The Buyers Guide lists products from companies worldwide under the major product headings: exploration; mine planning/geology; geological assessment; surface mining/quarrying; dredge mining; underground mining; engineering equipment and services for surface and underground operations; product storage and distribution; maintenance workshop equipment; and mineral processing and coal preparation equipment. An alphabetical listing of company names and addresses, fax and telephone numbers are included. The guide is extracted from a PC-mounted database using Microsoft Access. This database is available as hard copy or as an ASCII file on a floppy disc from Mike Woof, editor of World Mining Equipment.
Buyer behavior of consumers plays one of the key roles in fulfillment of the main goals of a company. It is influenced by many external and internal factors but the company can also influence the final process of buyer decision-making process significantly by its activities. The subject matter of this article is an analysis of the features of online buyer behavior compared to the general regularities of buyer behavior, definition of the main motives of online shopping, and description of the ...
This article seeks to contribute to our understanding of first home buyer behaviour, presenting a profile of first home buyers in Australia at various points in time over the past two decades. Understanding the social and economic characteristics of first home buyers, and how they have evolved over time, is an important input into the current debate on housing affordability.
Power's 1995 Buyers' Guide consists of a Company Directory, a Product Directory, and Service Directory. In the product and service directories, categories also have subcategories. The Company Directory lists manufacturer names (domestic and foreign), corporate addresses, and telephone and FAX numbers. The Service Directory lists companies that offer equipment repair and maintenance
Taudal Poulsen, René; Ponte, Stefano; Lister, Jane
demands. Our findings suggest that environmental upgrading is more likely to occur when global value chains are characterized by unipolar governance and where the lead firms are consumer-facing companies with reputational risks. Furthermore, environmental upgrading in shipping is not likely to materialize......In this article, we examine the relations between global value chain governance and environmental upgrading in maritime shipping. Drawing from interviews with global shipping companies and major buyers of shipping services (cargo-owners), we reveal the key issues and challenges faced in improving...... the environmental performance of maritime transportation. Contributing to the Global Value Chain (GVC) literature, we compare and analyze the influence of three main external drivers on environmental upgrading in the tanker, bulk and container shipping segments: regulation, cooperation and buyer...
This paper provides a comprehensive econometric framework for the empirical analysis of buyer power. It encompasses the two main features of pricing schemes in business-to-business relationships: nonlinear price schedules and bargaining over rents. Disentangling them is critical to the empirical identification of buyer power. Testable predictions from the theoretical analysis are delineated, and a pragmatic empirical methodology is presented. It is readily implementable on the basis of transa...
We analyze a dynamic market in which buyers compete in a sequence of auctions. New buyers and objects may arrive at random times. Buyers' private values, however, are not persistent. Instead, buyers draw new values in every period; equivalently, objects are heterogeneous but are drawn from the same distribution. We consider the use of the second-price auction for selling these objects. In equilibrium, buyers do not bid their true value. Instead, they shade their bids down by their continu...
The Buyer's Guide consists of two sections: a list of vendors by category and an alphabetical list of vendors. The type of equipment and services include: air compressors, air conditioning, gas analysis, pipe anchors, anodes, gas appliances, augers, backhoes, pipe bending machines, billing systems, bits, blasting equipment, gas boilers, boring equipment, gas burners, calorimeters, well casings, cathodic protection equipment and surveys, coating machines, coatings, cogeneration equipment, gas heaters, communications equipment, compactors, compressor stations, computer software, flow computers, portable computers, connectors, consulting services, control equipment, cooling systems, corrosion control systems, couplings, cranes, cutting tools, data acquisition systems, dehydration equipment, gas detectors, drilling machines, engine controls and monitors, engineering services, diesel engines, gas engines, excavators, filters, financial services, fireplace equipment, pipe fittings, flanges, flowmeters, food services, fork lifts, gas furnaces, gas exploration, gas marketing services, gas processing, gas production, gas storage, gas transmission, electric generators, heat exchangers, heating systems, hydrostatic testing services, information systems, instruments, insulation, insurance, expansion joints, leak detectors, legal services, lightning protection, lubricants, meter reading services, meter sets, gas meters, NGV equipment, nondestructive test equipment, odorants, offshore drilling, pigs, pipes, pipe maintenance services, pressure relief valves, pressure vessels, pumps, recording equipment, regulators, risers, safety equipment, gas scrubbers, sealants, security systems, separators, SCADA equipment, survey instruments, tanks, telemetering equipment, tractors, training, trenching equipment, gas turbines, underwater tools, valve actuators, valves, vibration analyzers, gas water heaters, weld inspection, welding equipment, and wires and cables
Full Text Available Buyer behavior of consumers plays one of the key roles in fulfillment of the main goals of a company. It is influenced by many external and internal factors but the company can also influence the final process of buyer decision-making process significantly by its activities. The subject matter of this article is an analysis of the features of online buyer behavior compared to the general regularities of buyer behavior, definition of the main motives of online shopping, and description of the current trends. The article uses the basic terminology of this subject and current bibliography as well as other resources. Theoretical knowledge is based on historic directions of Maslow’s theory of motivation where it is possible to find the basis for a buyer behavior analysis. The article is also based on the formerly carried out questionnaire survey which examines the motives and experience of the respondents with online shopping. By means of the independence test it is verified whether there is a relation between the age of respondents and motivation for online shopping. Subsequently, the survey carried out in person is compared with other relevant research solutions.
Chae, Suchan; Heidhues, Paul
We provide a novel explanation as to why forming an alliance of buyers (or sellers) across separate markets can be advantageous when input prices are determined by bargaining. Our explanation helps to understand the prevalence of buyer cooperatives among small and medium sized firms. ZUSAMMENFASSUNG - (Verhandlungsmacht durch Käuferkooperationen) Dieses Papier entwickelt eine neue Erklärung dafür, warum Zusammenschlüsse zwischen Käufern (oder Verkäufern), die in unterschiedlichen Märkten akti...
Four major listings relating to nuclear fuel services are provided. 1. A fuel buyer's guide listing companies under alphabetical order of country and giving addresses and an indication of the services offered. 2. A fuel buyers guide classifying companies in alphabetical order of the services offered. 3. A fuel and front end facility listing subdivided into companies involved in: uranium ore processing; uranium refining and conversion; enrichment; fuel fabrication; heavy water production; zirconium metal production; and zirconium tube production. 4. A fuel and front end facilities listing giving operators' addresses under alphabetical order of country. (UK)
Previous research on retailer buying has assumed that the context of decision-making is more or less objectively given, or is at least kept constant for the purpose of study. This paper develops an alternative view in which retail buyers and retailers actively participate in the construction and...
Olsen, Rasmus Friis
describe the means to achieve the necessary coordination between the buyer and the supplier. A typology of integrating mechanism has also been developed.The implementation of the supply management concept will include carrying out a number of projects regarding the development of the relationships......The dissertation considers industrial buyer-supplier cooperation from a systems and management perspective. The purpose is to discuss and elaborate on the buying company’s choice of cooperation strategy (governance mechanism). It is stated that no single governance mechanism will be the best in all...... to create a better understanding of the nature of the supply task. The operating task concerns the use of the existing supply system, while the system development task concerns the appropriate development of the company’s supply system. Finally, the management task concerns creating consistency between...
Raff, Horst; Schmitt, Nicolas
This paper investigates the implications for international markets of the existence of retailers/wholesalers with market power. Two main results are shown. First, in the presence of buyer power trade liberalization may lead to retail market concentration. Due to this concentration retail prices may be higher and welfare may be lower in free trade than in autarky, thus reversing the standard effects of trade liberalization. Second, the pro-competitive effects of trade liberalization are weaker...
Ursino, Giovanni; Piccolo, Salvatore; Tedeschi, Piero
We study a Bertrand game where two sellers supplying products of different and unverifiable qualities can outwit potential clients through (costly) deceptive advertising. We characterize a class of pooling equilibria where sellers post the same price regardless of their quality and low quality ones deceive buyers. Although in these equilibria low quality goods are purchased with positive probability, the buyer’s (expected) utility can surprisingly be higher than in a fully separating equilibr...
Buyer search costs for price are changing in many markets. Through a model of buyer and seller behavior, I consider the effects of changing search costs on prices both when product differentiation is fixed and when it is endogenously determined in equilibrium. If firms cannot change product design, lower buyer search costs for price lead to increased price competition. However, if product design is a decision variable, lower search costs for price may also lead to higher product differentiati...
Ambrose, Eamonn; Marshall, Donna; Lynch, Daniel F.
Purpose: The paper aims to employ transaction cost theory and social exchange theory to compare how buyers and suppliers perceive relationship mechanisms. The paper also explains the antecedents and dynamics of relationship performance by comparing buyer and supplier perceptions of the same relationships. The paper specifically focuses on the issue of relationship success and test the hypothesis that the antecedents of perceived relationship success for buyers differ from those of suppliers w...
Holmes, Jon L.
The Equipment Buyers Guide was edited by Jo Rita Jordan. The new Equipment Buyers Guide, bound into the back of this issue, is also a new resource of JCE Internet. This resource provides an online source for the information contained in the printed guide. Placing this information online allows us to regularly update it and to provide live links to the suppliers' WWW sites. The organization of the online version parallels that of the print version. There is an alphabetical list of suppliers and a categorical listing. Links to these lists are provided on every page in the left-hand navigation bar. To quickly find information about a particular supplier, you click Supplier List, click the letter that begins the supplier's name, and scroll through the list to find the supplier. To find which suppliers provide a particular type of instrument or equipment, use the Categories link; click the category of the equipment you are looking for and then click the link to a supplier. You will then be taken to an alphabetical supplier listing page where you can scroll until you find the particular supplier of the item for which you are looking. Once you have found a supplier, the online Equipment Buyers Guide gives you the traditional contact information. But in addition, you also get one-click access to the WWW sites of the suppliers that have them. Depending on the site, you should be able to find information about the items that you seek and may even be able to order the items online! We think that you will find the online version of the Equipment Buyers Guide useful. To make it more useful, please send your suggestions, any errors or omissions you find, and any additional categories to the editor at email@example.com The online Equipment Buyers Guide can be found at JCE Online at http://JChemEd.chem.wisc.edu/JCEWWW/Resources/EBG/ JCE Online in '99 JCE Online is your online source of "all things JCE". In order to provide you with an even more useful online resource, JCE
Although the term 'buyer behaviour' may seem too commercial for the healthcare situation, in dentistry especially most patients 'buy' dental services and many of the principles of buyer behaviour are relevant to marketing in dentistry. This article looks at the factors that influence why people buy what they do. PMID:8791842
Gorton, Matthew; Angell, Robert; Dries, Liesbeth; Urutyan, Vardan; Jackson, Elizabeth; White, John
The paper presents a Multiple Indicators and MultIple Causes (MIMIC) model for explaining the relationships between buyer-seller power, buyer trustworthiness and supplier satisfaction / performance. The model draws on an organizational supply chain perspective of power and is verified using data
Full Text Available Mosquito repellants prevent mosquito bites and prevention of "man-mosquito contact" is a critical factor in transmission and spread of any disease through mosquitoes particularly in rural area. There has been a long standing 'bias' towards rural buyers. The rural markets are considered rigid in the nature but it is not the case in real sense. Marketing to rural buyers is not only a challenge to the marketers but to the manufacturers, communicators, national planners and economists as well. That is why it has been necessary to understand the various aspects of selected rural areas and consumption pattern for such a fast growing market i.e. mosquito repellants and rural buyers’ perception towards such urban products. The present paper aims to find out the factors influencing the purchase decisions of rural buyers for mosquito repellants and to study the perceptions of present and potential rural buyers' of selected mosquito repellant brands.
Full Text Available Buyer protection has been a major challenge for e-commerce entrepreneurs and engineers building application for executing transactions on-line. The threat connected with e-commerce is mostly connected with problems in authenticating users performing the buy/sell action. Key webportals such as eBay.com and Paypal.com offer 100% money back buyer protection programs for transactions that were unsuccessful or purchased goods were substantially different from the provided description. The aim of this article is to analyze procedures of acquiring compensation in buyer protection programs procedures. The case study enclosed in the article seem to advocate that buyer protection programs does not insure e-commerce transactions. Any kind of money back guarantee is affected by the current marketing policy of the company. The user agreement does not directly impose an obligation of receiving compensation by the user.
Duarte, M. F.; Ruivo, Paula Lúcia
The main purpose of this paper is to present and discuss the results of a regional survey on buyer and consumer's behaviour. Results allow us to identify consuming buyer patterns and relate them to consumer's attitudes and caracteristics such as age, sex and educacional levels.They also suggest some important variables than can be used to differentiate portuguese "Quality Wines Produced in Specified Regions" (QWPSR) and are potencial material to develop satrategies, useful to the new "quality...
Mehta, D.; Anand GARG; Naveen K. MEHTA
Mosquito repellants prevent mosquito bites and prevention of "man-mosquito contact" is a critical factor in transmission and spread of any disease through mosquitoes particularly in rural area. There has been a long standing 'bias' towards rural buyers. The rural markets are considered rigid in the nature but it is not the case in real sense. Marketing to rural buyers is not only a challenge to the marketers but to the manufacturers, communicators, national planners and economists as well. Th...
Buyer protection has been a major challenge for e-commerce entrepreneurs and engineers building application for executing transactions on-line. The threat connected with e-commerce is mostly connected with problems in authenticating users performing the buy/sell action. Key webportals such as eBay.com and Paypal.com offer 100% money back buyer protection programs for transactions that were unsuccessful or purchased goods were substantially different from the provided description. The aim of t...
Faes, W; Matthyssens, P
Since purchasing has become a function more widely involved in corporate strategy and virtual organization structures are evolving within the function, many authors contend that new profiles of industrial buyers are required. Buyers of the next century will have to be more outgoing and outspoken, and combine reverse marketing skills with managerial skills. In this paper we focus on the required skills professional purchasers need, given the dynamic purchasing/marketing context and the 'reborn...
Jung, Joowon; Yi, Sunghwan
Despite recent increase in research on compulsive buying and excessive buying, the category of buyers whose buying patterns are approaching the clinical level but still somewhat below it has rarely been recognized in the literature. In this paper, we propose the case for the category of moderate-risk buyers. Following Ridgway et al.'s (2008) findings, moderate-risk buyers were operationalized as scoring 21-24 on Compulsive Buying Index. We hypothesized that moderate-risk buyers would hold significantly higher materialistic values than non-compulsive buyers, while exhibiting significantly less depressive symptoms and covert narcissism than full-fledged compulsive buyers. An online survey of individuals who frequently engaged in buying lapses was used (N=809). We found that moderate-risk buyers were significantly different from both compulsive buyers and non-compulsive buyers in the frequency of buying lapses, hiding purchases and frequency of experiencing negative feelings leading to buying lapses. Furthermore, consistent with our hypothesis, moderate-risk buyers held significantly lower covert narcissism and depression than full-fledged compulsive buyers, but their materialism was not significantly different from each other. Our findings support the case for moderate-risk buyers as a separate group from full-fledged compulsive buyers. PMID:27138822
Shah, Digeshkumar B.; Nita H. Shah
A joint vendor-buyer strategy is analyzed which is beneficial to both the players in the supply chain. The demand is assumed to be trapezoidal. It is established numerically that the joint venture decreases the total cost of the supply chain when compared with the independent decision of the buyer. To entice the buyer to order more units, a permissible credit period is offered by the vendor to the buyer. A negotiation factor is incorporated to share the cost savings.
Full Text Available Problem statement: Due to a behavior of buyers effects to a growth of marketing, then a group of agreement of buyers and buyers behavior on eventually placing orders are investigating. Approach: In this study, a discrete-time consensus protocol for a scale-free buyer networks is proposed. Herein, an initial purchase intention of each buyer is defined to be active or non-active and an impulse signal is used to activate a purchase intention as an advertisement. Results: To investigate a global decision making in the buyer networks, the number of active buyers after activating was considered. Finally, the numerical simulations were conducted to visualize the effectiveness of the proposed protocol. The results showed that buyers change their intentions based on activation of advertisement that also effect to the group decision making of network. Conclusion: The active buyers still be active if the current number of active buyers (φ(x is more than or equal to the defined value of their thi. On the other hand, the non-active buyers still be non-active if the current number of non-active buyers n-φ(x is more than or equal to the defined value of their thi. Otherwise, their states are altered.
Full Text Available The buyer-seller watermarking protocol enables a seller to successfully identify a traitor from a pirated copy, while preventing the seller from framing an innocent buyer. Based on finite field theory and the homomorphic property of public key cryptosystems such as RSA, several buyer-seller watermarking protocols (N. Memon and P. W. Wong (2001 and C.-L. Lei et al. (2004 have been proposed previously. However, those protocols require not only large computational power but also substantial network bandwidth. In this paper, we introduce a new buyer-seller protocol that overcomes those weaknesses by managing the watermarks. Compared with the earlier protocols, ours is n times faster in terms of computation, where n is the number of watermark elements, while incurring only O(1/lN times communication overhead given the finite field parameter lN. In addition, the quality of the watermarked image generated with our method is better, using the same watermark strength.
Considering the growing externalisation of strategic activities, the problem of the control of buyer-supplier relationships is crucial. Therefore, researchers usually propose modes of control that are adapted to various environments. However, the organisations are often considered as “black boxes” whose goals are unspecified. This paper examines buyer-supplier control configurations that take into account the organisation of buying firms and their goals toward their suppliers. This research i...
Sunantha Sodsee; Maytiyanin Komkhao; Phayung Meesad
Problem statement: Due to a behavior of buyers effects to a growth of marketing, then a group of agreement of buyers and buyers behavior on eventually placing orders are investigating. Approach: In this study, a discrete-time consensus protocol for a scale-free buyer networks is proposed. Herein, an initial purchase intention of each buyer is defined to be active or non-active and an impulse signal is used to activate a purchase intention as an advertisement. Results: To investigate a global ...
Economist Phd. Candidate CRUCERU Gheorghe; Assistant Professor Phd. Candidate MICUDA Dan
The automobile buyer’s behaviour is a specific one and the knowledge and understanding of the motivations is important for the automobile manufacturers and distributors. Automobile buyers are the beneficiaries of complex high technology products, which have a long-term use. The paper is focused on understanding the mechanisms that underlie the buying process, the buyers’ expectations and needs, as essential elements for producers and distributors. When these mechanisms are controlled, the com...
