ZOHLEN, ANGELIKA; Tyler, Germund
• Background and aims Natural and semi-natural, non-fertilized calcareous soils are consistently low in soluble and easily exchangeable phosphate. An over-utilization, or possibly an immobilization, of inorganic P in the tissues of calcifuge plants may take place, if such plants are forced to grow on a calcareous soil, though this has not been experimentally demonstrated. The objectives of this study are, therefore, to elucidate if calcifuge plants, when forced to develop on a calcareous soil...
Tyler, Germund; Ström, Lena
Many vascular plant species are unable to colonize calcareous sites. Thus, the floristic composition of adjacent limestone and acid silicate soils differs greatly. The inability of calcifuge plants to establish in limestone sites seems related to a low capacity of such plants to solubilize and absorb Fe or phosphate from these soils. Until now, mechanisms regulating this differing ability of plants to colonize limestone sites have not been elucidated. We propose that contrasting exudation of ...
BHARALI, BHAGAWAN; BATES, JEFFREY W.
• Background and Aims The widespread calcifuge moss Pleurozium schreberi is moderately tolerant of SO2, whereas Rhytidiadelphus triquetrus is limited to calcareous soils in regions of the UK that were strongly affected by SO2 pollution in the 20th century. The proposition that tolerance of SO2 by these terricolous mosses depends on metabolic detoxification of dissolved bisulfite was investigated.
Hájek, Michal; Plesková, Z.; Syrovátka, V.; Peterka, T.; Laburdová, J.; Kintrová, K.; Jiroušek, M.; Hájek, Tomáš
Roč. 16, č. 5 (2014), s. 203-218. ISSN 1433-8319 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP505/10/0638 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : bryophyte * calcicole-calcifuge behaviour * ionome Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 3.606, year: 2014
Vicherová, Eliška; Hájek, M.; Hájek, Tomáš
Roč. 17, č. 5 (2015), s. 347-359. ISSN 1433-8319 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP505/10/0638 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : calcicole–calcifuge * fundamental niche * Sphagnum Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 3.606, year: 2014
Fühner, Christoph; Runge, Michael
Calluna vulgaris (L.) Hull is primarily found on acid soils and is generally classified as a calcifuge species. Therefore, its occasional growth in semi-arid grassland on shallow calcareous soils gave rise to the question as to whether special soil conditions, deviating from the typical conditions in calcareous soils, enable this unusual occurrence. In an attempt to answer this question, we analysed selected soil factors, comparing plots where C. vulgaris was growing besides calcicole species...
Conti, E; Soltis, D E; Hardig, T M; Schneider, J
The silver saxifrages (Saxifraga sect. Ligulatae Haworth; Saxifragaceae) exhibit remarkable variation of substrate specialization, with strictly calcicole to calcifuge species, as well as life histories which range from semelparity to iteroparity. They occur almost exclusively in the European mountain ranges and display high levels of endemism. Sequences from chloroplast and nuclear ribosomal DNA were obtained to resolve phylogenetic relationships among the silver saxifrages and related taxa and to gain insight into the evolution of substrate specificity, life history, and biogeography. The resulting phylogenies suggested that (1) Saxifraga sect. Ligulatae, as traditionally defined, does not constitute a monophyletic group; (2) lime-secreting hydathodes in calcifuge species apparently represent a secondary nonaptation; (3) semelparity evolved independently two or three times in the silver saxifrages and allied sections, possibly in response to climatic changes that occured during the Pleistocene; and (4) narrow endemics, for example S. cochlearis, likely evolved from the fragmentation of the widespread S. paniculata into refugial populations that became isolated during the glacial maxima of the Pleistocene. PMID:10620412
Background levels of some major, trace, and rare earth elements in indigenous plant species growing in Norway and the influence of soil acidification, soil parent material, and seasonal variation on these levels.
