Sample records for cacna1a-mutant mouse rolling

  1. Metal rolling - Asymmetrical rolling process

    Alexa, V.; Raţiu, S.; Kiss, I.


    The development of theory and practice related to the asymmetric longitudinal rolling process is based on the general theory of metalworking by pressure and symmetric rolling theory, to which a large number of scientists brought their contribution. The rolling of metal materials was a serious problem throughout history, either economically or technically, because the plating technologies enabled the consumption of raw materials (scarce and expensive) to be reduced, while improving the mechanical properties. Knowing the force parameters related to asymmetric rolling leads to the optimization of energy and raw material consumption. This paper presents data on symmetric rolling process, in order to comparatively highlight the particularities of the asymmetric process.

  2. Rolling Reloaded

    Jones, Simon A.; Nieminen, John M.


    Not so long ago a new observation about rolling motion was described: for a rolling wheel, there is a set of points with instantaneous velocities directed at or away from the centre of the wheel; these points form a circle whose diameter connects the centre of the wheel to the wheel's point of contact with the ground (Sharma 1996 "Eur. J. Phys."…

  3. Interactions Between Stably Rolling Leukocytes In Vivo

    King, M R; Kim, M B; Sarelius, I H; King, Michael R.; Ruscio, Aimee D.; Kim, Michael B.; Sarelius, Ingrid H.


    We have characterized the two-dimensional spatial dependence of the hydrodynamic interactions between two adhesively rolling leukocytes in a live venule in the mouse cremaster muscle. Two rolling leukocytes were observed to slow each other down when rolling together in close proximity, due to mutual sheltering from the external blood flow in the vessel lumen. These results are in agreement with a previous study of leukocyte rolling interactions using carbohydrate-coated beads in a parallel-plate flow chamber and a detailed computer model of adhesion in a multicellular environment.

  4. Kulturens rolle

    Hasse, Cathrine

    Kulturens rolle. Herunder kulturens betydning for psykologisk teori og forskning set i lyset af den stigende globalisering og væksten i kulturmøder. Der gives eksempler fra hverdagssituationer, den pædagogiske praksis, fra indvandrerforskning, turister men også fra avisernes referater af kulturmø......Kulturens rolle. Herunder kulturens betydning for psykologisk teori og forskning set i lyset af den stigende globalisering og væksten i kulturmøder. Der gives eksempler fra hverdagssituationer, den pædagogiske praksis, fra indvandrerforskning, turister men også fra avisernes referater af...

  5. Cross Shear Roll Bonding

    Bay, Niels; Bjerregaard, Henrik; Petersen, Søren. B;


    The present paper describes an investigation of roll bonding an AlZn alloy to mild steel. Application of cross shear roll bonding, where the two equal sized rolls run with different peripheral speed, is shown to give better bond strength than conventional roll bonding. Improvements of up to 20......-23% in bond strength are found and full bond strength is obtained at a reduction of 50% whereas 65% is required in case of conventional roll bonding. Pseudo cross shear roll bonding, where the cross shear effect is obtained by running two equal sized rolls with different speed, gives the same results....

  6. Rolling Shutter Motion Deblurring

    Su, Shuochen


    Although motion blur and rolling shutter deformations are closely coupled artifacts in images taken with CMOS image sensors, the two phenomena have so far mostly been treated separately, with deblurring algorithms being unable to handle rolling shutter wobble, and rolling shutter algo- rithms being incapable of dealing with motion blur. We propose an approach that delivers sharp and undis torted output given a single rolling shutter motion blurred image. The key to achieving this is a global modeling of the camera motion trajectory, which enables each scanline of the image to be deblurred with the corresponding motion segment. We show the results of the proposed framework through experiments on synthetic and real data.

  7. Ship Roll Damping Control

    Perez, Tristan; Blanke, Mogens


    limitations and large variations of the spectral characteristics of wave-induced roll motion. This tutorial paper presents an account of the development of various ship roll motion control systems together with the challenges associated with their design. It discusses the assessment of performance and the...

  8. Roll force prediction of high strength steel using foil rolling theory in cold skin pass rolling

    Skin pass rolling is a very important process for applying a certain elongation to a strip in the cold rolling and annealing processes, which play an important role in preventing the stretching of the yield point when the material is processed. The exact prediction of the rolling force is essential for obtaining a given elongation with the steel grade and strip size. Unlike hot rolling and cold rolling, skin pass rolling is used to apply an elongation of within 2% to the strip. Under a small reduction, it is difficult to predict the rolling force because the elastic deformation behavior of the rolls is complicated and a model for predicting the rolling force has not yet been established. Nevertheless, the exact prediction of the rolling force in skin pass rolling has gained increasing importance in recent times with the rapid development of high strength steels for use in automobiles. In this study, the possibility of predicting the rolling force in skin pass rolling for producing various steel grades was examined using foil rolling theory, which is known to have similar elastic deformation behavior of rolls in the roll bite. It was found that a noncircular arc model is more accurate than a circular model in predicting the roll force of high strength steel below TS 980 MPa in skin pass rolling

  9. Roll force prediction of high strength steel using foil rolling theory in cold skin pass rolling

    Song, Gil Ho; Jung, Jae Chook [Rolling and Measurement Research Group of Posco Technical Research Laboratory, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)


    Skin pass rolling is a very important process for applying a certain elongation to a strip in the cold rolling and annealing processes, which play an important role in preventing the stretching of the yield point when the material is processed. The exact prediction of the rolling force is essential for obtaining a given elongation with the steel grade and strip size. Unlike hot rolling and cold rolling, skin pass rolling is used to apply an elongation of within 2% to the strip. Under a small reduction, it is difficult to predict the rolling force because the elastic deformation behavior of the rolls is complicated and a model for predicting the rolling force has not yet been established. Nevertheless, the exact prediction of the rolling force in skin pass rolling has gained increasing importance in recent times with the rapid development of high strength steels for use in automobiles. In this study, the possibility of predicting the rolling force in skin pass rolling for producing various steel grades was examined using foil rolling theory, which is known to have similar elastic deformation behavior of rolls in the roll bite. It was found that a noncircular arc model is more accurate than a circular model in predicting the roll force of high strength steel below TS 980 MPa in skin pass rolling.

  10. CISM Course on Rolling Contact Phenomena

    Kalker, Joost


    Preface.- Rolling Contact Phenomena - Linear Elasticity.- Finite Element Methods for Rolling Contact.- Plastic Deformation in Rolling Contact.- Non-Steady State Rolling Contact and Corrugations.- Modelling of Tyre Force and Moment Generation.- Rolling Noise.- Lubrication

  11. Grooved roll for a high speed twin roll caster

    T. Haga


    Full Text Available Purpose: Purpose of this paper is investigation of the effect of roll-surface on the strip-surface. Improvement ofsmall cracks on the strip-surface was tried and effect of groove at the roll surface on the strip surface was shown.Design/methodology/approach: Method used in the present study was high speed twin roll caster withgrooved roll. Two kinds of grooves were used: one was parallel groove and the other was cross groove machinedby knurling and bite attached to a lathe.Findings: Findings of this research are that grooved roll was effective to eliminate the small cracks on the stripsurface. The contact condition between the roll and the melt became uniform by the small groove on the rollsurface. Contact area became small, and heat transfer between the melt and roll became small, too. As the result,chill structure did not become columnar, and crack did not occur. Groove pattern on the strip surface could beerased by the cold rolling.Research limitations/implications: Research limitation is that groove life could not be investigated.Practical implications: Practical implications are as below. The roll load was small and strip was not hot-rolledin a high speed twin roll caster. The grooved roll made strip-surface sound. Grooved 600mm width roll was tested,and usefulness of the grooved roll was shown.Originality/value: In the present study effect of the grooved roll on a high speed twin roll caster was investigated.

  12. Wedge - rolls rolling of hollowed parts

    Z. Pater


    Full Text Available Purpose: Presentation of the possibilities of application of a new manufacturing method, called wedge rollsrolling (WRR in forming of axi – symmetrical hollowed parts.Design/methodology/approach: The research work was done in a specially designed laboratory rolling millLUW-2. During the research, hollowed parts from steel were rolled in hot forming conditions. Basic kinematicaland force parameters of the process were noticed during rolling.Findings: On the basis of the conducted research it was stated that the WRR method could be used for formingof hollowed parts with the precision compared with the precision obtained in the typical cross wedge rollingprocesses (CWR. At the same time, it was proved that this method could be used for rolling from billets withthe wall thinner than the wall given in the CWR.Research limitations/implications: The research were limited to the wedges with spreading angles withinrange of β = (5° ÷ 9°, with the constant values of forming angle α = 30° and relative reduction ratio δ = 1.45.In the future, it is planned to analyse the influence of changes of angle α and relative reduction ratio δ on theWRR process.Practical implications: The conducted research can be used for designing of a new industrial method of metalforming of hollowed parts.Originality/value: The innovation of this solution is based on the application of only one wedge for forming.Because of that, the WRR method is cheaper for implementation than used so far CWR processes. This methodcan be applied mainly in automotive and aviation industries.


    José Claudino de Lira Júnior


    Full Text Available In hot rolling processes occur changes in the profile of the rolling mill rolls (expansion and contraction and constant wear due to mechanical stress and continuous thermal cycles of heating/cooling caused by contact rolled material- working roll and the cooling system by water jets in their surface, decreasing their lifetime. This paper presents a computational model to simulate the thermal performance of rolling mill rolls. The model was developed using the finite volume method for a transient two-dimensional system and allows calculating the temperature distribution of the rolling mill rolls under various conditions of service. Here it is investigated the influence of flow rate and temperature of the cooling water on the temperature distribution. The results show that the water temperature has greater influence than the water flow to control the surface temperature of the cylinders.

  14. Rolling Force and Rolling Moment in Spline Cold Rolling Using Slip-line Field Method

    ZHANG Dawei; LI Yongtang; FU Jianhua; ZHENG Quangang


    Rolling force and rolling moment are prime process parameter of external spline cold rolling. However, the precise theoretical formulae of rolling force and rolling moment are still very fewer, and the determination of them depends on experience. In the present study, the mathematical models of rolling force and rolling moment are established based on stress field theory of slip-line. And the isotropic hardening is used to improve the yield criterion. Based on MATLAB program language environment, calculation program is developed according to mathematical models established. The rolling force and rolling moment could be predicted quickly via the calculation program, and then the reliability of the models is validated by FEM. Within the range of module of spline m=0.5-1.5 mm, pressure angle of reference circle α=30.0°-45.0°, and number of spline teeth Z=19-54, the rolling force and rolling moment in rolling process (finishing rolling is excluded) are researched by means of virtualizing orthogonal experiment design. The results of the present study indicate that:the influences of module and number of spline teeth on the maximum rolling force and rolling moment in the process are remarkable;in the case of pressure angle of reference circle is little, module of spline is great, and number of spline teeth is little, the peak value of rolling force in rolling process may appear in the midst of the process;the peak value of rolling moment in rolling process appears in the midst of the process, and then oscillator weaken to a stable value. The results of the present study may provide guidelines for the determination of power of the motor and the design of hydraulic system of special machine, and provide basis for the farther researches on the precise forming process of external spline cold rolling.

  15. Spray Rolling Aluminum Strip

    Lavernia, E.J.; Delplanque, J-P; McHugh, K.M.


    Spray forming is a competitive low-cost alternative to ingot metallurgy for manufacturing ferrous and non-ferrous alloy shapes. It produces materials with a reduced number of processing steps, while maintaining materials properties, with the possibility of near-net-shape manufacturing. However, there are several hurdles to large-scale commercial adoption of spray forming: 1) ensuring strip is consistently flat, 2) eliminating porosity, particularly at the deposit/substrate interface, and 3) improving material yield. Through this program, a new strip/sheet casting process, termed spray rolling, has been developed, which is an innovative manufacturing technique to produce aluminum net-shape products. Spray rolling combines the benefits of twin-roll casting and conventional spray forming, showing a promising potential to overcome the above hurdles associated with spray forming. Spray rolling requires less energy and generates less scrap than conventional processes and, consequently, enables the development of materials with lower environmental impacts in both processing and final products. Spray Rolling was developed as a collaborative project between the University of California-Davis, the Colorado School of Mines, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, and an industry team. The following objectives of this project were achieved: (1) Demonstration of the feasibility of the spray rolling process at the bench-scale level and evaluation of the materials properties of spray rolled aluminum strip alloys; and (2) Demonstration of 2X scalability of the process and documentation of technical hurdles to further scale up and initiate technology transfer to industry for eventual commercialization of the process.

  16. Work Roll Materials For Hot Strip Milling and Casting Methods of Rolling Roll

    Şadi KARAGÖZ


    Full Text Available The selection of materials for rolling, which is one of the powerful manufacturing process and the influence of these materials on the roll properties is an important factor. Also, the use of suitable material and various manufacturing technologies affect these characteristics. To understand that which roll grade is needed for which application, the rolling conditions, the roll grades and their properties should be known. In this work the evolution of roll materials from classical materials up to recently developed materials are presented and bimetallic roll technologies are investigated. Furthermore, experimentally cast pearlitic and martensitic roll microstructures were examined. The influence of microstructural phases on the roll properties were analyzed with the results of mechanical and microstructural observations.

  17. Sliding and Rolling: The Physics of a Rolling Ball.

    Hierrezuelo, J.; Carnero, C.


    Presents an approach that provides a simple and adequate procedure for introducing the concept of rolling friction. Discusses some aspects related to rolling motion that are the source of students' misconceptions. Presents several didactic suggestions. (JRH)

  18. Rolling at small scales

    Nielsen, Kim L.; Niordson, Christian F.; Hutchinson, John W.


    The rolling process is widely used in the metal forming industry and has been so for many years. However, the process has attracted renewed interest as it recently has been adapted to very small scales where conventional plasticity theory cannot accurately predict the material response. It is well...... plasticity. Metals are known to be stronger when large strain gradients appear over a few microns; hence, the forces involved in the rolling process are expected to increase relatively at these smaller scales. In the present numerical analysis, a steady-state modeling technique that enables convergence...

  19. Slitting criterion for various rolling speeds in MSR rolling process

    A. Stefanik


    Full Text Available Purpose: The main idea of MSR technology is the capability of producing two, three, four and even five rods simultaneously from a single strip in a hot rolling process. Correctly separation of the joined strips is the one of the mainly problem in MSR process. Changing the rolling speed may causes easier of the strand division. In this paper results of the computer simulation of the double slitting rolling process were presented.Design/methodology/approach: For numerical modelling of the multi rolling process a computer program Forge 2005, based by the finished element method was used. As a slitting criterion normalised Cockroft – Latham criterion was used.Findings: For the analysis performed in this study, it was found that increasing of the rolling speed causes of increasing the normalized Cockroft – Latham criterion. For the small values of rolling velocity the strip separation was easier.Research limitations/implications: Multi Slit Rolling process is applied in ribbed rods rolling. Adjusting of the rolling speed in multi slit rolling process could improve of the slitting band to the separated strips.Originality/value: Incorrect construction or bad gap matching could cause lack of separation propelled slitting rolls. The separation of the band is effected by means of separating rollers, which shape must be properly designed to suit to the slitting pass. Changing of the rolling speed could improve of the separation to the single strips.

  20. Ship Roll Motion Control

    Perez, Tristan; Blanke, Mogens


    . This tutorial paper presents an account of the development of various ship roll motion control systems and the challenges associated with their design. The paper discusses how to assess performance, the applicability of dierent models, and control methods that have been applied in the past....

  1. Person og Rolle

    Szatkowski, Janek


    Distinktionen mellem person og rolle forslås som grundlag for et præcist og anlytisk anvendeligt begreb om performativitet. Begrebet tager sigte på at beskrive enkeltindividers og gruppers kommunikation med henblik på hvordan kommunikation etableres. Performativitet gør det muligt at iagttage den...

  2. Rolling Cylinder Phase 1

    Margheritini, Lucia; Taraborrelli, Valeria Taraborrelli

    Margheritini and Valeria Taraborrelli( with a total of 3 day visit from the developers. Laboratory tests in irregular waves will be performed by Lucia Margheritini. The report is aimed at the first stage testing of the Rolling Cylinder wave energy device. This phase includes...

  3. GRCop-84 Rolling Parameter Study

    Loewenthal, William S.; Ellis, David L.


    This report is a section of the final report on the GRCop-84 task of the Constellation Program and incorporates the results obtained between October 2000 and September 2005, when the program ended. NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has developed a new copper alloy, GRCop-84 (Cu-8 at.% Cr-4 at.% Nb), for rocket engine main combustion chamber components that will improve rocket engine life and performance. This work examines the sensitivity of GRCop-84 mechanical properties to rolling parameters as a means to better define rolling parameters for commercial warm rolling. Experiment variables studied were total reduction, rolling temperature, rolling speed, and post rolling annealing heat treatment. The responses were tensile properties measured at 23 and 500 C, hardness, and creep at three stress-temperature combinations. Understanding these relationships will better define boundaries for a robust commercial warm rolling process. The four processing parameters were varied within limits consistent with typical commercial production processes. Testing revealed that the rolling-related variables selected have a minimal influence on tensile, hardness, and creep properties over the range of values tested. Annealing had the expected result of lowering room temperature hardness and strength while increasing room temperature elongations with 600 C (1112 F) having the most effect. These results indicate that the process conditions to warm roll plate and sheet for these variables can range over wide levels without negatively impacting mechanical properties. Incorporating broader process ranges in future rolling campaigns should lower commercial rolling costs through increased productivity.

  4. Walk and roll robot

    Wilson, Andrew (Inventor); Punnoose, Andrew (Inventor); Strausser, Katherine (Inventor); Parikh, Neil (Inventor)


    A mobile robotic unit features a main body, a plurality of legs for supporting the main body on and moving the main body in forward and reverse directions about a base surface, and a drive assembly. According to an exemplary embodiment each leg includes a respective pivotal hip joint, a pivotal knee joint, and a wheeled foot adapted to roll along the base surface. Also according to an exemplary embodiments the drive assembly includes a motor operatively associated with the hip and knee joints and the wheeled foot for independently driving pivotal movement of the hip joint and the knee joint and rolling motion of the wheeled foot. The hip joint may include a ball-and-socket-type joint interconnecting top portion of the leg to the main body, such that the hip joint is adapted to pivot said leg in a direction transverse to a forward-and-reverse direction.

  5. Roll waves in mud

    Balmforth, N. J.; Liu, J J


    The stability of a viscoplastic fluid film falling down an inclined plane is explored, with the aim of determining the critical Reynolds number for the onset of roll waves. The Herschel–Bulkley constitutive law is adopted and the fluid is assumed two-dimensional and incompressible. The linear stability problem is described for an equilibrium in the form of a uniform sheet flow, when perturbed by introducing an infinitesimal stress perturbation. This flow is stable for very high Reynolds numbe...

  6. Rolling bearing analysis

    Harris, Tedric A


    One of the most well-known experts in the field brings cutting-edge research to practitioners in the new edition of this important reference. Covers the improved mathematical calculations for rolling bearing endurance developed by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers and the Society of Lubrication and Tribology Engineers. Updated with new material on Condition-Based Maintenance, new testing methods, and new bearing materials.

  7. Hot rolling joining process

    In the case of incorporating nonferrous metal equipment in fuel reprocessing processes, from the viewpoint of reducing maintenance works for the piping connection to peripheral equipments, it is desirable to adopt the pipe joints of joining the materials of different kinds, which have the high reliability against leakage. In order to meet this demand, the development of the manufacturing technology of the pipe joints by hot rolling process has been carried out. As for the structure of this pipe joint, a small diameter nonferrous metal pipe and a large diameter stainless steel pipe are joined by hot rolling by using an inserted material. The materials are Ti-5% Ta, Ti and Zr for the nonferrous metals, SUS 304L for the stainless steel, and Ta foil for the inserted material. The merits and demerits of this pipe joints are shown. The control of the interface structure in the joining of different materials was carried out by using the inserted material. The method of manufacturing the pipe joints and the proper conditions of the rolling joining are explained. As for the performance of the pipe joints, the evaluations of the defects in the joining interface, the strength of the joining, the corrosion resistance and the susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking are reported. (K.I.)

  8. Rolling motion in moving droplets

    Sumesh P Thampi; Rama Govindarajan


    Drops moving on a substrate under the action of gravity display both rolling and sliding motions. The two limits of a thin sheet-like drop in sliding motion on a surface, and a spherical drop in roll, have been extensively studied. We are interested in intermediate shapes. We quantify the contribution of rolling motion for any intermediate shape, and recently obtained a universal curve for the amount of roll as a function of a shape parameter using hybrid lattice Boltzmann simulations. In this paper, we discuss the linear relationship which is expected between the Capillary and Bond numbers, and provide detailed confirmation by simulations. We also show that the viscosity of the surrounding medium can qualitatively affect dynamics. Our results provide an answer to a natural question of whether drops roll or slide on a surface and carry implications for various applications where rolling motion may or may not be preferred.


    Rudolf Mišičko; Tibor Kvačkaj; Martin Vlado; Lucia Gulová; Miloslav Lupták; Jana Bidulská


    The defects in the continuous casting slabs can be developed or kept down in principle by rolling technology, especially depend to sort, size and distribution of primary defects, as well as used of rolling parameters. Scope of the article is on observation behavior artificial surface and undersurface defects (scores) without filler (surface defects) and filling by oxides and casting powder (subsurface defects). First phase of hot rolling process have been done by software simulation DEFORM 3D...

  10. Rolling cuff flexible bellows

    Lambert, Donald R.