Caprice, Stéphane; Rey, Patrick
We show that collective bargaining can enhance retailers’ buying power vis-àvis their suppliers. We consider a model of vertically related markets, in which an upstream leader faces a competitive fringe of less efficient suppliers and negotiates secretly with several firms that compete in a downstream market. We allow downstream firms to join forces in negotiating with suppliers, by creating a buyer group which selects suppliers on behalf of its members: each group member can then veto ...
Full Text Available The Digital watermarking technology has become increasing popular in the protection digital copyright. However, in the practical application, the watermarking algorithms should be combined with a secure copyright protection protocol to solve the copyright protection problems completely. In this paper, a novel buyer-seller watermarking protocol is proposed for piracy tracing, in which a memoryless Watermark Certification Authority (WCA can offer a number of watermarks for a buyer simultaneously, avoiding itself being involved in each digital transaction operated between the buyer and the seller. Besides, in order to guarantee the anonymity of the buyer, the WCA can provide the buyer with an encrypted digital certificate and have it submitted directly to the seller by the buyer. In addition, the proposed protocol also can resolve other problems, such as the customer right problem, the binding attack problem, the anonymity problem, the conspiracy problem, the dispute problem. The analyses indicate that the proposed protocol is secure and practical.
Mols, Niels Peter; Sloth, Jacob Lerche; Thrane, Claus
Abstract Purpose of the paper and literature addressed: The purpose of this paper is to identify buyer motives for supporting internal competitors and to suggest relevant marketing strategy elements for external suppliers confronting these internal competitors. Research method: With basis...... in a literature review we identify different buyer motives for choosing to combine external suppliers with internal production, i.e., an internal competitor. For each buyer motive, possible marketing strategies are identified and briefly discussed. Research findings: The paper describes different buyer motives...... brings into focus the situation and buyer motives that external suppliers face when they confront an internal competitor. Furthermore, for each buyer motive a number of possible marketing strategies are identified....
S. Pandisiva; S. Pandian
Buyer behavior is the study of individuals, group, or select, secure, and dispose of products, services, experiences, or ideas to satisfy needs, and the impacts that these process have on the consumer and society. Buyer behavior is widely understood as a problem solving and decision making sequence, the outcome of which is determined by the buyer goal directed processing of information. The aim of this paper is to show that to identify reasons for buying laptop, factors in...
Chan-Halbrendt, Catherine; Yu, Jin; Keung, Helen; Lin, Tun; Ferguson, Carol
Guangzhou buyers' preference for premium Hawaiian grown product gift baskets with conjoint analysis was examined. Relative importance of three gift basket attributes: container type, products origin, and price were examined. Expenditure equivalent index to evaluate how much more each of the gift basket attributes is worth to the buyer was estimated. Main conclusions are: products have to be 'made in Hawaii' to receive the premium price; business buyers are generally less willing to pay a high...
Valk, van der, L.J.M.
textabstractThis dissertation focuses on the ongoing interactions that take place between buyers and sellers of business services after the contract has been signed. This ongoing interaction is important since services are produced and consumed simultaneously; therefore, both buyer and seller have to make an effort to ensure that the ongoing service exchange is successful. The Interaction Model originally developed by the Industrial Marketing and Purchasing Group for studying buyer-supplier i...
Digeshkumar B. Shah
Full Text Available A joint vendor-buyer strategy is analyzed which is beneficial to both the players in the supply chain. The demand is assumed to be trapezoidal. It is established numerically that the joint venture decreases the total cost of the supply chain when compared with the independent decision of the buyer. To entice the buyer to order more units, a permissible credit period is offered by the vendor to the buyer. A negotiation factor is incorporated to share the cost savings.
Greek Petrochemicals (Athens) has found buyers for two polyethylene (PE) plants it ordered from U.K. contractors 10 years ago and that are currently stored in Manchester. It is understood that Thai Polyethylene (Bangkok) has been selected to acquire the 70,000-m.t./year ICI process low-density PE plant engineered by Simon-Carves. Reliance Industries is in talks to by the 50,000-m.t./year Union Carbide Unipol process high-density PE unit. The plants are to be installed at Map Ta Put, Thailand and Hazira, India, respectively
The nature of retailer buying is changing, but not so our conceptualisations. Existing literature on retailer buying is characterised by a rather narrow focus on what retail buyers decide and which decision criteria they use to make decisions, whereas comparatively little attention has been devoted...... to the processes of how and why certain decisions are made. This paper aims to move beyond a focus on single decisions as discrete events to viewing retailer buying as something that occurs in ongoing relationally-responsive interaction between retailers and suppliers....
Watts, R.L.; Smith, S.A.; Dirks, J.A.; Mazzucchi, R.P.; Lee, V.E.
The directory guide explains photovoltaic systems briefly and shows what products are available off-the-shelf. Information is given to assist in designing a photovoltaic system and on financial incentives. Help is given for determining if photovoltaic products can meet a particular buyer's needs, and information is provided on actual photovoltaic user's experiences. Detailed information is appended on various financial incentives available from state and federal governments, sources of additional information on photovoltaics, sources of various photovoltaic products, and a listing of addresses of photovoltaic products suppliers. (LEW)
Full Text Available Buyer-seller networks where price is determined by an ascending-bid auction are important in many economic examples such as certain real estate markets, radio spectrum sharing, and buyer-supplier networks. However, it may be that some sellers are better off not participating in the auction. We consider what happens if sellers can make a take it or leave it offer to one of their linked buyers before the auction takes place and thus such a seller can choose not to participate in the auction. We give conditions on the graph and buyers valuations under which the buyer and seller will both agree to such a take it or leave it offer. Specifically, the buyer-seller pair will choose private negotiation over the auction if the seller acts as a network bridge with power over the buyer and if there are enough buyers with low valuations so that the seller does not expect to receive a high price in the auction.
W. van der Valk (Wendy)
textabstractThis dissertation focuses on the ongoing interactions that take place between buyers and sellers of business services after the contract has been signed. This ongoing interaction is important since services are produced and consumed simultaneously; therefore, both buyer and seller have t
Laureti, P; Yu, Y K; Zhang, Y C; Laureti, Paolo; Slanina, Frantisek; Yu, Yi-Kuo; Zhang, Yi-Cheng
We propose a continuum model for the description of buyer and seller dynamics in an Internet market. The relevant variables are the research effort of buyers and the sellers' reputation building process. We show that, if a commercial web-site gives consumers the possibility to rate credibly sellers they bargained with, vendors are forced to be more honest. This leads to mutual beneficial symbiosis between buyers and sellers; the overall enhanced volume of transactions contributes ultimately to the web-site, which facilitates the matchmaking service.
... trade buyer independence. 10.54 Section 10.54 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO... for determining trade buyer independence. The criteria specified in this section are indications that... trade buyer, other than those in § 10.52, places trade buyer independence at risk. A practice need...
Solar marketing is a difficult and complex subject. Most of the author's customers are in the Extensive Problem Solving mode. They don't know them and they don't know their products. There is no need for them to force a potential buyer to do more work than necessary. If you've thought of a good solar use, show it to potential buyers by placing it in a setting they are familiar with. Compare solar products to products they know. Use memorable phrases to capture and convey what your product does best. Use words that have a clear meaning to all of your potential buyers. No one solution will work for every case, but there are marketing techniques that they can use to get their message across to potential buyers. The sooner they become adept at using them, the better their sales results will be
Joseph Abramson; Peggy D. Brewer
The purchase of a new automobile is often cited as the quintessence of a high involvement purchase decision; the financial risks and personal relevance of the purchase dictate that car buyers put forth much effort before making a decision. In this research such efforts as dealers shopped, brands shopped, and information sources used are studied in a large sample of new car buyers in West Virginia. The purchase behavior of respondents in this study seems more like low-involvement than high inv...
Joseph Mpeera Ntayi
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to provide a multilevel investigation of the existence and relationship between severity of buyer-supplier contractual conflicts, emotional outcomes and disengagement behaviour arising out of the contractual disputes in Ugandan small to medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Design/methodology/approach – This paper undertakes a large-scale comprehensive survey covering 839 SMEs' buyers together with their corresponding suppliers using Krejcie and Morgan sample...
Ming zhen Sun
Business clusters and global value chains (GVCs) command growing interest in some research disciplines. In the existing literature overwhelmingly focus on two niches: governance and upgrading. The detailed mechanisms of buyer-supplier relationship management tend to remain under-researched. This paper presents a framework base on the literature on the literature of International Marketing and Purchasing (IMP) group through a dyadic study of buyer-supplier relationship on GVC context.
Rapid reduction of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions is required to mitigate disastrous impacts of climate change. The Kyoto Protocol introduced international emissions trading (IET) to accelerate the reduction of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. The IET controls CO2 emissions through the allocation of marketable emission permits to sovereign countries. The costs for acquiring additional permits provide buyers with an incentive to reduce their CO2 emissions. However, permit price has declined to a low level during the first commitment period (CP1). The downward trend in permit price is attributed to deficiencies of the Kyoto Protocol: weak compliance enforcement, the generous allocation of permits to transition economies (hot air), and the withdrawal of the US. These deficiencies created a buyer's market dominated by price-making buyers. In this paper, I develop a coalitional game of the IET, and demonstrate that permit buyers have dominant bargaining power. In my model, called cooperative emissions trading (CET) game, a buyer purchases permits from sellers only if the buyer forms a coalition with the sellers. Permit price is determined by bargaining among the coalition members. I evaluated the demand-side and supply-side bargaining power (DBP and SBP) using Shapley value, and obtained the following results: (1) Permit price is given by the product of the buyer's willingness-to-pay and the SBP (= 1 - DBP). (2) The DBP is greater than or equal to the SBP. These results indicate that buyers can suppress permit price to low levels through bargaining. The deficiencies of the Kyoto Protocol enhance the DBP, and contribute to the demand-side dominance in the international permit market. PMID:26244778
Full Text Available Rapid reduction of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions is required to mitigate disastrous impacts of climate change. The Kyoto Protocol introduced international emissions trading (IET to accelerate the reduction of carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions. The IET controls CO2 emissions through the allocation of marketable emission permits to sovereign countries. The costs for acquiring additional permits provide buyers with an incentive to reduce their CO2 emissions. However, permit price has declined to a low level during the first commitment period (CP1. The downward trend in permit price is attributed to deficiencies of the Kyoto Protocol: weak compliance enforcement, the generous allocation of permits to transition economies (hot air, and the withdrawal of the US. These deficiencies created a buyer's market dominated by price-making buyers. In this paper, I develop a coalitional game of the IET, and demonstrate that permit buyers have dominant bargaining power. In my model, called cooperative emissions trading (CET game, a buyer purchases permits from sellers only if the buyer forms a coalition with the sellers. Permit price is determined by bargaining among the coalition members. I evaluated the demand-side and supply-side bargaining power (DBP and SBP using Shapley value, and obtained the following results: (1 Permit price is given by the product of the buyer's willingness-to-pay and the SBP (= 1 - DBP. (2 The DBP is greater than or equal to the SBP. These results indicate that buyers can suppress permit price to low levels through bargaining. The deficiencies of the Kyoto Protocol enhance the DBP, and contribute to the demand-side dominance in the international permit market.
The objective is to investigate whether uninformed buyers pay higher prices for single-family houses than do other buyers and test whether the bargaining power increases with information. We examine data on real estate prices and attributes, as well as household characteristics and buying process from Stockholm. Our results show that uninformed buyers seem to pay a higher price than informed buyers do. Bargaining power is not weaker for a first-time buyer but is weaker if the household has pa...
Jim Engle-Warnick; Bradley Ruffle
Although much research has been devoted to the impact of seller structure on market outcomes, considerably less is known about the influence of buyer structure. We examine the impact of buyer concentration on the pricing of a monopolist. Markets with both two and four buyers achieve prices well below the monopoly price, attaining even competitive levels - sometimes even lower. Moreover, markets with only two buyers show significantly lower prices than those with four buyers. We design an addi...
Full Text Available Effective supplier-buyer relationship management should not be seen only in terms of cost and financial measures, as outlined by Transaction cost economics, but also in terms of other (“softer” relational benefits, like e.g. more comprehensive information sharing, higher levels of trust, better cooperation and increased relationship flexibility. This second view is grounded in both Relationship marketing and Resource-advantage theory. Surprisingly, only a few research papers on supplier-buyer relationships address both of these perspectives equally, as well as in terms of long-term competitiveness (vis-avis a traditional short-term performance. The purpose of this paper is to analyze business relationship determinants of supplier-buyer relationship competitiveness, where we study the impact of (1 relationship-based information exchange, (2 network spillover effects, (3 transaction-specific investments, (4 trust, (5 cooperation (joint actions and (6 flexibility on perceived (7 supplier-buyer relationship competitiveness. In this regard the main research question of our study is: Which relational and transactional dimensions determine supplier-buyer relationship competitiveness, as well as how strongly? To provide the answer this research question we employ an exploratory-type Partial Least Squares (PLS regression in conjunction with a novel perspective of network spillover effects, as a set of independent variables in our model. The data set consists of a sample of 130 international suppliers (approx. 30 % response rate connected to a transnational company (TNC headquartered in Slovenia, which operates in the steel construction solutions’ industry. Our results clearly identify a relational and a transactional set of determinants of supplier-buyer relationship competitiveness, with the former having a significantly higher impact on competitiveness than the latter. With regards to specific dimensions associated with this relational component
Liu Quan; Chen Zheng; Zhou Zude
A new buyer-seller watermarking protocol is proposed by applying a double encryption method and a novel mechanism of embedding a buyer's watermark. The protocol can effectively prevent against collusion attacks and the man in the middle attack if the third party is not trusted. Also, based on the proposed scheme for the first-hand transaction, a new buyer-reseller watermarking protocol and a formal multi-party watermarking protocol are also proposed. The proposed buyer-resell watermarking protocol only needs the original seller to provide transfer certificate and encryption-decryption service to support the second-hand transaction, and the multi-party watermarking protocol with distributed certificate authorities can overcome the difficulty in the combination of multicast mechanism with multiple unique watermarks and allow a seller to multicast the watermarked digital contents and key transaction information to n buyers. Furthermore, the idea of zero knowledge proof is also applied into the proposed scheme to allow the seller to take an effective control on the task performed by the third party.
Ahmed Fawad; Sattar Farook; Siyal Mohammed Yakoob; Yu Dan
We propose a secure watermarking scheme that integrates watermarking with cryptography for addressing some important issues in copyright protection. We address three copyright protection issues—buyer-seller identification, copyright infringement, and ownership verification. By buyer-seller identification, we mean that a successful watermark extraction at the buyer's end will reveal the identities of the buyer and seller of the watermarked image. For copyright infringement, our proposed...
Buyer power is a controversial issue in EU competition law. It is an undeniable fact that the exercise of buyer power may bring benefits to consumers through lower prices. However, some buyer practices are likely to restrict or distort competition and thereby harm consumers, especially in the grocery retail sector where large supermarket chains have significant buyer power. Despite these potential harmful effects, it turns out that the current EU competition rules as well as the different ini...
Wakhid Ahmad Jauhari
This paper presents production-inventory model for two-echelon system consisting of single vendor and single buyer. The proposed model contributes to the current inventory literature by incorporating quantity discount scheme into stochastic vendor-buyer model. Almost all vendor-buyer inventory models have discussed this scheme in single-echelon system and deterministic demand situation. Here, we assume that the demand of the buyer is normally distributed and the unmet demand is considered to ...
In heterogeneous markets, one of the many consumer groups is that of green product buyers. With rising ethical values, the green market is assuming its place in a general growth trend. Given this, it is important to determine the profile of green product buyers. This study aims to find out whether there are sub-markets for green product buyers, based on their personal values and consumption values, and to determine a detailed profile for these buyers. Both personal values and consumption valu...
... buyer independence at risk. 10.52 Section 10.52 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... Practice which puts trade buyer independence at risk. The practice specified in this section is deemed to place trade buyer independence at risk within the description of exclusion in § 10.51: Industry...
van Donk, D.P.; van der Vaart, T.
Purpose - The concept of buyer focus has recently been introduced as a new supply chain strategy, although the design and operation of buyer-focused cells have hardly been investigated. The purpose of this paper is to investigate how buyer-focused cells realise responsiveness. Design/methodology/app
Chiu, Shun-Po; Chou, Huey-Wen; Chiu, Chao-Min
The success of a business largely depends upon customers' intentions to continue to purchase, but this can be a challenge for vendors in online markets. This study proposes a model which identifies an initial set of justice antecedents and evaluates their relation to perceived justice, trust, and repurchase intention in online markets. The theoretical model is tested by using structural equation modeling on a data set of 424 buyers in Yahoo! Kimo online auction market. The results demonstrate that three dimensions of justice (distributive, procedural, and interactional) are positively and significantly related to trust, which in turn affects buyers' intention to repurchase. Moreover, among the three dimensions of justice judgments, distributive justice and interactional justice are relatively more important than procedural justice in predicting buyers' trust in sellers. In terms of the antecedents of justice, this study provides evidence that product quality and delivery performance are significantly related to distributive justice, while information quality and contact channel are important antecedents of procedural justice. This study also finds that responsiveness is important in enhancing buyers' judgments of interactional justice. PMID:23465031
<正>Existing-home sales rose from the first quarter in 13 states, largely from buyers responding to discounted home prices. Nearly one-quarter of metropolitan areas showed rising home prices in the second quarter from a year ago,with greatly mixed conditions continuing around the country.
The 2011 Clean Cities Light-Duty Vehicle Buyer's Guide is a consumer publication that provides a comprehensive list of commercially available alternative fuel and advanced vehicles in model year 2011. The guide allows for side-by-side comparisons of fuel economy, price, emissions, and vehicle specifications.
Chrysochou, Polymeros; Lockshin, Larry; Habenschuss, Sarah;
exhibited towards particular wine attributes. Design/methodology/approach: Using panel data of wine purchases in the UK for each buyer group (light and heavy) market shares and loyalty to wine attributes were examined. The polarisation index φ (phi) was used as a measure of loyalty. Findings: The light...... based on the attributes that drive greater loyalty for each group....
Lou, Kuo-Ren; Wang, Lu
The seller frequently offers the buyer trade credit to settle the purchase amount. From the seller's prospective, granting trade credit increases not only the opportunity cost (i.e., the interest loss on the buyer's purchase amount during the credit period) but also the default risk (i.e., the rate that the buyer will be unable to pay off his/her debt obligations). On the other hand, granting trade credit increases sales volume and revenue. Consequently, trade credit is an important strategy to increase seller's profitability. In this paper, we assume that the seller uses trade credit and number of shipments in a production run as decision variables to maximise his/her profit, while the buyer determines his/her replenishment cycle time and capital investment as decision variables to reduce his/her ordering cost and achieve his/her maximum profit. We then derive non-cooperative Nash solution and cooperative integrated solution in a just-in-time inventory system, in which granting trade credit increases not only the demand but also the opportunity cost and default risk, and the relationship between the capital investment and the ordering cost reduction is logarithmic. Then, we use a software to solve and compare these two distinct solutions. Finally, we use sensitivity analysis to obtain some managerial insights.
