT, and mCBCTHM with DIR for 10 patients. The results showed that dose differences in Dmean, Dmin, and Dmax in mCBCTs were within 1%, which were significantly better than those in CBCT, especially for the rectum (P<.05). Our results indicate that the mCBCTMLT and mCBCTHM can be useful for improving the dose calculation for adaptive radiation therapy

  5. CHARACTERIZING COSTS, SAVINGS AND BENEFITS OF A SELECTION OF ENERGY EFFICIENT EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES IN THE UNITED STATES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, T.; Slaa, J.W.; Sathaye, J.

    2010-12-15

    Implementation and adoption of efficient end-use technologies have proven to be one of the key measures for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions throughout the industries. In many cases, implementing energy efficiency measures is among one of the most cost effective investments that the industry could make in improving efficiency and productivity while reducing CO2 emissions. Over the years, there have been incentives to use resources and energy in a cleaner and more efficient way to create industries that are sustainable and more productive. With the working of energy programs and policies on GHG inventory and regulation, understanding and managing the costs associated with mitigation measures for GHG reductions is very important for the industry and policy makers around the world. Successful implementation of emerging technologies not only can help advance productivities and competitiveness but also can play a significant role in mitigation efforts by saving energy. Providing evaluation and estimation of the costs and energy savings potential of emerging technologies is the focus of our work in this project. The overall goal of the project is to identify and select emerging and under-utilized energy-efficient technologies and practices as they are important to reduce energy consumption in industry while maintaining economic growth. This report contains the results from performing Task 2"Technology evaluation" for the project titled"Research Opportunities in Emerging and Under-Utilized Energy-Efficient Industrial Technologies," which was sponsored by California Energy Commission and managed by CIEE. The project purpose is to analyze market status, market potential, and economic viability of selected technologies applicable to the U.S. In this report, LBNL first performed re-assessments of all of the 33 emerging energy-efficient industrial technologies, including re-evaluation of the 26 technologies that were previously identified by Martin et al. (2000) and their potential significance to energy use in the industries, and new evaluation of additional seven technologies. The re-assessments were essentially updated with recent information that we searched and collected from literature to the extent possible. The progress of selected technologies as they diffused into the marketplace from 2000 to 2010 was then discussed in this report. The report also includes updated detailed characterizations of 15 technologies studied in 2000, with comparisons noted.

  6. Biotic, water-quality, and hydrologic metrics calculated for the analysis of temporal trends in National Water Quality Assessment Program Data in the Western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiele, Stephen M.; Brasher, Anne M.D.; Miller, Matthew P.; May, Jason T.; Carpenter, Kurt D.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program was established by Congress in 1991 to collect long-term, nationally consistent information on the quality of the Nation's streams and groundwater. The NAWQA Program utilizes interdisciplinary and dynamic studies that link the chemical and physical conditions of streams (such as flow and habitat) with ecosystem health and the biologic condition of algae, aquatic invertebrates, and fish communities. This report presents metrics derived from NAWQA data and the U.S. Geological Survey streamgaging network for sampling sites in the Western United States, as well as associated chemical, habitat, and streamflow properties. The metrics characterize the conditions of algae, aquatic invertebrates, and fish. In addition, we have compiled climate records and basin characteristics related to the NAWQA sampling sites. The calculated metrics and compiled data can be used to analyze ecohydrologic trends over time.

  7. Dose per unit cumulated activity (S-values) for e− and beta emitting radionuclides in cancer cell models calculated by Monte Carlo simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cell dosimetry is relevant regarding new efforts in specific molecular radiotherapy using Auger, CE and beta emitters. Absorbed dose in cells can be obtained by means of the dose per unit cumulated activity (S-values), together with the activity distribution. In this work, Monte Carlo simulation codes PENELOPE and MCNPX were used to obtain cellular S-values for point and extended sources of electrons and beta emitting radionuclides in the nucleus of breast (MDA-MB231, MCF7) and prostate (PC3) cancer cell models. - Highlights: • Cellular S-values were calculated using Penelope and MCPNX Monte Carlo codes. • S-values were obtained for e− and beta emitting radionuclides in cancer cell models. • Breast (MDA-MB231, MCF7) and prostate (PC3) cancer cell models were investigated. • Results are relevant for specific targeted molecular radiotherapy cell dosimetry

  8. Geological studies of the COST Nos. G-1 and G-2 wells, United States North Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf: Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholle, P. A.; Wenkam, C. R.

