Sample records for cajamarca peru determined

  1. Frequency of human toxocariasis in a rural population from Cajamarca, Peru determined by DOT-ELISA test Freqüência de toxocaríase humana numa população rural de Cajamarca, Peru, mediante o uso do teste DOT-ELISA

    William H. Roldán


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to estimate the frequency of human toxocariasis in Cauday district, Cajamarca, Peru, using a dot-ELISA test. From June to October 2005, a total of 256 adult subjects were studied. Blood samples were collected for serology by a dot-ELISA test and for hematological examination. Parasitological examination was also carried out in stool samples to check cross-reactions in the dot-ELISA. The frequency observed was 44.92%, with a significant higher proportion of positivity in male subjects. From subjects with positive serology, 45.6% had respiratory symptoms, 40.44% abdominal pain, 32.35% hepatic symptoms, 14.7% cutaneous signs, 13.23% ocular manifestations, 43.38% eosinophilia, and all of these were statistically associated to serology. Among the population evaluated, 90.23% (231/256 were parasitized. From subjects with positive serology, 92.17% had at least one intestinal parasite and the most frequent were: Blastocystis hominis (68.38%, Giardia lamblia (28.68%, Hymenolepis nana (20.0%, Ascaris lumbricoides (15.65%, Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar (13.24%, Cyclospora cayetanensis (4.41%, Cryptosporidium sp. (1.47%, Enterobius vermicularis (0.87%, Strongyloides stercoralis (0.87%, Taenia sp. (0.87%, and Trichuris trichiura (0.87%. The rate of false positives in the dot-ELISA test was improved by serum absorption each with A. suum antigens, with a decrease of cross-reactions. In conclusion, human toxocariasis is highly frequent in this population and some risk factors like dog/cat ownership, presence of pets within house, and previous history of geophagia were observed in the present study.O propósito do presente estudo foi estimar a freqüência da toxocaríase no distrito de Cauday, Cajamarca, Peru, usando o dot-ELISA teste. Entre junho e outubro de 2005, um total de 256 pessoas foram avaliadas. Coletaram-se amostras de sangue para o teste de dot-ELISA e para o exame hematológico e amostras de fezes para exame parasitol

  2. Ophioninae (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae wasp community in the cloudy forest Monteseco, Cajamarca, Peru

    Evelyn Sánchez


    Full Text Available We describe the species composition of the subfamily Ophioninae (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae along an altitudinal gradient in the cloudy forest Monteseco, Cajamarca, Peru collected in 2009 and 2010. Eighteen species were recorded in three genera of Ophioninae: Alophophion, Enicospilus y Ophion. Five species are recorded for the first time in Peru: Ophion polyhymniae Gauld, 1988; Enicospilus cubensis (Norton, 1863; E. guatemalensis (Cameron, 1886; E. cressoni Hooker, 1912 y E. mexicanus (Cresson, 1874. Subfamily composition varies with the elevation. The highest species richness (S=11 was found at 2150 m and the lowest (S=3 at 3116 m. Enicospilus is more diverse from low to mid elevation, Ophion from mid to high elevation and Alophophion occurs predominantly at high elevation.

  3. A One-Health integrated approach to control fascioliasis in the Cajamarca valley of Peru

    Laura Rinaldi


    Full Text Available Fasciola hepatica infection is reported from many Latin American countries, with very high prevalence rates in both humans and livestock in the Andean countries. Due to its environmental characteristics, particularly suitable for liver fluke infection, the Cajamarca valley of Peru has often been chosen as a model to study the epidemiology of liver fluke infection in the Andes. In this paper we describe the profile of a project aimed at a multidisciplinary and integrated approach for the control of fascioliasis in animals and humans in this valley. The One-Health integrated approach applied here is based on accurate and sensitive diagnostics, namely the FLOTAC, and the use of geospatial tools for epidemiological scrutiny.


    Carranza-Quispe, L.; Carranza-Quispe, G.


    In this study IgM and IgG anti-CMV were detected in serum from volunteer blood donors from Santa Maria Hospital Cutervo, Cajamarca. The study was performed with serum samples from the total population of suitable donors, which were processed by ELISAfor the determination of specific IgM and IgG anti-cytomegalovirus (anti-CMG). 70 samples were analyzed. Of the 54% (38) female donors, none were reactive to anti-CMV IgM and 95% (36) were reactive to anti- CMVIgG. Of the 46% (32) m...

  5. Evaluación de una prueba de ELISA con antígeno metabólico de Fasciola hepatica para el diagnóstico de fasciolosis humana en Cajamarca, Perú Evaluation of an ELISA test with Fasciola hepatica metabolic antigen for diagnosis of human fascioliasis in Cajamarca, Peru

    Hernán Cornejo


    Full Text Available Se obtuvo el antígeno metabólico (antígeno excreción - secreción de Fasciola hepatica de ovinos infectados de Cajamarca, con una concentración proteica de 1 005 μg/μL, compuesta principalmente por proteνnas de peso molecular entre 1,2 y 170 KDa. Se detectaron bandas de 170; 150; 31; 24; 18-14 y 10 kDa. Con este antνgeno se desarrollσ una prueba de ELISA y se determinσ su punto de corte en 0,140. Se evaluσ 33 sueros de pacientes con fasciolosis confirmada por visualización de huevos en heces, 177 sueros de pacientes sin fasciolosis provenientes de áreas endémicas de Cajamarca y 88 sueros de pacientes con otras infecciones parasitarias y bacterianas. Se encontró una sensibilidad de 97,0%, especificidad de 96,6%, valor predictivo positivo de 78,1% y valor predictivo negativo de 99,6%. Se encontró reacción cruzada en 9/88 sueros evaluados. Se recomienda la implementación y uso de esta prueba para el diagnóstico de fasciolosis.Metabolic (excretion/secretion antigen was obtained from sheep infected with Fasciola hepatica, with a 1005 μg/μL of protein concentration, composed principally by proteins of molecular weight between 1.2 and 170 KDa. Bands of 170, 150, 31, 24, 18-14 and 10 kDa were detected. With this antigen an ELISA test was developed and the cut off was determined in 0.140. We evaluated 33 serums of patient with fascioliasis confirmed by visualization of eggs in feces, 177 serums of persons without fascioliasis from endemic rural areas of Cajamarca and 88 serums of patients with others parasitic and bacterial infections. We found a 97.0% of sensitivity, 96.6 specificity, 78.1% predictive positive value, 99.6 % predictive negative value. In 9/88 serums was found cross reactions. We recommended the implementation and use of this test for the fascioliasis diagnosis.

  6. Peru

    World Bank Group


    The Country Opinion Survey in Peru assists the World Bank Group (WBG) in gaining a better understanding of how stakeholders in Peru perceive the WBG. It provides the WBG with systematic feedback from national and local governments, multilateral/bilateral agencies, media, academia, the private sector, and civil society in Peru on 1) their views regarding the general environment in Peru; 2) ...

  7. Immune diagnosis of human fasciolosis in children from Cajamarca, Perú



    Full Text Available The immunodiagnostic potential of a FAST-ELISA for the detection of antibodies in fasciolosis with sera from 6-12 year old children from Cajamarca, Peru was examined. Four children negative parasitologically were negative by FAST-ELISA. All 13 children found positive parasitologically were also positive by FAST-ELISA for 100% sensitivity. Twelve of the 13 infected children seroreverted 4 months post dihydroemetine therapy showing lower antibody levels as compared with the pretreatment sample. These results suggest that FAST-ELISA may be useful for the determination of infection and success of therapy in children with fasciolosis.Se estudio el potencial inmunodiagnóstico de un FAST-ELISA para la detección de anticuerpos contra de fasciolosis en niños de Cajamarca, Perú. Sueros de 4 niños no infectados fueron negativos mientras que 13 niños infectados fueron positivos a la prueba de FAST-ELISA. Doce de los niños infectados serorevirtieron con disminución de anticuerpos cuatro meses luego de terapia con dehidroemetina. Estos resultados indican la utilidad de la prueba de FAST-ELISA para detección de infección y predicción de cura en niños con fasciolosis.

  8. Peru.


    This publication provides a brief account of Peru's geographic, history, government, and political and economic conditions. With an area of 1.28 million sq. km., Peru is the third largest country in South American and is home to 20.2 million inhabitants (6 million live in the capital city of Lima). The population is 45% Indian, 37% mestizo, 15% white, and 3% black, Asian, and other. The 2 official languages are Spanish and Quechua. Its literacy rate stands at 79%, and its infant mortality rate and life expectancy measure 91/1000 and 60.8 years respectively. Peru's pre-Colombian period notes the impressive achievements of the Inca civilization, which was conquered by Spain in 1531. The country gained its independence from Spanish rule in 1821. The article also mentions Peru's turbulent contemporary history, with territorial disputes, a strong military presence, and a series of coups that have interrupted civilian constitutional governments. As recently as 1985, Peru had its first exchange of power from 1 democratically elected leader to another in 40 years, when 36 year-old Alan Garcia Perez became president. Leader of the American Popular Revolutionary Alliance (APRA), GArcia espouses leftist but not non-communist politics, and is well-known for his message of anti-imperialism and Latin American integration. Peru's has seen terrorist activity from 2 marxist organizations, the Maoist Sendero Luminoso (The Shining Path) and the MRTA-MIR (Tupac Amaru Revolutionary Movement-Movement of the Revolutionary Left. In 1986, Peru's economy had a $17 billion Gross Domestic Product (GDP), a per capital GDP of $839, and an inflation rate of 62.9. The article also provides information concerning US economic assistance to Peru, as well as an assessment of US-Peruvian relations. PMID:12178073

  9. 76 FR 44609 - United States-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement Notice of Determination Regarding Review of...


    ... of the Secretary United States-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement Notice of Determination Regarding... United States-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement (PTPA). The submission was filed with OTLA on December 29... Nacional de Administraci n Tributaria (SINAUT- SUNAT). The submission alleges the Government of Peru...

  10. Outbreak of Vibrio parahaemolyticus Sequence Type 120, Peru, 2009

    Gonzalez-Escalona, Narjol; Gavilan, Ronnie G.; Toro, Magaly; Zamudio, Maria L.


    In 2009, an outbreak of Vibrio parahaemolyticus occurred in Piura, Cajamarca, Lambayeque, and Lima, Peru. Whole-genome sequencing of clinical and environmental samples from the outbreak revealed a new V. parahaemolyticus clone. All the isolates identified belonged to a single clonal complex described exclusively in Asia before its emergence in Peru. PMID:27315090

  11. Annotated checklist of Solanum L. (Solanaceae for Peru

    Tiina Särkinen


    Full Text Available The genus Solanum is among the most species-rich genera both of the Peruvian flora and of the tropical Andes in general. The present revised checklist treats 276 species of Solanum L., of which 253 are native, while 23 are introduced and/or cultivated. A total of 74 Solanum species (29% of native species are endemic to Peru. Additional 58 species occur only in small number of populations outside Peru, and these species are here labelled as near-endemics to highlight the role Peru playes in their future protection. Species diversity is observed to peak between 2500 – 3000 m elevation, but endemic species diversity is highest between 3000 – 3500 m elevation. Cajamarca has the highest number of endemic (29 spp. and total species (130 spp., even when considering the effect of area. Centers of endemic species diversity are observed in provinces of Cajamarca (Cajamarca, Huaraz and Carhuaz (Ancash, and Canta and Huarochirí (Lima. Secondary centres of endemism with high concentrations of both endemics and near-endemics are found in San Ignacio and Cutervo (Cajamarca, Santiago de Chuco (La Libertad, Oxapampa (Pasco, and Cusco (Cusco. Current diversity patterns are highly correlated with collection densities, and further collecting is needed across all areas, especially from Arequipa, Ayacucho, Puno, Ancash, Huánuco, Amazonas and Cajamarca, where high levels of species diversity and endemism are indicated but only a few collections of many species are known.

  12. 78 FR 58378 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Peru: Kingdoms of the Sun...


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Peru: Kingdoms of the Sun and the..., 2003), I hereby determine that the objects to be included in the exhibition ``Peru: Kingdoms of the...

  13. Wind, Sun and Water: Complexities of Alternative Energy Development in Rural Northern Peru

    Love, Thomas; Garwood, Anna


    Drawing on recent research with NGO-driven projects in rural Cajamarca, Peru, we examine the paradoxes of relying on wind, solar and micro-hydro generation of electricity for rural community development. In spite of cost, vagaries of these energy resources and limited material benefits, especially with wind and solar systems, villagers are eagerly…

  14. Alliances for local development success factors. Comparative experiences of Spain and Peru

    Del Castillo Mory, Elsa; Schwalb Helguero, María Matilde; Alva Gonzáles, Edgar


    Alliances are formed to overcome the constraints partners face to achieve certain goals. When the goal is to promote local development, it requires the participation of stakeholders: private sector, local government, civil associations and community groups, among others. This article seeks, through the comparative analysis of three experiences of local development led by the district of Villa El Salvador (Lima - Peru), the mining company Yanacocha (Cajamarca -Peru) and the Spanish Agency for ...

  15. The Informal Economy in Peru: Magnitude and Determinants, 1980-2011

    Machado, Roberto,


    This paper estimates the size of the informal economy in Peru during the period 1980-2011 by using the multiple indicators-multiple causes method (MIMIC). Estimates indicate that the informal economy has fluctuated between 30% and 45% of official GDP during the period analyzed and has exhibited an anti-cyclical behavior, increasing during periods of economic crisis and contracting during economic booms. An econometric exploration of the determinants of the size of the informal economy indicat...

  16. New species of Ophryosporus (Eupatorieae Asteraceae from Peru

    Abundio Sagástegui Alva


    Full Text Available Ophryosporus marchii Sagást. & E. Rodr. is described as a new species of Ophryosporus Meyen (Eupatorieae: Asteraceae from the Department of Cajamarca, Peru. This new species is apparently endemic to the province of Contumaza and closest relative to O. sagasteguii H. Rob. It is critically compared with this species and data on its geographical distribution, ecology and conservation status are provided.

  17. Determining a cost effective intervention response to HIV/AIDS in Peru

    Cáceres Carlos F


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The HIV epidemic in Peru is still regarded as concentrated - sentinel surveillance data shows greatest rates of infection in men who have sex with men, while much lower rates are found in female sex workers and still lower in the general population. Without an appropriate set of preventive interventions, continuing infections could present a challenge to the sustainability of the present programme of universal access to treatment. Determining how specific prevention and care strategies would impact on the health of Peruvians should be key in reshaping the national response. Methods HIV/AIDS prevalence levels for risk groups with sufficient sentinel survey data were estimated. Unit costs were calculated for a series of interventions against HIV/AIDS which were subsequently inputted into a model to assess their ability to reduce infection transmission rates. Interventions included: mass media, voluntary counselling and testing; peer counselling for female sex workers; peer counselling for men who have sex with men; peer education of youth in-school; condom provision; STI treatment; prevention of mother to child transmission; and highly active antiretroviral therapy. Impact was assessed by the ability to reduce rates of transmission and quantified in terms of cost per DALY averted. Results Results of the analysis show that in Peru, the highest levels of HIV prevalence are found in men who have sex with men. Cost effectiveness varied greatly between interventions ranging from peer education of female commercial sex workers at $US 55 up to $US 5,928 (per DALY averted for prevention of mother to child transmission. Conclusion The results of this work add evidence-based clarity as to which interventions warrant greatest consideration when planning an intervention response to HIV in Peru. Cost effectiveness analysis provides a necessary element of transparency when facing choices about priority setting, particularly when the country

  18. Angiosperms additions to flora of Peru

    Eric F. Rodríguez


    Full Text Available We present here 131 new additions to the angiosperm flora of Peru from recent collections in the north of Peru, mostly from department of Amazonas (provinces of Bagua and Condorcanqui and department of Cajamarca (province of San Ignacio. This new contribution is the result of field and herbarium studies by the various authors in this region from 1993 to 2002, and represents the combined effort of personnel from the Herbarium Truxillense (HUT and the Herbarium of the Missouri Botanical Garden (MO as part of the Flora of Peru Project. The species reported here were compared against the list of species documented in the «Catalogue of Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru» (Brako & Zarucchi, 1993 and «Ten years of additions to the flora of Peru: 1993- 2003» (Ulloa Ulloa et al., 2004. The new taxa are organized in three categories: 18 species new to science, six new nomenclatural combinations and 107 new records, thereby enlarging their geographical distribution towards to Peru. Considering the new species and the new records, this contribution adds 125 species to the Peruvian Flora.

  19. Camera trap survey of medium and large mammals in a montane rainforest of northern Peru

    Carlos F. Jiménez; Heidi Quintana; Víctor Pacheco; Derek Melton; Javier Torrealva; Guillermo Tello


    Camera traps are a powerful tool for inventorying elusive and rare species and very useful to obtain ecologi- cal data for plans that involve wildlife conservation. In Peru, several surveys have been carried out in lowland Amazonia especially in the southeastern part of the country, but none in montane cloud forests or Yungas. We present the first camera trap studies produced in Peruvian Yungas at the locality of Querocoto village (Chota, Cajamarca), based on 2002 (dry season) and 1264 (wet s...

  20. Die Kirche von Cajamarca - die Herausforderung einer Option für die Armen in Peru

    Knecht, Wilhelm


    Die Kirche in Lateinamerika hat für die Profilbildung wissenschaftlicher Theologie im 20. Jahrhun-dert eine Reihe von theoretischen Entwürfen vorgelegt, die für die Programmatik der Theologie ins-gesamt grundlegend und richtungweisend sind. In der europäischen Rezeption wird jedoch zu wenig beachtet, dass sich hinter dem Sammelbegriff „Theologie der Befreiung“ eine Reihe sehr differenzier-ter Konzeptionen verbergen, die in je unterschiedlichen kulturellen Kontexten die Evangelisierung themati...

  1. Understanding Underage Drinking in Peru: Determinants of Its Frequency and Intensity

    Janice Seinfeld


    Full Text Available Underage drinking is a serious problem worldwide. In the case of Peru, 50% of those who have ever used alcohol started doing so before the age of 13, and 90% before 16. In this study, we examine the correlations of frequency and intensity of underage drinking in Peru. We find that individual characteristics (smoking and carrying guns, exposure to traumatic events (sexual abuse and domestic violence, peer effects, and access to information are significantly correlated with drinking. This highlights the importance of addressing the problem in a comprehensive manner that includes students, parents, schools, and the government, especially considering that policies targeted at adolescents may have multiplier effects.

  2. Diversidad de la familia Orchidaceae en los bosques montanos de San Ignacio (Cajamarca, Perú)

    Gloria Calatayud


    La insuficiente información sobre la flora, específicamente sobre la familia Orchidaceae y la inminente desaparición de los bosques en la Vertiente Oriental del río Chinchipe (San Ignacio, Cajamarca), fueron las razones suficientes que motivaron a realizar la presente investigación. La evaluación se realizó en cuatro localidades de la provincia San Ignacio (Cajamarca), durante el año 2000, con 27 cuadrantes de 500 m², distribuidos cada 100 m de altitud, desde los 800 hasta los 2700 m, el méto...

  3. Determining of the level of lead and cadmium contamination in pregnant women living in an exposed mining area of Peru

    It is the objective of this study to determine in the first year the level of acute pollution and their nutritional status in pregnant women living in a lead and cadmium exposed mining area of Peru. The complete project will focus on delivering women and their infants who are one of the most vulnerable groups of the life cycle. It is of particular interest to investigate the impact of pollution not only in the mother but also the possible transfer to the infant. (author)

  4. Financial Inclusion of the Poor in Peru: Explanatory factors and determinants

    Marr, Ana; León, Janina; Ponce, Fátima


    Following current debate about possible trade-off between financial sustainability and social performance of microfinance institutions (MFIs), this paper explores the extent to which these institutions are capable of expanding ‘financial inclusion’, i.e. provision of financial access to those with no prior access to the financial system. By looking at one of the most dynamic microfinance markets in the world, Peru, the study analyses the factors that help explain the degree of financial incl...

  5. New knowledge in determining the astronomical orientation of Incas object in Ollantaytambo, Peru

    Hanzalová, K.; Klokočník, J.; Kostelecký, J.


    This paper deals about astronomical orientation of Incas objects in Ollantaytambo, which is located about 35 km southeast from Machu Picchu, about 40 km northwest from Cusco, and lies in the Urubamba valley. Everybody writing about Ollantaytambo, shoud read Protzen (1993). He devoted his monograph to description and interpretation of that locality. Book of Salazar and Salazar (2005) deals, among others, with the orientation of objects in Ollantaytambo with respect to the cardinal direction. Zawaski and Malville (2007) documented astronomical context of major monuments of nine sites in Peru, including Ollantaytambo. We tested astronomical orientation in these places and confirm or disprove hypothesis about purpose of Incas objects. For assessment orientation of objects we used our measurements and also satellite images on Google Earth and digital elevation model from ASTER. The satellite images used to approximate estimation of astronomical orientation. The digital elevation model is useful in the mountains, where we need the really horizon for a calculation of sunset and sunrise on specific days (solstices), which were for Incas people very important. By Incas is very famous that they worshiped the Sun. According to him they determined when to plant and when to harvest the crop. In this paper we focused on Temple of the Sun, also known the Wall of six monoliths. We tested which astronomical phenomenon is connected with this Temple. First, we tested winter solstice sunrise and the rides of the Pleiades for the epochs 2000, 1500 and 1000 A.D. According with our results the Temple isn't connected neither with winter solstice sunrise nor with the Pleiades. Then we tested also winter solstice sunset. We tried to use the line from an observation point near ruins of the Temple of Sun, to west-north, in direction to sunset. The astronomical azimuth from this point was about 5° less then we need. From this results we found, that is possible to find another observation

  6. Water Yes, Gold No: Empowerment and social change through the social mobilizations against the Conga Mining Project in an Andean region of Peru.

    Quesada Llucià, Helena


    This thesis aims to identify and analyse the empowerment processes of civil participation in collective actions behind the social movement ‘Conga No Va’; as well as to contribute to the understanding of mining extraction causality upon social structures and gender relations in rural communities. The main focus is the social movement opposed to the mega mining project ‘Conga’ in the Andean region of Cajamarca, Peru. Taking in account sustainable and alternative development theories as well as ...

  7. Productivity of ten promising chaucha potato cultivars (Solanum tuberosum, Phureja group) in the Cajamarca region

    Luz P. Rojas Mercado; Juan F. Seminario Cunya


    The productivity of ten treatments (chaucha cultivars) with three replications, all from the Cajamarca Region, were evaluated in a Randomized Complete Block Design: Peruanita 3 Mountaineer 2 Limeña, Yellow, Clavelina 2 Red 2 Mulla, Huagalina, yellow and red Chimbina mahuay. Plant height, number of stems, number of tubers, number of commercial tubers, total weight of tubers, weight of commercial tubers, tuber dry matter, dry weight of foliage and harvest index were evaluated. The yield ranged ...

  8. Peru: coal over the past three years: future trends. El desarrollo de la situacion del carbon en el Peru durante los ultimos tres anos y su evolucion

    Dunin Borkoroski, E.; Goluchoweska, K.


    In 1985, annual coal production in Peru reached 150 to 200 mt and has since remained at roughly the same level. The coal comes from between 50 and 100 small and sometimes rather antiquated mining units which are run by small firms or individuals. Only a handful of coal mining operations are run by large companies and these too are small units. 85% of production is anthracite and the remainder bituminous coal. Only in rare cases is lignite or graphite mined and this only in very small quantities. Anthracite is mined in the Libertad, Ancash and Cajamarca departments, bituminous coal in Pasco and Junin and both types of coal in Lima and Arequipa. Current production patterns do not reflect the distribution and abundance of the coal. Coal has been found nearly everywhere in Peru and appears to have great potential whereas measured reserves are minimal and scattered across the country.