This paper is focused on the coordination of order and production policy between buyers and suppliers in supply chains. When a buyer and a supplier of an item work independently, the buyer will place orders based on his economic order quantity (EOQ). However, the buyer s EOQ may not lead to an optimal policy for the supplier. It can be shown that a cooperative batching policy can reduce total cost significantly. Should the buyer have the more powerful position to enforce his EOQ on the suppli...
Full Text Available Demographic variables may have an impact on Internet usage patterns. Online buyers’ characteristics keeps changing time along with the shifting dynamics of Turkish consumers’ demographic profile and day by day online shopping becomes a safe and popular option in Turkey. Current study investigates demographic composition of the online buyers that influence consumer attitudes towards online shopping behavior in Izmir, the third largest city in Turkey. This study examines attitudes toward online shopping and provides a better understanding of the potential of online buyers for both researchers and practitioners. The study is based on an empirical research work, and a convenience sample of 400. Frequencies, descriptive statistics, and One-Way ANOVA tests were used in the analysis of data. The study shows that Turkish Internet consumer segment is relatively young, well educated, in mid economic status and professions associated with Internet more than five years.
Empirical studies of retailer buying behaviour show which attributes are important when retail buyers choose between new products and suppliers. Skytte & Blunch (1998) identified which attributes make a difference to retail buyers in Western Europe when buying fish products, and they identified the...... are able to deliver sufficient quantities. 3) Voluntary chains are dominating the 'large chains' segment. They have a high share of private label products and want long term relationships with suppliers and sufficient quantities. 4) 'Green shops' include many small wholesalers sponsored chains and co......-operative chains. They demand traceability of products, long term relationships and sufficient quantities. 5) 'Stay at home chains' are smaller chains with no private label products and many generic products in the shops. They prefer a national producer or a supplier with a national sales office....
Brennan, R.; Turnbll, P W
The purpose of the paper is to report the findings from a qualitative study which was designed to investigate how firms adapt for each other in the context of buyer-seller relationships. The methodology involved the development of dyadic case studies of 13 inter-firm relationships, employing semi-structured interviewing of respondents from both ends of the relationship. The degree of association is discussed between adaptation intensity and the relative size of the firms, the atmosphere of th...
Buyer decision process is an important mechanism in the heads of consumers which leads them through purchase decisions. To understand behaviour of consumers, this process has to be analyzed and explained. Aim of this thesis is to analyze market of electric shavers in the Czech Republic and to determine key factors influencing purchase behaviour. Secondary and primary research are undertaken to reach the goal of the paper. In addition, five hypotheses are evaluated to verify author's expectati...
Johnston, W J; McQuiston, D H
Research in organizational buying behaviour has made significant strides in recent years. Many of the more recent research efforts have focused around the multiperson unit of analysis - the buying center (those individuals that have an input into the purchase decision). Certain conceptual advances have been developed recently that expand the unit of analysis from the buying center to the buyer/seller, or interorganisational dyad. Examining this interorganizational dyad in concert with the the...
In a recent paper, Chiara Fumagalli and Massimo Motta (2006) challenge the idea that an incumbent can foreclose efficient entry in the face of scale economies by using exclusive contracts. They claim that inefficient exclusion does not arise when buyers are homogenous firms that compete downstream. However, when upstream firms can compete in two-part tariffs, their equilibrium analysis contains some errors. Fixing these errors, inefficient exclusion arises when scale economies are sufficientl...
Rapid reduction of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions is required to mitigate disastrous impacts of climate change. The Kyoto Protocol introduced international emissions trading (IET) to accelerate the reduction of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. The IET controls CO2 emissions through the allocation of marketable emission permits to sovereign countries. The costs for acquiring additional permits provide buyers with an incentive to reduce their CO2 emissions. However, permit price has decl...
The Clean Cities 2014 Vehicle Buyer's Guide is an annual guide which features a comprehensive list of 2014 light-duty alternative fuel and advanced vehicles, grouped by fuel and technology. The guide provides model-specific information on vehicle specifications, manufacturer suggested retail price, fuel economy, energy impact, and emissions. The information can be used to identify options, compare vehicles, and help inform purchase decisions.
DAVID T. ROSELL
Research indicates buyer-supplier collaborations in new product development (NPD) can have a positive impact on innovation. From a knowledge based view, it is argued that suppliers add a complementary knowledge base that is combined with the buyer’s knowledge. But what does the supplier contribution actually consist of? And more importantly: How is this supplier knowledge integrated into the NPD process? This is not clear in the literature. Different supplier inputs may imply different knowle...
Demographic variables may have an impact on Internet usage patterns. Online buyers’ characteristics keeps changing time along with the shifting dynamics of Turkish consumers’ demographic profile and day by day online shopping becomes a safe and popular option in Turkey. Current study investigates demographic composition of the online buyers that influence consumer attitudes towards online shopping behavior in Izmir, the third largest city in Turkey. This study examines attitudes toward online...
Cotterill, Ronald W.; Michael Cohen; Li Tian
The issue of supermarket chain power in wholesale markets has been around at least since the 1930’s when A&P surfaced as a nationwide chain with centralized buying (Adelman, 1959). Curiously those that complained the loudest were not firms that sold to supermarkets. Small retailers, who were unable to wrest concessions from brand manufacturers or wholesalers of fresh fruits and vegetables, alleged that large chain buyer power was driving them out of business. Consequently the Robinson Patman ...
This work investigates the effect of upstream and downstream mar- ket concentration on retailers’ price-cost margins using bimonthly data over the period 1989–1992 disaggregated by retailer type and product. In addition to horizontal concentration, differentiation, and cost factors, the analysis includes buyer power amongst the determinants of retailers’ profitability, as a result of vertical bargaining. Using a fixed effects model in first differences we find evidence of bargaining activity ...
Ahmed, Fawad; Sattar, Farook; Siyal, Mohammed Yakoob; Yu, Dan
We propose a secure watermarking scheme that integrates watermarking with cryptography for addressing some important issues in copyright protection. We address three copyright protection issues—buyer-seller identification, copyright infringement, and ownership verification. By buyer-seller identification, we mean that a successful watermark extraction at the buyer's end will reveal the identities of the buyer and seller of the watermarked image. For copyright infringement, our proposed scheme enables the seller to identify the specific buyer from whom an illegal copy of the watermarked image has originated, and further prove this fact to a third party. For multiple ownership claims, our scheme enables a legal seller to claim his/her ownership in the court of law. We will show that the combination of cryptography with watermarking not only increases the security of the overall scheme, but it also enables to associate identities of buyer/seller with their respective watermarked images.
Full Text Available We propose a secure watermarking scheme that integrates watermarking with cryptography for addressing some important issues in copyright protection. We address three copyright protection issues—buyer-seller identification, copyright infringement, and ownership verification. By buyer-seller identification, we mean that a successful watermark extraction at the buyer's end will reveal the identities of the buyer and seller of the watermarked image. For copyright infringement, our proposed scheme enables the seller to identify the specific buyer from whom an illegal copy of the watermarked image has originated, and further prove this fact to a third party. For multiple ownership claims, our scheme enables a legal seller to claim his/her ownership in the court of law. We will show that the combination of cryptography with watermarking not only increases the security of the overall scheme, but it also enables to associate identities of buyer/seller with their respective watermarked images.
Sajadieh, Mohsen S.; Thorstenson, Anders; Akbari Jokar, Mohammad R.
total supply chain profit. The numerical analysis shows that it is more profitable for the buyer and the vendor to cooperate in situations when the demand is more stock-dependent. The analysis also shows the effect of double marginalization in this integrated vendor-buyer model.......We develop an integrated vendor-buyer model for a two-stage supply chain. The vendor manufactures the product at a finite rate and delivers it in a number of equal-sized batches to the buyer. The items delivered are kept in the buyer's warehouse and are then presented to the end customers in a...... display area. The end-customer demand is assumed to be positively dependent on the amount of items shown in the display area. With the proposed model we determine the buyer's optimal shipment quantity and number of shipments, as well as the vendor's optimal production batch. The objective is to maximize...
Bardon, Thibaut; Arnaud, Nicolas; Villeseche, Florence
aspect of this interorganizational communication: the conversations that take place between shop-floor employees of partnering firms. Studying such daily conversations in situ affords insights on the foundations of efficient buyer-supplier communication beyond managerial level strategy making. We rely on......Interorganizational communication enhances buyer-supplier collaboration and may provide both partners competitive advantage. Existing studies document the antecedents as well as the benefits of efficient communication between buyers and suppliers. However, current studies fail to investigate a key...
Hendrickson, P.L.; Mohler, B.L.; Taylor, Z.T.; Lee, A.D.; Onisko, S.A.
This study relies on extensive, existing survey data and new analyses to develop information that would help design a marketing plan to achieve energy conservation in new manufactured homes. Existing surveys present comprehensive information about regional manufactured home occupants and their homes that are relevant to a potential conservation marketing plan. An independent analysis of the cost-effectiveness of various efficiency improvements provides background information for designing a marketing plan. This analysis focuses on the economic impacts of alternative energy conservation options as perceived by the home owner. Identifying impediments to conservation investments is also very important in designing a marketing plan. A recent report suggests that financial constraints and the need for better information and knowledge about conservation pose the major conservation investment barriers. Since loan interest rates for new manufactured homes typically exceed site-built rates by a considerable amount and the buyers tend to have lower incomes, the economics of manufactured home conservation investments are likely to significantly influence their viability. Conservation information and its presentation directly influences the manufactured home buyer's decision. A marketing plan should address these impediments and their implications very clearly. Dealers express a belief that consumer satisfaction is the major advantage to selling energy efficient manufactured homes. This suggests that targeting dealers in a marketing plan and providing them direct information on consumers' indicated attitudes may be important. 74 refs.
In a just-released study, RKS Research and Consulting reported that while power and gas marketing firms may become key players in the deregulated energy business, few of their customers and seeing a national leader emerge. The report said while 75% of large customers interviewed already use energy marketers, only 25% evidence a clear understanding of these firms' skills and product /offerings. The study found that the energy users considered reliable energy supply, service dependability and quality/reliability of fuel sources their top three criteria and apply that to utilities and energy marketing firms. The marketers may offer some unique services, such as a commanding market presence, fuel diversity, skill in using financial derivatives and record of successful risk management, but those offerings are generally at the bottom of the list that energy users use when considering power and gas marketers, the study said. What does this all mean to the gas utilities, both in terms of buying supplies as well as providing gas against their newly emerging competitors? The author asked gas buyers from five LDCs to discuss the challenges they face in doing their jobs today. Their comments are relevant because it is not only an example of a new way of doing business, but is also indicative of the choices and problems one will endure in buying energy in an increasingly deregulated environment. And remember this: the utilities are still the predominant buyers of gas
Jørsfeldt, Liliyana Makarowa; Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum
The positive effect of supplier-buyer relationships on supply chain performance has al-ready been supported by previous studies. Yet, little empirical research has explored how the sustainability agenda influences these relationships. Thus, this study investi-gates how supplier-buyer relationship...... their cross-functional team-working, increase data sharing and to penetrate deeper into operational processes....
Ikonnikova, S.; Zwart, G.
We consider a market with concentrated domestic buyers and concentrated foreign sellers and explore the extent to which domestic regulation helps to increase the buyers' countervailing power against the foreign sellers. We use the Shapley value to describe the distribution of the trade surplus and m
Horváth, C.; Birgelen, M.J.H. van
- Purpose – This article investigates the role that brands play in influencing the behavior and purchase decisions of compulsive buyers and whether this role differs for noncompulsive buyers, resulting in four research propositions. - Design/methodology/approach – In-depth interviews, conducted with
... merchant, or selling agent-minimum information. 205.104 Section 205.104 Animals and Animal Products GRAIN..., commission merchant, or selling agent—minimum information. (a) The minimum information necessary on a registration of a buyer, commission merchant, or selling agent is as follows: (1) Buyer, commission...
Thorstenson, Anders; Sajadieh, Mohsen S.; Akbari Jokar, Mohammad R.
supply-chain profit. The numerical analysis shows that as long as the maximum display area is not used, it is more valuable for the buyer and the vendor to cooperate in situations when the demand is more stock- dependent. It also shows the effect of double marginalization in this integrated vendor......An integrated vendor-buyer model for a two-stage supply chain is developed and analyzed. The vendor manufactures the product at a finite rate and delivers it in a number of equal-sized batches to the buyer. The items delivered are presented to the end customers in a display area and/or are kept in...... the buyer's warehouse. The demand is assumed to be positively dependent on the amount of items shown in the display area. The proposed model determines the buyer's optimal shipment quantity and number of shipments, as well as the vendor's optimal production batch. The objective is to maximize total...
Full Text Available Motor insurance constitutes the most popular type of insurance products purchased in Poland and consequently the largest part of non-life insurance sector. In this paper the selected results of the questionnaire survey concerning attitudes and choices of the motor insurance buyers on the Polish market are presented. First, the current situation on the Polish motor insurance market is discussed. Next, the scope of the motor insurance held by respondents, their forms and used distribution channels are analysed. The stress is put on the level of the customers` loyalty to the current insurer, as well as the factors influencing the choice of a specific insurance company and its offer. Finally, the results of the analysis concerning the statistical interdependencies between selected characteristics of the respondents are considered.The conducted research can be useful in practice for the insurance companies, interested in improving their motor insurance offer, as well as the insurance intermediaries serving individual customers
This article focuses on the system used for selling liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) where the sellers set the market price with Saudi Arabia dominating the market. The introduction and acceptance of a new method for setting the export price in relation to the spot price, the production of more LPG for export than forecast, the impact on the Saudi Arabian methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) industry of California's banning MTBE additives to petrol,and the possibility of Asian buyers renegotiating the supply agreements are discussed. Details of Saudi Arabia's petrochemical plants planning to use LPG and world LPG production for 1998 are tabulated. The US market, and new systems for trading and pricing are considered. (UK)
Sajadieh, Mohsen S.; Thorstenson, Anders; Akbari Jokar, Mohammad R.
We develop an integrated vendor-buyer model for a two-stage supply chain. The vendor manufactures the product and delivers it in a number of equal-sized batches to the buyer. The items delivered are presented to the end customers in a display area. Demand is assumed to be positively dependent on...... the amount of items displayed. The objective is to maximize total supply chain profit. The numerical analysis shows that buyer-vendor coordination is more profitable in situations when demand is more stock dependent. It also shows that the effect of double marginalization provides a link between the...
Rao, Akshay R.; Mark E. Bergen
It appears that buyers sometimes knowingly pay a price that is higher than that justified by the relative quality of the product. Such a price premium is argued to be an economically rational attempt by quality-conscious buyers to ensure that the seller does not provide a lower than promised level of quality for experience products. Conversely, for search products, price premiums are argued to be the consequence of lack of search by buyers who are less quality conscious. Results from a survey...
@@ MEMPHIS - The COTTON USA Buyers Tour to China delivered representatives from 18 global companies - with a combined annual turnover of $18.5 billion - to China from 26-30 March to meet suppliers of pure cotton woven textiles.
Oosterhuis, M.; van der Vaart, T.; Molleman, E.
In this paper, we investigate how buyers' and suppliers' distinct perceptions of technology uncertainty affect the relationship between communication frequency and supplier performance. Information processing theory suggests that a fit is desirable between perceived environmental uncertainty and the
... determine which U.S. firms are interested in meeting with international business visitors and the overseas... International Trade Administration Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; International Buyer Program Application and Exhibitor Data AGENCY: International Trade Administration, Commerce. ACTION: Notice....
@@ COTTON USA's Supply Chain Marketing Buyers Tour will be held in China from 7th to 11th June.Cotton Council International's ("CCI") representative offices in the U.S.,Europe and North East Asia have recruited nearly 40 renowned global buyers and retailers including,Gardeur,Gerry Weber,Marks & Spencer,Max Mara,K&L Ruppert,Debenhams,Polo Ralph Lauren coming to China to attend Buyers Tour,and 37 COTTON USA licensed suppliers from China and North and South East Asian regions will also participate in the trade fair to demonstrate their quality products,which will not only ensure the buyers to receive quality fabrics and garments,but also assist the suppliers to create a forum to meet their buvers and to thrive their business.
Olivier Chatain; Peter Zemsky
Horizontal scope--the set of products and services offered--is an important dimension of firm strategy and a potentially significant source of competitive advantage. On one hand, the ability to build close buyer-supplier relationships over multiple transactions can give an advantage to broad firms that offer buyers "one-stop shopping." On the other hand, the existence of organizational tradeoffs can give an advantage to firms that specialize in a narrower range of products or services. We dev...
The determinants of consumer purchase behavior have been for years the object of the study of researchers who dealt with the analysis of the consumption process and the behavior of buyers. Among numerous classification proposals for the determinants, the most common are the economic, social and psychological stimuli. The article is an attempt to identify the impact of psychological determinants on consumer purchase behavior, with a particular consideration of young buyers of durable goods. P...
Lai, Lily Yi-Ting
The traditional direct marketing paradigm implicitly assumes that there is no possibility of a customer purchasing the product unless he receives the direct promotion. In real business environments, however, there are "voluntary buyers" who will make the purchase even without marketing contact. While no direct promotion is needed for voluntary buyers, the traditional response-driven paradigm tends to target such customers. In this thesis, the traditional paradigm is examined in detail. We arg...
Companies increasingly outsource IT-related tasks using reverse auction mechanisms embedded into online marketplaces. However, a considerable proportion of auctions at these marketplaces do not result in a contract between buyer and supplier. Extant literature mostly refers to costly bidding and bid evaluation to explain this phenomenon. Another possible explanation is that because of the low entry barriers, buyers with a low commitment to exchange can use the marketplace solely for informati...
Radkevitch, Uladzimir; Heck, Eric; Koppius, Otto
textabstractCompanies increasingly outsource IT-related tasks using reverse auction mechanisms embedded into online marketplaces. However, a considerable proportion of auctions at these marketplaces do not result in a contract between buyer and supplier. Extant literature mostly refers to costly bidding and bid evaluation to explain this phenomenon. Another possible explanation is that because of the low entry barriers, buyers with a low commitment to exchange can use the marketplace solely f...