    Data from geophysical logs, and examination of conventional cores, well-cuttings, and sidewall cores show that below 10,000 ft, the strata in both wells have moderate porosities and low to moderate permeabilities and are thus considered adequate to poor reservoir rocks. Measurements of vitrinite reflectance, color alteration of visible organic matter, and various geochemical properties suggest that the Tertiary and Cretaceous strata of COST G-1 and G-2 wells are not prospective for oil and gas. The Jurassic rocks at the G-1 site do contain small amounts of thermally mature gas-prone kerogens. At G-2, these Jurassic rocks are also gas-prone and are slightly richer in organic carbon and total extractable hydrocarbons the G-1 rocks, but both sites have only poor to fail oil and gas source-rock potential.

  9. Reforming Cardiovascular Care in the United States towards High-Quality Care at Lower Cost with Examples from Model Programs in the State of Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alyeshmerni, Daniel; Froehlich, James B; Lewin, Jack; Eagle, Kim A

    2014-07-01

    Despite its status as a world leader in treatment innovation and medical education, a quality chasm exists in American health care. Care fragmentation and poor coordination contribute to expensive care with highly variable quality in the United States. The rising costs of health care since 1990 have had a huge impact on individuals, families, businesses, the federal and state governments, and the national budget deficit. The passage of the Affordable Care Act represents a large shift in how health care is financed and delivered in the United States. The objective of this review is to describe some of the economic and social forces driving health care reform, provide an overview of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA), and review model cardiovascular quality improvement programs underway in the state of Michigan. As health care reorganization occurs at the federal level, local and regional efforts can serve as models to accelerate improvement toward achieving better population health and better care at lower cost. Model programs in Michigan have achieved this goal in cardiovascular care through the systematic application of evidence-based care, the utilization of regional quality improvement collaboratives, community-based childhood wellness promotion, and medical device-based competitive bidding strategies. These efforts are examples of the direction cardiovascular care delivery will need to move in this era of the Affordable Care Act. PMID:25120917

  10. Reforming Cardiovascular Care in the United States towards High-Quality Care at Lower Cost with Examples from Model Programs in the State of Michigan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Alyeshmerni

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite its status as a world leader in treatment innovation and medical education, a quality chasm exists in American health care. Care fragmentation and poor coordination contribute to expensive care with highly variable quality in the United States. The rising costs of health care since 1990 have had a huge impact on individuals, families, businesses, the federal and state governments, and the national budget deficit. The passage of the Affordable Care Act represents a large shift in how health care is financed and delivered in the United States. The objective of this review is to describe some of the economic and social forces driving health care reform, provide an overview of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA, and review model cardiovascular quality improvement programs underway in the state of Michigan. As health care reorganization occurs at the federal level, local and regional efforts can serve as models to accelerate improvement toward achieving better population health and better care at lower cost. Model programs in Michigan have achieved this goal in cardiovascular care through the systematic application of evidence-based care, the utilization of regional quality improvement collaboratives, community-based childhood wellness promotion, and medical device-based competitive bidding strategies. These efforts are examples of the direction cardiovascular care delivery will need to move in this era of the Affordable Care Act.

  11. On the contribution of external cost calculations to energy system governance: the case of a potential large-scale nuclear accident

    OpenAIRE

    Laes, E.; Meskens, G.; van der Sluijs, J.P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073427489

    2011-01-01

    The European Commission's ExternE Project has made major advances in the quantification of external costs of electricity. Although some impacts cannot be valued, important conclusions are possible. This paper outlines some provisional implications for energy policy. External costs are technology dependent and for some older power plants are large compared to electricity prices. Global warming and nuclear accidents have very uncertain external costs and pose threats to sustainability. Well loc...