  9. Susceptibilidad a los movimientos en masa en la región Cajamarca, Norte de Perú y el deslizamiento de rodeo Pampa el 22 de febrero del 2010

    Bilberto Zavala Carrión


    Full Text Available El 22 de febrero del 2010, un deslizamiento antiguo ubicado en la ladera el cerro Rodeopampa fue reactivado, produciendo el represamiento del valle de Sócota, afluente del río Marañón; afectó tierras agrícolas y algunas viviendas de Rodeopampa en el cuerpo y cabecera del deslizamiento y a San Luis de Lucma en la zona de Run up y embalse, ambas ubicadas en las provincias de Chota y Cutervo, región Cajamarca, norte de Perú. Formó un embalse de 1640 m de longitud y 400 m de ancho con una altura de cierre de 70 a 90 m, que permaneció por meses hasta antes de ser abierto en forma natural por el río. Así como este deslizamiento, diferentes procesos gravitacionales se presentaron durante las lluvias anómalas en el 2008, 1998 y 1983 en la región norte del país, siendo afectadas importantes vías de penetración a la sierra y selva de la región Cajamarca. Estas zonas previamente evaluadas en el estudio de riesgo geológico en la región, y en particular el sector de Rodeopampa, fueron comparadas con el mapa de susceptibilidad elaborado. Dichas áreas ubicadas en zonas de alta y muy alta susceptibilidad a los movimientos en masa, permitieron validar el mapa y su utilidad como herramienta de prevención de desastres y planificación del desarrollo.Susceptibility to mass movements in the Cajamarca region, northern Perú and landslide Rodeopampa on February 22, 2010. On February 22, 2010, an old slide on the slopes the hill Rodeopampa was reactivated, causing damming Sócota Valley, a tributary of the Marañón River affect agricultural land and some houses of Rodeopampa in the body and head of the slip and St. Luis de Lucma in the Run up and reservoir, both located in the provinces of Chota and Cutervo, Cajamarca region, northern Peru. He formed a reservoir of 1640 m long and 400 m wide with a shut height of 70 to 90 m, which remained for months before being opened up naturally by the river. As this slide, different gravitational processes

  10. Asociación de Productores Ecológicos de la Región Cajamarca



    Somos una organización que agrupa a pequeños productores, transformadores y comercializadores de productos ecológicos de las diferentes provincias de la región Cajamarca. La APER Cajamarca es base regional y fundadora de Asociación Nacional de Productores Ecológicos del Perú (ANPE Perú), iniciativa de un conjunto de organizaciones de productores ecológicos organizados con la finalidad de unir esfuerzos en torno a una propuesta de desarrollo nacional basada en la agroecología.

  11. Spotlight: Peru.

    Yacher, L


    This article highlights population statistics from Peru, the 3rd largest country in Latin America. The population in 1985 has been estimated at 19.7 million. In 1982, the birth rate was 35/1000 and the mortality rate was 10/1000. Infant mortality stood at 99/1000 live births and life expectancy at birth was 59 years. 41% of Peru's population is under 15 years of age, and only 4% is 65 years of age or older. The country's total fertility rate is 5.2 births/woman. Only 0.4% of the population is foreign born. Peru is highly urbanized, and 65% of the country's total population growth in 1981 occurred in its cities. 1 in 3 Peruvians resides in the capital city of Lima. The 2 largest racial groups are mestizos and whites (53%) and Indians (46%). 21% of the population is illiterate. 40.7% of the labor force is employed in agriculture; however, only 15% of the national income is derived from agriculture. The GNP per capita was US$1040 in 1983. The country's economy is in serious trouble at present, with an annual inflation rate of 250% and a foreign debt of US$13.5 billion. PMID:12340368

  12. Diversidad de la familia Orchidaceae en los bosques montanos de San Ignacio (Cajamarca, Perú

    Gloria Calatayud


    Full Text Available La insuficiente información sobre la flora, específicamente sobre la familia Orchidaceae y la inminente desaparición de los bosques en la Vertiente Oriental del río Chinchipe (San Ignacio, Cajamarca, fueron las razones suficientes que motivaron a realizar la presente investigación. La evaluación se realizó en cuatro localidades de la provincia San Ignacio (Cajamarca, durante el año 2000, con 27 cuadrantes de 500 m², distribuidos cada 100 m de altitud, desde los 800 hasta los 2700 m, el método de muestreo fue aleatorio. Según el índice de diversidad de Shannon–Wiener, la zona de estudio posee un alto grado de diversidad (entre H’= 5,93 en Selva Andina y H’= 4,02 en Camaná, gracias al buen estado de conservación de los bosques y a la topografía de la zona. Las localidades de Camaná-Crucero (173,55 son menos disímiles por presentar hábitats similares. Selva Andina (969,619 es la localidad más disímil con el grupo Crucero-Camaná-Nuevo Mundo, la cual a los 2700 m presenta un alto endemismo. Para las localidades evaluadas se reportan 205 especies distribuidas en 58 géneros, los cuales son reportes nuevos para la zona, 15 son registros nuevos para Perú, ocho de éstas dejan de ser endémicas para Ecuador. Se reporta por primera vez para Perú el género Chrysocycnis, y dos especies nuevas para la ciencia Sarcoglottis sp. y Maxillaria sp.

  13. Peru : Social Safety Nets in Peru

    World Bank


    The report argues that the Peru's Social Safety Net (SSN) reform process needs to be anchored to a coherent national social safety net and poverty reduction strategy. The report suggests that the SSN interventions should be differentiated, as appropriate, between the urban and rural parts of Peru. For instance, workfare programs to deal with cyclical unemployment only make sense in urban a...

  14. On the wave energy resource of Peru

    Highlights: • The wave energy resource of Peru was assessed for the first time. • Peru has a moderate to high offshore wave energy resource. • The south coast of Peru has a higher wave energy potential than the north coast. • The Peruvian wave energy resource has low temporal variations. • The wave energy resource exceeds by seven times electric power demand in Peru. - Abstract: This is the first assessment of the wave energy resource in Peru, an emerging country with an increasing energy demand and a high dependence on fossil fuels. On the basis of wave buoy measurements, we characterize the offshore wave energy resource and analyze its temporal variability, comparing the results with those obtained in previous works for other regions. A wave propagation numerical model (SWAN) is used to determine the nearshore spatial distribution of wave energy. A total of 357 offshore sea states, representing 90% of the wave energy and 94% of the time in an average year, were propagated. The wave energy in Peru presents a resource exceeding by more than seven times the total electric demand of the country. Because of the large amount of resource available and its low seasonal variation, wave energy must be considered in Peru as an alternative to conventional energy resources

  15. Woody vegetation, endemism and conservation status in the seasonally dry forests of Jaen, Peru

    José Luis Marcelo Peña


    Full Text Available Eight relictual areas of seasonally dry tropical forest (SDTF from the surroundings Jaen city, in Cajamarca, were investigated using a rapid inventory technique. The areas were situated between 5°38’ and 5°48’ S and 78°41’ and 78°48’ W, and between 615 and 1100 m altitude. A total of 151 species, 103 genera and 40 families of woody plants were recorded. The area shows high diversity of woody plants in comparison with other neighbouring regions. Most notable is its endemism, which is the highest in the region of southwest Ecuador and Peru. However, the area is seriously threatened by demand for firewood and the need for land for crops, large cattle farms and housing.

  16. Traditional medicinal plant use in Northern Peru: tracking two thousand years of healing culture

    Sharon Douglas


    Full Text Available Abstract This paper examines the traditional use of medicinal plants in Northern Peru, with special focus on the Departments of Piura, Lambayeque, La Libertad, Cajamarca, and San Martin. Northern Peru represents the center of the old Central Andean "Health Axis," stretching from Ecuador to Bolivia. The roots of traditional healing practices in this region go at least as far back as the Moche period (AC 100–800. Although about 50% of the plants in use reported in the colonial period have disappeared from the popular pharmacopoeia, the plant knowledge of the population is much more extensive than in other parts of the Andean region. 510 plant species used for medicinal purposes were collected, identified and their vernacular names, traditional uses and applications recorded. The families best represented were Asteraceae with 69 species, Fabaceae (35, Lamiaceae (25, and Solanaceae (21. Euphorbiaceae had twelve species, and Apiaceae and Poaceae 11 species. The highest number of species was used for the treatment of "magical/ritual" ailments (207 species, followed by respiratory disorders (95, problems of the urinary tract (85, infections of female organs (66, liver ailments (61, inflammations (59, stomach problems (51 and rheumatism (45. Most of the plants used (83% were native to Peru. Fresh plants, often collected wild, were used in two thirds of all cases, and the most common applications included the ingestion of herb decoctions or the application of plant material as poultices.

  17. Enfermedad de chagas en la Región Nororiental del Perú. I. Triatominos (Hemiptera, Reduviidae) presentes en Cajamarca y Amazonas

    Abraham G. Cáceres; Lucinda Troyes; Antero Gonzáles-Pérez; Enrique Llontop; Carmen Bonilla; Murias; Nixón Heredia; César Velásquez; Carlos Yáñez


    Objetivos: Conocer la diversidad de triatominos presentes en las provincias de San Ignacio y Jaén (Cajamarca) y en Bagua, Condorcanqui y Utcubamba (Amazonas). Materiales y métodos: los triatominos fueron capturados de mayo 1995 a diciembre 2000 en el intra y peridomicilios de las viviendas de las provincias de San Ignacio (5 distritos) y Jaén (10 distritos) del departamento de Cajamarca, y en 5 distritos de Bagua, un distrito de Condorcanqui y en seis de Utcubamba (Amazonas). El muestreo fue ...

  18. Expansión del Aedes aegypti a localidades rurales de Cajamarca

    Lucinda Troyes R


    Full Text Available Objetivos: Determinar la presencia, magnitud y expansión de Aedes aegypti en las localidades rurales de las provincias de Jaén y San Ignacio, departamento de Cajamarca. Materiales y métodos: Estudio transversal realizado entre abril y mayo de 2004, en 21 (100% localidades rurales ubicadas en las márgenes de la carretera Jaén-San Ignacio y al interior de ella, hasta en 90 minutos. Se inspeccionó recipientes de 1460 viviendas para la búsqueda de larvas y adultos del mosquito, se determinaron los índices aédicos, de recipiente y de Breteau. Resultados: Se demostró la presencia de Aedes aegypti en tres localidades rurales de la provincia de Jaén y en cuatro de la provincia de San Ignacio. Los índices aédicos variaron de 1,2 a 16,6%. Los recipientes infestados con mayor frecuencia fueron las llantas y los artículos en desuso. Conclusiones: Se reporta la expansión de A. aegypti en la tercera parte de localidades rurales de las provincias de Jaén y San Ignacio; esta expansión necesita ser más estudiada y considerada al implementarse las estrategias de prevención y control del dengue en la DISA Jaén, para evitar la aparición de brotes de dengue clásico, dengue hemorrágico, incluso fiebre amarilla urbana.

  19. Environmental Exposure and Leptospirosis, Peru

    Johnson, MAS; Smith, H; Joseph, P.; Gilman, R. H.; Bautista, C. T.; Campos, K J; Cespedes, M.; Klatsky, P; Vidal, C.; Terry, H.; Calderon, M M; Coral, C; Cabrera, L.; Parmar, P S; Vinetz, Joseph M.


    Human infection by leptospires has highly variable clinical manifestations, which range from subclinical infection to fulminant disease. We conducted a population-based, cross-sectional seroepidemiologic study in Peru to determine potential relationships of environmental context to human exposure to Leptospira and disease associated with seroconversion. Three areas were studied: a flooded, urban slum in the Peruvian Amazon city of Iquitos; rural, peri-Iquitos villages; and a desert shantytown...

  20. Crop improvement projects in Peru

    Only two percent of the territory of Peru consists of arable land. Sixteen million people depend on the production of about three million hectares of land, which means that on the average only 1800 square metres is available per person. It is clear that Peru is one of the poorest countries of the world as far as available arable land is concerned and consequently it will have to drastically increase its agricultural production per unit area or import large quantities of agricultural products to feed its rapidly growing population. Agricultural research on the efficient use of fertilizers is being carried out by the regional experiment station (CRIA), by the National University of Agriculture, La Molina, Lima, dealing with programmes on maize, potatoes, cereals and forage crops, by national universities in the country and by specialized research institutes for tropical agriculture on sugar-cane, cotton, coffee and tea. Isotope and radiation techniques are a particularly effective means of determining the best cultural practices for the efficient use of fertilizers and water, and the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture has been involved in the organization of field and greenhouse programmes at experiment stations and universities in Peru since 1963

  1. Huaraz, Peru


    A chunk of glacier was threatening to fall into an Andean lake and cause major flooding in a Peruvian city of 60,000. A fissure has appeared in the glacier that feeds the Lake Palcacocha near the city of Huaraz, 270 km north of Lima. If the piece breaks off, ensuing floods would take 15 minutes to reach the city. In 1941, the lake overflowed and caused massive destruction, killing 7,000 people. The city can be seen in the left-center part of the image. Lake Palcacocha is in the upper right corner of the image at the head of a valley, below the snow and glacier cap. The ASTER instrument is being tasked to obtain current images of the glacier to help monitor the situation. This image was acquired on November 5, 2001 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet. ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena

  2. 1970 Huaraz, Peru Images

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 1970, an earthquake-induced rock and snow avalanche on Mt. Huascaran, Peru, buried the towns of Yungay and Ranrahirca. The magnitude 7.8 earthquake killed 66,794...

  3. Petroleum investment conditions in Peru

    This report focuses on the current petroleum investment conditions in Peru, and Peru's hydrocarbon potential. Investment conditions are examined, and political risk, internal security, the economic environment, and the legal framework for investment are considered. (UK)

  4. Nuclear technology in Peru

    This book deals with the Nuclear Energy in Peru. It consists of ten chapters. In the first chapter is presented a rapid overview on nuclear science history. The second chapter describes the nuclear proliferation and the nuclear competition in South America. The nuclear organization in Peru, the Peruvian Institute of Nuclear Energy, and the main centers are described in the third chapter. The following chapters deals with peruvian advances in nuclear medicine, agriculture and food, nuclear application to industry, hydrology, earth sciences and environmental considerations. In the last chapter, the perspectives for nuclear science and technology in Peru are described from the inter institutional cooperation point of view. This book also includes appendix and bibliography. (author)

  5. Calidad del agua en relación con las propiedades del geoecosistema: un estudio de caso de una zona de jalca cerca de Cajamarca, Perú

    L.H. Cammeraat; A.C. Seijmonsbergen; J. Sevink; Y.P.G. Hoogzaad; W.S. Stoops; S.J. de Vet; M.E. de Vries; M. van Veelen; H.A. Weiler; N. Weiss; I. Sánchez-Vega; F. Chunga-Castro; M. Roncal-Rabanal


    Resumen Este estudio presenta una primera aproximación a la relación entre hidrología,calidad del agua, geología y suelos para un ecosistema de jalca cerca de Cajamarca en el norte de Perú. Debido a que las áreas de jalca son propensas a la degradación de sus suelos húmicos, como resultado del uso d

  6. Peru : Accounting and Auditing

    World Bank


    The report provides an assessment of accounting, financial reporting, and auditing practices within the corporate sector in Peru, using International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS), and International Standards on Auditing (ISA) as benchmarks, drawing on international experience and best practices in that field. This Report on the Observance of Standards and Codes (ROSC) Accounting & ...

  7. My Classroom: Peru

    Paglia, Deanna


    Angela Huanca Barrantes, a highly respected teacher of English as a foreign language (EFL) in the city of Ilo, has a strong impact on the lives of students at the Admirante Miguel Grau secondary school and at Centro Cultural Peruano Norteamericano, which is one of four binational centers in southern Peru. Due to Ms. Huanca's lack of understanding…

  8. Modeling economic behavior in Peru's informal urban retail sector

    Smith, J. Barry; Stelcner, Morton


    In Lima, Peru, the informal sector makes up half the labor force, accounts for 61 percent of the hours worked, and generates an astounding 39 percent of GDP. More than half the street vendors are women. In the informal sector, the free play of market forces determines returns to productive factors, especially labor. Informal enterprises are concentrated in low-income areas of urban centers. The authors analyze Peru's urban informal sector - particularly women's role in it - based on a theoret...

  9. Fairy chimneys in Peru

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina


    Erosion creates beautiful landscapes. A large part of them is known just by the local population. Google Maps can help in locating the places, study them and start any project for preservation. An interesting example is given by a landscape of fairy chimneys in Peru, near San Pedro de Larcay. It is remarkable the fact that some of them have been adapted as dwelling places.

  10. Giant Otters in Peru

    Schenk C.


    Full Text Available We are in the second year of fieldwork surveying for Giant Otters in the southeastern rainforest of Peru, in three areas with differing levels of legal protection. While there is some illegal hunting still happening outside the protected areas, the main threat to the otters is badly-conducted tourism. Well-organised tourism can be a promising argument for establishing protected areas like national parks.

  11. Child nutrition: Peru

    Malnutrition stunts physical growth and/or limits mental development in one child out of three in developing countries and is a factor in one-third of the 13 million child deaths which occur annually in developing countries. The Department of Technical Co-operation is sponsoring a programme, with technical support from the Human Health Division, to evaluate the effectiveness of a Government food supplement intervention to combat malnutrition in Peru. (IAEA)

  12. Giant Otters in Peru

    Schenk C.; Staib E.


    We are in the second year of fieldwork surveying for Giant Otters in the southeastern rainforest of Peru, in three areas with differing levels of legal protection. While there is some illegal hunting still happening outside the protected areas, the main threat to the otters is badly-conducted tourism. Well-organised tourism can be a promising argument for establishing protected areas like national parks.

  13. Peru Mercury Inventory 2006

    Brooks, William E.; Sandoval, Esteban; Yepez, Miguel A.; Howard, Howell


    In 2004, a specific need for data on mercury use in South America was indicated by the United Nations Environmental Programme-Chemicals (UNEP-Chemicals) at a workshop on regional mercury pollution that took place in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Mercury has long been mined and used in South America for artisanal gold mining and imported for chlor-alkali production, dental amalgam, and other uses. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) provides information on domestic and international mercury production, trade, prices, sources, and recycling in its annual Minerals Yearbook mercury chapter. Therefore, in response to UNEP-Chemicals, the USGS, in collaboration with the Economic Section of the U.S. Embassy, Lima, has herein compiled data on Peru's exports, imports, and byproduct production of mercury. Peru was selected for this inventory because it has a 2000-year history of mercury production and use, and continues today as an important source of mercury for the global market, as a byproduct from its gold mines. Peru is a regional distributor of imported mercury and user of mercury for artisanal gold mining and chlor-alkali production. Peruvian customs data showed that 22 metric tons (t) of byproduct mercury was exported to the United States in 2006. Transshipped mercury was exported to Brazil (1 t), Colombia (1 t), and Guyana (1 t). Mercury was imported from the United States (54 t), Spain (19 t), and Kyrgyzstan (8 t) in 2006 and was used for artisanal gold mining, chlor-alkali production, dental amalgam, or transshipment to other countries in the region. Site visits and interviews provided information on the use and disposition of mercury for artisanal gold mining and other uses. Peru also imports mercury-containing batteries, electronics and computers, fluorescent lamps, and thermometers. In 2006, Peru imported approximately 1,900 t of a wide variety of fluorescent lamps; however, the mercury contained in these lamps, a minimum of approximately 76 kilograms (kg), and in

  14. New species and host plants of Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae) primarily from Peru and Bolivia.

    Norrbom, Allen L; Rodriguez, Erick J; Steck, Gary J; Sutton, Bruce A; Nolazco, Norma


    Twenty-eight new species of Anastrepha are described and illustrated: A. acca (Bolivia, Peru), A. adami (Peru), A. amplidentata (Bolivia, Peru), A. annonae (Peru), A. breviapex (Peru), A. caballeroi (Peru), A. camba (Bolivia, Peru), A. cicra (Bolivia, Peru), A. disjuncta (Peru), A. durantae (Peru), A. echaratiensis (Peru), A. eminens (Peru), A. ericki (Peru), A. gonzalezi (Bolivia, Peru), A. guevarai (Peru), A. gusi (Peru), A. kimi (Colombia, Peru), A. korytkowskii (Bolivia, Peru), A. latilanceola (Bolivia, Peru), A. melanoptera (Peru), A. mollyae (Bolivia, Peru), A. perezi (Peru), A. psidivora (Peru), A. robynae (Peru), A. rondoniensis (Brazil, Peru), A. tunariensis (Bolivia, Peru), A. villosa (Bolivia), and A. zacharyi (Peru). The following host plant records are reported: A. amplidentata from Spondias mombin L. (Anacardiaceae); A. caballeroi from Quararibea malacocalyx A. Robyns & S. Nilsson (Malvaceae); A. annonae from Annona mucosa Jacq. and Annona sp. (Annonaceae); A. durantae from Duranta peruviana Moldenke (Verbenaceae); and A. psidivora from Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae). PMID:26624697

  15. El pluralismo jurídico y político en Perú: el caso de las Rondas Campesinas de Cajamarca

    Emmanuelle Piccoli


    Full Text Available El artículo analiza, desde un enfoque antropológico, algunos desafíos del pluralismo político y jurídico en el caso de las Rondas Campesinas de Cajamarca (Perú. Organizaciones sociales nacidas con la finalidad de protegerse de robos de ganado, las Rondas Campesinas de la zona norte del Perú, fueron convirtiéndose en un espacio de administración de justicia y de gestión pública comunitaria.

  16. Ante los ojos del mundo: música, minería y conflicto social en el norte andino de Cajamarca, Perú

    Marino Martínez; Julio Mendívil


    Desde tiempos prehispánicos Cajamarca ha sido una importante zona agropecuaria. Pero en las décadas recientes se ha convertido en una zona de agudas convulsiones sociales. Durante el gobierno anticonstitucional de Alberto Fujimori (1990-2002), el estado permitió el ingreso de trasnacionales mineras para la extracción de oro a gran escala. Estas han dañado considerablemente el eco-sistema, la salud y el bienestar de la población local, creando descontento social y protestas. En ese contexto, e...

  17. Enfermedad de chagas en la Región Nororiental del Perú. I. Triatominos (Hemiptera, Reduviidae presentes en Cajamarca y Amazonas

    Abraham G Cáceres


    Full Text Available Objetivos: Conocer la diversidad de triatominos presentes en las provincias de San Ignacio y Jaén (Cajamarca y en Bagua, Condorcanqui y Utcubamba (Amazonas. Materiales y métodos: los triatominos fueron capturados de mayo 1995 a diciembre 2000 en el intra y peridomicilios de las viviendas de las provincias de San Ignacio (5 distritos y Jaén (10 distritos del departamento de Cajamarca, y en 5 distritos de Bagua, un distrito de Condorcanqui y en seis de Utcubamba (Amazonas. El muestreo fue de 08:00 a 19:00 horas con alambre de 30 cm de largo, pinzas largas y linterna de mano. Resultados: se capturaron 5567 triatominos pertenecientes a cinco especies. Panstrongylus herreri fue la especie más predominante (94%. 90% del total de triatominos fueron capturados en ambientes intradomiciliarios. Se reporta Rhodnius robustus por primera vez para Amazonas. Ejemplares de R. ecuadoriensis y R. robustus, fueron colectados en intradomicilios en porcentajes mínimos en Sallique, provincia de Jaén (Cajamarca y Nieva, provincia de Condorcanqui (Amazonas. Panstrongylus geniculatus fue colectado en intradomicilios. Se reporta en ciertas localidades de La Coipa, Huarango y Namballe (San Ignacio; así como en Bellavista y Santa Rosa (Jaén y en Aramango, Copallín e Imaza (Bagua; además, en Jamalca, Cajaruro y Bagua Grande (Utcubamba. Panstrongylus chinai, especie silvestre con tendencia a domesticarse, se encontró en Santa Rosa, Bellavista, Chontalí y San José del Alto (Jaén y en Namballe, San Ignacio, La Coipa y Chirinos (San Ignacio. También se encontró en Cajaruro y Bagua Grande (Utcubamba. 90% de P. herreri fueron colectados en el interior de las viviendas. Para Cajamarca se ha colectado en Pomahuaca, Pucará, San José del Alto, Pirias, Bellavista, Santa Rosa, La Coipa y Huarango; mientras que para Amazonas en Aramango, Parco, Bagua Grande, Cajaruro y El Milagro.

