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Feminization of genetic males by a symbiotic bacterium in a butterfly, Eurema hecabe (Lepidoptera: Pieridae)  

Science.gov (United States)

Wolbachia are symbiotic bacteria found in many arthropods and filarian nematodes. They often manipulate the reproduction of host arthropods. In the present study, female-biased sex-ratio distortion in the butterfly Eurema hecabe was investigated. Breeding experiments showed that this distorted sex ratio is maternally inherited. When treated with tetracycline, adult females of the thelygenic line produced male progeny only. After PCR using Wolbachia-specific primers for the ftsZ gene a positive result was seen in the thelygenic females, but not in male progeny from tetracycline-treated females, or individuals from a Tokyo population with normal sex ratio and reproduction. Cytological observations showed that thelygenic females lack the sex chromatin body (W chromosome). The results strongly suggest that the sex-ratio distortion in E. hecabe is due to feminization of genetic males by Wolbachia.

Hiroki, Masato; Kato, Yoshiomi; Kamito, Takehiko; Miura, Kazuki

2002-03-01

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Butterfly diversity as a data base for the development plan of Butterfly Garden at Bosscha Observatory, Lembang, West Java  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Subahar TSS, Yuliana A (2010 Butterfly diversity as a data base for the development plan of Butterfly Garden at Bosscha Observatory, Lembang, West Java. Biodiversitas 11: 24-28. Change of land use and the increasing number of visitors to Bosscha area was one factor for the development plan of butterfly garden in the area. The objectives of this research were to examine butterfly diversity and its potential for development plan of butterfly garden. Butterfly diversity and its richness conducted by standard walk methods. Host plant and larval food plant was recorded during butterfly survey. Public perception on the development plan of butterfly garden was examined by questionnaire. The results showed that 26 species of butterfly was found in Bosscha area and Delias belisama belisama was the most dominant species. Public perceptions consider that the development plan of butterfly garden will give benefit to the community; not only providing new insight (40.41%, additional tourism object (23.97% and will gave aesthetical value (17.12%. Twelve local species should be considered for development plan of butterfly garden: Papilio agamemnon, P. demoleus, P. memnon, P. sarpedon, Delias belisama, Eurema hecabe, Danaus chrysippus, Argynis hiperbius, Cethosia penthesilea, Hypolimnas missipus, Melanitis phedima and Euthalia Adonijah. Host plant: Bougainvillea spectabilis, Citrus aurantium, Lantana camara, Macaranga tanarius and food plants: Citrus aurantium, Cosmos caudatus, Eupatorium inulifolium, Gomphrena globosa, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Lantana camara, and Tithonia diversifolia.

TATI SURYATI SYAMSUDIN SUBAHAR

2010-01-01

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Butterflies  

Science.gov (United States)

Let\\'s learn about butterflies . Click on the following websites to learn about butterflies. 1. Butterflies 2. Butterflies of North America 3. The Butterfly WebSite - butterfly photos, butterfly clipart, education, butterfly zoos and more 4. The Butterfly Site.com 5. Connecticut Butterfly Association ...

D'S, Mrs.

2005-06-22

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Butterfly  

Science.gov (United States)

This interactive Flash applet helps students explore patterns and symmetry by placing colored spots onto butterfly wings. There are three levels of challenge, the first using one color, and the second using two colors. The first two levels ask students to match spot patterns. The third level provides the student the opportunity to create other color combinations and spot patterns and asks students to count the spots they have used.

Bunker, Dan

2011-01-01

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Presence and distribution of two sub-species of Eurema agave (Lepidoptera, Pieridae in Costa Rica  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Austin (1992 reported Eurema a. agave (Cramer 1775 to the Caribbean of Costa Rica. However, he actually had found E. a. millerorum, described by Bousquets & Luis-Martinez (1987 for the Caribbean of Mexico. The presence of Eurema a. agave is confirmed on this paper with information of specimens collected in the Pacific and Atlantic slopes of Costa Rica. Aspects on distribution of both subspecies are included.

Jim Cordoba-Alfaro

2011-06-01

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Presencia y distribución de dos sub-especies de Eurema agave (Lepidoptera, Pieridae) en Costa Rica / Presence and distribution of two sub-species of Eurema agave (Lepidoptera, Pieridae) in Costa Rica  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Austin (1992) reportó a Eurema a. agave (Cramer 1775) para el Caribe de Costa Rica; sin embargo, en realidad lo que encontró fue a E. a. millerorum descrita por Bousquets & Luis-Martinez (1987) para el Caribe mexicano. La presencia de Eurema a. agave es confirmada en este trabajo por especimenes rec [...] olectados en la vertiente Pacífica y Atlántica de Costa Rica. Además se detallan aspectos de la distribución de ambas subespecies. Abstract in english Austin (1992) reported Eurema a. agave (Cramer 1775) to the Caribbean of Costa Rica. However, he actually had found E. a. millerorum, described by Bousquets & Luis-Martinez (1987) for the Caribbean of Mexico. The presence of Eurema a. agave is confirmed on this paper with information of specimens co [...] llected in the Pacific and Atlantic slopes of Costa Rica. Aspects on distribution of both subspecies are included.

Jim, Cordoba-Alfaro; Luis Ricardo, Murillo-Hiller.

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Biology and distribution of butterfly fauna of Hazara University, Garden Campus, Mansehra, Pakistan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The butterflies are beautiful creature of nature with great economic importance as pollinator as well as bio-indicator of environments. The present survey was conducted to determine the biology and distribution of butterfly fauna of Hazara University, Garden Campus, Mansehra, Pakistan during March-June 2012. The study area was divided into 3 quadrates, i.e., residential area, administration area and main campus. A total of 170 specimens were collected, 10 species were identified belonging to 3 different families and falling in 8 genera. The species were identified. The painted lady, Cynthia cardui (Linnaeus; blue pansy, Junonia orithya Linnaeus; and plain tiger, Danaus chrysippus (Linnaeus were belonging to family Nymphalidae. The lime butterfly, Papilio demoleus Linnaeus and com-mon mormon, P. polytes Linnaeus were belonging to family Papilionidae. The dark clouded yellow, Colias croceus (Geoffroy; common grass yellow, Eumera hecab (Linnaeus; Murree green-veined white, Pieris ajaka Moore; green-veined white, P. napi (Linnaeus and Bath white, Pontia daplidice (Linnaeus were belonging to family Pieridae. The body sizes of E. hecabe and J. orithya were minimum, i.e., 1.4 cm (n = 4 - 13, however, D. chrysippus was maximum, i.e., 2.5 cm (n = 1. The wingspan of E. hecabe was minimum, i.e., 3.7 cm (n = 4, however, P. polytes was maximum, i.e., 7.5 cm (n = 1. Proper preventive measures should be taken into consideration in order to minimize the natural habitat loss, as butterfly fauna is dependent upon proper environmental conditions.

Farzana Perveen

2013-06-01

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Un posible complejo de especies gemelas en el género Eurema (Lepidoptera: Pieridae. I - Evidencias biológicas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This research is a biological and ecological study of a polymorphic population of Eurema salome Felder similar to that previously described by Klots (1928 as composed by two different forms according to the wing color pattern of its males. The two supposed forms showed different host plant and specific color in both larva and adult stage. Host plant exchange experiment indicate that the two color forms are genetically determined rather than induced by the host plant or enviroment. These results suggest that the polymorphic populations studied is composed of two distinct species reproductively isolated rather than two polymorphic forms of the same species. We also speculate that host plant use played a crucial role in the initial diferentiation of these two species. We conclude that these species could be consider as sibbling species because of their significant morphological likeness.En este trabajo se realiza un estudio biológico y ecológico a una presunta población polimórfica de Eurema salome Felder, conformada por dos formas descritas por Klot Sen 1928 con base en el patrón de coloración alar de los machos. Se encontró que estas presuntas formas presentan diferentes plantas hospederas y características específicas de coloración tanto a nivel larvario como del adulto. Al realizar intercambio de hospederos se estableció que las características que diferencian las dos formas son heredadas genéticamente y no inducidas por condiciones de hospedero o medioambientales. A partir de estos resultados se plantea que la población en estudio probablemente no está conformada, como se pensó inicialmente, por dos formas de la especie E. salome Feld., sino por dos especies diferentes actualmente aisladas reproductivamente y cuya diferenciación se dio inicialmente a partir del hospedero. Dichas especies presentan un grado de semejanza morfológica tal que permite tratarlas como especies gemelas.

Moreno F. Liz Patricia

1995-11-01

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Butterfly Lab  

Science.gov (United States)

This Web site comes from the Peggy Notebaert Nature Museum's Judy Istock Butterfly Haven, located in Chicago, Illinois. Designed for students in grades 7-12, Butterfly Lab offers online activities and materials covering butterfly anatomy, life cycle, behavior, and related topics. Detailed information is accompanied by colorful diagrams and photographs. Butterfly Lab also offers three offline activities involving butterfly anatomy, movement, identification, handling, and more. Students may submit their offline creations to be posted on the Web site. An audio feature allows users to listen to the Museum's director of biology discuss butterfly biology. The site includes a guide for teachers and a FAQ page.

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Monarch butterfly  

Science.gov (United States)

Monarch butterflies migrate every year for winter and then back to their homes to mate in the spring. Monarch butterflies lay eggs, the eggs hatch into larvae, the larvae pupate, and finally, an adult monarch butterfly emerges from the pupal case.

N/A N/A (None;)

2008-04-03

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Morphing Butterfly  

Science.gov (United States)

In this activity, learners explore how nanosized structures can create brilliant color. Learners examine Blue Morpho butterflies in the light and discover what happens when they put a drop of alcohol on a butterfly's wing. Learners discover that some wings get their color from the nanoscale structures on the wings instead of pigments.

Sciencenter

2012-01-01

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Butterfly Gardening  

Science.gov (United States)

Traditional gardening is a great source of pleasure for many, and those who have enjoyed this pastime may want to consider butterfly gardening. Creating a butterfly garden is an effective way to see more butterflies and to contribute towards the conservation of these brilliant creatures. This website provides a host of original material and websites dealing with the creation and maintenance of butterfly gardens and habitats. It is also important to realize that individuals need not have a great deal of free land in which to create a butterfly garden as well. One helpful aspect of this site is that it allows visitors the opportunity to learn about creating smaller gardens with less space, such as in a window box. Along with the basic information presented here, the site includes links to information on how to attract butterflies to the garden (provided by Colorado State University) and a link to an online forum for the discussion of plans that both provide livable habitats for butterflies.

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The Children's Butterfly Site  

Science.gov (United States)

The Childrens Butterfly Site includes a photo gallery, coloring pages of the butterfly life cycle, a list of books and videos, an FAQ sheet, an opportunity to ask a scientist questions, and butterfly links. The reference lists include field guides, reference books, books on butterfly gardening and attracting butterflies, activities, and teacher resources. There is also a section on raising a caterpillar.

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Hidden Butterfly  

Science.gov (United States)

This reasoning activity challenges students to use the clues provided to figure out which number the butterfly was hidden behind. Students read each clue and eliminate the numbers from 1- 50 that don't fit, crossing them off on the number grid. They continue clue by clue until only one number remains. Included is the PDF document (downloadable), which includes 6 logic problems, answer key and a blank template for students to create their own Hidden Butterfly logic problems to challenge their classmates.

Kawas, Terry

2011-05-09

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Butterfly pupa anatomy  

Science.gov (United States)

The pupa is the third stage of the butterfly's life cycle. The caterpillar creates a pupa, sometimes called a chrysalis, and emerges as the adult butterfly after metamorphosis. The butterfly's wings will be used for flying.

Chip Taylor (University of Kansas;Monarch Watch)

2008-05-19

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Butterfly Nebula  

Science.gov (United States)

The Hubble Space Telescope's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) is back at work, capturing this image of the 'butterfly wing'- shaped nebula, NGC 2346. The nebula is about 2,000 light-years away from Earth in the direction of the constellation Monoceros. It represents the spectacular 'last gasp' of a binary star system at the nebula's center. The image was taken on March 6, 1997 as part of the recommissioning of the Hubble Space Telescope's previously installed scientific instruments following the successful servicing of the HST by NASA shuttle astronauts in February. WFPC2 was installed in HST during the servicing mission in 1993. At the center of the nebula lies a pair of stars that are so close together that they orbit around each other every 16 days. This is so close that, even with Hubble, the pair of stars cannot be resolved into its two components. One component of this binary is the hot core of a star that has ejected most of its outer layers, producing the surrounding nebula. Astronomers believe that this star, when it evolved and expanded to become a red giant, actually swallowed its companion star in an act of stellar cannibalism. The resulting interaction led to a spiraling together of the two stars, culminating in ejection of the outer layers of the red giant. Most of the outer layers were ejected into a dense disk, which can still be seen in the Hubble image, surrounding the central star. Later the hot star developed a fast stellar wind. This wind, blowing out into the surrounding disk, has inflated the large, wispy hourglass-shaped wings perpendicular to the disk. These wings produce the butterfly appearance when seen in projection. The total diameter of the nebula is about one-third of a light-year, or 2 trillion miles.

1997-01-01

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The Life of a Butterfly  

Science.gov (United States)

What are the butterfly's stages of life? 1. The Life of a Butterfly Organizer 2. The Monarch Butterfly 3. Voicethread on Monarch Butterfly life cycle 4. A video on how Monarch Butterflies flock together after migrating. 5. Another video on the life cycle of the Monarch Buttefly. 6. A fun game where you catch the butterfly! Now you should know the stages of life for the butterfly! Come see me for project instructions. Hope you enjoyed! ...

Greene, Logan

2011-04-06

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Butterfly Ejecta  

Science.gov (United States)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Released 4 September 2003In the heavily cratered southern highlands of Mars, the type of crater seen in this THEMIS visible image is relatively rare. Elliptical craters with 'butterfly' ejecta patterns make up roughly 5% of the total crater population of Mars. They are caused by impactors which hit the surface at oblique, or very shallow angles. Similar craters are also seen in about the same abundance on the Moon and Venus.Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -24.6, Longitude 41 East (319 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

2003-01-01

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The Butterfly Site.com  

Science.gov (United States)

Are you interested in rearing butterflies with your kids or releasing live butterflies at your wedding? You can find out about these possibilities and many more at the Butterfly Site, a resource website-created by entomologist Randi Jones that is full of all kinds of annotated butterfly links. The Butterfly Site offers links to web resources in areas like Biology, Rearing, Conservation, Pictures, Live Releases, Fun Facts, and more. One especially neat site feature is the Butterfly Houses and Farms section which lists great places to observe and study butterflies. The butterfly houses and farms are hyperlinked and can be found in many states, and in several countries.

Jones, Randi

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Butterfly Life Cycle  

Science.gov (United States)

In this project we will be learning about the life cycle of a butterfly and how the caterpillar becomes to be a butterfly. WHAT IS THE LIFE CYCLE OF A BUTTERFLY??? Subject: Science, Grade level:3rd and 4th Grade. Objective# 5-Describing life cycles of various animals to include incomplete and complete metamorphosis. In this project, I am going to show the students what an amazing and unique tranformation the a Caterpillar goes through and ...

Katie

2009-10-22

 
 
 
 
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A Curious Cash Crop: Butterflies  

Science.gov (United States)

This BioBulletin Web site takes an in-depth look at butterfly farms. The site includes text, videos and photographs. The Introduction explains how butterfly farms can provide a small-scale economic alternative to the logging of tropical rain forests. Birdwing Butterflies provides a detailed look at butterflies in general, and the birdwing butterfly in particular. New Guinea Success Story profiles the successful 20-year-old butterfly ranching program in Papua, New Guinea. What Is a Butterfly Farm? looks at the process of raising butterflies and the many reasons why doing so makes good sense. Wanted, Dead or Alive: The Butterfly Trade examines the growing international market for butterflies and the international CITES treaty (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora).

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Life of A Butterfly  

Science.gov (United States)

This project is geared for a second grade class as it follows the second grade core. Part of the second grade core states: Standard 3: Students will develop an understanding of their environment. Objective 1: Investigate relationships between plants and animals and how living things change during their lives. This particular lesson investigates the life of a butterfly, from caterpillar to cocoon, to a butterfly. .:LiFe oF a ButTeRflY:. OBJECTIVES: Standard 3: Students will develop and understand of their environment. Objective 1: Investigate relationships between plants and animals and how living things change during their lives. Through this activity students will use ...

Watterson, Miss.

2010-04-30

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Butterflies of Myanmar  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The document talks about species and habits of Myanmar butterflies that were mentioned by the Nature and Wildlife Conservation Division of the Forest Department under the Ministry of Forestry in Myanmar

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Supergene Controls Butterfly Mimicry  

Science.gov (United States)

The colorful Amazonian butterfly Heliconius Numata increases its odds of survival by mimicking the wing patterns of other closely-related species. New research reveals these varied wing patterns are under the control of a supergene.

n/a n/a (Scientific American;)

2011-08-17

25

Life Cycle of a Butterfly  

Science.gov (United States)

We will learn the basic cycle of a butterfly's life, starting with an egg and ending as a butterfly. Choose one of the following web pages to visit and learn about the life cycle of a butterfly: This link shows real pictures- Butterfly Life Cycle -OR- This link shows cartoon pictures- Life Cycle (clip art images) Now that you have knowledge about the butterfly, Test what you have learned with this fun life cycle activity! Life Cycle Activity When caterpillars change to butterflies, this is ...

Integratingtechlauryn

2012-02-07

26

Butterflies of North America  

Science.gov (United States)

For those with a budding interest in lepidoptery (the study of butterflies), this fine online resource presented by the USGS's Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center will be worth checking out. Currently, the site covers the butterfly species and populations throughout the United States and northern Mexico, with a section on Canada planned for the future. By utilizing the interactive map, visitors can click on any state to find out which butterflies inhabit any given area. After doing so, visitors can view photographs of the adult and larva of each species, and learn more about their distribution across each state and the entire United States as well. Visitors can even get more detailed information by looking at individualized checklists that detail which species have been reported at the county level throughout the country. The site also includes answers to commonly asked questions about butterflies and moths, such as What's the difference between a moth and a butterfly? and material on how to rear butterflies and moths.

27

Butterfly valves for seawater  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recently in thermal and nuclear power stations and chemical plants which have become large capacity, large quantity of cooling water is required, and mostly seawater is utilized. In these cooling water systems, considering thermal efficiency and economy, the pipings become complex, and various control functions are demanded. For the purpose, the installation of shut-off valves and control valves for pipings is necessary. The various types of valves have been employed, and in particular, butterfly valves have many merits in their function, size, structure, operation, maintenance, usable period, price and so on. The corrosion behavior of seawater is complicated due to the pollution of seawater, therefore, the environment of the valves used for seawater became severe. The structure and the features of the butterfly valves for seawater, the change of the structure of the butterfly valves for seawater and the checkup of the butterfly valves for seawater are reported. The corrosion of metallic materials is complicatedly different due to the locating condition of plants, the state of pipings and the condition of use. The corrosion countermeasures for butterfly valves must be examined from the synthetic viewpoints. (K.I.)

28

Lorenz Attractor -- Butterfly Effect  

Science.gov (United States)

The "Butterfly Effect", or more technically the "sensitive dependence on initial conditions", is the essence of chaos. This is illustrated an applet of the Lorenz Attractor. The demonstration shows a graphical representation of the time variation of three variables X(t),Y(t) and Z(t), coupled by non-linear evolution equations.

Michael Cross, Cal T.

29

Bonjour Papillon (Hello Butterfly).  

Science.gov (United States)

This story in French about a butterfly who talks to children is presented in comic-book style and is intended for use in a bilingual education setting. Words and expressions peculiar to the Franco-American idiom are marked and translated into standard French. The drawings are in black and white. (AMH)

Dugas, Donald G.; Ogrydziak, Dan

30

From Butterflies to Humans  

Science.gov (United States)

This indexed webcast video along with synchronized lecture slides is from Howard Hughes Medical Institute's 2005 Holiday Lectures on Science: Evolution: Constant Change and Common Threads. Sean B. Carroll presents examples from Darwin's Allies, Henry Walker Bates and T.X. Huxley, and their studies on butterfly evolution and human evolution. This lecture ends with the importance of studying evolution. This video is 58 minutes and 31 seconds and requires RealPlayer 10.

Sean B. Carroll, Ph.D. (Howard Hughes Medical Institute;)

2008-04-15

31

Comparative study of Butterfly valves  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This work tries to justify the hydrodynamic butterfly valves performance, using the EPRI tests, results carried out in laboratory and in situ. This justification will be possible if: - The valves to study are similar - Their performance is calculated using EPRI's methodology Looking for this objective, the elements of the present work are: 1. Brief EPRI butterfly valve description it wild provide the factors which are necessary to define the butterfly valves similarity. 2. EPRI tests description and range of validation against test data definition. 3. Description of the spanish butterfly analyzed valves, and comparison with the EPRI performance results, to prove that this valves are similar to the EPRI test valves. In this way, it will not be necessary to carry out particular dynamic tests on the spanish valves to describe their hydrodynamic performance. (Author)

32

Atlas of North Dakota Butterflies  

Science.gov (United States)

This impressive collection of butterfly photographs and distribution maps is provided by Dr. Ronald Royer of Minot State University, ND, in conjunction with the US Geological Survey's Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center. The Butterfly Atlas is expanded and updated at the end of each butterfly season; 139 new species photos have recently been added. Species are conveniently grouped by family, and most species entries are now complete. In addition to one or more clear identification photographs, each species account includes common and scientific name, habitat information, larval food, adult flight dates, references, and a colorful range map detailing that species' occurrence in North Dakota. Beyond its utility as "the most accurate and most recent North Dakota county atlas data available anywhere," this site is a solid resource for butterfly enthusiasts and science educators everywhere.

33

A new representation of Links: Butterflies  

CERN Document Server

With the idea of an eventual classification of 3-bridge links,\\ we define a very nice class of 3-balls (called butterflies) with faces identified by pairs, such that the identification space is $S^{3},$ and the image of a prefered set of edges is a link. Several examples are given. We prove that every link can be represented in this way (butterfly representation). We define the butterfly number of a link, and we show that the butterfly number and the bridge number of a link coincide. This is done by defining a move on the butterfly diagram. We give an example of two different butterflies with minimal butterfly number representing the knot $8_{20}.$ This raises the problem of finding a set of moves on a butterfly diagram connecting diagrams representing the same link. This is left as an open problem.

Hilden, H M; Tejada, D M; Toro, M M

2012-01-01

34

Butterfly larvae fool ants into mothering them  

Science.gov (United States)

Danish researchers have found that in some areas in their country, beautiful blue Alcon butterflies fool ants into raising the butterfly larvae instead of their own, a report explains. The reason? The butterflies have developed an outer coating that mimics that of the ants.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS;)

2008-01-03

35

Mutant butterflies discovered at Fukushima  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A Japanese study has shown that malformations are more and more common in butterflies (Zizeeria maha specie) leaving near the damaged nuclear plant of Fukushima Daiichi. A population of 144 butterflies were caught in 10 villages in a radius of 200 km around Fukushima in may 2011, the ratio of malformations was 12.4%. Obvious malformations were withered antennas and wings. In september 2011 a population of 238 butterflies were caught in the same places and the ratio of malformations was then 28.1%. The increase of the malformation ratio could be explained by a cumulative effect of the radiation exposition. In a second experiment, a population of butterflies was caught in a region non-affected by the radioactive contamination and was submitted in laboratory to radiations similar to that of the contamination around Fukushima and similar malformations appeared. The conclusion of the study is that radionuclides released during the Fukushima accident have caused genetic and physiological damages to this butterfly specie. (A.C.)

36

Hofstadter butterflies of carbon nanotubes  

CERN Document Server

The electronic spectrum of a two-dimensional square lattice in a perpendicular magnetic field has become known as Hofstadter butterfly[1]. We have calculated quasi one-dimensional analogons of the Hofstadter butterfly for carbon nanotubes (CNTs). For the case of single wall CNTs, it is straightforward to implement magnetic fields parallel to the tube axis by means of zone-folding in the graphene reciprocal lattice. We have also studied perpendicular magnetic fields which, in contrast to the parallel case, lead to a much richer, \\textit{pseudofractal} spectrum. Moreover, we have investigated magnetic fields piercing double wall CNTs and found strong signatures of inter-wall interaction in the resulting Hofstadter butterfly spectrum. Ubiquitous to all perpendicular magnetic field spectra is the presence cusp-catastrophes at specific values of energy and magnetic field. Resolving the density of states along the tube circumference allows to recognize snake states already predicted for non-uniform magnetic fields ...

Nemec, N; Nemec, Norbert; Cuniberti, Gianaurelio

2006-01-01

37

Extended season for northern butterflies  

Science.gov (United States)

Butterflies are like all insects in that they are temperature sensitive and a changing climate with higher temperatures might effect their phenology. Several studies have found support for earlier flight dates among the investigated species. A comparative study with data from a citizen science project, including 66 species of butterflies in Sweden, was undertaken, and the result confirms that most butterfly species now fly earlier during the season. This is especially evident for butterflies overwintering as adults or as pupae. However, the advancement in phenology is correlated with flight date, and some late season species show no advancement or have even postponed their flight dates and are now flying later in the season. The results also showed that latitude had a strong effect on the adult flight date, and most of the investigated species showed significantly later flights towards the north. Only some late flying species showed an opposite trend, flying earlier in the north. A majority of the investigated species in this study showed a general response to temperature and advanced their flight dates with warmer temperatures (on average they advanced their flight dates by 3.8 days/°C), although not all species showed this response. In essence, a climate with earlier springs and longer growing seasons seems not to change the appearance patterns in a one-way direction. We now see butterflies on the wings both earlier and later in the season and some consequences of these patterns are discussed. So far, studies have concentrated mostly on early season butterfly-plant interactions but also late season studies are needed for a better understanding of long-term population consequences.

Karlsson, Bengt

2014-07-01

38

ESTUDIO DE LA COMUNIDAD DE LEPIDÓPTEROS DIURNOS EN ZONAS NATURALES Y SISTEMAS PRODUCTIVOS DEL MUNICIPIO DE CALOTO (CAUCA, COLOMBIA) / STUDY OF THE BUTTERFLY COMMUNITY IN NATURAL AND INTERVENED AREAS OF CALOTO (CAUCA, COLOMBIA)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Con el objetivo primordial de conocer la diversidad de lepidópteros diurnos en zonas intervenidas de la vereda Morales (Caloto, Cauca), se realizaron muestreos en marzo de 2007 y abril de 2008, utilizando trampas Van Someren-Rydon, captura directa y visual. Se estudiaron 4 biotopos: bosque ripario, [...] cultivo de caña de azúcar, cafetal en policultivo y cerca viva. De 1594 individuos observados, se identificaron 90 especies de mariposas de seis familias; Nymphalidae con 60 especies de las subfamilias Nymphalinae (14), Charaxinae (6), Morphinae (2), Satyrinae (5), Heliconiinae (8), Ithomiinae (6), Danainae (3), Acraeinae (5), Limenitidinae (2), Biblidinae (5) y Melitaeinae (4); Pieridae (11 especies), Hesperiidae (6), Papilionidae (7), Lycaenidae (4) y Riodinidae (2). El 39% de la abundancia, incluyó especies generalistas y polífagas representadas por los géneros Anartia (144 individuos), Actinote (69), Caligo (14), Urbanus (72), Anteos (44), Phoebis (56) y Eurema (223), reconocidas por estar frecuentemente asociadas a zonas altamente intervenidas por el hombre. De lo anterior, se desprende que la presencia de la subfamilia Satyrinae (108 individuos) y del género Morpho (9), indica actividad de lepidópteros característicos de bosque conservado. En este mismo sentido, la alta abundancia de Ithomiinae (199 individuos) en cafetales de sombra alternado con siembra de plátano, indica que este policultivo ofrece un hábitat apropiado para esta subfamilia. Abstract in english Two sampling activities (March 2007 and April 2008) were carried out in the municipal rural settlement of Morales (Caloto-Cauca) in order to evaluate the day-butterfly diversity associated with four intervened biotopes: riparian forest, sugarcane plantations, coffee-plantain crop and natural fence. [...] The 1594 individuals were collected using Van Someren-Rydon traps, belonging to 90 species from six families; Nymphalidae with 60 species from the subfamilies Nymphalinae (14), Charaxinae (6), Morphinae (2), Satyrinae (5), Heliconiinae (8), Ithomiinae (6), Danainae (3), Acraeinae (5), Limenitidinae (2), Biblidinae (5) and Melitaeinae (4), Pieridae (11) Hesperiidae (6), Papilionidae (7), Lycaenidae (4) and Riodinidae (2). Additionally, 39% of the species were polyphagous and generalists, represented by the genera Anartia (144 individuals), Actinote (69), Caligo (14), Urbanus (72), Anteos (44), Phoebis (56) and Eurema (223). All these have been recognized as genera associated to anthropogenic intervened areas. The presence of the Satyrinae subfamily (108 individuals) and the Morpho genus (9 individuals) in the study zone, suggest the presence of high quality forest relicts. The abundance of Ithomiinae (199 individuals) in the shaded coffee-plantain crop indicates that this biotope offers a suitable habitat for this subfamily.

Carolina, Millán-J.; Patricia, Chacón; Alan, Giraldo.

2009-01-01

39

Butterfly Tachyons in Vacuum String Field Theory  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We use geometrical conformal field theory methods to investigate tachyon fluctuations about the butterfly projector state in Vacuum String Field Theory. We find that the on-shell condition for the tachyon field is equivalent to the requirement that the quadratic term in the string-field action vanish on shell. This further motivates the interpretation of the butterfly state as a D-brane. We begin a calculation of the tension of the butterfly, and conjecture that this will ma...

Matlock, Peter

2002-01-01

40

Draw a Monarch Butterfly: Scientific Illustration  

Science.gov (United States)

Ivy Rutzky, a scientific assistant at the American Museum of Natural History, introduces an activity where learners create a scientific illustration of a monarch butterfly. Learners will discover why scientists prefer to use drawings rather than photographs, as well as learn about butterflies. Learners will practice their research, observation, and drawing skills. Learners are encouraged to follow up this activity by planting their own butterfly gardens.

History, American M.

2012-07-17

 
 
 
 
41

From a Caterpillar to a Butterfly  

Science.gov (United States)

In this project we will be learning about the life cycle of a butterfly and how the caterpillar becomes to be a butterfly. WHAT IS THE LIFE CYCLE OF A BUTTERFLY? Subject: Science, Grade level:2nd. Standard 3. Objective 1.-Investigate relationships between plants and animals and how living things change during their lives. In this project, I am going to show the students what an amazing and unique tranformation the a Caterpillar goes through and what ...

Allison

2010-05-26

42

The Butterfly Diagram Internal Structure  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A time-latitude diagram, where the spotgroup area is taken into account, is presented for cycles 12 through 23. The results show that the spotted area is concentrated in few, small portions (knots) of the Butterfly Diagram (BD). The BD may be described as a cluster of knots. Knots are distributed in the butterfly wings in a seemingly randomly way. A knot may appear at either lower or higher latitudes than previous ones, in spite of the prevalent tendency to appear at lower and lower latitudes. Accordingly, the spotted area centroid, far from continuously drifting equatorward, drifts poleward or remains stationary in any hemisphere for significant fractions (? 1/3) of the cycle total duration. In a relevant number of semicycles, knots seem to form two roughly parallel, oblique chains, separated by an underspotted band. This picture suggests that two (or more) ''activity streams'' approach the equator at a rate higher than the spot zone as a whole.

43

Butterfly valve torque prediction methodology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As part of the Motor-Operated Valve (MOV) Performance Prediction Program, the Electric Power Research Institute has sponsored the development of methodologies for predicting thrust and torque requirements of gate, globe, and butterfly MOVs. This paper presents the methodology that will be used by utilities to calculate the dynamic torque requirements for butterfly valves. The total dynamic torque at any disc position is the sum of the hydrodynamic torque, bearing torque (which is induced by the hydrodynamic force), as well as other small torque components (such as packing torque). The hydrodynamic torque on the valve disc, caused by the fluid flow through the valve, depends on the disc angle, flow velocity, upstream flow disturbances, disc shape, and the disc aspect ratio. The butterfly valve model provides sets of nondimensional flow and torque coefficients that can be used to predict flow rate and hydrodynamic torque throughout the disc stroke and to calculate the required actuation torque and the maximum transmitted torque throughout the opening and closing stroke. The scope of the model includes symmetric and nonsymmetric discs of different shapes and aspects ratios in compressible and incompressible fluid applications under both choked and nonchoked flow conditions. The model features were validated against test data from a comprehensive flowloop and in situ test program. These tests were designed to systematically address the effect of the following parameters on the required torque: valve size, disc shapes and disc aspect ratios, upstream elbow orientation and its proximity, and flow conditions. The applicability of the nondimensional coefficients to valves of different sizes was validated by performing tests on 42-in. valve and a precisely scaled 6-in. model. The butterfly valve model torque predictions were found to bound test data from the flow-loop and in situ testing, as shown in the examples provided in this paper

44

Modelling butterfly wing eyespot patterns  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Eyespots are concentric motifs with contrasting colours on butterfly wings. Eyespots have intra- and inter-specific visual signalling functions with adaptive and selective roles. We propose a reaction-diffusion model that accounts for eyespot development. The model considers two diffusive morphogens and three non-diffusive pigment precursors. The first morphogen is produced in the focus and determines the differentiation of the first eyespot ring. A second morphogen is then ...

Dilao, Rui; Sainhas, Joaquim

2005-01-01

45

Point of View: Students, Butterflies, and Cancer  

Science.gov (United States)

This article accounts one research scientist's interest in butterflies and his aversion to dealing with cancer with it hitting so close to home. Prefering to emphasize problem-solving skills rather than recall, this scientist finds himself studying the genetics underlying the formation of butterfly patterns. It is his goal for students to learn to make connections between disparate branches of science.

Marcus, Jeffrey

2005-11-01

46

Butterfly valves: greater use in power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Improvements in butterfly valves, particularly in the areas of automatic control and leak tightness are described. The use of butterfly valves in nuclear power plants is discussed. These uses include service in component cooling, containment cooling, and containment isolation. The outlook for further improvements and greater uses is examined. (U.S.)

47

Minimum Cycle Covers of Butterfly and Benes Networks  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Butterfly network is the most popular bounded-degree derivative of the hypercube network. The benes network consists of back-to-back butterflies. In this paper, we obtain the minimum vertex-disjoint cycle cover number for the odd dimensional butterfly networks and prove that it is not possible to find the same for the even dimensional butterfly networks and benes networks. Further we obtain the minimum edge-disjoint cycle cover number for butterfly networks.

Albert William

2012-01-01

48

Butterflies on the Stretched Horizon  

CERN Document Server

In this paper I return to the question of what kind of perturbations on Alice's side of an Einstein-Rosen bridge can send messages to Bob as he enters the horizon at the other end. By definition "easy" operators do not activate messages and "hard" operators do, but there are no clear criteria to identify the difference between easy and hard. In this paper I argue that the difference is related to the time evolution of a certain measure of computational complexity, associated with the stretched horizon of Alice's black hole. The arguments suggest that the AMPSS commutator argument is more connected with butterflies than with firewalls.

Susskind, Leonard

2013-01-01

49

Butterfly Tachyons in Vacuum String Field Theory  

CERN Document Server

We use geometrical conformal field theory methods to investigate tachyon fluctuations about the butterfly projector state in Vacuum String Field Theory. We find that the on-shell condition for the tachyon field is equivalent to the requirement that the quadratic term in the string-field action vanish on shell. This further motivates the interpretation of the butterfly state as a D-brane. We begin a calculation of the tension of the butterfly, and conjecture that this will match the case of the sliver and further strengthen this interpretation.

Matlock, P

2003-01-01

50

Butterfly tachyons in vacuum string field theory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We use geometrical conformal field theory methods to investigate tachyon fluctuations about the butterfly projector state in vacuum string field theory. We find that the on-shell condition for the tachyon field is equivalent to the requirement that the quadratic term in the string-field action vanish on shell. This further motivates the interpretation of the butterfly state as a D-brane. We begin a calculation of the tension of the butterfly, and conjecture that this will match the case of the sliver and further strengthen this interpretation

51

Development of a butterfly multiprocessor test bed description of butterfly components  

Science.gov (United States)

In this, the first in a series of quarterly technical reports on the development of a 128-node Butterfly (TM) testbed we present descriptions of the major components of the Butterfly Parallel Processor: the Processor Node (BPN), the MSI Switch Node (BSN), the VLSI Switch Node (BVSN), the Butterfly I/O Board (BI1), the Multibus Adapter (BMA), and the Butterfly Fantail (BFAN). At the end of the report, there is a set of tables that summarize the important characteristics of each component.

Goodhue, J.; Starr, E.

1985-03-01

52

Missouri Botanical Garden-The Butterfly House & Education Center: The Butterfly School  

Science.gov (United States)

Created by the Missouri Botanical Garden's Butterfly House & Education Center as a companion site for visiting school groups, this website has great resources to offer both teachers and students. For students, the site offers Species Identification Pages, information on making a butterfly house, a description of metamorphosis, a gallery of beautiful photos, and more. For teachers, the site provides instructions for such activities as Raising Butterflies & Moths, Insect Scavenger Hunt, Design Your Own Insect, and Butterfly Arts & Crafts, to name a few. The site includes lists of related books for teachers and students as well.

53

The Return of the Blue Butterfly  

Science.gov (United States)

The Return of the Blue Butterfly The English writer Charles Dickens once wrote: "I only ask to be free. The butterflies are free". But are they really? The work that I performed with a group of students from 8th grade, had a starting point of climate change and the implications it has on ecosystems. Joining the passion I have for butterflies, I realized that they are also in danger of extinction due to these climatic effects. Thus, it was easy to seduce my students wanting to know more. Luckily I found Dr. Paula Seixas Arnaldo, a researcher at the University of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro, who has worked on butterflies and precisely investigated this issue. Portugal is the southern limit of butterfly-blue (Phengaris alcon), and has been many years in the red book of endangered species. Butterfly-blue is very demanding of their habitat, and disappears very easily if ideal conditions are not satisfied. Increased fragmentation of landscapes and degradation of suitable habitats, are considered the greatest challenges of the conservation of Phengaris butterfly in Portugal. In recent decades, climate change has also changed butterfly-blue spatial distribution with a movement of the species northward to colder locations, and dispersion in latitude. Butterflies of Europe must escape to the North because of the heat. Dr. Paula Seixas Arnaldo and her research team began a project, completed in December 2013, wanted to preserve and restore priority habitats recognized by the European Union to help species in danger of disappearing with increasing temperature. The blue butterfly is extremely important because it is a key indicator of the quality of these habitats. In the field, the butterflies are monitored to collect all possible data in order to identify the key species. Butterflies start flying in early July and cease in late August. Mating takes about an hour and occurs in the first days of life. The gentian-peat (Gentiana pneumonanthe) serves as the host plant for laying eggs. Each female lays an average of 60 eggs. Larva must grow in a plant near an anthill of Myrmica aloba species. This is important because butterfly larvae are myrmecophilous, living with ants that feed the butterfly larvae for 11 months, because the ants think the butterfly larvae are ant larvae. In early summer the larvae pupate in the nest of ants. Before expanding their wings, they have to leave quickly to avoid being killed by ants when the ants discover have been deceived. My students became aware of this research; we studied and prepared in order to carry out fieldwork. Thus students learn the content and curricular in a scientifically fun way, first with group work in the classroom with my guidance and in a second stage carry knowledge to the field under the guidance of Dra Paula Seixas Arnaldo. We know where we started ... where we arrives is success!

Santos, Anabela

2014-05-01

54

Flutter-by Interactive Butterfly Using interactivity to excite and educate children about butterflies and the National Museum of Play at The Strong's Dancing Wings Butterfly Garden  

Science.gov (United States)

The National Museum of Play at The Strong's Dancing Wings Butterfly Garden is a tropical rainforest that allows visitors to step into the world of butterflies, but lacks a more comprehensive educational element to teach visitors additional information about butterflies. Flutter-by Interactive Butterfly is a thesis project designed to enhance younger visitors' experience of the Dancing Wings Butterfly Garden with an interactive educational application that aligns with The Strong's mission of encouraging learning, creativity, and discovery. This was accomplished through a series of fun and educational games and animations, designed for use as a kiosk outside the garden and as a part of The Strong's website. Content, planning, and organization of this project has been completed through research and observation of the garden in the following areas: its visitors, butterflies, best usability practices for children, and game elements that educate and engage children. Flutter-by Interactive Butterfly teaches users about the butterfly's life cycle, anatomy, and characteristics as well as their life in the Dancing Wings Butterfly Garden. Through the use of the design programs Adobe Illustrator, Flash, and After Effects; the programming language ActionScript3.0; a child-friendly user interface and design; audio elements and user takeaways, Flutter-by Interactive Butterfly appeals to children of all ages, interests, and learning styles. The project can be viewed at lydiapowers.com/Thesis/FlutterByButterfly.html

Powers, Lydia

55

Do monarch butterflies use polarized skylight for migratory orientation?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

To test if migratory monarch butterflies use polarized light patterns as part of their time-compensated sun compass, we recorded their virtual flight paths in a flight simulator while the butterflies were exposed to patches of naturally polarized blue sky, artificial polarizers or a sunny sky. In addition, we tested butterflies with and without the polarized light detectors of their compound eye being occluded. The monarchs' orientation responses suggested that the butterflies did not use the...

Stalleicken, J.; Mukhida, M.; Labhart, T.; Wehner, R.; Frost, B.; Mouritsen, H.

2005-01-01

56

Effects of herbicides on Behr's metalmark butterfly, a surrogate species for the endangered butterfly, Lange's metalmark  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Lange's metalmark butterfly, Apodemia mormo langei Comstock, is in danger of extinction due to loss of habitat caused by invasive exotic plants which are eliminating its food, naked stem buckwheat. Herbicides are being used to remove invasive weeds from the dunes; however, little is known about the potential effects of herbicides on butterflies. To address this concern we evaluated potential toxic effects of three herbicides on Behr's metalmark, a close relative of Lange's metalmark. First instars were exposed to recommended field rates of triclopyr, sethoxydim, and imazapyr. Life history parameters were recorded after exposure. These herbicides reduced the number of adults that emerged from pupation (24–36%). Each herbicide has a different mode of action. Therefore, we speculate that effects are due to inert ingredients or indirect effects on food plant quality. If these herbicides act the same in A. mormo langei, they may contribute to the decline of this species. - Highlights: ? We evaluated the effects of three herbicides on the butterfly, Behr's metalmark. ? These herbicides are used to control invasive weeds in butterfly habitat. ? The herbicides reduced adult butterfly emergence. - Herbicides are used to remove invasive weeds from butterfly habitat. Certain herbicides may be having a negative effect on butterflies.

57

Butterflies II: Torsors for 2-group stacks  

CERN Document Server

We study torsors over 2-groups and their morphisms. In particular, we study the first non-abelian cohomology group with values in a 2-group. Butterfly diagrams encode morphisms of 2-groups and we employ them to examine the functorial behavior of non-abelian cohomology under change of coefficients. We re-interpret the first non-abelian cohomology with coefficients in a 2-group in terms of gerbes bound by a crossed module. Our main result is to provide a geometric version of the change of coefficients map by lifting a gerbe along the ``fraction'' (weak morphism) determined by a butterfly. As a practical byproduct, we show how butterflies can be used to obtain explicit maps at the cocycle level. In addition, we discuss various commutativity conditions on cohomology induced by various degrees of commutativity on the coefficient 2-groups, as well as specific features pertaining to group extensions.

Aldrovandi, Ettore

2009-01-01

58

Advantages of butterfly valves for power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Butterfly valves are increasingly used in nuclear power plants. They are used in CANDU reactors for class 2 and 3 service, to provide emergency and tight shutoff valves for all inlets and outlets of heat exchangers and all calandria penetrations. Guidelines for meeting nuclear power plant valve specifications are set out in ASME Section 3, Nuclear Power Plant Components. Some details of materials of construction, type of actuator, etc., for various classes of nuclear service are tabulated in the present article. The 'fishtail' butterfly valve is an improved design with reduced drag, as is illustrated and explained. (N.D.H.)

59

The Butterfly Decomposition of Plane Trees  

CERN Document Server

We introduce the notion of doubly rooted plane trees and give a decomposition of these trees, called the butterfly decomposition which turns out to have many applications. From the butterfly decomposition we obtain a one-to-one correspondence between doubly rooted plane trees and free Dyck paths, which implies a simple derivation of a relation between the Catalan numbers and the central binomial coefficients. We also establish a one-to-one correspondence between leaf-colored doubly rooted plane trees and free Schr\\"oder paths. The classical Chung-Feller theorem on free Dyck paths and some generalizations and variations with respect to Dyck paths and Schr\\"oder paths with flaws turn out to be immediate consequences of the butterfly decomposition and the preorder traversal of plane trees. We obtain two involutions on free Dyck paths and free Schr\\"oder paths, leading to two combinatorial identities. We also use the butterfly decomposition to give a combinatorial treatment of the generating function for the numb...

Chen, W Y C; Shapiro, L W; Chen, William Y.C.; Li, Nelson Y.; Shapiro, Louis W.

2005-01-01

60

Tetrapterous butterfly attractors in modified Lorenz systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper, the Lorenz-type tetrapterous butterfly attractors are firstly reported. With the introduction of multiple segment piecewise linear functions, these interesting and complex attractors are obtained from two different modified Lorenz models. This approach are verified in both simulations and experiments.

 
 
 
 
61

Honeybees, Butterflies, and Ladybugs: Partners to Plants  

Science.gov (United States)

Honeybees, butterflies, and ladybugs all have fascinating mutually beneficial relationships with plants and play important ecosystem roles. Children also love these creatures. But how do we teach children about these symbiotic interactions and help them appreciate their vital roles in our environment? One must is to give children direct experience…

Campbell, Ashley

2009-01-01

62

The Invasive Buddleja Daviddi (Butterfly Bush)  

Science.gov (United States)

Buddleja davidii Franchet (Synonym. Buddleia davidii; common name butterfly bush) is a perennial, semi-deciduous, multi-stemmed shrub that is resident in gardens and disturbed areas. Since its introduction to the United Kingdom from China in the late 1800s, B. davidii has become...

63

Butterfly responses to prairie restoration through fire and grazing  

Science.gov (United States)

The development of land for modern agriculture has resulted in losses of native prairie habitat. The small, isolated patches of prairie habitat that remain are threatened by fire suppression, overgrazing, and invasion by non-native species. We evaluated the effects of three restoration practices (grazing only, burning only, and burning and grazing) on the vegetation characteristics and butterfly communities of remnant prairies. Total butterfly abundance was highest on prairies that were managed with burning and grazing and lowest on those that were only burned. Butterfly species richness did not differ among any of the restoration practices. Butterfly species diversity was highest on sites that were only burned. Responses of individual butterfly species to restoration practices were highly variable. In the best predictive regression model, total butterfly abundance was negatively associated with the percent cover of bare ground and positively associated with the percent cover of forbs. Canonical correspondence analysis revealed that sites with burned only and grazed only practices could be separated based on their butterfly community composition. Butterfly communities in each of the three restoration practices are equally species rich but different practices yield compositionally different butterfly communities. Because of this variation in butterfly species responses to different restoration practices, there is no single practice that will benefit all species or even all species within habitat-specialist or habitat-generalist habitat guilds. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Vogel, J.A.; Debinski, D.M.; Koford, R.R.; Miller, J.R.

2007-01-01

64

Illustrate the Butterfly Effect on a Chaos Rikitake system  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This letter presents butterfly effect on a Chaos system. In this letter we want to briefly introduce Chaos Rikitake system and monitor the butterfly effect on this system. In chaos theory, the butterfly effect is the sensitive dependency on initial conditions. For this goal at the first we suppose initiation point and plot it, for base of work, later will apply small change on one item of initiation point and monitor behavior of Rikitake system. At the end we want to reclaim the famous lecture of Edward Lorenz in 1972 “Does the flap of a butterfly’s wings in Brazil set off a tornado in Texas?” The numerical simulations by use of MATLAB software are given to illustrate the butterfly effect on this system.

Yousof Gholipour

2014-07-01

65

Pheromone production in the butterfly Pieris napi L  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Aphrodisiac and anti-aphrodisiac pheromone production and composition in the green-veined white butterfly Pieris napi L. were investigated. Aphrodisiac pheromone biosynthesis had different time constraints in butterflies from the diapausing and directly developing generations. Effects of stable isotope incorporation in adult butterfly pheromone, in the nectar and flower volatiles of  host plants from labeled substrates were measured by solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography–mas...

Murtazina, Rushana

2014-01-01

66

On Random Linear Network Coding for Butterfly Network  

CERN Document Server

Random linear network coding is a feasible encoding tool for network coding, specially for the non-coherent network, and its performance is important in theory and application. In this letter, we study the performance of random linear network coding for the well-known butterfly network by analyzing the failure probabilities. We determine the failure probabilities of random linear network coding for the well-known butterfly network and the butterfly network with channel failure probability p.

Guang, Xuan

2010-01-01

67

Microsoft Word - Marsh Fritillary Butterfly Survey Specifications.doc  

Northern Ireland Environment Agency (NIEA) Revised February 2011 MARSH FRITILLARY Euphydryas aurinia SURVEY - SPECIFIC REQUIREMENTS The Marsh Fritillary butterfly Euphydryas aurinia is a European Protected species ...

68

Acoustic characterization of Hofstadter butterfly with resonant scatterers  

CERN Document Server

We are interested in the experimental characterization of the Hofstadter butterfly by means of acoustical waves. The transmission of an acoustic pulse through an array of 60 variable and resonant scatterers periodically distribued along a waveguide is studied. An arbitrary scattering arrangement is realized by using the variable length of each resonator cavity. For a periodic modulation, the structures of forbidden bands of the transmission reproduce the Hofstadter butterfly. We compare experimental, analytical, and computational realizations of the Hofstadter butterfly and we show the influence of the resonances of the scatterers on the structure of the butterfly.