  12. Survey of the costs of Peripheric Intravenous Device in the composition of the values of the internment in pediatrics unit - a quantitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tathiana Martins

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Observing in practical daily of the pediatric assistance the puncture of repetition1 for maintenance of a security access in the medicine administration with drawn out period and knowing that the system of payment to the hospital for the SUS (system of health financed by the government is for type of illness, it sharpened me the interest in developing a exploratory, descriptive research with quantitative boarding on the costs of Peripheral Intravenous Device (DIP in the internment in Pediatrics2. Objectives: To raise the costs of DIP used during the internment in a pediatrics unit; To identify the causes of substitution of DIP in the venous accesses during the internment in a pediatrics unit and To correlate the cost of DIP in the composition of the final remuneration of the paid pediatrics internments for the SUS. The scene of the research was a Pediatric Infirmary of a University Hospital (HU. Sample: nineteen children interned in the period of October of 2006 the April of 2007. The research was approved by the Committee of Ethics of the Institution under nº. 071/2006. The date had been analyzed statistical and organized in three categories: I. Demographic profile and Epidemiologist of the Children interned in the Infirmary of Pediatrics of the HU; II The Costs of the DIP in the Process of Hospitalization in Pediatrics in the HU; e III. The Costs of the DIP in the composition of the final remuneration of the paid pediatrics internments for the SUS. In the first category the characterization and the profile of the clientele interned in the Infirmary of Pediatrics had been presented. In the second category the main causes of the loss of a peripheral venous access had been presented, thus tracing a parallel with the average of time of duration of a venous access, the places of effective venous puncture and the deriving costs of the infusions imperfections. In the third category they had been presented the paid time of permanence for the SUS for each illness related to the real time of permanence of each customer, the costs of the venous accesses during the period of each internment and the costs of the DIP when compared with the costs of the internment. Age of preschool pertaining to school is concluded that the majority of the interned children was the masculine sort, resident it are of the city of localization of the HUAP, remaining interned in its majority for a period of 7 the 10 days or 21 the 30 days. Was used a average of 27,3 DIP for child, being the main cause of infusion imperfection the fleabite3;4. The average of permanence of the DIP was of 72 hours, evidencing that raised the quantitative expense of DIP directly was related to the inability and lack of technique of puncture of the nursing team. Had to the quantitative raised one of used DIP, the expenses of exactly in relation to the paid value of the internment for the SUS varied in 52% of the sample between R$25,00 the R$100, 00, many of the 19 times representing of up to 31% of the value received for the hospital for determined illness. Therefore, it urges to continue investigating in this line theoretician-methodological to favor the process of consolidation of the nursing as profession recognized and sanctioned by its components (the professionals and its dependents (the population.

  13. Costos secundarios por infecciones nosocomiales en dos unidades pediátricas de cuidados intensivos Secondary costs due to nosocomial infections in two pediatric intensive care units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Navarrete-Navarro