  18. Optica Precolombina Del Peru

    Lunazzi, J J


    Archaeological American mirrors are common findings and the images obtained with them are often described by archaeologists as possessing high quality. However, photographs attesting this fact are rare, if any. To the best of my knowledge, only two papers show that quality concerning the Olmeca culture, and only one of them mentions the pre-Inca cultures case. Certainly more images are needed to increase awareness of the importance of the existence of sophisticated imaging elements, particularly when evaluating the cultural degree of the pre-Columbian civilizations. In this paper we show images made in two museums in Lima, Peru, by means of mirrors and the lens action on a necklace element.

  19. Peru; Recent Economic Developments

    International Monetary Fund


    This paper describes economic developments in Peru during the 1990s. During 1990–92, real GDP growth was negative by 0.9 percent a year on average, reflecting in part deterioration in the terms of trade and adverse weather conditions. During that period, growth in the construction, manufacturing, and fishing sectors was more than offset by a contraction in the agricultural and mining sectors. Gross domestic investment rose from about 15½ percent of GDP in 1990 to 16½ percent in 1992 mainl...

  20. Two new endemic species of Epictia Gray, 1845 (Serpentes: Leptotyphlopidae) from Northern Peru.

    Koch, Claudia; Cruz, Roy Santa; Cárdenas, Heidy


    Herein, we describe two new thread snake species of the genus Epictia from elevations higher than 2000 meters above sea level in the Andes of the Cajamarca Region in Northern Peru. Both species share 10 midtail scale rows, a broad contact between the anterior supralabial and the supraocular scales in most of the specimens, and a yellow spot on the snout and the terminal part of the tail. Epictia venegasi sp. nov. is described on the basis of nine specimens and can further be differentiated from its congeners by having 211-221 mid-dorsal scale rows and a color pattern where each body scale is black on the anterior half and yellow on the posterior half. The description of Epictia vonmayi sp. nov. is based on two specimens which can further be differentiated from their congeners by having 196-205 mid-dorsal scale rows and 14 distinct black longitudinal stripes around the body, which run through the center of each scale and are separated by bright yellow interspaces; accordingly the tail exhibits 10 black longitudinal stripes which likewise run through the center of each scale. PMID:27515649

  1. Assessing Landscape Change in a Mining Area of the Peruvian Andes. A Case Study in The Yanacocha Mine, Cajamarca

    Palacios-Berrios, Hildebrando


    This study examines physical and perceived landscape change in a mining area in northern Peru. Mining conflicts between companies and local people have intensified; this highlights the necessity of a better understanding of environmental and social consequences of mining activities. Landscape studies could be relevant to understand such problematic. I aim to assess the landscape change in a mining area by (1) mapping the physical landscape change and (2) surveying the local lan...

  2. Peru turnaround tied to privatization

    Petroleos del Peru predicts a 10% increase in Peru's oil production this year and a further increase in 1994. Petroperu also forecasts a sharp increase in drilling in Peru this year. After several years of declining oil production, a gradual turnaround in the cash strapped country's petroleum industry is largely tied to its progress in privatization. The government last year began a campaign to privatize all state owned companies by the end of July 1995. The paper discusses forecasts by Petroperu; the contract of Occidental del Amazonas Inc.; the Petromar privatization; Great Western's contract; development of the Aguaytia gas field; and refinery contracts

  3. La chicha y Atahualpa: el Encuentro de Cajamarca en la Suma y narración de los Incas de Juan Diez de Betanzos

    Iván R. Reyna


    Full Text Available El Encuentro de Cajamarca es probablemente el momento más representativo de la conquista de los Incas y uno de los más simbólicos en el establecimiento del sistema colonial en la región andina. Mediante el análisis de la versión de Juan Diez de Betanzos que aparece en su Suma y Narración de los Incas, este ensayo trata de proponer una lectura alternativa sobre dicho evento, en la cual el Inca Atahualpa, luego de haber consumido chicha en exceso, se encontraría embriagado al momento de confrontarse con Fray Vicente de Valverde, lo que le impediría discernir con claridad la amenaza que significaban los invasores.The Cajamarca Encounter is probably the most representative event of the conquest of the Incas and one of the most symbolic in the establishment of the colonial system in the Andean region. By analyzing Juan Diez de Betanzos’ version which appears in his Narrative of the Incas, this essay proposes an alternative reading of the event, in which the Inca Atahualpa, after consuming chicha in excess, is probably drunk when confronted with Fray Vicente de Valverde, preventing him from clearly discerning the threat posed by the invaders.

  4. Peru: 2012 Article IV Consultation

    International Monetary Fund. Western Hemisphere Dept.


    This paper discusses Peru’s economic performance in 2012. The impressive growth is owed to its strong fundamentals and sound policy management. However, the economy is vulnerable to short-term shocks. A low growth in China or in the United States could hamper Peru’s macroeconomic performance. The Executive Board has identified structural reforms for improving productivity, and recommends proactive use of macroprudential measures to limit financial vulnerabilities in the context of large c...

  5. Labor market transitions in Peru

    Herrera, Javier; Rosas Shady, Gerardo David


    (english) Traditional labor market analysis based solely on the net unemployment rate fails to explain the apparent paradox between a relatively moderate unemployment rate in Peru (around 10%, with a weak sensibility to wide macroeconomic fluctuations), and the fact that unemployment is one of the major issues in Peru. One possible explanation is that this static indicator of cross section net unemployment balance is compatible with high flows in and out of employment states. To address these...

  6. Ecological and socio-cultural factors influencing in situ conservation of crop diversity by traditional Andean households in Peru

    Velásquez-Milla Dora


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Peruvian Andean region is a main center of plant domestication of the world. There, several tuber species were domesticated and the area lodges one of the most important reservoirs of their varieties and wild relatives. It is also the setting of traditional cultures using and conserving them. However, crop genetic erosion has been reported in the region since several decades ago; therefore, understanding factors influencing both loss and maintenance of crop variation is relevant to design conservation policies. Previous researches have examined factors influencing agrobiodiversity conservation in the region but additional case studies are recognized to be still necessary for a deeper understanding of causes of genetic erosion and for policy design to prevent and remedy it. Our study focused on analyzing (1 variation in richness of traditional varieties of tubers cultivated among households, (2 changes in varieties richness occurred in four consecutive agricultural cycles, and (3 ecological, social, and cultural factors influencing loss and conservation of varieties. Methods Richness of farmer varieties of tuber species cultivated by 28 peasant households was monitored in communities of Cajamarca and Huánuco, Peru during four consecutive agricultural cycles (from 2001 to 2005. In-depth interviews were conducted with 12 of the households with higher reputation as conservationists, in order to document farmers' perception of tubers qualities in ecological, social, economic, technological and culinary aspects and how these influence their decisions of conservation priorities. Traditional varieties were identified according to their local names, which were then confronted among farmers and with scientific catalogues in order to identify synonyms. Based on the information documented, indexes of ecological and socio-cultural factors affecting agricultural practices were designed, and their linear correlations and multivariate

  7. Safe management of discussed sealed sources in Peru

    The future safe development of nuclear energy and progressive increasing use of sealed sources in medicine, research, industry and other fields in Peru, in the past years have determined the necessity to formulate and apply an Institutional policy to assure harmless and ecologically rational management of disused sealed sources in Peru. Some results of the studies, which served as a basis for design and construction of a facility for treatment, conditioning and storage of conditioned sealed sources are presented in this paper. The waste management system in Peru comprises operational and regulatory capabilities. Both of these activities are performed under a legislation. The Nuclear Research Center RACSO has a radioactive waste management department which is in charge of the management of disused sealed sources produced in the country. It is considered as a centralized waste processing and storage facility (WPSF). (author)

  8. Bribery in Health Care in Peru and Uganda

    Hunt, Jennifer


    In this paper, I examine the role of household income in determining who bribes and how much they bribe in health care in Peru and Uganda. I find that rich patients are more likely than other patients to bribe in public health care: doubling household consumption increases the bribery probability by 0.2-0.4 percentage points in Peru, compared to a bribery rate of 0.8%; doubling household expenditure in Uganda increases the bribery probability by 1.2 percentage points compared to a bribery rat...

  9. Pottery from Peru. A Handbook. Second Edition.

    Rammage, Alix

    One of three handbooks dealing with pottery traditions from around the world, this packet draws together information about historical, ethnographic, and pottery traditions of Peru. The first of 13 brief subsections focuses on Peru's land and people. A presentation of a potter's history of Peru is followed by a discussion of the Chavin Cult (800…

  10. A numerical method for determining the state of stress using focal mechanisms of earthquake populations: application to Tibetan teleseisms and microseismicity of Southern Peru

    Carey-Gailhardis, Evelyne; Louis Mercier, Jacques


    give a good evaluation of the regional (mean) state of stress. Focal mechanisms of the small events are also modelled by a mean stress deviator, but this differs significantly from the regional state of stress in southern Peru deduced from Quaternary faulting. This may be due to imprecise location of the small events. However, some movements are strongly different from those predicted by the computed mean stress deviator. This suggests that small fault kinematics surely depend on the regional state of stress but that local effects may control the small deformations.


    Larson, Janelle M.; Smith, Stephen M.; Abler, David G.; Trivelli, Carolina


    The objective of this paper is to determine the impact of land titling in coastal Peru on the beneficiaries of this program. The paper examines the effects of land titling on access to credit, on-farm investment, the use of conservation techniques and the functioning of land markets.

  12. Comparative clinical studies of nitazoxanide, albendazole and praziquantel in the treatment of ascariasis, trichuriasis and hymenolepiasis in children from Peru.

    Juan, Jave Ortiz; Lopez Chegne, Nicholas; Gargala, Gilles; Favennec, Loic


    Three randomized clinical studies were conducted in 2000 to evaluate the efficacy of nitazoxanide paediatric suspension compared to albendazole in the treatment of ascariasis and trichuriasis and praziquantel in the treatment of hymenolepiasis in children from Cajamarca, Peru. Nitazoxanide was administered at a dose of 100 mg (age 1-3 years) or 200 mg (age 4-11 years) twice daily for 3 days, albendazole as a 400-mg single dose and praziquantel as a 25-mg/kg single dose. Post-treatment parasitological examinations were carried out on 3 faecal samples, each collected on a different day between 21 and 30 days following initiation of treatment. Nitazoxanide cured 89% (25/28), 89% (16/18) and 82% (32/39) of the cases of ascariasis, trichuriasis and hymenolepiasis respectively compared with 91% (32/35), 58% (11/19) and 96% (47/49) for the comparator drugs. Each of the drugs produced egg reduction rates in excess of 98%. There were no significant adverse events or abnormalities in haematology or clinical chemistry values or urinalysis. PMID:12055813

  13. Conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas sobre fascioliasis en madres de una zona rural andina del norte peruano Knowledge, attitudes and practices about fascioliasis among mothers from an andean rural area of north Peru

    Marco Rivera-Jacinto


    Full Text Available Se realizó una encuesta para determinar los conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas sobre fascioliasis en 62 madres de familia de una zona rural endémica de la región andina de Cajamarca, Perú. Sólo el 37,0% reconoce a la alicuya (nombre popular de la Fasciola hepática como parásito responsable de la enfermedad; 56,5 y 85,5% conocen que afecta el hígado de humanos y de los animales respectivamente; 98,4% tiene predisposición positiva para participar de charlas informativas sobre la enfermedad y 75,8% para apoyar activamente a sus autoridades en la solución del problema. El 38,7% indica que bebe emolientes en la calle y 75,6% cría animales considerados huéspedes del parásito. En conclusión, las actitudes de las encuestadas son mayoritariamente favorables para realizar actividades de prevención y control, pese a que sus conocimientos son incorrectos y el entorno familiar realiza ciertas prácticas de riesgo para la enfermedad.A survey to determine knowledge, attitudes and practices about fascioliasis was administered to 62 mothers from a rural endemic zone of Cajamarca’s Andean Region, Peru. Only 37.0% recognized the alicuya (local name for Fasciola hepatica as the parasite responsible for the disease; 56.5% knows that the disease affects the liver in the humans and 85.5% knows affects also animals; 98.4% have a positive predisposition to attend informative talks about the disease and 75.8% to support their authorities actively to solve of the problem. 38.7% referred drinking emollients in the street, 75.6% have domestic animals considered host for the parasite. In conclusion, attitudes of mothers are mostly favourable for prevention and control activities, despite their mistaken knowledge risky practices for fasciolasis among members of their families.

  14. Peru : Country Financial Accountability Assessment

    World Bank


    This Country Financial Accountability Assessment (CFAA) report, looks exclusively at Peru's public sector financial accountability arrangements, and, its primary aim is to assess strengths, and weaknesses, as they relate to the use of Bank funds, particularly under non-investment lending operations. It reviews the legislative framework, relevant to the current reporting environment; the ap...

  15. Camera trap survey of medium and large mammals in a montane rainforest of northern Peru

    Carlos F. Jiménez


    Full Text Available Camera traps are a powerful tool for inventorying elusive and rare species and very useful to obtain ecologi- cal data for plans that involve wildlife conservation. In Peru, several surveys have been carried out in lowland Amazonia especially in the southeastern part of the country, but none in montane cloud forests or Yungas. We present the first camera trap studies produced in Peruvian Yungas at the locality of Querocoto village (Chota, Cajamarca, based on 2002 (dry season and 1264 (wet season camera traps-days (CTD. Two localities were surveyed in wet and dry season: The Pagaibamba Protection Forest and the San Lorenzo Forest. The wet season study was carried out in October and November, and the dry season in July to September of 2008. Eight mammalian species were recorded in both seasons. Some 66 (91.7% independent records were obtained in the dry season, but only six (8.3% in the wet one, suggesting a seasonality effect. The Mountain Paca Cunicu- lus taczanowskii was the most commonly photographed species, with 17.0 and 1.6 capture frequencies (dry and wet season respectively, whereas the Long-tailed weasel Mustela frenata (0.5 capture frequency in the dry season was the most rare species. Activity patterns suggest that Mountain Paca C. taczanowskii and the Andean Skunk C. chinga are nocturnal, while Spectacled Bear T. ornatus and Tayra E. barbara are diurnal in the study area. Our records of the Ocelot Leopardus pardalis and the Tayra E. barbara are among the highest altitudinal records known for each species. In addition, the Anta Tapirus pinchaque was also identified by its tracks, representing one of the first record known south of the Huancabamba Depression.

  16. Foreign oil companies weathering Peru's political crisis

    This paper reports that foreign oil companies are weathering Peru's political crisis, and the outlook for increased foreign participation in Peru's petroleum sector remains promising. There has been improvement in the political turmoil and soured international relations that followed President Alberto Fujimori's Apr. 5 suspension of Peru's Congress, charging political corruption and attempts to block his fiscal reforms. But there are fresh concerns over an increase in terrorism aimed at oil industry facilities by antigovernment guerrilla groups in Peru. Meanwhile, state-owned oil company Petroleos del Peru (Petroperu) continues efforts to sell assets as part of Fujimori's mandated privatization program. And foreign companies continue to grapple with uncertainty and bureaucratic red tape in chasing investment opportunities in Peru's beleaguered but opening petroleum sector

  17. Peruánská gastronomie

    Bočková, Petra


    The aim of this thesis is to characterize culture and gastronomy of Peru as a specific tourist destination. First part -- the theoretical one -- deals with explanation of main terms from the fields of tourism and gastronomy. Following parts include characteristics of Peru and its gastronomy. The second chapter, in particular, involves basic information about realia, geography and history of Peru, followed by characteristics of tourism in the country. The third chapter, first of all, explains ...

  18. Nutritional Determinants of Urban Deprived Youth: An Economic and Cross-Cultural Analysis of the U.S., Columbia, and Peru

    Walter, John P.


    Factors influencing the nutrition of North and South American urban youths from 14-21 years of age are examined. Economic factors which play a role in determining the demand for improved nutrition and the relative importance of economic and noneconomic factors in nutrition are assessed. The effectiveness of higher income as a solution to…

  19. The regulatory state in Peru

    Parodi Trece, Carlos A.


    Significant institutional changes have taken place during the government of Alberto Fujimori. What is the meaning of these changes? Do they reflect Alberto Fujimori's strategy of power consolidation? Are they the result of the strategy of dominant economic classes to continue exploiting Peru's resources? Or are these institutions reflecting a process of democratization of the state?   This article explores these questions by examining state institutions in the area of public services. The arg...

  20. Khipu accounting in ancient Peru.

    Urton, Gary; Brezine, Carrie J


    Khipu are knotted-string devices that were used for bureaucratic recording and communication in the Inka Empire. We recently undertook a computer analysis of 21 khipu from the Inka administrative center of Puruchuco, on the central coast of Peru. Results indicate that this khipu archive exemplifies the way in which census and tribute data were synthesized, manipulated, and transferred between different accounting levels in the Inka administrative system. PMID:16099983

  1. Craniofacial plasticity in ancient Peru.

    Stone, Jessica H; Chew, Kristen; Ross, Ann H; Verano, John W


    Numerous studies have utilized craniometric data to explore the roles of genetic diversity and environment in human cranial shape variation. Peru is a particularly interesting region to examine cranial variation due to the wide variety of high and low altitude ecological zones, which in combination with rugged terrain have created isolated populations with vastly different physiological adaptations. This study examines seven samples from throughout Peru in an effort to understand the contributions of environmental adaptation and genetic relatedness to craniofacial variation at a regional scale. Morphological variation was investigated using a canonical discriminant analysis and Mahalanobis D(2) analysis. Results indicate that all groups are significantly different from one another with the closest relationship between Yauyos and Jahuay, two sites that are located geographically close in central Peru but in very different ecozones. The relationship between latitude/longitude and face shape was also examined with a spatial autocorrelation analysis (Moran's I) using ArcMap and show that there is significant spatial patterning for facial measures and geographic location suggesting that there is an association between biological variation and geographic location. PMID:25807293

  2. Education and Youth Employment in Urban Peru

    Cecilia Garavito


    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to analyze which variables determine that young people who still live with their parents study, work, combine both activities or stay away from them. We are interested in what is it that keeps young people in the educative system, even if they are working, and if there are differences related to gender roles. We work with a model of efficient cooperative negotiation between parents and the son or daughter, and estimate a Multinomial Logit regression with data for urban Peru in the year 2014. We find that young people will stay in the educative system, even if they are working, when their negotiation power at home is high, when their opportunity cost is low, and when their parents have a higher level of education.

  3. Floating Exchange Rates in Peru, 1950-54

    Lyons, Richard K.


    I test three potentially complementary models in an effort to capture the fundamentals that underlaid the market's determination of Peru's floating exchange rate through the period 1950-54: the first is an expectational purchasing power parity (PPP) model which maintains that asset market forces were driving the exchange rate to its perceived PPP level; the second is a flexible-price monetary model; and the third is a model along the lines described by Tsiang (1957) which emphasizes world pri...

  4. Syndromic Management and STI Control in Urban Peru

    Clark, Jesse L; Lescano, Andres G.; Konda, Kelika A.; Leon, Segundo R.; Jones, Franca R.; Klausner, Jeffrey D; Coates, Thomas J.; Carlos F. Caceres; ,


    Background Syndromic management is an inexpensive and effective method for the treatment of symptomatic sexually transmitted infections (STIs), but its effectiveness as a method of STI control in at-risk populations is questionable. We sought to determine the potential utility of syndromic management as a public health strategy to control STI transmission in high-risk populations in urban Peru. Methodology We surveyed 3,285 at-risk men and women from three Peruvian cities from 2003–05. Partic...

  5. Peru : Overcoming the Barriers to Hydropower

    World Bank


    Hydropower has been the major source of electricity in Peru, traditionally supplying more than 80 percent of electricity requirements, and serving as a source of independent generation for major mines and industries. With the development of natural gas in the early 1990s, and the opening of the Camisea pipeline, the Government of Peru's (GOP's) attention turned to providing incentives for ...

  6. New Trends in Talent Development in Peru

    Blumen, Sheyla


    A comprehensive portrait of the current status of gifted and talented concepts, identification of the gifted, and associated provisions within Peru is presented. The major purposes of this article are (a) to analyze the primary conception of giftedness in Peru; (b) to describe the beliefs that people have about gifted individuals; (c) to present…

  7. Using 10Be cosmogenic surface exposure dating to determine the evolution of the Purgatorio active fault in the Andean forearc, southern Peru

    Carlos, Benavente; Swann, Zerathe; Laurence, Audin; Fabrizio, Delgado; Marianne, Saillard; Sarah, Hall R.; Aster Team


    Active transpressive deformation has been occurring along the Andean hyperarid forearc for the last 3 Myrs but many of these faults are still not described even if able to produce large damaging earthquakes. Active faulting along the northern part of the Arica Bend can be recognized due to the presence of well-preserved and sharp fault scarps indicating recent surface slip. During the Mio-Pliocene, deposition within the forearc continental basins resulted in the formation of vast fan deposits and conglomerates of the Moquegua Formation, which can be considered as bedrock in this exposure study (~45-4 Ma; Tosdal et al., 1984; Sebrier et al., 1988a; Roperch et al., 2006). The typical vertical Purgatorio fault scarps offset both the Moquegua bedrock and several younger geomorphic features associated with formation outcroping vertically along the fault scarp. These samples are well-suited to the application of in situ produced cosmogenic radionuclides for surface exposure dating, as the hyperarid region has extremely low erosion rates. We sampled the scarp away from any significant drainage so as to avoid possibly disturbed areas. The sampling did involve extracting quarzite conglomeratic material along the bedrock scarp and on the upper surrounding crests. The aim has been to measure Berylium-20 TCN (Terrestrial in situ Cosmogenic Nuclides) concentrations to determine exposure age as a function of height on the scarp. This has been successfully employed on one scarp in Italy based on Chlorine-36 TCN (Palumbo et al., 2004). However, slow faults behaviour remains unclear and more contributions are needed. Quaternary activity of the Purgatorio fault system was evidenced by Hall et al. (2008). They highlighted a vertical offset of about ~100 m for a pediment surface intercepted by the fault, and dated at ~280 ka. Considering that the pediment surface is horizontal, this would gave a maximum of ~0.3 mm/yr of vertical deformation since 280 ka. Our new data provide evidences

  8. The Cyber Media in Peru

    Ing. Lyudmyla Yezers´ka


    Full Text Available The results of an investigation whose primary target is to analyze the panorama of media on the Internet in Peru in the last quarter of the 2004 are presented. The birth and the consolidation of the Peruvian media on the Internet have been influenced by the economic, political and social problems that this country has lived through throughout its history. In spite of the few users which the media still have on the Internet, however, Peruvian journalism is making an effort to experiment with new formats and is conscious that in the future these means of communication will become essential elements for publication on the Web.

  9. Susceptibilidad a los movimientos en masa en la región Cajamarca, Norte de Perú y el deslizamiento de rodeo Pampa el 22 de febrero del 2010

    Bilberto Zavala Carrión; Malena Rosado; Samuel Lu León


    El 22 de febrero del 2010, un deslizamiento antiguo ubicado en la ladera el cerro Rodeopampa fue reactivado, produciendo el represamiento del valle de Sócota, afluente del río Marañón; afectó tierras agrícolas y algunas viviendas de Rodeopampa en el cuerpo y cabecera del deslizamiento y a San Luis de Lucma en la zona de Run up y embalse, ambas ubicadas en las provincias de Chota y Cutervo, región Cajamarca, norte de Perú. Formó un embalse de 1640 m de longitud y 400 m de ancho con una altura ...

  10. Archaeoastronomical Fieldwork in Peru

    Zawaski, Mike J.; Malville, J.


