WorldWideScience
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Multiple infection with Wolbachia inducing different reproductive manipulations in the butterfly Eurema hecabe.  

OpenAIRE

Wolbachia are rickettsial intracellular symbionts of arthropods and nematodes. In arthropods, they act as selfish genetic elements and manipulate host reproduction, including sex-ratio distortion and cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI). Previous studies showed that infection of feminizing Wolbachia and CI Wolbachia sympatrically occurred in the butterfly Eurema hecabe. We demonstrate that feminization-infecting individuals can rescue sperm modified by CI-infecting males. Phylogenetic analysis re...

Hiroki, Masato; Tagami, Yohsuke; Miura, Kazuki; Kato, Yoshiomi

2004-01-01

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Ecological correlates of polyphenism and gregarious roosting in the grass yellow butterfly Eurema elathea (Pieridae Correlatos ecológicos do polifenismo e dormitórios gregários da borboleta-amarela-da-grama Eurema elathea (Pieridae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Eurema elathea adults were censused weekly (1992-1994 in six night-roosts around a forest fragment on a farm, and in two roosts in the urban area of Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Males were grouped in six phenotypic classes. These were based on a range between having a conspicuous wide black bar at the dorsal forewing inner margin (wet season dark morphs and the absence of that bar (dry season light morphs. The body mass and wing area of co-occurring morphs were compared: differents morphs showed similar means. The abundance of butterflies and morph frequencies varied in close relation to humidity (rainfall. Individuals were infrequent and monomorphically dark in the wet season while light morphs predominated in dry periods when population peaked. A lower fraction of recaptured individuals and higher recruitment were recorded compared to other night-roosting butterflies. Dispersal potential was similar between the sexes and varied seasonally with a more sedentary population in dry periods. The maximum residence time recorded was 91 days for a female and 84 days for a male. The fraction of individuals that moved from one roosting site to another was similar in both sexes and male morphs, but significantly higher on the farm than in the urban area. Also, a significantly higher fraction (21.3% of marked butterflies was recaptured in the urban area than on the farm (15.6%, suggesting a behavioral modification for sedentariness in the urban individuals. The selective forces shaping a gregarious roosting habit in E. elathea and other butterflies are discussed and a protocooperational strategy for saving energy is proposed.Adultos de Eurema elathea foram estudados semanalmente (1992-1994 em seis locais (dormitórios, ao redor de um fragmento de mata em uma fazenda e em dois locais na área urbana de Uberlândia, MG. Os machos foram classificados em seis categorias fenotípicas, as quais variam desde a presença de uma grande e conspícua barra preta na margem interna dorsal da asa anterior (forma escura da estação úmida até a ausência da barra (forma clara da estação seca. A massa corporal e a área da asa foram comparadas: formas diferentes mostraram médias similares. A abundância das borboletas e a freqüência das formas variaram conforme a umidade (chuvas. Na estação úmida, os indivíduos foram menos freqüentes e monomorficamente escuros, enquanto na seca, a população aumenta e as formas claras predominam. As taxas de recaptura e recrutamento são comparadas com outras borboletas que se agregam durante a noite. O potencial de dispersão foi similar entre os sexos e variou sazonalmente, sendo que a população é mais sedentária no período seco. O máximo tempo de residência registrado foi de 91 dias para uma fêmea e de 84 dias para um macho. A fração de indivíduos que se moveram de um sítio de descanso para outro foi similar em ambos os sexos e formas de machos, mas foi significativamente maior na fazenda em relação à área urbana. Da mesma forma, foi recapturada uma fração significativamente maior (21,3% de borboletas marcadas na área urbana do que na fazenda (15,6%, sugerindo modificação comportamental para o sedentarismo nos indivíduos urbanos. São discutidas as forças seletivas que moldam o hábito de descanso gregário em E. elathea e em outras borboletas, e propõe-se uma estratégia protocooperativa de economia de energia.

A. Ruszczyk

2004-02-01

3

Butterfly diversity as a data base for the development plan of Butterfly Garden at Bosscha Observatory, Lembang, West Java  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Subahar TSS, Yuliana A (2010 Butterfly diversity as a data base for the development plan of Butterfly Garden at Bosscha Observatory, Lembang, West Java. Biodiversitas 11: 24-28. Change of land use and the increasing number of visitors to Bosscha area was one factor for the development plan of butterfly garden in the area. The objectives of this research were to examine butterfly diversity and its potential for development plan of butterfly garden. Butterfly diversity and its richness conducted by standard walk methods. Host plant and larval food plant was recorded during butterfly survey. Public perception on the development plan of butterfly garden was examined by questionnaire. The results showed that 26 species of butterfly was found in Bosscha area and Delias belisama belisama was the most dominant species. Public perceptions consider that the development plan of butterfly garden will give benefit to the community; not only providing new insight (40.41%, additional tourism object (23.97% and will gave aesthetical value (17.12%. Twelve local species should be considered for development plan of butterfly garden: Papilio agamemnon, P. demoleus, P. memnon, P. sarpedon, Delias belisama, Eurema hecabe, Danaus chrysippus, Argynis hiperbius, Cethosia penthesilea, Hypolimnas missipus, Melanitis phedima and Euthalia Adonijah. Host plant: Bougainvillea spectabilis, Citrus aurantium, Lantana camara, Macaranga tanarius and food plants: Citrus aurantium, Cosmos caudatus, Eupatorium inulifolium, Gomphrena globosa, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Lantana camara, and Tithonia diversifolia.

TATI SURYATI SYAMSUDIN SUBAHAR

2010-01-01

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Seasonal Variation in Diversity and Abundance of Butterfly at Sawanga Vithoba Lake Area District Amravati, Maharashtra India  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Butterflies are the best taxonomically studied groups of insects and are also good indicators of environmental changes. Because of their diversity, wide distribution, specificity to vegetation type, rapid response to perturbation, taxonomic tractability, statistically significant abundance and ease of sampling, they have been considered useful organisms to monitor environmental changes. The present work is result of a survey on butterfly fauna of Sawanga-Vithoba Lake region. For the observations of the species transect of 1 km long and 5 m wide was followed. Butterflies were primarily identified directly in the field or, following photography. Study was carried out for one year. Total 28 species of butterfly at Sawanga Vithoba lake area under five different families were observed. Most of the species were common. Two rare species were observed in this region. Butterfly exhibits seasonal variation in distribution of species at four stations of Sawanga Vithoba lake. In monsoon total number of species was more than in winter and summer. Few species of butterfly such as Papilio machaon (Linnaeus, Parnara guttata (Brener and Grey. Cepora nerissa (Fabricius, Pieris brassicae (Linnaeus, Junonia almana (Linnaeus, Junonia lemonias (Linnaeus, Phalanta phalantha (Drury and Acraea terpsicore were not observed in summer. Much similar species of butterfly are observed at four stations of Sawanga Vithoba Lake area. Species richness of few species such as Catochrysops strabo, Eurema hecabe (Linnaeus, Pseudozizeeria maha (Kollar is higher in all the seasons. Family Nymphalidae is the most represented family at Sawanga Vithoba lake region district Amravati.

Narendra Manwar

2014-01-01

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Butterflies  

Science.gov (United States)

Let\\'s learn about butterflies . Click on the following websites to learn about butterflies. 1. Butterflies 2. Butterflies of North America 3. The Butterfly WebSite - butterfly photos, butterfly clipart, education, butterfly zoos and more 4. The Butterfly Site.com 5. Connecticut Butterfly Association ...

D'S, Mrs.

2005-06-22

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Resource-mediated condition dependence in sexually dichromatic butterfly wing coloration.  

Science.gov (United States)

Theory predicts that traits subject to strong sexual selection should evolve to be more exaggerated and developmentally integrated than nonsexual traits, thus leading to heightened condition dependence. Until recently, however, efforts to evaluate this prediction have suffered from either a purely correlational (nonmanipulative) approach, or from using manipulations of doubtful ecological relevance. Here I address these issues by integrating observation and manipulation to study condition- and sex-related color variation in a butterfly. The focal species, Eurema hecabe (Pieridae), possesses three sexually homologous and morphogenetically discrete dorsal wing color elements-coherently scattered ultraviolet (UV), pteridine yellow, and melaninic black. The UV is most strongly sexually selected, and is also the only color element with restricted distribution across female wings. Condition dependence and sexual dichromatism were pervasive, characterizing all color traits except the melanic black, and acting such that low condition males resembled high condition females. Although female coloration tended to exhibit greater phenotypic variation, size-scaled UV was more variable and condition dependent in males. Importantly, manipulation of larval resources was sufficient to closely reconstruct the extent and patterns of field-observed phenotypic variation in condition, and color trait expression, which implicates larval resource acquisition as a primary driver of condition dependence. These results support theories regarding phenotypic variation in sexually selected traits. PMID:18637962

Kemp, Darrell J

2008-09-01

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Butterfly  

Science.gov (United States)

This interactive Flash applet helps students explore patterns and symmetry by placing colored spots onto butterfly wings. There are three levels of challenge, the first using one color, and the second using two colors. The first two levels ask students to match spot patterns. The third level provides the student the opportunity to create other color combinations and spot patterns and asks students to count the spots they have used.

Bunker, Dan

2011-01-01

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Presence and distribution of two sub-species of Eurema agave (Lepidoptera, Pieridae in Costa Rica  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Austin (1992 reported Eurema a. agave (Cramer 1775 to the Caribbean of Costa Rica. However, he actually had found E. a. millerorum, described by Bousquets & Luis-Martinez (1987 for the Caribbean of Mexico. The presence of Eurema a. agave is confirmed on this paper with information of specimens collected in the Pacific and Atlantic slopes of Costa Rica. Aspects on distribution of both subspecies are included.

Jim Cordoba-Alfaro

2011-06-01

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Presencia y distribución de dos sub-especies de Eurema agave (Lepidoptera, Pieridae) en Costa Rica / Presence and distribution of two sub-species of Eurema agave (Lepidoptera, Pieridae) in Costa Rica  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Austin (1992) reportó a Eurema a. agave (Cramer 1775) para el Caribe de Costa Rica; sin embargo, en realidad lo que encontró fue a E. a. millerorum descrita por Bousquets & Luis-Martinez (1987) para el Caribe mexicano. La presencia de Eurema a. agave es confirmada en este trabajo por especimenes rec [...] olectados en la vertiente Pacífica y Atlántica de Costa Rica. Además se detallan aspectos de la distribución de ambas subespecies. Abstract in english Austin (1992) reported Eurema a. agave (Cramer 1775) to the Caribbean of Costa Rica. However, he actually had found E. a. millerorum, described by Bousquets & Luis-Martinez (1987) for the Caribbean of Mexico. The presence of Eurema a. agave is confirmed on this paper with information of specimens co [...] llected in the Pacific and Atlantic slopes of Costa Rica. Aspects on distribution of both subspecies are included.

Jim, Cordoba-Alfaro; Luis Ricardo, Murillo-Hiller.

2011-04-01

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Biology and distribution of butterfly fauna of Hazara University, Garden Campus, Mansehra, Pakistan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The butterflies are beautiful creature of nature with great economic importance as pollinator as well as bio-indicator of environments. The present survey was conducted to determine the biology and distribution of butterfly fauna of Hazara University, Garden Campus, Mansehra, Pakistan during March-June 2012. The study area was divided into 3 quadrates, i.e., residential area, administration area and main campus. A total of 170 specimens were collected, 10 species were identified belonging to 3 different families and falling in 8 genera. The species were identified. The painted lady, Cynthia cardui (Linnaeus; blue pansy, Junonia orithya Linnaeus; and plain tiger, Danaus chrysippus (Linnaeus were belonging to family Nymphalidae. The lime butterfly, Papilio demoleus Linnaeus and com-mon mormon, P. polytes Linnaeus were belonging to family Papilionidae. The dark clouded yellow, Colias croceus (Geoffroy; common grass yellow, Eumera hecab (Linnaeus; Murree green-veined white, Pieris ajaka Moore; green-veined white, P. napi (Linnaeus and Bath white, Pontia daplidice (Linnaeus were belonging to family Pieridae. The body sizes of E. hecabe and J. orithya were minimum, i.e., 1.4 cm (n = 4 - 13, however, D. chrysippus was maximum, i.e., 2.5 cm (n = 1. The wingspan of E. hecabe was minimum, i.e., 3.7 cm (n = 4, however, P. polytes was maximum, i.e., 7.5 cm (n = 1. Proper preventive measures should be taken into consideration in order to minimize the natural habitat loss, as butterfly fauna is dependent upon proper environmental conditions.

Farzana Perveen

2013-06-01

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Beautiful Butterflies  

Science.gov (United States)

Here are some websites about butterflies... blah blah blah Learn how to say butterfly in Spanish, French & German by going here... Butterfly in 300 languages Follow the instructions found on these pages... Life Cycles The Life Cycle--Caterpillars to Butterflies Look at life cycles found here... Missouri Botanical Garden-The Butterfly House & Education Center: The Butterfly School The Butterfly Site.com ...

Mom

2009-09-16

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Butterfly Lab  

Science.gov (United States)

This Web site comes from the Peggy Notebaert Nature Museum's Judy Istock Butterfly Haven, located in Chicago, Illinois. Designed for students in grades 7-12, Butterfly Lab offers online activities and materials covering butterfly anatomy, life cycle, behavior, and related topics. Detailed information is accompanied by colorful diagrams and photographs. Butterfly Lab also offers three offline activities involving butterfly anatomy, movement, identification, handling, and more. Students may submit their offline creations to be posted on the Web site. An audio feature allows users to listen to the Museum's director of biology discuss butterfly biology. The site includes a guide for teachers and a FAQ page.

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Morphing Butterfly  

Science.gov (United States)

In this activity, learners explore how nanosized structures can create brilliant color. Learners examine Blue Morpho butterflies in the light and discover what happens when they put a drop of alcohol on a butterfly's wing. Learners discover that some wings get their color from the nanoscale structures on the wings instead of pigments.

Sciencenter

2012-01-01

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The Butterfly Site.com: Butterfly Gardening  

Science.gov (United States)

Hosted by The Butterfly Site.com, this site offers a plethora of links covering many aspects of Butterfly Gardens. "A butterfly garden is an easy way to both see more butterflies and to contribute towards their conservation, since many natural butterfly habitats have been lost to urbanization and other development." Check out the regional map to see which butterflies can be found in your area. Then, click on the species of butterfly to find out more information about that species, including the types of plants you should grow to attract them to your garden.

2008-04-15

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Hidden Butterfly  

Science.gov (United States)

This reasoning activity challenges students to use the clues provided to figure out which number the butterfly was hidden behind. Students read each clue and eliminate the numbers from 1- 50 that don't fit, crossing them off on the number grid. They continue clue by clue until only one number remains. Included is the PDF document (downloadable), which includes 6 logic problems, answer key and a blank template for students to create their own Hidden Butterfly logic problems to challenge their classmates.

Kawas, Terry

2011-05-09

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The Children's Butterfly Site  

Science.gov (United States)

The Childrens Butterfly Site includes a photo gallery, coloring pages of the butterfly life cycle, a list of books and videos, an FAQ sheet, an opportunity to ask a scientist questions, and butterfly links. The reference lists include field guides, reference books, books on butterfly gardening and attracting butterflies, activities, and teacher resources. There is also a section on raising a caterpillar.

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Butterfly pupa anatomy  

Science.gov (United States)

The pupa is the third stage of the butterfly's life cycle. The caterpillar creates a pupa, sometimes called a chrysalis, and emerges as the adult butterfly after metamorphosis. The butterfly's wings will be used for flying.

Chip Taylor (University of Kansas;Monarch Watch)

2008-05-19

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Butterfly Nebula  

Science.gov (United States)

The Hubble Space Telescope's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) is back at work, capturing this image of the 'butterfly wing'- shaped nebula, NGC 2346. The nebula is about 2,000 light-years away from Earth in the direction of the constellation Monoceros. It represents the spectacular 'last gasp' of a binary star system at the nebula's center. The image was taken on March 6, 1997 as part of the recommissioning of the Hubble Space Telescope's previously installed scientific instruments following the successful servicing of the HST by NASA shuttle astronauts in February. WFPC2 was installed in HST during the servicing mission in 1993. At the center of the nebula lies a pair of stars that are so close together that they orbit around each other every 16 days. This is so close that, even with Hubble, the pair of stars cannot be resolved into its two components. One component of this binary is the hot core of a star that has ejected most of its outer layers, producing the surrounding nebula. Astronomers believe that this star, when it evolved and expanded to become a red giant, actually swallowed its companion star in an act of stellar cannibalism. The resulting interaction led to a spiraling together of the two stars, culminating in ejection of the outer layers of the red giant. Most of the outer layers were ejected into a dense disk, which can still be seen in the Hubble image, surrounding the central star. Later the hot star developed a fast stellar wind. This wind, blowing out into the surrounding disk, has inflated the large, wispy hourglass-shaped wings perpendicular to the disk. These wings produce the butterfly appearance when seen in projection. The total diameter of the nebula is about one-third of a light-year, or 2 trillion miles.

1997-01-01

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The Life of a Butterfly  

Science.gov (United States)

What are the butterfly's stages of life? 1. The Life of a Butterfly Organizer 2. The Monarch Butterfly 3. Voicethread on Monarch Butterfly life cycle 4. A video on how Monarch Butterflies flock together after migrating. 5. Another video on the life cycle of the Monarch Buttefly. 6. A fun game where you catch the butterfly! Now you should know the stages of life for the butterfly! Come see me for project instructions. Hope you enjoyed! ...

Greene, Logan

2011-04-06

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The Butterfly Conservatory  

Science.gov (United States)

This Web site, created to complement the museum's Butterfly Conservatory exhibit, looks at the butterflies that color our world. It includes an overview of butterfly anatomy, metamorphosis, defense mechanisms, evolution, and their role in ecology; as well as conservation efforts and the architecture of the exhibit's butterfly vivarium. There are movie clips and a Virtual Tour of the exhibit. Tips for how to cultivate a garden that attracts butterflies, an image library of nectar and host plants, and books and Web sites for further reference are also included.

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Butterfly Ejecta  

Science.gov (United States)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Released 4 September 2003In the heavily cratered southern highlands of Mars, the type of crater seen in this THEMIS visible image is relatively rare. Elliptical craters with 'butterfly' ejecta patterns make up roughly 5% of the total crater population of Mars. They are caused by impactors which hit the surface at oblique, or very shallow angles. Similar craters are also seen in about the same abundance on the Moon and Venus.Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -24.6, Longitude 41 East (319 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

2003-01-01

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The Butterfly Site.com  

Science.gov (United States)

Are you interested in rearing butterflies with your kids or releasing live butterflies at your wedding? You can find out about these possibilities and many more at the Butterfly Site, a resource website-created by entomologist Randi Jones that is full of all kinds of annotated butterfly links. The Butterfly Site offers links to web resources in areas like Biology, Rearing, Conservation, Pictures, Live Releases, Fun Facts, and more. One especially neat site feature is the Butterfly Houses and Farms section which lists great places to observe and study butterflies. The butterfly houses and farms are hyperlinked and can be found in many states, and in several countries.

Jones, Randi

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Butterfly Life Cycle  

Science.gov (United States)

In this project we will be learning about the life cycle of a butterfly and how the caterpillar becomes to be a butterfly. WHAT IS THE LIFE CYCLE OF A BUTTERFLY??? Subject: Science, Grade level:3rd and 4th Grade. Objective# 5-Describing life cycles of various animals to include incomplete and complete metamorphosis. In this project, I am going to show the students what an amazing and unique tranformation the a Caterpillar goes through and ...

Katie

2009-10-22

24

Exploring Structures: Butterfly  

Science.gov (United States)

In this activity, learners investigate how some butterfly wings get their color. Learners compare Buttercup and Blue Morpho butterflies and discover what happens when they shine light at each of them. Learners discover that some wings get their color from the nanoscale structures on the wings instead of pigments.

2014-06-18

25

Unscrambling butterfly oogenesis  

OpenAIRE

Background: Butterflies are popular model organisms to study physiological mechanisms underlying variability in oogenesis and egg provisioning in response to environmental conditions. Nothing is known, however, about; the developmental mechanisms governing butterfly oogenesis, how polarity in the oocyte is established, or which particular maternal effect genes regulate early embryogenesis. To gain insights into these developmental mechanisms and to identify the conserved and diver...

Carter, Jean-michel; Baker, Simon C.; Pink, Ryan; Carter, David R. F.; Collins, Aiden; Tomlin, Jeremie; Gibbs, Melanie; Breuker, Casper J.

2013-01-01

26

Life of A Butterfly  

Science.gov (United States)

This project is geared for a second grade class as it follows the second grade core. Part of the second grade core states: Standard 3: Students will develop an understanding of their environment. Objective 1: Investigate relationships between plants and animals and how living things change during their lives. This particular lesson investigates the life of a butterfly, from caterpillar to cocoon, to a butterfly. .:LiFe oF a ButTeRflY:. OBJECTIVES: Standard 3: Students will develop and understand of their environment. Objective 1: Investigate relationships between plants and animals and how living things change during their lives. Through this activity students will use ...

Watterson, Miss.

2010-04-30

27

Supergene Controls Butterfly Mimicry  

Science.gov (United States)

The colorful Amazonian butterfly Heliconius Numata increases its odds of survival by mimicking the wing patterns of other closely-related species. New research reveals these varied wing patterns are under the control of a supergene.

n/a n/a (Scientific American;)

2011-08-17

28

Butterflies of Myanmar  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The document talks about species and habits of Myanmar butterflies that were mentioned by the Nature and Wildlife Conservation Division of the Forest Department under the Ministry of Forestry in Myanmar

29

Life Cycle of a Butterfly  

Science.gov (United States)

We will learn the basic cycle of a butterfly's life, starting with an egg and ending as a butterfly. Choose one of the following web pages to visit and learn about the life cycle of a butterfly: This link shows real pictures- Butterfly Life Cycle -OR- This link shows cartoon pictures- Life Cycle (clip art images) Now that you have knowledge about the butterfly, Test what you have learned with this fun life cycle activity! Life Cycle Activity When caterpillars change to butterflies, this is ...

Integratingtechlauryn

2012-02-07

30

Got Butterflies? Find Out Why  

Science.gov (United States)

... Story Smile Style Game GOT BUTTERFLIES? FIND OUT WHY Got Butterflies? Tongue-Tied? Pounding Headache? Learn what ... It prepares us for quick action — which is why the feeling goes away once whatever was stressing ...

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Butterfly valves for seawater  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recently in thermal and nuclear power stations and chemical plants which have become large capacity, large quantity of cooling water is required, and mostly seawater is utilized. In these cooling water systems, considering thermal efficiency and economy, the pipings become complex, and various control functions are demanded. For the purpose, the installation of shut-off valves and control valves for pipings is necessary. The various types of valves have been employed, and in particular, butterfly valves have many merits in their function, size, structure, operation, maintenance, usable period, price and so on. The corrosion behavior of seawater is complicated due to the pollution of seawater, therefore, the environment of the valves used for seawater became severe. The structure and the features of the butterfly valves for seawater, the change of the structure of the butterfly valves for seawater and the checkup of the butterfly valves for seawater are reported. The corrosion of metallic materials is complicatedly different due to the locating condition of plants, the state of pipings and the condition of use. The corrosion countermeasures for butterfly valves must be examined from the synthetic viewpoints. (K.I.)

32

Draw a Monarch Butterfly  

Science.gov (United States)

This OLogy activity helps kids to learn about scientific illustrations by walking them through the steps for drawing a monarch butterfly. The activity begins by introducing kids to the importance of scientific illustration and why scientists prefer drawings to photographs. A photograph of a monarch and a printable monarch butterfly outline are included. In addition, students need color photographs, other research materials, paper, an eraser, and a variety of pencils. The process of creating the scientific illustration is broken down into five steps: researching, developing observational skills, tracing, filling in the illustration, and doing the background. Notes about how to research and plant a butterfly garden are included for a follow-up activity.

33

The real butterfly effect  

Science.gov (United States)

Historical evidence is reviewed to show that what Ed Lorenz meant by the iconic phrase ‘the butterfly effect’ is not at all captured by the notion of sensitive dependence on initial conditions in low-order chaos. Rather, as presented in his 1969 Tellus paper, Lorenz intended the phrase to describe the existence of an absolute finite-time predicability barrier in certain multi-scale fluid systems, implying a breakdown of continuous dependence on initial conditions for large enough forecast lead times. To distinguish from ‘mere’ sensitive dependence, the effect discussed in Lorenz's Tellus paper is referred to as ‘the real butterfly effect’. Theoretical evidence for such a predictability barrier in a fluid described by the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations is discussed. Whilst it is still an open question whether the Navier-Stokes equation has this property, evidence from both idealized atmospheric simulators and analysis of operational weather forecasts suggests that the real butterfly effect exists in an asymptotic sense, i.e. for initial-time atmospheric perturbations that are small in scale and amplitude compared with (weather) scales of interest, but still large in scale and amplitude compared with variability in the viscous subrange. Despite this, the real butterfly effect is an intermittent phenomenon in the atmosphere, and its presence can be signalled a priori, and hence mitigated, by ensemble forecast methods.

Palmer, T. N.; Döring, A.; Seregin, G.

2014-09-01

34

Completing the operadic butterfly  

OpenAIRE

We complete a certain diagram (the operadic butterfly) of categories of algebras involving Com, As, and Lie by constructing a type of algebras which have 4 generating operations and 16 relations. The associated operad is self-dual for Koszul duality.

Loday, Jean-louis

2004-01-01

35

Lorenz Attractor -- Butterfly Effect  

Science.gov (United States)

The "Butterfly Effect", or more technically the "sensitive dependence on initial conditions", is the essence of chaos. This is illustrated an applet of the Lorenz Attractor. The demonstration shows a graphical representation of the time variation of three variables X(t),Y(t) and Z(t), coupled by non-linear evolution equations.

Michael Cross, Cal T.

36

Chasing the Hofstadter Butterfly  

OpenAIRE

We revisit the problem of self-similar properties of the Hofstadter butterfly spectrum, focusing on spectral as well as topological characteristics. In our studies involving all values of magnetic flux, we single out the most dominant hierarchy in the spectrum, which is found to be associated with an irrational number $\\zeta=2-\\sqrt{3}$. Characterizing an intrinsic frustration at smallest energy scale, this hidden quasicrystal encodes hierarchical set of topological quantum ...

Satija, Indubala

2014-01-01

37

The State of the UK's Butterflies 2011  

OpenAIRE

This report summarises the findings of two world-leading citizen science projects: the UK Butterfly Monitoring Scheme, which involves weekly butterfly counts at over 1,000 sites, and Butterflies for the New Millennium, which has collated over six million butterfly sightings across the UK from thousands of members of the public.

Fox, R.; Brereton, T. M.; Asher, J.; Botham, M. S.; Middlebrook, I.; Roy, D. B.; Warren, M. S.

2011-01-01

38

Structural color of butterflies: The case of Papilio butterflies  

Science.gov (United States)

The term ``structural color'' is often used to describe color produced by a material possessing periodic variations in refractive index, which is commonly observed in many species of butterflies. Papilio butterflies commonly have multilayered bowl structures on their wing scales but the resulting colorations are different each other. Papilio ulysses has blue colored wing and Papilio palinurus shows green coloration on its wing, while Papilio blumei has green coloration on the wing scales but display a blue colored tail. We investigated the structures of the scale on the wings of Papilio butterflies using focused ion beam milling and analyzed the structural origin of the structural color from each Papilio butterfly. The coloration mechanism was attributed to the combination of the multilayer reflection from different feature size coupled with additive color mixing.

Yoon, Beom-Jin; Park, Jung Ok; Srinivasarao, Mohan

2013-03-01

39

Comparative study of Butterfly valves  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This work tries to justify the hydrodynamic butterfly valves performance, using the EPRI tests, results carried out in laboratory and in situ. This justification will be possible if: - The valves to study are similar - Their performance is calculated using EPRI's methodology Looking for this objective, the elements of the present work are: 1. Brief EPRI butterfly valve description it wild provide the factors which are necessary to define the butterfly valves similarity. 2. EPRI tests description and range of validation against test data definition. 3. Description of the spanish butterfly analyzed valves, and comparison with the EPRI performance results, to prove that this valves are similar to the EPRI test valves. In this way, it will not be necessary to carry out particular dynamic tests on the spanish valves to describe their hydrodynamic performance. (Author)

40

Hidden Quasicrystal in Hofstadter Butterfly  

OpenAIRE

Topological description of hierarchical sets of spectral gaps of Hofstadter butterfly is found to be encoded in a quasicrystal where magnetic flux plays the role of a phase factor that shifts the origin of the quasiperiodic order. Revealing an intrinsic frustration at smallest energy scale, described by $\\zeta=2-\\sqrt{3}$, this irrational number characterizes the universal butterfly and is related to two quantum numbers that includes the Chern number of quantum Hall states. ...

Satija, Indubala I.

2014-01-01

41

Analisis Kinerja Jaringan Switching Butterfly  

OpenAIRE

Butterfly network adalah jaringan self-rute yang mampu bergerak serentak pada routing paket data dalam slot waktu dari satu set terminal input untuk set terminal output yang berbentuk seperti kupu – kupu. Routing yang melalui network tersebut di tentukan dari nilai bit pada setiap switching. Dalam Tugas Akhir ini dianalisis kinerja jaringan switching Butterfly. Dalam hal ini tolak ukur kinerja yang digunakan adalah throughput dan probabilitas blocking. Untuk dapat mengukur kinerja jarin...