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO. Estimar los costos asociados a infecciones nosocomiales en niños tratados en dos unidades de terapia intensiva. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS. Se realizó un estudio parcial de costos en la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos Neonatales (UCIN y en la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos Pediátricos (UTIP de un hospital infantil de tercer nivel de atención médica. Se investigaron los costos de las pruebas diagnósticas y de los recursos terapéuticos empleados, así como el exceso de estancia hospitalaria debida a la presencia de una infección nosocomial. RESULTADOS. Se detectaron 102 infecciones, 46 en UCIN y 56 en UTIP, en el lapso de un año, tiempo que duró el estudio. El costo promedio por infección fue de 91 698 pesos y el gasto global fue de 9.3 millones de pesos. Neumonía, flebitis y septicemia abarcaron 65% de los costos. En los niños infectados se registró una estancia hospitalaria extra de 9.6 días, 13.7 exámenes de laboratorio y 3.3 cultivos en promedio, debido a la presencia de una infección intrahospitalaria. La estancia hospitalaria representó 97% del gasto total. CONCLUSIONES. Esta evaluación representa una estimación de costos directos de infección. Los resultados justifican el establecimiento de programas preventivos agresivos para reducir las complicaciones dentro de los hospitales.OBJECTIVES. We estimated associated costs to nosocomial infections in two pediatric intensive care units in Mexico City. MATERIAL AND METHODS. A transversal study in the neonatal (NICU and pediatric (PICU intensive care units, was done. We reviewed use and cost of diagnostic procedures, medications, and excess of hospital stay. RESULTS. There were 102 infections, 46 in the NICU and 56 in the PICU. The average cost per infection was $11,682 USD and the overall expense was 1,184.71 USD. Infected children had an excess of hospital stay of 9.6 days, 13.7 more laboratory tests and 3.3 more cultures. Hospital stay represented 97% of the overall cost. CONCLUSIONS. This is one of the first estimations of nosocomial infections cost done in Mexico. These results justify the introduction of infection control programs to decrease these complications.

  14. Costs and risk factors for ventilator-associated pneumonia in a Turkish University Hospital's Intensive Care Unit: A case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serin Simay

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP which is an important part of all nosocomial infections in intensive care unit (ICU is a serious illness with substantial morbidity and mortality, and increases costs of hospital care. We aimed to evaluate costs and risk factors for VAP in adult ICU. Methods This is a-three year retrospective case-control study. The data were collected between 01 January 2000 and 31 December 2002. During the study period, 132 patients were diagnosed as nosocomial pneumonia of 731 adult medical-surgical ICU patients. Of these only 37 VAP patients were assessed, and multiple nosocomially infected patients were excluded from the study. Sixty non-infected ICU patients were chosen as control patients. Results Median length of stay in ICU in patients with VAP and without were 8.0 (IQR: 6.5 and 2.5 (IQR: 2.0 days respectively (P Conclusion Respiratory failure, coma, depressed consciousness, enteral feeding and length of stay are independent risk factors for developing VAP. The cost of VAP is approximately five-fold higher than non-infected patients.

  15. Charge and Spin States in Schiff Base Metal Complexes with a Disiloxane Unit Exhibiting a Strong Noninnocent Ligand Character: Synthesis, Structure, Spectroelectrochemistry, and Theoretical Calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazacu, Maria; Shova, Sergiu; Soroceanu, Alina; Machata, Peter; Bucinsky, Lukas; Breza, Martin; Rapta, Peter; Telser, Joshua; Krzystek, J; Arion, Vladimir B

    2015-06-15

    Mononuclear nickel(II), copper(II), and manganese(III) complexes with a noninnocent tetradentate Schiff base ligand containing a disiloxane unit were prepared in situ by reaction of 3,5-di-tert-butyl-2-hydroxybenzaldehyde with 1,3-bis(3-aminopropyl)tetramethyldisiloxane followed by addition of the appropriate metal(II) salt. The ligand H2L resulting from these reactions is a 2:1 condensation product of 3,5-di-tert-butyl-2-hydroxybenzaldehyde with 1,3-bis(3-aminopropyl)tetramethyldisiloxane. The resulting metal complexes, NiL·0.5CH2Cl2, CuL·1.5H2O, and MnL(OAc)·0.15H2O, were characterized by elemental analysis, spectroscopic methods (IR, UV-vis, X-band EPR, HFEPR, (1)H NMR), ESI mass spectrometry, and single crystal X-ray diffraction. Taking into account the well-known strong stabilizing effects of tert-butyl groups in positions 3 and 5 of the aromatic ring on phenoxyl radicals, we studied the one-electron and two-electron oxidation of the compounds using both experimental (chiefly spectroelectrochemistry) and computational (DFT) techniques. The calculated spin-density distribution and localized orbitals analysis revealed the oxidation locus and the effect of the electrochemical electron transfer on the molecular structure of the complexes, while time-dependent DFT calculations helped to explain the absorption spectra of the electrochemically generated species. Hyperfine coupling constants, g-tensors, and zero-field splitting parameters have been calculated at the DFT level of theory. Finally, the CASSCF approach has been employed to theoretically explore the zero-field splitting of the S = 2 MnL(OAc) complex for comparison purposes with the DFT and experimental HFEPR results. It is found that the D parameter sign strongly depends on the metal coordination geometry. PMID:26030801