    During June-July 2005, sets of 14 horizon photographs were obtained at 10 major monumental sites of the Inca as identified in Hemming and Ranney (1982) . The photographs were combined to yield complete 360o panoramas at each of the sites. To calibrate the panoramas a Wild T-2 theodolite was used to obtain 5 pairs of altitude/azimuth measurements of the Sun at each site. The standard deviation of multiple determinations of true north was typically 0.25'to 0.5'. As a check on the sun sights, a line-of-sight azimuth was also established with GPS measurements at each site. Agreement between these baselines and the sun sights are satisfactory. We find evidence of June solstice and/or Pleiades orientations at Llactapata, Sayhuite, and Ollantaytambo; cardinal orientation at Vilcashuman; June solstice established by horizon towers above Urubamba; and both zenith and anti-zenith solar alignments at the tower of Muyuc Marca of Sacsayhuman. Terracing, walls, and water features at Ollantaytambo suggest interest in both June and December solstices. The statistical significance of these orientations is evaluated. A permit was issued by the office of the Institute Cultura National in Cusco for field work at all of these sites. This work was undertook as partial fulfillment of the requirement for a MA degree in Earth Sciences at the University of Northern Colorado. Funding was provided by Sigma Xi and The University of Northern Colorado. Hemming, J. and E. Ranney. 1982. Monuments of the Inca, Boston: Little, Brown

  11. Intestinal helminthes of schoolchildren of Chorrillos and Pachacamac, Lima, Peru

    Iannacone, J.


    Full Text Available In Peru, intestinal helminthiases have been widely studied, because they are a very frequent problem in Public Health. The aim of current research was to determinate prevalence of infection of enteroparasites in primary schoolchildren of two national schools, both of rural zones from Pachacamac and Chorrillos district, Lima, Peru during 1999. A coproparasitological survey to 162 childrens (3 per child on consecutive days in stool samples fixed in 10 % formaline, previous homogenization employing conventional exams by direct microscopy dyed with lugol, and by spontaneous Tube Sedimentation technique were performed. In addition, the occurrence of eggs of Enterobius vermicularis was examined by adhesive cellotape anal swap method. Eight helminthes were diagnosed to Chorrillos (n=72 and Pachacamac (n=90: Diphyllobothrium pacificum (1.3%; 0%, Taenia sp. (0%; 1.1%, Hymenolepis nana (37.5%; 8.8%, Hymenolepis diminuta (8.3%; 0%, Ancylostoma duodenale Necator americanus (0%; 2.2%, Trichuris trichiura (9.7%; 6.6%, Ascaris lumbricoides(15.3%; 35.5%, y E. vermicularis (31.9%; 45.5%. Total prevalence of infection was 72.2% and 72.2% and polyparasitism was 25% and 22.2%, respectively. Jaccard index showed a 50 % and Sörensen index a 66.7% of similarity between helminthes of both districts. Programs of sanitary and environmental education and control campaigns of intestinal helminthes should be improved and implemented in Lima, Peru.

  12. Counterfeit medicines in Peru: a retrospective review (1997–2014)

    Medina, Edwin; Bel, Elvira; Suñé, Josep María


    Objective To consolidate and assess information on counterfeit medicines subject to pharmaceutical alerts issued by the Peruvian Medicines Regulatory Authority over 18 years (1997–2014) of health monitoring and enforcement. Design A retrospective review of drug alerts. Setting A search of the website of the General Directorate of Medicines, Supplies and Drugs (DIGEMID) of the Ministry of Health of Peru for drug alerts issued between 1997 and 2014. Eligibility criteria Drug alerts related to counterfeit medicines. Results A total of 669 DIGEMID alerts were issued during the study period, 354 (52.91%) of which cover 1738 cases of counterfeit medicines (many alerts deal with several cases at a time). 1010 cases (58.11%) involved pharmaceutical establishments and 349 (20.08%) involved non-pharmaceutical commercial outlets. In 126 cases (7.25%), counterfeit medicines were seized in an unauthorised trade (without any marketing authorisation); in 253 cases (14.56%) the type of establishment or business associated with the seized product was not identified. Conclusions Counterfeit medicines are a serious public health problem in Peru. A review of the data cannot determine whether counterfeit medicines in Peru increased during the study period, or if monitoring by different government health agencies highlighted the magnitude of the problem by providing more evidence. The problem is clearly structural, since the majority of cases (58.11% of the total) were detected in legitimate supply chains. Most counterfeit medicines involve staple pharmaceutical products and common dosage forms. Considerable work remains to be done to control the serious problem of counterfeit medicines in Peru. PMID:27044580

  13. Machu Picchu, Peru


    applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. Science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, a long-term research and technology program designed to examine Earth's land, oceans, atmosphere, ice and life as a total integrated system.Size: 12 x 15 km (7.3 x 9.44 miles) Location: 13.2 deg. South lat., 72.5 deg. West long. Orientation: North at top Image Data: ASTER bands 1,2, and 3. Original Data Resolution: 15 m Date Acquired: June 25, 2001

  14. Peru - privatisation draws in major new investments

    The recent charges in Peru's energy sector are reported as the privatisation campaign draws to a close. Sectors covered include the splitting of the petroleum company into its components of production, refining, transport and marketing. (UK)

  15. The Giant Otter Project In Peru 1995

    Christof Schenck


    Full Text Available Giant Otters (Pteronura brasiliensis are rarely investigated but highly endangered. The project "STATUS, HABITAT AND CONSERVATION OF GIANT OTTERS IN PERU" from the Frankfurt Zoological Society, - Help for Threatened Wildlife - started in 1990 with a two and half year fieldwork period. The project is actually run with a yearly two months fieldwork period in Peru and ongoing analyzing, management and coordination from Germany. Following we give the report for 1995.

  16. Infrastructure and economic growth in Peru

    Roberto Urrunaga; Carlos Aparicio


    This article reviews the literature analysing the importance of infrastructure for economic growth, and performs an econometric estimation to discover the relation between the two variables in the case of Peru. Different estimators are used with panel data from the 24 regions of Peru for the period 1980-2009. The econometric results confirm that public-service infrastructures (roads, electricity and telecommunications) are important in explaining temporary differences in regional output, in k...

  17. Currency Substitution and Inflation in Peru

    Liliana Rojas-Suárez


    This paper shows that there is a long-run relationship between the expected rate of depreciation in the black-market-exchange rate and the ratio of domestic to foreign money in Peru; that is, the hypothesis of currency substitution can explain the behavior of real holdings of money in Peru. The paper also shows that, while the importance of currency substitution as a transmission mechanism through which domestic policies affected the dynamics of inflation was relatively small during a period ...

  18. Metropolitan growth and migration in Peru

    Malmberg, Gunnar


    Abstract: The study deals with the interplay between migration and metropolitan growth in Peru during the last decades. The key question is to what extent Peru's rural-urban migration and rapid urban growth is triggered by opportunities within the formal and informal sectors in the growing metropolis of Lima. Aggregated data about migration have been related to information of socioeconomic and geographical conditions in rural and urban areas. Multivariate models of interregional migration are...

  19. [The health system of Peru].

    Alcalde-Rabanal, Jacqueline Elizabeth; Lazo-González, Oswaldo; Nigenda, Gustavo


    This paper describes the health conditions in Peru and, with greater detail, the Peruvian health system, including its structure and coverage, its financial sources, its physical, material and human resources, and its stewardship functions. It also discusses the activities developed in the information and research areas, as well as the participation of citizens in the operation and evaluation of the health system. The article concludes with a discussion of the most recent innovations, including the Comprehensive Health Insurance, the Health Care Enterprises system, the decentralization process and the Local Committees for Health Administration. The main challenge confronted by the Peruvian health system is the extension of coverage to more than I0% of the population presently lacking access to basic health care. PMID:21877089

  20. Joint Peru/United States report on Peru/United States cooperative energy assessment. Volume 2. Annex 1


    An examination of the energy sources of Peru was undertaken by the USA in collaboration with Peru. First, an introduction establishes the purpose and summarizes results, after which the status of energy supply is presented. The ensuing sections contain the contributions of the participating technical specialists, namely: Peru's hydrocarbon potential, estimated reserves, and projected production rates; coal deposits in Peru; geothermal energy; uranium; miscellaneous energy sources; energy-related minerals; water resources in Peru; and geologic hazards in Peru. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the sections. (MCW)

  1. Slope stability of moraines, Cordillera Blanca, Peru

    Klimes, J.; Novotny, J.


    Landslides originating from inner slopes of moraine dams are often capable of producing glacial lakes outburst floods (GLOFs). Therefore assessing stability conditions of the moraines is important for predicting this potentially damaging phenomenon. Characteristics of the basic mechanical properties of the material and geophysical investigations were applied to collect necessary information for slope stability assessment of the Palcacocha Lake moraine dam, Peru. The lake is situated in the Cordillera Blanca Mts. at the altitude of about 4,500m asl and produced catastrophic GLOF in 1941. Another minor flood originated in 2003 due to landslide impact into the lake. Detailed investigations of this landslide site included geomorphological mapping, geophysical investigations and characterization of basic mechanical properties of the forming material. Geomorphological mapping identified dormant landslide with scarp up to 2m high which developed on the edge of the inner moraine slope. It is conditioned by set of parallel extension trenches which also affected the origin of 2003 landslide. Within its scarp area, significant water bearing layer was noticed around 10 m bellow the moraine surface. Three profiles were investigated using electric resistivity tomography performed on 4poing light instrument with 24 electrodes and with spacing ranging from 1 to 4m. Results helped to verify geometry of the main shear plane of the mapped landslide as well as the spacing and depth of extension trenches. Significant heterogeneity in the moraine resistivity characteristics was found. The high resistivity regions are explained by rock block accumulation whereas the low resistivity may represent wet layers within the moraine body. Grain size distribution of 33 disturbed soil samples originating from moraine material within the Cordillera Blanca Mts., Peru were determined and classified according to the UCSC classification system. The samples were taken from moraine dams and slopes

  2. The Peru Cervical Cancer Prevention Study (PERCAPS): Community Based Participatory Research in Manchay, Peru

    Levinson, Kimberly L.; Abuelo, Carolina; Chyung, Eunice; Salmeron, Jorge; Belinson, Suzanne E; Sologuren, Carlos Vallejos; Ortiz, Carlos Santos; Vallejos, Maria Jose; Belinson, Jerome L.


    Objective Cervical cancer is a preventable disease which causes significant morbidity and mortality, particularly in developing countries. While technology for early detection continues to improve, prevention programs suffer from significant barriers. Community Based Participatory Research is an approach to research which focuses on collaboration with the community to surmount these barriers. The objective of this study was to evaluate the utility of Community Based Participatory Research techniques in a mother-child screen/treat and vaccinate program for cervical cancer prevention in Manchay, Peru. Methods/materials HPV self-sampling and cryotherapy were utilized for the screen/treat intervention, and the Gardasil vaccine was utilized for the vaccine intervention. Community health workers from Manchay participated in a 3-day educational course, designed by the research team. The community health workers then decided how to implement the interventions in their community. The success of the program was measured by: 1) the ability of the community health workers to determine an implementation plan, 2) the successful use of research forms provided, 3) participation and retention rates, and 4) satisfaction of the participants. Results 1) The community health workers used a door-to-door approach through which participants were successfully registered and both interventions were successfully carried out; 2) registration forms, consent forms, and result forms were utilized correctly with minimal error; 3) screen/treat intervention: 97% of registered participants gave an HPV sample, 94% of HPV positive women were treated, and 90% returned for 6-month follow-up; vaccine intervention: 95% of registered girls received the 1st vaccine, 97% of those received the 2nd vaccine, and 93% the 3rd; 4) 96% of participants in the screen/treat intervention reported high satisfaction. Conclusion Community Based Participatory Research techniques successfully helped to implement a screen

  3. Organic Carbon Stabilization of Soils Formed on Acidic and Calcareous Bedrocks in Neotropical Alpine Grassland, Peru

    Yang, Songyu; Cammeraat, Erik; Jansen, Boris; Cerli, Chiara; Kalbitz, Karsten


    Increasing evidence shows that Neotropical alpine ecosystems are vulnerable to global change. Since soils in the alpine grasslands of the Peruvian Andean region have large soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks, profound understanding of soil organic matter (OM) stabilization mechanisms will improve the prediction of the feedback between SOC stocks and global change. It is well documented that poor-crystalline minerals and organo-metallic complexes significantly contribute to the OM stabilization in volcanic ash soils, including those in the Andean region. However, limited research has focused on non-ash soils that also express significant SOC accumulation. A pilot study of Peruvian Andean grassland soils suggests that lithology is a prominent factor for such carbon accumulation. As a consequence of contrasting mineral composition and pedogenic processes in soils formed on different non-volcanic parent materials, differences in OM stabilization mechanisms may be profound and consequently may respond differently to global change. Therefore, our study aims at a further understanding of carbon stocks and OM stabilization mechanisms in soils formed on contrasting bedrocks in the Peruvian Andes. The main objective is to identify and compare the roles that organo-mineral associations and aggregations play in OM stabilization, by a combination of selective extraction methods and fractionations based on density, particle size and aggregates size. Soil samples were collected from igneous acidic and calcareous sedimentary bedrocks in alpine grassland near Cajamarca, Peru (7.17°S, 78.63°W), at around 3700m altitude. Samples were taken from 3 plots per bedrock type by sampling distinguishable horizons until the C horizons were reached. Outcomes confirmed that both types of soil accumulate large amounts of carbon: 405.3±41.7 t/ha of calcareous bedrock soil and 226.0±5.6 t/ha of acidic bedrock soil respectively. In addition, extremely high carbon contents exceeding 90g carbon per

  4. Methane emissions from enteric fermentation of representative dairies in Peru: Nutritional strategies to reduce the emissions

    Estimates of methane emissions from enteric fermentation of cattle in five typical locations of Peru and nutritional strategies to reduce those emissions are presented. The system in the coast considers animals in free-stall and in the highland cattle graze on pastures. Methodology applied was the Tier-2, IPCC. Cows on both grazing systems produce more methane per unit of milk and less methane per animal than in the coast. Strategies than improve quality of forage in the highlands can allow more milk with less methane emission. The methodology used considered five farm types, which were selected to estimate methane emissions from enteric fermentation. Farm PE-180 located in the coast (50 masl); farms PE-15 and PE-6 located in Cajamarca (north highland; > 2800 masl) and farms PE-1 and PE-4 located in Junin (central highland; 3600 - 4400 masl). The production system in the coast considers animals in free-stall with high use of concentrate and corn forage. Highland units consider grazing on cultivated (PE-15) and natural pasture (PE-6, PE-1 and PE-4) with limited use of concentrate. The methodology applied was the Tier-2, Ipc. Information was collected using specific surveys applied during one year that included rainy and dry season for the highland regions. Previous estimates using Tier-1, IPCC have been presented. The results of methane emissions from cattle show that animals on grazing system produce less methane than free-stall. However, when milk production is considered dairy cows on free-stall system produce 0.015 - 0.02 kg methane / kg of milk which is lower than emission from animals on grazing system producing 0.03 - 0.13 kg methane / kg milk corresponding the higher values to animals on natural pasture. Considering total methane emission (lactating + growing animals) in relation to milk production per farm, grazing systems compare even less favourably per kg milk than stall systems. In addition, there is opportunity with the actual cattle genotypes to

  5. New species of Solanum (Solanaceae) from Peru and Ecuador

    Sandra Knapp


    Abstract Three new species of “non-spiny" Solanum are described from Peru and Ecuador, and a revised description for Solanum verecundum M. Nee is presented. Solanum kulliwaita S. Knapp, sp. nov. (Dulcamaroid clade) is endemic to the Department of Cuzco in southern Peru, and is most similar to the recently described Solanum sanchez-vegae S. Knapp of northern Peru. Solanum dillonii S. Knapp, sp. nov. (Brevantherum clade) is found in southern Ecuador and northern Peru in the Amotape-Huancabamba ...

  6. Report of Heat Flow Measurements in Peru and Ecuador

    Uyeda, Seiya; WATANABE, Teruhiko; Ozasayama, Yoji; Ibaragi, K.


    Results of terrestrial heat flow measurements in Peru and Ecuador conducted in 1969, are reported. Eight different sites in Peru and one site in Ecuador were visited for underground temperature measurement. However, data from only five metal mines in Peru and the metal exploration site in Ecuador were usable. The geothermal gradient data on four oil fields in Peru and two in Ecuador were referenced. Although high heat flow has been indicated on the continent side of the Andes (the Gasapalca a...

  7. Geomorphological investigation and landslide monitoring at Machu Picchu, Peru

    Vilímek, V.; Klimeš, Jan; Zvelebil, J.; Astete, F.V.; Codova, J.

    Lima : Sociedád Geologica del Peru , 2006. [Congreso Peru ano de Geología /13./. 17.10.2006-20.10.2006, Lima] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519 Keywords : GLOF * Huaraz * Peru Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  8. 7 CFR 319.56-41 - Citrus from Peru.


    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Citrus from Peru. 319.56-41 Section 319.56-41... from Peru. Grapefruit (Citrus paradisi), limes (C. aurantiifolia), mandarins or tangerines (C... States from Peru under the following conditions: (a) The fruit must be accompanied by a permit issued...

  9. The oil and gas market in Peru

    Petroleum companies in Peru have scheduled investments of $298.5 million for exploration activities for year 2000, which is double the 1999 investment. The demand for oil in Peru is about 140,000 barrels per day, of which local production can supply 106,00 b/d. In 2000, imports of crude oil were worth approximately $447.7 million. The 18 sedimentary basins throughout Peru are estimated to contain 16 billion barrels of crude oil reserves. The greatest exploration activity took place in the Talara basin, while only limited exploration took place in the Maranon and Ucayali basins. The discovery of the Camisea and Aguaytia gas fields present significant potential for development, particularly for foreign investment. Upstream development of the $4.5 billion Camisea project will be undertaken by a consortium of international companies and is expected to be completed by 2004. In addition, Aguaytia Energy is working on a pipeline construction project worth up to $3 million. Canadian oil and gas companies will find opportunities to supply equipment and services for drilling wells, petroleum and natural gas pipelines, and production and storage facilities for petroleum and natural gas. United States, Argentina, Brazil, Japan and the European Union are the main foreign competitors in Peru. It is recommended that foreign companies make use of a local agent when conducting business in Peru. refs., tabs

  10. Human herpesvirus 8 genotype E in patients with Kaposi sarcoma, Peru.

    Cassar, Olivier; Blondot, Marie Lise; Mohanna, Salim; Jouvion, Gregory; Bravo, Francisco; Maco, Vicente; Duprez, Renan; Huerre, Michel; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Gessain, Antoine


    International audience To determine human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) K1 genotypes in patients with Kaposi sarcoma (KS) from Peru, we characterized HHV-8 in 25 KS biopsy samples. Our findings of 8 A, 1 B, 14 C, and 2 E subtypes showed high HHV-8 diversity in these patients and association between E genotype and KS development.

  11. Peru continues to press privitization efforts

    This paper reports that Peru has again extended the deadline for bids on a 30 year operating contract for state owned Petromar SA's offshore Block Z-2b. The tender is key to efforts to privatize Petromar, a subsidiary of state oil company Petroleos del Peru. The committee charged with implementing Petromar privatization extended the deadline for bids another 70 days Oct. 30, following a 60 day extension made in September. The latest deadline for bids is Feb. 10, with the contract expected to be awarded Feb. 26. A bid package on Block Z-2b is available from Petroperu's Lima headquarters for $20,000. Petromar operates the former Belco Petroleum Corp. offshore assets Peru's government expropriated in 1985. It currently produces 17,600 b/d, compared with 27,000 b/d at the time of expropriation

  12. Peru action simmering despite privatization delays

    After months of delays, the sale of Petroleos del Peru SA (Petroperu) was postponed earlier this year until after the elections, which saw Peru's incumbent President Alberto Fujimori reelected. In June, Fujimori appointed Amado Yataco Minister of Energy and Mines. Yataco, also serving as president of the privatization commission Copri, said a decision on the sale of Petroperu would be made quickly, perhaps by July 28, ahead of this report's presstime. The uncertain status of Petroperu has not, however, slowed activity in Peru's petroleum sector. The paper first discusses privatization plans and Petroperu's budget, then describes exploration and development activities in the supergiant Camisea gas/condensate fields in the central southern jungle. Activities in several smaller fields are briefly described

  13. Characterizaton of the Zarumilla aquifer - Peru, Ecuador

    In October 1998, Peru and Ecuador signed the Brasilia Agreements on Ecuadro-Peru border issues, representing the end of historical conflicts, differences and misunderstnadings. The two countries became partners after years of armed conflicts, and move forward through cooperation and integration, both facing social and aconomic challenges. In May 2001, the Special Bi-national Project Puyango-Tumbes (Peru) and the Ecuadorian Commission PREDESUR, province of El Oro, as technical institutes in charge of projects dealing with binational development, were invited to participate in the regional project RLA/8/031. The results of the first phase of the study are presented in this document. The study will be continued under the TC project RlA/8/039 - 'Characterization of the Zarumilla aquifer and monitoring of water quality in the Puyango-Tumbes basin'. (author)

  14. Young Lives Preliminary Country Report: Peru.

    Escobal, Javier; Lanata, Claudio; Madrid, Sofia; Penny, Mary; Saavedra, Jaime; Suárez,Pablo; Verastegui, Héctor; Villar, Eliana; Huttly, Sharon


    This report presents a brief literature review of childhood poverty in Peru, identifies key national audiences for the Young Lives study, explains the study methods used and presents provisional evidence, conclusions and policy implications. The Peruvian economy underwent a series of crises and external shocks in the 1980s and 1990s. The number of poor households rose rapidly from 43 per cent of the total in 1985-86 to 59 per cent in 1991. Despite reforms in the 1990s, Peru has one of the hig...

  15. Características morfométricas, genéticas, alimenticias y vectoriales de Panstrongylus herreri procedentes de Jaén (Cajamarca) y Cajaruro (Amazonas), Perú

    Jenny Ancca; Jesús Pinto; Silvia Vega; Abraham G. Cáceres; Cesar Náquira


    Objetivo. Comparar las características morfológicas, alimenticias y genéticas de dos poblaciones de Panstrongylus herreri, de los distritos de Jaén (Cajamarca) y Cajaruro (Amazonas). Materiales y métodos. Se colectó especímenes adultos de P. herreri, 42 (Jaén) y 68 (Cajaruro). Se utilizó la morfometría geométrica para evaluar el dimorfismo sexual de tamaño y conformación. El perfil genómico se realizó por amplificación del espaciador interno transcrito del ADNr (ITS-2). La amplificación del e...

  16. Susceptibilidad a los movimientos en masa en la región Cajamarca, Norte de Perú y el deslizamiento de rodeo Pampa el 22 de febrero del 2010

    Bilberto Zavala Carrión


    Full Text Available El 22 de febrero del 2010, un deslizamiento antiguo ubicado en la ladera el cerro Rodeopampa fue reactivado, produciendo el represamiento del valle de Sócota, afluente del río Marañón; afectó tierras agrícolas y algunas viviendas de Rodeopampa en el cuerpo y cabecera del deslizamiento y a San Luis de Lucma en la zona de Run up y embalse, ambas ubicadas en las provincias de Chota y Cutervo, región Cajamarca, norte de Perú. Formó un embalse de 1640 m de longitud y 400 m de ancho con una altura de cierre de 70 a 90 m, que permaneció por meses hasta antes de ser abierto en forma natural por el río. Así como este deslizamiento, diferentes procesos gravitacionales se presentaron durante las lluvias anómalas en el 2008, 1998 y 1983 en la región norte del país, siendo afectadas importantes vías de penetración a la sierra y selva de la región Cajamarca. Estas zonas previamente evaluadas en el estudio de riesgo geológico en la región, y en particular el sector de Rodeopampa, fueron comparadas con el mapa de susceptibilidad elaborado. Dichas áreas ubicadas en zonas de alta y muy alta susceptibilidad a los movimientos en masa, permitieron validar el mapa y su utilidad como herramienta de prevención de desastres y planificación del desarrollo.