Gjengedal, Elin; Martinsen, Thomas; Steinnes, Eiliv
Baseline levels of 43 elements, including major, trace, and rare earth elements (REEs) in several native plant species growing in boreal and alpine areas, are presented. Focus is placed on species metal levels at different soil conditions, temporal variations in plant tissue metal concentrations, and interspecies variation in metal concentrations. Vegetation samples were collected at Sogndal, a pristine site in western Norway, and at Risdalsheia, an acidified site in southernmost Norway. Metal concentrations in the different species sampled in western Norway are compared with relevant literature data from Norway, Finland, and northwest Russia, assumed to represent natural conditions. Except for aluminium (Al) and macronutrients, the levels of metals were generally lower in western Norway than in southern Norway and may be considered close to natural background levels. In southern Norway, the levels of cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in particular appear to be affected by air pollution, either by direct atmospheric supply or through soil acidification. Levels of some elements show considerable variability between as well as within plant species. Calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), and potassium (K) are higher in most species at Sogndal compared to Risdalsheia, despite increased extractable concentrations in surface soil in the south, probably attributed to different buffer mechanisms in surface soil. Antagonism on plant uptake is suggested between Ca, Mg, and K on one hand and Al on the other. Tolerance among calcifuges to acid conditions and a particular ability to detoxify or avoid uptake of Al ions are noticeable for Vaccinium vitis-idaea. PMID:26022847
Full Text Available Effects of soil on vegetation patterns are commonly obscured by other environmental factors; clear and general relationships are difficult to find. How would community assembly processes be affected by a substantial change in soil characteristics when all other relevant factors are held constant? In particular, can we identify some functional adaptations which would underpin such soil-induced vegetation response?Eastern Serbia: fields partially damaged by long-term and large-scale fluvial deposition of sulphidic waste from a Cu mine; subcontinental/submediterranean climate.We analysed the multivariate response of cereal weed assemblages (including biomass and foliar analyses to a strong man-made soil gradient (from highly calcareous to highly acidic, nutrient-poor soils over short distances (field scale.The soil gradient favoured a substitution of calcicoles by calcifuges, and an increase in abundance of pseudometallophytes, with preferences for Atlantic climate, broad geographical distribution, hemicryptophytic life form, adapted to low-nutrient and acidic soils, with lower concentrations of Ca, and very narrow range of Cu concentrations in leaves. The trends of abundance of the different ecological groups of indicator species along the soil gradient were systematically reflected in the maintenance of leaf P concentrations, and strong homeostasis in biomass N:P ratio.Using annual weed vegetation at the field scale as a fairly simple model, we demonstrated links between gradients in soil properties (pH, nutrient availability and floristic composition that are normally encountered over large geographic distances. We showed that leaf nutrient status, in particular the maintenance of leaf P concentrations and strong homeostasis of biomass N:P ratio, underpinned a clear functional response of vegetation to mineral stress. These findings can help to understand assembly processes leading to unusual, novel combinations of species which are typically
Full Text Available Ericaceae (the heath family are widely distributed calcifuges inhabiting soils with inherently poor nutrient status. Ericaceae overcome nutrient limitation through symbiosis with ericoid mycorrhizal (ErM fungi that mobilize nutrients complexed in recalcitrant organic matter. At present, recognized ErM fungi include a narrow taxonomic range within the Ascomycota, and the Sebacinales, basal Hymenomycetes with unclamped hyphae and imperforate parenthesomes. Here we describe a novel type of basidiomycetous ErM symbiosis, termed 'sheathed ericoid mycorrhiza', discovered in two habitats in mid-Norway as a co-dominant mycorrhizal symbiosis in Vaccinium spp. The basidiomycete forming sheathed ErM possesses clamped hyphae with perforate parenthesomes, produces 1- to 3-layer sheaths around terminal parts of hair roots and colonizes their rhizodermis intracellularly forming hyphal coils typical for ErM symbiosis. Two basidiomycetous isolates were obtained from sheathed ErM and molecular and phylogenetic tools were used to determine their identity; they were also examined for the ability to form sheathed ErM and lignocellulolytic potential. Surprisingly, ITS rDNA of both conspecific isolates failed to amplify with the most commonly used primer pairs, including ITS1 and ITS1F + ITS4. Phylogenetic analysis of nuclear LSU, SSU and 5.8S rDNA indicates that the basidiomycete occupies a long branch residing in the proximity of Trechisporales and Hymenochaetales, but lacks a clear sequence relationship (>90% similarity to fungi currently placed in these orders. The basidiomycete formed the characteristic sheathed ErM symbiosis and enhanced growth of Vaccinium spp. in vitro, and degraded a recalcitrant aromatic substrate that was left unaltered by common ErM ascomycetes. Our findings provide coherent evidence that this hitherto undescribed basidiomycete forms a morphologically distinct ErM symbiosis that may occur at significant levels under natural conditions, yet
Marcelo Trindade Nascimento
were higher in the mature leaves. The concentration of P decreased from mature leaves to senescent leaves. The plants from calcareous soil showed higher concentration of Ca and lower concentration of K than plants of acidic soil. The values of P, Mg and Al were similar in both forests. The differences between populations could possibly be explained by soil type, but other factors such as the physiological behavior of plants should also be considered. Plants from the acidic soil can be calcifuge and plants from the calcareous soil can be calcicole.