Richoux, Olivier

2009-01-01

69

Seeing Hofstadter's butterfly in atomic Fermi gases  

Science.gov (United States)

We propose a way to detect the fractal energy spectrum of the Hofstadter model from the density distributions of ultracold fermions in an external trap. At low temperature, the local compressibility is proportional to the density of states of the system, which reveals the fractal energy spectrum. However, thermal broadening and noises in the real experimental situation inevitably smear out fine features in the density distribution. To overcome this difficulty, we use the maximum entropy method to extract the density of states directly from the noisy thermal density distributions. Simulations show that one is able to restore the core feature of the Hofstadter's butterfly spectrum with current experimental techniques. By further reducing the noise or the temperature, one can refine the resolution and observe fine structures of the butterfly spectrum.

Wang, Lei; Troyer, Matthias

2014-01-01

70

Male-killing in African butterflies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Female-biased sex ratios occur in many insect species as a consequence of infection by maternally-inherited male-killing bacterial endosymbionts. In this paper, we revise the research conducted on the phenomenon of male-killing in African nymphalid butterflies, with special focus on the cases of Danaus chrysippus, Acraea encedon and Acraea encedana. The evolution of male-killing in each case was addressed, together with the phylogeny of male-killers that were identi...

Hassan, Sami Saeed M.; Eihab Idris

2013-01-01

71

The Life Cycle--Caterpillars to Butterflies  

Science.gov (United States)

Understanding the Life Cycle--2nd Grade Standard 3: Students will develop an understanding of their environment. Lesson plan Read \\"The Hungry Caterpillar\\" by Eric Carle Discuss the process of becoming a butterfly. (place each picture on the board.) EGG: Tiny eggs are laid by the female on a leaf. Around 5 days later, a tiny worm like creature will hatch. CATERPILLAR: The caterpillar will spend it\\'s days eating and ...

Cragun, Mrs.

2008-11-17

72

Physical property of structural color in butterflies  

Science.gov (United States)

Butterfly's wing has paid great attention due to its unique properties, such as attractive iridescence, super-hydrophobic characteristics, and quick heat dissipation ability. These characteristics are closely related to its structure. The multilayer thin-film structures that make up a butterfly's wing produce a bright iridescence from reflected daylight. In this study, we will introduce the optical effect of viewing angle, structural characterizations and color-producing mechanism. Since the reflectance patterns are extended in angle, we have to use a spectrophotometer equipped with an integrating sphere. According to the result, the peak reflectrance decreasing, blue-shifts and the difference between spectra of p-polarization and the s-polarization was enlarged when the incident angle increasing. In addition, the directional and strongly angle-dependent reflection of the ventral wings suggests the question whether or not the wing reflections may play a role in visual signaling by the butterflies during flight. Furthermore, we determined the shape and surface texture of the scales by scanning electron microscope (SEM). From SEM images, the scales cover the wing membrane and appear to overlap like roof tiles. These nanometer structures of the cover scales will decide the attractive iridescence of the wing.

Lo, Mei-Ling; Lee, Cheng-Chung

2011-10-01

73

A butterfly eye's view of birds.  

Science.gov (United States)

The striking color patterns of butterflies and birds have long interested biologists. But how these animals see color is less well understood. Opsins are the protein components of the visual pigments of the eye. Color vision has evolved in butterflies through opsin gene duplications, through positive selection at individual opsin loci, and by the use of filtering pigments. By contrast, birds have retained the same opsin complement present in early-jawed vertebrates, and their visual system has diversified primarily through tuning of the short-wavelength-sensitive photoreceptors, rather than by opsin duplication or the use of filtering elements. Butterflies and birds have evolved photoreceptors that might use some of the same amino acid sites for generating similar spectral phenotypes across approximately 540 million years of evolution, when rhabdomeric and ciliary-type opsins radiated during the early Cambrian period. Considering the similarities between the two taxa, it is surprising that the eyes of birds are not more diverse. Additional taxonomic sampling of birds may help clarify this mystery. PMID:18937365

Frentiu, Francesca D; Briscoe, Adriana D

2008-11-01

74

Comparisons of some Andean Butterfly Faunas Comparisons of some Andean Butterfly Faunas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Observations of the butterfly fauna at significant points along the top of the Andean mountain chain from near Venezuela in Colombia to central Ecuador in comparable ecologic niches has brought out some interesting facts concerning the sub-ecological prererences of the species and their mtercombination in building up the fauna of a particular region. Observations of the butterfly fauna at significant points along the top of the Andean mountain chain from near Venezuela in Colombia to central Ecuador in comparable ecologic niches has brought out some interesting facts concerning the sub-ecological prererences of the species and their mtercombination in building up the fauna of a particular region.

Hovanitz William

1945-04-01

75

Metamorphosis of a Butterfly-Associated Bacterial Community  

Science.gov (United States)

Butterflies are charismatic insects that have long been a focus of biological research. They are also habitats for microorganisms, yet these microbial symbionts are little-studied, despite their likely importance to butterfly ecology and evolution. In particular, the diversity and composition of the microbial communities inhabiting adult butterflies remain uncharacterized, and it is unknown how the larval (caterpillar) and adult microbiota compare. To address these knowledge gaps, we used Illumina sequencing of 16S rRNA genes from internal bacterial communities associated with multiple life stages of the neotropical butterfly Heliconius erato. We found that the leaf-chewing larvae and nectar- and pollen-feeding adults of H. erato contain markedly distinct bacterial communities, a pattern presumably rooted in their distinct diets. Larvae and adult butterflies host relatively small and similar numbers of bacterial phylotypes, but few are common to both stages. The larval microbiota clearly simplifies and reorganizes during metamorphosis; thus, structural changes in a butterfly's bacterial community parallel those in its own morphology. We furthermore identify specific bacterial taxa that may mediate larval and adult feeding biology in Heliconius and other butterflies. Although male and female Heliconius adults differ in reproductive physiology and degree of pollen feeding, bacterial communities associated with H. erato are not sexually dimorphic. Lastly, we show that captive and wild individuals host different microbiota, a finding that may have important implications for the relevance of experimental studies using captive butterflies. PMID:24466308

Hammer, Tobin J.; McMillan, W. Owen; Fierer, Noah

2014-01-01

76

Interactions between butterfly-shaped pulses in the inhomogeneous media  

Science.gov (United States)

Pulse interactions affect pulse qualities during the propagation. Interactions between butterfly-shaped pulses are investigated to improve pulse qualities in the inhomogeneous media. In order to describe the interactions between butterfly-shaped pulses, analytic two-soliton solutions are derived. Based on those solutions, influences of corresponding parameters on pulse interactions are discussed. Methods to control the pulse interactions are suggested.

Liu, Wen-Jun; Huang, Long-Gang; Pan, Nan; Lei, Ming

2014-10-01

77

Metamorphosis of a butterfly-associated bacterial community.  

Science.gov (United States)

Butterflies are charismatic insects that have long been a focus of biological research. They are also habitats for microorganisms, yet these microbial symbionts are little-studied, despite their likely importance to butterfly ecology and evolution. In particular, the diversity and composition of the microbial communities inhabiting adult butterflies remain uncharacterized, and it is unknown how the larval (caterpillar) and adult microbiota compare. To address these knowledge gaps, we used Illumina sequencing of 16S rRNA genes from internal bacterial communities associated with multiple life stages of the neotropical butterfly Heliconius erato. We found that the leaf-chewing larvae and nectar- and pollen-feeding adults of H. erato contain markedly distinct bacterial communities, a pattern presumably rooted in their distinct diets. Larvae and adult butterflies host relatively small and similar numbers of bacterial phylotypes, but few are common to both stages. The larval microbiota clearly simplifies and reorganizes during metamorphosis; thus, structural changes in a butterfly's bacterial community parallel those in its own morphology. We furthermore identify specific bacterial taxa that may mediate larval and adult feeding biology in Heliconius and other butterflies. Although male and female Heliconius adults differ in reproductive physiology and degree of pollen feeding, bacterial communities associated with H. erato are not sexually dimorphic. Lastly, we show that captive and wild individuals host different microbiota, a finding that may have important implications for the relevance of experimental studies using captive butterflies. PMID:24466308

Hammer, Tobin J; McMillan, W Owen; Fierer, Noah

2014-01-01

78

Gardens as an aid to the conservation of some butterfly species.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Butterfly Conservation national garden butterfly survey aimed to formulate the perfect butterfly garden. Adult butterflies feed on sugary substances whilst their larvae eat highly specific plants which vary according to butterfly species. Many male butterflies need territorial perches, while some species need places to hibernate for the winter and all need roosting sites at night and during bad weather. Being cold blooded, butterflies also need places where they can absorb energy from the sun. We needed to discover if gardens were providing these requirements and if not, how they could be provided. PMID:18183734

Vickery, Margaret

2007-01-01

79

The School of Mandarin Duck and Butterfly’s Creative Push on Early Chinese Publishing Industry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The School of Mandarin Duck and Butterfly, as an early Chinese popular literature important school, is a participant of early Chinese publishing industry who promoted early Chinese publishing industry development through creativities on publishing from four aspects such as publishing content creativity, graphic design creativity, marketing creativity and cross-media industry creativity.

Bin Li

2012-10-01

80

Hofstadter Butterfly Diagram in Noncommutative Space  

CERN Document Server

We study an energy spectrum of electron moving under the constant magnetic field in two dimensional noncommutative space. It take place with the gauge invariant way. The Hofstadter butterfly diagram of the noncommutative space is calculated in terms of the lattice model which is derived by the Bopp's shift for space and by the Peierls substitution for external magnetic field. We also find the fractal structure in new diagram. Although the global features of the new diagram are similar to the diagram of the commutative space, the detail structure is different from it.

Takahashi, H; Takahashi, Hidenori; Yamanaka, Masanori

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Resources Organization and Searching Specification: The “Butterflies of Taiwan” Project  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available “Butterflies of Taiwan” is a sub-project under Taiwan Digital Museum Project (TDMP, sponsored by the National Science Council of Taiwan. ”Butterflies of Taiwan”, a cooperative project, was proposed by National Chi-Nan University and National Museum of Natural Science; its metadata was developed by Resources Organization Searching Specification (ROSS, also a sub-project under TDMP Research Team. In order to design the appropriate elements and create the butterfly metadata, ROSS started to gather relevant information on butterfly and information cataloging in August 1998. The main purpose of this project is to establish a digital museum to support and promote science education. Task of ROSS is the following: with respect to information storage and retrieval demand, to develop butterfly metadata format and design system specification based on the project content. This article presents the metadata format created for butterfly project and discusses issues related with its implementation. In order to promote information exchange, mapping of butterfly metadata to Dublin Core will also be presented.[Article content in Chinese

Szu-Chia Lo

1999-12-01

82

Forward flight of swallowtail butterfly with simple flapping motion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Unlike other flying insects, the wing motion of swallowtail butterflies is basically limited to flapping because their fore wings partly overlap their hind wings, structurally restricting the feathering needed for active control of aerodynamic force. Hence, it can be hypothesized that the flight of swallowtail butterflies is realized with simple flapping, requiring little feedback control of the feathering angle. To verify this hypothesis, we fabricated an artificial butterfly mimicking the wing motion and wing shape of a swallowtail butterfly and analyzed its flights using images taken with a high-speed video camera. The results demonstrated that stable forward flight could be realized without active feathering or feedback control of the wing motion. During the flights, the artificial butterfly's body moved up and down passively in synchronization with the flapping, and the artificial butterfly followed an undulating flight trajectory like an actual swallowtail butterfly. Without feedback control of the wing motion, the body movement is directly affected by change of aerodynamic force due to the wing deformation; the degree of deformation was determined by the wing venation. Unlike a veinless wing, a mimic wing with veins generated a much higher lift coefficient during the flapping flight than in a steady flow due to the large body motion.

83

Photonic nanoarchitectures of biologic origin in butterflies and beetles  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Photonic nanoarchitectures occurring in butterflies and beetles, which produce structural color in the visible range of the electromagnetic spectrum by the selective reflection of light, are investigated under the aspect of being used as possible 'blueprints' for artificial, bioinspired nanoarchitectures. The role of order and disorder and of regularity/irregularity in photonic nanoarchitectures of biologic origin is discussed. Three recent case studies are briefly reviewed for butterflies (Albulina metallica, Cyanophrys remus, Troides magellanus) and three for beetles (Hoeplia coerulea, Chrysochroa vittata, Charidotella egregia). The practical realization of bioinspired artificial structures is discussed for the A. metallica butterfly and for the C. vittata beetle.

Biro, L.P., E-mail: biro@mfa.kfki.h [Research Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science, H-1525 Budapest, POB 49 (Hungary)

2010-05-25

84

Photonic nanoarchitectures of biologic origin in butterflies and beetles  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Photonic nanoarchitectures occurring in butterflies and beetles, which produce structural color in the visible range of the electromagnetic spectrum by the selective reflection of light, are investigated under the aspect of being used as possible 'blueprints' for artificial, bioinspired nanoarchitectures. The role of order and disorder and of regularity/irregularity in photonic nanoarchitectures of biologic origin is discussed. Three recent case studies are briefly reviewed for butterflies (Albulina metallica, Cyanophrys remus, Troides magellanus) and three for beetles (Hoeplia coerulea, Chrysochroa vittata, Charidotella egregia). The practical realization of bioinspired artificial structures is discussed for the A. metallica butterfly and for the C. vittata beetle.

85

Butterfly morphology in a molecular age -- does it still matter in butterfly systematics?  

Science.gov (United States)

We review morphological characters considered important for understanding butterfly phylogeny and evolution in the light of recent large-scale molecular phylogenies of the group. A number of the most important morphological works from the past half century are reviewed and morphological character evolution is reassessed based on the most recent phylogenetic results. In particular, higher level butterfly morphology is evaluated based on a very recent study combining an elaborate morphological dataset with a similar molecular one. Special attention is also given to the families Papilionidae, Nymphalidae and Hesperiidae which have all seen morphological and molecular efforts come together in large, combined works in recent years. In all of the examined cases the synergistic effect of combining elaborate morphological datasets with ditto molecular clearly outweigh the merits of either data type analysed on its own (even for 'genome size' molecular datasets). It is evident that morphology, far from being obsolete or arcane, still has an immensely important role to play in butterfly (and insect) phylogenetics. Not least because understanding morphology is essential for understanding and evaluating the evolutionary scenarios phylogenetic trees are supposed to illustrate. PMID:22583793

Simonsen, Thomas J; de Jong, Rienk; Heikkilä, Maria; Kaila, Lauri

2012-07-01

86

Microsoft Word - Marsh Fritillary Butterfly Habitat Survey Specifications.doc  

...noting the presence of adult Marsh Fritillary Butterfly on the wing. You should follow these guidelines: ? The surveyor contracted to undertake this work must have relevant experience which is deemed...

87

AFM study of structure influence on butterfly wings coloration  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study describes the structural coloration of the butterfly Vanessa Atalanta wings and shows how the atomic force microscopy (AFM) can be applied to the study of wings morphology and wings surface behavior under the temperature. The role of the wings morphology in colors was investigated. Different colors of wings have different topology and can be identified by them. AFM in semi-contact mode was used to study the wings surface. The wing surface area, which is close to the butterfly body,...

Pavel Tomanek; Dinara Sultanovna Dallaeva

2012-01-01

88

Bleaching of rhabdoms in eyes of intact butterflies.  

Science.gov (United States)

The photochemistry of butterfly rhabdoms has properties that had been associated exclusively with the photoreceptor organelles of vertebrates. Noninvasive measurements of the absorbance spectra of rhabdoms in intact butterflies show that their rhodopsins are converted by light to metarhodopsins that decay from the rhabdom in the dark. A total bleach is possible because the first-order decay of metarhodopsin is considerably faster than the kinetically more complicated recovery of rhodopsin. PMID:17734330

Bernard, G D

1983-01-01

89

Liquid-intake flow around the tip of butterfly proboscis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Butterflies drink liquid through a slender proboscis using a large pressure gradient induced by the systaltic operation of a muscular pump inside their head. Although the proboscis is a naturally well-designed coiled micro conduit for liquid uptake and deployment, it has been regarded as a simple straw connected to the muscular pump. There are few studies on the transport of liquid food in the proboscis of a liquid-feeding butterfly. To understand the liquid-feeding mechanism in the proboscis of butterflies, the intake flow around the tip of the proboscis was investigated in detail. In this study, the intake flow was quantitatively visualized using a micro-PIV (particle image velocimetry) velocity field measurement technique. As a result, the liquid-feeding process consists of an intake phase, an ejection phase and a rest phase. When butterflies drink pooled liquid, the liquid is not sucked into the apical tip of the proboscis, but into the dorsal linkage aligned longitudinally along the proboscis. To analyze main characteristics of the intake flow around a butterfly proboscis, a theoretical model was established by assuming that liquid is sucked into a line sink whose suction rate linearly decreases proximally. In addition, the intake flow around the tip of a female mosquito?s proboscis which has a distinct terminal opening was also visualized and modeled for comparison. The present results would be helpful to understand the liquid-feeding mechanism of a butterfly. PMID:24512912

Lee, Sang Joon; Lee, Seung Chul; Kim, Bo Heum

2014-05-01

90

Phylogenomics provides strong evidence for relationships of butterflies and moths.  

Science.gov (United States)

Butterflies and moths constitute some of the most popular and charismatic insects. Lepidoptera include approximately 160 000 described species, many of which are important model organisms. Previous studies on the evolution of Lepidoptera did not confidently place butterflies, and many relationships among superfamilies in the megadiverse clade Ditrysia remain largely uncertain. We generated a molecular dataset with 46 taxa, combining 33 new transcriptomes with 13 available genomes, transcriptomes and expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Using HaMStR with a Lepidoptera-specific core-orthologue set of single copy loci, we identified 2696 genes for inclusion into the phylogenomic analysis. Nucleotides and amino acids of the all-gene, all-taxon dataset yielded nearly identical, well-supported trees. Monophyly of butterflies (Papilionoidea) was strongly supported, and the group included skippers (Hesperiidae) and the enigmatic butterfly-moths (Hedylidae). Butterflies were placed sister to the remaining obtectomeran Lepidoptera, and the latter was grouped with greater than or equal to 87% bootstrap support. Establishing confident relationships among the four most diverse macroheteroceran superfamilies was previously challenging, but we recovered 100% bootstrap support for the following relationships: ((Geometroidea, Noctuoidea), (Bombycoidea, Lasiocampoidea)). We present the first robust, transcriptome-based tree of Lepidoptera that strongly contradicts historical placement of butterflies, and provide an evolutionary framework for genomic, developmental and ecological studies on this diverse insect order. PMID:24966318

Kawahara, Akito Y; Breinholt, Jesse W

2014-08-01

91

Hearing in a diurnal, mute butterfly, Morpho peleides (Papilionoidea, Nymphalidae).  

Science.gov (United States)

Butterflies use visual and chemical cues when interacting with their environment, but the role of hearing is poorly understood in these insects. Nymphalidae (brush-footed) butterflies occur worldwide in almost all habitats and continents, and comprise more than 6,000 species. In many species a unique forewing structure--Vogel's organ--is thought to function as an ear. At present, however, there is little experimental evidence to support this hypothesis. We studied the functional organization of Vogel's organ in the common blue morpho butterfly, Morpho peleides, which represents the majority of Nymphalidae in that it is diurnal and does not produce sounds. Our results confirm that Vogel's organ possesses the morphological and physiological characteristics of a typical insect tympanal ear. The tympanum has an oval-shaped outer membrane and a convex inner membrane. Associated with the inner surface of the tympanum are three chordotonal organs, each containing 10-20 scolopidia. Extracellular recordings from the auditory nerve show that Vogel's organ is most sensitive to sounds between 2-4 kHz at median thresholds of 58 dB SPL. Most butterfly species that possess Vogel's organ are diurnal, and mute, so bat detection and conspecific communication can be ruled out as roles for hearing. We hypothesize that Vogel's organs in butterflies such as M. peleides have evolved to detect flight sounds of predatory birds. The evolution and taxonomic distribution of butterfly hearing organs are discussed. PMID:18389500

Lane, Karla A; Lucas, Kathleen M; Yack, Jayne E

2008-06-10

92

Butterfly pattern hypopigmentation with antitubercular treatment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Standard short course chemotherapy is the key element of the DOTS strategy and these drugs cause different kinds of cutaneous adverse drug reactions that usually occur within 2 months of initiation of treatment in around 97% of the patients. We hereby report a case of a 16-year-old female patient who developed butterfly pattern hypopigmented rashes after 3 months of starting on category 1 antitubercular treatment (ATT. Other causes with similar picture were ruled out with additional investigations and the case was confi rmed as ATT induced hypopigmented rash. WHO-UMC causality assessment showed a probable association. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2014; 3(2.000: 410-411

M. C. Gupta

2014-04-01

93

Local and effective: Two projects of butterfly farming in Cambodia and Tanzania (Insecta: Lepidoptera  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Los proyectos "Banteay Srey Butterfly Centre" en Camboya (Asia y "Zanzibar Butterfly Centre" in Tanzania (África se describen como modelos de cría sostenible de mariposas en apoyo para comunidades locales.

T. van der Heyden

2011-01-01

94

Field Based Learning About Butterfly Diversity in School Garden-A Case Study From Puducherry, India  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Butterflies are essential components for well functioning of ecosystems due to their key roles as pollinators and as indicators of ecosystem health. Butterflies are also beloved by public as well as young students and children, who are largely unaware that many species are threatened or endangered. The main objectives of field based education for butterfly conservation were to create knowledge, interest and necessary skills to investigate and, identify the butterfly species and conserve its d...

Gopalsomy Poyyamoli; Ramadoss Alexandar

2012-01-01

95

Butterfly wing coloration studied with a novel imaging scatterometer  

Science.gov (United States)

Animal coloration functions for display or camouflage. Notably insects provide numerous examples of a rich variety of the applied optical mechanisms. For instance, many butterflies feature a distinct dichromatism, that is, the wing coloration of the male and the female differ substantially. The male Brimstone, Gonepteryx rhamni, has yellow wings that are strongly UV iridescent, but the female has white wings with low reflectance in the UV and a high reflectance in the visible wavelength range. In the Small White cabbage butterfly, Pieris rapae crucivora, the wing reflectance of the male is low in the UV and high at visible wavelengths, whereas the wing reflectance of the female is higher in the UV and lower in the visible. Pierid butterflies apply nanosized, strongly scattering beads to achieve their bright coloration. The male Pipevine Swallowtail butterfly, Battus philenor, has dorsal wings with scales functioning as thin film gratings that exhibit polarized iridescence; the dorsal wings of the female are matte black. The polarized iridescence probably functions in intraspecific, sexual signaling, as has been demonstrated in Heliconius butterflies. An example of camouflage is the Green Hairstreak butterfly, Callophrys rubi, where photonic crystal domains exist in the ventral wing scales, resulting in a matte green color that well matches the color of plant leaves. The spectral reflection and polarization characteristics of biological tissues can be rapidly and with unprecedented detail assessed with a novel imaging scatterometer-spectrophotometer, built around an elliptical mirror [1]. Examples of butterfly and damselfly wings, bird feathers, and beetle cuticle will be presented. [4pt] [1] D.G. Stavenga, H.L. Leertouwer, P. Pirih, M.F. Wehling, Optics Express 17, 193-202 (2009)

Stavenga, Doekele

2010-03-01

96

On the Analysis and Construction of the Butterfly Curve Using "Mathematica"[R  

Science.gov (United States)

The butterfly curve was introduced by Temple H. Fay in 1989 and defined by the polar curve r = e[superscript cos theta] minus 2 cos 4 theta plus sin[superscript 5] (theta divided by 12). In this article, we develop the mathematical model of the butterfly curve and analyse its geometric properties. In addition, we draw the butterfly curve and…

Geum, Y. H.; Kim, Y. I.

2008-01-01

97

Butterfly inclusions in Van Schrieck masterpieces. Techniques and optical properties  

Science.gov (United States)

Dutch painter Otto Marseus Van Schrieck (1619 1678) is famous for his invention of “sottobosco”. These specific still-life paintings are characterized by the presence of various living organisms (mainly insects and plants) directly on the canvas. We will focus our attention on the painting kept in the museum of Grenoble, France, where a real butterfly is pasted on the canvas. The actual butterfly is a common Nymphalidae, Inachis io, presented in a static position on the dorsal side, without any perspective, compared to the neighboring butterflies. The colors of this butterfly are mainly due to pigments, melanin (black to brown) and ommochromes (yellow, orange, red) often in granules configuration that introduce scattering of light superimposed to the classical selective absorption, except in the ocelli of the hind wings where the blue coloration is due to interferential effects. The nearly perfect refraction index equality between the varnish and the chitin, the main constituent of the butterfly wings, deeply affects its colors. This leads the artist to a final intervention in some parts of the wings, revealed by microscope observation.

Berthier, S.; Boulenguez, J.; Menu, M.; Mottin, B.

2008-07-01

98

Butterfly scale form birefringence related to photonics.  

Science.gov (United States)

Wings of the butterflies Morpho aega and Eryphanis reevesi were investigated in the present study by fluorescence, polarization and infra-red (IR) spectroscopic microscopy with the aim of identifying the oriented organization of their components and morphological details of their substructures. These wings were found to exhibit a strong iridescent glow depending on the angle of the incident light; their isolated scales exhibited blue fluorescence. Parallel columns or ridges extend from the pad and sockets to the dented apical scale's region, and they are perpendicular to the ribs that connect the columnar ridges. The scales reveal linear dichroism (LD) visually, when attached on the wing matrix or isolated on slides. The LD was inferred to be textural and positive and was also demonstrated with IR microscopy. The scale columns and ribs are birefringent structures. Images obtained before and after birefringence compensation allowed a detailed study of the scale morphology. Form and intrinsic birefringence findings here estimated and discussed in the context of nonlinear optical properties, bring to the level of morphology the state of molecular order and periodicity of the wing structure. FT-IR absorption peaks were found at wavenumbers which correspond to symmetric and asymmetric (-N-H) stretching, symmetric (-C-H) stretching, amide I (-CO) stretching, amide II(-N-H), and ?-linking. Based on LD results obtained with polarized IR the molecular vibrations of the wing scales of M. aega and E. reevesi are assumed to be oriented with respect to the long axis of these structures. PMID:21641225

Vidal, Benedicto de Campos

2011-12-01

99

Selection on the wing in Heliconius butterflies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Asbtract To what extent population structure favours the establishment of new phenotypes within a species remains a fundamental question in evolutionary studies. By reducing gene flow, habitat fragmentation is a major factor shaping the genetic structuring of populations, favouring isolation of small populations in which drift may rapidly change frequencies of new variants. When these variants provide advantages to individuals, the combined effect of selection and drift can lead to rapid shifts in phenotypes. In a study published in BMC Genetics, Albuquerque de Moura et al. asked whether such a general pattern of population structure can be observed in Heliconius species, which could have strong implication in the evolution of colour pattern diversification in these butterflies. In this commentary we discuss the potential roles of these three processes (drift, selection and dispersal on the evolution of Heliconius wing patterns in regard to the findings of a common fine-scale population structure within the co-mimetic species H. melpomene and H. erato. Indeed, a general pattern of population subdivision in the history of these two species may have provoked the major phenotypical shifts observed in their wing colour patterns. The suggestion that coupled environmental pressures (counter-selection of dispersal and selection on co-evolved traits could be responsible for identical genetic differentiation profiles in H. erato and H. melpomene clearly merits further investigations using both detailed population genetic (including landscape genetic and ecological studies.

Stevens Virginie M

2011-03-01

100

Harmonic butterflies as a plasma diagnostic tool  

Science.gov (United States)

Inductively coupled plasma-tools have three power-coupling modes:capacitive (E-mode), inductive (H-mode) and Helicon wave (W-mode). These vary in light output intensity and rf behaviour depending on the system parameters. Here the particular interest is in the rf fundamental and its plasma-generated harmonic amplitudes and the relative phase between them. For the DCU ARIS II and the QUB GEC reference cell we have observed that the rf fundamental and its plasma generated harmonic(s) vary in amplitude and relative phase with the mode of discharge coupling. The rf information is captured using either a non-invasive dual-direction coupler and/or a surface-wave probe, and is displayed as a Lissajous figure on an oscilloscope. Experiments show that this technique delineates the mode change both in time and space for argon, chlorine and oxygen discharges. In the case of self-pulsing the Lissajous figure forms a time-varying Butterfly image that follows the pulse period thus allowing the time varying discharge to be monitored in real-time. Partially funded by the HEA North-South Programme for Collaborative Research and by SFI under grant number 02/IN.1/I147.

Law, V. J.; Gahan, D.; Soberon, F.; Oksuz, L.; Garcia, F.; Ellingboe, A. R.; Graham, W. G.

2004-09-01

 
 
 
 
101

Quantum computation over the butterfly network  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to investigate distributed quantum computation under restricted network resources, we introduce a quantum computation task over the butterfly network where both quantum and classical communications are limited. We consider deterministically performing a two-qubit global unitary operation on two unknown inputs given at different nodes, with outputs at two distinct nodes. By using a particular resource setting introduced by M. Hayashi [Phys. Rev. A 76, 040301(R) (2007)], which is capable of performing a swap operation by adding two maximally entangled qubits (ebits) between the two input nodes, we show that unitary operations can be performed without adding any entanglement resource, if and only if the unitary operations are locally unitary equivalent to controlled unitary operations. Our protocol is optimal in the sense that the unitary operations cannot be implemented if we relax the specifications of any of the channels. We also construct protocols for performing controlled traceless unitary operations with a 1-ebit resource and for performing global Clifford operations with a 2-ebit resource.

102

Hearing in the crepuscular owl butterfly (Caligo eurilochus, Nymphalidae).  

Science.gov (United States)

Tympanal organs are widespread in Nymphalidae butterflies, with a great deal of variability in the morphology of these ears. How this variation reflects differences in hearing physiology is not currently understood. This study provides the first examination of hearing organs in the crepuscular owl butterfly, Caligo eurilochus. We examined the tuning and sensitivity of the C. eurilochus hearing organ, called Vogel's organ, using laser Doppler vibrometry and extracellular neurophysiology. We show that the C. eurilochus ear responds to sound and is most sensitive to frequencies between 1 and 4 kHz, as confirmed by both the vibration of the tympanal membrane and the physiological response of the associated nerve branches. In comparison to the hearing of its diurnally active relative, Morpho peleides, C. eurilochus has a narrower frequency range with higher auditory thresholds. Hypotheses explaining the function of hearing in this crepuscular butterfly are discussed. PMID:25173833

Lucas, Kathleen M; Mongrain, Jennifer K; Windmill, James F C; Robert, Daniel; Yack, Jayne E

2014-10-01

103

Host ant independent oviposition in the parasitic butterfly Maculinea alcon  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Parasitic Maculinea alcon butterflies can only develop in nests of a subset of available Myrmica ant species, so female butterflies have been hypothesized to preferentially lay eggs on plants close to colonies of the correct host ants. Previous correlational investigations of host-ant-dependent oviposition in this and other Maculinea species have, however, shown equivocal results, leading to a long-term controversy over support for this hypothesis. We therefore conducted a controlled field experiment to study the egg-laying behaviour of M. alcon. Matched potted Gentiana plants were set out close to host-ant nests and non-host-ant nests, and the number and position of eggs attached were assessed. Our results show no evidence for host-ant-based oviposition in M. alcon, but support an oviposition strategy based on plant characteristics. This suggests that careful management of host-ant distribution is necessary for conservation of this endangered butterfly.

Fürst, Matthias A; Nash, David Richard

2010-01-01

104

Hall plateau diagram for the Hofstadter butterfly energy spectrum  

CERN Document Server

We extensively study the localization and the quantum Hall effect in the Hofstadter butterfly, which emerges in a two-dimensional electron system with a weak two-dimensional periodic potential. We numerically calculate the Hall conductivity and the localization length for finite systems with the disorder in general magnetic fields, and estimate the energies of the extended levels in an infinite system. We obtain the Hall plateau diagram on the whole region of the Hofstadter butterfly, and propose a theory for the evolution of the plateau structure with increasing disorder. There we show that a subband with the Hall conductivity $n e^2/h$ has $|n|$ separated bunches of extended levels, at least for an integer $n \\leq 2$. We also find that the clusters of the subbands with identical Hall conductivity, which repeatedly appear in the Hofstadter butterfly, have a similar localization property.

Koshino, M; Koshino, Mikito; Ando, Tsuneya

2006-01-01

105

Two component butterfly hysteresis in Ru1222 ruthenocuprate  

CERN Document Server

We report detailed studies of the ac susceptibility butterfly hysteresis on the Ru1222 ruthenocuprate compounds. Two separate contributions to these hysteresis have been identified and studied. One contribution is ferromagnetic-like and is characterized by the coercive field maximum. Another contribution, represented by the so called inverted maximum, is related to the unusual inverted loops, unique feature of Ru1222 butterfly hysteresis. The different nature of the two identified magnetic contributions is proved by the different temperature dependences involved. By lowering the temperature the inverted peak gradually disappears while the coercive field slowly raises. If the maximum dc field for the hysteresis is increased, the size of the inverted part of the butterfly hysteresis monotonously grows while the position of the peak saturates. In reaching saturation exponential field dependence has been demonstrated to take place. At T = 78 K the saturation field is 42 Oe.

Zivkovic, L; Prester, M

2005-01-01

106

AFM Study of Structure Influence on Butterfly Wings Coloration  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study describes the structural coloration of the butterfly Vanessa Atalanta wings and shows how the atomic force microscopy (AFM can be applied to the study of wings morphology and wings surface behavior under the temperature. The role of the wings morphology in colors was investigated. Different colors of wings have different topology and can be identified by them. AFM in semi-contact mode was used to study the wings surface. The wing surface area, which is close to the butterfly body, has shiny brown color and the peak of surface roughness is about 600 nm. The changing of morphology at different temperatures is shown.

Dinara Sultanovna Dallaeva

2012-01-01

107

Inquiry Is Taking Flight Through Project Butterfly WINGS  

Science.gov (United States)

Project Butterfly WINGS (Winning Investigative Network for Great Science) is designed to foster adolescents' interest, understanding, and long-term involvement in science, as well as promote positive youth development. Through WINGS, students form a network of butterfly observers who progress from beginners to engaged citizen scientists. A series of cumulative activities, each with a life skill and science inquiry skill component, culminates in a final activity in which students create a custom research project on a topic that interests them. Their skills combine in a dynamic interplay to equip each participant with rich, life-enhancing experiences they can apply to other areas.

Dunckel, Betty A.; Malone, Kathy C.; Kadel, Nikole K.

2008-01-01

108

Analysis, synchronization and circuit design of a novel butterfly attractor  

Science.gov (United States)

This research paper introduces a novel three-dimensional autonomous system, whose dynamics support periodic and chaotic butterfly attractors as certain parameters vary. A special case of this system, exhibiting reflectional symmetry, is amenable to analytical and numerical analysis. Qualitative properties of the new chaotic system are discussed in detail. Adaptive control laws are derived to achieve global chaotic synchronization of the new chaotic system with unknown parameters. Furthermore, a novel electronic circuit realization of the new chaotic system is presented, examined and realized using Orcad-PSpice program and physical components. The proposed novel butterfly chaotic attractor is very useful for the deliberate generation of chaos in applications.

Pehlivan, Ihsan; Moroz, Irene M.; Vaidyanathan, Sundarapandian

2014-09-01

109

Anomalous reparametrizations and butterfly states in string field theory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The reparametrization symmetries of Witten's vertex in ordinary or vacuum string field theories can be used to extract useful information about classical solutions of the equations of motion corresponding to D-branes. It follows, that the vacuum string field theory in general has to be regularized. For the regularization recently considered by Gaiotto et al., we show that the identities we derive, are so constraining, that among all surface states they uniquely select the simplest butterfly projector discovered numerically by these authors. The reparametrization symmetries are also used to give a simple proof that the butterfly states and their generalizations are indeed projectors

110

Negative density-distribution relationship in butterflies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Because "laws of nature" do not exist in ecology, much of the foundations of community ecology rely on broad statistical generalisations. One of the strongest generalisations is the positive relationship between density and distribution within a given taxonomic assemblage; that is, locally abundant species are more widespread than locally sparse species. Several mechanisms have been proposed to create this positive relationship, and the testing of these mechanisms is attracting increasing attention. Results We report a strong, but counterintuitive, negative relationship between density and distribution in the butterfly fauna of Finland. With an exceptionally comprehensive data set (data includes all 95 resident species in Finland and over 1.5 million individuals, we have been able to submit several of the mechanisms to powerful direct empirical testing. Without exception, we failed to find evidence for the proposed mechanisms creating a positive density-distribution relationship. On the contrary, we found that many of the mechanisms are equally able to generate a negative relationship. Conclusion We suggest that one important determinant of density-distribution relationships is the geographical location of the study: on the edge of a distribution range, suitable habitat patches are likely to be more isolated than in the core of the range. In such a situation, only the largest and best quality patches are likely to be occupied, and these by definition can support a relatively dense population leading to a negative density-distribution relationship. Finally, we conclude that generalizations about the positive density-distribution relationship should be made more cautiously.

Kotiaho Janne S

2005-03-01

111

Tracking butterfly flight paths across the landscape with harmonic radar.  

Science.gov (United States)

For the first time, the flight paths of five butterfly species were successfully tracked using harmonic radar within an agricultural landscape. Until now, butterfly mobility has been predominantly studied using visual observations and mark-recapture experiments. Attachment of a light-weight radar transponder to the butterfly's thorax did not significantly affect behaviour or mobility. Tracks were analysed for straightness, duration, displacement, ground speed, foraging and the influence of linear landscape features on flight direction. Two main styles of track were identified: (A) fast linear flight and (B) slower nonlinear flights involving a period of foraging and/or looped sections of flight. These loops potentially perform an orientation function, and were often associated with areas of forage. In the absence of forage, linear features did not provide a guiding effect on flight direction, and only dense treelines were perceived as barriers. The results provide tentative support for non-random dispersal and a perceptual range of 100-200 m for these species. This study has demonstrated a methodology of significant value for future investigation of butterfly mobility and dispersal. PMID:15888410

Cant, E T; Smith, A D; Reynolds, D R; Osborne, J L

2005-04-22

112

Vegetation associated with the occurrence of the Brenton blue butterfly  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english The Brenton blue butterfly, Orachrysops niobe (Trimen), is critically endangered and known only from one site near Knysna in the Western Cape province of South Africa, now proclaimed as the Brenton Blue Butterfly Reserve (BBBR). We have explored associations between vegetation types and the presence [...] of O. niobe's only host plant, Indigofera erecta (Thunb.), using Braun-Blanquet vegetation classification and ordination techniques as part of a broader research project at the BBBR. Positive correlations are demonstrated between the occurrence of I. erecta and certain thicket vegetation types dominated by Pterocelastrus tricuspidatus (candlewood trees). Ordinations using soil analysis and slope data have not detected significant environmental gradients influencing vegetation types. The high degree of vegetation heterogeneity at the BBBR appears to be driven in part by various disturbance histories. Historical ecological events at the site such as fire and megaherbivore impacts, and their role in sustaining the ideal habitat for I. erecta and O. niobe, are discussed. Management techniques for the BBBR such as controlled fires or the cutting of paths through the vegetation are evaluated and an optimum future management strategy is recommended. This is the most comprehensive vegetation study ever carried out at the habitat of an endangered butterfly in South Africa, and breaks new ground by using vegetation analysis to develop a well-informed management plan for conservation of this species. It has significance for the management of small sites where many such endangered butterflies occur.

D.A., Edge; S.S., Cilliers; R.F., Terblanche.

113

Organization of the olfactory system of nymphalidae butterflies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Olfaction is in many species the most important sense, essential for food search, mate finding, and predator avoidance. Butterflies have been considered a microsmatic group of insects that mainly rely on vision due to their diurnal lifestyle. However, an emerging number of studies indicate that butterflies indeed use the sense of smell for locating food and oviposition sites. To unravel the neural substrates for olfaction, we performed an anatomical study of 2 related butterfly species that differ in food and host plant preference. We found many of the anatomical structures and pathways, as well as distribution of neuroactive substances, to resemble that of their nocturnal relatives among the Lepidoptera. The 2 species differed in the number of one type of olfactory sensilla, thus indicating a difference in sensitivity to certain compounds. Otherwise no differences could be observed. Our findings suggest that the olfactory system in Lepidoptera is well conserved despite the long evolutionary time since butterflies and moths diverged from a common ancestor. PMID:23513054

Carlsson, Mikael A; Schäpers, Alexander; Nässel, Dick R; Janz, Niklas

2013-05-01

114

Cretaceous origin and repeated tertiary diversification of the redefined butterflies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although the taxonomy of the ca 18 000 species of butterflies and skippers is well known, the family-level relationships are still debated. Here, we present, to our knowledge, the most comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of the superfamilies Papilionoidea, Hesperioidea and Hedyloidea to date based on morphological and molecular data. We reconstructed their phylogenetic relationships using parsimony and Bayesian approaches. We estimated times and rates of diversification along lineages in order to reconstruct their evolutionary history. Our results suggest that the butterflies, as traditionally understood, are paraphyletic, with Papilionidae being the sister-group to Hesperioidea, Hedyloidea and all other butterflies. Hence, the families in the current three superfamilies should be placed in a single superfamily Papilionoidea. In addition, we find that Hedylidae is sister to Hesperiidae, and this novel relationship is supported by two morphological characters. The families diverged in the Early Cretaceous but diversified after the Cretaceous-Palaeogene event. The diversification of butterflies is characterized by a slow speciation rate in the lineage leading to Baronia brevicornis, a period of stasis by the skippers after divergence and a burst of diversification in the lineages leading to Nymphalidae, Riodinidae and Lycaenidae. PMID:21920981

Heikkilä, Maria; Kaila, Lauri; Mutanen, Marko; Peña, Carlos; Wahlberg, Niklas

2012-03-22

115

Phase shifts of the paired wings of butterfly diagrams  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sunspot groups observed by the Royal Greenwich Observatory/US Air Force/NOAA from 1874 May to 2008 November and the Carte Synoptique solar filaments from 1919 March to 1989 December are used to investigate the relative phase shift of the paired wings of butterfly diagrams of sunspot and filament activities. Latitudinal migration of sunspot groups (or filaments) does asynchronously occur in the northern and southern hemispheres, and there is a relative phase shift between the paired wings of their butterfly diagrams in a cycle, making the paired wings spatially asymmetrical on the solar equator. It is inferred that hemispherical solar activity strength should evolve in a similar way within the paired wings of a butterfly diagram in a cycle, demonstrating the paired wings phenomenon and showing the phase relationship between the northern and southern hemispherical solar activity strengths, as well as a relative phase shift between the paired wings of a butterfly diagram, which should bring about almost the same relative phase shift of hemispheric solar activity strength. (research papers)

116

Butterfly Chronicles: Imagination and Desire in Natural & Literary Histories  

Science.gov (United States)

Fragile, ethereal, beautiful, the butterfly is at the same time decidedly strange in appearance. They are without mandibles, unlike most insects, but sport instead a proboscis, sometimes one and a half times their body length, which they use to drink liquids as if through a straw. They have large, compound eyes, tiny nails or claws, and strange…

MacRae, Ian J.

2008-01-01

117

BUDDLEJA DAVIDII (BUTTERFLY BUSH): A GROWING THREAT TO RIPARIA?  

Science.gov (United States)

Buddleja davidii, an Asian shrub or small tree (family Buddlejaceae; commonly referred to as Butterfly bush) is found in the United States, New Zealand, Australia, and Europe as a popular ornamental and an aggressive invasive that has become widespread in floodplains, riverbeds, ...

118

But Madame Butterfly, Where Are All the Males?  

Science.gov (United States)

This Scientific American article reports that a population of Samoan blue moon butterflies has been able to develop resistance to the male-killing bacteria Wolbachia. It explores how an introduced suppressor gene allowed resistant males to proliferate within the population in less than a year and includes future research questions.

Basu, Sourish; American, Scientific

119

Butterfly Floquet Spectrum in Driven SU(2) Systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Floquet spectrum of a class of driven SU(2) systems is shown to display a butterfly pattern with multifractal properties. The level crossing between Floquet states of the same parity or different parities is studied. The results are relevant to studies of fractal statistics, quantum chaos, coherent destruction of tunneling, and the validity of mean-field descriptions of Bose-Einstein condensates.

120

Response of butterflies to structural and resource boundaries.  

Science.gov (United States)

1. Two aspects of landscape composition shape the behavioural response of animals to habitat heterogeneity: physical habitat structure and abundance of key resources. In general, within-habitat movement behaviour has been investigated in relation to resources, and preference at boundaries has been quantified in response to physical structure. 2. Habitat preference studies suggest that responses to resources vs. structure should differ, e.g. between male and female animals, and effects of responses to structure and resources may also interact. However, most studies of animal movement combine various aspects of behavioural responses to 'habitat', implicitly assuming that resources and structure are broadly equivalent. 3. We conducted a large-scale experiment of the movement of Fender's blue (Icaricia icarioides fenderi), an endangered butterfly, to investigate butterfly response to physical structure of the landscape (prairie, open woods and dense woods) and to resources [presence or absence of Kincaid's lupine, Lupinus oreganus (larval hostplant patches)]. The experiment included 606 butterfly flight paths across four habitat types and nine ecotones. 4. Responses to physical structure and resource patches were not congruent. Butterflies were attracted to resource patches within both prairies and open woods and moved more slowly when in resource patches. Butterflies tended to prefer prairie at prairie-forest edges but tended to move faster in prairies than in open woods. Physical structure and resources also interacted; butterflies did not respond to physical habitat structure when resource patches spanned prairie - open woods ecotones. 5. Even dense woods were not perfect barriers, in contrast to a large body of literature that assumes insects from open habitats will not enter dense forests. 6. Movement of both males and females responded to resources and structure. However, female butterflies had stronger responses to both resources and structure in most cases. Females had strongest response to resource (hostplant) patches at patch edges, whereas the strongest preference of males was to return to prairie from open forest. 7. If other species behave like Fender's blue, then combining different definitions of 'habitat' (physical structure vs. resources), different aspects of movement (edge preference vs. within-habitat movement) and/or males and females within species could all lead to misleading conclusions. Our results highlight the importance of investigating these responses, and our study provides a framework for separating them in other systems. PMID:22272654

Schultz, Cheryl B; Franco, Aldina M A; Crone, Elizabeth E

2012-05-01

 
 
 
 
121

Virtual migration in tethered flying monarch butterflies reveals their orientation mechanisms  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A newly developed flight simulator allows monarch butterflies to fly actively for up to several hours in any horizontal direction while their fall migratory flight direction can be continuously recorded. From these data, long segments of virtual flight paths of tethered, flying, migratory monarch butterflies were reconstructed, and by advancing or retarding the butterflies' circadian clocks, we have shown that they possess a time-compensated sun compass. Control monarchs on local time fly app...

Mouritsen, Henrik; Frost, Barrie J.

2002-01-01

122

Photonic nanoarchitectures occurring in butterfly scales as selective gas/vapor sensors  

Science.gov (United States)

Photonic band gap material type nanoarchitectures occurring in the wing scales of butterflies possessing structural color were investigated as selective gas/vapor sensors. From 20 examined butterfly species all showed selective sensing when various volatile organic compounds were introduced as additives in ambient air. Four butterflies species: Chrysiridia ripheus (Geometridae), Pseudolycena marsyas, Cyanophrys remus (both Lycaenidae) and Morpho aega (Nymphalidae) were selected to demonstrate the possibilities of selective sensing offered by these natural nanoarchitectures. Each butterfly species gives characteristic response both for species, i.e., for its typical nanoarchitecture, and for the seven test vapors used. Fast response time, reproducible and concentration dependent signals are demonstrated.

Biró, L. P.; Kertész, K.; Vértesy, Z.; Bálint, Zs.

2008-08-01

123

Morpho butterfly wing scales demonstrate highly selective vapour response  

Science.gov (United States)

Tropical Morpho butterflies are famous for their brilliant iridescent colours, which arise from ordered arrays of scales on their wings. Here we show that the iridescent scales of the Morpho sulkowskyi butterfly give a different optical response to different individual vapours, and that this optical response dramatically outperforms that of existing nano-engineered photonic sensors. The reflectance spectra of the scales provide information about the nature and concentration of the vapours, allowing us to identify a range of closely related vapours-water, methanol, ethanol and isomers of dichloroethylene when they are analysed individually. By comparing the reflectance as a function of time for different vapours, we deduce that wing regions with scale structures of differing spatial periodicity give contributions to the overall spectral response at different wavelengths. Our optical model explains the effect of different components of the wing scales on the vapour response, and could steer the design of new man-made optical gas sensors.