  17. Currency Substitution and Inflation in Peru Currency Substitution and Inflation in Peru

    Liliana Rojas-Suarez


    This paper shows that there is a long-run relationship between the expected rate of depreciation in the black-market-exchange rate and the ratio of domestic to foreign money in Peru: that is, the hypothesis of currency substitution can explain the behavior of real holdings of money in Peru. The paper also shows that, while, the importance of currency substitution as a transmission mechanism through which domestic policies affected the dynamics of inflation was relatively small during a period...

  18. Physical aspects of the first corporal irradiation performed in Peru

    Total body irradiation (TBI) technique was applied for the first in Peru using an equipment of Theratronic Phoenix with a conventional Co-60 unit. Using the equipment, TBI was performed in 8 cases of Peru. The patient of the first case survived 3 years and 10 months after the treatment and is in good conditions at present. For TBI, a patient was placed in a delimiter composed of acrylic plate. The dose at the midpoint of patient was in a range from 3.6 Gy to 5 Gy. To calculate the time of treatment, depth dose percent (DPP) was determined using lithium fluoride thermo-luminescence dosimeter TLD-100. The uncertainty for the dose determination using TLD was around 3 %. To compensate for the dose reduction depending on the distance from the center of field, the curve surface of wax compensation filter was adjusted according to the distance. For either of the cases, irradiation was performed at 12 Gy. The compensatory AP and PA beams with a lung protector were not applied because there was no protector silhouette cutter. The hospital hired a 6 MeV linear accelerator to perform 10 cases of TBI, using the same techniques, applying the lateral lung protectors. (M.N.)

  19. Peru LNG : A Focus on Continuous Improvement

    International Finance Corporation


    Extractive industry companies, particularly those operating in areas of high biodiversity value, on indigenous lands, or in close proximity to communities, face operational and reputational risks related to their environmental and social performance, and can be subject to intense scrutiny from stakeholders. PERU Liquefied Natural Gas (PLNG), the first liquefied natural gas plant in South A...

  20. Wastewater use in aquaculture: research in Peru

    Prein, M.


    Use of wastewater is an issue gaining importance throughout the (developing) world, as water sources become scarcer and competition for them increases. In Peru, research has shown the technical, economic and social feasibility of growing fish in wastewater. Such fish farms could recover 100% of the wastewater treatment costs.

  1. Public Transportation and Pulmonary Tuberculosis, Lima, Peru

    Horna-Campos, Olivia J.; Sánchez-Pérez, Héctor J.; Sánchez, Inma; Bedoya, Alfredo; Martín, Miguel


    The association between public transportation for commuting and pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) was analyzed in workers in Lima, Peru. Traveling in minibuses was a risk factor for pulmonary TB. Preventive measures need to be taken by health services to prevent spread of this disease.

  2. Corporate Governance Country Assessment : Republic of Peru

    World Bank


    This report assesses the corporate governance policy framework, and enforcement and compliance practices in Peru. Corporate governance reform is at an early stage, and some legislation has recently been upgraded to protect shareholder rights. The major issues are driven by the growing importance of private pension funds, which have become the most important institutional investors. At pres...

  3. Environmental fate of herbicides in Hawaii, Peru and Panama

    Data on the fate and behaviour of herbicides in tropical soils are often unavailable. Here, the environmental fate of herbicides was compared in controlled field plots with the results derived from 'real world' pesticide use in tropical situations. As the intended herbicide use was to control illicit narcotic crops, sampling and verification are major problems because of the geographical remoteness, security concerns and political accessibility. Another fundamental problem is that exclusive use of either chemical analysis or biological monitoring may lead to an incomplete understanding of the environmental fate and ecological consequences of pesticide use. For hexazinone, tebuthiuron and imazapyr, the soil persistence and mobility, and the residual phytotoxicity to seven crops, were determined under controlled field conditions in Hawaii. This information was compared with field results in Peru and Panaman for hexazinone, tebuthiuron and glyphsate. Herbicide dissipation was much faster under tropical than temperate zone conditions; also, herbicide persistence in Hawaii closely matched that found in the coca fields of Peru and Panama. Chemical and biological approaches together gave greater reliability to risk interpretation than would either approach alone; both showed low environmental risk for the pesticides tested. (author). 17 refs, 1 fig., 3 tabs

  4. Genetic characterization of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus from Bolivia, Ecuador and Peru: identification of a new subtype ID lineage.

    Patricia V Aguilar

    Full Text Available Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV has been responsible for hundreds of thousands of human and equine cases of severe disease in the Americas. A passive surveillance study was conducted in Peru, Bolivia and Ecuador to determine the arboviral etiology of febrile illness. Patients with suspected viral-associated, acute, undifferentiated febrile illness of <7 days duration were enrolled in the study and blood samples were obtained from each patient and assayed by virus isolation. Demographic and clinical information from each patient was also obtained at the time of voluntary enrollment. In 2005-2007, cases of Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE were diagnosed for the first time in residents of Bolivia; the patients did not report traveling, suggesting endemic circulation of VEEV in Bolivia. In 2001 and 2003, VEE cases were also identified in Ecuador. Since 1993, VEEV has been continuously isolated from patients in Loreto, Peru, and more recently (2005, in Madre de Dios, Peru. We performed phylogenetic analyses with VEEV from Bolivia, Ecuador and Peru and compared their relationships to strains from other parts of South America. We found that VEEV subtype ID Panama/Peru genotype is the predominant one circulating in Peru. We also demonstrated that VEEV subtype ID strains circulating in Ecuador belong to the Colombia/Venezuela genotype and VEEV from Madre de Dios, Peru and Cochabamba, Bolivia belong to a new ID genotype. In summary, we identified a new major lineage of enzootic VEEV subtype ID, information that could aid in the understanding of the emergence and evolution of VEEV in South America.


    Argota-Perez, G.; Encinas-Cáceres, M.; Argota-Coello, H.; Iannacone, J.


    The aim of this study was to determine the biological coefficients of phytoremediation in soils of mine tailings for comparable exposure to Pb and Cd, using Alopecurus magellanicus bracteatus and Muhlenbergia angustata (Poaceae) Ananea, Puno, Peru. Between March and August 2013, ten points of sampling were selected next to a mining area of Ananea -Puno, Peru. The metals analyzed were quantified by inductively coupled plasma spectrometry. To evaluate the potential of phytoremediati...

  6. New species of Solanum (Solanaceae from Peru and Ecuador

    Sandra Knapp


    Full Text Available Three new species of “non-spiny" Solanum are described from Peru and Ecuador, and a revised description for Solanum verecundum M.Nee is presented. Solanum kulliwaita S.Knapp, sp. nov. (Dulcamaroid clade is endemic to the Department of Cuzco in southern Peru, and is most similar to the recently described Solanum sanchez-vegae S.Knapp of northern Peru. Solanum dillonii S.Knapp, sp. nov. (Brevantherum clade is found in southern Ecuador and northern Peru in the Amotape-Huancabamba phytogeographic zone, and is morphologically similar to the widespread Solanum riparium Ruiz & Pav. Solanum oxapampense S.Knapp, sp. nov., (also of the Brevantherum clade is endemic to the Oxapampa region (Department of Pasco of central Peru, and is similar to and segregated from Solanum verecundum M.Nee of Peru and Ecuador. Complete descriptions, distributions and preliminary conservation assessments of all new species are given.

  7. Female Land Rights and Rural Household Incomes in Brazil, Paraguay and Peru

    Deere, Carmen Diana; Durán, Rosa Luz; Mardon, Merrilee; Masterson, Tom


    This paper explores the determinants of female land rights and their impact on household income levels among owner-operated farms in Brazil, Paraguay and Peru. Previous studies in Latin America suggest that the gender of the household head is not a significant predictor of household income, not unsurprising given the ambiguities with which self-declared headship is associated. We hypothesize that female land rights, by increasing women's options, are a positive determinant of household income...

  8. Peru Subduction Zone Seismic Experiment (PeruSZE): Preliminary Results From a Seismic Network Between Mollendo and Lake Titicaca, Peru.

    Guy, R.; Stubailo, I.; Skinner, S.; Phillips, K.; Foote, E.; Lukac, M.; Aguilar, V.; Tavera, H.; Audin, L.; Husker, A.; Clayton, R.; Davis, P. M.


    This work describes preliminary results from a 50 station broadband seismic network recently installed from the coast to the high Andes in Peru. UCLA's Center for Embedded Network Sensing (CENS) and Caltech's Tectonic Observatory are collaborating with the IRD (French L'Institut de Recherche pour le Developpement) and the Institute of Geophysics, in Lima Peru in a broadband seismic experiment that will study the transition from steep to shallow slab subduction. The currently installed line has stations located above the steep subduction zone at a spacing of about 6 km. In 2009 we plan to install a line of 50 stations north from this line along the crest of the Andes, crossing the transition from steep to shallow subduction. A further line from the end of that line back to the coast, completing a U shaped array, is in the planning phase. The network is wirelessly linked using multi-hop network software designed by computer scientists in CENS in which data is transmitted from station to station, and collected at Internet drops, from where it is transmitted over the Internet to CENS each night. The instrument installation in Peru is almost finished and we have been receiving data daily from 10 stations (out of total 50) since June 2008. The rest are recording on-site while the RF network is being completed. The software system provides dynamic link quality based routing, reliable data delivery, and a disruption tolerant shell interface for managing the system from UCLA without the need to travel to Peru. The near real-time data delivery also allows immediate detection of any problems at the sites. We are building a seismic data and GPS quality control toolset that would greatly minimize the station's downtime by alerting the users of any possible problems.

  9. Legal framework of the nonprofit private sector in Peru

    De Belaunde L. de R., Javier; Parodi Luna, Beatriz


    The Political Constitution of Peru recognizes, as one of the basic human rights, the constitutional freedom of association in general. In Peru, the non-profit organizations are fundamentally regulated by the Civil Code, through the legal figures of association, foundation and committee, which are legal entities (incorporated organizations in Public Records). In addition, the Civil Code of Peru, recognizes non incorporated organizations (associations, foundations and committees) as legal subje...

  10. Epidemiology of Road Traffic Incidents in Peru 1973–2008: Incidence, Mortality, and Fatality

    Miranda, J. Jaime; López-Rivera, Luis A.; Quistberg, D. Alex; Rosales-Mayor, Edmundo; Gianella, Camila; Paca-Palao, Ada; Luna, Diego; Huicho, Luis; Paca, Ada; Luis, López; Luna, Diego; Rosales, Edmundo; Best, Pablo; Best, Pablo; Egúsquiza, Miriam; Gianella, Camila; Lema, Claudia; Ludeña, Esperanza; Miranda, J. Jaime; Huicho, Luis


    Background The epidemiological profile and trends of road traffic injuries (RTIs) in Peru have not been well-defined, though this is a necessary step to address this significant public health problem in Peru. The objective of this study was to determine trends of incidence, mortality, and fatality of RTIs in Peru during 1973–2008, as well as their relationship to population trends such as economic growth. Methods and Findings Secondary aggregated databases were used to estimate incidence, mortality and fatality rate ratios (IRRs) of RTIs. These estimates were standardized to age groups and sex of the 2008 Peruvian population. Negative binomial regression and cubic spline curves were used for multivariable analysis. During the 35-year period there were 952,668 road traffic victims, injured or killed. The adjusted yearly incidence of RTIs increased by 3.59 (95% CI 2.43–5.31) on average. We did not observe any significant trends in the yearly mortality rate. The total adjusted yearly fatality rate decreased by 0.26 (95% CI 0.15–0.43), while among adults the fatality rate increased by 1.25 (95% CI 1.09–1.43). Models fitted with splines suggest that the incidence follows a bimodal curve and closely followed trends in the gross domestic product (GDP) per capita Conclusions The significant increasing incidence of RTIs in Peru affirms their growing threat to public health. A substantial improvement of information systems for RTIs is needed to create a more accurate epidemiologic profile of RTIs in Peru. This approach can be of use in other similar low and middle-income settings to inform about the local challenges posed by RTIs. PMID:24927195

  11. The French Scientific Surveying Expedition to Peru

    Miljenko Solarić


    Full Text Available The paper describes how the lengths of parts of the meridian arc were measured in Peru (modern-day Ecuador. The field teams encountered great difficulties, due to the climate conditions in which they had to work, and the configuration of the terrain. However, they succeeded in measuring extremely accurately the length of the meridian arc corresponding to the range of latitude 3°07'01'', and were thus able to conclude that the length of one degree of the meridian arc in Peru was equivalent to 56 749 toises (110 604 m. They also established that the shape of the Earth took the approximate form of a rotational ellipsoid, thus confirming the theoretical postulations of Newton and Huygens.

  12. Currency Substitution and Inflation in Peru Currency Substitution and Inflation in Peru

    Liliana Rojas-Suarez


    Full Text Available This paper shows that there is a long-run relationship between the expected rate of depreciation in the black-market-exchange rate and the ratio of domestic to foreign money in Peru: that is, the hypothesis of currency substitution can explain the behavior of real holdings of money in Peru. The paper also shows that, while, the importance of currency substitution as a transmission mechanism through which domestic policies affected the dynamics of inflation was relatively small during a period of high but relatively stable inflation (January 1978-85, it became an important factor in the inflation process during the recent hyperinflation episode. Currency Substitution and Inflation in Peru

  13. Cryptosporidium Infections Among Children in Peru


    Cryptosporidium is a waterborne bacteria that can cause severe diarrhea and vomiting. In this podcast, Dr. Vita Cama, CDC microbiologist, discusses an article in the October 2008 issue of Emerging Infectious Diseases. The paper examines Cryptosporidium infections among children in Peru, including the number of infections, symptoms experienced, and what species of Crypto were responsible.  Created: 9/25/2008 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 9/25/2008.

  14. Tendencies of the digital newspapers in Peru

    Dra. Lyudmyla Yezers´ka


    This article analyzes some of the tendencies of the development of the digital media in Peru. The results that are presented were obtained by means of a survey carried out to responsible people of the digital redactions of the national generalist newspapers that, when concluding the first decade of the existence of the online journalism in the country (1995-2005), had digital editions. From historical perspective, different stages of evolution and consolidation of the Peruvian daily editions ...

  15. Control of sealed radioactive sources in Peru

    The paper describes the inventory of radioactive sources in Peru and assesses the control. Three groups of source conditions are established: controlled sources, known sources, and lost and orphan sources. The potential risk, described as not significant, for producing accidents is established and the needed measures are discussed. The paper concludes that, while the control on sealed sources is good, there is still room for improvement. (author)

  16. How to Subvert Democracy: Montesinos in Peru

    McMillan, John; Zoido, Pablo


    Which of the democratic checks and balances - opposition parties, the judiciary, a free press -is the most critical? Peru has the full set of democratic institutions. In the 1990s, the secret-police chief Vladimiro Montesinos systematically undermined them all with bribes. We quantify the checks using the bribe prices. Montesinos paid television-channel owners about 100 times what he paid judges and politicians. One single television channel's bribe was four times larger than the total of the...

  17. Central Power and Decentralization: Peru, 1931

    Caravedo, Baltazar


    One of the debates in the field of social sciences in Peru refers to the characteristics or nature of the ruling class. Today, despite the criticism, the use of the term "oligarchy" is the most common. Two recent publications persist in using that term, and have reintroduced an old argument in the current debate. Sociologist Henry Pease (1977) notes that the State "was directly controlled by a closed oligarchy where agricultural exporters had hegemony. They imposedtheir terms of foreign condu...

  18. Comprehensive Cooperation of CHINA-PERU


    @@ On the afternoon of March 19th,Chinese President Hu Jintao warmly welcomed Peruvian President Alan Garcia at the Great Hall of the People.Accompanying President Alan Garcia was the Minister of Foreign Trade and Tourism, Mercedes Araoz, who came to China to attend the forum on Investment and Business Opportunities in Peru, sponsored by CCPIT.At the event, the graceful lady meticulously introduced her country to the all of the Chinese and Peruvian entrepreneurs in attendance.

  19. Sino-American Corporation in Peru

    Wang Mingcai; Xu Yunming


    @@ Sino-American Oil Development Corporation (hereinafter referred to as"SODC") has taken part in the international operation activities in petroleum exploration and development in Latin-American area since 1992 and some progress has been made. At present, SODC is carrying out the operations within the Sixth and Seventh Blocks of Tarara oil field of the Republic of Peru and gains a good prestige.

  20. Citizenship and Political Violence in Peru

    Wilson, Fiona

    Citizenship and Political Violence in Peru recounts the hidden history of how local processes of citizen formation in an Andean town were persistently overruled from the nineteenth century on, thereby perpetuating antagonism toward the Peruvian state and political centralism. The analysis points to...... political violence in the 1980s. The book builds on the detailed study of a unique municipal archive in Tarma and ethnographic research from both before and after the violence....

  1. Sub-national Revenue Mobilization in Peru

    Canavire-Bacarreza, Gustavo; Martinez-Vazquez, Jorge; Sepulveda, Cristian


    This paper analyzes the problem of sub-national revenue mobilization in Peru and proposes several policy reforms to improve collection performance while maintaining a sound revenue structure. In particular, the paper analyzes the current revenues of regional and municipal governments and identifies the main priorities for reform. Among the most important problems are the acute inequalities and inefficiencies associated with revenue sharing from extractive industries. These revenues represent ...

  2. Regime shifts and inflation uncertainty in Peru

    Paúl Castillo; Alberto Humala; Vicente Tuesta


    The link between inflation and inflation uncertainty is evaluated using Peruvian data, in a context of changing monetary policies because of regime shifts. A Markov regime-switching heteroskedasticity model that includes unobserved components is used. The model shows how periods of high (low) inflation accompany periods of high (low) short- and long-run uncertainty in inflation. The results of the model also illustrate how, during the recent period of price stability in Peru, both permanent a...

  3. Bacteriological study of fish meal in Peru

    The importance of fish-meal production in Peru is pointed out, and the methods of manufacture are described. The bacteriological status at different stages of the fish-meal production process is reviewed. It is stated that the bacterial count of fish meal is related to the bacterial count of fish pools, the environmental sanitation in ship holds and factories and the method of preserving the fish meal. (author). 7 refs, 4 tabs

  4. Enterprise Surveys : Peru Country Profile 2010

    World Bank; International Finance Corporation


    The country profile for Peru is based on data from the enterprise surveys conducted by the World Bank in 2010. The enterprise surveys focus on the many factors that shape the decisions of firms to invest. These factors can be accommodating or constraining and play an important role in whether a country will prosper or not. An accommodating business environment is one that encourages firms ...

  5. [Neurogenetics in Peru, example of translational research].

    Mazzetti, Pilar; Inca-Martínez, Miguel; Tirado-Hurtado, Indira; Milla-Neyra, Karina; Silva-Paredes, Gustavo; Vishnevetsky, Anastasia; Cornejo-Olivas, Mario


    Neurogenetics is an emerging discipline in Peru that links basic research with clinical practice. The Neurogenetics Research Center located in Lima, Peru is the only unit dedicated to the specialized care of neurogenetic diseases in the country. From the beginning, neurogenetics research has been closely linked to the study of Huntington’s Disease (HD), from the PCR genotyping of the HTT gene, to the current haplogroup studies in HD. Research in other monogenic diseases led to the implementation of alternative methodologies for the genotyping of Fragile X and Myotonic Dystrophy Type 1. Both, national and international collaborative efforts have facilitated the discovery of new genetic variants in complex multigenic diseases such as Parkinson’s disease and Alzheimer’s disease. Additionally, multidisciplinary education and mentoring have allowed for the training of new neurogenetics specialists, supporting the sustained growth of the discipline in the country. The promotion of research in Peru has spurred the growth of neurogenetics research, although limitations in infrastructure, technology, and education remain a challenge for the further growth of research in this field. PMID:26732930

  6. Peru 2007 tsunami runup observations and modeling

    Fritz, H. M.; Kalligeris, N.; Borrero, J. C.


    On 15 August 2007 an earthquake with moment magnitude (Mw) of 8.0 centered off the coast of central Peru, generated a tsunami with locally focused runup heights of up to 10 m. A reconnaissance team was deployed in the immediate aftermath and investigated the tsunami effects at 51 sites. The largest runup heights were measured in a sparsely populated desert area south of the Paracas Peninsula resulting in only 3 tsunami fatalities. Numerical modeling of the earthquake source and tsunami suggest that a region of high slip near the coastline was primarily responsible for the extreme runup heights. The town of Pisco was spared by the presence of the Paracas Peninsula, which blocked tsunami waves from propagating northward from the high slip region. The coast of Peru has experienced numerous deadly and destructive tsunamis throughout history, which highlights the importance of ongoing tsunami awareness and education efforts in the region. The Peru tsunami is compared against recent mega-disasters such as the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami and Hurricane Katrina.

  7. Landscape and soil governance: A rapid vulnerability assessment method applied in a Paramo landscape in Northern Peru

    Cammeraat, L. H.; Seijmonsbergen, A. C.; Sevink, J.


    The Andean paramo ecosystems constitute geodiversity hotspots of global importance, but also have important ecosystem functions. These include agricultural production (mostly livestock and high altitude crops such potatoes, but also forestry) and deliverance of water to be used for various purposes (drink water, irrigation water, hydroelectric power) in downstream catchments, often hosting major population concentrations and industries. Because of their alpine relief, extreme climate and overall fragile soils, Paramo ecosystems are susceptible to degradation upon land use, particularly under increased human pressure such as by encroaching agriculture, accelerated by climate change posing a further threat to the functioning of remaining more or less conserved or pristine Paramo areas. Throughout the more populated parts of the Andes, where land use has seriously intensified over the past decades, degradation has become rampant with associated losses of the functions mentioned. To this comes an increased worldwide demand for minerals, leading to their exploration and large-scale exploitation in hitherto inaccessible and remote areas, such as the higher parts of the Andes. Not surprising, the mining issue and related environmental hazards are high on the political agenda of most Andean countries, though not always based on scientific knowledge of its potential impacts in specific areas. A rapid assessment methodology is presented for the Las Lagunas region near Cajamarca in Northern Peru. The method includes prefield segmentation and classification of Landsat ETM+ and ASTER imagery, complemented with detailed aerial photo interpretation. The results are stored in a GIS geodatabase and supplemented with data from field surveys. This leads to rapid and sound postfield analyses and vulnerability classifications using simple GIS tools. The results are pointing at four important issues in relation to soil and landscape governance and identification of vulnerability zones

  8. Aflatoxin Contamination of Red Chili Pepper From Bolivia and Peru, Countries with High Gallbladder Cancer Incidence Rates

    Takao Asai; Yasuo Tsuchiya; Kiyoshi Okano; Alejandro Piscoya; Carlos Yoshito Nishi; Toshikazu Ikoma; Tomizo Oyama; Kikuo Ikegami; Masaharu Yamamoto


    Chilean red chili peppers contaminated with aflatoxins were reported in a previous study. If the development of gallbladder cancer (GBC) in Chile is associated with a high level of consumption of aflatoxin-contaminated red chili peppers, such peppers from other countries having a high GBC incidence rate may also be contaminated with aflatoxins. We aimed to determine whether this might be the case for red chili peppers from Bolivia and Peru. A total of 7 samples (3 from Bolivia, 4 from Peru) a...

  9. Analysis of child labour in Peru and Pakistan: A comparative study

    Ranjan Ray


    This paper analyses child labour participation and its key determinants using data sets from Peru and Pakistan. The results include tests of the `Luxury' and `Substitution' hypotheses that play key roles in recent studies on child labour and child schooling. The results reject both hypotheses in the context of child labour in Pakistan and suggest that income and related variables do not have the expected negative effect on children's work input. Rising wages of adult female labour in Pakistan...

  10. The Effects of Shared School Technology Access on Students Digital Skills in Peru

    Bet, German; Cristia, Julián P.; Ibarrarán, Pablo


    This paper analyzes the effects of increased shared computer access in secondary schools in Peru. Administrative data are used to identify, through propensity-score matching, two groups of schools with similar observable educational inputs but different intensity in computer access. Extensive primary data collected from the 202 matched schools are used to determine whether increased shared computer access at schools affects digital skills and academic achievement. Results suggest that small i...