William, Benny

2014-01-01

42

A new representation of Links: Butterflies  

CERN Document Server

With the idea of an eventual classification of 3-bridge links,\\ we define a very nice class of 3-balls (called butterflies) with faces identified by pairs, such that the identification space is $S^{3},$ and the image of a prefered set of edges is a link. Several examples are given. We prove that every link can be represented in this way (butterfly representation). We define the butterfly number of a link, and we show that the butterfly number and the bridge number of a link coincide. This is done by defining a move on the butterfly diagram. We give an example of two different butterflies with minimal butterfly number representing the knot $8_{20}.$ This raises the problem of finding a set of moves on a butterfly diagram connecting diagrams representing the same link. This is left as an open problem.

Hilden, H M; Tejada, D M; Toro, M M

2012-01-01

43

Monarch Watch: Planting a Butterfly Garden  

Science.gov (United States)

This Planting a Butterfly Garden website from Monarch Watch is a great introductory resource for teachers interested in starting an educational butterfly garden at their school. This site provides several useful information pages including Good Nectar Sources and lists of Larval Host Plants organized both by butterfly and by plant. The site also features a simple step-by-step teacher's guide written by a teacher from Maryland who planned and planted a butterfly garden at her middle school.

44

Butterfly larvae fool ants into mothering them  

Science.gov (United States)

Danish researchers have found that in some areas in their country, beautiful blue Alcon butterflies fool ants into raising the butterfly larvae instead of their own, a report explains. The reason? The butterflies have developed an outer coating that mimics that of the ants.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS;)

2008-01-03

45

Mutant butterflies discovered at Fukushima  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A Japanese study has shown that malformations are more and more common in butterflies (Zizeeria maha specie) leaving near the damaged nuclear plant of Fukushima Daiichi. A population of 144 butterflies were caught in 10 villages in a radius of 200 km around Fukushima in may 2011, the ratio of malformations was 12.4%. Obvious malformations were withered antennas and wings. In september 2011 a population of 238 butterflies were caught in the same places and the ratio of malformations was then 28.1%. The increase of the malformation ratio could be explained by a cumulative effect of the radiation exposition. In a second experiment, a population of butterflies was caught in a region non-affected by the radioactive contamination and was submitted in laboratory to radiations similar to that of the contamination around Fukushima and similar malformations appeared. The conclusion of the study is that radionuclides released during the Fukushima accident have caused genetic and physiological damages to this butterfly specie. (A.C.)

46

Hofstadter butterflies of carbon nanotubes  

CERN Document Server

The electronic spectrum of a two-dimensional square lattice in a perpendicular magnetic field has become known as Hofstadter butterfly[1]. We have calculated quasi one-dimensional analogons of the Hofstadter butterfly for carbon nanotubes (CNTs). For the case of single wall CNTs, it is straightforward to implement magnetic fields parallel to the tube axis by means of zone-folding in the graphene reciprocal lattice. We have also studied perpendicular magnetic fields which, in contrast to the parallel case, lead to a much richer, \\textit{pseudofractal} spectrum. Moreover, we have investigated magnetic fields piercing double wall CNTs and found strong signatures of inter-wall interaction in the resulting Hofstadter butterfly spectrum. Ubiquitous to all perpendicular magnetic field spectra is the presence cusp-catastrophes at specific values of energy and magnetic field. Resolving the density of states along the tube circumference allows to recognize snake states already predicted for non-uniform magnetic fields ...

Nemec, N; Nemec, Norbert; Cuniberti, Gianaurelio

2006-01-01

47

Extended season for northern butterflies  

Science.gov (United States)

Butterflies are like all insects in that they are temperature sensitive and a changing climate with higher temperatures might effect their phenology. Several studies have found support for earlier flight dates among the investigated species. A comparative study with data from a citizen science project, including 66 species of butterflies in Sweden, was undertaken, and the result confirms that most butterfly species now fly earlier during the season. This is especially evident for butterflies overwintering as adults or as pupae. However, the advancement in phenology is correlated with flight date, and some late season species show no advancement or have even postponed their flight dates and are now flying later in the season. The results also showed that latitude had a strong effect on the adult flight date, and most of the investigated species showed significantly later flights towards the north. Only some late flying species showed an opposite trend, flying earlier in the north. A majority of the investigated species in this study showed a general response to temperature and advanced their flight dates with warmer temperatures (on average they advanced their flight dates by 3.8 days/°C), although not all species showed this response. In essence, a climate with earlier springs and longer growing seasons seems not to change the appearance patterns in a one-way direction. We now see butterflies on the wings both earlier and later in the season and some consequences of these patterns are discussed. So far, studies have concentrated mostly on early season butterfly-plant interactions but also late season studies are needed for a better understanding of long-term population consequences.

Karlsson, Bengt

2014-07-01

48

ESTUDIO DE LA COMUNIDAD DE LEPIDÓPTEROS DIURNOS EN ZONAS NATURALES Y SISTEMAS PRODUCTIVOS DEL MUNICIPIO DE CALOTO (CAUCA, COLOMBIA) / STUDY OF THE BUTTERFLY COMMUNITY IN NATURAL AND INTERVENED AREAS OF CALOTO (CAUCA, COLOMBIA)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Con el objetivo primordial de conocer la diversidad de lepidópteros diurnos en zonas intervenidas de la vereda Morales (Caloto, Cauca), se realizaron muestreos en marzo de 2007 y abril de 2008, utilizando trampas Van Someren-Rydon, captura directa y visual. Se estudiaron 4 biotopos: bosque ripario, [...] cultivo de caña de azúcar, cafetal en policultivo y cerca viva. De 1594 individuos observados, se identificaron 90 especies de mariposas de seis familias; Nymphalidae con 60 especies de las subfamilias Nymphalinae (14), Charaxinae (6), Morphinae (2), Satyrinae (5), Heliconiinae (8), Ithomiinae (6), Danainae (3), Acraeinae (5), Limenitidinae (2), Biblidinae (5) y Melitaeinae (4); Pieridae (11 especies), Hesperiidae (6), Papilionidae (7), Lycaenidae (4) y Riodinidae (2). El 39% de la abundancia, incluyó especies generalistas y polífagas representadas por los géneros Anartia (144 individuos), Actinote (69), Caligo (14), Urbanus (72), Anteos (44), Phoebis (56) y Eurema (223), reconocidas por estar frecuentemente asociadas a zonas altamente intervenidas por el hombre. De lo anterior, se desprende que la presencia de la subfamilia Satyrinae (108 individuos) y del género Morpho (9), indica actividad de lepidópteros característicos de bosque conservado. En este mismo sentido, la alta abundancia de Ithomiinae (199 individuos) en cafetales de sombra alternado con siembra de plátano, indica que este policultivo ofrece un hábitat apropiado para esta subfamilia. Abstract in english Two sampling activities (March 2007 and April 2008) were carried out in the municipal rural settlement of Morales (Caloto-Cauca) in order to evaluate the day-butterfly diversity associated with four intervened biotopes: riparian forest, sugarcane plantations, coffee-plantain crop and natural fence. [...] The 1594 individuals were collected using Van Someren-Rydon traps, belonging to 90 species from six families; Nymphalidae with 60 species from the subfamilies Nymphalinae (14), Charaxinae (6), Morphinae (2), Satyrinae (5), Heliconiinae (8), Ithomiinae (6), Danainae (3), Acraeinae (5), Limenitidinae (2), Biblidinae (5) and Melitaeinae (4), Pieridae (11) Hesperiidae (6), Papilionidae (7), Lycaenidae (4) and Riodinidae (2). Additionally, 39% of the species were polyphagous and generalists, represented by the genera Anartia (144 individuals), Actinote (69), Caligo (14), Urbanus (72), Anteos (44), Phoebis (56) and Eurema (223). All these have been recognized as genera associated to anthropogenic intervened areas. The presence of the Satyrinae subfamily (108 individuals) and the Morpho genus (9 individuals) in the study zone, suggest the presence of high quality forest relicts. The abundance of Ithomiinae (199 individuals) in the shaded coffee-plantain crop indicates that this biotope offers a suitable habitat for this subfamily.

Carolina, Millán-J.; Patricia, Chacón; Alan, Giraldo.

2009-01-01

49

Butterflies for the new millennium: mapping butterfly distributions in Britain (Lepidoptera)  

OpenAIRE

Butterflies for the new millennium: mapping butterfly distributions in Britain (Lepidoptera) Butterflies for the New Millennium is the largest and most comprehensive survey of butterfly distribution ever undertaken in Britain and Ireland. The number of contributing recorders, the coverage achieved and the number and quality of distribution records generated far exceed those available for any other invertebrate taxon. The data thus provide a unique insight into the effects of habitat degra...

Fox, R.; Warren, M.; Harding, P.; Asher, J.; Jeffcoate, G.; Jeffcoate, S.

2003-01-01

50

Butterfly diversity as a data base for the development plan of Butterfly Garden at Bosscha Observatory, Lembang, West Java  

OpenAIRE

Subahar TSS, Yuliana A (2010) Butterfly diversity as a data base for the development plan of Butterfly Garden at Bosscha Observatory, Lembang, West Java. Biodiversitas 11: 24-28. Change of land use and the increasing number of visitors to Bosscha area was one factor for the development plan of butterfly garden in the area. The objectives of this research were to examine butterfly diversity and its potential for development plan of butterfly garden. Butterfly diversity and its richness conduct...

TATI SURYATI SYAMSUDIN SUBAHAR; ANNISA YULIANA

2010-01-01

51

Simultaneous brightness contrast of foraging Papilio butterflies  

OpenAIRE

This study focuses on the sense of brightness in the foraging Japanese yellow swallowtail butterfly, Papilio xuthus. We presented two red discs of different intensity on a grey background to butterflies, and trained them to select one of the discs. They were successfully trained to select either a high intensity or a low intensity disc. The trained butterflies were tested on their ability to perceive brightness in two different protocols: (i) two orange discs of different intensity presented ...

Kinoshita, Michiyo; Takahashi, Yuki; Arikawa, Kentaro

2012-01-01

52

Mimicry and polymorphism in butterfly Papilio dardanus  

OpenAIRE

Mimicry theory provides a lot of problems involving natural selection, particularly sexual selection and evolutionary routes of mimicry types. In some butterflies there is a mimicry limited to females. The Batesian mimicry and resulting polymorphism limited to females is especially well known in Papilio dardamus butterfly. This polymorphism is controlled by 11 alleles at a single locus. Females mimic resemble to different inedible species of butterflies, for example...

Kalarus, Konrad M.

2012-01-01

53

From a Caterpillar to a Butterfly  

Science.gov (United States)

In this project we will be learning about the life cycle of a butterfly and how the caterpillar becomes to be a butterfly. WHAT IS THE LIFE CYCLE OF A BUTTERFLY? Subject: Science, Grade level:2nd. Standard 3. Objective 1.-Investigate relationships between plants and animals and how living things change during their lives. In this project, I am going to show the students what an amazing and unique tranformation the a Caterpillar goes through and what ...

Allison

2010-05-26

54

Butterfly Tachyons in Vacuum String Field Theory  

OpenAIRE

We use geometrical conformal field theory methods to investigate tachyon fluctuations about the butterfly projector state in Vacuum String Field Theory. We find that the on-shell condition for the tachyon field is equivalent to the requirement that the quadratic term in the string-field action vanish on shell. This further motivates the interpretation of the butterfly state as a D-brane. We begin a calculation of the tension of the butterfly, and conjecture that this will ma...

Matlock, Peter

2002-01-01

55

Drawing butterflies from the almost Mathieu operator  

OpenAIRE

Plotting spectra of a range of almost Mathieu operators reveals a beautiful fractal-like image that contains multiple copies of a butterfly image. We demonstrate that plotting the butterflies using a gap-labelling scheme based on K-theory or Chern numbers reveals systematic discontinuities in the gap positioning. A proper image is produced only when we take into account these discontinuities, and close the butterfly wingtips at the points of discontinuity. A conjecture is pr...

Lamoureux, Michael P.

2010-01-01

56

Monitoring of butterflies within a landscape context  

OpenAIRE

Monitoring of butterflies is most often only directed towards the grassland fauna. Species associated with other vegetation types, as well as the impact of the surrounding landscape, often become neglected. The aim with this study was, in contrast, to perform a novel landscape-based monitoring method for butterflies in diverse vegetation types and more specifically (i) evaluate the impact of environmental variables on butterfly abundance, (ii) compare the distribution...

Jonason, Dennis

2007-01-01

57

The Butterfly Diagram Internal Structure  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A time-latitude diagram, where the spotgroup area is taken into account, is presented for cycles 12 through 23. The results show that the spotted area is concentrated in few, small portions (knots) of the Butterfly Diagram (BD). The BD may be described as a cluster of knots. Knots are distributed in the butterfly wings in a seemingly randomly way. A knot may appear at either lower or higher latitudes than previous ones, in spite of the prevalent tendency to appear at lower and lower latitudes. Accordingly, the spotted area centroid, far from continuously drifting equatorward, drifts poleward or remains stationary in any hemisphere for significant fractions (? 1/3) of the cycle total duration. In a relevant number of semicycles, knots seem to form two roughly parallel, oblique chains, separated by an underspotted band. This picture suggests that two (or more) ''activity streams'' approach the equator at a rate higher than the spot zone as a whole.

58

Modelling butterfly wing eyespot patterns.  

OpenAIRE

Eyespots are concentric motifs with contrasting colours on butterfly wings. Eyespots have intra- and inter-specific visual signalling functions with adaptive and selective roles. We propose a reaction-diffusion model that accounts for eyespot development. The model considers two diffusive morphogens and three non-diffusive pigment precursors. The first morphogen is produced in the focus and determines the differentiation of the first eyespot ring. A second morphogen is then ...

Dila?o, Rui; Sainhas, Joaquim

2004-01-01

59

Butterfly valve torque prediction methodology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As part of the Motor-Operated Valve (MOV) Performance Prediction Program, the Electric Power Research Institute has sponsored the development of methodologies for predicting thrust and torque requirements of gate, globe, and butterfly MOVs. This paper presents the methodology that will be used by utilities to calculate the dynamic torque requirements for butterfly valves. The total dynamic torque at any disc position is the sum of the hydrodynamic torque, bearing torque (which is induced by the hydrodynamic force), as well as other small torque components (such as packing torque). The hydrodynamic torque on the valve disc, caused by the fluid flow through the valve, depends on the disc angle, flow velocity, upstream flow disturbances, disc shape, and the disc aspect ratio. The butterfly valve model provides sets of nondimensional flow and torque coefficients that can be used to predict flow rate and hydrodynamic torque throughout the disc stroke and to calculate the required actuation torque and the maximum transmitted torque throughout the opening and closing stroke. The scope of the model includes symmetric and nonsymmetric discs of different shapes and aspects ratios in compressible and incompressible fluid applications under both choked and nonchoked flow conditions. The model features were validated against test data from a comprehensive flowloop and in situ test program. These tests were designed to systematically address the effect of the following parameters on the required torque: valve size, disc shapes and disc aspect ratios, upstream elbow orientation and its proximity, and flow conditions. The applicability of the nondimensional coefficients to valves of different sizes was validated by performing tests on 42-in. valve and a precisely scaled 6-in. model. The butterfly valve model torque predictions were found to bound test data from the flow-loop and in situ testing, as shown in the examples provided in this paper

60

Mouthpart separation does not impede butterfly feeding.  

Science.gov (United States)

The functionality of butterfly mouthparts (proboscis) plays an important role in pollination systems, which is driven by the reward of nectar. Proboscis functionality has been assumed to require action of the sucking pump in the butterfly's head coupled with the straw-like structure. Proper proboscis functionality, however, also is dependent on capillarity and wettability dynamics that facilitate acquisition of liquid films from porous substrates. Due to the importance of wettability dynamics in proboscis functionality, we hypothesized that proboscides of eastern black swallowtail (Papilio polyxenes asterius Stoll) (Papilionidae) and cabbage butterflies (Pieris rapae Linnaeus) (Pieridae) that were experimentally split (i.e., proboscides no longer resembling a sealed straw-like tube) would retain the ability to feed. Proboscides were split either in the drinking region (distal 6-10% of proboscis length) or approximately 50% of the proboscis length 24 h before feeding trials when butterflies were fed a red food-coloring solution. Approximately 67% of the butterflies with proboscides split reassembled prior to the feeding trials and all of these butterflies displayed evidence of proboscis functionality. Butterflies with proboscides that did not reassemble also demonstrated fluid uptake capabilities, thus suggesting that wild butterflies might retain fluid uptake capabilities, even when the proboscis is partially injured. PMID:24389004

Lehnert, Matthew S; Mulvane, Catherine P; Brothers, Aubrey

2014-03-01

61

Numerical Analysis of Large Diameter Butterfly Valve  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, a butterfly valve with the diameter of 1,800 mm was studied. Three-dimensional numerical technique by using commercial code CFX were conducted to observe the flow patterns and to measure flow coefficient, hydrodynamic torque coefficient and so on, when the large butterfly valve operated with various angles and uniform incoming velocity.

Youngchul, Park; Xueguan, Song

62

Butterfly valves: greater use in power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Improvements in butterfly valves, particularly in the areas of automatic control and leak tightness are described. The use of butterfly valves in nuclear power plants is discussed. These uses include service in component cooling, containment cooling, and containment isolation. The outlook for further improvements and greater uses is examined. (U.S.)

63

Minimum Cycle Covers of Butterfly and Benes Networks  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Butterfly network is the most popular bounded-degree derivative of the hypercube network. The benes network consists of back-to-back butterflies. In this paper, we obtain the minimum vertex-disjoint cycle cover number for the odd dimensional butterfly networks and prove that it is not possible to find the same for the even dimensional butterfly networks and benes networks. Further we obtain the minimum edge-disjoint cycle cover number for butterfly networks.

Albert William

2012-01-01

64

Minimum Cycle Covers of Butterfly and Benes Networks  

OpenAIRE

Butterfly network is the most popular bounded-degree derivative of the hypercube network. The benes network consists of back-to-back butterflies. In this paper, we obtain the minimum vertex-disjoint cycle cover number for the odd dimensional butterfly networks and prove that it is not possible to find the same for the even dimensional butterfly networks and benes networks. Further we obtain the minimum edge-disjoint cycle cover number for butterfly networks.

Albert William; Shanthakumari, A.

2012-01-01

65

Butterflies on the Stretched Horizon  

CERN Document Server

In this paper I return to the question of what kind of perturbations on Alice's side of an Einstein-Rosen bridge can send messages to Bob as he enters the horizon at the other end. By definition "easy" operators do not activate messages and "hard" operators do, but there are no clear criteria to identify the difference between easy and hard. In this paper I argue that the difference is related to the time evolution of a certain measure of computational complexity, associated with the stretched horizon of Alice's black hole. The arguments suggest that the AMPSS commutator argument is more connected with butterflies than with firewalls.

Susskind, Leonard

2013-01-01

66

Butterfly proboscis as a biomicrofluidic system  

Science.gov (United States)

It looks amazing how butterflies and moths with their thin feeding trunk are being able to sip very thick liquids like nectar or animal extractions. Their sucking ability goes beyond that: one can observe butterflies and moths probing liquids from porous materials like fruit flesh or wet soils. This suggests that the suction pressure produced by these insects is sufficiently high. The estimates based on engineering hydraulic formulas show that the pressure can be greater than one atmosphere, i.e. it can be greater than that any vacuum pump could supply. In this experimental study, the principles of interfacial flows are used to carefully analyze the feeding mechanism of butterflies and moths. We document the feeding rates and proboscis behavior of Monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) in different situations: when butterfly feeds from droplets, from vials modeling floral cavities, and from porous materials modeling fruits, wet soils, or dung. Using high speed imaging and simple models, we propose a scenario of butterfly feeding which is based on capillary action. According to the proposed mechanism, the trunk of butterflies and moths works like a fountain pen where the air bubbles play a significant role in controlling fluid flow.

Kornev, Konstantin; Monaenkova, Daria; Rea, Steven; Yore, Campbell; Klipowics, Caleb; Edmond, Kara; Sa, Vijoya

2009-11-01

67

Butterfly Tachyons in Vacuum String Field Theory  

CERN Document Server

We use geometrical conformal field theory methods to investigate tachyon fluctuations about the butterfly projector state in Vacuum String Field Theory. We find that the on-shell condition for the tachyon field is equivalent to the requirement that the quadratic term in the string-field action vanish on shell. This further motivates the interpretation of the butterfly state as a D-brane. We begin a calculation of the tension of the butterfly, and conjecture that this will match the case of the sliver and further strengthen this interpretation.

Matlock, P

2003-01-01

68

Butterfly tachyons in vacuum string field theory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We use geometrical conformal field theory methods to investigate tachyon fluctuations about the butterfly projector state in vacuum string field theory. We find that the on-shell condition for the tachyon field is equivalent to the requirement that the quadratic term in the string-field action vanish on shell. This further motivates the interpretation of the butterfly state as a D-brane. We begin a calculation of the tension of the butterfly, and conjecture that this will match the case of the sliver and further strengthen this interpretation

69

Missouri Botanical Garden-The Butterfly House & Education Center: The Butterfly School  

Science.gov (United States)

Created by the Missouri Botanical Garden's Butterfly House & Education Center as a companion site for visiting school groups, this website has great resources to offer both teachers and students. For students, the site offers Species Identification Pages, information on making a butterfly house, a description of metamorphosis, a gallery of beautiful photos, and more. For teachers, the site provides instructions for such activities as Raising Butterflies & Moths, Insect Scavenger Hunt, Design Your Own Insect, and Butterfly Arts & Crafts, to name a few. The site includes lists of related books for teachers and students as well.

70

Biology: Birds and butterflies in climatic debt  

Science.gov (United States)

A European-wide analysis of changing species distributions shows that butterflies outrun birds in the race to move northwards in response to climate change, but that neither group keeps up with increasing temperatures.

Visser, Marcel E.

2012-02-01

71

Biophotonics: Blue butterflies feel the heat  

Science.gov (United States)

Bio-inspired by the nano-architectures of iridescent Morpho butterfly scales, scientists have demonstrated a highly sensitive infrared detector that can efficiently upconvert mid-infrared radiation to visible iridescence changes.

Sambles, J. R.

2012-03-01

72

Germline transformation of the butterfly Bicyclus anynana.  

OpenAIRE

Ecological and evolutionary theory has frequently been inspired by the diversity of colour patterns on the wings of butterflies. More recently, these varied patterns have also become model systems for studying the evolution of developmental mechanisms. A technique that will facilitate our understanding of butterfly colour-pattern development is germline transformation. Germline transformation permits functional tests of candidate gene products and of cis-regulatory regions, and provides a mea...

Marcus, Jeffrey M.; Ramos, Diane M.; Monteiro, Anto?nia

2004-01-01

73

Sex pheromone of the queen butterfly: chemistry.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two major components in the "hairpencil" secretion of the male of the queen butterfly (Danaus gilippus berenice) have been identified. One, a crystalline ketone (2,3-dihydro-7-methyl-1H-pyrrolizin-1-one), is known from another danaid butterfly. The other, a viscous terpenoid alcohol (trans, trans-3,7-dimethyldeca-2,6-dien-1,10-diol), is new; its structure is confirmed by an unambiguous synthesis. PMID:17810532

Meinwald, J; Meinwald, Y C; Mazzocchi, P H

1969-06-01

74

Quantum Hall Effect on the Hofstadter Butterfly  

OpenAIRE

Motivated by recent experimental attempts to detect the Hofstadter butterfly, we numerically calculate the Hall conductivity in a modulated two-dimensional electron system with disorder in the quantum Hall regime. We identify the critical energies where the states are extended for each of butterfly subbands, and obtain the trajectory as a function of the disorder. Remarkably, we find that when the modulation becomes anisotropic, the critical energy branches accompanying a ch...

Koshino, Mikito; Ando, Tsuneya

2005-01-01

75

Bioenergetical and biomechanical characterisation of butterfly stroke  

OpenAIRE

The Biophysical study of swimming is one of the major interests of the sport sciences investigators. However, there is a lack of investigation trying to understand the relationships established between the bioenergetical and biomechanical variables, especially in butterfly stroke. Therefore, the purpose of this thesis was to conduct a bioenergetical and biomechanical characterizations of the butterfly stroke, understanding the relationships established between those two domains. In this thesi...

Barbosa, Tiago M.

2005-01-01

76

Flutter-by Interactive Butterfly Using interactivity to excite and educate children about butterflies and the National Museum of Play at The Strong's Dancing Wings Butterfly Garden  

Science.gov (United States)

The National Museum of Play at The Strong's Dancing Wings Butterfly Garden is a tropical rainforest that allows visitors to step into the world of butterflies, but lacks a more comprehensive educational element to teach visitors additional information about butterflies. Flutter-by Interactive Butterfly is a thesis project designed to enhance younger visitors' experience of the Dancing Wings Butterfly Garden with an interactive educational application that aligns with The Strong's mission of encouraging learning, creativity, and discovery. This was accomplished through a series of fun and educational games and animations, designed for use as a kiosk outside the garden and as a part of The Strong's website. Content, planning, and organization of this project has been completed through research and observation of the garden in the following areas: its visitors, butterflies, best usability practices for children, and game elements that educate and engage children. Flutter-by Interactive Butterfly teaches users about the butterfly's life cycle, anatomy, and characteristics as well as their life in the Dancing Wings Butterfly Garden. Through the use of the design programs Adobe Illustrator, Flash, and After Effects; the programming language ActionScript3.0; a child-friendly user interface and design; audio elements and user takeaways, Flutter-by Interactive Butterfly appeals to children of all ages, interests, and learning styles. The project can be viewed at lydiapowers.com/Thesis/FlutterByButterfly.html

Powers, Lydia

77

Effects of herbicides on Behr's metalmark butterfly, a surrogate species for the endangered butterfly, Lange's metalmark  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Lange's metalmark butterfly, Apodemia mormo langei Comstock, is in danger of extinction due to loss of habitat caused by invasive exotic plants which are eliminating its food, naked stem buckwheat. Herbicides are being used to remove invasive weeds from the dunes; however, little is known about the potential effects of herbicides on butterflies. To address this concern we evaluated potential toxic effects of three herbicides on Behr's metalmark, a close relative of Lange's metalmark. First instars were exposed to recommended field rates of triclopyr, sethoxydim, and imazapyr. Life history parameters were recorded after exposure. These herbicides reduced the number of adults that emerged from pupation (24–36%). Each herbicide has a different mode of action. Therefore, we speculate that effects are due to inert ingredients or indirect effects on food plant quality. If these herbicides act the same in A. mormo langei, they may contribute to the decline of this species. - Highlights: ? We evaluated the effects of three herbicides on the butterfly, Behr's metalmark. ? These herbicides are used to control invasive weeds in butterfly habitat. ? The herbicides reduced adult butterfly emergence. - Herbicides are used to remove invasive weeds from butterfly habitat. Certain herbicides may be having a negative effect on butterflies.

78

Simultaneous brightness contrast of foraging Papilio butterflies.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study focuses on the sense of brightness in the foraging Japanese yellow swallowtail butterfly, Papilio xuthus. We presented two red discs of different intensity on a grey background to butterflies, and trained them to select one of the discs. They were successfully trained to select either a high intensity or a low intensity disc. The trained butterflies were tested on their ability to perceive brightness in two different protocols: (i) two orange discs of different intensity presented on the same intensity grey background and (ii) two orange discs of the same intensity separately presented on a grey background that was either higher or lower in intensity than the training background. The butterflies trained to high intensity red selected the orange disc of high intensity in protocol 1, and the disc on the background of low intensity grey in protocol 2. We obtained similar results in another set of experiments with purple discs instead of orange discs. The choices of the butterflies trained to low intensity red were opposite to those just described. Taken together, we conclude that Papilio has the ability to learn brightness and darkness of targets independent of colour, and that they have the so-called simultaneous brightness contrast. PMID:22179808

Kinoshita, Michiyo; Takahashi, Yuki; Arikawa, Kentaro

2012-05-22

79

Cavitation noise from butterfly valves  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cavitation in valves can produce levels of intense noise. It is possible to mathematically express a limit for a design level of cavitation noise in terms of the cavitation parameter sigma. Using the cavitation parameter or limit, it is then possible to calculate the flow conditions at which a design level of cavitation noise will occur. However, the intensity of cavitation increases with the upstream pressure and valve size at a constant sigma. Therefore, it is necessary to derive equations to correct or scale the cavitation limit for the effects of different upstream pressures and valve sizes. The following paper discusses and presents experimental data for the caviation noise limit as well as the cavitation limits of incipient, critical, incipient damage, and choking cavitation for butterfly valves. The main emphasis is on the design limit of caviation noise, and a noise level of 85 decibels was selected as the noise limit. Tables of data and scaling exponents are included for applying the design limits for the effects of upstream pressure and valve size. (orig.)