Bromley, N G
In this paper, a category of industrial and commercial services to be called Essential Near Commodities (ENCs) is proposed. Consideration of ENC buyer-supplier relationships has led to the proposition that ENC exchange relations develop in a specific way as a consequence of particular product determinants, such as the strategic importance to buyers and other market and product characteristics. The aims of this study are to test the conceptual grouping of ENCs and develop an understanding of t...
Rao, C P; Karuppan, M; S C Mehta
While there is a great need, there is a general paucity of research dealing with cross-cultural studies in organizational behavior. This is especially so with regard to comparing the organizational buyers in the developed countries with those in the developing countries. This paper analyzes and reports differences and similarities between the American and the Indian industrial buyers with regard to their 'choice criteria' in selecting vendors. Similarities and differences between the two grou...
Lloyd Tim; McCorriston Steve; Morgan Wyn; Rayner Anthony; Weldegebriel Habtu
The potential existence of buyer power in U.K. food retailing has attracted the scrutiny of the U.K.'s anti-trust authorities, culminating in the second of two comprehensive regulatory inquiries in recent years. Such inquiries are authoritative but correspondingly time-consuming and costly. Moreover, detection of buyer power has been dogged by the paucity of reliable evidence of its existence. In this paper, we present a simple theoretical model of oligopsony which delivers quasi-reduced form...
Bruce, M.; Gwinnett, A
The purchase of a new office automation system which is expected to fundamentally alter an organisation's management practices and activities is a complex process. One aspect of this is the process of anticipating the changing needs of the buyer. Another is assessing whether or not the technology of suppliers can support the buyer's projected needs. This paper looks at the evaluation process for a new office automation system as carried out by a major British clearing bank. In this instance, ...
This paper examines the issues involved in buyer-seller relations for industrial product sales in the People's Republic of China. The need is genuine in many product categories including plant technology, high technology, and infrastructure. The problem is that buying policies and procedures for foreign firms are still emerging, and therefore, unclear and confusing. Three approach strategies for buyer-seller relations with China are presented: the authorized "buying group," the "agency" repre...
Tranæs, Torben; Hendon, Ebbe
A matching and bargaining model in a market with one seller and two buyers, differing only in their reservation price, is analyzed. No subgame perfect equilibrium exists for stationary strategies. We demonstrate the existence of inefficient equilibria in which the low buyer receives the good with...... large probability, even as friction becomes negligible. We investigate the relationship between the use of Nash and sequential bargaining. Nash bargaining seems applicable only when the sequential approach yields a unique stationary strategy subgame perfect equilibrium...
This article offers some theoretical and empirical contributions to the literature on relational exchange by examining the nature of subjective trust and perceived risk in buyer-supplier relationships. The relational view represents the theoretical framework for the research. The study explores the theoretical proposition that subjective trust and perceived risk in buyer-supplier relationships impact on exchange performance through the mediating effects of four sources of relational rents: as...
Bönte, Werner; Wiethaus, Lars
Abuyer?s technical knowledge may increase the efficiency of its supplier. Suppliers, however, frequently maintain relationships with additional buyers. Knowledge disclosure then bears the risk of benefiting one?s own competitor due to opportunistic knowledge transmission through the common supplier. We show that in one-shot relationships no knowledge disclosure takes place because the supplier has an incentive for knowledge transmission and, in anticipation of this outcome, buyers refuse to d...
Oosterhuis, Marian; Vaart, Taco van der; Molleman, Eric
Abstract In this paper, we investigate how buyers? and suppliers? distinct perceptions of technology uncertainty affect the relationship between communication frequency and supplier performance. Information processing theory suggests that a fit is desirable between perceived environmental uncertainty and the communication processes between organisations. However, if partners in a buyer-supplier relationship do not concur on there being a high level of technology uncertainty, it is ...
The rational buyer auction is based on a simultaneous auction that is the redesigned auction mechanism for ancillary services by the California independent system operator (CAISO). The incentive for the rational buyer auction is CAISO's intent to adopt a common sense rule of substituting higher-quality lower-cost services for lower-quality higher-cost services, when it results in reduced total procurement cost. For the purposes of designing a desirable auction where the minimum cost for the objective function as well as prevention of price reversal are achieved, either the payment cost in marginal pricing auction must be lowered or price reversal in rational buyer auction must be avoided. The objectives of this study are (a) to develop a newly proposed 'modified rational buyer' auction that does not allow price reversal and (b) to propose and validate a solution procedure that is based on participation matrix and discrete programming. The validation of the proposed solution procedure is accomplished through examination of two case studies available in the literature. Based on the first case study data, it is shown that the newly developed modified rational buyer auction avoids price reversal occurrence, while the total payment of ISO is increased by 5.8%, as compared with rational buyer auction. Also in comparison with marginal pricing auction, the ISO payment is lowered by 38.8%, when the newly developed modified rational buyer auction is utilized. For future work, it is recommended that the application of the modified rational buyer auction to joint dispatch of energy and ancillary services is investigated. (author)
Yadav, Manjit S
Bundling, the joint offering of two or more items, is a common selling strategy, yet little research has been conducted on buyers' evaluation of bundle offers. We developed and tested a model of bundle evaluation in which the buyers anchored their evaluation on the item perceived as most important and then made adjustments on the basis of their evaluations of the remaining bundle items. The results of two computerized laboratory experiments suggested that people tend to examine bundle items i...
The aim of this dissertation was to examine the factors important in achieving success in cross-cultural business relationships, in this case between Russian buyers and Norwegian sellers of seafood. Emphasis was placed on exploring how cultural differences influence factors important in relationship satisfaction, how to attain the various factors, and how cultural differences are managed by buyers and sellers to achieve successful relationships. This study was based on the assumptions that th...
Arana Coronado, J.J.; Bijman, J; Omta, S.W.F.; A.G.J.M. Oude Lansink
Vertical coordination is an effective response to uncertainties in marketing environments. This article presents evidence relating the influence of transaction characteristics on interfirm coordination to respond what conditions determine the level of inter-firm coordination between packers and buyers. Based on transaction cost analysis, we measured inter-firm coordination using two variables, information exchange and duration of the arrangement with the buyer. Data were gathered from 44 non-...
Qi-Ying Su; Carl Adams
Existing technology adoption models do not explicitly differentiate between the buyer and user of technology, seemingly assuming that the users and the buyers are the same. This article reports on an investigation into cell phone/mobile phone use, with samples from China and the UK, the results of which show that the assumption that technology users can be automatically classed as the purchasers, is flawed. Further, there seem to be three distinct stakeholders, the user, the initial purchaser...
Yu Xia; Bintong Chen; Panos Kouvelis
We study competitive marketplaces with multiple suppliers and multiple buyers dealing with a single product. A buyer chooses the supplier who offers the best price for his order profile, as described by his order size and delivery frequency. A supplier's offering price reflects her logistic cost structure as captured by relevant economies of scale in a "setup cost" component, and storage- and distribution-related costs in a "holding cost per unit" component. We argue that the matching of buye...
Van Gelder, J.W. [Profundo, Castricum (Netherlands)
The international trade in palm oil is a key driver of rain forest destruction and human rights abuses on a massive scale. This report is one of two research projects undertaken for Friends of the Earth in 2003 into the impacts of the palm oil industry in South East Asia, its links to the European market and the involvement of European companies in the palm oil trade. Chapters 1 - 3 of this report (examining the growth of the European market for oil palm and the Indonesian export market) are printed here. Chapters 4 - 6 (focusing on the palm oil market in UK, the Netherlands and Sweden) are available on request from Friends of the Earth. Research methodology into the impacts of palm oil included monitoring reports compiled by the Indonesian non-governmental organisation (NGO) SawitWatch and interviews with community members and local activists. The SawitWatch data had been gathered over a period of five years, based on field investigations, meetings with local community members, media reports and regular monitoring. The analysis of the European market focused particularly on the companies trading in palm oil in the UK, the Netherlands and Sweden as well as giving a general overview of the trade in oil palm and the growth of the European market. This research is available in two reports: (1) Greasy palms: the social and ecological impacts of large-scale oil palm plantation development in South East Asia; (2) Greasy palms: European buyers of Indonesian palm oil. A summary of the two research reports (Greasy Palms - palm oil, the environment and big business) is also available.
Amnon Rapoport; Ido Erev; Rami Zwick
We study a multiperiod bargaining mechanism in which a seller negotiates with a buyer over the price of an indivisible good. It is common knowledge that the good has zero value to the seller. Its value to the buyer is privately known, distributed independently of the seller's value according to a distribution that is common knowledge. Bargaining proceeds as follows. The seller sets a price and offers the buyer an opportunity to purchase the good. The buyer either waits for at least one more p...
Khanna, Aditi; Gautam, Prerna; Jaggi, Chandra K.
Supply chain management has become a critical issue for modern business environments. In today's world of cooperative decision-making, individual decisions in order to reduce inventory costs may not lead to an overall optimal solution. Coordination is necessary among participants of supply chain to achieve better performance. There are legitimate and important efforts from the vendor to enhance the relation with buyer; one such effort is offering trade credit which has been a driver of growth and development of business between them. The cost of financing is a core consideration in effective financial management, in general and in context of business. Also, due to imperfect production a vendor may produce defective items which results in shortages. Motivated with these aspects, an integrated vendor-buyer inventory model is developed for imperfect quality items with allowable shortages; in which the vendor offers credit period to the buyer for payment. The objective is to minimize the total joint annual costs incurred by the vendor and the buyer by using integrated decision making approach. The expected total annual integrated cost is derived and a solution procedure is provided to find the optimal solution. Numerical analysis shows that the integrated model gives an impressive cost reduction, in comparison to independent decision policies by the vendor and the buyer.
The expanding availability of alternative fuels and advanced vehicles makes it easier than ever to reduce petroleum use, cut emissions, and save on fuel costs. The Clean Cities 2012 Vehicle Buyer's Guide features a comprehensive list of model year 2012 vehicles that can run on ethanol, biodiesel, electricity, propane or natural gas. Drivers and fleet managers across the country are looking for ways to reduce petroleum use, fuel costs, and vehicle emissions. As you'll find in this guide, these goals are easier to achieve than ever before, with an expanding selection of vehicles that use gasoline or diesel more efficiently, or forego them altogether. Plug-in electric vehicles made a grand entrance onto U.S. roadways in model year (MY) 2011, and their momentum in the market is poised for continued growth in 2012. Sales of the all-electric Nissan Leaf surpassed 8,000 in the fall of 2011, and the plug-in hybrid Chevy Volt is now available nationwide. Several new models from major automakers will become available throughout MY 2012, and drivers are benefiting from a rapidly growing network of charging stations, thanks to infrastructure development initiatives in many states. Hybrid electric vehicles, which first entered the market just a decade ago, are ubiquitous today. Hybrid technology now allows drivers of all vehicle classes, from SUVs to luxury sedans to subcompacts, to slash fuel use and emissions. Alternative fueling infrastructure is expanding in many regions, making natural gas, propane, ethanol, and biodiesel attractive and convenient choices for many consumers and fleets. And because fuel availability is the most important factor in choosing an alternative fuel vehicle, this growth opens up new possibilities for vehicle ownership. This guide features model-specific information about vehicle specs, manufacturer suggested retail price (MSRP), fuel economy, and emissions. You can use this information to compare vehicles and help inform your buying
The Fashion Merchandising Course in domestic universities is rising up gradually in recent years. However, there are also some problems existing in either teaching or learning. For example, the lessons always focus on theories, some cases studies are not suitable and professional information lags. This paper compares the Chinese and British education ,especially the practical teaching methods of University of the Arts London. In the same time, this paper also combines with the practice and thinking about international buyer through the working experience in LVMH Group to give some key advices to the teaching reform of fashion merchandising course. This paper uses IBTP, in other words,“International Buyer Training Program”, in the workshop of fashion buying course to realize the course’s creative plan. By this creative program, more and more professional International fashion buyers will be trained in the universities.
Vytelingum, Perukrishnen; Cliff, Dave; Jennings, Nicholas R.
We develop a new model to analyse the strategic behaviour of buyers and sellers in market mechanisms. In particular, we wish to understand how the different strategies they adopt affect their economic efficiency in the market and to understand the impact of these choices on the overall efficiency of the marketplace. To this end, we adopt a two-population evolutionary game theoretic approach, where we consider how the behaviours of both buyers and sellers evolve in marketplaces. In so doing, we address the shortcomings of the previous state-of-the-art analytical model that assumes that buyers and sellers have to adopt the same mixed strategy in the market. Finally, we apply our model in one of the most common market mechanisms, the Continuous Double Auction, and demonstrate how it allows us to provide new insights into the strategic interactions of such trading agents.
Zhang, Qinghong; Luo, Jianwen; Duan, Yongrui
Buyer-vendor coordination has been widely addressed; however, the fixed lifetime of the product is seldom considered. In this paper, we study the coordination of an integrated production-inventory system with quantity discount for a fixed lifetime product under finite production rate and deterministic demand. We first derive the buyer's ordering policy and the vendor's production batch size in decentralised and centralised systems. We then compare the two systems and show the non-coordination of the ordering policies and the production batch sizes. To improve the supply chain efficiency, we propose quantity discount contract and prove that the contract can coordinate the buyer-vendor supply chain. Finally, we present analytically tractable solutions and give a numerical example to illustrate the benefits of the proposed quantity discount strategy.
Many online marketplaces enjoy great success. Buyers and sellers in successful markets carry out cooperative transactions even if they do not know each other in advance and a moral hazard exists. An indispensable component that enables cooperation in such social dilemma situations is the reputation system. Under the reputation system, a buyer can avoid transacting with a seller with a bad reputation. A transaction in online marketplaces is better modeled by the trust game than other social dilemma games, including the symmetric Prisoner's Dilemma. In addition, most individuals participate mostly as buyers or sellers; each individual does not play the two roles with equal probability. Although the reputation mechanism is known to be able to remove the moral hazard in games with asymmetric roles, competition between different strategies and population dynamics of such a game are not sufficiently understood. On the other hand, existing models of reputation-based cooperation, also known as indirect reciprocity, a...
This paper reports a preliminary laboratory experiment in which traders make investments to increase the reliability of tradable instruments that represent greenhouse gas emissions allowances. In one half of the sessions these investments are unobservable, while in the other half traders can invite costless and accurate inspections that make reliability investments public. We implement a buyer liability rule, so that if emissions reductions are unreliable (i.e., sellers default), the buyer of the allowances cannot redeem them to cover emissions. We find that allowing inspections significantly increases the reliability investment rate and overall efficiency. Prices of uninspected allowances usually trade at a substantial discount due to the buyer liability rule, which provides a strong market incentive for sellers to invest in reliability
Cheah, Chor Eng
Today, perhaps more rapidly than any other time in recent history, the business-to business competitive environment is changing (Liu and Leach, 2001). While the preceding statement particularly refers to a business-to-business context, it is not too far-fetched to argue that this observation rings true for other business environments. Driven by concerns over efficiency and effectiveness, many buyers of large firms are reducing the number of suppliers1 they conduct business with and creating m...
Full Text Available This study seeks to understand the effect of transactional and relational governance mechanisms on opportunism induced by the buyer supplier relationship. Using panel data of 386 Tunisian export companies between 2003 and 2008, the analysis shows that transactional as well as relational governance mechanisms are negatively related to the opportunistic behavior of the customer. In order to focus on internal corporate characteristics, the level of debt and the size of the buyer are controlled. This study supports the role of contracts as formal governance tool in reducing inter-firm opportunism which corroborates transaction cost economics. It also confirms some main notions in social exchange theory. The role of trust as relational mechanism in governing the buyer-supplier relationship has been verified. Finally, the findings of this paper sustain the complementarity view toward relational and transactional governance mechanisms. The paper offers insights to executives of companies to govern the buyer-supplier relationship in order to dispel opportunism by using simultaneously transactional and relational mechanisms.
Dani, Samir S.; Burns, Neil D.
The advent of the Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) and the Internet with its subsequent use in the field of supply chains, mainly online shopping; web managed purchasing and online auctions have given rise to complex relationships between buyers and suppliers. The manner in which the buyer-supplier transactions occur have a psychological bearing similar to the transactions occurring between humans in the buyer-supplier organizations. The on-going research to study the psychological aspects of the transactions will use Transactional Analysis as a tool to identify these aspects of the relationship. The essential aspect of this view is that organizational culture plays a very strong role in the way organizations operate, and when two organizations transact with each other the individual culture is bound to play a role in the way the transaction is conducted. There are a number of factors that play a role in bringing the culture to the forefront of the transaction process. It is necessary to study these factors in order to understand why the psychological behavior is actually shown by these buyer- supplier organizations.
The author endeavoured to define profiles and preferences of buyers on the primary housing market in Poznań. To achieve this aim, the author used data obtained from notarial deeds concerning transactions entered into on the primary housing market in Poznań in the period 2010-2011.
Carbon markets are increasingly conscious of the social and environmental 'quality' of credits delivered by CDM projects. Consequently carbon credits are no longer viewed as a homogenous good and buyers now differentiate between credits supplied by different types of CDM project. The objective of this paper is to classify CER buyers according to their attitudes towards and preferences for CDM sustainability labels. K-means clustering was used to segment a sample of buyers into two clusters. The results indicate that two clear clusters exist with distinct profile patterns. Moreover, the results of discriminant analysis confirmed that the two-cluster solution was valid. Finally, the results of the chi-square analysis and a cross-tabulation showed that these two clusters were significantly different in: organization type; level of paid up capital; perception of sustainable development benefits; perception of return on investment; perception of image of the sustainability labeling; participation in the voluntary market; the project priority; knowledge in the sustainability label; attitude towards the host country's duty; and their willingness to pay. - Highlights: → The K-means clustering was used to classify CER buyers in the primary market. → The carbon market is divided into two: the premium market; and the normal market. → Governments tend to be members of the premium market. → 82% of members in the premium market are willing to pay a price premium for CERs.
Knox, S D; White, H MF
This article extends the IMP interaction approach into horticultural marketing in the United Kingdom. Firstly, the stages in the development of retail buyer-supplier relationships are categorised, secondly, the principle characteristics of the interaction elements are highlighted, and thirdly, the concept of demand and supply portfolios are introduced to explain the strategy adopted by both parties.
Ingenbleek, P.T.M.; Meulenberg, M.T.G.; Trijp, van J.C.M.