  11. New mammalian records in the Parque Nacional Cerros de Amotape, northwestern Peru

    Cindy M. Hurtado; Víctor Pacheco


    The Pacific Tropical Rainforest and Equatorial Dry Forest are found only in southern Ecuador and northern Peru, and are among the most poorly known ecosystems of South America. Even though these forests are protected in Parque Nacional Cerros de Amotape (PNCA), they are threatened by fragmentation because of farming and agriculture. The aim of this study was to determine the medium and large mammalian species richness, using transect census, camera trapping, and specimen bone collection. Nine...

  12. Pedestrian signalization and the risk of pedestrian-motor vehicle collisions in Lima, Peru

    Quistberg, D. Alex; Koepsell, Thomas D.; Boyle, Linda Ng; Miranda, J. Jaime; Johnston, Brian D.; Ebel, Beth E.


    Safe walking environments are essential for protecting pedestrians and promoting physical activity. In Peru, pedestrians comprise of over three-quarters of road fatality victims. Pedestrian signalization plays an important role managing pedestrian and vehicle traffic and may help improve pedestrian safety. We examined the relationship between pedestrian-motor vehicle collisions and the presence of visible traffic signals, pedestrian signals, and signal timing to determine whether these counte...

  13. An Ancient Inca Tax and Metallurgy in Peru

    Journal of Chemical Education, 2007


    The discovery of ancient Inca tax rulers and other metallurgical objects in Peru show that the ancient civilizations of the country smelted metals. The analysis shows that the smelters in Peru switched from the production of copper to silver after a tax was imposed on them by the Inca rulers.

  14. Missed Opportunities for Health Education on Pap Smears in Peru

    Bayer, Angela M.; Nussbaum, Lauren; Cabrera, Lilia; Paz-Soldan, Valerie A.


    Despite cervical cancer being one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths among women in Peru, cervical Pap smear coverage is low. This article uses findings from 185 direct clinician observations in four cities of Peru (representing the capital and each of the three main geographic regions of the country) to assess missed opportunities for…

  15. Public Expenditure Review for Peru : Spending for Results

    World Bank


    The purpose of this Public Expenditure Review (PER) is to take stock of Peru's public expenditure since the last PER and identify the main challenges. The key underlying questions addressed are: (i) How did Peru's public expenditure and revenues develop over the past decade? (ii) How have decentralization and the shift towards results-based budgeting impacted this development across levels...

  16. Quality and Equity in Early Childhood Care in Peru

    Izu, Regina Moromizato


    The present study examines educational policy documents and programs on early childhood development and education in Peru. The author provides an evaluation of early childhood learning programs and their outcomes in different education centers in Peru. Health, nutrition, development, and participation are identified as key areas of concern. The…

  17. On a new Andinia (Gastropoda, Clausiliidae) from Peru

    Loosjes, F.E.


    Some time ago Prof. Dr. W. Weyrauch at Lima, Peru, sent to me specimens of a species of the subfamily Neniinae that proved to be new to science. Already about 70 species of the subfamily have become known from Peru, for an important part discovered by Prof. Weyrauch himself. Andinia (Ehrmanniella) f

  18. Peru - Country Note on Climate Change Aspects in Agriculture

    World Bank


    This country note briefly summarizes information relevant to both climate change and agriculture in Peru, with focus on policy developments (including action plans and programs) and institutional make-up. Like most developing countries, Peru has submitted only one national communication to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), with the second one under prepara...

  19. The occurrence and frequency of Witches’ Broom Disease associated with Wild Cacao from the Upper Amazon of Peru

    The Peruvian Amazon is within the center of origin and diversity for cacao (Theobroma cacao). One of the primary disease of cacao in Peru and Latin America is withes’ broom disease (WBD) caused by Moniliophthora perniciosa. The objective of this study was to determine the incidence of WBD in wild ca...

  20. Variables Associated with Utilization of a Centralized Medical Post in the Andean Community of Pampas Grande, Peru

    Merry, Stephen P.; Rohrer, James E.; Thacher, Thomas D.; Summers, Matthew R.; Alpern, Jonathan D.; Contino, Robert W.


    Context: Integral to the location of health resources is the distance decay of utilization observed in a population. In rural Peru, a nongovernmental organization planning to increase the availability of health services needed this information. Purpose: To determine variables associated with utilization of a central medical clinic and determine…

  1. Our man in Peru or Tintin in the Andes. Radiation cooperation Netherlands-Peru

    The experiences of the author during his stay in Peru at UNSA are described. The purpose of the author's stay was to set up a system to evaluate study results and explore the market for openings for graduated physicists. His task is the result of a cooperation project between the Delft University of Technology and UNSA

  2. 3 CFR - Establishment of the Interagency Committee on Trade in Timber Products from Peru and Assignment...


    ... in Timber Products from Peru and Assignment of Function under Section 501 of the United States-Peru... Memorandum of May 1, 2009 Establishment of the Interagency Committee on Trade in Timber Products from Peru and Assignment of Function under Section 501 of the United States-Peru Trade Promotion...

  3. Syndromic management and STI control in urban Peru.

    Jesse L Clark

    Full Text Available Syndromic management is an inexpensive and effective method for the treatment of symptomatic sexually transmitted infections (STIs, but its effectiveness as a method of STI control in at-risk populations is questionable. We sought to determine the potential utility of syndromic management as a public health strategy to control STI transmission in high-risk populations in urban Peru.We surveyed 3,285 at-risk men and women from three Peruvian cities from 2003-05. Participants were asked about the presence of genital ulcers, discharge, or dysuria in the preceding six months. Participants reporting symptoms were asked about subsequent health-seeking and partner notification behavior. Urine and vaginal swab samples were tested for Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis by nucleic acid testing. Serum was tested for syphilis and Herpes Simplex Virus-Type 2 antibodies.Recent urogenital discharge or dysuria was reported by 42.1% of participants with gonorrhea or chlamydia versus 28.3% of participants without infection. Genital ulceration was reported by 6.2% of participants with, and 7.4% of participants without, recent syphilis. Many participants reporting symptoms continued sexual activity while symptomatic, and approximately half of all symptomatic participants sought treatment. The positive and negative predictive values of urogenital discharge or genital ulcer disease in detecting STIs that are common in the study population were 14.4% and 81.5% for chlamydia in women and 8.3% and 89.5% for syphilis among gay-identified men.In our study, STIs among high-risk men and women in urban Peru were frequently asymptomatic and symptomatic participants often remained sexually active without seeking treatment. Additional research is needed to assess the costs and benefits of targeted, laboratory-based STI screening as part of a comprehensive STI control program in developing countries.

  4. A Multi-disciplinary Overview of Chagas in Periurban Peru

    Sarah McCune


    Full Text Available There are between 8 and 11 million cases of America Human Trypanosomiasis, commonly known as Chagas disease, in Latin America. Chagas is endemic in southern Peru, especially the Arequipa region, where it has expanded from poor, rural areas to periurban communities. This paper summarizes the findings of four studies in periurban Arequipa: on determinants of disease-vector infestation; on prevalence, spatial patterns, and risk factors of Chagas; on links between migration, settlement patterns, and disease-vector infestation; and on the relationship between discordant test results and spatially clustered transmission hotspots. These studies identified two risk factors associated with the disease: population dynamics and the urbanization of poverty. Understanding the disease within this new urban context will allow for improved public health prevention efforts and policy initiatives. Discovered in 1909 by Brazilian physician Carlos Chagas, American Human Trypanosomiasis is a chronic and potentially life-threatening illness found throughout Latin America (Moncayo, 2003. Indeed, it is estimated that there are between 8 and 11 million cases in Mexico and Central and South America (Centers for Disease Control [CDC], 2009. Chagas disease, as it is most commonly known, is endemic in southern Peru, especially in the region of Arequipa. Once thought to be limited to poor, rural areas, the disease is now appearing in the periurban communities that surround Arequipa City, the capital of the region (Cornejo del Carpio, 2003. Understanding the urbanization of Chagas disease will allow public health and medical professionals to better combat the further transmission of the disease. After providing an overview of Chagas and introducing the scope of the disease in Latin America, this paper will summarize the findings of four recent studies conducted in periurban districts in Arequipa. Ultimately, this paper seeks to identify the risk factors associated with Chagas

  5. ENSO impact on hydrology in Peru

    Lavado-Casimiro, W. S.; Felipe, O.; Silvestre, E.; Bourrel, L.


    The El Niño and La Niña impacts on the hydrology of Peru were assessed based on discharge data (1968-2006) of 20 river catchments distributed over three drainage regions in Peru: 14 in the Pacific Coast (PC), 3 in the Lake Titicaca (TL) region, and 3 in the Amazonas (AM). To classify the El Niño and La Niña events, we used the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) based on hydrological years (September to August). Using the SOI values, the events were re-classified as strong El Niño (SEN), moderate El Niño (MEN), normal years (N), moderate La Niña (MLN) and strong La Niña (SLN). On average during the SEN years, sharp increases occurred in the discharges in the north central area of the PC and decreases in the remaining discharge stations that were analyzed, while in the years of MEN events, these changes show different responses than those of the SEN. During the years classified as La Niña, positive changes are mostly observed in the majority of the stations in the rivers located in the center of Peru's Pacific Coast. Another important result of this work is that the Ilave River (south of the Titicaca watershed) shows higher positive (negative) impacts during La Niña (El Niño) years, a fact that is not clearly seen in the rivers of the northern part of the Titicaca watershed (Ramis and Huancane rivers).

  6. Isotope aided studies of the bioavailability of iron and zinc from human diets consumed in Peru

    Iron deficiency can produce disturbances in physical and mental health, the most common sign of severe iron deficiency being anaemia. Iron deficiency anaemia can impair work capacity; learning capacity and result in changes in behaviour as well as compromise immunocompetence and causing less resistance to infections. In pregnancy, there is evidence that severe anaemia increases the risk of maternal morbidity and mortality as well as premature delivery. There is thus ample justification for attempting to implement programmes to combat iron deficiency in developing countries such as Peru. In order to determine the most appropriate intervention it is necessary to have data on the prevalence and severity of iron deficiency. The purpose of this study is to develop the necessary steps to implement a fortification programme to combat iron deficiency anaemia in Peru, targeted to pre-school children and pregnant women, who are the risk groups due to their increased requirements of this nutrient. 11 refs, 6 figs, 6 tabs

  7. Bismuth bronze from machu picchu, peru.

    Gordon, R B; Rutledge, J W


    The decorative bronze handle of a tumi excavated at the Inca city of Machu Picchu, Peru, contains 18 percent bismuth and appears to be the first known example of the use of bismuth with tin to make bronze. The alloy is not embrittled by the bismuth because the bismuth-rich constituent does not penetrate the grain boundaries of the matrix phase. The use of bismuth facilitates the duplex casting process by which the tumi was made and forms an alloy of unusual color. PMID:17749940

  8. Conditioning of radium-226 sources in Peru

    The use of radium- 226 sources constitutes a high risk concerning its medical and sanitary applications. For this reason, Peruvian regulatory authorities are applying collection and conditioning policies. In Peru, after removing some radium-226 sources from hospital centers, with the support of the International Atomic Energy Agency through the Radioactive Wastes Management Plant of the 'RACSO' Nuclear Center, the first Ra-226 conditioning experience has been carried out. This document describes technical reasons, procedures used, sources characteristics, radiological protection mechanisms and motionless techniques used as well as provisional storage

  9. Radiological accidents in Peru: 1977-1988

    A brief history of twenty four events of real and suspected overexposure to ionizing radiation's reported to IPEN during 1977-1988 period are presented. Thirty-seven persons were involved being twelve really overexposed. Nine of them showed clinically detectable injuries (deterministic effects). The events occurred in different kinds of irradiation facilities or laboratories in Peru, mainly related with the use of radiodiagnostics and gamma radiography equipment. Patients were derived to the radiosanitary medicine service of IPEN were medical examinations and laboratory prescriptions were made. It was possible to perform cytogenetical analysis in eighteen patients. Additional data and comments on six cases of prenatal irradiation reported to this service are presented. (authors)

  10. Autoritarismus in Peru : das Fujimori-Regime

    Crabtree, John


    The ten-years presidency of Alberto Fujimori in Peru is a classic example of the sort of hybrid democracy that emerged in various Latin American countries in the 1990s, combining a mixture of democratic and clearly non-democratic elements. Fujimori was one of the more autocratic Latin American leaders of the 1990s, he is being the only regime formally to break with pre-existing constitutional rules. Closely tied to the military and intelligence apparatus, his government involved a concentrati...

  11. Public Spaces For The Discussion Of Peru.

    Cynthia E. Milton.


    Full Text Available In theaftermath of civil conflict and a truth commission into twenty years of violence (19802000, Peru is presently engaged in the difficult task of establishing overarching narratives that provide frameworks for organizing personal and collective memories in the few public spaces available for the discussion of this recent past. This article looks at two public spaces, a series of performative events in Ayacucho duringthe submission of the truth commission's Final Report, and Lima's memorysite, The Eye that Cries. One contentious memory is over who are appropriate victims and heroes to remember.

  12. Zooplankton research off Peru: A review

    Ayón, Patricia; Criales-Hernandez, Maria I.; Schwamborn, Ralf; Hirche, Hans-Jürgen


    A review of zooplankton studies conducted in Peruvian marine waters is given. After a short history of the development of zooplankton research off Peru, we review zooplankton methodology, taxonomy, biodiversity, spatial distribution, seasonal and interannual variability, trophodynamics, secondary production, and modelling. We review studies on several micro-, meso-, macro-, and meroplankton groups, and give a species list from both published and unpublished reports. Three regional zooplankton groups have been identified: (1) a continental shelf group dominated by Acartia tonsa and Centropages brachiatus; (2) a continental slope group characterized by siphonophores, bivalves, foraminifera and radiolaria; (3) and a species-rich oceanic group. The highest zooplankton abundances and biomasses were often found between 4-6°S and 14-16°S, where continental shelves are narrow. Species composition changes with distance from the shore. Species composition and biomass also vary strongly on short time scales due to advection, peaks of larval production, trophic interactions, and community succession. The relation of zooplankton to climatic variability (ENSO and multi-decadal) and fish stocks is discussed in the context of ecological regime shifts. An intermediate upwelling hypothesis is proposed, based on the negative effects of low upwelling intensity in summer or extremely strong and enduring winter upwelling on zooplankton abundance off Peru. According to this hypothesis, intermediate upwelling creates an optimal environmental window for zooplankton communities. Finally, we highlight important knowledge gaps that warrant attention in future.

  13. Astrology in seventeenth-century Peru.

    Brosseder, Claudia


    This article discusses three aspects of the history of astrology in seventeenth-century Peru that are of larger interest for the history of science in Latin America: Creole concerns about indigenous idolatry, the impact of the Inquisition on natural philosophy, and communication between scholars within the Spanish colonies and the transatlantic world. Drawing mainly on the scholars Antonio de la Calancha, Juan de Figueroa, and Ruiz de Lozano, along with several Jesuits, the article analyzes how natural and medical astrology took shape in Peru and how they fostered astronomical investigations of the southern skies. While natural and medical astrology, showing New and Old World influences, oscillated between orthodoxy and heterodoxy, and between scholasticism and new science, judicial astrology remained undeveloped. Toward the end of the seventeenth century the discourse about astrology took an unexpected turn, reflecting a newly invigorated moral and Christian reading of the heavens that was in part a response to a deep-rooted dissatisfaction with the failure of the extirpation of idolatry campaigns. Inscribing divine and cardinal virtues, the Virgin Mary, Christian saints, and Greco-Roman allegories into the heavens was considered a way to finally solve the problem of idolatry and to convey Creole greatness. PMID:20513626

  14. Identificación y cuantificación de los efectos y consecuencias de los impactos ambientales generados por la mineria de extracción de oro por lixiviación de cianuro. Caso Mineria Yanacocha SRL, en Cajamarca, Perú

    Yacoub López, Cristina


    En el proyecto realizado se ha estudiado la situación de vulnerabilidad medioambiental, específicamente del recurso hídrico, causada por la empresa Minera Yanacocha S.R.L (MYSRL) situada en la región de Cajamarca, en el Perú. La empresa minera es origen de conflictos en relación al agua, por su situación (cabecera de cuatro cuencas hidrográficas) y por la contaminación en la cantidad y calidad de sus aguas percibida por la población local. Para conocer los posibles impactos del...

  15. Un proyecto de educación internacional a favor del derecho a una educación normalizadora para las personas con necesidades educativas especiales entre el Centro Latinoamericano de Lleida y el Patronato de Rehabilitación y Educación Especial Peruano-Filial Cajamarca

    Coiduras Rodríguez, Jordi L.


    Se da a conocer el desarrollo de un proyecto de cooperación del Centro Latinoamericano y el Ayuntamiento de la ciudad de Lleida con el Patronato de Rehabilitación y Educación Especial, la Universidad y el Departamento de Educación de la región de Cajamarca del Perú para la formación de los docentes en la atención a todo el alumnado, en la sensibilización sobre la búsqueda de respuestas educativas a los alumnos que presentan necesidades educativas especiales en el ámbito escolar más ordinario ...

  16. Peru and Guatemala Internal Midline Monitoring Assessment of Reading

    US Agency for International Development — Save the Children is implementing Leer Juntos, a USAID-funded three-year project targeting rural, indigenous communities in Guatemala and Peru with the objective of...

  17. Developing Low Carbon Transport Policies in Peru - Draft Transport NAMA

    Ramirez Brinez, C. P.; Tyler, N.


    The report is an initial draft of a Transport NAMA for Peru. NAMA stands for Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions and are a relatively new initiative from the UNFCCC to tackle climate change. The report covers

  18. Pre-travel advice concerning vector-borne diseases received by travelers prior to visiting Cuzco, Peru.

    Mejia, Christian R; Centeno, Emperatriz; Cruz, Briggitte; Cvetkovic-Vega, Aleksandar; Delgado, Edison; Rodriguez-Morales, Alfonso J


    Peru is an increasingly popular tourist destination that poses a risk to travelers due to endemic vector-borne diseases (VBDs). The objective of our study was to determine which factors are associated with receiving pre-travel advice (PTA) for VBDs among travelers visiting Cuzco, Peru. A cross-sectional secondary analysis based on data from a survey among travelers departing Cuzco at Alejandro Velazco Astete International Airport during the period January-March 2012 was conducted. From the 1819 travelers included in the original study, 1717 were included in secondary data analysis. Of these participants, 42.2% received PTA and 2.9% were informed about vector-borne diseases, including yellow fever (1.8%), malaria (1.6%) and dengue fever (0.1%). Receiving information on VBDs was associated with visiting areas endemic to yellow fever and dengue fever in Peru. The only disease travelers received specific recommendations for before visiting an endemic area for was yellow fever. Only 1 in 30 tourists received information on VBD prevention; few of those who traveled to an endemic area were warned about specific risks for infectious diseases prior to their trip. These important findings show that most tourists who travel to Peru do not receive PTA for the prevention of infectious and VBD, which can affect not only the travelers but their countries of origin as well. PMID:26751818

  19. Creative women in Peru: outliers in a machismo world

    Mensa, M. (Marta); Grow, J.M. (Jean M.)


    Gender segregation begins early and is reinforced within the workplace. Advertising creative departments appear to have extreme gender segregation with women representing just 20% of all those working within creative departments worldwide. Yet, creativity does not depend on gender. Thus, the underrepresentation of women is particularly troubling. In Peru women comprise 3% to 10.4% of all people working in advertising creative, which suggests the situation for creative women in Peru is dire. I...

  20. The Japanese in multiracial Peru, 1899-1942

    Moore, Stephanie Carol


    This study analyzes the integration of the Japanese into the politics of race and nation in Peru during the period from 1899 to 1942. The first generation of Japanese immigrants arrived in Peru at the apex of debates on national racial identity and popular challenges to the white oligarchy's exclusive hold on national political and economic power. This dissertation examines how not only elites, but also working- and middle-class movements advocated the exclusion of the Japanese as a way of st...

  1. Peru Opportunities and Challenges of Small Hydropower Development

    Meier, Peter; Zolezzi, Eduardo H.; Bogach, Susan V.; Muir, Terence; Bazex, Karen


    Peru is favored by a stable and growing economy and the availability of indigenous sources of energy for electricity generation, including hydro and natural gas. The Peruvian electricity sector is among the few in Latin America and Caribbean (LAC) that has not confronted a crisis in recent years. The power sector in Peru was reformed and restructured between 1991 and 1993, followed by a pr...

  2. International Briefing 27: Training and Development in Peru

    Talleri, Andres Velarde; Llinas-Audet, Xavier; Escardibul, Josep-Oriol


    Peru is in the central, western part of South America. It is the third largest country in South America and number 20 in the world. It is the country with the fourth highest population in South America. In 2010, the gross domestic product (GDP) of Peru was 154 billion USD, and its rate of growth was 8.8% (higher than the average for the region for…

  3. Structural Changes in Asparagus Production and Exports from Peru

    Shimizu, Tatsuya


    Asparagus is the star product among non-traditional agricultural exports (NTAXs) in Peru. The export of preserved asparagus has expanded since the end of the 1980s. Although there was some stagnation in the mid-1990s, exports of fresh asparagus have expanded rapidly since the end of the 1990s. Now, the export of both preserved and fresh asparagus constitute the second most important agricultural export in Peru after coffee. Besides the change in demand on the international market, the importa...

  4. Lagging regions and development strategies: The case of Peru

    Thurlow, James; Morley, Samuel; Pratt, Alejandro Nin


    "Despite the economic transformation of Peru's coastal economy, the country's inland region remains poor and underdeveloped. We herein examine the economic linkages between the two regions using a multi-regional computable general equilibrium model based on a regionalized social accounting matrix. The model results show that coastal growth undermines the inland economy by increasing import competition and internal migration. Peru, therefore, cannot rely solely on rapid national growth to gene...

  5. Impacts of Unsustainable Mahogany Logging in Bolivia and Peru

    Marc K. Steininger; Raymond E Gullison; Arthur G. Blundell; Martha Martinez; Roberto F. Kometter; Rice, Richard E.


    Although bigleaf mahogany [Swietenia macrophylla King (Meliaceae)] is the premier timber species of Latin America, its exploitation is unsustainable because of a pattern of local depletion and shifting supply. We surveyed experts on the status of mahogany in Bolivia and Peru, the world's past and present largest exporters. Bolivia no longer has commercially viable mahogany (trees > 60 cm diameter at breast height) across 79% of its range. In Peru, mahogany's range has shrunk by 5...

  6. Tendencies of the digital newspapers in Peru

    Dra. Lyudmyla Yezers´ka


    Full Text Available This article analyzes some of the tendencies of the development of the digital media in Peru. The results that are presented were obtained by means of a survey carried out to responsible people of the digital redactions of the national generalist newspapers that, when concluding the first decade of the existence of the online journalism in the country (1995-2005, had digital editions. From historical perspective, different stages of evolution and consolidation of the Peruvian daily editions in the Global Network have not had temporary clear definition. The media progressed at their own pace, depending among other factors –at the time of entry into the network, the staff assigned to the publication, and especially on the strength of the journalistic company and its policy regarding digital editing. With regard to the presence on the Internet, digital newspapers have shown a steady and numerous growth, over the first decade (1995-2005.

