Sample records for calcium-dependent protein kinase

  1. Calcium-Dependent Protein Kinase Genes in Corn Roots

    Takezawa, D.; Patil, S.; Bhatia, A.; Poovaiah, B. W.


    Two cDNAs encoding Ca-2(+) - Dependent Protein Kinases (CDPKs), Corn Root Protein Kinase 1 and 2 (CRPK 1, CRPK 2) were isolated from the root tip library of corn (Zea mays L., cv. Merit) and their nucleotide sequences were determined. Deduced amino acid sequences of both the clones have features characteristic of plant CDPKS, including all 11 conserved serine/threonine kinase subdomains, a junction domain and a calmodulin-like domain with four Ca-2(+), -binding sites. Northern analysis revealed that CRPKI mRNA is preferentially expressed in roots, especially in the root tip; whereas, the expression of CRPK2 mRNA was very low in all the tissues tested. In situ hybridization experiments revealed that CRPKI mRNA is highly expressed in the root apex, as compared to other parts of the root. Partially purified CDPK from the root tip phosphorylates syntide-2, a common peptide substrate for plant CDPKs, and the phosphorylation was stimulated 7-fold by the addition of Ca-2(+). Our results show that two CDPK isoforms are expressed in corn roots and they may be involved in the Ca-2(+)-dependent signal transduction process.

  2. Spermidine-Induced Improvement of Reconsolidation of Memory Involves Calcium-Dependent Protein Kinase in Rats

    Girardi, Bruna Amanda; Ribeiro, Daniela Aymone; Signor, Cristiane; Muller, Michele; Gais, Mayara Ana; Mello, Carlos Fernando; Rubin, Maribel Antonello


    In this study, we determined whether the calcium-dependent protein kinase (PKC) signaling pathway is involved in the improvement of fear memory reconsolidation induced by the intrahippocampal administration of spermidine in rats. Male Wistar rats were trained in a fear conditioning apparatus using a 0.4-mA footshock as an unconditioned stimulus.…

  3. Genome-Wide Identification and Expression Analysis of Calcium-dependent Protein Kinase in Tomato

    Hu, Zhangjian; Lv, Xiangzhang; Xia, Xiaojian; Zhou, Jie; Shi, Kai; Yu, Jingquan; Zhou, Yanhong


    Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) play critical roles in regulating growth, development and stress response in plants. Information about CDPKs in tomato, however, remains obscure although it is one of the most important model crops in the world. In this study, we performed a bioinformatics analysis of the entire tomato genome and identified 29 CDPK genes. These CDPK genes are found to be located in 12 chromosomes, and could be divided into four groups. Analysis of the gene structure a...

  4. Structures of apicomplexan calcium-dependent protein kinases reveal mechanism of activation by calcium

    Wernimont, Amy K; Artz, Jennifer D.; Jr, Patrick Finerty; Lin, Yu-Hui; Amani, Mehrnaz; Allali-Hassani, Abdellah; Senisterra, Guillermo; Vedadi, Masoud; Tempel, Wolfram; Mackenzie, Farrell; Chau, Irene; Lourido, Sebastian; Sibley, L. David; Hui, Raymond (Toronto); (WU-MED)


    Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) have pivotal roles in the calcium-signaling pathway in plants, ciliates and apicomplexan parasites and comprise a calmodulin-dependent kinase (CaMK)-like kinase domain regulated by a calcium-binding domain in the C terminus. To understand this intramolecular mechanism of activation, we solved the structures of the autoinhibited (apo) and activated (calcium-bound) conformations of CDPKs from the apicomplexan parasites Toxoplasma gondii and Cryptosporidium parvum. In the apo form, the C-terminal CDPK activation domain (CAD) resembles a calmodulin protein with an unexpected long helix in the N terminus that inhibits the kinase domain in the same manner as CaMKII. Calcium binding triggers the reorganization of the CAD into a highly intricate fold, leading to its relocation around the base of the kinase domain to a site remote from the substrate binding site. This large conformational change constitutes a distinct mechanism in calcium signal-transduction pathways.

  5. Identification, expression and interaction analyses of calcium-dependent protein kinase (CPK) genes in canola (Brassica napus L.)

    Zhang, Hanfeng; Liu, Wu-Zhen; Zhang, Yupeng; Deng, Min; Niu, Fangfang; Yang, Bo; Wang, Xiaoling; Wang, Boya; Liang, Wanwan; Deyholos, Michael K.; Jiang, Yuan-Qing


    Background Canola (Brassica napus L.) is one of the most important oil-producing crops in China and worldwide. The yield and quality of canola is frequently threatened by environmental stresses including drought, cold and high salinity. Calcium is a well-known ubiquitous intracellular secondary messenger in plants. Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CPKs) are Ser/Thr protein kinases found only in plants and some protozoans. CPKs are Ca2+ sensors that have both Ca2+ sensing function and kinase...

  6. Calcium-Dependent Protein Kinase CPK21 Functions in Abiotic Stress Response in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Sandra Franz; Britta Ehlert; Anja Liese; Joachim Kurth; Anne-Claire Cazalé; Tina Romeis


    Calcium-dependent protein kinases(CDPKs)comprise a family of plant serine/threonine protein kinases in which the calcium sensing domain and the kinase effector domain are combined within one molecule.So far,a biological function in abiotic stress signaling has only been reported for few CDPK isoforms,whereas the underlying biochemical mechanism for these CDPKs is still mainly unknown.Here,we show that CPK21 from Arabidopsis thaliana is biochemically activated in vivo in response to hyperosmotic stress.Loss-of-function seedlings of cpk21 are more tolerant to hyperosmotic stress and mutant plants show increased stress responses with respect to marker gene expression and metabolite accumulation.In transgenic Arabidopsis complementation lines in the cpk21 mutant background,in which either CPK21 wildtype,or a full-length enzyme variant carrying an amino-acid substitution were stably expressed,stress responsitivity was restored by CPK21 but not with the kinase inactive variant.The biochemical characterization of in planta synthesized and purified CPK21 protein revealed that within the calcium-binding domain,N-terminal EF1- and EF2-motifs compared to C-terminal EF3- and EF4-motifs differ in their contribution to calcium-regulated kinase activity,suggesting a crucial role for the N-terminal EF-hand pair.Our data provide evidence for CPK21 contributing in abiotic stress signaling and suggest that the N-terminal EF-hand pair is a calcium-sensing determinant controlling specificity of CPK21 function.

  7. A forward genetic screen reveals that calcium-dependent protein kinase 3 regulates egress in Toxoplasma.

    Erin Garrison

    Full Text Available Egress from the host cell is a crucial and highly regulated step in the biology of the obligate intracellular parasite, Toxoplasma gondii. Active egress depends on calcium fluxes and appears to be a crucial step in escaping the attack from the immune system and, potentially, in enabling the parasites to shuttle into appropriate cells for entry into the brain of the host. Previous genetic screens have yielded mutants defective in both ionophore-induced egress and ionophore-induced death. Using whole genome sequencing of one mutant and subsequent analysis of all mutants from these screens, we find that, remarkably, four independent mutants harbor a mis-sense mutation in the same gene, TgCDPK3, encoding a calcium-dependent protein kinase. All four mutations are predicted to alter key regions of TgCDPK3 and this is confirmed by biochemical studies of recombinant forms of each. By complementation we confirm a crucial role for TgCDPK3 in the rapid induction of parasite egress and we establish that TgCDPK3 is critical for formation of latent stages in the brains of mice. Genetic knockout of TgCDPK3 confirms a crucial role for this kinase in parasite egress and a non-essential role for it in the lytic cycle.

  8. Calcium-dependent protein kinases in plants: evolution, expression and function.

    Valmonte, Gardette R; Arthur, Kieren; Higgins, Colleen M; MacDiarmid, Robin M


    Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CPKs) are plant proteins that directly bind calcium ions before phosphorylating substrates involved in metabolism, osmosis, hormone response and stress signaling pathways. CPKs are a large multigene family of proteins that are present in all plants studied to date, as well as in protists, oomycetes and green algae, but are not found in animals and fungi. Despite the increasing evidence of the importance of CPKs in developmental and stress responses from various plants, a comprehensive genome-wide analysis of CPKs from algae to higher plants has not been undertaken. This paper describes the evolution of CPKs from green algae to plants using a broadly sampled phylogenetic analysis and demonstrates the functional diversification of CPKs based on expression and functional studies in different plant species. Our findings reveal that CPK sequence diversification into four major groups occurred in parallel with the terrestrial transition of plants. Despite significant expansion of the CPK gene family during evolution from green algae to higher plants, there is a high level of sequence conservation among CPKs in all plant species. This sequence conservation results in very little correlation between CPK evolutionary groupings and functional diversity, making the search for CPK functional orthologs a challenge. PMID:24363288

  9. Subcellular targeting of nine calcium-dependent protein kinase isoforms from Arabidopsis

    Dammann, Christian; Ichida, Audrey; Hong, Bimei; Romanowsky, Shawn M.; Hrabak, Estelle M.; Harmon, Alice C.; Pickard, Barbara G.; Harper, Jeffrey F.; Evans, M. L. (Principal Investigator)


    Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) are specific to plants and some protists. Their activation by calcium makes them important switches for the transduction of intracellular calcium signals. Here, we identify the subcellular targeting potentials for nine CDPK isoforms from Arabidopsis, as determined by expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusions in transgenic plants. Subcellular locations were determined by fluorescence microscopy in cells near the root tip. Isoforms AtCPK3-GFP and AtCPK4-GFP showed a nuclear and cytosolic distribution similar to that of free GFP. Membrane fractionation experiments confirmed that these isoforms were primarily soluble. A membrane association was observed for AtCPKs 1, 7, 8, 9, 16, 21, and 28, based on imaging and membrane fractionation experiments. This correlates with the presence of potential N-terminal acylation sites, consistent with acylation as an important factor in membrane association. All but one of the membrane-associated isoforms targeted exclusively to the plasma membrane. The exception was AtCPK1-GFP, which targeted to peroxisomes, as determined by covisualization with a peroxisome marker. Peroxisome targeting of AtCPK1-GFP was disrupted by a deletion of two potential N-terminal acylation sites. The observation of a peroxisome-located CDPK suggests a mechanism for calcium regulation of peroxisomal functions involved in oxidative stress and lipid metabolism.

  10. Genome-Wide Identification and Expression Analysis of Calcium-dependent Protein Kinase in Tomato

    Hu, Zhangjian; Lv, Xiangzhang; Xia, Xiaojian; Zhou, Jie; Shi, Kai; Yu, Jingquan; Zhou, Yanhong


    Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) play critical roles in regulating growth, development and stress response in plants. Information about CDPKs in tomato, however, remains obscure although it is one of the most important model crops in the world. In this study, we performed a bioinformatics analysis of the entire tomato genome and identified 29 CDPK genes. These CDPK genes are found to be located in 12 chromosomes, and could be divided into four groups. Analysis of the gene structure and splicing site reflected high structure conservation within different CDPK gene groups both in the exon-intron pattern and mRNA splicing. Transcripts of most CDPK genes varied with plant organs and developmental stages and their transcripts could be differentially induced by abscisic acid (ABA), brassinosteroids (BRs), methyl jasmonate (MeJA), and salicylic acid (SA), as well as after exposure to heat, cold, and drought, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first report about the genome-wide analysis of the CDPK gene family in tomato, and the findings obtained offer a clue to the elaborated regulatory role of CDPKs in plant growth, development and stress response in tomato. PMID:27092168

  11. Genome-Wide Identification and Expression Analysis of Calcium-dependent Protein Kinase in Tomato.

    Hu, Zhangjian; Lv, Xiangzhang; Xia, Xiaojian; Zhou, Jie; Shi, Kai; Yu, Jingquan; Zhou, Yanhong


    Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) play critical roles in regulating growth, development and stress response in plants. Information about CDPKs in tomato, however, remains obscure although it is one of the most important model crops in the world. In this study, we performed a bioinformatics analysis of the entire tomato genome and identified 29 CDPK genes. These CDPK genes are found to be located in 12 chromosomes, and could be divided into four groups. Analysis of the gene structure and splicing site reflected high structure conservation within different CDPK gene groups both in the exon-intron pattern and mRNA splicing. Transcripts of most CDPK genes varied with plant organs and developmental stages and their transcripts could be differentially induced by abscisic acid (ABA), brassinosteroids (BRs), methyl jasmonate (MeJA), and salicylic acid (SA), as well as after exposure to heat, cold, and drought, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first report about the genome-wide analysis of the CDPK gene family in tomato, and the findings obtained offer a clue to the elaborated regulatory role of CDPKs in plant growth, development and stress response in tomato. PMID:27092168

  12. Peptide phosphorylation by calcium-dependent protein kinase from maize seedlings.

    Loog, M; Toomik, R; Sak, K; Muszynska, G; Järv, J; Ek, P


    Ca2+-dependent protein kinase (CDPK-1) was purified from maize seedlings, and its substrate specificity studied using a set of synthetic peptides derived from the phosphorylatable sequence RVLSRLHS15VRER of maize sucrose synthase 2. The decapeptide LARLHSVRER was found to be efficiently phosphorylated as a minimal substrate. The same set of peptides were found to be phosphorylated by mammalian protein kinase Cbeta (PKC), but showed low reactivity with protein kinase A (PKA). Proceeding from the sequence LARLHSVRER, a series of cellulose-membrane-attached peptides of systematically modified structure was synthesised. These peptides had hydrophobic (Ala, Leu) and ionic (Arg, Glu) amino acids substituted in each position. The phosphorylation of these substrates by CDPK-1 was measured and the substrate specificity of the maize protein kinase characterised by the consensus sequence motif A/L-5X-4R-3X-2X-1SX+1R+2Z+3R+4, where X denotes a position with no strict amino acid requirements and Z a position strictly not tolerating arginine compared with the other three varied amino acids. This motif had a characteristic sequence element RZR at positions +2 to +4 and closely resembled the primary structure of the sucrose synthase phosphorylation site. The sequence surrounding the phosphorylatable serine in this consensus motif was similar to the analogous sequence K/RXXS/TXK/R proposed for mammalian PKC, but different from the consensus motif RRXS/TX for PKA. PMID:10632703

  13. The calcium-dependent protein kinase CPK28 buffers plant immunity and regulates BIK1 turnover

    Monaghan, Jacqueline; Matschi, Susanne; Shorinola, Oluwaseyi;


    plasma-membrane-associated cytoplasmic kinase BIK1, an important convergent substrate of multiple pattern recognition receptor (PRR) complexes. We find that BIK1 is rate limiting in PTI signaling and that it is continuously turned over to maintain cellular homeostasis. We further show that CPK28...... contributes to BIK1 turnover. Our results suggest a negative regulatory mechanism that continually buffers immune signaling by controlling the turnover of this key signaling kinase....

  14. Enhanced expression of a calcium-dependent protein kinase from the moss Funaria hygrometrica under nutritional starvation

    Doyel Mitra; Man Mohan Johri


    Among the downstream targets of calcium in plants, calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) form an interesting class of kinases which are activated by calcium binding. They have been implicated in a diverse array of responses to hormonal and environmental stimuli. In order to dissect the role of CDPKs in the moss Funaria hygrometrica, a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based approach was adopted to clone the gene. Using degenerate PCR primers against conserved regions of CDPKs, a 900 bp amplicon was obtained from the genomic DNA of Funaria. Southern hybridization under low stringency conditions indicated the presence of several CDPK related sequences in the Funaria genome. This observation is consistent with reports of multigene families of CDPKs in other plants. The 900 bp fragment was subsequently used to isolate a 2.2 kb partial genomic clone of the CDPK gene from Funaria. The genomic clone encodes an open reading frame (ORF) of 518 amino acids. Interestingly, unlike other CDPK genes from plants, the entire 1.5 kb ORF is not interrupted by introns. The deduced amino acid sequence of the Funaria gene shows extensive homology with CDPKs from higher plants, 73% identity with the Fragaria CDPK and 71% identity with CDPK isoform 7 of Arabidopsis. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the Funaria CDPK is closer to the CDPKs from higher plants like strawberry and Arabidopsis as compared to those from lower plants such as the liverwort Marchantia, the green alga Chlamydomonas or another moss Tortula. Northern analysis shows enhanced expression of the CDPK transcript within 24–48 h of starvation for nitrogen, phosphorus or sulphur. So far the only other kinase which is known to be induced by nutrient starvation in plants is the wpk 4 which is a snf-1 related kinase (SnRKs). To our knowledge this is the first report that implicates a CDPK in the starvation response.

  15. Enhancing blast disease resistance by overexpression of the calcium-dependent protein kinase OsCPK4 in rice.

    Bundó, Mireia; Coca, María


    Rice is the most important staple food for more than half of the human population, and blast disease is the most serious disease affecting global rice production. In this work, the isoform OsCPK4 of the rice calcium-dependent protein kinase family is reported as a regulator of rice immunity to blast fungal infection. It shows that overexpression of OsCPK4 gene in rice plants enhances resistance to blast disease by preventing fungal penetration. The constitutive accumulation of OsCPK4 protein prepares rice plants for a rapid and potentiated defence response, including the production of reactive oxygen species, callose deposition and defence gene expression. OsCPK4 overexpression leads also to constitutive increased content of the glycosylated salicylic acid hormone in leaves without compromising rice yield. Given that OsCPK4 overexpression was known to confer also salt and drought tolerance in rice, the results reported in this article demonstrate that OsCPK4 acts as a convergence component that positively modulates both biotic and abiotic signalling pathways. Altogether, our findings indicate that OsCPK4 is a potential molecular target to improve not only abiotic stress tolerance, but also blast disease resistance of rice crops. PMID:26578239

  16. Genome-wide survey and expression analysis of the calcium-dependent protein kinase gene family in cassava.

    Hu, Wei; Hou, Xiaowan; Xia, Zhiqiang; Yan, Yan; Wei, Yunxie; Wang, Lianzhe; Zou, Meiling; Lu, Cheng; Wang, Wenquan; Peng, Ming


    Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CPKs) play important roles in regulating plant tolerance to abiotic stress and signal transduction; however, no data are currently available regarding the CPK family in cassava. Herein, we identified 27 CPK genes from cassava based on our previous genome sequencing data. Phylogenetic analysis showed that cassava CPKs could be clustered into three groups, which was further supported by gene structure and conserved protein motif analyses. Global expression analysis suggested that MeCPK genes showed distinct expression patterns in different tissues between wild subspecies and cultivated varieties, indicating their involvement in the functional diversity of different varieties. Transcriptomics, interaction networks, and co-expression assays revealed a broad transcriptional response of cassava CPKs and CPK-mediated networks to drought stress and their differential expression profiles in different varieties, implying their contribution to drought stress tolerance in cassava. Expression analysis of eight MeCPK genes suggested a comprehensive response to osmotic stress, salt, cold, abscisic acid, and H2O2, which indicated that cassava CPKs might be convergence points for different signaling pathways. This study provides a basis for crop improvements and understanding of abiotic stress responses and signal transduction mediated by CPKs in cassava. PMID:26272723

  17. Analysis of Noncanonical Calcium-Dependent Protein Kinases in Toxoplasma gondii by Targeted Gene Deletion Using CRISPR/Cas9.

    Long, Shaojun; Wang, Qiuling; Sibley, L David


    Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) are expanded in apicomplexan parasites, especially in Toxoplasma gondii where 14 separate genes encoding these enzymes are found. Although previous studies have shown that several CDPKs play a role in controlling invasion, egress, and cell division in T. gondii, the roles of most of these genes are unexplored. Here we developed a more efficient method for gene disruption using CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)/Cas9 (CRISPR-associated protein 9) that was modified to completely delete large, multiexonic genes from the genome and to allow serial replacement by recycling of the selectable marker using Cre-loxP. Using this system, we generated a total of 24 mutants in type 1 and 2 genetic backgrounds to ascertain the functions of noncanonical CDPKs. Remarkably, although we were able to confirm the essentiality of CDPK1 and CDPK7, the majority of CDPKs had no discernible phenotype for growth in vitro or infection in the mouse model. The exception to this was CDPK6, loss of which leads to reduced plaquing, fitness defect in a competition assay, and reduced tissue cyst formation in chronically infected mice. Our findings highlight the utility of CRISPR/Cas9 for rapid serial gene deletion and also suggest that additional models are needed to reveal the functions of many genes in T. gondii. PMID:26755159

  18. Phospholipid mediated activation of calcium dependent protein kinase 1 (CaCDPK1 from chickpea: a new paradigm of regulation.

    Ajay Kumar Dixit

    Full Text Available Phospholipids, the major structural components of membranes, can also have functions in regulating signaling pathways in plants under biotic and abiotic stress. The effects of adding phospholipids on the activity of stress-induced calcium dependent protein kinase (CaCDPK1 from chickpea are reported here. Both autophosphorylation as well as phosphorylation of the added substrate were enhanced specifically by phosphatidylcholine and to a lesser extent by phosphatidic acid, but not by phosphatidylethanolamine. Diacylgylerol, the neutral lipid known to activate mammalian PKC, stimulated CaCDPK1 but at higher concentrations. Increase in V(max of the enzyme activity by these phospholipids significantly decreased the K(m indicating that phospholipids enhance the affinity towards its substrate. In the absence of calcium, addition of phospholipids had no effect on the negligible activity of the enzyme. Intrinsic fluorescence intensity of the CaCDPK1 protein was quenched on adding PA and PC. Higher binding affinity was found with PC (K(½ = 114 nM compared to PA (K(½ = 335 nM. We also found that the concentration of PA increased in chickpea plants under salt stress. The stimulation by PA and PC suggests regulation of CaCDPK1 by these phospholipids during stress response.

  19. Genome-wide analysis of the calcium-dependent protein kinase gene family inGossypium raimondii

    LI Li-bei; YU Ding-wei; ZHAO Feng-li; PANG Chao-you; SONG Mei-zhen; WEI Heng-ling; FAN Shu-li; YU Shu-xun


    Plant calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) play important roles in diverse physiological processes by regulating the downstream components of calcium signaling. To date, only a few species of the plant CDPK gene family have been functionaly identiifed. In addition, there has been no systematic analysis of the CDPK family in cotton. Here, 41 putative cotton CDPK (GrCDPK) genes were identiifedvia bioinformatics analysis of the entire genome ofGossypium raimondi and were classiifed into four groups based on evolutionary relatedness. Gene structure analysis indicated that most of these GrCDPK genes share a similar intron-exon structure (7 or 8 exons), strongly supporting their close evolutionary relationships. Chromosomal distributions and phylogenetics analysis showed that 13 pairs of GrCDPK genes arosevia segmental duplication events. Furthermore, using microarray data of upland cotton (G. hirsutumL.), comparative proifles analysis of these GhCDPKs indicated that some of the encoding genes might be involved in the responses to multiple abiotic stresses and play important regulatory roles during cotton ifber development. This study is the ifrst genome-wide analysis of the CDPK family in cotton, and it wil provide valuable information for the further functional characterization of cotton CDPK genes.

  20. A Calcium-Dependent Protein Kinase Interactswith and Activates A Calcium Channel toRequlate Pollen Tube Growth


    ABSTRACT Calcium, as a ubiquitous second messenger, plays essential roles in tip-growing cells, such as animal neu-rons, plant pollen tubes, and root hairs. However, little is known concerning the regulatory mechanisms that code anddecode Ca2+ signals in plants. The evidence presented here indicates that a calcium-dependent protein kinase, CPK32,controls polar growth of pollen tubes. Overexpression of CPK32 disrupted the polar growth along with excessive Ca2+accumulation in the tip. A search of downstream effector molecules for CPK32 led to identification of a cyclic nucleotide-gated channel, CNGC18, as an interacting partner for CPK32. Co-expression of CPK32 and CNGC18 resulted in activationof CNGC18 in Xenopus oocytes where expression of CNGC18 alone did not exhibit significant calcium channel activity.Overexpression of CNGC18 produced a growth arrest phenotype coupled with accumulation of calcium in the tip, simi-lar to that induced by CPK32 overexpression. Co-expression of CPK32 and CNGC18 had a synergistic effect leading tomore severe depolarization of pollen tube growth. These results provide a potential feed-forward mechanism in whichcalcium-activated CPK32 activates CNGC18, further promoting calcium entry during the elevation phase of Ca2+ oscilla-tions in the polar growth of pollen tubes.

  1. The calcium-dependent protein kinase 3 of toxoplasma influences basal calcium levels and functions beyond egress as revealed by quantitative phosphoproteome analysis.

    Moritz Treeck


    Full Text Available Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs are conserved in plants and apicomplexan parasites. In Toxoplasma gondii, TgCDPK3 regulates parasite egress from the host cell in the presence of a calcium-ionophore. The targets and the pathways that the kinase controls, however, are not known. To identify pathways regulated by TgCDPK3, we measured relative phosphorylation site usage in wild type and TgCDPK3 mutant and knock-out parasites by quantitative mass-spectrometry using stable isotope-labeling with amino acids in cell culture (SILAC. This revealed known and novel phosphorylation events on proteins predicted to play a role in host-cell egress, but also a novel function of TgCDPK3 as an upstream regulator of other calcium-dependent signaling pathways, as we also identified proteins that are differentially phosphorylated prior to egress, including proteins important for ion-homeostasis and metabolism. This observation is supported by the observation that basal calcium levels are increased in parasites where TgCDPK3 has been inactivated. Most of the differential phosphorylation observed in CDPK3 mutants is rescued by complementation of the mutants with a wild type copy of TgCDPK3. Lastly, the TgCDPK3 mutants showed hyperphosphorylation of two targets of a related calcium-dependent kinase (TgCDPK1, as well as TgCDPK1 itself, indicating that this latter kinase appears to play a role downstream of TgCDPK3 function. Overexpression of TgCDPK1 partially rescues the egress phenotype of the TgCDPK3 mutants, reinforcing this conclusion. These results show that TgCDPK3 plays a pivotal role in regulating tachyzoite functions including, but not limited to, egress.

  2. Calcium-dependent protein kinase (CDPK) and CDPK-related kinase (CRK) gene families in tomato: genome-wide identification and functional analyses in disease resistance.

    Wang, Ji-Peng; Xu, You-Ping; Munyampundu, Jean-Pierre; Liu, Tian-Yu; Cai, Xin-Zhong


    Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) and CDPK-related kinases (CRKs) play multiple roles in plant. Nevertheless, genome-wide identification of these two families is limited to several plant species, and role of CRKs in disease resistance remains unclear. In this study, we identified the CDPK and CRK gene families in genome of the economically important crop tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) and analyzed their function in resistance to various pathogens. Twenty-nine CDPK and six CRK genes were identified in tomato genome. Both SlCDPK and SlCRK proteins harbored an STKc_CAMK type protein kinase domain, while only SlCDPKs contained EF-hand type Ca(2+) binding domain(s). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that plant CRK family diverged early from CDPKs, and shared a common ancestor gene with subgroup IV CDPKs. Subgroup IV SlCDPK proteins were basic and their genes contained 11 introns, which were distinguished from other subgroups but similar to CRKs. Subgroup I SlCDPKs generally did not carry an N-terminal myristoylation motif while those of the remaining subgroups and SlCRKs universally did. SlCDPK and SlCRK genes were differently responsive to pathogenic stimuli. Furthermore, silencing analyses demonstrated that SlCDPK18 and SlCDPK10 positively regulated nonhost resistance to Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae and host resistance to Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst) DC3000, respectively, while SlCRK6 positively regulated resistance to both Pst DC3000 and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in tomato. In conclusion, CRKs apparently evolved from CDPK lineage, SlCDPK and SlCRK genes regulate a wide range of resistance and SlCRK6 is the first CRK gene proved to function in plant disease resistance. PMID:26520101

  3. Evaluation of the basic functions of six calcium-dependent protein kinases in Toxoplasma gondii using CRISPR-Cas9 system.

    Wang, Jin-Lei; Huang, Si-Yang; Li, Ting-Ting; Chen, Kai; Ning, Hong-Rui; Zhu, Xing-Quan


    Toxoplasma gondii, an important protozoan parasite, infects almost all warm-blooded animals and humans. Although treatments in T. gondii are limited by the lack of effective drugs, some calcium-dependent kinases were demonstrated as the promising drug targets to chemotherapy against T. gondii due to their essential roles in T. gondii and absence from their hosts. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the functions of six calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPK4, CDPK4A, CDPK5, CDPK6, CDPK8, and CDPK9) in T. gondii to assess whether they are suitable for designing as drug targets. We used the CRISPR-Cas9 system to disrupt six CDPK genes successfully by insertion of DHFR* at the guide RNA-targeted region in the six endogenous CDPK loci and successfully obtained the six knockout (KO)-CDPK strains. The biological characteristics of the six strains were evaluated by plaque assays, invasion, egress, replication, and virulence assays, respectively. The results indicated that there was no significant difference between the six KO-CDPK strains and wild-type strain in virulence and the lytic cycle including invasion, egress, and replication. The conclusion was the six CDPKs are not essential for T. gondii lytic cycle and also not virulence factors for mice, suggesting that the six CDPKs may participate in other functions in T. gondii. PMID:26499803

  4. A maize calcium-dependent protein kinase gene, ZmCPK4, positively regulated abscisic acid signaling and enhanced drought stress tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis.

    Jiang, Shanshan; Zhang, Dan; Wang, Li; Pan, Jiaowen; Liu, Yang; Kong, Xiangpei; Zhou, Yan; Li, Dequan


    Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) play essential roles in calcium-mediated signal transductions in plant response to abiotic stress. Several members have been identified to be regulators for plants response to abscisic acid (ABA) signaling. Here, we isolated a subgroup I CDPK gene, ZmCPK4, from maize. Quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis revealed that the ZmCPK4 transcripts were induced by various stresses and signal molecules. Transient and stable expression of the ZmCPK4-GFP fusion proteins revealed ZmCPK4 localized to the membrane. Moreover, overexpression of ZmCPK4 in the transgenic Arabidopsis enhanced ABA sensitivity in seed germination, seedling growth and stomatal movement. The transgenic plants also enhanced drought stress tolerance. Taken together, the results suggest that ZmCPK4 might be involved in ABA-mediated regulation of stomatal closure in response to drought stress. PMID:23911729

  5. Research Advances in Calcium-dependent Protein Kinases of Apicomplexa%顶复门原虫钙依赖蛋白激酶的研究进展

    张念章; 陈佳; 王萌; 朱兴全; 黄思扬


    钙依赖蛋白激酶(Calcium-dependent protein kinases,CDPKs)是一类大的蛋白激酶家族,属于丝氨酸/苏氨酸类蛋白激酶,广泛存在于各种植物和原生动物中,参与多种生命活动的调控.随着生物信息学、分子生物学及基因工程的迅速发展,对顶复门原虫CDPKs的研究日益增多.研究结果表明,这类蛋白家族成员参与调控寄生虫入侵、外出宿主细胞、配子形成、宿主体内移行等顶复门原虫生活史的多个重要时期,其特殊的分子结构或可成为研究抗寄生虫疫苗或药物的候选靶标.本文以疟原虫、弓形虫和艾美耳球虫CDPKs为重点,综述了顶复门原虫CDPKs的结构、功能及生物学意义,展望了顶复门原虫CDPKs的研究和应用前景,以期为研究顶复门原虫的致病机理及研发抗原虫生物制剂提供参考.%Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) are a large gene family, which is one kind of serine-threonine protein kinases. CDPKs have a diverse array of functions in various plants and many protozoa. With the development of bioinformatics, molecular biology and gene engineering, increasing numbers of researches about CDPKs were published recently. Increasing evidence suggests that CDPKs can regulate many crucial steps of parasite's life cycle including host cell invasion and egress, gamete formation, and gliding motility. The special structure compared with proteins in human and mammal makes CDPKs an ideal target for novel vaccine and anti-parasite therapeutic drugs. This article reviews the structures, functions and applications of Apicomplexa 's CDPKs focusing on Plasmodium, Toxoplasma gondii and Eimeria, and prospects the research and application tendency, in order to provide references for the research of the pathogene-sis and biological agents against Apicomplexan parasites.