    A flexible connector apparatus used to join two stiff non-deformable members, such as piping. The apparatus is provided with one or more flexible sections or assemblies each utilizing a bellows of a rolling cuff type connected between two ridge members, with the bellows being supported by a back-up ring, such that only the curved end sections of the bellows are unsupported. Thus, the bellows can be considered as being of a tube-shaped configuration and thus have high pressure resistance. The components of the flexible apparatus are sealed or welded one to another such that it is fluid tight.

  11. Analysis of roll gap heat transfers in hot steel strip rolling through roll temperature sensors and heat transfer models

    WEISZ-PATRAULT, Daniel; Ehrlacher, Alain; Legrand, Nicolas; LABBE, Nathalie; Horsky, Jaroslav; Luks, Tomas


    This paper presents an analysis of roll bite heat transfers during pilot hot steel strip rolling. Two types of temperature sensors (drilled and slot sensors) implemented near roll surface are used with heat transfer models to identify interfacial heat flux, roll surface temperature and Heat Transfer Coefficient HTCroll-bite in the roll bite. It is shown that: - the slot type sensor is more efficient than the drilled type sensor to capture correctly fast roll temperature changes and heat fluxe...

  12. Video Analysis of Rolling Cylinders

    Phommarach, S.; Wattanakasiwich, P.; Johnston, I.


    In this work, we studied the rolling motion of solid and hollow cylinders down an inclined plane at different angles. The motions were captured on video at 300 frames s[superscript -1], and the videos were analyzed frame by frame using video analysis software. Data from the real motion were compared with the theory of rolling down an inclined…

  13. Phase dynamics of convective rolls

    Cross, M. C.


    The equation of motion for the slow time dependence of convective rolls due to long-wavelength inhomogeneities is shown to have a singular dependence on the wave vector of the disturbance. Consequences for the skew varicose instability and the wave-number selection principle in textures of curved rolls suggested by Pomeau and Manneville are discussed.

  14. Computational design of rolling bearings

    Nguyen-Schäfer, Hung


    This book comprehensively presents the computational design of rolling bearings dealing with many interdisciplinary difficult working fields. They encompass elastohydrodynamics (EHD), Hertzian contact theory, oil-film thickness in elastohydrodynamic lubrication (EHL), bearing dynamics, tribology of surface textures, fatigue failure mechanisms, fatigue lifetimes of rolling bearings and lubricating greases, Weibull distribution, rotor balancing, and airborne noises (NVH) in the rolling bearings. Furthermore, the readers are provided with hands-on essential formulas based on the up-to-date DIN ISO norms and helpful examples for computational design of rolling bearings. The topics are intended for undergraduate and graduate students in mechanical and material engineering, research scientists, and practicing engineers who want to understand the interactions between these working fields and to know how to design the rolling bearings for automotive industry and many other industries.

  15. Thermal fatigue of high chromium steel rolls

    Valverde Montraveta, Gerard


    Within the master work the phenomenon of appearance of firecracks on the surface of the work rolls that occur during hot rolling of flat products in the case of regular rolling conditions and in the case of the rolling mill stalls was investigated. During hot rolling work rolls are subjected to successive heating and cooling conditions. Their surface is exposed to rapid temperature changes due to the contact with hot rolled material and due to cold water used for rolls cooling. These cyclic h...

  16. Increasing efficiency of cold rolling of corrosion resistant steel at mismatching roll velocities

    On the example of 12Kh18N10T steel rolling it is shown that 7-10% mismatching roll velocities raise the rolling efficiency, increase productivity and technological abilities of four-high mills at production of cold-rolled sheets. Scheme of the system of roll velocities mismatching control at asymmetrical rolling is presented. The comparative conditions of symmetrical and asymmetrical rolling of 0.8 x 1030 mm sheets from 12Kh18N10T steel are given

  17. Roll Control in Fruit Flies

    Beatus, Tsevi; Cohen, Itai


    Due to aerodynamic instabilities, stabilizing flapping flight requires ever-present fast corrective actions. Here we investigate how flies control body roll angle, their most susceptible degree of freedom. We glue a magnet to each fly, apply a short magnetic pulse that rolls it in mid-air, and film the corrective maneuver. Flies correct perturbations of up to $100^{\\circ}$ within $30\\pm7\\mathrm{ms}$ by applying a stroke-amplitude asymmetry that is well described by a linear PI controller. The response latency is $\\sim5\\mathrm{ms}$, making the roll correction reflex one of the fastest in the animal kingdom.

  18. Kinetic Modeling of Roll to Roll RFCVD Plasma

    Ahegbebu, Kudzo S; Tholeti, Siva Sashank; Alexeenko, Alina A


    Roll-to-roll radio frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (R2R RFCVD) is a technique for large-scale synthesis of high quality graphitic nanopetals. Graphitic nanopetals are petal-like graphene structures with remarkable electrical and mechanical properties with major industrial applications such as microsupercapacitors. RFCVD uses a non-equilibrium plasma with high energy electrons to catalyze chemical reactions, induce the creation of free radicals, and promote otherwise high t...

  19. Manufacturing Demonstration Facility: Roll-to-Roll Processing

    Datskos, Panos G [ORNL; Joshi, Pooran C [ORNL; List III, Frederick Alyious [ORNL; Duty, Chad E [ORNL; Armstrong, Beth L [ORNL; Ivanov, Ilia N [ORNL; Jacobs, Christopher B [ORNL; Graham, David E [ORNL; Moon, Ji Won [ORNL


    This Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF)e roll-to-roll processing effort described in this report provided an excellent opportunity to investigate a number of advanced manufacturing approaches to achieve a path for low cost devices and sensors. Critical to this effort is the ability to deposit thin films at low temperatures using nanomaterials derived from nanofermentation. The overarching goal of this project was to develop roll-to-roll manufacturing processes of thin film deposition on low-cost flexible substrates for electronics and sensor applications. This project utilized ORNL s unique Pulse Thermal Processing (PTP) technologies coupled with non-vacuum low temperature deposition techniques, ORNL s clean room facility, slot dye coating, drop casting, spin coating, screen printing and several other equipment including a Dimatix ink jet printer and a large-scale Kyocera ink jet printer. The roll-to-roll processing project had three main tasks: 1) develop and demonstrate zinc-Zn based opto-electronic sensors using low cost nanoparticulate structures manufactured in a related MDF Project using nanofermentation techniques, 2) evaluate the use of silver based conductive inks developed by project partner NovaCentrix for electronic device fabrication, and 3) demonstrate a suite of low cost printed sensors developed using non-vacuum deposition techniques which involved the integration of metal and semiconductor layers to establish a diverse sensor platform technology.

  20. Rolling Process Modeling Report: Finite-Element Prediction of Roll Separating Force and Rolling Defects

    Soulami, Ayoub [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lavender, Curt A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Paxton, Dean M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Burkes, Douglas [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)


    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been investigating manufacturing processes for the uranium-10% molybdenum (U-10Mo) alloy plate-type fuel for the U.S. high-performance research reactors. This work supports the Convert Program of the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA) Global Threat Reduction Initiative. This report documents modeling results of PNNL’s efforts to perform finite-element simulations to predict roll separating forces and rolling defects. Simulations were performed using a finite-element model developed using the commercial code LS-Dyna. Simulations of the hot rolling of U-10Mo coupons encapsulated in low-carbon steel have been conducted following two different schedules. Model predictions of the roll-separation force and roll-pack thicknesses at different stages of the rolling process were compared with experimental measurements. This report discusses various attributes of the rolled coupons revealed by the model (e.g., dog-boning and thickness non-uniformity).


    M. Sidorenko


    Full Text Available The paper describes design of rolling heads used for cold rolling of straight-sided splines on shafts and presents theoretical principles of this process. These principles make it possible to calculate an effort which is required for pushing billet through rolling-on rolls with due account of metal hardening during deformation.

  2. Analysis of Roll Gap Pressure in Sendzimir Mill by FEM

    YU Hai-liang; LIU Xiang-hua; WANG Chao; Park Hae-doo


    The acting force on the roll system of Sendzimir mill was analyzed using 3D FEM. The roll gap pressure distribution and the acting force between rolls S and O, rolls O and I, rolls O and J, rolls I and A, rolls I and B, as well as rolls J and B were analyzed. The results showed that the roll gap pressure mainly affected the roll surface layer, 50 mm for backup roll; the roll gap pressure distribution is of double peaks among the work roll, the 1st intermediate roll (IMR), and the 2nd IMR; the maximum value of the roll gap pressure between the backup roll and the second IMR appears on the edge of the barrel of rolls; the component force presents the in-para-curve distribution. These are important for reducing the wear of rolls and the break of the backup roll and guiding for production.

  3. Roll bonding of strained aluminium

    Staun, Jakob M.


    This report investigates roll bonding of pre-strained (å ~ 4) aluminium sheets to produce high strain material from high purity aluminium (99.996%) and commercial pure aluminium (99.6%). The degree of bonding is investigated by optical microscopy and ultrasonic scanning. Under the right...... circumstances both materials show good bonding, but the high purity material is excluded because of recrystallisation and the resulting loss of mechanical properties. The effect of cross stacking and roll bonding pre-strained sheets of the commercial purity material is investigated and some dependence of the...... cross rolled volume fraction is found. To further asses this effect, and the anisotropy, it is necessary to acquire knowledge about both texture and microstructure, e.g. by TEM. Roll bonding of pre-strained aluminium is found to be a possible alternative to ARB in the quest for ultra-fine grained...

  4. Numerical analysis of cross shear plate rolling

    Zhang, Wenqi; Bay, Niels


    shear zone between the forward and backward slip zones in the deformation zone thus lowering the rolling load. A numerical analysis of the cross shear rolling process is carried out based on the slab method adopting Wanheim and Bay's general friction model. The pressure distribution along the contact......The rolling process is widely applied for industrial production of metal plates. In conventional plate rolling the two work rolls are rotating at the same peripheral speed. By introducing a specific difference in the speed of the two work rolls, cross shear rolling is introduced forming a central...... are in the roll gap, the position and the size of the shear zone and the rolling load are calculated. Experimental results are presented verifying the calculations. The numerical analysis facilitates a better understanding of the mechanics in cross shear plate rolling....

  5. Grease lubrication in rolling bearings

    Lugt, Piet M


    The definitive book on the science of grease lubrication for roller and needle bearings in industrial and vehicle engineering. Grease Lubrication in Rolling Bearings provides an overview of the existing knowledge on the various aspects of grease lubrication (including lubrication systems) and the state of the art models that exist today. The book reviews the physical and chemical aspects of grease lubrication, primarily directed towards lubrication of rolling bearings. The first part of the book covers grease composition, properties and rheology, including thermal

  6. Micromachinery rolling at last?

    George Marsh


    Market projections are increasingly bullish. For example, a survey by Europe’s Network of Excellence in Multifunctional Microsystems (NEXUS suggests a world market of $68 billion by 2005, more than double the level of two years ago (Fig. 1. NEXUS had to revise earlier projections because of runaway successes like that of the optical mouse (Agilent Technologies recently shipped its 50 millionth, an anticipated breakthrough later in the period for microoptoelectromechanical systems (MOEMS, enhanced prospects for RF switching systems, and the possible emergence of a market in domestic appliances. Analyst Venture Development Corporation goes further, concluding that the market will grow ‘exponentially’ for the next ten years. The first device to exceed $1 billion in sales is expected to be MEMS-based photonic switches, within about two years. Current breadwinning applications — desktop ink-jet printers, biomedical pressure sensors/systems, and automotive devices — continue to thrive.

  7. Study on the Microstructure and Texture of 3003 Aluminum Sheets Rolled by Laser-Textured Roll

    Huajun Zhang; Zesheng Ji; Chunbo Cai; Guojun Wang


    In order to improve the surface quality and formability of 3003 aluminum alloy sheet, laser-textured rolls are used in cold rolling. The influences of the cold rolling procedures with conventional and laser-textured rolls on the evolution of microstructure and texture were studied by the means of microstructural observations and X-ray texture analysis. Experimental results show that the microstructures are similar besides the samples rolled with laser-textured rolls containing a relatively la...

  8. Characterization of roll bite heat transfers in hot steel strip rolling and their influence on roll thermal fatigue degradation

    Legrand, Nicolas; WEISZ-PATRAULT, Daniel; Horsky, Jaroslav; Luks, Tomas; LABBE, Nathalie; Picard, Michel; Ehrlacher, Alain


    A temperature sensor with a thermocouple placed at ~0.5 mm from roll surface is used in hot rolling conditions to evaluate by inverse calculation heat transfers in the roll bite. Simulation analysis under industrial hot rolling conditions with short contact lengths (e.g. short contact times) and high rolling speeds (7 m./s) show that the temperature sensor + inverse analysis with a high acquisition frequency (> 1000 Hz) is capable to predict accurately (5 to 10% error) the roll bite peak of t...

  9. Roll-to-roll manufacturing of electronic devices

    Morrison, N. A.; Stolley, T.; Hermanns, U.; Kroemer, U.; Reus, A.; Lopp, A.; Campo, M.; Landgraf, H.


    Roll-to-Roll (R2R) production of thin film based electronic devices (e.g. solar cells, activematrix TFT backplanes & touch screens) combine the advantages of the use of inexpensive, lightweight & flexible substrates with high throughput production. Significant cost reduction opportunities can also be found in terms of processing tool capital cost, utilized substrate area and process gas flow when compared with batch processing systems. Nevertheless, material handling, device patterning and yield issues have limited widespread utilization of R2R manufacturing within the electronics industry.

  10. Roll casting of 5182 aluminium alloy

    Haga, T; M. Mtsuo; D. Kunigo; Hatanaka, Y; R. Nakamuta; H. Watari; S. Kumai


    Purpose: of this paper is investigation of the ability of the high speed roll casting of 5182 aluminium alloy. Appropriate twin roll caster to cast the 5182 strip was researched.Design/methodology/approach: Method used in the present study was an unequal diameter twin roll caster and a vertical type high speed twin roll caster equipped with mild steel rolls without parting material.Findings: are that the vertical type high speed twin roll caster was effective to cast 5182 strip at high speed....

  11. Hot rolling of thick uranium molybdenum alloys

    DeMint, Amy L.; Gooch, Jack G.


    Disclosed herein are processes for hot rolling billets of uranium that have been alloyed with about ten weight percent molybdenum to produce cold-rollable sheets that are about one hundred mils thick. In certain embodiments, the billets have a thickness of about 7/8 inch or greater. Disclosed processes typically involve a rolling schedule that includes a light rolling pass and at least one medium rolling pass. Processes may also include reheating the rolling stock and using one or more heavy rolling passes, and may include an annealing step.

  12. Overlay welding for corrugating roll


    The effects of chemical compositions and microstructures on wearability properties of overlaid corrugating roll were studied, and the factors governing the hardness and the wearability of overlaid layer were explored.The results show that the hardness and wearability of the overlaid layer significantly rise with the increase of the mass fraction of various types of eutectic, but the crack-resistance falls. The chief factor governing the hardness of overlaid layer is the matrix microstructure, especially the amount of austenite; and the second is the amount of carbide. The principal factor governing the wearability of overlaid layer is the amount of special carbide, particularly the amount of eutectic; and the second is the hardness of overlaid layer. Meanwhile, high alloying electrodes may cause the gear-surface hardness of corrugating roll to be higher than 63HRc, and may enhance the wearability of the gear-surface of corrugating roll by a factor of 5.63 and 9.08.


    Rudolf Mišičko


    Full Text Available The defects in the continuous casting slabs can be developed or kept down in principle by rolling technology, especially depend to sort, size and distribution of primary defects, as well as used of rolling parameters. Scope of the article is on observation behavior artificial surface and undersurface defects (scores without filler (surface defects and filling by oxides and casting powder (subsurface defects. First phase of hot rolling process have been done by software simulation DEFORM 3D setting to the limited condition for samples with surface defects. Samples of material with low-carbon steel of sizes h x b x l have been chosen and the surface defects shape „U” and „V” of scores have been injected artificially by software. The process of rolling have been simulated on the deformation temperatures 1200°C and 900°C, whereas on the both of this deformation temperatures have been applied amount of deformation 10 and 50 %. With respect to the process of computer simulation, it is not possible to truthful real oxidation condition (physical – chemical process during heat of metal, in the second phase of our investigation have been observed influence of oxides and casting powders inside the scores for a defect behavior in plastic deformation process (hot and cold rolling process in laboratory condition. The basic material was STN steel class 11 375, cladding material was steel on the bases C-Mn-Nb-V. Scores have been filled by scales to get from the heating temperatures (1100°C a 1250°C, varied types of casting powders, if you like mixture of scale and casting powders in the rate 1:4. The joint of the basic and cladding material have been done by peripheral welded joint. Experiment results from both phases are pointed on the evolution of original typology defects in rolling process.

  14. The vibration of rolling discs

    Ferguson, Neil Stuart


    The study presented is a fundamental investigation into the vibration of a rolling disc and an analysis of the sound which is then produced by the disc response. In order to characterise the disc's behaviour the free and forced vibration of a thin disc is analysed with the additional conditions which occur in rolling. These conditions include the geometric boundary conditions, the effect of the in-plane load, the change due to rotation of the disc and the effect of contact on the disc which i...

  15. Robust Rudder Roll Damping Control

    Yang, C.

    uncertainty, three controllers with different kind of control schemes are designed by the mixed sensitivity method in Chapter 5. Sea-way simulation results show that each of these controllers have good robust stability and performance. The roll damping reduction is above 35% for all of these controllers. Roll...... reduction of near 70% has been obtained by the cascade controller. Using structured model of uncertainty, a m controller is designed in Chapter 6. The good robust performance has been recognized in the simulation results. It is shown that the m controller has the best robust characteristics with respect to...

  16. Tribology; Cold rolling mill roll; Hard chrome; Surface texturing.

    José Lucio Gonçalves Junior


    Full Text Available The present work analyzes the tribological behavior of surface modifications often used in cold rolling mill rolls. Different surface modifications were carried out on samples produced from a fragment of the rolling mill roll: i texturing; ii chromium plating; iii texturing with subsequent hard chrome plating; iv and hard chrome plating with subsequent texturing. Before the surface modifications the samples were heat treated and ground on both faces. Wear tests were performed using a reciprocating movement of a ball over flat configuration under a load of 9.8 N. It is observed that there is no significant change in the coefficient of friction as a function of surface modification. Surface texturing increases the wear of the counter body, while the hard chromium coating reduces it. The addition of hard chromium coating promotes the formation of a tribolayer on the counter body consisting of chromium and oxygen. On the other hand, for the samples without hard chrome coating, the tribolayer consists of iron and oxygen

  17. A new transducer for roll gap measurements of the roll pressure distribution and the friction condition in cold flat rolling

    Lagergren, Jonas; Wanheim, Tarras; Presz, W.;


    Background/purpose The only way to establish the true rolling pressure and the true friction condition in cold rolling is to conduct measurements in the roll bite. A new transducer design is therefore proposed, this to overcome problems in previous measurements in the past 70 years. Method The new...

  18. Ambient roll-to-roll fabrication of flexible solar cells based on small molecules

    Lin, Yuze; Dam, Henrik Friis; Andersen, Thomas Rieks;


    All solution-processed roll-to-roll flexible solar cells based on a starshaped small molecule donor and PCBMacceptor were fabricated by slot-die coating, as the first successful example reported for small molecule roll-to-roll flexible solar cells....

  19. 33 CFR 159.107 - Rolling test.


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rolling test. 159.107 Section 159... MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.107 Rolling test. (a) The device, with... manufacturer in § 159.57. (b) Eighty percent of the rolling action must be approximately 15 degrees on...

  20. 14 CFR 25.349 - Rolling conditions.


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rolling conditions. 25.349 Section 25.349... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Flight Maneuver and Gust Conditions § 25.349 Rolling conditions. The airplane must be designed for loads resulting from the rolling conditions specified...

  1. 14 CFR 23.349 - Rolling conditions.


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rolling conditions. 23.349 Section 23.349... Rolling conditions. The wing and wing bracing must be designed for the following loading conditions: (a..., the rolling accelerations may be obtained by modifying the symmetrical flight conditions in §...

  2. 42 CFR 21.46 - Merit roll.


    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Merit roll. 21.46 Section 21.46 Public Health... Appointment § 21.46 Merit roll. Each board appointed pursuant to § 21.30 to consider the qualifications of... Secretary, and, if approved by the Secretary, the report shall constitute a merit roll from which...

  3. Finite Element Modeling of Roll Wear during Cold Asymmetric Sheet Rolling of Aluminum Alloy 5083

    Pesin A.


    Full Text Available Since the main purpose of asymmetrical rolling is to impose high shear strains on the sheet, in order to obtain ultrafine grain structure, the friction between the rolls and the sheet has to be kept relatively high. This means that asymmetric rolling is performed with dry rolls. The paper presents a numerical analysis of the roll wear during asymmetric cold rolling of 5083 aluminum alloy. The finite element simulation was used to calculate the amount of roll wear by Usui’s equation. FEM simulations were carried out with using software DEFORM 2D. The influence of the friction coefficient on the roll wear and the material flow was discussed. The sliding velocity, interface pressure and temperature were used to calculate the roll wear. The results of simulation can be used to optimize the asymmetric rolling process to improve surface quality of aluminum sheets.

  4. Improvement of thick sheet rolling technology

    Aimed to increase a good yield in steel plate rolling due to a decrease of the quantity of side scrap some suggestions are made which concern the conditions of steel casting, heating to rolling and slab geometry. The investigations were carried out on steel 3p to determine more precisely the influence of processing procedures on the type and the quantity of rolling defects. A new rather complicated rolling schedule resulted in production of sound plates. Some recommendations are given on specific features of hot rolling technology

  5. 76 FR 34101 - Hot-Rolled Flat-Rolled Carbon-Quality Steel Products From Brazil, Japan, and Russia


    ... COMMISSION Hot-Rolled Flat-Rolled Carbon-Quality Steel Products From Brazil, Japan, and Russia Determinations... determines that revocation of the countervailing duty order on hot-rolled flat-rolled carbon-quality steel...-rolled flat-rolled carbon-quality steel products from Brazil and Japan. Background The...