Potyrailo, Radislav A.; Ghiradella, Helen; Vertiatchikh, Alexei; Dovidenko, Katharine; Cournoyer, James R.; Olson, Eric

2007-02-01

124

Butterfly genome reveals promiscuous exchange of mimicry adaptations among species  

Science.gov (United States)

The evolutionary importance of hybridization and introgression has long been debated1. We used genomic tools to investigate introgression in Heliconius, a rapidly radiating genus of neotropical butterflies widely used in studies of ecology, behaviour, mimicry and speciation2-5 . We sequenced the genome of Heliconius melpomene and compared it with other taxa to investigate chromosomal evolution in Lepidoptera and gene flow among multiple Heliconius species and races. Among 12,657 predicted genes for Heliconius, biologically important expansions of families of chemosensory and Hox genes are particularly noteworthy. Chromosomal organisation has remained broadly conserved since the Cretaceous, when butterflies split from the silkmoth lineage. Using genomic resequencing, we show hybrid exchange of genes between three co-mimics, H. melpomene, H. timareta, and H. elevatus, especially at two genomic regions that control mimicry pattern. Closely related Heliconius species clearly exchange protective colour pattern genes promiscuously, implying a major role for hybridization in adaptive radiation. PMID:22722851

Dasmahapatra, Kanchon K; Walters, James R.; Briscoe, Adriana D.; Davey, John W.; Whibley, Annabel; Nadeau, Nicola J.; Zimin, Aleksey V.; Hughes, Daniel S. T.; Ferguson, Laura C.; Martin, Simon H.; Salazar, Camilo; Lewis, James J.; Adler, Sebastian; Ahn, Seung-Joon; Baker, Dean A.; Baxter, Simon W.; Chamberlain, Nicola L.; Chauhan, Ritika; Counterman, Brian A.; Dalmay, Tamas; Gilbert, Lawrence E.; Gordon, Karl; Heckel, David G.; Hines, Heather M.; Hoff, Katharina J.; Holland, Peter W.H.; Jacquin-Joly, Emmanuelle; Jiggins, Francis M.; Jones, Robert T.; Kapan, Durrell D.; Kersey, Paul; Lamas, Gerardo; Lawson, Daniel; Mapleson, Daniel; Maroja, Luana S.; Martin, Arnaud; Moxon, Simon; Palmer, William J.; Papa, Riccardo; Papanicolaou, Alexie; Pauchet, Yannick; Ray, David A.; Rosser, Neil; Salzberg, Steven L.; Supple, Megan A.; Surridge, Alison; Tenger-Trolander, Ayse; Vogel, Heiko; Wilkinson, Paul A.; Wilson, Derek; Yorke, James A.; Yuan, Furong; Balmuth, Alexi L.; Eland, Cathlene; Gharbi, Karim; Thomson, Marian; Gibbs, Richard A.; Han, Yi; Jayaseelan, Joy C.; Kovar, Christie; Mathew, Tittu; Muzny, Donna M.; Ongeri, Fiona; Pu, Ling-Ling; Qu, Jiaxin; Thornton, Rebecca L.; Worley, Kim C.; Wu, Yuan-Qing; Linares, Mauricio; Blaxter, Mark L.; Constant, Richard H. ffrench; Joron, Mathieu; Kronforst, Marcus R.; Mullen, Sean P.; Reed, Robert D.; Scherer, Steven E.; Richards, Stephen; Mallet, James; McMillan, W. Owen; Jiggins, Chris D.

2012-01-01

125

On the Disposition of Maunders' Origninal Butterfly Diagram  

Science.gov (United States)

On 21 May 1940, Annie S. D. Maunder mailed the original drawing of the celebrated ``Maunder Butterfly Diagram" to Stephen A., and his daughter Margaret L., Ionides. Later that same year Stephen and Margaret gave the diagram ``on indefinite loan" to Walter Orr Roberts, then the Superintendent of Fremont Pass Station of the Harvard College Observatory. The framed diagram remains on display today at the scion of that organization, the High Altitude Observatory of the National Center for Atmospheric Research, in Boulder Colorado. Drawing upon the original correspondences, this contribution recounts the story behind the travels of the ``Maunder Butterfly" during the second World War. The National Center for Atmospheric Research is sponsored by the National Science Foundation.

Bogdan, T. J.

2000-05-01

126

Multiple approaches to study color pattern evolution in butterflies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The myriad colors and patterns on butterfly wings have caught the attention of biologists for well over a century. Today, with the advent of more sophisticated genetic and developmental tools, it is possible to identify and study the evolution of genes, gene networks, and the effect of the environment on the networks underlying wing color patterning. In addition, using molecular phylogenies and the comparative approach, it is possible to infer ancestral wing patterns, direction of evolutionary change, and occurrence of parallelism and convergence. Finally, the driving forces behind wing pattern evolution can be estimated using bioassay studies such as predator–prey and mate choice experiments. Here we review the different approaches to answer both proximate and ultimate questions about butterfly wing pattern evolution, and we highlight future research directions in a field that has the potential to become truly integrative.

Kathleen M. Prudic

2010-03-01

127

Oviposition cues for a specialist butterfly: plant chemistry and size  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The oviposition choice of an insect herbivore is based on a complex set of stimuli and responses. In this study, we examined the effect of plant secondary chemistry (the iridoid glycosides aucubin and catalpol) and aspects of size of the plant Plantago lanceolata, on the oviposition behavior of the specialist butterfly Melitaea cinxia. Iridoid glycosides are known to deter feeding or decrease the growth rate of generalist insect herbivores, but can act as oviposition cues and feeding stimulan...

Reudler Talsma, J. H.; Biere, A.; Harvey, J. A.; Nouhuys, S.

2008-01-01

128

Fractal Butterflies of Dirac Fermions in Monolayer and Bilayer graphene  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We present an overview of the theoretical understanding of Hofstadter butterflies in monolayer and bilayer graphene. After a brief introduction on the past work in conventional semiconductor systems, we discuss the novel electronic properties of monolayer and bilayer graphene that helped to detect experimentally the fractal nature of the energy spectrum. We have discussed the theoretical background on the Moir?e pattern in graphene. This pattern was crucial in determining th...

Chakraborty, Tapash; Apalkov, Vadym M.

2014-01-01

129

All natural habitat edges matter equally for endangered Maculinea butterflies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An obvious consequence of habitat fragmentation is an increasing role of habitat edges for species survival. Recently it has been suggested that the endangered butterfly Maculinea nausithous prefers forested edges of its meadow habitats. However, the prevalence of forests in the study area used for this analysis makes it impossible to distinguish whether the effect detected is a genuine preference for forest edges or a preference for any natural patch edges as opposed ...

Nowicki, Piotr; Halecki, Wiktor; Kalarus, Konrad

2013-01-01

130

Social benefits of ecotourism : the monarch butterfly reserve in Mexico  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Ecotourism can contribute to both positive and negative socioeconomic impacts at the local level. However, ecotourism’s socioeconomic impacts have received limited scholarly attention in the context of developing countries. Based on qualitative interviews and observations, this paper looks at the socioeconomic benefits of ecotourism in a local community in the Monarch Butterfly Reserve in Mexico. It was found that ecotourism replaced most of the economic activities in the ...

Monterrubio Cordero, Juan Carlos; Rodri?guez Mun?oz, Gregoria; Mendoza Ontiveros, Martha Marivel

2013-01-01

131

Butterfly Floquet Spectrum in Driven SU(2) Systems  

CERN Document Server

The Floquet spectrum of a class of driven SU(2) systems is shown to display a butterfly pattern with multi-fractal properties. The level crossing between Floquet states of the same parity or different parities is studied. The results are relevant to studies of fractal statistics, quantum chaos, coherent destruction of tunneling, and the validity of mean-field descriptions of Bose-Einstein condensates.

Wang, Jiao

2009-01-01

132

Enemy-free space maintains swallowtail butterfly host shift  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Natural enemies can be significant sources of mortality for herbivorous insects and therefore important agents of natural selection. One might expect selection to favor herbivores that escape from their natural enemies into enemy-free space. Although this is an appealing idea, it has received little empirical support, and no studies have documented enemy-free space as part of a nonagricultural, nonartificial host shift. The Alaskan swallowtail butterfly, Papilio machaon aliaska, uses as host ...

Murphy, Shannon M.

2004-01-01

133

BUTTERFLY FAUNA OF NAMBOR AND GARAMPANI WILDLIFE SANCTUARY, ASSAM, INDIA  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Brahmaputra Valley of Assam plains supports several protected areas for the conservation of the wildlife; also counted among one of the world's biodiversity hotspot regions that has been a biological frontier even in the twenty first century. Nambor and Garampani WLS is one among them; harboring diverse group of plants and animals. Butterflies are the indicators of healthy ecosystem and very sensitive to habitat degradation and pollution, they are also very important group...

Mayur Bawri; Jaydev Mandal; Rajeev Basumatary

2014-01-01

134

Diversity of Butterflies from District Muzaffarabad, Azad Kashmir  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The adult butterflies were collected from nine localities of district Muzaffarabad through out the summer season of (April to October 2001. A total of 28 species belonging to 7 families were collected. Diversity was calculated by using Shannon-Wiener diversity index, Shannon`s equitability, Margalef`s index, Simpson`s index and RI index. The calculated values showed that the lowest diversity was obtained from Kohala and highest diversity was obtained from Shaeed Gali and Gari Dopatta.

M. Rafique Khan

2004-01-01

135

BUTTERFLIES OF UGANDA: MEMORIES OF A CHILD SOLDIER  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available "I was conceived in rape."[i] At least for this reviewer, this is one of the most powerful, hard-hitting opening lines of any book he has read to date. Moreover, from there this powerful text continues to hold the reader captive, and refuses to allow him or her to fall back in a slumber of indifference. [i] Opening line of Butterflies of Uganda.

Gerhard Van Zyl

2012-11-01

136

Speciation in two neotropical butterflies: extending Haldane's rule  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Anartia fatima and A. amathea form a hybrid zone in Panama where F1 and back-cross hybrids are found. Crosses were carried out to determine the nature of any reproductive isolation between these two butterflies. A novel analysis demonstrated both strong assortative mating among the pure forms and an unusual example of Haldane's rule: F1 hybrid females (the heterogametic sex) from the cross A. amathea (female) multiplied by A. fatima (male) have a reduced tendency to mate. Historically, Haldan...

Davies, N.; Aiello, A.; Mallet, J.; Pomiankowski, A.; Silberglied, R. E.

1997-01-01

137

Light-Induced Hofstadter's Butterfly Spectrum in Optical Lattices  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We propose a scheme to create an effective magnetic field, which can be perceived by cold neutral atoms in a two-dimensional optical lattice, with a laser field with a space-dependent phase and a conventional laser field acting on ?-type three-level atoms. When the dimensionless parameter ?, being the ratio of flux through a lattice cell to one flux quantum, is rational, the energy spectrum shows a fractal band structure, which is so-called Hofstadter's butterfly. (general)

138

A Survey of Eyespot Sexual Dimorphism across Nymphalid Butterflies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Differences between sexes of the same species are widespread and are variable in nature. While it is often assumed that males are more ornamented than females, in the nymphalid butterfly genus Bicyclus, females have, on average, more eyespot wing color patterns than males. Here we extend these studies by surveying eyespot pattern sexual dimorphism across the Nymphalidae family of butterflies. Eyespot presence or absence was scored from a total of 38 wing compartments for two males and two females of each of 450 nymphalid species belonging to 399 different genera. Differences in eyespot number between sexes of each species were tallied for each wing surface (e.g., dorsal and ventral) of forewings and hindwings. In roughly 44% of the species with eyespots, females had more eyespots than males, in 34%, males had more eyespots than females, and, in the remaining 22% of the species, there was monomorphism in eyespot number. Dorsal and forewing surfaces were less patterned, but proportionally more dimorphic, than ventral and hindwing surfaces, respectively. In addition, wing compartments that frequently displayed eyespots were among the least sexually dimorphic. This survey suggests that dimorphism arises predominantly in "hidden" or "private" surfaces of a butterfly's wing, as previously demonstrated for the genus Bicyclus. PMID:24381783

Tokita, Christopher K; Oliver, Jeffrey C; Monteiro, Antónia

2013-01-01

139

Solving Witten's string field theory using the butterfly state  

CERN Document Server

We solve the equation of motion of Witten's cubic open string field theory in a series expansion using the regulated butterfly state. The expansion parameter is given by the regularization parameter of the butterfly state, which can be taken to be arbitrarily small. Unlike the case of level truncation, the equation of motion can be solved for an arbitrary component of the Fock space up to a positive power of the expansion parameter. The energy density of the solution is well-defined and remains finite even in the singular butterfly limit, and it gives approximately 68% of the D25-brane tension for the solution at the leading order. Moreover, it simultaneously solves the equation of motion of vacuum string field theory, providing support for the conjecture at this order. We further improve our ansatz by taking into account next-to-leading terms, and find two numerical solutions which give approximately 88% and 109%, respectively, of the D25-brane tension for the energy density. These values are interestingly c...

Okawa, Y

2003-01-01

140

Enhancement of chromatic contrast increases predation risk for striped butterflies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Many prey species have evolved defensive colour patterns to avoid attacks. One type of camouflage, disruptive coloration, relies on contrasting patterns that hinder predators' ability to recognize an object. While high contrasts are used to facilitate detection in many visual communication systems, they are thought to provide misleading information about prey appearance in disruptive patterns. A fundamental tenet in disruptive coloration theory is the principle of 'maximum disruptive contrast', i.e. disruptive patterns are more effective when higher contrasts are involved. We tested this principle in highly contrasting stripes that have often been described as disruptive patterns. Varying the strength of chromatic contrast between stripes and adjacent pattern elements in artificial butterflies, we found a strong negative correlation between survival probability and chromatic contrast strength. We conclude that too high a contrast leads to increased conspicuousness rather than to effective camouflage. However, artificial butterflies that sported contrasts similar to those of the model species Limenitis camilla survived equally well as background-matching butterflies without these stripes. Contrasting stripes do thus not necessarily increase predation rates. This result may provide new insights into the design and characteristics of a range of colour patterns such as sexual, mimetic and aposematic signals. PMID:18381256

Stobbe, Nina; Schaefer, H Martin

2008-07-01

 
 
 
 
141

Solving Witten's string field theory using the butterfly state  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We solve the equation of motion of Witten's cubic open string field theory in a series expansion using the regulated butterfly state. The expansion parameter is given by the regularization parameter of the butterfly state, which can be taken to be arbitrarily small. Unlike the case of level truncation, the equation of motion can be solved for an arbitrary component of the Fock space up to a positive power of the expansion parameter. The energy density of the solution is well defined and remains finite even in the singular butterfly limit, and it gives approximately 68% of the D25-brane tension for the solution at the leading order. Moreover, it simultaneously solves the equation of motion of vacuum string field theory, providing support for the conjecture at this order. We further improve our ansatz by taking into account next-to-leading terms, and find two numerical solutions which give approximately 88% and 109%, respectively, of the D25-brane tension for the energy density. These values are interestingly close to those by level truncation at level 2 without gauge fixing studied by Rastelli and Zwiebach and by Ellwood and Taylor

142

Modularity, individuality, and evo-devo in butterfly wings.  

Science.gov (United States)

Modularity in animal development is thought to have facilitated morphological diversification, but independent change of those traits integrated within a module might be restricted. Correlations among traits describe potential developmental constraints on evolution. These have often been postulated to explain patterns of morphological variation and have been examined theoretically but seldom analyzed experimentally. Here, we use artificial selection to explore the modular organization of butterfly wing patterns and the extent to which their evolution is constrained by the genetic correlations among repeated pattern elements. We show that, in Bicyclus anynana butterflies, despite the evidence that all eyespots are developmentally coupled, the response to selection for increased size of one individual eyespot can proceed in a manner largely independent from selection imposed on another eyespot. We argue that among-eyespot correlations are unlikely to have constrained the evolutionary diversification of butterfly wing patterns but might be important when only limited time is available for adaptive evolution to occur. The ease with which we have been able to produce independent responses to artificial selection on different eyespots may be linked to a legacy of natural selection favoring individuality. Our results are discussed within the context of the evolution of modularity and individuality of serially repeated morphological traits. PMID:12391291

Beldade, Patricia; Koops, Kees; Brakefield, Paul M

2002-10-29

143

Concerted evolution and developmental integration in modular butterfly wing patterns.  

Science.gov (United States)

Developing organisms are thought to be modular in organization so that traits in different modules evolve independently whereas traits within a module change in a concerted manner. The eyespot pattern in Bicyclus anynana butterflies provides an ideal system where morphological modularity can be dissected and different levels of genetic integration analyzed. Several lines of evidence show that all eyespots in an individual butterfly are genetically integrated, suggesting that the whole pattern, rather than the separate eyespots, should be considered as a single character. However, despite the strong genetic correlations between the two eyespots on the dorsal forewing of B. anynana, there is great potential for independent changes. Here we use laboratory lines selected in different directions for the size of those eyespots to study correlated responses in the whole eyespot pattern. We show clear changes in eyespot size across all wing surfaces, which depend on eyespot position along the anterior-posterior axis. There are also changes in the number of extra eyespots and in eyespot color composition but no changes in eyespot position relative to wing margin. Our analysis of eyespot pattern modularity is discussed in the light of what is known about the cellular and genetic mechanisms of eyespot formation and the great potential for evolutionary diversification in butterfly wing patterns. PMID:12622734

Beldade, Patrícia; Brakefield, Paul M

2003-01-01

144

Hofstadter butterflies in nonlinear Harper lattices, and their optical realizations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ubiquitous Hofstadter butterfly describes a variety of systems characterized by incommensurable periodicities, ranging from Bloch electrons in magnetic fields and the quantum Hall effect to cold atoms in optical lattices and more. Here, we introduce nonlinearity into the underlying (Harper) model and study the nonlinear spectra and the corresponding extended eigenmodes of nonlinear quasiperiodic systems. We show that the spectra of the nonlinear eigenmodes form deformed versions of the Hofstadter butterfly and demonstrate that the modes can be classified into two families: nonlinear modes that are a 'continuation' of the linear modes of the system and new nonlinear modes that have no counterparts in the linear spectrum. Finally, we propose an optical realization of the linear and nonlinear Harper models in transversely modulated waveguide arrays, where these Hofstadter butterflies can be observed. This work is relevant to a variety of other branches of physics beyond optics, such as disorder-induced localization in ultracold bosonic gases, localization transition processes in disordered lattices, and more.

145

CLIMBER: Climatic niche characteristics of the butterflies in Europe.  

Science.gov (United States)

Detailed information on species' ecological niche characteristics that can be related to declines and extinctions is indispensable for a better understanding of the relationship between the occurrence and performance of wild species and their environment and, moreover, for an improved assessment of the impacts of global change. Knowledge on species characteristics such as habitat requirements is already available in the ecological literature for butterflies, but information about their climatic requirements is still lacking. Here we present a unique dataset on the climatic niche characteristics of 397 European butterflies representing 91% of the European species (see Appendix). These characteristics were obtained by combining detailed information on butterfly distributions in Europe (which also led to the 'Distribution Atlas of Butterflies in Europe') and the corresponding climatic conditions. The presented dataset comprises information for the position and breadth of the following climatic niche characteristics: mean annual temperature, range in annual temperature, growing degree days, annual precipitation sum, range in annual precipitation and soil water content. The climatic niche position is indicated by the median and mean value for each climate variable across a species' range, accompanied by the 95% confidence interval for the mean and the number of grid cells used for calculations. Climatic niche breadth is indicated by the standard deviation and the minimum and maximum values for each climatic variable across a species' range. Database compilation was based on high quality standards and the data are ready to use for a broad range of applications. It is already evident that the information provided in this dataset is of great relevance for basic and applied ecology. Based on the species temperature index (STI, i.e. the mean temperature value per species), the community temperature index (CTI, i.e. the average STI value across the species in a community) was recently adopted as an indicator of climate change impact on biodiversity by the pan-European framework supporting the Convention on Biological Diversity (Streamlining European Biodiversity Indicators 2010) and has already been used in several scientific publications. The application potential of this database ranges from theoretical aspects such as assessments of past niche evolution or analyses of trait interdependencies to the very applied aspects of measuring, monitoring and projecting historical, ongoing and potential future responses to climate change using butterflies as an indicator. PMID:24478578

Schweiger, Oliver; Harpke, Alexander; Wiemers, Martin; Settele, Josef

2014-01-01

146

Realizing Outdoor Independent Learning with a Butterfly-Watching Mobile Learning System  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article, we describe the development of a mobile butterfly-watching learning (BWL) system to realize outdoor independent learning for mobile learners. The mobile butterfly-watching learning system was designed in a wireless mobile ad-hoc learning environment. This is first result to provide a cognitive tool with supporting the independent…

Chen, Yuh-Shyan; Kao, Tai-Chien; Sheu, Jang-Ping

2005-01-01

147

The effect of atomic power plant accident on organisms as studied by using butterflies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The biological radiation effect of the Fukushima powerplant accident on a butterfly, Yamotoshijimi has been examined. Consequently it was resulted that the radioactive materials released from the accident had a bad influence upon Yamatoshijimi, that is, the lowering of life rate, the shape diminishing and the malformation of this butterfly. (M.H.)

148

Study of nano-architecture of the wings of Paris Peacock butterfly  

Science.gov (United States)

Butterflies are one of the most colorful creatures in animal Kingdom. Wings of the male butterfly are brilliantly colored to attract females. Color of the wings plays an important role in camouflage. Study of structural colors in case of insects and butterflies are important for their biomimic and biophotonic applications. Structural color is the color which is produced by physical structures and their interaction with light. Paris Peacock or Papilio paris butterfly belongs to the family Papilionidae. The basis of structural color of this butterfly is investigated in the present study. The upper surface of the wings in this butterfly is covered with blue, green and brown colored scales. Nano-architecture of these scales was investigated with scanning electron microscope (SEM) and environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM). Photomicrographs were analyzed using image analysis software. Goniometric color or iridescence in blue and green colored scales of this butterfly was observed and studied with the help of gonio spectrophotometer in the visible range. No iridescence was observed in brown colored scales of the butterfly. Hues of the blue and green color were measured with spectrophotometer and were correlated with nano-architecture of the wing. Results of electron microscopy and reflection spectroscopy are used to explain the iridescent nature of blue and green scales. Sinusoidal grating like structures of these scales were prominently seen in the blue scales. It is possible that the structure of these wings can act as a template for the fabrication of sinusoidal gratings using nano-imprint technology.

Ghate, Ekata; Bhoraskar, S. V.; Kulkarni, G. R.

149

Field Based Learning About Butterfly Diversity in School Garden-A Case Study From Puducherry, India  

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Full Text Available Butterflies are essential components for well functioning of ecosystems due to their key roles as pollinators and as indicators of ecosystem health. Butterflies are also beloved by public as well as young students and children, who are largely unaware that many species are threatened or endangered. The main objectives of field based education for butterfly conservation were to create knowledge, interest and necessary skills to investigate and, identify the butterfly species and conserve its diversity in school gardens. For butterfly survey the census technique method was taught to the students to investigate the diversity of butterflies during the field trips. During the field trip a total of 34 butterfly species, belonging to 4 families, were recorded with standard literature and colour photographs. The Nymphalidae family was the dominant species found in school gardens. The study concluded that the young students must be given the chance to investigate, engage with and experience nature in order to appreciate and be motivated to conserve and protect these fascinating insects at local level. The conservation of our natural biological resources will be dependent upon future generations. This field based learning program inspired to identify and conserve the butterfly diversity within the school gardens.

Gopalsomy Poyyamoli

2012-01-01

150

El poder de las representaciones sociales: M. Butterfly, la mujer perfecta The power of social representations: M. Butterfly, the perfect woman  

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Full Text Available En este trabajo se presenta un análisis del film M. Butterfly , dirigido por David Cronenberg, en 1993 y se trata de una versión basada en la ópera “Madame Butterfly” de Puccini.  El objetivo es demostrar el poder y la fuerza de las representaciones sociales como mecanismos de producción de sentido que permitem que los sujetos sociales construyan, desconstruyan y reconstruyan el mundo en que viven y para el cual buscan sentido.This paper presents an analysis of the film M. Butterfly, directed by David Cronenberg, in 1993. This film is a version based on the opera Madame Butterfly, by Puccini. It aims to demonstrate the power and the strength of social representations as mechanisms for the production of meaning which allow social actors to construct, deconstruct and reconstruct the world in which they live and for which they loook for its meaning.

Maria Angela Silveira Paulilo

2011-07-01

151

Congruence and diversity of butterfly-host plant associations at higher taxonomic levels.  

Science.gov (United States)

We aggregated data on butterfly-host plant associations from existing sources in order to address the following questions: (1) is there a general correlation between host diversity and butterfly species richness?, (2) has the evolution of host plant use followed consistent patterns across butterfly lineages?, (3) what is the common ancestral host plant for all butterfly lineages? The compilation included 44,148 records from 5,152 butterfly species (28.6% of worldwide species of Papilionoidea) and 1,193 genera (66.3%). The overwhelming majority of butterflies use angiosperms as host plants. Fabales is used by most species (1,007 spp.) from all seven butterfly families and most subfamilies, Poales is the second most frequently used order, but is mostly restricted to two species-rich subfamilies: Hesperiinae (56.5% of all Hesperiidae), and Satyrinae (42.6% of all Nymphalidae). We found a significant and strong correlation between host plant diversity and butterfly species richness. A global test for congruence (Parafit test) was sensitive to uncertainty in the butterfly cladogram, and suggests a mixed system with congruent associations between Papilionidae and magnoliids, Hesperiidae and monocots, and the remaining subfamilies with the eudicots (fabids and malvids), but also numerous random associations. The congruent associations are also recovered as the most probable ancestral states in each node using maximum likelihood methods. The shift from basal groups to eudicots appears to be more likely than the other way around, with the only exception being a Satyrine-clade within the Nymphalidae that feed on monocots. Our analysis contributes to the visualization of the complex pattern of interactions at superfamily level and provides a context to discuss the timing of changes in host plant utilization that might have promoted diversification in some butterfly lineages. PMID:23717448

Ferrer-Paris, José R; Sánchez-Mercado, Ada; Viloria, Ángel L; Donaldson, John

2013-01-01

152

Maunder's Butterfly Diagram in the 21st Century  

Science.gov (United States)

E. Walter Maunder created his first "Butterfly Diagram" showing the equatorward drift of the sunspot latitudes over the course of each of two solar cycles in 1903. This diagram was constructed from data obtained through the Royal Greenwich Observatory (RGO) starting in 1874. The RGO continued to acquire data up until 1976. Fortunately, the US Air Force (USAF) and the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) have continued to acquire similar data since that time. This combined RGO/USAF/NOAA dataset on sunspot group positions and areas now extends virtually unbroken from the 19th century to the 21st century. The data represented in the Butterfly Diagram contain a wealth of information about solar activity and the solar cycle. Solar activity (as represented by the sunspots) appears at mid-latitudes at the start of each cycle. The bands of activity spread in each hemisphere and then drift toward the equator as the cycle progresses. Although the equator itself tends to be avoided, the spread of activity reaches the equator at about the time of cycle maximum. The cycles overlap at minimum with old cycle spots appearing near the equator while new cycle spots emerge in the mid-latitudes. Large amplitude cycles tend to have activity starting at higher latitudes with the activity spreading to higher latitudes as well. Large amplitude cycles also tend to be preceded by earlier cycles with faster drift rates. These drift rates may be tied to the Sun s meridional circulation - a component in many dynamo theories for the origin of the sunspot cycle. The Butterfly Diagram must be reproduced in any successful dynamo model for the Sun.

Hathaway, David H.

2005-01-01

153

Density driven symmetry breaking and Butterfly effect in holographic superconductors  

CERN Document Server

We study the density driven symmetry breaking in holographic superconductors by considering positive mass squared case. We show that with small values of positive $m^2$, scalar condensation still forms. As $m^2$ increases, however, the phase space folds due to the non-linearity of the equation of motion, and two nearby points in phase space can represent symmetry broken and unbroken configurations respectively, leading to an analogue of the butterfly effect. We also calculate the specific heat and electrical conductivity for various $m^2$ and compare them with experimentally observed numbers in condensed matter systems.

Kim, Youngman; Sin, Sang-Jin

2009-01-01

154

Interrelation Between Some Butterflies and Plant Associations (Turkey  

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Full Text Available The butterfly fauna in Ordu province (N-Turkey was determined in this study. Their relations with the phytosociological associations found in the zone were evaluated and the Lepidoptera taxa in these units were presented. The numbers of determined taxa in each plant association are Castanea-Carpinus-Corylus (23, Fagus orientalis, Carpinus betulus and Picea orientalis Mixed Forest Zone (23, Subalpine Zone (Rhododendron luteum-Vaccinium myrtillus (25, Lower Alpine Zone (Festuca lazistanica ssp. giresunica (20, Mid-alpine Zone (Festuca lazistanica ssp. giresunica (13. Fifteen taxa are new for Ordu province.

M. Özdemir

2007-01-01

155

Diversity of Butterflies from District Bagh, Azad Kashmir  

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Full Text Available The adult butterflies were collected from ten localities of Distt. Bagh through out the year 1998. A total of 27 species belonging to 5 families and 15 genera were collected. Diversity was calculated by using Shannon-Wiener`s diversity index, Shannon`s equitability, Margalef`s index, Simpson`s index and RI index. The calculated values showed that diversity was slightly higher at Sudhan Gali and Mang Bajri, where as it was lower at Naumanpura. None of the reported species was found to be threatened to become extinct or found to be favored by enriched flora.

M. Rafique Khan

2003-01-01

156

A Genetic Linkage Map of the Mimetic Butterfly Heliconius melpomene  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Heliconius melpomene is a mimetic butterfly that exhibits great geographic variation in color pattern. We present here a genetic linkage map based on analysis of genetic markers in 73 individuals from a single F2 family, offspring of a cross between H. m. cythera from western Ecuador and H. m. melpomene from French Guiana. A novel “three-step method” is described for the analysis of dominant markers in an F2 cross, using outbred parental strains and taking advantage of the lack of crossin...

Jiggins, Chris D.; Mavarez, Jesus; Beltra?n, Margarita; Mcmillan, W. Owen; Johnston, J. Spencer; Bermingham, Eldredge

2005-01-01

157

Interrelation between some butterflies and plant associations (Turkey).  

Science.gov (United States)

The butterfly fauna in Ordu province (N-Turkey) was determined in this study. Their relations with the phytosociological associations found in the zone were evaluated and the Lepidoptera taxa in these units were presented. The numbers of determined taxa in each plant association are Castanea-Carpinus-Corylus (23), Fagus orientalis, Carpinus betulus and Picea orientalis Mixed Forest Zone (23), Subalpine Zone (Rhododendron luteum-Vaccinium myrtillus) (25), Lower Alpine Zone (Festuca lazistanica ssp. giresunica) (20), Mid-alpine Zone (Festuca lazistanica ssp. giresunica) (13). Fifteen taxa are new for Ordu province. PMID:19069995

Ozdemir, M; Seven, S

2007-01-01

158

Butterfly eyespot serial homology: enter the Hox genes  

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Full Text Available Abstract Hox genes modify serial homology patterns in many organisms, exemplified in vertebrates by modification of the axial skeleton and in arthropods by diversification of the body segments. Butterfly wing eyespots also appear in a serial homologous pattern that, in certain species, is subject to local modification. A paper in EvoDevo reports the Hox gene Antp is the earliest known gene to have eyespot-specific expression; however, not all Lepidoptera express Antp in eyespots, suggesting some developmental flexibility. See research article: http://www.evodevojournal.com/content/2/1/9

Hombría James

2011-04-01

159

Temporal occurrence of two morpho butterflies (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae): influence of weather and food resources.  

Science.gov (United States)

The seasonality of fruit-feeding butterflies is very well known. However, few studies have analyzed the influence of climatic variables and resource availability on the temporal distributions of butterflies. Morpho helenor achillides (C. Felder and R. Felder 1867) and Morpho menelaus coeruleus (Perry 1810) (Nymphalidae) were used as models to investigate the influences of climatic factors and food resources on the temporal distribution of these Morphinae butterflies. These butterflies were collected weekly from January 2005 to December 2006 in the Parque Nacional de Brasília (PNB). In total, 408 individuals were collected, including 274 of M. helenor and 134 of M. menelaus. The relative abundance of the two species was similar in 2005 (n = 220) and 2006 (n = 188). Of the variables considered, only the relative humidity and resource availability measured in terms of phenology of zoochorous fruits of herbaceous plants explained a large proportion of the variation in the abundance of these butterflies. Both of the explanatory variables were positively associated with the total abundance of individuals and with the abundances of M. helenor and M. menelaus considered separately. The phenology of anemochorous fruits was negatively associated with butterfly abundance. The temporal distribution of the butterflies was better predicted by the phenology of the zoochorous fruits of herbaceous plants than by the climatic predictors. PMID:24495483

Freire, Geraldo; Nascimento, André Rangel; Malinov, Ivan Konstantinov; Diniz, Ivone R

2014-04-01

160

Effects of spatial heterogeneity on butterfly species richness in Rocky Mountain National Park, CO, USA  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigated butterfly responses to plot-level characteristics (plant species richness, vegetation height, and range in NDVI [normalized difference vegetation index]) and spatial heterogeneity in topography and landscape patterns (composition and configuration) at multiple spatial scales. Stratified random sampling was used to collect data on butterfly species richness from seventy-six 20 ?? 50 m plots. The plant species richness and average vegetation height data were collected from 76 modified-Whittaker plots overlaid on 76 butterfly plots. Spatial heterogeneity around sample plots was quantified by measuring topographic variables and landscape metrics at eight spatial extents (radii of 300, 600 to 2,400 m). The number of butterfly species recorded was strongly positively correlated with plant species richness, proportion of shrubland and mean patch size of shrubland. Patterns in butterfly species richness were negatively correlated with other variables including mean patch size, average vegetation height, elevation, and range in NDVI. The best predictive model selected using Akaike's Information Criterion corrected for small sample size (AICc), explained 62% of the variation in butterfly species richness at the 2,100 m spatial extent. Average vegetation height and mean patch size were among the best predictors of butterfly species richness. The models that included plot-level information and topographic variables explained relatively less variation in butterfly species richness, and were improved significantly after including landscape metrics. Our results suggest that spatial heterogeneity greatly influences patterns in butterfly species richness, and that it should be explicitly considered in conservation and management actions. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Kumar, S.; Simonson, S. E.; Stohlgren, T. J.

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Butterfly (Lepidoptera: Insecta Diversity from Different Sites of Jhagadia, Ankleshwar, District-Bharuch, Gujarat  

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Full Text Available Lepidoptera is a large order of insects that includes moths and butterflies. Lepidoptera is the second largest order in the class Insecta. Some of the butterfly species were identified as indicators of disturbance in any area. The present study conducted in three sites of taluka Jhagadia, Ankleshwar, District-Bharuch, Gujarat. In the present study a total of 484 individuals belonging to 58 species of 9 families were identified. Among which Pieridae was found to be the most dominant family. The area of study having rich diversity of butterflies, therefore it should be of great importance for conservation.

Ashok Kumar

2013-04-01

162

Hofstadter's butterfly in a two-dimensional lattice consisting of two sublattices  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Harper's equations for simple and complex two-dimensional lattices subject to a magnetic field have been derived in the tight-binding approximation. In our derivation we do not neglect the influence of the magnetic field on the electron eigenfunctions and eigenvalues in isolated atoms. Using a variational procedure for finding eigenfunctions and eigenvalues, we have self-consistently obtained Hofstadter's butterflies. Even for a simple square lattice Hofstadter's butterfly differs from the butterfly obtained in the case in which the influence of the magnetic field on the electron eigenvalues and eigenfunctions in isolated atoms is not taken into account

163

Investigations on color variations of Morpho rhetenor butterfly wing scales  

Science.gov (United States)

Experiments and simulations are carried out to investigate the optical properties of Morpho rhetenor butterfly wing scales. The upper surface of a male Morpho rhetenor butterfly wing presents a single-layer of scales, the microstructures of which are responsible for the brilliant blue color. The color varies from cyan blue to yellow green and soon afterwards returns back to cyan blue when some ethanol is dropped on the upper surface. At the start of the ethanol volatilization process, the reflection spectrum remains stable. As the ethanol further volatilizes, the peak reflectance decreases slightly, then increases dramatically. Meanwhile, the peak wavelength keeps approximately constant, then decreases, and keeps almost stable at the end of the process. Therefore, the optical properties depend strongly on the varying ambient conditions, including the refractive index and the thickness of the packing medium. Moreover, the possible causes for the scales in dark green region after several dropping ethanol experiments are clarified. This research benefits our understanding of the color variation mechanisms of the wing scales, and provides inspiration for further studies and applications.

Liao, Guanglan; Zuo, Haibo; Jiang, Xuan; Yang, Xuefeng; Shi, Tielin

2012-12-01

164

Butterfly genome reveals promiscuous exchange of mimicry adaptations among species.  

Science.gov (United States)

The evolutionary importance of hybridization and introgression has long been debated. Hybrids are usually rare and unfit, but even infrequent hybridization can aid adaptation by transferring beneficial traits between species. Here we use genomic tools to investigate introgression in Heliconius, a rapidly radiating genus of neotropical butterflies widely used in studies of ecology, behaviour, mimicry and speciation. We sequenced the genome of Heliconius melpomene and compared it with other taxa to investigate chromosomal evolution in Lepidoptera and gene flow among multiple Heliconius species and races. Among 12,669 predicted genes, biologically important expansions of families of chemosensory and Hox genes are particularly noteworthy. Chromosomal organization has remained broadly conserved since the Cretaceous period, when butterflies split from the Bombyx (silkmoth) lineage. Using genomic resequencing, we show hybrid exchange of genes between three co-mimics, Heliconius melpomene, Heliconius timareta and Heliconius elevatus, especially at two genomic regions that control mimicry pattern. We infer that closely related Heliconius species exchange protective colour-pattern genes promiscuously, implying that hybridization has an important role in adaptive radiation. PMID:22722851

2012-07-01

165

Theoretical seismic analysis of butterfly valve for nuclear power plant  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Valves are one of the most important components of a pipeline system in a nuclear power plant, and it is important to ensure their structural safety under seismic loads. A crucial aspect of structural safety verification is the seismic qualification, and therefore, an optimal shape design and experimental seismic qualification is necessary in case the configuration of the valve parts needs to be modified and their performance needs to be improved. Recently, intensive numerical analyses have been preformed before the experimental verification in order to determine the appropriate design variables that satisfy the performance requirements under seismic loads. In this study, static and dynamic numerical structural analyses of a 200A butterfly valve for a nuclear power plant were performed according to the KEPIC MFA. The result of static analysis considering an equivalent static load under SSE condition gave an applied stress of 135MPa. In addition, the result of dynamic analysis gave an applied stress of 183MPa, where the CQC method using response spectrums was taken into account. These values are under the allowable strength of the materials used for manufacturing the butterfly valve, and therefore, its structural safety satisfies the requirements of KEPIC MFA.

Han, Sang Uk; Ahn, Jun Tae; Han, Seung Ho [Donga Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kyung Chul [Dukwon Valve Co., Ltd., Busan (Korea, Republic of)

2012-09-15

166

Theoretical seismic analysis of butterfly valve for nuclear power plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Valves are one of the most important components of a pipeline system in a nuclear power plant, and it is important to ensure their structural safety under seismic loads. A crucial aspect of structural safety verification is the seismic qualification, and therefore, an optimal shape design and experimental seismic qualification is necessary in case the configuration of the valve parts needs to be modified and their performance needs to be improved. Recently, intensive numerical analyses have been preformed before the experimental verification in order to determine the appropriate design variables that satisfy the performance requirements under seismic loads. In this study, static and dynamic numerical structural analyses of a 200A butterfly valve for a nuclear power plant were performed according to the KEPIC MFA. The result of static analysis considering an equivalent static load under SSE condition gave an applied stress of 135MPa. In addition, the result of dynamic analysis gave an applied stress of 183MPa, where the CQC method using response spectrums was taken into account. These values are under the allowable strength of the materials used for manufacturing the butterfly valve, and therefore, its structural safety satisfies the requirements of KEPIC MFA

167

The first mitochondrial genome for the butterfly family Riodinidae (Abisara fylloides) and its systematic implications.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Riodinidae is one of the lepidopteran butterfly families. This study describes the complete mitochondrial genome of the butterfly species Abisara fylloides, the first mitochondrial genome of the Riodinidae family. The results show that the entire mitochondrial genome of A. fylloides is 15 301 bp in length, and contains 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and a 423 bp A+T-rich region. The gene content, orientation and order are identical to the majority of other lepidopteran insects. Phylogenetic reconstruction was conducted using the concatenated 13 protein-coding gene (PCG) sequences of 19 available butterfly species covering all the five butterfly families (Papilionidae, Nymphalidae, Peridae, Lycaenidae and Riodinidae). Both maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference analyses highly supported the monophyly of Lycaenidae+Riodinidae, which was standing as the sister of Nymphalidae. In addition, we propose that the riodinids be categorized into the family Lycaenidae as a subfamilial taxon. PMID:24115668

Zhao, Fang; Huang, Dun-Yuan; Sun, Xiao-Yan; Shi, Qing-Hui; Hao, Jia-Sheng; Zhang, Lan-Lan; Yang, Qun

2013-10-01

168

Two new butterfly records for Peru: Orophila cardases cardases and Pedaliodes garlaczi (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae  

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Full Text Available We report to Peru, for the first time, two butterfly species, Orophila cardases cardases (Hewitson, 1869 and Pedaliodes garlaczi Pyrcz & Cerdeña, 2013, based on specimens collected in the Tabaconas-Namballe National Sanctuary and neighboring areas.

José Alfredo Cerdeña

2014-05-01

169

Experimental study for flow characteristics and performance evaluation of butterfly valves  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The industrial butterfly valves have been applied to transport a large of fluid with various fields of industry. Also, these are mainly used a control of fluid flux to the water and waste-water pipeline. Present, butterfly valves are manufacturing for multiplicity shape of bodies and discs with many producers. However, appropriate performance evaluation was not yet accomplished to compare about these valves through experiments. This study is performed the experiment of flow characteristics and performance of manufactured 400A butterfly valves for the water and waste pipeline, and compared experimental results. We performed experiments that were controlled fixed a differential pressure condition (1 psi) and the range of the flow rate conditions (500 m3/hr ? 2500 m3/hr), and also opened the disc of valves to a range of angle from 9 degree to 90 degree. We investigated and compared the valve flow coefficient and the valve loss coefficient of results through experiments with each butterfly valve.

170

Generating a Fractal Butterfly Floquet Spectrum in a Class of Driven SU(2) Systems  

CERN Document Server

A scheme for generating a fractal butterfly Floquet spectrum, first proposed by Wang and Gong [Phys. Rev. A {\\bf 77}, 031405(R) (2008)], is extended to driven SU(2) systems such as a driven two-mode Bose-Einstein condensate. A new class of driven systems without a link with the Harper model context is shown to have an intriguing butterfly Floquet spectrum. The found butterfly spectrum shows remarkable deviations from the known Hosftadter's butterfly. In addition, the level crossings between Floquet states of the same parity and between Floquet states of different parities are studied and highlighted. The results are relevant to studies of fractal statistics, quantum chaos, coherent destruction of tunneling, as well as the validity of mean-field descriptions of Bose-Einstein condensates.

Wang, Jiao

2009-01-01

171

Effects of structural flexibility of wings in flapping flight of butterfly  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this paper is to clarify the effects of structural flexibility of wings of a butterfly in flapping flight. For this purpose, a dynamics model of a butterfly is derived by Lagrange’s method, where the butterfly is considered as a rigid multi-body system. The panel method is employed to simulate the flow field and the aerodynamic forces acting on the wings. The mathematical model is validated by the agreement of the numerical result with the experimentally measured data. Then, periodic orbits of flapping-of-wings flights are parametrically searched in order to fly the butterfly models. Almost periodic orbits are found, but they are unstable. Deformation of the wings is modeled in two ways. One is bending and its effect on the aerodynamic forces is discussed. The other is passive wing torsion caused by structural flexibility. Numerical simulations demonstrate that flexible torsion reduces the flight instability. (paper)

172

Butterfly pollination and high-contrast visual signals in a low-density distylous plant.  

Science.gov (United States)

In low-density butterfly-pollinated Mussaenda frondosa (Rubiaceae), flowers attract pollinators at short distances while conspicuous, non-rewarding accessory bracts are detectable at long distances by long-ranging pollinators such as the birdwing butterfly Troides minos that did not detect flower-bearing plants in the absence of these bracts. However, even in the absence of flowers, the white, ultraviolet-absorbing bracts attracted butterflies that visited flowerless plants. Although flower visits by short-ranging territorial butterflies declined significantly on removal of bracts, they did not cease completely. Nectar-robbing carpenter bees and birds did not change their behaviour following bract removal. Bract removal caused a significant decline in fruit set, indicating their importance as visual signals to pollinators. PMID:12845517

Borges, Renee M; Gowda, Vinita; Zacharias, Merry

2003-08-01

173

Generating a fractal butterfly Floquet spectrum in a class of driven SU(2) systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A scheme for generating a fractal butterfly Floquet spectrum, first proposed by Wang and Gong [Phys. Rev. A 77, 031405(R) (2008)], is extended to driven SU(2) systems such as a driven two-mode Bose-Einstein condensate. A class of driven systems without a link with the Harper-model context is shown to have an intriguing butterfly Floquet spectrum. The found butterfly spectrum shows remarkable deviations from the known Hofstadter's butterfly. In addition, the level crossings between Floquet states of the same parity and between Floquet states of different parities are studied and highlighted. The results are relevant to studies of fractal statistics, quantum chaos, and coherent destruction of tunneling, as well as the validity of mean-field descriptions of Bose-Einstein condensates.

174

Prey survival by predator intimidation: an experimental study of peacock butterfly defence against blue tits  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Long-lived butterflies that hibernate as adults are expected to have well-developed antipredation devices as a result of their long exposure to natural enemies. The peacock butterfly, Inachis io, for instance, is a cryptic leaf mimic when resting, but shifts to active defence when disturbed, performing a repeated sequence of movements exposing major eyespots on the wings accompanied by a hissing noise. We studied the effect of visual and auditory defence by staging experiments in which wild-c...

Vallin, Adrian; Jakobsson, Sven; Lind, Johan; Wiklund, Christer

2005-01-01

175

Adaptive evolution of color vision as seen through the eyes of butterflies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Butterflies and primates are interesting for comparative color vision studies, because both have evolved middle- (M) and long-wavelength- (L) sensitive photopigments with overlapping absorbance spectrum maxima (?max values). Although positive selection is important for the maintenance of spectral variation within the primate pigments, it remains an open question whether it contributes similarly to the diversification of butterfly pigments. To examine this issue, we performed epimicrospectrop...

Frentiu, Francesca D.; Bernard, Gary D.; Cuevas, Cristina I.; Sison-mangus, Marilou P.; Prudic, Kathleen L.; Briscoe, Adriana D.

2007-01-01

176

Why butterflies don't leave: locational behaviour of entrepreneurial firms  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Entrepreneurship is an important process in regional economic development. Especially the continued growth of a minority of new firms is of major significance to the commercialization of new ideas and employment growth. These growing new firms are transforming on a structural basis, like caterpillars turning into butterflies. However, like butterflies they are at risk to leave their region of origin for better places. This paper analyses how and why the spatial organization of firms develops ...

Stam, Erik; Mueller, Pamela

2006-01-01

177

Crystal geometry and structural peculiarities of butterfly martensite formed under magnetic field action  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Position of the habitus plane and orientation ratios of butterfly martensite formed under pulsed magnetic field action in the 24Kh2N22 low-carbon chronium-nickel steel is determined. Basic crystallographic characteristics of the butterfly martensite formed in the magnetic field and under cooling without field action coincide. A slight difference of the martensite prepared in both cases is observed only in the internal structure

178

Hofstadter's butterfly energy spectrum of ultracold fermions on the two-dimensional triangular optical lattice  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We study the energy spectrum of ultracold fermionic atoms on the two-dimensional triangular optical lattice subjected to a perpendicular effective magnetic field, which can be realized with laser beams. We derive the generalized Harper's equations and numerically solve them, then we obtain the Hofstadter's butterfly-like energy spectrum, which has a novel fractal structure. The observability of the Hofstadter's butterfly spectrum is also discussed

179

A laboratory study of roosting in the gregarious butterfly Heliconius melpomene  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

1) The gregarious roosting behaviour of a neotropical butterfly, H. melpomene, was studied under semi-natural conditions in a greenhouse insectary. 2) Some butterflies fly to the roost near sunset and rest, wings downwards, hanging on the tips of fine tendrils or twigs. The female position is slightly different to the male position, but some time after sunset the female position relaxes back to a male-like position. 3) Using videotape, it was determined that flying males and females hover at ...

Mallet, J.

1980-01-01

180

The Male Sex Pheromone of the Butterfly Bicyclus anynana: Towards an Evolutionary Analysis  

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Background: Female sex pheromones attracting mating partners over long distances are a major determinant of reproductive isolation and speciation in Lepidoptera. Males can also produce sex pheromones but their study, particularly in butterflies, has received little attention. A detailed comparison of sex pheromones in male butterflies with those of female moths would reveal patterns of conservation versus novelty in the associated behaviours, biosynthetic pathways, compounds, scent-releasing ...

Nieberding, Caroline; Vos, Helene; Schneider, Maria V.; Lassance, Jean-marc; Estramil, Natalia; Andersson, Jimmy; Bang, Joakim; Hedenstro?m, Erik; Lofstedt, Christer; Brakefield, Paul M.