  6. TaCPK2-A, a calcium-dependent protein kinase gene that is required for wheat powdery mildew resistance enhances bacterial blight resistance in transgenic rice.

    Geng, Shuaifeng; Li, Aili; Tang, Lichuan; Yin, Lingjie; Wu, Liang; Lei, Cailin; Guo, Xiuping; Zhang, Xin; Jiang, Guanghuai; Zhai, Wenxue; Wei, Yuming; Zheng, Youliang; Lan, Xiujin; Mao, Long


    Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CPKs) are important Ca2+ signalling components involved in complex immune and stress signalling networks; but the knowledge of CPK gene functions in the hexaploid wheat is limited. Previously, TaCPK2 was shown to be inducible by powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis tritici, Bgt) infection in wheat. Here, its functions in disease resistance are characterized further. This study shows the presence of defence-response and cold-response cis-elements on the promoters of the A subgenome homoeologue (TaCPK2-A) and D subgenome homoeologue (TaCPK2-D), respectively. Their expression patterns were then confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) using genome-specific primers, where TaCPK2-A was induced by Bgt treatment while TaCPK2-D mainly responded to cold treatment. Downregulation of TaCPK2-A by virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) causes loss of resistance to Bgt in resistant wheat lines, indicating that TaCPK2-A is required for powdery mildew resistance. Furthermore, overexpression of TaCPK2-A in rice enhanced bacterial blight (Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, Xoo) resistance. qRT-PCR analysis showed that overexpression of TaCPK2-A in rice promoted the expression of OsWRKY45-1, a transcription factor involved in both fungal and bacterial resistance by regulating jasmonic acid and salicylic acid signalling genes. The opposite effect was found in wheat TaCPK2-A VIGS plants, where the homologue of OsWRKY45-1 was significantly repressed. These data suggest that modulation of WRKY45-1 and associated defence-response genes by CPK2 genes may be the common mechanism for multiple disease resistance in grass species, which may have undergone subfunctionalization in promoters before the formation of hexaploid wheat. PMID:23918959

  7. Puerarin activates endothelial nitric oxide synthase through estrogen receptor-dependent PI3-kinase and calcium-dependent AMP-activated protein kinase

    The cardioprotective properties of puerarin, a natural product, have been attributed to the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS)-mediated production of nitric oxide (NO) in EA.hy926 endothelial cells. However, the mechanism by which puerarin activates eNOS remains unclear. In this study, we sought to identify the intracellular pathways underlying eNOS activation by puerarin. Puerarin induced the activating phosphorylation of eNOS on Ser1177 and the production of NO in EA.hy926 cells. Puerarin-induced eNOS phosphorylation required estrogen receptor (ER)-mediated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling and was reversed by AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) inhibition. Importantly, puerarin inhibited the adhesion of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α-stimulated monocytes to endothelial cells and suppressed the TNF-α induced expression of intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1. Puerarin also inhibited the TNF-α-induced nuclear factor-κB activation, which was attenuated by pretreatment with NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, a NOS inhibitor. These results indicate that puerarin stimulates eNOS phosphorylation and NO production via activation of an estrogen receptor-mediated PI3K/Akt- and CaMKII/AMPK-dependent pathway. Puerarin may be useful for the treatment or prevention of endothelial dysfunction associated with diabetes and cardiovascular disease. -- Highlights: ► Puerarin induced the phosphorylation of eNOS and the production of NO. ► Puerarin activated eNOS through ER-dependent PI3-kinase and Ca2+-dependent AMPK. ► Puerarin-induced NO was involved in the inhibition of NF-kB activation. ► Puerarin may help for prevention of vascular dysfunction and diabetes.

  8. A rice calcium-dependent protein kinase is expressed in cortical root cells during the presymbiotic phase of the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis

    San Segundo Blanca


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM symbiosis consists of a mutualistic relationship between soil fungi and roots of most plant species. This association provides the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus with sugars while the fungus improves the uptake of water and mineral nutrients in the host plant. Then, the establishment of the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM symbiosis requires the fine tuning of host gene expression for recognition and accommodation of the fungal symbiont. In plants, calcium plays a key role as second messenger during developmental processes and responses to environmental stimuli. Even though calcium transients are known to occur in host cells during the AM symbiosis, the decoding of the calcium signal and the molecular events downstream are only poorly understood. Results The expression of seventeen Calcium-dependent Protein Kinase (CPK genes representative of the four distinct phylogenetic groups of rice CPKs was monitored during the presymbiotic phase of the AM symbiosis. Among them, OsCPK18 and OsCPK4, were found to be transcriptionally activated in response to inoculation with the AM fungus Glomus intraradices. OsCPK18 and OsCPK4 gene expression was also up-regulated by fungal-produced diffusible molecules. Laser microdissection revealed expression of OsCPK18 in cortical cells, and not in epidermal cells of G. intraradices-inoculated rice roots, suggesting a preferential role of this gene in the root cortex. Moreover, a plasma membrane localization of OsCPK18 was observed by transient expression assays of green fluorescent protein-tagged OsCPK18 in onion epidermal cells. We also show that the myristoylation site of the OsCPK18 N-terminus is required for plasma membrane targeting. Conclusion The rapid activation of OsCPK18 expression in response to AM inoculation, its expression being also induced by fungal-secreted signals, together with the observed plasma membrane localization of OsCPK18, points to a role for Os

  9. Constitutive expression and silencing of a novel seed specific calcium dependent protein kinase gene in rice reveals its role in grain filling.

    Manimaran, P; Mangrauthia, Satendra K; Sundaram, R M; Balachandran, S M


    Ca(2+) sensor protein kinases are prevalent in most plant species including rice. They play diverse roles in plant signaling mechanism. Thirty one CDPK genes have been identified in rice and some are functionally characterized. In the present study, the newly identified rice CDPK gene OsCPK31 was functionally validated by overexpression and silencing in Taipei 309 rice cultivar. Spikelets of overexpressing plants showed hard dough stage within 15d after pollination (DAP) with rapid grain filling and early maturation. Scanning electron microscopy of endosperm during starch granule formation confirmed early grain filling. Further, seeds of overexpressing transgenic lines matured early (20-22 DAP) and the average number of maturity days reduced significantly. On the other hand, silencing lines showed more number of unfilled spikelet without any difference in maturity duration. It will be interesting to further decipher the role of OsCPK31 in biological pathways associated with distribution of photosynthetic assimilates during grain filling stage. PMID:25462965

  10. A calcium-dependent protein kinase can inhibit a calmodulin-stimulated Ca2+ pump (ACA2) located in the endoplasmic reticulum of Arabidopsis

    Hwang, I.; Sze, H.; Harper, J. F.; Evans, M. L. (Principal Investigator)


    The magnitude and duration of a cytosolic Ca(2+) release can potentially be altered by changing the rate of Ca(2+) efflux. In plant cells, Ca(2+) efflux from the cytoplasm is mediated by H(+)/Ca(2+)-antiporters and two types of Ca(2+)-ATPases. ACA2 was recently identified as a calmodulin-regulated Ca(2+)-pump located in the endoplasmic reticulum. Here, we show that phosphorylation of its N-terminal regulatory domain by a Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinase (CDPK isoform CPK1), inhibits both basal activity ( approximately 10%) and calmodulin stimulation ( approximately 75%), as shown by Ca(2+)-transport assays with recombinant enzyme expressed in yeast. A CDPK phosphorylation site was mapped to Ser(45) near a calmodulin binding site, using a fusion protein containing the N-terminal domain as an in vitro substrate for a recombinant CPK1. In a full-length enzyme, an Ala substitution for Ser(45) (S45/A) completely blocked the observed CDPK inhibition of both basal and calmodulin-stimulated activities. An Asp substitution (S45/D) mimicked phosphoinhibition, indicating that a negative charge at this position is sufficient to account for phosphoinhibition. Interestingly, prior binding of calmodulin blocked phosphorylation. This suggests that, once ACA2 binds calmodulin, its activation state becomes resistant to phosphoinhibition. These results support the hypothesis that ACA2 activity is regulated as the balance between the initial kinetics of calmodulin stimulation and CDPK inhibition, providing an example in plants for a potential point of crosstalk between two different Ca(2+)-signaling pathways.

  11. Arabidopsis CALCIUM-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE8 and CATALASE3 Function in Abscisic Acid-Mediated Signaling and H2O2 Homeostasis in Stomatal Guard Cells under Drought Stress.

    Zou, Jun-Jie; Li, Xi-Dong; Ratnasekera, Disna; Wang, Cun; Liu, Wen-Xin; Song, Lian-Fen; Zhang, Wen-Zheng; Wu, Wei-Hua


    Drought is a major threat to plant growth and crop productivity. Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs, CPKs) are believed to play important roles in plant responses to drought stress. Here, we report that Arabidopsis thaliana CPK8 functions in abscisic acid (ABA)- and Ca(2+)-mediated plant responses to drought stress. The cpk8 mutant was more sensitive to drought stress than wild-type plants, while the transgenic plants overexpressing CPK8 showed enhanced tolerance to drought stress compared with wild-type plants. ABA-, H2O2-, and Ca(2+)-induced stomatal closing were impaired in cpk8 mutants. Arabidopsis CATALASE3 (CAT3) was identified as a CPK8-interacting protein, confirmed by yeast two-hybrid, coimmunoprecipitation, and bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays. CPK8 can phosphorylate CAT3 at Ser-261 and regulate its activity. Both cpk8 and cat3 plants showed lower catalase activity and higher accumulation of H2O2 compared with wild-type plants. The cat3 mutant displayed a similar drought stress-sensitive phenotype as cpk8 mutant. Moreover, ABA and Ca(2+) inhibition of inward K(+) currents were diminished in guard cells of cpk8 and cat3 mutants. Together, these results demonstrated that CPK8 functions in ABA-mediated stomatal regulation in responses to drought stress through regulation of CAT3 activity. PMID:25966761

  12. The calcium-dependent protein kinase CPK28 regulates development by inducing growth phase-specific, spatially restricted alterations in jasmonic acid levels independent of defense responses in Arabidopsis.

    Matschi, Susanne; Hake, Katharina; Herde, Marco; Hause, Bettina; Romeis, Tina


    Phytohormones play an important role in development and stress adaptations in plants, and several interacting hormonal pathways have been suggested to accomplish fine-tuning of stress responses at the expense of growth. This work describes the role played by the CALCIUM-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE CPK28 in balancing phytohormone-mediated development in Arabidopsis thaliana, specifically during generative growth. cpk28 mutants exhibit growth reduction solely as adult plants, coinciding with altered balance of the phytohormones jasmonic acid (JA) and gibberellic acid (GA). JA-dependent gene expression and the levels of several JA metabolites were elevated in a growth phase-dependent manner in cpk28, and accumulation of JA metabolites was confined locally to the central rosette tissue. No elevated resistance toward herbivores or necrotrophic pathogens was detected for cpk28 plants, either on the whole-plant level or specifically within the tissue displaying elevated JA levels. Abolishment of JA biosynthesis or JA signaling led to a full reversion of the cpk28 growth phenotype, while modification of GA signaling did not. Our data identify CPK28 as a growth phase-dependent key negative regulator of distinct processes: While in seedlings, CPK28 regulates reactive oxygen species-mediated defense signaling; in adult plants, CPK28 confers developmental processes by the tissue-specific balance of JA and GA without affecting JA-mediated defense responses. PMID:25736059

  13. Annexins V and VI: major calcium-dependent atrial secretory granule-binding proteins.

    Doubell, A F; Bester, A J; Thibault, G


    Atrial natriuretic peptide is stored by atrial myocytes in secretory granules, known as atrial specific granules, and is released from these granules by exocytosis. We have isolated a group of atrial proteins by affinity chromatography that bind to atrial specific granules in a calcium-dependent manner. The two major proteins isolated (32.5 kd and 67 kd) are calcium-binding proteins and have been identified as annexins V and VI by immunoblotting with specific antisera. The calcium dependence of their binding to atrial specific granules has been characterized in vitro and indicates that this interaction takes place at micromolar levels of calcium. In addition, the group of proteins isolated includes another calcium-binding protein of 20 kd, as well as GTP-binding proteins of 22 to 26 kd. Membrane interactions during exocytosis are presumably mediated by the interaction of specific proteins with the granule membrane. The properties of the proteins described here, and their ability to bind to atrial specific granules in a calcium-dependent manner, make them likely candidates in the search for regulatory proteins mediating atrial natriuretic peptide secretion. PMID:1834552

  14. CDPKs are dual-specificity protein kinases and tyrosine autophosphorylation attenuates kinase activity

    Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs or CPKs) are classified as serine/threonine protein kinases but we made the surprising observation that soybean CDPK' and several Arabidopsis isoforms (AtCPK4 and AtCPK34) could also autophosphorylate on tyrosine residues. In studies with His6-GmCDPK', we ide...

  15. Calcium-dependent oligomerization of CAR proteins at cell membrane modulates ABA signaling.

    Diaz, Maira; Sanchez-Barrena, Maria Jose; Gonzalez-Rubio, Juana Maria; Rodriguez, Lesia; Fernandez, Daniel; Antoni, Regina; Yunta, Cristina; Belda-Palazon, Borja; Gonzalez-Guzman, Miguel; Peirats-Llobet, Marta; Menendez, Margarita; Boskovic, Jasminka; Marquez, Jose A; Rodriguez, Pedro L; Albert, Armando


    Regulation of ion transport in plants is essential for cell function. Abiotic stress unbalances cell ion homeostasis, and plants tend to readjust it, regulating membrane transporters and channels. The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) and the second messenger Ca(2+) are central in such processes, as they are involved in the regulation of protein kinases and phosphatases that control ion transport activity in response to environmental stimuli. The identification and characterization of the molecular mechanisms underlying the effect of ABA and Ca(2+) signaling pathways on membrane function are central and could provide opportunities for crop improvement. The C2-domain ABA-related (CAR) family of small proteins is involved in the Ca(2+)-dependent recruitment of the pyrabactin resistance 1/PYR1-like (PYR/PYL) ABA receptors to the membrane. However, to fully understand CAR function, it is necessary to define a molecular mechanism that integrates Ca(2+) sensing, membrane interaction, and the recognition of the PYR/PYL interacting partners. We present structural and biochemical data showing that CARs are peripheral membrane proteins that functionally cluster on the membrane and generate strong positive membrane curvature in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner. These features represent a mechanism for the generation, stabilization, and/or specific recognition of membrane discontinuities. Such structures may act as signaling platforms involved in the recruitment of PYR/PYL receptors and other signaling components involved in cell responses to stress. PMID:26719420

  16. Calcium-dependent molecular spring elements in the giant protein titin

    Labeit, Dietmar; Watanabe, Kaori; Witt, Christian; Fujita, Hideaki; Wu, Yiming; Lahmers, Sunshine; Funck, Theodor; Labeit, Siegfried; Granzier, Henk


    Titin (also known as connectin) is a giant protein with a wide range of cellular functions, including providing muscle cells with elasticity. Its physiological extension is largely derived from the PEVK segment, rich in proline (P), glutamate (E), valine (V), and lysine (K) residues. We studied recombinant PEVK molecules containing the two conserved elements: ≈28-residue PEVK repeats and E-rich motifs. Single molecule experiments revealed that calcium-induced conformational changes reduce the...

  17. Calcium-dependent protein kinases in the stress signaling cascades of rice plants

    Bundó Barberà, Mireia; Llugany i Ollé, Mercè


    Les proteïnes quinasa dependents de calci (CDPKs o CPKs) són components de senyalització presents en molts aspectes de la biologia de les plantes, des dels processos de desenvolupament fins a les respostes a estrès. Aquesta tesi aborda la identificació i la caracterització funcional de les isoformes OsCPK que intervenen en la resposta de defensa de l'arròs contra els patògens, així com la seva contribució a d́altres vies de senyalització. Aquests estudis són necessaris per entendre les intera...

  18. JNK mitogen-activated protein kinase limits calcium-dependent chloride secretion across colonic epithelial cells.

    Donnellan, Fergal


    Neuroimmune agonists induce epithelial Cl(-) secretion through elevations in intracellular Ca2+ or cAMP. Previously, we demonstrated that epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) transactivation and subsequent ERK MAPK activation limits secretory responses to Ca2+-dependent, but not cAMP-dependent, agonists. Although JNK MAPKs are also expressed in epithelial cells, their role in regulating transport function is unknown. Here, we investigated the potential role for JNK in regulating Cl(-) secretion in T(84) colonic epithelial cells. Western blot analysis revealed that a prototypical Ca2+-dependent secretagogue, carbachol (CCh; 100 microM), induced phosphorylation of both the 46-kDa and 54-kDa isoforms of JNK. This effect was mimicked by thapsigargin (TG), which specifically elevates intracellular Ca2+, but not by forskolin (FSK; 10 microM), which elevates cAMP. CCh-induced JNK phosphorylation was attenuated by the EGFR inhibitor, tyrphostin-AG1478 (1 microM). Pretreatment of voltage-clamped T(84) cells with SP600125 (2 microM), a specific JNK inhibitor, potentiated secretory responses to both CCh and TG but not to FSK. The effects of SP600125 on CCh-induced secretion were not additive with those of the ERK inhibitor, PD98059. Finally, in apically permeabilized T(84) cell monolayers, SP600125 potentiated CCh-induced K+ conductances but not Na+\\/K+ATPase activity. These data demonstrate a novel role for JNK MAPK in regulating Ca2+ but not cAMP-dependent epithelial Cl(-) secretion. JNK activation is mediated by EGFR transactivation and exerts its antisecretory effects through inhibition of basolateral K+ channels. These data further our understanding of mechanisms regulating epithelial secretion and underscore the potential for exploitation of MAPK-dependent signaling in treatment of intestinal transport disorders.

  19. Calcium-dependent and -independent binding of the pentraxin serum amyloid P component to glycosaminoglycans and amyloid proteins

    Danielsen, B; Sørensen, I J; Nybo, Mads; Nielsen, E H; Kaplan, B; Svehag, S E


    beta2M) by ELISA. An increase in the dose-dependent binding of SAP to heparan sulfate, AA-protein and beta2M was observed as the pH decreased from 8.0 to 5.0. Furthermore, a lower, but significant Ca2(+)-independent binding of SAP to heparan sulfate, dermatan sulfate, AA protein and the amyloid...

  20. Bacterial Protein-Tyrosine Kinases

    Shi, Lei; Kobir, Ahasanul; Jers, Carsten;


    Bacteria and Eukarya share essentially the same family of protein-serine/threonine kinases, also known as the Hanks-type kinases. However, when it comes to protein-tyrosine phosphorylation, bacteria seem to have gone their own way. Bacterial protein-tyrosine kinases (BY-kinases) are bacterial...... enzymes that are unique in exploiting the ATP/GTP-binding Walker motif to catalyze phosphorylation of protein tyrosine residues. Characterized for the first time only a decade ago, BY-kinases have now come to the fore. Important regulatory roles have been linked with these enzymes, via their involvement...... in exopolysaccharide production, virulence, DNA metabolism, stress response and other key functions of the bacterial cell. BY-kinases act through autophosphorylation (mainly in exopolysaccharide production) and phosphorylation of other proteins, which have in most cases been shown to be activated by...

  1. Calcium dependent formation of tubular assemblies by recombinant S-layer proteins in vivo and in vitro

    Korkmaz, Nuriye; Ostermann, Kai; Roedel, Gerhard, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Institut fuer Genetik, Technische Universitaet Dresden, Zellescher Weg 20b, 01217 Dresden (Germany)


    Surface layer proteins have the appealing property to self-assemble in nanosized arrays in solution and on solid substrates. In this work, we characterize the formation of assembly structures of the recombinant surface layer protein SbsC of Geobacillus stearothermophilus ATTC 12980, which was tagged with enhanced green fluorescent protein and expressed in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The tubular structures formed by the protein in vivo are retained upon bursting the cells by osmotic shock; however, their average length is decreased. During dialysis, monomers obtained by treatment with chaotropic chemicals recrystallize again to form tube-like structures. This process is strictly dependent on calcium (Ca{sup 2+}) ions, with an optimal concentration of 10 mM. Further increase of the Ca{sup 2+} concentration results in multiple non-productive nucleation points. We further show that the lengths of the S-layer assemblies increase with time and can be controlled by pH. After 48 h, the average length at pH 9.0 is 4.13 {mu}m compared to 2.69 {mu}m at pH 5.5. Successful chemical deposition of platinum indicates the potential of recrystallized mSbsC-eGFP structures for nanobiotechnological applications.

  2. Protein Crystals of Raf Kinase


    This image shows crystals of the protein raf kinase grown on Earth (photo a) and on USML-2 (photo b). The space-grown crystals are an order of magnitude larger. Principal Investigator: Dan Carter of New Century Pharmaceuticals

  3. Oncoprotein protein kinase

    Karin, Michael (San Diego, CA); Hibi, Masahiko (San Diego, CA); Lin, Anning (La Jolla, CA); Davis, Roger (Princeton, MA); Derijard, Benoit (Shrewsbury, MA)


    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and threonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

  4. Degradation of Activated Protein Kinases by Ubiquitination

    Lu, Zhimin; Hunter, Tony


    Protein kinases are important regulators of intracellular signal transduction pathways and play critical roles in diverse cellular functions. Once a protein kinase is activated, its activity is subsequently downregulated through a variety of mechanisms. Accumulating evidence indicates that the activation of protein kinases commonly initiates their downregulation via the ubiquitin/proteasome pathway. Failure to regulate protein kinase activity or expression levels can cause human diseases.

  5. Pharmacological modulation of protein kinases as a new approach to treat addiction to cocaine and opiates.

    García-Pardo, María Pilar; Roger-Sanchez, Concepción; Rodríguez-Arias, Marta; Miñarro, Jose; Aguilar, María Asunción


    Drug addiction shares brain mechanisms and molecular substrates with learning and memory processes, such as the stimulation of glutamate receptors and their downstream signalling pathways. In the present work we provide an up-to-date review of studies that have demonstrated the implication of the main memory-related calcium-dependent protein kinases in opiate and cocaine addiction. The effects of these drugs of abuse in different animal models of drug reward, dependence and addiction are altered by manipulation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family, particularly extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK), calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII), the protein kinase C (PKC) family (including PKMζ), cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA), cGMP-dependent protein kinase G (PKG), the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway and its downstream target mammalian target of Rapamycin (mTOR), cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5), heat-shock proteins (Hsp) and other enzymes and proteins. Research suggests that drugs of abuse induce dependence and addiction by modifying the signalling pathways that involve these memory-related protein kinases, and supports the idea that drug addiction is an excessive aberrant learning disorder in which the maladaptive memory of drug-associated cues maintains compulsive drug use and contributes to relapse. Moreover, the studies we review offer new pharmacological strategies to treat opiate and cocaine dependence based on the manipulation of these protein kinases. In particular, disruption of reconsolidation of drug-related memories may have a high therapeutic value in the treatment of drug addiction. PMID:27056740

  6. Protein kinase CK2 in human diseases

    Guerra, Barbara; Issinger, Olaf-Georg


    Protein kinase CK2 (formerly referred to as casein kinase II) is an evolutionary conserved, ubiquitous protein kinase. There are two paralog catalytic subunits, i.e. alpha (A1) and alpha' (A2). The alpha and alpha' subunits are linked to two beta subunits to produce a heterotetrameric structure....... The catalytic alpha subunits are distantly related to the CMGC subfamily of kinases, such as the Cdk kinases. There are some peculiarities associated with protein kinase CK2, which are not found with most other protein kinases: (i) the enzyme is constitutively active, (ii) it can use ATP and GTP and...... specifically target this protein kinase [10]. Since not all the aspects of what has been published on CK2 can be covered in this review, we would like to recommend the following reviews; (i) for general information on CK2 [11-18] and (ii) with a focus on aberrant CK2 [19-22]....

  7. Partial purification and characterization of a Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinase from pea nuclei

    Li, H.; Dauwalder, M.; Roux, S. J.


    Almost all the Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinase activity in nuclei purified from etiolated pea (Pisum sativum, L.) plumules is present in a single enzyme that can be extracted from chromatin by 0.3 molar NaCl. This protein kinase can be further purified 80,000-fold by salt fractionation and high performance liquid chromatography, after which it has a high specific activity of about 100 picomoles per minute per microgram in the presence of Ca2+ and reaches half-maximal activation at about 3 x 10(-7) molar free Ca2+, without calmodulin. It is a monomer with a molecular weight near 90,000. It can efficiently use histone III-S, ribosomal S6 protein, and casein as artificial substrates, but it phosphorylates phosvitin only weakly. Its Ca(2+)-dependent kinase activity is half-maximally inhibited by 0.1 millimolar chlorpromazine, by 35 nanomolar K-252a and by 7 nanomolar staurosporine. It is insensitive to sphingosine, an inhibitor of protein kinase C, and to basic polypeptides that block other Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinases. It is not stimulated by exogenous phospholipids or fatty acids. In intact isolated pea nuclei it preferentially phosphorylates several chromatin-associated proteins, with the most phosphorylated protein band being near the same molecular weight (43,000) as a nuclear protein substrate whose phosphorylation has been reported to be stimulated by phytochrome in a calcium-dependent fashion.

  8. The role of a conserved acidic residue in calcium-dependent protein folding for a low density lipoprotein (LDL)-A module: implications in structure and function for the LDL receptor superfamily.

    Guo, Ying; Yu, Xuemei; Rihani, Kayla; Wang, Qing-Yin; Rong, Lijun


    One common feature of the more than 1,000 complement-type repeats (or low density lipoprotein (LDL)-A modules) found in LDL receptor and the other members of the LDL receptor superfamily is a cluster of five highly conserved acidic residues in the C-terminal region, DXXXDXXDXXDE. However, the role of the third conserved aspartate of these LDL-A modules in protein folding and ligand recognition has not been elucidated. In this report, using a model LDL-A module and several experimental approaches, we demonstrate that this acidic residue, like the other four conserved acidic residues, is involved in calcium-dependent protein folding. These results suggest an alternative calcium coordination conformation for the LDL-A modules. The proposed model provides a plausible explanation for the conservation of this acidic residue among the LDL-A modules. Furthermore, the model can explain why mutations of this residue in human LDL receptor cause familial hypercholesterolemia. PMID:14749324

  9. Immunochemical characterization of rat brain protein kinase

    Polyclonal antibodies against rat brain protein kinase C (the Ca2+/phospholipid-dependent enzyme) were raised in goat. These antibodies can neutralize completely the kinase activity in purified enzyme preparation as well as that in the crude homogenate. Immunoblot analysis of the purified and the crude protein kinase C preparations revealed a major immunoreactive band of 80 kDa. The antibodies also recognize the same enzyme from other rat tissues. Neuronal tissues (cerebral cortex, cerebellum, hypothalamus, and retina) and lymphoid organs (thymus and spleen) were found to be enriched in protein kinase C, whereas lung, kidney, liver, heart, and skeletal muscle contained relatively low amounts of this kinase. Limited proteolysis of the purified rat brain protein kinase C with trypsin results in an initial degradation of the kinase into two major fragments of 48 and 38 kDa. Both fragments are recognized by the antibodies. However, further digestion of the 48-kDa fragment to 45 kDa and the 38-kDa fragment to 33 kDa causes a loss of the immunoreactivity. Upon incubation of the cerebellar extract with Ca2+, the 48-kDa fragment was also identified as a major proteolytic product of protein kinase C. Proteolytic degradation of protein kinase C converts the Ca2+/phospholipid-dependent kinase to an independent form without causing a large impairment of the binding of [3H]phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate. The two major proteolytic fragments were separated by ion exchange chromatography and one of them (45-48 kDa) was identified as a protein kinase and the other (33-38 kDa) as a phorbol ester-binding protein. These results demonstrate that rat brain protein kinase C is composed of two functionally distinct units, namely, a protein kinase and a Ca2+-independent/phospholipid-dependent phorbol ester-binding protein

  10. Protein Kinase A in Cancer

    Antonio Caretta


    Full Text Available In the past, many chromosomal and genetic alterations have been examined as possible causes of cancer. However, some tumors do not display a clear molecular and/or genetic signature. Therefore, other cellular processes may be involved in carcinogenesis. Genetic alterations of proteins involved in signal transduction have been extensively studied, for example oncogenes, while modifications in intracellular compartmentalization of these molecules, or changes in the expression of unmodified genes have received less attention. Yet, epigenetic modulation of second messenger systems can deeply modify cellular functioning and in the end may cause instability of many processes, including cell mitosis. It is important to understand the functional meaning of modifications in second messenger intracellular pathways and unravel the role of downstream proteins in the initiation and growth of tumors. Within this framework, the cAMP system has been examined. cAMP is a second messenger involved in regulation of a variety of cellular functions. It acts mainly through its binding to cAMP-activated protein kinases (PKA, that were suggested to participate in the onset and progression of various tumors. PKA may represent a biomarker for tumor detection, identification and staging, and may be a potential target for pharmacological treatment of tumors.

  11. Protein Kinase A in Cancer

    Caretta, Antonio; Mucignat-Caretta, Carla, E-mail: [Department of Human Anatomy and Physiology, University of Padova, Via Marzolo 3, 35131 Padova (Italy)


    In the past, many chromosomal and genetic alterations have been examined as possible causes of cancer. However, some tumors do not display a clear molecular and/or genetic signature. Therefore, other cellular processes may be involved in carcinogenesis. Genetic alterations of proteins involved in signal transduction have been extensively studied, for example oncogenes, while modifications in intracellular compartmentalization of these molecules, or changes in the expression of unmodified genes have received less attention. Yet, epigenetic modulation of second messenger systems can deeply modify cellular functioning and in the end may cause instability of many processes, including cell mitosis. It is important to understand the functional meaning of modifications in second messenger intracellular pathways and unravel the role of downstream proteins in the initiation and growth of tumors. Within this framework, the cAMP system has been examined. cAMP is a second messenger involved in regulation of a variety of cellular functions. It acts mainly through its binding to cAMP-activated protein kinases (PKA), that were suggested to participate in the onset and progression of various tumors. PKA may represent a biomarker for tumor detection, identification and staging, and may be a potential target for pharmacological treatment of tumors.

  12. Protein kinases associated with the yeast phosphoproteome

    Munn Alan L


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein phosphorylation is an extremely important mechanism of cellular regulation. A large-scale study of phosphoproteins in a whole-cell lysate of Saccharomyces cerevisiae has previously identified 383 phosphorylation sites in 216 peptide sequences. However, the protein kinases responsible for the phosphorylation of the identified proteins have not previously been assigned. Results We used Predikin in combination with other bioinformatic tools, to predict which of 116 unique protein kinases in yeast phosphorylates each experimentally determined site in the phosphoproteome. The prediction was based on the match between the phosphorylated 7-residue sequence and the predicted substrate specificity of each kinase, with the highest weight applied to the residues or positions that contribute most to the substrate specificity. We estimated the reliability of the predictions by performing a parallel prediction on phosphopeptides for which the kinase has been experimentally determined. Conclusion The results reveal that the functions of the protein kinases and their predicted phosphoprotein substrates are often correlated, for example in endocytosis, cytokinesis, transcription, replication, carbohydrate metabolism and stress response. The predictions link phosphoproteins of unknown function with protein kinases with known functions and vice versa, suggesting functions for the uncharacterized proteins. The study indicates that the phosphoproteins and the associated protein kinases represented in our dataset have housekeeping cellular roles; certain kinases are not represented because they may only be activated during specific cellular responses. Our results demonstrate the utility of our previously reported protein kinase substrate prediction approach (Predikin as a tool for establishing links between kinases and phosphoproteins that can subsequently be tested experimentally.