  6. Almost rolling motion: An investigation of rolling grooved cylinders

    Mead, L R; Mead, Lawrence R.; Bentrem, Frank W.


    We examine the dynamics of cylinders that are grooved to form N teeth for rolling motion down an inclined plane. The grooved cylinders are experimentally found to reach a terminal velocity. This result can be explained by the inclusion of inelastic processes which occur whenever a tooth hits the surface. The fraction of the angular velocity that is lost during an inelastic collision is phenomenologically found to be proportional to (2*sin^2*pi/N)-(alpha*sin^3*pi/N), and the method of least squares is used to find the constant alpha=0.98. The adjusted theoretical results for the time of rolling as well as for terminal velocity are found to be in good agreement with the experimental results.

  7. Roll-to-roll fabrication of polymer solar cells

    Roar Søndergaard


    Full Text Available As the performance in terms of power conversion efficiency and operational stability for polymer and organic solar cells is rapidly approaching the key 10–10 targets (10 % efficiency and 10 years of stability the quest for efficient, scalable, and rational processing methods has begun. The 10–10 targets are being approached through consistent laboratory research efforts, which coupled with early commercial efforts have resulted in a fast moving research field and the dawning of a new industry. We review the roll-to-roll processing techniques required to bring the magnificent 10–10 targets into reality, using quick methods with low environmental impact and low cost. We also highlight some new targets related to processing speed, materials, and environmental impact.

  8. The effect of roll gap geometry on microstructure in cold-rolled aluminum

    Mishin, Oleg; Bay, B.; Winther, G.; Juul Jensen, D.


    Microstructure and texture are analyzed through the thickness of two aluminum plates cold-rolled 40% with different roll gap geometries. It is found that both texture and microstructure are strongly affected by the rolling geometry. After rolling with intermediate-size draughts a rolling......-type texture is developed throughout the plate thickness. In this case, grains are subdivided by extended planar dislocation boundaries preferentially aligned at an angle of 40 +/- 15degrees to the rolling direction. In the plate rolled with small draughts, shear texture components appear in the intermediate...... layers. In these layers, extended planar dislocation boundaries are frequently found to be inclined closely to the rolling direction. The subsurface and central layers of this plate exhibit microstructures similar to those in the plate rolled with intermediate draughts. It is suggested that the...

  9. Rolling Cylinder Phase 1bis

    Margheritini, Lucia

    This report has been prepared under the contract agreement between Aalborg Universitet and Storper Innovation ApS. The report has been written by Lucia Margheritini ( who is also responsible for the data analysis. This report is the continuation of the previous report “Rolling...... Cylinder Phase 1: proof of concept and first optimization”, DCE report 115, ISSN 1901-726X, and it is recommended that the two are consulted together as they were firstly agreed to be in one document. The present report aims at estimate the efficiency of the Rolling Cylinder long model (previously...... optimized), by mean of physical tests in irregular waves. Several difficulties have been encountered during the testing, the biggest of witch being the extremely unfriendly torque measuring system....

  10. Rolling Contact Fatigue of Ceramics

    Wereszczak, Andrew A [ORNL; Wang, W. [Bournemouth University, Bournemouth, United Kingdom; Wang, Y. [Bournemouth University, Bournemouth, United Kingdom; Hadfield, M. [Bournemouth University, Bournemouth, United Kingdom; Kanematsu, W. [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Japan; Kirkland, Timothy Philip [ORNL; Jadaan, Osama M. [University of Wisconsin, Platteville


    High hardness, low coefficient of thermal expansion and high temperature capability are properties also suited to rolling element materials. Silicon nitride (Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}) has been found to have a good combination of properties suitable for these applications. However, much is still not known about rolling contact fatigue (RCF) behavior, which is fundamental information to assess the lifetime of the material. Additionally, there are several test techniques that are employed internationally whose measured RCF performances are often irreconcilable. Due to the lack of such information, some concern for the reliability of ceramic bearings still remains. This report surveys a variety of topics pertaining to RCF. Surface defects (cracks) in Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} and their propagation during RCF are discussed. Five methods to measure RCF are then briefly overviewed. Spalling, delamination, and rolling contact wear are discussed. Lastly, methods to destructively (e.g., C-sphere flexure strength testing) and non-destructively identify potential RCF-limiting flaws in Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} balls are described.

  11. Mouse adhalin

    Liu, L; Vachon, P H; Kuang, W;


    analyze the biological roles of adhalin, we cloned the mouse adhalin cDNA, raised peptide-specific antibodies to its cytoplasmic domain, and examined its expression and localization in vivo and in vitro. The mouse adhalin sequence was 80% identical to that of human, rabbit, and hamster. Adhalin was...... specifically expressed in striated muscle cells and their immediate precursors, and absent in many other cell types. Adhalin expression in embryonic mouse muscle was coincident with primary myogenesis. Its expression was found to be up-regulated at mRNA and protein levels during myogenic differentiation in...

  12. Increasing efficiency of cold rolling of corrosion resistant steel at mismatching roll velocities. [12Kh18N10T steel

    Agishev, L.A.; Grishkov, A.I.; Fisher, A.R.; Frolov, G.I.; Kolesnikov, N.A. (Tsentral' nyj Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Inst. Chernoj Metallurgii, Moscow (USSR))


    On the example of 12Kh18N10T steel rolling it is shown that 7-10% mismatching roll velocities raise the rolling efficiency, increase productivity and technological abilities of four-high mills at production of cold-rolled sheets. Scheme of the system of roll velocities mismatching control at asymmetrical rolling is presented. The comparative conditions of symmetrical and asymmetrical rolling of 0.8 x 1030 mm sheets from 12Kh18N10T steel are given.

  13. Efficient Circulation of Railway Rolling Stock

    Alfieri, Arianna; Groot, Rutger; Kroon, Leo; Schrijver, Lex


    textabstractRailway rolling stock (locomotives, carriages, and train units) is one of the most significant cost sources for operatorsof passenger trains, both public and private. Rolling stock costsare due to material acquisition, power supply, and material maintenance. The efficient circulation of rolling stock material is therefore one of the objectives pursued. In this paper we focus on the circulation of train units on a single line. In order to utilize the train units on this line in an ...

  14. ROLL OUT THE TALENT : Final project report

    Eerola, Tuomas; Tuominen, Pirjo; Hakkarainen, Riitta-Liisa; Laurikainen, Marja; Mero, Niina


    The ROLL OUT THE TALENT project was born out of the desire to recognise and support the strengths of vocational students and to develop new and innovative operating models. ROLL OUT THE TALENT promoted regional cooperation between institutes and companies. The project produced operating and study path models that take into consideration the individual strengths of vocational students and the principles of lifelong learning. This is the final report of the ROLL OUT THE TALENT project, and ...

  15. Nonlinear Modulation of Travelling Rolls in Magnetoconvection

    Matsuba, Ken-ichi; Imai, Kenji; Nozaki, Kazuhiro


    Modulational dynamics of oscillatory travelling rolls in magnetoconvection is studied near the onset of a Hopf bifurcation. Using weakly nonlinear analysis, we derive an envelope equation of oscillatory travelling rolls in the plane perpendicular to an ambient vertical magnetic field.The envelope equation is the Davey-Stewartson (DS) equation with complex coefficients, from which we obtain criteria for the modulational (Benjamin-Feir) instability of oscillatory travelling rolls.

  16. Designing Imprint Rolls for Fluid Pathway Fabrication

    Vijayaraghavan, Athulan; Dornfeld, David A


    This paper discusses a novel method for designing imprint rolls for the fabrication of fluid pathways. Roller imprint processes have applications in diverse areas including fuel cell manufacturing and microfluidic device fabrication. Robust design methods are required for developing imprint rolls with optimal features. In the method discussed in this paper, the rolls are designed procedurally with the fluid pathway design given as input. The pathways are decomposed into repeating features (or...

  17. Novel tube-rolling process using the 3-roll planetary mill (PSW)

    Bretschneider, E.J.F.E.


    A high-reduction, 3-roll planetary mill for the production of seamless tube is described and compared with conventional methods. Advantages include continuous rolling, close wall tolerance, increased yield and energy savings.



    The necessary condition of pure rolling for the rollers moving along its individual cams are obtained by the analysis of the loading status of the rollers and it provides a theoretical basis for adjustment of rolling stand.

  19. Large-area, continuous roll-to-roll nanoimprinting with PFPE composite molds

    Successful implementation of a high-speed roll-to-roll nanoimprinting technique for continuous manufacturing of electronic devices has been hindered due to lack of simple substrate preparation steps, as well as lack of durable and long lasting molds that can faithfully replicate nanofeatures with high fidelity over hundreds of imprinting cycles. In this work, we demonstrate large-area high-speed continuous roll-to-roll nanoimprinting of 1D and 2D micron to sub-100 nm features on flexible substrate using perfluoropolyether (PFPE) composite molds on a custom designed roll-to-roll nanoimprinter. The efficiency and reliability of the PFPE based mold for the dynamic roll-to-roll patterning process was investigated. The PFPE composite mold replicated nanofeatures with high fidelity and maintained superb mold performance in terms of dimensional integrity of the nanofeatures, nearly defect free pattern transfer and exceptional mold recovering capability throughout hundreds of imprinting cycles. (paper)

  20. Three-Dimensional Model for Strip Hot Rolling

    ZHANG Guo-min; XIAO Hong; WANG Chun-hua


    A three-dimensional model for strip hot rolling was developed, in which the plastic deformation of strip, the thermal crown of rolls, roll deflection and flattening were calculated by rigid-plastic finite element method, finite difference method, influential function method and elastic finite element method respectively. The roll wear was taken into consideration. The model can provide detailed information such as rolling pressure distribution, contact pressure distribution between backup rolls and work rolls, deflection and flattening of work rolls, lateral distribution of strip thickness, and lateral distribution of front and back tensions. The finish rolling on a 1 450 mm hot strip mill was simulated.

  1. Hyaluronan oligosaccharides perturb lymphocyte slow rolling on brain vascular endothelial cells: Implications for inflammatory demyelinating disease

    Winkler, Clayton W.; Foster, Scott C.; Itakura, Asako; Matsumoto, Steven G.; Asari, Akira; McCarty, Owen J. T.; Sherman, Larry S.


    Inflammatory demyelinating diseases like multiple sclerosis are characterized by mononuclear cell infiltration into the central nervous system. The glycosaminoglycan hyaluronan and its receptor, CD44, are implicated in the initiation and progression of a mouse model of multiple sclerosis, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Digestion of hyaluronan tethered to brain vascular endothelial cells by a hyaluronidase blocks the slow rolling of lymphocytes along activated brain vascular ...

  2. Spray Rolling Aluminum Strip for Transportation Applications

    Kevin M. McHugh; Y. Lin; Y. Zhou; E. J. Lavernia; J.-P. Delplanque; S. B. Johnson


    Spray rolling is a novel strip casting technology in which molten aluminum alloy is atomized and deposited into the roll gap of mill rolls to produce aluminum strip. A combined experimental/modeling approach has been followed in developing this technology with active participation from industry. The feasibility of this technology has been demonstrated at the laboratory scale and it is currently being scaled-up. This paper provides an overview of the process and compares the microstructure and properties of spray-rolled 2124 aluminum alloy with commercial ingot-processed material

  3. Image Mosaicing Algorithm for Rolled Fingerprint Construction

    贺迪; 荣钢; 周杰


    Fingerprint identification is one of the most important biometric authentication methods. However, current devices for recording digital fingerprints can only capture plain-touch fingerprints. Rolled fingerprints have much more information for recognition, so a method is needed to construct a rolled fingerprint from a series of plain-touch fingerprints. This paper presents a novel algorithm for image mosaicing for real time rolled fingerprint construction in which the images are assembled with corrections to create a smooth, non-fragmented rolled fingerprint in real time. Experimental results demonstrate its effectiveness by comparing it with other conventional algorithms.

  4. Role of Friction in Cold Ring Rolling

    He YANG; Lianggang GUO; Mei ZHAN


    Cold ring rolling is an advanced but complex metal forming process under coupled effects with multi-factors, such as geometry sizes of rolls and ring blank, material, forming process parameters and friction, etc. Among these factors,friction between rolls and ring blank plays animportant role in keeping the stable forming of cold ring rolling. An analytical method was firstly presented for proximately determining the critical friction coefficient of stable forming and then a method was proposed to determine thecritical friction coefficient by combining analytical method with numerical simulation. And the influence of friction coefficient on the quality of end-plane and side spread of ring,rolling force, rolling moment and metal flow characteristic in the cold ring rolling process have been explored using the three dimensional (3D) numerical simulation based on the elastic-plastic dynamic finite element method (FEM)under the ABAQUS software environment, and the results show that increasing the friction on the contact surfaces between rolls and ring blank is useful not only for improving the stability of cold ring rolling but also for improving the geometry and dimension precision of deformed ring.

  5. Control for Cold Rolling Mills

    Morad, Antoni; Travancic, Faruk


    This report contains the details in a final research thesis work done rolling mill technology. The work is carried out at Heat Transfer located at Finspång. The main objective of this work is to evaluate thickness and flatness data from the profile to give an optimal start value for the pressure and force applied on the machine and the speed as well, so that the profiles produced, have the right thickness and best possible flatness. Thickness, start value for power, the degree of bending the ...

  6. Rolling-cuff flexible bellows

    Lambert, D.R.


    A flexible connector apparatus used to join two stiff non-deformable members, such as piping, is described. The apparatus is provided with one or more flexible sections or assemblies each utilizing a bellows of a rolling cuff type connected between two ridge members, with the bellows being supported by a back-up ring, such that only the curved end sections of the bellows are unsupported. Thus, the bellows can be considered as being of a tube-shaped configuration and thus have high pressure resistance. The components of the flexible apparatus are sealed or welded one to another such that it is fluid tight.

  7. Finite Element Analysis of Symmetric and Asymmetric Three-roll Rolling Process

    Pesin A.


    Full Text Available A three-roll process is a significant technique in the production of wire rod, round bars and hexagonal profiles for structural applications. Better mechanical properties of wire rod, round bars and hexagonal profiles can be achieved due to large plastic deformation by the three-roll process. Asymmetric rolling is a novel technique characterised by a kinematic asymmetry linked to the difference in peripheral speed of the rolls, able to introduce additional shear strains through the bar thickness. In order to achieve this, asymmetrical three-roll rolling process was investigated to better control the deformation compared to the conventional three-roll rolling process in a stand with two three-roll calibers located very close to each other. Simulation of round-triangle-triangle pass rolling was performed. FEM simulations were carried out with using software DEFORM 3D. The influence of the friction coefficient and speed asymmetry on the shear strain and material flow was discussed. The results of simulation can be used to optimize the asymmetric three-roll rolling process to improve the mechanical properties of wire rod, round bars and hexagonal profiles.

  8. Microfluidics-based side view flow chamber reveals tether-to-sling transition in rolling neutrophils.

    Marki, Alex; Gutierrez, Edgar; Mikulski, Zbigniew; Groisman, Alex; Ley, Klaus


    Neutrophils rolling at high shear stress (above 6 dyn/cm(2)) form tethers in the rear and slings in the front. Here, we developed a novel photo-lithographically fabricated, silicone(PDMS)-based side-view flow chamber to dynamically visualize tether and sling formation. Fluorescently membrane-labeled mouse neutrophils rolled on P-selectin substrate at 10 dyn/cm(2). Most rolling cells formed 5 tethers that were 2-30 μm long. Breaking of a single tether caused a reproducible forward microjump of the cell, showing that the tether was load-bearing. About 15% of all tether-breaking events resulted in slings. The tether-to-sling transition was fast (rolling cell, suggesting a very low bending modulus of the tether. The sling downstream of the rolling cell aligned according to the streamlines before landing on the flow chamber. These new observations explain how slings form from tethers and provide insight into their biomechanical properties. PMID:27357741

  9. Microfluidics-based side view flow chamber reveals tether-to-sling transition in rolling neutrophils

    Marki, Alex; Gutierrez, Edgar; Mikulski, Zbigniew; Groisman, Alex; Ley, Klaus


    Neutrophils rolling at high shear stress (above 6 dyn/cm2) form tethers in the rear and slings in the front. Here, we developed a novel photo-lithographically fabricated, silicone(PDMS)-based side-view flow chamber to dynamically visualize tether and sling formation. Fluorescently membrane-labeled mouse neutrophils rolled on P-selectin substrate at 10 dyn/cm2. Most rolling cells formed 5 tethers that were 2–30 μm long. Breaking of a single tether caused a reproducible forward microjump of the cell, showing that the tether was load-bearing. About 15% of all tether-breaking events resulted in slings. The tether-to-sling transition was fast (<100 ms) with no visible material extending above the rolling cell, suggesting a very low bending modulus of the tether. The sling downstream of the rolling cell aligned according to the streamlines before landing on the flow chamber. These new observations explain how slings form from tethers and provide insight into their biomechanical properties. PMID:27357741

  10. 75 FR 62566 - Hot-Rolled Flat-Rolled Carbon-Quality Steel Products From Brazil, Japan, and Russia


    ... COMMISSION Hot-Rolled Flat-Rolled Carbon-Quality Steel Products From Brazil, Japan, and Russia AGENCY: United... countervailing duty order on hot-rolled flat-rolled carbon-quality steel products (``hot-rolled steel'') from... that full reviews pursuant to section 751(c)(5) of the Act should proceed (75 FR 42782, July 22,...

  11. 76 FR 62894 - Following Procedures When Going Between Rolling Equipment


    ... Federal Railroad Administration Following Procedures When Going Between Rolling Equipment AGENCY: Federal... of following procedures when going ] between rolling equipment. This safety advisory contains various... who, in the course of their work, place themselves between rolling equipment. The railroad...


    Y. Chen; X. Chen; Z.X. Yuan; B.F. Xu; A.M. Guo; P.H. Li; S.K. Pu


    The effects of finishing rolling temperature and coiling temperature on retained austen-ire were studied for hot-rolled transformation induced plasticity (TRIP) steels withdifferent carbon content. The experimental results showed that an appropriate volumefraction of retained austenite from 6% to 11% could be obtained according to the dif-ferent carbon content less than 0.20% by controlled finishing rolling and coiling forthe hot-rolled TRIP steels. It can be concluded that carbon content has a significanteffect on the fraction of retained austenite and coiling processing plays stronger roleon retaining austenite than fishing rolling processing.

  13. Roll forming of eco-friendly stud

    Keum, Y. T.; Lee, S. Y.; Lee, T. H.; Sim, J. K.


    In order to manufacture an eco-friendly stud, the sheared pattern is designed by the Taguchi method and expanded by the side rolls. The seven geometrical shape of sheared pattern are considered in the structural and thermal analyses to select the best functional one in terms of the durability and fire resistance of dry wall. For optimizing the size of the sheared pattern chosen, the L9 orthogonal array and smaller-the-better characteristics of the Taguchi method are used. As the roll gap causes forming defects when the upper-and-lower roll type is adopted for expanding the sheared pattern, the side roll type is introduced. The stress and strain distributions obtained by the FEM simulation of roll-forming processes are utilized for the design of expanding process. The expanding process by side rolls shortens the length of expanding process and minimizes the cost of dies. Furthermore, the stud manufactured by expanding the sheared pattern of the web is an eco-friend because of the scrapless roll-forming process. In addition, compared to the conventionally roll-formed stud, the material cost is lessened about 13.6% and the weight is lightened about 15.5%.

  14. Influence of Surge on Extreme Roll Amplitudes

    Vidic-Perunovic, Jelena; Rognebakke, Olav; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup


    Interference of the wave-induced ship surge motion with roll dynamics has been studied. The surge motion has been included in a previously derived hydrodynamic roll prediction model in order to account for the ship speed variation due to the longitudinal incident wave pressure force. Depending on...


    The report gives results of a study of the volatilization of lubricants used in steel rolling. Data from nine steel mills were used to: define the volatilized portion of lubricants used in rolling; and prepare total oil, grease, and hydraulic material balances for actual and typi...

  16. 9 CFR 381.159 - Poultry rolls.


    ....159 Poultry rolls. (a) Binders or extenders may be added in accordance with a regulation in this subchapter, in 9 CFR Chapter III, Subchapter E, or in 21 CFR Chapter I, Subchapter A or Subchapter B. In... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Poultry rolls. 381.159 Section...


    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    The statistical distribution of parametric induced roll angles is estimated using the first order reliability method (FORM), well-known from structural reliability problems. To illustrate the proposed procedure the roll motion is modeled by a simplified non-linear procedure taking into account the...

  18. Towards roll-to-roll manufacturing of polymer photonic devices

    Subbaraman, Harish; Lin, Xiaohui; Ling, Tao; Guo, L. Jay; Chen, Ray T.


    Traditionally, polymer photonic devices are fabricated using clean-room processes such as photolithography, e-beam lithography, reactive ion etching (RIE) and lift-off methods etc, which leads to long fabrication time, low throughput and high cost. We have utilized a novel process for fabricating polymer photonic devices using a combination of imprinting and ink jet printing methods, which provides high throughput on a variety of rigid and flexible substrates with low cost. We discuss the manufacturing challenges that need to be overcome in order to realize true implementation of roll-to-roll manufacturing of flexible polymer photonic systems. Several metrology and instrumentation challenges involved such as availability of particulate-free high quality substrate, development and implementation of high-speed in-line and off-line inspection and diagnostic tools with adaptive control for patterned and unpatterned material films, development of reliable hardware, etc need to be addressed and overcome in order to realize a successful manufacturing process. Due to extreme resolution requirements compared to print media, the burden of software and hardware tools on the throughput also needs to be carefully determined. Moreover, the effect of web wander and variations in web speed need to accurately be determined in the design of the system hardware and software. In this paper, we show the realization of solutions for few challenges, and utilizing these solutions for developing a high-rate R2R dual stage ink-jet printer that can provide alignment accuracy of polymer photonic systems opens limitless possibilities for the deployment of high performance components in a variety of applications including communication, sensing, medicine, agriculture, energy, lighting etc.