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

The First Light on Butterfly Diagram Internal Structure  

Science.gov (United States)

Butterfly diagrams drawn as the prototype created by Maunder are used to constrain dynamo models of the solar cycle, despite the fact they register the mere presence of sunspot groups, disregarding the different physical relevance that groups should be given because of their extension and, accordingly, their magnetic flux. Using sunspot data obtained at INAF -- Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania in the cycles 20 through 23 (1964-2005), I have obtained a new version of butterfly diagram (BD) in the form of a numerical array, whose elements are the average spotted areas registered for any Carrington rotation at any latitude. A graphic representation of this array by a set of contour lines connecting equally spotted points will be shown. The outest contour lines reveal frequent interruptions of the spot zone equatorward drift, and even repeated episodes of poleward drift. Higher and higher-level contour lines are characterized by concave arcs which more and more deeply penetrate the ''butterfly wings'', and eventually split into close lines, embracing small portions of the time-latitude diagram, for time intervals not longer than one or two years. The BD reveals, therefore, a markedly discrete structure, since the solar activity splits into pulses of activity, involving different photospheric regions at different epochs, throughout the whole cycle. The BD is, therefore, but a cluster of ''knots'' and the ''spot zone'' is the latitude range inside which knots form. Spots are not scattered about one latitude continuously drifting equatorward (as the so-called ''spot average latitude'' is commonly believed to do), but about as many latitudes as the knots are, at as many epochs in the cycle. Each knot is a special population of spots, whose latitude remains unchanged during its short lifetime. Rarely two knots are simultaneously active in the same hemisphere. The cycle history is but the history of a sequence of knots activations and extinctions. As a knot forms, the role of the spot zone ''centroid'' passes from a latitude to another one, in a way which could be named a ''latitudinal flip-flop''. That accounts for the alternance of poleward/equatorward drifts of the spot zone, described by the present author for the cycles 20 through 22 (Ternullo; 1997, Solar Phys., 172, 37; 2007, Solar Phys., 240, 153 and 2007, Astron. Nachr., 328, 1023). Looking for some kind of regularity governing the knots activation throughout the cycle is the new challenge this work presents to the attention of the scientific comunity. Some hints for a connection with the oscillation detected in the tachocline rotation rate by Howe et al. (2001, IAU Symposium, 203, 41) are suggested.

Ternullo, M.

2008-09-01

182

Contribution to the butterfly species of Belasitsa Mountain (SW Bulgaria and second record of Gonepteryx cleopatra (Linnaeus, 1767 from Bulgaria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available At present, according to the literature data for Belasitsa Mountain are published 139 butterfly species. This article contributes to the knowleage of the butterfly fauna of the mountain by adding five more species. With this supplement the number of the butterflies’ fauna of Belasitsa Mountain increase to 144 species. This article also presents information about the second record of Gonepteryx cleopatra (Linnaeus, 1767 in Bulgaria.

Liuben Domozetski

2013-10-01

183

Moths behaving like butterflies. Evolutionary loss of long range attractant pheromones in Castniid Moths: A Paysandisia archon model  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: In the course of evolution butterflies and moths developed two different reproductive behaviors. Whereas butterflies rely on visual stimuli for mate location, moths use the"female calling plus male seduction" system, in which females release long-range sex pheromones to attract conspecific males. There are few exceptions from this pattern but in all cases known female moths possess sex pheromone glands which apparently have been lost in female butterflies. In the day-flying moth f...

Sarto I Monteys, Vi?ctor; Aci?n, Patricia; Rosell, Glo?ria; Quero, Carmen; Jime?nez, Miquel A.; Guerrero, Angel

2012-01-01

184

Absorption-assisted mode transformation in butterfly compound eyes.  

Science.gov (United States)

The ommatidium of the butterfly's afocal apposition eye exhibits angular performance that can only be achieved by transforming the diffraction pattern of its corneal lens into the fundamental mode of its rhabdom waveguide. A graded index model of the ommatidium has been proposed and verified but the efforts to extract the transformation's underlying physics from it have been hindered by its extreme complexity. Here we numerically investigate the ommatidium model and reveal that the current model, involving only the graded index distribution, is insufficient for the transformation. We further find that adding spatially varying absorption to the existing model dramatically improves its transformation performance, producing near-perfect mode matching with overlap integral exceeding 0.96. Such a combined action of spatially varying index and absorption for microscale mode transformation is new to researchers in optics and biology and will benefit both disciplines. PMID:25189377

Kim, Jaeyoun

2014-01-01

185

Ancient homology underlies adaptive mimetic diversity across butterflies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Convergent evolution provides a rare, natural experiment with which to test the predictability of adaptation at the molecular level. Little is known about the molecular basis of convergence over macro-evolutionary timescales. Here we use a combination of positional cloning, population genomic resequencing, association mapping and developmental data to demonstrate that positionally orthologous nucleotide variants in the upstream region of the same gene, WntA, are responsible for parallel mimetic variation in two butterfly lineages that diverged >65 million years ago. Furthermore, characterization of spatial patterns of WntA expression during development suggests that alternative regulatory mechanisms underlie wing pattern variation in each system. Taken together, our results reveal a strikingly predictable molecular basis for phenotypic convergence over deep evolutionary time. PMID:25198507

Gallant, Jason R; Imhoff, Vance E; Martin, Arnaud; Savage, Wesley K; Chamberlain, Nicola L; Pote, Ben L; Peterson, Chelsea; Smith, Gabriella E; Evans, Benjamin; Reed, Robert D; Kronforst, Marcus R; Mullen, Sean P

2014-01-01

186

A time-calibrated phylogeny of the butterfly tribe Melitaeini.  

Science.gov (United States)

The butterfly tribe Melitaeini [Nymphalidae] contains numerous species that have been the subjects of a wide range of biological studies. Despite numerous taxonomic revisions, many of the evolutionary relationships within the tribe remain unresolved. Utilizing mitochondrial and nuclear gene regions, we produced a time-calibrated phylogenetic hypothesis for 222 exemplars comprising at least 178 different species and 21 of the 22 described genera, making this the most complete phylogeny of the tribe to date. Our results suggest that four well-supported clades corresponding to the subtribes Euphydryina, Chlosynina, Melitaeina, and Phyciodina exist within the tribe. This analysis is also represents the most complete phylogenetic analysis of the Chlosynina to date, and includes several genera and species that have been previously excluded from published phylogenies of this group. PMID:24952320

Long, Elizabeth C; Thomson, Robert C; Shapiro, Arthur M

2014-10-01

187

The genetics of monarch butterfly migration and warning colouration.  

Science.gov (United States)

The monarch butterfly, Danaus plexippus, is famous for its spectacular annual migration across North America, recent worldwide dispersal, and orange warning colouration. Despite decades of study and broad public interest, we know little about the genetic basis of these hallmark traits. Here we uncover the history of the monarch's evolutionary origin and global dispersal, characterize the genes and pathways associated with migratory behaviour, and identify the discrete genetic basis of warning colouration by sequencing 101 Danaus genomes from around the globe. The results rewrite our understanding of this classic system, showing that D. plexippus was ancestrally migratory and dispersed out of North America to occupy its broad distribution. We find the strongest signatures of selection associated with migration centre on flight muscle function, resulting in greater flight efficiency among migratory monarchs, and that variation in monarch warning colouration is controlled by a single myosin gene not previously implicated in insect pigmentation. PMID:25274300

Zhan, Shuai; Zhang, Wei; Niitepõld, Kristjan; Hsu, Jeremy; Haeger, Juan Fernández; Zalucki, Myron P; Altizer, Sonia; de Roode, Jacobus C; Reppert, Steven M; Kronforst, Marcus R

2014-10-16

188

Phenotypic plasticity in thermal tolerance in the Glanville fritillary butterfly.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ambient temperature is an ubiquitous environmental factor affecting all organisms. Global climate change increases temperature variation and the frequency of extreme temperatures, which may pose challenges to ectotherms. Here, we examine phenotypic plasticity to temperature and genotypic effects on thermal tolerance in the Glanville fritillary butterfly (Melitaea cinxia). We found no significant difference in heat or cold tolerance in populations originating from a continental climate in China and from Finland with moderate temperature variation. Acclimation to large-amplitude temperature variation increased heat tolerance in both populations, but decreased cold tolerance and increased hsp70-2 expression in the Chinese population only. The latter result indicates a genotypic effect in the response to temperature variation. In the Finnish population, a non-synonymous SNP in the phosphoglucose isomerase (Pgi) gene was associated with heat knock-down time. PMID:24802146

Luo, Shiqi; Chong Wong, Swee; Xu, Chongren; Hanski, Ilkka; Wang, Rongjiang; Lehtonen, Rainer

2014-05-01

189

Competitions hatch butterfly attractors in foreign exchange markets  

Science.gov (United States)

Chaos in foreign exchange markets is a common issue of concern in the study of economic dynamics. In this work, we mainly investigate the competition effect on chaos in foreign exchange markets. As one of the main economic structures in the globalization process, competition between two target exchange rates with the same base currency forms a simple competitive exchange rate relation, where each exchange rate follows the chaotic model of De Grauwe (Exchange Rate Theory-Chaotic Models of Foreign Exchange Markets, Blackwell, Oxford, Cambridge, MA, 1993). The main discovery is, while each exchange rate is in its non-chaotic parameter regions, the effect of competition will “hatch” butterfly-like chaotic attractors in the competitive market. The positive Lyapunov exponent in the market explains the reason why chaos occurs.

Jin, Yu Ying

2005-03-01

190

Ancient homology underlies adaptive mimetic diversity across butterflies  

Science.gov (United States)

Convergent evolution provides a rare, natural experiment with which to test the predictability of adaptation at the molecular level. Little is known about the molecular basis of convergence over macro-evolutionary timescales. Here we use a combination of positional cloning, population genomic resequencing, association mapping and developmental data to demonstrate that positionally orthologous nucleotide variants in the upstream region of the same gene, WntA, are responsible for parallel mimetic variation in two butterfly lineages that diverged >65 million years ago. Furthermore, characterization of spatial patterns of WntA expression during development suggests that alternative regulatory mechanisms underlie wing pattern variation in each system. Taken together, our results reveal a strikingly predictable molecular basis for phenotypic convergence over deep evolutionary time. PMID:25198507

Gallant, Jason R.; Imhoff, Vance E.; Martin, Arnaud; Savage, Wesley K.; Chamberlain, Nicola L.; Pote, Ben L.; Peterson, Chelsea; Smith, Gabriella E.; Evans, Benjamin; Reed, Robert D.; Kronforst, Marcus R.; Mullen, Sean P.

2014-01-01

191

Absorption-assisted mode transformation in butterfly compound eyes  

Science.gov (United States)

The ommatidium of the butterfly's afocal apposition eye exhibits angular performance that can only be achieved by transforming the diffraction pattern of its corneal lens into the fundamental mode of its rhabdom waveguide. A graded index model of the ommatidium has been proposed and verified but the efforts to extract the transformation's underlying physics from it have been hindered by its extreme complexity. Here we numerically investigate the ommatidium model and reveal that the current model, involving only the graded index distribution, is insufficient for the transformation. We further find that adding spatially varying absorption to the existing model dramatically improves its transformation performance, producing near-perfect mode matching with overlap integral exceeding 0.96. Such a combined action of spatially varying index and absorption for microscale mode transformation is new to researchers in optics and biology and will benefit both disciplines.

Kim, Jaeyoun

2014-09-01

192

Biodiversity of Butterflies from Districts Poonch and Sudhnoti, Azad Kashmir  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The adult butterflies were collected from ten localities of district Poonch and eight localities of district Sudhnoti through out the summer season of (April to October 2000. A total of 29 species belonging to 5 families from district Rawalakot and 21 species belonging to 5 families were collected from district Sudhnoti. Biodiversity was calculated by using Shannon-Wiener diversity index, Shannon`s equitability, Margalef`s index, Simpson`s index and RI index. The calculated values of diversity indices showed that from district Rawalakot the highest diversity was obtained from Khaigala and lowest diversity was obtained from Topa and Paniola. From district Sudhnoti the highest diversity was calculated from Azad Pattan and the lowest diversity was calculated from Pallandri city.

M. Rafique Khan

2004-01-01

193

Manifestation of the Hofstadter butterfly in far-infrared absorption  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The far-infrared absorption of a two-dimensional electron gas with a square-lattice modulation in a perpendicular constant magnetic field is calculated self-consistently within the Hartree approximation. For strong modulation and short period we obtain intrasubband and intersubband magnetoplasmon modes reflecting the subbands of the Hofstadter butterfly in two or more Landau bands. The character of the absorption and the correlation of the peaks to the number of flux quanta through each unit cell of the periodic potential depends strongly on the location of the chemical potential with respect to the subbands, or equivalently, on the density of electrons in the system. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

194

Butterfly genomics sheds light on the process of hybrid speciation.  

Science.gov (United States)

How common is hybridization between species and what effect does it have on the evolutionary process? Can hybridization generate new species and what indeed is a species? In this issue, Gompert et al. (2014) show how massive, genome-scale data sets can be used to shed light on these questions. They focus on the Lycaeides butterflies, and in particular, several populations from the western USA, which have characteristics suggesting that they may contain hybrids of two or more different species (Gompert et al. 2006). They demonstrate that these populations do contain mosaic genomes made up of components from different parental species. However, this appears to have been largely driven by historical admixture, with more recent processes appearing to be isolating the populations from each other. Therefore, these populations are on their way to becoming distinct species (if they are not already) but have arisen following extensive hybridization between other distinct populations or species (Fig. 1). PMID:25208505

Nadeau, Nicola

2014-09-01

195

Characterizing the Hofstadter butterfly's outline with Chern numbers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this work, we report original properties inherent to independent particles subjected to a magnetic field by emphasizing the existence of regular structures in the energy spectrum's outline. We show that this fractal curve, the well-known Hofstadter butterfly's outline, is associated with a specific sequence of Chern numbers that correspond to the quantized transverse conductivity. Indeed the topological invariant that characterizes the fundamental energy band depicts successive stairways as the magnetic flux varies. Moreover each stairway is shown to be labelled by another Chern number which measures the charge transported under displacement of the periodic potential. We put forward the universal character of these properties by comparing the results obtained for the square and the honeycomb geometries.

196

Structural fluorescence in the butterfly Morpho sulkowskyi (Nymphalidae)  

Science.gov (United States)

Evolution and natural selection have generated complexity and efficiency in all living families. Morpho sulkowskyi - a butterfly from Neotropic ecozone (South America) and belonging to the Nymphalidae family - concentrates on its wings distinct but complementary features contributing to its exceptional visual attraction: i) the wings are predominantly white but ii) present a bright blue metallic flash due to an iridescence process; iii) the presence of fluorescent molecules producing a violet-blue coloration when irradiated by ultraviolet light and finally iv) the particular ultrastructure of the scales presenting a three-dimensions natural photonic crystal. Due to the confinement of the fluorescent sources in a photonic crystal, the emission is preferentially directed in space and its efficiency is enhanced for particular detection angles. Furthermore, a clear correlation is observed between the reflection and the fluorescent processes that control the surface optical response. So, collecting and analyzing data over every emerging direction is shown to be crucial. To quantify these observations and characterize these optical effects, three types of measurements were carried out. First of all, the morphology of the butterfly was examined by means of scanning electron microscopes. In addition, the angular distribution of the reflected light was measured with a high performance viewing angle instrument, providing BRDF data (Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function). Finally, an automatic method coupling an ultraviolet source to a gonio-spectrophotometer allows fluorescent emission characterization. This set-up, developed on purpose, is composed of various excitation and analysis modules and provides angular emission maps. Tentative explanation for the measured correlation are presented.

Van Hooijdonk, E.; Barthou, C.; Vigneron, J. P.; Berthier, S.

2011-09-01

197

Does tropical forest fragmentation increase long-term variability of butterfly communities?  

Science.gov (United States)

Habitat fragmentation is a major driver of biodiversity loss. Yet, the overall effects of fragmentation on biodiversity may be obscured by differences in responses among species. These opposing responses to fragmentation may be manifest in higher variability in species richness and abundance (termed hyperdynamism), and in predictable changes in community composition. We tested whether forest fragmentation causes long-term hyperdynamism in butterfly communities, a taxon that naturally displays large variations in species richness and community composition. Using a dataset from an experimentally fragmented landscape in the central Amazon that spanned 11 years, we evaluated the effect of fragmentation on changes in species richness and community composition through time. Overall, adjusted species richness (adjusted for survey duration) did not differ between fragmented forest and intact forest. However, spatial and temporal variation of adjusted species richness was significantly higher in fragmented forests relative to intact forest. This variation was associated with changes in butterfly community composition, specifically lower proportions of understory shade species and higher proportions of edge species in fragmented forest. Analysis of rarefied species richness, estimated using indices of butterfly abundance, showed no differences between fragmented and intact forest plots in spatial or temporal variation. These results do not contradict the results from adjusted species richness, but rather suggest that higher variability in butterfly adjusted species richness may be explained by changes in butterfly abundance. Combined, these results indicate that butterfly communities in fragmented tropical forests are more variable than in intact forest, and that the natural variability of butterflies was not a buffer against the effects of fragmentation on community dynamics. PMID:20224772

Leidner, Allison K; Haddad, Nick M; Lovejoy, Thomas E

2010-01-01

198

Tracking butterfly movements with harmonic radar reveals an effect of population age on movement distance.  

Science.gov (United States)

We used harmonic radar to track freely flying Glanville fritillary butterfly (Melitaea cinxia) females within an area of 30 ha. Butterflies originated from large and continuous populations in China and Estonia, and from newly established or old (> 5 years) small local populations in a highly fragmented landscape in Finland. Caterpillars were raised under common garden conditions and unmated females were tested soon after eclosion. The reconstructed flight paths for 66 individuals comprised a total distance of 51 km with high spatial resolution. Butterflies originating from large continuous populations and from old local populations in Finland exhibited similar movement behaviors, whereas butterflies originating from newly established local populations in the fragmented landscape in Finland moved significantly more than the others. There was no difference in the lengths of individual flight bouts, but the new-population females flew more frequently, resulting in longer daily movement tracks. The flight activity of all individuals was affected by environmental conditions, peaking at 19-23 degrees C (depending on population type), in the early afternoon, and during calm weather. Butterflies from all population types showed a strong tendency to follow habitat edges between the open study area and the neighboring woodlands. PMID:19060191

Ovaskainen, Otso; Smith, Alan D; Osborne, Juliet L; Reynolds, Don R; Carreck, Norman L; Martin, Andrew P; Niitepõld, Kristjan; Hanski, Ilkka

2008-12-01

199

Diversity and community structure of butterfly of Arignar Anna Zoological Park, Chennai, Tamil Nadu.  

Science.gov (United States)

Investigation was carried out on the diversity of butterfly fauna in selected localities of conservation and breeding center of Arignar Anna Zoological Park (AAZP), Chennai, Tamil Nadu. Atotal of 56 species were recorded, 15 of them belonged to Pieridae, 12 Nymphalidae, 9 Satyridae, 8 Papilionidae, 7 Danaidae, 3 Lycaenidae and 1 species each belonged to the families Acraeidae and Hesperidae. Qualitatively and quantitatively Pieridae family were comparatively dominant than that of other families. The notable addition to the 25 more species listed during this observation were compared to previous field survey. Comparison of butterfly species distribution between the different localities revealed that butterfly species richness was higher at mountain region with 52 species and lowest of 25 species at public visiting areas. Visitor's activities may be that reason for effects on butterfly distribution and lack of vegetation. Each five endemic and protected species (i.e. endangered) listed under the Wildlife (Protection)Act were highlighted greater conservation importances of the AAZP. It is suggest that butterfly species diversity generally increase with increase in vegetation and declines with the increase in disturbance. PMID:21882656

Rajagopal, T; Sekar, M; Manimozhi, A; Baskar, N; Archunan, G

2011-03-01

200

The benefit of additional oviposition targets for a polyphagous butterfly.  

Science.gov (United States)

While the reasons for the prevalence of specialists over generalists among herbivorous insects have been at the focus of much interest, less effort has been put into understanding the polyphagous exceptions. Recent studies have suggested that these exceptions may be important for insect diversification, which calls for a better understanding of the potential factors that can lead to an increased host plant repertoire. Females of the Nymphalid butterfly, Polygonia c-album, were used to test if egg output and/or likelihood of finding a host increased with the addition of a secondary host. There was no effect of prior eggs on the host for willingness to oviposit on a plant. The main experiments were conducted both in small laboratory cages and in large outdoor experimental arenas. No positive effect was found when another oviposition target was added in small cages in the laboratory. On the other hand, in the outdoor arenas the females more often found a host to oviposit on and had a higher egg output when they had access to an additional host, even though the second host was lower in their preference hierarchy. The difference between these experiments was attributed to searching for acceptable host plants within a patch, a factor that was included in the large cages but not in the small. When host availability is limited, adding oviposition targets can potentially act to counterbalance specialization and thus favor the evolution of generalization. PMID:20334600

Johansson, Josefin; Bergström, Anders; Janz, Niklas

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Reflections on Lupus 2013: butterflies, wolves and prophecies.  

Science.gov (United States)

The recently concluded Tenth International Congress on Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) held in Buenos Aires was a resounding success. This overview summarizes some of the origins of the First International Congress held in Calgary, Canada in 1986, predictions offered by past Congress Presidents, and a perspective on the trends in autoantibody testing, which remains one of the key approaches to the early and accurate diagnosis of SLE. The last few decades have witnessed a remarkable proliferation of new diagnostic technologies including addressable laser bead immunoassays and, more recently, chemiluminescence and lateral flow technologies that could find a clinical niche in point-of-care diagnostics. Against the backdrop of these constantly emerging technologies, indirect immunofluorescence has remained the platform of choice for many laboratories and diagnosticians. The notion that autoantibodies are pathogenic has been challenged by evidence that some autoantibodies are protective, some may have catalytic capacity while others may be neutral or have no function at all. The latter notion of functionless or "junk" autoantibodies needs to be taken under some advisement, because there was a time when a great proportion of the human genome was considered to include "junk DNA". The butterfly as a symbol of hope and progress in SLE research over the past 27 years since the First International Congress on SLE is almost certainly to be even more appropriate when future Congresses are held in Geneva (2015), Melbourne (2017) and eventually one in 2050. PMID:23989735

Fritzler, Mj

2013-10-01

202

Enemy-free space maintains swallowtail butterfly host shift.  

Science.gov (United States)

Natural enemies can be significant sources of mortality for herbivorous insects and therefore important agents of natural selection. One might expect selection to favor herbivores that escape from their natural enemies into enemy-free space. Although this is an appealing idea, it has received little empirical support, and no studies have documented enemy-free space as part of a nonagricultural, nonartificial host shift. The Alaskan swallowtail butterfly, Papilio machaon aliaska, uses as host plants a species in the family Apiaceae (Cnidium cnidiifolium) along with two Asteraceae species (Artemisia arctica and Petasites frigidus). I analyzed growth and survival of P. m. aliaska larvae in the field on the three host plants in treatments that either exposed or protected them from predators. I found that, in the presence of predators, larval survival is greater on the novel hosts (Asteraceae) than on the ancestral host (Apiaceae), but that in the absence of predators survival and growth are greater on the ancestral host. These results are a demonstration of enemy-free space as a mechanism for maintaining a naturally occurring host shift. PMID:15601773

Murphy, Shannon M

2004-12-28

203

The Nation and the Subaltern in Yvonne Vera's Butterfly Burning  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Yvonne Vera's death in 2005 brought to a tragic close the career of one of Zimbabwe's, indeed Africa's, more engaging contemporary writers. But her powerful novel, Butterfly Burning continues to mirror an aspect of Vera's enduring concern: the place of African women in the context of power both with [...] in the colonial and the postcolonial moments. This image of the "woman in shadows" also resonates in the kernel of the subaltern subject in Spivak's essay, "Can the Subaltern Speak?" I draw from Spivak's canonical essay, but simply as a critique of its notion of the burdened subjectivity of the colonized reified in the widow's self-immolation, and seen as a problematic condition of representation-a form of impotent silence. In contrast, I suggest that Vera's Phephelaphi directs our attention by a votive suicide that speaks. This essay thus proceeds from a re-reading of the discourse of subalternity to situate Yvonne Vera's novel as an act primarily of resistance against the situation of patriarchal enclosure under colonialism.

Obi, Nwakanma.

204

Biased learning affects mate choice in a butterfly.  

Science.gov (United States)

Early acquisition of mate preferences or mate-preference learning is associated with signal diversity and speciation in a wide variety of animal species. However, the diversity of mechanisms of mate-preference learning across taxa remains poorly understood. Using the butterfly Bicyclus anynana we uncover a mechanism that can lead to directional sexual selection via mate-preference learning: a bias in learning enhanced ornamentation, which is independent of preexisting mating biases. Naïve females mated preferentially with wild-type males over males with enhanced wing ornamentation, but females briefly exposed to enhanced males mated significantly more often with enhanced males. In contrast, females exposed to males with reduced wing ornamentation did not learn to prefer drab males. Thus, we observe both a learned change of a preexisting mating bias, and a bias in ability to learn enhanced male ornaments over reduced ornaments. Our findings demonstrate that females are able to change their preferences in response to a single social event, and suggest a role for biased learning in the evolution of visual sexual ornamentation. PMID:22689980

Westerman, Erica L; Hodgins-Davis, Andrea; Dinwiddie, April; Monteiro, Antónia

2012-07-01

205

Butterfly patterns in a sheared lamellar-system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A technologically important extension of 'classical' scattering techniques is to investigate soft-matter systems under non-equilibrium conditions. Shear flow is known to have a profound influence on the structure and orientation of complex fluids like thermotropic or lyotropic liquid-crystals, colloidal and polymeric solutions. There is a fundamental interest in understanding the microscopic structure and dynamics of such complex fluids as the macroscopic material properties might change with the application of an external perturbation like shear. The following example illustrates a recent study of the influence of shear on the structure of a lyotropic lamellar phase. Results using a cone-and-plate and the ILL Couette type shear-cell were obtained by rheo-small-angle light scattering (rheo-SALS) and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) at D11. Because of the broad range of momentum transfer Q available at D11 a characteristic butterfly-pattern with a scattering peak revealing both the structure and the supramolecular structure of the system could be detected at very low Q. (author)

206

Butterfly Arch: A Device for Precise Controlling of the Upper Molars in Three Planes of Space  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Intra-oral appliances such as transpalatal arch and Nance appliance fail to resist against forces that tend to loosen the anchorage. The infirmity arises due to the long lever arm and the mesial force that is perpendicular to the long axis of the appliance. The butterfly arch is presented here as an intra-oral appliance that withstands the mesially directed forces with a mechanism that puts strain on a stiff wire along its long axis. The unique shape of the butterfly arch is advantageous in maximum anchorage cases, cases in which arch width preservation is critical and cases with a vertical growth pattern. With the aid of the butterfly arch, clinical concerns such as patient cooperation, wearing extra-oral appliances, complicated mechanics in extraction cases and control of the arch length, arch width and vertical dimension would be greatly diminished.

Alireza Nikkerdar

2013-01-01

207

The study on flow characteristics of butterfly valve using flow visualization  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Flow visualization of butterfly valve is tested for four types(15 deg., 30 .deg., 45 .deg., and 90 .deg.) of valve opening angle. The inner flow characteristics of valve are studied. The flow variation was measured using a high speed camera which takes 500 frames per second with 1024 x 1024 pixels. These captured images were used for calculation to analyze two dimensional flow velocity of the valve. The smaller opening angle, the more increasing the differential pressure of a butterfly valve. Therefore, we know that the complex flow is occurred by increasing the differential pressure. And it is found that the flowing backward is more increased according to the increase of the opening angle of a butterfly valve. However, its flow pattern is similar to a simple pipe flow when the opening angle is 90 .deg.

208

Use of fruit bait traps for monitoring of butterflies (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae  

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Full Text Available There exists great interest in using fruit-feeding adult nymphalid butterflies to monitor changes in tropical forest ecosystems. We intensively sampled the butterfly fauna of mid-elevation tropical moist forest in southern Costa Rica with fruit bait traps to address a series of practical issues concerning the development of a robust, efficient sampling program. Variation in the number of captures and escapes of butterflies at the traps was better explained by the time of day than by the age of bait. Species’ escape rates varied widely, suggesting that short term, less intensive surveys aimed at determining presence or absence of species may be biased. Individuals did not appear to become "trap-happy" or to recognize the traps as food sources. Considering the tradeoff between numbers of traps and frequency of trap servicing, the most efficient sampling regime appears to be baiting and sampling the traps once every other day.

Jennifer B. Hughes

1998-09-01

209

The Innovation Butterfly Managing Emergent Opportunities and Risks During Distributed Innovation  

CERN Document Server

Product and service innovations are the result of mutually interacting creative and coordination tasks within a system that has to balance technical decisions, marketplace taste, personnel management, and stakeholder commitment. The constituent elements of such systems are often scattered across multiple firms and across the globe and constitute a complex system consisting of many interacting parts. In the spirit of the "butterfly effect", metaphorically describing the sensitivity to initials conditions of chaotic systems, this book builds an argument that "innovation butterflies" can, in the short term, take up significant amounts of effort and sap efficiencies within individual innovation projects. Such "innovation butterflies" can be prompted by external forces such as government legislation or unexpected spikes in the price of basic goods (such as oil), unexpected shifts in market tastes, or from a company manager’s decisions or those of its competitors. Even the smallest change, the smallest disruption...

Anderson Jr , Edward G

2012-01-01

210

Butterfly Pea (Clitoria ternatea: A Nutritive Multipurpose Forage Legume for the Tropics - An Overview  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Butterfly pea (Clitoria ternatea is a multi-purpose forage legume. It provides bioactive compounds for medicinal use and it is also an ornamental plant and cover crop. It is adaptable to a wide range of temperature, rainfall and altitude. Butterfly pea, a highly palatable forage legume is generally preferred by livestock over other legumes. It has thin stem and large leaves, nil bloat and non toxic which make it ideal for forage and hay making. It`s vigorous growth, tolerance to frost and dry periods and heavy grazing pressures make this suitable for waste land development. Production and utilization of this legume for animal production will provide adequate nutrition and also reduce grazing pressure on natural ranges. This paper reviews distribution, plant description, agronomic characteristics, genetic variation, medicinal use, chemical composition and utilization of butterfly pea in livestock production.

S. Michael Gomez

2003-01-01

211

Butterfly Classification by HSI and RGB Color Models Using Neural Networks  

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Full Text Available This study aims the classification of Butterfly species through the implementation of Neural Networks and Image Processing. A total of 9 species of Morpho genre which has blue as a characteristic color are processed. For Butterfly segmentation we used image processing tools such as: Binarization, edge processing and mathematical morphology. For data processing RGB values are obtained for every image which are converted to HSI color model to identify blue pixels and obtain the data to the proposed Neural Networks: Back-Propagation and Perceptron. For analysis and verification of results confusion matrix are built and analyzed with the results of neural networks with the lowest error levels. We obtain error levels close to 1% in classification of some Butterfly species.

Jorge E. Grajales-Múnera

2013-11-01

212

Flow characteristics and performance evaluation of butterfly valves using numerical analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The industrial butterfly valves have been applied to various fields that transport fluid in volume, especially water supply and drainage pipeline for flow control. The butterfly valves in various shapes are manufactured, but a fitting performance comparison is not made up. For this reason, we carried out numerical analysis of some kind of butterfly valves for water supply and drainage pipeline using commercial CFD code FLUENT, and made a comparative study of these results. Also, the flow coefficient, the loss coefficient, and pressure distribution of valves according to valve opening rate were compared each other and the influence of these design variables on valve performance were checked over. Through flow around the valve disk, such as pressure distribution, flow pattern, velocity vectors, and form of vortex, we grasped flow characteristics.

213

Application of new designed butterfly type intermediate valve for nuclear steam turbine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To cope with a large capacity nuclear steam turbine, a butterfly type intermediate valve has been developed. Compared to the conventional valve, or globe valve, the butterfly valve has the following design features: a) Higher thermal efficiency due to lower pressure loss, b) Easier maintenance due to simplified construction, and c) Lower station cost due to the smaller size of the valve assembly. An experiment with a scaled-down test valve was carried out using compressed air. Subsequently a full-scale valve was tested using steam under actual steam conditions. As a result, these tests gave us no problems. The first nuclear turbine (1100MW) equipped with a butterfly valve is operating satisfactorily with good performance as expected. (author)

214

Structural analysis of eyespots: dynamics of morphogenic signals that govern elemental positions in butterfly wings  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background To explain eyespot colour-pattern determination in butterfly wings, the induction model has been discussed based on colour-pattern analyses of various butterfly eyespots. However, a detailed structural analysis of eyespots that can serve as a foundation for future studies is still lacking. In this study, fundamental structural rules related to butterfly eyespots are proposed, and the induction model is elaborated in terms of the possible dynamics of morphogenic signals involved in the development of eyespots and parafocal elements (PFEs based on colour-pattern analysis of the nymphalid butterfly Junonia almana. Results In a well-developed eyespot, the inner black core ring is much wider than the outer black ring; this is termed the inside-wide rule. It appears that signals are wider near the focus of the eyespot and become narrower as they expand. Although fundamental signal dynamics are likely to be based on a reaction-diffusion mechanism, they were described well mathematically as a type of simple uniformly decelerated motion in which signals associated with the outer and inner black rings of eyespots and PFEs are released at different time points, durations, intervals, and initial velocities into a two-dimensional field of fundamentally uniform or graded resistance; this produces eyespots and PFEs that are diverse in size and structure. The inside-wide rule, eyespot distortion, structural differences between small and large eyespots, and structural changes in eyespots and PFEs in response to physiological treatments were explained well using mathematical simulations. Natural colour patterns and previous experimental findings that are not easily explained by the conventional gradient model were also explained reasonably well by the formal mathematical simulations performed in this study. Conclusions In a mode free from speculative molecular interactions, the present study clarifies fundamental structural rules related to butterfly eyespots, delineates a theoretical basis for the induction model, and proposes a mathematically simple mode of long-range signalling that may reflect developmental mechanisms associated with butterfly eyespots.

Otaki Joji M

2012-03-01

215

Graphene quantum dot on boron nitride: Dirac cone replica and Hofstadter butterfly  

Science.gov (United States)

Graphene flakes placed on hexagonal boron nitride feature in the presence of a magnetic field a complex electronic structure due to a hexagonal moiré potential resulting from the van der Waals interaction with the substrate. The slight lattice mismatch gives rise to a periodic supercell potential. Zone folding is expected to create replicas of the original Dirac cone and Hofstadter butterflies. Our large-scale tight-binding simulation reveals an unexpected coexistence of a relativistic and nonrelativistic Landau level structure. The presence of the zeroth Landau level and its associated butterfly is shown to be the unambiguous signature for the occurrence of the Dirac cone replica.

Chizhova, L. A.; Libisch, F.; Burgdörfer, J.

2014-10-01

216

Hofstadter's Butterfly and Phase Transition of Checkerboard Superconducting Network in a Magnetic Field  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We study the magnetic effect of the checkerboard superconducting wire network. Based on the de Gennes-Alexader theory, we obtain difference equations for superconducting order parameter in the wire network. Through solving these difference equations, we obtain the eigenvalues, linked to the coherence length, as a function of magnetic field. The diagram of eigenvalues shows a fractal structure, being so-called Hofstadter's butterfly. We also calculate and discuss the dependence of the transition temperature of the checkerboard superconducting wire network on the applied magnetic field, which is related to up-edge of the Hofstadter's butterfly spectrum. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

217

Performance Evaluation of Camb Biopesticides to Control Cabbage Butterfly (Pieris brassicae in Cauliflower Crop  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available CAMB Bt. based and fungus based biopesticides, commercial Bt. formulation from mycogen and a new chemical pesticide Methoxyfenozide (RH2485-240SC were tested on cauliflower field against cabbage butterfly (Pieris brassicae. All pesticides successfully controlled the population of cabbage butterfly in cauliflower crop. The efficacy against I to V instar larvae and field stability of CAMB Bt. biopesticide was better than chemical and other biopesticides. So, CAMB Bt. can be safely recommended for pest management strategies against Lepidopteral pests on vegetables with no harmful effects on its predators as in case with chemical pesticides.

Ahmad Usman Zafar

2002-01-01

218

The Butterfly Effect on the Agricultural Bank System at the Grass-Roots Level  

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Full Text Available The competition power of the Agricultural Bank of China has beendropping down for several years. The reason is that banks at the grass-rootslevel don’t think much of managing the subtle links. The paper uses the theoryof butterfly effect in Chaos for reference to discusses the risks existed in theAgricultural Bank of China at the grass-roots level such as the credit risk, theincomplete internal control, the loose accounting system, the disorder marketcompetitiveness, the brain drain, the weak service consciousness, the financialinnovation lag and the unbalanced development. Finally eight pieces of adviceare brought forward as the measures against the eight butterfly effects.

Xu QINXIAN

2009-01-01

219

Inferring the provenance of an alien species with DNA barcodes: the neotropical butterfly Dryas iulia in Thailand.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Neotropical butterfly Dryas iulia has been collected from several locations in Thailand and Malaysia since 2007, and has been observed breeding in the wild, using introduced Passiflora foetida as a larval host plant. The butterfly is bred by a butterfly house in Phuket, Thailand, for release at weddings and Buddhist ceremonies, and we hypothesized that this butterfly house was the source of wild, Thai individuals. We compared wing patterns and COI barcodes from two, wild Thai populations with individuals obtained from this butterfly house. All Thai individuals resemble the subspecies D. iulia modesta, and barcodes from wild and captive Thai specimens were identical. This unique, Thai barcode was not found in any of the 30 specimens sampled from the wild in the species' native range, but is most similar to specimens from Costa Rica, where many exporting butterfly farms are located. These data implicate the butterfly house as the source of Thailand's wild D. iulia populations, which are currently so widespread that eradication efforts are unlikely to be successful. PMID:25119899

Burg, Noah A; Pradhan, Ashman; Gonzalez, Rebecca M; Morban, Emely Z; Zhen, Erica W; Sakchoowong, Watana; Lohman, David J

2014-01-01

220

Inferring the Provenance of an Alien Species with DNA Barcodes: The Neotropical Butterfly Dryas iulia in Thailand  

Science.gov (United States)

The Neotropical butterfly Dryas iulia has been collected from several locations in Thailand and Malaysia since 2007, and has been observed breeding in the wild, using introduced Passiflora foetida as a larval host plant. The butterfly is bred by a butterfly house in Phuket, Thailand, for release at weddings and Buddhist ceremonies, and we hypothesized that this butterfly house was the source of wild, Thai individuals. We compared wing patterns and COI barcodes from two, wild Thai populations with individuals obtained from this butterfly house. All Thai individuals resemble the subspecies D. iulia modesta, and barcodes from wild and captive Thai specimens were identical. This unique, Thai barcode was not found in any of the 30 specimens sampled from the wild in the species' native range, but is most similar to specimens from Costa Rica, where many exporting butterfly farms are located. These data implicate the butterfly house as the source of Thailand's wild D. iulia populations, which are currently so widespread that eradication efforts are unlikely to be successful. PMID:25119899

Burg, Noah A.; Pradhan, Ashman; Gonzalez, Rebecca M.; Morban, Emely Z.; Zhen, Erica W.; Sakchoowong, Watana; Lohman, David J.

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Flow visualization in the high shear flow on cavitation erosion around a butterfly valve. Butterfly ben karyu no ko sendanryoiki ni okeru cavitation shogekiatsu bunpu  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In order to suppress the cavitation erosion occurring at a butterfly valve, the spatial distribution of cavitation induced pressure pulses and the aspect of extremely erosive vortex cavitation in the erosive region recognized in a practical valve were clarified, using pressure sensitive films and an instant stereophotography for the representative valve opening and cavitation factor. The highly erosive cavitation taking place at the orifice side downstream of the butterfly valve is an extremely erosive cavitation, and the occurred region is limited to the highly shear layers forming the violent disturbance of the orifice jet. It was found that the erosion could greatly be alleviated by eliminating this highly shear layers being the basis of the extremely erosive vortex cavitation. It was also found that the risk of erosion was very low for the nozzle side by the measurement of cavitation impact pressure ranging all periphery of the pipe wall around the valve body. 10 refs., 5 figs.

Tani, K. (Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan)); Ito, Y.; Oba, R. (Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Inst. of Fluid Science)

1991-05-25

222

Field transplants reveal summer constraints on a butterfly range expansion.  

Science.gov (United States)

The geographic ranges of most species are expected to shift to higher elevations and latitudes in response to global warming. But species react to specific environmental changes in individualistic ways, and we are far from a detailed understanding of range-shifts. Summer temperature often limits the ranges of insects and plants, so many range-shifts are expected to track summer warming. I explore this potential range-limiting factor in a case study of a northwardly expanding American butterfly, Atalopedes campestris (Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae). This species has recently colonized the Pacific Northwest, USA, where the mean annual temperature has risen 0.8-1.8 degrees C over the past 100 years. Using field transplant experiments across the current range edge, I measured development time, survivorship, fecundity and predation rates along a naturally occurring thermal gradient of 3 degrees C. Development time was significantly slower outside the current range in eastern Washington (WA), as expected because of cooler temperatures there. Slower development would reduce the number of generations possible per year outside the current range, dramatically lowering the probability that a population could survive there. Differences in survivorship, fecundity and predation rate across the range edge were not significant. The interaction between summer and winter temperature appears to be crucial in defining the current range limit. The estimated difference in temperature required to affect the number of generations is greater than the extent of summer warming observed over the past century, however, and thus historically winter temperature alone probably limited the range in southeastern WA. Nonetheless, extraordinarily warm summers may have improved colonization success, increasing the probability of a range expansion. These results suggest that extreme climatic events may influence rates of response to long-term climate change. They also demonstrate that range-limiting factors can change over time, and that the asymmetry in seasonal warming trends will have biological consequences. PMID:15278427

Crozier, Lisa G

2004-09-01

223

Chromosomal rearrangements maintain a polymorphic supergene controlling butterfly mimicry.  

Science.gov (United States)

Supergenes are tight clusters of loci that facilitate the co-segregation of adaptive variation, providing integrated control of complex adaptive phenotypes. Polymorphic supergenes, in which specific combinations of traits are maintained within a single population, were first described for 'pin' and 'thrum' floral types in Primula and Fagopyrum, but classic examples are also found in insect mimicry and snail morphology. Understanding the evolutionary mechanisms that generate these co-adapted gene sets, as well as the mode of limiting the production of unfit recombinant forms, remains a substantial challenge. Here we show that individual wing-pattern morphs in the polymorphic mimetic butterfly Heliconius numata are associated with different genomic rearrangements at the supergene locus P. These rearrangements tighten the genetic linkage between at least two colour-pattern loci that are known to recombine in closely related species, with complete suppression of recombination being observed in experimental crosses across a 400-kilobase interval containing at least 18 genes. In natural populations, notable patterns of linkage disequilibrium (LD) are observed across the entire P region. The resulting divergent haplotype clades and inversion breakpoints are found in complete association with wing-pattern morphs. Our results indicate that allelic combinations at known wing-patterning loci have become locked together in a polymorphic rearrangement at the P locus, forming a supergene that acts as a simple switch between complex adaptive phenotypes found in sympatry. These findings highlight how genomic rearrangements can have a central role in the coexistence of adaptive phenotypes involving several genes acting in concert, by locally limiting recombination and gene flow. PMID:21841803

Joron, Mathieu; Frezal, Lise; Jones, Robert T; Chamberlain, Nicola L; Lee, Siu F; Haag, Christoph R; Whibley, Annabel; Becuwe, Michel; Baxter, Simon W; Ferguson, Laura; Wilkinson, Paul A; Salazar, Camilo; Davidson, Claire; Clark, Richard; Quail, Michael A; Beasley, Helen; Glithero, Rebecca; Lloyd, Christine; Sims, Sarah; Jones, Matthew C; Rogers, Jane; Jiggins, Chris D; ffrench-Constant, Richard H

2011-09-01

224

On the origins of sexual dimorphism in butterflies.  

Science.gov (United States)

The processes governing the evolution of sexual dimorphism provided a foundation for sexual selection theory. Two alternative processes, originally proposed by Darwin and Wallace, differ primarily in the timing of events creating the dimorphism. In the process advocated by Darwin, a novel ornament arises in a single sex, with no temporal separation in the origin and sex-limitation of the novel trait. By contrast, Wallace proposed a process where novel ornaments appear simultaneously in both sexes, but are then converted into sex-limited expression by natural selection acting against showy coloration in one sex. Here, we investigate these alternative modes of sexual dimorphism evolution in a phylogenetic framework and demonstrate that both processes contribute to dimorphic wing patterns in the butterfly genera Bicyclus and Junonia. In some lineages, eyespots and bands arise in a single sex, whereas in other lineages they appear in both sexes but are then lost in one of the sexes. In addition, lineages displaying sexual dimorphism were more likely to become sexually monomorphic than they were to remain dimorphic. This derived monomorphism was either owing to a loss of the ornament ('drab monomorphism') or owing to a gain of the same ornament by the opposite sex ('mutual ornamentation'). Our results demonstrate the necessity of a plurality in theories explaining the evolution of sexual dimorphism within and across taxa. The origins and evolutionary fate of sexual dimorphism are probably influenced by underlying genetic architecture responsible for sex-limited expression and the degree of intralocus sexual conflict. Future comparative and developmental work on sexual dimorphism within and among taxa will provide a better understanding of the biases and constraints governing the evolution of animal sexual dimorphism. PMID:21123259

Oliver, Jeffrey C; Monteiro, Antónia

2011-07-01

225

Comparative population genetics of mimetic Heliconius butterflies in an endangered habitat; Brazil's Atlantic Forest  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Brazil's Atlantic Forest is a biodiversity hotspot endangered by severe habitat degradation and fragmentation. Habitat fragmentation is expected to reduce dispersal among habitat patches resulting in increased genetic differentiation among populations. Here we examined genetic diversity and differentiation among populations of two Heliconius butterfly species in the northern portion of Brazil's Atlantic Forest to estimate the potential impact of habitat fragmentation on population connectivity in butterflies with home-range behavior. Results We generated microsatellite, AFLP and mtDNA sequence data for 136 Heliconius erato specimens from eight collecting locations and 146 H. melpomene specimens from seven locations. Population genetic analyses of the data revealed high levels of genetic diversity in H. erato relative to H. melpomene, widespread genetic differentiation among populations of both species, and no evidence for isolation-by-distance. Conclusions These results are consistent with the hypothesis that the extensive habitat fragmentation along Brazil's Atlantic Forest has reduced dispersal of Heliconius butterflies among neighboring habitat patches. The results also lend support to the observation that fine-scale population genetic structure may be common in Heliconius. If such population structure also exists independent of human activity, and has been common over the evolutionary history of Heliconius butterflies, it may have contributed to the evolution of wing pattern diversity in the genus.

Cardoso Márcio Z

2011-01-01

226

Genome Sequence of a Novel Iflavirus from mRNA Sequencing of the Butterfly Heliconius erato.  

Science.gov (United States)

Here, we report the genome sequence of a novel iflavirus strain recovered from the neotropical butterfly Heliconius erato. The coding DNA sequence (CDS) of the iflavirus genome was 8,895 nucleotides in length, encoding a polyprotein that was 2,965 amino acids long. PMID:24831145

Smith, Gilbert; Macias-Muñoz, Aide; Briscoe, Adriana D

2014-01-01

227

Artificial selection for structural color on butterfly wings and comparison with natural evolution.  

Science.gov (United States)

Brilliant animal colors often are produced from light interacting with intricate nano-morphologies present in biological materials such as butterfly wing scales. Surveys across widely divergent butterfly species have identified multiple mechanisms of structural color production; however, little is known about how these colors evolved. Here, we examine how closely related species and populations of Bicyclus butterflies have evolved violet structural color from brown-pigmented ancestors with UV structural color. We used artificial selection on a laboratory model butterfly, B. anynana, to evolve violet scales from UV brown scales and compared the mechanism of violet color production with that of two other Bicyclus species, Bicyclus sambulos and Bicyclus medontias, which have evolved violet/blue scales independently via natural selection. The UV reflectance peak of B. anynana brown scales shifted to violet over six generations of artificial selection (i.e., in less than 1 y) as the result of an increase in the thickness of the lower lamina in ground scales. Similar scale structures and the same mechanism for producing violet/blue structural colors were found in the other Bicyclus species. This work shows that populations harbor large amounts of standing genetic variation that can lead to rapid evolution of scales' structural color via slight modifications to the scales' physical dimensions. PMID:25092295

Wasik, Bethany R; Liew, Seng Fatt; Lilien, David A; Dinwiddie, April J; Noh, Heeso; Cao, Hui; Monteiro, Antónia

2014-08-19

228

Butterfly Species Richness Patterns in Canada: Energy, Heterogeneity, and the Potential Consequences of Climate Change  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The distributions of most pollinator species are poorly documented despite their importance in providing ecosystem services. While these and other organisms are threatened by many aspects of the human enterprise, anthropogenic climate change is potentially the most severe threat to pollinator biodiversity. Mounting evidence demonstrates that there have already been biotic responses to the relatively small climate changes that have occurred this century. These include wholesale shifts of relatively well-documented butterfly and bird species in Europe and North America. Although studies of such phenomena are supported by circumstantial evidence, their findings are also consistent with predictions derived from current models of spatial patterns of species richness. Using new GIS methods that are highly precise and accurate, I document spatial patterns of Canadian butterfly diversity. These are strongly related to contemporary climate and particularly to potential evapotranspiration. An even more noteworthy finding is the fact that, for the first time, habitat heterogeneity, measured as the number of land cover types in each study unit, is proven to be an equally strong predictor of butterfly richness in a region where energy alone was thought to be the best predictor of diversity. Although previous studies reveal similar relationships between energy and diversity, they fail to detect the powerful link between richness and habitat heterogeneity. The butterflies of Canada provide a superb baseline for studying the effects of climate on contemporary patterns of species richness and comprise the only complete pollinator taxon for which this sort of analysis is currently possible.