  13. The mechanism of protein kinase C regulation

    Julhash U. KAZI


    Protein kinase C (PKC) is a family ofserine/threonine protein kinases that plays a central role in transducing extracellular signals into a variety of intracellular responses ranging from cell proliferation to apoptosis.Nine PKC genes have been identified in the human genome,which encode 10 proteins.Each member of this protein kinase family displays distinct biochemical characteristics and is enriched in different cellular and subcellular locations.Activation of PKC has been implicated in the regulation of cell growth and differentiation.This review summarizes works of the past years in the field of PKC biochemistry that covers regulation and activation mechanism of different PKC isoforms.

  14. Calmodulin-dependent protein kinases mediate calcium-induced slow motility of mammalian outer hair cells.

    Puschner, B; Schacht, J


    Cochlear outer hair cells in vitro respond to elevation of intracellular calcium with slow shape changes over seconds to minutes ('slow motility'). This process is blocked by general calmodulin antagonists suggesting the participation of calcium/calmodulin-dependent enzymatic reactions. The present study proposes a mechanism for these reactions. Length changes of outer hair cells isolated from the guinea pig cochlea were induced by exposure to the calcium ionophore ionomycin. ATP levels remained unaffected by this treatment ruling out depletion of ATP (by activation of calcium-dependent ATPases) as a cause of the observed shape changes. Involvement of protein kinases was suggested by the inhibition of shape changes by K252a, a broad-spectrum inhibitor of protein kinase activity. Furthermore, the inhibitors ML-7 and ML-9 blocked the shape changes at concentrations compatible with inhibition of myosin light chain kinase (MLCK). KN-62, an inhibitor of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), also attenuated the length changes. Inhibitors with selectivity for cyclic nucleotide-dependent protein kinases (H-89, staurosporine) were tested to assess potential additional contributions by such enzymes. The dose dependence of their action supported the notion that the most likely mechanism of slow motility involves phosphorylation reactions catalyzed by MLCK or CaMKII or both. PMID:9282907

  15. Non-degradative Ubiquitination of Protein Kinases.

    K Aurelia Ball; Johnson, Jeffrey R.; Lewinski, Mary K; John Guatelli; Erik Verschueren; Krogan, Nevan J.; Matthew P Jacobson


    Growing evidence supports other regulatory roles for protein ubiquitination in addition to serving as a tag for proteasomal degradation. In contrast to other common post-translational modifications, such as phosphorylation, little is known about how non-degradative ubiquitination modulates protein structure, dynamics, and function. Due to the wealth of knowledge concerning protein kinase structure and regulation, we examined kinase ubiquitination using ubiquitin remnant immunoaffinity enrichm...

  16. Physiological roles of mitogen-activated-protein-kinase-activated p38-regulated/activated protein kinase

    Sergiy; Kostenko; Gianina; Dumitriu; Kari; Jenssen; Lgreid; Ugo; Moens


    Mitogen-activated protein kinases(MAPKs)are a family of proteins that constitute signaling pathways involved in processes that control gene expression,cell division, cell survival,apoptosis,metabolism,differentiation and motility.The MAPK pathways can be divided into conventional and atypical MAPK pathways.The first group converts a signal into a cellular response through a relay of three consecutive phosphorylation events exerted by MAPK kinase kinases,MAPK kinase,and MAPK.Atypical MAPK pathways are not organized into this three-tiered cascade.MAPK that belongs to both conventional and atypical MAPK pathways can phosphorylate both non-protein kinase substrates and other protein kinases.The latter are referred to as MAPK-activated protein kinases.This review focuses on one such MAPK-activated protein kinase,MAPK-activated protein kinase 5(MK5)or p38-regulated/activated protein kinase(PRAK).This protein is highly conserved throughout the animal kingdom and seems to be the target of both conventional and atypical MAPK pathways.Recent findings on the regulation of the activity and subcellular localization,bona fide interaction partners and physiological roles of MK5/PRAK are discussed.

  17. Possible role of calcium dependent protein phosphorylation in the modulation of wound induced HRGP gene activation in potatoes after gamma irradiation

    Hydroxyproline rich glycoprotein (HRGP) gene is induced in both control and gamma irradiated potato tubers after wounding. The enhanced RNA synthesis in response to wounding correlated well with the accumulation of both HRGP gene transcripts and protein. Initially, the level of HRGP gene expression in gamma irradiated potatoes in response to wounding was 30% more than the corresponding controls. After post irradiation storage of 3-5 weeks, HRGP gene expression in response to wounding was significantly lower than the unirradiated samples. This low level of HRGP gene expression in irradiated potatoes was partially retrieved by 5 mM Ca2+ treatment. Prior treatment with trifluoperazine, a calcium channel blocker resulted in 35% reduction in wound induced HRGP gene expression in control potatoes, further providing evidence for the involvement of Ca2+ dependency for HRGP gene activation. A comparative study on in vivo protein phosphorylation induced by wounding in control and irradiated potatoes exhibited significant differences. A good correlation was observed in the modulation of phosphorylation and HRGP gene expression by Ca2+ in irradiated potatoes. Wound induced signal transduction system and subsequent Ca2+ dependent protein phosphorylation for the activation of HRGP gene is affected in potatoes after gamma irradiation, thus impairing the wound healing process adversely. (author). 25 refs., 5 figs

  18. Protein kinase substrate identification on functional protein arrays

    Zhou Fang


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the last decade, kinases have emerged as attractive therapeutic targets for a number of different diseases, and numerous high throughput screening efforts in the pharmaceutical community are directed towards discovery of compounds that regulate kinase function. The emerging utility of systems biology approaches has necessitated the development of multiplex tools suitable for proteomic-scale experiments to replace lower throughput technologies such as mass spectroscopy for the study of protein phosphorylation. Recently, a new approach for identifying substrates of protein kinases has applied the miniaturized format of functional protein arrays to characterize phosphorylation for thousands of candidate protein substrates in a single experiment. This method involves the addition of protein kinases in solution to arrays of immobilized proteins to identify substrates using highly sensitive radioactive detection and hit identification algorithms. Results To date, the factors required for optimal performance of protein array-based kinase substrate identification have not been described. In the current study, we have carried out a detailed characterization of the protein array-based method for kinase substrate identification, including an examination of the effects of time, buffer compositions, and protein concentration on the results. The protein array approach was compared to standard solution-based assays for assessing substrate phosphorylation, and a correlation of greater than 80% was observed. The results presented here demonstrate how novel substrates for protein kinases can be quickly identified from arrays containing thousands of human proteins to provide new clues to protein kinase function. In addition, a pooling-deconvolution strategy was developed and applied that enhances characterization of specific kinase-substrate relationships and decreases reagent consumption. Conclusion Functional protein microarrays are an

  19. A kinetic model of dopamine- and calcium-dependent striatal synaptic plasticity.

    Takashi Nakano


    Full Text Available Corticostriatal synapse plasticity of medium spiny neurons is regulated by glutamate input from the cortex and dopamine input from the substantia nigra. While cortical stimulation alone results in long-term depression (LTD, the combination with dopamine switches LTD to long-term potentiation (LTP, which is known as dopamine-dependent plasticity. LTP is also induced by cortical stimulation in magnesium-free solution, which leads to massive calcium influx through NMDA-type receptors and is regarded as calcium-dependent plasticity. Signaling cascades in the corticostriatal spines are currently under investigation. However, because of the existence of multiple excitatory and inhibitory pathways with loops, the mechanisms regulating the two types of plasticity remain poorly understood. A signaling pathway model of spines that express D1-type dopamine receptors was constructed to analyze the dynamic mechanisms of dopamine- and calcium-dependent plasticity. The model incorporated all major signaling molecules, including dopamine- and cyclic AMP-regulated phosphoprotein with a molecular weight of 32 kDa (DARPP32, as well as AMPA receptor trafficking in the post-synaptic membrane. Simulations with dopamine and calcium inputs reproduced dopamine- and calcium-dependent plasticity. Further in silico experiments revealed that the positive feedback loop consisted of protein kinase A (PKA, protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A, and the phosphorylation site at threonine 75 of DARPP-32 (Thr75 served as the major switch for inducing LTD and LTP. Calcium input modulated this loop through the PP2B (phosphatase 2B-CK1 (casein kinase 1-Cdk5 (cyclin-dependent kinase 5-Thr75 pathway and PP2A, whereas calcium and dopamine input activated the loop via PKA activation by cyclic AMP (cAMP. The positive feedback loop displayed robust bi-stable responses following changes in the reaction parameters. Increased basal dopamine levels disrupted this dopamine-dependent plasticity. The

  20. Downregualtion of dynamin-related protein 1 attenuates glutamate-induced excitotoxicity via regulating mitochondrial function in a calcium dependent manner in HT22 cells

    Zhang, Chi; Yuan, Xian-rui; Li, Hao-yu; Zhao, Zi-jin; Liao, Yi-wei; Wang, Xiang-yu; Su, Jun; Sang, Shu-shan; Liu, Qing, E-mail:


    Highlights: •Downregulation of Drp-1 attenuates glutamate-induced excitotoxicity. •Downregulation of Drp-1 inhibits glutamate-induced apoptosis. •Downregulation of Drp-1 reduces glutamate-induced mitochondrial dysfunction. •Downregulation of Drp-1 preserves intracellular calcium homeostasis. -- Abstract: Glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity is involved in many acute and chronic brain diseases. Dynamin related protein 1 (Drp-1), one of the GTPase family of proteins that regulate mitochondrial fission and fusion balance, is associated with apoptotic cell death in cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. Here we investigated the effect of downregulating Drp-1 on glutamate excitotoxicity-induced neuronal injury in HT22 cells. We found that downregulation of Drp-1 with specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) increased cell viability and inhibited lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release after glutamate treatment. Downregulation of Drp-1 also inhibited an increase in the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and cleavage of caspase-9 and caspase-3. Drp-1 siRNA transfection preserved the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), reduced cytochrome c release, enhanced ATP production, and partly prevented mitochondrial swelling. In addition, Drp-1 knockdown attenuated glutamate-induced increases of cytoplasmic and mitochondrial Ca{sup 2+}, and preserved the mitochondrial Ca{sup 2+} buffering capacity after excitotoxicity. Taken together, these results suggest that downregulation of Drp-1 protects HT22 cells against glutamate-induced excitatory damage, and this neuroprotection may be dependent at least in part on the preservation of mitochondrial function through regulating intracellular calcium homeostasis.

  1. Pneumococal Surface Protein A (PspA Regulates Programmed Death Ligand 1 Expression on Dendritic Cells in a Toll-Like Receptor 2 and Calcium Dependent Manner.

    Mohit Vashishta

    Full Text Available Pneumonia leads to high mortality in children under the age of five years worldwide, resulting in close to 20 percent of all deaths in this age group. Therefore, investigations into host-pathogen interactions during Streptococcus pneumoniae infection are key in devising strategies towards the development of better vaccines and drugs. To that end, in this study we investigated the role of S. pneumoniae and its surface antigen Pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA in modulating the expression of co-stimulatory molecule Programmed Death Ligand 1 (PD-L1 expression on dendritic cells (DCs and the subsequent effects of increased PD-L1 on key defence responses. Our data indicate that stimulation of DCs with PspA increases the surface expression of PD-L1 in a time and dose dependent manner. Characterization of mechanisms involved in PspA induced expression of PD-L1 indicate the involvement of Toll-Like Receptor 2 (TLR2 and calcium homeostasis. While calcium release from intracellular stores positively regulated PD-L1 expression, calcium influx from external milieu negatively regulated PD-L1 expression. Increase in PD-L1 expression, when costimulated with PspA and through TLR2 was higher than when stimulated with PspA or through TLR2. Further, knockdown of TLR2 and the intermediates in the TLR signaling machinery pointed towards the involvement of a MyD88 dependent pathway in PspA induced PD-L1 expression. Incubation of DCs with S. pneumoniae resulted in the up-regulation of PD-L1 expression, while infection with a strain lacking surface PspA failed to do so. Our data also suggests the role of PspA in ROS generation. These results suggest a novel and specific role for PspA in modulating immune responses against S. pneumoniae by regulating PD-L1 expression.

  2. Protein kinase domain of twitchin has protein kinase activity and an autoinhibitory region.

    Lei, J; Tang, X; Chambers, T C; Pohl, J; Benian, G M


    Twitchin is a 753-kDa polypeptide located in the muscle A-bands of the nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans. It consists of multiple copies of both fibronectin III and immunoglobulin C2 domains and, near the C terminus, a protein kinase domain with greatest homology to the catalytic domains of myosin light chain kinases. We have expressed and purified from Escherichia coli twitchin's protein kinase catalytic core and flanking sequences that do not include fibronectin III and immunoglobulin C2 domains. The protein was shown to phosphorylate a model substrate and to undergo autophosphorylation. The autophosphorylation occurs at a slow rate, attaining a maximum at 3 h with a stoichiometry of about 1.0 mol of phosphate/mol of protein, probably through an intramolecular mechanism. Sequence analysis of proteolytically derived phosphopeptides revealed that autophosphorylation occurred N-terminal to the catalytic core, predominantly at Thr-5910, with possible minor sites at Ser5912 and/or Ser-5913. This portion of twitchin (residues 5890-6268) was also phosphorylated in vitro by protein kinase C in the absence of calcium and phosphotidylserine, but not by cAMP-dependent protein kinase. By comparing the activities of three twitchin segments, the enzyme appears to be inhibited by the 60-amino acid residues lying just C-terminal to the kinase catalytic core. Thus, like a number of other protein kinases including myosin light chain kinases, the twitchin kinase appears to be autoregulated. PMID:8063727

  3. Regulation of the interaction between protein kinase C-related protein kinase 2 (PRK2) and its upstream kinase, 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 1 (PDK1)

    Dettori, Rosalia; Sonzogni, Silvina; Meyer, Lucas;


    The members of the AGC kinase family frequently exhibit three conserved phosphorylation sites: the activation loop, the hydrophobic motif (HM), and the zipper (Z)/turn-motif (TM) phosphorylation site. 3-Phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 1 (PDK1) phosphorylates the activation loop of...... numerous AGC kinases, including the protein kinase C-related protein kinases (PRKs). Here we studied the docking interaction between PDK1 and PRK2 and analyzed the mechanisms that regulate this interaction. In vivo labeling of recombinant PRK2 by (32)P(i) revealed phosphorylation at two sites, the...... the mechanism that negatively regulates the docking interaction of PRK2 to the upstream kinase PDK1 is directly linked to the activation mechanism of PRK2 itself. Finally, our results indicate that the mechanisms underlying the regulation of the interaction between PRK2 and PDK1 are specific for PRK2...

  4. Mitogen-activated protein kinases in atherosclerosis

    Dorota Bryk


    Full Text Available Intracellular signalling cascades, in which MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinases intermediate, are responsible for a biological response of a cell to an external stimulus. MAP kinases, which include ERK1/2 (extracellular signalling-regulated kinase, JNK (c-Jun N-terminal kinase and p 38 MAPK, regulate the activity of many proteins, enzymes and transcription factors and thus have a wide spectrum of biological effects. Many basic scientific studies have defined numerous details of their pathway organization and activation. There are also more and more studies suggesting that individual MAP kinases probably play an important role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. They may mediate inflammatory processes, endothelial cell activation, monocyte/macrophage recruitment and activation, smooth muscle cell proliferation and T-lymphocyte differentiation, all of which represent crucial mechanisms involved in pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. The specific inhibition of an activity of the respective MAP kinases may prove a new therapeutic approach to attenuate atherosclerotic plaque formation in the future. In this paper, we review the current state of knowledge concerning MAP kinase-dependent cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying atherosclerosis.

  5. [Mitogen-activated protein kinases in atherosclerosis].

    Bryk, Dorota; Olejarz, Wioletta; Zapolska-Downar, Danuta


    Intracellular signalling cascades, in which MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinases) intermediate, are responsible for a biological response of a cell to an external stimulus. MAP kinases, which include ERK1/2 (extracellular signalling-regulated kinase), JNK (c-Jun N-terminal kinase) and p 38 MAPK, regulate the activity of many proteins, enzymes and transcription factors and thus have a wide spectrum of biological effects. Many basic scientific studies have defined numerous details of their pathway organization and activation. There are also more and more studies suggesting that individual MAP kinases probably play an important role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. They may mediate inflammatory processes, endothelial cell activation, monocyte/macrophage recruitment and activation, smooth muscle cell proliferation and T-lymphocyte differentiation, all of which represent crucial mechanisms involved in pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. The specific inhibition of an activity of the respective MAP kinases may prove a new therapeutic approach to attenuate atherosclerotic plaque formation in the future. In this paper, we review the current state of knowledge concerning MAP kinase-dependent cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying atherosclerosis. PMID:24491891

  6. Oncoprotein protein kinase antibody kit

    Karin, Michael; Hibi, Masahiko; Lin, Anning


    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46 kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and threonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

  7. Non-degradative Ubiquitination of Protein Kinases.

    K Aurelia Ball


    Full Text Available Growing evidence supports other regulatory roles for protein ubiquitination in addition to serving as a tag for proteasomal degradation. In contrast to other common post-translational modifications, such as phosphorylation, little is known about how non-degradative ubiquitination modulates protein structure, dynamics, and function. Due to the wealth of knowledge concerning protein kinase structure and regulation, we examined kinase ubiquitination using ubiquitin remnant immunoaffinity enrichment and quantitative mass spectrometry to identify ubiquitinated kinases and the sites of ubiquitination in Jurkat and HEK293 cells. We find that, unlike phosphorylation, ubiquitination most commonly occurs in structured domains, and on the kinase domain, ubiquitination is concentrated in regions known to be important for regulating activity. We hypothesized that ubiquitination, like other post-translational modifications, may alter the conformational equilibrium of the modified protein. We chose one human kinase, ZAP-70, to simulate using molecular dynamics with and without a monoubiquitin modification. In Jurkat cells, ZAP-70 is ubiquitinated at several sites that are not sensitive to proteasome inhibition and thus may have other regulatory roles. Our simulations show that ubiquitination influences the conformational ensemble of ZAP-70 in a site-dependent manner. When monoubiquitinated at K377, near the C-helix, the active conformation of the ZAP-70 C-helix is disrupted. In contrast, when monoubiquitinated at K476, near the kinase hinge region, an active-like ZAP-70 C-helix conformation is stabilized. These results lead to testable hypotheses that ubiquitination directly modulates kinase activity, and that ubiquitination is likely to alter structure, dynamics, and function in other protein classes as well.

  8. Rational design of protein kinase inhibitors

    Yarmoluk S. M.


    Full Text Available Modern methodological approaches to rational design of low molecular weight compounds with specific activity in relation to predetermined biomolecular targets are considered by example of development of high effective protein kinase inhibitors. The application of new computational methods that allow to significantly improve the quality of computational experiments (in, particular, accuracy of low molecular weight compounds activity prediction without increase of computational and time costs are highlighted. The effectiveness of strategy of rational design is demonstrated by examples of several own investigations devoted to development of new inhibitors that are high effective and selective towards protein kinases CK2, FGFR1 and ASK1.

  9. Statistical analysis of protein kinase specificity determinants

    Kreegipuu, Andres; Blom, Nikolaj; Brunak, Søren;


    The site and sequence specificity of protein kinase, as well as the role of the secondary structure and surface accessibility of the phosphorylation sites on substrate proteins, was statistically analyzed. The experimental data were collected from the literature and are available on the World Wide...... Web at The set of data involved 1008 phosphorylatable sites in 406 proteins, which were phosphorylated by 58 protein kinases. It was found that there exists almost absolute SER/Thr or Tyr specificity, with rare exceptions. The sequence specificity...... determinants were less strict and were located between positions -4 and +4 relative to the phosphorylation site. Secondary structure and surface accessibility predictions revealed that most of the phosphorylation sites were located on the surface of the target proteins....

  10. Protein kinase C (PKC) activity and PKC messenger RNAs in human pituitary adenomas.

    Jin, L; Maeda, T; Chandler, W F; Lloyd, R V


    Protein kinase C (PKC) is involved in the differentiation and growth regulation of a variety of tissues including anterior pituitary gland cells. To determine the distribution of PKC in different types of adenomas, PKC activity was analyzed in human pituitary tumors and the effects of hypothalamic hormone stimulation on PKC activity were examined in cultured adenoma cells. Gonadotroph (LH/FSH) and null cell adenomas had significantly higher levels of particulate, soluble, and total PKC activity compared with growth hormone (GH) adenomas (P delta, epsilon, and zeta) were localized by in situ hybridization, normal and neoplastic pituitaries expressed abundant mRNA for PKC epsilon, whereas some tumors and one normal pituitary had a few cells positive for PKC zeta mRNA as evaluated by grain density and the number of cells labeled. These results indicate that there is a variable distribution of PKC mRNA isozymes in human pituitary adenomas and that normal pituitaries and pituitary adenoma cells express the mRNA for both the calcium-dependent and some of the calcium-independent PKC isozymes. Chronic treatment with the hypothalamic gonadotropin hormone-releasing hormone and GH-releasing hormone, which increased LH/FSH and GH secretion, respectively, did not increase PKC activity in cultured adenoma cells. The presence of calcium-dependent and calcium-independent PKC isozymes in normal and neoplastic pituitary cells indicates that PKC probably plays a major role in signal transduction in the human pituitary adenomas examined in this study. PMID:8434650

  11. Problem-Solving Test: "In Vitro" Protein Kinase A Reaction

    Szeberenyi, Jozsef


    Phosphorylation of proteins by protein kinases is an important mechanism in the regulation of protein activity. Among hundreds of protein kinases present in human cells, PKA, the first kinase discovered, belongs to the most important and best characterized group of these enzymes. The author presents an experiment that analyzes the "in vitro"…

  12. Statistical analysis of protein kinase specificity determinants

    Kreegipuu, Andres; Blom, Nikolaj; Brunak, Søren; Jarv, Jaak


    The site and sequence specificity of protein kinase, as well as the role of the secondary structure and surface accessibility of the phosphorylation sites on substrate proteins, was statistically analyzed. The experimental data were collected from the literature and are available on the World Wid...... determinants were less strict and were located between positions -4 and +4 relative to the phosphorylation site. Secondary structure and surface accessibility predictions revealed that most of the phosphorylation sites were located on the surface of the target proteins.......The site and sequence specificity of protein kinase, as well as the role of the secondary structure and surface accessibility of the phosphorylation sites on substrate proteins, was statistically analyzed. The experimental data were collected from the literature and are available on the World Wide...... Web at The set of data involved 1008 phosphorylatable sites in 406 proteins, which were phosphorylated by 58 protein kinases. It was found that there exists almost absolute SER/Thr or Tyr specificity, with rare exceptions. The sequence specificity...

  13. Calcium-dependent activation of Pyk2 by hypoxia.

    Beitner-Johnson, Dana; Ferguson, Tsuneo; Rust, Randy T; Kobayashi, Shuichi; Millhorn, David E


    The Pyk2 tyrosine kinase can be activated by both calcium-dependent and calcium-independent mechanisms. Exposure to moderate hypoxia (5% O(2)) induced a rapid and persistent tyrosine phosphorylation of Pyk2 in pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells. Hypoxia and KCl-depolarization increased the phosphotyrosine content of Pyk2 by twofold and fourfold, respectively. Both of these effects were abolished in the absence of extracellular calcium. There was a modest activation of MAPK in parallel with the onset of Pyk2 phosphorylation. However, there was no detectable activation of either JNK or c-src, two other known downstream targets of Pyk2. Thus, exposure to hypoxia may selectively target specific subsets of Pyk2 signalling pathways. PMID:11781137

  14. A proteomic approach for comprehensively screening substrates of protein kinases such as Rho-kinase.

    Mutsuki Amano

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Protein kinases are major components of signal transduction pathways in multiple cellular processes. Kinases directly interact with and phosphorylate downstream substrates, thus modulating their functions. Despite the importance of identifying substrates in order to more fully understand the signaling network of respective kinases, efficient methods to search for substrates remain poorly explored. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We combined mass spectrometry and affinity column chromatography of the catalytic domain of protein kinases to screen potential substrates. Using the active catalytic fragment of Rho-kinase/ROCK/ROK as the model bait, we obtained about 300 interacting proteins from the rat brain cytosol fraction, which included the proteins previously reported as Rho-kinase substrates. Several novel interacting proteins, including doublecortin, were phosphorylated by Rho-kinase both in vitro and in vivo. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This method would enable identification of novel specific substrates for kinases such as Rho-kinase with high sensitivity.

  15. Protein kinase CK2 in health and disease: Protein kinase CK2: from structures to insights

    Niefind, K; Raaf, J; Issinger, Olaf-Georg


    Within the last decade, 40 crystal structures corresponding to protein kinase CK2 (former name 'casein kinase 2'), to its catalytic subunit CK2alpha and to its regulatory subunit CK2beta were published. Together they provide a valuable, yet by far not complete basis to rationalize the biochemical...... critical region of CK2alpha recruitment is pre-formed in the unbound state. In CK2alpha the activation segment - a key element of protein kinase regulation - adapts invariably the typical conformation of the active enzymes. Recent structures of human CK2alpha revealed a surprising plasticity in the ATP...

  16. Abscisic acid activates a Ca2+-calmodulin-stimulated protein kinase involved in antioxidant defense in maize leaves

    Shucheng Xu


     The role of a calcium-dependent and calmodulin(CaM)stimulated protein kinase in abscisic acid(ABA)-induced antioxidant defense was determined in leaves of maize (Zea mays).In-gel kinase assays showed that treatments with ABA or H2O2 induced the activation of a 49-kDa protein kinase and a 52-kDa protein kinase significantly.Furthermore,we showed that the 52-kDa protein kinase has the characteristics of CaM-stimulating activity and is sensitive to calcium-CaM-dependent protein kinase Ⅱ (CaMK Ⅱ)inhibitor KN-93 or CaM antagonist W-7.Treatments with ABA or H2O2 not only induced the acti vation of the 52-kDa protein kinase,but also enhanced the total activities of the antioxidant enzymes,including catalase,ascorbate peroxidase,glutathione reductase,and superoxide dismutase.Such enhancements were blocked by pretreatment with a CaMK inhibitor and a reactive oxygen species(ROS)inhibitor or scavenger.Pretreatment with the CaMK inhibitor also substantially arrested the ABA-induced H2O2 production.Kinase activity enhancements induced by ABA were attenuated by pretreatment with an ROS inhibitor or scavenger.These results suggest that the 52-kDa CaMK is involved in ABA-induced antioxidant defense and that cross-talk between CaMK and H2O2 plays a pivotal role in ABA signaling.We infer that CaMK acts both upstream and downstream of H2O2,but mainly acts between ABA and H2O2 in ABA-induced antioxidant-defensive signaling.

  17. Oral protein kinase c β inhibition using ruboxistaurin

    Aiello, Lloyd Paul; Vignati, Louis; Sheetz, Matthew J;


    To evaluate efficacy, safety, and causes of vision loss among 813 patients (1,392 eyes) with moderately severe to very severe nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy from the Protein Kinase C β Inhibitor-Diabetic Retinopathy Study and Protein Kinase C β Inhibitor-Diabetic Retinopathy Study 2...... ruboxistaurin (RBX) protein kinase C β inhibitor trials....

  18. Differential phosphorylation of ribosomal acidic proteins from yeast cell by two endogenous protein kinases: casein kinase-2 and 60S kinase

    The native 80S ribosomes isolated from ''Saccharomyces cerevisiae'' (strain W303) cells was phosphorylated by two endogenous protein kinases: multifunctional casein kinase-2 (CK-2) and specific 60S kinase. Three acidic proteins within the 60S ribosomal subunit: YP1β, YP1β' and YP2α are phosphorylated by both kinases. The other two proteins: YP1α and YP2β are predominantly phosphorylated by CK-2 but not by 60S kinase. This was confirmed in the experiment with the recombinant protein, YP2β, as a substrate, which is practically not phosphorylated by specific 60S kinase. These results together with the previous data based on the target amino-acid sequences suggest that, in addition to the multifunctional casein kinase-2 and specific 60S kinase, there exist probably other protein kinase(s) which phosphorylate the ribosomal acidic proteins in the cell. (author). 23 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab

  19. Modulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase 3 by hepatitis C virus core protein

    Ngo, HT; Pham, Long; Kim, JW;


    , approximately 100 cellular proteins were identified as HCV core-interacting partners. Of these candidates, mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase 3 (MAPKAPK3) was selected for further characterization. MAPKAPK3 is a serine/threonine protein kinase that is activated by stress and growth...... inducers. Binding of HCV core to MAPKAPK3 was confirmed by in vitro pulldown assay and further verified by coimmunoprecipitation assay. HCV core protein interacted with MAPKAPK3 through amino acid residues 41 to 75 of core and the N-terminal half of kinase domain of MAPKAPK3. In addition, both RNA and......Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is highly dependent on cellular proteins for its own propagation. In order to identify the cellular factors involved in HCV propagation, we performed protein microarray assays using the HCV core protein as a probe. Of ~9,000 host proteins immobilized in a microarray...

  20. 2,5-hexanedione (HD) treatment alters calmodulin, Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, and protein kinase C in rats' nerve tissues

    Calcium-dependent mechanisms, particularly those mediated by Ca2+/calmodulin (CaM)-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), have been implicated in neurotoxicant-induced neuropathy. However, it is unknown whether similar mechanisms exist in 2,5-hexanedione (HD)-induced neuropathy. For that, we investigated the changes of CaM, CaMKII, protein kinase C (PKC) and polymerization ratios (PRs) of NF-L, NF-M and NF-H in cerebral cortex (CC, including total cortex and some gray), spinal cord (SC) and sciatic nerve (SN) of rats treated with HD at a dosage of 1.75 or 3.50 mmol/kg for 8 weeks (five times per week). The results showed that CaM contents in CC, SC and SN were significantly increased, which indicated elevation of Ca2+ concentrations in nerve tissues. CaMKII contents and activities were also increased in CC and were positively correlated with gait abnormality, but it could not be found in SC and SN. The increases of PKC contents and activities were also observed in SN and were positively correlated with gait abnormality. Except for that of NF-M in CC, the PRs of NF-L, NF-M and NF-H were also elevated in nerve tissues, which was consistent with the activation of protein kinases. The results suggested that CaMKII might be partly (in CC but not in SC and SN) involved in HD-induced neuropathy. CaMKII and PKC might mediate the HD neurotoxicity by altering the NF phosphorylation status and PRs

  1. CK2: a protein kinase in need of control

    Guerra, B; Boldyreff, B; Sarno, S;


    Protein kinase CK2 is a heterotetrameric alpha2beta2 Ser/Thr protein kinase with some features unusual among the eukaryotic protein kinases: (1) CK2 recognizes phosphoacceptor sites specified by several acidic determinants; (2) CK2 can use both ATP and GTP as phosphoryl donors; and (3) the...... response to nucleotide analogs. The increasing knowledge of CK2 structure-function relationships will allow the design of highly selective inhibitors of this pleiotropic kinase with oncogenic potential....

  2. Differential AMP-activated Protein Kinase (AMPK) Recognition Mechanism of Ca2+/Calmodulin-dependent Protein Kinase Kinase Isoforms.