  19. Effect of Pavement Conditions on Rolling Resistance

    Mr.Dipanjan Mukherjee


    Full Text Available Rolling resistance is the force acting on a vehicle over a full journey. It is generated by the hysteresis of tyre and pavement. Rolling resistance, sometimes called rolling friction or rolling drag, is the force resisting the motion when a body (such as a ball, tire, or wheel rolls on a surface. It is mainly caused by non-elastic effects; that is, not all the energy needed for deformation (or movement of the wheel, roadbed, etc. is recovered when the pressure is removed. A hysteresis phenomenon can be observed when viscoelastic materials undergo a load-then-unload process. A typical hysteresis curve of viscoelastic material can be found. The shadow area enclosed by the hysteresis loop represents energy loss. A characteristic of a deformable material such that the energy of deformation is greater than the energy of recovery. The rubber compound in a tire exhibits hysteresis. As the tire rotates under the weight of the vehicle, it experiences repeated cycles of deformation and recovery, and it dissipates the hysteresis energy loss as heat. Hysteresis is the main cause of energy loss associated with rolling resistance and is attributed to the viscoelastic characteristics of the rubber. Materials that have a large hysteresis effect, such as rubber, which bounce back slowly, exhibit more rolling resistance than materials with a small hysteresis effect that bounce back more quickly and more completely, such as steel or silica. Low rolling resistance tires typically incorporate silica in place of carbon black in their tread compounds to reduce low-frequency hysteresis without compromising traction. Note that railroads also have hysteresis in the roadbed structure. Like the fuel consumption, rolling resistance also has a significant relationship with velocity. experiment has shown that, for a 32-tonn goods vehicle, rolling resistance contributes about 70% of total drag when driven at 50km/h and about 37% at 100km/h. An important issue which should not

  20. Effect of driver roll rotational speed on hot ring rolling of AZ31 magnesium alloy

    Xiaodong Luo


    Full Text Available Based on the ABAQUS/Explicit code, A 3D elastic–plastic and coupled thermo-mechanical FE model of radial ring rolling of AZ31 Magnesium alloy has been proposed to analyze the influence of rotational speed of driver roll to study the inhomogeneity distribution of strain and temperature, fishtail coefficient, rolling force parameters. The results show that: (1 when the rotational speed of driver roll n increases, the strain distribution of the rolled ring becomes less homogeneous, and the temperature distribution more homogeneous yet, and leading to an optimal n value; (2 the fishtail coefficient firstly decreases, then increases with the increase of n; (3 the rolling force, contact area and rolling moment gradually descend with the increase of n.

  1. Computational Analysis of Ares I Roll Control System Jet Interaction Effects on Rolling Moment

    Deere, Karen A.; Pao, S. Paul; Abdol-Hamid, Khaled S.


    The computational flow solver USM3D was used to investigate the jet interaction effects from the roll control system on the rolling moment of the Ares I full protuberance configuration at wind tunnel Reynolds numbers. Solutions were computed at freestream Mach numbers from M = 0.5 to M = 5 at the angle of attack 0deg, at the angle of attack 3.5deg for a roll angle of 120deg, and at the angle of attack 7deg for roll angles of 120deg and 210deg. Results indicate that the RoCS housing provided a beneficial jet interaction effect on vehicle rolling moment for M > or = 0.9. Most of the components downstream of the roll control system housing contributed to jet interaction penalties on vehicle rolling moment.

  2. Effect of ultrasonic oscillations on steel rolling

    The effect of radial ultrasonic oscillations on rolling has been studied. Plates and pipes made of the St3 and 08Kh18N10T steel were rolled at 20 and at 1200 deg C. Ultrasonic waves proved to reduce pressure on the rollers by 9-14%, this eventually leading to higher efficiency of rolling. Hot rolling involving ultrasonic treatment decreased the ultrimate strength and yield point of both steels by 5-10% and increased relative elongation on account of uniform contraction. Cold ultrasound-involving rolling decreased the ultimate strength and the yield point of the St3 steel, hardly affecting those of the 08Kh18N10T steel


    J.Z. Zhang; X.P. Zhang


    The development of computer controlled continuous rolling process calls for a mathematicalexpression that can express the inequality condition of "constant flow". Tension is the link of thecontinuous rolling process. From the condition of dynamic equilibrium, a differential equation oftension is given out. On the basis of the physical rules established from the industrial practice andexperimental studies, the law of volume constancy, the linear relation of forward slip and tension,the state equation of continuous rolling, the formula of dynamic tension, and the formula of statictension have been obtained. These formulae reflect the functional relations between tensions,thickness, roll velocity, and time in the continuous rolling process. It is implied that the continuousrolling process is a gradually steady, controllable, and measurable dynamic system. An assumptionof predicting the thickness of a steel plate using these tension formulae is also put forward.

  4. Synthesis of metal hydrides by cold rolling

    'Full text:' In the development of metal hydrides for commercial applications, a special attention should be devoted to the ways of production. For commercial success, the raw elements of the hydrogen storage materials should be of low cost, the synthesis process should be inexpensive and easily scalable. Therefore, it is important to put some effort on the elaboration of new and more efficient means of producing metal hydrides. In this perspective, cold rolling was investigated as a new means of producing nanocrystalline materials. This technique is well-known in the industry and easily scalable. Cold rolling was performed on Mg-Ni system. The evolution of morphology, crystal structure, crystallite size, deformation, and preferred orientation was studied as a function of number of rolling passes. Cold rolling followed by a heat treatment produced the intermetallic Mg2Ni. Without heat treatment and for a large number of rolling, an amorphous phase was synthesized. (author)

  5. Automated Procedure for Roll Pass Design

    Lambiase, F.; Langella, A.


    The aim of this work has been to develop an automatic roll pass design method, capable of minimizing the number of roll passes. The adoption of artificial intelligence technologies, particularly expert systems, and a hybrid model for the surface profile evaluation of rolled bars, has allowed us to model the search for the minimal sequence with a tree path search. This approach permitted a geometrical optimization of roll passes while allowing automation of the roll pass design process. Moreover, the heuristic nature of the inferential engine contributes a great deal toward reducing search time, thus allowing such a system to be employed for industrial purposes. Finally, this new approach was compared with other recently developed automatic systems to validate and measure possible improvements among them.

  6. Vibrations of a rolling tyre

    Kozhevnikov, I. F.


    We investigate vibrations of an unloaded and loaded tyre rolling at constant speed without slipping in the contact area. A previously proposed analytical model of a reinforced tyre is considered. The surface of the tyre is represented by flexible tread, combined with parts of two tori (sidewalls of the tyre). The contact between the wheel and the ground plane occurs by the part of the tread. The natural frequencies (NF) and mode shapes (MS) are determined analytically for unloaded tyre and numerically for loaded tyre. The results were compared with experiments for the non-rotating tyre. In the case of loaded rotating tyre, the increasing of the angular velocity of rotation implies that NF decrease. Moreover, a phenomenon of frequency loci veering is visible here: NF as functions of angular velocity approach each other and then veer away instead of crossing. The MS interact in veering region and, as a result, interchange.

  7. Backup roll contour of a SmartCrown tandem cold rolling mill

    Guanghui Yang; Jianguo Cao; Jie Zhang; Shenghui Jia; Renwei Tan


    SmartCrown was a new system developed by VAI for improving the strip profile and flatness control first applied in 1700mm tandem cold rolling mills at Wuhan Iron & Steel (Group) Corporation (WISCO). After tracing and testing, the application of the conventional crown backup roll matching the SmartCrown work roll of the production mill led to heavy and nonuniform wear, and the edge spalling of the backup roll often occurred. A 3-dimension finite element model of roll stacks was established, which was used to analyze the above-mentioned problems, and it was found that the main reason was the highly nonuniform contact pressure distribution between the work roll and the backup roll. A new FSR (flexible shape backup roll) was developed and applied in 1700mm tandem cold rolling mills. A lot of good actual effects of FSR, such as evident improvement in profile and flatness of strips,non-occurring edge spalling, wear uniform, and remarkable decrease in roll consumption were validated by long-term industrial applications.

  8. High speed roll casting of Mg alloy strip by a vertical type twin roll caster

    H. Watari


    Full Text Available Purpose: The possibility of high speed roll casting of AZ31, AM60 and AZ91 was investigated. Warm deep drawing of roll cast magnesium alloy was operated. and formability of roll cast magnesium strip was cleared.Design/methodology/approach: A vertical type high speed twin roll caster was used. The roll casting was operated in the air atmosphere. The casting speed was from 60 m/min up to 180 m/min. Low temperature casting was adopted to realize high speed casting.Findings: Strip thinner 3 mm with 100 width could be cast continuously. The casting ability became better with increasing content of Al. Roll cast Mg alloy strips could be hot-rolled down to 0.5 mm. AZ31 as-cast strip could be thinner down to 0.5 mm only by three times of hot rolling. Deep drawing was operated with three kinds of Mg alloy at 250°C, and LDR value was larger than 2.0. It was shown that deep drawing of AZ91 alloy for casting was possible.Research limitations/implications: There was tendency that cracks occurred at the center in the thickness direction as Al content increased.Practical implications: Sheet metal forming of magnesium alloy with high content Al can be realized.Originality/value: It was shown that possibility of high speed roll casting of magnesium alloy, and warm deep drawing of roll cast AZ91 strip.

  9. Wheelchair tire rolling resistance and fatigue.

    Kauzlarich, J J; Thacker, J G


    The hysteresis loss theory of rolling resistance is developed for solid rubber wheelchair tires. The analysis is used to correlate test data for a clay-filled natural rubber and a polyurethane tire material. A discussion of tire rolling work, hysteresis loss factor measurement, and rolling loss measurement is presented. An example calculation of rolling resistance for a polyurethane tire is given in detail. The subject of solid rubber tire design is developed on the basis of recommended fatigue life theory and practice. It is shown that polyurethane tires have a useful fatigue life due to a high shear modulus at useful values of hardness. This characteristic of polyurethane, if exploited, is predicted to lead to a tire with a lower rolling resistance than other wheelchair tires available. The effect of surface roughness on rolling resistance is briefly discussed and some experimental results are listed. The purpose of this paper is to give the rehabilitation engineer the means for wheelchair tire rolling resistance and fatigue life design and the methods to assess the tire characteristics when a tire design is modified or a new tire material is contemplated. Other important design factors, such as wear and chemical degradation, are not discussed, but references are suggested for information on these topics. As in most research and development projects, this study raises problems which need further work. For example, the fatigue properties of the rubber compounds employed in this application are not completely understood; this subject is planned for future investigation. PMID:3835263

  10. The City Mouse and the Country Mouse


    Once two mice (老鼠) were good friends. One lived in the city, the other lived in the country (乡村). After many years, the city mouse came to see the country mouse. The country mouse took him to his house in a field. He gave him the nicest food that he could find. The city mouse said,


    L.H. Zhan; J. Zhong; X.Q. Li; M.H. Huang


    A series of simulating experimental studies on the rheological behavior and its influential factors of aluminum alloy in continuous roll-casting process have been explored in this paper with a Gleeble-1500 Thermal-Mechanical Simulation Tester and a set of special clamp system. Relevant rheological rules in the process of coupling transient solidification and continuous deformation of roll-casting conditions are obtained. Experimental results indicate that four different characteristic stages exist in the whole rheological process, and relative constitutive models suitable for the given conditions of continuous roll casting process have been established through multivariable linear regression analysis of the experimental data.

  12. Rolling process for producing biaxially textured substrates

    Goyal, Amit


    A method of preparing a biaxially textured article includes the steps of: rolling a metal preform while applying shear force thereto to form as-rolled biaxially textured substrate having an a rotated cube texture wherein a (100) cube face thereof is parallel to a surface of said substrate, and wherein a [100] direction thereof is at an angle of at least relative to the rolling direction; and depositing onto the surface of the biaxially textured substrate at least one epitaxial layer of another material to form a biaxially textured article.

  13. Mouse lymphotoxin.

    Trivers, G; Braungart, D; Leonard, E J


    The addition of PHA to C3H mouse spleen cells in tissue culture led to the production of lymphotoxin (LT). Cytotoxicity was assayed by addition of the culture fluids to syngeneic target cells labeled with tritiated thymidine; after an incubation period of 72 hr the amount of radioactivity released into the supernatant was measured. The LT activity in unfractionated culture fluids survived lyophilization, remained unchanged for many weeks at 4 degrees C, and progressively decreased on heating at 56 degrees C for periods from 1 to 9 hr. Based on the G-200 Sephadex distribution coefficients for several preparations, the m.w. of mouse lymphotoxin was about 41,000 daltons. Lymphotoxin from three different spleen cell production runs was recovered from isoelectric focusing columns in sharply focused peaks, the pH of which ranged from 4.4 to 4.8. PMID:1084362

  14. Prediction of Rolling Load, Recrystallization Kinetics, and Microstructure During Hot Strip Rolling


    The recrystallization kinetics and grain size models were developed for the C-Mn and niobium-containing steels to describe the metallurgical phenomenon such as softening, grain growth, and strain accumulation. Based on the recrystallization kinetics equations, the mean flow stress and the rolling load of each pass were predicted and the optimum rolling schedule was proposed for hot strip rolling. The austenite grain refinement is associated with the addition of niobium, the decrease of starting temperature of finish rolling, and the reduction of finished thickness. The mean flow stress curve with a continuous rising characteristic can be usually observed in the finish rolling of niobiumcontaining steel, which is formed as a result of the heavy incomplete softening and strain accumulation. The predicted rolling loads are in good agreement with the measured ones.

  15. Effects of finishing rolling temperatures and reduction on the mechanical properties of hot rolled multiphase steel

    LI Zhuang; WU Di


    Effects of finishing rolling temperatures and reduction on the mechanical properties of hot rolled multiphase steel were investigated. Thermo-mechanical control processing (TMCP) was conducted by using a laboratory hot rolling mill, in which three different kinds of finishing rolling temperatures and reduction and various austempering times were applied. The results showed that polygonal ferrite, granular bainite and larger amount of stabilized retained austenite can be obtained by controlled rolling processes, and that the strain-induced transformation to martensite from the retained austenite can occur gradually when the steel is deformed during tensile test. Mechanical properties increase with decreasing finishing rolling temperature and increasing amount of deformation. The most TRIP (transformation induced plasticity) effect, and ultimate tensile strength (UTS), total elongation (TEL) and the product of ultimate tensile strength and total elongation (UTS× TEL) are obtained at 20 min.

  16. Effect of plate asymmetric rolling parameters on the change of the total unit pressure of roll

    A. Kawalek


    Full Text Available This work shows the results of theoretical analysis of asymmetric rolling process of plates in the finishing mill of plate rolling. Its aim was to determine the influence of asymmetry velocity of working rolls on decrease of unit pressure of metal on the rolls. The lower value of the unit pressure will reduce the elastic deflection of the finishing stand and improve the cross-section shape of plate. Three-dimensional simulation of asymmetric hot rolling of S355J2G3 steel plates was done with the aid of FORGE 2008® software. The tensor polynomial interpolation was used for comparing the values of the unit pressure obtaining from symmetric and asymmetric rolling.

  17. Numerical Analysis of a Rolling Process for Producing Steel Balls Using Helical Rolls

    Chyła P.


    Full Text Available This paper presents the research results of the balls rolling process according to the conventional and modified methods of rolling. Theoretical analysis was carried out by using numerical methods based on the Finite Element Method. The Simufact package version 10.0 were used for calculation. Simulations of balls rolling were carried out under conditions of 3D state of strain, taking into account the effect of thermal conditions occurring during forming. The study of the achieved results showed that the best rolling process parameters were obtained for the modified method, in which the feed material is heated up to 1150 °C. In this case, the rolling parameters such as: rolling force and torque as well as tool wear reached the smallest values.

  18. 21 CFR 136.115 - Enriched bread, rolls, and buns.


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Enriched bread, rolls, and buns. 136.115 Section... § 136.115 Enriched bread, rolls, and buns. (a) Each of the foods enriched bread, enriched rolls, and... label statement of ingredients prescribed for bread, rolls or buns by § 136.110, except that: (1)...

  19. 21 CFR 136.130 - Milk bread, rolls, and buns.


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Milk bread, rolls, and buns. 136.130 Section 136....130 Milk bread, rolls, and buns. (a) Each of the foods milk bread, milk rolls, and milk buns conforms... ingredients prescribed for bread, rolls or buns by § 136.110 except that: (1) The only moistening...

  20. 21 CFR 136.160 - Raisin bread, rolls, and buns.


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Raisin bread, rolls, and buns. 136.160 Section 136....160 Raisin bread, rolls, and buns. (a) Each of the foods raisin bread, raisin rolls, and raisin buns... of ingredients prescribed for bread, rolls or buns by § 136.110, except that: (1) Not less than...

  1. Transparent conductive film by large area roll-to-roll processing

    Sputtered indium tin oxide (ITO) coating on polyethylene terephthalate film has been used as the substrate for roll-to-roll fabrication of large area printed electronics devices, but it is expensive and could be cracked when bending, limiting its applications. Transparent conductive (TC) electrode made by roll-to-roll coating of transparent conductive ink on flexible substrate is an alternative, but both the ink material and the control of the coating quality are very crucial. The major challenges are the coating performance, coating uniformity and defect control during roll-to-roll processing. In this paper, we report the chemical synthesis of silver nanowires in preferred shape and size, the surface modification of the Ag nanowires for better dispersion into the commercial Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) Poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) conductive polymer ink, and the controlled roll-to-roll coating process on flexible polyethylene terephthalate substrate by a one meter web-width roll-to-roll slot die coating system. We obtained high uniformity PEDOT:PSS coating with optical transmission higher than 80% and sheet resistance lower than 100 Ω/square, and silver containing coating with sheet resistance below 40 Ω/square and maintained optical transmittance. The slot die coating mechanism is investigated and the influencing factors for coating uniformity and defect are defined. The coated transparent conductive film has the same properties as the sputtered ITO and has been used as the TC electrode for printed lighting, whose performance has been proven by standard weathering test for 1000 h. - Highlight: • Controlled synthesis of silver nanowires using trace amount of Cl− ions • Large area roll-to-roll processed transparent conductive (TC) coatings • TC film has light transmission > 80% and sheet resistance < 100 Ω/sq. • Silver containing ink achieved better property than conductive polymer ink. • Used as the TC electrode for printed lighting


    Arkadiusz Tofil


    The article presents the results of numerical analysis of splitting without waste on the basis of cross wedge rolling in double rolling mechanism. The analysed process concerns rolling the charge of V-shaped groove, and rotary bending causing the split of the material. In the calculations a method of finite elements (FEM) was used. The obtained results allowed detailed analysis of the splitting process in terms of the level of deformation, strains, material breaking, flow kinematics and stren...

  3. The rolling and skidding of automobile tyres

    Tabor, D.


    This article deals in simple terms with the rolling and skidding of automobile tyres. It shows that skid resistance on slippery road surfaces may be significantly increased by using tyre treads of high hysteresis loss.

  4. Moesin regulates neutrophil rolling velocity in vivo.

    Matsumoto, Masanori; Hirata, Takako


    During inflammation, the selectin-induced slow rolling of neutrophils on venules cooperates with chemokine signaling to mediate neutrophil recruitment into tissues. Previous studies identified P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1) and CD44 as E-selectin ligands that activate integrins to induce slow rolling. We show here that in TNF-α-treated cremaster muscle venules, slow leukocyte rolling was impaired in mice deficient in moesin, a member of the ezrin-radixin-moesin (ERM) family. Accordingly, neutrophil recruitment in a peritonitis model was decreased in moesin-deficient mice when chemokine signaling was blocked with pertussis toxin. These results suggest that moesin contributes to the slow rolling and subsequent recruitment of neutrophils during inflammation. PMID:27131737

  5. Roll Dynamics in a Free Flying Dragonfly

    Melfi, James; Leonardo, Anthony; Wang, Z. Jane


    Dragonflies are capable of executing fast turning maneuvers. A typical free-flight maneuver includes rotations in all three degrees of freedom; yaw, pitch, and roll. This makes it difficult to identify the key changes to wing kinematics responsible for controlling each degree of freedom. Therefore we focus on a single motion; roll about the body longitudinal axis in a combined experimental and computational study. To induce rolling, a dragonfly is released from a magnetic tether while inverted. Both wing and body kinematics are recorded using multiple high speed cameras. The kinematics are replayed in a computer simulation of the flight, with forces and torques based on quasi-steady aerodynamics. By examining the effect of each kinematic change individually, we determine the key changes a dragonfly uses to both instigate, maintain, and end a rolling motion.

  6. Thermal stability of warm-rolled tungsten

    Alfonso Lopez, Angel

    recrystallization occur in tungsten, and quantifying the kinetics and microstructuralaspects of these restoration processes. Two warm-rolled tungsten plates are annealed attemperatures between 1100 °C and 1350 °C, under vacuum conditions or argon atmosphere. Theeffects of annealing on the microstructure are...... recoverykinetics, and recrystallization fitted to JMAK recrystallization kinetics, which in turn allowed thecalculation of recrystallization activation energies. Much faster recovery and recrystallizationkinetics were found for the plate warm-rolled to 90% thickness reduction, as compared to the platewarm......-rolled to 67% thickness reduction. An initial incubation time before recrystallization wasfound for both plates warm-rolled to 67% and 90% thickness reductions. The different Avramiexponents found for the two plates were explained microstructurally in terms of nucleation. The microstructural evolution...