The inclusion of sustainability concerns in consumer decision-making poses new challenges to marketing. The existing literature contains a variety of concepts and definitions that pertain to social issues in consumption but lacks an overarching conceptualisation of buyer social responsibility (BSR)
... trade show and, where feasible, recruitment of international buyers to that show, provision of on-site... marketing opportunities as identified by ITA. Previous international attendance at the show may be used as... sales into additional export markets. (g) Level of Overseas Marketing: There has been a...
COTTON USA’s Supply Chain Marketing Buyers Tour will be held in China from 7th to 11th June.Cotton Council International’s("CCI")representative offices in the U.S.,Europe and North East Asia have recruited nearly 40
... Program partnership status is not an endorsement of the show organizer except as to its international... International Trade Administration Call for Applications for the International Buyer Program Calendar Year 2013 AGENCY: International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice and Call...
Doorn, F.A.H. van
The trend of retail concentration across the European Union has raised concerns on the buyer power that retailers may have in the relation with their suppliers. Specifically, due to the alleged increasing pressure on producer and supplier margins in various distribution chains, but the increased foc
U.L. Radkevitch (Uladzimir); H.W.G.M. van Heck (Eric); O.R. Koppius (Otto)
textabstractCompanies increasingly outsource IT-related tasks using reverse auction mechanisms embedded into online marketplaces. However, a considerable proportion of auctions at these marketplaces do not result in a contract between buyer and supplier. Extant literature mostly refers to costly bi
Lu Hualiang,; Feng, S.; Trienekens, J.H.; Omta, S.W.F.
Guanxi is the lifeblood of the Chinese society. It also becomes a hot topic for achieving business success in China. The primary goal of this exploratory study is to empirically investigate the effect of guanxi networks on buyer¿seller relationships and market performance for the Chinese vegetable s
Rask, Morten; Kragh, Hanne
The motivation of suppliers as well as buyers for e-marketplace participation is closely linked to the perceived outcome of participation, not only in terms of the benefits of joining an e-marketplace, but also in terms of the possible consequences of not joining. The key issue, therefore, is why...
Hendrickson, P.L.; Mohler, B.L.; Taylor, Z.T.; Lee, A.D.; Onisko, S.A.
Manufactured, or HUD-Code, homes comprise a growing share of the housing stock in the Northwest, as well as nationally. Their relatively low cost has made them especially attractive to lower income families, first-time home-buyers, and retired persons. The characteristics of manufactured home (MH) buyers, the unique energy consumption characteristics of the homes, and their increasing market share make this market an especially critical one for energy consumption and conservation planning in the Northwest. This study relies on extensive, existing survey data and new analyses to develop information that can potentially assist the design of a marketing plan to achieve energy conservation in new manufactured homes. This study has the objective of assisting BPA in the development of a regional approach in which numerous organizations and parties would participate to achieve conservation in new manufactured homes. A previous survey and information collected for this study from regional dealers and manufacturers provide an indication of the energy conservation options being sold to manufactured home buyers in the PNW. Manufacturers in the Northwest appear to sell homes that usually exceed the HUD thermal requirements. Manufacturers typically offer efficiency improvements in packages that include fixed improvements in insulation levels, glazing, and infiltration control. Wholesale costs of these packages range from about $100 to $1500. Typical packages include significant upgrades in floor insulation values with modest upgrades in ceilings and walls. This study identifies trends and impacts that a marketing plan should consider to adequately address the financial concerns of manufactured home buyers.
Chrysochou, Polymeros; Krystallis, Athanasios; Rungie, Cam
In order to operationalize brand loyalty, various models have been applied that estimate brand measures and further describe patterns and the structure of the markets. A well known model in this area is the Dirichlet-NBD model. Despite major advancements to those models, how buyers' characteristics...
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to illustrate how the so called resource-advantage perspective can be used to determine the importance of specific relational and transactional dimensions of buyer-supplier relationships in driving relationship competitiveness within a transnational company (TNC. The main objective of our research was to analyze which and how much specific relational and/or transactional dimensions of buyer-supplier relationships affect TNC buyer-supplier relationship competitiveness. Based on an illustrative empirical example, we tested a simple variance-based reflective Structural Equation Model (SEM with main effects based on a sampleof 130 TNC buyer-supplier relationships. Our results show that buyer-supplier relationship competitiveness is mostly driven by interpersonal trust and joint problem solving (both relationaldeterminants, as well as by two kinds of transaction-specific investments (TSIs, namely investments into people and physical assets. In terms of theoretical implications, our results show thatthe resource-advantage theory of competition can link both the relationship marketing and the transaction cost economics perspective of buyer-supplier relationship management. We further provide some managerial recommendations for more effective management of TNC buyer-supplier relationships in terms of leveraging competitiveness.
Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this article is to explore perceptions regarding buyer and supplier collaboration around product development. The aim is to gain an understanding of which factors influence buyer-supplier collaboration outcomes in the South African textile industry. Methodology: This study comprised two data collection stages. The first stage comprised the design and administration of a questionnaire survey. The second stage utilised a qualitative interview methodology and entailed interviewing a subset of the questionnaire respondents in order to probe respondents own experiences in collaborative product developments and their perception of the factors that determine collaboration outcome. Findings: This study has shed light on the experiences of South African firms in the textile industry engaging in buyer-supplier collaboration around product development. While this study is exploratory, it has provided evidence that there are certain factors which are perceived to have a significant influence on collaboration. Implications: Under the past protective shield of tariffs, South African clothing and textile manufacturers could afford to allow an adversarial mode of operation to perpetuate inefficiencies. However, the increasing external pressures, including the very real threat of overseas competition, heighten the need for collaboration between buyers and suppliers. This relates, in particular, to collaboration aimed at new product development, which can be seen as a new imperative for the survival and growth of this industry. Currently, there are numerous barriers to effective collaboration. The overwhelming power of retailers in the value chain is one such barrier, as it creates an environment which is pressurised, strained and not conducive to buyer-supplier collaboration. Contribution and Value: Studies on collaborative new product development have primarily been done in developed countries, with a focus on technology intensive
ZHENG Siqi; LIU Hongyu; Rebecca Lee
This paper examines homebuyer's search process and the role of real estate broker in China's urban housing market, where inactive housing resale transactions and an immature brokerage industry are distinct characteristics. Guangzhou is used as a case study to model the intensity and duration of the search process. This study finds that buyers make trade-off between two search costs, activity cost and duration cost. The study also demonstrates that despite the industry's immature nature, buyers using brokers do increase search intensity and shorten search duration by reducing the activity cost. Empirical results show that there is no specific buyer group who can effectively lower their search cost by their own efforts, due to the poor information transparency in the current housing market. The broker-choice model shows that besides search cost, buyers' confidence in broker's service quality can also greatly influence their choice, so improvement in service quality and reputation has important implications for China's brokerage industry.
Under the Kyoto Protocol's clean development mechanism, developed countries may purchase or trade for emission reduction units or greenhouse gas (GHG) offsets originating either from excess quota allocations or from developing countries' projects. Selling emission reduction units before a market has actually developed presents pricing problems for both sellers and buyers. In the case of sequestered carbon and in the example of a Costa Rican project, it may be economically beneficial to both buyer and seller alike for the buyer to purchase the right, but not the obligation, to purchase a carbon tradable offset (CTO). It is shown by valuing purchases and sales of CTO options that advantages from such an instrument are possible to both seller and buyer at least until a true market in GHG offset trading develops. 16 refs
Full Text Available In this paper, an integrated inventory model is developed from the perspective of a single vendor and multi-buyers for deteriorating items under fuzzy environment and inflation. In the development of the model, it is assumed that all costs parameters, demand and the production rates are imprecise in nature; they are represented by the trapezoidal fuzzy numbers, as these parameters are not constant and can be disturbed due to daily market changes. We use function principle as arithmetic operations to find the total inventory cost in fuzzy sense and Graded Mean - Integration Representation Method to defuzzify the fuzzy total inventory cost. Inflation is used to find the present worth of total cost. Since the optimal policy of buyers may not be the most economical for a vendor, thus to deal with this situation, integrated cost policy is used to reach the optimal policy. Finally, a numerical example is given to illustrate the model.
of relationships, and in establishing a strategic partnership. This is mainly due to the fact that it can be costly to include users when changing service processes without a deep understanding of technology and customer needs. Originality/value – The paper provide issues to help organizations manage...... data that have been collected through 12 interviews with managers and employees at a wholesaler of electronic consumer equipment and a leading FM service provider. Findings – The results indicate that significant benefits due to process innovation, here PDF-invoicing, has been the more intensive...... information flow and exchange, and the increased cooperation and commitment between the seller-buyer pair and their customers. The analysis of the data related to the buyer side reveals that added value is mainly driven by collaborative work and results in improving information flow and exchange, development...
Danny Pimentel Claro
Full Text Available Relationship marketing is essential for success in business. The need to understand better the differences in the strategies buyers and suppliers follow is what has motivated this study. We drew on emerging perspectives on inter-firm governance and networks to develop a theoretical framework to understand the success of long-term relationships. We tested the framework using data from 67 merchant distributors (buyers and 174 suppliers of theirs in the Dutch potted plant and flower industry. While the most successful distributors tend to take the “hard”, tangible strategy using transaction specific investments and fostering joint action, the successful suppliers take the “soft”, social approach by emphasizing trust and the norm of flexibility in the relationship.
Chowdhury, Shyamal K.
This paper assesses the impact of information cost and other transaction costs on rural producers' discrete choice between selling to middlemen and direct buyers, and continuous choice of selling intensity to middlemen and direct buyers. Using transaction costs economics as an analytical framework to decompose the different origins of transaction costs, the paper empirically investigates the impact of transaction costs on farm households' marketing behaviour in the context of Bangladesh. Empi...
Hyun Jung Kim; Jiyoon Son; Soo Wook Kim
This study analyzes the efficiency of supply chain quality management (SCQM) by grouping buyers and suppliers and conducting an empirical analysis of aspects affecting SCQM efficiency from the supplier’s perspective. Two stages of data analysis were conducted: (1) classify buyer and supplier efficiency by means of data envelopment analysis (DEA) and sort the data results into a 2×2 matrix and (2) conduct a statistical analysis to verify influential aspects. The results depict the average valu...
Nipaporn Wawjapo; Piyawadee Prasongsin; Wuttichai Srisodaphol
This study is to construct an inventory system model in which a single vendor supplies a product to a single buyer. The buyer uses the (R,Q) inventory policy. The inventory model analyzed the problem that the ordering cost reductions depend on lead time in the continuous inspection inventory model with backorders discount. The demand during lead time is distributed as normally distribution. Also, vendor manages the complete items. Then, the minimization of the average total related cost by si...
Orange, V J; Robinson, D E
The use of buyer/planners may becoming more popular. If they are, the reason is probably that many companies are integrating materiel management skill sets as a way of increasing the effectiveness of their supply chains. Harley-Davidson recently created a supply management function composed of buyer/planners. This article describes the method it used to achieve the transition, the training plan it implemented to support the process, and the role management played in achieving success. PMID:10345629
Kleynhans, Theo E.; Opperman, J.M.
The use of the comparable sales method to value farm properties requires that professional valuers must think like a typical buyer of farm properties in a particular area. The Stellenbosch district, located on the periphery of the Cape Metropole, is a famous wine-producing area. The typical buyer is sophisticated and wealthy: someone for whom lifestyle could probably be just as important as the income generating capacity of the wine estate. A variety of site and situational factors have to be...
Brown, Kenneth H.; Shane M. Greenstein
This paper develops and estimates cost-of-living indexes (e.g., Fisher and Griliches ) for measuring buyer benefits from technical change in the commercial mainframe computer industry in the 1980s. For this purpose we use a micro-econometric model of demand for product characteristics embodied in a computer system. The model highlights buyers' benefits from technical change when innovation decreases the price of characteristics or increases the range of available characteristics. This e...
In the last decade, large sectors of the chemical and plastics industries in the USA and West Europe have suffered drastic declines in price and gross margin during periods of low utilisation of industry capacity.This paper shows that the major changes in gross margin observed for some commodity plastics can be modelled successfully in terms of the balance between buyer power and seller power. These industries have visibility of prices and industry occupacity and comparable concentrations of ...
Gilpin, S C
An empirical study of hotel managers, and corporate buyers would indicate that there is a shifting trend both in customer and supplier needs, with the customer being perceived by management as the power within the relationship. However, the customer often perceives themselves to be at the mercy of the supplier and initial data gathered from industry consultants and channel intermediaries would tend to substantiate this.
A buyer with downward slopping demand faces a number of unit supply sellers. The paper characterizes optimal auctions in this setting. For the symmetric case, a uniform auction (with price equal to lowest rejected offer) is optimal when complemented with reserve prices for different quantities acquired. For asymmetric sellers, the optimal distortions are familiar. The problem is similar to the third degree discriminating monopsonist problem, just as in the unit (flat) demand case (Bulow-Rober...
Doorn, F.A.H. van
The trend of retail concentration across the European Union has raised concerns on the buyer power that retailers may have in the relation with their suppliers. Specifically, due to the alleged increasing pressure on producer and supplier margins in various distribution chains, but the increased focus on consumer welfare in EU competition policy, various stakeholders call for demands for a change in the current substantive legal framework of EU competition law. In this discussion, reference i...
Ha, Sung Ho; Liu, Luo Tao
Online shopping in open markets becomes increasingly popular with the development of the Internet. The purpose of this study is to formulate and evaluate critical success factors in the open market from the perspective of buyers. Based on an extended technology acceptance model, this study assumes that the success of open markets are influenced by several factors, including perceived website quality, perceived usefulness, third party recognition, satisfaction, and trust. An empirical survey i...
White, Gregory K.
Specialty food aficionados, who use the Internet to gather information or place orders, resemble those who rely on mail order catalogs, except for being younger. Both groups are well- educated, wealthy, and frequent specialty food buyers. Among those studied, nearly all of the Internet users have considered shopping by catalog, half had used the Internet in the previous six months, and about 10 percent had actually purchased specialty food or beverages online. While preferring traditional ret...
Christianson, Jon B; Feldman, Roger
When first implemented in Minneapolis and St. Paul, Minnesota, the Buyers Health Care Action Group's (BHCAG) purchasing approach received considerable attention as an employer-managed, consumer-driven health care model embodying many of the principles of managed competition. First BHCAG and, later, a for-profit management company attempted to export this model to other communities. Their efforts were met with resistance from local hospitals and, in many cases, apathy by employers who were exp...
Purchases are the most important part of all retail businesses. Budgeting the purchases well is the key issue in avoiding over or under purchases. This thesis is made for Yanca Oy Ltd, established in 2011, by the author of the thesis. The company operates in the fashion industry offering guidance for retail shops in the field of visual merchandising, budgeting and purchases. Yanca Oy Ltd has an auxiliary business name Designers & Buyers db, the aim of which is to help fashion professionals to...
von Schlippenbach, Vanessa; Wey, Christian
We analyze how consumer preferences for one-stop shopping affect the bargaining relationship between a retailer and its suppliers. One-stop shopping preferences create demand complementarities among otherwise independent products which lead to two opposing effects on upstream merger incentives: first a standard double mark-up problem and second a bargaining effect. The former creates merger incentives while the later induce suppliers to bargain separately. When buyer power becomes large enoug...
Plambeck, Erica L.; Taylor, Terry A.
Deadly factory fires. Illegal pollution. Injured workers. Many brands have recently been tarnished by publicity of suppliers' labor and environmental violations. This paper provides guidance to buyers as to how they can motivate their suppliers to comply with labor and environmental standards. Obvious approaches (increasing auditing, making it more difficult for the supplier to deceive an auditor, publicizing negative audit reports) can be counterproductive. Less obvious approaches (squeezing...
Crespo de Carvalho J; Sequeira L
José Crespo de Carvalho, Luís Sequeira Lisbon University Institute, Lisboa, Portugal Abstract: The main purpose of this study is to research buyer-seller conflict and cooperation in distribution channels. Based on a multidimensional case study, eight research hypotheses were formulated. Some quantitative research was conducted, based on a questionnaire sent to 101 port wine producers and distribution companies (61 answered properly – 31 producers and 29 distri...
Jones, David Lawrence
Relationship/collaborative selling, as opposed to traditional, transaction oriented selling, stresses the need to form relationships with prospects and customers across all stages of the buyer-seller relationship (Jolson, 1997). The problem is that applying the relationship selling process to all types of customers may lead to inappropriate interpersonal interaction if the customer's orientation is only short-term in nature (Jackson, 1985a, 1985b). Anderson and Narus (1991) make the point t...
This study, based on Leon Festingers (1957) theory of cognitive dissonance, evaluates the relative power of various dissonance arousal factors, the impact of price and the psychological conditions necessary for dissonance arousal, for example, effort exerted. The empirical analysis was undertaken on a sample of 200 new motor vehicle buyers. Eight dimensions impact significantly on the magnitude of cognitive dissonance, namely, awareness of expectations, unconfirmed expectations, reported diss...
Chandra K. Jaggi
Full Text Available This paper presents a new vendor-buyer system where there are different objectives for both sides. The proposed method of this paper is different from the other previously published works since it considers different objectives for both sides. In this paper, the vendor’s emphasis is on the crashing of the setup cost, which not only helps him compete in the market but also provides better services to his customers; and the buyer’s aim is to reduce the lead time, which not only facilitates the buyer to fulfill the customers’ demand on time but also enables him to earn a good reputation in the market or vice versa. In the light of the above stated facts, an integrated vendor-buyer stochastic inventory model is also developed. The propsed model considers two cases for demand during lead time: Case (i Complete demand information, Case (ii Partial demand information. The proposed model jointly optimizes the buyer’s ordered quantity and lead time along with vendor’s setup cost and the number of shipments. The results are demonstrated with the help of numerical examples.