    Fujiwara, Yuya; Kawaguchi, Yoshinori; Fujimoto, Tomohito; Kanayama, Naoki; Magari, Masaki; Tokumitsu, Hiroshi


    Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase β (CaMKKβ) is a known activating kinase for AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). In vitro, CaMKKβ phosphorylates Thr(172) in the AMPKα subunit more efficiently than CaMKKα, with a lower Km (∼2 μm) for AMPK, whereas the CaMKIα phosphorylation efficiencies by both CaMKKs are indistinguishable. Here we found that subdomain VIII of CaMKK is involved in the discrimination of AMPK as a native substrate by measuring the activities of various CaMKKα/CaMKKβ chimera mutants. Site-directed mutagenesis analysis revealed that Leu(358) in CaMKKβ/Ile(322) in CaMKKα confer, at least in part, a distinct recognition of AMPK but not of CaMKIα. PMID:27151216

  3. Protein kinase A signalling in Schistosoma mansoni cercariae and schistosomules.

    Hirst, Natasha L; Lawton, Scott P; Walker, Anthony J


    Cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase/protein kinase A regulates multiple processes in eukaryotes by phosphorylating diverse cellular substrates, including metabolic and signalling enzymes, ion channels and transcription factors. Here we provide insight into protein kinase A signalling in cercariae and 24h in vitro cultured somules of the blood parasite, Schistosoma mansoni, which causes human intestinal schistosomiasis. Functional mapping of activated protein kinase A using anti-phospho protein kinase A antibodies and confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed activated protein kinase A in the central and peripheral nervous system, oral-tip sensory papillae, oesophagus and excretory system of intact cercariae. Cultured 24h somules, which biologically represent the skin-resident stage of the parasite, exhibited similar activation patterns in oesophageal and nerve tissues but also displayed striking activation at the tegument and activation in a region resembling the germinal 'stem' cell cluster. The adenylyl cyclase activator, forskolin, stimulated somule protein kinase A activation and produced a hyperkinesia phenotype. The biogenic amines, serotonin and dopamine known to be present in skin also induced protein kinase A activation in somules, whereas neuropeptide Y or [Leu(31),Pro(34)]-neuropeptide Y attenuated protein kinase A activation. However, neuropeptide Y did not block the forskolin-induced somule hyperkinesia. Bioinformatic investigation of potential protein associations revealed 193 medium confidence and 59 high confidence protein kinase A interacting partners in S. mansoni, many of which possess putative protein kinase A phosphorylation sites. These data provide valuable insight into the intricacies of protein kinase A signalling in S. mansoni and a framework for further physiological investigations into the roles of protein kinase A in schistosomes, particularly in the context of interactions between the parasite and the host. PMID:26777870

  4. Involvement of protein kinase C in the mechanism of action of Escherichia coli heat-stable enterotoxin (STa) in a human colonic carcinoma cell line, COLO-205

    The present study was undertaken to determine the involvement of calcium-protein kinase C pathway in the mechanism of action of Escherichia coli heat stable enterotoxin (STa) apart from STa-induced activation of guanylate cyclase in human colonic carcinoma cell line COLO-205, which was used as a model cultured cell line to study the mechanism of action of E. coli STa. In response to E. coli STa, protein kinase C (PKC) activity was increased in a time-dependent manner with its physical translocation from cytosol to membrane. Inhibition of the PKC activity in membrane fraction and inhibition of its physical translocation in response to IP3-mediated calcium release inhibitor dantrolene suggested the involvement of intracellular store depletion in the regulation of PKC activity. Among different PKC isoforms, predominant involvement of calcium-dependent protein kinase C (PKCα) was specified using isotype-specific pseudosubstrate, which showed pronounce enzyme activity. Inhibition of enzyme activity by PKCα-specific inhibitor Goe6976 and immunoblott study employing isotype-specific antibody further demonstrated the involvement of calcium-dependent isoform of PKC in the mechanism of action of E. coli STa. Moreover, inhibition of guanylate cyclase activity by PKCα-specific inhibitor Goe6976 suggested the involvement of PKCα in the regulation of guanylate cyclase activity

  5. Distribution of protein kinase Mzeta and the complete protein kinase C isoform family in rat brain

    Naik, M U; Benedikz, Eirikur; Hernandez, I;


    Protein kinase C (PKC) is a multigene family of at least ten isoforms, nine of which are expressed in brain (alpha, betaI, betaII, gamma, delta, straightepsilon, eta, zeta, iota/lambda). Our previous studies have shown that many of these PKCs participate in synaptic plasticity in the CA1 region of......, protein kinase Mzeta (PKMzeta). In this study, we used immunoblot and immunocytochemical techniques with isoform-specific antisera to examine the distribution of the complete family of PKC isozymes and PKMzeta in rat brain. Each form of PKC showed a widespread distribution in the brain with a distinct...

  6. Mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling in plants

    Rodriguez, Maria Cristina Suarez; Petersen, Morten; Mundy, John


    Eukaryotic mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades have evolved to transduce environmental and developmental signals into adaptive and programmed responses. MAPK cascades relay and amplify signals via three types of reversibly phosphorylated kinases leading to the phosphorylation of...... substrate proteins, whose altered activities mediate a wide array of responses, including changes in gene expression. Cascades may share kinase components, but their signaling specificity is maintained by spaciotemporal constraints and dynamic protein-protein interactions and by mechanisms that include...

  7. Photoinduced structural changes to protein kinase A

    Rozinek, Sarah C.; Thomas, Robert J.; Brancaleon, Lorenzo


    The importance of porphyrins in organisms is underscored by the ubiquitous biological and biochemical functions that are mediated by these compounds and by their potential biomedical and biotechnological applications. Protoporphyrin IX (PPIX) is the precursor to heme and has biomedical applications such as its use as a photosensitizer in phototherapy and photodetection of cancer. Among other applications, our group has demonstrated that low-irradiance exposure to laser irradiation of PPIX, Fe-PPIX, or meso-tetrakis (4-sulfonatophenyl) porphyrin (TSPP) non-covalently docked to a protein causes conformational changes in the polypeptide. Such approach can have remarkable consequences in the study of protein structure/function relationship and can be used to prompt non-native protein properties. Therefore we have investigated protein kinase A (PKA), a more relevant protein model towards the photo-treatment of cancer. PKA's enzymatic functions are regulated by the presence of cyclic adenosine monophosphate for intracellular signal transduction involved in, among other things, stimulation of transcription, tumorigenesis in Carney complex and migration of breast carcinoma cells. Since phosphorylation is a necessary step in some cancers and inflammatory diseases, inhibiting the protein kinase, and therefore phosphorylation, may serve to treat these diseases. Changes in absorption, steady-state fluorescence, and fluorescence lifetime indicate: 1) both TSPP and PPIX non-covalently bind to PKA where they maintain photoreactivity; 2) absorptive photoproduct formation occurs only when PKA is bound to TSPP and irradiated; and 3) PKA undergoes secondary structural changes after irradiation with either porphyrin bound. These photoinduced changes could affect the protein's enzymatic and signaling capabilities.

  8. Structural Evolution of the Protein Kinase-Like Superfamily.


    Full Text Available The protein kinase family is large and important, but it is only one family in a larger superfamily of homologous kinases that phosphorylate a variety of substrates and play important roles in all three superkingdoms of life. We used a carefully constructed structural alignment of selected kinases as the basis for a study of the structural evolution of the protein kinase-like superfamily. The comparison of structures revealed a "universal core" domain consisting only of regions required for ATP binding and the phosphotransfer reaction. Remarkably, even within the universal core some kinase structures display notable changes, while still retaining essential activity. Hence, the protein kinase-like superfamily has undergone substantial structural and sequence revision over long evolutionary timescales. We constructed a phylogenetic tree for the superfamily using a novel approach that allowed for the combination of sequence and structure information into a unified quantitative analysis. When considered against the backdrop of species distribution and other metrics, our tree provides a compelling scenario for the development of the various kinase families from a shared common ancestor. We propose that most of the so-called "atypical kinases" are not intermittently derived from protein kinases, but rather diverged early in evolution to form a distinct phyletic group. Within the atypical kinases, the aminoglycoside and choline kinase families appear to share the closest relationship. These two families in turn appear to be the most closely related to the protein kinase family. In addition, our analysis suggests that the actin-fragmin kinase, an atypical protein kinase, is more closely related to the phosphoinositide-3 kinase family than to the protein kinase family. The two most divergent families, alpha-kinases and phosphatidylinositol phosphate kinases (PIPKs, appear to have distinct evolutionary histories. While the PIPKs probably have an

  9. Contractions activate hormone-sensitive lipase in rat muscle by protein kinase C and mitogen-activated protein kinase

    Donsmark, Morten; Langfort, Jozef; Holm, Cecilia;


    contractions. Adrenaline acts via cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA). The signalling mediating the effect of contractions is unknown and was explored in this study. Incubated soleus muscles from 70 g male rats were electrically stimulated to perform repeated tetanic contractions for 5 min. The contraction......-induced activation of HSL was abolished by the protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitors bisindolylmaleimide I and calphostin C and reduced 50% by the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) inhibitor U0126, which also completely blocked extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1 and 2 phosphorylation. None of the...

  10. Protein kinases are potential targets to treat inflammatory bowel disease

    Lei; Yang; Yutao; Yan


    Protein kinases play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease(IBD), the two main forms of which are ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s dis-ease. In this article, we will review the mechanisms of involvement of protein kinases in the pathogenesis of and intervention against IBD, in terms of their effects on genetics, microbiota, mucous layer and tight junc-tion, and the potential of protein kinases as therapeutic targets against IBD.

  11. Modeled microgravity-induced protein kinase C isoform expression in human lymphocytes

    Sundaresan, A.; Risin, D.; Pellis, N. R.


    In long-term space travel, the crew is exposed to microgravity and radiation that invoke potential hazards to the immune system. T cell activation is a critical step in the immune response. Receptor-mediated signaling is inhibited in both microgravity and modeled microgravity (MMG) as reflected by diminished DNA synthesis in peripheral blood lymphocytes and their locomotion through gelled type I collagen. Direct activation of protein kinase C (PKC) bypassing cell surface events using the phorbol ester PMA rescues MMG-inhibited lymphocyte activation and locomotion, whereas the calcium ionophore ionomycin had no rescue effect. Thus calcium-independent PKC isoforms may be affected in MMG-induced locomotion inhibition and rescue. Both calcium-dependent isoforms and calcium-independent PKC isoforms were investigated to assess their expression in lymphocytes in 1 g and MMG culture. Human lymphocytes were cultured and harvested at 24, 48, 72, and 96 h, and serial samples were assessed for locomotion by using type I collagen and expression of PKC isoforms. Expression of PKC-alpha, -delta, and -epsilon was assessed by RT-PCR, flow cytometry, and immunoblotting. Results indicated that PKC isoforms delta and epsilon were downregulated by >50% at the transcriptional and translational levels in MMG-cultured lymphocytes compared with 1-g controls. Events upstream of PKC, such as phosphorylation of phospholipase Cgamma in MMG, revealed accumulation of inactive enzyme. Depressed calcium-independent PKC isoforms may be a consequence of an upstream lesion in the signal transduction pathway. The differential response among calcium-dependent and calcium-independent isoforms may actually result from MMG intrusion events earlier than PKC, but after ligand-receptor interaction.

  12. The Roles of Protein Kinases in Learning and Memory

    Giese, Karl Peter; Mizuno, Keiko


    In the adult mammalian brain, more than 250 protein kinases are expressed, but only a few of these kinases are currently known to enable learning and memory. Based on this information it appears that learning and memory-related kinases either impact on synaptic transmission by altering ion channel properties or ion channel density, or regulate…

  13. Interleukin 3-dependent survival by the Akt protein kinase

    Songyang, Zhou; Baltimore, David; Cantley, Lewis C.; Kaplan, David R; Franke, Thomas F.


    Interleukin 3 (IL-3)-dependent survival of hematopoietic cells is known to rely on the activity of multiple signaling pathways, including a pathway leading to activation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase), and protein kinase Akt is a direct target of PI 3-kinase. We find that Akt kinase activity is rapidly induced by the cytokine IL-3, suggesting a role for Akt in PI 3-kinase-dependent signaling in hematopoetic cells. Dominant-negative mutants of Akt specifically block Akt activation ...

  14. Auxin efflux by PIN-FORMED proteins is activated by two different protein kinases, D6 PROTEIN KINASE and PINOID

    Zourelidou, Melina


    The development and morphology of vascular plants is critically determined by synthesis and proper distribution of the phytohormone auxin. The directed cell-to-cell distribution of auxin is achieved through a system of auxin influx and efflux transporters. PIN-FORMED (PIN) proteins are proposed auxin efflux transporters, and auxin fluxes can seemingly be predicted based on the-in many cells-asymmetric plasma membrane distribution of PINs. Here, we show in a heterologous Xenopus oocyte system as well as in Arabidopsis thaliana inflorescence stems that PIN-mediated auxin transport is directly activated by D6 PROTEIN KINASE (D6PK) and PINOID (PID)/WAG kinases of the Arabidopsis AGCVIII kinase family. At the same time, we reveal that D6PKs and PID have differential phosphosite preferences. Our study suggests that PIN activation by protein kinases is a crucial component of auxin transport control that must be taken into account to understand auxin distribution within the plant.

  15. Structural investigation of protein kinase C inhibitors

    Barak, D.; Shibata, M.; Rein, R.


    The phospholipid and Ca2+ dependent protein kinase (PKC) plays an essential role in a variety of cellular events. Inhibition of PKC was shown to arrest growth in tumor cell cultures making it a target for possible antitumor therapy. Calphostins are potent inhibitors of PKC with high affinity for the enzyme regulatory site. Structural characteristics of calphostins, which confer the inhibitory activity, are investigated by comparing their optimized structures with the existing models for PKC activation. The resulting model of inhibitory activity assumes interaction with two out of the three electrostatic interaction sites postulated for activators. The model shows two sites of hydrophobic interaction and enables the inhibitory activity of gossypol to be accounted for.

  16. The Ca2+/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Kinase, CaMKK2, Inhibits Preadipocyte Differentiation

    Lin, Fumin; Ribar, Thomas J.; Means, Anthony R.


    When fed a standard chow diet, CaMKK2 null mice have increased adiposity and larger adipocytes than do wild-type mice, whereas energy balance is unchanged. Here, we show that Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase 2 (CaMKK2) is expressed in preadipocytes, where it functions as an AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)α kinase. Acute inhibition or deletion of CaMKK2 in preadipocytes enhances their differentiation into mature adipocytes, which can be reversed by 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxa...

  17. Rac-1 and Raf-1 kinases, components of distinct signaling pathways, activate myotonic dystrophy protein kinase

    Shimizu, M.; Wang, W.; Walch, E. T.; Dunne, P. W.; Epstein, H. F.


    Myotonic dystrophy protein kinase (DMPK) is a serine-threonine protein kinase encoded by the myotonic dystrophy (DM) locus on human chromosome 19q13.3. It is a close relative of other kinases that interact with members of the Rho family of small GTPases. We show here that the actin cytoskeleton-linked GTPase Rac-1 binds to DMPK, and coexpression of Rac-1 and DMPK activates its transphosphorylation activity in a GTP-sensitive manner. DMPK can also bind Raf-1 kinase, the Ras-activated molecule of the MAP kinase pathway. Purified Raf-1 kinase phosphorylates and activates DMPK. The interaction of DMPK with these distinct signals suggests that it may play a role as a nexus for cross-talk between their respective pathways and may partially explain the remarkable pleiotropy of DM.

  18. Protein phosphatases active on acetyl-CoA carboxylase phosphorylated by casein kinase I, casein kinase II and the cAMP-dependent protein kinase

    The protein phosphatases in rat liver cytosol, active on rat liver acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) phosphorylated by casein kinase I, casein kinase II and the cAMP-dependent protein kinase, have been partially purified by anion-exchange and gel filtration chromatography. The major phosphatase activities against all three substrates copurify through fractionation and appear to be identical to protein phosphatases 2A1 and 2A2. No unique protein phosphatase active on 32P-ACC phosphorylated by the casein kinases was identified

  19. Transphosphorylation of E. coli proteins during production of recombinant protein kinases provides a robust system to characterize kinase specificity

    Protein kinase specificity is of fundamental importance to pathway regulation and signal transduction. Here, we report a convenient system to monitor the activity and specificity of recombinant protein kinases expressed in E.coli. We apply this to the study of the cytoplasmic domain of the plant rec...

  20. On the structural features of the substrates of protein kinase

    Structural integrity of case in and phosvitin as substrates of a mitochondrial protein kinase preparation has been examined with reference to maximal phosphate incorporation with AT32P. These proteins subjected to degradative treatments with trypsin and chymotrypsin gave rise to peptides which could still be phosphorylated by the kinase to the extent of 30.80% as compared to the parent proteins. The more active peptides from both casein and phosvitin contained high proportion of serine residue along with certain other amino acids. The hexosamine content in phosvitin did not determine its function as substrate of protein kinase. (author)

  1. Protein kinase A regulates molecular chaperone transcription and protein aggregation.

    Yue Zhang

    Full Text Available Heat shock factor 1 (HSF1 regulates one of the major pathways of protein quality control and is essential for deterrence of protein-folding disorders, particularly in neuronal cells. However, HSF1 activity declines with age, a change that may open the door to progression of neurodegenerative disorders such as Huntington's disease. We have investigated mechanisms of HSF1 regulation that may become compromised with age. HSF1 binds stably to the catalytic domain of protein kinase A (PKAcα and becomes phosphorylated on at least one regulatory serine residue (S320. We show here that PKA is essential for effective transcription of HSP genes by HSF1. PKA triggers a cascade involving HSF1 binding to the histone acetylase p300 and positive translation elongation factor 1 (p-TEFb and phosphorylation of the c-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II, a key mechanism in the downstream steps of HSF1-mediated transcription. This cascade appears to play a key role in protein quality control in neuronal cells expressing aggregation-prone proteins with long poly-glutamine (poly-Q tracts. Such proteins formed inclusion bodies that could be resolved by HSF1 activation during heat shock. Resolution of the inclusions was inhibited by knockdown of HSF1, PKAcα, or the pTEFb component CDK9, indicating a key role for the HSF1-PKA cascade in protein quality control.

  2. Resolution of thylakoid polyphenol oxidase and a protein kinase

    Race, H.L.; Davenport, J.W.; Hind, G.


    The predominant protein kinase activity in octylglucoside (OG) extracts of spinach thylakoids has been attributed to a 64-kDa protein, tp64. Recent work calls into question the relation between tp64 and protein kinase activity, which were fractionated apart using fluid phase IEF and hydroxylapatite chromatography. Hind et al. sequenced tp64 from the cDNA and showed it to be a polyphenol oxidase (PPO) homolog. Its transit peptide indicates a location for the mature protein within the thylakoid lumen, where there is presumably no ATP and where it is remote from the presumed kinase substrates: the stromally exposed regions of integral PS-II membrane proteins. Here the authors suggest that the kinase is a 64-kDa protein distinct from tp64.

  3. Protein kinase C involvement in focal adhesion formation

    Woods, A; Couchman, J R


    still to be elucidated. We show here that the kinase inhibitors H7 and HA1004 reduce focal adhesion and stress fiber formation in response to fibronectin in a dose-dependent manner, and that activators of protein kinase C can promote their formation under conditions where they do not normally form...... then treated with kinase inhibitors H7 and HA1004 for 2h, IRM indicated a reduction in focal adhesion formation at concentrations where protein kinase C (PKC) should be inhibited. In contrast, focal adhesions formed normally at concentrations of these inhibitors where cyclic AMP- or cyclic GMP......-dependent kinases should be inactivated. Inhibition of PKC, but not that of cyclic AMP- or cyclic GMP-dependent kinases, also prevented the formation of stress fibers and induced a dispersal of talin and vinculin, but not integrin beta 1 subunits, from small condensations present at 1h. Consistent with the...

  4. Host Signal Transduction and Protein Kinases Implicated in Legionella Infection

    Hempstead, Andrew D.; Isberg, Ralph R.


    Modulation of the phosphorylation status of proteins by both kinases and phosphatases plays an important role in cellular signal transduction. Challenge of host cells by Legionella pneumophila manipulates the phosphorylation state of multiple host factors. These changes play roles in bacterial uptake, vacuole modification, cellular survival, and the immune response. In addition to modification by host cell kinases in response to the bacterium, L. pneumophila translocates bacterial kinases int...

  5. Leishmanial protein kinases phosphorylate components of the complement system.

    Hermoso, T; Fishelson, Z; Becker, S I; Hirschberg, K.; Jaffe, C. L.


    Externally oriented protein kinases are present on the plasma membrane of the human parasite, Leishmania. Since activation of complement plays an important role in the survival of these parasites, we examined the ability of protein kinases from Leishmania major to phosphorylate components of the human complement system. The leishmanial protein kinase-1 (LPK-1) isolated from promastigotes of L. major was able to phosphorylate purified human C3, C5 and C9. Only the alpha-chain of C3 and C5 was ...

  6. RAF protein-serine/threonine kinases: Structure and regulation

    Research highlights: → The formation of unique side-to-side RAF dimers is required for full kinase activity. → RAF kinase inhibitors block MEK activation in cells containing oncogenic B-RAF. → RAF kinase inhibitors can lead to the paradoxical increase in RAF kinase activity. -- Abstract: A-RAF, B-RAF, and C-RAF are a family of three protein-serine/threonine kinases that participate in the RAS-RAF-MEK-ERK signal transduction cascade. This cascade participates in the regulation of a large variety of processes including apoptosis, cell cycle progression, differentiation, proliferation, and transformation to the cancerous state. RAS mutations occur in 15-30% of all human cancers, and B-RAF mutations occur in 30-60% of melanomas, 30-50% of thyroid cancers, and 5-20% of colorectal cancers. Activation of the RAF kinases requires their interaction with RAS-GTP along with dephosphorylation and also phosphorylation by SRC family protein-tyrosine kinases and other protein-serine/threonine kinases. The formation of unique side-to-side RAF dimers is required for full kinase activity. RAF kinase inhibitors are effective in blocking MEK1/2 and ERK1/2 activation in cells containing the oncogenic B-RAF Val600Glu activating mutation. RAF kinase inhibitors lead to the paradoxical increase in RAF kinase activity in cells containing wild-type B-RAF and wild-type or activated mutant RAS. C-RAF plays a key role in this paradoxical increase in downstream MEK-ERK activation.

  7. Inactivation of a MAPK-like protein kinase and activation of a MBP kinase in germinating barley embryos

    Testerink, C.; Vennik, M.; Kijne, J.W.; Wang, M.; Heimovaara-Dijkstra, S.


    We provide evidence for involvement of two different 45 kDa protein kinases in rehydration and germination of barley embryos. In dry embryos, a myelin basic protein (MBP) phosphorylating kinase was detected, which could be immunoprecipitated with an anti-MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) antib

  8. Purification and characterization of a casein kinase 2-type protein kinase from pea nuclei

    Li, H.; Roux, S. J.


    Almost all the polyamine-stimulated protein kinase activity associated with the chromatin fraction of nuclei purified from etiolated pea (Pisum sativum L.) plumules is present in a single enzyme that can be extracted from chromatin by 0.35 molar NaCl. This protein kinase can be further purified over 2000-fold by salt fractionation and anion-exchange and casein-agarose column chromatography, after which it is more than 90% pure. The purified kinase has a specific activity of about 650 nanomoles per minute per milligram protein in the absence of polyamines, with either ATP or GTP as phosphoryl donor. Spermidine can stimulate its activity fourfold, with half-maximal activation at about 2 millimolar. Spermine and putrescine also stimulate activity, although somewhat less effectively. This kinase has a tetrameric alpha 2 beta 2 structure with a native molecular weight of 130,000, and subunit molecular weights of 36,000 for the catalytic subunit (alpha) and 29,000 for the regulatory subunit (beta). In western blot analyses, only the alpha subunit reacts strongly with polyclonal antibodies to a Drosophila casein kinase II. The pea kinase can use casein and phosvitin as artificial substrates, phosphorylating both the serine and threonine residues of casein. It has a pH optimum near 8.0, a Vmax of 1.5 micromoles per minute per milligram protein, and a Km for ATP of approximately 75 micromolar. Its activity can be almost completely inhibited by heparin at 5 micrograms per milliliter, but is relatively insensitive to concentrations of staurosporine, K252a, and chlorpromazine that strongly antagonize Ca(2+) -regulated protein kinases. These results are discussed in relation to recent findings that casein kinase 2-type kinases may phosphorylate trans-acting factors that bind to light-regulated promoters in plants.

  9. Side-effects of protein kinase inhibitors on ion channels

    Youn Kyoung Son; Hongzoo Park; Amy L Firth; Won Sun Park


    Protein kinases are one of the largest gene families and have regulatory roles in all aspects of eukaryotic cell function. Modulation of protein kinase activity is a desirable therapeutic approach for a number of human diseases associated with aberrant kinase activity, including cancers, arthritis and cardiovascular disorders. Several strategies have been used to develop specific and selective protein kinase modulators, primarily via inhibition of phosphorylation and down-regulation of kinase gene expression. These strategies are effective at regulating intracellular signalling pathways, but are unfortunately associated with several undesirable effects, particularly those that modulate ion channel function. In fact, the side-effects have precluded these inhibitors from being both useful experimental tools and therapeutically viable. This review focuses on the ion channel side-effects of several protein kinase inhibitors and specifically on those modulating K+, Na+ and Ca2+ ion channels. It is hoped that the information provided with a detailed summary in this review will assist the future development of novel specific and selective compounds targeting protein kinases both for experimental tools and for therapeutic approaches.

  10. Protein kinase A regulatory subunit distribution in medulloblastoma

    Previous studies showed a differential distribution of the four regulatory subunits of cAMP-dependent protein kinases inside the brain, that changed in rodent gliomas: therefore, the distribution of these proteins inside the brain can give information on the functional state of the cells. Our goal was to examine human brain tumors to provide evidence for a differential distribution of protein kinase A in different tumors. The distribution of detergent insoluble regulatory (R1 and R2) and catalytic subunits of cAMP dependent kinases was examined in pediatric brain tumors by immunohistochemistry and fluorescent cAMP analogues binding. R2 is organized in large single dots in medulloblastomas, while it has a different appearance in other tumors. Fluorescent cAMP labelling was observed only in medulloblastoma. A different distribution of cAMP dependent protein kinases has been observed in medulloblastoma

  11. Regulatory crosstalk by protein kinases on CFTR trafficking and activity

    Farinha, Carlos Miguel; Swiatecka-Urban, Agnieszka; Brautigan, David; Jordan, Peter


    Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) is a member of the ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter superfamily that functions as a cAMP-activated chloride ion channel in fluid-transporting epithelia. There is abundant evidence that CFTR activity (i.e. channel opening and closing) is regulated by protein kinases and phosphatases via phosphorylation and dephosphorylation. Here, we review recent evidence for the role of protein kinases in regulation of CFTR delivery to and retention in the plasma membrane. We review this information in a broader context of regulation of other transporters by protein kinases because the overall functional output of transporters involves the integrated control of both their number at the plasma membrane and their specific activity. While many details of the regulation of intracellular distribution of CFTR and other transporters remain to be elucidated, we hope that this review will motivate research providing new insights into how protein kinases control membrane transport to impact health and disease.

  12. Inhibition of protein kinase C intracerebroventricularly attenuates sensitization

    Mrowczynski, Oliver Daniel


    Drug relapse, mediated by drug-associated memories, is a major problem associated with addiction. Protein kinase C (PKC) is a family of protein kinase enzymes that has been implicated in learning and memory with regards to addiction. This study used a PKC inhibitor, chelerythrine (10nmol), to investigate the effects of blocking PKC throughout the brain on addiction related memories. Cocaine (15mg/kg) induced locomotor sensitization, used to model the transition from casual to compulsive use, ...

  13. Protein kinase C interaction with calcium: a phospholipid-dependent process.

    Bazzi, M D


    The calcium-binding properties of calcium- and phospholipid-dependent protein kinase C (PKC) were investigated by equilibrium dialysis in the presence and the absence of phospholipids. Calcium binding to PKC displayed striking and unexpected behavior; the free proteins bound virtually no calcium at intracellular calcium concentrations and bound limited calcium (about 1 mol\\/mol of PKC) at 200 microM calcium. However, in the presence of membranes containing acidic phospholipids, PKC bound at least eight calcium ions per protein. The presence of 1 microM phorbol dibutyrate (PDBu) in the dialysis buffer had little effect on these calcium-binding properties. Analysis of PKC-calcium binding by gel filtration under equilibrium conditions gave similar results; only membrane-associated PKC bound significant amounts of calcium. Consequently, PKC is a member of what may be a large group of proteins that bind calcium in a phospholipid-dependent manner. The calcium concentrations needed to induce PKC-membrane binding were similar to those needed for calcium binding (about 40 microM calcium at the midpoint). However, the calcium concentration required for PKC-membrane binding was strongly influenced by the phosphatidylserine composition of the membranes. Membranes with higher percentages of phosphatidylserine required lower concentrations of calcium. These properties suggested that the calcium sites may be generated at the interface between PKC and the membrane. Calcium may function as a bridge between PKC and phospholipids. These studies also suggested that calcium-dependent PKC-membrane binding and PKC function could be regulated by a number of factors in addition to calcium levels and diacylglycerol content of the membrane.

  14. MBD 4-a potential substrate for protein kinase X

    Ying Lin; Wei Li


    Human protein kinase X (PrKX) is an X chromosomeencoded cAMP-dependent protein kinase.PrKX has 50.2%,50.8%,and 44.83% identity with the catalytic,C-subunit of PKAα,PKAβ,and PKAγ,respectively [1].PrKX shares some biochemical characteristics with PKA.Both kinases catalyze phosphorylation of histone H1 and the PKA synthetic septapeptide substrate,referred to as Kemptide (LRRASLG),in vitro.However,the specific activities of PrKX phosphorylation of histone H1 and Kemptide are significantly lower than that of PKA [2,3].

  15. Conservation, variability and the modeling of active protein kinases.

    James D R Knight

    Full Text Available The human proteome is rich with protein kinases, and this richness has made the kinase of crucial importance in initiating and maintaining cell behavior. Elucidating cell signaling networks and manipulating their components to understand and alter behavior require well designed inhibitors. These inhibitors are needed in culture to cause and study network perturbations, and the same compounds can be used as drugs to treat disease. Understanding the structural biology of protein kinases in detail, including their commonalities, differences and modes of substrate interaction, is necessary for designing high quality inhibitors that will be of true use for cell biology and disease therapy. To this end, we here report on a structural analysis of all available active-conformation protein kinases, discussing residue conservation, the novel features of such conservation, unique properties of atypical kinases and variability in the context of substrate binding. We also demonstrate how this information can be used for structure prediction. Our findings will be of use not only in understanding protein kinase function and evolution, but they highlight the flaws inherent in kinase drug design as commonly practiced and dictate an appropriate strategy for the sophisticated design of specific inhibitors for use in the laboratory and disease therapy.

  16. Topology of cAMP dependent protein kinase and A-kinase anchor proteins in mammalian mitochondria

    Nuzzi, R.; Sardanelli, A. M.; Dobrová, Zuzana; Signorile, A.; De Rasmo, D.; Papa, S.

    Milano, 2005, s. 57. ISSN 0021-2938. [SIB 2005. Riccione (IT), 27.09.2005-30.09.2005] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : protein kinase * mammalian mitochondria Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  17. A-Raf kinase is a new interacting partner of protein kinase CK2 beta subunit

    Boldyreff, B; Issinger, O G


    In a search for protein kinase CK2 beta subunit binding proteins using the two-hybrid system, more than 1000 positive clones were isolated. Beside clones for the alpha' and beta subunit of CK2, there were clones coding for a so far unknown protein, whose partial cDNA sequence was already deposited...... in the EMBL database under the accession numbers R08806 and Z17360, for the ribosomal protein L5 and for A-Raf kinase. All isolated clones except the one for CK2 beta showed no interaction with the catalytic alpha subunit of CK2. A-Raf kinase is a new interesting partner of CK2 beta. The isolated A...