  7. Cross-cultural dynamics in rural Peru.

    Paz, David A; Blair, Patrick J


    Cross-cultural and language barriers can be an impediment to the conduct of biomedical studies in developing nations. To assess the implementation of human-use procedures within a minimum-risk febrile illness surveillance study in Peru, personnel fluent in both English and Spanish conducted a review of 10 sites. Guideline adherence, consent procedures, and potential problems in the conduct of the trial were reviewed. Concerns cited by on-site investigators included patient follow-up, poor facilities, and power fluctuations that jeopardized samples before shipment to a central location. However, both local study coordinators and patients demonstrated a clear grasp of study enrollment and consent procedures and reported no significant problems in the conduct of the study. These findings suggest that significant planning is crucial before initiation of biomedical studies in developing nations to successfully overcome physical challenges and cultural dynamics that could otherwise adversely affect scientific outcomes. PMID:17256693

  8. Chagas disease, migration and community settlement patterns in Arequipa, Peru.

    Angela M Bayer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chagas disease is one of the most important neglected tropical diseases in the Americas. Vectorborne transmission of Chagas disease has been historically rare in urban settings. However, in marginal communities near the city of Arequipa, Peru, urban transmission cycles have become established. We examined the history of migration and settlement patterns in these communities, and their connections to Chagas disease transmission. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This was a qualitative study that employed focus group discussions and in-depth interviews. Five focus groups and 50 in-depth interviews were carried out with 94 community members from three shantytowns and two traditional towns near Arequipa, Peru. Focus groups utilized participatory methodologies to explore the community's mobility patterns and the historical and current presence of triatomine vectors. In-depth interviews based on event history calendars explored participants' migration patterns and experience with Chagas disease and vectors. Focus group data were analyzed using participatory analysis methodologies, and interview data were coded and analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Entomologic data were provided by an ongoing vector control campaign. We found that migrants to shantytowns in Arequipa were unlikely to have brought triatomines to the city upon arrival. Frequent seasonal moves, however, took shantytown residents to valleys surrounding Arequipa where vectors are prevalent. In addition, the pattern of settlement of shantytowns and the practice of raising domestic animals by residents creates a favorable environment for vector proliferation and dispersal. Finally, we uncovered a phenomenon of population loss and replacement by low-income migrants in one traditional town, which created the human settlement pattern of a new shantytown within this traditional community. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The pattern of human migration is therefore an important

  9. Preceramic maize from Paredones and Huaca Prieta, Peru

    Grobman, Alexander; Bonavia, Duccio; Dillehay, Tom D.; Piperno, Dolores R.; Iriarte, José; Holst, Irene


    Maize (Zea mays ssp. mays) is among the world's most important and ancient domesticated crops. Although the chronology of its domestication and initial dispersals out of Mexico into Central and South America has become more clear due to molecular and multiproxy archaeobotanical research, important problems remain. Among them is the paucity of information on maize's early morphological evolution and racial diversification brought about in part by the poor preservation of macrofossils dating to the pre-5000 calibrated years before the present period from obligate dispersal routes located in the tropical forest. We report newly discovered macrobotanical and microbotanical remains of maize that shed significant light on the chronology, land race evolution, and cultural contexts associated with the crop's early movements into South America and adaptation to new environments. The evidence comes from the coastal Peruvian sites of Paredones and Huaca Prieta, Peru; dates from the middle and late preceramic and early ceramic periods (between ca. 6700 and 3000 calibrated years before the present); and constitutes some of the earliest known cobs, husks, stalks, and tassels. The macrobotanical record indicates that a diversity of racial complexes characteristic of the Andean region emerged during the preceramic era. In addition, accelerator mass spectrometry radiocarbon determinations carried out directly on different structures of preserved maize plants strongly suggest that assays on burned cobs are more reliable than those on unburned cobs. Our findings contribute to knowledge of the early diffusion of maize and agriculture and have broader implications for understanding the development of early preindustrial human societies. PMID:22307642

  10. Disintegration in Peru - consolidation in Chile: the case for militant Capitalism in Latin America

    Quinn, Edward J.


    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Over the past two decades, Peru and Chile have each experienced both military regimes and civilian governments. Peru's experience has been dominated by the political left; Chile's by the right. In contrast to Peru's populist politics and interventionist economics, Chile, in 1973, experienced a militant capitalist revolution. Almost twenty years later, Peru is a nation torn by political violence of both the left and right; on the brink...

  11. Mutation breeding of barley in Peru

    Barley has special value as a food for people living in the Andes mountain area of Peru. It is also the basic raw material for the malting industry. The factors limiting barley production in Peru are mainly diseases, low soil fertility, low rainfall, drought, frost and hail. Improved varieties should have the capability to overcome most of the factors limiting production. To achieve this aim, it is necessary to apply appropriate methods in mutation induction, and crossing and selection. The mutation induction methods are used to improve well adapted varieties and lines. The barley variety Buenavista is suited to the Altiplano conditions. Because of its spikes, it can withstand hail damage better than other varieties. Naked barley is appreciated very much as a different type of food by people living in the highlands. Based on these facts, a mutation breeding programme was initiated to search for naked kernels and other interesting mutants in the Buenavista variety. The mutagenic agents applied were: gamma rays at 20 and 30 krad (200 and 300 Gy); EMS at 0.05 M and 0.1 M; and sodium azide at 0.001 and 0.004 M. The M1 populations were planted in Callejon de Huaylas at 2700 m of elevation. The M2 generation was grown at La Molina on the campus of the University at 200 m of elevation. The total number of plants in the M2 was 187,574. The frequency of chlorophyll mutations ranged from 1.13% to 5.94%. The highest doses of mutagens resulted in a higher number of chlorophyll mutations, while in the case of naked kernels selected from the bulked seeds of each treatment, the lower dose gave the higher number. The frequency of mutants with naked kernels ranged from 0.07% to 0.12%. The main goal of obtaining naked kernel mutants was achieved. At the applied treatments gamma rays were more effective as a mutagenic agent for this purpose than EMS or sodium azide. (author). 4 refs, 5 tabs

  12. 75 FR 5836 - Meeting of the United States-Peru Environmental Affairs Council


    ... of the United States-Peru Environmental Affairs Council ACTION: Notice of the meeting of the U.S.-Peru Environmental Affairs Council and request for comments. SUMMARY: The Department of State and the... Peru intend to hold the first meeting of the Environmental Affairs Council (the ``Council'')...

  13. 21 CFR 524.2620 - Liquid crystalline trypsin, Peru balsam, castor oil.


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Liquid crystalline trypsin, Peru balsam, castor... NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.2620 Liquid crystalline trypsin, Peru balsam, castor oil. (a)(1) Specifications... delivered to the wound site contains 0.12 milligram of crystalline trypsin, 87.0 milligrams of Peru...

  14. 78 FR 32529 - Meeting of the United States-Peru Environmental Affairs Council and Environmental Cooperation...


    ... of the United States-Peru Environmental Affairs Council and Environmental Cooperation Commission ACTION: Notice of meetings of the United States-Peru Environmental Affairs Council and Environmental... United States Trade Representative (USTR) are providing notice that the United States and Peru intend...

  15. X-ray Fluorescence in Member States: Peru. Archaeometric Study of Gold Pieces from Morro de Eten, Peru

    In the archaeological place of Morro de Eten, Elera located during his excavations between 1979 and 1988, small pieces of gold were collected and analyzed revealing presence of platinum. At a first study some samples seemed to be partly covered by dust or red pigment initially identified by Elera as hematite. The objective of this work has been to check/clarify the presence of platinum in the pieces in order to understand its role and influence on the technology of the old goldsmiths. Besides, we tried to clarify if the pigment found in the gold pieces of Morro de Eten is hematite or cinnabar. For this purpose different analytical techniques were used including Optical Microscopy, Electronic Microscopy of Sweeping (SEM), Spectrographic Atomic Emission, Energy Dispersive X ray Fluorescence (EDXRF), Neutron Activation (NAA) and Energy Dispersive X ray Microanalysis (EDAX). Study of Metal Pieces from the Collection Versteylen by Using Nuclear Analytic Techniques. A collection Versteylen presently in custody of the Museum of Archeology 'Josefina Ramos de Cox' of the Instituto Riva-Agueero of the Pontificia Universidad Catolica del Peru has a number of specimens like tumis, agricultural tools, pincers which requires extensive study in order to identify a place of provenance, period of manufacturing, and materials associated to them. Energy dispersive X ray fluorescence technique was used for determination of the elemental concentrations of the metal pieces in order to characterize raw materials and to identify production process

  16. Características morfométricas, genéticas, alimenticias y vectoriales de Panstrongylus herreri procedentes de Jaén (Cajamarca y Cajaruro (Amazonas, Perú

    Jenny Ancca


    Full Text Available Objetivo. Comparar las características morfológicas, alimenticias y genéticas de dos poblaciones de Panstrongylus herreri, de los distritos de Jaén (Cajamarca y Cajaruro (Amazonas. Materiales y métodos. Se colectó especímenes adultos de P. herreri, 42 (Jaén y 68 (Cajaruro. Se utilizó la morfometría geométrica para evaluar el dimorfismo sexual de tamaño y conformación. El perfil genómico se realizó por amplificación del espaciador interno transcrito del ADNr (ITS-2. La amplificación del espaciador intergénico del gen mini-exón, permitió la caracterización molecular de los trypanosomas aislados. Se utilizó la prueba de precipitina para conocer las fuentes de alimentación de los vectores y así poder asociarlos a posibles reservorios del parásito. Resultados. El análisis morfométrico demostró que el dimorfismo sexual de tamaño fue similar (p>0,05; no ocurrió lo mismo con el dimorfismo de la conformación; asimismo no se encontró diferencias de tamaño al comparar por separado hembras y machos de Jaén y Cajaruro. Por ITS-2, se evaluó cinco especímenes de cada distrito, en ellos se observó una banda de 960 pb aproximadamente. Sólo en Cajaruro se encontraron triatominos parasitados, que fue caracterizado como Trypanosoma cruzi TCI (350 pb. Se identificó al cobayo como la fuente de alimento más frecuente. Conclusiones. Ambas poblaciones de P. herreri por morfometría geométrica e ITS-2, no evidenció diferencias, indicando que se trataría de una misma población y por consiguiente de la misma procedencia. La sangre de cobayo fue la más frecuente fuente de alimento, pudiendo ser el principal reservorio para la enfermedad de Chagas en esta zona del Perú.

  17. Equatorial thermospheric wind changes during the solar cycle: Measurements at Arequipa,Peru from 1983 to 1990

    Biondi, M.A.; Meriwether, J.W.; Fejer, Bela G.; Gonzalesz, S. A.; Hallenbeck, D. C.


    Fabry-Perot interferometer measurements of Doppler shifts in the nightglow 630-nm emission line have been used to determine near-equatorial thermospheric wind velocities at Arequipa, Peru, over ∼2/3 of a solar cycle. Monthly-average nocturnal variations in the meridional and zonal wind components were calculated from the nightly data to remove short term (day-to-day) variability, facilitating display of seasonal changes in the wind patterns, as well as any additional changes introduced by the...

  18. Factors Associated with Anti-Tuberculosis Medication Adverse Effects: A Case-Control Study in Lima, Peru

    Kocfa Chung-Delgado; Alejandro Revilla-Montag; Sonia Guillen-Bravo; Eduardo VelezSegovia; Andrea Soria-Montoya; Alexandra Nun˜ ez-Garbin; Wilmer Silva-Caso; Antonio Bernabe-Ortiz


    Background: Long-term exposure to anti-tuberculosis medication increases risk of adverse drug reactions and toxicity. The objective of this investigation was to determine factors associated with anti-tuberculosis adverse drug reactions in Lima, Peru, with special emphasis on MDR-TB medication, HIV infection, diabetes, age and tobacco use. Methodology and Results: A case-control study was performed using information from Peruvian TB Programme. A case was defined as having reported an anti-TB a...

  19. Mass media in Peru promotes "responsible parenthood".

    Brace, J; Pareja, R


    This article describes a media campaign being carried out in Peru under the auspices of the Ministry of Health. The overall theme of the campaign is Responsible Parenthood, specifically in the areas of family planing, oral rehydration, and immunization. The mass media campaign was based on the results of extensive audience research data that identified knowledge and beliefs in these areas. The research identified 2 target audiences for family planning messages: those who want no more children and those who are using traditional contraceptive methods. In addition to quantitative audience surveys, focus group discussions were held. These groups revealed important information about contraceptive habits, male attitudes toward family planning, and the folk vocabulary used for family planning activities. They further suggested that the quality of services given in health centers affects future use of that service and that the most credible source of information about family planning is considered to be a mature female doctor, herself a mother. Pretesting of television spots for the campaign was valuable for identifying unacceptable or ineffective images. It was also learned that radio and telvision spots cannot be the same; rather, they require unique content. PMID:12313874

  20. [Cholera in a district of Peru].

    Pérez Rodríguez, A E; Monté Boada, R; de la Vega Díaz, J E; Molina, R; García Gómez, V; Arca González, J M


    Taking to consideration the low report of cholera patients and with the main knowing the reality about the introduction of Vibrio cholerae (V. cholerae) in Peru, a sample of 101 cases with acute diarrheal disease (ADD) was taken at the Distrito Villa El Salvador. They were selected by a systematic randomized sampling defined for each health care unit in the District, according to the daily average occurrence of ADD cases attended a week before the beginning of the study. All of them took part in a epidemiological survey. A sample was taken by rectal swab in order to isolate V. cholerae. 53 positive cases were found (52.2% and a confidence interval from 42.29 to 62.5%) with significant differences (p < 0.01) between the frequency in adults (67.3%) and children (34.8%). V. cholerae was isolated only in 13 (61.9%) of the 21 cases who had contact with cholera patients, for a relative risk of 1.24 (0.83 < RR < 1.85). A high positivity was also found, 21 cases (72.4%) among those who had raw food. A significant difference (p < 0.01) was observed in connection with those who had cooked food. In the multivariate logistic regression analysis it was only found a significant relationship with age and with the ingestion of raw food as regards the occurrence of cholera. PMID:9805053

  1. Smoothing the way to opportunity in Peru.

    Valdivia, B


    Since 1990, poor women in Peru have suffered from the impact of structural adjustment policies, which have lead to low wages, poor working conditions, and a general deterioration in the status of women workers. To address these problems, the Asociacion Aurora Vivar began its Alternative Technical Training Program for Women in July 1992, with the aim of increasing the entrepreneurial skills of women. The project aimed to support women who have problems at work, those who are unemployed and those with low income. Moreover, the project sought to increase women's participation in nontraditional areas of work. Training focused on increasing women's technical skills, including the repair of home appliances, and on personal development, such as leadership skills, confidence building, and business management. The project attracted a diverse group of women who took part in the training for a variety of reasons. The women's new capacities and skills create a positive image for them within the household. Aurora Vivar acknowledges the importance of vocational education to increase women's opportunities to earn a living. The association is proposing reforms in the educational system to introduce courses on business management, credit, and other technical skills as part of the formal education system. PMID:12349600

  2. 78 FR 70276 - Trade Mission to Colombia, Peru, Chile, Panama, and Ecuador in Conjunction With Trade Winds-The...


    ... packaging equipment and medical equipment. Peru Peru's long-term economic stability and very low inflation... International Trade Administration Trade Mission to Colombia, Peru, Chile, Panama, and Ecuador in Conjunction..., International Trade Administration is organizing a trade mission to Colombia, Peru, Chile, Panama and...

  3. Education for Social Change. Peru 1972-1975

    Patricia Oliart


    Full Text Available The education reform implemented by the military regime of Juan Velasco (1968-1975 in Peru was the result of the alliance between a progressive branch of the armed forces and a group of cosmopolitan intellectuals influenced by radical pedagogy from the 60s and 70s, but also loyal to a long progressive tradition in education from Peru and Latin America. Analysis of this truncated project brings to light critical debates about politics and ideology in education and resonates with contemporary discussions about development and post development studies. The contemporary significance of the 1972 education reform is that its legacy, embodied in conspicuous members of the education community, played a role in the application of the neoliberal reforms in education in Peru in the 1990s, and helped envision a consensual educational project for the future.

  4. Peru steps up push to attract oil investment

    This paper reports that Peru's government is stepping up efforts to attract more foreign investment in its oil and gas sector. Since taking over in July 1990, the government of President Alberto Fujimori has taken a number of steps to privatize the oil sector, improve the fiscal regime for oil investment, and streamline regulations on oil and gas investment. In the most dramatic step, the Fujimori administration ended state oil company Petroleos del Peru's monopoly on downstream operations as well as imports and exports of oil and gas as part of sweeping new oil and gas legislation. In addition, officials of the Fujimori administration have been traveling to key oil centers around the world with a presentation on Peru's hydrocarbon potential, trying to spark interest in E and D investment there

  5. An Ectopic Case of Tunga spp. Infection in Peru

    Maco, Vicente; Maco, Vicente P.; Gotuzzo, Eduardo


    Tungiasis is a neglected ectoparasitism of impoverished areas in South America and sub-Saharan Africa. The sand flea Tunga spp. preferably infests the soles and the periungueal and interdigital regions of the feet. Ectopic tungiasis is rare, even in highly endemic areas. We describe a case of an indigenous patient in Peru who presented with a nodular lesion in the extensor aspect of the knee and whose biopsy was compatible with Tunga spp. This is the first documented case of knee tungiasis in an endemic country. The historical, clinical, histological, and current epidemiological aspects of tungiasis in Peru are discussed here. PMID:20519602

  6. Motives and Effectiveness of Forex Interventions; Evidence from Peru

    Melesse Tashu


    This paper assesses empirically the motives and effectiveness of forex interventions in Peru. While the central bank of Peru states that its forex interventions aim only at containing excessive exchange rate volatility, the results of this paper show that, in practice, the interventions seem to have aimed at “leaning against the wind†as well. The results also show that forex sales, but not forex purchases, react to volatility, indicating asymmetry in the central bank’s reactions to epis...


    Scotto, Carlos


    Full Text Available Transgenesis involves processes of molecular genetic manipulation of DNAwhich seeks to "introduce genes" of interest from one organism into the genetic material of another to obtain goods or services. The resulting organism is called a Genetically Modified Organism or GMO. It shows the first case of transgenic fluorescent fish as a real example of GMOs existing in Peru. Reproduction and hybridization in confined environments, provide new approaches to biosecurity decision-makers about this new technological contribution to the task of Peru.

  8. Serological characterisation of foot-and-mouth disease type 'O' field isolates from Peru: 1992-1994

    Nineteen field isolates of foot-and-mouth disease Virus (FMDV) recovered from bovine epithelial samples corresponding to outbreaks present in different regions of Peru, between 1992-1994 were studied. The relationship of the virus isolates to the O/Urubamba vaccine strain of Peru was determined by the calculation of the 'r' values obtained by the liquid-phase blocking ELISA. All the isolates showed 'r' values higher than 0.66 indicating that the vaccine strain should protect against the field strains. Characterization of the field isolates by a trapping ELISA using a panel of monoclonal antibodies against FMDV O/Switzerland and O/Caseros, showed slight differences in the profiles of the field isolates when compared with the O/Urubamba vaccine strain, but no differences were found among all the isolates. (author)

  9. Relationship between daily exposure to biomass fuel smoke and blood pressure in high-altitude Peru

    Peña, Melissa Burroughs; Romero, Karina M.; Velazquez, Eric J.; Davila-Roman, Victor G.; Gilman, Robert H.; Wise, Robert A; Miranda, J. Jaime; Checkley, William


    Household air pollution from biomass fuel use affects three billion people worldwide; however, few studies have examined the relationship between biomass fuel use and blood pressure. We sought to determine if daily biomass fuel use was associated with elevated blood pressure in high altitude Peru and if this relationship was affected by lung function. We analyzed baseline information from a population-based cohort study of adults aged ≥35 years in Puno, Peru. Daily biomass fuel use was self-reported. We used multivariable regression models to examine the relationship between daily exposure to biomass fuel smoke and blood pressure outcomes. Interactions with sex and quartiles of forced vital capacity (FVC) were conducted to evaluate for effect modification. Data from 1004 individuals (mean age 55.3 years, 51.7% female) were included. We found an association between biomass fuel use with both prehypertension (adjusted relative risk ratio 5.0, 95% CI 2.6 to 9.9) and hypertension (adjusted relative risk ratio 3.5, 95% CI 1.7 to 7.0). Biomass fuel users had a higher SBP (7.01 mmHg, 95% CI 4.4 to 9.6) and a higher DBP (5.9 mmHg, 95% CI 4.2 to 7.6) when compared to nonusers. We did not find interaction effects between daily biomass fuel use and sex or percent predicted FVC for either SBP or DBP. Biomass fuel use was associated with an increased risk of hypertension and higher blood pressure in Peru. Reducing exposure to household air pollution from biomass fuel use represents an opportunity for cardiovascular prevention. PMID:25753976

  10. High Andean butterflies from southern Peru, I. Dry puna Satyrinae, with the description of two new taxa and three new records from Peru (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae

    José Alfredo Cerdeña


    Full Text Available This is the first part of a series of contributions to the knowledge of the high Andean butterfly fauna in southern Peru. In this work the butterfly species of the subfamily Satyrinae present in the dry puna of Peru are reviewed. A new species, Pampasatyrus gorkyi sp. nov. and a new subspecies Argyrophorus lamna cuzcoensis ssp. nov. are described from the department Cusco, Peru. Three species are recorded for the first time for Peru, Argyrophorus gustavi Staudinger, Faunula euripides (Weymer and Faunula eleates (Weymer previously reported from Chile and Bolivia. Ecological and biogeographical data are provided.

  11. Popular video for rural development in Peru.

    Calvelo Rios, J M


    Peru developed its first use of video for training and education in rural areas over a decade ago. On completion of the project in 1986, over 400,000 peasants had attended video courses lasting from 5-20 days. The courses included rural health, family planning, reforestation, agriculture, animal husbandry, housing, nutrition, and water sanitation. There were 125 course packages made and 1,260 video programs from 10-18 minutes in length. There were 780 additional video programs created on human resource development, socioeconomic diagnostics and culture. 160 specialists were trained to produce audiovisual materials and run the programs. Also, 70 trainers from other countries were trained. The results showed many used the training in practical applications. To promote rural development 2 things are needed , capital and physical inputs, such as equipment, fertilizers, pesticides, etc. The video project provided peasants an additional input that would help them manage the financial and physical inputs more efficiently. Video was used because many farmers are illiterate or speak a language different from the official one. Printed guides that contained many illustrations and few words served as memory aids and group discussions reinforced practical learning. By seeing, hearing, and doing, the training was effective. There were 46% women which made fertility and family planning subjects more easily communicated. The production of teaching modules included field investigations, academic research, field recording, tape editing, and experimental application in the field. An agreement with the peasants was initiated before a course began to help insure full participation and to also make sure resources were available to use the knowledge gained. The courses were limited to 30 and the cost per participant was $34 per course. PMID:12283151

  12. Implementing Climate Services in Peru: CLIMANDES Project

    Lavado-Casimiro, Waldo; Mauchle, Fabian; Diaz, Amelia; Seiz, Gabriela; Rubli, Alex; Rossa, Andrea; Rosas, Gabriela; Ita, Niceforo; Calle, Victoria; Villegas, Esequiel; Ambrosetti, Paolo; Brönnimann, Stefan; Hunziker, Stefan; Jacques, Martin; Croci-Maspoli, Mischa; Konzelmann, Thomas; Gubler, Stefanie; Rohrer, Mario


    The climate variability and change will have increasing influence on the economic and social development of all countries and regions, such as the Andes in Latin America. The CLIMANDES project (Climate services to support decision-making in the Andean Region) will address these issues in Peru. CLIMANDES supports the WMO Regional Training Centre (RTC) in Lima, which is responsible for the training of specialized human resources in meteorology and climatology in the South American Andes (Module 1). Furthermore, CLIMANDES will provide high-quality climate services to inform policy makers in the Andean region (Module 2). It is coordinated by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and constitutes a pilot project under the umbrella of the WMO-led Global Framework for Climate Services (GFCS). The project is funded by the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC) and runs from August 2012 - July 2015. Module 1 focuses on restructuring the curricula of Meteorology at the La Molina Agraria University (UNALM) and applied training of meteorologists of the Peruvian National Service of Meteorology and Hydrology (SENAMHI). In Module 2, the skills will be shared and developed in the production and delivery of high-quality climate products and services tailored to the needs of the decision makers in the pilot regions Cusco and Junín. Such services will benefit numerous sectors including agriculture, education, health, tourism, energy, transport and others. The goals of the modules 1 and 2 will be achieved through the collaboration of the UNALM, SENAMHI and the Federal Office of Meteorology and Climatology MeteoSwiss, with the support of the University of Bern (UNIBE), Meteodat and WMO.