  7. Investigation for parametric vibration of rolling mill

    唐华平; 丁睿; 吴运新; 钟掘


    The vibration unsteady condition of rolling mill caused by flexural vibration of strip has been investigated. The parametric flexural vibration equation of rolled strip has been established. The parametric flexural vibration stability of rolled strip has been studied and the regions of stability and unstability have been determined based on Floquet theory and perturbation method. The flexural-vibration of strip is unstable when the frequency of variable tension is two times as the natural frequency of flexural-vibration strip. The characteristic of current in a temp driving motor's main loop has been studied and tested, it has been proved that there are 6 harmonic component and 12 harmonic component in main loop of driving motor electricity. The vertical vibration of working roller has been tested, the test result approves that the running unsteady is caused by parametric vibration. It attaches importance to the parametric vibration of rolling mill.

  8. Terras: NATO õppuste roll Euroopas kasvab


    Kaitseväe juhataja kindralmajor Riho Terrase sõnul suureneb lähiaastatel NATO õppuste roll Euroopas, sest Afganistanis sõdides saadud kogemust on vaja säilitada ning kasutada seda kollektiivkaitse tugevdamiseks

  9. Cell sorting by deterministic cell rolling

    Choi, Sungyoung; Karp, Jeffrey M.; Karnik, Rohit


    This communication presents the concept of “deterministic cell rolling”, which leverages transient cell-surface molecular interactions that mediate cell rolling to sort cells with high purity and efficiency in a single step.

  10. Thermal Behaviors of Work Roll in Finishing Trains of Hot Rolling


    In order to analyze the thermal field and thermal contour of work roll in finishing trains of hot rolling in rolling process, a quasi two-dimension implicit finite difference model is developed. To improve the calculating speed and precision, some special solutions are introduced, including the development of this model, the simplification of boundary conditions and the computation of heat transfer coefficients. The results show that these solutions of thermal behaviors of work roll are very much efficient and the model can be used as an on-line profile and flatness control model of large industrial mills.

  11. Strip Crown Prediction: Developing a Refined Dynamic Roll-Stack Model for the Hot Rolling Process

    Slaughter, Derek Emerson


    The steel industry has been producing flat plates through the process of hot rolling since the late 1600s. Hot rolling uses a series of rolls to progressively thin a strip of steel to a desired thickness. In deforming the strip, the rolling process causes variations in thickness across the width of the strip. These variations are commonly referred to as crown, which is specifically the difference in thickness between the center and edge of a strip. For most applications steel mill clients req...

  12. A new transducer for local load measurements of friction and roll pressure in cold flat rolling

    Lagergren, J.; Wanheim, Tarras; Precz, W.; Henningsen, Poul; Arentoft, Mogens; Jonsson, N.G.


    The only way to establish the true rolling pressure and the true friction condition in cold rolling is to conduct measurements in the roll bite. A new transducer design is therefore proposed, in order to overcome problems in previous measurements in the past 70 years. The new idea is to increase...... the contact surface of the transducer, to be larger than the arc of contact. This is in contrast to the smaller and smaller contact pin design that has been prevailing. The measurements were conducted during cold dry rolling of both copper strips and stainless steel strips in a pilot mill. The...

  13. Roll-to-Roll Transfer Printing of Reduced Graphene Oxide Thin Film

    Jang, Hyun-Woo


    A novel thin film transfer mechanism has been studied and developed to transfer chemically reduced graphene oxide (r-GO) thin film using a roll-to-roll printing system. We discover that shear stress generated on the silicon rubber stamp surface facilitates delamination of the deposited r-GO thin film efficiently.A roll-to-roll apparatus is assembled to demonstrate the shear-induced transfer printing in a large scale printing system. Shear stress is applied on the stamp surface by rotating the...

  14. Texture comparison between room temperature rolled and cryogenically rolled pure copper

    Nowadays, due to their potential for superior mechanical properties, a considerable interest in bulk ultrafine grained metals exists. One of the possible formation methods for this ultrafine grained material is cryogenic rolling. In this work, the influence of cryogenic rolling on the texture and the microstructure of pure copper is investigated by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), both in the deformed and the annealed state. This is done by comparing cryogenically rolled copper with room temperature rolled copper, rolled to the same thickness reductions. A texture difference between the room temperature rolled and cryogenically rolled copper is seen in the deformed state, although the largest texture difference is observed after annealing. These texture differences are mainly attributed to the presence of shear bands in the microstructure of the cryogenically rolled copper. In order to obtain a better understanding of the influence of shear bands on the texture evolution, the grain orientations inside the shear bands are analyzed both experimentally and numerically by applying the visco plastic self-consistent (VPSC) model. A number of shear band specific orientations, which are not observed in the conventional rolling texture of fcc materials, could be identified both in the experimental observations and in the simulations

  15. Effect of asymmetric rolling with cone-shaped rolls on microstructure of low-carbon steel

    A. D. Mekhtiev; Azbanbayev, E. M.; Isagulov, A. Z.; A. R. Karipbayeva; Sv. S. Kvon; Zakariya, N. B.; N. Z. Yermaganbetov


    Effect of asymmetric rolling with cone-shaped rolls (ARCSR) on the evolution of microstructure of low-carbon steel was investigated. Steel containing 0,15 % C (wt. %) billet with initial grain size of 60 μm was deformed up to thickness of 5 mm with diameters ratio of 1,5, as well as in cylindrical rolls. Rolling was conducted at three different temperatures: 900 °C, 1 000 °C and 1 100 °C. Final thickness is obtained through four passes of ARCSR with total reduction of 61,7 %. It has been show...

  16. Roll motion analysis of deepwater pipelay crane vessel

    You, Dandan; Sun, Liping; Qu, Zhiguo; Wang, Tao


    For a large floating vessel in waves, radiation damping is not an accurate prediction of the degree of roll unlike other degrees of freedom motion. Therefore, to get the knowledge of roll motion performance of deepwater pipelay crane vessels and to keep the vessel working safety, the paper presents the relationship between a series of dimensionless roll damping coefficients and the roll response amplitude operator (RAO). By using two kinds of empirical data, the roll damping is estimated in the calculation flow. After getting the roll damping coefficient from the model test, a prediction of roll motion in regular waves is evaluated. According to the wave condition in the working region, short term statistics of roll motion are presented under different wave parameters. Moreover, the relationship between the maximal roll response level to peak spectral wave period and the roll damping coefficient is investigated. Results may provide some reference to design and improve this kind of vessel.

  17. Financial Controls Project at Rolls Royce

    Samdani, Sandeep


    This MBA Project is the result of the Financial Controls Project conducted for UK Gas Turbines Operations at Rolls Royce Plc. The Objectives of this project were to identify the key financial controls which are/ should be operated by the site finance staff in operations at Rolls Royce Global Gas Turbines Operations. Propose Task transfers in Principal from Site finance to other functions, Central teams and Self Directed Teams (SDTs). Identify the challenges, which would arise from reducin...

  18. A longitudinal perspective on rolling forecasts & interactions

    Holmen, Thea Jarneid; Skurtveit, Ingvild


    This thesis is a case study exploring the practice of rolling forecasts as a dynamic management tool within an organization. Increasingly complex and dynamic business environment has led to the introduction of contemporary management control systems and management accounting innovations, such as rolling forecasts that is an important tool in the Beyond Budgeting philosophy. Through qualitative research method, this study aims to get an in-depth understanding of how forecasting information, in...

  19. A longitudinal perspective on rolling forecasts & interactions

    Holmen, Thea Jarneid; Skurtveit, Ingvild


    Increasingly complex and dynamic business environment has led to the introduction of contemporary management control systems and management accounting innovations, such as rolling forecasts that is an important tool in the Beyond Budgeting philosophy. This thesis is a case study exploring the practice of rolling forecasts as a dynamic management tool within an organization – namely FiGo. Through qualitative research method, the study aims to get an in-depth understanding of how...

  20. Direct hot rolled dual phase weathering steel

    Allam, Tarek


    New alloying concepts are proposed to develop hot-rolled weathering-dual phase steels that combine good strength-ductility balance and enhanced atmospheric corrosion resistance. The proposed concepts comprise mainly the alloying elements that improve the atmospheric corrosion resistance (Cu, Ni, P and Cr) and those that facilitate the adjustment of dual phase microstructure during processing by hot rolling (C, Mn and Si). Moreover, Nb and combined Nb-Mo additions are utilized to enable the co...

  1. Characteristics of cold rolled stainless steel sheets

    The cold rolling of sheets of austenitic stainless steel was investigated for different temperatures and percentages of reduction. It was also established under which conditions are the mechanical strenght and the ductility improved. It was found that this improvement is related to the characteristics of martensitic transformation taking place during rolling and through the tensile tests performed in stainless steels with different degree of martensitic transformation. The results are explained on the basis of martensite participation in the stained structure. (Author)

  2. Designing Rolling-Element Bearings

    Moore, James D., Jr.


    Bearing Analysis Tool (BAT) is a computer program for designing rolling-element bearings for cryogenic turbomachines. BAT provides a graphical user interface (GUI) that guides the entry of data to develop mathematical models of bearings. The GUI breaks model data into logical subsets that are entered through logic-driven input screens. The software generates a threedimensional graphical model of a bearing as the data are entered. Most dataentry errors become immediately obvious in the graphical model. BAT provides for storage of all the data on a shaft/bearing system, enabling the creation of a library of proven designs. Data from the library can be transferred to subsequent projects by use of simple cut-and-paste routines. BAT includes a library of temperature- dependent cryogenic bearing-material properties for use in the mathematical models. BAT implements algorithms that (1) enable the user to select combinations of design and/or operating-condition parameters, and then (2) automatically optimize the design by performing trade studies over all of the parameter combinations. This feature enables optimization over a large trade space in a fraction of the time taken when using prior bearingmodel software.

  3. Analysis of rolls deflection of Sendzimir mill by 3D FEM

    YU Hai-liang; LIU Xiang-hua; LEE Gyoo Taek


    The deflection of rolls of Sendzimir mill with double AS-U-Roll was simulated by finite element method(FEM). The influences of rolling pressure, strip width and rolls-assignment on rolls deflection were analyzed. The results show that the work roll deflection increases with the increase of rolling pressure and the reduction of work roll radius, but the rigid displacement of work roll slightly changes; the work roll end might appear negative displacement for the narrow strip width and high rolling pressure that might cause the contact of work rolls. The research results are significant for guiding production and theoretical analysis of the rolls system of Sendzimir mill.

  4. 75 FR 42782 - Hot-Rolled Flat-Rolled Carbon-Quality Steel Products From Brazil, Japan, and Russia


    ... COMMISSION Hot-Rolled Flat-Rolled Carbon-Quality Steel Products From Brazil, Japan, and Russia AGENCY: United... party group responses to its notice of institution (75 FR 16504, April 1, 2010) were adequate. A record...-year reviews concerning the countervailing duty order on certain hot-rolled flat-rolled...

  5. 49 CFR 393.134 - What are the rules for securing roll-on/roll-off or hook lift containers?


    ... or hook lift containers? 393.134 Section 393.134 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... for securing roll-on/roll-off or hook lift containers? (a) Applicability. The rules in this section apply to the transportation of roll-on/roll-off or hook lift containers. (b) Securement of a...

  6. Ultra slow-roll G-inflation

    Hirano, Shin'ichi; Yokoyama, Shuichiro


    The conventional slow-roll approximation is broken in the so called "ultra slow-roll" models of inflation, for which the inflaton potential is exactly (or extremely) flat. The interesting nature of (canonical) ultra slow-roll inflation is that the curvature perturbation grows on superhorizon scales, but has a scale-invariant power spectrum. We study the ultra slow-roll inflationary dynamics in the presence of non-canonical kinetic terms of the scalar field, namely ultra slow-roll G-inflation. We compute the evolution of the curvature perturbation and show that the primordial power spectrum follows a broken power law with an oscillation feature. It is demonstrated that this could explain the lack of large-scale power in the cosmic microwave background temperature anisotropies. We also point out that the violation of the null energy condition is prohibited in ultra slow-roll G-inflation and hence a blue tensor tilt is impossible as long as inflation is driven by the potential. This statement is, however, not tr...

  7. Partition Decomposition for Roll Call Data

    Leibon, Greg; Rockmore, Daniel N; Savell, Robert


    In this paper we bring to bear some new tools from statistical learning on the analysis of roll call data. We present a new data-driven model for roll call voting that is geometric in nature. We construct the model by adapting the "Partition Decoupling Method," an unsupervised learning technique originally developed for the analysis of families of time series, to produce a multiscale geometric description of a weighted network associated to a set of roll call votes. Central to this approach is the quantitative notion of a "motivation," a cluster-based and learned basis element that serves as a building block in the representation of roll call data. Motivations enable the formulation of a quantitative description of ideology and their data-dependent nature makes possible a quantitative analysis of the evolution of ideological factors. This approach is generally applicable to roll call data and we apply it in particular to the historical roll call voting of the U.S. House and Senate. This methodology provides a...

  8. Roll bonding of 6061 aluminum alloy plates

    The roll bonding process is an important application of the solid state welding . in principle, two or more slabs of the materials to be bonded are placed in contact and welded around the edges. then, this assembled set is heated and rolled until the required thickness is obtained. this process is applied to clad the nuclear fuel, with high strength aluminum alloys during fabrication of plate type nuclear fuel elements for research reactors, or to produce many new constructions which have special uses in industrial applications. in the present work, the steps of the hot roll bonding of 6061 aluminum alloy plates were studies by using both microscopic examination and mechanical test namely singe lap shear strength test. also the effect of reduction degree in thickness, the sequence of hot rolling , surface roughness, degassing opening length and holding time on roll bonding process were studied. the results obtained due to variations in the above parameters are discussed with respect to their effects on the roll bonding of 6061 aluminum alloy plates as well as their effects on the specifications of the fuel plates

  9. Rolling in Nature and Robotics: A Review

    Rhodri H. Armour; Julian F. V. Vincent


    This paper presents a review of recent rolling robots including Rollo from Helsinki University of Technology,Spherical Mobile Robot from the Politecnico of Bari,Sphericle from the University of Pisa,Spherobot from Michigan State University,August from Azad University of Qazvin and the University of Tehran,Deformable Robot from Ritsumeijan University,Kickbot from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology,Gravitational Wheeled Robot from Kinki University,Gyrover from Carnegie Seven rolling robot design principles are presented and discussed (Sprung central member,Car driven,Mobile masses,Hemispherical wheels,Gyroscopic stabilisation,Ballast mass - fixed axis,and Ballast mass - moving axis). Robots based on each of the design principles are shown and the performances of the robots are tabulated. An attempt is made to grade the design principles based on their suitability for movement over an unknown and varied but relatively smooth terrain. The result of this comparison suggests that a rolling robot based on a mobile masses principle would be best suited to this specific application.Some wonderful rolling organisms are introduced and defined as "active" or "passive" depending on whether they generate their own rolling motion or external forces cause their rolling.

  10. Wear phenomena of spinning rolls for stone wool production

    Klimpel, A; L.A. Dobrzański; A. Lisiecki; D. Janicki


    Purpose: Purpose of this paper: Results of the study of wear phenomena of cascade spinning rolls during stone wool production process are described.Design/methodology/approach: The study were based on direct process observations, chemical analysis and temperature measurements of basalt lava, metallographic examinations of the spinning rolls deposits.Findings: It was showed that the deposits of spinning rolls are worn in very different way, depending on the roll position in rolls cascade. Pred...

  11. Numerical simulation of wear of basalt lava spinning rolls

    A. Lisiecki; A. Klimpel; D. Janicki


    Purpose: of this paper: Results of the study of wear phenomena of cascade spinning rolls during stone woolproduction process are described.Design/methodology/approach: The study was based on direct process observations, chemical analysis andtemperature measurements of basalt lava, metallographic examinations of the spinning rolls deposits. It was showedthat the deposits of spinning rolls are worn in very different way, depending on the roll position in rolls cascade.Findings: Predominant wear...

  12. Analysis of Vertical-Horizontal Coupling Vibration Characteristics of Rolling Mill Rolls Based on Strip Dynamic Deformation Process

    Dongxiao Hou; Rongrong Peng; Haoran Liu


    Nonlinear dynamic rolling forces in the vertical and horizontal directions are, respectively, established, considering the impact of vertical and horizontal directions vibration of rolls. Then a vertical-horizontal coupling nonlinear vibration dynamic model of rolling mill rolls is proposed, based on the interactions between this dynamic rolling force and mill structure. The amplitude-frequency equations of the main resonance and inner resonance are carried out by using multiple-scale method....

  13. Theoretical foundations of the automated designing of assembly drawings of rolls of wheel rolling vertical type mills

    Снітко, С. О.; Яковченко, О. В.; Івлєва, Н. І.


    Automated designing inker, pressure and conical rolls, as well as centering and driving rollers of modern wheel-rolling mills of vertical type required for the development of new highly effective profile of railway wheels is actual scientific and technical problem. In this paper, first proposed the theoretical foundations of the automated design drawings of rolls of vertical type wheel-rolling mills. The designing of circuits of pressure and inker rolls and calculation values technological ga...

  14. Roll-to-roll paper sensors (ROPAS); Wireless communicating sensors on paper in the logistic chain

    Rentrop, C.; Rubingh, J.E.J.M.; Lelieveld, R.; Sandberg, H.


    The ROPAS project (Roll-to-roll paper sensors) combines high end electronics and wireless sensors with low cost paper substrates and processing techniques that can be applied on a large scale. Paper is the next step in the printed electronics roadmap of utilising cheaper substrate materials as a rep

  15. Roll-to-roll fabricated lab-on-a-chip devices

    Vig, Asger Laurberg; Mäkelä, Tapio; Majander, Päivi;


    We present a high-volume fabrication technique for making polymer lab-on-a-chip devices. Microfluidic separation devices, relying on pinched flow fraction, are roll-to-roll fabricated in a cellulose acetate (CA) film at a volume of 360 devices h−1 for a cost of approximately 0.5 euro/device. The ...

  16. Optimization of cold rolling process parameters in order to increasing rolling speed limited by chatter vibrations

    Ali Heidari


    Full Text Available Chatter has been recognized as major restriction for the increase in productivity of cold rolling processes, limiting the rolling speed for thin steel strips. It is shown that chatter has close relation with rolling conditions. So the main aim of this paper is to attain the optimum set points of rolling to achieve maximum rolling speed, preventing chatter to occur. Two combination methods were used for optimization. First method is done in four steps: providing a simulation program for chatter analysis, preparing data from simulation program based on central composite design of experiment, developing a statistical model to relate system tendency to chatter and rolling parameters by response surface methodology, and finally optimizing the process by genetic algorithm. Second method has analogous stages. But central composite design of experiment is replaced by Taguchi method and response surface methodology is replaced by neural network method. Also a study on the influence of the rolling parameters on system stability has been carried out. By using these combination methods, new set points were determined and significant improvement achieved in rolling speed.

  17. Technology development for roll-to-roll production of organic photovoltaics

    Galagan, Y.O.; Vries, I.G. de; Langen, A.P.; Andriessen, H.A.J.M.; Verhees, W.J.H.; Veenstra, S.C.; Kroon, J.M.


    In order to reach the objective of low-cost, large area organic photovoltaic systems, we build up a knowledge base concerning the influence of process conditions on the performance of polymer solar cells. A large area solar cell module, with roll-to-roll coated PEDOT:PSS and photoactive layers (base

  18. Roll-to-roll processed polymer tandem solar cells partially processed from water

    Larsen-Olsen, Thue Trofod; Andersen, Thomas Rieks; Andreasen, Birgitta;


    Large area polymer tandem solar cells completely processed using roll-to-roll (R2R) coating and printing techniques are demonstrated. A stable tandem structure was achieved by the use of orthogonal ink solvents for the coating of all layers, including both active layers. Processing solvents...... with upscaling the multilayer tandem cells were identified giving valuable information for future experiments and development....

  19. Microstructural heterogeneity of forged rolled rings

    J. Herian


    Full Text Available Purpose: The paper presents the processes which condition the quality of steel cast strands and properties of rolled products. It touches upon the technology of small-size rings manufacture from the 42CrMo4 steel used for the production of rolling bearings and toothed rings.Design/methodology/approach: Investigations were made on the 42CrMo4 steel based process of small-size rings manufacture of weight not exceeding 100 kg and the internal diameter up to 600 mm.Findings: Microstructure heterogeneity has been proven on the cross section of rods and rings under hot rolling and thermal treatment. Non-uniformity in hardness distribution was found on the hot rolled rings’ face surface and cross section. Final products made from rings with heterogeneous properties characterize: difficulties with machining, cracking during surface hardening and decrease of life time. After the process modification, the rings’ microstructure homogeneity and advantageous hardness distribution were obtained.Practical implications: A good quality of final rings after heat treatment is obtained in the case of charge characterized by a uniform pearlitic/ferritic microstructure. After the process technology modification, the rings’ microstructure homogeneity and advantageous hardness distribution were obtained.Originality/value: The minimum processing degree in the rolling of rod products should guarantee obtaining a homogeneous microstructure on the rings cross section and properties which would ensure a good quality and the required functional properties of the final products.

  20. Controlled rolling and accelerated cooling of steel

    Ranta, H.; Korhonen, A.S.; Partinen, S.