Jeremy T. Kerr

2001-06-01

229

Butterflies of the high-altitude Atacama Desert: habitat use and conservation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The butterfly fauna of the high-altitude desert of Northern Chile, though depauperate, shows high endemism, is poorly known and is of considerable conservation concern. This study surveys butterflies along the Andean slope between 2400 and 5000 m asl (prepuna, puna and Andean steppe habitats) as well as in high and low-altitude wetlands and in the neoriparian vegetation of agricultural sites. We also include historical sightings from museum records. We compare abundances between altitudes, between natural and impacted sites, as well as between two sampling years with different precipitation regimes. The results confirm high altitudinal turnover and show greatest similarity between wetland and slope faunas at similar altitudes. Results also underscore vulnerability to weather fluctuations, particularly in the more arid low-altitude sites, where abundances were much lower in the low precipitation sampling season and several species were not observed at all. Finally, we show that some species have shifted to the neoriparian vegetation of the agricultural landscape, whereas others were only observed in less impacted habitats dominated by native plants. These results suggest that acclimation to novel habitats depends on larval host plant use. The traditional agricultural environment can provide habitat for many, but not all, native butterfly species, but an estimation of the value of these habitats requires better understanding of butterfly life history strategies and relationships with host plants. PMID:25309583

Despland, Emma

2014-01-01

230

A Quantitative Postweld Shift Measurement and Compensation Technique in Butterfly Laser Module Packages  

Science.gov (United States)

A quantitative postweld shift (PWS) measurement and compensation technique employing a high-magnification camera with image capturing system (HMCICS) in butterfly-type laser module packages is investigated. The results show that the direction and magnitude of the fiber alignment shifts induced by the PWS in laser-welded butterfly-type laser module packaging can be quantitatively determined and compensated. The measured coupling powers in laser module packages after welding and compensation were clearly confirmed the measured fiber shifts that determined by the translational and rotational parameters. Therefore, the fiber shifts due to the PWS could be realigned back closer to their original optimum position after applying welding compensation, and hence the coupling powers loss due to the PWS could be regained. In comparison with previous studies of the PWS compensation by the well-known mechanical adjustment through a qualitative estimation technique, this HMCICS technique has successfully provided the mechanical adjustment through a quantitative compensation to the effect of the PWS on the fiber alignment shifts in butterfly-type laser module packages. The reliable butterfly-type laser modules with high yield used in lightwave transmission systems can be developed and fabricated.

Hsu, Yi-Cheng; Tsai, Ying-Chien; Kuang, Jao-Hwa; Hung, Yu-Sin; Cheng, Wood-Hi

2008-09-01

231

Characterization of Structural and Pigmentary Colors in Common Emigrant (Catopsilia Pomona) Butterfly  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Study of structural colors in case of insects and butterflies is important for their biomimic and biophotonics applications. Structural color is the color which is produced by physical structures and their interaction with light while pigmentary color is produced by absorption of light by pigments. Common Emigrant butterfly is widely distributed in India. It is of moderate size with wing span of about 60-80 mm. The wings are broadly white with yellow or sulphur yellow coloration at places as well as few dark black patches. It belongs to family Pieridae. A study of structural color in case of Common Emigrant butterfly has been carried out in the present work. The characterization of wing color was performed using absorption spectroscopy. Scanning electron microscopic study of the wings of Common Emigrant butterfly showed that three different types of scales are present on the wing surface dorsally. Diffracting structures are present in certain parts of the surfaces of the various scales. Bead like structures are embedded in the intricate structures of the scales. Absorption spectra revealed that a strong absorption peak is seen in the UV-range. Crystalline structure of beads was confirmed by the X-ray diffraction analysis.

232

Antbutterflies: butterflies that follow army ants to feed on antbird droppings.  

Science.gov (United States)

Females of three species of tropical rain forest ithomiine butterflies orient to swarms of army ants (Eciton burchelli) and feed on bird droppings found there. The antbirds associated with swarm raids of these ants provide a predictable source of droppings, an otherwise sparsely distributed resource. PMID:17831470

Ray, T S; Andrews, C C

1980-12-01

233

In the Shadows of a Diva: Committing Homosexuality in David Henry Hwang's "M. Butterfly."  

Science.gov (United States)

Discusses racism, sexism, and sexual orientation through an analysis of the play "M. Butterfly." Focusing on the French diplomat, Gallimard, the essay discusses sexual orientation, explores Gallimard's racist investments in his orientalized vision of Song, and discusses his attempt to explain his love affair as heterosexual love gone awry. (GLR)

Eng, David L.

1994-01-01

234

The relationship between total cholinesterase activity and mortality in four butterfly species  

Science.gov (United States)

The relationship between total cholinesterase activity (TChE) and mortality in four butterfly species (great southern white [Ascia monuste], common buckeye [Junonia coenia], painted lady [Vanessa cardui], and julia butterflies [Dryas julia]) was investigated. Acute contact toxicity studies were conducted to evaluate the response (median lethal dose [LD50] and TChE) of the four species following exposure to the organophosphate insecticide naled. The LD50 for these butterflies ranged from 2.3 to 7.6 ?g/g. The average level of TChE inhibition associated with significant mortality ranged from 26 to 67%, depending on the species. The lower bounds of normal TChE activity (2 standard deviations less than the average TChE for reference butterflies) ranged from 8.4 to 12.3 ?M/min/g. As a percentage of the average reference TChE activity for the respective species, the lower bounds were similar to the inhibition levels associated with significant mortality, indicating there was little difference between the dose resulting in significant TChE inhibition and that resulting in mortality.

Bargar, Timothy A.

2012-01-01

235

Artificial selection for structural color on butterfly wings and comparison with natural evolution  

Science.gov (United States)

Brilliant animal colors often are produced from light interacting with intricate nano-morphologies present in biological materials such as butterfly wing scales. Surveys across widely divergent butterfly species have identified multiple mechanisms of structural color production; however, little is known about how these colors evolved. Here, we examine how closely related species and populations of Bicyclus butterflies have evolved violet structural color from brown-pigmented ancestors with UV structural color. We used artificial selection on a laboratory model butterfly, B. anynana, to evolve violet scales from UV brown scales and compared the mechanism of violet color production with that of two other Bicyclus species, Bicyclus sambulos and Bicyclus medontias, which have evolved violet/blue scales independently via natural selection. The UV reflectance peak of B. anynana brown scales shifted to violet over six generations of artificial selection (i.e., in less than 1 y) as the result of an increase in the thickness of the lower lamina in ground scales. Similar scale structures and the same mechanism for producing violet/blue structural colors were found in the other Bicyclus species. This work shows that populations harbor large amounts of standing genetic variation that can lead to rapid evolution of scales’ structural color via slight modifications to the scales’ physical dimensions. PMID:25092295

Wasik, Bethany R.; Liew, Seng Fatt; Lilien, David A.; Dinwiddie, April J.; Noh, Heeso; Cao, Hui; Monteiro, Antonia

2014-01-01

236

On the Butterfly Diversity of Different Habitat Types in Three Gorge Reservoir  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The faunal composition of butterflies in five different habitat types in the Three Gorges Reservoir was surveyed from 1998 to 2003. A total of 380 species belonging to 157 genera and 12 families were recorded, among which, Nymphalidae is the fittest one in the environment according to the highest number of specie, genera and families. Acraeidae, Libytheidae and Parnassiidae are the unusual rare and key species of biodiversity conservation. Farmlands and shrubs had small fluctuation of diversity indices between 6 years, while grasslands had big one, and they were 0.584 5, 0.474 0 and 0.329 8 respectively. Shrubs are the most suitable vegetations for butterfly in TGR. The investigation shows that butterfly community is closely related to habitat types, and the similarity of different butterfly communities increased with the similarity of vegetation and spatial structure between different habitat types. The shrub is important habitat of biodiversity and hence protection of these habitats is important for biodiversity conservation.?

WU Yu-yuan

2012-09-01

237

Large butterfly valve design copes with out-of-round pipe  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two 96 inch circulating water lines at the Trojan reactor were joined to butterfly valves which had to be distorted to conform to the badly out-of-round pipes. Bubble tight seating was achieved by positioning a flexible seat ring after the valve was installed

238

Butterflies of the high-altitude Atacama Desert: habitat use and conservation  

Science.gov (United States)

The butterfly fauna of the high-altitude desert of Northern Chile, though depauperate, shows high endemism, is poorly known and is of considerable conservation concern. This study surveys butterflies along the Andean slope between 2400 and 5000 m asl (prepuna, puna and Andean steppe habitats) as well as in high and low-altitude wetlands and in the neoriparian vegetation of agricultural sites. We also include historical sightings from museum records. We compare abundances between altitudes, between natural and impacted sites, as well as between two sampling years with different precipitation regimes. The results confirm high altitudinal turnover and show greatest similarity between wetland and slope faunas at similar altitudes. Results also underscore vulnerability to weather fluctuations, particularly in the more arid low-altitude sites, where abundances were much lower in the low precipitation sampling season and several species were not observed at all. Finally, we show that some species have shifted to the neoriparian vegetation of the agricultural landscape, whereas others were only observed in less impacted habitats dominated by native plants. These results suggest that acclimation to novel habitats depends on larval host plant use. The traditional agricultural environment can provide habitat for many, but not all, native butterfly species, but an estimation of the value of these habitats requires better understanding of butterfly life history strategies and relationships with host plants.

Despland, Emma

2014-01-01

239

"Butterfly under a Pin": An Emergent Teacher Image amid Mandated Curriculum Reform  

Science.gov (United States)

The author examines 1 experienced teacher's image of teaching and how it was purposely changed--through external intervention and against the individual's will--from the view of teacher as curriculum maker to the view of teacher as curriculum implementer. Laura's account of the "butterfly under a pin" image, a version of the…

Craig, Cheryl J.

2012-01-01

240

A new butterfly-shaped attractor of Lorenz-like system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this letter a new butterfly-shaped chaotic attractor is reported. Some basic dynamical properties, such as Poincare mapping, Lyapunov exponents, fractal dimension, continuous spectrum and chaotic dynamical behaviors of the new chaotic system are studied. Furthermore, we clarify that the chaotic attractors of the system is a compound structure obtained by merging together two simple attractors through a mirror operation

 
 
 
 
241

Experimental and numerical assessment of the improvement of the load-carrying capacities of butterfly-shaped coupling components in composite structures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study was designed to analyze the load-carrying capacities of composite structures connected face-to-face by a butterfly coupling component experimentally and numerically without adhesive. The results of the experimental studies were supported with numerical analysis. In addition, the butterfly coupling component was developed geometrically with a view to the results of the numerical and experimental studies. The change in the load-carrying capacity of the improved butterfly coupling components was analyzed numerically and experimentally to obtain new results. Half-specimens and butterfly-shaped lock components were cut with a water jet machine. Experiments and analyses were conducted to analyze the effects of coupling geometry parameters, such as the ratio of the butterfly end width to the specimen width (w/b), the ratio of the butterfly middle width to the butterfly end width (x/w), and the ratio of the butterfly half height to the specimen width (y/b). It was intended to determine the damage in the butterfly before any damage to the composite structure and to increase the service-life span of the composite structure with the repair of the butterfly lock. As a result of this study, it was determined that the geometrical fixed ratios (w/b) and (x/w) were 0.4 and 0.2 at 0.4 of (y/b) according to the experimental and numerical studies with basic and modified models

242

Checkerspot Butterflies, Science, and Conservation Policy: A Grassroots View of Nitrogen Overdose  

Science.gov (United States)

Educating policy makers and the general public about the global “Nitrogen Overdose” has proved challenging because of the complexities of the global nitrogen cycle and its effect on terrestrial, freshwater, estuarine, and marine ecosystems. In this presentation, I present my grassroots experience as a scientist who transitioned into a scientist/activist, working with elected officials, regulators, private industry, activist groups, and the general public, to conserve the rare, beautiful, and charismatic Bay checkerspot butterfly in the San Francisco Bay Area. The butterfly is threatened by atmospheric nitrogen deposition (5-20 kg-N/ha/year) that enriches nutrient poor soils derived from serpentinite rock. This eutrophication allows nitrophilous grasses to invade and displace the dazzling wildflower displays that provide essential food and nectar for the butterfly. Over the past 25 years, I have been involved in all phases of the conservation of this ecosystem, drawing on long-term scientific investigations (literally hundreds of papers by dozens of researchers) on the population dynamics and conservation of the butterfly, and the biogeochemistry of the serpentine grassland ecosystem. Publication of a 1999 paper on N-deposition impacts on the butterfly led to consultations with government agencies and a powerplant company, and development of precedent setting N-deposition mitigation through habitat acquisition and grazing management. This process has evolved into a regional-scale Habitat Conservation Plan (HCP) that is nearing completion in 2010. A key to the success of this ongoing endeavor is education about biodiversity and N-deposition. Field-tours during spring wildflower season put diverse groups of people in direct contact with the obvious beauty of the ecosystem, creating an opening to learning about the complexities of N-deposition, the population biology of the butterfly, and the convoluted conservation history of the sites. Informal tours have developed into a docent program that led more than 1500 people to the site over the past 4 years, including targeted tours for elected officials, decision makers, land managers, and scientists. Outreach has also included more than a dozen articles in local, regional, and national press, television spots, public presentations (Kiwanis, garden clubs, local conferences), and behind the scenes work in policy development for the HCP. When political decisions on the HCP are finalized in the next year, there will be a cadre of educated people, motivated by first hand experience with the ecosystem, to support final approval and implementation of a rigorous plan that will secure the butterfly, numerous imperiled plants, and the entire flower-filled ecosystem. The experience provides a case study and model of how effective grassroots action by concerned scientists can make a difference.

Weiss, S. B.

2009-12-01

243

Low-intensity agricultural landscapes in Transylvania support high butterfly diversity: implications for conservation.  

Science.gov (United States)

European farmland biodiversity is declining due to land use changes towards agricultural intensification or abandonment. Some Eastern European farming systems have sustained traditional forms of use, resulting in high levels of biodiversity. However, global markets and international policies now imply rapid and major changes to these systems. To effectively protect farmland biodiversity, understanding landscape features which underpin species diversity is crucial. Focusing on butterflies, we addressed this question for a cultural-historic landscape in Southern Transylvania, Romania. Following a natural experiment, we randomly selected 120 survey sites in farmland, 60 each in grassland and arable land. We surveyed butterfly species richness and abundance by walking transects with four repeats in summer 2012. We analysed species composition using Detrended Correspondence Analysis. We modelled species richness, richness of functional groups, and abundance of selected species in response to topography, woody vegetation cover and heterogeneity at three spatial scales, using generalised linear mixed effects models. Species composition widely overlapped in grassland and arable land. Composition changed along gradients of heterogeneity at local and context scales, and of woody vegetation cover at context and landscape scales. The effect of local heterogeneity on species richness was positive in arable land, but negative in grassland. Plant species richness, and structural and topographic conditions at multiple scales explained species richness, richness of functional groups and species abundances. Our study revealed high conservation value of both grassland and arable land in low-intensity Eastern European farmland. Besides grassland, also heterogeneous arable land provides important habitat for butterflies. While butterfly diversity in arable land benefits from heterogeneity by small-scale structures, grasslands should be protected from fragmentation to provide sufficiently large areas for butterflies. These findings have important implications for EU agricultural and conservation policy. Most importantly, conservation management needs to consider entire landscapes, and implement appropriate measures at multiple spatial scales. PMID:25058307

Loos, Jacqueline; Dorresteijn, Ine; Hanspach, Jan; Fust, Pascal; Rakosy, László; Fischer, Joern

2014-01-01

244

Experimental analysis of the liquid-feeding mechanism of the butterfly Pieris rapae.  

Science.gov (United States)

The butterfly Pieirs rapae drinks liquid using a long proboscis. A high pressure gradient is induced in the proboscis when cibarial pump muscles contract. However, liquid feeding through the long proboscis poses a disadvantage of high flow resistance. Hence, butterflies may possess special features to compensate for this disadvantage and succeed in foraging. The main objective of this study is to analyze the liquid-feeding mechanism of butterflies. The systaltic motion of the cibarial pump organ was visualized using the synchrotron X-ray imaging technique. In addition, an ellipsoidal pump model was established based on synchrotron X-ray micro-computed tomography. To determine the relationship between the cyclic variation of the pump volume and the liquid-feeding flow, velocity fields of the intake flow at the tip of the proboscis were measured using micro-particle image velocimetry. Reynolds and Womersley numbers of liquid-feeding flow in the proboscis were ~1.40 and 0.129, respectively. The liquid-feeding flow could be characterized as a quasi-steady state laminar flow. Considering these results, we analyzed the dimensions of the feeding apparatus on the basis of minimum energy consumption during the liquid-feeding process. The relationship between the proboscis and the cibarial pump was determined when minimum energy consumption occurs. As a result, the volume of the cibarial pump is proportional to the cube of the radius of the proboscis. It seems that the liquid-feeding system of butterflies and other long-proboscid insects follow the cube relationship. The present results provide insights into the feeding strategies of liquid-feeding butterflies. PMID:24625646

Lee, Seung Chul; Kim, Bo Heum; Lee, Sang Joon

2014-06-01

245

The Peculiar Solar Minimum 23/24 Revealed by the Microwave Butterfly Diagram  

Science.gov (United States)

The diminished polar magnetic field strength during the minimum between cycles 23 and 24 is also reflected in the thermal radio emission originating from the polar chromosphere. During solar minima, the polar corona has extended coronal holes containing intense unipolar flux. In microwave images, the coronal holes appear bright, with a brightness enhancement of 500 to 2000 K with respect to the quiet Sun. The brightness enhancement corresponds to the upper chromosphere, where the plasma temperature is approx.10000 K. We constructed a microwave butterfly diagram using the synoptic images obtained by the Nobeyama radioheliograph (NoRH) showing the evolution of the polar and low latitude brightness temperature. While the polar brightness reveals the chromospheric conditions, the low latitude brightness is attributed to active regions in the corona. When we compared the microwave butterfly diagram with the magnetic butterfly diagram, we found a good correlation between the microwave brightness enhancement and the polar field strength. The microwave butterfly diagram covers part of solar cycle 22, whole of cycle 23, and part of cycle 24, thus enabling comparison between the cycle 23/24 and cycle 22/23 minima. The microwave brightness during the cycle 23/24 minimum was found to be lower than that during the cycle 22/23 minimum by approx.250 K. The reduced brightness temperature is consistent with the reduced polar field strength during the cycle 23/24 minimum seen in the magnetic butterfly diagram. We suggest that the microwave brightness at the solar poles is a good indicator of the speed of the solar wind sampled by Ulysses at high latitudes..

Gopalswamy, Natchimuthuk; Yashiro, Seiji; Makela, Pertti; Shibasaki, Kiyoto; Hathaway, David

2010-01-01

246

Large scale steam valve test: Performance testing of large butterfly valves and full scale high flowrate steam testing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report presents the results of the design testing of large (36-inch diameter) butterfly valves under high flow conditions. The two butterfly valves were pneumatically operated air-open, air-shut valves (termed valves 1 and 2). These butterfly valves were redesigned to improve their ability to function under high flow conditions. Concern was raised regarding the ability of the butterfly valves to function as required with high flow-induced torque imposed on the valve discs during high steam flow conditions. High flow testing was required to address the flow-induced torque concerns. The valve testing was done using a heavily instrumented piping system. This test program was called the Large Scale Steam Valve Test (LSSVT). The LSSVT program demonstrated that the redesigned valves operated satisfactorily under high flow conditions.

Meadows, J.B.; Robbins, G.E.; Roselius, D.G. [and others

1995-05-01

247

Using the sensitive dependence of chaos (the ''butterfly effect'') to direct trajectories in an experimental chaotic system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper we present the first experimental verification that the sensitivity of a chaotic system to small perturbations (the ''butterfly effect'') can be used to rapidly direct orbits from an arbitrary initial state to an arbitrary accessible desired state

248

Chemical defense in the zebra swallowtail butterfly, Eurytides marcellus, involving annonaceous acetogenins.  

Science.gov (United States)

Few herbivores feed on the foliage of the North American paw paw tree, Asimina triloba; notable exceptions are the larvae of the zebra swallowtail butterfly, Eurytides marcellus. Toxic annonaceous acetogenins, produced by A. triloba, are responsible for the relative unpalatability of the leaves. Acetogenins found in A. triloba extracts are potent pesticidal and antineoplastic agents and have emetic activity in vertebrates. In this study, partitioned aqueous MeOH fractions of the bioactive CH2Cl2 extracts, of freeze-dried and pulverized larvae, and of mature butterflies revealed acetogenin content through the use of HPLC coupled to tandem MS (LC-MS/MS). This sensitive technique provides an uncomplicated method for the detection of trace compounds and, in this instance, has confirmed tissue presence of acetogenins that serve a probable role as chemical defense agents against bird predation in zebra swallowtail larvae and adults. PMID:9917274

Martin, J M; Madigosky, S R; Gu, Z M; Zhou, D; Wu, J; McLaughlin, J L

1999-01-01

249

Carbohydrate chelation in neutral aqueous solution: the threo-tetritolato-Pd(4) butterfly motif.  

Science.gov (United States)

Alditols ("sugar alcohols", "glycitols") form palladium(II) complexes in neutral aqueous solution if they can provide the threitol partial structure. This requirement excludes erythritol, ribitol, and allitol when applied to the common tetritols, pentitols, and hexitols. The remaining alditols are able to arrange their threo-tetraol-O(4) pattern to an almost planar rhomb, to which four Pd(II) N(2) (N(2) =bidentate nitrogen ligand) centres bind in a butterfly-shaped Pd(4) motif. Bridging is the exclusive bonding mode of the four alkoxido donors. In contrast to the butterfly complexes, all alditols are able to form a species at a pH intermediate between neutrality and the stronger alkaline conditions of non-bridging diolato-palladium(II) binding, namely, the ?-triolato bonding mode. A Pd(2) (?-triolato) unit shows the middle O atom of a propanetriolato fragment as a bridging ligator, with the lateral O atoms binding in the terminal mode. PMID:22786800

Allscher, Thorsten; Klüfers, Peter

2012-08-20

250

Synthesis and photophysical properties of novel butterfly-shaped blue emitters based on pyrene.  

Science.gov (United States)

Using 1,3,5,9-tetrabromo-7-tert-butylpyrene as the bromide precursor, a series of novel butterfly-shaped 1,3,5,9-tetraaryl substituted pyrene derivatives were synthesized by the Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling reaction. Their thermal, photophysical, electrochemical and related properties were systematically investigated. All compounds were found to exhibit high thermal stabilities with decomposition temperatures (Td) of up to 300 °C. All compounds show highly blue fluorescence emissions in the spectral region of 412-469 nm in solution (?f: 0.45-0.92) and 410-470 nm in the solid- state (?f: 0.48-0.75). It is noteworthy that these butterfly-shaped pyrenes 4 possess low-lying HOMO levels ranging from -4.76 to -5.93 eV, which make them promising candidates in OLED applications. PMID:24169866

Feng, Xing; Hu, Jian-Yong; Tomiyasu, Hirotsugu; Seto, Nobuyuki; Redshaw, Carl; Elsegood, Mark R J; Yamato, Takehiko

2013-12-28

251

Butterfly Graphs with Shell Orders m and 2m+1 are Graceful  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A graceful labelling of an un directed graph G with n edges is a one-one function from the set of vertices V(G to the set {0, 1, ,2, . . ., n} such that the induced edge labels are all distinct. An induced edge label is the absolute difference between the two end vertex labels. A shell graph is defined as a cycle Cn with (n -3 chords sharing a common end point called the apex . A double shell is one vertex union of two shells. A bow graph is defined to be a double shell in which each shell has any order. In this paper we define a butterfly graph as a bow graph with exactly two pendant edges at the apex and we prove that all butterfly graphs with one shell of order m and the other shell of order (2m + 1 are graceful.

Ezhilarasi Hilda Stanley

2012-06-01

252

Design of a structure with low incident and viewing angle dependence inspired by Morpho butterflies  

Science.gov (United States)

Morpho butterflies are well known for their brilliant iridescent colors, which arise from periodic arrays of scales. These brilliant colors have a low angle dependence, in contrast to similar phenomena that are commonly caused by the periodic structures. We designed a structure with a low incident and viewing angle dependence inspired by Morpho butterflies. This structure was studied using the finite-difference time-domain method. The lamellae distribution of tree-like structure was found to be the determining factor for producing a low incident angle dependence. Two advanced models were designed to produce a low viewing angle dependence. Model I was constructed using two layers of scales. The particle swarm optimization algorithm was used to construct Model II. The angle dependence of Model II exhibited a large viewing angle range under various incident angles.

Wang, Wanlin; Zhang, Wang; Gu, Jiajun; Liu, Qinglei; Deng, Tao; Zhang, Di; Lin, Hai-Qing

2013-12-01

253

A Scalable and Minimized Butterfly Fat Tree (SMBFT Switching Network for On-Chip Communication  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study proposes a scalable and cost effective Network on Chip (NoC based architecture that is a modified version of Butterfly Fat Tree (BFT network and is known as Scalable and Minimized Butterfly Fat Tree (SMBFT switching network. The corresponding floor plan and scalable routing algorithm for the proposed network is also presented. Component Based Interconnection Network Simulator (CINSIM was used to evaluate the steady state as well as transient behaviors of SMBFT, BFT and Binary Tree switching networks for average delay at targets. Results show that the proposed on-chip network outperforms the other two in terms of average delay, area and cost. SMFBT also comprises of less number of routers, links and levels. Hence the proposed network of switches is superior to BFT and Binary Tree and can efficiently be used for on-chip communication networks.

Sheraz Anjum

2012-07-01

254

Antennal circadian clocks coordinate sun compass orientation in migratory monarch butterflies.  

Science.gov (United States)

During their fall migration, Eastern North American monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) use a time-compensated Sun compass to aid navigation to their overwintering grounds in central Mexico. It has been assumed that the circadian clock that provides time compensation resides in the brain, although this assumption has never been examined directly. Here, we show that the antennae are necessary for proper time-compensated Sun compass orientation in migratory monarch butterflies, that antennal clocks exist in monarchs, and that they likely provide the primary timing mechanism for Sun compass orientation. These unexpected findings pose a novel function for the antennae and open a new line of investigation into clock-compass connections that may extend widely to other insects that use this orientation mechanism. PMID:19779201

Merlin, Christine; Gegear, Robert J; Reppert, Steven M

2009-09-25

255

The butterflies of Turquino National Park, Sierra Maestra, Cuba (Lepidoptera, Papilionoidea  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Between February and November 2011, we conducted a species inventory, created a natural history database and a made a first approach to the composition and structure of the butterfly communities present at several vegetation types in the Turquino National Park. The inventory included 83 species, 29 of them endemic. We recorded 57 species (18 endemic in transects along main vegetation pathways. In disturbed vegetation, species richness was higher (48 and abundance was better distributed, but the proportion of endemism was lower (23%. Species richness decreased and the dominance and proportion of endemism increased with altitude. Numbers of species and the proportions of endemism at natural habitats sampled were: 19 and 58% for evergreen forest, 10 and 60% for rainforest, eight and 100% for cloud forest, and four and 100% for the elfin thicket. Flowers of 27 plants were recorded as nectar sources for 30 butterfly species, and host plants were recorded for nine species.

Núñez, R.

2012-01-01

256

A phosphorescent molecular "butterfly" that undergoes a photoinduced structural change allowing temperature sensing and white emission.  

Science.gov (United States)

A butterfly-like phosphorescent platinum(II) binuclear complex can undergo a molecular structure change in which the Pt-Pt distance shortens upon photoexcitation, which leads to the formation of two distinct excited states and dual emission in the steady state, that is, greenish-blue emission from the high-energy excited state at the long Pt-Pt distance and red emission from the low-energy excited state at the short Pt-Pt distance. This photoinduced molecular structure change has a strong dependence on the molecule's surrounding environment, allowing its application as self-referenced luminescent sensor for solid-liquid phase change, viscosity, and temperature, with greenish-blue emission in solid matrix and rising red emission in molten liquid phase. With proper control of the surrounding media to manipulate the structural change and photophysical properties, a broad white emission can be achieved from this molecular butterfly. PMID:25159533

Han, Mingu; Tian, Yu; Yuan, Zhao; Zhu, Lei; Ma, Biwu

2014-10-01

257

QCD in magnetic fields: from Hofstadter's butterfly to the phase diagram  

CERN Document Server

I revisit the problem of a charged particle on a two-dimensional lattice immersed in a constant (electro)magnetic field, and discuss the energy spectrum - Hofstadter's butterfly - from a new, quantum field theoretical perspective. In particular, I point out that there is an intricate interplay between a) the structure of the butterfly at low magnetic flux, b) the absence of asymptotic freedom in QED and c) the enhancement of the quark condensate by a magnetic field at zero temperature. I proceed to discuss the response of the QCD condensate to the magnetic field at nonzero temperatures in four space-time dimensions, present the resulting phase diagram and compare it to low-energy model predictions.

Endrodi, G

2014-01-01

258

Variable Length Floating Point FFT Processor Using Radix-22 Butterfly Elements  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A mixed radix, floating point FFT processor is designed using radix-2 and radix-22 butterfly elements, adapting a pipelined architecture for a variable length of 128/512/2048. The single-path delay feedback (SDF architecture is employed to exploit the symmetry in signal flow graph of FFT algorithm. Area minimization has been achieved for the reconfigurable FFT processor by using pipelining and higher radix butterfly structures. (radix-22. Then area power trade off is done with parallel mixed radix processing blocks, to achieve better throughput. A reconfigurable architecture has been achieved by bypassing certain processing blocks while keeping the other blocks functional through control mechanism. The proposed design is implemented in 45nm technology and the synthesis results show a silicon area of 4.7mm2 and a power consumption of 152mw at 50MHz and 208.5mw at 100MHz.

P.Augusta Sophy

2014-05-01

259

The electronic spectrum of a quasiperiodic potential: From the Hofstadter butterfly to the Fibonacci chain  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We show that an electronic tight-binding Hamiltonian, defined in a quasiperiodic chain with an on-site potential given by a Fibonacci sequence, can be obtained using a superposition of Harper potentials. Since the spectrum of the Harper equation as a function of the magnetic flux is a fractal set, known as the Hofstadter butterfly, we follow the transformation of the butterfly to a new one that contains the Fibonacci potential and related approximants. As a result, the equation in reciprocal space for the Fibonacci case has the form of a chain with long range interaction between Fourier components. Then, the structure of the resulting spectrum is analyzed by calculating the components in reciprocal space of the related potentials. As an application, the correlator of each potential and some localization properties are obtained

260

Formation and magnetic properties of butterfly-shaped martensite in an Fe-Ni-Cr alloy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The butterfly-shaped martensitic transformation has been examined by means of transmission electron microscope (TEM) and the magnetic properties of the alloy have been studied by using Moessbauer spectroscopy in an Fe-16.24%Ni-0.46%Cr (at.%) alloy. Moessbauer spectroscopy examinations showed that the austenite state is paramagnetic and butterfly martensite is ferromagnetic. The volume fraction changes, the effective hyperfine field of the ferromagnetic martensite phase and isomery shift values have also been determined by Moessbauer spectroscopy. In situ TEM studies were carried out in order to elucidate the nucleation and growth mechanisms of the martensite. The nucleation and growth of martensite is related to the motion of dislocations in austenite and this fact plays an important role in the kinetics of the martensitic transformation. Based on these experimental results, the nucleation and growth mechanisms of martensite crystals are discussed in detail

 
 
 
 
261

Host plant use by the Heath fritillary butterfly, Melitaea athalia : plant habitat, species and chemistry  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We present a study of habitat use, oviposition plant choice, and food plant suitability for the checkerspot butterfly Melitaea athalia Rottemburg (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) in Åland, Finland. We found that in Åland, unlike in the mainland of Finland and many parts of its range, M. athalia flies mainly in open meadows. When offered an array of plants in a large (32 × 26 m) field cage, they predominately oviposited upon Veronica chamaedrys L., V. spicata L. and Plantago lanceolata L. (Planta...

Reudler Talsma, J. H.; Torri, K.; Nouhuys, S.

2008-01-01

262

Butterfly, seedling, sapling and tree diversity and composition in a fire-affected Bornean rainforest  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Fire-affected forests are becoming an increasingly important component of tropical landscapes. The impact of wildfires on rainforest communities is, however, poorly understood. In this study the density, species richness and community composition of seedlings, saplings, trees and butterflies were assessed in unburned and burned forest following the 1997/98 El Nino Southern Oscillation burn event in East Kalimantan, Indonesia. More than half a year after the fires, sapling and tree densities i...

Cleary, D. F. R.; Priadjati, A.; Suryokusumo, B. K.; Menken, S. B. J.

2006-01-01

263

Nonadditivity of quantum capacities of quantum multiple-access channels and the butterfly network  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Multipartite quantum information transmission without additional classical resources is investigated. We show purely quantum superadditivity of quantum capacity regions of quantum memoryless multiple-access (MA) channels, which are not entanglement breaking. Also, we find that the superadditivity holds when the MA channel extends to the quantum butterfly network, which can achieve quantum network coding. The present widespread effects for the channels which enable entanglement distribution have not been revealed for multipartite scenarios.

264

Signatures of selection in loci governing major colour patterns in Heliconius butterflies and related species  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Protein-coding change is one possible genetic mechanism underlying the evolution of adaptive wing colour pattern variation in Heliconius butterflies. Here we determine whether 38 putative genes within two major Heliconius patterning loci, HmYb and HmB, show evidence of positive selection. Ratios of nonsynonymous to synonymous nucleotide changes (?) were used to test for selection, as a means of identifying candidate genes within each locus that control wing pattern. R...

Wu, Grace C.; Joron, Mathieu; Jiggins, Chris D.

2010-01-01

265

Multiple recent co-options of Optix associated with novel traits in adaptive butterfly wing radiations  

Science.gov (United States)

Background While the ecological factors that drive phenotypic radiations are often well understood, less is known about the generative mechanisms that cause the emergence and subsequent diversification of novel features. Heliconius butterflies display an extraordinary diversity of wing patterns due in part to mimicry and sexual selection. Identifying the genetic drivers of this crucible of evolution is now within reach, as it was recently shown that cis-regulatory variation of the optix transcription factor explains red pattern differences in the adaptive radiations of the Heliconius melpomene and Heliconius erato species groups. Results Here, we compare the developmental expression of the Optix protein across a large phylogenetic sample of butterflies and infer that its color patterning role originated at the base of the neotropical passion-vine butterfly clade (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Tribe: Heliconiini), shortly predating multiple Optix-driven wing pattern radiations in the speciose Heliconius and Eueides genera. We also characterize novel Optix and Doublesex expression in the male-specific pheromone wing scales of the basal heliconiines Dryas and Agraulis, thus illustrating that within the Heliconinii lineage, Optix has been evolutionarily redeployed in multiple contexts in association with diverse wing features. Conclusions Our findings reveal that the repeated co-option of Optix into various aspects of wing scale specification was associated with multiple evolutionary novelties over a relatively short evolutionary time scale. In particular, the recruitment of Optix expression in colored scale cell precursors was a necessary condition to the explosive diversification of passion-vine butterfly wing patterns. The novel deployment of a gene followed by spatial modulation of its expression in a given cell type could be a common mode of developmental innovation for triggering phenotypic radiations. PMID:24499528

2014-01-01

266

Butterflies Shed Light on How Some Species Respond to Global Warming  

Science.gov (United States)

Dr. Hellmann and her team have conducted a series of studies in which manipulating the temperature of the butterfly larvaeÃÂs environment revealed how the two species might respond to global warming. She will discuss the teamÃÂs work at the 2010 American Physiological SocietyÃÂs (www.the-APS.org) Intersociety Meeting in Westminster, Colo., August 4-7. The program is entitled, Global Change and Global Science: Comparative Physiology in a Changing World.

APS Communications Office (American Physiological Society Communications Office)

2010-08-05

267

Monarch butterflies cross the Appalachians from the west to recolonize the east coast of North America  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Each spring, millions of monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) migrate from overwintering sites in Mexico to recolonize eastern North America. However, few monarchs are found along the east coast of the USA until mid-summer. Brower (Brower, L. P. 1996 J. Exp. Biol. 199, 93–103.) proposed that east coast recolonization is accomplished by individuals migrating from the west over the Appalachians, but to date no evidence exists to support this hypothesis. We used hydrogen (?D) and carbon (?...

Miller, Nathan G.; Wassenaar, Leonard I.; Hobson, Keith A.; Norris, D. Ryan

2011-01-01

268

Molecular-Level Variation Affects Population Growth in a Butterfly Metapopulation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The dynamics of natural populations are thought to be dominated by demographic and environmental processes with little influence of intraspecific genetic variation and natural selection, apart from inbreeding depression possibly reducing population growth in small populations. Here we analyse hundreds of well-characterised local populations in a large metapopulation of the Glanville fritillary butterfly (Melitaea cinxia), which persists in a balance between stochastic local extinctio...

Hanski, Ilkka; Saccheri, Ilik

2006-01-01

269

Host-plant-derived variation in ultraviolet wing patterns influences mate selection by male butterflies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We report on the first case in which sequestered secondary plant compounds determine an insect's external appearance in the ultraviolet spectrum and thereby influence visually mediated mate choice. Larvae of the common blue butterfly Polyommatus icarus specifically sequester flavonoids in different amounts and types, depending on the part or species of food plant. During late pupal development the majority of ultraviolet-absorbing flavonoids are deposited in the wing scales. The flavonoid con...

Knu?ttel, Helge; Fiedler, Konrad

2001-01-01

270

Adaptive evolution of color vision as seen through the eyes of butterflies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Butterflies and primates are interesting for comparative color vision studies, because both have evolved middle- (M) and long-wavelength- (L) sensitive photopigments with overlapping absorbance spectrum maxima (lambda(max) values). Although positive selection is important for the maintenance of spectral variation within the primate pigments, it remains an open question whether it contributes similarly to the diversification of butterfly pigments. To examine this issue, we performed epimicrospectrophotometry on the eyes of five Limenitis butterfly species and found a 31-nm range of variation in the lambda(max) values of the L-sensitive photopigments (514-545 nm). We cloned partial Limenitis L opsin gene sequences and found a significant excess of replacement substitutions relative to polymorphisms among species. Mapping of these L photopigment lambda(max) values onto a phylogeny revealed two instances within Lepidoptera of convergently evolved L photopigment lineages whose lambda(max) values were blue-shifted. A codon-based maximum-likelihood analysis indicated that, associated with the two blue spectral shifts, four amino acid sites (Ile17Met, Ala64Ser, Asn70Ser, and Ser137Ala) have evolved substitutions in parallel and exhibit significant d(N)/d(S) >1. Homology modeling of the full-length Limenitis arthemis astyanax L opsin placed all four substitutions within the chromophore-binding pocket. Strikingly, the Ser137Ala substitution is in the same position as a site that in primates is responsible for a 5- to 7-nm blue spectral shift. Our data show that some of the same amino acid sites are under positive selection in the photopigments of both butterflies and primates, spanning an evolutionary distance >500 million years. PMID:17494749

Frentiu, Francesca D; Bernard, Gary D; Cuevas, Cristina I; Sison-Mangus, Marilou P; Prudic, Kathleen L; Briscoe, Adriana D

2007-05-15

271

Grain boundaries and coincidence site lattices in the corneal nanonipple structure of the Mourning Cloak butterfly  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this study the highly ordered corneal nanonipple structure observed on the Mourning Cloak butterfly (Nymphalis antiopa) is analyzed with a particular emphasis on the high-angle grain-boundary-like defects that are observed between individual nanonipple crystals. It is shown that these grain boundaries are generated by rows of topological coordination defects, which create very specific misorientations between adjacent crystals. These specific orientations form coincidence site lattices, wh...

Lee, Ken C.; Erb, Uwe

2013-01-01

272

Pervasive genetic associations between traits causing reproductive isolation in Heliconius butterflies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Ecological speciation proceeds through the accumulation of divergent traits that contribute to reproductive isolation, but in the face of gene flow traits that characterize incipient species may become disassociated through recombination. Heliconius butterflies are well known for bright mimetic warning patterns that are also used in mate recognition and cause both pre- and post-mating isolation between divergent taxa. Sympatric sister taxa representing the final stages of speciation, such as ...

Merrill, Richard M.; Schooten, Bas; Scott, Janet A.; Jiggins, Chris D.

2011-01-01

273

Butterflies from the Uberlândia region, Central Brazil: species list and biological comments  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A total of 251 butterfly species were recorded in Uberlândia region, with collecting concentrated mainly in forest areas. Aspects of geographic distribution of some Ithomiinae, as well as interactions of both adults and immatures with plants, and reproduction periods for the more abundant species are discussed. Collections in open, riverside, and wetland areas, as well as the use of bait, should substantially increase the number of species.

MOTTA P. C.

2002-01-01

274

Identification of Butterfly (Lepidoptera; Rhopalocera Fauna of Gokçeada and Bozcaada, Turkey  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the butterflies of Gökçeada and Bozcaada in Turkey. As a result, a total of 61 Lepidoptera species in the two islands was recorded. Of these, species 45 were found in Gökçeada and 16 species were found in Bozcaada. Additionally, it was appeared that 13 species for Gökçeada and all of the 16 species for Bozcaada were the first records.

Z. Okyar

2006-01-01

275

Light-Induced Hofstadter's Butterfly Spectrum of Ultracold Atoms on the Two-Dimensional Kagomé Lattice  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We investigate the energy spectrum of ultracold atoms on the two-dimensional Kagomé optical lattice under an effective magnetic field, which can be realized with laser beams. We derive the generalized Harper's equations from the Schrödinger equation. The energy spectrum with a fractal band structure is obtained by numerically solving the generalized Harper's equations. We analyze the properties of the Hofstadter's butterfly spectrum and discuss its observability

276

Flight metabolic rate and Pgi genotype influence butterfly dispersal rate in the field.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dispersal is a key life-history trait, especially in species inhabiting fragmented landscapes. The process of dispersal is affected by a suite of morphological, physiological, and behavioral traits, all of which have a more or less complex genetic basis and are affected by the prevailing environmental conditions. To be able to identify genetic and phenotypic effects on dispersal, movements have to be recorded over relevant spatial and temporal scales. We used harmonic radar to track free-flying Glanville fritillary butterflies (Melitaea cinxia) released in the field and reconstructed their flight tracks for several hours. Flight track lengths for individual butterflies ranged from tens of meters to several kilometers. Butterflies were most mobile at midday and in intermediate temperatures. Flight metabolic rate (MR), measured prior to the tracking, explained variation in mobility at all scales studied. One-third of the variation in the distance moved in one hour could be attributed to variation in flight MR. Heterozygous individuals at a single nucleotide polymorphism in the phosphoglucose isomerase (Pgi) gene moved longer distances in the morning and at lower ambient temperatures than homozygous individuals. A similar genotype x temperature interaction was found to affect the metabolic rate. Our results establish connections from molecular variation in a single gene to flight physiology and movement behavior at the landscape level. These results indicate a fitness advantage to the heterozygous genotype in low temperatures and suggest a mechanism by which varying environmental conditions maintain genetic polymorphism in populations. PMID:19739384

Niitepõld, Kristjan; Smith, Alan D; Osborne, Juliet L; Reynolds, Don R; Carreck, Norman L; Martin, Andrew P; Marden, James H; Ovaskainen, Otso; Hanski, Ilkka

2009-08-01

277

Magnetic resonance butterfly coils: Design and application for hyperpolarized 13C studies  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Hyperpolarized 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopy in pig models enables cardiac metabolism assessment and provides a powerful tool for heart physiology studies, although the low molar concentration of derivate metabolites gives rise to technological limitations in terms of data quality. The design of dedicated coils capable of providing large field of view with high Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) data is of fundamental importance. This work presents magnetostatic simulations and tests of two butterfly coils with different geometries, both designed for 13C hyperpolarized studies of pig heart with a clinical 3T scanner. In particular, the paper provides details of the design, modeling, construction and application of the butterfly style coils. While both coils could be successfully employed in single configuration (linear mode), the second prototype was used to design a quadrature surface coil constituted by the butterfly and a circular loop both in receive (RX) mode while using a birdcage coil as transmitter (TX). The performance of this coils configuration was compared with the single TX/RX birdcage coil, in order to verify the advantage of the proposed configuration over the volume coil throughout the volume of interest for cardiac imaging in pig. Experimental SNR-vs-depth profiles, extracted from the [1-13C]acetate phantom chemical shift image (CSI), permitted to highlight the performance of the proposed coils configuration. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Ardenkjaer-Larsen, Jan Henrik

2013-01-01

278

DNA barcode analysis of butterfly species from Pakistan points towards regional endemism.  

Science.gov (United States)

DNA barcodes were obtained for 81 butterfly species belonging to 52 genera from sites in north-central Pakistan to test the utility of barcoding for their identification and to gain a better understanding of regional barcode variation. These species represent 25% of the butterfly fauna of Pakistan and belong to five families, although the Nymphalidae were dominant, comprising 38% of the total specimens. Barcode analysis showed that maximum conspecific divergence was 1.6%, while there was 1.7-14.3% divergence from the nearest neighbour species. Barcode records for 55 species showed <2% sequence divergence to records in the Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD), but only 26 of these cases involved specimens from neighbouring India and Central Asia. Analysis revealed that most species showed little incremental sequence variation when specimens from other regions were considered, but a threefold increase was noted in a few cases. There was a clear gap between maximum intraspecific and minimum nearest neighbour distance for all 81 species. Neighbour-joining cluster analysis showed that members of each species formed a monophyletic cluster with strong bootstrap support. The barcode results revealed two provisional species that could not be clearly linked to known taxa, while 24 other species gained their first coverage. Future work should extend the barcode reference library to include all butterfly species from Pakistan as well as neighbouring countries to gain a better understanding of regional variation in barcode sequences in this topographically and climatically complex region. PMID:23789612

Ashfaq, Muhammad; Akhtar, Saleem; Khan, Arif M; Adamowicz, Sarah J; Hebert, Paul D N

2013-09-01

279

Fluid drag reduction and efficient self-cleaning with rice leaf and butterfly wing bioinspired surfaces  

Science.gov (United States)

Researchers are continually inspired by living nature to solve complex challenges. For example, unique surface characteristics of rice leaves and butterfly wings combine the shark skin (anisotropic flow leading to low drag) and lotus leaf (superhydrophobic and self-cleaning) effects, producing the so-called rice and butterfly wing effect. In this paper, we present an overview of rice leaf and butterfly wing fluid drag and self-cleaning studies. In addition, we examine two other promising aquatic surfaces in nature known for such properties, including fish scales and shark skin. Morphology, drag, self-cleaning, contact angle, and contact angle hysteresis data are presented to understand the role of wettability, viscosity, and velocity. Liquid repellent coatings are utilized to recreate or combine various effects. Discussion is provided along with conceptual models describing the role of surface structures related to low drag, self-cleaning, and antifouling properties. Modeling provides design guidance when developing novel low drag and self-cleaning surfaces for applications in the medical, marine, and industrial fields.

Bixler, Gregory D.; Bhushan, Bharat

2013-08-01

280

Use of fruit bait traps for monitoring of butterflies (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Costa Rica | Language: English Abstract in english There exists great interest in using fruit-feeding adult nymphalid butterflies to monitor changes in tropical forest ecosystems. We intensively sampled the butterfly fauna of mid-elevation tropical moist forest in southern Costa Rica with fruit bait traps to address a series of practical issues conc [...] erning the development of a robust, efficient sampling program. Variation in the number of captures and escapes of butterflies at the traps was better explained by the time of day than by the age of bait. Species’ escape rates varied widely, suggesting that short term, less intensive surveys aimed at determining presence or absence of species may be biased. Individuals did not appear to become "trap-happy" or to recognize the traps as food sources. Considering the tradeoff between numbers of traps and frequency of trap servicing, the most efficient sampling regime appears to be baiting and sampling the traps once every other day.

Jennifer B., Hughes; Gretchen C., Daily; Paul R., Ehrlich.

1998-09-01

 
 
 
 
281

Application of source-receptor models to determine source areas of biological components (pollen and butterflies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The source-receptor models allow the establishment of relationships between a receptor point (sampling point and the probable source areas (regions of emission through the association of concentration values at the receptor point with the corresponding atmospheric back-trajectories, and, together with other techniques, to interpret transport phenomena on a synoptic scale. These models are generally used in air pollution studies to determine the areas of origin of chemical compounds measured at a sampling point, and thus be able to target actions to reduce pollutants. However, until now, few studies have applied these types of models to describe the source areas of biological organisms. In Catalonia there are very complete records of pollen (data from the Xarxa Aerobiològica de Catalunya, Aerobiology Network of Catalonia and butterflies (data from the Catalan Butterfly Monitoring Scheme, a biological material that is also liable to be transported long distances and whose areas of origin could be interesting to know. This work presents the results of the use of the Seibert et al. model applied to the study of the source regions of: (1 certain pollen of an allergic nature, observed in Catalonia and the Canary Islands, and (2 the migratory butterfly Vanessa cardui, observed in Catalonia. Based on the results obtained we can corroborate the suitability of these models to determine the area of origin of several species, both chemical and biological, therefore expanding the possibilities of applying the original model to the wider field of Aerobiology.