  18. TPX2 Protein of Arabidopsis Activates Aurora Kinase 1, But Not Aurora Kinase 3 In Vitro

    Tomaštíková, Eva; Demidov, D.; Jeřábková, Hana; Binarová, Pavla; Houben, A.; Doležel, Jaroslav; Petrovská, Beáta


    Roč. 33, č. 6 (2015), s. 1988-1995. ISSN 0735-9640 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-28443S; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204; GA ČR GAP501/12/2333 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 ; RVO:61388971 Keywords : Aurora kinase * Targeting protein for Xklp2 * In vitro kinase assay Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.656, year: 2014

  19. Protein kinase C mediated phosphorylation blocks juvenile hormone action.

    Kethidi, Damu R; Li, Yiping; Palli, Subba R


    Juvenile hormones (JH) regulate a wide variety of developmental and physiological processes in insects. Although the biological actions of JH are well documented, the molecular mechanisms underlying JH action are poorly understood. We studied the molecular basis of JH action using a JH response element (JHRE) identified in the promoter region of JH esterase gene cloned from Choristoneura fumiferana, which is responsive to JH and 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E). In Drosophila melanogaster L57 cells, the JHRE-regulated reporter gene was induced by JH I, JH III, methoprene, and hydroprene. Nuclear proteins isolated from L57 cells bound to the JHRE and exposure of these proteins to ATP resulted in a reduction in their DNA binding. Either JH III or calf intestinal alkaline phosphatase (CIAP) was able to restore the binding of nuclear proteins to the DNA. In addition, protein kinase C inhibitors increased and protein kinase C activators reduced the binding of nuclear proteins to the JHRE. In transactivation assays, protein kinase C inhibitors induced the luciferase gene placed under the control of a minimal promoter and the JHRE. These data suggest that protein kinase C mediated phosphorylation prevents binding of nuclear proteins to juvenile hormone responsive promoters resulting in suppression of JH action. PMID:16448742

  20. Modulation of the MAP kinase signaling cascade by Raf kinase inhibitory protein

    Nicholas TRAKUL; Marsha R. ROSNER


    Proteins like Raf kinase inhibitory protein (RKIP) that serve as modulators of signaling pathways, either by promoting or inhibiting the formation of productive signaling complexes through protein-protein interactions, have been demonstrated to play an increasingly important role in a number of cell types and organisms. These proteins have been implicated in development as well as the progression of cancer. RKIP is a particularly interesting regulator, as it is a highly conserved, ubiquitously expressed protein that has been shown to play a role in growth and differentiation in a number of organisms and can regulate multiple signaling pathways. RKIP is also the first MAP kinase signaling modulator to be identified as playing a role in cancer metastasis, and identification of the mechanism by which it regulates Raf-1 activation provides new targets for therapeutic intervention.

  1. Plant protein kinase genes induced by drought, high salt and cold stresses


    Drought, high salt and cold are three different kinds of environment stresses that severely influence the growth, development and productivity of crops. They all decrease the water state of plant cells, and consequently result in the harm of plant from water deficit. Several genes encoding protein kinases and induced by drought, high salt and low temperature have been isolated from Arabidopsis. These protein kinases include receptor protein kinase (RPK), MAP kinases, ribosomal-protein kinases and transcription-regulation protein kinase. The expression features of these genes and the regulatory roles of these protein kinases in stress response and signal transduction are discussed.

  2. Mitogen activated protein kinases: a role in inflammatory bowel disease?

    Broom, O J; Widjaya, B; Troelsen, J;


    Since their discovery more than 15 years ago, the mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPK) have been implicated in an ever-increasingly diverse array of pathways, including inflammatory signalling cascades. Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, are...... their related signalling proteins in influencing the progression of IBD....

  3. Effect of triiodothyronine on rat liver chromatin protein kinase

    1) Injection of triiodothyronine to rats stimulates protein kinase activity in liver chromatin nonhistone proteins. A significant increase was found after two daily injections. A 4-fold increase was observed with the purified enzyme after eight daily injections of the hormone. No variations were observed in cytosol protein kinase activity. Electrophoretic pattern, effect of heat denaturation, effect of p-hydroxymercuribenzoate seem to indicate that the enzyme present in treated rats is not identical to the enzyme in control animals, which suggests that thyroid hormone has induced nuclear protein kinase. Diiodothyronine, 3, 3', 5'-triiodothyronine have no effect on protein kinase. 2) Chromatin non-histone proteins isolated from rats injected with triiodothyronine incorporated more 32P when incubated with [γ-32P]ATP than the chromatin proteins from untreated rats. Thyroidectomy reduced the in vitro 32P incorporation. It is suggested that some of the biological activity of thyroid hormone could be mediated through its effect on chromatin non-histone proteins. (orig.)

  4. Characterization of pathogenic germline mutations in human Protein Kinases

    Orengo Christine A


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein Kinases are a superfamily of proteins involved in crucial cellular processes such as cell cycle regulation and signal transduction. Accordingly, they play an important role in cancer biology. To contribute to the study of the relation between kinases and disease we compared pathogenic mutations to neutral mutations as an extension to our previous analysis of cancer somatic mutations. First, we analyzed native and mutant proteins in terms of amino acid composition. Secondly, mutations were characterized according to their potential structural effects and finally, we assessed the location of the different classes of polymorphisms with respect to kinase-relevant positions in terms of subfamily specificity, conservation, accessibility and functional sites. Results Pathogenic Protein Kinase mutations perturb essential aspects of protein function, including disruption of substrate binding and/or effector recognition at family-specific positions. Interestingly these mutations in Protein Kinases display a tendency to avoid structurally relevant positions, what represents a significant difference with respect to the average distribution of pathogenic mutations in other protein families. Conclusions Disease-associated mutations display sound differences with respect to neutral mutations: several amino acids are specific of each mutation type, different structural properties characterize each class and the distribution of pathogenic mutations within the consensus structure of the Protein Kinase domain is substantially different to that for non-pathogenic mutations. This preferential distribution confirms previous observations about the functional and structural distribution of the controversial cancer driver and passenger somatic mutations and their use as a proxy for the study of the involvement of somatic mutations in cancer development.

  5. The Snf1 Protein Kinase in the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Usaite, Renata


    In yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the Snf1 protein kinase is primarily known as a key component of the glucose repression regulatory cascade. The Snf1 kinase is highly conserved among eukaryotes and its mammalian homolog AMPK is responsible for energy homeostasis in cells, organs and whole bodies....... Failure in the AMPK regulatory cascade leads to metabolic disorders, such as obesity or type 2 diabetes. The knowledge about the Snf1 protein kinase remains to be of much interest in studying yeast carbon metabolism and human biology. To investigate the effect of Snf1 kinase and its regulatory subunit Snf...... was the lack of reproducible sampling for proteins with low spectral counts. To reconstruct a regulatory map of the yeast Snf1 protein kinase, I used the abundances of 5716 mRNAs, 2388 proteins, and 44 metabolites measured for the wild-type, Δsnf1, Δsnf4, and Δsnf1Δsnf4 strains. By integrating these...

  6. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 translocates protein kinase C beta to nucleus and enhances plasma membrane association of protein kinase C alpha in renal epithelial cells.

    Simboli-Campbell, M; Gagnon, A; Franks, D J; Welsh, J


    1,25-Dihydroxycholecalciferol (1,25-(OH)2-D3) increases membrane-associated protein kinase C (PKC) activity and immunoreactivity in renal epithelial (Madin Darby bovine kidney, MDBK) cells (Simboli-Campbell, M., Franks, D. J., and Welsh, J. E. (1992) Cell Signalling 4, 99-109). We have now characterized the effects of 1,25-(OH)2-D3 on the subcellular localization of three individual isozymes by immunofluorescence and immunoblotting. Although the total amount of PKC alpha, PKC beta, and PKC zeta are unaffected by 1,25-(OH)2-D3, this steroid hormone induces subcellular redistribution of both PKC alpha and PKC beta. Treatment with 1,25-(OH)2-D3 (100 nM, 24 h) enhances plasma membrane association of PKC alpha and induces translocation of PKC beta to the nuclear membrane. The effects of 1,25-(OH)2-D3 appear to be limited to the calcium-dependent PKC isozymes, since 1,25-(OH)2-D3 has no effect on the calcium independent isozyme, PKC zeta. In contrast to rapid transient PKC translocation seen in response to agents which interact with membrane receptors to induce phospholipid hydrolysis, modulation of PKC alpha and PKC beta is observed after 24 h treatment with 1,25-(OH)2-D3. In MDBK cells, the phorbol ester 12-0-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) (100 nM, 24 h) down-regulates PKC alpha and, to a lesser extent, PKC zeta, without altering their subcellular distribution. TPA also induces translocation of PKC beta to the nuclear membrane. MDBK cells treated with 1,25-(OH)2-D3, but not TPA, exhibit enhanced phosphorylation of endogenous nuclear proteins. In addition to the distinct effects of 1,25-(OH)2-D3 and TPA on PKC isozyme patterns, 1,25-(OH)2-D3 up-regulates both the vitamin D receptor and calbindin D-28K, whereas TPA down-regulates the expression of both proteins. These data support the involvement of PKC in the mechanism of action of 1,25-(OH)2-D3 and specifically implicate PKC beta in 1,25-(OH)2-D3-mediated nuclear events. PMID:8106362

  7. Stress-induced activation of protein kinase CK2 by direct interaction with p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase

    Sayed, M; Kim, S O; Salh, B S;


    Protein kinase CK2 has been implicated in the regulation of a wide range of proteins that are important in cell proliferation and differentiation. Here we demonstrate that the stress signaling agents anisomycin, arsenite, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha stimulate the specific enzyme activity of CK2...

  8. Modulation of the Chromatin Phosphoproteome by the Haspin Protein Kinase

    Maiolica, Alessio; de Medina-Redondo, Maria; Schoof, Erwin;


    protein- protein interaction network. We determined the Haspin consensus motif and the co-crystal structure of the kinase with the histone H3 tail. The structure revealed a unique bent substrate binding mode positioning the histone H3 residues Arg2 and Lys4 adjacent to the Haspin phosphorylated threonine......Recent discoveries have highlighted the importance of Haspin kinase activity for the correct positioning of the kinase Aurora B at the centromere. Haspin phosphorylates Thr3 of the histone H3 (H3), which provides a signal for Aurora B to localize to the centromere of mitotic chromosomes. To date......, histone H3 is the only confirmed Haspin substrate. We used a combination of biochemical, pharmacological, and mass spectrometric approaches to study the consequences of Haspin inhibition in mitotic cells. We quantified 3964 phosphorylation sites on chromatin- associated proteins and identified a Haspin...

  9. Purification and characterization of a thylakoid protein kinase

    Control of state transitions in the thylakoid by reversible phosphorylation of the light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b protein complex of photosystem II (LHC-II) is modulated by a kinase. The kinase catalyzing this phosphorylation is associated with the thylakoid membrane, and is regulated by the redox state of the plastoquinone pool. The isolation and partial purification from spinach thylakoids of two protein kinases (CPK1, CPK2) of apparent molecular masses 25 kDa and 38 kDa has been reported. Neither enzyme utilizes isolated LHC-II as a substrate. The partial purification of a third protein kinase (LHCK) which can utilize both lysine-rich histones (IIIs and Vs) and isolated LHC-II as substrate has now been purified to homogeneity and characterized by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis as a 64 kDa peptide. From a comparison of the two isolation procedures we have concluded that CPK1 is indeed a protein kinase, but has a lower specific activity than that of LHCK. 8 refs., 4 figs

  10. Characterization of nuclear protein kinases of Xenopus laevis oocytes

    Xenopus laevis oocytes contain large nuclei (germinal vesicles) that can be isolated in very pure form and which permit the study of enzymatic activities present in these organelles. Incubation of pure oocyte nuclear homogenates with 32P in a buffered solution containing 5 mM MgCl2 results in the phosphorylation of a large number of proteins by endogenous protein kinases. This phosphorylation is not affected by the addition of cyclic nucleotides or calcium ion and calmodulin. On the other hand the nuclear kinases are considerably stimulated by spermine and spermidine and strongly inhibited by heparin (10 μg/ml). Addition of exogenous protein substrates shows that the major oocyte kinases are very active with casein and phosvitin as substrates but do not phosphorylate histones or protamines. DEAE-Sephadex chromatography of the nuclear extract fractionates the casein phosphorylating activity in two main peaks. The first peak is not retained on the column equilibrated with 0.1 M NH2SO4 and uses exclusively ATP as phosphate donor and is insensitive to polyamines or heparin. The second peak which corresponds to 70% of the casein phosphorylation elutes at 0.27 M NH2SO4 and uses both ATP and GTP as phosphate donors and is greatly stimulated by polyamines and completely inhibited by 10 μg/ml heparin. On this evidence the authors conclude that the major protein kinase peak corresponds to casein kinase type II which has been found in mammalian nuclei

  11. Synthetic peptides and ribosomal proteins as substrate for 60S ribosomal protein kinase from yeast cells

    Grankowski, N; Gasior, E; Issinger, O G


    Kinetic studies on the 60S protein kinase were conducted with synthetic peptides and ribosomal proteins as substrate. Peptide RRREEESDDD proved to be the best synthetic substrate for this enzyme. The peptide has a sequence of amino acids which most closely resembles the structure of potential...... phosphorylation sites in natural substrates, i.e., acidic ribosomal proteins. The superiority of certain kinetic parameters for 60S kinase obtained with the native whole 80S ribosomes over those of the isolated fraction of acidic ribosomal proteins indicates that the affinity of 60S kinase to the specific protein...

  12. Characterization of a calmodulin binding protein kinase from Arabidopsis thalian


    A full-length calmodulin binding protein kinase cDNA, AtCBK1, from Arabidopsis has been isolated by screening of an Arabidopsis cDNA library and by 5′-RACE. Northern blot and in situ hybridization indicated that the expression of AtCBK1 was more abundant in the vascular bundles and the meristems than in other tissues. The phylogenetic analyses reveal that AtCBK1 is different from animal CaMKs and it falls into CRK subgroup, indicating that they may come from different ancestors. The result suggests that AtCBK1 encodes a CaM-binding serine/threonine protein kinase.

  13. A Screen for Novel Phosphoinositide 3-kinase Effector Proteins*

    Dixon, Miles J.; Gray, Alexander; Boisvert, François-Michel; Agacan, Mark; Morrice, Nicholas A.; Gourlay, Robert; Leslie, Nicholas R.; Downes, C. Peter; Batty, Ian H.


    Class I phosphoinositide 3-kinases exert important cellular effects through their two primary lipid products, phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate and phosphatidylinositol 3,4-bisphosphate (PtdIns(3,4)P2). As few molecular targets for PtdIns(3,4)P2 have yet been identified, a screen for PI 3-kinase-responsive proteins that is selective for these is described. This features a tertiary approach incorporating a unique, primary recruitment of target proteins in intact cells to membranes selec...

  14. Microfluidic IEF technique for sequential phosphorylation analysis of protein kinases

    Choi, Nakchul; Song, Simon; Choi, Hoseok; Lim, Bu-Taek; Kim, Young-Pil


    Sequential phosphorylation of protein kinases play the important role in signal transduction, protein regulation, and metabolism in living cells. The analysis of these phosphorylation cascades will provide new insights into their physiological functions in many biological functions. Unfortunately, the existing methods are limited to analyze the cascade activity. Therefore, we suggest a microfluidic isoelectric focusing technique (μIEF) for the analysis of the cascade activity. Using the technique, we show that the sequential phosphorylation of a peptide by two different kinases can be successfully detected on a microfluidic chip. In addition, the inhibition assay for kinase activity and the analysis on a real sample have also been conducted. The results indicate that μIEF is an excellent means for studies on phosphorylation cascade activity.

  15. Cyclophilin represents a novel class of protein kinases

    Cyclophilin (CyP, Mr 17,737, pI 9.6), a highly specific cytosolic receptor for cyclosporin A (CsA) has ser/thr protein kinase activity. Incorporation of 32P into bovine histone H3 (BH3) was catalyzed by major and minor CyP isozymes at the same rate. Salt effects were biphasic with optimal kinase activity between 50-100 mM Na+ or K+. Kinase activity was maximal at 370C, stable for 5 min at 450, labile at 560, optimal between pH 6.8 and 8.0 and had an apparent Km of 20 uM ATP with both isozymes. The specific activity of CyP was 1.0 nmole P/mg protein/min with chicken histone H1 (CH1), 0.2 nmoles P/mg prot/min with BH3 and less than 0.01 nmoles P/mg prot/min with synapsin, casein, phosvitin, and ribosomal protein S6. Cofactors including Mn++, Zn++, Ca++, phosphatidyl serine, diolein and phorbol ester, cAMP, cGMP and Ca++ did not affect basal CyP kinase activity. CsA (3 by 50% but did not inhibit phosphorylation of other histones; 2ug CsA/ml was required to cause 50% inhibition of cAMP and Ca++/CaM dependent kinases. A non-immunosuppressive analog (Me-leu-11-CsA) that does not bind to CyP did not inhibit CH3 phosphorylation. Thus, CyP is a novel protein kinase that mediates immunosuppression by CsA

  16. Substrates of protein kinases involved in cell signal transduction

    In this study substrates for protein-tyrosine kinases and protein kinase C are examined to gain a better understanding of the conditions of their phosphorylation, their functions, and their potential involvement in intracellular signaling pathways. The tissue, cell type, and intracellular distributions of two protein-tyrosine kinase substrates, termed p36 and p81, are determined by immunoblotting of murine tissues, indirect immunofluorescence and immunoperoxidase staining of frozen rat tissue sections, and biochemical fractionation and indirect immunofluorescence staining of tissue culture cells. Both p36 and p81 are constitutively phosphorylated to low levels in tissue culture cells. In 32P-labeled A431 cells, pp81 contains both phosphoserine and phosphothreonine. Following brief epidermal growth factor treatment of A431 cells, pp81 is more heavily phosphorylated on threonine and approximately 10% of p81 molecules become phosphorylated on tyrosine. Treatment of A431 cells with the potent tumor promoter and protein kinase C activator, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), does not alter the phosphorylation state of p81. However, TPA treatment of A431 cells and certain other cell types leads to augmented serine phosphorylation of p36

  17. The Role of Protein Kinase CK2 in Glioblastoma Development

    Ji, Haitao; Lu, Zhimin


    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most prevalent and malignant primary brain tumor in adults, and its response to current therapies is limited. Protein kinase CK2 is overexpressed in GBM and regulates GBM cell survival, proliferation, and migration and brain tumorigenesis. Targeting CK2 for GBM treatment may benefit GBM patients.

  18. Isoform Specificity of Protein Kinase Cs in Synaptic Plasticity

    Sossin, Wayne S.


    Protein kinase Cs (PKCs) are implicated in many forms of synaptic plasticity. However, the specific isoform(s) of PKC that underlie(s) these events are often not known. We have used "Aplysia" as a model system in order to investigate the isoform specificity of PKC actions due to the presence of fewer isoforms and a large number of documented…

  19. Protein kinase CK2 structure-function relationship

    Boldyreff, B; Meggio, F; Pinna, L A;


    Protein kinase CK2 subunits alpha and beta were expressed either separately or together in a bacterial expression system (pT7-7/BL21(DE3)) and purified to homogeneity. After mixing the subunits, a CK2 holoenzyme (alpha 2 beta 2) was spontaneously reconstituted, which displays identical features as...

  20. Targeting protein kinases to reverse multidrug resistance in sarcoma.

    Chen, Hua; Shen, Jacson; Choy, Edwin; Hornicek, Francis J; Duan, Zhenfeng


    Sarcomas are a group of cancers that arise from transformed cells of mesenchymal origin. They can be classified into over 50 subtypes, accounting for approximately 1% of adult and 15% of pediatric cancers. Wide surgical resection, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy are the most common treatments for the majority of sarcomas. Among these therapies, chemotherapy can palliate symptoms and prolong life for some sarcoma patients. However, sarcoma cells can have intrinsic or acquired resistance after treatment with chemotherapeutics drugs, leading to the development of multidrug resistance (MDR). MDR attenuates the efficacy of anticancer drugs and results in treatment failure for sarcomas. Therefore, overcoming MDR is an unmet need for sarcoma therapy. Certain protein kinases demonstrate aberrant expression and/or activity in sarcoma cells, which have been found to be involved in the regulation of sarcoma cell progression, such as cell cycle, apoptosis, and survival. Inhibiting these protein kinases may not only decrease the proliferation and growth of sarcoma cells, but also reverse their resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs to subsequently reduce the doses of anticancer drugs and decrease drug side-effects. The discovery of novel strategies targeting protein kinases opens a door to a new area of sarcoma research and provides insight into the mechanisms of MDR in chemotherapy. This review will focus on the recent studies in targeting protein kinase to reverse chemotherapeutic drug resistance in sarcoma. PMID:26827688

  1. Leishmania amazonensis: PKC-like protein kinase modulates the (Na++K+)ATPase activity.

    Almeida-Amaral, Elmo Eduardo de; Caruso-Neves, Celso; Lara, Lucienne Silva; Pinheiro, Carla Mônica; Meyer-Fernandes, José Roberto


    The present study aimed to identify the presence of protein kinase C-like (PKC-like) in Leishmania amazonensis and to elucidate its possible role in the modulation of the (Na(+)+K(+))ATPase activity. Immunoblotting experiments using antibody against a consensus sequence (Ac 543-549) of rabbit protein kinase C (PKC) revealed the presence of a protein kinase of 80 kDa in L. amazonensis. Measurements of protein kinase activity showed the presence of both (Ca(2+)-dependent) and (Ca(2+)-independent) protein kinase activity in plasma membrane and cytosol. Phorbol ester (PMA) activation of the Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinase stimulated the (Na(+)+K(+))ATPase activity, while activation of the Ca(2+)-independent protein kinase was inhibitory. Both effects of protein kinase on the (Na(+)+K(+))ATPase of the plasma membrane were lower than that observed in intact cells. PMA induced the translocation of protein kinase from cytosol to plasma membrane, indicating that the maximal effect of protein kinase on the (Na(+)+K(+))ATPase activity depends on the synergistic action of protein kinases from both plasma membrane and cytosol. This is the first demonstration of a protein kinase activated by PMA in L. amazonensis and the first evidence for a possible role in the regulation of the (Na(+)+K(+))ATPase activity in this trypanosomatid. Modulation of the (Na(+)+K(+))ATPase by protein kinase in a trypanosomatid opens up new possibilities to understand the regulation of ion homeostasis in this parasite. PMID:17475255

  2. Protein inhibitor of neuronal nitric oxide synthase interacts with protein kinase A inhibitors.

    Yu, Jianqiang; Yu, Long; Chen, Zheng; Zheng, Lihua; Chen, Xiaosong; Wang, Xiang; Ren, Daming; Zhao, Shouyuan


    Protein kinase A (PKA) and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) are important signaling molecules. It is well known that PKA can specifically phosphorylate nNOS. But the underlying molecular mechanism is still obscure. Our data indicate that the protein inhibitor of nNOS (PIN) binds to protein kinase A inhibitors (PKIs), which suggests that PKIs, together with PIN, might mediate the phosphorylation of nNOS by PKA. PMID:11978406

  3. Selective Phosphorylation Inhibitor of Delta Protein Kinase C-Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Kinase Protein-Protein Interactions: Application for Myocardial Injury in Vivo.

    Qvit, Nir; Disatnik, Marie-Hélène; Sho, Eiketsu; Mochly-Rosen, Daria


    Protein kinases regulate numerous cellular processes, including cell growth, metabolism, and cell death. Because the primary sequence and the three-dimensional structure of many kinases are highly similar, the development of selective inhibitors for only one kinase is challenging. Furthermore, many protein kinases are pleiotropic, mediating diverse and sometimes even opposing functions by phosphorylating multiple protein substrates. Here, we set out to develop an inhibitor of a selective protein kinase phosphorylation of only one of its substrates. Focusing on the pleiotropic delta protein kinase C (δPKC), we used a rational approach to identify a distal docking site on δPKC for its substrate, pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK). We reasoned that an inhibitor of PDK's docking should selectively inhibit the phosphorylation of only PDK without affecting phosphorylation of the other δPKC substrates. Our approach identified a selective inhibitor of PDK docking to δPKC with an in vitro Kd of ∼50 nM and reducing cardiac injury IC50 of ∼5 nM. This inhibitor, which did not affect the phosphorylation of other δPKC substrates even at 1 μM, demonstrated that PDK phosphorylation alone is critical for δPKC-mediated injury by heart attack. The approach we describe is likely applicable for the identification of other substrate-specific kinase inhibitors. PMID:27218445

  4. Phosphoproteins and protein kinases of the Golgi apparatus membrane

    Incubation of a highly purified fraction derived from rat liver Golgi apparatus with [gamma-32P]ATP results in phosphorylation of several endogenous phosphoproteins. One phosphoprotein with an apparent Mr of 48,300 is radiolabeled to an apparent extent at least 5-fold higher than any other phosphoprotein as part of either the Golgi apparatus or highly purified rat liver fractions derived from the rough endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, plasma membrane, coated vesicles, cytosol, and total homogenate. Approximately 70% of the 48.3-kDa phosphoprotein appears to be a specific extrinsic Golgi membrane protein with the phosphorylated amino acid being threonine. The protein kinase which phosphorylates the 48.3-kDa protein is an intrinsic Golgi membrane protein and is dependent on Mg2+, independent of Ca2+, calmodulin, and cAMP, and is inhibited by N-ethylmaleimide. Preliminary evidence suggests that there are also intrinsic membrane protein kinases in the Golgi apparatus which are dependent on Ca2+ and cAMP. The physiological role of the above phosphoproteins and protein kinases is not known

  5. Synapsis of DNA ends by DNA-dependent protein kinase

    DeFazio, Lisa G.; Stansel, Rachel M.; Griffith, Jack D.; Chu, Gilbert


    The catalytic subunit of DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PKCS) is required for a non-homologous end-joining pathway that repairs DNA double-strand breaks produced by ionizing radiation or V(D)J recombination; however, its role in this pathway has remained obscure. Using a neutravidin pull-down assay, we found that DNA-PKCS mediates formation of a synaptic complex containing two DNA molecules. Furthermore, kinase activity was cooperative with respect to DNA concentration, suggesting that act...

  6. Overinhibition of Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Inducing Tau Hyperphosphorylation

    LI Hong-lian; CHEN Juan; LIU Shi-jie; ZHANG Jia-yu; WANG Qun; WANG Jian-zhi


    To reveal the relationship between mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and tau phosphorylation, we used different concentration of PD98059, an inhibitor of MEK (MAPK kinase), to treat mice neuroblastma (N2a) cell line for 6 h. It showed that the activity of MAPK decreased in a dose-dependent manner. But Western blot and immunofluorescence revealed that just when the cells were treated with 16 μmol/L PD98059, tau was hyperphosphorylated at Ser396/404 and Ser199/202 sites. We obtained the conclusion that overinhibited MAPK induced tau hyperphosphorylation at Ser396/404 and Ser199/202 sites.

  7. Phosphorylation of the mRNA cap binding protein and eIF-4A by different protein kinases

    These studies were done to determine the identity of a protein kinase that phosphorylates the mRNA cap binding protein (CBP). Two chromatographic steps (dye and ligand and ion exchange HPLC) produced a 500x purification of an enzyme activity in rabbit reticulocytes that phosphorylated CBP at serine residues. Isoelectric focusing analysis of kinase treated CBP demonstrated 5 isoelectric species of which the 2 most anodic species were phosphorylated (contained 32P). This kinase activity phosphorylated CBP when it was isolated or in the eIF-4F complex. Purified protein kinase C, cAMP or cGMP dependent protein kinase, casein kinase I or II, myosin light chain kinase or insulin receptor kinase did not significantly phosphorylate isolated CBP or CBP in the eIF-4F complex. However, cAMP and cGMP dependent protein kinases and casein kinase II phosphorylated eIF-4A but did not phosphorylate the 46 kDa component of eIF-4F. cAMP dependent protein kinase phosphorylated a ∼ 220 kDa protein doublet in eIF-4F preparations. These studies indicate that CBP kinase activity probably represents a previously unidentified protein kinase. In addition, eIF-4A appears to be phosphorylated by several protein kinases whereas the 46 kDa component of the eIF-4F complex was not

  8. Curcumin specifically binds to the human calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV: fluorescence and molecular dynamics simulation studies.

    Hoda, Nasimul; Naz, Huma; Jameel, Ehtesham; Shandilya, Ashutosh; Dey, Sharmistha; Hassan, Md Imtaiyaz; Ahmad, Faizan; Jayaram, B


    Calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV (CAMK4) plays significant role in the regulation of calcium-dependent gene expression, and thus, it is involved in varieties of cellular functions such as cell signaling and neuronal survival. On the other hand, curcumin, a naturally occurring yellow bioactive component of turmeric possesses wide spectrum of biological actions, and it is widely used to treat atherosclerosis, diabetes, cancer, and inflammation. It also acts as an antioxidant. Here, we studied the interaction of curcumin with human CAMK4 at pH 7.4 using molecular docking, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, fluorescence binding, and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) methods. We performed MD simulations for both neutral and anionic forms of CAMK4-curcumin complexes for a reasonably long time (150 ns) to see the overall stability of the protein-ligand complex. Molecular docking studies revealed that the curcumin binds in the large hydrophobic cavity of kinase domain of CAMK4 through several hydrophobic and hydrogen-bonded interactions. Additionally, MD simulations studies contributed in understanding the stability of protein-ligand complex system in aqueous solution and conformational changes in the CAMK4 upon binding of curcumin. A significant increase in the fluorescence intensity at 495 nm was observed (λexc = 425 nm), suggesting a strong interaction of curcumin to the CAMK4. A high binding affinity (KD = 3.7 × 10(-8) ± .03 M) of curcumin for the CAMK4 was measured by SPR further indicating curcumin as a potential ligand for the CAMK4. This study will provide insights into designing a new inspired curcumin derivatives as therapeutic agents against many life-threatening diseases. PMID:25929263

  9. Emerging Roles of AMP-Activated Protein Kinase

    Fritzen, Andreas Mæchel

    The cellular energy sensor AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is activated, when the energy balance of the cell decreases. AMPK has been proposed to regulate multiple metabolic processes. However, much of the evidence for these general effects of AMPK relies on investigations in cell systems or...... exercise appears to inhibit pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) activity by an immediate up-regulation of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 (PDK4) protein content. Consequently, this may inhibit glucose oxidation and thereby generate conditions for increased FA oxidation and glycogen resynthesis in skeletal muscle...... importance for prioritising energy dissipation, inhibition of lipid storage pathways and regulation of mitochondrial and metabolic proteins, but this needs further investigations. In addition, we provide evidence that AMPK is regulating autophagic signalling in skeletal muscle. Thus, in skeletal muscle AMPK...

  10. Mitogen-activated protein kinases mediate Mycobacterium tuberculosis–induced CD44 surface expression in monocytes

    Natarajan Palaniappan; S Anbalagan; Sujatha Narayanan


    CD44, an adhesion molecule, has been reported to be a binding site for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) in macrophages and it also mediates mycobacterial phagocytosis, macrophage recruitment and protective immunity against pulmonary tuberculosis in vivo. However, the signalling pathways that are involved in M. tuberculosis–induced CD44 surface expression in monocytic cells are currently unknown. Exposure of THP-1 human monocytes to M. tuberculosis H37Rv and H37Ra induced distinct, time-dependent, phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase-1, extracellular signal regulated kinase 1/2, mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 3/6, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and c-jun N-terminal kinases. The strains also differed in their usage of CD14 and human leukocyte antigen-DR (HLA-DR) receptors in mediating mitogen-activated protein kinase activation. M. tuberculosis H37Rv strain induced lower CD44 surface expression and tumour necrosis factor-alpha levels, whereas H37Ra the reverse. Using highly specific inhibitors of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase-1, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and c-jun N-terminal kinase, we report that inhibition of extracellular signal regulated kinase 1/2 and c-jun N-terminal kinases increases, but that inhibition of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase decreases M. tuberculosis–induced CD44 surface expression in THP-1 human monocytes.