    The subproject `Controlled Rolling and Cooling of Steel` was carried out at the Helsinki University of Technology in the Laboratory of Processing and Heat Treatment of Materials during the years 1989-91. The work described here was a part of a SULA-project. The aim of the project at the Helsinki University of Technology was to study controlled rolling and accelerated cooling and the temperature and strain distributions in the steel during rolling. Modelling of accelerated cooling is important in ensuring that the desired shape and mechanical properties of steel are obtained without additional heat treatment. When no additional heat treatments are needed after the rolling process, it is possible to increase the volume of production and to save time and money. Mathematical models were studied and developed to describe the processes and to make it possible to predict the shape and mechanical properties of the final product. Models are also needed to study the influence of various processing parameters. Since full-scale experiments are expensive, a laboratory-scale cooling line for hot rolling experiments was constructed. During this project numerous hot forming and accelerated cooling experiments were carried out

  1. Magnon Inflation: Slow Roll with Steep Potentials

    Adshead, Peter; Burgess, C P; Hayman, Peter; Patil, Subodh P


    We find multi-scalar effective field theories (EFTs) that can achieve a slow inflationary roll despite having a scalar potential that does not satisfy the usual slow-roll condition (d V)^2 << V^2/Mp^2. They evade the usual slow-roll conditions on $V$ because their kinetic energies are dominated by single-derivative terms rather than the usual two-derivative terms. Single derivatives dominate during slow roll and so do not require a breakdown of the usual derivative expansion that underpins calculational control in much of cosmology. The presence of such terms requires some sort of UV Lorentz-symmetry breaking during inflation (besides the usual cosmological breaking). Chromo-natural inflation provides an example of a UV theory that can generate the multi-field single-derivative terms we consider, and we argue that the EFT we find indeed captures the slow-roll conditions for the background evolution for Chromo-natural inflation. We also show that our EFT can be understood as a multi-field generalization ...

  2. Applying contextual interference to the Pawlata roll.

    Smith, P J; Davies, M


    Contextual interference is manipulated by changing the practice order of a number of similar motor tasks, so that the learning context of each interferes with that of the other. The effect has been found to generalize to baseball batting, badminton serving and volleyball skills. The present study examined whether this practice technique could be applied to a Pawlata roll in a kayak. The study was further motivated by the fact that many instructors in Britain currently advocate learning the Pawlata roll in one direction only to a criterion of accuracy, thereafter transferring to the opposite direction. Contextual interference literature predicts that skill retention would be better served by practising on alternate sides. Accordingly, 16 undergraduate students with no kayaking experience were randomly allocated to either a low contextual interference group, which followed U'ren's (1993) recommendations, or a high contextual interference group, which practised the skill on alternate sides. The high contextual interference group took less time to acquire the skill, and were also quicker to achieve successful performance in retention (full roll) and transfer (half roll) tests, regardless of the direction of the roll, 1 week later. The time savings in practice were not expected, as acquisition under high contextual interference was improved rather than impaired. This finding suggests that bilateral transfer was increased by randomizing practice. These results are worthy of further investigation, in that they suggest that the recommended training methods may not be optimal. PMID:8850571

  3. Influence of sway motion on passive anti-rolling tank


    The passive anti-rolling tank is one of important ship stabilizers widely used today. But at present, research of the tank is most aimed at its rolling movement. In this paper, the influence of sway motion on the passive anti-rolling tank is considered, the mathematical model of "ship-passive anti-rolling tank" system coupled with sway motion is developed basing on the U-shaped passive anti-rolling tank theory. Both simulation results and experimental data indicate that it is necessary to consider the influence of sway motion on the anti-rolling tank, which is more agreeable to the actual circumstance.

  4. Decision Support for the Rolling Stock Dispatcher

    Groth, Julie Jespersen

    Real-time recovery is receiving a fast growing interest in an increasingly competitive railway operation market. This thesis considers the area of rolling stock dispatching which is one of the typical real-time railway dispatching problems. All work of the thesis is based on the network and...... problems of passenger railway transportation and the decomposed solution process of the rolling stock recovery problem. The paper on the robustness analysis has been accepted for submission in the International Journal of Operations Research. Two of the papers have been submitted to journals and are being...... planning processes of the railway operator DSB S-tog a/s. In the thesis the problems existing in the railway planning process from the strategic to real-time level are briefly sketched. Network planning, line planning, timetabling, crew and rolling stock planning is outlined and relevant references are...

  5. Can Quintessence Be the Rolling Tachyon?

    李新洲; 郝建纲; 刘道军


    In the light of the recent works by Sen (hep-th/0203211, hep-th/0203265, hep-th/0204143) and Gibbons (helth/0204008), we present a phase-plane analysis on the cosmology containing a rolling tachyon field in a potential resulting from string theory. We show that there is no stable point on the phase-plane, which indicates that there is a coincidence problem if we consider the tachyon as a candidate for quintessence. Furthermore, we also analyse the phase-plane of the cosmology containing a rolling tachyon field for an exactly solvable toy potential in which the critical point is stable. Therefore, it is possible for the rolling tachyon to be a candidate for quintessence if we give up the strict constraint on the potential or find a more appropriate effective potential for the tachyon from M/string theory.

  6. Texture of rolling and recrystallization of terbium

    X-Ray pole figure method was used for investigation into cold rolling texture and recrystallization on samples of pure and commercial terbium. It was revealed that slip over (0001)[1120] system was the main deformation mechanism in terbium. Recrystallization annealing at 600 deg C for 30 min did not change the character of texture with (0001)[0101] basic component. Presence of basic texture as in cold rolled so in annealed samples resulted in isotropy of physical and mechanical properties in the plane of rolling and in their sharp variation in the perpendicular direction. Impurities were found to make basic slip diffucult and to reduce by half the intensity of basic texture component, not affecting the others

  7. Computer-aided roll pass design in rolling of airfoil shapes

    Akgerman, N.; Lahoti, G. D.; Altan, T.


    This paper describes two computer-aided design (CAD) programs developed for modeling the shape rolling process for airfoil sections. The first program, SHPROL, uses a modular upper-bound method of analysis and predicts the lateral spread, elongation, and roll torque. The second program, ROLPAS, predicts the stresses, roll separating force, the roll torque and the details of metal flow by simulating the rolling process, using the slab method of analysis. ROLPAS is an interactive program; it offers graphic display capabilities and allows the user to interact with the computer via a keyboard, CRT, and a light pen. The accuracy of the computerized models was evaluated by (a) rolling a selected airfoil shape at room temperature from 1018 steel and isothermally at high temperature from Ti-6Al-4V, and (b) comparing the experimental results with computer predictions. The comparisons indicated that the CAD systems, described here, are useful for practical engineering purposes and can be utilized in roll pass design and analysis for airfoil and similar shapes.

  8. A study on centrifugal casting of high speed steel roll


    High speed steel (HSS) rolls can replace traditional rolls such as alloyed cast iron rolls and powder metallurgical (PM) hard alloy rolls. The main reasons for the replacement are that the wear resistance of low-cost alloyed cast iron rolls is poor and the cost of high-quality PM hard alloy rolls is very high. By means of centrifugal casting, HSS rolls having excellent wear resistance have been manufactured. The hardness of the HSS roll is 65~ 67 HRC, the range of variation is smaller than 2 HRC and its impact toughness is 15 J/cm2. The wear rate of HSS rolls used in the pre-finishing stands of high-speed hot wire-rod rolling mill reaches 2.5 × 10-4 mm per ton steel. Furthermore, the manufacturing cost of HSS rolls is significantly lower than that of PM hard alloy rolls; it is only 30 percent of that of PM hard alloy rolls.

  9. A Granular Model of Rolling Grain Ripples

    Andersen, K H


    A simple model is presented for the formation of rolling grain ripples on a flat sand bed by the oscillatory flow from a surface wave. The model is related to physical parameters of the problem, and is solved for the equilibrium spacing and height of the ripples. Good agreement between the model and measurements of rolling grain ripples is demonstrated. It is found that the length of the ripples scale with the square-root of the non-dimensional shear stress on a flat bed.

  10. Contact conditions in skin-pass rolling

    Kijima, Hideo; Bay, Niels


    The special contact conditions in skin-pass rolling of steel strip is analysed by studying plane strain upsetting of thin sheet with low reduction applying long narrow tools and dry friction conditions. An extended sticking region is estimated by an elasto-plastic FEM analysis of the plane strain...... upsetting. This sticking region causes a highly inhomogeneous elasto-plastic deformation with large influence of work-hardening and friction. A numerical analysis of skin-pass rolling shows the same contact conditions, i.e. an extended sticking region around the center of the contact zone. The calculated...


    Hoshimov, Fozildzhon; Rakhmonov, Ikromdzhon


    In given to article rationing of the electric power in rolling production of ferrous metallurgy is considered questions and the analysis of resultant sizes of a specific expense of the electric power for a variety and ball rolling.


    I. A. Isaevich


    Full Text Available The way of forming of variable shape strips with rolling in non-drive waves with rounding by the movable arbor strip is analyzed. The way of rolling with derivation of speeds of deforming instruments is offered.

  13. Deformation and recrystallization textures in straight-rolled and pseudo cross-rolled AA 3105 aluminum alloy

    The hot band of CC AA 3105 aluminum alloy was cold-rolled to different reductions along the original rolling and transverse directions, and then annealed at 427 oC for 24 h. The deformation and recrystallization textures in these cold-rolled sheets were investigated by X-ray diffraction. The result shows that further rolling of the hot band along the original rolling direction incrementally strengthens the β fiber rolling texture. Under cross-rolling (i.e., along the original transverse direction), the former β fiber orientations are unstable and they gradually rotate towards the β fiber in the new sample reference system. The recrystallization is completed at a lower reduction in the cross-rolled specimens than in the straight-rolled specimens. The recrystallization texture of the straight-rolled specimens is characterized by the major P component and the minor R and Goss components. The recrystallization texture of the cross-rolled specimens depends on the cross-rolling reduction. As the cross-rolling reduction increases from 33% to 90%, the recrystallization texture is changed from the {0 1 2} texture through {1 11 7} to the P texture.

  14. Cross-directional interlocking of rolls in an air press of a papermaking machine

    Beck, David A.; Gorshe, Thomas


    An air press for pressing a paper web is composed of a plurality of rolls including at least a first roll and a second roll. The first roll and the second roll are positioned adjacent one another and form a first nip therebetween. Further, the first roll and the second roll each have a roll end, the roll end of the first roll adjoining the roll end of the second roll. A bevel plate is attached to the roll end of the first roll, the bevel plate having at least a first angled plate face. A seal ring is positioned adjacent the roll end of the second roll, the seal ring being juxtaposed to the bevel plate. The seal ring has at least a first angled ring face, and the first angled ring face mates with the first angled plate face.

  15. 40 CFR 467.20 - Applicability; description of the rolling with emulsions subcategory.


    ... rolling with emulsions subcategory. 467.20 Section 467.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Rolling With Emulsions Subcategory § 467.20 Applicability; description of the rolling with emulsions... the rolling with emulsions subcategory....

  16. 40 CFR 467.10 - Applicability; description of the rolling with neat oils subcategory.


    ... rolling with neat oils subcategory. 467.10 Section 467.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Rolling With Neat Oils Subcategory § 467.10 Applicability; description of the rolling with neat oils... the rolling with neat oils subcategory....

  17. Multi-scale roughness transfer in cold metal rolling

    Plouraboué, Franck; Boehm, Matthieu


    We report on a comparative Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) multi-scale roughness analysis of cold rolled Al alloy and steel roll, in order to characterize the roughness transfer from the steel roll to the workpiece in cold strip rolling processes. More than three orders of length-scale magnitudes were investigated from 100 microns to 50 nanometers on both types of surfaces. The analysis reveals that both types of surfaces are anisotropic self-affine surfaces. Transverse and longitudinal height p...

  18. Continuous extrusion and rolling forming technology of copper strip manufacture

    Yun Xinbing; Zhou Mo; Tian Tian; Zhao Ying


    Continuous extrusion and rolling technology was proposed as a new strip production technology. It finished hot rolling process using the waste heat of the continuous extrusion forming. The continuous extrusion and rolling forming process was simulated by DEFORM-3DT software. The influence of extrusion wheel velocity and strip size on the continuous extrusion and rolling forming process was analyzed. The experiment was carried out according to optimized results of numerical simulation, the mic...

  19. The role of internal communication in the rolling forecast process

    Sorvari, Jiri


    Objective of the Study The objective of the study was to examine the role of internal communication in the rolling forecast process. The study analysed the role of internal communication through four research questions: 1) What communication practices are connected with the rolling forecast process? 2) Which organisational attributes influence the internal communication climate in the rolling forecast process? 3) How is management and strategic communication incorporated in the rolling fo...

  20. Impact of commodity index rolls on the futures term structure

    Roslander, Risto-Matti


    OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY: In this thesis, I study the effects of commodity index rolls on nearby commodity futures returns and futures term structure. More specifically, I examine the impact of commodity index investors' and speculators' positions on roll yields of nearby futures contracts during the "Goldman roll". In addition, I study the futures returns in the post-rolling period. Furthermore, by employing daily dollar volumes, my objective is to calculate the effect of liquidity in the...

  1. Structural investigations of HSS rolls for hot strip mill

    Lecomte-Beckers, Jacqueline; Tchuindjang, Jérôme Tchoufack; Ernst, R.; Breyer, J.-P.


    High Speed Steel (HSS) cast rolls are used in front finishing stands of hot strip mills (HSM). Good wear resistance and hardness at high temperatures, are defining features of HSS. Previous experience has shown that HSS rolls containing mainly hard MC carbides have a high friction coefficient, which is detrimental for the rolling power consumption and for the strip surface quality. On the other hand, HSS rolls containing eutectic rod shaped carbides are brittle and more susc...

  2. Oscillations and Rolling for Duffing's Equation

    Aref'eva, I. Ya.; Piskovskiy, E. V.; Volovich, I. V.


    The Duffing equation has been used to model nonlinear dynamics not only in mechanics and electronics but also in biology and in neurology for the brain process modeling. Van der Pol's method is often used in nonlinear dynamics to improve perturbation theory results when describing small oscillations. However, in some other problems of nonlinear dynamics particularly in case of Duffing-Higgs equation in field theory, for the Einsten-Friedmann equations in cosmology and for relaxation processes in neurology not only small oscillations regime is of interest but also the regime of slow rolling. In the present work a method for approximate solution to nonlinear dynamics equations in the rolling regime is developed. It is shown that in order to improve perturbation theory in the rolling regime it turns out to be effective to use an expansion in hyperbolic functions instead of trigonometric functions as it is done in van der Pol's method in case of small oscillations. In particular the Duffing equation in the rolling regime is investigated using solution expressed in terms of elliptic functions. Accuracy of obtained approximation is estimated. The Duffing equation with dissipation is also considered.

  3. Large Scale Evaluation fo Nickel Aluminide Rolls



    This completed project was a joint effort between Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Bethlehem Steel (now Mittal Steel) to demonstrate the effectiveness of using nickel aluminide intermetallic alloy rolls as part of an updated, energy-efficient, commercial annealing furnace system.

  4. Nigeria - Lagos Rolling First Public Expenditure Review

    World Bank


    This review provides an analysis of the fiscal performance and sustainability of the State of Lagos, performance of the budgeting system and of the public procurement system. It is the first in a planned rolling Public Expenditure Reviews (PERs) for Lagos state. The analysis finds that the state's fiscal policy is broadly sound and that its fiscal program is sustainable in the medium term,...

  5. Hot rolling of gamma titanium aluminide foil

    Metal flow and microstructure evolution during the thermomechanical processing of thin-gage foil of a near-gamma titanium aluminide alloy, Ti-45.5Al-2Cr-2Nb, with an equiaxed-gamma microstructure was investigated experimentally and theoretically. Foils of thickness of 200-250 μm were fabricated via hot rolling of sheet in a can of proprietary design. The variation in gage of the rolled foils was ±15 μm except in very sporadic (local) areas, with variations of approximately 60 μm relative to the mean. Metallography revealed that the larger thickness variations were associated with large remnant colonies lying in a hard orientation for deformation. To rationalize these observations, a self-consistent model was used to estimate the strain partitioning between the softer (equiaxed-gamma) matrix and the remnant colonies. Furthermore, the efficacy of pre- or post-rolling heat treatment in eliminating remnant colonies was demonstrated and quantified using a static-spheroidization model. The elimination of remnant colonies via spheroidization prior to foil rolling gave rise to improved gage control.

  6. The riddles of rock and roll

    L.J.M. d' Anjou (Leo)


    textabstractRock and roll has often been equated with rebellion. The genre, though, is just a form of popular music and many of the important players in the game of promoting it were, like the saying goes, only in it for the money. As a rule, music like that will be supportive of the social order ra

  7. Detection of Parametric Roll on Ships

    Galeazzi, Roberto; Blanke, Mogens; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad


    Recent years have shown several incidents with dramatic damage on container vessels caused by parametric resonance. When the resonance starts, the roll oscillation at a sub-harmonic frequency of the wave excitation may be completely unexpected. Timely warning about the onset of the resonance phen...... experimental data from towing tank tests and data from a container ship passing an Atlantic storm....

  8. Rolling Friction on a Wheeled Laboratory Cart

    Mungan, Carl E.


    A simple model is developed that predicts the coefficient of rolling friction for an undriven laboratory cart on a track that is approximately independent of the mass loaded onto the cart and of the angle of inclination of the track. The model includes both deformation of the wheels/track and frictional torque at the axles/bearings. The concept of…

  9. Youth, Rock 'n' Roll, and Electronic Media.

    Snow, Robert P.


    Rock 'n' Roll as a form of electronic communication is central to youth culture. There are procedural rules similar to grammatical structures which allow meaningful interpretation of this musical experience. As new forms of communication appear both youth culture and the meaning of music are altered to encompass the changes. (VM)

  10. Development of a Rolling Process Design Tool for Use in Improving Hot Roll Slab Recovery

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory participated in a U. S. Department of Energy/Office of Industrial Technology sponsored research project 'Development of a Rolling Process Design Tool for Use in Improving Hot Roll Slab Recovery', as a Cooperative Agreement TC-02028 with the Alcoa Technical Center (ATC). The objective of the joint project with Alcoa is to develop a numerical modeling capability to optimize the hot rolling process used to produce aluminum plate. Product lost in the rolling process and subsequent recycling, wastes resources consumed in the energy-intensive steps of remelting and reprocessing the ingot. The modeling capability developed by project partners will be used to produce plate more efficiently and with reduced product loss

  11. Design of Rolling State Observers for Application to Control of Thickness and Tension in Rolling Mills

    Hamid R. Koofigar


    Full Text Available This study focuses on the necessity of designing state observers to be used in controller synthesis for rolling processes. This is motivated by the fact that using several kinds of sensors for measuring all of process variables is technically and economically avoided. On the other hand, using exact measurement in feedback control systems could considerably improve the quality of products. In other word, there is a trade-off between high quality and the implementation limitations, managed here by developing rolling state observers. The proposed observers estimate the states not measured directly by the installed sensors. This technique is applicable to both hot rolling and cold rolling processes. Simulation results demonstrate the performance of the proposed estimation algorithm.

  12. Development of a rolling technology for twin-roll cast magnesium strips

    M. Ullmann


    Full Text Available With the best lightweight potential of all metallic construction materials, magnesium primarily helps to increase energy efficiency over the lifecycle of automotive and non-automotive industrial products. Yet to assess overall energy efficiency, the production process must also be taken into account. This paper provides an insight into the energy-efficient production of magnesium strips up to 0,8 mm in thickness based on twin-roll casting and strip rolling on an industrial scale, as developed at the Institute of Metal Forming at the Technical University Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany in cooperation with MgF Magnesium Flachprodukte GmbH (Germ any. The technology of twin-roll casting and strip rolling on a four-high reversing mill is described.

  13. Sub-optimality analysis of mobile robot rolling path planning

    张纯刚; 席裕庚


    Rolling planning is an efficient method for path planning in uncertain environment. In this paper, the general principle and algorithm of mobile robot path planning based on rolling windows are studied. The sub-optimality of rolling path planning is analyzed in details and explained with a concrete example.

  14. Metallurgical analysis of spalled work roll of hot strip mill

    In this study failure analysis of four work roll of the Hot Strip Mill is carried out. The microstructure is correlated with the chemical composition of shell and roll-life. It was concluded that for the longer service of the roll, cementite, graphite and martensite should be balanced (as per working requirement of the mill). (author)


    Henningsen, Poul; Arentoft, Mogens; Lagergren, Jonas;


    A load transducer has been developed to measure the contact forces in the deformation zone during rolling. The transducer consists of a strain gauge equipped insert, embedded in the surface of the roll. The length of the insert exceeds the contact length between material and roll. By analyzing the...

  16. Roll compaction and granulation system for nuclear fuel material

    A roll compaction and roll granulation system has been designed and fabricated to replace conventional preslugging and crushing operations typically used in the fabrication of mixed oxide nuclear fuel pellets. This equipment will be of maintenance advantage with only the compaction and granulation rolls inside containment. The prototype is being tested and the results will be reported within a year

  17. Wavelength Scanning Interferometery for large area roll to roll metrology applications in photovoltaic manufacturing environment

    Elrawemi, Mohamed; Blunt, Liam; Fleming, Leigh; Muhamedsalih, Hussam


    The wavelength scanning interferometer is currently being applied as a core metrology technology as part of the EU project NanoMend - Nanoscale Defect Detection, Cleaning and Repair for Large Area Substrates ̴500 mm width. NanoMend Project aims to develop technologies that are able to detect and correct micro and nano-scale defects in roll-to-roll produced films in order to improve product performance, yield and lifetime.