M. Alarcón

2010-01-01

282

Evolution of planetary nebulae. III. Position-velocity images of butterfly-type nebulae  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Observations of the motions of the shells of the planetary nebulae NGC 2346, NGC 2371-2, NGC 2440, NGC 6058, NGC 6210, IC 1747, IC 5217, J-320, and M2-9 are presented. These are all 'butterfly' type PNs, and show evidence for bipolar shocks. The observations are interpreted in terms of a fast spherical wind, driven by the central star into a quasi-toroidal envelope deposited earlier by the star, during its slow-wind phase on the asymptotic giant branch. It is shown that this model, which is a straightforward extension of a mechanism previously invoked to account for elliptical PNs, reproduces the essential kinematic features of butterfly PNs. It is inferred that the envelopes of butterflies must have a considerable equator-to-pole density gradient, and it is suggested that the origin of this asphericity must be sought in an as yet unknown mechanism during the AGB, Mira, or OH/IR phases of late stellar evolution. 28 references

283

X-ray Tomography and Chemical Imaging within Butterfly Wing Scales  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The rainbow like color of butterfly wings is associated with the internal and surface structures of the wing scales. While the photonic structure of the scales is believed to diffract specific lights at different angle, there is no adequate probe directly answering the 3-D structures with sufficient spatial resolution. The NSRRC nano-transmission x-ray microscope (nTXM) with tens nanometers spatial resolution is able to image biological specimens without artifacts usually introduced in sophisticated sample staining processes. With the intrinsic deep penetration of x-rays, the nTXM is capable of nondestructively investigating the internal structures of fragile and soft samples. In this study, we imaged the structure of butterfly wing scales in 3-D view with 60 nm spatial resolution. In addition, synchrotron-radiation-based Fourier transform Infrared (FT-IR) microspectroscopy was employed to analyze the chemical components with spatial information of the butterfly wing scales. Based on the infrared spectral images, we suggest that the major components of scale structure were rich in protein and polysaccharide

284

On-Chip Implementation of Pipeline Digit-Slicing Multiplier-Less Butterfly for Fast Fourier Transform Architecture  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: The need for wireless communication has driven the communication systems to high performance. However, the main bottleneck that affects the communication capability is the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT, which is the core of most modulators. Approach: This study presented on-chip implementation of pipeline digit-slicing multiplier-less butterfly for FFT structure. The approach taken; in order to reduce computation complexity in butterfly, digit-slicing multiplierless single constant technique was utilized in the critical path of Radix-2 Decimation In Time (DIT FFT structure. The proposed design focused on the trade-off between the speed and active silicon area for the chip implementation. The new architecture was investigated and simulated with MATLAB software. The Verilog HDL code in Xilinx ISE environment was derived to describe the FFT Butterfly functionality and was downloaded to Virtex II FPGA board. Consequently, the Virtex-II FG456 Proto board was used to implement and test the design on the real hardware. Results: As a result, from the findings, the synthesis report indicates the maximum clock frequency of 549.75 MHz with the total equivalent gate count of 31,159 is a marked and significant improvement over Radix 2 FFT butterfly. In comparison with the conventional butterfly architecture, design that can only run at a maximum clock frequency of 198.987 MHz and the conventional multiplier can only run at a maximum clock frequency of 220.160 MHz, the proposed system exhibits better results. The resulting maximum clock frequency increases by about 276.28% for the FFT butterfly and about 277.06% for the multiplier. Conclusion: It can be concluded that on-chip implementation of pipeline digit-slicing multiplier-less butterfly for FFT structure is an enabler in solving problems that affect communications capability in FFT and possesses huge potentials for future related works and research areas.

Yazan S. Algnabi

2010-01-01

285

Buried hurts and colliding dreams in Yvonne Vera’s Butterfly Burning = Feridas escondidas e sonhos conflitantes em Butterfly Burning de Yvonne Vera  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Zimbabwean author Yvonne Vera’s Butterfly Burning (1998 depicts anintense and tragically concluded love relationship between a middle-aged colonised male labourer, Fumbatha, and an idealistic and much younger woman, Phephelaphi. The context is the ghetto adjoining the city of Bulawayo in late colonial Southern Rhodesia. The articleemploys the concepts of genealogies and of transmodernity to delineate Vera’s reinscription of colonised African men and women in her illocutionary, densely poetic account of the growth of modernity in Africa, tragic because (despite similar, buried hurts theprotagonists’ dreams are at odds.O romance Butterfly Burning (1998, da autora zimbabuana Yvonne Veramostra o relacionamento amoroso, intenso e trágico, entre Fumbatha, um trabalhador colonizado de meia idade, e Phephelaphi, uma mulher jovem e idealista. O contexto do enredo é o gueto perto da cidade de Bulawayo na ex-colônia da Rodésia do Sul. O artigo emprega os conceitos de genealogias e da transmodernidade para delinear as re-inscrições dos africanos e africanas colonizados em sua narração ilocucionária, profundamente poética, do desenvolvimento da modernidade na África. É também trágica (apesar da semelhança dasferidas escondidas pela não-coincidência dos sonhos dos protagonistas.

Annie Gagiano

2009-01-01

286

Characterisation and expression of microRNAs in developing wings of the neotropical butterfly Heliconius melpomene  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Heliconius butterflies are an excellent system for studies of adaptive convergent and divergent phenotypic traits. Wing colour patterns are used as signals to both predators and potential mates and are inherited in a Mendelian manner. The underlying genetic mechanisms of pattern formation have been studied for many years and shed light on broad issues, such as the repeatability of evolution. In Heliconius melpomene, the yellow hindwing bar is controlled by the HmYb locus. MicroRNAs (miRNAs are important post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression that have key roles in many biological processes, including development. miRNAs could act as regulators of genes involved in wing development, patterning and pigmentation. For this reason we characterised miRNAs in developing butterfly wings and examined differences in their expression between colour pattern races. Results We sequenced small RNA libraries from two colour pattern races and detected 142 Heliconius miRNAs with homology to others found in miRBase. Several highly abundant miRNAs were differentially represented in the libraries between colour pattern races. These candidates were tested further using Northern blots, showing that differences in expression were primarily due to developmental stage rather than colour pattern. Assembly of sequenced reads to the HmYb region identified hme-miR-193 and hme-miR-2788; located 2380 bp apart in an intergenic region. These two miRNAs are expressed in wings and show an upregulation between 24 and 72 hours post-pupation, indicating a potential role in butterfly wing development. A search for miRNAs in all available H. melpomene BAC sequences (~ 2.5 Mb did not reveal any other miRNAs and no novel miRNAs were predicted. Conclusions Here we describe the first butterfly miRNAs and characterise their expression in developing wings. Some show differences in expression across developing pupal stages and may have important functions in butterfly wing development. Two miRNAs were located in the HmYb region and were expressed in developing pupal wings. Future work will examine the expression of these miRNAs in different colour pattern races and identify miRNA targets among wing patterning genes.

Rathjen Tina

2011-01-01

287

The role of the North Atlantic Oscillation in controlling U.K. butterfly population size and phenology.  

Science.gov (United States)

1. The North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) exerts considerable control on U.K. weather. This study investigates the impact of the NAO on butterfly abundance and phenology using 34 years of data from the U.K. Butterfly Monitoring Scheme (UKBMS).2. The study uses a multi-species indicator to show that the NAO does not affect overall U.K. butterfly population size. However, the abundance of bivoltine butterfly species, which have longer flight seasons, were found to be more likely to respond positively to the NAO compared with univoltine species, which show little or a negative response.3. A positive winter NAO index is associated with warmer weather and earlier flight dates for Anthocharis cardamines (Lepidoptera: Pieridae), Melanargia galathea (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae), Aphantopus hyperantus (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae), Pyronia tithonus (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae), Lasiommata megera (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) and Polyommatus icarus (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae). In bivoltine species, the NAO affects the phenology of the first generation, the timing of which indirectly controls the timing of the second generation.4. The NAO influences the timing of U.K. butterfly flight seasons more strongly than it influences population size. PMID:22879687

Westgarth-Smith, Angus R; Roy, David B; Scholze, Martin; Tucker, Allan; Sumpter, John P

2012-06-01

288

Structure, function, and self-assembly of single network gyroid (I4132) photonic crystals in butterfly wing scales.  

Science.gov (United States)

Complex three-dimensional biophotonic nanostructures produce the vivid structural colors of many butterfly wing scales, but their exact nanoscale organization is uncertain. We used small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) on single scales to characterize the 3D photonic nanostructures of five butterfly species from two families (Papilionidae, Lycaenidae). We identify these chitin and air nanostructures as single network gyroid (I4(1)32) photonic crystals. We describe their optical function from SAXS data and photonic band-gap modeling. Butterflies apparently grow these gyroid nanostructures by exploiting the self-organizing physical dynamics of biological lipid-bilayer membranes. These butterfly photonic nanostructures initially develop within scale cells as a core-shell double gyroid (Ia3d), as seen in block-copolymer systems, with a pentacontinuous volume comprised of extracellular space, cell plasma membrane, cellular cytoplasm, smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER) membrane, and intra-SER lumen. This double gyroid nanostructure is subsequently transformed into a single gyroid network through the deposition of chitin in the extracellular space and the degeneration of the rest of the cell. The butterflies develop the thermodynamically favored double gyroid precursors as a route to the optically more efficient single gyroid nanostructures. Current approaches to photonic crystal engineering also aim to produce single gyroid motifs. The biologically derived photonic nanostructures characterized here may offer a convenient template for producing optical devices based on biomimicry or direct dielectric infiltration. PMID:20547870

Saranathan, Vinodkumar; Osuji, Chinedum O; Mochrie, Simon G J; Noh, Heeso; Narayanan, Suresh; Sandy, Alec; Dufresne, Eric R; Prum, Richard O

2010-06-29

289

Forward flight of a model butterfly: Simulation by equations of motion coupled with the Navier-Stokes equations  

Science.gov (United States)

The forward flight of a model butterfly was studied by simulation using the equations of motion coupled with the Navier-Stokes equations. The model butterfly moved under the action of aerodynamic and gravitational forces, where the aerodynamic forces were generated by flapping wings which moved with the body, allowing the body oscillations of the model butterfly to be simulated. The main results are as follows: (1) The aerodynamic force produced by the wings is approximately perpendicular to the long-axis of body and is much larger in the downstroke than in the upstroke. In the downstroke the body pitch angle is small and the large aerodynamic force points up and slightly backward, giving the weight-supporting vertical force and a small negative horizontal force, whilst in the upstroke, the body angle is large and the relatively small aerodynamic force points forward and slightly downward, giving a positive horizontal force which overcomes the body drag and the negative horizontal force generated in the downstroke. (2) Pitching oscillation of the butterfly body plays an equivalent role of the wing-rotation of many other insects. (3) The body-massspecific power of the model butterfly is 33.3 W/kg, not very different from that of many other insects, e.g., fruitflies and dragonflies.

Huang, Hua; Sun, Mao

2012-12-01

290

Population Dynamics of Cabbage Butterfly (Pieris brassicae and Cabbage Aphids (Brevicoryne brassicae on Five Cultivars of Cauliflower at Peshawar  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The studies on population dynamics of Cabbage butterfly and Cabbage aphids on different Cultivars of cauliflower namely Snowball, Snowdrift, Tropical, Pioneer and Meigettsal were carried out at the Research Farm of Entomology Section, Agricultural Research Institute Tarnab Peshawar. Cabbage butterfly (Pieris brassicae and aphids (Bravicoryne brassicae were recorded as the major insect pests of Cauliflower crop at ARI, Tarnab, Peshawar. None of the 5 Cultivars was found completely resistant to the infestation of Cabbage butterfly and aphids. The highest average of 86.67 larvae/plant was recorded in the first week of November and the lowest average of 0.67 larvae/plant was recorded in the first week of December. The lowest and the highest average mean population of larvae were observed on Cultivars Meigettsal and snow ball, respectively. During study population density of aphids on cauliflower Cultivars ranged from 0.00 to 31.76 aphids/cm2 leaf area. The lowest and highest average mean population of aphids recorded on Cultivars Snow Drift and Meigettsal, respectively. Cultivar snow drift was found the least preferred to aphids throughout the season. During study cultivar Meigettsal proved to be best against Cabbage butterfly, but showed poor performance against aphids. Cultivar snowdrift showed good performance against aphids and cabbage butterfly

Mohammad Younas

2004-01-01

291

Butterfly bones under a pli sky: the folds without organs in the Régis Bonvicino’s collection  

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Full Text Available This article attempts to handle the operations on the worlds of meaning articulated in Jean-Luc Nancy - The sense of the world - with considerations of Gilles Deleuze and Félix Guattari on How do you make yourself a body without organs. With this French philosophers, we aimed to establish the connections between meaning, truth and desert through the poetic experience of Régis Bonvicino, especially in some books like Butterfly Bones, Sky-Eclipse, the Cosmos and remorse, and Orphan page to articulate a proposal for a policy maximum of life. Questioning the meaning adopted by the natural or real, the goal of this paper is go thought the images of bones of butterfly, borboflores, florbelhas, flormigas, the image of panapaná - a collection of butterflies – seeking the possibility of adopting the attitude of creating for ourselves a Body without Organs.

Fernando Floriani Petry

2010-11-01

292

Two component butterfly hysteresis in RuSr2EuCeCu2O1 ruthenocuprate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We report detailed studies of the ac susceptibility butterfly hysteresis on the RuSr2EuCeCu2O1 (Ru1222) ruthenocuprate compound. Two separate contributions to these hysteresis have been identified and studied. One contribution is ferromagnetic-like and is characterized by the coercive field maximum. Another contribution, represented by the so called inverted maximum, is related to the unusual inverted loops, unique feature of Ru1222 butterfly hysteresis. The different nature of the two identified magnetic contributions is proved by the different temperature dependences involved. By lowering the temperature the inverted peak gradually disappears while the coercive field slowly raises. If the maximum dc field for the hysteresis is increased, the size of the inverted part of the butterfly hysteresis monotonously grows while the position of the peak saturates. In reaching saturation exponential field dependence has been demonstrated to take place. At T = 78 K the saturation field is 42 Oe

293

Statistical Analysis of Extreme Climatic Indices to Determine Environmental Change in Former and Present Karner Blue Butterfly Habitats  

Science.gov (United States)

The Karner Blue butterfly is a federally endangered species that once was widely distributed throughout 12 states along the northern part of the United States and Ontario, Canada. Now it only exists in seven states. Many factors are considered to have affected the extinction of this species and this study examines the effect of climate change on the persistence of the Karner Blue butterfly. Five sites were selected to study the effect of climate change. Three sites currently have a Karner Blue population (Allegan, MI, Fort McCoy, WI, and Saratoga, NY) and two sites the Karner Blue has disappeared (Oak Openings, OH, and Pinery, Ontario). Daily climate data from the 1950s to 2005 were used for calculating 13 extreme climatic indices related to precipitation and temperature. The data were broken into two time periods (pre-1984 and post-1984) to analyze how those indices have changed since the butterfly disappeared from the two sites. Statistical analyses including t-tests and ANOVA were used to compare these indices within two time periods among five sites. The results showed that different indices have changed differently among the five sites. The number of extreme hot days and number of extreme cold days per year have a statistically significant change in the sites where the Karner Blue butterfly disappeared. The precipitation-related indices do not show a statistically significant different trend among the five sites. Temperature seems to have more of an effect on the existence of the Karner Blue butterfly. Furthermore, butterfly population size and lake effects are also important factors that cannot be neglected. Larger populations seem to have better chances to survive during a dramatic climate change event.

Liu, H.; Gomezdelcampo, E.

2008-12-01

294

Butterfly Species Diversity of Bir-Billing Area of Dhauladhar Range of Western Himalayas in Northern India  

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Full Text Available The present study of butterfly species diversity was carried out in the Bir-Biling area of Dhauladhar Range of the Western Himalayas in Northern India. The study was done since April 2012 to March 2013, throughout the year during the routine field visits to Bir-Billing. A total of 50 butterfly species were recorded from the study areas which belonge to five families i.e. Nymphalidae, Pieridae, Papilionidae, Lycaenidae and Hesperiidae and 39 genera. The Nymphalidae family was the most dominant family in the study area having 32 species and followed by Lycaenidae family with 7 species.

Sangeeta Chandel

2013-10-01

295

Does Skipping a Meal Matter to a Butterfly's Appearance? Effects of Larval Food Stress on Wing Morphology and Color in Monarch Butterflies  

Science.gov (United States)

In animals with complex life cycles, all resources needed to form adult tissues are procured at the larval stage. For butterflies, the proper development of wings involves synthesizing tissue during metamorphosis based on the raw materials obtained by larvae. Similarly, manufacture of pigment for wing scales also requires resources acquired by larvae. We conducted an experiment to test the effects of food deprivation in the larval stage on multiple measures of adult wing morphology and coloration of monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus), a species in which long-distance migration makes flight efficiency critical. In a captive setting, we restricted food (milkweed) from late-stage larvae for either 24 hrs or 48 hrs, then after metamorphosis we used image analysis methods to measure forewing surface area and elongation (length/width), which are both important for migration. We also measured the brightness of orange pigment and the intensity of black on the wing. There were correlations between several wing features, including an unexpected association between wing elongation and melanism, which will require further study to fully understand. The clearest effect of food restriction was a reduction in adult wing size in the high stress group (by approximately 2%). Patterns observed for other wing traits were ambiguous: monarchs in the low stress group (but not the high) had less elongated and paler orange pigmentation. There was no effect on wing melanism. Although some patterns obtained in this study were unclear, our results concerning wing size have direct bearing on the monarch migration. We show that if milkweed is limited for monarch larvae, their wings become stunted, which could ultimately result in lower migration success. PMID:24695643

Johnson, Haley; Solensky, Michelle J.; Satterfield, Dara A.; Davis, Andrew K.

2014-01-01

296

Female behaviour drives expression and evolution of gustatory receptors in butterflies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Secondary plant compounds are strong deterrents of insect oviposition and feeding, but may also be attractants for specialist herbivores. These insect-plant interactions are mediated by insect gustatory receptors (Grs) and olfactory receptors (Ors). An analysis of the reference genome of the butterfly Heliconius melpomene, which feeds on passion-flower vines (Passiflora spp.), together with whole-genome sequencing within the species and across the Heliconius phylogeny has permitted an unprecedented opportunity to study the patterns of gene duplication and copy-number variation (CNV) among these key sensory genes. We report in silico gene predictions of 73 Gr genes in the H. melpomene reference genome, including putative CO2, sugar, sugar alcohol, fructose, and bitter receptors. The majority of these Grs are the result of gene duplications since Heliconius shared a common ancestor with the monarch butterfly or the silkmoth. Among Grs but not Ors, CNVs are more common within species in those gene lineages that have also duplicated over this evolutionary time-scale, suggesting ongoing rapid gene family evolution. Deep sequencing (?1 billion reads) of transcriptomes from proboscis and labial palps, antennae, and legs of adult H. melpomene males and females indicates that 67 of the predicted 73 Gr genes and 67 of the 70 predicted Or genes are expressed in these three tissues. Intriguingly, we find that one-third of all Grs show female-biased gene expression (n?=?26) and nearly all of these (n?=?21) are Heliconius-specific Grs. In fact, a significant excess of Grs that are expressed in female legs but not male legs are the result of recent gene duplication. This difference in Gr gene expression diversity between the sexes is accompanied by a striking sexual dimorphism in the abundance of gustatory sensilla on the forelegs of H. melpomene, suggesting that female oviposition behaviour drives the evolution of new gustatory receptors in butterfly genomes. PMID:23950722

Briscoe, Adriana D; Macias-Muñoz, Aide; Kozak, Krzysztof M; Walters, James R; Yuan, Furong; Jamie, Gabriel A; Martin, Simon H; Dasmahapatra, Kanchon K; Ferguson, Laura C; Mallet, James; Jacquin-Joly, Emmanuelle; Jiggins, Chris D

2013-01-01

297

EST analysis of male accessory glands from Heliconius butterflies with divergent mating systems  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Heliconius butterflies possess a remarkable diversity of phenotypes, physiologies, and behaviors that has long distinguished this genus as a focal taxon in ecological and evolutionary research. Recently Heliconius has also emerged as a model system for using genomic methods to investigate the causes and consequences of biological diversity. One notable aspect of Heliconius diversity is a dichotomy in mating systems which provides an unusual opportunity to investigate the relationship between sexual selection and the evolution of reproductive proteins. As a first step in pursuing this research, we report the generation and analysis of expressed sequence tags (ESTs from the male accessory gland of H. erato and H. melpomene, species representative of the two mating systems present in the genus Heliconius. Results We successfully sequenced 933 ESTs clustering into 371 unigenes from H. erato and 1033 ESTs clustering into 340 unigenes from H. melpomene. Results from the two species were very similar. Approximately a third of the unigenes showed no significant BLAST similarity (E-value -5 to sequences in GenBank's non-redundant databases, indicating that a large proportion of novel genes are expressed in Heliconius male accessory glands. In both species only a third of accessory gland unigenes were also found among genes expressed in wing tissue. About 25% of unigenes from both species encoded secreted proteins. This includes three groups of highly abundant unigenes encoding repetitive proteins considered to be candidate seminal fluid proteins; proteins encoded by one of these groups were detected in H. erato spermatophores. Conclusion This collection of ESTs will serve as the foundation for the future identification and evolutionary analysis of male reproductive proteins in Heliconius butterflies. These data also represent a significant advance in the rapidly growing collection of genomic resources available in Heliconius butterflies. As such, they substantially enhance this taxon as a model system for investigating questions of ecological, phenotypic, and genomic diversity.

Harrison Richard G

2008-12-01

298

Variation in butterfly larval acoustics as a strategy to infiltrate and exploit host ant colony resources.  

Science.gov (United States)

About 10,000 arthropods live as ants' social parasites and have evolved a number of mechanisms allowing them to penetrate and survive inside the ant nests. Many of them can intercept and manipulate their host communication systems. This is particularly important for butterflies of the genus Maculinea, which spend the majority of their lifecycle inside Myrmica ant nests. Once in the colony, caterpillars of Maculinea "predatory species" directly feed on the ant larvae, while those of "cuckoo species" are fed primarily by attendance workers, by trophallaxis. It has been shown that Maculinea cuckoo larvae are able to reach a higher social status within the colony's hierarchy by mimicking the acoustic signals of their host queen ants. In this research we tested if, when and how myrmecophilous butterflies may change sound emissions depending on their integration level and on stages of their life cycle. We studied how a Maculinea predatory species (M. teleius) can acoustically interact with their host ants and highlighted differences with respect to a cuckoo species (M. alcon). We recorded sounds emitted by Maculinea larvae as well as by their Myrmica hosts, and performed playback experiments to assess the parasites' capacity to interfere with the host acoustic communication system. We found that, although varying between and within butterfly species, the larval acoustic emissions are more similar to queens' than to workers' stridulations. Nevertheless playback experiments showed that ant workers responded most strongly to the sounds emitted by the integrated (i.e. post-adoption) larvae of the cuckoo species, as well as by those of predatory species recorded before any contact with the host ants (i.e. in pre-adoption), thereby revealing the role of acoustic signals both in parasite integration and in adoption rituals. We discuss our findings in the broader context of parasite adaptations, comparing effects of acoustical and chemical mimicry. PMID:24718496

Sala, Marco; Casacci, Luca Pietro; Balletto, Emilio; Bonelli, Simona; Barbero, Francesca

2014-01-01

299

Life history of the Glanville fritillary butterfly in fragmented versus continuous landscapes.  

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Habitat loss and fragmentation threaten the long-term viability of innumerable species of plants and animals. At the same time, habitat fragmentation may impose strong natural selection and lead to evolution of life histories with possible consequences for demographic dynamics. The Baltic populations of the Glanville fritillary butterfly (Melitaea cinxia) inhabit regions with highly fragmented habitat (networks of small dry meadows) as well as regions with extensive continuous habitat (calcareous alvar grasslands). Here, we report the results of common garden studies on butterflies originating from two highly fragmented landscapes (FL) in Finland and Sweden and from two continuous landscapes (CL) in Sweden and Estonia, conducted in a large outdoor cage (32 by 26 m) and in the laboratory. We investigated a comprehensive set of 51 life-history traits, including measures of larval growth and development, flight performance, and adult reproductive behavior. Seventeen of the 51 traits showed a significant difference between fragmented versus CL. Most notably, the growth rate of postdiapause larvae and several measures of flight capacity, including flight metabolic rate, were higher in butterflies from fragmented than CL. Females from CL had shorter intervals between consecutive egg clutches and somewhat higher life-time egg production, but shorter longevity, than females from FL. These results are likely to reflect the constant opportunities for oviposition in females living in continuous habitats, while the more dispersive females from FL allocate more resources to dispersal capacity at the cost of egg maturation rate. This study supports theoretical predictions about small population sizes and high rate of population turnover in fragmented habitats selecting for increased rate of dispersal, but the results also indicate that many other life-history traits apart from dispersal are affected by the degree of habitat fragmentation. PMID:24455144

Duplouy, Anne; Ikonen, Suvi; Hanski, Ilkka

2013-12-01

300

Testing species distribution models across space and time: high latitude butterflies and recent warming  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Aim. To quantify whether species distribution models (SDMs) can reliably forecast species distributions under observed climate change. In particular, to test whether the predictive ability of SDMs depends on species traits or the inclusion of land cover and soil type, and whether distributional changes at expanding range margins can be predicted accurately. Location. Finland. Methods. Using 10-km resolution butterfly atlas data from two periods, 1992–1999 (t1) and 2002–2009 (t2), with a significant between-period temperature increase, we modelled the effects of climatic warming on butterfly distributions with boosted regression trees (BRTs) and generalized additive models (GAMs). We evaluated model performance by using the split-sample approach with data from t1 ("non-independent validation"), and then compared model projections based on data from t1 with species’ observed distributions in t2 ("independent validation"). We compared climate-only SDMs to SDMs including land cover, soil type, or both. Finally,we related model performance to species traits and compared observed and predicted distributional shifts at northern range margins. Results. SDMs showed fair to good model fits when modelling butterfly distributions under climate change. Model performance was lower with independent compared to non-independent validation and improved when land cover and soil type variables were included, compared to climate-only models. SDMs performed less well for highly mobile species and for species with long flight seasons and large ranges. When forecasting changes at northern range margins, correlations between observed and predicted range shifts were predominantly low. Main conclusions. SDMs accurately describe current distributions of most species, yet their performance varies with species traits and the inclusion of land cover and soil type variables. Moreover, their ability to predict range shifts under climate change is limited, especially at the expanding edge. More tests with independent validations are needed to fully understand the predictive potential of SDMs across taxa and biomes.

Eskildsen, Anne; LeRoux, Peter C.

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Indirect effects of domestic and wild herbivores on butterflies in an African savanna.  

Science.gov (United States)

Indirect interactions driven by livestock and wild herbivores are increasingly recognized as important aspects of community dynamics in savannas and rangelands. Large ungulate herbivores can both directly and indirectly impact the reproductive structures of plants, which in turn can affect the pollinators of those plants. We examined how wild herbivores and cattle each indirectly affect the abundance of a common pollinator butterfly taxon, Colotis spp., at a set of long-term, large herbivore exclosure plots in a semiarid savanna in central Kenya. We also examined effects of herbivore exclusion on the main food plant of Colotis spp., which was also the most common flowering species in our plots: the shrub Cadaba farinosa. The study was conducted in four types of experimental plots: cattle-only, wildlife-only, cattle and wildlife (all large herbivores), and no large herbivores. Across all plots, Colotis spp. abundances were positively correlated with both Cadaba flower numbers (adult food resources) and total Cadaba canopy area (larval food resources). Structural equation modeling (SEM) revealed that floral resources drove the abundance of Colotis butterflies. Excluding browsing wildlife increased the abundances of both Cadaba flowers and Colotis butterflies. However, flower numbers and Colotis spp. abundances were greater in plots with cattle herbivory than in plots that excluded all large herbivores. Our results suggest that wild browsing herbivores can suppress pollinator species whereas well-managed cattle use may benefit important pollinators and the plants that depend on them. This study documents a novel set of ecological interactions that demonstrate how both conservation and livelihood goals can be met in a working landscape with abundant wildlife and livestock. PMID:24198932

Wilkerson, Marit L; Roche, Leslie M; Young, Truman P

2013-10-01

302

Monitoring of the eggs of the Karkloof blue butterfly, Orachrysops ariadne, for its conservation management  

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Full Text Available The Endangered Orachrysops ariadne (Butler 1898 (Karkloof blue butterfly is endemic to the Endangered Moist Midlands Grassland in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, and is extant at four sites. The results from the monitoring of the eggs laid by O. ariadne in a grassland area that is frequently burnt by poor rural people to ensure that palatable grass is available to their livestock, suggested the implementation of management interventions (fencing and firebreak burning to prevent the local extinction of the butterfly. The number of eggs at the monitoring site declined dramatically between 2002 and 2003 and fluctuated after the management interventions were initiated properly in 2008, but had nearly reached the target number of 250 by 2013. An index count method for the monitoring of O. ariadne eggs at the other three known colonies, where plant invasion rather than uncontrolled burning is a major threat, was developed and shown to be efficient with regard to time relative to the number of eggs sampled. The host ant Camponotus natalensis (F. Smith 1858 (Natal sugar ant was found to be present in all the host-plant patches at one colony site, indicating that all host-plant patches are likely to be breeding areas for the butterfly. Invasive plant control at and appropriate burning of the habitat of O. ariadne should assist in ensuring the survival of these colonies. Conservation implications: Adaptive monitoring and management of threatened endemic invertebrates and their habitats may be crucial for their continued survival. The development of efficient methods for the monitoring of such species is required where resources are limited, as threats to the species may cause sudden and irreversible declines in population size.

Adrian J. Armstrong

2013-10-01

303

DNA barcoding of nymphalid butterflies (Nymphalidae: Lepidoptera) from Western Ghats of India.  

Science.gov (United States)

We have checked the utility of DNA barcoding for species identification of nymphalid butterflies from Western Ghats of India by using 650 bp sequence of mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase subunit I. Distinct DNA barcoding gap (i.e. difference between intraspecies and interspecies nucleotide divergence), exists between species studied here. When our sequences were compared with the sequences of the conspecifics submitted from different geographic regions, nine cases of deep intraspecies nucleotide divergences were observed. In spite of this, NJ (Neighbour Joining) clustering analysis successfully discriminated all species. Observed cases of deep intraspecies nucleotide divergences certainly warrant further study. PMID:21670958

Gaikwad, S S; Ghate, H V; Ghaskadbi, S S; Patole, M S; Shouche, Y S

2012-03-01

304

Male-killer dynamics in the tropical butterfly, Acraea encedana (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae).  

Science.gov (United States)

Sex ratio distortion in the tropical butterfly Acraea encedana is caused by infection with a male-killing bacterium of the genus Wolbachia. Previous research on this species has reported extreme female bias, high bacterial prevalences, and full sex role reversal. In this paper, we provide an assessment for the dynamics of the male-killer, based on a survey for sex ratios and Wolbachia prevalences among wild populations of A. encedana in Uganda. The study reveals that Wolbachia infection showed considerable variation over both spatial and temporal scales. PMID:23955974

Hassan, Sami Saeed M; Idris, Eihab; Majerus, Michael E N

2013-12-01

305

Egg of the Karner Blue butterfly (Lycaeides melissa samuelis): morphology and elemental analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Most insect eggshells are ornately sculptured; that of the Karner Blue butterfly, Lycaeides melissa samuelis, exhibits a series of interwoven ridges and depressions. Scanning electron microscopic views of the shell show that the patterning resides in the outer chorion, while the inner vitelline membrane is relatively flat and featureless. We here describe the morphology of the egg and introduce a physical technique, use of a Dynamitron accelerator, to identify and localize elements in the eggshell. Most elements present are represented in the chorion, but sulfur appears restricted to the vitelline membrane. The micropyle is particularly rich in calcium and, in unhatched eggs, phosphorus as well. PMID:11748699

Nickles, Elizabeth P; Ghiradella, Helen; Bakhru, Hassaram; Haberl, Arthur

2002-02-01

306

Bioinspired micrograting arrays mimicking the reverse color diffraction elements evolved by the butterfly Pierella luna.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recently, diffraction elements that reverse the color sequence normally observed in planar diffraction gratings have been found in the wing scales of the butterfly Pierella luna. Here, we describe the creation of an artificial photonic material mimicking this reverse color-order diffraction effect. The bioinspired system consists of ordered arrays of vertically oriented microdiffraction gratings. We present a detailed analysis and modeling of the coupling of diffraction resulting from individual structural components and demonstrate its strong dependence on the orientation of the individual miniature gratings. This photonic material could provide a basis for novel developments in biosensing, anticounterfeiting, and efficient light management in photovoltaic systems and light-emitting diodes. PMID:25288730

England, Grant; Kolle, Mathias; Kim, Philseok; Khan, Mughees; Muñoz, Philip; Mazur, Eric; Aizenberg, Joanna

2014-11-01

307

Waterproof and translucent wings at the same time: problems and solutions in butterflies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although the colour of butterflies attracts the most attention, the waterproofing properties of their wings are also extremely interesting. Most butterfly wings are considered "super-hydrophobic" because the contact angle (CA) with a water drop exceeds 150 degrees. Usually, butterfly wings are covered with strongly overlapping scales; however, in the case of transparent or translucent wings, scale cover is reduced; thus, the hydrophobicity could be affected. Here, we present a comparative analysis of wing hydrophobicity and its dependence on morphology for two species with translucent wings Parantica sita (Nymphalidae) and Parnassius glacialis (Papilionidae). These species have very different life histories: P. sita lives for up to 6 months as an adult and migrates over long distance, whereas P. glacialis lives for less than 1 month and does not migrate. We measured the water CA and analysed wing morphology with scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. P. sita has super-hydrophobic wing surfaces, with CA > 160 degrees, whereas P. glacialis did not (CA = 100-135 degrees). Specialised scales were found on the translucent portions of P. sita wings. These scales were ovoid and much thinner than common scales, erect at about 30 degrees, and leaving up to 80% of the wing surface uncovered. The underlying bare wing surface had a remarkable pattern of ridges and knobs. P. glacialis also had over 80% of the wing surface uncovered, but the scales were either setae-like or spade-like. The bare surface of the wing had an irregular wavy smooth pattern. We suggest a mode of action that allows this super-hydrophobic effect with an incompletely covered wing surface. The scales bend, but do not collapse, under the pressure of a water droplet, and the elastic recovery of the structure at the borders of the droplet allows a high apparent CA. Thus, P. sita can be translucent without losing its waterproof properties. This characteristic is likely necessary for the long life and migration of this species. This is the first study of some of the effects on the hydrophobicity of translucency through scales' cover reduction in butterfly wings and on the morphology associated with improved waterproofing. PMID:19322552

Goodwyn, Pablo Perez; Maezono, Yasunori; Hosoda, Naoe; Fujisaki, Kenji

2009-07-01

308

The sand grain and the butterfly. Instability in geodesy and geophysics  

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Full Text Available The problems of convergence of series in celestial mechanics and of certain series in geodesy (Molodensky's series and spherical harmonics show similar features, involving a curious instability. This is imaginatively expressed as the « butterfly effect» in chaos theory and the «sand-grain effect» for spherical harmonics. Similarly, the geodetic boundary-value problem (M.S. Molodensky, L. Hormander and the KAM problem in nonlinear dynamics have a common mathematical structure: a «hard» inverse function problem. Such interrelations are reviewed in the present paper.

H. Moritz

1997-06-01

309

Butterfly motion of isolated perylene in its ground and first excited singlet states  

Science.gov (United States)

Vibrational frequencies and Franck-Condon factors derived from laser-induced fluorescence spectra of jet-cooled perylene obtained by Tramer and co-workers are presented for the two lowest-frequency out-of-plane deformation modes. Potential functions are calculated for the "butterfly" mode in the ground and first excited singlet electronic states. The molecule appears to be planar in both cases. A simplified force constant analysis shows that the rigidity of the molecule and the vibrational coupling constant between the two naphthalene entities increase significantly in the excited state.

Fillaux, F.

1985-03-01

310

Relative importance of density-dependent regulation and environmental stochasticity for butterfly population dynamics.  

Science.gov (United States)

The relative contribution of density-dependent regulation and environmental stochasticity to the temporal dynamics of animal populations is one of the central issues of ecology. In insects, the primary role of the latter factor, typically represented by weather patterns, is widely accepted. We have evaluated the impact of density dependence as well as density-independent factors, including weather and mowing regime, on annual fluctuations of butterfly populations. As model species, we used Maculinea alcon and M. teleius living in sympatry and, consequently, we also analysed the effect of their potential competition. Density dependence alone explained 62 and 42% of the variation in the year-to-year trends of M. alcon and M. teleius, respectively. The cumulative Akaike weight of models with density dependence, which can be interpreted as the probability that this factor should be contained in the most appropriate population dynamics model, exceeded 0.97 for both species. In contrast, the impacts of inter-specific competition, mowing regime and weather were much weaker, with their cumulative weights being in the range of 0.08-0.21; in addition, each of these factors explained only 2-5% of additional variation in Maculinea population trends. Our results provide strong evidence for density-dependent regulation in Maculinea, while the influence of environmental stochasticity is rather minor. In the light of several recent studies on other butterflies that detected significant density-dependent effects, it would appear that density-dependent regulation may be more widespread in this group than previously thought, while the role of environmental stochasticity has probably been overestimated. We suggest that this misconception is the result of deficiencies in the design of most butterfly population studies in the past, including (1) a strong focus on adults and a neglect of the larval stage in which density-dependent effects are most likely to occur; (2) an almost exclusive reliance on transect count results that may confound the impact of environmental stochasticity on butterfly numbers with its impact on adult longevity. PMID:19484269

Nowicki, Piotr; Bonelli, Simona; Barbero, Francesca; Balletto, Emilio

2009-08-01

311

Solving optimization problem of space factor of multiple CPV trackers using "butterfly approach"  

Science.gov (United States)

Optimization of land use to multi-tracker CPV system is discussed by mathematical approach. Optimization problem using butterfly plot (Contour plot on the shading to adjacent tracker) is discussed to seek optimum allocation pattern. With initial solutions given by this optimum allocation pattern, numerical optimization calculation is done to obtain the optimum allocation including, skew angle to the North-South axis, aspect ratio between X and Y pitch and optimum panel aspect ratio. It is suggested that there are two candidate of optimum allocation pattern.

Araki, Kenji

2014-09-01

312

Immature stages of the butterfly Diaethria clymena janeira (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Biblidinae  

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Full Text Available The immature stages (egg, larva, and pupa morphology, larval and oviposition behavior, and host plant of the "eighty-eight" butterfly Diaethria clymena janeira (C. Felder, 1862 are described. Eggs are laid singly under leaf, and have pronounced vertical ribs ending up in a crown. Larvae of early instars construct stick-like frass chains where they rest when not feeding. Late instars are green with reduced body scoli and long branched head scoli. Pupae are entirely green, and pupation occurs on the upper leaf surface. In general, morphology and behavior of immature stages are similar to those of related species in the tribe Callicorini.

Eduardo P. Barbosa

2010-10-01

313

Transcriptome analysis reveals novel patterning and pigmentation genes underlying Heliconius butterfly wing pattern variation  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Heliconius butterfly wing pattern diversity offers a unique opportunity to investigate how natural genetic variation can drive the evolution of complex adaptive phenotypes. Positional cloning and candidate gene studies have identified a handful of regulatory and pigmentation genes implicated in Heliconius wing pattern variation, but little is known about the greater developmental networks within which these genes interact to pattern a wing. Here we took a large-scale transcriptomic approach to identify the network of genes involved in Heliconius wing pattern development and variation. This included applying over 140 transcriptome microarrays to assay gene expression in dissected wing pattern elements across a range of developmental stages and wing pattern morphs of Heliconius erato. Results We identified a number of putative early prepattern genes with color-pattern related expression domains. We also identified 51 genes differentially expressed in association with natural color pattern variation. Of these, the previously identified color pattern “switch gene” optix was recovered as the first transcript to show color-specific differential expression. Most differentially expressed genes were transcribed late in pupal development and have roles in cuticle formation or pigment synthesis. These include previously undescribed transporter genes associated with ommochrome pigmentation. Furthermore, we observed upregulation of melanin-repressing genes such as ebony and Dat1 in non-melanic patterns. Conclusions This study identifies many new genes implicated in butterfly wing pattern development and provides a glimpse into the number and types of genes affected by variation in genes that drive color pattern evolution.

Hines Heather M

2012-06-01

314

Does the presence of ant nests matter for oviposition to a specialized myrmecophilous Maculinea butterfly?  

Science.gov (United States)

More than 50% of the lycaenid butterflies have an ant-associated lifestyle (myrmecophily) which may vary from coexistence to specific mutualistic or even parasitic interactions. Ant-related host-plant selection and oviposition has been observed in some myrmecophilous lycaenids. Therefore, it is remarkable that there is no evidence for this behaviour in the highly specialized, obligate myrmecophilous butterflies of the genus Maculinea. In contrast with previous findings, our results provide evidence for ant-related oviposition patterns in Maculinea alcon in relation to the distribution of specific host-ant nests (i.e. Myrmica ruginodis) based on repeated egg counts during the flight period in two populations. We also show that ant-related oviposition can be counterbalanced by intraspecific competition and oviposition deterrency when host plants already carry several eggs. Therefore, the absence of a correlation between egg load and the presence of host-ant nests at the end of the flight period should be interpreted carefully Whether ovipositional cues are obtained either directly (from ants or their nests) or indirectly (from vegetation structure), and whether alternative explanations based on the phenology and growth form of host plants are possible, is discussed. PMID:10853727

van Dyck, H; Oostermeijer, J G; Talloen, W; Feenstra, V; van der Hidde, A; Wynhoff, I

2000-05-01

315

Immediate and delayed effects of radiation on the genetic endowment of the butterfly, Acraea horta L  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pupae of the butterfly Acraea horta were irradiated with X or gamma rays with doses of 3 000 R, 7 000 R and 15 000 R. Even after the highest doses most of the pupae remained vital, butterflies emerged, and a proportion of them mated and produced offspring. The consequences for the offspring of the irradiated pupae were increased mortality, especially mortality of the eggs, decreased vitality, infertility in some cases, and various morphological abnormalities. The genetic nature of the morphological abnormalities could not be analysed, as some of the affected individuals did not breed, and other abnormalities proved not to be heritable. As a result of decreased virtality and increased mortality the offspring of the more heavily irradiated pupae died out after two (in the case of doses of 15 000 R) or three (in the case of doses of 7 000 R) post-irradiation generations. Some of the offspring of pupae receiving 3 000 R were capable of breeding indefinitely. Morphological abnormalities and increased mortality occured in the second and third post-irradiation generations (as well as in the first), after the previous one or two generations appeared to be completely normal and viable. This was not due to segregation of recessive mutations, but seems to be expressions of a delayed effect of the damage caused to the genotype by the radiation. The possible mechanism of such a delayed effect of the radiation is briefly discussed

316

A single origin for nymphalid butterfly eyespots followed by widespread loss of associated gene expression.  

Science.gov (United States)

Understanding how novel complex traits originate involves investigating the time of origin of the trait, as well as the origin of its underlying gene regulatory network in a broad comparative phylogenetic framework. The eyespot of nymphalid butterflies has served as an example of a novel complex trait, as multiple genes are expressed during eyespot development. Yet the origins of eyespots remain unknown. Using a dataset of more than 400 images of butterflies with a known phylogeny and gene expression data for five eyespot-associated genes from over twenty species, we tested origin hypotheses for both eyespots and eyespot-associated genes. We show that eyespots evolved once within the family Nymphalidae, approximately 90 million years ago, concurrent with expression of at least three genes associated with early eyespot development. We also show multiple losses of expression of most genes from this early three-gene cluster, without corresponding losses of eyespots. We propose that complex traits, such as eyespots, may have originated via co-option of a large pre-existing complex gene regulatory network that was subsequently streamlined of genes not required to fulfill its novel developmental function. PMID:22916033

Oliver, Jeffrey C; Tong, Xiao-Ling; Gall, Lawrence F; Piel, William H; Monteiro, Antónia

2012-01-01

317

Host plant use among closely related Anaea butterfly species (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Charaxinae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There is a great number of Charaxinae (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae species in the tropics whose larvae feed on several plant families. However the genus Anaea is almost always associated with Croton species (Euphorbiaceae. This work describes patterns of host plant use by immature and adult abundance on different vertical strata of sympatric Anaea species in a forest of Southeastern Brazil. Quantitative samples of leaves were taken in April/1999 and May/2000 to collect eggs and larvae of four Anaea species on C.alchorneicarpus, C. floribundus and C. salutaris in a semideciduous forest. Sampled leaves were divided into three classes of plant phenological stage: saplings, shrubs and trees. The results showed that the butterfly species are segregating in host plant use on two scales: host plant species and plant phenological stages. C. alchorneicarpus was used by only one Anaea species, whereas C. floribundus was used by three species and C. salutaris by four Anaea species. There was one Anaea species concentrated on sapling, another on sapling/shrub and two others on shrub/tree leaves. Adults of Anaea were more frequent at canopy traps but there were no differences among species caught in traps at different vertical positions. This work supplements early studies on host plant use among Charaxinae species and it describes how a guild of closely related butterfly species may be organized in a complex tropical habitat.

QUEIROZ J. M.

2002-01-01

318

Host plant utilization, host range oscillations and diversification in nymphalid butterflies: a phylogenetic investigation.  

Science.gov (United States)

It has been suggested that phenotypic plasticity is a major factor in the diversification of life, and that variation in host range in phytophagous insects is a good model for investigating this claim. We explore the use of angiosperm plants as hosts for nymphalid butterflies, and in particular the evidence for past oscillations in host range and how they are linked to host shifts and to diversification. At the level of orders of plants, a relatively simple pattern of host use and host shifts emerges, despite the 100 million years of history of the family Nymphalidae. We review the evidence that these host shifts and the accompanying diversifications were associated with transient polyphagous stages, as suggested by the "oscillation hypothesis." In addition, we investigate all currently polyphagous nymphalid species and demonstrate that the state of polyphagy is rare, has a weak phylogenetic signal, and a very apical distribution in the phylogeny; we argue that these are signs of its transient nature. We contrast our results with data from the bark beetles Dendroctonus, in which a more specialized host use is instead the apical state. We conclude that plasticity in host use is likely to have contributed to diversification in nymphalid butterflies. PMID:24372598

Nylin, Sören; Slove, Jessica; Janz, Niklas

2014-01-01

319

Context-dependent resistance against butterfly herbivory in a polyploid herb.  

Science.gov (United States)

Spatial variation in biotic interactions and natural selection are fundamental parts of natural systems, and can be driven by differences in both trait distributions and the local environmental context of the interaction. Most studies of plant-animal interactions have been performed only in natural settings, making it difficult to disentangle the effects of traits and context. To assess the relative importance of trait differences and environmental context for among-population variation in plant resistance to herbivory, we compared oviposition by the butterfly Anthocharis cardamines on two ploidy types of the herb Cardamine pratensis under experimentally controlled conditions with oviposition in natural populations. Under controlled conditions, plants from octoploid populations were significantly more preferred than plants from tetraploid populations. This difference was largely mediated by differences in flower size. Among natural populations, there was no difference in oviposition rates between the two ploidy types. Our results suggest that differences in oviposition rates among populations of the two cytotypes in the field are caused mainly by differences in environmental context, and that the higher attractiveness of octoploids to herbivores observed under common environmental conditions is balanced by the fact that they occur in habitats which harbor lower densities of butterflies. This illustrates that spatial variation in biotic interactions is the net result of differences in trait distributions of the interacting organisms and differences in environmental context, and that variation in both traits and context are important in understanding species interactions. PMID:24493660

König, Malin A E; Wiklund, Christer; Ehrlén, Johan

2014-04-01

320

Structural safety analysis based on seismic service conditions for butterfly valves in a nuclear power plant.  

Science.gov (United States)

The structural integrity of valves that are used to control cooling waters in the primary coolant loop that prevents boiling within the reactor in a nuclear power plant must be capable of withstanding earthquakes or other dangerous situations. In this study, numerical analyses using a finite element method, that is, static and dynamic analyses according to the rigid or flexible characteristics of the dynamic properties of a 200A butterfly valve, were performed according to the KEPIC MFA. An experimental vibration test was also carried out in order to verify the results from the modal analysis, in which a validated finite element model was obtained via a model-updating method that considers changes in the in situ experimental data. By using a validated finite element model, the equivalent static load under SSE conditions stipulated by the KEPIC MFA gave a stress of 135?MPa that occurred at the connections of the stem and body. A larger stress of 183 MPa was induced when we used a CQC method with a design response spectrum that uses 2% damping ratio. These values were lower than the allowable strength of the materials used for manufacturing the butterfly valve, and, therefore, its structural safety met the KEPIC MFA requirements. PMID:24955416

Han, Sang-Uk; Ahn, Dae-Gyun; Lee, Myeong-Gon; Lee, Kwon-Hee; Han, Seung-Ho

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

The biological impacts of ingested radioactive materials on the pale grass blue butterfly  

Science.gov (United States)

A massive amount of radioactive materials has been released into the environment by the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, but its biological impacts have rarely been examined. Here, we have quantitatively evaluated the relationship between the dose of ingested radioactive cesium and mortality and abnormality rates using the pale grass blue butterfly, Zizeeria maha. When larvae from Okinawa, which is likely the least polluted locality in Japan, were fed leaves collected from polluted localities, mortality and abnormality rates increased sharply at low doses in response to the ingested cesium dose. This dose-response relationship was best fitted by power function models, which indicated that the half lethal and abnormal doses were 1.9 and 0.76 Bq per larva, corresponding to 54,000 and 22,000 Bq per kilogram body weight, respectively. Both the retention of radioactive cesium in a pupa relative to the ingested dose throughout the larval stage and the accumulation of radioactive cesium in a pupa relative to the activity concentration in a diet were highest at the lowest level of cesium ingested. We conclude that the risk of ingesting a polluted diet is realistic, at least for this butterfly, and likely for certain other organisms living in the polluted area.

Nohara, Chiyo; Hiyama, Atsuki; Taira, Wataru; Tanahara, Akira; Otaki, Joji M.