Zhang, Ziyuan; Zhang, Baojun; Li, Zhongquan
In daily life, people make decisions not only for themselves but also on behalf of others. There may be differences in terms of the endowment effect when making decisions in these two situations. In Study 1, this question was investigated with an existing dataset exploring the traditional endowment effect, in which 86 students (M age = 20.8 years, SD = 5.0) at Harvard University were asked to make a decision on selling or buying a coffee mug for themselves or for others as brokers. When making decisions for the self, the average price demanded by sellers was much higher than that offered by buyers; while making decisions for others, the price discrepancy disappeared. In Study 2, a similar study was conducted with a sample of 42 Chinese university students (M age = 22.3 years, SD = 2.5), and a similar pattern of results was obtained. Further analysis indicated that when making decisions for others, only buyers increased their valuations, therefore mitigating the seller-buyer price discrepancy. Finally, the findings were interpreted from the perspective of Construal Level Theory. PMID:27184409
Full Text Available This paper analyses how buyer companies perceive the value added to products and services offered by their suppliers and identifies the predominant elements that affect purchasing decisions and establishment of relationships between companies in a B2B context. A multiple case study was developed in 12 buyer companies from three industrial segments in southern Brazil: metal-mechanics, furniture and foods. The findings show that for supplier companies in the metal-mechanics industry to add value, they must identify buyers’ needs, develop technology/innovation, be focused on competitive aspects, keep control of the supply chain, provide different purchasing channels, develop partnerships, and adapt to cultural aspects. Companies in the food industry consider the model for creating value to adapt to meet customer needs, the effective use of purchasing channels, functionality of products, and technical knowledge. The companies in the furniture industry value the methods that suppliers use to capture and implement required changes, effective control of the supply chain, and the representativeness of the suppliers’ brand in the market. This study captures the perception of buyer companies in relation to predominant value-adding elements and could guide decisions for the adoption of managerial actions by supplier companies focused on adding value.
Van Hoang, Minh
This thesis aims to study the differences of individualism-oriented mobile phone consumers and collectivism-oriented mobile phone consumers in making buying decisions. Finland and Vietnam are the subjective nations of this research, in which Vietnamese mobile phone buyers represent collectivist consumers and Finnish mobile phone buyers represent individualist consumers. The study is based on Hofstede’s theory of individualism/collectivism and its influences on mobile phone buyers in Vietna...
A basic model for a supply chain in which a vendor supplies a product to a buyer is considered. The vendor manufactures the product at a finite rate and periodically ships the output to the buyer. The buyer then consumes the product at a linearly decreasing time-varying rate. Costs are attached to manufacturing batch set up, the delivery of a shipment and stockholding at the vendor and buyer. The objective is to determine the shipment policy which minimises the total cost, assuming the vendor...
Full Text Available In today’s dynamic business environment, firms are required to utilize efficiently and effectively all the useful resources to gain competitive advantage. Supplier development has evolved as an important strategic instrument to improve buyer supplier relationships. For that reason, this study focuses on providing the strategic significance of supplier development approaches to improve business relationships. By using qualitative research method, an integrated framework of supplier development and buyer-supplier relationship development has been tested and validated in a Finnish case company to provide empirical evidence. It particularly investigates how supplier development approaches can develop buyer-supplier relationships. The study present a set of propositions that identify significant supplier development approaches critical for the development of buyer-supplier relationships and develop a theoretical framework that specifies how these different supplier development approaches support in order to strengthen the relationships. The results are produced from an in-depth case study by implementing the proposed research framework. The findings reveal that supplier development strategies i.e., supplier incentives and direct involvements strongly effect in developing buyer-supplier relationships. Further research may focus on considering in-depth investigation of trust and communication factors along with propositions developed in the study to find out general applicability in dynamic business environment. Proposed integrated framework along with propositions is a unique combination of useful solutions for tactical and strategic management’s decision making and also valid for academic researchers to develop supplier development theories.
Chen, Kebing; Xiao, Tiaojun
This paper studies the backup sourcing strategy of the buyer and the production planning of the supplier in presence of both random yield and random demand. Since the production is susceptible to the randomness of yield beyond the control of the supplier, the buyer may access to a backup sourcing option for the finished items. We analyse the value of backup sourcing for both the decentralised and centralised channels. Backup sourcing strategy of the buyer may lower the supply chain's performance. We show that the order quantity of the buyer does not change the stocking factor of the supplier's input. Meanwhile, compared with the centralised operation, the decentralised operation is more dependent on the backup sourcing to reduce supply shortage of the contracting supplier. From the channel's perspective, an incentive scheme is developed to facilitate the coordination of both the buyer and the contracting supplier, we show that the proposed option contract can allow the supply chain members to share the respective risks involved in the production and selling processes. Finally, we also provide qualitative insights based on numerical examples of the centralised and decentralised solutions.
Mandják, T; Simon, J
In our paper at last IMP Conference in Karlsruhe we made a research proposal with some methodological aspects about Hungarian tender buyers activity and culture. In this paper we should like to present some results of our exploratory research. We try to formulate any questions for future research. Hungarian bidding habits and behaviour are not yet deeply researched. The goal of this pilot study is to take a snapshot about the Hungarian tendering processes in the point of view of the seller-bu...
Kolodziejczyk, Christophe; Leth-Petersen, Søren
Using Danish longitudinal data with information about wealth for a sample of first-time house buyers and their parents, we test whether there are direct financial transfers from parents to children in connection with the house purchase, or in connection with unemployment spells occurring just after...... the purchase, when children typically hold few liquid assets. First, we document that child and parent financial resources are correlated. Then, we introduce conditioning variables and exploit the panel aspect of the data to also condition on fixed unobserved factors, which arguably govern preferences...... and/or productivity. We find no evidence of direct financial transfers....
The research paper described the in-depth interviews used in investigating the buyer-seller relationships in the e-commerce world during the economic recession in Greece. The data collected from these interviews were analyzed. The qualitative research findings identified how B2B e-commerce has started to change the future of the participating organizations in Greece. Οn the one hand, a number of benefits have occurred from the development of e-business and on the other hand B2B firms need to ...
Jaggi, Chandra K.; Neetu Arneja
This paper presents a new vendor-buyer system where there are different objectives for both sides. The proposed method of this paper is different from the other previously published works since it considers different objectives for both sides. In this paper, the vendor’s emphasis is on the crashing of the setup cost, which not only helps him compete in the market but also provides better services to his customers; and the buyer’s aim is to reduce the lead time, which not only facilitates the ...
Forget the teahouses, noodle stalls and crammed bicycle lanes, the quintessential Chinese experience is found at the local clothing market, where bargains abound. It is capitalism Chinese style, although it is for neither the weak of will nor the naive.
Bove, Karsten; Skytte, Hans
The food retail sector in Europe has become more concentrated in the last decade making it increasingly important for manufacturers to understand the value crea-tion seen from a retailer's point of view. To analyse this gap, a study on the consequences and values sought by retail buyers in Denmark......, Germany, Spain and the United Kingdom was initiated. To the best of our knowledge, consequences and values have not been analysed in relation to retail buyer behaviour, as previous research has focused on the specific product or supplier attributes. The purpose of the study was to identify the common...
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Statement with respect to market agencies paying the expenses of livestock buyers. 203.5 Section 203.5 Animals and Animal Products GRAIN... sales conducted by such market agencies, such as, expenses for meals, lodging, travel, entertainment...
Teng, Jinn-Tsair; Chang, Chun-Tao; Chern, Maw-Sheng
Most researchers studied vendor-buyer supply chain inventory policies only from the perspective of an integrated model, which provides us the best cooperative solution. However, in reality, not many vendors and buyers are wholly integrated. Hence, it is necessary to study the optimal policies not only under an integrated environment but also under a non-cooperative environment. In this article, we develop a supply chain vendor-buyer inventory model with trade credit financing linked to order quantity. We then study the optimal policies for both the vendor and the buyer under a non-cooperative environment first, and then under a cooperative integrated situation. Further, we provide some numerical examples to illustrate the theoretical results, compare the differences between these two distinct solutions, and obtain some managerial insights. For example, in a cooperative environment, to reduce the total cost for both parties, the vendor should either provide a simple permissible delay without order quantity restriction or offer a long permissible delay linked order quantity. By contrast, in a non-cooperative environment, the vendor should provide a short permissible delay to reduce its total cost.
Kawai, Kosuke; Osako, Masahiro; Matsui, Saburo; Dong, Nguyen The
Even in developing countries, the amount of containers and packaging waste are increasing in line with population concentration and lifestyle changes in urban areas. This can cause serious problems for the disposal of municipal solid waste. Through a physical composition analysis of household waste in Hanoi, the capital of Vietnam, this study aimed to identify the contribution made by junk buyers to recycling. Interviews on the handling of recyclable waste by households were conducted. About 232 kg of recyclable waste was sampled from a total of 115 households, and about 230 kg of municipal solid waste was sampled from a total of 101 households and sorted into 69 categories for measurement by volume and weight. The interview survey revealed that a high proportion of households tended to routinely store recyclable waste for sale or donation to junk buyers. Junk buyers accounted for 8.8% of recycling by weight or 26.0% by volume according to the results of the physical composition analysis. In addition, the results suggested that containers and packaging waste accounted for the largest proportion of household waste by volume. Junk buyers recycled 25.5% by weight of containers and packaging waste. In the formulation of new plans for municipal solid waste management to improve the current situation and handle future challenges, the role of the informal sector should be monitored carefully and reliable data on recyclable waste should be collected continuously. PMID:22584265
..., recruitment of international buyers to that show, provision of on-site export assistance to U.S. exhibitors at... markets and corresponds to marketing opportunities as identified by the posts in their Country Commercial... seeking to expand their sales into additional export markets. (h) Level of Overseas Marketing: There...
... overseas markets and corresponds to marketing opportunities as identified by ITA. Previous international... overseas. In addition, the applicant should describe in detail the international marketing program to be... International Trade Administration Call for Applications for the International Buyer Program Select Service...
Full Text Available Today modern companies are directed by buyers. Successful organizations are aware that the key issue is to satisfy buyers’ needs and to maintain good relationship with them. Such companies perceive problems and opportunities fast and act accordingly. In future only such companies that will be able to substitute mass production and generalized market approach with a flexible production and in addition to this constantly look for market gaps for their products and services will be able to survive. Further on such companies will be able to individualize their offer and in this way adjust and come closer to the buyer. However, the old hierarchical structure does not provide for that, therefore, we are nowadays talking about horizontal relationships, even among the suppliers, organizations and their buyers. The only organizational format providing for relationships and cooperation with buyers and suppliers on the one hand and increasing contentedness and successfulness of the employees on the other is a process format. The changes of the environment demand a thorough change of the traditional way of thinking and consequently the operation and organization of a company which wants to be successful or survive in new conditions.
Keywords:Social capital,guanxinetworks, vegetable supply chains, buyer-seller relationships, channel performance,
Full Text Available Firms are collaborating more in supply chain network and identified the importance of business relationships. This idea was embraced by academic and empirical research in operations management since last decade. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to develop a comprehensive integrated conceptual and empirical framework which elaborates the role of transactional and relational factors to highlight buyer-supplier relationship performance. While, limited studies explored these factors separately neither provide the dynamic interactive role of transactional and relational factors in an integrated framework. Through multiple case studies, findings reveal that impact of relational factors of trust and communication has constructive influence in reducing the transaction cost and improving relationship performance. This study contributes to debate on managing complex business network relationships by providing a combined theoretical setting (transaction cost economics and social exchange theory and empirically proven integrated model. Managers can enhance the operational performance by selecting the most suitable constructs.
Bernd Markus Zunk
Full Text Available To gain a competitive advantage on industrial markets, suppliers need to understand what motivates their customers to collaborate in long-term buyer-supplier relationships. Therefore, this paper presents (i a literature-based model of a 12-part industrial customers’ motivation profile, and (ii empirical findings from an explorative survey of 118 decision makers in the purchasing departments of firms in the technology sector. The results indicate that, “the optimum value for money”, “the holistic problem-solving capability of the suppliers and their high degree of performance” and “the good assistance in economically hard times in the past, which has led to a feeling of gratefulness” are all of great importance to industrial customers for building and maintaining relationships.
Hernández-García, Ángel; Iglesias-Pradas, Santiago; Chaparro-Peláez, Julián; Pascual-Miguel, Félix
The purpose of this article is to study the factors which affect the intention to buy online for users who have never made any prior purchase using the electronic channel, with special focus to the role of perceived compatibility. To do so, an adoption model for e-commerce was proposed on the basis of the Technology Adoption Model (TAM) and the Innovations Diffusion Theory (IDT). In order to validate the model, data gathered amongst Spanish consumers who had no experience using e-commerce, were analyzed using the partial least squares (PLS) method. The results have demonstrated the importance of perceived compatibility as a significant factor to foster non-buyers' adoption of electronic business-to-consumer e-commerce (eB2C).
Nielek, Radoslaw; Wawer, Aleksander; Wierzbicki, Adam
An auction platform is a dynamic environment where a rich variety of social effects can be observed. Most of those effects remain unnoticed or even hidden to ordinary users. The in-depth studies of such effects should allow us to identify and understand the key factors influencing users’ behaviour. The material collected from the biggest Polish auction house has been analyzed. NLP algorithms were applied to extract sentiment-related content from collected comments. Emotional distance between negative, neutral and positive comments has been calculated. The obtained results confirm the existence of the spiral-of-hatred effect but also indicate that much more complex patterns of mutual relations between sellers and buyers exist. The last section contains a several suggestions which can prove useful to improve trustworthiness of users’ reports and security of an auction platform in general.
Sonia San Martín Gutiérrez
Full Text Available Studies on electronic Internet commerce are an important part of the research in marketing, bur there are still few works that have dealt with auction systems. Because of the especial characteristics of online buying, one of the most important and the most difficult challenges in the context of an online purchase as opposed to offline purchases is how to generate consumer trust. Nevertheless, it is likely that the signals that generate trust will differ in online auctions from online purchasing through other websites. This work presents a model that attempts to capture the effects of web-site signals on consumer trust and draws comparisons between auction and the rest of online shopping contexts. The main results and implications are presented using information collected from a sample of online buyers.
Full Text Available The paradigmatic shift in marketing from the beginning of the 1990’s has transformed marketing in its view of business exchange to increasingly start addressing the relational aspects of market exchanges. This is particularly true in transnational supply exchanges, where specialization and outsourcing have increased the importance of effective and efficient management of buyer-supplier relationships, and their corresponding networks in which they are embedded in. In this regard particularly, TNCs are seen “as a [key] method of organizing international exchange”. The purpose of this paper is to analyze selected elements of buyer-supplier relationships within a specific TNC business-to-business (B2B setting, vis-à-vis their impact on business performance and TNC competitiveness. This is done through the perspective of the TNC’s suppliers. The paper analyzes the impact of the functional aspect of the business network context on selected elements of buyer-supplier relationships, and their impact on business performance and the overall competitiveness. This is analyzed within a confirmatory testing of a reflective structural equation model. A unique feature of the model is its focus on the business network context - namely information obtained from the network and network spillover effects – as key network-embedded determinants of the “traditional” elements of buyer-supplier relationships (i.e. transaction-specific investments, trust, flexibility, and collaboration, where these elements have been so far mostly studied at the dyadic level in buyer-supplier relationships. The dataset includes a sample of 157 suppliers of the focal TNC world-wide (47.9 response rate on a web-based survey.
Full Text Available This study is to construct an inventory system model in which a single vendor supplies a product to a single buyer. The buyer uses the (R,Q inventory policy. The inventory model analyzed the problem that the ordering cost reductions depend on lead time in the continuous inspection inventory model with backorders discount. The demand during lead time is distributed as normally distribution. Also, vendor manages the complete items. Then, the minimization of the average total related cost by simultaneously optimizing the order quantity, lead time and backorder price discount is considered. Moreover, a numerical example shows that how the integrated inventory models can be applied to the system. The results indicate that the percentage of average total cost savings depends on the shortened lead time.
Mona sadat Mortazavi; Abbasali Haji Karimi; Seyed Hamid Khodadad Hossaini
This study examines the impact of trust on relational exchanges between buyers and sellers in an international context. Trust is considered as two separate dimensions: cognitive trust and affective trust. Data from Australian exporters are tested with regards to their overseas buyers. The empirical results show that cognitive trust and affective trust are distinct dimensions. Shared goals is a common antecedent to both dimensions of trust. Perceived cultural distance and reputation are the un...
Peter Mwangi Waithaka; Esther Waiganjo
The purpose of the study was to investigate the role of effective buyer supplier relationship on supply chain performance in Kenya. The study objectives were to identify how lead time, quality, cost and employee morale affects effective buyer supplier relationship on supply chain performance in Kenya. The researcher adopted descriptive research design and census sampling technique. A target population of 56 and a sample of 56 respondents was selected. Data was collected by the use of a semi s...
Wolf, Marianne McGarry
The research was conducted through the use of a telephone survey of produce retail buyers during a two-year period, May 1996 through May 1998. This research shows that retail buyers expect value-added produce sales to continue to increase and that they rate promotional vehicles, related to pricing, as important factors in increasing their willingness to carry a value-added produce product. Branding is somewhat important in increasing their willingness to carry a value-added produce product.
Jonn Axsen; Kurani, Kenneth S
Abstract. Although interpersonal influence is thought to play in important role in proenvironmental consumption behavior, mechanisms of influence are not well understood. Through literature review, we identify five theoretical perspectives on interpersonal influence: contagion, conformity, dissemination, translation, and reflexivity. We apply these perspectives to car buyer perceptions of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), a technology with attributes that can be perceived as functiona...
Keywords:Social capital,guanxinetworks, vegetable supply chains, buyer-seller relationships, channel performance,ChinaGuanxiis ubiquitous inChinaand significantly influences people's behaviour in social life and in business. Guanxi refers to personal relationships or connections and is widely recognised as a Chinese form of social capital. This book focuses on the questions, if, and if so, how small-scale producers, together with processors and exporters, can be more successfully integrated i...
S. Nazli Wasti
Trust is a dimension of buyer-supplier relations being researched widely, but studies have generally focused on developed economies. Developing countries, however, have contextual and cultural factors that may differentiate them from developed countries. This study attempts to apply a theoretical model developed for the US, Japan, and Korea to a developing country context, namely Turkey. While Turkey has cultural similarities to Japan in terms of collectivism and risk aversion, the results of...
Rajesh Kumar MEHTA; Dharmendra MEHTA; MEHTA Naveen
The biggest problem in the fast growth Indian economy is country's growing population. With a population of over a billion, India needs an inclusive family planning program and awareness campaign towards the use of contraceptives. The use of appropriate contraceptive product reduces the probability of a pregnancy occurring due to sexual intercourse. Marketing of contraceptives to rural buyers is not only a challenge to the marketers but to the manufacturers, communicators, national planners, ...
Sheng, S; Bao, Y.; Lessassy, L.; K. H. Lai; Leung, T; Wong, Christina
Purpose - This paper aims to advance buyer-supplier relationship management research by integrating transaction cost economics, social exchange theory, and institutional theory. The specific purpose is to identify the determinants of relational adaptation in the service relationship. Design/methodology/approach - This study used a field survey to collect data. It used structural equation modeling for data analyses. It collected data from the population of supplier organizations of a focal fir...