  18. Patterned Immobilization of Antibodies within Roll-to-Roll Hot Embossed Polymeric Microfluidic Channels

    Feyssa, Belachew; Liedert, Christina; Kivimaki, Liisa; Johansson, Leena-Sisko; Jantunen, Heli; Hakalahti, Leena


    This paper describes a method for the patterned immobilization of capture antibodies into a microfluidic platform fabricated by roll-to-roll (R2R) hot embossing on poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). Covalent attachment of antibodies was achieved by two sequential inkjet printing steps. First, a polyethyleneimine (PEI) layer was deposited onto oxygen plasma activated PMMA foil and further cross-linked with glutaraldehyde (GA) to provide an amine-reactive aldehyde surface (PEI-GA). This step wa...

  19. Development of a rolling technology for twin-roll cast magnesium strips

    M. Ullmann; Berge, F.; Neh, K.; R. Kawalla


    With the best lightweight potential of all metallic construction materials, magnesium primarily helps to increase energy efficiency over the lifecycle of automotive and non-automotive industrial products. Yet to assess overall energy efficiency, the production process must also be taken into account. This paper provides an insight into the energy-efficient production of magnesium strips up to 0,8 mm in thickness based on twin-roll casting and strip rolling on an industrial scale, as developed...

  20. Thermoresistive Strain Sensor and Positioning Method for Roll-to-Roll Processes

    Kuan-Hsun Liao; Cheng-Yao Lo


    This study uses the Joule heating effect-generated temperature difference to monitor in real-time and localize both compressive and tensile strains for the polymer substrates used in the roll-to-roll process. A serpentine gold (Au) line was patterned on a polyethylenenaphthalate (PEN) substrate to form the strain sensor based on thermoresistive behavior. This strain sensor was then subjected to either current or voltage to induce the Joule heating effect on the Au resistor. An infrared (IR) d...

  1. Service behaviour of high speed steel rolling rolls used in hot strip mills

    Work rolls used in hot strip mills may be able to carry out severe actions: very high thermal stresses and wear, along with mechanical stresses due to normal rolling loads, which develop in the presence of cracks, produced by the former actions. The microstructure and the mechanical behaviour (strength and toughness) of high speed steels, which recently have been introduced in this applications, were studied in this work in comparison with high chromium cast irons. (Author) 7 refs

  2. Quality control of roll-to-roll processed polymer solar modules by complementary imaging methods

    Rösch, R.; Krebs, Frederik C; Tanenbaum, D.M.; Hoppe, H.


    We applied complementary imaging methods to investigate processing failures of roll-to-roll solution processed polymer solar modules based on polymer:fullerene bulk heterojunctions. For investigation of processing deficiencies in solar modules we employed dark lock-in thermography (DLIT), electro...... investigation can be divided into a fast DLIT overview of the module and a successive more detailed analysis of the suspicious region by all imaging methods....

  3. Optimization of Rolling Force Distribution Based on Niche Genetic Algorithm in Continuous Hot Rolling Mills

    LIU Zi-ping; LI Li-xin


    Based on the niche genetic algorithm, the intelligent and optimizing model for the rolling force distribution in hot strip mills was put forward. The research showed that the model had many advantages such as fast searching speed, high calculating pre-cision and suiting for on-line calculation. A good strip shape could be achieved by using the model and it is appropriate and practica-ble for rolling producing.


    Hoogenboom, Barbara J.; Voight, Michael L.


    Rolling is a movement pattern seldom used by physical therapists for assessment and intervention with adult clientele with normal neurologic function. Rolling, as an adult motor skill, combines the use of the upper extremities, core, and lower extremities in a coordinated manner to move from one posture to another. Rolling is accomplished from prone to supine and supine to prone, although the method by which it is performed varies among adults. Assessment of rolling for both the ability to co...

  5. Roll-to-Roll Nanomanufacturing of Hybrid Nanostructures for Energy Storage Device Design.

    Oakes, Landon; Hanken, Trevor; Carter, Rachel; Yates, William; Pint, Cary L


    A key limitation to the practical incorporation of nanostructured materials into emerging applications is the challenge of achieving low-cost, high throughput, and highly replicable scalable nanomanufacturing techniques to produce functional materials. Here, we report a benchtop roll-to-roll technique that builds upon the use of binary solutions of nanomaterials and liquid electrophoretic assembly to rapidly construct hybrid materials for battery design applications. We demonstrate surfactant-free hybrid mixtures of carbon nanotubes, silicon nanoparticles, MoS2 nanosheets, carbon nanohorns, and graphene nanoplatelets. Roll-to-roll electrophoretic assembly from these solutions enables the controlled fabrication of homogeneous coatings of these nanostructures that maintain chemical and physical properties defined by the synergistic combination of nanomaterials utilized without adverse effects of surfactants or impurities that typically limit liquid nanomanufacturing routes. To demonstrate the utility of this nanomanufacturing approach, we employed roll-to-roll electrophoretic processing to fabricate both positive and negative electrodes for lithium ion batteries in less than 30 s. The optimized full-cell battery, containing active materials of prelithiated silicon nanoparticles and MoS2 nanosheets, was assessed to exhibit energy densities of 167 Wh/kgcell(-1) and power densities of 9.6 kW/kgcell(-1). PMID:26053115

  6. Roll-to-roll embossing of optical linear Fresnel lens polymer film for solar concentration.

    Zhang, XinQuan; Liu, Kui; Shan, Xuechuan; Liu, Yuchan


    Roll-to-roll manufacturing has been proven to be a high-throughput and low-cost technology for continuous fabrication of functional optical polymer films. In this paper, we have firstly studied a complete manufacturing cycle of linear Fresnel lens polymer film for solar concentration in the aspects of ultra-precision diamond machining of metal roller mold, roll-to-roll embossing, and measurement on film profile and functionality. A metal roller mold patterned with linear Fresnel lenses is obtained using single point diamond turning technique. The roller mold is installed onto a self-developed roll-to-roll UV embossing system to realize continuous manufacturing of linear Fresnel lens film. Profile measurement of the machined roller mold and the embossed polymer film, which is conducted using a stylus profilometer, shows good agreement between measured facet angles with designed ones. Functionality test is conducted on a solar simulation system with a reference solar cell, and results show that strong light concentration is realized. PMID:25607497

  7. 75 FR 16504 - Hot-Rolled Flat-Rolled Carbon-Quality Steel Products From Brazil, Japan, and Russia


    ... (``Commerce'') issued an antidumping duty order on imports of hot- rolled steel from Japan (64 FR 34778... duty order on hot-rolled steel from Brazil (70 FR 30417, May 26, 2005), the antidumping duty orders on hot-rolled steel from Brazil and Japan (70 FR 30413, May 26, 2005), and the suspended investigation...

  8. Development of centrifugal casting high speed steel rolls

    Hanguang Fu; Aimin Zhao; Jiandong Xing


    The present study aims at developing the high speed steel (HSS) as roll materials to replace the traditional roll materials such as the alloy cast iron and powder metallurgical (PM) hard alloy. The HSS roll billet was formed by centrifugal casting, and the billet was rough machined after soften annealing heat treatment, then it was quenched and tempered to get suitable hardness and toughness. After that the HSS roll was finish machined to the final dimension of φ285 mm in the outer diameter, φ160 mm in the inner diameter and 120 mm in width and its surface hardness was tested. Finally the HSS roll was used in high speed wire rod mill. The test results show that a high and homogeneous hardness can obtain on the work surface of HSS rolls, the surface hardness is 63-65HRC and its variation is smaller than 2HRC. The impact toughness of this kind of HSS is about 16 J/cra2. The results of on-line service investigation in high speed wire rod mill indicate that the HSS rolls have excellent wear resistance, the steel rolling quantity per mm of HSS rolls is 3120 t, the service life-span of HSS rolls is 4 times longer than that of high chromium cast iron rolls and it is close to that of the PM hard alloy rolls. The manufacturing burden of HSS rolls is obviously lower than that of the PM hard alloy rolls, it is only 25% of that of the PM hard alloy rolls.

  9. Microstructure evolution and grain refinement in asymmetrically rolled aluminium

    Aluminium alloy sheets were asymmetrically rolled and annealed. Asymmetric rolling was applied by imposing different velocity ratios between the top and bottom rolls, from 1 to 1.5. After cold rolling, the microstructures of various samples were analysed by electron back scatter diffraction, whereas the mechanical properties were characterized by stress–strain curves and microhardness measurements. The asymmetrical rolling process was examined as an alternative method to obtain fine- or even ultrafine-grained aluminium. The main purpose of this paper is to describe, qualitatively and quantitatively, the influence of asymmetrical rolling on microstructure evolution. Grain size, misorientation, image quality factor and other parameters were characterized and analysed in some detail. In the present study, a unique approach has been used for the first time to examine the possibility of applying the asymmetric rolling process in the preparation of materials with controlled heterogeneity

  10. Troll, a Language for specifying Dice-rolls

    Mogensen, Torben Ægidius


    Dice are used in many games, and often in fairly complex ways that make it difficult to unambiguously describe the dice-roll mechanism in plain language. Many role-playing games, such as Dungeons & Dragons, use a formalised notation for some instances of dice-rolls. This notation, once explained...... natural language to describe rolls. Even Dungeons & Dragons use formal notation only for some of the dice-roll methods used in the game. Hence, a more complete notation is in this paper proposed, and a tool for pseudo-random rolls and (nearly) exact probability calculations is described. The notation...... is called "Troll", combining the initial of the Danish word for dice ("terninger") with the English word "roll". It is a development of the language Roll described in an earlier paper. The present paper describes the most important features of Troll and its implementation....




    Full Text Available Rolling is a mechanical treatment, which plays an important part in the processing of ferrous and nonferrous alloys. Texturing is an important phenomenon that occurs after rolling process. Preferred orientation increases the strength of the material enormously. Hence the research is focused on the rolling studies and the texture formation, which occurs after rolling process. This review mainly focuses on rolling process carried out in different alloys. It also highlights the analysis made on various rolling parameters for improving the mechanical properties. Texture studies carried on various ferrous and non-ferrous alloys; particularly in nitrogen alloyed duplex stainless steel is discussed. Finally the need for implementation of occupational health and safety during a thermomechanical treatment is also discussed. The state of art in this field is encouraging and showing positive signs of commercializing rolled nitrogen alloyed duplex stainless steel after proper texture control.

  12. Roll control resonance test vehicle (RCRTV) system postflight evaluation report

    Kryvoruka, J.K.


    This report presents the flight test results for a reentry vehicle spin-fin roll control system. The test vehicle, designated the Roll Control Resonance Test Vehicle, was flight tested on May 10, 1972, at the Sandia Laboratories Tonopah Test Range. The purpose of the flight were (1) to demonstrate and evaluate the capability of the control system to overcome a roll resonance flight instability and (2) to confirm the analytic predictions of system performance. The flight test vehicle had built-in asymmetries which, without roll control, would have caused a persistent roll resonance instability to occur. The test was successful in that all systems functioned properly and all program and flight test objectives were accomplished. Flight test data presented herein confirm analytic predictions and flight simulation methods. Results show that the system maintained roll rate control and prevented the roll resonance instability.

  13. Numerical simulation of wear of basalt lava spinning rolls

    A. Lisiecki


    Full Text Available Purpose: of this paper: Results of the study of wear phenomena of cascade spinning rolls during stone woolproduction process are described.Design/methodology/approach: The study was based on direct process observations, chemical analysis andtemperature measurements of basalt lava, metallographic examinations of the spinning rolls deposits. It was showedthat the deposits of spinning rolls are worn in very different way, depending on the roll position in rolls cascade.Findings: Predominant wear phenomena of the fully austenitic Grade 310 deposit of spinning roll no 1 is moltenbasalt lava corrosion-oxidation accompanied by low and high cycle thermal fatigue, high temperature basalt lavaerosion at low velocity of basalt lava stream impinging the working surface at high angle. Predominant wearphenomena of the austenitic-ferritic Grade S32304 deposit of spinning roll no 2 is high temperature basalt lava erosionat very high velocity of lava stream impinging the working surface at high angle what is the cause of much faster wearof then spinning roll no 1. High temperature erosion wear is accompanied by molten basalt lava corrosion-oxidationand low and high cycle thermal fatigue processes. Predominant wear phenomena of the austenitic-ferritic GradeS32304 deposits spinning roll no 3 and roll no 4 is high temperature basalt lava abrasion as sprayed by rolls no 1 andno 2 fibers of solidifying basalt lava impinge the working surface of spinning rolls no 3 and no 4.Research limitations/implications: The mechanisms of high temperature erosion demands further investigationsand detailed studies.Practical implications: The wear resistance of basalt lava spinning rolls can be increased.Originality/value: The mechanisms of surface layer wear of basalt lava spinning rolls were determined.

  14. Properties of hot rolled steels for enamelling

    The results of an investigation of the structure and properties of experimental produced hot rolled steels suitable for enamelling are presented in the paper. Hot rolled steels for enamelling represent a special group of the steels for conventional enamelling. Their quality has to be adapted to the method and conditions of enamelling. Therefore, these steels should meet some specific requirements. In addition to usual investigation of the chemical composition and mechanical properties, microstructure and quality of the steel surface also were investigated. The basic aim was to examine steels capability for enamelling, i. e. steels resistance to the fish scales phenomena, by trial enamelling, as well as quality of the steel - enamel contact surface, to evaluate the binding. Also, the changes of the mechanical properties, especially the yield point, during thermal treatment, as a very specific requirement, were investigated, by simplified method. Good results were obtained confirming the steels capability for enamelling. (Original)

  15. Look! It's Rock'n'roll!

    Lindelof, Anja


    third, the musicianship. I argue that television helped shape a heightened awareness of genre distinction within the field of popular music by emphasizing differences in visual impressions and performance attitudes, even before an awareness of genre became manifest stylistically in the music itself....... Project MUSE® - View CitationMLAAPAChicagoEndnote -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Anja Mølle Lindelof. "Look! It's Rock'n'roll! How television participated in shaping the visual genre conventions of popular music." Music, Sound, and the Moving Image 1......, and dates. Consult your library or click here for more information on citing sources. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Anja Mølle Lindelof. (2007). Look! it's rock'n'roll! how television participated in shaping the visual genre conventions of popular...

  16. Dynamics and Stability of Rolling Viscoelastic Tires

    Potter, Trevor [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)


    Current steady state rolling tire calculations often do not include treads because treads destroy the rotational symmetry of the tire. We describe two methodologies to compute time periodic solutions of a two-dimensional viscoelastic tire with treads: solving a minimization problem and solving a system of equations. We also expand on work by Oden and Lin on free spinning rolling elastic tires in which they disovered a hierachy of N-peak steady state standing wave solutions. In addition to discovering a two-dimensional hierarchy of standing wave solutions that includes their N-peak hiearchy, we consider the eects of viscoelasticity on the standing wave solutions. Finally, a commonplace model of viscoelasticity used in our numerical experiments led to non-physical elastic energy growth for large tire speeds. We show that a viscoelastic model of Govindjee and Reese remedies the problem.

  17. Slipping and rolling on an inclined plane

    Aghamohammadi, Cina [Department of Electrical Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, PO Box 11365-11155, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Aghamohammadi, Amir, E-mail: [Department of Physics, Alzahra University, Tehran 19938-91176 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    In the first part of the paper, using a direct calculation two-dimensional motion of a particle sliding on an inclined plane is investigated for general values of friction coefficient ({mu}). A parametric equation for the trajectory of the particle is also obtained. In the second part of the paper, the motion of a sphere on the inclined plane is studied. It is shown that the evolution equation for the contact point of a sliding sphere is similar to that of a point particle sliding on an inclined plane whose friction coefficient is 7/2 {mu}. If {mu} > 2/7 tan {theta}, for any arbitrary initial velocity and angular velocity, the sphere will roll on the inclined plane after some finite time. In other cases, it will slip on the inclined plane. In the case of rolling, the centre of the sphere moves on a parabola. Finally the velocity and angular velocity of the sphere are exactly computed.

  18. Die Rolle von Mangan bei neurodegenerativen Erkrankungen

    Aaron B. Bowman


    Full Text Available Mangan (Mn ist ein ubiquitäres essenzielles Spurenelement, das für normales Wachstum, Entwicklung und zelluläre Homöostase erforderlich ist. Exposition gegenüber hohen Mengen an Mn verursacht eine klinische Störung, die durch extrapyramidale Symptome gekennzeichnet ist und dem idiopathischen Parkinson-Syndrom (IPS ähnelt. Der vorliegende Übersichtsartikel konzentriert sich auf die Rolle verschiedener Transporter bei der Aufrechterhaltung der Mn-Homöostase im Gehirn sowie die aktuellen methodologischen Fortschritten bei der Echtzeitbestimmung des intrazellulären Mn-Gehalts. Wir geben außerdem einen Überblick über die Rolle von Mn beim IPS, diskutieren die Ähnlichkeiten (und Unterschiede zwischen Manganismus und IPS und den Zusammenhang zwischen α-Synuclein und Mn-bedingter Proteinaggregation sowie zwischen mitochondrialen Funktionsstörungen, Mn und PS. In weiteren Abschnitten des Übersichtsartikels behandeln wir den Zusammenhang zwischen Mn und der Huntington-Krankheit (HK mit Schwerpunkt auf der Funktion von Huntingtin und der möglichen Rolle einer veränderten Mn-Homöostase und der Toxizität von Mn bei HK. Wir schließen mit einer kurzen Übersicht über die mögliche Rolle von Mn bei der Entstehung der Alzheimer-Krankheit (AK, der Amyotropen Lateralsklerose (ALS und von Prionenerkrankungen. Wann immer möglich besprechen wir die mechanistischen Gemeinsamkeiten zwischen Mn-induzierter Neurotoxizität und neurodegenerativen Störungen.

  19. Probabilistic Aspect of Rolling Bearings Durability

    Styp-Rekowski, Michał


    Many factors generate situations that real dimensions of each machine elements are different from nominal ones. In the case of rolling bearings elements mentioned disagreements are small - their values are rank of micrometers. However, such small differences can generate significant changes of operational features of bearings. The analysis of influence of ball dimensional deviation on load distribution in ball bearings is presented in this paper. The probability of occurrence of ball diameter...

  20. The rolling problem: overview and challenges

    Chitour, Yacine; Molina, Mauricio Godoy; Kokkonen, Petri


    In the present paper we give a historical account -ranging from classical to modern results- of the problem of rolling two Riemannian manifolds one on the other, with the restrictions that they cannot instantaneously slip or spin one with respect to the other. On the way we show how this problem has profited from the development of intrinsic Riemannian geometry, from geometric control theory and sub-Riemannian geometry. We also mention how other areas -such as robotics and interpolation theor...

  1. Zur Rolle der Lehrperson beim kooperativen Lernen

    Pauli, Christine; Reusser, Kurt


    Trotz des Vorliegens einer umfangreichen Forschungsliteratur zum kooperativen und selbständigen Lernen gibt es bislang nur wenige Publikationen zur Rolle und Wirksamkeit von Lehrpersonen bei Partner- und Gruppenarbeiten bzw. bei der Initiierung und Begleitung von schüleraktiven Lerndialogen. Bekannt ist dagegen, dass längst nicht alle in kooperativen Arrangements stattfindenden Lerndialoge und Interaktionen jene Qualitätsmerkmale aufweisen, von denen Pädagogen und Lehrpersonen gerne ausgehen....

  2. Rolling Bearing Life Prediction, Theory, and Application

    Zaretsky, Erwin V.


    A tutorial is presented outlining the evolution, theory, and application of rolling-element bearing life prediction from that of A. Palmgren, 1924; W. Weibull, 1939; G. Lundberg and A. Palmgren, 1947 and 1952; E. Ioannides and T. Harris, 1985; and E. Zaretsky, 1987. Comparisons are made between these life models. The Ioannides-Harris model without a fatigue limit is identical to the Lundberg-Palmgren model. The Weibull model is similar to that of Zaretsky if the exponents are chosen to be identical. Both the load-life and Hertz stress-life relations of Weibull, Lundberg and Palmgren, and Ioannides and Harris reflect a strong dependence on the Weibull slope. The Zaretsky model decouples the dependence of the critical shear stress-life relation from the Weibull slope. This results in a nominal variation of the Hertz stress-life exponent. For 9th- and 8th-power Hertz stress-life exponents for ball and roller bearings, respectively, the Lundberg- Palmgren model best predicts life. However, for 12th- and 10th-power relations reflected by modern bearing steels, the Zaretsky model based on the Weibull equation is superior. Under the range of stresses examined, the use of a fatigue limit would suggest that (for most operating conditions under which a rolling-element bearing will operate) the bearing will not fail from classical rolling-element fatigue. Realistically, this is not the case. The use of a fatigue limit will significantly overpredict life over a range of normal operating Hertz stresses. Since the predicted lives of rolling-element bearings are high, the problem can become one of undersizing a bearing for a particular application.

  3. Boundary friction on molecular lubricants: rolling mode?

    A theoretical model is proposed for low-temperature friction between two smooth rigid solid surfaces separated by lubricant molecules, admitting their deformations and rotations. The appearance of different modes of energy dissipation (by 'rocking' or 'rolling' of lubricants) at slow relative displacement of the surfaces is shown to be accompanied by stick-and-slip features and reveals a nonmonotonic (mean) friction force vs external load

  4. Lokalpolitikeres rolle og råderum

    Holm Pedersen, Lene; Houlberg, Kurt; Hansen, Sune Welling; Olsen, Asmus Leth; Bordacconi, Mats Joe

    I en ny og omfattende undersøgelse fra KORA og CBS er alle landets lokalpolitikere blevet spurgt om, hvordan de oplever deres rolle og råderum. Undersøgelsen belyser blandt andet, hvordan arbejdsvilkår og indflydelsesmuligheder er i dag, og hvordan vilkår og muligheder er blevet ændret de senere år....