80

Fault-Tolerant Routing in Butterfly Networks  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This research shows that Butterfly networks can be fault-tolerant using Masked Interval Routing Scheme (MIRS. The MIRS was introduced with the aim of compressing the routing tables in a network. It was shown that MIRS could drastically reduce interval information stored in networks such as globe and hypercube graphs, compared to the classical Interval Routing Scheme (IRS. In Butterfly graphs of O(N vertices the number of intervals per edge goes down from ? in IRS to O(logN in MIRS. This research shows that MIRS may be advantageously used in Butterfly networks, proving that optimal routing with one interval per edge is still possible with a harmless subset of faulty vertices. This research gives an optimal algorithm to reconfigure the intervals in the presence of faults.

Mohammed H. Mahafzah

2010-01-01

81

Male-killing in African butterflies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Female-biased sex ratios occur in many insect species as a consequence of infection by maternally-inherited male-killing bacterial endosymbionts. In this paper, we revise the research conducted on the phenomenon of male-killing in African nymphalid butterflies, with special focus on the cases of Danaus chrysippus, Acraea encedon and Acraea encedana. The evolution of male-killing in each case was addressed, together with the phylogeny of male-killers that were identified from this group. Moreover, the potential impacts that male-killers might impose on the evolution of their butterfly hosts were thoroughly investigated. In the end of this review, we present a number of unanswered questions to be targeted by future research work on the male-killing in these butterflies.

Sami Saeed M. Hassan

2013-02-01

82

Algorithmic Identification for Wings in Butterfly Diagrams.  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigate to what extent the wings of solar butterfly diagrams can be separated without an explicit usage of Hale's polarity law as well as the location of the solar equator. Two algorithms of cluster analysis, namely DBSCAN and C-means, have demonstrated their ability to separate the wings of contemporary butterfly diagrams based on the sunspot group density in the diagram only. Here we generalize the method for continuous tracers, give results concerning the migration velocities and presented clusters for 12 - 20 cycles.

Illarionov, E. A.; Sokolov, D. D.

2012-12-01

83

Advantages of butterfly valves for power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Butterfly valves are increasingly used in nuclear power plants. They are used in CANDU reactors for class 2 and 3 service, to provide emergency and tight shutoff valves for all inlets and outlets of heat exchangers and all calandria penetrations. Guidelines for meeting nuclear power plant valve specifications are set out in ASME Section 3, Nuclear Power Plant Components. Some details of materials of construction, type of actuator, etc., for various classes of nuclear service are tabulated in the present article. The 'fishtail' butterfly valve is an improved design with reduced drag, as is illustrated and explained. (N.D.H.)

84

Becoming a Butterfly: Reading and Writing about the Life Cycle of a Butterfly  

Science.gov (United States)

In this lesson students will read the informational text The Life Cycle of a Butterfly by Lisa Trumbauer in order to understand the 4 stages of a butterfly's life. Students will use elements of nonfiction, such as photographs and diagrams, to aid in their understanding of the text. They will create a graphic organizer and use it to produce an informative piece of writing that illustrates what they have learned through their reading.

2013-01-01

85

Hofstadter butterfly as Quantum phase diagram  

OpenAIRE

The Hofstadter butterfly is viewed as a quantum phase diagram with infinitely many phases, labelled by their (integer) Hall conductance, and a fractal structure. We describe various properties of this phase diagram: We establish Gibbs phase rules; count the number of components of each phase, and characterize the set of multiple phase coexistence.

Osadchy, D.; Avron, J.

2001-01-01

86

Hamilton Cycle Decomposition of the Butterfly Network  

OpenAIRE

In this paper, we prove that the wrapped Butterfly graph ${\\cal WBF}(d,n)$ of degree $d$ and \\linebreak dimension $n$ is decomposable into Hamilton cycles. This answers a conjecture of D. Barth and \\linebreak \\mbox{A.~Raspaud} who solved the case $d=3D2$.

Bermond, Jean-claude; Darrot, Eric; Delmas, Olivier; Pe?rennes, Ste?phane

1996-01-01

87

The Invasive Buddleja Daviddi (Butterfly Bush)  

Science.gov (United States)

Buddleja davidii Franchet (Synonym. Buddleia davidii; common name butterfly bush) is a perennial, semi-deciduous, multi-stemmed shrub that is resident in gardens and disturbed areas. Since its introduction to the United Kingdom from China in the late 1800s, B. davidii has become...

88

Tetrapterous butterfly attractors in modified Lorenz systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper, the Lorenz-type tetrapterous butterfly attractors are firstly reported. With the introduction of multiple segment piecewise linear functions, these interesting and complex attractors are obtained from two different modified Lorenz models. This approach are verified in both simulations and experiments.

89

Butterfly responses to prairie restoration through fire and grazing  

Science.gov (United States)

The development of land for modern agriculture has resulted in losses of native prairie habitat. The small, isolated patches of prairie habitat that remain are threatened by fire suppression, overgrazing, and invasion by non-native species. We evaluated the effects of three restoration practices (grazing only, burning only, and burning and grazing) on the vegetation characteristics and butterfly communities of remnant prairies. Total butterfly abundance was highest on prairies that were managed with burning and grazing and lowest on those that were only burned. Butterfly species richness did not differ among any of the restoration practices. Butterfly species diversity was highest on sites that were only burned. Responses of individual butterfly species to restoration practices were highly variable. In the best predictive regression model, total butterfly abundance was negatively associated with the percent cover of bare ground and positively associated with the percent cover of forbs. Canonical correspondence analysis revealed that sites with burned only and grazed only practices could be separated based on their butterfly community composition. Butterfly communities in each of the three restoration practices are equally species rich but different practices yield compositionally different butterfly communities. Because of this variation in butterfly species responses to different restoration practices, there is no single practice that will benefit all species or even all species within habitat-specialist or habitat-generalist habitat guilds. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Vogel, J.A.; Debinski, D.M.; Koford, R.R.; Miller, J.R.

2007-01-01

90

75 FR 10309 - Wisconsin Statewide Habitat Conservation Plan for Karner Blue Butterfly  

Science.gov (United States)

...Habitat Conservation Plan for Karner Blue Butterfly AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service...incidental take of the endangered Karner blue butterfly (Lycaeides melissa samuelis) throughout...take of the Federally listed Karner blue butterfly to the maximum extent practicable,...

2010-03-05

91

Climate change, phenology, and butterfly host plant utilization.  

Science.gov (United States)

Knowledge of how species interactions are influenced by climate warming is paramount to understand current biodiversity changes. We review phenological changes of Swedish butterflies during the latest decades and explore potential climate effects on butterfly-host plant interactions using the Orange tip butterfly Anthocharis cardamines and its host plants as a model system. This butterfly has advanced its appearance dates substantially, and its mean flight date shows a positive correlation with latitude. We show that there is a large latitudinal variation in host use and that butterfly populations select plant individuals based on their flowering phenology. We conclude that A. cardamines is a phenological specialist but a host species generalist. This implies that thermal plasticity for spring development influences host utilization of the butterfly through effects on the phenological matching with its host plants. However, the host utilization strategy of A. cardamines appears to render it resilient to relatively large variation in climate. PMID:25576283

Navarro-Cano, Jose A; Karlsson, Bengt; Posledovich, Diana; Toftegaard, Tenna; Wiklund, Christer; Ehrlén, Johan; Gotthard, Karl

2015-01-01

92

Biogeography and ecology of southern Portuguese butterflies and burnets (Lepidoptera)  

OpenAIRE

Biogeography and ecology of southern Portuguese butterflies and burnets (Lepidoptera) During several visits to the western part of the Algarve (southern Portugal), the author mapped the butterflies and burnets of this region. In total, I observed 58 butterfly species (51 Papilionoidea, 7 Hesperiidae) and 6 Zygaenidae during my observations in spring and summer. More than 80% of the species are Palaearctic faunal elements, three species are considered Holarctic, three are Nearctic and four...

Schmitt, T.

2003-01-01

93

On Random Linear Network Coding for Butterfly Network  

OpenAIRE

Random linear network coding is a feasible encoding tool for network coding, specially for the non-coherent network, and its performance is important in theory and application. In this letter, we study the performance of random linear network coding for the well-known butterfly network by analyzing the failure probabilities. We determine the failure probabilities of random linear network coding for the well-known butterfly network and the butterfly network with channel failu...

Guang, Xuan; Fu, Fang-wei

2010-01-01

94

THE MORPHOLOGY AND SUBSTRUCTURE OF BUTTERFLY MARTENSITE IN FERROUS ALLOYS  

OpenAIRE

A transmission electron microscopy and diffraction study of butterfly martensite in Fe-Ni-Cr-C alloys was carried out with particular attention to details of the martensite substructure. It was confirmed that a butterfly martensite is consisted with two plates with (252)f and ([MATH]52)f habit plane variants having the junction plane near (100)f. {112}b twins, lengthy dislocations and {101}b planar defects were observed as substructures of butterfly martensite. Observed {112}b twins were not ...

Umemoto, M.; Tamura, I.

1982-01-01

95

Lounge Butterfly märgiti ära rahvusvaheliselt kõrgelt hinnatud erialaajakirjas  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Ülevaade erialaajakirjas "Drinks International" ilmunud artiklist, mis hindab Lounge Butterfly'd paremuselt Baltimaade teiseks joogikohaks ning joogikoha rahvusvahelistel võistlustel auhindu noppinud barmenidest-omanikest

2011-01-01

96

Butterflies in a Semi-Abelian Context  

CERN Document Server

It is known that monoidal functors between internal groupoids in the category Grp of groups constitute the bicategory of fractions of the 2-category Grpd(Grp) of internal groupoids, internal functors and internal natural transformations in Grp with respect to weak equivalences. Monoidal functors can be described equivalently by a kind of weak morphisms introduced by B. Noohi under the name of "butter ies". In order to internalize monoidal functors in a wide context, we introduce the notion of internal butterflies between internal crossed modules in a semi-abelian category C, and we show that they are morphisms of a bicategory B(C): Our main result states that, when in C the notions of Huq commutator and Smith commutator coincide, then the bicategory B(C) of internal butterflies is the bicategory of fractions of Grpd(C) with respect to weak equivalences (that is, internal functors which are internally fully faithful and essentially surjective on objects).

Abbad, Omar; Metere, Giuseppe; Vitale, Enrico M

2011-01-01

97

Comments on compressible flow through butterfly valves  

Science.gov (United States)

In the flow analysis of process piping systems, it is desirable to treat control valves in the same way as elbow, reducers, expansions, and other pressure loss elements. In a recently reported research program, the compressible flow characteristics of butterfly valves were investigated. Fisher Controls International, Inc., manufacturer of a wide range of control valves, publishes coefficients that can be used to calculate flow characteristics for the full range of valve movement. The use is described of the manufacturer's data to calculate flow parameters as reported by the researchers who investigated compressible flow through butterfly valves. The manufacturer's data produced consistent results and can be used to predict choked flow and the pressure loss for unchoked flow.

Blakenship, John G.

98

Hybrid trait speciation and Heliconius butterflies  

OpenAIRE

Homoploid hybrid speciation (HHS) is the establishment of a novel species through introgressive hybridization without a change in chromosome number. We discuss different routes by which this might occur and propose a novel term, ‘hybrid trait speciation’, which combines the idea that hybridization can generate adaptive novelty with the ‘magic trait’ model of ecological speciation. Heliconius butterflies contain many putative examples of hybrid colour patterns, but only recently has th...

Jiggins, Chris D.; Salazar, Camilo; Linares, Mauricio; Mavarez, Jesus

2008-01-01

99

Speciation and biogeography of heliconiine butterflies  

OpenAIRE

In this thesis I investigate the speciation and biogeography of neotropical heliconiine butterflies (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Heliconiina). In Chapter 2, I present a large database of locality records for heliconiine species and subspecies, and use these data to test evolutionary and biogeographic hypotheses for their diversification. I find evidence that geographical gradients in species richness are driven at least in part by variation in speciation and/or extinction rates, rather than via...

Rosser, N. S.

2013-01-01

100

Hartbeespoortdam Butterfly Conservancy : an ecological splurge  

OpenAIRE

The thesis focuses on different habitable spaces which have been designed to promote the existence of a number of South African butterfly species. The architecture responses to the context as well as to one of the largest insect groups, the order L e p i d o p t e r a. Following a sustainable approach, more ecological knowledge is at the core of the design. Instead of human functional needs driving the design, site components respond to the indigenous spa...

Pettey, Ryan Patrick

2005-01-01

101

Monitoring Butterfly Abundance: Beyond Pollard Walks  

OpenAIRE

Most butterfly monitoring protocols rely on counts along transects (Pollard walks) to generate species abundance indices and track population trends. It is still too often ignored that a population count results from two processes: the biological process (true abundance) and the statistical process (our ability to properly quantify abundance). Because individual detectability tends to vary in space (e.g., among sites) and time (e.g., among years), it remains unclear whether index counts truly...

Pellet, Je?ro?me; Bried, Jason T.; Parietti, David; Gander, Antoine; Heer, Patrick O.; Cherix, Daniel; Arlettaz, Raphae?l

2012-01-01

102

Butterfly valve of all rubber lining type  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The valves used for the circulating water pipes for condensers in nuclear and thermal power stations have become large with the increase of power output, and their specifications have become strict. The materials for the valves change from cast iron to steel plate construction. To cope with sea water corrosion, rubber lining has been applied to the internal surfaces of valve boxes, and the build-up welding of stainless steel has been made on the edges of valves. However, recently it is desired to develop butterfly valves, of which the whole valve disks are lined with hard rubber. For the purpose of confirming the performance of large bore valves, a 2600 mm bore butterfly valve of all rubber lining type was used, and the opening and closing test of 1100 times was carried out by applying thermal cycle and pressure difference and using artifical sea water. Also the bending test of hard rubber lining was performed with test pieces. Thus, it was confirmed that the butterfly valves of all rubber lining type have the performance exceeding that of the valves with build-up welding. The course of development of the valves of all rubber lining type, the construction and the items of confirmation by tests of these valves, and the tests of the valve and the hard rubber lining described above are reported. (Kako, I.)

103

Physical property of structural color in butterflies  

Science.gov (United States)

Butterfly's wing has paid great attention due to its unique properties, such as attractive iridescence, super-hydrophobic characteristics, and quick heat dissipation ability. These characteristics are closely related to its structure. The multilayer thin-film structures that make up a butterfly's wing produce a bright iridescence from reflected daylight. In this study, we will introduce the optical effect of viewing angle, structural characterizations and color-producing mechanism. Since the reflectance patterns are extended in angle, we have to use a spectrophotometer equipped with an integrating sphere. According to the result, the peak reflectrance decreasing, blue-shifts and the difference between spectra of p-polarization and the s-polarization was enlarged when the incident angle increasing. In addition, the directional and strongly angle-dependent reflection of the ventral wings suggests the question whether or not the wing reflections may play a role in visual signaling by the butterflies during flight. Furthermore, we determined the shape and surface texture of the scales by scanning electron microscope (SEM). From SEM images, the scales cover the wing membrane and appear to overlap like roof tiles. These nanometer structures of the cover scales will decide the attractive iridescence of the wing.

Lo, Mei-Ling; Lee, Cheng-Chung

2011-10-01

104

Comparisons of some Andean Butterfly Faunas Comparisons of some Andean Butterfly Faunas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Observations of the butterfly fauna at significant points along the top of the Andean mountain chain from near Venezuela in Colombia to central Ecuador in comparable ecologic niches has brought out some interesting facts concerning the sub-ecological prererences of the species and their mtercombination in building up the fauna of a particular region. Observations of the butterfly fauna at significant points along the top of the Andean mountain chain from near Venezuela in Colombia to central Ecuador in comparable ecologic niches has brought out some interesting facts concerning the sub-ecological prererences of the species and their mtercombination in building up the fauna of a particular region.

Hovanitz William

1945-04-01

105

Interactions between butterfly-shaped pulses in the inhomogeneous media  

Science.gov (United States)

Pulse interactions affect pulse qualities during the propagation. Interactions between butterfly-shaped pulses are investigated to improve pulse qualities in the inhomogeneous media. In order to describe the interactions between butterfly-shaped pulses, analytic two-soliton solutions are derived. Based on those solutions, influences of corresponding parameters on pulse interactions are discussed. Methods to control the pulse interactions are suggested.

Liu, Wen-Jun; Huang, Long-Gang; Pan, Nan; Lei, Ming

2014-10-01

106

Developing "Butterfly Warriors": A Case Study of Science for Citizenship  

Science.gov (United States)

Given worldwide concern about a decline in student engagement in school science and an increasing call for science for citizenship in New Zealand Curriculum, this study focused on a butterfly unit that investigated how students in a year-4 primary classroom learnt about New Zealand butterflies through thinking, talking, and acting as citizen…

Chen, Junjun; Cowie, Bronwen

2013-01-01

107

Flow Characteristics of Butterfly Valve by PIV and CFD  

Science.gov (United States)

Butterfly valves are widely used as on-off and control valves for industrial process. The importance of butterfly valves as control valves has been increasing because the pressure loss is smaller than other types of valves and compactness is very desirable for installation. These features are desirable for saving energy and high efficiency of instruments.

Kim, S. W.; Kim, J. H.; Choi, Y. D.; Lee, Y. H.

108

The School of Mandarin Duck and Butterfly’s Creative Push on Early Chinese Publishing Industry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The School of Mandarin Duck and Butterfly, as an early Chinese popular literature important school, is a participant of early Chinese publishing industry who promoted early Chinese publishing industry development through creativities on publishing from four aspects such as publishing content creativity, graphic design creativity, marketing creativity and cross-media industry creativity.

Bin Li

2012-10-01

109

The School of Mandarin Duck and Butterfly’s Creative Push on Early Chinese Publishing Industry  

OpenAIRE

The School of Mandarin Duck and Butterfly, as an early Chinese popular literature important school, is a participant of early Chinese publishing industry who promoted early Chinese publishing industry development through creativities on publishing from four aspects such as publishing content creativity, graphic design creativity, marketing creativity and cross-media industry creativity.

Bin Li

2012-01-01

110

Congruence and Diversity of Butterfly-Host Plant Associations at Higher Taxonomic Levels  

OpenAIRE

We aggregated data on butterfly-host plant associations from existing sources in order to address the following questions: (1) is there a general correlation between host diversity and butterfly species richness?, (2) has the evolution of host plant use followed consistent patterns across butterfly lineages?, (3) what is the common ancestral host plant for all butterfly lineages? The compilation included 44,148 records from 5,152 butterfly species (28.6% of worldwide species of Papilionoidea)...

Ferrer-paris, Jose? R.; Sa?nchez-mercado, Ada; Viloria, A?ngel L.; Donaldson, John

2013-01-01

111

A butterfly algorithm for synthetic aperture radar  

OpenAIRE

It is not currently known if it is possible to accurately form a synthetic aperture radar image from N data points in provable near-linear complexity, where accuracy is defined as the ?? error between the full O(N²) backprojection image and the approximate image. To bridge this gap, we present a backprojection algorithm with complexity O(log(1/?)N log N), with ? the tunable pixelwise accuracy. It is based on the butterfly scheme, which works for vastly more general oscillatory integral...

Demanet, Laurent; Ferrara, Matthew; Maxwell, Nicholas; Poulson, Jack; Ying, Lexing

2011-01-01

112

Resources Organization and Searching Specification: The “Butterflies of Taiwan” Project  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available “Butterflies of Taiwan” is a sub-project under Taiwan Digital Museum Project (TDMP, sponsored by the National Science Council of Taiwan. ”Butterflies of Taiwan”, a cooperative project, was proposed by National Chi-Nan University and National Museum of Natural Science; its metadata was developed by Resources Organization Searching Specification (ROSS, also a sub-project under TDMP Research Team. In order to design the appropriate elements and create the butterfly metadata, ROSS started to gather relevant information on butterfly and information cataloging in August 1998. The main purpose of this project is to establish a digital museum to support and promote science education. Task of ROSS is the following: with respect to information storage and retrieval demand, to develop butterfly metadata format and design system specification based on the project content. This article presents the metadata format created for butterfly project and discusses issues related with its implementation. In order to promote information exchange, mapping of butterfly metadata to Dublin Core will also be presented.[Article content in Chinese

Szu-Chia Lo

1999-12-01

113

Content-based butterfly image retrieval based on keyblock distribution  

Science.gov (United States)

In the agricultural research area, the study about butterflies is very important. However, there is hardly any content-based butterfly image retrieval system. The text-based image retrieval system is not objective enough, and could not provide the characteristics of image content. Conventionally, the RGB color histogram-based image retrieval can't provide spatial features of images, and is easily affected by the pixel distribution, which is unable to represent the comprehensive characteristics of images. In this paper, we proposed a new butterfly image retrieval algorithm based on keyblock distribution. The keyblock-based image retrieval algorithm is a generalization of the technology in computer image retrieval area which is very advanced and useful. Our proposed butterfly image keyblock distribution extraction contains three procedures: first, a codebook with specific length is estimated by employing the vector quantization technique; second, the original butterfly image is divided into non-overlapping blocks; third, each block of butterfly image is encoded with the index number of codebook. From the keyblocks, we can extract both the color distribution information and the local spatial information of butterfly image. In the performance evaluation, experimental results show that in our retrieval system, average recall (AR) and average normalized modified retrieval rank (ANMRR) achieved 0.74 and 0.3291, respectively.

Song, Wei; Cai, Cheng; Qin, Xiang; Meng, Yu; Hao, Huan

2009-07-01

114

Forward flight of swallowtail butterfly with simple flapping motion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Unlike other flying insects, the wing motion of swallowtail butterflies is basically limited to flapping because their fore wings partly overlap their hind wings, structurally restricting the feathering needed for active control of aerodynamic force. Hence, it can be hypothesized that the flight of swallowtail butterflies is realized with simple flapping, requiring little feedback control of the feathering angle. To verify this hypothesis, we fabricated an artificial butterfly mimicking the wing motion and wing shape of a swallowtail butterfly and analyzed its flights using images taken with a high-speed video camera. The results demonstrated that stable forward flight could be realized without active feathering or feedback control of the wing motion. During the flights, the artificial butterfly's body moved up and down passively in synchronization with the flapping, and the artificial butterfly followed an undulating flight trajectory like an actual swallowtail butterfly. Without feedback control of the wing motion, the body movement is directly affected by change of aerodynamic force due to the wing deformation; the degree of deformation was determined by the wing venation. Unlike a veinless wing, a mimic wing with veins generated a much higher lift coefficient during the flapping flight than in a steady flow due to the large body motion.

115

Forward flight of swallowtail butterfly with simple flapping motion  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Unlike other flying insects, the wing motion of swallowtail butterflies is basically limited to flapping because their fore wings partly overlap their hind wings, structurally restricting the feathering needed for active control of aerodynamic force. Hence, it can be hypothesized that the flight of swallowtail butterflies is realized with simple flapping, requiring little feedback control of the feathering angle. To verify this hypothesis, we fabricated an artificial butterfly mimicking the wing motion and wing shape of a swallowtail butterfly and analyzed its flights using images taken with a high-speed video camera. The results demonstrated that stable forward flight could be realized without active feathering or feedback control of the wing motion. During the flights, the artificial butterfly's body moved up and down passively in synchronization with the flapping, and the artificial butterfly followed an undulating flight trajectory like an actual swallowtail butterfly. Without feedback control of the wing motion, the body movement is directly affected by change of aerodynamic force due to the wing deformation; the degree of deformation was determined by the wing venation. Unlike a veinless wing, a mimic wing with veins generated a much higher lift coefficient during the flapping flight than in a steady flow due to the large body motion.

Tanaka, Hiroto [School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, 60 Oxford Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Shimoyama, Isao, E-mail: isao@i.u-tokyo.ac.j [Department of Mechano-Informatics, Graduate School of Information Science and Technology, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8656 (Japan)

2010-06-15

116

Monitoring the Response of Butterfly Communities to Prescribed Fire  

Science.gov (United States)

Federal land managers in the western United States are interested in the potential of prescribed fire as a tool to decrease fuel loads, increase vegetational heterogeneity, and increase faunal diversity in various ecosystems. I tested whether implementation of a prescribed fire program by the US Forest Service in a watershed in the central Great Basin had significant effects on butterfly species richness and composition. I monitored butterfly communities during the first two years after implementation in five to seven burn units and controls in the watershed. To estimate baseline spatial and temporal variation in butterfly communities in the greater ecosystem, I also monitored butterflies in five untreated canyons outside the project area. Butterfly species richness and butterfly species composition (measured as community similarity) did not differ significantly between burn units and controls. Geographic location had statistically significant effects on species richness. Butterfly species composition of individual locations varied over time, as did the magnitude of that variation. These results emphasize that standardized, repeatable monitoring protocols are vital for evaluating the effects of experimental management treatments and for predicting and assessing the effects of future management strategies and environmental changes.

Fleishman, Erica

2000-12-01

117

Monitoring butterfly abundance: beyond Pollard walks.  

Science.gov (United States)

Most butterfly monitoring protocols rely on counts along transects (Pollard walks) to generate species abundance indices and track population trends. It is still too often ignored that a population count results from two processes: the biological process (true abundance) and the statistical process (our ability to properly quantify abundance). Because individual detectability tends to vary in space (e.g., among sites) and time (e.g., among years), it remains unclear whether index counts truly reflect population sizes and trends. This study compares capture-mark-recapture (absolute abundance) and count-index (relative abundance) monitoring methods in three species (Maculinea nausithous and Iolana iolas: Lycaenidae; Minois dryas: Satyridae) in contrasted habitat types. We demonstrate that intraspecific variability in individual detectability under standard monitoring conditions is probably the rule rather than the exception, which questions the reliability of count-based indices to estimate and compare specific population abundance. Our results suggest that the accuracy of count-based methods depends heavily on the ecology and behavior of the target species, as well as on the type of habitat in which surveys take place. Monitoring programs designed to assess the abundance and trends in butterfly populations should incorporate a measure of detectability. We discuss the relative advantages and inconveniences of current monitoring methods and analytical approaches with respect to the characteristics of the species under scrutiny and resources availability. PMID:22859980

Pellet, Jérôme; Bried, Jason T; Parietti, David; Gander, Antoine; Heer, Patrick O; Cherix, Daniel; Arlettaz, Raphaël

2012-01-01

118

Photonic nanoarchitectures of biologic origin in butterflies and beetles  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Photonic nanoarchitectures occurring in butterflies and beetles, which produce structural color in the visible range of the electromagnetic spectrum by the selective reflection of light, are investigated under the aspect of being used as possible 'blueprints' for artificial, bioinspired nanoarchitectures. The role of order and disorder and of regularity/irregularity in photonic nanoarchitectures of biologic origin is discussed. Three recent case studies are briefly reviewed for butterflies (Albulina metallica, Cyanophrys remus, Troides magellanus) and three for beetles (Hoeplia coerulea, Chrysochroa vittata, Charidotella egregia). The practical realization of bioinspired artificial structures is discussed for the A. metallica butterfly and for the C. vittata beetle.

Biro, L.P., E-mail: biro@mfa.kfki.h [Research Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science, H-1525 Budapest, POB 49 (Hungary)

2010-05-25

119

Photonic nanoarchitectures of biologic origin in butterflies and beetles  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Photonic nanoarchitectures occurring in butterflies and beetles, which produce structural color in the visible range of the electromagnetic spectrum by the selective reflection of light, are investigated under the aspect of being used as possible 'blueprints' for artificial, bioinspired nanoarchitectures. The role of order and disorder and of regularity/irregularity in photonic nanoarchitectures of biologic origin is discussed. Three recent case studies are briefly reviewed for butterflies (Albulina metallica, Cyanophrys remus, Troides magellanus) and three for beetles (Hoeplia coerulea, Chrysochroa vittata, Charidotella egregia). The practical realization of bioinspired artificial structures is discussed for the A. metallica butterfly and for the C. vittata beetle.

120

Illustrate the Butterfly Effect on the Chaos Rikitake system  

OpenAIRE

This letter presents butterfly effect on a Chaos system. In this letter we want to briefly introduce Chaos Rikitake system and monitor the butterfly effect on this system. In chaos theory, the butterfly effect is the sensitive dependency on initial conditions. For this goal at the first we suppose initiation point and plot it, for base of work, later will apply small change on one item of initiation point and monitor behavior of Rikitake system. At the end we want to reclaim the famous le...

Yousof Gholipour; Amin Ramezani

2014-01-01

121

Powers of Ten with the Blue Morpho Butterfly  

Science.gov (United States)

This lab, presented by the National Nanotechnology Infrastructure Network, introduces students to the concepts of scale and magnification using a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) image of a Blue Morpho butterfly wing. If educators do not have access to an SEM,  images is included with the activity. This lesson will prompt students to think about nanoscale, biomimicry, SEM technology, and measurement. Students will examine the nanostructures of the butterfly's wings using either the images or the SEM (if available). Included in this lab are: teacher guide, student worksheet, and an image of a Blue Morpho butterfly.

2014-09-02

122

Research on optical multistage butterfly interconnection and optoelectronic logic operations  

Science.gov (United States)

We briefly study butterfly interconnection construction and propose an experimental approach to implementing multistage butterfly interconnection networks by using a special interconnection grating with the reflection ladder structure and liquid crystal light valves (LCLVs), and implementing the optical butterfly interconnections and primary optical digital logic operations. With this foundation, we analyse and discuss the features of the approach by computer simulations. In terms of our theoretical analyses, we improve the ring-circuit approach, based on the reflection ladder structure gratings, into a more suitable form based on transmission gratings, and we substitute the LCLVs with optoelectronic switches. Finally we give the experimental results of both the transmission grating and optoelectronic switches.