  16. Hydrologic Change during the Colonial Era of the United States: Beavers and the Energy Cost of Impoundments (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, M. B.; Bain, D. J.; Arrigo, J. S.; Duncan, J. M.; Kumar, S.; Parolari, A.; Salant, N.; Vorosmarty, C. J.; Aloysius, N. R.; Bray, E. N.; Ruffing, C. M.; Witherell, B. B.

    2009-12-01

    Europeans colonized North America in the early 17th century with intentions ranging between long-term inhabitation and quick extraction of resources for economic gain in Europe. Whatever the intentions, the colonists relied on the landscape for resources resulting in dramatic change to the forest and fur-bearing mammal population. We demonstrate that initial exploitation of North American forest and furs caused a substantial decrease in mean water residence time (?) between 1600 and 1800 A.D. That loss, which regionally changed from 51 to 41 days, contrasts with conventional wisdom that humans tend to diminish variability in water resources by increasing storage capacity and thus increasing ?. The loss of ? resulted from over-hunted beaver for the hat market in Europe. Analysis suggests that colonial era demographics and economics did not allow human resource allocation to impoundment construction on a level matching the historic beaver effort. However, the ? appears to have regionally increased during the 19th century, suggesting that humans eventually began replacing the water storage lost with the beaver. The analysis highlights the energy cost of impounding water, which is likely to continue to be an important factor given the increasing need for stable water resources and finite energy resources.

  17. The Feto-Maternal Health Cost of Intimate Partner Violence Among Delivery-Related Discharges in the United States, 2002-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogos, Mulubrhan F; Araya, Winta N; Masho, Saba W; Salemi, Jason L; Shieh, Carol; Salihu, Hamisu M

    2016-02-01

    Our purpose was to estimate the national prevalence of intimate partner violence (IPV) among delivery-related discharges and to investigate its association with adverse feto-maternal birth outcomes and delivery-related cost. A retrospective cross-sectional analysis of delivery-related hospital discharges from 2002 to 2009 was conducted using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS). We used ICD-9-CM codes to identify IPV, covariates, and outcomes. Multivariable logistic regression modeling was used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the associations between IPV and each outcome. Joinpoint regression was used for trend analysis. During the study period, 3,649 delivery-related discharges were diagnosed with IPV (11.2 per 100,000; 95% CI = [10.0, 12.4]). IPV diagnosis during delivery is associated with stillbirth (AOR = 4.12, 95% CI = [2.75, 6.17]), preterm birth (AOR = 1.97, 95% CI = [1.59, 2.44]), fetal death (AOR = 3.34, 95% CI = [1.99, 5.61]), infant with poor intrauterine growth (AOR = 1.55, 95% CI = [1.01, 2.40]), and increased inpatient hospital care cost (US$5,438.2 vs. US$4,080.1) per each discharge, incurring an additional cost of US$4,955,707 during the study period. IPV occurring during pregnancy has a significant health burden to both the mother and infant. Education about IPV; screening at periodic intervals, including during obstetric visits; and ongoing clinical care could help to reduce or eliminate adverse effects of pregnancy-related IPV. Preventing the lifelong consequences associated with IPV can have a positive effect on the overall health of all women and delivery-related health care cost. PMID:25392375

  18. The model for the calculation of the dispersed iron ore resource purchase cost in the world class manufacturing (WCM logistics pillar context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dudek

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the blast-furnace production, raw materials may account for approx. 50 % of the pig-iron manufacture costs. Therefore, any, even small, saving in the sphere of raw material purchasing will translate into the reduction in the cost of the pig-iron manufacture. The selection of appropriate supply sources and the associated raw material quality influencing the economic viability of the charge blend constitutes a multi-faceted optimization task. The paper presents a modified model for production cost estimation at the moment of making raw material purchasing, which is possible to be used in the logistics pillar of the WCM concept.