  11. Mitochondrial protein import under kinase surveillance

    Magdalena Opalińska


    Full Text Available Despite the simplicity of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae,its basic cellular machinery tremendously mirrors that of higher eukaryotic counterparts. Thus, this unicellular organism turned out to be an invaluable model system to study the countless mechanisms that govern life of the cell. Recently, it has also enabled the deciphering of signalling pathways that control flux of mitochondrial proteins to the organelle according to metabolic requirements. For decades mitochondria were considered autonomous organelles that are only partially incorporated into cellular signalling networks. Consequently, only little has been known about the role of reversible phosphorylation as a meaningful mechanism that orchestrates mitochondrial biology accordingly to cellular needs. Therefore, research in this direction has been vastly neglected. However, findings over the past few years have changed this view and new exciting fields in mitochondrial biology have emerged. Here, we summarize recent discoveries in the yeast model system that point towards a vital role of reversible phosphorylation in regulation of mitochondrial protein import.

  12. Identification of a Fungi-Specific Lineage of Protein Kinases Closely Related to Tyrosine Kinases

    Zhao, Zhongtao; Jin, Qiaojun; Liu, Huiquan; Xu, Jin-Rong


    Tyrosine kinases (TKs) specifically catalyze the phosphorylation of tyrosine residues in proteins and play essential roles in many cellular processes. Although TKs mainly exist in animals, recent studies revealed that some organisms outside the Opisthokont clade also contain TKs. The fungi, as the sister group to animals, are thought to lack TKs. To better understand the origin and evolution of TKs, it is important to investigate if fungi have TK or TK-related genes. We therefore systematical...

  13. Molecular Physiology of SPAK and OSR1: Two Ste20-Related Protein Kinases Regulating Ion Transport

    Gagnon, Kenneth B; Delpire, Eric


    SPAK (Ste20-related proline alanine rich kinase) and OSR1 (oxidative stress responsive kinase) are members of the germinal center kinase VI sub-family of the mammalian Ste20 (Sterile20)-related protein kinase family. Although there are 30 enzymes in this protein kinase family, their conservation across the fungi, plant and animal kingdom confirms their evolutionary importance. Already, a large volume of work has accumulated on the tissue distribution, binding partners, signaling cascades, and...

  14. Protein kinase activity associated with the nuclear lamina.

    Dessev, G; Iovcheva, C; Tasheva, B; R. Goldman


    A nuclear lamina-enriched fraction from Ehrlich ascites tumor cells contains a tightly bound protein kinase activity, which phosphorylates in vitro the nuclear lamins, a 52-kilodalton protein, and several unknown minor components. The enzyme(s) is thermolabile, independent of Ca2+ and cAMP, and inhibited by quercetin. After treatment with 4 M urea it remains bound to the nuclear lamina in an active state, but it is irreversibly inactivated in 6 M urea. The lamin proteins are phosphorylated on...

  15. Casein kinase I-like protein kinases encoded by YCK1 and YCK2 are required for yeast morphogenesis.

    Robinson, L. C.; Menold, M. M.; Garrett, S.; Culbertson, M R


    Casein kinase I is an acidotropic protein kinase class that is widely distributed among eukaryotic cell types. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the casein kinase I isoform encoded by the gene pair YCK1 and YCK2 is a 60- to 62-kDa membrane-associated form. The Yck proteins perform functions essential for growth and division; either alone supports growth, but loss of function of both is lethal. We report here that casein kinase I-like activity is associated with a soluble Yck2-beta-galact...

  16. Regulation of polar auxin transport by protein and lipid kinases.

    Armengot, Laia; Marquès-Bueno, Maria Mar; Jaillais, Yvon


    The directional transport of auxin, known as polar auxin transport (PAT), allows asymmetric distribution of this hormone in different cells and tissues. This system creates local auxin maxima, minima, and gradients that are instrumental in both organ initiation and shape determination. As such, PAT is crucial for all aspects of plant development but also for environmental interaction, notably in shaping plant architecture to its environment. Cell to cell auxin transport is mediated by a network of auxin carriers that are regulated at the transcriptional and post-translational levels. Here we review our current knowledge on some aspects of the 'non-genomic' regulation of auxin transport, placing an emphasis on how phosphorylation by protein and lipid kinases controls the polarity, intracellular trafficking, stability, and activity of auxin carriers. We describe the role of several AGC kinases, including PINOID, D6PK, and the blue light photoreceptor phot1, in phosphorylating auxin carriers from the PIN and ABCB families. We also highlight the function of some receptor-like kinases (RLKs) and two-component histidine kinase receptors in PAT, noting that there are probably RLKs involved in co-ordinating auxin distribution yet to be discovered. In addition, we describe the emerging role of phospholipid phosphorylation in polarity establishment and intracellular trafficking of PIN proteins. We outline these various phosphorylation mechanisms in the context of primary and lateral root development, leaf cell shape acquisition, as well as root gravitropism and shoot phototropism. PMID:27242371

  17. Cellular reprogramming through mitogen-activated protein kinases

    Justin eLee


    Full Text Available Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK cascades are conserved eukaryote signaling modules where MAPKs, as the final kinases in the cascade, phosphorylate protein substrates to regulate cellular processes. While some progress in the identification of MAPK substrates has been made in plants, the knowledge on the spectrum of substrates and their mechanistic action is still fragmentary. In this focused review, we discuss the biological implications of the data in our original paper (Sustained mitogen-activated protein kinase activation reprograms defense metabolism and phosphoprotein profile in Arabidopsis thaliana; Frontiers in Plant Science 5: 554 in the context of related research. In our work, we mimicked in vivo activation of two stress-activated MAPKs, MPK3 and MPK6, through transgenic manipulation of Arabidopsis thaliana and used phosphoproteomics analysis to identify potential novel MAPK substrates. Here, we plotted the identified putative MAPK substrates (and downstream phosphoproteins as a global protein clustering network. Based on a highly stringent selection confidence level, the core networks highlighted a MAPK-induced cellular reprogramming at multiple levels of gene and protein expression – including transcriptional, post-transcriptional, translational, post-translational (such as protein modification, folding and degradation steps, and also protein re-compartmentalization. Additionally, the increase in putative substrates/phosphoproteins of energy metabolism and various secondary metabolite biosynthesis pathways coincides with the observed accumulation of defense antimicrobial substances as detected by metabolome analysis. Furthermore, detection of protein networks in phospholipid or redox elements suggests activation of downstream signaling events. Taken in context with other studies, MAPKs are key regulators that reprogram cellular events to orchestrate defense signaling in eukaryotes.

  18. Effects of protein kinase C activators and staurosporine on protein kinase activity, cell survival, and proliferation in Tetrahymena thermophila

    Straarup, EM; Schousboe, P; Hansen, HQ;


    Autocrine factors prevent cell death in the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila, a unicellular eukaryote, in a chemically defined medium. At certain growth conditions these factors are released at a sufficient concentration by > 500 cells ml-1 to support cell survival and proliferation. The protein...... kinase C activators phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) or 1-oleyl 2-acetate glycerol (OAG) when added to 250 cells ml-1 supported cell survival and proliferation. In the presence of the serine and threonine kinase inhibitor staurosporine the cells died both at 250 cells ml-1 in cultures supplemented...... with either PMA or OAG, or at 2,500 cells ml-1. At 500 cells ml-1 PMA induced the in vivo phosphorylation of at least six proteins. The myelin basic protein fragment 4-14 was phosphorylated in vitro in crude extracts of a culture of 250,000 cells ml-1. Both the in vivo and the in vitro phosphorylation...

  19. PKIS: computational identification of protein kinases for experimentally discovered protein phosphorylation sites

    Zou, Liang; Wang, Mang; Shen, Yi; Liao, Jie; Li, Ao; Wang, Minghui


    Background Dynamic protein phosphorylation is an essential regulatory mechanism in various organisms. In this capacity, it is involved in a multitude of signal transduction pathways. Kinase-specific phosphorylation data lay the foundation for reconstruction of signal transduction networks. For this reason, precise annotation of phosphorylated proteins is the first step toward simulating cell signaling pathways. However, the vast majority of kinase-specific phosphorylation data remain undiscov...

  20. Structural Bioinformatics and Protein Docking Analysis of the Molecular Chaperone-Kinase Interactions: Towards Allosteric Inhibition of Protein Kinases by Targeting the Hsp90-Cdc37 Chaperone Machinery

    Gennady Verkhivker


    Full Text Available A fundamental role of the Hsp90-Cdc37 chaperone system in mediating maturation of protein kinase clients and supporting kinase functional activity is essential for the integrity and viability of signaling pathways involved in cell cycle control and organism development. Despite significant advances in understanding structure and function of molecular chaperones, the molecular mechanisms and guiding principles of kinase recruitment to the chaperone system are lacking quantitative characterization. Structural and thermodynamic characterization of Hsp90-Cdc37 binding with protein kinase clients by modern experimental techniques is highly challenging, owing to a transient nature of chaperone-mediated interactions. In this work, we used experimentally-guided protein docking to probe the allosteric nature of the Hsp90-Cdc37 binding with the cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (Cdk4 kinase clients. The results of docking simulations suggest that the kinase recognition and recruitment to the chaperone system may be primarily determined by Cdc37 targeting of the N-terminal kinase lobe. The interactions of Hsp90 with the C-terminal kinase lobe may provide additional “molecular brakes” that can lock (or unlock kinase from the system during client loading (release stages. The results of this study support a central role of the Cdc37 chaperone in recognition and recruitment of the kinase clients. Structural analysis may have useful implications in developing strategies for allosteric inhibition of protein kinases by targeting the Hsp90-Cdc37 chaperone machinery.

  1. Compartmentalization Role of A-Kinase Anchoring Proteins (AKAPs in Mediating Protein Kinase A (PKA Signaling and Cardiomyocyte Hypertrophy

    Abeer Rababa'h


    Full Text Available The Beta-adrenergic receptors (β-ARs stimulation enhances contractility through protein kinase-A (PKA substrate phosphorylation. This PKA signaling is conferred in part by PKA binding to A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs. AKAPs coordinate multi-protein signaling networks that are targeted to specific intracellular locations, resulting in the localization of enzyme activity and transmitting intracellular actions of neurotransmitters and hormones to its target substrates. In particular, mAKAP (muscle-selective AKAP has been shown to be present on the nuclear envelope of cardiomyocytes with various proteins including: PKA-regulatory subunit (RIIα, phosphodiesterase-4D3, protein phosphatase-2A, and ryanodine receptor (RyR2. Therefore, through the coordination of spatial-temporal signaling of proteins and enzymes, mAKAP controls cyclic-adenosine monophosphate (cAMP levels very tightly and functions as a regulator of PKA-mediated substrate phosphorylation leading to changes in calcium availability and myofilament calcium sensitivity. The goal of this review is to elucidate the critical compartmentalization role of mAKAP in mediating PKA signaling and regulating cardiomyocyte hypertrophy by acting as a scaffolding protein. Based on our literature search and studying the structure–function relationship between AKAP scaffolding protein and its binding partners, we propose possible explanations for the mechanism by which mAKAP promotes cardiac hypertrophy.

  2. Structural and functional diversity in the activity and regulation of DAPK-related protein kinases.

    Temmerman, Koen; Simon, Bertrand; Wilmanns, Matthias


    Within the large group of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases (CAMKs) of the human kinome, there is a distinct branch of highly related kinases that includes three families: death-associated protein-related kinases, myosin light-chain-related kinases and triple functional domain protein-related kinases. In this review, we refer to these collectively as DMT kinases. There are several functional features that span the three families, such as a broad involvement in apoptotic processes, cytoskeletal association and cellular plasticity. Other CAMKs contain a highly conserved HRD motif, which is a prerequisite for kinase regulation through activation-loop phosphorylation, but in all 16 members of the DMT branch, this is replaced by an HF/LD motif. This DMT kinase signature motif substitutes phosphorylation-dependent active-site interactions with a local hydrophobic core that maintains an active kinase conformation. Only about half of the DMT kinases have an additional autoregulatory domain, C-terminal to the kinase domain that binds calcium/calmodulin in order to regulate kinase activity. Protein substrates have been identified for some of the DMT kinases, but little is known about the mechanism of recognition. Substrate conformation could be an equally important parameter in substrate recognition as specific preferences in sequence position. Taking the data together, this kinase branch encapsulates a treasure trove of features that renders it distinct from many other protein kinases and calls for future research activities in this field. PMID:23745726

  3. Redox Regulation of the AMP-Activated Protein Kinase

    Yingying Han; Qilong Wang; Ping Song; Yi Zhu; Ming-Hui Zou


    Redox state is a critical determinant of cell function, and any major imbalances can cause severe damage or death. Objectives The aim of this study is to determine if AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a cellular energy sensor, is activated by oxidants generated by Berberine in endothelial cells (EC). Methods Bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC) were exposed to Berberine. AMPK activity and reactive oxygen species were monitored after the incubation. Results In BAEC, Berberine caused a dos...

  4. Comparative analysis of fungal protein kinases and associated domains

    Glaser Fabian; Mandel-Gutfreund Yael; Kosti Idit; Horwitz Benjamin A


    Abstract Background Protein phosphorylation is responsible for a large portion of the regulatory functions of eukaryotic cells. Although the list of sequenced genomes of filamentous fungi has grown rapidly, the kinomes of recently sequenced species have not yet been studied in detail. The objective of this study is to apply a comparative analysis of the kinase distribution in different fungal phyla, and to explore its relevance to understanding the evolution of fungi and their taxonomic class...

  5. Comparative analysis of fungal protein kinases and associated domains

    Kosti, Idit; Mandel-Gutfreund, Yael; Glaser, Fabian; Horwitz, Benjamin A.


    Background Protein phosphorylation is responsible for a large portion of the regulatory functions of eukaryotic cells. Although the list of sequenced genomes of filamentous fungi has grown rapidly, the kinomes of recently sequenced species have not yet been studied in detail. The objective of this study is to apply a comparative analysis of the kinase distribution in different fungal phyla, and to explore its relevance to understanding the evolution of fungi and their taxonomic classification...

  6. Protein kinase GCN2 mediates responses to glyphosate in Arabidopsis

    Faus, I.; ZABALZA OSTOS, ANA Mª; Santiago, J.; González Nebauer, Sergio; Royuela, M.; Serrano, R; J Gadea


    Background The increased selection pressure of the herbicide glyphosate has played a role in the evolution of glyphosate-resistance in weedy species, an issue that is becoming a threat to global agriculture. The molecular components involved in the cellular toxicity response to this herbicide at the expression level are still unidentified. Results In this study, we identify the protein kinase GCN2 as a cellular component that fosters the action of glyphosate in the model plant Arabidopsis tha...

  7. Mitogen-activated protein kinases in the acute diabetic myocardium

    Strnisková, M.; Barančík, M.; Neckář, Jan; Ravingerová, T.


    Roč. 249, 1-2 (2003), s. 59-65. ISSN 0300-8177 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A069 Grant ostatní: VEGA(SK) 2/2063/22 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : experimental diabetes * ischemia * mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.763, year: 2003

  8. Targeting Protein Kinase C subtypes in pancreatic cancer

    Storz, Peter


    In preclinical studies protein kinase C (PKC) enzymes have been implicated in regulating many aspects of pancreatic cancer development and progression. However, clinical phase I or phase II trials with compounds targeting classical PKC isoforms were not successful. Recent studies implicate that mainly atypical and novel PKC enzymes regulate oncogenic signaling pathways in pancreatic cancer. Members of these two subgroups converge signaling induced by mutant Kras, growth factors and inflammato...

  9. Novel regulation of protein kinase C-η

    Pal, Deepanwita; Outram, Shalini Persaud; Basu, Alakananda


    Protein kinase C (PKC) is the receptor for tumor promoting phorbol esters, which are potent activators of conventional and novel PKCs, but persistent treatment with phorbol esters leads to downregulation of these PKCs. However, PKCη, a novel PKC isozyme, resists downregulation by tumor-promoting phorbol esters, but little is known about how PKCη level is regulated. Phosphorylation and dephosphorylation play an important role in regulating activity and stability of PKCs. In the present study, ...

  10. Expression of a Gibberellin-Induced Leucine-Rich Repeat Receptor-Like Protein Kinase in Deepwater Rice and Its Interaction with Kinase-Associated Protein Phosphatase1

    van der Knaap, Esther; Song, Wen-Yuan; Ruan, De-Ling; Sauter, Margret; Ronald, Pamela C.; Kende, Hans


    We identified in deepwater rice (Oryza sativa L.) a gene encoding a leucine-rich repeat receptor-like transmembrane protein kinase, OsTMK (O. sativa transmembrane kinase). The transcript levels of OsTMK increased in the rice internode in response to gibberellin. Expression of OsTMK was especially high in regions undergoing cell division and elongation. The kinase domain of OsTMK was enzymatically active, autophosphorylating on serine and threonine residues. A cDNA encoding a rice ortholog of a kinase-associated type 2C protein phosphatase (OsKAPP) was cloned. KAPPs are putative downstream components in kinase-mediated signal transduction pathways. The kinase interaction domain of OsKAPP was phosphorylated in vitro by the kinase domain of OsTMK. RNA gel-blot analysis indicated that the expression of OsTMK and OsKAPP was similar in different tissues of the rice plant. In protein-binding assays, OsKAPP interacted with a receptor-like protein kinase, RLK5 of Arabidopsis, but not with the protein kinase domains of the rice and maize receptor-like protein kinases Xa21 and ZmPK1, respectively. PMID:10364408

  11. Expression of a gibberellin-induced leucine-rich repeat receptor-like protein kinase in deepwater rice and its interaction with kinase-associated protein phosphatase

    Knaap, E. van der; Sauter, M.; Kende, H. (Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). DOE Plant Research Lab.); Song, W.Y.; Ruan, D.L.; Ronald, P.C. (Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Plant Pathology)


    The authors identified in deepwater rice (Oryza sativa L.) a gene encoding a leucine-rich repeat receptor-like transmembrane protein kinase, OsTMK (O. sativa transmembrane kinase). The transcript levels of OsTMK increased in the rice internode in response to gibberellin. Expression of OsTMK was especially high in regions undergoing cell division and elongation. The kinase domain of OsTMK was enzymatically active autophosphorylating on serine and threonine residues. A cDNA encoding a rice ortholog of a kinase-associated type 2C protein phosphatase (OsKAPP) was cloned. KAPPs are putative downstream components in kinase-mediated signal transduction pathways. The kinase interaction domain of OsKAPP was phosphorylated in vitro by the kinase domain of OsTMK. RNA gel-blot analysis indicated that the expression of OsTMK and OsKAPP was similar in different tissues of the rice plant. In protein-binding assays, OsKAPP interacted with a receptor-like protein kinase, RLK5 of Arabidopsis, but not with the protein kinase domains of the rice and maize receptor-like protein kinases Xa21 and ZmPK1, respectively.

  12. Tumor suppressor protein C53 antagonizes checkpoint kinases to promote cyclin-dependent kinase 1 activation

    Hai Jiang; Jianchun Wu; Chen He; Wending Yang; Honglin Li


    Cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1)/cyclin B1 complex is the driving force for mitotic entry, and its activation is tightly regulated by the G2/M checkpoint. We originally reported that a novel protein C53 (also known as Cdk5rap3 and LZAP) potentiates DNA damage-induced cell death by modulating the G2/M checkpoint. More recently, Wang et al. (2007) found that C53/LZAP may function as a tumor suppressor by way of inhibiting NF-kB signaling. We report here the identification of C53 protein as a novel regulator of Cdk1 activation. We found that knockdown of C53 protein causes delayed Cdkl activation and mitotic entry. During DNA damage response, activation of checkpoint kinase 1 and 2 (Chk1 and Chk2) is partially inhibited by C53 overexpression. Intriguingly, we found that C53 interacts with Chkl and antagonizes its function. Moreover, a portion of C53 protein is localized at the centrosome, and centrosome-targeting C53 potently promotes local Cdk1 activation. Taken together, our results strongly suggest that C53 is a novel negative regulator of checkpoint response. By counteracting Chk1, C53 promotes Cdk1 activation and mitotic entry in both unperturbed cell-cycle progression and DNA damage response.

  13. Studies on the Differential Specificity of Protein Kinases and Its Applications

    Loog, Mart


    Protein kinases are enzymes that catalyse the phosphoryl transfer from the g-phosphate of ATP to acceptor amino acids in proteins. The specificity of selected model protein kinases was studied at three different levels using a) novel bi-substrate-analogue inhibitors, b) synthetic peptide substrates and c) mutated protein substrate analogues. A new class of protein kinase bi-substrate-analogue inhibitors was designed on the basis of adenosine-5’-carboxylic acid derivatives, where a short argi...

  14. A Quantitative Mass Spectrometry-based Approach for Identifying Protein Kinase-Clients and Quantifying Kinase Activity

    The Homo sapiens and Arabidopsis thaliana genomes are believed to encode >500 and >1,000 protein kinases, respectively. Despite this abundance, few bona fide kinase-client relationships have been described in detail. Mass spectrometry (MS)-based approaches have been integral to the large-scale mapp...

  15. Genome-wide identification and analysis of expression profiles of maize mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase.

    Xiangpei Kong

    Full Text Available Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK cascades are highly conserved signal transduction model in animals, yeast and plants. Plant MAPK cascades have been implicated in development and stress responses. Although MAPKKKs have been investigated in several plant species including Arabidopsis and rice, no systematic analysis has been conducted in maize. In this study, we performed a bioinformatics analysis of the entire maize genome and identified 74 MAPKKK genes. Phylogenetic analyses of MAPKKKs from maize, rice and Arabidopsis have classified them into three subgroups, which included Raf, ZIK and MEKK. Evolutionary relationships within subfamilies were also supported by exon-intron organizations and the conserved protein motifs. Further expression analysis of the MAPKKKs in microarray databases revealed that MAPKKKs were involved in important signaling pathways in maize different organs and developmental stages. Our genomics analysis of maize MAPKKK genes provides important information for evolutionary and functional characterization of this family in maize.

  16. Benzoselendiazole-based responsive long-lifetime photoluminiscent probes for protein kinases

    Ekambaram, R; Enkvist, E; Manoharan, GB;


    Benzoselenadiazole-containing inhibitors of protein kinases were constructed and their capability to emit phosphorescence in the kinase-bound state was established. Labelling of the inhibitors with a red fluorescent dye led to sensitive responsive photoluminescent probes for protein kinase CK2 that...

  17. GTP plus water mimic ATP in the active site of protein kinase CK2

    Niefind, K; Pütter, M; Guerra, B;


    The structures of the catalytic subunit of protein kinase CK2 from Zea mays complexed with Mg2+ and with analogs of ATP or GTP were determined to 2.2 A resolution. Unlike most other protein kinases, CK2 from various sources shows 'dual-cosubstrate specificity', that is, the ability to efficiently...... target CK2 or other kinases with this property....

  18. Nicotine reward and affective nicotine withdrawal signs are attenuated in calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV knockout mice.

    Kia J Jackson

    Full Text Available The influx of Ca(2+ through calcium-permeable nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs leads to activation of various downstream processes that may be relevant to nicotine-mediated behaviors. The calcium activated protein, calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV (CaMKIV phosphorylates the downstream transcription factor cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB, which mediates nicotine responses; however the role of CaMKIV in nicotine dependence is unknown. Given the proposed role of CaMKIV in CREB activation, we hypothesized that CaMKIV might be a crucial molecular component in the development of nicotine dependence. Using male CaMKIV genetically modified mice, we found that nicotine reward is attenuated in CaMKIV knockout (-/- mice, but cocaine reward is enhanced in these mice. CaMKIV protein levels were also increased in the nucleus accumbens of C57Bl/6 mice after nicotine reward. In a nicotine withdrawal assessment, anxiety-related behavior, but not somatic signs or the hyperalgesia response are attenuated in CaMKIV -/- mice. To complement our animal studies, we also conducted a human genetic association analysis and found that variants in the CaMKIV gene are associated with a protective effect against nicotine dependence. Taken together, our results support an important role for CaMKIV in nicotine reward, and suggest that CaMKIV has opposing roles in nicotine and cocaine reward. Further, CaMKIV mediates affective, but not physical nicotine withdrawal signs, and has a protective effect against nicotine dependence in human genetic association studies. These findings further indicate the importance of calcium-dependent mechanisms in mediating behaviors associated with drugs of abuse.

  19. Presenilin dependence of phospholipase C and protein kinase C signaling

    Dehvari, Nodi; Cedazo-Minguez, Angel; Isacsson, Ola;


    -stimulated phospholipase C (PLC) activity which was gamma-secretase dependent. To further evaluate the dependence of PLC on PSs we measured PLC activity and the activation of variant protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) lacking either PS1, PS2, or both. PLC activity and PKCalpha and......Presenilins (PSs) are involved in processing several proteins such as the amyloid precursor protein (APP), as well as in pathways for cell death and survival. We previously showed that some familial Alzheimer's disease PS mutations cause increased basal and acetylcholine muscarinic receptor...... PKCgamma activations were significantly lower in PS1 and PS2 double knockout MEFs after PLC stimulation. Protein levels of PKCalpha and PKCgamma were lower in PS1 and PS2 double knockout MEFs. In contrast, PKCdelta levels were significantly elevated in PS1 and PS2 double knockout as well as in PS1 knockout...

  20. Diacylglycerol kinase regulation of protein kinase D during oxidative stress-induced intestinal cell injury

    We recently demonstrated that protein kinase D (PKD) exerts a protective function during oxidative stress-induced intestinal epithelial cell injury; however, the exact role of DAG kinase (DGK)ζ, an isoform expressed in intestine, during this process is unknown. We sought to determine the role of DGK during oxidative stress-induced intestinal cell injury and whether DGK acts as an upstream regulator of PKD. Inhibition of DGK with R59022 compound or DGKζ siRNA transfection decreased H2O2-induced RIE-1 cell apoptosis as measured by DNA fragmentation and increased PKD phosphorylation. Overexpression of kinase-dead DGKζ also significantly increased PKD phosphorylation. Additionally, endogenous nuclear DGKζ rapidly translocated to the cytoplasm following H2O2 treatment. Our findings demonstrate that DGK is involved in the regulation of oxidative stress-induced intestinal cell injury. PKD activation is induced by DGKζ, suggesting DGK is an upstream regulator of oxidative stress-induced activation of the PKD signaling pathway in intestinal epithelial cells

  1. Stimulation of the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase-catalyzed phosphorylation of phosphorylase kinase by micromolar concentrations of spermine

    The phosphorylation of phosphorylase kinase by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (A-kinase) is stimulated approximately 2-fold by spermine and spermidine. Half maximal effects were observed at 10 microM and 150 microM of spermine and spermidine, respectively. The phosphorylations of other substrates of A-kinase such as glycogen synthase, histone, and casein are not stimulated by these two polyamines. The rates, but not the final extents, of phosphorylation of both the alpha and beta subunits of phosphorylase kinase by A-kinase are stimulated by spermine. The results indicate that spermine and spermidine may play an important role in the activation of glycogenolysis in skeletal muscle

  2. Interactions of protein kinase CK2beta subunit within the holoenzyme and with other proteins

    Kusk, M; Ahmed, R; Thomsen, B;


    Protein kinase CK2 is a ubiquitous, highly conserved protein kinase with a tetrameric alpha2beta2 structure. For the formation of this tetrameric complex a beta-alpha dimer seems to be a prerequisite. Using the two-hybrid system and a series of CK2beta deletion mutants, we mapped domains involved...... in alpha-beta and beta-beta interactions. We also detected an intramolecular beta interaction within the amino acid stretch 132-165. Using CK2beta as a bait in a two-hybrid library screening several new putative cellular partners have been identified, among them the S6 kinase p90rsk, the putative...... tumor suppressor protein Doc-1, the Fas-associated protein FAF1, the mitochondrial translational initiation factor 2 and propionyl CoA carboxylase beta subunit....

  3. Depletion of WRN protein causes RACK1 to activate several protein kinase C isoforms

    Massip, L; Garand, C; Labbé, A;


    show that a knock down of the WRN protein in normal human fibroblasts induces phosphorylation and activation of several protein kinase C (PKC) enzymes. Using a tandem affinity purification strategy, we found that WRN physically and functionally interacts with receptor for activated C-kinase 1 (RACK1...... contrast, different DNA-damaging treatments known to activate PKCs did not induce RACK1/PKCs association in cells. Overall, our results indicate that a depletion of the WRN protein in normal fibroblasts causes the activation of several PKCs through translocation and association of RACK1 with such kinases.......Werner's syndrome (WS) is a rare autosomal disease characterized by the premature onset of several age-associated pathologies. The protein defective in patients with WS (WRN) is a helicase/exonuclease involved in DNA repair, replication, transcription and telomere maintenance. In this study, we...

  4. Phosphorylation of Human Choline Kinase Beta by Protein Kinase A: Its Impact on Activity and Inhibition

    Chang, Ching Ching; Few, Ling Ling; Konrad, Manfred; See Too, Wei Cun


    Choline kinase beta (CKβ) is one of the CK isozymes involved in the biosynthesis of phosphatidylcholine. CKβ is important for normal mitochondrial function and muscle development as the lack of the ckβ gene in human and mice results in the development of muscular dystrophy. In contrast, CKα is implicated in tumorigenesis and has been extensively studied as an anticancer target. Phosphorylation of human CKα was found to regulate the enzyme’s activity and its subcellular location. This study provides evidence for CKβ phosphorylation by protein kinase A (PKA). In vitro phosphorylation of CKβ by PKA was first detected by phosphoprotein staining, as well as by in-gel kinase assays. The phosphorylating kinase was identified as PKA by Western blotting. CKβ phosphorylation by MCF-7 cell lysate was inhibited by a PKA-specific inhibitor peptide, and the intracellular phosphorylation of CKβ was shown to be regulated by the level of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), a PKA activator. Phosphorylation sites were located on CKβ residues serine-39 and serine-40 as determined by mass spectrometry and site-directed mutagenesis. Phosphorylation increased the catalytic efficiencies for the substrates choline and ATP about 2-fold, without affecting ethanolamine phosphorylation, and the S39D/S40D CKβ phosphorylation mimic behaved kinetically very similar. Remarkably, phosphorylation drastically increased the sensitivity of CKβ to hemicholinium-3 (HC-3) inhibition by about 30-fold. These findings suggest that CKβ, in concert with CKα, and depending on its phosphorylation status, might play a critical role as a druggable target in carcinogenesis. PMID:27149373

  5. Phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent protein kinase from skeletal muscle

    Soluble extracts of skeletal muscle from rat, rabbit and hamster when incubated with 0.1 mM [32P]phosphoenolpyruvate give rise to a similar set of phosphoproteins as resolved by SDS-PAGE with Mr 25,000, 35,000, 37,000, 43,000 and 59,000. The phosphorylation of these proteins is neither inhibited by excess ATP nor achieved by incubation with [γ-32P]ATP. Except for the Mr 43,000 phosphoprotein, the phosphorylation of the other proteins dramatically increased in the presence of 0.1 mM CTP. Although phosphatase inhibits such as NaF and PPi were not effective, CTP may act to inhibit phosphatase activity rather than activating a protein kinase. The phosphoamino acids produced in these phosphoproteins were acid stable and only phosphoserine has been routinely identified. Using DEAE-cellulose, CM-Sephadex and Ultrogel AcA44 chromatography, the Mr 37,000 phosphoprotein has been purified from rabbit skeletal muscle to near homogeneity. No physiological role for either the protein kinase or its substrates has yet been found



    Objective: To survey the role of protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) in the pathogenesis of several hematopoietic malignancies. Methods: By reviewing the published laboratory and clinical studies on PTK-related oncoproteins and their causative role in some leukemias and lymphomas. Results: Protein tyrosine kinases are key participants in signal transduction pathways that regulate cellular growth, activation and differentiations. Aberrant PTK activity resulting from gene mutation (often accompanying chromosome translocation) plays an etiologic role in several clonal hematopoietic malignancies. For example, the PTK product of the BCR-ABL fusion gene resulting from the t (9; 22) translocation exhibits several fold higher tyrosine kinase activity than the product of the ABL gene. Evidence suggests that the BCR-ABL oncoprotein alone is sufficient to case chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) and other Ph positive acute leukemia. PTK over-activity resulting from chromosomal translocations creating TEL-ABL, TEL-JAK2 and TEL-PDGFR( fusion proteins plays an important role in the pathogenesis of other types of leukemia. Another example occurs in anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL). Experimental and clinical evidences indicate that translocations involving ALK gene on chromosome 2p23, most commonly resulting in an NPM-ALK fusion oncogene, result in constitutive activation of ALK and cause ALCL. This group of lymphomas is now named ALK positive lymphoma or ALKoma. Conclusion: Genetic lesions creating aberrant fusion proteins that result in excessive PTK activity are increasingly being recognized as central to the pathogenesis of hemotopoietic malignancies. These chimeric PTK molecules represent attractive disease-specific targets against which new classes therapeutic agents are being developed.