Sun, De-Gui; Wang, Na-Xin; He, Li-Ming; Xu, Mai; Liang, Guo-Dong; Zheng, Jie

123

Relationships between energetic, stroke determinants and velocity in butterfly  

OpenAIRE

The purpose of this study was to identify the relationship between the bioenergetical and the biomechanical variables (stroke parameters), through a range of swimming velocities, in butterfly stroke. Three male and one female butterflier of international level were submitted to an incremental set of 200-m butterfly swims. The starting velocity was 1.18 m(.)s(-1) for the males and 1.03 m(.)s(-1) for the female swimmer. Thereafter, the velocity was increased by 0.05 m(.)s(-1) after each swim un...

Barbosa, Tiago M.; Keskinen, K. L.; Fernandes, R. J.; Colac?o, P.; Carmo, C.; Vilas-boas, J. P.

2005-01-01

124

77 FR 23745 - Proposed Low-Effect Habitat Conservation Plan for the Bay Checkerspot Butterfly and Serpentine...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Conservation Plan for the Bay Checkerspot Butterfly and Serpentine Grasslands...one listed animal, the Bay checkerspot butterfly; one listed plant, the...Habitat Conservation Plan for Bay checkerspot butterfly and serpentine...

2012-04-20

125

Effects of herbicides on Behr's metalmark butterfly, a surrogate species for the endangered butterfly, Lange's metalmark.  

Science.gov (United States)

Lange's metalmark butterfly, Apodemia mormo langei Comstock, is in danger of extinction due to loss of habitat caused by invasive exotic plants which are eliminating its food, naked stem buckwheat. Herbicides are being used to remove invasive weeds from the dunes; however, little is known about the potential effects of herbicides on butterflies. To address this concern we evaluated potential toxic effects of three herbicides on Behr's metalmark, a close relative of Lange's metalmark. First instars were exposed to recommended field rates of triclopyr, sethoxydim, and imazapyr. Life history parameters were recorded after exposure. These herbicides reduced the number of adults that emerged from pupation (24-36%). Each herbicide has a different mode of action. Therefore, we speculate that effects are due to inert ingredients or indirect effects on food plant quality. If these herbicides act the same in A. mormo langei, they may contribute to the decline of this species. PMID:22310058

Stark, John D; Chen, Xue Dong; Johnson, Catherine S

2012-05-01

126

Mitochondrial DNA sequence variation of the swallowtail butterfly, Papilio xuthus, and the cabbage butterfly, Pieris rapae.  

Science.gov (United States)

We analyzed a portion of mitochondrial COI gene sequences (658 bp) to investigate the genetic diversity and geographic variation of the swallowtail butterfly, Papilio xuthus L. (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae), and the cabbage butterfly, Pieris rapae L. (Lepidoptera: Pieridae). Papilio xuthus showed a moderate level of sequence divergence (0.91% at maximum) in 15 haplotypes, whereas Pi. rapae showed a moderate to high level of sequence divergence (1.67% at maximum) in 30 haplotypes, compared with other relevant studies. Analyses of population genetic structure showed that most populations are not genetically differentiated in both species. The distribution pattern of both species appears to be consistent with category IV of the phylogeographic pattern sensu Avise: a phylogenetic continuity, an absence of regional isolation of mtDNA clones, and extensive distribution of close clones. The observed pattern of genetic diversity and geographic variation of the two butterfly species seem to reflect the abundant habitats, abundant host plants, and flying abilities in connection with the lack of historical biogeographic barriers. PMID:19184408

Jeong, Heon Cheon; Kim, Jung A; Im, Hyun Hwak; Jeong, Hyung Uk; Hong, Mee Yeon; Lee, Jong Eun; Han, Yeon Soo; Kim, Iksoo

2009-04-01

127

New records of larval hostplants for ithomiinae butterflies (Nymphalidae)  

OpenAIRE

Seventeen new records of larval hostplants are given for Ithomiinae butterflies (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) in southeastern Minas Gerais, and one in Brasília, DF. At the present state of knowledge, generalizations about larval feeding habits of these insects may be premature.

Costa, F. A. P. L.

1999-01-01

128

Butterflies of Sanjay Gandhi National Park, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sanjay Gandhi National Park (SGNP is spread over 103 sq km in Mumbai and Thane districts of Maharashtra, India. During the study I have sighted 142 species of butterflies with another 7 unconfirmed sightings. The butterflies recorded belong to Papilionidae (10 spp., Pieridae (17 spp, Lycaenidae (47 spp., Nymphalidae (40 spp. and Hesperiidae (28 spp.. The study emphasizes the importance of this park as a hotspot which is surrounded by 17 million people.

Amol P Patwardhan

2014-04-01

129

Checklist of butterfly fauna of Kohat, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan  

OpenAIRE

The butterflies play dual role, firstly as the pollinator, carries pollen from one flower to another and secondly their larvae act as the pest, injurious to various crops. Their 21 species were identified belonging to 3 different families from Kohat, Pakistan during September-December 2008. The reported families Namphalidae covered 33%, Papilionidae 10%, and Pieridae 57% biodiversity of butterflies of Kohat. In Namphalidae included: species belonging to subfamily Nymphalinae, Indian fritillar...

Farzana Perveen; Ayaz Ahmad

2012-01-01

130

Pollen Processing Behavior of Heliconius Butterflies: A Derived Grooming Behavior  

OpenAIRE

Pollen feeding behaviors Heliconius and Laparus (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) represent a key innovation that has shaped other life history traits of these neotropical butterflies. Although all flower visiting Lepidoptera regularly come in contact with pollen, only Heliconius and Laparus butterflies actively collect pollen with the proboscis and subsequently take up nutrients from the pollen grains. This study focused on the behavior of pollen processing and compared the movement patterns with p...

Hikl, Anna-laetitia; Krenn, Harald W.

2011-01-01

131

Prehistorical climate change increased diversification of a group of butterflies  

OpenAIRE

Satyrinae butterflies (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) and grasses (Poaceae) are very diverse and distributed worldwide. Most Satyrinae use grasses as host plants, but the temporal scale of this tight association is not known. Here, we present a phylogenetic study of Satyrinae butterflies and related groups, based on 5.1 kilobases from six gene regions and 238 morphological characters for all major lineages in the ‘satyrine clade’. Estimates of divergence times calibrated using a fossil from th...

Pen?a, Carlos; Wahlberg, Niklas

2008-01-01

132

Brief Communication: Polarized light as a butterfly mating signal  

OpenAIRE

Iridescent butterfly scales are visually stunning structures that reflect highly saturated colour. They also create an array of non-chromatic optical phenomena, such as polarization, polarization mixing and highly directional flashes (1,2) but the ecological purpose of these effects is unclear (3,4). Here we show that polarized light is used in mate recognition by Heliconius butterflies, a genus that is known to rely on visual cues in sexual selection and speciat...

Sweeney, Alison; Jiggins, Christopher; Johnsen, So?nke

2003-01-01

133

Acoustic characterization of Hofstadter butterfly with resonant scatterers  

OpenAIRE

We are interested in the experimental characterization of the Hofstadter butterfly by means of acoustical waves. The transmission of an acoustic pulse through an array of 60 variable and resonant scatterers periodically distribued along a waveguide is studied. An arbitrary scattering arrangement is realized by using the variable length of each resonator cavity. For a periodic modulation, the structures of forbidden bands of the transmission reproduce the Hofstadter butterfly...

Richoux, Olivier; Pagneux, Vincent

2002-01-01

134

Female butterflies prefer males bearing bright iridescent ornamentation  

OpenAIRE

Butterflies are among nature's most colourful animals, and provide a living showcase for how extremely bright, chromatic and iridescent coloration can be generated by complex optical mechanisms. The gross characteristics of male butterfly colour patterns are understood to function for species and/or sex recognition, but it is not known whether female mate choice promotes visual exaggeration of this coloration. Here I show that females of the sexually dichromatic species Hypolimnas bolina pref...

Kemp, Darrell J.

2007-01-01

135

Phylogenomics provides strong evidence for relationships of butterflies and moths.  

Science.gov (United States)

Butterflies and moths constitute some of the most popular and charismatic insects. Lepidoptera include approximately 160 000 described species, many of which are important model organisms. Previous studies on the evolution of Lepidoptera did not confidently place butterflies, and many relationships among superfamilies in the megadiverse clade Ditrysia remain largely uncertain. We generated a molecular dataset with 46 taxa, combining 33 new transcriptomes with 13 available genomes, transcriptomes and expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Using HaMStR with a Lepidoptera-specific core-orthologue set of single copy loci, we identified 2696 genes for inclusion into the phylogenomic analysis. Nucleotides and amino acids of the all-gene, all-taxon dataset yielded nearly identical, well-supported trees. Monophyly of butterflies (Papilionoidea) was strongly supported, and the group included skippers (Hesperiidae) and the enigmatic butterfly-moths (Hedylidae). Butterflies were placed sister to the remaining obtectomeran Lepidoptera, and the latter was grouped with greater than or equal to 87% bootstrap support. Establishing confident relationships among the four most diverse macroheteroceran superfamilies was previously challenging, but we recovered 100% bootstrap support for the following relationships: ((Geometroidea, Noctuoidea), (Bombycoidea, Lasiocampoidea)). We present the first robust, transcriptome-based tree of Lepidoptera that strongly contradicts historical placement of butterflies, and provide an evolutionary framework for genomic, developmental and ecological studies on this diverse insect order. PMID:24966318

Kawahara, Akito Y; Breinholt, Jesse W

2014-08-01

136

Steel-fabricated butterfly valves for condenser circulating water system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The steel-fabricated butterfly valves, which are large in general, and gave rubber linings inside to prevent the corrosion due to sea Water, are utilized for the condenser circulating water systems of thermal and nuclear power plants. Cast iron butterfly valves, having been used hitherto, have some technical irrationalities, such as corrosion prevention, the techniques for manufacturing large castings, severe thermal transient operation. On the contrary, the steel plate-fabricated butterfly valves have the following advantages; much superior characteristics in strength, rigidity and shock resistance, the streamline shape of valve plates, the narrow width between two flanges, superior execution of works for rubber lining, the perfect sealed structure, safety to vibration, light weight and easy maintenance. The structural design and the main specifications for the steel plate butterfly valves with the nominal bore from 1350 mm to 3500 mm are presented. Concerning the design criteria, the torque of operating butterfly valves and the strength of valve bodies, valve plates and valve stems are explained. The performance tests utilizing the mock-up valve were carried out for the measurements of stress distribution, the deformation of valve body, the endurance and the operating torque. In the welding standards for steel plate butterfly valves, three kinds of welded parts are classified, and the inspection method for each part is stipulated. The vibration of the valves inducedlated. The vibration of the valves induced by flow vortexes and cavitation is explained. (Nakai, Y.)

137

A butterfly algorithm for synthetic aperture radar  

Science.gov (United States)

It is not currently known if it is possible to accurately form a synthetic aperture radar image from N data points in provable near-linear complexity, where accuracy is defined as the l2 error between the full O(N2) backprojection image and the approximate image. To bridge this gap, we present a backprojection algorithm with complexity O(log(1/?)N log N), with ? the tunable pixelwise accuracy. It is based on the butterfly scheme, which works for vastly more general oscillatory integrals than the discrete Fourier transform. Unlike previous methods this algorithm allows the user to directly choose the amount of acceptable image error based on a well-defined metric. Additionally, the algorithm does not invoke the far-field approximation or place restrictions on the antenna flight path, nor does it impose the frequency-independent beampattern approximation required by time-domain backprojection techniques.

Demanet, Laurent; Ferrara, Matthew; Maxwell, Nicholas; Poulson, Jack; Ying, Lexing

2011-06-01

138

Sex pheromone of the queen butterfly: biology.  

Science.gov (United States)

Males of the queen butterfly Danaus gilippus berenice, deprived of the two extrusible brushlike "hairpencils" at the rear of their abdomen, are capable of courting females but incapable of seducing them. In normal courtship, an aphrodisiac secretion associated with the hairpencils is transferred by way of tiny cuticular "dust" particles to the antennae of the females. Of the two substances identified from the secretion, one (the ketone) acts as the chemical messenger that induces the females to mate. The only known function of the other compound (the diol) is to serve as a glue that sticks the dust to the female. Males were reared under conditions in which they produced subnormal amounts of ketone and showed reduced seductive capacity. Under certain experimental circumstances, the competence of these males was restored by addition of synthetic ketone. PMID:17810530

Pliske, T E; Eisner, T

1969-06-01

139

Butterfly pattern hypopigmentation with antitubercular treatment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Standard short course chemotherapy is the key element of the DOTS strategy and these drugs cause different kinds of cutaneous adverse drug reactions that usually occur within 2 months of initiation of treatment in around 97% of the patients. We hereby report a case of a 16-year-old female patient who developed butterfly pattern hypopigmented rashes after 3 months of starting on category 1 antitubercular treatment (ATT. Other causes with similar picture were ruled out with additional investigations and the case was confi rmed as ATT induced hypopigmented rash. WHO-UMC causality assessment showed a probable association. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2014; 3(2.000: 410-411

M. C. Gupta

2014-04-01

140

Symmetry Breaking in Hofstadter's Butterfly in graphene  

Science.gov (United States)

We will present magnetotransport measurements in hBN encapsulated bilayer graphene devices where one of hBN substrates provides a weak modulation of lattice potential. Under a strong magnetic field, interplay between periodic electric potential and quantizing magnetic field lead to a fractal energy spectrum known as Hofstadter's butterfly. In graphene, while spin and layer symmetry breakings are expected in dual gated devices under large magnetic fields, valley symmetry breaking in the Hofstadter regime is not so easily understood. We will present the observance of these measured gaps along with a discussion of symmetry breaking in our BLG-hBN devices. Further quantitative analysis of these breakings will be presented through the temperature dependence of quantized conductance at these gaps. Through careful modulation of temperature and electron density, we have extracted a range of activation energies associated with symmetry breakings.

Forsythe, Carlos; Dean, Cory; Wang, Lei; Maher, Patrick; Ghahari, Fereshte; Moon, Pilkyung; Koshino, Mikito; Taniguchi, Takashi; Watanabe, Kenji; Shepard, Ken; Hone, Jim; Kim, Philip

2013-03-01

141

Local and effective: Two projects of butterfly farming in Cambodia and Tanzania (Insecta: Lepidoptera)  

OpenAIRE

Los proyectos "Banteay Srey Butterfly Centre" en Camboya (Asia) y "Zanzibar Butterfly Centre" in Tanzania (África) se describen como modelos de cría sostenible de mariposas en apoyo para comunidades locales.

Heyden, T.

2011-01-01

142

Butterfly wing coloration studied with a novel imaging scatterometer  

Science.gov (United States)

Animal coloration functions for display or camouflage. Notably insects provide numerous examples of a rich variety of the applied optical mechanisms. For instance, many butterflies feature a distinct dichromatism, that is, the wing coloration of the male and the female differ substantially. The male Brimstone, Gonepteryx rhamni, has yellow wings that are strongly UV iridescent, but the female has white wings with low reflectance in the UV and a high reflectance in the visible wavelength range. In the Small White cabbage butterfly, Pieris rapae crucivora, the wing reflectance of the male is low in the UV and high at visible wavelengths, whereas the wing reflectance of the female is higher in the UV and lower in the visible. Pierid butterflies apply nanosized, strongly scattering beads to achieve their bright coloration. The male Pipevine Swallowtail butterfly, Battus philenor, has dorsal wings with scales functioning as thin film gratings that exhibit polarized iridescence; the dorsal wings of the female are matte black. The polarized iridescence probably functions in intraspecific, sexual signaling, as has been demonstrated in Heliconius butterflies. An example of camouflage is the Green Hairstreak butterfly, Callophrys rubi, where photonic crystal domains exist in the ventral wing scales, resulting in a matte green color that well matches the color of plant leaves. The spectral reflection and polarization characteristics of biological tissues can be rapidly and with unprecedented detail assessed with a novel imaging scatterometer-spectrophotometer, built around an elliptical mirror [1]. Examples of butterfly and damselfly wings, bird feathers, and beetle cuticle will be presented. [4pt] [1] D.G. Stavenga, H.L. Leertouwer, P. Pirih, M.F. Wehling, Optics Express 17, 193-202 (2009)

Stavenga, Doekele

2010-03-01

143

On the Analysis and Construction of the Butterfly Curve Using "Mathematica"[R  

Science.gov (United States)

The butterfly curve was introduced by Temple H. Fay in 1989 and defined by the polar curve r = e[superscript cos theta] minus 2 cos 4 theta plus sin[superscript 5] (theta divided by 12). In this article, we develop the mathematical model of the butterfly curve and analyse its geometric properties. In addition, we draw the butterfly curve and…

Geum, Y. H.; Kim, Y. I.

2008-01-01

144

The Subversion of the Oriental Stereotype in M. Butterfly  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper is to examine the Oriental stereotype propagated by Giacomo Puccini’s Madame Butterfly and how it is subverted in David Henry Hwang’s M. Butterfly. Puccini portrays a docile, self-sacrificial Oriental woman who is totally submissive to and finally dies for her unworthy White lover. The opera’s popularity has perpetuated the stereotype of an ideal Oriental woman. In Hwang’s M. Butterfly, the stereotype of the ideal Oriental woman is subverted as the gender roles and the power structure of the Oriental woman and the Occidental man have been reversed. The White man, Gallimard, rather than a powerful sexual predator, is manipulated by his Oriental lover, a man masquerading woman, and finally dies for his Oriental lover. By analyzing the stereotype in Madame Butterfly and its subversion in M. Butterfly, it is hoped to reveal the insidiousness of stereotyping in understanding different cultures and peoples and it is also called for to rid people of stereotyping in cross-cultural communications.

Songfeng Wen

2013-04-01

145

Harmonic butterflies as a plasma diagnostic tool  

Science.gov (United States)

Inductively coupled plasma-tools have three power-coupling modes:capacitive (E-mode), inductive (H-mode) and Helicon wave (W-mode). These vary in light output intensity and rf behaviour depending on the system parameters. Here the particular interest is in the rf fundamental and its plasma-generated harmonic amplitudes and the relative phase between them. For the DCU ARIS II and the QUB GEC reference cell we have observed that the rf fundamental and its plasma generated harmonic(s) vary in amplitude and relative phase with the mode of discharge coupling. The rf information is captured using either a non-invasive dual-direction coupler and/or a surface-wave probe, and is displayed as a Lissajous figure on an oscilloscope. Experiments show that this technique delineates the mode change both in time and space for argon, chlorine and oxygen discharges. In the case of self-pulsing the Lissajous figure forms a time-varying Butterfly image that follows the pulse period thus allowing the time varying discharge to be monitored in real-time. Partially funded by the HEA North-South Programme for Collaborative Research and by SFI under grant number 02/IN.1/I147.

Law, V. J.; Gahan, D.; Soberon, F.; Oksuz, L.; Garcia, F.; Ellingboe, A. R.; Graham, W. G.

2004-09-01

146

Quantum computation over the butterfly network  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to investigate distributed quantum computation under restricted network resources, we introduce a quantum computation task over the butterfly network where both quantum and classical communications are limited. We consider deterministically performing a two-qubit global unitary operation on two unknown inputs given at different nodes, with outputs at two distinct nodes. By using a particular resource setting introduced by M. Hayashi [Phys. Rev. A 76, 040301(R) (2007)], which is capable of performing a swap operation by adding two maximally entangled qubits (ebits) between the two input nodes, we show that unitary operations can be performed without adding any entanglement resource, if and only if the unitary operations are locally unitary equivalent to controlled unitary operations. Our protocol is optimal in the sense that the unitary operations cannot be implemented if we relax the specifications of any of the channels. We also construct protocols for performing controlled traceless unitary operations with a 1-ebit resource and for performing global Clifford operations with a 2-ebit resource.

147

Development of linear flow rate control system for eccentric butter-fly valve  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Butter-fly valves are advantageous over gate, globe, plug, and ball valves in a variety of installations, particularly in the large sizes. The purpose of this project development of linear flow rate control system for eccentric butter-fly valve (intelligent butter-fly valve system). The intelligent butter-fly valve system consist of a valve body, micro controller. The micro controller consist of torque control system, pressure censor, worm and worm gear and communication line etc. The characteristics of intelligent butter-fly valve system as follows: Linear flow rate control function. Digital remote control function. guard function. Self-checking function. (author)

148

A mosaic of chemical coevolution in a large blue butterfly.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Mechanisms of recognition are essential to the evolution of mutualistic and parasitic interactions between species. One such example is the larval mimicry that Maculinea butterfly caterpillars use to parasitize Myrmica ant colonies. We found that the greater the match between the surface chemistry of Maculinea alcon and two of its host Myrmica species, the more easily ant colonies were exploited. The geographic patterns of surface chemistry indicate an ongoing coevolutionary arms race between the butterflies and Myrmica rubra, which has significant genetic differentiation between populations, but not between the butterflies and a second, sympatric host, Myrmica ruginodis, which has panmictic populations. Alternative hosts may therefore provide an evolutionary refuge for a parasite during periods of counteradaptation by their preferred hosts. Udgivelsesdato: 2008-Jan-4

Nash, David R; Als, Thomas D

2008-01-01

149

Distribution and evolutionary impact of wolbachia on butterfly hosts.  

Science.gov (United States)

Wolbachia are maternally inherited endosymbiotic alpha-proteobacteria found in terrestrial arthropods and filarial nematodes. They are transmitted vertically through host cytoplasm and alter host biology by inducing various reproductive alterations, like feminization, parthenogenesis, male killing (MK) and cytoplasmic incompatibility. In butterflies, some effects especially MK and sperm-egg incompatibility are well established. All these effects skew the sex ratio towards female and subsequently favor the vertical transmission of Wolbachia. Some of the insects are also infected with multiple Wolbachia strains which may results in some complex phenomenon. In the present review the potential of Wolbachia for promoting evolutionary changes in its hosts with emphasis on recent advances in interactions of butterfly-Wolbachia is discussed. In addition to this, strain diversity of Wolbachia and its effects on various butterfly hosts are also highlighted. PMID:24891730

Salunkhe, Rahul C; Narkhede, Ketan P; Shouche, Yogesh S

2014-09-01

150

Numerical Analysis for Structural Safety Evaluation of Butterfly Valves  

Science.gov (United States)

Butterfly valves are widely used in current industry to control the fluid flow. They are used for both on-off and throttling applications involving large flows at relatively low operating pressure especially in large size pipelines. For the industrial application of butterfly valves, it must be ensured that the valve could be used safety under the fatigue life and the deformations produced by the pressure of the fluid. In this study, we carried out the structure analysis of the body and the valve disc of the butterfly valve and the numerical simulation was performed by using ANSYS v11.0. The reliability of valve is evaluated under the investigation of the deformation, the leak test and the durability of the valve.

Shin, Myung-Seob; Yoon, Joon-Yong; Park, Han-Yung

2010-06-01

151

Annotated checklist of Albanian butterflies (Lepidoptera, Papilionoidea and Hesperioidea)  

OpenAIRE

The Republic of Albania has a rich diversity of flora and fauna. However, due to its political isolation, it has never been studied in great depth, and consequently, the existing list of butterfly species is outdated and in need of radical amendment. In addition to our personal data, we have studied the available literature, and can report a total of 196 butterfly species recorded from the country. For some of the species in the list we have given explanations for their inclusion and made oth...

Verovnik, Rudi; Popovic?, Milos?

2013-01-01

152

Freestyle versus butterfly swimming performance – effects of age and sex  

OpenAIRE

Purpose. Recent studies have suggested that the age of peak freestyle swimming speed is reached earlier in life in women than in men. However, no study has investigated the age of peak swimming speed in other swimming styles such as butterfly. The aims of the present study were to investigate the age of peak swimming speed in elite male and female butterfly and freestyle swimmers at the national level (Switzerland) and the sex differences in both the age of peak swimming speed and swimming sp...

Zingg, Matthias Alexander; Wolfrum, Mathias; Ru?st, Christoph Alexander; Rosemann, Thomas; Lepers, Romuald; Knechtle, Beat

2014-01-01

153

AFM Study of Structure Influence on Butterfly Wings Coloration  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study describes the structural coloration of the butterfly Vanessa Atalanta wings and shows how the atomic force microscopy (AFM can be applied to the study of wings morphology and wings surface behavior under the temperature. The role of the wings morphology in colors was investigated. Different colors of wings have different topology and can be identified by them. AFM in semi-contact mode was used to study the wings surface. The wing surface area, which is close to the butterfly body, has shiny brown color and the peak of surface roughness is about 600 nm. The changing of morphology at different temperatures is shown.

Dinara Sultanovna Dallaeva

2012-01-01

154

Anomalous reparametrizations and butterfly states in string field theory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The reparametrization symmetries of Witten's vertex in ordinary or vacuum string field theories can be used to extract useful information about classical solutions of the equations of motion corresponding to D-branes. It follows, that the vacuum string field theory in general has to be regularized. For the regularization recently considered by Gaiotto et al., we show that the identities we derive, are so constraining, that among all surface states they uniquely select the simplest butterfly projector discovered numerically by these authors. The reparametrization symmetries are also used to give a simple proof that the butterfly states and their generalizations are indeed projectors

155

Analysis, synchronization and circuit design of a novel butterfly attractor  

Science.gov (United States)

This research paper introduces a novel three-dimensional autonomous system, whose dynamics support periodic and chaotic butterfly attractors as certain parameters vary. A special case of this system, exhibiting reflectional symmetry, is amenable to analytical and numerical analysis. Qualitative properties of the new chaotic system are discussed in detail. Adaptive control laws are derived to achieve global chaotic synchronization of the new chaotic system with unknown parameters. Furthermore, a novel electronic circuit realization of the new chaotic system is presented, examined and realized using Orcad-PSpice program and physical components. The proposed novel butterfly chaotic attractor is very useful for the deliberate generation of chaos in applications.

Pehlivan, Ihsan; Moroz, Irene M.; Vaidyanathan, Sundarapandian

2014-09-01

156

Intensity contrast as a crucial cue for butterfly landing.  

Science.gov (United States)

Papilio butterflies use a tetrachromatic color vision to discriminate a rewarding flower, approach, land and take nectar from the flower. In the course of further analyzing their foraging behavior in a laboratory condition, we found that some butterflies could not land on the target flower even they discriminated and tried to land on it, especially when the target was dark. This phenomenon, which we call "landing suppression", indicates that the cue for landing differs from the cue for visually locating a flower. We hypothesized that a possible cue for landing was intensity contrast between the target and background, and have initiated to test this hypothesis. We tested the butterflies' landing behavior to targets of various colors and intensities presented on background of black or various densities of gray. As a result, the landing was most strongly suppressed when the intensity contrast was close to zero irrespective of the target colors, suggesting that the butterflies used the target-background intensity contrast when landing. PMID:21847617

Koshitaka, Hisaharu; Arikawa, Kentaro; Kinoshita, Michiyo

2011-11-01

157

New records of larval hostplants for ithomiinae butterflies (Nymphalidae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Seventeen new records of larval hostplants are given for Ithomiinae butterflies (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae in southeastern Minas Gerais, and one in Brasília, DF. At the present state of knowledge, generalizations about larval feeding habits of these insects may be premature.

COSTA F. A. P. L.

1999-01-01

158

Vegetation associated with the occurrence of the Brenton blue butterfly  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english The Brenton blue butterfly, Orachrysops niobe (Trimen), is critically endangered and known only from one site near Knysna in the Western Cape province of South Africa, now proclaimed as the Brenton Blue Butterfly Reserve (BBBR). We have explored associations between vegetation types and the presence [...] of O. niobe's only host plant, Indigofera erecta (Thunb.), using Braun-Blanquet vegetation classification and ordination techniques as part of a broader research project at the BBBR. Positive correlations are demonstrated between the occurrence of I. erecta and certain thicket vegetation types dominated by Pterocelastrus tricuspidatus (candlewood trees). Ordinations using soil analysis and slope data have not detected significant environmental gradients influencing vegetation types. The high degree of vegetation heterogeneity at the BBBR appears to be driven in part by various disturbance histories. Historical ecological events at the site such as fire and megaherbivore impacts, and their role in sustaining the ideal habitat for I. erecta and O. niobe, are discussed. Management techniques for the BBBR such as controlled fires or the cutting of paths through the vegetation are evaluated and an optimum future management strategy is recommended. This is the most comprehensive vegetation study ever carried out at the habitat of an endangered butterfly in South Africa, and breaks new ground by using vegetation analysis to develop a well-informed management plan for conservation of this species. It has significance for the management of small sites where many such endangered butterflies occur.

D.A., Edge; S.S., Cilliers; R.F., Terblanche.

2008-12-01

159

Butterfly Floquet Spectrum in Driven SU(2) Systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Floquet spectrum of a class of driven SU(2) systems is shown to display a butterfly pattern with multifractal properties. The level crossing between Floquet states of the same parity or different parities is studied. The results are relevant to studies of fractal statistics, quantum chaos, coherent destruction of tunneling, and the validity of mean-field descriptions of Bose-Einstein condensates.