  19. Management of sacroiliac joint disruption and degenerative sacroiliitis with nonoperative care is medical resource-intensive and costly in a United States commercial payer population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ackerman SJ

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Stacey J Ackerman,1 David W Polly Jr,2 Tyler Knight,3 Tim Holt,4 John Cummings5 1Covance Market Access Services Inc, San Diego, CA, USA; 2University of Minnesota, Orthopaedic Surgery, Minneapolis, MN, USA; 3Covance Market Access Services Inc, Gaithersburg, MD, USA; 4Montgomery Spine Center, Orthopaedic Surgery, Montgomery, AL, USA; 5Community Health Network, Neurosurgery, Indianapolis, IN, USA Introduction: Low back pain is common and originates in the sacroiliac (SI joint in 15%–30% of cases. Traditional SI joint disruption/degenerative sacroiliitis treatments include nonoperative care or open SI joint fusion. To evaluate the usefulness of newly developed minimally-invasive technologies, the costs of traditional treatments must be better understood. We assessed the costs of nonoperative care for SI joint disruption to commercial payers in the United States (US. Methods: A retrospective study of claim-level medical resource use and associated costs used the MarketScan® Commercial Claims and Encounters as well as Medicare Supplemental Databases of Truven Healthcare. Patients with a primary ICD-9-CM diagnosis code for SI joint disruption (720.2, 724.6, 739.4, 846.9, or 847.3, an initial date of diagnosis from January 1, 2005 to December 31, 2007 (index date, and continuous enrollment for ?1 year before and 3 years after the index date were included. Claims attributable to SI joint disruption with a primary or secondary ICD-9-CM diagnosis code of 71x.xx, 72x.xx, 73x.xx, or 84x.xx were identified; the 3-year medical resource use-associated reimbursement and outpatient pain medication costs (measured in 2011 US dollars were tabulated across practice settings. A subgroup analysis was performed among patients with lumbar spinal fusion. Results: The mean 3-year direct, attributable medical costs were $16,196 (standard deviation [SD] $28,592 per privately-insured patient (N=78,533. Among patients with lumbar spinal fusion (N=434, attributable 3-year mean costs were $91,720 (SD $75,502 per patient compared to $15,776 (SD $27,542 per patient among patients without lumbar spinal fusion (N=78,099. Overall, inpatient hospitalizations (19.4%, hospital outpatient visits and procedures (14.0%, and outpatient pain medications (9.6% accounted for the largest proportion of costs. The estimated 3-year insurance payments attributable to SI joint disruption were $1.6 billion per 100,000 commercial payer beneficiaries. Conclusion: The economic burden of SI joint disruption among privately-insured patients in the US is substantial, highlighting the need for more cost-effective therapies. Keywords: cost, epidural injection, lumbar spinal fusion surgery

  20. Documentation for calculating CO{sub 2} reduction costs of using bio diesel; Dokumentation for beregning af CO{sub 2}-reduktionsomkostningen ved anvendelse af biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-01-01

    In connection to the European Commission's proposal for a directive on the promotion of biofuels for transport and the new climate strategy for Denmark, the Danish Energy Authority has evaluated the potential for and economics of production of biodiesel in Denmark. This note is documentation for the Danish Energy Authority's socio-economic analysis regarding rape-based biodiesel. The analysis consists of two parts: 1. Costs of producing biodiesel, 2. Costs of cultivating rape. The main conclusion is that the socio-economic CO{sub 2} reduction costs of producing biodiesel in Denmark are subject to some uncertainty. The uncertainty is primarily linked to difficulty in determining central parameters, e.g. stating the socio-economic costs of producing rape-seed, including stating prices of production factors and by-products. (ba)