  7. Toward the rational design of protein kinase casein kinase-2 inhibitors.

    Sarno, Stefania; Moro, Stefano; Meggio, Flavio; Zagotto, Giuseppe; Dal Ben, Diego; Ghisellini, Paola; Battistutta, Roberto; Zanotti, Giuseppe; Pinna, Lorenzo A


    Casein kinase-2 (CK2) probably is the most pleiotropic member of the protein kinase family, with more than 200 substrates known to date. Unlike the great majority of protein kinases, which are tightly regulated enzymes, CK2 is endowed with high constitutive activity, a feature that is suspected to underlie its oncogenic potential and possible implication in viral infections. This makes CK2 an attractive target for anti-neoplastic and antiviral drugs. Here, we present an overview of our present knowledge about CK2 inhibitors, with special reference to the information drawn from two recently solved crystal structures of CK2alpha in complex with emodin and with 4,5,6,7-tetrabromo-2-azabenzimidazole (TBB), this latter being the most specific CK2 inhibitor known to date. A comparison with a series of anthraquinone and xanthenone derivatives highlights the crucial relevance of the hydroxyl group at position 3 for inhibition by emodin, and discloses the possibility of increasing the inhibitory potency by placing an electron withdrawing group at position 5. We also present mutational data corroborating the relevance of two hydrophobic residues unique to CK2, Val66 and Ile174, for the interactions with emodin and TBB, but not with the flavonoid inhibitors quercetin and fisetin. In particular, the CK2alpha mutant V66A displays 27- and 11-fold higher IC(50) values with emodin and TBB, respectively, as compared with the wild-type, while the IC(50) value with quercetin is unchanged. The data presented pave the road toward the rational design of more potent and selective inhibitors of CK2 and the generation of CK2 mutants refractory to inhibition, useful to probe the implication of CK2 in specific cellular functions. PMID:12191608

  8. Phylogeny of plant calcium and calmodulin-dependent protein kinases (CCaMKs and functional analyses of tomato CCaMK in disease resistance

    Ji-Peng eWang


    Full Text Available Calcium and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CCaMK is a member of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase superfamily and is essential to microbe- plant symbiosis. To date, the distribution of CCaMK gene in plants has not yet been completely understood, and its function in plant disease resistance remains unclear. In this study, we systemically identified the CCaMK genes in genomes of 44 plant species in Phytozome and analyzed the function of tomato CCaMK (SlCCaMK in resistance to various pathogens. CCaMKs in 18 additional plant species were identified, yet the absence of CCaMK gene in green algae and cruciferous species was confirmed. Sequence analysis of full-length CCaMK proteins from 44 plant species demonstrated that plant CCaMKs are highly conserved across all domains. Most of the important regulatory amino acids are conserved throughout all sequences, with the only notable exception being observed in N-terminal autophosphorylation site corresponding to Ser 9 in the Medicago truncatula CCaMK. CCaMK gene structures are similar, mostly containing six introns with a phase profile of 200200 and the exception was only noticed at the first exons. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that CCaMK lineage is likely to have diverged early from a calcium-dependent protein kinase (CDPK gene in the ancestor of all nonvascular plant species. The SlCCaMK gene was widely and differently responsive to diverse pathogenic stimuli. Furthermore, knock-down of SlCCaMK reduced tomato resistance to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst DC3000 and decreased H2O2 accumulation in response to Pst DC3000 inoculation. Our results reveal that SlCCaMK positively regulates disease resistance in tomato via promoting H2O2 accumulation. SlCCaMK is the first CCaMK gene proved to function in plant disease resistance.

  9. Modulation of the protein kinase activity of mTOR.

    Lawrence, J C; Lin, T A; McMahon, L P; Choi, K M


    mTOR is a founding member of a family of protein kinases having catalytic domains homologous to those in phosphatidylinositol 3-OH kinase. mTOR participates in the control by insulin of the phosphorylation of lipin, which is required for adipocyte differentiation, and the two translational regulators, p70S6K and PHAS-I. The phosphorylation of mTOR, itself, is stimulated by insulin in Ser2448, a site that is also phosphorylated by protein kinase B (PKB) in vitro and in response to activation of PKB activity in vivo. Ser2448 is located in a short stretch of amino acids not found in the two TOR proteins in yeast. A mutant mTOR lacking this stretch exhibited increased activity, and binding of the antibody, mTAb-1, to this region markedly increased mTOR activity. In contrast, rapamycin-FKBP12 inhibited mTOR activity towards both PHAS-I and p70S6K, although this complex inhibited the phosphorylation of some sites more than that of others. Mutating Ser2035 to Ile in the FKBP12-rapamycin binding domain rendered mTOR resistant to inhibition by rapamycin. Unexpectedly, this mutation markedly decreased the ability of mTOR to phosphorylate certain sites in both PHAS-I and p70S6K. The results support the hypotheses that rapamycin disrupts substrate recognition instead of directly inhibiting phosphotransferase activity and that mTOR activity in cells is controlled by the phosphorylation of an inhibitory regulatory domain containing the mTAb-1 epitope. PMID:14560959

  10. Arabidopsis Yak1 protein (AtYak1) is a dual specificity protein kinase

    Kim, Dongjin


    Yak1 is a member of dual-specificity Tyr phosphorylation-regulated kinases (DYRKs) that are evolutionarily conserved. The downstream targets of Yak1 and their functions are largely unknown. Here, a homologous protein AtYAK1 was identified in Arabidopsis thaliana and the phosphoprotein profiles of the wild type and an atyak1 mutant were compared on two-dimensional gel following Pro-Q Diamond phosphoprotein gel staining. Annexin1, Annexin2 and RBD were phosphorylated at serine/ threonine residues by the AtYak1 kinase. Annexin1, Annexin2 and Annexin4 were also phosphorylated at tyrosine residues. Our study demonstrated that AtYak1 is a dual specificity protein kinase in Arabidopsis that may regulate the phosphorylation status of the annexin family proteins.

  11. Casein kinase II protein kinase is bound to lamina-matrix and phosphorylates lamin-like protein in isolated pea nuclei

    Li, H.; Roux, S. J.


    A casein kinase II (CK II)-like protein kinase was identified and partially isolated from a purified envelope-matrix fraction of pea (Pisum sativum L.) nuclei. When [gamma-32P]ATP was directly added to the envelope-matrix preparation, the three most heavily labeled protein bands had molecular masses near 71, 48, and 46 kDa. Protein kinases were removed from the preparation by sequential extraction with Triton X-100, EGTA, 0.3 M NaCl, and a pH 10.5 buffer, but an active kinase still remained bound to the remaining lamina-matrix fraction after these treatments. This kinase had properties resembling CK II kinases previously characterized from animal and plant sources: it preferred casein as an artificial substrate, could use GTP as efficiently as ATP as the phosphoryl donor, was stimulated by spermine, was calcium independent, and had a catalytic subunit of 36 kDa. Some animal and plant CK II kinases have regulatory subunits near 29 kDa, and a lamina-matrix-bound protein of this molecular mass was recognized on immunoblot by anti-Drosophila CK II polyclonal antibodies. Also found associated with the envelope-matrix fraction of pea nuclei were p34cdc2-like and Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinases, but their properties could not account for the protein kinase activity bound to the lamina. The 71-kDa substrate of the CK II-like kinase was lamin A-like, both in its molecular mass and in its cross-reactivity with anti-intermediate filament antibodies. Lamin phosphorylation is considered a crucial early step in the entry of cells into mitosis, so lamina-bound CK II kinases may be important control points for cellular proliferation.

  12. Subtype activation and interaction of protein kinase C and mitogen-activated protein kinase controlling receptor expression in cerebral arteries and microvessels after subarachnoid hemorrhage

    Ansar, Saema; Edvinsson, Lars


    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The pathogenesis of cerebral ischemia associated with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) still remains elusive. The aim of this study was to examine the involvement of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and protein kinase C (PKC) subtypes in the pathophysiology of cerebral...... ischemia after SAH in cerebral arteries and microvessels and to examine temporal activation of the kinases. We hypothesize that treatment with a MAPK or PKC inhibitor will prevent the SAH-induced kinase activation in brain vessels. METHODS: SAH was induced by injecting 250 microL blood into the......: Among the 8 investigated PKC isoforms, only PKC delta was activated at 1 hour and at 48 hours, whereas PKC alpha was activated at 48 hours after SAH. For the MAPKs, there was early phosphorylation at 1 hour of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, whereas c-jun N-terminal kinase and p38 showed...

  13. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase 3 Regulates Seed Dormancy in Barley.

    Nakamura, Shingo; Pourkheirandish, Mohammad; Morishige, Hiromi; Kubo, Yuta; Nakamura, Masako; Ichimura, Kazuya; Seo, Shigemi; Kanamori, Hiroyuki; Wu, Jianzhong; Ando, Tsuyu; Hensel, Goetz; Sameri, Mohammad; Stein, Nils; Sato, Kazuhiro; Matsumoto, Takashi; Yano, Masahiro; Komatsuda, Takao


    Seed dormancy has fundamental importance in plant survival and crop production; however, the mechanisms regulating dormancy remain unclear [1-3]. Seed dormancy levels generally decrease during domestication to ensure that crops successfully germinate in the field. However, reduction of seed dormancy can cause devastating losses in cereals like wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) due to pre-harvest sprouting, the germination of mature seed (grain) on the mother plant when rain occurs before harvest. Understanding the mechanisms of dormancy can facilitate breeding of crop varieties with the appropriate levels of seed dormancy [4-8]. Barley is a model crop [9, 10] and has two major seed dormancy quantitative trait loci (QTLs), SD1 and SD2, on chromosome 5H [11-19]. We detected a QTL designated Qsd2-AK at SD2 as the single major determinant explaining the difference in seed dormancy between the dormant cultivar "Azumamugi" (Az) and the non-dormant cultivar "Kanto Nakate Gold" (KNG). Using map-based cloning, we identified the causal gene for Qsd2-AK as Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase Kinase 3 (MKK3). The dormant Az allele of MKK3 is recessive; the N260T substitution in this allele decreases MKK3 kinase activity and appears to be causal for Qsd2-AK. The N260T substitution occurred in the immediate ancestor allele of the dormant allele, and the established dormant allele became prevalent in barley cultivars grown in East Asia, where the rainy season and harvest season often overlap. Our findings show fine-tuning of seed dormancy during domestication and provide key information for improving pre-harvest sprouting tolerance in barley and wheat. PMID:26948880

  14. Tissue-dependent regulation of protein tyrosine kinase activity during embryonic development


    Protein tyrosine kinase activity was assayed in a variety of chicken tissues during embryonic development and in the adult. In some tissues protein tyrosine kinase activity decreased during embryonic development; however, in other tissues it remained high throughout development, it contrast to the level of protein tyrosine phosphorylation, which decreased during development. The highest levels of tyrosine kinase activity were detected in 17-d embryonic brain although only low levels of protei...


    Neurons display characteristic schedules by which they acquire and lose the neuron-specific Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein Kinase-Gr (CaM Kinase-Gr) during differentiation. uch schedules are exemplified by patterns of expression of this kinase in the developing cerebellum and ...

  16. First inactive conformation of CK2 alpha, the catalytic subunit of protein kinase CK2

    Raaf, Jennifer; Issinger, Olaf-Georg; Niefind, Karsten


    The Ser/Thr kinase casein kinase 2 (CK2) is a heterotetrameric enzyme composed of two catalytic chains (CK2alpha, catalytic subunit of CK2) attached to a dimer of two noncatalytic subunits (CK2beta, noncatalytic subunit of CK2). CK2alpha belongs to the superfamily of eukaryotic protein kinases...

  17. Regulation of AMP-activated protein kinase by LKB1 and CaMKK in adipocytes

    Gormand, Amélie; Henriksson, Emma; Ström, Kristoffer;


    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a serine/threonine kinase that regulates cellular and whole body energy homeostasis. In adipose tissue, activation of AMPK has been demonstrated in response to a variety of extracellular stimuli. However, the upstream kinase that activates AMPK in adipocytes...

  18. Asymmetric expression of protein kinase CK2 subunits in human kidney tumors

    Stalter, G; Siemer, S; Becht, E; Ziegler, M; Remberger, K; Issinger, O G


    of protein kinase CK2 alpha in tumors/normal tissue (T/N) was 1.58 and that of the protein kinase CK2 beta (T/N) was 2.65. The data suggest that the generally described increase in protein kinase CK2 activity in tumor cells may to some extent result from a deregulation in subunit biosynthesis or...... degradation. This at least partly owing to the presence of excess enzymatically active protein kinase alpha-subunit but also to a significantly higher presence of the non-catalytic beta-subunit....

  19. Association of Common Genetic Variants in Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase Kinase Kinase Kinase 4 with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in a Chinese Han Population

    Ting-Ting Li; Hong Qiao; Hui-Xin Tong; Tian-Wei Zhuang; Tong-Tong Wang


    Background:A study has identified several novel susceptibility variants of the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase kinase 4 (MAP4K4) gene for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) within the German population.Among the variants,five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of MAP4K4 (rs1003376,rs11674694,rs2236935,rs2236936,and rs6543087) showed significant association with T2DM or diabetes-related quantitative traits.We aimed to evaluate whether common SNPs in the MAP4K4 gene were associated with T2DM in the Chinese population.Methods:Five candidate SNPs were genotyped in 996 patients newly diagnosed with T2DM and in 976 control subjects,using the SNPscanTM method.All subjects were recruited from the Second Affiliated Hospital,Harbin Medical University from October 2010 to September 2013.We evaluated the T2DM risk conferred by individual SNPs and haplotypes using logistic analysis,and the association between the five SNPs and metabolic traits in the subgroups.Results:Of the five variants,SNP rs2236935T/C was significantly associated with T2DM in this study population (odds ratio =1.293;95% confidence interval:1.034-1.619,P =0.025).In addition,among the controls,rs 1003376 was significantly associated with an increased body mass index (P =0.045) and homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance (P =0.037).Conclusions:MAP4K4 gene is associated with T2DM in a Chinese Han population,and MAP4K4 gene variants may contribute to the risk toward the development of T2DM.

  20. Induction and phosphorylation of protein kinase C-α and mitogen-activated protein kinase by hypoxia and by radiation in Chinese hamster V79 cells

    Protein kinase C (PKC) and mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase are protein-serine/threonine kinases which are important regulators of diverse cellular processes including metabolism, proliferation and differentiation. This study shows that both hypoxia and X irradiation of serum-deprived Chinese hamster V79 cells cause the induction and phosphorylation of the PKC-α isoform. The increased induction and phosphorylation of PKC occur mainly in the nuclear fraction. Unlike the PKC activator TPA, neither hypoxic nor radiation stress causes translocation of PKC-α from the cytosol to the membrane. The induction of PKC-α by hypoxia is accompanied by an increased expression of MAP kinase but, in contrast, this does not occur when PKC-α is induced by radiation. Radiation, like TPA, causes a complete redistribution of MAP kinase from the cytosol to the nucleus. 28 refs., 7 figs

  1. Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase is not involved in hypothalamic AMP-activated protein kinase activation by neuroglucopenia.

    Junji Kawashima

    Full Text Available Hypoglycemia and neuroglucopenia stimulate AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK activity in the hypothalamus and this plays an important role in the counterregulatory responses, i.e. increased food intake and secretion of glucagon, corticosterone and catecholamines. Several upstream kinases that activate AMPK have been identified including Ca(2+/Calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase (CaMKK, which is highly expressed in neurons. However, the involvement of CaMKK in neuroglucopenia-induced activation of AMPK in the hypothalamus has not been tested. To determine whether neuroglucopenia-induced AMPK activation is mediated by CaMKK, we tested whether STO-609 (STO, a CaMKK inhibitor, would block the effects of 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2DG-induced neuroglucopenia both ex vivo on brain sections and in vivo. Preincubation of rat brain sections with STO blocked KCl-induced α1 and α2-AMPK activation but did not affect AMPK activation by 2DG in the medio-basal hypothalamus. To confirm these findings in vivo, STO was pre-administrated intracerebroventricularly (ICV in rats 30 min before 2DG ICV injection (40 µmol to induce neuroglucopenia. 2DG-induced neuroglucopenia lead to a significant increase in glycemia and food intake compared to saline-injected control rats. ICV pre-administration of STO (5, 20 or 50 nmol did not affect 2DG-induced hyperglycemia and food intake. Importantly, activation of hypothalamic α1 and α2-AMPK by 2DG was not affected by ICV pre-administration of STO. In conclusion, activation of hypothalamic AMPK by 2DG-induced neuroglucopenia is not mediated by CaMKK.

  2. Structure of Human G Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinase 2 in Complex with the Kinase Inhibitor Balanol

    Tesmer, John J.G.; Tesmer, Valerie M.; Lodowski, David T.; Steinhagen, Henning; Huber, Jochen (Sanofi); (Michigan); (Texas)


    G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) is a pharmaceutical target for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases such as congestive heart failure, myocardial infarction, and hypertension. To better understand how nanomolar inhibition and selectivity for GRK2 might be achieved, we have determined crystal structures of human GRK2 in complex with G{beta}{gamma} in the presence and absence of the AGC kinase inhibitor balanol. The selectivity of balanol among human GRKs is assessed.

  3. Effect of protein kinase inhibitors on protein phosphorylation and germination of aerial spores from Streptomyces coelicolor.

    Palecková, P; Kontrová, F; Kofronová, O; Bobek, J; Benada, O; Mikulík, K


    In vitro phosphorylation reaction using extracts prepared from cells in the exponential phase of growth and aerial spores of Streptomyces coelicolor displayed the presence of multiply phosphorylated proteins. Effect of protein kinase inhibitors (PKIs) (geldanamycin, wortmannin, apigenin, genistein, roscovitine, methyl 2,5-dihydroxycinnamate, rapamycin, staurosporine) was determined on protein phosphorylation and on germination of spores. The in vitro experiments showed differences in phosphoprotein pattern due to the presence of PKIs. Cultivation of aerial spores with PKIs led to a significant delay in germ tube emergence and filament formation. However, none of the tested PKIs completely blocked the germination process. These results indicate that protein kinases of spores form complex networks sharing common modulating site that plays an important role in proper timing of early developmental events. PMID:17702458

  4. Telencephalin protects PAJU cells from amyloid beta protein-induced apoptosis by activating the ezrin/radixin/moesin protein family/phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/protein kinase B pathway

    Heping Yang; Dapeng Wu; Xiaojie Zhang; Xiang Wang; Yi Peng; Zhiping Hu


    Telencephalin is a neural glycoprotein that reduces apoptosis induced by amyloid beta protein in the human neural tumor cell line PAJU.In this study,we examined the role of the ezrin/radixin/moesin protein family/phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/protein kinase B pathway in this process.Western blot analysis demonstrated that telencephalin,phosphorylated ezrin/radixin/moesin and phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/protein kinase B were not expressed in PAJU cells transfected with empty plasmid,while they were expressed in PAJU cells transfected with a telencephalin expression plasmid.After treatment with 1.0 nM amyloid beta protein 42,expression of telencephalin and phosphorylated phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/protein kinase B in the transfected cells gradually diminished,while levels of phosphorylated ezrin/radixin/moesin increased.In addition,the high levels of telencephalin,phosphorylated ezrin/radixin/moesin and phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/protein kinase B expression in PAJU cells transfected with a telencephalin expression plasmid could be suppressed by the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase inhibitor LY294002.These findings indicate that telencephalin activates the ezrin/radixin/moesin family/phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/protein kinase B pathway and protects PAJU cells from amyloid beta protein-induced apoptosis.

  5. Conformational Dependence of a Protein Kinase Phosphate Transfer Reaction

    Henkelman, Graeme; Tung, Chang-Shung; Fenimore,, P W; McMahon, Benjamin H


    Atomic motions and energetics for a phosphate transfer reaction catalyzed by the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) are calculated by plane-wave density functional theory, starting from structures of proteins crystallized in both the reactant conformation (RC) and the transition-state conformation (TC). In the TC, we calculate that the reactants and products are nearly isoenergetic with a 0.2 eV barrier; while phosphate transfer is unfavorable by over 1.2 eV in the RC, with an even higher barrier. With the protein in the TC, the motions involved in reaction are small, with only P$_\\gamma$ and the catalytic proton moving more than 0.5 \\AA. Examination of the structures reveals that in the RC the active site cleft is not completely closed and there is insufficient space for the phosphorylated serine residue in the product state. Together, these observations imply that the phosphate transfer reaction occurs rapidly and reversibly in a particular conformation of the protein, and that the reaction can be gated by...

  6. Protein kinase and phosphatase activities of thylakoid membranes

    Dephosphorylation of the 25 and 27 kDa light-harvesting Chl a/b proteins (LHCII) of the thylakoid membranes is catalyzed by a phosphatase which differs from previously reported thylakoid-bound phosphatases in having an alkaline pH optimum (9.0) and a requirement for Mg2+ ions. Dephosphorylation of the 8.3 kDa psb H gene product requires a Mg2+ ion concentration more than 200 fold higher than that for dephosphorylation of LHC II. The 8.3 kDa and 27 kDa proteins appear to be phosphorylated by two distinct kinases, which differ in substrate specificity and sensitivity to inhibitors. The plastoquinone antagonist 2,5-dibromo-3-methyl-6-isopropyl-benzoquinone (DBMIB) inhibits phosphorylation of the 27 kDa LHC II much more readily than phosphorylation of the 8.3 kDa protein. A similar pattern of inhibition is seen for two synthetic oligopeptides (MRKSATTKKAVC and ATQTLESSSRC) which are analogs of the phosphorylation sites of the two proteins. Possible modes of action of DBMIB are discussed. 45 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs

  7. Elevated Aurora Kinase A Protein Expression in Diabetic Skin Tissue

    Cho, Moon Kyun; An, Je Min; Kang, Sang Gue


    Background Aurora kinase A (Aurora-A) plays an important role in the regulation of mitosis and cytokinesis. Dysregulated Aurora-A leads to mitotic faults and results in pathological conditions. No studies on Aurora-A expression in human diabetic skin tissue have been reported. In light of this, we explored the expression of Aurora-A in human diabetic skin tissue. Methods Aurora-A protein was evaluated by western blotting in 6 human diabetic skin tissue and 6 normal skin specimens. Results Increased expression of Aurora-A protein was detected in all diabetic skin tissue samples in both western blot analysis and immunohistochemical staining. However, in the case of the normal skin tissue, no bands of Aurora-A protein were detected in either the western blotting analysis or the immunohistochemical staining. Conclusions Thus far, there have been no studies on the expression of Aurora-A in diabetic skin tissue. However, we believe that oxidative DNA damage related to the expression of Aurora-A protein and Aurora-A could be involved inhuman diabetic skin tissue. PMID:24511492

  8. Phosphorylation of TCF Proteins by Homeodomain-interacting Protein Kinase 2*

    Hikasa, Hiroki; Sokol, Sergei Y.


    Wnt pathways play essential roles in cell proliferation, morphogenesis, and cell fate specification during embryonic development. According to the consensus view, the Wnt pathway prevents the degradation of the key signaling component β-catenin by the protein complex containing the negative regulators Axin and glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3). Stabilized β-catenin associates with TCF proteins and enters the nucleus to promote target gene expression. This study examines the involvement of HIP...

  9. Regulation of secretory transport by protein kinase D–mediated phosphorylation of the ceramide transfer protein

    Fugmann, Tim; Hausser, Angelika; Schöffler, Patrik; Schmid, Simone; Pfizenmaier, Klaus; Olayioye, Monilola A.


    Protein kinase D (PKD) has been identified as a crucial regulator of secretory transport at the trans-Golgi network (TGN). Recruitment and activation of PKD at the TGN is mediated by the lipid diacylglycerol, a pool of which is generated by sphingomyelin synthase from ceramide and phosphatidylcholine. The nonvesicular transfer of ceramide from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi complex is mediated by the lipid transfer protein CERT (ceramide transport). In this study, we identify CERT as ...

  10. Multistep Phosphorelay Proteins Transmit Oxidative Stress Signals to the Fission Yeast Stress-activated Protein Kinase

    Nguyen, Aaron Ngocky; Lee, Albert; Place, Warren; Shiozaki, Kazuhiro


    In response to oxidative stress, eukaryotic cells induce transcription of genes required for detoxification of oxidants. Here we present evidence that oxidative stress stimuli are transmitted by a multistep phosphorelay system to the Spc1/Sty1 stress-activated protein kinase in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. The fission yeast mpr1+ gene encodes a novel protein with a histidine-containing phosphotransfer domain homologous to the budding yeast Ypd1. Spc1 activation upon oxidative ...

  11. Identifying Human Kinase-Specific Protein Phosphorylation Sites by Integrating Heterogeneous Information from Various Sources

    Li, Tingting; Du, Pufeng; Xu, Nanfang


    Phosphorylation is an important type of protein post-translational modification. Identification of possible phosphorylation sites of a protein is important for understanding its functions. Unbiased screening for phosphorylation sites by in vitro or in vivo experiments is time consuming and expensive; in silico prediction can provide functional candidates and help narrow down the experimental efforts. Most of the existing prediction algorithms take only the polypeptide sequence around the phosphorylation sites into consideration. However, protein phosphorylation is a very complex biological process in vivo. The polypeptide sequences around the potential sites are not sufficient to determine the phosphorylation status of those residues. In the current work, we integrated various data sources such as protein functional domains, protein subcellular location and protein-protein interactions, along with the polypeptide sequences to predict protein phosphorylation sites. The heterogeneous information significantly boosted the prediction accuracy for some kinase families. To demonstrate potential application of our method, we scanned a set of human proteins and predicted putative phosphorylation sites for Cyclin-dependent kinases, Casein kinase 2, Glycogen synthase kinase 3, Mitogen-activated protein kinases, protein kinase A, and protein kinase C families (avaiable at The predicted phosphorylation sites can serve as candidates for further experimental validation. Our strategy may also be applicable for the in silico identification of other post-translational modification substrates. PMID:21085571

  12. Cross-phosphorylation of bacterial serine/threonine and tyrosine protein kinases on key regulatory residues

    Lei eShi


    Full Text Available Bacteria possess protein serine/threonine and tyrosine kinases which resemble eukaryal kinases in their capacity to phosphorylate multiple substrates. We hypothesized that the analogy might extend further, and bacterial kinases may also undergo mutual phosphorylation and activation, which is currently considered as a hallmark of eukaryal kinase networks. In order to test this hypothesis, we explored the capacity of all members of four different classes of serine/threonine and tyrosine kinases present in the firmicute model organism Bacillus subtilis to phosphorylate each other in vitro and interact with each other in vivo. The interactomics data suggested a high degree of connectivity among all types of kinases, while phosphorylation assays revealed equally wide-spread cross-phosphorylation events. Our findings suggest that the Hanks-type kinases PrkC, PrkD and YabT exhibit the highest capacity to phosphorylate other B. subtilis kinases, while the BY-kinase PtkA and the two-component-like kinases RsbW and SpoIIAB show the highest propensity to be phosphorylated by other kinases. Analysis of phosphorylated residues on several selected recipient kinases suggests that most cross-phosphorylation events concern key regulatory residues. Therefore, cross-phosphorylation events are very likely to influence the capacity of recipient kinases to phosphorylate substrates downstream in the signal transduction cascade. We therefore conclude that bacterial serine/threonine and tyrosine kinases probably engage in a network-type behavior previously described only in eukaryal cells.

  13. Probing plasma membrane microdomains in cowpea protoplasts using lipidated GFP-fusion proteins and multimode FRET microscopy.

    Vermeer, J.E.M.; Munster, van, B.C.; Vischer, N O; Gadella, Th.W.J.


    Multimode fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) microscopy was applied to study the plasma membrane organization using different lipidated green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion proteins co-expressed in cowpea protoplasts. Cyan fluorescent protein (CFP) was fused to the hyper variable region of a small maize GTPase (ROP7) and yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) was fused to the N-myristoylation motif of the calcium-dependent protein kinase 1 (LeCPK1) of tomato. Upon co-expressing in cowp...

  14. Contraction-associated translocation of protein kinase C in rat skeletal muscle

    Richter, Erik; Cleland, P J; Rattigan, S;


    Electrical stimulation of the sciatic nerve of the anaesthetized rat in vivo led to a time-dependent translocation of protein kinase C from the muscle cytosol to the particulate fraction. Maximum activity of protein kinase C in the particulate fraction occurred after 2 min of intermittent short...... tetanic contractions of the gastrocnemius-plantaris-soleus muscle group and coincided with the loss of activity from the cytosol. Translocation of protein kinase C may imply a role for this kinase in contraction-initiated changes in muscle metabolism....

  15. Involvement of protein kinases on the upregulation of endothelin receptors in rat basilar and mesenteric arteries

    Jamali, Roya; Edvinsson, Lars


    protein kinases (c-Jun N-terminal kinase [JNK], protein kinase C [PKC], and extracellular signal-regulated kinase [ERK1/2]) in ET(B) receptor upregulation after organ culture. Rat basilar and mesenteric arteries were incubated for 24 hrs in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM) with or without the PKC...... were determined with a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The cellular localization and protein level of ET(B) receptors were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. The PKC and ERK1/2 inhibitors attenuated the contraction induced by S6c in the basilar arteries more than in the mesenteric arteries...

  16. Calcium-dependence of Donnan potentials in glycerinated rabbit psoas muscle in rigor, at and beyond filament overlap; a role for titin in the contractile process

    Coomber, S J; Bartels, E M; Elliott, G F


    contracts and breaks the microelectrode. Therefore the rigor state was studied. There is no reason to suppose a priori that a similar voltage switch does not occur during contraction, however. Calcium dependence is still apparent in muscles stretched beyond overlap (sarcomere length>3.8 μm) and is also seen...... mediated by the titin kinase in the M-line region and may involve the extensible PEVK region of titin. There is great interest in the electric charge on proteins in muscle within the structural system. We suggest how changes in these charges may control the calcium activation process. We also suggest some......In glycerinated rabbit psoas muscle, Donnan potential measurements demonstrated that the net electric charge on the actin-myosin matrix undergoes a sharp switch-like transition at pCa(50) = 6.8. The potentials are 2 mV less negative at the lower pCa(2+) (P <0.001). If ATP is present, the muscle...

  17. Modulation of human checkpoint kinase Chk1 by the regulatory beta-subunit of protein kinase CK2

    Guerra, Barbara; Issinger, Olaf-Georg; Wang, Jean Y J


    Protein kinase CK2 is a serine/threonine protein kinase involved in various aspects of cellular regulation. The regulatory beta-subunit of CK2 exerts a central role not only in mediating formation of tetrameric CK2 complexes but also as a docking partner for several protein kinases. In this study......, CK2beta is found to interact with the human cell cycle checkpoint kinase Chk1. The Chk1-interacting region of CK2beta is localized at the C-terminus and the complex between CK2beta and Chk1 is devoid of the catalytic CK2alpha-subunit. The interaction between CK2beta and Chk1 leads to an increase in...... the Cdc25C phosphorylation activity of Chk1. The screening of several cell lines has revealed that the association between CK2beta and Chk1 also occurs in vivo at a different degree. Collectively, these studies confirm the implication of the regulatory beta-subunit of protein kinase CK2 in cell cycle...