160

BUDDLEJA DAVIDII (BUTTERFLY BUSH): A GROWING THREAT TO RIPARIA?  

Science.gov (United States)

Buddleja davidii, an Asian shrub or small tree (family Buddlejaceae; commonly referred to as Butterfly bush) is found in the United States, New Zealand, Australia, and Europe as a popular ornamental and an aggressive invasive that has become widespread in floodplains, riverbeds, ...

161

But Madame Butterfly, Where Are All the Males?  

Science.gov (United States)

This Scientific American article reports that a population of Samoan blue moon butterflies has been able to develop resistance to the male-killing bacteria Wolbachia. It explores how an introduced suppressor gene allowed resistant males to proliferate within the population in less than a year and includes future research questions.

Basu, Sourish; American, Scientific

162

Phase shifts of the paired wings of butterfly diagrams  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sunspot groups observed by the Royal Greenwich Observatory/US Air Force/NOAA from 1874 May to 2008 November and the Carte Synoptique solar filaments from 1919 March to 1989 December are used to investigate the relative phase shift of the paired wings of butterfly diagrams of sunspot and filament activities. Latitudinal migration of sunspot groups (or filaments) does asynchronously occur in the northern and southern hemispheres, and there is a relative phase shift between the paired wings of their butterfly diagrams in a cycle, making the paired wings spatially asymmetrical on the solar equator. It is inferred that hemispherical solar activity strength should evolve in a similar way within the paired wings of a butterfly diagram in a cycle, demonstrating the paired wings phenomenon and showing the phase relationship between the northern and southern hemispherical solar activity strengths, as well as a relative phase shift between the paired wings of a butterfly diagram, which should bring about almost the same relative phase shift of hemispheric solar activity strength. (research papers)

163

Butterfly Chronicles: Imagination and Desire in Natural & Literary Histories  

Science.gov (United States)

Fragile, ethereal, beautiful, the butterfly is at the same time decidedly strange in appearance. They are without mandibles, unlike most insects, but sport instead a proboscis, sometimes one and a half times their body length, which they use to drink liquids as if through a straw. They have large, compound eyes, tiny nails or claws, and strange…

MacRae, Ian J.

2008-01-01

164

Optical butterfly interconnections and applications in optical logic operations  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, the optical butterfly interconnections have first been implemented in theory and experiment by using the special reflected interconnect gratings and liquid crystal light valve (LCLV), and two most primitive optical logic operations (AND and OR) have been completed on the basis in parallel. Hence, this work makes the fundamental for more complex digital optical computings.

Sun, DeGui; Wang, Na-Xin; Weng, Zhao-Heng

1993-02-01

165

Controlling the cavitation phenomenon of evolution on a butterfly valve  

Science.gov (United States)

Development of the phenomenon of cavitation in cavitation behavior requires knowledge of both plant and equipment working in the facility. This paper presents a diagram of cavitational behavior for a butterfly valve with a diameter of 100 mm at various openings, which was experimentally built. We proposed seven stages of evolution of the phenomenon of cavitation in the case of a butterfly valve. All these phases are characterized by pressure drop, noise and vibration at various flow rates and flow sections through the valve. The level of noise and vibration for the seven stages of development of the phenomenon of cavitation were measured simultaneously. The experimental measurements were comprised in a knowledge database used in training of a neural network of a neural flow controller that maintains flow rate constantly in the facility by changing the opening butterfly valve. A fuzzy position controller is used to access the valve open. This is the method proposed to provide operational supervision outside the cavitation for a butterfly valve.

Baran, G.; Catana, I.; Magheti, I.; Safta, C. A.; Savu, M.

2010-08-01

166

Controlling the cavitation phenomenon of evolution on a butterfly valve  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Development of the phenomenon of cavitation in cavitation behavior requires knowledge of both plant and equipment working in the facility. This paper presents a diagram of cavitational behavior for a butterfly valve with a diameter of 100 mm at various openings, which was experimentally built. We proposed seven stages of evolution of the phenomenon of cavitation in the case of a butterfly valve. All these phases are characterized by pressure drop, noise and vibration at various flow rates and flow sections through the valve. The level of noise and vibration for the seven stages of development of the phenomenon of cavitation were measured simultaneously. The experimental measurements were comprised in a knowledge database used in training of a neural network of a neural flow controller that maintains flow rate constantly in the facility by changing the opening butterfly valve. A fuzzy position controller is used to access the valve open. This is the method proposed to provide operational supervision outside the cavitation for a butterfly valve.

Baran, G; Safta, C A [Department of Hydraulic and Hydraulic Machineries, University Politehnica of Bucharest, 313 Splaiul Independentei, Bucharest, 060042 (Romania); Catana, I [Department of Control and Computer Science, University Politehnica of Bucharest (Romania); Magheti, I; Savu, M, E-mail: baran_gheorghe@yahoo.co.u [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University Politehnica of Bucharest (Romania)

2010-08-15

167

Noise Caused by Cavitating Butterfly and Monovar Valves  

Science.gov (United States)

An experimental study of the effects of cavitation was carried out through an analysis of cavitating Butterfly and Monovar values. Focus is particularly placed on both unsteady pressure and acoustic pressure fluctuations. In this paper, the effects of cavitation on local fluctuation pressure (turbulence), acoustic propagation (damping and sound velocity), resonance frequencies and level of noise are presented.

HASSIS, H.

1999-08-01

168

Controlling the cavitation phenomenon of evolution on a butterfly valve  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Development of the phenomenon of cavitation in cavitation behavior requires knowledge of both plant and equipment working in the facility. This paper presents a diagram of cavitational behavior for a butterfly valve with a diameter of 100 mm at various openings, which was experimentally built. We proposed seven stages of evolution of the phenomenon of cavitation in the case of a butterfly valve. All these phases are characterized by pressure drop, noise and vibration at various flow rates and flow sections through the valve. The level of noise and vibration for the seven stages of development of the phenomenon of cavitation were measured simultaneously. The experimental measurements were comprised in a knowledge database used in training of a neural network of a neural flow controller that maintains flow rate constantly in the facility by changing the opening butterfly valve. A fuzzy position controller is used to access the valve open. This is the method proposed to provide operational supervision outside the cavitation for a butterfly valve.

169

Risk assessment for adult butterflies exposed to the mosquito control pesticide naled  

Science.gov (United States)

A prospective risk assessment was conducted for adult butterflies potentially exposed to the mosquito control insecticide naled. Published acute mortality data, exposure data collected during field studies, and morphometric data (total surface area and fresh body weight) for adult butterflies were combined in a probabilistic estimate of the likelihood that adult butterfly exposure to naled following aerial applications would exceed levels associated with acute mortality. Adult butterfly exposure was estimated based on the product of (1) naled residues on samplers and (2) an exposure metric that normalized total surface area for adult butterflies to their fresh weight. The likelihood that the 10th percentile refined effect estimate for adult butterflies exposed to naled would be exceeded following aerial naled applications was 67 to 80%. The greatest risk would be for butterflies in the family Lycaenidae, and the lowest risk would be for those in the family Hesperidae, assuming equivalent sensitivity to naled. A range of potential guideline naled deposition levels is presented that, if not exceeded, would reduce the risk of adult butterfly mortality. The results for this risk assessment were compared with other risk estimates for butterflies, and the implications for adult butterflies in areas targeted by aerial naled applications are discussed.

Bargar, Timothy A.

2012-01-01

170

Looking for the ants: selection of oviposition sites by two myrmecophilous butterfly species  

OpenAIRE

Obligate myrmecophilous butterfly species, such as Maculinea teleius and M. nausithous that hibernate as caterpillar in nests of the ant species Myrmica scabrinodis and M. rubra respectively, have narrowly defined habitat requirements. One would expect that these butterflies are able to select for sites that meet all their requirements. Both butterfly species occur in habitats where their initial larval resource, the host plant Sanguisorba officinalis, is abundant, while the ant nests are rel...

Wynhoff, I.; Grutters, M.; Langevelde, F.

2008-01-01

171

Use of fruit bait traps for monitoring of butterflies (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae)  

OpenAIRE

There exists great interest in using fruit-feeding adult nymphalid butterflies to monitor changes in tropical forest ecosystems. We intensively sampled the butterfly fauna of mid-elevation tropical moist forest in southern Costa Rica with fruit bait traps to address a series of practical issues concerning the development of a robust, efficient sampling program. Variation in the number of captures and escapes of butterflies at the traps was better explained by the time of day than by the age o...

Hughes, Jennifer B.; Daily, Gretchen C.; Ehrlich, Paul R.

1998-01-01

172

Adult diet affects lifespan and reproduction of the fruit-feeding butterfly Charaxes fulvescens  

OpenAIRE

Fruit-feeding butterflies are among the longest lived Lepidoptera. While the use of pollen-derived amino acids by Heliconius butterflies has been interpreted as important for the evolution of extended lifespans, very little is known about the life-history consequences of frugivory. This issue is addressed by investigating effects of four adult diets (sugar, sugar with amino acids, banana, and moistened banana) on lifespan and reproduction in the fruit-feeding butterfly Charaxes fulvescens Aur...

Molleman, Freerk; Ding, Jimin; Wang, Jane-ling; Zwaan, Bas J.; Carey, James R.; Brakefield, Paul M.

2008-01-01

173

Structural analysis of eyespots: dynamics of morphogenic signals that govern elemental positions in butterfly wings  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background To explain eyespot colour-pattern determination in butterfly wings, the induction model has been discussed based on colour-pattern analyses of various butterfly eyespots. However, a detailed structural analysis of eyespots that can serve as a foundation for future studies is still lacking. In this study, fundamental structural rules related to butterfly eyespots are proposed, and the induction model is elaborated in terms of the possible dynamics of morpho...

Otaki Joji M

2012-01-01

174

The vegetation of three localities of the threatened butterfly species Chrysoritis aureus (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae)  

OpenAIRE

The butterfly Chrysoritis aureus—previously known as Poecilmitis aureus before the new combination was designated by Heath (1997) —is considered to be Rare in the Red Data book of butterflies (Henning & Henning 1989) and the updated list of the Red Data book of butterfly species (Henning & Henning 1995). C.R. Barrett and F. Coetzee discovered Chrysoritis aureus on Christmas Day 1959 on a rocky slope below the water tow...

Terblanche, R. F.; Morgenthal, T. L.; Cilliers, S. S.

2003-01-01

175

A study on modelling of a butterfly-type control valve by a pneumatic actuator  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper studies on the modelling of a butterfly-type control valve actuating by an on-off pneumatic solenoid valve. The mathematical model is composed of nonlinear differential equations three parts: (i) a solenoid valve, (ii) a pneumatic cylinder, (iii) a rotary-type butterfly valve. The flow characteristics of the butterfly control valve is analysed by a computer simulator, then its simple transfer function is identified from the step responses.

Hwang, I Cheol [Dongeui University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Park, Cheol Jae [Daegu University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

2009-07-01

176

A study on modelling of a butterfly-type control valve by a pneumatic actuator  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper studies on the modelling of a butterfly-type control valve actuating by an on-off pneumatic solenoid valve. The mathematical model is composed of nonlinear differential equations three parts: (i) a solenoid valve, (ii) a pneumatic cylinder, (iii) a rotary-type butterfly valve. The flow characteristics of the butterfly control valve is analysed by a computer simulator, then its simple transfer function is identified from the step responses.

177

Japanese Papilio butterflies puddle using Na+ detected by contact chemosensilla in the proboscis  

OpenAIRE

Many butterflies acquire nutrients from non-nectar sources such as puddles. To better understand how male Papilio butterflies identify suitable sites for puddling, we used behavioral and electrophysiological methods to examine the responses of Japanese Papilio butterflies to Na+, K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+. Based on behavioral analyses, these butterflies preferred a 10-mM Na+ solution to K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ solutions of the same concentration and among a tested range of 1 mM to 1 M NaCl. We also mea...

Inoue, Takashi A.; Hata, Tamako; Asaoka, Kiyoshi; Ito, Tetsuo; Niihara, Kinuko; Hagiya, Hiroshi; Yokohari, Fumio

2012-01-01

178

Prediction of a required dynamic torque for motor-operated butterfly valves  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study describes the methodology for predicting a required dynamic torque in motor-operated butterfly valves. The results of this methodology have been compared with test data for motor-operated butterfly valves in nuclear power plant. With the close review of test data and torque prediction, it is concluded that the prediction methodology is conservative to predict a required dynamic torque of motor-operated butterfly valves. In addition, the information of correct differential pressure is vital to predict a required dynamic torque of motor-operated butterfly valves

179

Using Butterflies to Measure Biodiversity Health in Wazo Hill Restored Quarry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study butterflies were used in assessing re-vegetation as a way of biodiversity restoration at Wazo hill quarry. The Butterflies were used as indicator species because of their high sensitivity in ecosystems alteration. The study was done in two different areas each 4.8 acre, namely the re-vegetated and un-quarried areas. Butterfly sweep nets and Butterfly traps baited were used for Butterflies capturing. Thirty six (36 species of Butterflies were identified and voucher specimens were preserved in Kingupira Museum. Variation in species diversity was evaluated using diversity indices and tested using special t-test. Variation in Butterfly abundance in two study sites and in different habitats was determined using Kruskal-Wallis Test Statistic and Mann-Whitney U test statistic. The diversity of Butterflies was significant higher in re-vegetated site than in un-quarried site while the abundance difference in the two sites were insignificance The two sites varied in plants species diversity and level of succession, a condition attributed to variation in Butterfly diversity. The re-vegetated sites were recommended for aesthetic, education purposes and further studies on organisms.

Kelvin Ngongolo

2013-08-01

180

Quantum Reality, Complex Numbers and the Meteorological Butterfly Effect  

CERN Document Server

A not-too-technical version of the paper: "A Granular Permutation-based Representation of Complex Numbers and Quaternions: Elements of a Realistic Quantum Theory" - Proc. Roy. Soc.A (2004) 460, 1039-1055. The phrase "meteorological butterfly effect" is introduced to illustrate, not the familiar loss of predictability in low-dimensional chaos, but the much less familiar and much more radical paradigm of the finite-time predictability horizon, associated with upscale transfer of uncertainty in certain multi-scale systems (such as the 3D atmosphere). The meteorological butterfly effect is then used to provide a novel reinterpretation of complex algebra in terms of a family of self-similar permutation operators. Finally, a realistic deterministic reformulation of the foundations of quantum theory is given using this reinterpretation of complex numbers. Despite determinism, this reformulation has the emergent property of counterfactual indefiniteness.

Palmer, T N

2004-01-01

181

Simultaneous color contrast in the foraging swallowtail butterfly, Papilio xuthus.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study demonstrates that the color vision of foraging Japanese yellow swallowtail butterflies, Papilio xuthus, involves simultaneous color contrast. We trained newly emerged Papilio to select a disk of pale green among a set of differently colored disks presented on a black background. When the same set of disks was presented on blue background, the pale green-trained butterflies selected blue-green. The difference in spectra between pale green and blue green was similar to the spectrum of yellow for human vision, suggesting that blue induces yellow. Similarly, the pale green-trained Papilio selected a more bluish spring green on yellow background. We also trained Papilio with orange disks and tested on a green and violet background. The results showed that green induced violet and vice versa. Taken together, we concluded that simultaneous color contrast of Papilio is similar to the effect of complementary colors in human color vision. PMID:18931322

Kinoshita, Michiyo; Takahashi, Yuki; Arikawa, Kentaro

2008-11-01

182

Cluster analysis for pattern recognition in solar butterfly diagrams  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigate to what extent the wings of solar butterfly diagrams can be separated without an explicit usage of Hale's polarity law as well as the location of the solar equator. We apply two algorithms of cluster analysis for this purpose, namely DBSCAN and C-means, and demonstrate their ability to separate the wings of contemporary butterfly diagrams based on the sunspot group density in the diagram only. Then we apply the method to historical data concerning the solar activity in the 18th century (Staudacher data). The method separates the two wings for Cycle 2, but fails to separate them for Cycle 1. In our opinion, this finding supports the interpretation of the Staudacher data as an indication of the unusual nature of the solar cycle in the 18th century.

Illarionov, E.; Sokoloff, D.; Arlt, R.; Khlystova, A.

2011-07-01

183

BUTTERFLY FAUNA OF NAMBOR AND GARAMPANI WILDLIFE SANCTUARY, ASSAM, INDIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Brahmaputra Valley of Assam plains supports several protected areas for the conservation of the wildlife; also counted among one of the world's biodiversity hotspot regions that has been a biological frontier even in the twenty first century. Nambor and Garampani WLS is one among them; harboring diverse group of plants and animals. Butterflies are the indicators of healthy ecosystem and very sensitive to habitat degradation and pollution, they are also very important group as they are the natural pollinators. The present study provides an array of butterfly diversity of Nambor-Garampani WLS. A total of 123 species/subspecies representing 78 genera and five families have been recorded. The family Nymphalidae was found dominant with 57 [46%] species followed by Lycaenidae 24 [20%], Peridae 18 [15%], Papilionidae 14 [11%] and Hesperidae 10 [8%] species respectively

Mayur Bawri

2014-03-01

184

Bloch electrons in a magnetic field: Hofstadter's butterfly  

Science.gov (United States)

The quantum mechanics of Bloch electrons in a magnetic field has been in the focus of theoretical studies since long times. Hofstadter's butterfly, this highly aesthetic, self-similar single-particle spectrum calculated by Douglas R. Hofstadter during a visit 1976 in Regensburg, has probably become the most popular result in this field. Having in mind electrons in real crystal lattices Hofstadter at his time did not expect experimental verification of the butterfly. However, with the advent of 2D electron systems confined to semiconductor interfaces artificial periodic structures with sufficiently large lattice constants can be realized, that make the Hofstadter spectrum a target of experimental investigations. This contribution reviews the essential concepts of describing 2D Bloch electrons in a magnetic field, and in particular more recent efforts to demonstrate the peculiarities of the magnetic miniband structure in magnetotransport.

Rössler, Ulrich; Suhrke, Michael

185

Butterfly genome reveals promiscuous exchange of mimicry adaptations among species.  

OpenAIRE

The evolutionary importance of hybridization and introgression has long been debated. Hybrids are usually rare and unfit, but even infrequent hybridization can aid adaptation by transferring beneficial traits between species. Here we use genomic tools to investigate introgression in Heliconius, a rapidly radiating genus of neotropical butterflies widely used in studies of ecology, behaviour, mimicry and speciation. We sequenced the genome of Heliconius melpomene and compared it with other tax...

Dasmahapatra, Kk; Walters, Jr; Briscoe, Ad; Davey, Jw; Whibley, A.; Nadeau, Nj; Zimin, Av; Hughes, Dst; Ferguson, Lc; Martin, Sh; Salazar, C.; Lewis, Jj; Adler, S.; Ahn, S-j; Baker, DA

2012-01-01

186

Distribution, abundance and species richness of butterflies and myrmecophilous beetles  

OpenAIRE

Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain the patterns of species richness, distribution and abundance. Also several mechanisms have been put forward in explaining the generally observed positive relationship between regional distribution and local abundance of species. In this thesis factors affecting distribution, abundance and species richness were studied using butterflies and myrmecophilous beetles as study objects. The data of myrmecophilous beetles are based on the literature an...

Pa?ivinen, Jussi

2003-01-01

187

Replica of the structural color for Papilio blumei butterfly  

Science.gov (United States)

Although the physics of structural color has been investigated, it remains a challenge to create artificial replicas of the natural photonic crystal structure. The concave multilayer replica of Papilio blumei butterflies is successfully fabricated by the following three main steps: self assembly of polystyrene spheres, deposition using an electron-beam gun, and inductively coupled plasma etching. The green iridescence of the wings of P. blumei is successfully reproduced.

Lo, Mei-Ling; Li, Wen-Hsin; Tseng, Shao-Ze; Chen, Sheng-Hui; Chan, Chia-Hua; Lee, Cheng-Chung

2013-01-01

188

Polarisation-dependent colour vision in Papilio butterflies  

OpenAIRE

Butterflies of the genus Papilio have polarisation-sensitive photoreceptors in all regions of the eye, and different spectral types of receptor are sensitive to different e-vector orientations. We have studied the consequences of this eye design for colour vision in behavioural tests and find that Papilio spp. see false colours due to the polarisation of light. They discriminate between vertically and horizontally polarised light of the same colour in the contexts of oviposition and feeding. ...

Kelber, Almut; Thunell, Christel; Arikawa, Kentaro

2001-01-01

189

Pigmentation pattern formation in butterflies: experiments and models.  

OpenAIRE

Butterfly pigmentation patterns are one of the most spectacular and vivid examples of pattern formation in biology. They have attracted much attention from experimentalists and theoreticians, who have tried to understand the underlying genetic, chemical and physical processes that lead to patterning. In this paper, we present a brief review of this field by first considering the generation of the localised, eyespot, patterns and then the formation of more globally controlled patterns. We pres...

Nijhout, Hf; Maini, Pk; Madzvamuse, A.; Wathen, Aj; Sekimura, T.

2003-01-01

190

Sex Chromosome Mosaicism and Hybrid Speciation among Tiger Swallowtail Butterflies  

OpenAIRE

Hybrid speciation, or the formation of a daughter species due to interbreeding between two parental species, is a potentially important means of diversification, because it generates new forms from existing variation. However, factors responsible for the origin and maintenance of hybrid species are largely unknown. Here we show that the North American butterfly Papilio appalachiensis is a hybrid species, with genomic admixture from Papilio glaucus and Papilio canadensis. Papilio appalachiensi...

Kunte, Krushnamegh; Shea, Cristina; Aardema, Matthew L.; Scriber, J. Mark; Juenger, Thomas E.; Gilbert, Lawrence E.; Kronforst, Marcus R.

2011-01-01

191

Enemy-free space maintains swallowtail butterfly host shift  

OpenAIRE

Natural enemies can be significant sources of mortality for herbivorous insects and therefore important agents of natural selection. One might expect selection to favor herbivores that escape from their natural enemies into enemy-free space. Although this is an appealing idea, it has received little empirical support, and no studies have documented enemy-free space as part of a nonagricultural, nonartificial host shift. The Alaskan swallowtail butterfly, Papilio machaon aliaska, uses as host ...

Murphy, Shannon M.

2004-01-01

192

Speciation in two neotropical butterflies: extending Haldane's rule  

OpenAIRE

Anartia fatima and A. amathea form a hybrid zone in Panama where F1 and back-cross hybrids are found. Crosses were carried out to determine the nature of any reproductive isolation between these two butterflies. A novel analysis demonstrated both strong assortative mating among the pure forms and an unusual example of Haldane's rule: F1 hybrid females (the heterogametic sex) from the cross A. amathea (female) multiplied by A. fatima (male) have a reduced tendency to mate. Historically, Haldan...

Davies, N.; Aiello, A.; Mallet, J.; Pomiankowski, A.; Silberglied, R. E.

1997-01-01

193

Genetic Evidence for Hybrid Trait Speciation in Heliconius Butterflies  

OpenAIRE

Homoploid hybrid speciation is the formation of a new hybrid species without change in chromosome number. So far, there has been a lack of direct molecular evidence for hybridization generating novel traits directly involved in animal speciation. Heliconius butterflies exhibit bright aposematic color patterns that also act as cues in assortative mating. Heliconius heurippa has been proposed as a hybrid species, and its color pattern can be recreated by introgression of the H. m. melpomene red...

Salazar, Camilo; Baxter, Simon W.; Pardo-diaz, Carolina; Wu, Grace; Surridge, Alison; Linares, Mauricio; Bermingham, Eldredge; Jiggins, Chris D.

2010-01-01

194

What initiates speciation in passion-vine?butterflies?  

OpenAIRE

Studies of the continuum between geographic races and species provide the clearest insights into the causes of speciation. Here we report on mate choice and hybrid viability experiments in a pair of warningly colored butterflies, Heliconius erato and Heliconius himera, that maintain their genetic integrity in the face of hybridization. Hybrid sterility and inviability have been unimportant in the early stages of speciation of these two Heliconius. We find no evidence of reduced fecundity, egg...

Mcmillan, W. Owen; Jiggins, Chris D.; Mallet, James

1997-01-01

195

Interrelation Between Some Butterflies and Plant Associations (Turkey)  

OpenAIRE

The butterfly fauna in Ordu province (N-Turkey) was determined in this study. Their relations with the phytosociological associations found in the zone were evaluated and the Lepidoptera taxa in these units were presented. The numbers of determined taxa in each plant association are Castanea-Carpinus-Corylus (23), Fagus orientalis, Carpinus betulus and Picea orientalis Mixed Forest Zone (23), Subalpine Zone (Rhododendron luteum-Vaccinium myrtillus) (25), Low...

O?zdemir, M.; Seven, S.

2007-01-01

196

Social benefits of ecotourism : the monarch butterfly reserve in Mexico  

OpenAIRE

Ecotourism can contribute to both positive and negative socioeconomic impacts at the local level. However, ecotourism’s socioeconomic impacts have received limited scholarly attention in the context of developing countries. Based on qualitative interviews and observations, this paper looks at the socioeconomic benefits of ecotourism in a local community in the Monarch Butterfly Reserve in Mexico. It was found that ecotourism replaced most of the economic activities in the ...

Monterrubio Cordero, Juan Carlos; Rodri?guez Mun?oz, Gregoria; Mendoza Ontiveros, Martha Marivel

2013-01-01

197

Butterfly eyespot serial homology: enter the Hox genes  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Hox genes modify serial homology patterns in many organisms, exemplified in vertebrates by modification of the axial skeleton and in arthropods by diversification of the body segments. Butterfly wing eyespots also appear in a serial homologous pattern that, in certain species, is subject to local modification. A paper in EvoDevo reports the Hox gene Antp is the earliest known gene to have eyespot-specific expression; however, not all Lepidoptera express

Hombría James

2011-01-01

198

Light-Induced Hofstadter's Butterfly Spectrum in Optical Lattices  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We propose a scheme to create an effective magnetic field, which can be perceived by cold neutral atoms in a two-dimensional optical lattice, with a laser field with a space-dependent phase and a conventional laser field acting on ?-type three-level atoms. When the dimensionless parameter ?, being the ratio of flux through a lattice cell to one flux quantum, is rational, the energy spectrum shows a fractal band structure, which is so-called Hofstadter's butterfly. (general)

199

Butterfly wing colours: scale beads make white pierid wings brighter.  

OpenAIRE

The wing-scale morphologies of the pierid butterflies Pieris rapae (small white) and Delias nigrina (common jezabel), and the heliconine Heliconius melpomene are compared and related to the wing-reflectance spectra. Light scattering at the wing scales determines the wing reflectance, but when the scales contain an absorbing pigment, reflectance is suppressed in the absorption wavelength range of the pigment. The reflectance of the white wing areas of P. rapae, where the scales are studded wit...

Stavenga, D. G.; Stowe, S.; Siebke, K.; Zeil, J.; Arikawa, K.

2004-01-01

200

Ancient butterfly-ant symbiosis: direct evidence from Dominican amber  

OpenAIRE

Although symbiotic association with ants is pervasive in the butterfly families Lycaenidae and Riodinidae the age of these symbioses has never been estimated explicitly. Here we report the first known fossil riodinid caterpillar. This fossil can be dated minimally between 15 and 20 Ma old, and confidently placed in the extant genus Theope. Differing little from modern day Theope, this fossil from Dominican amber provides direct evidence that secretory and acoustical organs used by modern cate...

Devries, P. J.; Poinar, G. O.

1997-01-01

201

Discrimination of flying mimetic, passion-vine butterflies Heliconius  

OpenAIRE

Wing-beat frequency and the degree of asymmetry in wing motion were more similar among mimics than among sister species of passion-vine butterflies in the genus Heliconius. Asymmetry in wing motion is not attributed to lift production, and serves as the first clear example of a mimetic behavioural signal for a flying organism. Because the similarities in wing motion are too subtle for humans to observe with the naked eye, they serve as a previously unexplored mimetic signal.

Srygley, R. B.; Ellington, C. P.

1999-01-01

202

Quantum reality complex numbers, and the meteorological butterfly effect  

OpenAIRE

A not-too-technical version of the paper: "A Granular Permutation-based Representation of Complex Numbers and Quaternions: Elements of a Realistic Quantum Theory" - Proc. Roy. Soc.A (2004) 460, 1039-1055. The phrase "meteorological butterfly effect" is introduced to illustrate, not the familiar loss of predictability in low-dimensional chaos, but the much less familiar and much more radical paradigm of the finite-time predictability horizon, associated with upscale transfer ...

Palmer, Tn

2005-01-01

203

Diversity of Butterflies from District Muzaffarabad, Azad Kashmir  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The adult butterflies were collected from nine localities of district Muzaffarabad through out the summer season of (April to October 2001. A total of 28 species belonging to 7 families were collected. Diversity was calculated by using Shannon-Wiener diversity index, Shannon`s equitability, Margalef`s index, Simpson`s index and RI index. The calculated values showed that the lowest diversity was obtained from Kohala and highest diversity was obtained from Shaeed Gali and Gari Dopatta.