  5. Rolling circle amplification of metazoan mitochondrialgenomes

    Simison, W. Brian; Lindberg, D.R.; Boore, J.L.


    Here we report the successful use of rolling circle amplification (RCA) for the amplification of complete metazoan mt genomes to make a product that is amenable to high-throughput genome sequencing techniques. The benefits of RCA over PCR are many and with further development and refinement of RCA, the sequencing of organellar genomics will require far less time and effort than current long PCR approaches.

  6. Rolling element fatigue testing of gear materials

    Nahm, A. H.


    Rolling element fatigue lives of nine alloys were evaluated in Rolling Contact (RC) rigs. Test conditions included a Hertzian stress at 4,826 MPa (700 ksi), a rolling speed of 6.23 m/sec (245 in/sec.). Tests were run with a Type I oil (MIL-L-7808G) at room temperature. B-10 lives (10% failure rate) of alloys were compared versus reference alloys, VIM-VAR AISI M-50 and VAR AISI 9310. Six case carburizing alloys (AISI 9310, CBS600, CBS1000M, EX00014, Vasco X-2 and EX00053) and three through-hardening alloys (AISI M-50, VascoMax 350 and Vasco Matrix 2 evaluated, showed RCF performance inferior or equivalent to that of AISI 9310 and AISI M-50. It was also found that the effects of vacuum melting processes, different tempering temperatures, freezing cycle during heat treating, shot peening, gold plating and chrome plating employed in the present investigation did not significantly affect RCF life.


    Marcio Rodrigo Solimani


    Full Text Available The roll cooling in Hot Rolling of flats directly affects two fundamental characteristics of the rolls:.the durability due to surface degradation. The other is the thermal expansion, which affects the shape and dimensions of the strip. Cooling is done by water jets that need to be properly adjusted. The determination of heat transfer coefficients is essential to optimize the process and thus increase its durability and quality of the strip. Results of experimental and numerical effects of cooling using a water jet fan-shaped on a prototype roll at temperatures between 50°C and 350°C are performed. Water pressure, nozzle type and the position along the length of the fan-shaped (center and edge influence the efficiency of roll cooling. The maximum value found in the coefficient of heat transfer was 6.0 kW/m2°C, and a 14.3% difference between the center and end of the jet fan-shaped is observed.

  8. Texture Evolution of a Non-oriented Electrical Steel Cold Rolled at Directions Different from the Hot Rolling Direction

    He, Youliang; Hilinski, Erik; Li, Jian


    With the objective of optimizing the crystallographic texture of non-oriented electrical steel, i.e., reducing the //ND and //RD fibers and promoting the //ND texture, a new rolling scheme was proposed and tested, in which the cold rolling direction (CRD) was intentionally inclined at an angle to the hot rolling direction (HRD) in order to change the orientation flow paths during cold rolling and alter the final texture of the annealed sheets. A non-oriented electrical steel containing 0.88 wt pct Si was hot rolled using conventional routes and annealed, and a number of rectangular plates were cut from the hot band with the longitudinal directions inclined at various angles, i.e., 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, and 90 deg, to the HRD. These plates were then cold rolled along the longitudinal directions with a thickness reduction of 72 pct. The cold-rolled samples were annealed, temper rolled and annealed again (final annealing). The texture evolution during hot rolling, hot band annealing, cold rolling, and final annealing was characterized by electron backscatter diffraction and X-ray diffraction techniques. By changing the CRD with respect to the HRD, the initial texture and the orientation flow paths were altered, which resulted in apparent differences in the textures as compared to conventional cold rolling. After temper rolling and final annealing, the recrystallization textures consisted of mainly a //ND fiber and there was almost no //ND fiber. The sample cold rolled at an angle of 60 deg to the HRD had the strongest texture (intensity almost 2× of conventional rolling) with a maximum at the cube {001} orientation—a magnetically favorable orientation for non-oriented electrical steels.

  9. Rolling friction—models and experiment. An undergraduate student project

    In this paper the rolling friction (rolling resistance) model is studied theoretically and experimentally in undergraduate level fundamental general physics courses. Rolling motions of a cylinder along horizontal or inclined planes are studied by simple experiments, measuring deformations of the underlay or of the rolling body. The rolling of a hard cylinder on a soft underlay as well as of a soft cylinder on a hard underlay is studied. The experimental data are treated by the open source software Tracker, appropriate for use at the undergraduate level of physics. Interpretation of results is based on elementary considerations comprehensible to university students—beginners. It appears that the commonly accepted model of rolling resistance based on the idea of a warp (little bulge) on the underlay in front of the rolling body does not correspond with experimental results even for the soft underlay and hard rolling body. The alternative model of the rolling resistance is suggested in agreement with experiment and the corresponding concept of the rolling resistance coefficient is presented. In addition to the obtained results we can conclude that the project can be used as a task for students in practical exercises of fundamental general physics undergraduate courses. Projects of similar type effectively contribute to the development of the physical thinking of students. (paper)

  10. Gaze beats mouse

    Mateo, Julio C.; San Agustin, Javier; Hansen, John Paulin


    Facial EMG for selection is fast, easy and, combined with gaze pointing, it can provide completely hands-free interaction. In this pilot study, 5 participants performed a simple point-and-select task using mouse or gaze for pointing and a mouse button or a facial-EMG switch for selection. Gaze...... pointing was faster than mouse pointing, while maintaining a similar error rate. EMG and mouse-button selection had a comparable performance. From analyses of completion time, throughput and error rates, we concluded that the combination of gaze and facial EMG holds potential for outperforming the mouse....

  11. Large-scale Roll-to-Roll Fabrication of Organic Solar Cells for Energy Production

    Hösel, Markus

    efficiencies beyond 10% could be achieved. This dissertation describes process workflows and roll-to-roll (R2R) fabrication methods for upscaling the OPV technology to solar module sizes that enable real power production even at efficiencies ... solar park based on OPV modules. Infinity modules with a length of 100m (width 0.3 m) were rolled out and taped onto a wooden structure. The maximum power output of six parallel-connected modules with a total active area of 88.2m2 was beyond 1.3 kW while having energy payback times P1 year. Alternative...... installation concepts such as a balloon or special designed solar tubes on land or water were proved to be functional as well. Solar tubes with Infinity modules of around 200W generated 18 kWh in 5 weeks. The energy was fed back into the Danish power grid. The dissertation contains a brief introduction...

  12. Development of polymers for large scale roll-to-roll processing of polymer solar cells

    Carlé, Jon Eggert

    platform for polymer development. PSC devices based on PDTSTTz-4 and PCBM were produced using the laboratory roll coater and through optimerization of the processing parameters a PCE of 2.95 % at ambient condition. This efficiency is among the highest obtained on flexible ITO-free substrates using slot......Development of polymers for large scale roll-to-roll processing of polymer solar cells Conjugated polymers potential to both absorb light and transport current as well as the perspective of low cost and large scale production has made these kinds of material attractive in solar cell research. The...... and how this affects the PSC parameters are presented. It is generally found that it is possible to synthetically control the absorption spectrum of conjugated polymer systems. One way to alter the spectrum is by incorporating alternating donor-acceptor motifs, resulting in an additional optical...

  13. Preform design of large sized profile ring rolling using main roll

    This paper introduces a preform design method for a ring rolling process with an outer step. Underfilling is one of the general defects of the profile ring rolling process. It occurs when the deformation amount is small or step depth of the profiled region is large. To prevent underfilling, increasing the deformation amount or using a preform of size similar to that of the final product are required. Furthermore, the filling limit equation is suggested based on the shape factor and deformation ratio for preventing defects in the products. The filling limit equation has been derived through finite element analyses and production tests for four different cases. For verifying the suggested method, realsized profile rolling tests were performed, and test results were compared with the predictions of the equation

  14. Fatigue Behavior of High Speed Steel Roll Materials for Hot Rolling by Laser Impacting

    ZHOU Li; SUN Da-le; LIU Chang-sheng; WU Qiong


    The fatigue behavior of high speed steel (HSS) roll materials for hot rolling was researched under water-cooling conditions by laser impacting. The microstructure of HSS sample and the morphologies of fatigue samples were observed by scanning electron microscope. The phase structure was detected by XRD. The morphology of situ oxide scale was observed by optical microscope, and the expansion coefficient was measured by TGA. The experiment results indicate that the cracks come into being at the carbide-matrix interface, but there are no cracks in the matrix after many times of laser impacting treatment, for the situ sample taken from the fractured roll surface, big carbides are more sensitive to the fatigue, and peel off prior to small ones. The relevant fatigue mechanisms are also discussed.

  15. Rolls-Royce digital Rod Control System

    Full text of publication follows: Rolls-Royce has developed a new generation of Rod Control System, based on 40 years of experience. The fifth-generation Rod Control System (RCS) from Rolls-Royce offers a reliable, modular design with adaptability to your preferred platform, for modernization projects or new reactors. Flexible implementation provides the option for you to keep existing cabinets, which permits you to optimize installation approach. Main features for the power part: - Control Rod Drive Mechanism (CRDM) type: 3-coil. - Independent control of each sub-bank. - Each sub-bank is controlled by a cycler unit and 3 identical power racks, each including 4 identical power modules and a common power-supply module. - Coil-per-coil digital control: each power module embeds power-conversion, current-control, and current-monitoring functions for one coil. Control and monitoring are carried out by separate electronics in the module. Current is digitized and fully monitored by means of min-max templates. - A double-hold function is included: a power module assigned to a gripper will activate its coil if a fault risking to cause a reactor trip occurs. - Power modules are standardized, hot-pluggable and self-configured: a power module includes a set of parameters for each type of coil SG, MG, LC. The module recognizes the rack it is plugged in, and chooses automatically parameters to be used. Main benefits: - Reduced operational, maintenance, training, and inventory costs: standardization of power modules and integration of control and monitoring on the same PC-card lead to a drastic reduction of spare part types, and simplification of the system. - Easy maintenance: - Replacement of a power module solves nearly all failures due to current control or monitoring for a coil. It is done instantly thanks to hot-plug capability. - On the front plate of power-modules, LEDs provide useful information for diagnostic: current setpoint from cycler, output current bar

  16. Rolls-Royce digital Rod Control System

    Pouillot, M. [Rolls-Royce Civil Nuclear SAS (France)


    Full text of publication follows: Rolls-Royce has developed a new generation of Rod Control System, based on 40 years of experience. The fifth-generation Rod Control System (RCS) from Rolls-Royce offers a reliable, modular design with adaptability to your preferred platform, for modernization projects or new reactors. Flexible implementation provides the option for you to keep existing cabinets, which permits you to optimize installation approach. Main features for the power part: - Control Rod Drive Mechanism (CRDM) type: 3-coil. - Independent control of each sub-bank. - Each sub-bank is controlled by a cycler unit and 3 identical power racks, each including 4 identical power modules and a common power-supply module. - Coil-per-coil digital control: each power module embeds power-conversion, current-control, and current-monitoring functions for one coil. Control and monitoring are carried out by separate electronics in the module. Current is digitized and fully monitored by means of min-max templates. - A double-hold function is included: a power module assigned to a gripper will activate its coil if a fault risking to cause a reactor trip occurs. - Power modules are standardized, hot-pluggable and self-configured: a power module includes a set of parameters for each type of coil SG, MG, LC. The module recognizes the rack it is plugged in, and chooses automatically parameters to be used. Main benefits: - Reduced operational, maintenance, training, and inventory costs: standardization of power modules and integration of control and monitoring on the same PC-card lead to a drastic reduction of spare part types, and simplification of the system. - Easy maintenance: - Replacement of a power module solves nearly all failures due to current control or monitoring for a coil. It is done instantly thanks to hot-plug capability. - On the front plate of power-modules, LEDs provide useful information for diagnostic: current setpoint from cycler, output current bar

  17. Roll-to-roll gravure with nanomaterials for printing smart packaging.

    Jung, Minhun; Kim, Junseok; Koo, Hyunmo; Lee, Wookyu; Subramanian, Vivek; Cho, Gyoujin


    Roll-to-roll (R2R) gravure is considered one of the highest throughput tools for manufacturing inexpensive and flexible ubiquitous IT devices called "smart packaging" in which NFC (near-field communication) transponder, sensors, ADC (analog-to-digital converter), simple processor and signage are all integrated on paper or plastic foils. In this review, we show R2R gravure can be employed to print smart packaging, starting from printing simple electrodes, dielectrics, capacitors, diodes and thin film transistors with appropriate nanomaterial-based inks on plastic foils. PMID:24749427

  18. Roll-to-Roll fabrication of large area functional organic materials

    Søndergaard, Roar R.; Hösel, Markus; Krebs, Frederik C


    With the prospect of extremely fast manufacture of very low cost devices, organic electronics prepared by thin film processing techniques that are compatible with roll-to-roll (R2R) methods are presently receiving an increasing interest. Several technologies using organic thin films are at the po...... research fields such as organic photovoltaics, organic thin film transistors, light-emitting diodes, polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells, and electrochromic devices. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Polym Sci Part B: Polym Phys 000: 000–000, 2012...

  19. Roll-to-Roll Fabricated Polymer Solar Cells: Towards Low Environmental Impact and Reporting Consensus

    Larsen-Olsen, Thue Trofod

    The sun is by far the largest source of renewable energy available; consequently solar cells, which are able to convert light into electricity, have the technical potential to cover the global energy needs. Polymer solar cells (PSCs) on flexible plastic substrate have a low embodied energy and can...... be processed by fast roll-to-roll (R2R) methods, using earth abundant materials, and thus deliver the prospects to fulfil this potential. A strong polarization in PSC research efforts have led to diverging and non-comparable results: While very high power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) above 10% have...

  20. Roll Rotation Cues Influence Roll Tilt Perception Assayed Using a Somatosensory Technique

    Park, Sukyung; Gianna-Poulin, Claire; Black, F. Owen; Wood, Scott; Merfeld, Daniel M.


    We investigated how the nervous system processes ambiguous cues from the otolith organs by measuring roll tilt perception elicited by two motion paradigms. In one paradigm (tilt), eight subjects were sinusoidally tilted in roll with the axis of rotation near ear level. Stimulus frequencies ranged from 0.005 to 0.7 Hz, and the peak amplitude of tilt was 20°. During this paradigm, subjects experienced a sinusoidal variation of interaural gravitational force with a peak of 0.34 g. The second mot...

  1. Low-cost sensor tape for environmental sensing based on roll-to-roll manufacturing process

    Wang, Chiu-Yen; Paradiso, Joseph A.; Gong, Nan-wei


    We describe the concept of fabricating low-cost sensor tape for fine-grid environmental sensing based on roll-to-roll manufacturing processes. We experiment with constructing sensors and electronic connections with low-cost conductive inkjet printed copper traces. Our first attempt is to fabricate humidity sensors by spin-coating conductive polymer on sensor substrates and integrating the design with an embedded system. The humidity sensor was tested in a two-point probe and exhibits the I-V ...

  2. Production Of Tandem Amorphous Silicon Alloy Solar Cells In A Continuous Roll-To-Roll Process

    Izu, Masat; Ovshinsky, Stanford R.


    A roll-to-roll plasma deposition machine for depositing multi-layered amorphous alloys has been developed. The plasma deposition machine (approximately 35 ft. long) has multiple deposition areas and processes 16-inch wide stainless steel substrate continuously. Amorphous photovoltaic thin films (less than 1pm) having a six layered structure (PINPIN) are deposited on a roll of 16-inch wide 1000 ft. long stainless steel substrate, continu-ously, in a single pass. Mass production of low-cost tandem amorphous solar cells utilizing roll-to-roll processes is now possible. A commercial plant utilizing this plasma deposition machine for manufacturing tandem amorphous silicon alloy solar cells is now in operation. At Energy Conversion Devices, Inc. (ECD), one of the major tasks of the photovoltaic group has been the scale-up of the plasma deposition process for the production of amorphous silicon alloy solar cells. Our object has been to develop the most cost effective way of producing amorphous silicon alloy solar cells having the highest efficiency. The amorphous silicon alloy solar cell which we produce has the following layer structure: 1. Thin steel substrate. 2. Multi-layered photovoltaic amorphous silicon alloy layers (approximately 1pm thick; tandem cells have six layers). 3. ITO. 4. Grid pattern. 5. Encapsulant. The deposition of the amorphous layer is technologically the key process. It was clear to us from the beginning of this scale-up program that amorphous silicon alloy solar cells produced in wide width, continuous roll-to-roll production process would be ultimate lowest cost solar cells according to the following reasons. First of all, the material cost of our solar cells is low because: (1) the total thickness of active material is less than 1pm, and the material usage is very small; (2) silicon, fluorine, hydrogen, and other materials used in the device are abundant and low cost; (3) thin, low-cost substrate is used; and (4) product yield is high. In

  3. High-speed roll-to-roll manufacturing of graphene using a concentric tube CVD reactor

    Polsen, Erik S.; McNerny, Daniel Q.; B. Viswanath; Pattinson, Sebastian W.; A. John Hart


    We present the design of a concentric tube (CT) reactor for roll-to-roll chemical vapor deposition (CVD) on flexible substrates, and its application to continuous production of graphene on copper foil. In the CTCVD reactor, the thin foil substrate is helically wrapped around the inner tube, and translates through the gap between the concentric tubes. We use a bench-scale prototype machine to synthesize graphene on copper substrates at translation speeds varying from 25 mm/min to 500 mm/min, a...

  4. Lengthening the lifetime of roll-to-roll produced polymer solar cells

    Madsen, Morten Vesterager

    The field of polymer solar cells is a field with an exponential growth in the number of published papers. It is a field defined by a set of challenges including; efficiency, stability and processability. Before all of these challenges have been addressed; polymer solar cells will not be a......-depth morphology of polymer solar cells using ellipsometry. It was demonstrated that ellipsometry can be used as a non destructive depth profiling technique to obtain compositional morphology of the active layer of roll-to-roll coated samples. The second and third part is devoted to the study of photo...

  5. Rolling test of turbine generator by non-nuclear steam

    The object and procedure of rolling turbine generator test by non-nuclear steam in Qinshan NPP are presented. The steam source of rolling test is compared and chosen. The steam quantity during the rolling test is simply calculated. The limits of parameters of the test and the preparing for rolling of turbine generator are introduced. Procedures of rolling test are divided into three stage of speed: 600 r/min, 1200 r/min, 3000 r/min. Parameters measured as a result of rolling test, such as absolute vibration of axle, metal temperature of bearings, temperature of oil from the exit of bearings and vacuity of condenser etc, show that the design, manufacture, installation and speed control of turbine generator are satisfactory

  6. A review on hot direct rolling of hsla steel

    The evolution of economically viable high strength low alloy structural steels (HSLA) with a good weld ability is probably the most significant metallurgical achievement of the steel industry in the last few decades. In these developments during thermo mechanical processing grain refinement is achieved by refining the as rolled austenite phase prior to transformation and introducing a high density of ferrite nucleation sites during rolling. A current trend in thermo mechanical processing of steel is to integrate the rolling process with continuous casting process. The development of a direct linkage between the continuous casting machine and hot working processes is suggested by economic considerations. However, hot charge rolling (HCR) and hot direct rolling (HDR) of micro alloyed steels affect mechanical properties significantly compared with conventional controlled rolling(CCR). (author)


    Huang Yanwei; Wu Tihua; Zhao Jingyi; Wang Yiqun


    A method for the calculation of the sensitivity factors of the rolling process has been obtained by differentiating the roll force model based on support vector machine. It can eliminate the algebraic loop of the analytical model of the rolling process. The simulations in the first stand of five stand cold tandem rolling mill indicate that the calculation for sensitivities by this proposed method can obtain a good accuracy, and an appropriate adjustment on the control variables determined directly by the sensitivity has an excellent compensation accuracy. Moreover, the roll gap has larger effect on the exit thickness than both front tension and back tension, and it is more efficient to select the roll gap as the controlvariable of the thickness control system in the first stand.

  8. Textures and Properties of Hot Rolled High Strength Ti-IF Steels

    GUO Yan-hui; WANG Zhao-dong; ZOU Wen-wen; LIU Xiang-hua; WANG Guo-dong


    The texture evolution in a high strength Ti-IF steel during the processing of hot rolling,cold rolling,and annealing is studied.For comparison,both ferrite rolling and austenite rolling are employed.It is found that the texture type is the.same after ferrite rolling and austenite rolling,but the texture intensity is much higher in the ferriterolled sample.Furthermore,texture characteristics at the surface are absolutely different from those at the mid-section in both ferrite rolled and austenite rolled samples,as well as under the cold rolled and annealed conditions.The shear texture {110} disappears and orientation rotates along {110} →{554}→{111}→{111}→{223} during cold rolling.Compared to the austenite rolled sample,the properties of the cold rolled and annealed sheet which is subjected to ferrite rolling are higher.

  9. The Theory and Technique of Yamuna Body Rolling

    Suzuki, Satoshi


    [Purpose] This paper provides information about the theory and technique of Yamuna Body Rolling. In order to treat physical problems, using the specialized Yamuna Body Rolling balls, people can target superficial skin, fasciae, muscle fibers, tendons, ligaments, bones, internal organs, and the nervous system by themselves. The extraordinary effect of Yamuna Body Rolling is its multidimensional elongation of muscle fibers. In addition to the regular longitudinal elongation by the conventional ...

  10. Entry Strategies to Indonesian Market Case: MoveaRoll

    Islam, Zahedul


    MoveRoll Oy, an internationally growing and expanding Finnish company located in Porvoo, has invented a unique technology to produce a paper roll conveyor which the company believes will revolutionise the paper roll handling industry. Moreover, after establishing itself in the Finnish market, the company has started expanding its business to countries like Sweden, USA, and China. Likewise, the process of expanding to the Russian market is currently underway and the company has recently launch...