2014-05-01

322

Differential pressure distribution measurement with an MEMS sensor on a free-flying butterfly wing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An insect can perform various flight maneuvers. However, the aerodynamic force generated by real insect wings during free flight has never been measured directly. In this study, we present the direct measurement of the four points of the differential pressures acting on the wing surface of a flying insect. A small-scale differential pressure sensor of 1.0 mm × 1.0 mm × 0.3 mm in size was developed using microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and was attached to a butterfly wing. Total weight of the sensor chip and the flexible electrode on the wing was 4.5 mg, which was less than 10% of the wing weight. Four points on the wing were chosen as measurement points, and one sensor chip was attached in each flight experiment. During takeoff, the wing's flapping motion induced a periodic and symmetric differential pressure between upstroke and downstroke. The average absolute value of the local differential pressure differed significantly with the location: 7.4 Pa at the forewing tip, 5.5 Pa at the forewing center, 2.1 Pa at the forewing root and 2.1 Pa at the hindwing center. The instantaneous pressure at the forewing tip reached 10 Pa, which was ten times larger than wing loading of the butterfly. (paper)

323

Characterising electron butterfly pitch angle distributions in the magnetosphere through observations and simulations  

Science.gov (United States)

The Imaging Electron Spectrometer (IES) on the Polar satellite has measured the average characteristics of the equatorial electron pitch angle distributions (PADs) in the midnight sector as a function of radial distance out to the 9 RE apogee of the Polar satellite. Depressions in the observed fluxes of electrons occur with pitch angles around 90° in the equatorial zone, while the more field-aligned electrons remain largely unchanged. The orbital precessions of the satellite have allowed much of the inner equatorial magnetosphere to be observed. Statistically, butterfly PADs with different shapes are observed selectively in different regions, which can provide insight to their source and possible history. Electron paths of varied pitch angles were modelled using Runge-Kutta approximations of the Lorentz force in a Tsyganenko (T96) simulated magnetosphere. The resulting drift paths suggest that the process of magnetopause shadowing plays a significant role in the loss of these electrons. Case studies of the drifting patterns of electrons with varied pitch angles were simulated from Polar's orbit when a butterfly PAD was observed on 3 October 2002 at an altitude near 9 RE and on 12 September 2000 at an altitude near 6 RE. These two locations represent regions on each side of the boundary of stable trapping. The modelling effort strongly suggests that magnetopause shadowing does play a significant role in the loss of equatorially drifting electrons from the outer regions of the inner magnetosphere.

Klida, M. M.; Fritz, T. A.

2013-02-01

324

A Computational Study on Hydrodynamic Torque Coefficients of a Butterfly Valve  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Butterfly valves have been widely used for on-off or control purposes in the process industry, since they provide quick opening and closing operation and good flow control characteristics. For the evaluation of the adequacy of valve operability and the actuator sizing, the required torque estimation is necessary. Since the principal contributing component of the require torque in the mid-stroke position is hydrodynamic torque, it is necessary to predict the torque properly under the actual flow conditions. The research on the prediction of the valve performance was led by EPRI (Electric Power Research Institute) in early 1990s. A performance prediction model was developed based on the experimental results and the free-streamline analysis by Sarpkaya. Recently, Kalsi Engineering carried out extended tests and developed the improved model. Variation of disk geometries and upstream flow conditions were tried to obtain accurate hydrodynamic torque coefficients. However, since the model is only commercially available, a general method to obtain hydrodynamic torque for butterfly valves is called for

325

Reproductive isolation and patterns of genetic differentiation in a cryptic butterfly species complex.  

Science.gov (United States)

Molecular studies of natural populations are often designed to detect and categorize hidden layers of cryptic diversity, and an emerging pattern suggests that cryptic species are more common and more widely distributed than previously thought. However, these studies are often decoupled from ecological and behavioural studies of species divergence. Thus, the mechanisms by which the cryptic diversity is distributed and maintained across large spatial scales are often unknown. In 1988, it was discovered that the common Eurasian Wood White butterfly consisted of two species (Leptidea sinapis and Leptidea reali), and the pair became an emerging model for the study of speciation and chromosomal evolution. In 2011, the existence of a third cryptic species (Leptidea juvernica) was proposed. This unexpected discovery raises questions about the mechanisms preventing gene flow and about the potential existence of additional species hidden in the complex. Here, we compare patterns of genetic divergence across western Eurasia in an extensive data set of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences with behavioural data on inter- and intraspecific reproductive isolation in courtship experiments. We show that three species exist in accordance with both the phylogenetic and biological species concepts and that additional hidden diversity is unlikely to occur in Europe. The Leptidea species are now the best studied cryptic complex of butterflies in Europe and a promising model system for understanding the formation of cryptic species and the roles of local processes, colonization patterns and heterospecific interactions for ecological and evolutionary divergence. PMID:23909947

Dinc?, V; Wiklund, C; Lukhtanov, V A; Kodandaramaiah, U; Norén, K; Dapporto, L; Wahlberg, N; Vila, R; Friberg, M

2013-10-01

326

From global change to a butterfly flapping: biophysics and behaviour affect tropical climate change impacts.  

Science.gov (United States)

Difficulty in characterizing the relationship between climatic variability and climate change vulnerability arises when we consider the multiple scales at which this variation occurs, be it temporal (from minute to annual) or spatial (from centimetres to kilometres). We studied populations of a single widely distributed butterfly species, Chlosyne lacinia, to examine the physiological, morphological, thermoregulatory and biophysical underpinnings of adaptation to tropical and temperate climates. Microclimatic and morphological data along with a biophysical model documented the importance of solar radiation in predicting butterfly body temperature. We also integrated the biophysics with a physiologically based insect fitness model to quantify the influence of solar radiation, morphology and behaviour on warming impact projections. While warming is projected to have some detrimental impacts on tropical ectotherms, fitness impacts in this study are not as negative as models that assume body and air temperature equivalence would suggest. We additionally show that behavioural thermoregulation can diminish direct warming impacts, though indirect thermoregulatory consequences could further complicate predictions. With these results, at multiple spatial and temporal scales, we show the importance of biophysics and behaviour for studying biodiversity consequences of global climate change, and stress that tropical climate change impacts are likely to be context-dependent. PMID:25165769

Bonebrake, Timothy C; Boggs, Carol L; Stamberger, Jeannie A; Deutsch, Curtis A; Ehrlich, Paul R

2014-10-22

327

Stability analysis of gliding flight of a swallowtail butterfly Papilio xuthus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Preliminary observation of the flights of swallowtail butterfly Papilio xuthus revealed that its dihedral angle is larger than 30 degrees and that the section of its left hind wing close to its body and the counterpart of its right hind wing actually clap and form a "vertical tail". In this study, the effects of these two features on the lateral-directional dynamic flight stability of these butterflies were analyzed theoretically and revealed the following: (a) when the dihedral angle is larger than 30 degrees , the lateral-directional motion of the swallowtail becomes stable; (b) the vertical tail stabilizes the dutch roll mode; (c) the effects of the dihedral angle on the roll and spiral modes of a swallowtail are qualitatively the same as those of a meter-sized airplane; and (d) with increasing dihedral angle, the stability of the dutch roll mode decreases for a meter-sized airplane with vertical and horizontal tails but increases for the swallowtail. A possible explanation for the latter effect is the smaller Reynolds number of the insect that causes the drag coefficient of the swallowtail wings to increase more rapidly with an increasing angle of attack compared to a large airplane. PMID:19101568

Okamoto, Makoto; Sunada, Shigeru; Tokutake, Hiroshi

2009-03-21

328

Dynamic testing of POSI-SEAL motor-operated butterfly valves using strain gages  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Utilities operating nuclear power plants recognize that the correct functioning of all motor-operated valves, and particularly those in safety-related systems, is of paramount importance. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission has issued Generic Letter 89-10 relative to this concern. Operability must be demonstrated under design-basis conditions. In order to demonstrate operability of motor-operated butterfly valves, the valve stem torque must be determined. The valve stem torque is a function of seat material, stem packing, stem bearing friction, and hydrodynamic lift and drag. The total valve operating hydrodynamic torque can be predicted using the valve manufacturer's data and the differential pressure. In order to validate the valve manufacturer's data, the actual total valve hydrodynamic torque is measured using strain gages mounted directly on the valve stem. This paper presents the results of comparing the predicted total valve operating hydrodynamic torque with the actual total valve operating hydrodynamic torque for six POSI-SEAL Class 150 high performance butterfly valves

329

Color-producing mechanism of morpho butterfly wings and biomimetics; Cho no hasshoku kiko to biomimetics  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Although the synthetic dyes and pigments originating in the 19th century are now at the height of their prosperity, there is an earnest hope for technology for realizing `supercolor.` If it is presumed that the features of such supercolor are to be found in outstanding clearness and high resistance to fading in the presence of ultraviolet rays, etc., the supercolor will be quite tough to deal with. When attention is steered toward the living world, however, there are cases of easily producing such by morphogenesis at the level of several tens of nanometers. In this paper, the development of a novel material is presented from the viewpoint of biomimetic engineering that the author et al. are engaged in. The coloring on the wings of a butterfly Morpho Sulkowskyi of South American origin is the product of interaction between light and the physical, microscopic structure of scales, and the coloring is extremely clear and remains free of fading except in case the microstructure is destroyed. This mechanism is applied for the development of a supercolor fiber. As the result, a structurally coloring fiber is created by stretching a molten composite string. In this effort, reformed polyester and polyamide different in refraction factor are used in place of substance layers and air layers on the butterfly wings. (NEDO)

Tabata, H. [Nissan Motor Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

1999-07-01

330

Bioinspired fabrication of magneto-optic hierarchical architecture by hydrothermal process from butterfly wing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We developed a green solution to incorporate nano-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} into the hierarchical architecture of a natural butterfly wing, thus obtaining unique magneto-optic nanocomposites with otherwise unavailable photonic features. Morphological characterization and Fourier Transform Infrared-Raman Spectroscope measurements indicate the assembly of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanocrystallites. The magnetic and optical responses of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/wing show a coupling effect between the biological structure and magnetic material. The saturation magnetization and coercivity values of the as-prepared magneto-optic architecture varied with change of subtle structure. Such a combination of nano-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and natural butterfly wing might create novel magneto-optic properties, and the relevant ideas could inspire the investigation of magneto-optical devices. - Highlights: We develop a green, easy controlled hydrothermal process to synthesize magnetite hierarchical architecture. The optical response of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/wing exhibits a coupling effect between the structure and material. The saturation magnetization value is mediated by shape anisotropy and the stress of different subtle structure, which has provided unique insights into studying the mysterious magnetic property of magnetite.

Peng Wenhong [State Key Lab of Metal Matrix Composites, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Hu Xiaobin, E-mail: hxb@sjtu.edu.c [State Key Lab of Metal Matrix Composites, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Zhang Di, E-mail: zhangdi@sjtu.edu.c [State Key Lab of Metal Matrix Composites, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

2011-08-15

331

Chromium(III) stars and butterflies: synthesis, structural and magnetic studies of tetrametallic clusters.  

Science.gov (United States)

We report the synthesis, structures and magnetic properties of a series of chromium(III) metal-centered triangle (or "star") clusters, [Cr(4){RC(CH(2)O)(3)}(2)(4,4'-R'(2)-bipy)(3)Cl(6)] [R = Et, R' = H (2); R = HOCH(2), R' = H (3); R = Et, R' = (t)Bu (4)], prepared by two-step solvothermal reactions starting from [CrCl(3)(thf)(3)]. The product of the first stage of this reaction is the salt [Cr(bipy)(2)Cl(2)](2)[Cr(2)Cl(8)(MeCN)(2)] (1). In the absence of the diimine, a different family of tetrametallics is isolated: the butterfly complexes [Cr(4){EtC(CH(2)O)(3)}(2){NH(C(R)NH)(2)}(2)Cl(6)] (R = Me (5), Et (6), Ph (7)] where the chelating N-acetimidoylacetamidine NH(C(R)=NH)(2) ligands are formed in situ via condensation of the nitrile solvents (RCN) under solvothermal conditions. Magnetic measurements show the chromium stars to have an isolated S = 3 ground state, arising from antiferromagnetic coupling between the central and peripheral metal ions, analogous to the well-known Fe(III) stars. Bulk antiferromagnetic ordering is observed at 0.6 K. The butterfly complexes have a singlet ground state, with a low-lying S = 1 first excited state, due to dominant wing-body antiferromagnetic coupling. PMID:21465040

Batchelor, Luke J; Sander, Mario; Tuna, Floriana; Helliwell, Madeleine; Moro, Fabrizio; van Slageren, Joris; Burzurí, Enrique; Montero, Oscar; Evangelisti, Marco; Luis, Fernando; McInnes, Eric J L

2011-05-21

332

Host-plant-derived variation in ultraviolet wing patterns influences mate selection by male butterflies.  

Science.gov (United States)

We report on the first case in which sequestered secondary plant compounds determine an insect's external appearance in the ultraviolet spectrum and thereby influence visually mediated mate choice. Larvae of the common blue butterfly Polyommatus icarus specifically sequester flavonoids in different amounts and types, depending on the part or species of food plant. During late pupal development the majority of ultraviolet-absorbing flavonoids are deposited in the wing scales. The flavonoid content of the larval diet thereby determines ultraviolet wing patterns. In laboratory and field experiments, male butterflies clearly preferred flavonoid-rich, ultraviolet-absorbing female dummies. This preference is mediated visually by the ultraviolet pattern of the wings. Food-plant parts and species vary in value as a food source, so ultraviolet wing patterns may signal mate quality and are not a species-specific characteristic. We discuss the use of principal component analysis in analysing spectral data in the context of visual communication. We propose the alternative application of confidence intervals of averaged spectra as a novel straightforward statistical method for comparing groups of spectra in a manner that is independent of assumptions about the visual system of the receiver. In addition, they can be used to give confidence intervals to derived measures of colour such as quantum catch by photoreceptors. PMID:11511660

Knüttel, H; Fiedler, K

2001-07-01

333

Implementation of Tree and Butterfly Barriers with Optimistic Time Management Algorithms for Discrete Event Simulation  

Science.gov (United States)

The Time Wrap algorithm [3] offers a run time recovery mechanism that deals with the causality errors. These run time recovery mechanisms consists of rollback, anti-message, and Global Virtual Time (GVT) techniques. For rollback, there is a need to compute GVT which is used in discrete-event simulation to reclaim the memory, commit the output, detect the termination, and handle the errors. However, the computation of GVT requires dealing with transient message problem and the simultaneous reporting problem. These problems can be dealt in an efficient manner by the Samadi's algorithm [8] which works fine in the presence of causality errors. However, the performance of both Time Wrap and Samadi's algorithms depends on the latency involve in GVT computation. Both algorithms give poor latency for large simulation systems especially in the presence of causality errors. To improve the latency and reduce the processor ideal time, we implement tree and butterflies barriers with the optimistic algorithm. Our analysis shows that the use of synchronous barriers such as tree and butterfly with the optimistic algorithm not only minimizes the GVT latency but also minimizes the processor idle time.

Rizvi, Syed S.; Shah, Dipali; Riasat, Aasia

334

Structural Safety Analysis Based on Seismic Service Conditions for Butterfly Valves in a Nuclear Power Plant  

Science.gov (United States)

The structural integrity of valves that are used to control cooling waters in the primary coolant loop that prevents boiling within the reactor in a nuclear power plant must be capable of withstanding earthquakes or other dangerous situations. In this study, numerical analyses using a finite element method, that is, static and dynamic analyses according to the rigid or flexible characteristics of the dynamic properties of a 200A butterfly valve, were performed according to the KEPIC MFA. An experimental vibration test was also carried out in order to verify the results from the modal analysis, in which a validated finite element model was obtained via a model-updating method that considers changes in the in situ experimental data. By using a validated finite element model, the equivalent static load under SSE conditions stipulated by the KEPIC MFA gave a stress of 135?MPa that occurred at the connections of the stem and body. A larger stress of 183?MPa was induced when we used a CQC method with a design response spectrum that uses 2% damping ratio. These values were lower than the allowable strength of the materials used for manufacturing the butterfly valve, and, therefore, its structural safety met the KEPIC MFA requirements. PMID:24955416

Han, Sang-Uk; Ahn, Dae-Gyun; Lee, Myeong-Gon

2014-01-01

335

Spectral selectivity of 3D magnetophotonic crystal film fabricated from single butterfly wing scales.  

Science.gov (United States)

3D magnetophotonic crystal (3D-MPC) film is an excellent platform for tailoring the magneto-optical response of magnetic materials. However, its fabrication is a great challenge due to the limitation of commonly used artificial synthesis methods. Inspired by the unique structures of biospecies, we hereby manipulate the pristine single wing scales of Morpho didius precisely and successfully fabricate Fe3O4 films with photonic structure. The synthesis strategy involves the fabrication of Fe2O3 film from a single wing scale using an improved sol-gel method followed by a subsequent reduction. The intrinsic hierarchical photonic structures as well as the anisotropic optical properties of the pristine butterfly wing scale have been retained in the obtained Fe2O3 and Fe3O4 films. When investigated under an external magnetic field, a spectral blue shift about 43 nm is observed in the designated orientation of the Fe3O4 film, which is useful for the design and creation of novel magnetic-optical modulator devices. Furthermore, these single scales can be used as building blocks to fabricate designable and more complicated assembled nano systems. This biomimetic technique combined with the variety of structures of butterfly wing scales provides an effective approach to produce magneto-photonic films with desired structure, paving a new way for theoretical research and practical applications. PMID:24788678

Peng, Wenhong; Zhu, Shenmin; Zhang, Wang; Yang, Qingqing; Zhang, Di; Chen, Zhixin

2014-06-01

336

Bioinspired fabrication of magneto-optic hierarchical architecture by hydrothermal process from butterfly wing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We developed a green solution to incorporate nano-Fe3O4 into the hierarchical architecture of a natural butterfly wing, thus obtaining unique magneto-optic nanocomposites with otherwise unavailable photonic features. Morphological characterization and Fourier Transform Infrared-Raman Spectroscope measurements indicate the assembly of Fe3O4 nanocrystallites. The magnetic and optical responses of Fe3O4/wing show a coupling effect between the biological structure and magnetic material. The saturation magnetization and coercivity values of the as-prepared magneto-optic architecture varied with change of subtle structure. Such a combination of nano-Fe3O4 and natural butterfly wing might create novel magneto-optic properties, and the relevant ideas could inspire the investigation of magneto-optical devices. - Highlights: ? We develop a green, easy controlled hydrothermal process to synthesize magnetite hierarchical architecture. ? The optical response of Fe3O4/wing exhibits a coupling effect between the structure and material. ? The saturation magnetization value is mediated by shape anisotropy and the stress of different subtle structure, which has provided unique insights into studying the mysterious magnetic property of magnetite.

337

Dealing with the hidden unphysical constraint and the butterfly effect in spectrum computations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since the order in the diatomic potential (or vibrational energy) expansion may be different from state to state, the algebraic method (AM) proposed by Sun et al. (J Mol Spectrosc 2002; 215: 93–105) is modified to adapt to the individual nature of different energy expansions by changing an original fixed order to a flexible one. The modified AM with a flexible order can be used to deal with the possible “butterfly effect” that may happen in spectroscopic computations, and it is applied to study the full vibrational spectra {E?} and the dissociation energies De for 7Li2?23?g+, K2?31?g, Cs2?33?g+, KLi?X1?+, and RbCs?X1?+ electronic states. The results not only reproduce the known experimental vibrational energies, but also correctly predict the dissociation energies and all unknown energies that have not been obtained for these electronic states using the original AM. These facts demonstrate that the modified AM are good for many more diatomic systems by using the proper order of each corresponding diatomic state. -- Highlights: ? We find that “butterfly effect” may happen in molecular spectroscopic computations. ? We modify our algebraic method (AM) to adapt to different diatomic systems. ? Modified AM can predict the full vibrationa

338

Some exact computations on the twisted butterfly state in string field theory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The twisted butterfly state solves the equation of motion of vacuum string field theory in the singular limit. The finiteness of the energy density of the solution is an important issue, but possible conformal anomaly resulting from the twisting has prevented us from addressing this problem. We present a description of the twisted regulated butterfly state in terms of a conformal field theory with a vanishing central charge which consists of the ordinary bc ghosts and a matter system with c=26. Various quantities relevant to vacuum string field theory are computed exactly using this description. We find that the energy density of the solution can be finite in the limit, but the finiteness depends on the sub leading structure of vacuum string field theory. We further argue, contrary to our previous expectation, that contributions from sub leading terms in the kinetic term to the energy density can be of the same order as the contribution from the leading term which consists of the midpoint ghost insertion. (author)

339

HIGH SPEED BUTTERFLY ARCHITECTURE FOR CIRCULAR CONVOLUTION USING FNT WITH PARTIAL PRODUCT MULTIPLIER  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents high speed butterfly architecture for circular convolution based on FNT using partial product multipliers. FNT is ideally suited to digital computation requiring the order of N log N additions, subtractions and bit shifts, but no multiplications. In addition to being efficient, the FNT implementation is exact with no round off errors. Binary arithmetic permits the exact computation of FNT. This technique involves arithmetic in a binary code orresponding to the simplest one of a set of code translations from the normal binary representation of each integer in the ring of integer. In the first stage normal binary numbers are converted intotheir diminished-1 representation using code conversion (CC. Then butterfly operation (BO is carried out to perform FNT and IFNT where the point wise multiplication is performed using modulo 2n+1 partial product multipliers. Thus modulo 2n+1 additions are avoided in the final stages of FNT and IFNT and hence execution delay is reduced compared to circular convolution done with FFT and DFT. This architecture has better throughput and involves less hardware complexity.

HEMALATHA BANDARI

2011-01-01

340

Strong negative effects of simulated heat waves in a tropical butterfly.  

Science.gov (United States)

Climate change poses a significant challenge to all natural systems on Earth. Especially increases in extreme weather events such as heat waves have the potential to strongly affect biodiversity, though their effects are poorly understood because of a lack of empirical data. Therefore, we here explore the sensitivity of a tropical ectotherm, which are in general believed to have a low warming tolerance, to experimentally simulated climate change using ecologically realistic diurnal temperature cycles. Increasing the mean temperature permanently by 3°C had mostly minor effects on developmental traits in the butterfly Bicyclus anynana. Simulated heat waves (strongly elevated temperatures for some time though retaining the same overall temperature mean), in contrast, caused strong negative effects by prolonging development time (by up to 10%) and reducing body mass (-21%), especially when combined with reduced relative humidity. Detrimental effects were carried over into the adult stage, diminishing subsequent performance. Most strikingly, higher temperatures suppressed adult immune function (haemocytes: -54%, lysozyme activity: -32%), which may potentially change the way species interact with antagonists. Heat waves thus reduced fitness parameters by 10-25% for development time and body mass and by up to 54% for immune parameters even in this plastic and widespread butterfly, exemplifying the potentially dramatic impact of extreme weather events on biodiversity. PMID:24902752

Fischer, Klaus; Klockmann, Michael; Reim, Elisabeth

2014-08-15

 
 
 
 
341

Teaching Spanish Caribbean History through "In the Time of the Butterflies": The Novel and the Showtime Film  

Science.gov (United States)

This manuscript presents a proposal for teaching Latino Caribbean heritage using as principal focus the novel and film "In the Time of the Butterflies." It discusses terms of literary works and their readings, the foundation of a Spanish caste system, African immigration, and political and economic aspects affecting Dominican American identity and…

Martinez, Elizabeth Coonrod

2006-01-01

342

Identification and biosynthesis of novel male specific esters in the wings of the tropical butterfly, Bicyclus martius sanaos.  

Science.gov (United States)

Representatives of the highly speciose tropical butterfly genus Bicyclus (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) are characterized by morphological differences in the male androconia, a set of scales and hair pencils located on the surface of the wings. These androconia are assumed to be associated with the release of courtship pheromones. In the present study, we report the identification and biosynthetic pathways of several novel esters from the wings of male B. martius sanaos. We found that the volatile compounds in this male butterfly were similar to female-produced moth sex pheromones. Components associated with the male wing androconial areas were identified as ethyl, isobutyl and 2-phenylethyl hexadecanoates and (11Z)-11-hexadecenoates, among which the latter are novel natural products. By topical application of deuterium-labelled fatty acid and amino acid precursors, we found these pheromone candidates to be produced in patches located on the forewings of the males. Deuterium labels from hexadecanoic acid were incorporated into (11Z)-11-hexadecenoic acid, providing experimental evidence of a ?11-desaturase being active in butterflies. This unusual desaturase was found previously to be involved in the biosynthesis of female-produced sex pheromones of moths. In the male butterflies, both hexadecanoic acid and (11Z)-11-hexadecenoic acid were then enzymatically esterified to form the ethyl, isobutyl and 2-phenylethyl esters, incorporating ethanol, isobutanol, and 2-phenylethanol, derived from the corresponding amino acids L-alanine, L-valine, and L-phenylalanine. PMID:24894159

Wang, Hong-Lei; Brattström, Oskar; Brakefield, Paul M; Francke, Wittko; Löfstedt, Christer

2014-06-01

343

A case of multiple sclerosis with multi-ring-like and butterfly-like enhancement on computerized tomography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We report a case of multiple sclerosis in which CT showed multiple ring-like enhancement and butterfly-like distribution of a low density area with marginal enhancement. The latter finding is found in other demyelinating disorders but is less common in tumors or abscesses. Therefore, it seems to have some diagnostic value in multiple sclerosis. (author)

344

Anti-aphrodisiac compounds of male butterflies increase the risk of egg parasitoid attack by inducing plant synomone production.  

Science.gov (United States)

During mating in many butterfly species, males transfer spermatophores that contain anti-aphrodisiacs to females that repel conspecific males. For example, males of the large cabbage white, Pieris brassicae (Lepidoptera: Pieridae), transfer the anti-aphrodisiac, benzyl cyanide (BC) to females. Accessory reproductive gland (ARG) secretion of a mated female P. brassicae that is deposited with an egg clutch contains traces of BC, inducing Brussels sprouts plants (Brassica oleracea var. gemmifera) to arrest certain Trichogramma egg parasitoids. Here, we assessed whether deposition of one egg at a time by the closely related small cabbage white, Pieris rapae, induced B. oleracea var. gemmifera to arrest Trichogramma wasps, and whether this plant synomone is triggered by substances originating from male P. rapae seminal fluid. We showed that plants induced by singly laid eggs of P. rapae arrest T. brassicae wasps three days after butterfly egg deposition. Elicitor activity was present in ARG secretion of mated female butterflies, whereas the secretion of virgin females was inactive. Pieris rapae used a mixture of methyl salicylate (MeSA) and indole as an anti-aphrodisiac. We detected traces of both anti-aphrodisiacal compounds in the ARG secretion of mated female P. rapae, whereas indole was lacking in the secretion of virgin female P. rapae. When applied onto the leaf, indole induced changes in the foliar chemistry that arrested T. brassicae wasps. This study shows that compounds of male seminal fluid incur possible fitness costs for Pieris butterflies by indirectly promoting egg parasitoid attack. PMID:19949841

Fatouros, Nina E; Pashalidou, Foteini G; Aponte Cordero, Wilma V; van Loon, Joop J A; Mumm, Roland; Dicke, Marcel; Hilker, Monika; Huigens, Martinus E

2009-11-01

345

Cultural Nuances, Assumptions, and the Butterfly Effect: Addressing the Unpredictability Caused by Unconscious Values Structures in Cross-Cultural Interactions  

Science.gov (United States)

Cultural values, cross-cultural interaction patterns that are produced by dynamical (chaotic) systems, have a significant impact on interaction, particularly among and between people from different cultures. The butterfly effect, which states that small differences in initial conditions may have severe consequences for patterns in the long run,…

Remer, Rory

2007-01-01

346

Spectral selectivity of 3D magnetophotonic crystal film fabricated from single butterfly wing scales  

Science.gov (United States)

3D magnetophotonic crystal (3D-MPC) film is an excellent platform for tailoring the magneto-optical response of magnetic materials. However, its fabrication is a great challenge due to the limitation of commonly used artificial synthesis methods. Inspired by the unique structures of biospecies, we hereby manipulate the pristine single wing scales of Morpho didius precisely and successfully fabricate Fe3O4 films with photonic structure. The synthesis strategy involves the fabrication of Fe2O3 film from a single wing scale using an improved sol-gel method followed by a subsequent reduction. The intrinsic hierarchical photonic structures as well as the anisotropic optical properties of the pristine butterfly wing scale have been retained in the obtained Fe2O3 and Fe3O4 films. When investigated under an external magnetic field, a spectral blue shift about 43 nm is observed in the designated orientation of the Fe3O4 film, which is useful for the design and creation of novel magnetic-optical modulator devices. Furthermore, these single scales can be used as building blocks to fabricate designable and more complicated assembled nano systems. This biomimetic technique combined with the variety of structures of butterfly wing scales provides an effective approach to produce magneto-photonic films with desired structure, paving a new way for theoretical research and practical applications.3D magnetophotonic crystal (3D-MPC) film is an excellent platform for tailoring the magneto-optical response of magnetic materials. However, its fabrication is a great challenge due to the limitation of commonly used artificial synthesis methods. Inspired by the unique structures of biospecies, we hereby manipulate the pristine single wing scales of Morpho didius precisely and successfully fabricate Fe3O4 films with photonic structure. The synthesis strategy involves the fabrication of Fe2O3 film from a single wing scale using an improved sol-gel method followed by a subsequent reduction. The intrinsic hierarchical photonic structures as well as the anisotropic optical properties of the pristine butterfly wing scale have been retained in the obtained Fe2O3 and Fe3O4 films. When investigated under an external magnetic field, a spectral blue shift about 43 nm is observed in the designated orientation of the Fe3O4 film, which is useful for the design and creation of novel magnetic-optical modulator devices. Furthermore, these single scales can be used as building blocks to fabricate designable and more complicated assembled nano systems. This biomimetic technique combined with the variety of structures of butterfly wing scales provides an effective approach to produce magneto-photonic films with desired structure, paving a new way for theoretical research and practical applications. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: SEM, optical image of ground scale, XRD of the magnetite with butterfly wing structure. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr00477a

Peng, Wenhong; Zhu, Shenmin; Zhang, Wang; Yang, Qingqing; Zhang, Di; Chen, Zhixin

2014-05-01

347

A male Klug's clearwing butterfly (Dircenna klugii klugii) foraging on a coffee flower (Coffea arabica) in Finca Irlanda of the Sonusco region of Chia  

Science.gov (United States)

A male KlugÃÂs clearwing butterfly (Dircenna klugii klugii) foraging on a coffee flower (Coffea arabica) in the Soconusco region of Chiapas, Mexico. Shade-grown coffee certification programs distinguish shade management practices that contain significantly higher levels of bird and butterfly diversity. This enhanced biodiversity may provide important ecosystem services, such as pollination, shown here. This photograph originally appeared on the cover of Ecological Applications (14:3) in June of 2004.

Philpott, Stacy

2010-02-16

348

A butterfly shaped mobile biatrial cardiac mass: myxoma or something else.  

Science.gov (United States)

Primary cardiac tumors are rare with a reported prevalence of 0.01-0.02% based on pooled autopsy series. Although most mobile cardiac tumors arising from the interatrial septum and extending into the atria are thought to be benign myxomas, this may often not be true. Myxoid fibrosarcomas which in contrast to myxomas are malignant cardiac tumors often mimic the clinical and echocardiographic picture of atrial myxomas. We describe a rare entity of biatrial low-grade myxoid fibrosarcoma presenting in an adult patient as a butterfly shaped mass, with progressive shortness of breath and prolonged PR interval on the ECG that was pre-operatively thought to be a cardiac myxoma. The distinguishing echocardiographic features of the two entities are discussed. PMID:24973849

Gupta, Pallav; Kapoor, Aditya; Jain, Manoj; Kumar, Sudeep; Agarwal, Surendra K; Pande, Shantanu

2014-01-01

349

Symmetry breaking effects in epitaxial magnetic thin films: Nonsymmetric reversal and butterfly remanence behavior  

Science.gov (United States)

A consistent picture which explains the effects of magnetic anisotropy symmetry breaking on the magnetic properties of epitaxial magnetic thin films is provided, including experimental results in ?'-Fe4N(100) thin films and numerical simulations. As expected for a thin film with fourfold crystal symmetry, the results show the existence of two easy and two hard magnetization axes. However, in this case, the easy axes are not orthogonal, the hard axes are not equivalent, the magnetization reversal behavior around the two easy axes is not symmetric, and the reversal behaviors of the two hard axes are not alike. As a consequence, the polar plot of the remanence displays a butterfly shape behavior. These effects depend on additional terms of the magnetic anisotropy. Our results are extended to other symmetry breaking epitaxial magnetic systems.

Ecija, David; Jiménez, Erika; Mikuszeit, Nikolai; Sacristán, Nicolás; Camarero, Julio; Gallego, Jose María; Vogel, Jan; Miranda, Rodolfo

2008-01-01

350

Two short mass-loss events that unveil the binary heart of Minkowski's Butterfly Nebula  

CERN Document Server

Studying the appearance and properties of bipolar winds is critical to understand the stellar evolution from the AGB to the planetary nebula (PN) phase. Many uncertainties exist regarding the presence and role of binary stellar systems, mainly due to the deficit of conclusive observational evidences. We investigate the extended equatorial distribution around the early bipolar planetary nebula M 2-9 ("Minkowski's Butterfly Nebula") to gather new information on the mechanism of the axial ejections. Interferometric millimeter observations of molecular emission provide the most comprehensive view of the equatorial mass distribution and kinematics in early PNe. Here we present subarcsecond angular-resolution observations of the 12CO J=2-1 line and continuum emission with the Plateau de Bure interferometer. The data reveal two ring-shaped and eccentric structures at the equatorial basis of the two coaxial optical lobes. The two rings were formed during short mass-loss episodes (~ 40 yr), separated by ~ 500 yr. Thei...

Castro-Carrizo, A; Bujarrabal, V; Chesneau, O; Cox, P; Bachiller, R

2012-01-01

351

External Morphology of Adult Citrus Butterfly, Papilio memnon (Linnaeus, 1758) and Seasonal Abundance of the Species  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sexual dimorphism is obvious in Papilio memnon. The female adult resembles that of Papilio polytes another citrus butterfly species. However, marked difference is observed in the size and red spots on the base of the forewing. The adult male P. memnon is blue black in colour and red spots are present on the base of the underside of both for and hind wings. The win span of sexes ranges from 120mm to 150mm. The breeding season is from end of June to early part of January, the peak being in the month of November. The recorded diagnostic external features of this studied species are described supported by scaled photographs. Seasonal abundance of this species is also mentioned. It is learnt through the internet that a mounted specimen of this species fetched $2.95 in Malaysia. It is therefore concluded that successful rearing of this species in captivity could be of benefit to the country.

352

Immature stages of the Brazilian crescent butterfly Ortilia liriope (Cramer) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae).  

Science.gov (United States)

We provide the first information on the morphology of the immature stages (egg, larva, and pupa), oviposition and larval behavior, and host plant, for the Brazilian crescent butterfly Ortilia liriope (Cramer), based on material from Santarém Municipality, Pará State, Northern Brazil. Females of O. liriope lay eggs in clusters. After hatching, larvae eat the exochorion and remain gregarious in all but the final instar. The host plant recorded in the study site is Justicia sp. (Acanthaceae). Despite the scarcity of data on the immature stages of Neotropical Melitaeini, we can already say that some morphological and behavioral traits observed in the immature stages of O. liriope are also present in all known genera in this tribe. PMID:21710028

Silva, P L; Oliveira, N P; Barbosa, E P; Okada, Y; Kaminski, L A; Freitas, A V L

2011-01-01

353

Complete mitochondrial genome of the nerippe fritillary butterfly, Argynnis nerippe (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae).  

Science.gov (United States)

The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the nerippe fritillary butterfly, Argynnis nerippe, which is listed as an endangered species in Korea, is described with an emphasis on the A+T-rich region. The 15,140-bp long circular molecule consisted of 13 protein-coding genes, two rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and 1 control region, known in insect as the A+T-rich region, as found in typical metazoans. The 329-bp long A+T-rich region located between srRNA and tRNA(Met) possessed the highest A/T content (95.7%) than any other region of the genome. Along with the several conserved sequences found typically in the lepidopteran insects the genome contained one tRNA(Met)-like and tRNA(Leu)(UUR)-like sequence in the A+T-rich region. PMID:22040072

Kim, Min Jee; Jeong, Heon Cheon; Kim, Seong Ryeol; Kim, Iksoo

2011-08-01

354

Immature stages of the butterfly Diaethria clymena janeira (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Biblidinae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The immature stages (egg, larva, and pupa) morphology, larval and oviposition behavior, and host plant of the "eighty-eight" butterfly Diaethria clymena janeira (C. Felder, 1862) are described. Eggs are laid singly under leaf, and have pronounced vertical ribs ending up in a crown. Larvae of early i [...] nstars construct stick-like frass chains where they rest when not feeding. Late instars are green with reduced body scoli and long branched head scoli. Pupae are entirely green, and pupation occurs on the upper leaf surface. In general, morphology and behavior of immature stages are similar to those of related species in the tribe Callicorini.

Eduardo P., Barbosa; Lucas A., Kaminski; André V. L., Freitas.

355

Finite element modeling of the radiative properties of Morpho butterfly wing scales.  

Science.gov (United States)

With the aim of furthering the explanation of iridescence in Morpho butterflies, we developed an optical model based on the finite-element (FE) method, taking more accurately into account the exact morphology of the wing, origin of iridescence. We modeled the photonic structure of a basal scale of the Morpho rhetenor wing as a three-dimensional object, infinite in one direction, with a shape copied from a TEM image, and made out of a slightly absorbing dielectric material. Periodic boundary conditions were used in the FE method to model the wing periodic structure and perfectly matched layers permitted the free-space scattering computation. Our results are twofold: first, we verified on a simpler structure, that our model yields the same result as the rigorous coupled wave analysis (RCWA), and second, we demonstrated that it is necessary to assume an absorption gradient in the true structure, to account for experimental reflectivity measured on a real wing. PMID:23496546

Mejdoubi, A; Andraud, C; Berthier, S; Lafait, J; Boulenguez, J; Richalot, E

2013-02-01

356

Effect analysis of design variables on the disc in a double-eccentric butterfly valve.  

Science.gov (United States)

We have performed a shape optimization of the disc in an industrial double-eccentric butterfly valve using the effect analysis of design variables to enhance the valve performance. For the optimization, we select three performance quantities such as pressure drop, maximum stress, and mass (weight) as the responses and three dimensions regarding the disc shape as the design variables. Subsequently, we compose a layout of orthogonal array (L16) by performing numerical simulations on the flow and structure using a commercial package, ANSYS v13.0, and then make an effect analysis of the design variables on the responses using the design of experiments. Finally, we formulate a multiobjective function consisting of the three responses and then propose an optimal combination of the design variables to maximize the valve performance. Simulation results show that the disc thickness makes the most significant effect on the performance and the optimal design provides better performance than the initial design. PMID:24883380

Kang, Sangmo; Kim, Da-Eun; Kim, Kuk-Kyeom; Kim, Jun-Oh

2014-01-01

357

A study on hydrodynamic torque coefficients for symmetric type butterfly valves  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The assessment method for the hydrodynamic torque coefficient of symmetric type butterfly valves from experimental data is presented in the present study. The two prediction models published recently, where one is proposed by EPRI (Electric Power Research Institute) and the other is devised by Ogawa and Kimura, are investigated in the aspect of conservation in predicted results by the comparison of experimental results. The applied result by EPRI method reveals more conservative than that of analytic derivation by Ogawa and Kimura. An overall agreement is found between the experimental coefficient and the estimates by the development of Ogawa and Kimura. However, the comparison displayed that the method gives lower value in the disk opening angle of 25?55 .deg. C that the experimental result. Therefore, for the secure use of the method, an adequate weighting should be enforced to the analytic results, or the experimental factor in the model should be conservatively modified from the accumulated data as indicated by the authors

358

Critical Incident Analysis and the Semiosphere: The Curious Case of the Spitting Butterfly  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In January 2007, media outlets across Australia reported the local court decision Police v Rose. Mr Rose pleaded guilty and the presiding magistrate recorded no conviction. This event sparked a ‘butterfly effect’ that culminated in legislative amendments changing the make-up of the body responsible for oversight of judges in New South Wales. Key players failed to observe the doctrine of the separation of powers; while others called for its observation.   None of this would have been foreseeable to Mr Rose or the two transit officers on the night he was detained. This paper uses complexity theory and digital media analysis to locate flashpoints around which critical incidents occur; and what the unexpected flow-on effects reveal about the host society.

Bob Hodge

2011-09-01

359

Critical Incident Analysis and the Semiosphere: The Curious Case of the Spitting Butterfly  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In January 2007, media outlets across Australia reported the local court decision Police v Rose. Mr Rose pleaded guilty and the presiding magistrate recorded no conviction. This event sparked a ‘butterfly effect’ that culminated in legislative amendments changing the make-up of the body responsible for oversight of judges in New South Wales. Key players failed to observe the doctrine of the separation of powers; while others called for its observation.   None of this would have been foreseeable to Mr Rose or the two transit officers on the night he was detained. This paper uses complexity theory and digital media analysis to locate flashpoints around which critical incidents occur; and what the unexpected flow-on effects reveal about the host society.

Bob Hodge

2011-03-01

360

Chemical constituents ofErysimum cheiranthoides deterring oviposition by the cabbage butterfly,Pieris rapae.  

Science.gov (United States)

Avoidance ofErysimum cheiranthoides for oviposition byPieris rapae has been attributed to the presence of water-soluble deterrents. The active material was extracted inton-butanol and isolated by a series of HPLC separations. TLC of the active fraction and visualization of individual constituents with Kedde's reagent indicated that cardenolides are responsible for deterring oviposition. UV spectra were also characteristic of cardenolides. Bioassays of selected known cardenolides revealed a general lack of activity, except for cymarin, which was as strongly deterrent as the most prominent cardenolide isolated in pure form fromE. cheiranthoides. The results suggest that cardenolides in this plant can explain its escape from cabbage butterflies, but specific structural features of the glycosides are necessary for oviposition-deterring activity. PMID:24272377

Renwick, J A; Radke, C D; Sachdev-Gupta, K

1989-08-01

 
 
 
 
361

Immature stages of the Brazilian crescent butterfly Ortilia liriope (Cramer) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english We provide the first information on the morphology of the immature stages (egg, larva, and pupa), oviposition and larval behavior, and host plant, for the Brazilian crescent butterfly Ortilia liriope (Cramer), based on material from Santarém Municipality, Pará State, Northern Brazil. Females of O. l [...] iriope lay eggs in clusters. After hatching, larvae eat the exochorion and remain gregarious in all but the final instar. The host plant recorded in the study site is Justicia sp. (Acanthaceae). Despite the scarcity of data on the immature stages of Neotropical Melitaeini, we can already say that some morphological and behavioral traits observed in the immature stages of O. liriope are also present in all known genera in this tribe.

PL, Silva; NP, Oliveira; EP, Barbosa; Y, Okada; LA, Kaminski; AVL, Freitas.

362

Effects of the blockage ratio of a valve disk on loss coefficient in a butterfly valve  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The loss coefficient of the butterfly valve which allows partial opening of the valve at closed position and is applicable to the small-sized pipe system with the diameter of 1 inch was measured for the variation of the valve disk blockage ratio. Two different types of the valve disk configuration to adjust the blockage ratio were considered. One was the solid type valve disk of which the diameter was changed into the smaller size rather than the pipe diameter, and the other was the perforate type valve disk on which some holes were perforated. The results from two types of valve disk were compared to identify their characteristics in the loss coefficient distributions. The loss coefficient and the controllable angle of the valve disk were decreased exponentially with the decrease of the blockage ratio. In addition, the perforate valve disk had the effect on the higher loss coefficient rather than the solid type valve disk

363

Creation of effective magnetic fields in optical lattices: the Hofstadter butterfly for cold neutral atoms  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We investigate the dynamics of neutral atoms in a 2D optical lattice which traps two distinct internal states of the atoms in different columns. Two Raman lasers are used to coherently transfer atoms from one internal state to the other, thereby causing hopping between the different columns. By adjusting the laser parameters appropriately we can induce a non-vanishing phase of particles moving along a closed path on the lattice. This phase is proportional to the enclosed area and we thus simulate a magnetic flux through the lattice. This set-up is described by a Hamiltonian identical to the one for electrons on a lattice subject to a magnetic field and thus allows us to study this equivalent situation under very well defined controllable conditions. We consider the limiting case of huge magnetic fields - which is not experimentally accessible for electrons in metals - where a fractal band structure, the Hofstadter butterfly, characterizes the system

364

Origin of the butterfly-shaped magnetoresistance in reactive sputtered epitaxial Fe3O4 films  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Epitaxial Fe3O4 thin films were synthesized by facing-target reactive sputtering Fe targets. The epitaxy of the Fe3O4 film on MgO (100) was examined macroscopically using x-ray diffraction, including conventional ?-2? scan, tilting 2? scan, ? scan, and pole figure. The observed low-field butterfly-shaped magnetoresistance (MR) are explained by the primary fast rotation of the spins far away from antiphase boundaries and the high-field MR changing linearly with magnetic field can be understood by the gradual rotation of the spins near the antiphase boundaries. It is magnetocrystalline anisotropy that causes an increase in MR below Verwey transition temperature.

365

Modeling the 3D morphology and proper motions of the Butterfly Nebula  

Science.gov (United States)

We present 3D hydrodynamical simulations of an isotropic fast wind interacting with a previously ejected toroidally shaped slow wind in order to model both the observed morphology and kinematics of the planetary nebula (PN) NGC 6302 (so-called the Butterfly Nebula). This nebula is among the most complex ever observed in PNe. From our numerical simulations, we have obtained an intensity map for H alpha emission to make a comparison with the Hubble Space Telescope observations of this object. We have also simulated the proper-motions of nebular knots and contrast them with those measured by comparing two set of observations. We have found that based on a generalized interacting stellar wind model, the morphology as well as the Hubble-type expansion indicated by the proper-motion measurements are explained.

Uscanga, L.; Velazquez, P. F.; Raga, A. C.; Boumis, P.; Canto, J.; Esquivel, A.; Gomez, Y.

2014-04-01

366

Phenotypic plasticity in the range-margin population of the lycaenid butterfly Zizeeria maha  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Many butterfly species have been experiencing the northward range expansion and physiological adaptation, probably due to climate warming. Here, we document an extraordinary field case of a species of lycaenid butterfly, Zizeeria maha, for which plastic phenotypes of wing color-patterns were revealed at the population level in the course of range expansion. Furthermore, we examined whether this outbreak of phenotypic changes was able to be reproduced in a laboratory. Results In the recently expanded northern range margins of this species, more than 10% of the Z. maha population exhibited characteristic color-pattern modifications on the ventral wings for three years. We physiologically reproduced similar phenotypes by an artificial cold-shock treatment of a normal southern population, and furthermore, we genetically reproduced a similar phenotype after selective breeding of a normal population for ten generations, demonstrating that the cold-shock-induced phenotype was heritable and partially assimilated genetically in the breeding line. Similar genetic process might have occurred in the previous and recent range-margin populations as well. Relatively minor modifications expressed in the tenth generation of the breeding line together with other data suggest a role of founder effect in this field case. Conclusions Our results support the notion that the outbreak of the modified phenotypes in the recent range-margin population was primed by the revelation of plastic phenotypes in response to temperature stress and by the subsequent genetic process in the previous range-margin population, followed by migration and temporal establishment of genetically unstable founders in the recent range margins. This case presents not only an evolutionary role of phenotypic plasticity in the field but also a novel evolutionary aspect of range expansion at the species level.

Otaki Joji M

2010-08-01

367

Characterising electron butterfly pitch angle distributions in the magnetosphere through observations and simulations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Imaging Electron Spectrometer (IES on the Polar satellite has measured the average characteristics of the equatorial electron pitch angle distributions (PADs in the midnight sector as a function of radial distance out to the 9 RE apogee of the Polar satellite. Depressions in the observed fluxes of electrons occur with pitch angles around 90° in the equatorial zone, while the more field-aligned electrons remain largely unchanged. The orbital precessions of the satellite have allowed much of the inner equatorial magnetosphere to be observed. Statistically, butterfly PADs with different shapes are observed selectively in different regions, which can provide insight to their source and possible history. Electron paths of varied pitch angles were modelled using Runge-Kutta approximations of the Lorentz force in a Tsyganenko (T96 simulated magnetosphere. The resulting drift paths suggest that the process of magnetopause shadowing plays a significant role in the loss of these electrons. Case studies of the drifting patterns of electrons with varied pitch angles were simulated from Polar's orbit when a butterfly PAD was observed on 3 October 2002 at an altitude near 9 RE and on 12 September 2000 at an altitude near 6 RE. These two locations represent regions on each side of the boundary of stable trapping. The modelling effort strongly suggests that magnetopause shadowing does play a significant role in the loss of equatorially drifting electrons from the outer regions of the inner magnetosphere.

M. M. Klida

2013-02-01

368

Host plant choice in the comma butterfly-larval choosiness may ameliorate effects of indiscriminate oviposition.  