M. Rafique Khan

2004-01-01

204

Investigations and Mimicry of the Optical Properties of Butterfly Wings  

Science.gov (United States)

Structural color in Nature has been observed in plants, insects and birds, and has led to a strong interest in these phenomena and a desire to understand the mechanisms responsible. Of particular interest are the optical properties of butterflies. In this paper, we review three investigations inspired by the unique optical properties exhibited in a variety of butterfly wings. In the first investigation, conformal atomic layer depositions (ALDs) were used to exploit biologically defined 2D photonic crystal (PC) templates of Papilio blumei with the purpose of increasing the understanding of the optical effects of naturally formed dielectric architectures, and of exploring any novel optical effects. In the second study, it was demonstrated that faithful mimicry of Papilio palinurus can be achieved by physical fabrication methods through using breath figures to provide templates and ALD routines to enable optical properties. Finally, knowledge of the optical structure properties of the Princeps nireus butterfly has resulted in bioinspired designs to enhanced scintillator designs for radiation detection.

Summers, Christopher J.; Gaillot, Davy P.; Crne, Matija; Blair, John; Park, Jung O.; Srinivasarao, Mohan; Deparis, Olivier; Welch, Victoria; Vigneron, Jean-Pol

205

Climate-driven changes in northeastern US butterfly communities  

Science.gov (United States)

Climate warming is expected to change the distribution and abundance of many species. Range shifts have been detected in a number of European taxa for which long-term government-initiated or organized-survey data are available. In North America, well-organized long-term data needed to document such shifts are much less common. Opportunistic observations made by citizen scientist groups may be an excellent alternative to systematic surveys. From 1992 to 2010, 19,779 butterfly surveys were made by amateur naturalists in Massachusetts, a geographically small state located at the convergence of northern and southern bioclimatic zones in eastern North America. From these data, we estimated population trends for nearly all butterfly species (100 of 116 species present) using list-length analysis. Population trajectories indicate increases of many species near their northern range limits and declines in nearly all species (17 of 21) near their southern range limits. Certain life-history traits, especially overwintering stage, were strongly associated with declines. Our results suggest that a major, climate-induced shift of North American butterflies, characterized by northward expansions of warm-adapted and retreat of cold-adapted species, is underway.

Breed, Greg A.; Stichter, Sharon; Crone, Elizabeth E.

2013-02-01

206

Enhancement of chromatic contrast increases predation risk for striped butterflies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Many prey species have evolved defensive colour patterns to avoid attacks. One type of camouflage, disruptive coloration, relies on contrasting patterns that hinder predators' ability to recognize an object. While high contrasts are used to facilitate detection in many visual communication systems, they are thought to provide misleading information about prey appearance in disruptive patterns. A fundamental tenet in disruptive coloration theory is the principle of 'maximum disruptive contrast', i.e. disruptive patterns are more effective when higher contrasts are involved. We tested this principle in highly contrasting stripes that have often been described as disruptive patterns. Varying the strength of chromatic contrast between stripes and adjacent pattern elements in artificial butterflies, we found a strong negative correlation between survival probability and chromatic contrast strength. We conclude that too high a contrast leads to increased conspicuousness rather than to effective camouflage. However, artificial butterflies that sported contrasts similar to those of the model species Limenitis camilla survived equally well as background-matching butterflies without these stripes. Contrasting stripes do thus not necessarily increase predation rates. This result may provide new insights into the design and characteristics of a range of colour patterns such as sexual, mimetic and aposematic signals. PMID:18381256

Stobbe, Nina; Schaefer, H Martin

2008-07-01

207

Solving Witten's string field theory using the butterfly state  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We solve the equation of motion of Witten's cubic open string field theory in a series expansion using the regulated butterfly state. The expansion parameter is given by the regularization parameter of the butterfly state, which can be taken to be arbitrarily small. Unlike the case of level truncation, the equation of motion can be solved for an arbitrary component of the Fock space up to a positive power of the expansion parameter. The energy density of the solution is well defined and remains finite even in the singular butterfly limit, and it gives approximately 68% of the D25-brane tension for the solution at the leading order. Moreover, it simultaneously solves the equation of motion of vacuum string field theory, providing support for the conjecture at this order. We further improve our ansatz by taking into account next-to-leading terms, and find two numerical solutions which give approximately 88% and 109%, respectively, of the D25-brane tension for the energy density. These values are interestingly close to those by level truncation at level 2 without gauge fixing studied by Rastelli and Zwiebach and by Ellwood and Taylor

208

Hofstadter butterflies in nonlinear Harper lattices, and their optical realizations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ubiquitous Hofstadter butterfly describes a variety of systems characterized by incommensurable periodicities, ranging from Bloch electrons in magnetic fields and the quantum Hall effect to cold atoms in optical lattices and more. Here, we introduce nonlinearity into the underlying (Harper) model and study the nonlinear spectra and the corresponding extended eigenmodes of nonlinear quasiperiodic systems. We show that the spectra of the nonlinear eigenmodes form deformed versions of the Hofstadter butterfly and demonstrate that the modes can be classified into two families: nonlinear modes that are a 'continuation' of the linear modes of the system and new nonlinear modes that have no counterparts in the linear spectrum. Finally, we propose an optical realization of the linear and nonlinear Harper models in transversely modulated waveguide arrays, where these Hofstadter butterflies can be observed. This work is relevant to a variety of other branches of physics beyond optics, such as disorder-induced localization in ultracold bosonic gases, localization transition processes in disordered lattices, and more.

209

Cavitation detection of butterfly valve using support vector machines  

Science.gov (United States)

Butterfly valves are popularly used in service in the industrial and water works pipeline systems with large diameter because of its lightweight, simple structure and the rapidity of its manipulation. Sometimes cavitation can occur, resulting in noise, vibration and rapid deterioration of the valve trim, and do not allow further operation. Thus, monitoring of cavitation is of economic interest and is very important in industry. This paper proposes a condition monitoring scheme using statistical feature evaluation and support vector machine (SVM) to detect the cavitation conditions of butterfly valve which used as a flow control valve at the pumping stations. The stationary features of vibration signals are extracted from statistical moments. The SVMs are trained, and then classify normal and cavitation conditions of control valves. The SVMs with the reorganized feature vectors can distinguish the class of the untrained and untested data. The classification validity of this method is examined by various signals acquired from butterfly valves in the pumping stations. And the classification success rate is compared with that of self-organizing feature map neural network (SOFM).

Yang, Bo-Suk; Hwang, Won-Woo; Ko, Myung-Han; Lee, Soo-Jong

2005-10-01

210

What can sown wildflower strips contribute to butterfly conservation?: an example from a Swiss lowland agricultural landscape  

OpenAIRE

The objective of this study was to compare butterfly abundances and diversity between wildflower strips and extensively used meadows to identify which butterfly species can be supported by establishing wildflower strips. Butterflies were recorded along transects during one season in twenty-five sown wildflower strips and eleven extensively used meadows in a Swiss lowland agricultural landscape (600 ha). In total 1,669 butterflies of 25 species were observed (25 in the strips, 18 in meadows). ...

Haaland, Christine; Bersier, Louis-fe?lix

2011-01-01

211

The Natural History Museum of London-The Cockayne database-British & Irish Butterflies and Moths part 1: Butterflies  

Science.gov (United States)

Named after Dr. E A Cockayne, The Cockayne database website was developed collaboratively by the Natural History Museum in London and Dr. Cockayne's Trust. The central aim of the website is "to provide free access to a comprehensive atlas of British butterflies and moths, illustrating all native and introduced species and their variation." This site represents the first phase of the Cockayne project focusing on British Butterflies, and it currently "provides approximately 1700 images illustrating geographic, seasonal, genetic and major individual variations." Site visitors can search the database by scientific or common name, or by browsing numerous images of native and regular migrant species. This site also provides information about the Cockayne Fellowship for new work on Lepidoptera.

212

“Darwin’s butterflies”? DNA barcoding and the radiation of the endemic Caribbean butterfly genus Calisto (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Satyrinae)  

OpenAIRE

The genus Calisto Hübner, 1823 is the only member of the diverse, global subfamily Satyrinae found in the West Indies, and by far the richest endemic Caribbean butterfly radiation. Calisto species occupy an extremely diverse array of habitats, suggestive of adaptive radiation on the scale of other classic examples such as the Galápagos or Darwin’s finches. However, a reliable species classification is a key requisite before further evolutionary or ecological research. An analysis of 111 D...

Andrei Sourakov; Evgeny Zakharov

2011-01-01

213

Study of nano-architecture of the wings of Paris Peacock butterfly  

Science.gov (United States)

Butterflies are one of the most colorful creatures in animal Kingdom. Wings of the male butterfly are brilliantly colored to attract females. Color of the wings plays an important role in camouflage. Study of structural colors in case of insects and butterflies are important for their biomimic and biophotonic applications. Structural color is the color which is produced by physical structures and their interaction with light. Paris Peacock or Papilio paris butterfly belongs to the family Papilionidae. The basis of structural color of this butterfly is investigated in the present study. The upper surface of the wings in this butterfly is covered with blue, green and brown colored scales. Nano-architecture of these scales was investigated with scanning electron microscope (SEM) and environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM). Photomicrographs were analyzed using image analysis software. Goniometric color or iridescence in blue and green colored scales of this butterfly was observed and studied with the help of gonio spectrophotometer in the visible range. No iridescence was observed in brown colored scales of the butterfly. Hues of the blue and green color were measured with spectrophotometer and were correlated with nano-architecture of the wing. Results of electron microscopy and reflection spectroscopy are used to explain the iridescent nature of blue and green scales. Sinusoidal grating like structures of these scales were prominently seen in the blue scales. It is possible that the structure of these wings can act as a template for the fabrication of sinusoidal gratings using nano-imprint technology.

Ghate, Ekata; Bhoraskar, S. V.; Kulkarni, G. R.

214

The effect of atomic power plant accident on organisms as studied by using butterflies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The biological radiation effect of the Fukushima powerplant accident on a butterfly, Yamotoshijimi has been examined. Consequently it was resulted that the radioactive materials released from the accident had a bad influence upon Yamatoshijimi, that is, the lowering of life rate, the shape diminishing and the malformation of this butterfly. (M.H.)

215

Butterfly valve with metal seals controls flow of hydrogen from cryogenic through high temperatures  

Science.gov (United States)

Butterfly valve with metal seals operates over a temperature range of minus 423 degrees to plus 440 degrees F with hydrogen as a medium and in a radiation environment. Media flow is controlled by an internal butterfly disk which is rotated by an actuation shaft.

Johnson, L. D.

1967-01-01

216

Evolution of the wave: aerodynamic and aposematic functions of butterfly wing motion  

Science.gov (United States)

Many unpalatable butterfly species use color to signal their distastefulness to birds, but motion cues may also be crucial to ward off predatory attacks. In previous research, captive passion-vine butterflies Heliconius mimetic in color pattern were also mimetic in motion. Here I investigate whethe...

217

El poder de las representaciones sociales: M. Butterfly, la mujer perfecta The power of social representations: M. Butterfly, the perfect woman  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available En este trabajo se presenta un análisis del film M. Butterfly , dirigido por David Cronenberg, en 1993 y se trata de una versión basada en la ópera “Madame Butterfly” de Puccini.  El objetivo es demostrar el poder y la fuerza de las representaciones sociales como mecanismos de producción de sentido que permitem que los sujetos sociales construyan, desconstruyan y reconstruyan el mundo en que viven y para el cual buscan sentido.This paper presents an analysis of the film M. Butterfly, directed by David Cronenberg, in 1993. This film is a version based on the opera Madame Butterfly, by Puccini. It aims to demonstrate the power and the strength of social representations as mechanisms for the production of meaning which allow social actors to construct, deconstruct and reconstruct the world in which they live and for which they loook for its meaning.

Maria Angela Silveira Paulilo

2011-07-01

218

Opsin clines in butterflies suggest novel roles for insect photopigments.  

Science.gov (United States)

Opsins are ancient molecules that enable animal vision by coupling to a vitamin-derived chromophore to form light-sensitive photopigments. The primary drivers of evolutionary diversification in opsins are thought to be visual tasks related to spectral sensitivity and color vision. Typically, only a few opsin amino acid sites affect photopigment spectral sensitivity. We show that opsin genes of the North American butterfly Limenitis arthemis have diversified along a latitudinal cline, consistent with natural selection due to environmental factors. We sequenced single nucleotide (SNP) polymorphisms in the coding regions of the ultraviolet (UVRh), blue (BRh), and long-wavelength (LWRh) opsin genes from ten butterfly populations along the eastern United States and found that a majority of opsin SNPs showed significant clinal variation. Outlier detection and analysis of molecular variance indicated that many SNPs are under balancing selection and show significant population structure. This contrasts with what we found by analysing SNPs in the wingless and EF-1 alpha loci, and from neutral amplified fragment length polymorphisms, which show no evidence of significant locus-specific or genome-wide structure among populations. Using a combination of functional genetic and physiological approaches, including expression in cell culture, transgenic Drosophila, UV-visible spectroscopy, and optophysiology, we show that key BRh opsin SNPs that vary clinally have almost no effect on spectral sensitivity. Our results suggest that opsin diversification in this butterfly is more consistent with natural selection unrelated to spectral tuning. Some of the clinally varying SNPs may instead play a role in regulating opsin gene expression levels or the thermostability of the opsin protein. Lastly, we discuss the possibility that insect opsins might have important, yet-to-be elucidated, adaptive functions in mediating animal responses to abiotic factors, such as temperature or photoperiod. PMID:25371434

Frentiu, Francesca D; Yuan, Furong; Savage, Wesley K; Bernard, Gary D; Mullen, Sean P; Briscoe, Adriana D

2015-02-01

219

[Butterflies (Lepidoptera, Diurna) in the high-mountain southeastern Russia].  

Science.gov (United States)

Groups of butterfly species established under high-mountain conditions in the southeastern Russia were described. The role of species with different distribution including arctic-alpine and alpine ones typical of these conditions in the species composition was considered. Fifteen local faunas inhabiting the areas of Buryatia, Chita, Amur, and Sakhalin Regions, and Khabarovsk and Maritime Territories were taxonomically analyzed. The common faunistic background was found in the mountains of the Mongolian-South-Siberian and East-Siberian provinces, while only some elements of the high-mountain fauna were observed at individual elevations of the South-Okhotsk province. PMID:17352197

Martynenko, A B

2007-01-01

220

Structural colour: Colour mixing in wing scales of a butterfly  

Science.gov (United States)

Green coloration in the animal kingdom, as seen in birds' feathers and reptile integument, is often an additive mixture of structurally effected blue and pigmentary yellow. Here we investigate the origin of the bright green coloration of the wing scales of the Indonesian male Papilio palinurus butterfly, the microstructure of which generates an extraordinary combination of both yellow and blue iridescence. The dual colour arises from a modulation imposed on the multilayer, producing the blue component as a result of a previously undiscovered retro-reflection process.

Vukusic, P.; Sambles, J. R.; Lawrence, C. R.

2000-03-01

221

Butterfly eyespot serial homology: enter the Hox genes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Hox genes modify serial homology patterns in many organisms, exemplified in vertebrates by modification of the axial skeleton and in arthropods by diversification of the body segments. Butterfly wing eyespots also appear in a serial homologous pattern that, in certain species, is subject to local modification. A paper in EvoDevo reports the Hox gene Antp is the earliest known gene to have eyespot-specific expression; however, not all Lepidoptera express Antp in eyespots, suggesting some developmental flexibility. See research article: http://www.evodevojournal.com/content/2/1/9

Hombría James

2011-04-01

222

A Construction of Butterfly Pedigree of Sports Law  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper ventures to start from the two dimensions of sport’s specific property and law’s basic property, and then construct the butterfly pedigree of Sports Law. It tries to clarify the various relationships of Sports Law, and judge the rationality of the viewpoints of various theoretic schools in this circle .And it also tries to tamp a foundation for concepts of Sports Law and provide a comparatively complete theoretic framework for analysis of the history and temporary development.

Fajin FENG

2014-10-01

223

Implementing controlled-unitary operations over the butterfly network  

Science.gov (United States)

We introduce a multiparty quantum computation task over a network in a situation where the capacities of both the quantum and classical communication channels of the network are limited and a bottleneck occurs. Using a resource setting introduced by Hayashi [1], we present an efficient protocol for performing controlled-unitary operations between two input nodes and two output nodes over the butterfly network, one of the most fundamental networks exhibiting the bottleneck problem. This result opens the possibility of developing a theory of quantum network coding for multiparty quantum computation, whereas the conventional network coding only treats multiparty quantum communication.

Soeda, Akihito; Kinjo, Yoshiyuki; Turner, Peter S.; Murao, Mio

2014-12-01

224

Manifestation of the Hofstadter butterfly in far-infrared absorption  

CERN Document Server

The far-infrared absorption of a two-dimensional electron gas with a square-lattice modulation in a perpendicular constant magnetic field is calculated self-consistently within the Hartree approximation. For strong modulation and short period we obtain intra- and intersubband magnetoplasmon modes reflecting the subbands of the Hofstadter butterfly in two or more Landau bands. The character of the absorption and the correlation of the peaks to the number of flux quanta through each unit cell of the periodic potential depends strongly on the location of the chemical potential with respect to the subbands, or what is the same, on the density of electrons in the system.

Gudmundsson, V; Gudmundsson, Vidar; Gerhardts, Rolf R

1996-01-01

225

Diversity of Butterflies from District Bagh, Azad Kashmir  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The adult butterflies were collected from ten localities of Distt. Bagh through out the year 1998. A total of 27 species belonging to 5 families and 15 genera were collected. Diversity was calculated by using Shannon-Wiener`s diversity index, Shannon`s equitability, Margalef`s index, Simpson`s index and RI index. The calculated values showed that diversity was slightly higher at Sudhan Gali and Mang Bajri, where as it was lower at Naumanpura. None of the reported species was found to be threatened to become extinct or found to be favored by enriched flora.

M. Rafique Khan

2003-01-01

226

Aerodynamic effect of hind-wing tails on a gliding swallowtail butterfly  

Science.gov (United States)

In butterfly flight, the relationship between wing morphology and gliding performance have been one of the major concerns. The hind-wing tails, observed in most swallowtail butterfly, have been also conjectured to promote the gliding ability of butterfly. In this study, the aerodynamic role of hind-wing tails in gliding swallowtail butterfly is experimentally investigated using butterfly models with and without tails. The butterfly models are copied from a dried specimen of real swallowtail butterfly, Papilio Ulysses. Varying the attack angle, we measure the lift, drag and pitching moment for both models, and visualize the flow fields using an array of smoke wires at the attack angle of 20^o. With the tails, the lift and drag increase by about 10 ˜20% and 5%, respectively, at the attack angles higher than 15^o, which results in the increase of lift-to-drag ratio in a wide range of attack angles. Also, with the tails, the nose-down pitching moment increases more rapidly with increasing attack angle, indicating the enhanced longitudinal static stability by the tails. From visualization, it is found that strong vortical structures are drawn closer to the upper wing surface by the tails.

Choi, Haecheon; Park, Hyungmin; Bae, Kisoo; Jeon, Woo-Pyung

2006-11-01

227

Temporal occurrence of two morpho butterflies (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae): influence of weather and food resources.  

Science.gov (United States)

The seasonality of fruit-feeding butterflies is very well known. However, few studies have analyzed the influence of climatic variables and resource availability on the temporal distributions of butterflies. Morpho helenor achillides (C. Felder and R. Felder 1867) and Morpho menelaus coeruleus (Perry 1810) (Nymphalidae) were used as models to investigate the influences of climatic factors and food resources on the temporal distribution of these Morphinae butterflies. These butterflies were collected weekly from January 2005 to December 2006 in the Parque Nacional de Brasília (PNB). In total, 408 individuals were collected, including 274 of M. helenor and 134 of M. menelaus. The relative abundance of the two species was similar in 2005 (n = 220) and 2006 (n = 188). Of the variables considered, only the relative humidity and resource availability measured in terms of phenology of zoochorous fruits of herbaceous plants explained a large proportion of the variation in the abundance of these butterflies. Both of the explanatory variables were positively associated with the total abundance of individuals and with the abundances of M. helenor and M. menelaus considered separately. The phenology of anemochorous fruits was negatively associated with butterfly abundance. The temporal distribution of the butterflies was better predicted by the phenology of the zoochorous fruits of herbaceous plants than by the climatic predictors. PMID:24495483

Freire, Geraldo; Nascimento, André Rangel; Malinov, Ivan Konstantinov; Diniz, Ivone R

2014-04-01

228

Eyespot display in the peacock butterfly triggers antipredator behaviors in naïve adult fowl.  

Science.gov (United States)

Large conspicuous eyespots have evolved in multiple taxa and presumably function to thwart predator attacks. Traditionally, large eyespots were thought to discourage predator attacks because they mimicked eyes of the predators' own predators. However, this idea is controversial and the intimidating properties of eyespots have recently been suggested to simply be a consequence of their conspicuousness. Some lepidopteran species include large eyespots in their antipredation repertoire. In the peacock butterfly, Inachis io, eyespots are typically hidden during rest and suddenly exposed by the butterfly when disturbed. Previous experiments have shown that small wild passerines are intimidated by this display. Here, we test whether eyespots also intimidate a considerably larger bird, domestic fowl, Gallus gallus domesticus, by staging interactions between birds and peacock butterflies that were sham-painted or had their eyespots painted over. Our results show that birds typically fled when peacock butterflies performed their display regardless of whether eyespots were visible or painted over. However, birds confronting butterflies with visible eyespots delayed their return to the butterfly, were more vigilant, and more likely to utter alarm calls associated with detection of ground-based predators, compared with birds confronting butterflies with eyespots painted over. Because production of alarm calls and increased vigilance are antipredation behaviors in the fowl, their reaction suggests that eyespots may elicit fear rather than just an aversion to conspicuous patterns. Our results, therefore, suggest that predators perceive large lepidopteran eyespots as belonging to the eyes of a potential predator. PMID:23243378

Olofsson, Martin; Løvlie, Hanne; Tibblin, Jessika; Jakobsson, Sven; Wiklund, Christer

2013-01-01

229

Japanese Papilio butterflies puddle using Na+ detected by contact chemosensilla in the proboscis  

Science.gov (United States)

Many butterflies acquire nutrients from non-nectar sources such as puddles. To better understand how male Papilio butterflies identify suitable sites for puddling, we used behavioral and electrophysiological methods to examine the responses of Japanese Papilio butterflies to Na+, K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+. Based on behavioral analyses, these butterflies preferred a 10-mM Na+ solution to K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ solutions of the same concentration and among a tested range of 1 mM to 1 M NaCl. We also measured the ion concentrations of solutions sampled from puddling sites in the field. Na+ concentrations of the samples were up to 6 mM, slightly lower than that preferred by butterflies in the behavioral experiments. Butterflies that sipped the 10 mM Na+ solution from the experimental trays did not continue to puddle on the ground. Additionally, butterflies puddled at sites where the concentrations of K+, Ca2+, and/or Mg2+ were higher than that of Na+. This suggests that K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ do not interfere with the detection of Na+ by the Papilio butterfly. Using an electrophysiological method, tip recordings, receptor neurons in contact chemosensilla inside the proboscis evoked regularly firing impulses to 1, 10, and 100 mM NaCl solutions but not to CaCl2 or MgCl2. The dose-response patterns to the NaCl solutions were different among the neurons, which were classified into three types. These results showed that Japanese Papilio butterflies puddle using Na+ detected by the contact chemosensilla in the proboscis, which measure its concentration.

Inoue, Takashi A.; Hata, Tamako; Asaoka, Kiyoshi; Ito, Tetsuo; Niihara, Kinuko; Hagiya, Hiroshi; Yokohari, Fumio

2012-12-01

230

Effects of spatial heterogeneity on butterfly species richness in Rocky Mountain National Park, CO, USA  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigated butterfly responses to plot-level characteristics (plant species richness, vegetation height, and range in NDVI [normalized difference vegetation index]) and spatial heterogeneity in topography and landscape patterns (composition and configuration) at multiple spatial scales. Stratified random sampling was used to collect data on butterfly species richness from seventy-six 20 ?? 50 m plots. The plant species richness and average vegetation height data were collected from 76 modified-Whittaker plots overlaid on 76 butterfly plots. Spatial heterogeneity around sample plots was quantified by measuring topographic variables and landscape metrics at eight spatial extents (radii of 300, 600 to 2,400 m). The number of butterfly species recorded was strongly positively correlated with plant species richness, proportion of shrubland and mean patch size of shrubland. Patterns in butterfly species richness were negatively correlated with other variables including mean patch size, average vegetation height, elevation, and range in NDVI. The best predictive model selected using Akaike's Information Criterion corrected for small sample size (AICc), explained 62% of the variation in butterfly species richness at the 2,100 m spatial extent. Average vegetation height and mean patch size were among the best predictors of butterfly species richness. The models that included plot-level information and topographic variables explained relatively less variation in butterfly species richness, and were improved significantly after including landscape metrics. Our results suggest that spatial heterogeneity greatly influences patterns in butterfly species richness, and that it should be explicitly considered in conservation and management actions. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Kumar, S.; Simonson, S.E.; Stohlgren, T.J.

2009-01-01

231

Numerical simulation on a throttle governing system with hydraulic butterfly valves in a marine environment  

Science.gov (United States)

Hydraulic butterfly valves have been widely applied in marine engineering because of their large switching torque, low pressure loss and suitability for large and medium diameter pipelines. Due to control problems resulting from switching angular speeds of the hydraulic butterfly valve, a throttle-governing control mode has been widely adopted, and detailed analysis has been carried out worldwide on the structural principle concerning speed-regulation and the load torque on the shaft while opening or closing a hydraulic butterfly valve. However relevant reports have yet been published on the change law, the error and the influencing factors of the rotational angular velocity of the hydraulic butterfly valve while opening and closing. In this article, research was based on some common specifications of a hydraulic butterfly valve with a symmetrical valve flap existing in a marine environment. The throttle governing system supplied by the accumulator to achieve the switching of the hydraulic control valve was adopted, and the mathematical models of the system were established in the actual conditions while the numerical simulations took place. The simulation results and analysis show that the rotational angular velocity and the error of the hydraulic butterfly valve while switching is influenced greatly by the drainage amount of the accumulator, resulting in pressure loss in the pipeline, the temperature of hydraulic medium and the load of the hydraulic butterfly valve. The simulation results and analysis provide a theoretical basis for the choice of the total capacity of the accumulator and pipeline diameters in a throttle governing system with a hydraulic butterfly valve. It also determines the type and specification of the hydraulic butterfly valve and the design of motion parameters of the transported fluid.

Wan, Hui-Xiong; Fang, Jun; Huang, Hui

2010-12-01

232

Theoretical seismic analysis of butterfly valve for nuclear power plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Valves are one of the most important components of a pipeline system in a nuclear power plant, and it is important to ensure their structural safety under seismic loads. A crucial aspect of structural safety verification is the seismic qualification, and therefore, an optimal shape design and experimental seismic qualification is necessary in case the configuration of the valve parts needs to be modified and their performance needs to be improved. Recently, intensive numerical analyses have been preformed before the experimental verification in order to determine the appropriate design variables that satisfy the performance requirements under seismic loads. In this study, static and dynamic numerical structural analyses of a 200A butterfly valve for a nuclear power plant were performed according to the KEPIC MFA. The result of static analysis considering an equivalent static load under SSE condition gave an applied stress of 135MPa. In addition, the result of dynamic analysis gave an applied stress of 183MPa, where the CQC method using response spectrums was taken into account. These values are under the allowable strength of the materials used for manufacturing the butterfly valve, and therefore, its structural safety satisfies the requirements of KEPIC MFA

233

BIF butterfly valve life extension at WNP-2  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Primary containment purging, venting, inerting, and reactor building ventilation at the WNP-2 plant are accomplished with a series of large butterfly valves. A total of 31 valves which are similar in design, but of different sizes, employ an elastomer to achieve sealing integrity when closed. These valves, which were originally manufactured by BIF, a unit of General Signal, range in size from 18 to 84 inches in diameter. Service life in the plant was much less than desired for safety-related equipment, and several seal failures had been experienced shortly after valve overhaul. This program covers a design change made to enhance performance of the elastomer seal to achieve a very meaningful life extension. While numerous configurations of BIF valves exist, this work relates only to the model 657 unit assembled with an elastomer seal mounted onto the valve disc by a stainless steel clamping ring held with studs and nuts. The problems encountered, and the steps taken to resolve the deficiencies may, however, be applicable to other butterfly valve configurations

234

An Investigation of the Water Flow Past the Butterfly Valve  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents a numerical simulation of flow past the butterfly valve using Commercial Fluid Dynamics software FLUENT. In static analysis, the positions of the disk were set to be 0° (completely opened), 30°, 45°, 60° and 75° under 1, 2 and 3 m/s water speed. The angular velocities were set to be 0.039 and 1.57 rad/s under 1 m/s water speed in dynamic analysis. The study focuses on the investigation of the characteristic of loss coefficient and torque behavior of the 150 mm and 300 mm in diameter butterfly valves. From the results obtained, it was found that the loss coefficient and torque increased when the disk angle was increased. By increasing the water speed, the loss coefficient remained constant while the torque increased. In dynamic analysis of both angular speeds, the maximum torque occurred at 70°-80° in closing turn and 100°-110° in opening turn. The experiment was also carried out to verify the numerical results. By comparing between the experimental and numerical results, it was found that the loss coefficients and torques obtained from these methods were similar.