José Mauro da Costa Hernandez
Full Text Available This study proposes and validates a trust measurement model for buyer-seller relationships. Baptized as development-based trust, the model encompasses three dimensions of trust: calculus-based, knowledge-based and identification-based. In addition to recognizing that trust is a multidimensional construct, the model also assumes that trust can evolve to take on a different character depending on the stage of the relationship. In order to test the proposed model and compare it to the characteristic-based trust measurement model, the measure most frequently used in the buyer-seller relationship literature, data were collected from 238 clients of an IT product wholesaler. The results show that the scales are valid and reliable and the proposed development-based trust measurement model is superior to the characteristic-based trust measurement model in terms of its ability to explain certain variables of interest in buyer-seller relationships (long-term relationship orientation, information sharing, behavioral loyalty and future intentions. Implications for practice, limitations and suggestions for future studies are discussed.
Full Text Available The concept of sustainable consumption has been actively promoted among modern societies. It has gained a special importance in the context of pursuing sustainable consumption policy and supporting actions taken as part of corporate social responsibility. The fulfilment of strategic goals defined under this concept minimizes negative effects of industrialization and globalization. Furthermore, it contributes to efficient allocation of natural resources and natural environment protection. It is beyond any doubt that a 21st century consumer should take account of a number of issues while buying and subsequently using goods and services. These issues include wastage reduction, lower emission of pollution and limited production of waste, as well as selection of products whose development conforms to the code of ethics and socio-environmental norms. This awareness is observed in most countries all over the world, nevertheless certain differences can be noticed between the developed and developing states. Although the concept of sustainable consumption is being actively promoted among consumers in the developing countries (e.g. in Poland, they are still less aware of the necessity to conform to socio-ecological norms in the process of consumption. The main aim of the article is to analyse buyer behaviour in the context of sustainable development policy pursued in Poland. The first part will be devoted to theoretical issues relating to the subject of the analysis. In the second part of the paper the author will present the results of a survey examining the aforementioned behaviour.
Full Text Available This study, based on Leon Festingers (1957 theory of cognitive dissonance, evaluates the relative power of various dissonance arousal factors, the impact of price and the psychological conditions necessary for dissonance arousal, for example, effort exerted. The empirical analysis was undertaken on a sample of 200 new motor vehicle buyers. Eight dimensions impact significantly on the magnitude of cognitive dissonance, namely, awareness of expectations, unconfirmed expectations, reported dissonance, effort, congruence with self-concept, price, persuasiveness, and level of confidence during purchases. The results contribute to a better understanding of human behaviour and cognitions thereby, enabling the development of effective marketing strategies to enhance post-purchase satisfaction. Opsomming Hierdie studie is gebaseer op Leon Festinger (1957 se teorie van kognitiewe dissonansie, wat die relatiewe krag van verskeie opwekkingsfaktore, die impak van prys, asook die sielkundige toestande evalueer wat vir dissonansie-opwekking vereis word soos byvoorbeeld inspanning uitgeoefen. Die empiriese analise is uitgevoer op n steekproef van 200 eienaars van nuwe motorvoertuie. Agt dimensies het n betekenisvolle impak op die vlak van kognitiewe dissonansie uitgeoefen naamlik, hoe bewus verbruikers van hulle verwagtinge is, verwagtinge wat onbevestig is, dissonansie wat gerapporteer word, inspanning, ooreenstemming met die eienaar se selfbeeld, prys, hoe oorredend die verkoper is en die koper se vlak van selfvertroue gedurende die aankope. Die resultate dra by tot n beter begrip van menslike gedrag en van kognisies en bevorder daardeur die ontwikkeling van doeltreffende bemarkingstrategie- om na-verkooptevredenheid te verhoog.
Risk analysis and techniques to manage risk as it pertains to the natural gas industry were discussed. Portfolio allocations for long-term, short-term fixed price and variable price contracts were described. Options were defined as a market instrument offering the benefits of a fixed price purchase or sale without the obligation of incurring financial or opportunity losses if the market goes against the option buyer. Options should be used as a defence strategy to protect portfolios from price risk in times of uncertainty and to take advantage of current floating market conditions without making a full price commitment. Options can also be used as an offensive strategy to make a directional play on the market or on volatility. Options selling was regarded as a much higher risk than options buying. The variables that affect options premiums were: (1) volatility, (2) time to expiration, (3) underlying price versus strike price, and (4) flexibility. Williams Energy's new world class energy trading floor in Tulsa, Oklahoma was also described. Williams is the largest-volume transporter of natural gas in the U.S. with more than 27,000 miles of pipelines. Williams pipelines transport 16 per cent of all the natural gas used in the U.S. and the company is one of the nation's largest natural gas gatherers and processors. tabs., figs
Crespo de Carvalho J
Full Text Available José Crespo de Carvalho, Luís Sequeira Lisbon University Institute, Lisboa, Portugal Abstract: The main purpose of this study is to research buyer-seller conflict and cooperation in distribution channels. Based on a multidimensional case study, eight research hypotheses were formulated. Some quantitative research was conducted, based on a questionnaire sent to 101 port wine producers and distribution companies (61 answered properly – 31 producers and 29 distributors – which gave the authors a 60% rate of response, considered to be very good for these types of studies; those 101 port wine producers and distributors initially chosen were the most important in Europe, considering the volume of production and sales, and constituting, for that reason, a convenience sample. A binary probit model was developed to analyze the data. The results of the study demonstrate that when conflict is ongoing and intense it prevents the development of cooperative relationships. A trustworthy company is more likely to solve conflicts. When trust and adaptation capabilities increase, so does potential cooperation. The results also show that the presence of a foreign sales representative in the team does not exert a negative influence on cooperation. Finally, cooperation can be considered as an important means of developing skills and resources, which can then be applied to existing transaction relationships. Keywords: conflict, cooperation, marketing, distribution, multiple channels, port wine
Juan Manuel Ramón Jerónimo
Full Text Available This paper is focused on the effect that the exchange of management information has on client and/or supplier relationships. Moreover, this study extends the concept of the usefulness of management control information to inter-organizational relationships, analysing how the scope of such information affects continuity expectations, and how these in turn influence opportunistic behaviour and the mutual adaptation of production systems. The data was gathered from 104 purchasing and 90 sales managers of equipment manufacturers on the nature of their respective relationships with their suppliers/ clients. The results confirm that the use of broad-scope management control information sharing in buyer-supplier relationships increases continuity expectations and reduces opportunistic behaviour.El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar el efecto que ejerce el intercambio de información de gestión sobre las relaciones con clientes y/o proveedores. Para ello, se extiende el concepto de la utilidad de información de control de gestión a las relaciones ínter-organizativas, analizando cómo su contenido afecta a las expectativas de continuidad y éstas a su vez influyen en el comportamiento oportunista y en la adaptación mutua de sistemas de producción. Los datos analizados se han obtenido de las relaciones entre 104 directores de compras y 90 directores de ventas de empresas industriales con sus proveedores y clientes. Los resultados confirman que utilizar información compartida de control de gestión con un contenido más amplio en las relaciones compredor/proveedor favorece la creación de expectativas de continuidad y reduce comportamientos oportunistas.
We use a survey to compare consumers’ stated interest in conventional gasoline (CV), hybrid (HEV), plug-in hybrid (PHEV) and pure electric vehicles (EV) of varying designs and prices. Data are from 508 households representing new vehicle buyers in San Diego County, California in 2011. The mixed-mode survey collected information about access to residential recharge infrastructure, three days of driving patterns, and desired vehicle designs and motivations via design games. Across the higher and lower price scenarios, a majority of consumers designed and selected some form of PHEV for their next new vehicle, smaller numbers designed an HEV or a conventional vehicle, and only a few percent designed an EV. Of those who did not design an EV, the most frequent concerns with EVs were limited range, charger availability, and higher vehicle purchase prices. Positive interest in HEVs, PHEVs and EVs was associated with vehicle images of intelligence, responsibility, and support of the environment and nation (United States). The distribution of vehicle designs suggests that cheaper, smaller battery PHEVs may achieve more short-term market success than larger battery PHEVs or EV. New car buyers’ present interests align with less expensive first steps in a transition to electric-drive vehicles. - Highlights: • We assess consumer interest in various electric-drive vehicle designs. • Web-based design games completed by 508 households from San Diego, California. • Plug-in hybrids are most popular, followed by hybrids and conventional vehicles. • Only a few percent opted for a pure electric vehicle. • Electric-drive associated with intelligence, responsibility, and environment
Caglar Irmak; Wakslak, Cheryl J.; Yaacov Trope
Four studies demonstrate that selling and buying prices are differentially influenced by the value of products’ low- and high-level construal features. The study shows that sellers construe products at a higher level than do buyers and owners. Based on this, this study predicts and demonstrates that selling prices exceed buying prices when (1) the object’s primary aspects are superior and the object’s secondary aspects are inferior but not vice versa, (2) individuals focus on a product’s desi...
Prashant Jindal; Anjana Solanki
In the global critical economic scenario, inflation plays a vital role in deciding optimal pricing of goods in any business entity. This article presents two single-vendor single-buyer integrated supply chain inventory models with inflation and time value of money. Shortage is allowed during the lead-time and it is partially backlogged. Lead time is controllable and can be reduced using crashing cost. In the first model, we consider the demand of lead time follows a normal distribution, and i...
Wood, M.T.; Radford, L.R.; Saari, L.M.; Wright, J.
This report offers a design and recommendations for implementing a program of education to assist Department of Energy buyers and procurement officers in increasing the quality and quantity of small disadvantaged business (DB) participation in their contracted work. The recommendations are based on a previous companion report, ''Issues in Contracting with Small Minority Businesses,'' from which technical assistance and related needs were derived. The assistance program is based on buyer and disadvantaged-business needs, as determined from synthesizing the results of interviews with over two dozen minority business leaders and procurement officers.
The choice of the optimal strategy in the buyer's commitment tactic is discussed by embedding the buyer's strategies in the analytical framework of supply chain multilateral negotiation. In the buyer's commitment stage, the buyer's three strategies are backward looking strategy, naive strategy, and forward looking strategy. The multilateral negotiation is considered as a dynamic game with perfect information. The subgame-perfect Nash equilibrium is derived and the numerical simulation is pursued. The results illustrate that the forward looking strategy is the buyer's inferior strategy, and the choice between the backward looking strategy and the naive strategy rests with the supplier number and the single supplier's bargaining power. If the supplier's bargaining power is strong enough or the supplier number is big enough, the buyer's main concern is local bilateral negotiation; when the buyer's bargaining power is weak enough or the supplier number is small enough, the buyer's main concern is global multilateral negotiation.%通过将买方策略纳入供应链多边谈判,探讨了买方承诺战术的最优策略选择.承诺阶段买方的三种策略为后视策略、朴素策略和前视策略.将多边谈判看作一个完美信息动态博弈,进而给出了其子博弈完美Nash均衡解.结果表明,前视策略为买方承诺战术的劣势策略,而后视策略和朴素策略的选取依据单个供应商讨价还价力和供应商个数而定.当供应商讨价还价力足够强或供应商个数足够多时,买方关注的重点应为局部的双边谈判；当供应商讨价还价力足够弱或供应商个数足够少时,买方关注的重点应为多边谈判全局.
网络零售中新客户与老客户的行为差异性，与传统零售相比更为显著也更有规律。基于“锚定与调整”的理论架构，本文结合网络零售的特征，对网络零售中的新客户与老客户购买行为的服务需求进行了分析，并基于淘宝网的数据进行了实证对比研究。研究结果表明，商家的信息获取服务、商品比较服务、信用保障服务、售后支持服务都对新客户和老客户的购买行为造成了显著区别。其中，新客户对商家的信息获取服务、信用保障服务、售后支持服务的需求较老客户的大；而老客户则对商家的商品比较服务有着更大的需求。本研究对更好地认识网络零售中新客户与老客户购买行为差异的差异，进而指导网络商家更有效地运营有着重要意义。%With the rapid growth of online businesstocustomer （ B2C ） ecommerce, many researchers are in terested in the service quality of online retailers. Some researchers suggested that service quality is one of the signif icant determinants of online retailers＇ success. There are two reasons ： 1 ） online retailers＇ service quality direcflyin fluences buyers＇ purchase and repurchase intention in key determinant to attract potential buyers. In this online retailing. 2）Online retailers＇ service quality is also the regard , understanding the buyers＇ expectation of service quality is critical for online retailers for to attract potential buyers and retain repeat buyers. In the traditional retailing market, understanding the differences between initial buyers and repeat buyers is very important for the retailers to take differentiated marketing and management activities. Although most of the knowledge about this difference between initial buyers and repeat buyers can be transferred to online marketing to guide the operation of online retailer, we have to agree that online markets are significantly different with
Huang, Q.; Chen, X.Y.; Ou, Carol; Davison, R.M.; Hua, Z.S.
Drawing upon social capital theory, this study aims to investigate how different dimensions of social capital affect online buyers' satisfaction and ultimately boost their loyalty to a Consumer-to-Consumer (C2C) platform. Specifically, we propose that three dimensions of social capital (i.e., cognit
... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What are the restrictions on the sale of assets... RESTRICTIONS ON SALE OF ASSETS BY THE FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION § 340.3 What are the restrictions on the sale of assets by the FDIC if the buyer wants to finance the purchase with a loan from...
Full Text Available In the global critical economic scenario, inflation plays a vital role in deciding optimal pricing of goods in any business entity. This article presents two single-vendor single-buyer integrated supply chain inventory models with inflation and time value of money. Shortage is allowed during the lead-time and it is partially backlogged. Lead time is controllable and can be reduced using crashing cost. In the first model, we consider the demand of lead time follows a normal distribution, and in the second model, it is considered distribution-free. For both cases, our objective is to minimize the integrated system cost by simultaneously optimizing the order quantity, safety factor, lead time and number of lots. The discounted cash flow and classical optimization technique are used to derive the optimal solution for both cases. Numerical examples including the sensitivity analysis of system parameters is provided to validate the results of the supply chain models.
Yugang YU; Feng CHU; Haoxun CHEN
In this paper, we propose a new model for improving the lot size obtained with the model of Woo, Hsu, and Wu (2001) proposed in their paper "An integrated inventory model for a single vendor and multiple buyers with ordering cost reduction" (Int. J. Production Economics 73 203-215). The new model can provide a lower or equal joint total cost as compared to Woo, Hsu, and Wu's model due to the relaxation of their integral multiple material ordering cycle policy to a fractional-integral multiple material ordering cycle policy. The proposed model is analyzed and an algorithm for calculating the optimal lot size of the model is developed. A numerical study based on the example used by Woo, Hsu, and Wu is presented.
Mona sadat Mortazavi
Full Text Available This study examines the impact of trust on relational exchanges between buyers and sellers in an international context. Trust is considered as two separate dimensions: cognitive trust and affective trust. Data from Australian exporters are tested with regards to their overseas buyers. The empirical results show that cognitive trust and affective trust are distinct dimensions. Shared goals is a common antecedent to both dimensions of trust. Perceived cultural distance and reputation are the unique antecedents to cognitive trust. The results indicate that international relational outcomes benefit from the presence of both cognitive and affective trust. In other words, when exporters exhibit both dimensions of trust, they are more willing to be flexible and report higher levels of satisfaction with export performance.
LIANG-YUH OUYANG; KUN-SHAN WU; CHIA-HUEI HO
In past two decades, the Japanese successful experience in using Just-In-Time (JIT) production has received a great deal of attention. The underlying goal of JIT is to eliminate waste. This can be achieved through various efforts, such as shortening lead time and improving quality. In this paper, we investigate the impact of investing in quality improvement and lead time reduction on the integrated vendor-buyer inventory model with partial backorders. We assume that the lead time demand proba...
Thomas Leppelt; Kai Foerstl; Evi Hartmann
This study assesses how top-tier suppliers market their capabilities to ensure a responsible upstream supply chain to their downstream buyers, and how the marketing of corporate social responsibility (CSR)-related supply management practices affects the reputation of top-tier suppliers in business-to-business (B2B) markets. In a cross-functional multiple-case study involving marketing, purchasing, and sustainability executives of five supplier organizations in Central Europe, we explored four...
Full Text Available Reputation systems aim to reduce the risk of loss due to untrustworthy participants. This loss is aggravated by dishonest advisors trying to pollute the e-market environment for their self-interest. A major task of a reputation system is to promote and encourage advisors who repeatedly respond with fair advice and to apply an opinion filtering or honesty checking mechanism to detect and resist dishonest advisors. This paper provides a dynamic approach to compute the aggregated shared reputation component by filtering out unfair advice and then generating the aggregated shared reputation value. The proposed approach is dynamic in nature as it is sensitive to the behaviour of advisors, value of the current transaction and encourages the cooperation among buyers as advisors. It provides incentive to honest advisors in lieu of repeated sharing of honest opinion by increasing the weight of their opinion and by making the increase in the reputation of honest advisors monotonically proportional to the value of a transaction.
In recent years, with the rapid development of Internet applications, more and more people begin to accept and choose online shopping. But because of the particularity of online transactions, with the development of network shopping market, credit problem is increasingly outstanding. Sellers always have the false transactions, credit hype and bad behavior such as trust and so on. And the buyers use the credit cards to overdraft maliciously, or use the phony credit cards on the Internet. In this paper, we do the conflict analysis of buyers and sellers in the online shopping and research what buyers and sellers will do the transactions in the real online shopping environment. In the end we will provide the basis for how to build a fair network environment.%近年来，随着互联网应用的快速发展，越来越多的人开始接受和选择网络购物。但是由于网络交易的特殊性，在网络购物市场发展的同时，其信用问题也日益突出。卖家总是有虚假交易、信用炒作和信托等不良行为。而买家在网上使用信用卡恶意透支，或者实用伪造的信用卡。本文通过对网购中的买卖双方做冲突分析，研究在现实的网购环境中，买卖双方在交易中的行动，讨论买卖双方的走向，从而为如何建立公平的网络环境提供依据。
Rains, D.; Dunipace, D.; Woo, C.K.
Comsumer motivations for choosing a solar energy equipped new home when the non-solar or conventional model was also available were investigated. The approach was to test the relative importance of demographic, dwelling unit, and heating system characteristics in household decisions to purchase a home equipped with solar energy devices. Two statistical models were developed: one to examine the relationship between the types of home buyers (as an identifiable market segment) and the decision to purchase a solar home, and the other to compare the energy use of solar vs. conventional homes selected in the sample. (MHR)
Rains, D.; Dunipace, D.; Woo, C. K.