  13. Regional Analysis of the Hazard Level of Glacial Lakes in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru

    Chisolm, Rachel E.; Jhon Sanchez Leon, Walter; McKinney, Daene C.; Cochachin Rapre, Alejo


    of glacial lakes and their hazard potential. This phase of glacial lake hazard assessment aims to be geographically comprehensive in order to identify potentially dangerous lakes that may have previously been ignored. A second phase of analysis that includes site visits will be necessary for a thorough analysis at each lake to determine the potential hazard for downstream communities. The objective of the work presented here is to identify potentially dangerous lakes that warrant further study rather than provide a final hazard assessment for each lake of the glacial lake inventory in the Cordillera Blanca. References: Emmer, A. and Vilímek, V.: New method for assessing the potential hazardousness of glacial lakes in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 11, 2391-2439, 2014. UGRH - Unidad de Glaciologia y Recursos Hidricos. Inventario de Lagunas Glaciares del Peru. Ministerio de Agricultura y Riego, Autoridad Nacional del Agua, Direcccion de Conservacion y Planeamiento de Recursos Hidricos, Huaraz, Peru, 2014. Wang, W., Yao, T., Gao, Y., Yang, X., and Kattel, D. B.: A first-order method to identify potentially dangerous glacial lakes in a region of the southeastern Tibetan Plateau, Mountain Res. Develop., 31, 122-130, 2011.

  14. Tigridia arequipensis (Iridaceae: Tigridieae), a new species from South Peru

    Montesinos, D.B.; Pauca, A.; Revilla, I.


    Abstract Tigridia arequipensis (Iridaceae: Tigridieae) is a new species found in the province of Arequipa (department
    of Arequipa), South Peru. It is unique by its white to pale white (or pale lilac) flowers, outer tepals with purplish
    maroon and dark yellow spots and stripes, and inner tepa

  15. Disposal of low and intermediate level radioactive wastes in Peru

    Low and intermediate level wastes are produced from radioisotopic application in medicine and industry in Peru. Intermediate level solid waste are collected from Nuclear Research Centre. This wastes are cemented for final disposal. This poster presents description of the bunker used for disposal and future plans for radioactive waste management. 3 refs, 1 fig

  16. Peru's Downstream Natural Gas Sector : A Preliminary Assessment

    Reinstein, David; Benítez, Daniel A. Benítez; Todd M. Johnson


    This study assesses the natural gas market in Peru. In the process of evaluating the downstream market, the study identifies opportunities for meeting the Government s aspirational goals with respect to energy and natural gas development, including the efficient use of natural gas in the power and other sectors, strengthening and coordinating national energy planning for the gas sector, in...

  17. Quechua Language Attitudes and Maintenance in Cuzco, Peru

    Manley, Marilyn S.


    This article qualitatively and quantitatively investigates the Quechua language attitudes and maintenance practices of the members of two non-profit, non-governmental agencies in Cuzco, Peru. Within their respective agency/community contexts, the members of both groups claim to have significantly more positive attitudes toward Quechua and exhibit…

  18. Educational Impact of a School Breakfast Programme in Rural Peru

    Cueto, Santiago; Chinen, Marjorie


    In this paper, we present data from an evaluation of the educational impact of a school breakfast program implemented in rural schools in Peru. The results showed positive effects on school attendance and dropout rates, and a differential effect of the breakfast program on multiple-grade and full-grade schools. Particularly in multiple-grade…

  19. Peru v. Yale: A Battle Rages over Machu Picchu

    Glenn, David


    In early 1916, the legendary Yale University archaeologist Hiram Bingham III completed his third and final expedition in southern Peru. He shipped home 74 boxes of artifacts from Machu Picchu, a spectacular site in the Andes that is believed to have been the last major settlement of the Inca empire. Those boxes were supposed to be on temporary…

  20. Maternal Violence, Victimization, and Child Physical Punishment in Peru

    Gage, Anastasia J.; Silvestre, Eva A.


    Objectives: This study examined whether mothers' experience of violence was a risk factor for physical punishment. Methods: Data were derived from the nationally representative 2000 Peru Demographic and Family Health Survey. Participants were 12,601 currently married women who were living with biological children aged 0-17 years and were…

  1. 76 FR 68067 - United States-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement


    ..., which was published in the Federal Register on January 22, 2009 (74 FR 4105), modified the Harmonized... Executive Order 12866 of September 30, 1993 (58 FR 51735, October 4, 1993), because it pertains to a foreign... 178 RIN 1515-AD79 United States-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement AGENCIES: U.S. Customs and...

  2. Drug Abuse Treatment Training in Peru: A Social Policy Experiment.

    Johnson, Knowlton W.; Young, Linda C.; Suresh, Geetha; Berbaum, Michael L.


    Conducted a social policy experiment in 76 drug treatment organizations in Peru from 1997 to 2000. Programs were assigned to one of three training conditions. Positive effects were found for increased staff empowerment to use training tools and principles, and larger effects were found on the implementation of therapeutic community methods with…

  3. Andean shrublands of Moquegua, South Peru: Prepuna plant communities

    Montesinos, D.B.; Cleef, A.M.; Sykora, K.V.


    A syntaxonomic overview of shrubland vegetation in the southern Andean regions of Peru is presented. For each plant community, information is given on physiognomy, floristic diversity, ecology and geographical distribution. The shrub vegetation on the slopes of the upper Tambo river valley includes

  4. Organic smallholder women supplying the gastronomic sector in Cusco, Peru

    Van den Eeckhout, Hannes; Luján Sánchez, Ángel; Ugas, Roberto


    Aimed at promoting better conditions of food security, this practitioners’ paper describes the short-chain market integration of smallholder women supplying organic vegetables to the gastronomic sector in tourist destination Cusco (Peru), complementing PGS progress and local organic marketplace initiatives. Economic viability and bottlenecks along the value chain are analyzed as well as suggestions and challenges for sustainability presented.

  5. NCI and the Republic of Peru Sign Statement of Intent

    The U.S. National Cancer Institute and the Republic of Peru signed a statement of intent to share an interest in fostering collaborative biomedical research in oncology and a common goal in educating and training the next generation of cancer research sci

  6. Sexual Abuse Experiences of Women in Peru: An Exploratory Study

    Deboer, Rebekah E.; Tse, Luke M.


    This ethnographic study relied primarily on case notes and interviews with the president of Centro Prenatal Vida Nueva, a pregnancy center in Lima, Peru, to study the sexual abuse experiences of 33 Peruvian women. Given the language limitations of the researchers, the analyses were completed in collaboration with the president of the center, a…

  7. Philogenia nemesioi, a new damselfly from Peru (Odonata, Megapodagrionidae

    Angelo B. M. Machado


    Full Text Available Philogenia nemesioi, a new damselfly from Peru (Odonata, Megapodagrionidae. Philogenia nemesioi sp. nov. is described and illustrated based on one male specimen collected on forests of the eastern slope of the Peruvian Andes at 900 m. It belongs to the cristalina group, but differs from other species of the group by the structure of the anal appendage.

  8. Growth Diagnostics in Practice 1: Applications to Paraguay and Peru

    Ricardo Hausmann


    This presentation show how a Growth Diagnostic Model is carried out. It shows what variables and issues should be taken into account and it presents two main examples: the application to Paraguay and Peru. Less detailed examples are presented for Brazil and Mexico.

  9. Exploration of deep sedimentary layers in Tacna city, southern Peru, using microtremors and earthquake data for estimation of local amplification

    Yamanaka, Hiroaki; Gamero, Mileyvi Selene Quispe; Chimoto, Kosuke; Saguchi, Kouichiro; Calderon, Diana; La Rosa, Fernándo Lázares; Bardales, Zenón Aguilar


    S-wave velocity profiles of sedimentary layers in Tacna, southern Peru, based on analysis of microtremor array data and earthquake records, have been determined for estimation of site amplification. We investigated vertical component of microtremors in temporary arrays at two sites in the city for Rayleigh wave phase velocity. A receiver function was also estimated from existing earthquake data at a strong motion station near one of the microtremor exploration sites. The phase velocity and the receiver function were jointly inverted to S-wave velocity profiles. The depths to the basement with an S-wave velocity of 2.8 km/s at the two sites are similar as about 1 km. The top soil at the site in a severely damaged area in the city had a lower S-wave velocity than that in a slightly damaged area during the 2001 southern Peru earthquake. We subsequently estimate site amplifications from the velocity profiles and find that amplification is large at periods from 0.2 to 0.8 s at the damaged area indicating possible reasons for the differences in the damage observed during the 2001 southern Peru earthquake.

  10. Epidemiology of tobacco use and dependence in adults in a poor peri-urban community in Lima, Peru

    Weygandt Paul


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tobacco smoking is an important public health concern worldwide leading to both chronic disease and early death. In Latin America, smoking prevalence is estimated at approximately 30% and prior studies suggest that the prevalence in Peru is 22% to 38%. We sought to determine the prevalence of daily smoking in a poor peri-urban community in Lima, Peru. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey in a random sample of adults ≥40 years of age living in Pampas de San Juan de Miraflores, Lima, Peru. We asked participants to respond to a survey that included questions on sociodemographics, tobacco use and dependence. Results We enrolled 316 participants. Average monthly household income was ≤ 400 USD and nearly all homes had running water, sewage, and electricity. Most individuals had not completed high school. Smoking prevalence was 16% overall, yet daily smoking prevalence was 1.9%. Former daily smokers comprised 3.8% of current nonsmokers and 9.1% current occasional smokers. Average scores for the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence for daily smokers and occasional smokers were 1.5 and 0, respectively. Conclusions Daily use of tobacco is uncommon among adults in peri-urban communities of Lima, Peru, unlike their counterparts in Lima and other Latin American capital cities. Tobacco dependence is also low. Hence, efforts aimed at primary prevention are of utmost importance in these communities. This study provides an accurate baseline using an internationally recognized assessment tool (Global Adult Tobacco Survey, allowing for accurate assessment of tobacco control interventions over time.

  11. Aflatoxin contamination of red chili pepper from Bolivia and Peru, countries with high gallbladder cancer incidence rates.

    Asai, Takao; Tsuchiya, Yasuo; Okano, Kiyoshi; Piscoya, Alejandro; Nishi, Carlos Yoshito; Ikoma, Toshikazu; Oyama, Tomizo; Ikegami, Kikuo; Yamamoto, Masaharu


    Chilean red chili peppers contaminated with aflatoxins were reported in a previous study. If the development of gallbladder cancer (GBC) in Chile is associated with a high level of consumption of aflatoxin-contaminated red chili peppers, such peppers from other countries having a high GBC incidence rate may also be contaminated with aflatoxins. We aimed to determine whether this might be the case for red chili peppers from Bolivia and Peru. A total of 7 samples (3 from Bolivia, 4 from Peru) and 3 controls (2 from China, 1 from Japan) were evaluated. Aflatoxins were extracted with acetonitrile:water (9:1, v/v) and eluted through an immuno-affinity column. The concentrations of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and then the detected aflatoxins were identified using HPLC-mass spectrometry. In some but not all of the samples from Bolivia and Peru, aflatoxin B1 or aflatoxins B1 and B2 were detected. In particular, aflatoxin B1 or total aflatoxin concentrations in a Bolivian samples were above the maximum levels for aflatoxins in spices proposed by the European Commission. Red chili peppers from Bolivia and Peru consumed by populations having high GBC incidence rates would appear to be contaminated with aflatoxins. These data suggest the possibility that a high level of consumption of aflatoxin-contaminated red chili peppers is related to the development of GBC, and the association between the two should be confirmed by a case-control study. PMID:23244129

  12. Species composition and phytosociology of xerophytic plant communitiesSouth Peru after extreme rainfall in South Peru

    D.B. Montesinos-Tubée; K.V. Sýkora; V. Quipuscoa-Silvestre; A.M. Cleef


    We present a phytosociological overview of the arid and semi-arid montane vegetation of the province of Arequipa in southern Peru. The xerophytic vegetation was studied after extreme rainfall had promoted exceptionally lush vegetation and a high aboveground floristic diversity. We used TWINSPAN for

  13. Globalisation and Exploitation in Peru: Strategic Selectivities and the Defeat of Labour in the US-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement

    Verbeek, J.B.


    This article examines the socio-economic implications of the US-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement for the governance of Peruvian labour relations. It is argued that the trade agreement aims to lock-in the neoliberal market reforms carried out since the 1990s, which have given rise to an export-oriented

  14. ENSO Impacts on Lomas Formation in South Coastal Peru: Implications for the Pliocene?

    Timothy Paul Eichler


    Full Text Available Lomas formations in southern Peru are related to moisture availability due to frequent incursions of fog in austral winter. Due to warming of coastal waters of southern Peru during El Niño, lomas formations are enhanced via greater moisture availability for fog and drizzle. Our study evaluates the modern climatological record in austral winter to determine if there are differences in moisture availability between El Niño and La Niña for fog formation. Our results show anomalous northwesterly onshore flow, warmer than normal sea-surface temperatures, and an increase in precipitable water in El Niño, favoring lomas formations due to advection fog with higher moisture content. On the other hand, La Niña also favors frequent advection fog, with less moisture content due to strong onshore flow over relatively cool SSTs. Since lomas may represent fragments of a continuous vegetation belt that existed during the Pliocene, a permanent El Niño favoring vigorous vegetation production along the south Peruvian coast due to incursions of fog with high precipitable water may have occurred in this period. However, the possibility of normal El Niño variability superimposed on a warmer climatology producing fog with higher moisture content in both El Niño and La Niña conditions cannot be discounted.

  15. Postmortem findings and opportunistic infections in HIV-positive patients from a public hospital in Peru

    Eza, Dominique; Cerrillo, Gustavo; Moore, David A.J.; Castro, Cecilia; Ticona, Eduardo; Morales, Domingo; Cabanillas, Jose; Barrantes, Fernando; Alfaro, Alejandro; Benavides, Alejandro; Rafael, Arturo; Valladares, Gilberto; Arevalo, Fernando; Evans, Carlton A.; Gilman, Robert H.


    There is a paucity of HIV autopsy data from South America and none that document the postmortem findings in patients with HIV/AIDS in Peru. The purpose of this autopsy study was to determine the spectrum of opportunistic infections and the causes of mortality in HIV-positive patients at a public hospital in Lima. Clinico-epidemiological information regarding HIV infection in Peru is also reviewed. Sixteen HIV-related hospital postmortems, performed between 1999 and 2004, were included in this retrospective analysis. The primary cause of death was established in 12 patients: one died of neoplasia and 11 of infectious diseases, including 3 from pulmonary infection, 7 from disseminated infection, and 2 from central nervous system infection (one case had dual pathology). Opportunistic infections were identified in 14 cases, comprising cytomegalovirus, histoplasmosis, cryptococcosis, toxoplasmosis, Pneumocystis pneumonia, aspergillosis, tuberculosis, varicella zoster virus, and cryptosporidiosis. Fourteen patients had at least one AIDS-related disease that had been neither clinically suspected nor diagnosed premortem. Moreover, 82% of the diagnoses considered to be of important clinical significance had not been suspected antemortem. The spectrum and frequency of certain opportunistic infections differed from other South American autopsy studies, highlighting the importance of performing HIV/AIDS postmortems in resource-limited countries where locally specific disease patterns may be observed. PMID:16979302

  16. International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) orientation phase mission summary report: Peru

    A report has recently been published which describes the findings of the International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (TUREP) Mission to Peru. The IUREP Orientation Phase Mission to Peru estimates that the Speculative Resources of that country fall within the range of 6 000 to 11 000 tonnes uranium. The majority of this potential is expected to be located in Late Tertiary ignimbrites and associated sediments in the high Andes of southern Peru. Other favourable geological environments include calcretes, developed from Tertiary volcanogenic sources over the Precambrian in the Pacific Coastal desert in southern Peru, and Hercynian subvolcanic granites in the eastern Cordillera of southern Peru. The Mission recommends that over a period of five years approximately U.S. $10 million be spent on exploration in Peru. The majority of this would be spent on drilling ($5 million) and tunnelling ($2 million) with an additional $3 million on surface and airborne radiometric surveys. (author)

  17. New lichen biota records from Santuario Histórico de Machu Picchu, Peru

    Jano Nuñez-Zapata; Pradeep K. Divakar; Gladys Huallparimachi; María E. Holgado; Zoila Vela Clavo; Magdalena Pavlich; Ana Crespo


    While high species diversity of lichen - lichenized fungi - is reported especially in the tropics, the studies on these organisms are still scarce in Peru. Using conventional methodology and current literature on the description of genera and species, we reported macro-lichens collected from Historic Sanctuary of Machu Picchu (Cusco, Peru). Sixty seven species of macro-lichens are reported to SHMP, nine new records to Peru are documented. Parmeliaceae, Physciaceae and Lobariaceae are the fami...

  18. Research ethics training in Peru: a case study.

    A Roxana Lescano

    Full Text Available With the rapidly increasing number of health care professionals seeking international research experience, comes an urgent need for enhanced capacity of host country institutional review boards (IRB to review research proposals and ensure research activities are both ethical and relevant to the host country customs and needs. A successful combination of distance learning, interactive courses and expert course instructors has been applied in Peru since 2004 through collaborations between the U.S. Naval Medical Research Center Detachment, the University of Washington and the Department of Clinical Bioethics of the National Institutes of Health to provide training in ethical conduct of research to IRB members and researchers from Peru and other Latin American countries. All training activities were conducted under the auspices of the Peruvian National Institute of Health (INS, Ministry of Health. To date, 927 people from 12 different Latin American countries have participated in several of these training activities. In this article we describe our training model.

  19. Geologic Water Storage in Pre-Columbian Peru

    Fairley Jr., Jerry P.


    Agriculture in the arid and semi-arid regions that comprise much of present-day Peru, Bolivia, and Northern Chile is heavily dependent on irrigation; however, obtaining a dependable water supply in these areas is often difficult. The precolumbian peoples of Andean South America adapted to this situation by devising many strategies for transporting, storing, and retrieving water to insure consistent supply. I propose that the ''elaborated springs'' found at several Inka sites near Cuzco, Peru, are the visible expression of a simple and effective system of groundwater control and storage. I call this system ''geologic water storage'' because the water is stored in the pore spaces of sands, soils, and other near-surface geologic materials. I present two examples of sites in the Cuzco area that use this technology (Tambomachay and Tipon) and discuss the potential for identification of similar systems developed by other ancient Latin American cultures.

  20. The Lurin Valley, Peru, A.D. 1000-1532

    Feltham, P. J.


    This thesis discusses the post-Middle Horizon archaeology of one of the smaller central coast valleys of Peru. It focuses on a zone between 400 and 1000 metres above sea level and analyses data collected over several field seasons. There are two appendices dealing with ceramic analysi8 and excavations. An introduction defines the problems raised by previous work and discusses field procedures. There is a full treatment of the environment in order to show the potential sel...

  1. Peru: Third Review Under the Stand-By Arrangement

    International Monetary Fund


    Peru showed commendable economic performance under the Stand-By Arrangement, owing to its strong fundamentals, prudent macroeconomic policies, and progress with structural reforms. Executive Directors commended these developments, and stressed the need to strengthen fiscal prudence, transparency, debt management, and monetary policy stance. They emphasized the need to implement tax and pension plan reforms, and improve the public sector operations and banking sector indicators. They agreed th...

  2. Seasonal variations in theequatorial thermospheric wind measured at Arequipa, Peru

    Biondi, M.A.; Meriwether, J.W.; Fejer, Bela G.; Gonzalez, S A


    Studies have been carried out at Arequipa, Peru, of the seasonal variations in the thermospheric winds at moderate solar flux levels and low geomagnetic activity. Fabry-Perot interferometer measurements of the Doppler shifts in the 630.0 nm nightglow emission line from March to August 1983 and from April to October 1988 have yielded monthly-average meridional winds that are nearly zero (

  3. Optimizing microwind rural electrification projects. A case study in Peru

    Ferrer Martí, Laia; Pastor Moreno, Rafael; Capó Plaza, Gregori Miquel; Velo García, Enrique


    Electrification systems based on the use of renewable energy sources are suitable for providing electricity to isolated communities autonomously. Specifically, electrification by wind power is one of the technological options that have been used recently in projects implemented in the Andean highlands of Peru. To date, these projects have tended to install individual microwind turbines at each demand point. Alternatively, we propose a solution that considers both individual generator...

  4. A community small-scale wind generation project in Peru

    Ferrer Martí, Laia; Garwood, Anna; Chiroque, José; Escobar, Rafael; Coello, Javier; Castro, Miguel


    Electrification systems based on renewable energy have proven to be suitable for providing decentralized electricity to isolated communities. Electricity generated through wind power is one of the technical options available, although infrequently used to date. This article aims to describe the main aspects of technical design, implementation and management of the first small-scale community wind generation project for rural electrification in Peru. This project took place in t...

  5. Peru's participatory budgeting: configurations of power, opportunities for change

    Hordijk, M.A.


    In 2003, Peru adopted the "Framework Law on participatory budgeting". It requires all the municipal and regional governments to institutionalize a yearly "participatory budgeting process". The Peruvian Participatory Budgeting (PB) is inspired on the PB-experiment in Porto Alegre, Brazil, but differs on a number of important principles of design. Building on the existing evaluations of the Peruvian nation-wide implementation of PB (2003-2007), this article addresses both the pitfalls and the t...

  6. First detection of viruses in Africanized honey bees from Peru

    Orlando; Yaez; Graciano; Tejada; Peter; Neumann


    <正>Dear Editor,The ability of the Western honey bee,Apis mellifera,to adapt to most climates of the world and the ongoing standardization of colony management has made this species of honey bees the most important species for crop pollination.In recent years,Peru emerged as a main exporter of industrial crops.This industry is mainly concentrated in the Peruvian coastal region,because the local climate permits off-season production

  7. Housing Finance in Peru: What Is Holding It Back?

    Miguel Palomino Bonilla; Rudy Wong Barrantes


    Housing for most Peruvians is improving but is still grossly inadequate. Nonetheless, public housing finance policies mainly involve programs that subsidize middle-income families and banks that lend to them. Research summarized in this paper indicates that financing will not be the main obstacle to improving housing conditions in Peru and that public sector efforts would be better aimed at dealing with issues where significant externalities and institutional restrictions limit market develop...

  8. Counterfeit medicines in Peru: a retrospective review (1997–2014)

    Medina, Edwin; Bel, Elvira; Suñé, Josep María


    Objective To consolidate and assess information on counterfeit medicines subject to pharmaceutical alerts issued by the Peruvian Medicines Regulatory Authority over 18 years (1997–2014) of health monitoring and enforcement. Design A retrospective review of drug alerts. Setting A search of the website of the General Directorate of Medicines, Supplies and Drugs (DIGEMID) of the Ministry of Health of Peru for drug alerts issued between 1997 and 2014. Eligibility criteria Drug alerts related to c...

  9. Frequency of Maternal and Newborn Birth Outcomes, Lima, Peru, 2013

    Wynn, Adriane; Cabeza, Jeanne; Adachi, Kristina; Needleman, Jack; Garcia, Patricia J.; Klausner, Jeffrey D


    Objective This study describes the pregnancy and birth outcomes at two hospitals in Lima, Peru. The data collection and analysis is intended to inform patients, providers, and policy makers on Peru’s progress toward achieving the Millennium Development Goals and to help set priorities for action and further research. Methods Data were collected retrospectively from a sample of 237 women who delivered between December 2012 and September 2013 at the Instituto Nacional Materno Perinatal or the H...

  10. Liparis aphylla (Malaxideae, Orchidaceae), a new leafless record from Peru.

    Damian, Alexander; Ormerod, Paul


    Liparis aphylla G.A.Romero & Garay was previously known only from two herbarium specimens collected in 1945 and 1977 in Ecuador and Colombia, respectively. This little-known species is hereby reported for the first time for Peru. An updated description, line illustration, color photographs and distribution map of Liparis aphylla, as well as an identification key to the Peruvian species of Liparis are provided. PMID:27081347