Chaiworapuek, Weerachai; Champagne, Jean-Yves; El Haj em, Mahmoud; Kittichaikan, Chawalit

2010-06-01

235

Theoretical seismic analysis of butterfly valve for nuclear power plant  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Valves are one of the most important components of a pipeline system in a nuclear power plant, and it is important to ensure their structural safety under seismic loads. A crucial aspect of structural safety verification is the seismic qualification, and therefore, an optimal shape design and experimental seismic qualification is necessary in case the configuration of the valve parts needs to be modified and their performance needs to be improved. Recently, intensive numerical analyses have been preformed before the experimental verification in order to determine the appropriate design variables that satisfy the performance requirements under seismic loads. In this study, static and dynamic numerical structural analyses of a 200A butterfly valve for a nuclear power plant were performed according to the KEPIC MFA. The result of static analysis considering an equivalent static load under SSE condition gave an applied stress of 135MPa. In addition, the result of dynamic analysis gave an applied stress of 183MPa, where the CQC method using response spectrums was taken into account. These values are under the allowable strength of the materials used for manufacturing the butterfly valve, and therefore, its structural safety satisfies the requirements of KEPIC MFA.

Han, Sang Uk; Ahn, Jun Tae; Han, Seung Ho [Donga Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kyung Chul [Dukwon Valve Co., Ltd., Busan (Korea, Republic of)

2012-09-15

236

Butterfly (Lepidoptera: Insecta Diversity from Different Sites of Jhagadia, Ankleshwar, District-Bharuch, Gujarat  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Lepidoptera is a large order of insects that includes moths and butterflies. Lepidoptera is the second largest order in the class Insecta. Some of the butterfly species were identified as indicators of disturbance in any area. The present study conducted in three sites of taluka Jhagadia, Ankleshwar, District-Bharuch, Gujarat. In the present study a total of 484 individuals belonging to 58 species of 9 families were identified. Among which Pieridae was found to be the most dominant family. The area of study having rich diversity of butterflies, therefore it should be of great importance for conservation.

Ashok Kumar

2013-04-01

237

The effect of forest ski-pistes on butterfly assemblages in the Alps.  

OpenAIRE

1. The abandonment of man-made pastures below the tree line is favouring natural reforestation in the European Alps. As such, the creation of forest ski-pistes might, paradoxically, be beneficial to butterflies. This study is the first to focus on the effects of forest ski-pistes on butterfly assemblages (Lepidoptera, Rhopalocera). 2. We sampled both butterflies and flowers on ski-pistes, in adjacent forests and in the nearest pastures at three sites in the Aosta Valley (north-western Italian...

Balletto, Emilio; Rolando, Antonio; Passerin D Entreves, Pietro; Palestrini, Claudia; Negro, Matteo

2012-01-01

238

Hofstadter's butterfly in a two-dimensional lattice consisting of two sublattices  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Harper's equations for simple and complex two-dimensional lattices subject to a magnetic field have been derived in the tight-binding approximation. In our derivation we do not neglect the influence of the magnetic field on the electron eigenfunctions and eigenvalues in isolated atoms. Using a variational procedure for finding eigenfunctions and eigenvalues, we have self-consistently obtained Hofstadter's butterflies. Even for a simple square lattice Hofstadter's butterfly differs from the butterfly obtained in the case in which the influence of the magnetic field on the electron eigenvalues and eigenfunctions in isolated atoms is not taken into account

239

Higher mobility of butterflies than moths connected to habitat suitability and body size in a release experiment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mobility is a key factor determining lepidopteran species responses to environmental change. However, direct multispecies comparisons of mobility are rare and empirical comparisons between butterflies and moths have not been previously conducted. Here, we compared mobility between butterflies and diurnal moths and studied species traits affecting butterfly mobility. We experimentally marked and released 2011 butterfly and 2367 moth individuals belonging to 32 and 28 species, respectively, in a 25 m × 25 m release area within an 11-ha, 8-year-old set-aside field. Distance moved and emigration rate from the release habitat were recorded by species. The release experiment produced directly comparable mobility data in 18 butterfly and 9 moth species with almost 500 individuals recaptured. Butterflies were found more mobile than geometroid moths in terms of both distance moved (mean 315 m vs. 63 m, respectively) and emigration rate (mean 54% vs. 17%, respectively). Release habitat suitability had a strong effect on emigration rate and distance moved, because butterflies tended to leave the set-aside, if it was not suitable for breeding. In addition, emigration rate and distance moved increased significantly with increasing body size. When phylogenetic relatedness among species was included in the analyses, the significant effect of body size disappeared, but habitat suitability remained significant for distance moved. The higher mobility of butterflies than geometroid moths can largely be explained by morphological differences, as butterflies are more robust fliers. The important role of release habitat suitability in butterfly mobility was expected, but seems not to have been empirically documented before. The observed positive correlation between butterfly size and mobility is in agreement with our previous findings on butterfly colonization speed in a long-term set-aside experiment and recent meta-analyses on butterfly mobility. PMID:25614794

Kuussaari, Mikko; Saarinen, Matias; Korpela, Eeva-Liisa; Pöyry, Juha; Hyvönen, Terho

2014-10-01

240

Field Studies Reveal Strong Postmating Isolation between Ecologically Divergent Butterfly Populations  

OpenAIRE

A mismatch between hybrid butterflies and their ecological environment restricts gene flow between populations that feed on different host plants, highlighting the potential importance of a seldom-studied mechanism of reproductive isolation.

Mcbride, Carolyn S.; Singer, Michael C.

2010-01-01

241

Borboletas (Lepidoptera) ameaçadas de extinção no Paraná / Butterflies threatened with extinction in Paraná  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese [...] Abstract in english A list of Butterflies threatened with extinction in Paraná is presented. It includedes 17 specimens with geographic distribution, brief description, habitat and behaviour. [...

Mirna M., Casagrande; Olaf H. H., Mielke.

242

Two new butterfly records for Peru: Orophila cardases cardases and Pedaliodes garlaczi (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We report to Peru, for the first time, two butterfly species, Orophila cardases cardases (Hewitson, 1869 and Pedaliodes garlaczi Pyrcz & Cerdeña, 2013, based on specimens collected in the Tabaconas-Namballe National Sanctuary and neighboring areas.

José Alfredo Cerdeña

2014-05-01

243

Generating a fractal butterfly Floquet spectrum in a class of driven SU(2) systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A scheme for generating a fractal butterfly Floquet spectrum, first proposed by Wang and Gong [Phys. Rev. A 77, 031405(R) (2008)], is extended to driven SU(2) systems such as a driven two-mode Bose-Einstein condensate. A class of driven systems without a link with the Harper-model context is shown to have an intriguing butterfly Floquet spectrum. The found butterfly spectrum shows remarkable deviations from the known Hofstadter's butterfly. In addition, the level crossings between Floquet states of the same parity and between Floquet states of different parities are studied and highlighted. The results are relevant to studies of fractal statistics, quantum chaos, and coherent destruction of tunneling, as well as the validity of mean-field descriptions of Bose-Einstein condensates.

244

Effects of structural flexibility of wings in flapping flight of butterfly  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this paper is to clarify the effects of structural flexibility of wings of a butterfly in flapping flight. For this purpose, a dynamics model of a butterfly is derived by Lagrange’s method, where the butterfly is considered as a rigid multi-body system. The panel method is employed to simulate the flow field and the aerodynamic forces acting on the wings. The mathematical model is validated by the agreement of the numerical result with the experimentally measured data. Then, periodic orbits of flapping-of-wings flights are parametrically searched in order to fly the butterfly models. Almost periodic orbits are found, but they are unstable. Deformation of the wings is modeled in two ways. One is bending and its effect on the aerodynamic forces is discussed. The other is passive wing torsion caused by structural flexibility. Numerical simulations demonstrate that flexible torsion reduces the flight instability. (paper)

245

Experimental study for flow characteristics and performance evaluation of butterfly valves  

Science.gov (United States)

The industrial butterfly valves have been applied to transport a large of fluid with various fields of industry. Also, these are mainly used a control of fluid flux to the water and waste-water pipeline. Present, butterfly valves are manufacturing for multiplicity shape of bodies and discs with many producers. However, appropriate performance evaluation was not yet accomplished to compare about these valves through experiments. This study is performed the experiment of flow characteristics and performance of manufactured 400A butterfly valves for the water and waste pipeline, and compared experimental results. We performed experiments that were controlled fixed a differential pressure condition (1 psi) and the range of the flow rate conditions (500 m3/hr ~ 2500 m3/hr), and also opened the disc of valves to a range of angle from 9 degree to 90 degree. We investigated and compared the valve flow coefficient and the valve loss coefficient of results through experiments with each butterfly valve.

Kim, C. K.; Yoon, J. Y.; Shin, M. S.

2010-08-01

246

Experimental study for flow characteristics and performance evaluation of butterfly valves  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The industrial butterfly valves have been applied to transport a large of fluid with various fields of industry. Also, these are mainly used a control of fluid flux to the water and waste-water pipeline. Present, butterfly valves are manufacturing for multiplicity shape of bodies and discs with many producers. However, appropriate performance evaluation was not yet accomplished to compare about these valves through experiments. This study is performed the experiment of flow characteristics and performance of manufactured 400A butterfly valves for the water and waste pipeline, and compared experimental results. We performed experiments that were controlled fixed a differential pressure condition (1 psi) and the range of the flow rate conditions (500 m3/hr ? 2500 m3/hr), and also opened the disc of valves to a range of angle from 9 degree to 90 degree. We investigated and compared the valve flow coefficient and the valve loss coefficient of results through experiments with each butterfly valve.

247

Polarization-based brightness discrimination in the foraging butterfly, Papilio xuthus  

OpenAIRE

The human eye is insensitive to the angular direction of the light e-vector, but several animal species have the ability to discriminate differently polarized lights. How the polarization is detected is often unclear, however. Egg-laying Papilio butterflies have been shown to see false colours when presented with differently polarized lights. Here we asked whether this also holds in foraging butterflies. After training individuals to feed on nectar in front of an unpolarized spectral light, w...

Kinoshita, Michiyo; Yamazato, Kei; Arikawa, Kentaro

2011-01-01

248

Does the presence of ant nests matter for oviposition to a specialized myrmecophilous Maculinea butterfly?  

OpenAIRE

More than 50% of the lycaenid butterflies have an ant-associated lifestyle (myrmecophily) which may vary from coexistence to specific mutualistic or even parasitic interactions. Ant-related host-plant selection and oviposition has been observed in some myrmecophilous lycaenids. Therefore, it is remarkable that there is no evidence for this behaviour in the highly specialized, obligate myrmecophilous butterflies of the genus Maculinea. In contrast with previous findings, our results provide ev...

Dyck, H.; Oostermeijer, J. G. B.; Talloen, W.; Feenstra, V.; Hidde, A.; Wynhoff, I.

2000-01-01

249

A model for colour pattern formation in the butterfly wing of Papilio dardanus.  

OpenAIRE

The butterfly Papilio dardanus is well known for the spectacular phenotypic polymorphism in the female of the species. We show that numerical simulations of a reaction diffusion model on a geometrically accurate wing domain produce spatial patterns that are consistent with many of those observed on the butterfly. Our results suggest that the wing coloration is due to a simple underlying stripe-like pattern of some pigment-inducing morphogen. We focus on the effect of key factors such as param...

Sekimura, T.; Madzvamuse, A.; Wathen, Aj; Maini, Pk

2000-01-01

250

Immunocytochemical Localization of Amines and GABA in the Optic Lobe of the Butterfly, Papilio xuthus  

OpenAIRE

Butterflies have sophisticated color vision. While the spectral organization of the compound eye has been well characterized in the Japanese yellow swallowtail butterfly, Papilio xuthus, neural mechanisms underlying its color vision are largely unexplored. Towards a better understanding of signal processing in the visual system of P. xuthus, we used immunocytochemical techniques to analyze the distribution of transmitter candidates, namely, histamine, serotonin, tyramine and ?-aminobutyric a...

Hamanaka, Yoshitaka; Kinoshita, Michiyo; Homberg, Uwe; Arikawa, Kentaro

2012-01-01

251

Area selection for the conservation of butterflies in the Iberian Peninsula and Balearic Islands  

OpenAIRE

Coverage provided by the network of protected areas in the Iberian Peninsula and Balearic Islands was tested by measuring the coincidence between the squares protected by the network and the butterfly species recorded for such UTM grid squares. Five species were found to be absent in the network. The protected areas with the highest numbers of butterfly species were Ordesa National Park and Monte Perdido and the Posets¿Maladeta Natural Park. Priority areas were selected using WORLDMAP softwa...

Garci?a-barros, E.; Munguira, M. L.; Romo, H.

2007-01-01

252

Evolution and Mechanism of Spectral Tuning of Blue-Absorbing Visual Pigments in Butterflies  

OpenAIRE

The eyes of flower-visiting butterflies are often spectrally highly complex with multiple opsin genes generated by gene duplication, providing an interesting system for a comparative study of color vision. The Small White butterfly, Pieris rapae, has duplicated blue opsins, PrB and PrV, which are expressed in the blue (?max?=?453 nm) and violet receptors (?max?=?425 nm), respectively. To reveal accurate absorption profiles and the molecular basis of the spectral tuning of these visu...

Wakakuwa, Motohiro; Terakita, Akihisa; Koyanagi, Mitsumasa; Stavenga, Doekele G.; Shichida, Yoshinori; Arikawa, Kentaro

2010-01-01

253

El poder de las representaciones sociales : M. Butterfly, la mujer perfecta  

OpenAIRE

En este trabajo se presenta un análisis del film M. Butterfly , dirigido por David Cronenberg, en 1993 y se trata de una versión basada en la ópera “Madame Butterfly” de Puccini. El objetivo es demostrar el poder y la fuerza de las representaciones sociales como mecanismos de producción de sentido que permiten que los sujetos sociales construyan, desconstruyan y reconstruyan el mundo en que viven y para el cual buscan sentido

Silveira Paulilo, Maria Angela

2011-01-01

254

The Male Sex Pheromone of the Butterfly Bicyclus anynana: Towards an Evolutionary Analysis  

OpenAIRE

Background: Female sex pheromones attracting mating partners over long distances are a major determinant of reproductive isolation and speciation in Lepidoptera. Males can also produce sex pheromones but their study, particularly in butterflies, has received little attention. A detailed comparison of sex pheromones in male butterflies with those of female moths would reveal patterns of conservation versus novelty in the associated behaviours, biosynthetic pathways, compounds, scent-releasing ...

Nieberding, Caroline; Vos, Helene; Schneider, Maria V.; Lassance, Jean-marc; Estramil, Natalia; Andersson, Jimmy; Bang, Joakim; Hedenstro?m, Erik; Lofstedt, Christer; Brakefield, Paul M.

2008-01-01

255

Synergistic effects of combining morphological and molecular data in resolving the phylogeny of butterflies and skippers  

OpenAIRE

Phylogenetic relationships among major clades of butterflies and skippers have long been controversial, with no general consensus even today. Such lack of resolution is a substantial impediment to using the otherwise well studied butterflies as a model group in biology. Here we report the results of a combined analysis of DNA sequences from three genes and a morphological data matrix for 57 taxa (3258 characters, 1290 parsimony informative) representing all major lineages from the three putat...

Wahlberg, Niklas; Braby, Michael F.; Brower, Andrew V. Z.; Jong, Rienk; Lee, Ming-min; Nylin, So?ren; Pierce, Naomi E.; Sperling, Felix A. H.; Vila, Roger; Warren, Andrew D.; Zakharov, Evgueni

2005-01-01

256

Checklist of butterflies (Insecta: Lepidoptera) from Serra do Intendente State Park - Minas Gerais, Brazil  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract In order to contribute to the butterflies’ biodiversity knowledge at Serra do Intendente State Park - Minas Gerais, a study based on collections using Van Someren-Rydon traps and active search was performed. In this study, a total of 395 butterflies were collected, of which 327 were identified to species or morphospecies. 263 specimens were collected by the traps and 64 were collected using entomological hand-nets; 43 genera and 60 species were collected and identified. PMID:25535482

Nery, Izabella; Carvalho, Natalia

2014-01-01

257

Do forest ski-pistes represent a habitat gain for butterflies?  

OpenAIRE

The abandonment of man-made pastures below the tree line is favouring natural reforestation in the European Alps. As a consequence, although the development of ski areas has severely disturbed the environment in the Alps, the creation of forest ski-pistes might, paradoxically, be beneficial to butterflies, which are predominantly open-habitat species. This study is the first to focus on the effects of forest ski-pistes on butterfly assemblages (Lepidoptera, Rhopalocera). We sampled both butte...

Balletto, Emilio; Rolando, Antonio; Passerin D Entreves, Pietro; Palestrini, Claudia; Negro, Matteo

2012-01-01

258

Butterflies (Lepidoptera, Papilionoidea and Hesperioidea) of the "Baixada Santista" region, coastal São Paulo, southeastern Brazil  

OpenAIRE

Butterflies (Lepidoptera, Papilionoidea and Hesperioidea) of the "Baixada Santista" region, coastal São Paulo, southeastern Brazil. A list with 538 species of butterflies recorded in the Baixada Santista, São Paulo ( SE Brazil) is presented. Standard sampling protocols (i.e. with entomological nets) were followed. Baited traps were installed for fruit feeding species. Data from the literature and entomological collections were also considered in the total estimated species richness. The spe...

Ronaldo Bastos Francini; Marcelo Duarte; Olaf Hermann Hendrik Mielke; Astrid Caldas; André Victor Lucci Freitas

2011-01-01

259

Checklist of butterflies (Insecta: Lepidoptera) from Serra do Intendente State Park - Minas Gerais, Brazil  

OpenAIRE

In order to contribute to the butterflies’ biodiversity knowledge at Serra do Intendente State Park - Minas Gerais, a study based on collections using Van Someren-Rydon traps and active search was performed. In this study, a total of 395 butterflies were collected, of which 327 were identified to species or morphospecies. 263 specimens were collected by the traps and 64 were collected using entomological hand-nets; 43 genera and 60 species were collected and identified.

Nery, Izabella; Carvalho, Natalia; Paprocki, Henrique

2014-01-01

260

Butterfly (Lepidoptera: Insecta) Diversity from Different Sites of Jhagadia, Ankleshwar, District-Bharuch, Gujarat  

OpenAIRE

Lepidoptera is a large order of insects that includes moths and butterflies. Lepidoptera is the second largest order in the class Insecta. Some of the butterfly species were identified as indicators of disturbance in any area. The present study conducted in three sites of taluka Jhagadia, Ankleshwar, District-Bharuch, Gujarat. In the present study a total of 484 individuals belonging to 58 species of 9 families were identified. Among which Pieridae was found to be the most dominant family. Th...

Ashok Kumar(University of Delhi, Delhi, India)

2013-01-01

261

Standardised methods for the GMO monitoring of butterflies and moths: the whys and hows  

OpenAIRE

Butterflies and moths (Lepidoptera) are correlated with many biotic and abiotic characteristics of the environment, and are widely accepted as relevant protection goals. Adverse effects on butterflies and moths through genetically modified (GM) crops have been demonstrated, by both insect-resistant and herbicide-tolerant events. Thus, Lepidoptera are considered suitable bio-indicators for monitoring the potential adverse effects due to the cultivation of GM crops, and guidelines were develope...

Lang, Andreas; Theißen, Bernhard; Dolek, Matthias

2013-01-01

262

Butterflies (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea and Hesperioidea) from Serra da Jibóia, Bahia State, Brazil  

OpenAIRE

A list of species of butterflies from Serra da Jibóia, a mountainous massif in the Recôncavo of Bahia State, is presented based on specimens deposited in the entomological collection Prof. Johann Becker of Museu de Zoologia da Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana (MZUEFS), results that should contribute with the increment of biodiversity knowledge of the butterfly fauna of the State. The list includes 140 species, 86 of which are new records to Bahia and a new species of genus of Perop...

Thamara Zacca; Freddy Bravo; Maíra Araújo

2011-01-01

263

A quantitative study of butterfly assemblages from different biotopes at the Langebaan Peninsula / Phillip Daniël Brummer.  

OpenAIRE

Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths) comprises a fairly well-studied invertebrate taxon. The body of knowledge that has been acquired, especially on butterflies, allows for more convincing assessments of the significance of species distributions, for example assessments of rarity and endemism. In spite of their taxonomically well-known status, little is known about the different ranges and limiting factors controlling habitat specificity amongst species at a local scale. Aiming at ensuring ...

Brummer, Phillip Danie?l

2009-01-01

264

Performance Evaluation of Camb Biopesticides to Control Cabbage Butterfly (Pieris brassicae) in Cauliflower Crop  

OpenAIRE

CAMB Bt. based and fungus based biopesticides, commercial Bt. formulation from mycogen and a new chemical pesticide Methoxyfenozide (RH2485-240SC) were tested on cauliflower field against cabbage butterfly (Pieris brassicae). All pesticides successfully controlled the population of cabbage butterfly in cauliflower crop. The efficacy against I to V instar larvae and field stability of CAMB Bt. biopesticide was better than chemical and other biopesticides. So, CAMB Bt. can be safely reco...

Ahmad Usman Zafar; Idrees Ahmad Nasir; Ahmed Ali Shahid; Muhammad Sarwar Rahi; Sheikh Riazuddin

2002-01-01

265

Rapid changes in butterfly communities following the abandonment of grasslands: a case study.  

OpenAIRE

1.?Abandonment of grasslands is a major threat for the conservation of biodiversity in Europe. The response of butterflies towards secondary succession has been studied in northern temperate grasslands, but always by comparing sites at different seral stages. 2.?Here, we present a trajectory study based on the monitoring of butterflies from a series of abandoned grasslands in northeast Spain. One additional meadow was traditionally managed for the whole 8-year sampling period and prov...

Stefanescu, Constantino; Pen?uelas, Josep; Filella, Iolanda

2009-01-01

266

Crystal geometry and structural peculiarities of butterfly martensite formed under magnetic field action  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Position of the habitus plane and orientation ratios of butterfly martensite formed under pulsed magnetic field action in the 24Kh2N22 low-carbon chronium-nickel steel is determined. Basic crystallographic characteristics of the butterfly martensite formed in the magnetic field and under cooling without field action coincide. A slight difference of the martensite prepared in both cases is observed only in the internal structure

267

Hofstadter's butterfly energy spectrum of ultracold fermions on the two-dimensional triangular optical lattice  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We study the energy spectrum of ultracold fermionic atoms on the two-dimensional triangular optical lattice subjected to a perpendicular effective magnetic field, which can be realized with laser beams. We derive the generalized Harper's equations and numerically solve them, then we obtain the Hofstadter's butterfly-like energy spectrum, which has a novel fractal structure. The observability of the Hofstadter's butterfly spectrum is also discussed

268

Replication of polypyrrole with photonic structures from butterfly wings as biosensor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? Polypyrrole (PPy) with photonic structures from butterfly wings was synthesized based on a two-step templating and in situ polymerization process. ? The hierarchical structures down to nanometer level were kept in the resultant PPy replicas. ? The PPy replicas exhibit brilliant color due to Bragg diffraction through its ordered periodic structures. ? The PPy replicas showed a much higher biological activity compared with common PPy powders as a biosensor. - Abstract: Polypyrrole (PPy) with photonic crystal structures were synthesized from Morpho butterfly wings using a two-step templating process. In the first step photonic crystal SiO2 butterfly wings were synthesized from Morpho butterfly wings and in the second step the SiO2 butterfly wings were used as templates for the replication of PPy butterfly wings using an in situ polymerization method. The SiO2 templates were then removed from the PPy butterfly wings using a HF solution. The hierarchical structures down to the nanometer level, especially the photonic crystal structures, were retained in the final PPy replicas, as evidenced directly by field-emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The optical properties of the resultant PPy replicas were investigated using reflectance spectroscopy and the PPy replicas exhibit brilliant color due to Bragg diffraction through its ordered periodic structures. The preliminaperiodic structures. The preliminary biosensing application was investigated and it was found that the PPy replicas showed a much higher biological activity compared with PPy powders through their response to dopamine (DA), probably due to the hierarchical structures as well as controlled porosity inherited from Morpho butterfly wings. It is expected that our strategy will open up new avenues for the synthesis of functional polymers with photonic crystal structures, which may form applications as biosensors.

269

A Single Origin for Nymphalid Butterfly Eyespots Followed by Widespread Loss of Associated Gene Expression  

OpenAIRE

Understanding how novel complex traits originate involves investigating the time of origin of the trait, as well as the origin of its underlying gene regulatory network in a broad comparative phylogenetic framework. The eyespot of nymphalid butterflies has served as an example of a novel complex trait, as multiple genes are expressed during eyespot development. Yet the origins of eyespots remain unknown. Using a dataset of more than 400 images of butterflies with a known phylogeny and gene ex...

Oliver, Jeffrey C.; Tong, Xiao-ling; Gall, Lawrence F.; Piel, William H.; Monteiro, Anto?nia

2012-01-01

270

Adaptive evolution of color vision as seen through the eyes of butterflies  

OpenAIRE

Butterflies and primates are interesting for comparative color vision studies, because both have evolved middle- (M) and long-wavelength- (L) sensitive photopigments with overlapping absorbance spectrum maxima (?max values). Although positive selection is important for the maintenance of spectral variation within the primate pigments, it remains an open question whether it contributes similarly to the diversification of butterfly pigments. To examine this issue, we performed epimicrospectrop...

Frentiu, Francesca D.; Bernard, Gary D.; Cuevas, Cristina I.; Sison-mangus, Marilou P.; Prudic, Kathleen L.; Briscoe, Adriana D.

2007-01-01

271

Variable Length Floating Point FFT Processor Using Radix-22 Butterfly Elements  

OpenAIRE

A mixed radix, floating point FFT processor is designed using radix-2 and radix-22 butterfly elements, adapting a pipelined architecture for a variable length of 128/512/2048. The single-path delay feedback (SDF) architecture is employed to exploit the symmetry in signal flow graph of FFT algorithm. Area minimization has been achieved for the reconfigurable FFT processor by using pipelining and higher radix butterfly structures. (radix-22). Then area power trade off is done with parallel mixe...

Augusta Sophy, P.; Srinivasan, R.; Raja, J.; Anand Ganesh, S.

2014-01-01

272

Correlations between adult mimicry and larval host plants in ithomiine butterflies.  

OpenAIRE

The apparent paradox of multiple coexisting wing pattern mimicry 'rings' in tropical butterflies has been explained as a result of microhabitat partitioning in adults. However, very few studies have tested this hypothesis. In neotropical forests, ithomiine butterflies dominate and display the richest diversity of mimicry rings. We show that co-mimetic species occupy the same larval host-plant species significantly more often than expected in two out of five communities that we surveyed; in on...

Willmott, Keith R.; Mallet, James

2004-01-01

273

A laboratory study of roosting in the gregarious butterfly Heliconius melpomene  

OpenAIRE

1) The gregarious roosting behaviour of a neotropical butterfly, H. melpomene, was studied under semi-natural conditions in a greenhouse insectary. 2) Some butterflies fly to the roost near sunset and rest, wings downwards, hanging on the tips of fine tendrils or twigs. The female position is slightly different to the male position, but some time after sunset the female position relaxes back to a male-like position. 3) Using videotape, it was determined that flying males and females hover at ...

Mallet, J.

1980-01-01

274

Replication of polypyrrole with photonic structures from butterfly wings as biosensor  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Polypyrrole (PPy) with photonic structures from butterfly wings was synthesized based on a two-step templating and in situ polymerization process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The hierarchical structures down to nanometer level were kept in the resultant PPy replicas. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The PPy replicas exhibit brilliant color due to Bragg diffraction through its ordered periodic structures. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The PPy replicas showed a much higher biological activity compared with common PPy powders as a biosensor. - Abstract: Polypyrrole (PPy) with photonic crystal structures were synthesized from Morpho butterfly wings using a two-step templating process. In the first step photonic crystal SiO{sub 2} butterfly wings were synthesized from Morpho butterfly wings and in the second step the SiO{sub 2} butterfly wings were used as templates for the replication of PPy butterfly wings using an in situ polymerization method. The SiO{sub 2} templates were then removed from the PPy butterfly wings using a HF solution. The hierarchical structures down to the nanometer level, especially the photonic crystal structures, were retained in the final PPy replicas, as evidenced directly by field-emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The optical properties of the resultant PPy replicas were investigated using reflectance spectroscopy and the PPy replicas exhibit brilliant color due to Bragg diffraction through its ordered periodic structures. The preliminary biosensing application was investigated and it was found that the PPy replicas showed a much higher biological activity compared with PPy powders through their response to dopamine (DA), probably due to the hierarchical structures as well as controlled porosity inherited from Morpho butterfly wings. It is expected that our strategy will open up new avenues for the synthesis of functional polymers with photonic crystal structures, which may form applications as biosensors.