Consumer motivations for choosing a solar energy equipped home when the nonsolar or conventional model was available were investigated. The approach was to test the relative importance of demographic, dwelling unit, and heating system characteristics in household decisions to purchase a home equipped with solar energy devices. Two statistical models were developed: one to examine the relationship between the types of home buyers (as an identifiable market segment) and the decision to purchase a solar home; and the other to compare the energy use of solar vs. conventional homes selected in the sample.
@@ Almost all of the 25,100 tons of defective milk powder seized in the 2008 toxic baby food probe had been incinerated and buried,and none had been found to have re-entered the market,China's National Food Safety Rectification Office(NFSRO)said on March 15.
This annual guide gives names and addresses of manufacturers worldwide equipment for drilling, blasting, tunnel boring, loading, haulage, support, concreting and grouting, tunnel furnishing and safety protection. Electrical, mechanical and geotechnical equipment are also included.
Chapman, Jeremy R; Delmonico, Francis L
Poor long-term outcomes of commercial transplantation of transplant tourists reinforce the need to prevent this form of human trafficking. The development of an International Convention by the Council of Europe is highlighted and the implications for physicians of the criminalizing of organ trafficking are considered. The causes of poor outcomes from transplant tourism are considered, with the actions needed to provide both equity and sufficiency of access to transplantation as critical deterrent measures. PMID:27083275
Arfawi Kurdhi, Nughthoh; Adi Diwiryo, Toray; Sutanto
This paper presents an integrated single-vendor two-buyer production-inventory model with stochastic demand and service level constraints. Shortage is permitted in the model, and partial backordered partial lost sale. The lead time demand is assumed follows a normal distribution and the lead time can be reduced by adding crashing cost. The lead time and ordering cost reductions are interdependent with logaritmic function relationship. A service level constraint policy corresponding to each buyer is considered in the model in order to limit the level of inventory shortages. The purpose of this research is to minimize joint total cost inventory model by finding the optimal order quantity, safety stock, lead time, and the number of lots delivered in one production run. The optimal production-inventory policy gained by the Lagrange method is shaped to account for the service level restrictions. Finally, a numerical example and effects of the key parameters are performed to illustrate the results of the proposed model.
Full Text Available Nowadays, it is impossible for retailers to establish a competitive and successful store Atmosphere in the marketplace via making a distinction in the outer facades of their stores, altering the pricing system, and diversifying the products offered in the store, due to the intense competition emerged in retailing markets. In addition to the economic effect on buyers’ behavior, the stores should try their best to attain their goals by less costing. Furthermore, as retailers can change the buyers’ behavior to the extra-role behavior, they can attain more appropriate goals. The social stimulants of store Atmosphere is one of the most important and effective factors on buyers’ behavior at shopping place. So, In this research We’ve connected these variables according to the different studies and designed our model. The statistical society of this study is customers of Refah chain stores in Tehran and The number of sample is 413 people that they were in sore. Validity of questionnaire was calculated based on opinions of university professors, vendors and also through factor analysis. We’ve also used Coefficient alpha (Cronbach, 87 percent and split half (83 percent for getting the reliability(83 percent. According to the results, it was confirmed that Social Stimulants of store atmosphere in Refah chain stores have effect on emotional-cognitive indicators and at a result, they have effect on buyer extra role behavior and this effect is not affected by buyers gender and age
Traditional cost behavior refers to cost quantitativebehavior.The formation of buyer-based environment makes cost behavior renew.This paper intends to combine the principle of competitive strategy and evaluation choice of competitive stategy in different analysis of cost behavior.%传统的成本习性指的是成本数量习性，买方市场环境的形成，使成本习性得以创新，本文将成本习性分析与竞争战略原理相结合，对不同成本习性分析下的竞争战略选择进行评价。
The paper aims at B2B e-intermediary providing support service for both buyers and sellers, explores buyers loyalty information mechanism and key dimensions of switching cost, and theorizes a measurement model of buyers loyalty based on moderating role of switching cost. Then buyer loyalty formation mechanism and the moderating role of switching cost on buyer loyalty formation mechanism are empirically validated using a sampling survey of buyers and SEM (structural equation modeling) approach to test hypotheses. Finally, influential factors, influential degrees of buyer loyalty and moderating scope of switching cost are presented, providing guidance for training loyal buyers of B2B e-intermediary%以提供买卖双方支持服务的B2 B电子中介为研究对象,探索了买方用户忠诚的形成机理以及转移成本的关键维度,建立了基于转移成本调节作用的买方用户忠诚概念模型,然后采集数据,运用结构方程建模技术对买方用户忠诚的形成机理以及转移成本对买方用户忠诚形成机理的调节作用进行了检验,得出了买方用户忠诚的影响因素、影响程度以及转移成本的具体调节范围等.
Full Text Available This study assesses how top-tier suppliers market their capabilities to ensure a responsible upstream supply chain to their downstream buyers, and how the marketing of corporate social responsibility (CSR-related supply management practices affects the reputation of top-tier suppliers in business-to-business (B2B markets. In a cross-functional multiple-case study involving marketing, purchasing, and sustainability executives of five supplier organizations in Central Europe, we explored four distinct approaches for marketing superior CSR management abilities in B2B markets that potentially foster long-term comparative advantages: (1 Fact-based communication of measurable CSR capabilities, (2 targeting of indirect customers and influencers, (3 marketing through education, and (4 marketing of CSR as a service. Moreover, our inductive results provide evidence that the effective marketing of CSR capabilities enhances a supplier’s reputation only if it sends consistent signals to the market. Therefore, a close integration of marketing and purchasing is crucial for achieving signaling consistency. Building on an established framework of purchasing-marketing integration in the particular context of CSR we developed a crossfunctional theory on the link between marketing, supply chain alignment and reputation, which is expressed in four sets of testable research propositions.
Galbraith hypothesis once again becomes a hot issue of academia along with the formation of retailers ′buyer power .Galbraith hypothesis holds that the countervailing power from retailers′buyer power is conducive to enhancing consumer welfare , which contradicts the academic viewpoint that large retailers′buyer power undermines fair competi-tion.The paper demonstrates that the only way to advance consumer welfare of retailers is to achieve economies of scale , but not to exercise buyer power , and even that buyer power of large retailers is detrimental to retail competition especially in homogenization market .Then the author advocates that guiding large retailers toward pursuing economies of scale and small retailers′toward exploring diversified development can optimization market competition and promote the healthy de -velopment of retailing .%伴随着我国零售商买方势力的形成，加尔布雷斯假说再次成为学术界的热点议题。加尔布雷斯假说所阐述的“抗衡势力提升消费者剩余”的观点，与业界对“大型零售商凭借买方势力破坏公平竞争”的诟病构成了看似无法调和的矛盾。通过理论思辩，本文论证了只有实现规模经济的零售商集中才能促进消费者福利的提升，大型零售商的买方势力在同质化竞争下是有损市场竞争的。因此，需要积极引导我国大型零售商实现规模经济，推动小型零售商差异化经营，以优化零售业的市场竞争格局，促进我国零售业健康发展。
夫妻一方未经对方同意，出卖夫妻共有房屋给买受人，会引发对该房屋权属问题的争论。理论界和司法界在解决该问题时，主要从是否适用善意取得制度加以把握。善意取得制度通过在真实权利人与善意买受人之间进行利益衡量，最终保障了善意买受人的物权。这无疑是对真实权利人的一种重大打击。因此，我们必须科学界定善意取得制度的适用条件。本文从善意取得制度的一个适用条件，即“买受人主观上是善意的”切入，着重探讨了夫妻一方擅自出卖夫妻共有房屋时，善意买受人产生的背景以及买受人善意的具体认定问题，以期对完善我国的法制有所裨益。%It will cause on the housing ownership issues that one of the spouses sells the couple shared houses to the buyer without the consent of the other party.The theory circles and the judicial circles solve the problem mainly from the system of bona fide acquisition applicable.Through the interest measure between the real obligee and the bona fide buyer,the system of bona fide acquisition ultimately protects the property of the bona fide buyer.It is a great blow to the real obligee. Therefore,we need to scientifically define applicable conditions of the bona fide acquisition system. The article makes a applicable conditions of the system of bona fide acquisition,namely“the buyer is subjectively good”as the breakthrough point,focuses on bona fide buyer’s background and the concrete determination problem of the buyer’s bona fide when one of the spouses sells the couple shared houses without authorization,so as to perfect our country’s legal system.
While promising developments in laser separation for uranium enrichment have been realized and a group of utilities with centrifuge technology is exerting pressure on the US DoE to move into a more competitive position, projections of over-supply into the next century and questions about the economic viability for any enrichment venture allow room for a great deal of speculation about the future. (author)
A new listing of more than 800 environmental product and service companies from across North America was presented. The listing of companies is alphabetical; and the index of company names is organized into 60 environmental and pollution abatement categories. The new listing can also be found on the magazine's web site page at www.hazmatmag.com. With the on-line directory, products and services can be searched by company name, category or geographical area. In addition to the printed version of the directory reproduced here, the database is also available on diskette
This research is designed to help researchers and policy makers ground their work in the reality of how US consumers are thinking and behaving with respect to automotive fuel economy. Our data are from semi-structured interviews with 57 households across nine lifestyle 'sectors.' We found no household that analyzed their fuel costs in a systematic way in their automobile or gasoline purchases. Almost none of these households track gasoline costs over time or consider them explicitly in household budgets. These households may know the cost of their last tank of gasoline and the unit price of gasoline on that day, but this accurate information is rapidly forgotten and replaced by typical information. One effect of this lack of knowledge and information is that when consumers buy a vehicle, they do not have the basic building blocks of knowledge assumed by the model of economically rational decision-making, and they make large errors estimating gasoline costs and savings over time. Moreover, we find that consumer value for fuel economy is not only about private cost savings. Fuel economy can be a symbolic value as well, for example among drivers who view resource conservation or thrift as important values to communicate. Consumers also assign non-monetary meaning to fuel prices, for example seeing rising prices as evidence of conspiracy. This research suggests that consumer responses to fuel economy technology and changes in fuel prices are more complex than economic assumptions suggest. The US Department of Energy and the Energy Foundation supported this research. The authors are solely responsible for the content and conclusions presented
供应链中买方与卖方之间的协调．涉及到采购、组织生产、库存管理和双方用于贸易的必不可少的通讯、交通等多个环节．研究买方、卖方如何协调以节约各个环节的费用，对于降低买卖双方的成本，提高经济效益是非常重要的．国内外学者在这方面已经做了大量的工作，本文就买方-卖方联合系统及数量折扣定价模型进行了总结和分析．%One of the three coordinations defined by operational planning in supply-chain management is the buyerseller coordination. It includes several stages ,such as purchase ,production,inventroy control,communication and transportation used to the trade. It is important for buyer and seller how toreduce the cost and improve the benefit for both sides. There is a lot of literatures on this topic. This paper makes a summary about the buyer-seller joint system and quantity discount pricing model.
拐卖人口现象屡禁不止,根本原因之一是买方市场的存在及发展.本研究基于对拐卖人口买方市场存在发展的背景条件以及当前形势和防控难点进行分析研究,指出买方市场组成结构的复杂性与单方面打击不协调等问题.针对当前背景下采取系统作战方式应对拐卖人口新特点的重要性,通过咨询专家、文献研究以及与主要案发地区一线民警深入沟通,给买方市场防控措施提出相关建议,以期望对拐卖人口案件侦查有一定借鉴意义.%The phenomenon of human trafficking continues despite repeated prohibition, and one of the fundamental reasons for which lies in the existence and development of the buyer's market. Based on the research of the background conditions for the existence and development of the buy's market of the trafficked population, and on the analysis of the present situation and prevention and control difficulties, the paper has pointed out the complexity of the composition structure of the buyer's market and the lack of coordination for one-sided combat. Through expert consultation, literature review and in-depth communication with the front-line policemen at the major regions of criminal cases, the paper has summed up practical measures. In particular, it has stressed the importance of adopting a systematic combat method to cope with the new characteristics of existing population trafficking. Relevant suggestions on the measures of prevention and control of the buyer's market are proposed, which have certain guiding significance for the investigation of human trafficking cases.
The phenomenon of human trafficking continues despite repeated prohibition, and one of the fundamental reasons for which lies in the existence and development of the buyer's market. Based on the research of the background conditions for the existence and development of the buy's market of the trafficked population, and on the analysis of the present situation and prevention and control difficulties, the paper has pointed out the complexity of the composition structure of the buyer's market and the lack of coordination for one-sided combat. Through expert consultation, literature review and in-depth communication with the front-line policemen at the major regions of criminal cases, the paper has summed up practical measures. In particular, it has stressed the importance of adopting a systematic combat method to cope with the new characteristics of existing population trafficking. Relevant suggestions on the measures of prevention and control of the buyer's market are proposed, which have certain guiding significance for the investigation of human trafficking cases.%拐卖人口现象屡禁不止,根本原因之一是买方市场的存在及发展.本研究基于对拐卖人口买方市场存在发展的背景条件以及当前形势和防控难点进行分析研究,指出买方市场组成结构的复杂性与单方面打击不协调等问题.针对当前背景下采取系统作战方式应对拐卖人口新特点的重要性,通过咨询专家、文献研究以及与主要案发地区一线民警深入沟通,给买方市场防控措施提出相关建议,以期望对拐卖人口案件侦查有一定借鉴意义.
Buyer power and asset specificity are important factors of affecting technological innovation in vertical market.Taking Chinese automobile industry statistics from 2000 to 2008 as samples,this paper empirically tests the relationship between buyer power,asset specificity and technological innovation through the panel data model.The results show that technological innovation depends not only on supplier market conditions,but also on the competitive conditions of downstream industry.Buyer market power helps promote upstream technological innovation activities;buyer asset specificity has a significant negative effect on their own technological innovation,the higher the proportion of fixed assets is,the less RD inputs will be.In addition,buyer technological capabilities and the rapid growth of market demand have a positive impact on technological innovation,while equal market power between upstream and downstream industries is an obstacle to technological innovation.%在纵向关联市场中,买方势力和资产专用性是影响企业技术创新的重要因素。本文以我国汽车工业2000-2008年统计数据为样本,利用面板数据模型对买方市场势力、资产专用性与技术创新的关系进行了实证检验,研究结果表明：技术创新行为不仅取决于企业自身所处的市场条件,还与作为买方的下游行业市场竞争状况有关,买方市场势力的增强有利于上游企业技术创新活动的开展;下游企业的资产专用性对上游企业技术创新具有显著的负效应,固定资产比例越高,研发投入越少。此外,较快的市场需求增长率和买方技术能力对技术创新具有积极影响,上下游行业之间较为对等的市场势力会阻碍技术创新。
Full Text Available This paper discusses the performance of supplier/buyer coordination in supply chain systems in China based on data from a survey of that country's business sector. The survey indicates that the rapidly expanding economy has raised the awareness of an increasing number of Chinese firms to the importance of cooperating and coordinating with partners in supply chain management. However, although coordinated delivery, quality and responsiveness show an upward trend, such is not the case in information sharing and in cooperative efforts to reduce inventory and costs. Hence, many companies have yet to form close cooperative relationships with partners. This study may be useful for both Chinese and foreign companies, serving to underpin the development of new strategies for operating supply chains in the changing global economy.Este artigo discute o desempenho da coordenação entre cliente/fornecedor em cadeias de suprimento da China com base em dados de uma pesqquisa de avaliação (survey. Os resultados indicam que a rápida expansão da economia fez com que um número crescente de empresas chinesas passasse a dar mais atenção para a importância da cooperação e coordenação entre os parceiros na gestão da cadeia de suprimentos. Embora entrega, qualidade e responsividade apresentem uma tendência de melhora o mesmo não é observado para compartilhamento da informação e esforços conjuntos para redução de custos e inventários. Portanto, muitas empresas ainda precisam estabelecer relacionamentos cooperatives com os seus parceiros. Este estudo pode ser útil tanto para empresas chinesas quanto para empresas estrangeiras, servindo de base para o desenvolvimento de novas estratégias para a gestão de cadeias de suprimentos numa economia global em mudança.
依靠集群战略吸引外来投资是发展中国家发展经济的重要手段,而处于产业链下游的跨国公司利用买方垄断势力对当地配套企业的纵向压榨导致本地企业生存状况窘迫.基于双重加价模型构建了一个集群内买方垄断势力下跨国公司对当地配套企业的纵向压榨模型,并以昆山IT产业集群为例分析纵向压榨产生的原因,认为纵向压榨起因于跨国公司的买方垄断势力和上下游市场势力的严重不对等.而减少对下游跨国公司的依赖和增强自身的不可替代性是当地配套企业避免陷入恶性竞争的重要手段.%Attracting foreign investments depend on the strategy of cluster is one of the most important way to develop economy for developing countries.While the multinational corporations squeeze profit out of the local enterprises by buyer power,which would make local enterprises go bankrupt.The basic model of vertical relations in the clusters based on the model of double marginalization was established,set example of IT industrial clusters in Kunshan,and considered the oligopsony power and unequal powers of downstream and upstream marker were important reason of leading vertical squeeze.Decreasing the dependence on multinational corporations and enhancing the non-substituability are important tactic of avoiding excessive competition and vertical squeeze for local enterprises.
海江涛; 仲伟俊; 梅姝娥
政府部门可以通过直接采购包含所需技术的产品或进行研发采购的方式向社会提供非排他性的公共产品.以买方决定的在线逆向拍卖理论和寻租竞争理论为基础,构建了相应的离散选择模型,分析了预期的市场规模、投标企业技术特征以及获得研发采购合同投标商的研发成本等因素对政府部门技术获取策略的影响,得到了政府部门进行研发采购的条件以及进行研发采购时最优的技术采购规则.%Government departments generally purchases available technologies directly or undertake pre-commercial procurement to provide non-excludable public goods. Based on the buyer determined online reverse auction theory and rent-seeking contests models, we construct a discrete choice model and demonstrate future market size, technical characteristics and R&D cost of the bidding companies to fully obtain pre-commercial procurement as the major factors that influence the technology acquisition policies. We present the necessary condition for pre-commercial procurement and the optimal procurement rules of state-of-the-art technology for public sectors.
Andersen, Poul Houman; Christensen, Poul Rind; Damgaard, Torben
Many firms assume that outsourcing partnerships may allow them to strengthen their overall competitiveness. Lured by its intuitive appeal, several enter into such partnerships, only to realize that they represent a marginal rather than a magical solution to their quest for increasing market...