  18. Neural cell adhesion molecule-stimulated neurite outgrowth depends on activation of protein kinase C and the Ras-mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway

    Kolkova, K; Novitskaya, V; Pedersen, N;


    ), protein kinase C (PKC), and the Ras-mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathway. This was done using a coculture system consisting of PC12-E2 cells grown on fibroblasts, with or without NCAM expression, allowing NCAM-NCAM interactions resulting in neurite outgrowth. PC12-E2 cells were transiently......The signal transduction pathways associated with neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM)-induced neuritogenesis are only partially characterized. We here demonstrate that NCAM-induced neurite outgrowth depends on activation of p59(fyn), focal adhesion kinase (FAK), phospholipase Cgamma (PLCgamma...... transfected with expression plasmids encoding constitutively active forms of Ras, Raf, MAP kinase kinases MEK1 and 2, dominant negative forms of Ras and Raf, and the FAK-related nonkinase. Alternatively, PC12-E2 cells were submitted to treatment with antibodies to the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptor...

  19. Oscillatory change of SR-protein kinase activities during oocyte maturation meiosis in fish

    杨仲安; 曹丹; 桂建芳


    The SR-protein kinase activity was analyzed and the cytological changes were observed during oocyte maturation in bisexual transparent color crucian carp ( Carassius auratus color variety). The results revealed that the SR-protein kinase activity was sensitive to the artificially induced spawning hormones, and the change of oscillatory activity was similar to that of the maturation-promoting factor (MPF) kinase that regulates meiotic cell cycle in fish.

  20. Sensory Protein Kinase Signaling in Schistosoma mansoni Cercariae: Host Location and Invasion

    Ressurreição, Margarida; Kirk, Ruth S; Rollinson, David; Emery, Aidan M.; Page, Nigel M.; Walker, Anthony J.


    Schistosoma mansoni cercariae display specific behavioral responses to abiotic/biotic stimuli enabling them to locate and infect the definitive human host. Here we report the effect of such stimulants on signaling pathways of cercariae in relation to host finding and invasion. Cercariae exposed to various light/temperature regimens displayed modulated protein kinase C (PKC), extracellular signal–regulated kinase (ERK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) activities, with distin...

  1. Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in cardiac tissues.

    Page, C; Doubell, A F

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) has recently emerged as a prominent role player in intracellular signalling in the ventricular myocyte with attention being focussed on its possible role in the development of ventricular hypertrophy. It is becoming clear that MAPK is also active in other cells of cardiac origin such as cardiac fibroblasts and possible functions of this signalling pathway in the heart have yet to be explored. In this report the mammalian MAPK pathway is briefly outlined, before reviewing current knowledge of the MAPK pathway in cardiac tissue (ventricular myocytes, vascular smooth muscle cells and cardiac fibroblasts). New data is also presented on the presence and activity of MAPK in two additional cardiac celltypes namely atrial myocytes and vascular endothelial cells from the coronary microcirculation. PMID:8739228

  2. HPLC-DAD protein kinase inhibitor analysis in human serum.

    Dziadosz, Marek; Lessig, Rüdiger; Bartels, Heidemarie


    We here describe an HPLC-DAD method to analyse different protein kinase inhibitors. Potential applications of this method are pharmacokinetic studies and therapeutic drug monitoring. Optimised chromatography conditions resulted in a very good separation of seven inhibitors (vatalanib, bosutinib, canertinib, tandutinib, pazopanib, dasatinib - internal standard and erlotinib). The good sensitivity makes this method competitive with LC/MS/MS. The separation was performed with a Lichrospher 100-5 RP8, 250 mm × 4 mm column maintained at 30 ± 1 °C, and with a mobile phase of 0.05 M H(3)PO(4)/KH(2)PO(4) (pH=2.3)-acetonitrile (7:3, v/v) at a flow rate of 0.7 mL/min. A simple and fast sample preparation sequence with liquid-liquid extraction led to good recoveries (73-90%) of all analytes. The recovery hardly reached 50% only for pazopanib. This method can also be used for targeted protein kinase inhibitor quantification. A perfect linearity in the validated range (20-10,000 ng/mL) and an LOQ of 20 ng/mL were achieved. The relative standard deviations and accuracies of all examined drug concentrations gave values much lower than 15% both for between- and within-batch calculations. All analysed PKIs were stable for 6 months in a 1mg/mL dimethyl sulfoxide stock solution. Vatalanib, bosutinib and erlotinib were also stable in human serum in the whole examined concentration range. PMID:22425385

  3. Comparison of Peptide Array Substrate Phosphorylation of c-Raf and Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase Kinase Kinase 8

    Parikh, Kaushal; Diks, Sander H.; Tuynman, Jurriaan H. B.; Verhaar, Auke; Lowenberg, Mark; Hommes, Daan W.; Joore, Jos; Pandey, Akhilesh; Peppelenbosch, Maikel P.


    Kinases are pivotal regulators of cellular physiology. The human genome contains more than 500 putative kinases, which exert their action via the phosphorylation of specific substrates. The determinants of this specificity are still only partly understood and as a consequence it is difficult to pred

  4. Structures of Rhodopsin Kinase in Different Ligand States Reveal Key Elements Involved in G Protein-coupled Receptor Kinase Activation

    Singh, Puja; Wang, Benlian; Maeda, Tadao; Palczewski, Krzysztof; Tesmer, John J.G. (Case Western); (Michigan)


    G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) kinases (GRKs) phosphorylate activated heptahelical receptors, leading to their uncoupling from G proteins. Here we report six crystal structures of rhodopsin kinase (GRK1), revealing not only three distinct nucleotide-binding states of a GRK but also two key structural elements believed to be involved in the recognition of activated GPCRs. The first is the C-terminal extension of the kinase domain, which was observed in all nucleotide-bound GRK1 structures. The second is residues 5-30 of the N terminus, observed in one of the GRK1{center_dot}(Mg{sup 2+}){sub 2} {center_dot}ATP structures. The N terminus was also clearly phosphorylated, leading to the identification of two novel phosphorylation sites by mass spectral analysis. Co-localization of the N terminus and the C-terminal extension near the hinge of the kinase domain suggests that activated GPCRs stimulate kinase activity by binding to this region to facilitate full closure of the kinase domain.

  5. Expression of DNA-dependent protein kinase in human granulocytes



    Human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) have been reported to completely lack of DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) which is composed of Ku protein and the catalytic subunit DNA-PKcs, needed for nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) of DNA double-strand breaks. Promyelocytic HL-60 cells express a variant form of Ku resulting in enhanced radiation sensitivity. This raises the question if low efficiency of NHEJ, instrumental for the cellular repair of oxidative damage, is a normal characteristic of myeloid differentiation. Here we confirmed the complete lack of DNAPK in P MN protein extracts, and the expression of the truncated Ku86 variant form in HL-60. However, this degradation of DNA-PK was shown to be due to a DNA-PK-degrading protease in PMN and HL-60. In addition, by using a protease-resistant whole cell assay, both Ku86 and DNA-PKcs could be demonstrated in PMN, suggesting the previously reported absence in PMN of DNA-PK to be an artefact. The levels of Ku86 and DNA-PKcs were much reduced in PMN, as compared with that of the lymphocytes, whereas HL-60 displayed a markedly elevated DNA-PK concentration.In conclusion, our findings provide evidence of reduced, not depleted expression of DNA-PK during the mature stages of myeloid differentiation.

  6. Novel protein kinase signaling systems regulating lifespan identified by small molecule library screening using Drosophila.

    Stephen R Spindler

    Full Text Available Protein kinase signaling cascades control most aspects of cellular function. The ATP binding domains of signaling protein kinases are the targets of most available inhibitors. These domains are highly conserved from mammals to flies. Herein we describe screening of a library of small molecule inhibitors of protein kinases for their ability to increase Drosophila lifespan. We developed an assay system which allowed screening using the small amounts of materials normally present in commercial chemical libraries. The studies identified 17 inhibitors, the majority of which targeted tyrosine kinases associated with the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF/vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF receptors, G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR, Janus kinase (JAK/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT, the insulin and insulin-like growth factor (IGFI receptors. Comparison of the protein kinase signaling effects of the inhibitors in vitro defined a consensus intracellular signaling profile which included decreased signaling by p38MAPK (p38, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK and protein kinase C (PKC. If confirmed, many of these kinases will be novel additions to the signaling cascades known to regulate metazoan longevity.

  7. Protein kinase CK2 and its role in cellular proliferation, development and pathology

    Guerra, B; Issinger, O G


    Protein kinase CK2 is a pleiotropic, ubiquitous and constitutively active protein kinase that can use both ATP and GTP as phosphoryl donors with specificity for serine/threonine residues in the vicinity of acidic amino acids. Recent results show that the enzyme is involved in transcription, signa...

  8. Phosphorylation and inhibition of. gamma. -glutamyl transferase activity by cAMP-dependent protein kinase

    Kolesnichenko, L.S.; Chernov, N.N.


    It was shown that preparations of bovine kidney ..gamma..-glutamyl transferase of differing degrees of purity are phosphorylated by cAMP-dependent protein kinase. This is accompanied by a decrease in both the transferase and hydrolase activities of the enzyme. Consequently, ..gamma..-glutamyl transferase may serve as the substrate and target of the regulation of cAMP-dependent protein kinase.

  9. Dataset of integrin-linked kinase protein: Protein interactions in cardiomyocytes identified by mass spectrometry.

    Traister, Alexandra; Lu, Mingliang; Coles, John G; Maynes, Jason T


    Using hearts from mice overexpressing integrin linked kinase (ILK) behind the cardiac specific promoter αMHC, we have performed immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry to identify novel ILK protein:protein interactions that regulate cardiomyocyte activity and calcium flux. Integrin linked kinase complexes were captured from mouse heart lysates using a commercial antibody, with subsequent liquid chromatography tandem mass spectral analysis. Interacting partners were identified using the MASCOT server, and important interactions verified using reverse immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry. All ILK interacting proteins were identified in a non-biased manner, and are stored in the ProteomeXchange Consortium via the PRIDE partner repository (reference ID PRIDE: PXD001053). The functional role of identified ILK interactions in cardiomyocyte function and arrhythmia were subsequently confirmed in human iPSC-cardiomyocytes. PMID:27408918

  10. Phosphoproteomic analysis of protein kinase C signaling in Saccharomyces cerevisiae reveals Slt2 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-dependent phosphorylation of eisosome core components.

    Mascaraque, Victoria; Hernáez, María Luisa; Jiménez-Sánchez, María; Hansen, Rasmus; Gil, Concha; Martín, Humberto; Cid, Víctor J; Molina, María


    The cell wall integrity (CWI) pathway of the model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been thoroughly studied as a paradigm of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. It consists of a classic MAPK module comprising the Bck1 MAPK kinase kinase, two redundant MAPK kinases (Mkk1 and Mkk2), and the Slt2 MAPK. This module is activated under a variety of stimuli related to cell wall homeostasis by Pkc1, the only member of the protein kinase C family in budding yeast. Quantitative phosphoproteomics based on stable isotope labeling of amino acids in cell culture is a powerful tool for globally studying protein phosphorylation. Here we report an analysis of the yeast phosphoproteome upon overexpression of a PKC1 hyperactive allele that specifically activates CWI MAPK signaling in the absence of external stimuli. We found 82 phosphopeptides originating from 43 proteins that showed enhanced phosphorylation in these conditions. The MAPK S/T-P target motif was significantly overrepresented in these phosphopeptides. Hyperphosphorylated proteins provide putative novel targets of the Pkc1-cell wall integrity pathway involved in diverse functions such as the control of gene expression, protein synthesis, cytoskeleton maintenance, DNA repair, and metabolism. Remarkably, five components of the plasma-membrane-associated protein complex known as eisosomes were found among the up-regulated proteins. We show here that Pkc1-induced phosphorylation of the eisosome core components Pil1 and Lsp1 was not exerted directly by Pkc1, but involved signaling through the Slt2 MAPK module. PMID:23221999

  11. p21WAF1/CIP1 interacts with protein kinase CK2

    Götz, C; Wagner, P; Issinger, O G;


    p21WAF1/CIP1 which belongs to a class of regulatory proteins that interact with cyclin dependent kinases is a potent inhibitor of these kinases. The inhibition of the cyclin dependent kinases induces an arrest of cells in the G phase of the cell cycle. In addition p21WAF1/CIP1 associates with PCNA...... and inhibits DNA replication. Here, we show that p21WAF1/CIP1 binds to the regulatory beta-subunit of protein kinase CK2 but not to the catalytic alpha-subunit. Binding of p21WAF1/CIP1 down regulates the kinase activity of CK2 with respect to the phosphorylation of the beta-subunit of CK2, casein and...... the C-terminus of p53. This study demonstrates a new binding partner for the regulatory beta-subunit of protein kinase CK2 which regulates the activity of the holoenzyme....

  12. Multiple implications of 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 1 in human cancer

    Keum-Jin; Yang; Jongsun; Park


    3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1(PDK1) is a central mediator of cellular signaling between phosphoinositide-3 kinase and various intracellular serine/threonine kinases,including protein kinase B,p70 ribosomal S6 kinase,serum and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase,and protein kinase C.PDK1 activates members of the AGC family of protein kinases by phosphorylating serine/threonine residues in the activation loop.Here,we review the regulatory mechanisms of PDK1 and its roles in cancer.PDK1 is activated by autophosphorylation in the activation loop and other serine residues,as well as by phosphorylation of Tyr-9 and Tyr-373/376.Src appears to recognize PDK1 following tyrosine phosphorylation.The role of heat shock protein 90 in regulating PDK1 stability and PDK1-Src complex formation are also discussed.Furthermore,we summarize the subcellular distribution of PDK1.Finally,an important role for PDK1 in cancer chemotherapy is proposed.In conclusion,a better understanding of its molecular regulatory mechanisms in various signaling pathways will help to explain how PDK1 acts as an oncogenic kinase in various cancers,and will contribute to the development of novel cancer chemotherapies.

  13. Detection of protein kinase activity by renaturation in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels

    The authors have developed a procedure for identifying protein kinase activity in protein samples following electrophoresis on SDS-polyacrylamide gels. Proteins are allowed to renature directly in the gel by removal of detergent. The gel is then incubated with [γ-32P]ATP to allow renatured protein kinases to autophosphorylate or to phosphorylate various substrates which can be incorporated into the gel. The positions of the radiolabeled proteins can then be detected by autoradiography. With this technique, using purified catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase, enzyme concentrations as low as 0.01 μg can be detected on gels containing 1.0 mg/ml casein. The procedure is also applicable for the determination of active subunits of multisubunit protein kinases. For example, when the two subunits of casein kinase II are separated by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and allowed to renature, only the larger α subunit shows activity. This procedure can also be used to detect and distinguish kinases present in heterogeneous mixtures. Starting with a particulate fraction from LSTRA, a murine T cell lymphoma, several distinct enzymes were detected, including a 30,000 Dalton protein with protein-tyrosine kinase activity. This same enzyme has also been detected in T lymphocytes and other T lymphoid cell lines

  14. Transcriptional regulation by protein kinase A in Cryptococcus neoformans.

    Guanggan Hu


    Full Text Available A defect in the PKA1 gene encoding the catalytic subunit of cyclic adenosine 5'-monophosphate (cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA is known to reduce capsule size and attenuate virulence in the fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans. Conversely, loss of the PKA regulatory subunit encoded by pkr1 results in overproduction of capsule and hypervirulence. We compared the transcriptomes between the pka1 and pkr1 mutants and a wild-type strain, and found that PKA influences transcript levels for genes involved in cell wall synthesis, transport functions such as iron uptake, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and glycolysis. Among the myriad of transcriptional changes in the mutants, we also identified differential expression of ribosomal protein genes, genes encoding stress and chaperone functions, and genes for secretory pathway components and phospholipid synthesis. The transcriptional influence of PKA on these functions was reminiscent of the linkage between transcription, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and the unfolded protein response in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Functional analyses confirmed that the PKA mutants have a differential response to temperature stress, caffeine, and lithium, and that secretion inhibitors block capsule production. Importantly, we also found that lithium treatment limits capsule size, thus reinforcing potential connections between this virulence trait and inositol and phospholipid metabolism. In addition, deletion of a PKA-regulated gene, OVA1, revealed an epistatic relationship with pka1 in the control of capsule size and melanin formation. OVA1 encodes a putative phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein that appears to negatively influence capsule production and melanin accumulation. Overall, these findings support a role for PKA in regulating the delivery of virulence factors such as the capsular polysaccharide to the cell surface and serve to highlight the importance of secretion and phospholipid metabolism as potential

  15. Cell-Free Expression of Protein Kinase A for Rapid Activity Assays

    Leippe, Donna M.; Kate Qin Zhao; Kevin Hsiao; Slater, Michael R.


    Functional protein analysis often calls for lengthy, laborious in vivo protein expression and purification, and can be complicated by the lack of stability of the purified protein. In this study, we demonstrate the feasibility of a simplified procedure for functional protein analysis on magnetic particles using cell-free protein synthesis of the catalytic subunit of human cAMP-dependent protein kinase as a HaloTag® fusion protein. The cell-free protein synthesis systems provide quick access t...

  16. Shrimp arginine kinase being a binding protein of WSSV envelope protein VP31

    Ma, Cuiyan; Gao, Qiang; Liang, Yan; Li, Chen; Liu, Chao; Huang, Jie


    Viral entry into the host is the earliest stage of infection in the viral life cycle in which attachment proteins play a key role. VP31 (WSV340/WSSV396), an envelope protein of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), contains an Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) peptide domain known as a cellular attachment site. At present, the process of VP31 interacting with shrimp host cells has not been explored. Therefore, the VP31 gene was cloned into pET30a (+), expressed in Escherichia coli strain BL21 and purified with immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography. Four gill cellular proteins of shrimp (Fenneropenaeus chinensis) were pulled down by an affinity column coupled with recombinant VP31 (rVP31), and the amino acid sequences were identified with MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry. Hemocyanin, beta-actin, arginine kinase (AK), and an unknown protein were suggested as the putative VP31 receptor proteins. SDS-PAGE showed that AK is the predominant binding protein of VP31. An i n vitro binding activity experiment indicated that recombinant AK's (rAK) binding activity with rVP31 is comparable to that with the same amount of WSSV. These results suggested that AK, as a member of the phosphagen kinase family, plays a role in WSSV infection. This is the first evidence showing that AK is a binding protein of VP31. Further studies on this topic will elucidate WSSV infection mechanism in the future.

  17. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase-Like Function Is Shared by the Beta- and Gamma- Subset of the Conserved Herpesvirus Protein Kinases

    Kuny, Chad V.; Karen Chinchilla; Culbertson, Michael R.; Kalejta, Robert F.


    The UL97 protein of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV, or HHV-5 (human herpesvirus 5)), is a kinase that phosphorylates the cellular retinoblastoma (Rb) tumor suppressor and lamin A/C proteins that are also substrates of cellular cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks). A functional complementation assay has further shown that UL97 has authentic Cdk-like activity. The other seven human herpesviruses each encode a kinase with sequence and positional homology to UL97. These UL97-homologous proteins have been...

  18. Protein kinase C is essential for viability of the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae.

    Penn, Tina J; Wood, Mark E; Soanes, Darren M; Csukai, Michael; Corran, Andrew John; Talbot, Nicholas J


    Protein kinase C constitutes a family of serine-threonine kinases found in all eukaryotes and implicated in a wide range of cellular functions, including regulation of cell growth, cellular differentiation and immunity. Here, we present three independent lines of evidence which indicate that protein kinase C is essential for viability of Magnaporthe oryzae. First, all attempts to generate a target deletion of PKC1, the single copy protein kinase C-encoding gene, proved unsuccessful. Secondly, conditional gene silencing of PKC1 by RNA interference led to severely reduced growth of the fungus, which was reversed by targeted deletion of the Dicer2-encoding gene, MDL2. Finally, selective kinase inhibition of protein kinase C by targeted allelic replacement with an analogue-sensitive PKC1(AS) allele led to specific loss of fungal viability in the presence of the PP1 inhibitor. Global transcriptional profiling following selective PKC inhibition identified significant changes in gene expression associated with cell wall re-modelling, autophagy, signal transduction and secondary metabolism. When considered together, these results suggest protein kinase C is essential for growth and development of M. oryzae with extensive downstream targets in addition to the cell integrity pathway. Targeting protein kinase C signalling may therefore prove an effective means of controlling rice blast disease. PMID:26192090

  19. Phosphorylation and activation of calcineurin by glycogen synthase (casein) kinase-1 and cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase

    Calcineurin is a phosphoprotein phosphatase that is activated by divalent cations and further stimulated by calmodulin. In this study calcineurin is shown to be a substrate for both glycogen synthase (casein) kinase-1 (CK-1) and cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (A-kinase). Either kinase can catalyze the incorporation of 1.0-1.4 mol 32P/mol calcineurin. Analysis by SDS-PAGE revealed that only the α subunit is phosphorylated. Phosphorylation of calcineurin by either kinase leads to its activation. Using p-nitrophenyl phosphate as a substrate the authors observed a 2-3 fold activation of calcineurin by either Mn2+ or Ni2+ (in the presence or absence of calmodulin) after phosphorylation of calcineurin by either CK-1 or A-kinase. In the absence of Mn2+ or Ni2+ phosphorylated calcineurin, like the nonphosphorylated enzyme, showed very little activity. Ni2+ was a more potent activator of phosphorylated calcineurin compared to Mn2+. Higher levels of activation (5-8 fold) of calcineurin by calmodulin was observed when phosphorylated calcineurin was pretreated with Ni2+ before measurement of phosphatase activity. These results indicate that phosphorylation may be an important mechanism by which calcineurin activity is regulated by Ca2+

  20. Extracellular signal-regulated kinases control expression of G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2)

    Theilade, Juliane; Lerche Hansen, Jakob; Haunsø, Stig;


    the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) cascade to regulate GRK2 cellular levels. ERK activation by receptor stimulation elevated endogenous GRK2 while antagonist treatment decreased cellular GRK2. Activating ERK by overexpressing constitutive active MEK-1 or Ras elevated GRK2 protein levels while blocking...

  1. Mutational Analysis of Glycogen Synthase KinaseProtein Kinase Together with Kinome-Wide Binding and Stability Studies Suggests Context-Dependent Recognition of Kinases by the Chaperone Heat Shock Protein 90.

    Jin, Jing; Tian, Ruijun; Pasculescu, Adrian; Dai, Anna Yue; Williton, Kelly; Taylor, Lorne; Savitski, Mikhail M; Bantscheff, Marcus; Woodgett, James R; Pawson, Tony; Colwill, Karen


    The heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) and cell division cycle 37 (CDC37) chaperones are key regulators of protein kinase folding and maturation. Recent evidence suggests that thermodynamic properties of kinases, rather than primary sequences, are recognized by the chaperones. In concordance, we observed a striking difference in HSP90 binding between wild-type (WT) and kinase-dead (KD) glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) forms. Using model cell lines stably expressing these two GSK3β forms, we observed no interaction between WT GSK3β and HSP90, in stark contrast to KD GSK3β forming a stable complex with HSP90 at a 1:1 ratio. In a survey of 91 ectopically expressed kinases in DLD-1 cells, we compared two parameters to measure HSP90 dependency: static binding and kinase stability following HSP90 inhibition. We observed no correlation between HSP90 binding and reduced stability of a kinase after pharmacological inhibition of HSP90. We expanded our stability study to >50 endogenous kinases across four cell lines and demonstrated that HSP90 dependency is context dependent. These observations suggest that HSP90 binds to its kinase client in a particular conformation that we hypothesize to be associated with the nucleotide-processing cycle. Lastly, we performed proteomics profiling of kinases and phosphopeptides in DLD-1 cells to globally define the impact of HSP90 inhibition on the kinome. PMID:26755559

  2. Interaction of connexin43 and protein kinase C-delta during FGF2 signaling

    Stains Joseph P


    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have recently demonstrated that modulation of the gap junction protein, connexin43, can affect the response of osteoblasts to fibroblast growth factor 2 in a protein kinase C-delta-dependent manner. Others have shown that the C-terminal tail of connexin43 serves as a docking platform for signaling complexes. It is unknown whether protein kinase C-delta can physically interact with connexin43. Results In the present study, we investigate by immunofluorescent co-detection and biochemical examination the interaction between Cx43 and protein kinase C-delta. We establish that protein kinase C-delta physically interacts with connexin43 during fibroblast growth factor 2 signaling, and that protein kinase C delta preferentially co-precipitates phosphorylated connexin43. Further, we show by pull down assay that protein kinase C-delta associates with the C-terminal tail of connexin43. Conclusions Connexin43 can serve as a direct docking platform for the recruitment of protein kinase C-delta in order to affect fibroblast growth factor 2 signaling in osteoblasts. These data expand the list of signal molecules that assemble on the connexin43 C-terminal tail and provide a critical context to understand how gap junctions modify signal transduction cascades in order to impact cell function.

  3. Inhibition of nucleoside diphosphate kinase activity by in vitro phosphorylation by protein kinase CK2. Differential phosphorylation of NDP kinases in HeLa cells in culture

    Biondi, R M; Engel, M; Sauane, M;


    Although a number of nucleoside diphosphate kinases (NDPKs) have been reported to act as inhibitors of metastasis or as a transcription factor in mammals, it is not known whether these functions are linked to their enzymatic activity or how this protein is regulated. In this report, we show that ...... on histidine residues, however, only the B isoform appeared to be serine phosphorylated....

  4. Targeting Protein Kinase C Downstream of Growth Factor and Adhesion Signalling

    Dowling, Catríona M., E-mail:; Kiely, Patrick A., E-mail: [Department of Life Sciences, Materials and Surface Science Institute and Stokes Institute, University of Limerick, Limerick 78666 (Ireland); Health Research Institute (HRI), University of Limerick, Limerick 78666 (Ireland)


    The signaling outputs of Receptor Tyrosine Kinases, G-protein coupled receptors and integrins converge to mediate key cell process such as cell adhesion, cell migration, cell invasion and cell proliferation. Once activated by their ligands, these cell surface proteins recruit and direct a diverse range of proteins to disseminate the appropriate response downstream of the specific environmental cues. One of the key groups of proteins required to regulate these activities is the family of serine/threonine intracellular kinases called Protein Kinase Cs. The activity and subcellular location of PKCs are mediated by a series of tightly regulated events and is dependent on several posttranslational modifications and the availability of second messengers. Protein Kinase Cs exhibit both pro- and anti-tumorigenic effects making them an interesting target for anti-cancer treatment.

  5. Mixed - Lineage Protein kinases (MLKs) in inflammation, metabolism, and other disease states.

    Craige, Siobhan M; Reif, Michaella M; Kant, Shashi


    Mixed lineage kinases, or MLKs, are members of the MAP kinase kinase kinase (MAP3K) family, which were originally identified among the activators of the major stress-dependent mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs), JNK and p38. During stress, the activation of JNK and p38 kinases targets several essential downstream substrates that react in a specific manner to the unique stressor and thus determine the fate of the cell in response to a particular challenge. Recently, the MLK family was identified as a specific modulator of JNK and p38 signaling in metabolic syndrome. Moreover, the MLK family of kinases appears to be involved in a very wide spectrum of disorders. This review discusses the newly identified functions of MLKs in multiple diseases including metabolic disorders, inflammation, cancer, and neurological diseases. PMID:27259981

  6. Mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling in plants under abiotic stress.

    Sinha, Alok Krishna; Jaggi, Monika; Raghuram, Badmi; Tuteja, Narendra


    Mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade is evolutionarily conserved signal transduction module involved in transducing extracellular signals to the nucleus for appropriate cellular adjustment. This cascade consists essentially of three components, a MAPK kinase kinase (MAPKKK), a MAPK kinase (MAPKK) and a MAPK connected to each other by the event of phosphorylation. These kinases play various roles in intra- and extra-cellular signaling in plants by transferring the information from sensors to responses. Signaling through MAP kinase cascade can lead to cellular responses including cell division, differentiation as well as responses to various stresses. MAPK signaling has also been associated with hormonal responses. In plants, MAP kinases are represented by multigene families and are involved in efficient transmission of specific stimuli and also involved in the regulation of the antioxidant defense system in response to stress signaling. In the current review we summarize and investigate the participation of MAPKs as possible mediators of various abiotic stresses in plants. PMID:21512321

  7. Molecular physiology of SPAK and OSR1: two Ste20-related protein kinases regulating ion transport.

    Gagnon, Kenneth B; Delpire, Eric


    SPAK (Ste20-related proline alanine rich kinase) and OSR1 (oxidative stress responsive kinase) are members of the germinal center kinase VI subfamily of the mammalian Ste20 (Sterile20)-related protein kinase family. Although there are 30 enzymes in this protein kinase family, their conservation across the fungi, plant, and animal kingdom confirms their evolutionary importance. Already, a large volume of work has accumulated on the tissue distribution, binding partners, signaling cascades, and physiological roles of mammalian SPAK and OSR1 in multiple organ systems. After reviewing this basic information, we will examine newer studies that demonstrate the pathophysiological consequences to SPAK and/or OSR1 disruption, discuss the development and analysis of genetically engineered mouse models, and address the possible role these serine/threonine kinases might have in cancer proliferation and migration. PMID:23073627

  8. DMPD: Macrophage-stimulating protein and RON receptor tyrosine kinase: potentialregulators of macrophage inflammatory activities. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Full Text Available 12472665 Macrophage-stimulating protein and RON receptor tyrosine kinase: potential...:545-53. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Macrophage-stimulating protein and RON receptor tyrosine kinase: poten...le Macrophage-stimulating protein and RON receptor tyrosine kinase: potentialregulators of macrophage inflam

  9. Expression of a gibberellin-induced leucine-rich repeat receptor-like protein kinase in deepwater rice and its interaction with kinase-associated protein phosphatase.

    van der Knaap, E.; Song, W. Y.; Ruan, D L; Sauter, M.; Ronald, P C; Kende, H.


    We identified in deepwater rice (Oryza sativa L.) a gene encoding a leucine-rich repeat receptor-like transmembrane protein kinase, OsTMK (O. sativa transmembrane kinase). The transcript levels of OsTMK increased in the rice internode in response to gibberellin. Expression of OsTMK was especially high in regions undergoing cell division and elongation. The kinase domain of OsTMK was enzymatically active, autophosphorylating on serine and threonine residues. A cDNA encoding a rice ortholog of ...

  10. Comprehensive Behavioral Analysis of Calcium/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase IV Knockout Mice

    Takao, Keizo; Tanda, Koichi; Nakamura, Kenji; Kasahara, Jiro; Nakao, Kazuki; Katsuki, Motoya; Nakanishi, Kazuo; Yamasaki, Nobuyuki; Toyama, Keiko; Adachi, Minami; UMEDA, MASAHIRO; Araki, Tsutomu; Fukunaga, Kohji; Kondo, Hisatake; Sakagami, Hiroyuki


    Calcium-calmodulin dependent protein kinase IV (CaMKIV) is a protein kinase that activates the transcription factor CREB, the cyclic AMP-response element binding protein. CREB is a key transcription factor in synaptic plasticity and memory consolidation. To elucidate the behavioral effects of CaMKIV deficiency, we subjected CaMKIV knockout (CaMKIV KO) mice to a battery of behavioral tests. CaMKIV KO had no significant effects on locomotor activity, motor coordination, social interaction, pain...