Science.gov (United States)

In most phytophagous insects, the larval diet strongly affects future fitness and in species that do not feed on plant parts as adults, larval diet is the main source of nitrogen. In many of these insect-host plant systems, the immature larvae are considered to be fully dependent on the choice of the mothers, who, in turn, possess a highly developed host recognition system. This circumstance allows for a potential mother-offspring conflict, resulting in the female maximizing her fecundity at the expense of larval performance on suboptimal hosts. In two experiments, we aimed to investigate this relationship in the polyphagous comma butterfly, Polygonia c-album, by comparing the relative acceptance of low- and medium-ranked hosts between females and neonate larvae both within individuals between life stages, and between mothers and their offspring. The study shows a variation between females in oviposition acceptance of low-ranked hosts, and that the degree of acceptance in the mothers correlates with the probability of acceptance of the same host in the larvae. We also found a negative relationship between stages within individuals as there was a higher acceptance of lower ranked hosts in females who had abandoned said host as a larva. Notably, however, neonate larvae of the comma butterfly did not unconditionally accept to feed from the least favorable host species even when it was the only food source. Our results suggest the possibility that the disadvantages associated with a generalist oviposition strategy can be decreased by larval participation in host plant choice. PMID:24006353

Gamberale-Stille, Gabriella; Söderlind, Lina; Janz, Niklas; Nylin, Sören

2014-08-01

369

Deformation and concentration fluctuations under stretching in a polymer network with free chains. The ''butterfly'' effect  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Small Angle Neutron Scattering gives access to concentration fluctuations of mobile labeled polymer chains embedded in a polymer network. At rest they appear progressively larger than for random mixing, with increasing ratio. Under uniaxial stretching, they decrease towards ideal mixing along the direction perpendicular to stretching, and can grow strongly along the parallel one, including the zero scattering vector q limit. This gives rise to intensity contours with double-winged patterns, in the shape of the figure '8', or of 'butterfly'. Random crosslinking and end-linking of monodisperse chains have both been studied. The strength of the 'butterfly' effect increases with the molecular weight of the free chains, the crosslinking ratio, the network heterogeneity, and the elongation ratio. Eventually, the signal collapses on an 'asymptotic' function I(q), of increasing correlation length with the elongation ratio. Deformation appears heterogeneous, maximal for soft areas, where the mobile chains localize preferentially. This could be due to spontaneous fluctuations, or linked to frozen fluctuations of the crosslink density. However, disagreement with the corresponding theoretical expressions makes it necessary to account for the spatial correlations of crosslink density, and their progressive unscreening as displayed by the asymptotic behavior. Networks containing pending labeled chains and free labeled stars lead to more precise understanding of the diffusion of free species and the heterogeneity of the deformation. It seems that the latter occurs even without diffusion for heterogeneous enough networks. In extreme cases (of the crosslinking parameters), the spatial correlations display on apparent fractal behavior, of dimensions 2 to 2.5, which is discussed here in terms of random clusters. 200 refs., 95 figs., 21 tabs., 10 appends

370

Predicting the sensitivity of butterfly phenology to temperature over the past century.  

Science.gov (United States)

Studies to date have documented substantial variation among species in the degree to which phenology responds to temperature and shifts over time, but we have a limited understanding of the causes of such variation. Here, we use a spatially and temporally extensive data set (ca. 48 000 observations from across Canada) to evaluate the utility of museum collection records in detecting broad-scale phenology-temperature relationships and to test for systematic differences in the sensitivity of phenology to temperature (days °C(-1) ) of Canadian butterfly species according to relevant ecological traits. We showed that the timing of flight season predictably responded to temperature both across space (variation in average temperature from site to site in Canada) and across time (variation from year to year within each individual site). This reveals that collection records, a vastly underexploited resource, can be applied to the quantification of broad-scale relationships between species' phenology and temperature. The timing of the flight season of earlier fliers and less mobile species was more sensitive to temperature than later fliers and more mobile species, demonstrating that ecological traits can account for some of the interspecific variation in species' phenological sensitivity to temperature. Finally, we found that phenological sensitivity to temperature differed across time and space implying that both dimensions of temperature will be needed to translate species' phenological sensitivity to temperature into accurate predictions of species' future phenological shifts. Given the widespread temperature sensitivity of flight season timing, we can expect long-term temporal shifts with increased warming [ca. 2.4 days °C(-1) (0.18 SE)] for many if not most butterfly species. PMID:24249425

Kharouba, Heather M; Paquette, Sebastien R; Kerr, Jeremy T; Vellend, Mark

2014-02-01

371

Butterfly species richness and diversity in the Trishna Wildlife Sanctuary in South Asia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Several wildlife sanctuaries in the world are home to the surviving populations of many endemic species. Trishna wildlife sanctuary in northeast India is protected by law, and is home to the last surviving populations of Asian bison (Bos gorus Smith), spectacle monkey (Trachypithecus phayrie Blyth), capped langur (Trachypithecus pileatus Blyth), slow loris (Nycticebus coucang Boddaert), wild cat (Felis chaus Schreber), and wild boars (Sus scrofa L.), among many other animals and plants. The sanctuary was explored for species richness and diversity of butterflies. A six-month-long study revealed the occurrence of 59 butterfly species that included 21 unique species and 9 species listed in the threatened category. The mixed moist deciduous mature forest of the sanctuary harbored greater species richness and species diversity (39 species under 31 genera) than other parts of the sanctuary, which is comprised of regenerated secondary mixed deciduous forest (37 species under 32 genera), degraded forests (32 species under 28 genera), and open grassland with patches of plantations and artificial lakes (24 species under 17 genera). The majority of these species showed a distribution range throughout the Indo-Malayan region and Australasia tropics, and eight species were distributed in the eastern parts of South Asia, including one species, Labadea martha (F.), which is distributed in the eastern Himalayas alone. Estimator Chao 2 provided the best-predicted value of species richness. The steep slope of the species accumulation curve suggested the occurrence of a large number of rare species, and a prolonged gentle slope suggested a higher species richness at a higher sample abundance. The species composition of vegetation-rich habitats showed high similarity in comparison to vegetation-poor habitats. PMID:24219624

Majumder, Joydeb; Lodh, Rahul; Agarwala, B K

2013-01-01

372

Influence of forest and grassland management on the diversity and conservation of butterflies and burnet moths (Lepidoptera, Papilionoidea, Hesperiidae, Zygaenidae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The distribution of butterflies and burnet moths was investigated at 38 patches in the Oettinger Forst (Bavaria, Germany in 2001. Forty-two butterfly and four burnet moth species were recorded. They were unequally distributed over the study area. The diversity was significantly lower in the forests than in the non¿forest patches. Windblows and meadows showed largely similar results but clearings had higher Shannon indices and Eveness and presented a trend to higher species numbers. The hay meadows had higher mean incidences of the 25 common species and exhibited a trend to higher numbers of individuals and species as well as higher mean Shannon indices than in the mulched meadows. The old quarries and sandpits harboured remarkable species, some of these occurring in high densities, thus underlining the conservation value of such structures in a non-target area for nature-conservation measurements.

Schmitt, T.

2003-01-01

373

Tight-binding electrons on triangular and kagome lattices under staggered modulated magnetic fields: quantum Hall effects and Hofstadter butterflies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We consider the tight-binding models of electrons on a two-dimensional triangular lattice and kagome lattice under staggered modulated magnetic fields. Such fields have two components: a uniform-flux part with strength ?, and a staggered-flux part with strength ??. Various properties of the Hall conductances and Hofstadter butterflies are studied. When ? is fixed, variation of ?? leads to the quantum Hall transitions and Chern numbers of Landau subbands being redistributed between neighboring pairs. The energy spectra with nonzero ??s have similar fractal structures but quite different energy gaps compared with the original Hofstadter butterflies of ?? = 0. Moreover, the fan-like structure of Landau levels in the low magnetic field region is also modified appreciably by ??.

374

Catching Butterflies  

Science.gov (United States)

Playmaking for Girls, founded by Rachel May and directed by Susie Spear Purcell, assembles a diverse ensemble of teaching artists committed to using playwriting and performance to help with incarcerated and formerly incarcerated teen girls to help them "think and thus act for themselves" (Freden, 2001, p. 70). These teaching artists, with the…

Fisher, Maisha T.

2008-01-01

375

Structure and Function of Papiliocin with Antimicrobial and Anti-inflammatory Activities Isolated from the Swallowtail Butterfly, Papilio xuthus*  

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Papiliocin is a novel 37-residue cecropin-like peptide isolated recently from the swallowtail butterfly, Papilio xuthus. With the aim of identifying a potent antimicrobial peptide, we tested papiliocin in a variety of biological and biophysical assays, demonstrating that the peptide possesses very low cytotoxicity against mammalian cells and high bacterial cell selectivity, particularly against Gram-negative bacteria as well as high anti-inflammatory activity. Using LPS-stimulated macrophage ...

Kim, Jin-kyoung; Lee, Eunjung; Shin, Soyoung; Jeong, Ki-woong; Lee, Jee-young; Bae, Su-young; Kim, Soo-hyun; Lee, Juneyoung; Kim, Seong Ryul; Lee, Dong Gun; Hwang, Jae-sam; Kim, Yangmee

2011-01-01

376

Olfactory Attraction of the Larval Parasitoid, Hyposoter horticola, to Plants Infested with Eggs of the Host Butterfly, Melitaea cinxia  

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Parasitoids locate inconspicuous hosts in a heterogeneous habitat using plant volatiles, some of which are induced by the hosts. Hyposoter horticola Gravenhost (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) is a parasitoid of the Glanville fritillary butterfly Melitaea cinxia L. (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae). Melitaea cinxia lays eggs in clusters on leaves of Plantago lanceolata L. (Lamiales: Plantaginaceae) and Veronica spicata L. (Lamiales: Plantaginaceae). The parasitoid oviposits into host larvae that have no...

Castelo, Marcela K.; Nouhuys, Saskya; Corley, Juan C.

2010-01-01

377

Sexual cooperation and conflict in butterflies: a male-transferred anti-aphrodisiac reduces harassment of recently mated females.  

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Sexual selection theory predicts that the different selection pressures on males and females result in sexual conflict. However, in some instances males and females share a common interest which could lead to sexual cooperation. In the pierid butterfly Pieris napi the male and the recently mated female share a common interest in reducing female harassment by other males soon after mating. Here we show that P. napi males transfer an anti-aphrodisiac to the female at mating, methyl-salicylate (...

Andersson, J.; Borg-karlson, A. K.; Wiklund, C.

2000-01-01

378

Signatures of selection in loci governing major colour patterns in Heliconius butterflies and related species  

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Abstract Background Protein-coding change is one possible genetic mechanism underlying the evolution of adaptive wing colour pattern variation in Heliconius butterflies. Here we determine whether 38 putative genes within two major Heliconius patterning loci, HmYb and HmB, show evidence of positive selection. Ratios of nonsynonymous to synonymous nucleotide changes (?) were used to test for selection, as a means of identifying candidate gen...

Joron Mathieu; Wu Grace C; Jiggins Chris D

2010-01-01

379

Age-specific life table of swallowtail butterfly Papilio demoleus (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) in dry and wet seasons  

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Suwarno. 2012. Age-specific life table of swallowtail butterfly Papilio demoleus (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) in dry and wet seasons. Biodiversitas 13: 28-33. Age-specific life table of Papilio demoleus L. in dry and wet seasons was investigated in the Tasek Gelugor, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia. Development of P. demoleus was observed from January to March 2006 (dry season, DS), April to July 2006 (secondary wet season, SWS), and October to December 2006 (primary wet season, PWS). Survivorship of P...

SUWARNO

2012-01-01

380

Adult nutrition and butterfly fitness: effects of diet quality on reproductive output, egg composition, and egg hatching success  

Science.gov (United States)

Background In the Lepidoptera it was historically believed that adult butterflies rely primarily on larval-derived nutrients for reproduction and somatic maintenance. However, recent studies highlight the complex interactions between storage reserves and adult income, and that the latter may contribute significantly to reproduction. Effects of adult diet were commonly assessed by determining the number and/or size of the eggs produced, whilst its consequences for egg composition and offspring viability were largely neglected (as is generally true for insects). We here specifically focus on these latter issues by using the fruit-feeding tropical butterfly Bicyclus anynana, which is highly dependent on adult-derived carbohydrates for reproduction. Results Adult diet of female B. anynana had pronounced effects on fecundity, egg composition and egg hatching success, with butterflies feeding on the complex nutrition of banana fruit performing best. Adding vitamins and minerals to a sucrose-based diet increased fecundity, but not offspring viability. All other groups (plain sucrose solution, sucrose solution enriched with lipids or yeast) had a substantially lower fecundity and egg hatching success compared to the banana group. Differences were particularly pronounced later in life, presumably indicating the depletion of essential nutrients in sucrose-fed females. Effects of adult diet on egg composition were not straightforward, indicating complex interactions among specific compounds. There was some evidence that total egg energy and water content were related to hatching success, while egg protein, lipid, glycogen and free carbohydrate content did not seem to limit successful development. Conclusion The patterns shown here exemplify the complexity of reproductive resource allocation in B. anynana, and the need to consider egg composition and offspring viability when trying to estimate the effects of adult nutrition on fitness in this butterfly and other insects. PMID:18616795

Geister, Thorin L; Lorenz, Matthias W; Hoffmann, Klaus H; Fischer, Klaus

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

Adult nutrition and butterfly fitness: effects of diet quality on reproductive output, egg composition, and egg hatching success  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background In the Lepidoptera it was historically believed that adult butterflies rely primarily on larval-derived nutrients for reproduction and somatic maintenance. However, recent studies highlight the complex interactions between storage reserves and adult income, and that the latter may contribute significantly to reproduction. Effects of adult diet were commonly assessed by determining the number and/or size of the eggs produced, whilst its consequences for egg composition and offspring viability were largely neglected (as is generally true for insects. We here specifically focus on these latter issues by using the fruit-feeding tropical butterfly Bicyclus anynana, which is highly dependent on adult-derived carbohydrates for reproduction. Results Adult diet of female B. anynana had pronounced effects on fecundity, egg composition and egg hatching success, with butterflies feeding on the complex nutrition of banana fruit performing best. Adding vitamins and minerals to a sucrose-based diet increased fecundity, but not offspring viability. All other groups (plain sucrose solution, sucrose solution enriched with lipids or yeast had a substantially lower fecundity and egg hatching success compared to the banana group. Differences were particularly pronounced later in life, presumably indicating the depletion of essential nutrients in sucrose-fed females. Effects of adult diet on egg composition were not straightforward, indicating complex interactions among specific compounds. There was some evidence that total egg energy and water content were related to hatching success, while egg protein, lipid, glycogen and free carbohydrate content did not seem to limit successful development. Conclusion The patterns shown here exemplify the complexity of reproductive resource allocation in B. anynana, and the need to consider egg composition and offspring viability when trying to estimate the effects of adult nutrition on fitness in this butterfly and other insects.

Hoffmann Klaus H

2008-07-01

382

Migratory Connectivity of the Monarch Butterfly (Danaus plexippus): Patterns of Spring Re-Colonization in Eastern North America  

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Each year, millions of monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) migrate up to 3000 km from their overwintering grounds in central Mexico to breed in eastern North America. Malcolm et al. (1993) articulated two non-mutually exclusive hypotheses to explain how Monarchs re-colonize North America each spring. The ‘successive brood’ hypothesis proposes that monarchs migrate from Mexico to the Gulf Coast, lay eggs and die, leaving northern re-colonization of the breeding range to subsequent gener...

Miller, Nathan G.; Wassenaar, Leonard I.; Hobson, Keith A.; Norris, D. Ryan

2012-01-01

383

Phylogeny and palaeoecology of Polyommatus blue butterflies show Beringia was a climate-regulated gateway to the New World  

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Transcontinental dispersals by organisms usually represent improbable events that constitute a major challenge for biogeographers. By integrating molecular phylogeny, historical biogeography and palaeoecology, we test a bold hypothesis proposed by Vladimir Nabokov regarding the origin of Neotropical Polyommatus blue butterflies, and show that Beringia has served as a biological corridor for the dispersal of these insects from Asia into the New World. We present a novel method to e...

Vila, Roger; Pierce, Naomi E.

2011-01-01

384

Diversity, Ecology and Herbivory of Hairstreak Butterflies (Theclinae) Associated with the Velvet Tree, Miconia calvescens in Costa Rica  

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Larvae of three species of hairstreak butterflies in the subfamily Theclinae (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) were found feeding on developing inflorescences, flower buds, and immature fruits of the velvet tree, Miconia calvescens DC. (Myrtales: Melastomataceae) in Costa Rica. Erora opisena (Druce), Parrhasius polibetes (Cramer), and Temecla paron (Godman and Salvin) were studied in association with M. calvescens, an uncommon tree in its natural range in the neotropics and a target for biocontrol as...

Badenes-pe?e?rez, F. R.; Alfaro-alpi?i?zar, M. A.; Johnson, M. T.

2010-01-01

385

Replication of butterfly wing and natural lotus leaf structures by nanoimprint on silica sol-gel films  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An original and low cost method for the fabrication of patterned surfaces bioinspired from butterfly wings and lotus leaves is presented. Silica-based sol-gel films are thermally imprinted from elastomeric molds to produce stable structures with superhydrophobicity values as high as 160 deg. water contact angle. The biomimetic surfaces are demonstrated to be tuned from superhydrophobic to superhydrophilic by annealing between 200 deg. C and 500 deg. C

386

Nonadditivity of quantum and classical capacities for entanglement breaking multiple-access channels and the butterfly network  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We analyze quantum network primitives which are entanglement breaking. We show superadditivity of quantum and classical capacity regions for quantum multiple-access channels and the quantum butterfly network. Since the effects are especially visible at high noise they suggest that quantum information effects may be particularly helpful in the case of the networks with occasional high noise rates. The present effects provide a qualitative borderline between superadditivities of bipartite and multipartite systems.

387

[Butterfly diversity and faunal characteristics on the south slope of Taibai Mountain, Shaanxi Province of Northwest China].  

Science.gov (United States)

An investigation was conducted on the butterflies on the south slope of Taibai Mountain from April to October, 2009, with their diversity index, evenness index, dominance index, and species richness calculated and analyzed. A total of 126 species were recorded, belonging to 77 genera and 5 families. Nymphalidae had the highest diversity index (3.3621) and species richness (9.9363), and Pieridae had the highest dominance index (0.0573) and evenness index (0.8352). The genera and species were most abundant in June-August, the diversity index was the highest in July (3.4094), and the species richness was the highest in August (10.7). The bio-geographic component analysis of 124 species (other 2 species were not identified) showed that the widely distributed species were most abundant (51 species), occupying 40.5% of the total, followed by Palaearctic species (41 species), occupying 32.5%, and Oriental species were the least (32 species), occupying 25.4%, which suggested that Taibai Mountain could be the transitional area of Palearctic and Oriental regions. The comparative analysis of the butterfly diversity and faunal characteristics on the south and north slopes of Taibai Mountain showed that there were 85 shared species, and the similarity coefficient was 62.0%, indicating that the butterfly fauna had definite difference between the two slopes though they were geographically in proximity. PMID:24066540

Gao, Ke; Fang, Li-Jun; Shang, Su-Qin; Zhang, Ya-Lin

2013-06-01

388

Sugar receptor response of the food-canal taste sensilla in a nectar-feeding swallowtail butterfly, Papilio xuthus  

Science.gov (United States)

The feeding behavior in nectar-feeding insects is triggered by a sugar-receptor response in contact chemosensilla. The contact chemosensilla are distributed not only on tarsi and the outside of the proboscis but also on the inside of the food canal in Lepidoptera. Although the chemosensilla inside the food canal are assumed to detect sweet taste during the passage of nectar through the food canal, their electrophysiological function has received little attention. In the nectar-feeding Asian swallowtail butterfly, Papilio xuthus (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae), we found 15- to 30-?m-long sensilla neatly lined up along the inside galea wall, which forms the food canal in the proboscis. The receptor neurons of these sensilla responded to sucrose. We hypothesized that starch and sucrose compete with each other for a taste receptor site on the sensilla. When we added starch and sucrose to the food-canal sensilla, the electrophysiological responses of food-canal sensilla were inhibited in parallel with the food-sucking behavior of the butterflies. These results suggest that the food-canal sensilla are involved in the behavioral control of nectar-sucking in this butterfly species.

Inoue, Takashi A.; Asaoka, Kiyoshi; Seta, Kazuaki; Imaeda, Daisuke; Ozaki, Mamiko

2009-03-01

389

Biologically inspired flexible quasi-single-mode random laser: An integration of Pieris canidia butterfly wing and semiconductors  

Science.gov (United States)

Quasi-periodic structures of natural biomaterial membranes have great potentials to serve as resonance cavities to generate ecological friendly optoelectronic devices with low cost. To achieve the first attempt for the illustration of the underlying principle, the Pieris canidia butterfly wing was embedded with ZnO nanoparticles. Quite interestingly, it is found that the bio-inspired quasi-single-mode random laser can be achieved by the assistance of the skeleton of the membrane, in which ZnO nanoparticles act as emitting gain media. Such unique characteristics can be interpreted well by the Fabry-Perot resonance existing in the window-like quasi-periodic structure of butterfly wing. Due to the inherently promising flexibility of butterfly wing membrane, the laser action can still be maintained during the bending process. Our demonstrated approach not only indicates that the natural biological structures can provide effective scattering feedbacks but also pave a new avenue towards designing bio-controlled photonic devices.

Wang, Cih-Su; Chang, Tsung-Yuan; Lin, Tai-Yuan; Chen, Yang-Fang

2014-10-01

390

Species-specific coordinated gene expression and trans-regulation of larval color pattern in three swallowtail butterflies.  

Science.gov (United States)

The diversity of butterfly larval color pattern has been attracted to people since Darwin's time; however, its molecular mechanisms still remain largely unknown. Larval body markings often differ completely between closely related species under natural selection. The final instar larvae of the swallowtail butterflies Papilio xuthus and Papilio polytes show a green camouflage pattern, whereas those of Papilio machaon show a warning color pattern, although P. xuthus and P. machaon are closely related species. To identify the genes that contribute to species divergence, we compared the expression pattern of eight pigment-associated genes between three Papilio species. The spatial expression pattern of melanin-related genes coincided with the species-specific cuticular markings. We newly found that the combination of bilin-binding protein and yellow-related gene (YRG) correlated perfectly with larval blue, yellow, and green coloration. To distinguish whether the interspecific differences in pigment-associated genes are caused by cis-regulatory changes or distribution differences in trans-regulatory proteins, we compared species-specific mRNA expression in an F1 hybrid specimen. Px-YRG and Pp-YRG showed a similar expression pattern, suggesting that the change in expression of YRG is caused mainly by changes in the distribution of trans-regulatory proteins. Our findings shed light on the gene regulatory networks for butterfly larval color pattern. PMID:20565541

Shirataki, Hiroko; Futahashi, Ryo; Fujiwara, Haruhiko

2010-01-01

391

Positive selection of a duplicated UV-sensitive visual pigment coincides with wing pigment evolution in Heliconius butterflies  

Science.gov (United States)

The butterfly Heliconius erato can see from the UV to the red part of the light spectrum with color vision proven from 440 to 640 nm. Its eye is known to contain three visual pigments, rhodopsins, produced by an 11-cis-3-hydroxyretinal chromophore together with long wavelength (LWRh), blue (BRh) and UV (UVRh1) opsins. We now find that H. erato has a second UV opsin mRNA (UVRh2)—a previously undescribed duplication of this gene among Lepidoptera. To investigate its evolutionary origin, we screened eye cDNAs from 14 butterfly species in the subfamily Heliconiinae and found both copies only among Heliconius. Phylogeny-based tests of selection indicate positive selection of UVRh2 following duplication, and some of the positively selected sites correspond to vertebrate visual pigment spectral tuning residues. Epi-microspectrophotometry reveals two UV-absorbing rhodopsins in the H. erato eye with ?max = 355 nm and 398 nm. Along with the additional UV opsin, Heliconius have also evolved 3-hydroxy-DL-kynurenine (3-OHK)-based yellow wing pigments not found in close relatives. Visual models of how butterflies perceive wing color variation indicate this has resulted in an expansion of the number of distinguishable yellow colors on Heliconius wings. Functional diversification of the UV-sensitive visual pigments may help explain why the yellow wing pigments of Heliconius are so colorful in the UV range compared to the yellow pigments of close relatives lacking the UV opsin duplicate. PMID:20133601

Briscoe, Adriana D.; Bybee, Seth M.; Bernard, Gary D.; Yuan, Furong; Sison-Mangus, Marilou P.; Reed, Robert D.; Warren, Andrew D.; Llorente-Bousquets, Jorge; Chiao, Chuan-Chin

2010-01-01

392

Biologically inspired flexible quasi-single-mode random laser: An integration of Pieris canidia butterfly wing and semiconductors  

Science.gov (United States)

Quasi-periodic structures of natural biomaterial membranes have great potentials to serve as resonance cavities to generate ecological friendly optoelectronic devices with low cost. To achieve the first attempt for the illustration of the underlying principle, the Pieris canidia butterfly wing was embedded with ZnO nanoparticles. Quite interestingly, it is found that the bio-inspired quasi-single-mode random laser can be achieved by the assistance of the skeleton of the membrane, in which ZnO nanoparticles act as emitting gain media. Such unique characteristics can be interpreted well by the Fabry-Perot resonance existing in the window-like quasi-periodic structure of butterfly wing. Due to the inherently promising flexibility of butterfly wing membrane, the laser action can still be maintained during the bending process. Our demonstrated approach not only indicates that the natural biological structures can provide effective scattering feedbacks but also pave a new avenue towards designing bio-controlled photonic devices. PMID:25338507

Wang, Cih-Su; Chang, Tsung-Yuan; Lin, Tai-Yuan; Chen, Yang-Fang

2014-01-01

393

Biologically inspired flexible quasi-single-mode random laser: An integration of Pieris canidia butterfly wing and semiconductors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Quasi-periodic structures of natural biomaterial membranes have great potentials to serve as resonance cavities to generate ecological friendly optoelectronic devices with low cost. To achieve the first attempt for the illustration of the underlying principle, the Pieris canidia butterfly wing was embedded with ZnO nanoparticles. Quite interestingly, it is found that the bio-inspired quasi-single-mode random laser can be achieved by the assistance of the skeleton of the membrane, in which ZnO nanoparticles act as emitting gain media. Such unique characteristics can be interpreted well by the Fabry-Perot resonance existing in the window-like quasi-periodic structure of butterfly wing. Due to the inherently promising flexibility of butterfly wing membrane, the laser action can still be maintained during the bending process. Our demonstrated approach not only indicates that the natural biological structures can provide effective scattering feedbacks but also pave a new avenue towards designing bio-controlled photonic devices. PMID:25338507

Wang, Cih-Su; Chang, Tsung-Yuan; Lin, Tai-Yuan; Chen, Yang-Fang

2014-01-01

394

A FIB/TEM study of butterfly crack formation and white etching area (WEA) microstructural changes under rolling contact fatigue in 100Cr6 bearing steel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Butterflies are microscopic damage features forming at subsurface material imperfections induced during rolling contact fatigue (RCF) in rolling element bearings. Butterflies can lead to degradation of the load bearing capacity of the material by their associated cracks causing premature spalling failures. Recently, butterfly formation has been cited to be related to a premature failure mode in wind turbine gearbox bearings; white structure flaking (WSF). Butterflies consist of cracks with surrounding microstructural change called ‘white etching area’ (WEA) forming wings that revolve around their initiators. The formation mechanisms of butterflies in bearing steels have been studied over the last 50 years, but are still not fully understood. This paper presents a detailed microstructural analysis of a butterfly that has initiated from a void in standard 100Cr6 bearing steel under rolling contact fatigue on a laboratory two-roller test rig under transient operating conditions. Analysis was conducted using focused ion beam (FIB) tomography, 3D reconstruction and transmission electron microscopy (STEM/TEM) methods. FIB tomography revealed an extensive presence of voids/cavities immediately adjacent to the main crack on the non-WEA side and at the crack tip. This provides evidence for a void/cavity coalescence mechanism for the butterfly cracks formation. Spherical M3C carbide deformation and dissolution as part of the microstructural change in WEA were observed in both FIB and STEM/TEM analyses, where TEM analyses also revealed the formation of superfine nano-grains (3–15 nm diameter) intersecting a dissolving spherical M3C carbide. This is evidence of the early formation of nano-grains associated with the WEA formation mechanism

395

Sound production and hearing in the blue cracker butterfly Hamadryas feronia (Lepidoptera, nymphalidae) from Venezuela.  

Science.gov (United States)

Certain species of Hamadryas butterflies are known to use sounds during interactions with conspecifics. We have observed the behaviour associated with sound production and report on the acoustic characteristics of these sounds and on the anatomy and physiology of the hearing organ in one species, Hamadryas feronia, from Venezuela. Our observations confirm previous reports that males of this species will take flight from their tree perch when they detect a passing conspecific (male or female) and, during the chase, produce clicking sounds. Our analyses of both hand-held males and those flying in the field show that the sounds are short (approximately 0.5 s) trains of intense (approximately 80-100 dB SPL at 10 cm) and brief (2-3 ms) double-component clicks, exhibiting a broad frequency spectrum with a peak energy around 13-15 kHz. Our preliminary results on the mechanism of sound production showed that males can produce clicks using only one wing, thus contradicting a previous hypothesis that it is a percussive mechanism. The organ of hearing is believed to be Vogel's organ, which is located at the base of the forewing subcostal and cubital veins. Vogel's organ consists of a thinned region of exoskeleton (the tympanum) bordered by a rigid chitinous ring; associated with its inner surface are three chordotonal sensory organs and enlarged tracheae. The largest chordotonal organ attaches to a sclerite positioned near the center of the eardrum and possesses more than 110 scolopidial units. The two smaller organs attach to the perimeter of the membrane. Extracellular recordings from the nerve branch innervating the largest chordotonal organ confirm auditory sensitivity with a threshold of 68 dB SPL at the best frequency of 1.75 kHz. Hence, the clicks with peak energy around 14 kHz are acoustically mismatched to the best frequencies of the ear. However, the clicks are broad-banded and even at 1-2 kHz, far from the peak frequency, the energy is sufficient such that the butterflies can easily hear each other at the close distances at which they interact (less than 30 cm). In H. feronia, Vogel's organ meets the anatomical and functional criteria for being recognized as a typical insect tympanal ear. PMID:11076733

Yack, J E; Otero, L D; Dawson, J W; Surlykke, A; Fullard, J H

2000-12-01

396

Montane speciation patterns in Ithomiola butterflies (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae): are they consistently moving up in the world?  

Science.gov (United States)

Tropical lowland areas have often been seen as the centres of terrestrial species proliferation, but recent evidence suggests that young species may be more frequent in montane areas. Several montane speciation modes have been proposed, but their relative frequencies and predominant evolutionary sequence remain unclear because so few biogeographic and phylogenetic studies have tested such questions. I use morphological data to generate a phylogenetic hypothesis for all 11 species of the riodinid butterfly genus Ithomiola (Riodininae: Mesosemiini: Napaeina). These species are shown here to be all strictly geographically and elevationally allo- or parapatrically distributed with respect to their closest relatives in lowland and montane regions throughout the Neotropics. The overwhelming pattern in Ithomiola is of repeated upward parapatric speciation across an elevational gradient, and the genus appears to provide the clearest example to date of vertical montane speciation. All of the young derived species are montane and all of the old basal species are confined to the lowlands, supporting the hypothesis of montane regions largely as 'species pumps' and lowland regions as 'museums'. Possible reasons for the post-speciation maintenance of parapatric ranges in Ithomiola are discussed. PMID:16271969

Hall, Jason P W

2005-12-01

397

Serotonin-induced mate rejection in the female cabbage butterfly, Pieris rapae crucivora  

Science.gov (United States)

Virgin female cabbage butterflies, Pieris rapae crucivora, accept and mate with courting males, whereas mated females reject them and assume the "mate refusal posture". This study tested whether the biogenic amines, serotonin (5HT), dopamine (DA), and octopamine (OA), were responsible for this change in behavior. The results showed that 2-3-day-old virgin females fed with 5HT rejected courting males significantly more frequently compared with controls fed on sucrose. In contrast, the proportions of courting males rejected by virgin females fed with either DA or OA did not differ from sucrose-fed controls. Oral application of each amine resulted in significantly increased levels of the amine applied (or its metabolite) in the brain. The results strongly suggest that 5HT or a 5HT metabolite may be responsible for the post-mating change in behavioral response of 2-3-day-old virgin females to courting males. Similar effects of 5HT treatment were observed in 6-8-day-old virgin females, but in this case the results were only marginally different from the controls, suggesting that the effect may decline with increasing female age.

Obara, Yoshiaki; Fukano, Yuya; Watanabe, Kenta; Ozawa, Gaku; Sasaki, Ken

2011-11-01

398

Evolutionary dynamics of rDNA clusters on chromosomes of moths and butterflies (Lepidoptera).  

Science.gov (United States)

We examined chromosomal distribution of major ribosomal DNAs (rDNAs), clustered in the nucleolar organizer regions (NORs), in 18 species of moths and butterflies using fluorescence in situ hybridization with a codling moth (Cydia pomonella) 18S rDNA probe. Most species showed one or two rDNA clusters in their haploid karyotype but exceptions with 4-11 clusters also occurred. Our results in a compilation with previous data revealed dynamic evolution of rDNA distribution in Lepidoptera except Noctuoidea, which showed a highly uniform rDNA pattern. In karyotypes with one NOR, interstitial location of rDNA prevailed, whereas two-NOR karyotypes showed mostly terminally located rDNA clusters. A possible origin of the single interstitial NOR by fusion between two NOR-chromosomes with terminal rDNA clusters lacks support in available data. In some species, spreading of rDNA to new, mostly terminal chromosome regions was found. The multiplication of rDNA clusters without alteration of chromosome numbers rules out chromosome fissions as a major mechanism of rDNA expansion. Based on rDNA dynamics in Lepidoptera and considering the role of ordered nuclear architecture in karyotype evolution, we propose ectopic recombination, i.e., homologous recombination between repetitive sequences of non-homologous chromosomes, as a primary motive force in rDNA repatterning. PMID:19921441

Nguyen, Petr; Sahara, Ken; Yoshido, Atsuo; Marec, Frantisek

2010-03-01

399

Population genomics of parallel hybrid zones in the mimetic butterflies, H. melpomene and H. erato.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hybrid zones can be valuable tools for studying evolution and identifying genomic regions responsible for adaptive divergence and underlying phenotypic variation. Hybrid zones between subspecies of Heliconius butterflies can be very narrow and are maintained by strong selection acting on color pattern. The comimetic species, H. erato and H. melpomene, have parallel hybrid zones in which both species undergo a change from one color pattern form to another. We use restriction-associated DNA sequencing to obtain several thousand genome-wide sequence markers and use these to analyze patterns of population divergence across two pairs of parallel hybrid zones in Peru and Ecuador. We compare two approaches for analysis of this type of data-alignment to a reference genome and de novo assembly-and find that alignment gives the best results for species both closely (H. melpomene) and distantly (H. erato, ?15% divergent) related to the reference sequence. Our results confirm that the color pattern controlling loci account for the majority of divergent regions across the genome, but we also detect other divergent regions apparently unlinked to color pattern differences. We also use association mapping to identify previously unmapped color pattern loci, in particular the Ro locus. Finally, we identify a new cryptic population of H. timareta in Ecuador, which occurs at relatively low altitude and is mimetic with H. melpomene malleti. PMID:24823669

Nadeau, Nicola J; Ruiz, Mayté; Salazar, Patricio; Counterman, Brian; Medina, Jose Alejandro; Ortiz-Zuazaga, Humberto; Morrison, Anna; McMillan, W Owen; Jiggins, Chris D; Papa, Riccardo

2014-08-01

400

Protein detection in spermatids and spermatozoa of the butterfly Euptoieta hegesia (Lepidoptera).  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was undertaken to detect protein components in both sperm types of the butterfly Euptoieta hegesia. These spermatozoa possess complex extracellular structures for which the composition and functional significance are still unclear. In the apyrene sperm head, the proteic cap presented an external ring and an internal dense content; basic proteins were detected only in external portions. In the tail, the paracrystalline core of mitochondrial derivatives and the axoneme are rich in proteins. The extratesticular spermatozoa are covered by a proteic coat, which presented two distinct layers. In eupyrene spermatozoa, acrosome and nucleus were negatively stained, probably because of their high compaction. In the tail, there is no paracrystalline core and the axoneme presented a very specific reaction for basic proteins. The lacinate and reticular appendages are composed of cylindrical sub-units and presented a light reaction to E-PTA and a strong reaction to tannic acid. A complex proteic coat also covers the extratesticular spermatozoa. We found similarities between both extratesticular coats, indicating a possible common origin. Both spermatozoon types are rich in proteins, especially the eupyrene appendages and the extratesticular coats. We believe that both coats are related to the sperm maturation and capacitation processes. PMID:15633453

Mancini, Karina; Dolder, Heidi

2004-12-01

 
 
 
 
401

Protein detection in spermatids and spermatozoa of the butterfly Euptoieta hegesia (Lepidoptera)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: English Abstract in english This study was undertaken to detect protein components in both sperm types of the butterfly Euptoieta hegesia. These spermatozoa possess complex extracellular structures for which the composition and functional significance are still unclear. In the apyrene sperm head, the proteic cap presented an e [...] xternal ring and an internal dense content; basic proteins were detected only in external portions. In the tail, the paracrystalline core of mitochondrial derivatives and the axoneme are rich in proteins. The extratesticular spermatozoa are covered by a proteic coat, which presented two distinct layers. In eupyrene spermatozoa, acrosome and nucleus were negatively stained, probably because of their high compaction. In the tail, there is no paracrystalline core and the axoneme presented a very specific reaction for basic proteins. The lacinate and reticular appendages are composed of cylindrical sub-units and presented a light reaction to E-PTA and a strong reaction to tannic acid. A complex proteic coat also covers the extratesticular spermatozoa. We found similarities between both extratesticular coats, indicating a possible common origin. Both spermatozoon types are rich in proteins, especially the eupyrene appendages and the extratesticular coats. We believe that both coats are related to the sperm maturation and capacitation processes.

Karina, Mancini; Heidi, Dolder.

402

Detailed experimental analysis of the structural fluorescence in the butterfly Morpho sulkowskyi (Nymphalidae)  

Science.gov (United States)

The Morpho sulkowskyi concentrates on its dorsal wings complementary features contributing to its visual attraction: predominantly translucent, their wings display a blue coloration due to light interference. Fluorescent molecules, producing a violet-blue coloration when irradiated by ultraviolet light, are embedded in the scales which present a two-dimensional photonic structure. We investigate i. the effects of the fluorophores confinement in the structure on the variation of the emission intensity and coloration with the observation direction and ii. the correlation between the reflection and emission processes that control the surface optical response. Three types of measurements have been carried out. The morphology of the butterfly was examined with a scanning electron microscope. Then, the spatial distribution of the reflected light was measured with a viewing angle instrument, providing bidirectional reflectance distribution function data. Finally, an automatic method coupling an ultraviolet source to a gonio-spectrophotometer allowed for an extensive fluorescent emission characterization and provided angular emission maps. We find a spatial variation of the emission intensity and coloration and also an exhaustion behavior of the fluorophores. Moreover, we reveal that the spatial distribution of the emitted and reflected light is mainly governed by the photonic structure.

van Hooijdonk, Eloise; Barthou, Carlos; Vigneron, Jean Pol; Berthier, Serge

2011-01-01

403

Biosynthesis of cathodoluminescent zinc oxide replicas using butterfly (Papilio paris) wing scales as templates  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Papilio paris butterflies have an iridescent blue color patch on their hind wings which is visible over a wide viewing angle. Optical and scanning electron microscopy observations of scales from the wings show that the blue color scales have very different microstructure to the matt black ones which also populate the wings. Scanning electron micrographs of the blue scales show that their surfaces comprise a regular two-dimensional array of concavities. By contrast the matt black scales have fine, sponge-like structure, between the ridges and the cross ribs in the scales. Using both types of scale as bio-templates, we obtain zinc oxide (ZnO) replicas of the microstructures of the original scales. Room temperature (T = 300 K) cathodoluminescence spectra of these ZnO replicas have also been studied. Both spectra show a similar sharp near-band-edge emission, but have different green emission, which we associate with the different microstructures of the ZnO replicas

404

The evolution of alternative parasitic life histories in large blue butterflies.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Large blue (Maculinea) butterflies are highly endangered throughout the Palaearctic region, and have been the focus of intense conservation research. In addition, their extraordinary parasitic lifestyles make them ideal for studies of life history evolution. Early instars consume flower buds of specific host plants, but later instars live in ant nests where they either devour the brood (predators), or are fed mouth-to-mouth by the adult ants (cuckoos). Here we present the phylogeny for the group, which shows that it is a monophyletic clade nested within Phengaris, a rare Oriental genus whose species have similar life histories. Cuckoo species are likely to have evolved from predatory ancestors. As early as five million years ago, two Maculinea clades diverged, leading to the different parasitic strategies seen in the genus today. Contrary to current belief, the two recognized cuckoo species show little genetic divergence and are probably a single ecologically differentiated species. On the other hand, some ofthe predatory morphospecies exhibit considerable genetic divergence and may contain cryptic species. These findings have important implications for conservation and reintroduction efforts. Udgivelsesdato: 2004-Nov-18

Als, Thomas D; Vila, Roger

2004-01-01

405

The evolution of alternative parasitic life histories in large blue butterflies  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Large blue (Maculinea) butterflies are highly endangered throughout the Palaearctic region, and have been the focus of intense conservation research. In addition, their extraordinary parasitic lifestyles make them ideal for studies of life history evolution. Early instars consume flower buds of specific host plants, but later instars live in ant nests where they either devour the brood (predators), or are fed mouth-to-mouth by the adult ants (cuckoos). Here we present the phylogeny for the group, which shows that it is a monophyletic clade nested within Phengaris, a rare Oriental genus whose species have similar life histories. Cuckoo species are likely to have evolved from predatory ancestors. As early as five million years ago, two Maculinea clades diverged, leading to the different parasitic strategies seen in the genus today. Contrary to current belief, the two recognized cuckoo species show little genetic divergence and are probably a single ecologically differentiated species. On the other hand, some ofthe predatory morphospecies exhibit considerable genetic divergence and may contain cryptic species. These findings have important implications for conservation and reintroduction efforts.

Als, Thomas Damm; Vila, Roger

2004-01-01

406

Heritability of flight and resting metabolic rates in the Glanville fritillary butterfly.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dispersal capacity is a key life-history trait especially in species inhabiting fragmented landscapes. Evolutionary models predict that, given sufficient heritable variation, dispersal rate responds to natural selection imposed by habitat loss and fragmentation. Here, we estimate phenotypic variance components and heritability of flight and resting metabolic rates (RMRs) in an ecological model species, the Glanville fritillary butterfly, in which flight metabolic rate (FMR) is known to correlate strongly with dispersal rate. We modelled a two-generation pedigree with the animal model to distinguish additive genetic variance from maternal and common environmental effects. The results show that FMR is significantly heritable, with additive genetic variance accounting for about 40% of total phenotypic variance; thus, FMR has the potential to respond to selection on dispersal capacity. Maternal influences on flight metabolism were negligible. Heritability of flight metabolism was context dependent, as in stressful thermal conditions, environmentally induced variation dominated over additive genetic effects. There was no heritability in RMR, which was instead strongly influenced by maternal effects. This study contributes to a mechanistic understanding of the evolution of dispersal-related traits, a pressing question in view of the challenges posed to many species by changing climate and fragmentation of natural habitats. PMID:24909057

Mattila, A L K; Hanski, I

2014-08-01

407

Cytochrome P450 gene CYP337 and heritability of fitness traits in the Glanville fritillary butterfly.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fitness-related life history traits often show substantial heritable genetic variation in natural populations, but knowledge of the genetic architecture of these traits is limited. In the Glanville fritillary butterfly, we measured the heritability of key life history traits in a large outdoor population cage during 2 years and generations and combined this experiment with an association study of a set of candidate genes. The genes were selected on the basis of previous genomic and transcriptomic studies and have been linked to the physiology and life history of this or other arthropod species. Heritability was high and significant for two traits, post-diapause larval development time (h(2) = 0.37) and lifetime egg (and larval) production (h(2) = 0.62); the latter is closely related to lifetime reproductive success and therefore fitness. We discovered a strong association between genetic polymorphism in the cytochrome P450 gene CYP337 and lifetime egg production, which accounted for 14% of the additive variance in egg production. This gene belongs to a group of cytochrome P450 genes that have a well-documented role in host plant adaptations in Lepidoptera and other insects and is likely to play an important role in the ecology and microevolution of the Glanville fritillary. This study provides a prime example of a gene associated with heritable fitness variation, measured under semi-natural ecological conditions. PMID:24552294

de Jong, M A; Wong, S C; Lehtonen, R; Hanski, I

2014-04-01

408

Trophic cascades: linking ungulates to shrub-dependent birds and butterflies.  

Science.gov (United States)

1. Studies demonstrating trophic cascades through the loss of top-down regulatory processes in productive and biologically diverse terrestrial ecosystems are limited. 2. Elk Island National Park, Alberta and surrounding protected areas have a wide range of ungulate density due to the functional loss of top predators, management for high ungulate numbers and variable hunting pressure. This provides an ideal setting for studying the effects of hyper-abundant ungulates on vegetation and shrub-dependent bird and butterfly species. 3. To examine the cascading effects of high ungulate density, we quantified vegetation characteristics and abundances of yellow warbler Dendroica petechia and Canadian tiger swallowtail Papilio canadensis under different ungulate density in and around Elk Island National Park. 4. Using Structural Equation Models we found that ungulate density was inversely related to shrub cover, whereas shrub cover was positively related to yellow warbler abundance. In addition, chokecherry Prunus virginiana abundance was inversely related to browse impact but positively related to P. canadensis abundance. 5. These results demonstrate a cascade resulting from hyper-abundant ungulates on yellow warblers and Canadian tiger swallowtails through reductions in shrub cover and larval host plant density. The combined effect of the functional loss of top predators and management strategies that maintain high ungulate numbers can decouple top-down regulation of productive temperate ecosystems. PMID:23800226

J Teichman, Kristine; Nielsen, Scott E; Roland, Jens

2013-11-01

409

Mechanisms of macroevolution: polyphagous plasticity in butterfly larvae revealed by RNA-Seq.  

Science.gov (United States)

Transcriptome studies of insect herbivory are still rare, yet studies in model systems have uncovered patterns of transcript regulation that appear to provide insights into how insect herbivores attain polyphagy, such as a general increase in expression breadth and regulation of ribosomal, digestion- and detoxification-related genes. We investigated the potential generality of these emerging patterns, in the Swedish comma, Polygonia c-album, which is a polyphagous, widely-distributed butterfly. Urtica dioica and Ribes uva-crispa are hosts of P. c-album, but Ribes represents a recent evolutionary shift onto a very divergent host. Utilizing the assembled transcriptome for read mapping, we assessed gene expression finding that caterpillar life-history (i.e. 2nd vs. 4th-instar regulation) had a limited influence on gene expression plasticity. In contrast, differential expression in response to host-plant identified genes encoding serine-type endopeptidases, membrane-associated proteins and transporters. Differential regulation of genes involved in nucleic acid binding was also observed suggesting that polyphagy involves large scale transcriptional changes. Additionally, transcripts coding for structural constituents of the cuticle were differentially expressed in caterpillars in response to their diet indicating that the insect cuticle may be a target for plant defence. Our results state that emerging patterns of transcript regulation from model species appear relevant in species when placed in an evolutionary context. PMID:23952264

de la Paz Celorio-Mancera, Maria; Wheat, Christopher W; Vogel, Heiko; Söderlind, Lina; Janz, Niklas; Nylin, Sören

2013-10-01

410

In the shadow of phylogenetic uncertainty: the recent diversification of Lysandra butterflies through chromosomal change.  

Science.gov (United States)

The phylogeny of the butterfly genus Lysandra (Lycaenidae, Polyommatinae) has been intractable using both molecular and morphological characters, which could be a result of speciation due to karyotype instability. Here we reconstruct the phylogeny of the group using multi-locus coalescent-based methods on seven independent genetic markers. While the genus is ca. 4.9 Mya old, the diversification of the extant lineages was extremely recent (ca. 1.5 Mya) and involved multiple chromosomal rearrangements. We find that relationships are uncertain due to both incomplete lineage sorting and hybridization. Minimizing the impact of reticulation in inferring the species tree by testing for mitochondrial introgression events yields a partially resolved tree with three main supported clades: L. punctifera+L. bellargus, the corydonius taxa, and L. coridon+the Iberian taxa, plus three independent lineages without apparently close relatives (L. ossmar, L. syriaca and L. dezina). Based on these results and new karyotypic data, we propose a rearrangement recognizing ten species within the genus. Finally, we hypothesize that chromosomal instability may have played a crucial role in the Lysandra recent diversification. New chromosome rearrangements might be fixed in populations after severe bottlenecks, which at the same time might promote rapid sorting of neutral molecular markers. We argue that population bottlenecks might be a prerequisite for chromosomal speciation in this group. PMID:23954756

Talavera, Gerard; Lukhtanov, Vladimir A; Rieppel, Lukas; Pierce, Naomi E; Vila, Roger

2013-12-01

411

Distrofia em forma-de-borboleta: relato de caso / Butterfly-shaped pattern dystrophy: case report  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Os autores apresentam um caso de distrofia macular em forma-de-borboleta, diagnosticado em paciente do sexo masculino, apresentando concomitante atrofia do epitélio pigmentado da retina e perda visual central em um dos olhos. Os achados relatados contrariam conceitos inicialmente disponíveis de curs [...] o sempre benigno da doença. A lesão característica e bem delimitada no pólo posterior e a angiofluoresceinografia, permitiram estabelecer o diagnóstico. Descreve-se ainda, pela primeira vez, os achados da distrofia em forma-de-borboleta à tomografia de coerência óptica. Abstract in english The authors present a case of butterfly-shaped pattern dystrophy diagnosed in a male patient, with retinal pigmented epithelium atrophy and central visual acuity decrease in one of the eyes. The evolution of this case was not benign as described in previous reports. A well-defined lesion located in [...] the posterior pole of both eyes associated with fluorescein angiography allowed the diagnosis of this pattern dystrophy. Optical coherence tomography was performed, showing the aspects of the pathology, for the first time.

David Leonardo Cruvinel, Isaac; Rodrigo Almeida Vieira, Santos; Marcos, Ávila.

2007-02-01