Tang Jie [State Key Laboratory of Metal Matrix Composites, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China); Zhu Shenmin, E-mail: smzhu@sjtu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Metal Matrix Composites, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China); Chen Zhixin [Faculty of Engineering, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); Feng Chuanliang; Shen Yanjun; Yao Fan [State Key Laboratory of Metal Matrix Composites, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China); Zhang Di, E-mail: zhangdi@sjtu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Metal Matrix Composites, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China); Moon, Won-Jin; Song, Deok-Min [Gwangju Center, Korea Basic Science Institute, Yongbong-dong, Buk-Gu, Gwang ju 500-757 (Korea, Republic of)

2012-01-05

275

Influence of fire prevention management strategies on the diversity of butterfly fauna in the eastern Pyrenees  

OpenAIRE

Fire prevention management is becoming a necessity in many Mediterranean locations to regulate fire of natural or human origin. However, very few studies have determined the real effects of the strategies adopted on local fauna. Butterflies are sensitive to local changes and they can thus serve as indicators of environmental changes. Three different types of fire prevention management approaches in three different localities in the Eastern Pyrenees (France) were performed and the butterfly co...

Ricouart, Francine; Ce?re?ghino, Re?gis; Gers, Charles; Winterton, Peter; Legal, Luc

2013-01-01

276

Time-Varying Wing-Twist Improves Aerodynamic Efficiency of Forward Flight in Butterflies  

OpenAIRE

Insect wings can undergo significant chordwise (camber) as well as spanwise (twist) deformation during flapping flight but the effect of these deformations is not well understood. The shape and size of butterfly wings leads to particularly large wing deformations, making them an ideal test case for investigation of these effects. Here we use computational models derived from experiments on free-flying butterflies to understand the effect of time-varying twist and camber on the aerodynamic per...

Zheng, Lingxiao; Hedrick, Tyson L.; Mittal, Rajat

2013-01-01

277

Rapid assessments of tropical dung beetle and butterfly assemblages: contrasting trends along a forest disturbance gradient  

OpenAIRE

1. We carried out rapid assessments of the richness and diversity of fruitfeeding butterflies (sampled with baited traps) and dung beetles (sampled with buffalo dung-baited pitfall traps) at 20 sites across an anthropogenic forest disturbance gradient in Ba Be National Park, Vietnam. 2. We investigated measures of diversity, richness, and functional composition for individual taxa in relation to the degree of disturbance, and verified whether dung beetles and butterflies showed congruent tren...

Hayes, L.; Mann, Dj; Monastyrskii, Al; Lewis, Ot

2009-01-01

278

Contribution to the butterfly species of Belasitsa Mountain (SW Bulgaria and second record of Gonepteryx cleopatra (Linnaeus, 1767 from Bulgaria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available At present, according to the literature data for Belasitsa Mountain are published 139 butterfly species. This article contributes to the knowleage of the butterfly fauna of the mountain by adding five more species. With this supplement the number of the butterflies’ fauna of Belasitsa Mountain increase to 144 species. This article also presents information about the second record of Gonepteryx cleopatra (Linnaeus, 1767 in Bulgaria.

Liuben Domozetski

2013-10-01

279

Moths Behaving like Butterflies. Evolutionary Loss of Long Range Attractant Pheromones in Castniid Moths: A Paysandisia archon Model  

OpenAIRE

Background: In the course of evolution butterflies and moths developed two different reproductive behaviors. Whereas butterflies rely on visual stimuli for mate location, moths use the"female calling plus male seduction" system, in which females release long-range sex pheromones to attract conspecific males. There are few exceptions from this pattern but in all cases known female moths possess sex pheromone glands which apparently have been lost in female butterflies. In the day-flying moth f...

Sarto I Monteys, Vi?ctor; Aci?n, Patricia; Rosell, Glo?ria; Quero, Carmen; Jime?nez, Miquel A.; Guerrero, Angel

2012-01-01

280

Evolution of dominance mechanisms at a butterfly mimicry supergene  

Science.gov (United States)

Genetic dominance in polymorphic loci may respond to selection; however, the evolution of dominance in complex traits remains a puzzle. We analyse dominance at a wing-patterning supergene controlling local mimicry polymorphism in the butterfly Heliconius numata. Supergene alleles are associated with chromosomal inversion polymorphism, defining ancestral versus derived alleles. Using controlled crosses and the new procedure, Colour Pattern Modelling, allowing whole-wing pattern comparisons, we estimate dominance coefficients between alleles. Here we show strict dominance in sympatry favouring mimicry and inconsistent dominance throughout the wing between alleles from distant populations. Furthermore, dominance among derived alleles is uncoordinated across wing-pattern elements, producing mosaic heterozygous patterns determined by a hierarchy in colour expression. By contrast, heterozygotes with an ancestral allele show complete, coordinated dominance of the derived allele, independently of colours. Therefore, distinct dominance mechanisms have evolved in association with supergene inversions, in response to strong selection on mimicry polymorphism. PMID:25429605

Le Poul, Yann; Whibley, Annabel; Chouteau, Mathieu; Prunier, Florence; Llaurens, Violaine; Joron, Mathieu

2014-01-01

281

Butterfly genomics sheds light on the process of hybrid speciation.  

Science.gov (United States)

How common is hybridization between species and what effect does it have on the evolutionary process? Can hybridization generate new species and what indeed is a species? In this issue, Gompert et al. (2014) show how massive, genome-scale data sets can be used to shed light on these questions. They focus on the Lycaeides butterflies, and in particular, several populations from the western USA, which have characteristics suggesting that they may contain hybrids of two or more different species (Gompert et al. 2006). They demonstrate that these populations do contain mosaic genomes made up of components from different parental species. However, this appears to have been largely driven by historical admixture, with more recent processes appearing to be isolating the populations from each other. Therefore, these populations are on their way to becoming distinct species (if they are not already) but have arisen following extensive hybridization between other distinct populations or species (Fig. 1). PMID:25208505

Nadeau, Nicola

2014-09-01

282

Characterizing the Hofstadter butterfly's outline with Chern numbers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this work, we report original properties inherent to independent particles subjected to a magnetic field by emphasizing the existence of regular structures in the energy spectrum's outline. We show that this fractal curve, the well-known Hofstadter butterfly's outline, is associated with a specific sequence of Chern numbers that correspond to the quantized transverse conductivity. Indeed the topological invariant that characterizes the fundamental energy band depicts successive stairways as the magnetic flux varies. Moreover each stairway is shown to be labelled by another Chern number which measures the charge transported under displacement of the periodic potential. We put forward the universal character of these properties by comparing the results obtained for the square and the honeycomb geometries.

283

Butterfly (Rhopalocera fauna of Maharashtra Nature Park, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mumbai, one of the largest metro cities in the world, holds rich biodiversity in few green fragmented naturalor manmade habitats. One such habitat is the Maharashtra Nature Park (MNP. MNP is located in a highly polluted areaof Mumbai; this was a dumping ground for nearly 26 years. In 1983, it was restored into a semi-natural forest with theinitial technical inputs from World Wide Fund for Nature-India (WWF-India. Presently, this nature park supports a richbiodiversity but lacks proper documentation. Such information is essential as the park serves as an important study areafor many schools, college students and for many nature lovers. Previous documentation has reported 38 butterfly speciesfrom the park. The present study carried out from June 2005 to November 2005 has documented 53 species belonging tofive families from MNP.

Raut, N. B.

2010-01-01

284

Manifestation of the Hofstadter butterfly in far-infrared absorption  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The far-infrared absorption of a two-dimensional electron gas with a square-lattice modulation in a perpendicular constant magnetic field is calculated self-consistently within the Hartree approximation. For strong modulation and short period we obtain intrasubband and intersubband magnetoplasmon modes reflecting the subbands of the Hofstadter butterfly in two or more Landau bands. The character of the absorption and the correlation of the peaks to the number of flux quanta through each unit cell of the periodic potential depends strongly on the location of the chemical potential with respect to the subbands, or equivalently, on the density of electrons in the system. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

285

Developing sustainable software solutions for bioinformatics by the " Butterfly" paradigm.  

Science.gov (United States)

Software design and sustainable software engineering are essential for the long-term development of bioinformatics software. Typical challenges in an academic environment are short-term contracts, island solutions, pragmatic approaches and loose documentation. Upcoming new challenges are big data, complex data sets, software compatibility and rapid changes in data representation. Our approach to cope with these challenges consists of iterative intertwined cycles of development (" Butterfly" paradigm) for key steps in scientific software engineering. User feedback is valued as well as software planning in a sustainable and interoperable way. Tool usage should be easy and intuitive. A middleware supports a user-friendly Graphical User Interface (GUI) as well as a database/tool development independently. We validated the approach of our own software development and compared the different design paradigms in various software solutions. PMID:25383181

Ahmed, Zeeshan; Zeeshan, Saman; Dandekar, Thomas

2014-01-01

286

Ancient homology underlies adaptive mimetic diversity across butterflies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Convergent evolution provides a rare, natural experiment with which to test the predictability of adaptation at the molecular level. Little is known about the molecular basis of convergence over macro-evolutionary timescales. Here we use a combination of positional cloning, population genomic resequencing, association mapping and developmental data to demonstrate that positionally orthologous nucleotide variants in the upstream region of the same gene, WntA, are responsible for parallel mimetic variation in two butterfly lineages that diverged >65 million years ago. Furthermore, characterization of spatial patterns of WntA expression during development suggests that alternative regulatory mechanisms underlie wing pattern variation in each system. Taken together, our results reveal a strikingly predictable molecular basis for phenotypic convergence over deep evolutionary time. PMID:25198507

Gallant, Jason R; Imhoff, Vance E; Martin, Arnaud; Savage, Wesley K; Chamberlain, Nicola L; Pote, Ben L; Peterson, Chelsea; Smith, Gabriella E; Evans, Benjamin; Reed, Robert D; Kronforst, Marcus R; Mullen, Sean P

2014-01-01

287

LES of Turbulent Flows Through a Butterfly Valve  

Science.gov (United States)

Large-eddy simulation (LES) is used to analyze the wake flow characteristics around a butterfly valve. The Smagorinsky- Lilly (SML) model is used for the investigation. The turbulent fluctuations and power spectrum of the wake flow are analyzed for Re = 5.23 × 105 based on the mean inlet velocity and the diameter of the pipe. Four dominating frequencies corresponding to the Strouhal number equal to 0.084, 0.114, 0.152 and 0.175 are found both in the near-wall region and in the midst of the pipe. The evolution of vortices around the valve is presented to illustrate the formation of the single vortex propagating downstream.

Gong, J. F.; Ming, P. J.; Zhang, W. P.

2011-09-01

288

Noise generated by flow through large butterfly valves  

Science.gov (United States)

A large butterfly valve (1.37 m diam) was acoustically tested to measure the noise generated and propagating in both the upstream and downstream directions. The experimental investigation used wall mounted pressure transducers to measure the fluctuating component of the pipe static pressure upstream and downstream of the valve. Microphones upstream of the pipe inlet and located in a plenum were used to measure the noise radiated from the valve in the upstream direction. Comparison of the wall pressure downstream of the valve to a prediction were made. Reasonable agreement was obtained with the valve operating at a choked condition. The noise upstream of the valve is 30 dB less than that measured downstream.

Huff, Ronald G.

1987-01-01

289

Studies on the cardenolide sequestration in African milkweed butterflies (Danaidae).  

Science.gov (United States)

Butterflies of the Danaidae family are considered to be toxic or distasteful due to the presence of cardiac glycosides sequestered from their larval food plants. Alcoholic extracts of specimens of Danaus chrysippus aegyptius and Amauris ochlea ochlea from southern Africa (Namibia, S.-Africa, Mozambique) were analyzed by thin-layer chromatography for these cardenolides. But only 4 of 75 specimens of D. chrysippus aegyptius contained trace amounts, all others including 13 specimens of A. ochlea ochlea were negative. Genetic analysis of the ouabain binding site of the Na(+), K(+)-ATPase revealed that both species do not present an amino acid replacement at the position 122, which otherwise makes the enzyme insensitive to cardenolides suggesting that other strategies of toxin tolerance must have been developed. PMID:15777953

Mebs, Dietrich; Reuss, Esther; Schneider, Michael

2005-04-01

290

Absorption-assisted mode transformation in butterfly compound eyes  

Science.gov (United States)

The ommatidium of the butterfly's afocal apposition eye exhibits angular performance that can only be achieved by transforming the diffraction pattern of its corneal lens into the fundamental mode of its rhabdom waveguide. A graded index model of the ommatidium has been proposed and verified but the efforts to extract the transformation's underlying physics from it have been hindered by its extreme complexity. Here we numerically investigate the ommatidium model and reveal that the current model, involving only the graded index distribution, is insufficient for the transformation. We further find that adding spatially varying absorption to the existing model dramatically improves its transformation performance, producing near-perfect mode matching with overlap integral exceeding 0.96. Such a combined action of spatially varying index and absorption for microscale mode transformation is new to researchers in optics and biology and will benefit both disciplines.

Kim, Jaeyoun

2014-09-01

291

Biodiversity of Butterflies from Districts Poonch and Sudhnoti, Azad Kashmir  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The adult butterflies were collected from ten localities of district Poonch and eight localities of district Sudhnoti through out the summer season of (April to October 2000. A total of 29 species belonging to 5 families from district Rawalakot and 21 species belonging to 5 families were collected from district Sudhnoti. Biodiversity was calculated by using Shannon-Wiener diversity index, Shannon`s equitability, Margalef`s index, Simpson`s index and RI index. The calculated values of diversity indices showed that from district Rawalakot the highest diversity was obtained from Khaigala and lowest diversity was obtained from Topa and Paniola. From district Sudhnoti the highest diversity was calculated from Azad Pattan and the lowest diversity was calculated from Pallandri city.

M. Rafique Khan

2004-01-01

292

A time-calibrated phylogeny of the butterfly tribe Melitaeini.  

Science.gov (United States)

The butterfly tribe Melitaeini [Nymphalidae] contains numerous species that have been the subjects of a wide range of biological studies. Despite numerous taxonomic revisions, many of the evolutionary relationships within the tribe remain unresolved. Utilizing mitochondrial and nuclear gene regions, we produced a time-calibrated phylogenetic hypothesis for 222 exemplars comprising at least 178 different species and 21 of the 22 described genera, making this the most complete phylogeny of the tribe to date. Our results suggest that four well-supported clades corresponding to the subtribes Euphydryina, Chlosynina, Melitaeina, and Phyciodina exist within the tribe. This analysis is also represents the most complete phylogenetic analysis of the Chlosynina to date, and includes several genera and species that have been previously excluded from published phylogenies of this group. PMID:24952320

Long, Elizabeth C; Thomson, Robert C; Shapiro, Arthur M

2014-10-01

293

Ancient homology underlies adaptive mimetic diversity across butterflies  

Science.gov (United States)

Convergent evolution provides a rare, natural experiment with which to test the predictability of adaptation at the molecular level. Little is known about the molecular basis of convergence over macro-evolutionary timescales. Here we use a combination of positional cloning, population genomic resequencing, association mapping and developmental data to demonstrate that positionally orthologous nucleotide variants in the upstream region of the same gene, WntA, are responsible for parallel mimetic variation in two butterfly lineages that diverged >65 million years ago. Furthermore, characterization of spatial patterns of WntA expression during development suggests that alternative regulatory mechanisms underlie wing pattern variation in each system. Taken together, our results reveal a strikingly predictable molecular basis for phenotypic convergence over deep evolutionary time. PMID:25198507

Gallant, Jason R.; Imhoff, Vance E.; Martin, Arnaud; Savage, Wesley K.; Chamberlain, Nicola L.; Pote, Ben L.; Peterson, Chelsea; Smith, Gabriella E.; Evans, Benjamin; Reed, Robert D.; Kronforst, Marcus R.; Mullen, Sean P.

2014-01-01

294

Tracking climate impacts on the migratory monarch butterfly  

Science.gov (United States)

Understanding the impacts of climate on migratory species is complicated by the fact that these species travel through several climates that may be changing in diverse ways throughout their complete migratory cycle. Most studies are not designed to tease out the direct and indirect effects of climate at various stages along the migration route. We assess the impacts of spring and summer climate conditions on breeding monarch butterflies, a species that completes its annual migration cycle over several generations. No single, broad-scale climate metric can explain summer breeding phenology or the substantial year-to-year fluctuations observed in population abundances. As such, we built a Poisson regression model to help explain annual arrival times and abundances in the Midwestern United States. We incorporated the climate conditions experienced both during a spring migration/breeding phase in Texas as well as during subsequent arrival and breeding during the main recruitment period in Ohio. Using data from a state-wide butterfly monitoring network in Ohio, our results suggest that climate acts in conflicting ways during the spring and summer seasons. High spring precipitation in Texas is associated with the largest annual population growth in Ohio and the earliest arrival to the summer breeding ground, as are intermediate spring temperatures in Texas. On the other hand, the timing of monarch arrivals to the summer breeding grounds is not affected by climate conditions within Ohio. Once in Ohio for summer breeding, precipitation has minimal impacts on overall abundances, whereas warmer summer temperatures are generally associated with the highest expected abundances, yet this effect is mitigated by the average seasonal temperature of each location in that the warmest sites receive no benefit of above average summer temperatures. Our results highlight the complex relationship between climate and performance for a migrating species and suggest that attempts to understand how monarchs will be affected by future climate conditions will be challenging.

Zipkin, Elise F.; Ries, Leslie; Reeves, Rick; Regetz, James; Oberhauser, Karen S.

2012-01-01

295

Borboletas (Lepidoptera) ameaçadas de extinção em Minas Gerais, Brasil Butterflies (Lepidoptera) considered as threatened in Minas Gerais, Brazil  

OpenAIRE

The twenty species of butterflies (diurnal Lepidoptera) considered as threatened in the Minas Gerais (by statute) are described and discussed in relation to distribution, appearance and known records.

Casagrande, Mirna M.; Mielke, Olaf H. H.; Brown Jr, Keith S.

1998-01-01

296

An updated comprehensive annotated list of the butterflies (Lepidoptera: Rhopalocera) occurring at Chase Lake National Wildlife Refuge Complex Stutsman County, North Dakota 1995-1996  

Science.gov (United States)

A project to produce a comprehensive, site-specific butterfly list that could serve as a basis for future monitoring of butterfly populations and as an aid in making management decisions for the area.

Royer, Ron

1996-01-01

297

An updated comprehensive annotated list of the butterflies (Lepidoptera: Rhopalocera) occuring at Sullys Hill National Game Preserve Benson County, North Dakota 1995-1996  

Science.gov (United States)

A project to produce a comprehensive, site-specific butterfly list that could serve as a basis for future monitoring of butterfly populations and as an aid in making management decisions for the area.

Royer, Ron

1996-01-01

298

Contribution of urban expansion and a changing climate to decline of a butterfly fauna.  

Science.gov (United States)

Butterfly populations are naturally patchy and undergo extinctions and recolonizations. Analyses based on more than 2 decades of data on California's Central Valley butterfly fauna show a net loss in species richness through time. We analyzed 22 years of phenological and faunistic data for butterflies to investigate patterns of species richness over time. We then used 18-22 years of data on changes in regional land use and 37 years of seasonal climate data to develop an explanatory model. The model related the effects of changes in land-use patterns, from working landscapes (farm and ranchland) to urban and suburban landscapes, and of a changing climate on butterfly species richness. Additionally, we investigated local trends in land use and climate. A decline in the area of farmland and ranchland, an increase in minimum temperatures during the summer and maximum temperatures in the fall negatively affected net species richness, whereas increased minimum temperatures in the spring and greater precipitation in the previous summer positively affected species richness. According to the model, there was a threshold between 30% and 40% working-landscape area below which further loss of working-landscape area had a proportionally greater effect on butterfly richness. Some of the isolated effects of a warming climate acted in opposition to affect butterfly richness. Three of the 4 climate variables that most affected richness showed systematic trends (spring and summer mean minimum and fall mean maximum temperatures). Higher spring minimum temperatures were associated with greater species richness, whereas higher summer temperatures in the previous year and lower rainfall were linked to lower richness. Patterns of land use contributed to declines in species richness (although the pattern was not linear), but the net effect of a changing climate on butterfly richness was more difficult to discern. PMID:24527888

Casner, Kayce L; Forister, Matthew L; O'Brien, Joshua M; Thorne, James; Waetjen, David; Shapiro, Arthur M

2014-06-01

299

The role of the North Atlantic Oscillation in controlling U.K. butterfly population size and phenology  

OpenAIRE

1. The North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) exerts considerable control on U.K. weather. This study investigates the impact of the NAO on butterfly abundance and phenology using 34 years of data from the U.K. Butterfly Monitoring Scheme (UKBMS).

Westgarth-smith, Angus R.; Roy, David B.; Scholze, Martin; Tucker, Allan; Sumpter, John P.

2012-01-01

300

Polarization-based brightness discrimination in the foraging butterfly, Papilio xuthus.  

Science.gov (United States)

The human eye is insensitive to the angular direction of the light e-vector, but several animal species have the ability to discriminate differently polarized lights. How the polarization is detected is often unclear, however. Egg-laying Papilio butterflies have been shown to see false colours when presented with differently polarized lights. Here we asked whether this also holds in foraging butterflies. After training individuals to feed on nectar in front of an unpolarized spectral light, we carried out three dual-choice tests, where the discrimination of (i) the spectral content, (ii) the light intensity, and (iii) the e-vector orientation were investigated. In the first test, the butterflies selected the trained spectrum irrespective of its intensity, and in the second test they chose the light with the higher intensity. The result of the e-vector discrimination test was very similar to that of the second test, suggesting that foraging butterflies discriminate differently polarized lights as differing in brightness rather than as differing in colour. Papilio butterflies are clearly able to use at least two modes of polarization vision depending on the behavioural context. PMID:21282172

Kinoshita, Michiyo; Yamazato, Kei; Arikawa, Kentaro

2011-03-12

301

Area selection for the conservation of butterflies in the Iberian Peninsula and Balearic Islands  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Coverage provided by the network of protected areas in the Iberian Peninsula and Balearic Islands was tested by measuring the coincidence between the squares protected by the network and the butterfly species recorded for such UTM grid squares. Five species were found to be absent in the network. The protected areas with the highest numbers of butterfly species were Ordesa National Park and Monte Perdido and the Posets¿Maladeta Natural Park. Priority areas were selected using WORLDMAP software and showed that the all species of butterflies in the Iberian Peninsula and Balearic Islands can be found within 16 squares of 10x10km (nine of them not within the network of protected areas. More specific area selections were also carried out: eight squares supported the total number of threatened species, five hosted all the Iberian endemisms and 13 harboured the rare butterfly species. This study detected 16 squares that are not currently protected but are important for butterfly conservation in the Iberian Peninsula and Balearic Islands.

E. García-Barros

2007-01-01

302

Are bovine pericardium underlay xenograft and butterfly inlay autograft efficient for transcanal tympanoplasty?  

Science.gov (United States)

To evaluate the success rate and the surgical procedure of two different transcanal myringoplasty techniques using the Tutopatch(®) (Tutogen Medical, Inc., Alachua, FL, USA), a xenograft produced from bovine pericardium or the butterfly, an inlay tragal cartilage autograft. This is a retrospective study. We studied all cases of transcanal myringoplasty with Tutopatch and butterfly, performed by the same surgeon between April 2005 and May 2013. Perforations were secondary to chronic otitis media without cholesteatoma, perforation post ventilation tube or trauma. They were not exceeding one-third of the tympanic membrane surface for the Tutopatch and one quarter for the butterfly. We evaluated the anatomical success rate, complications and postoperative hearing results in both techniques. A total of 106 myringoplasties were performed: 66 with Tutopatch and 40 with butterfly with a mean follow-up of 16.5 and 5.2 months, respectively. Successful closure rates of Tutopatch and butterfly were 75.8 % (P complication without specific incidence. PMID:24337878

de Dorlodot, Clotilde; De Bie, Gersende; Deggouj, Naima; Decat, Monique; Gérard, Jean-Marc

2015-02-01

303

Diversity and community structure of butterfly of Arignar Anna Zoological Park, Chennai, Tamil Nadu.  

Science.gov (United States)

Investigation was carried out on the diversity of butterfly fauna in selected localities of conservation and breeding center of Arignar Anna Zoological Park (AAZP), Chennai, Tamil Nadu. Atotal of 56 species were recorded, 15 of them belonged to Pieridae, 12 Nymphalidae, 9 Satyridae, 8 Papilionidae, 7 Danaidae, 3 Lycaenidae and 1 species each belonged to the families Acraeidae and Hesperidae. Qualitatively and quantitatively Pieridae family were comparatively dominant than that of other families. The notable addition to the 25 more species listed during this observation were compared to previous field survey. Comparison of butterfly species distribution between the different localities revealed that butterfly species richness was higher at mountain region with 52 species and lowest of 25 species at public visiting areas. Visitor's activities may be that reason for effects on butterfly distribution and lack of vegetation. Each five endemic and protected species (i.e. endangered) listed under the Wildlife (Protection)Act were highlighted greater conservation importances of the AAZP. It is suggest that butterfly species diversity generally increase with increase in vegetation and declines with the increase in disturbance. PMID:21882656

Rajagopal, T; Sekar, M; Manimozhi, A; Baskar, N; Archunan, G

2011-03-01

304

The Nation and the Subaltern in Yvonne Vera's Butterfly Burning  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Yvonne Vera's death in 2005 brought to a tragic close the career of one of Zimbabwe's, indeed Africa's, more engaging contemporary writers. But her powerful novel, Butterfly Burning continues to mirror an aspect of Vera's enduring concern: the place of African women in the context of power both with [...] in the colonial and the postcolonial moments. This image of the "woman in shadows" also resonates in the kernel of the subaltern subject in Spivak's essay, "Can the Subaltern Speak?" I draw from Spivak's canonical essay, but simply as a critique of its notion of the burdened subjectivity of the colonized reified in the widow's self-immolation, and seen as a problematic condition of representation-a form of impotent silence. In contrast, I suggest that Vera's Phephelaphi directs our attention by a votive suicide that speaks. This essay thus proceeds from a re-reading of the discourse of subalternity to situate Yvonne Vera's novel as an act primarily of resistance against the situation of patriarchal enclosure under colonialism.

Obi, Nwakanma.

305

Butterfly patterns in a sheared lamellar-system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A technologically important extension of 'classical' scattering techniques is to investigate soft-matter systems under non-equilibrium conditions. Shear flow is known to have a profound influence on the structure and orientation of complex fluids like thermotropic or lyotropic liquid-crystals, colloidal and polymeric solutions. There is a fundamental interest in understanding the microscopic structure and dynamics of such complex fluids as the macroscopic material properties might change with the application of an external perturbation like shear. The following example illustrates a recent study of the influence of shear on the structure of a lyotropic lamellar phase. Results using a cone-and-plate and the ILL Couette type shear-cell were obtained by rheo-small-angle light scattering (rheo-SALS) and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) at D11. Because of the broad range of momentum transfer Q available at D11 a characteristic butterfly-pattern with a scattering peak revealing both the structure and the supramolecular structure of the system could be detected at very low Q. (author)

306

Fluid and Structural Analysis of Large Butterfly Valve  

Science.gov (United States)

A butterfly valve of large diameter is commonly used as control equipments in applications where the inlet velocity is fast and the pressure is relatively high. Because of the size of the valve is too large, therefore it's too difficult to conduct the experiment in a laboratory. In this paper, the numerical simulation using commercial package-CFX and ANSYS was conducted. In order to do fluid analysis and structural analysis perfectly, large valve models are generated in three dimensions without much simplification, the result of fluid analysis is also fully coupled to the structural domain by the fluid-structural interface to provide an exacter initial condition. In addition to describe the flow patterns and to measure the performance coefficients when the valves with various open angles were used, the verification of the safety performance whether the valve could work normally at those conditions or not was conducted. Fortunately, the result shows this type valve is safe in a given inlet velocity of 3m/s, and it's not necessary to be strengthened anywhere, and if need be, the shape of valve disc can be optimized to reduce the weight of disc, and also to make the flow coefficient be closer to the suggested level.

Song, Xueguan; Wang, Lin; Park, Youngchul

2008-10-01

307

Butterfly patterns in a sheared lamellar-system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A technologically important extension of `classical` scattering techniques is to investigate soft-matter systems under non-equilibrium conditions. Shear flow is known to have a profound influence on the structure and orientation of complex fluids like thermotropic or lyotropic liquid-crystals, colloidal and polymeric solutions. There is a fundamental interest in understanding the microscopic structure and dynamics of such complex fluids as the macroscopic material properties might change with the application of an external perturbation like shear. The following example illustrates a recent study of the influence of shear on the structure of a lyotropic lamellar phase. Results using a cone-and-plate and the ILL Couette type shear-cell were obtained by rheo-small-angle light scattering (rheo-SALS) and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) at D11. Because of the broad range of momentum transfer Q available at D11 a characteristic butterfly-pattern with a scattering peak revealing both the structure and the supramolecular structure of the system could be detected at very low Q. (author). 5 refs.

Lindner, P. [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin (ILL), 38 - Grenoble (France); Zipfel, J.; Richtering, W. [Freiburg Univ. (Germany)

1997-04-01

308

The Innovation Butterfly Managing Emergent Opportunities and Risks During Distributed Innovation  

CERN Document Server

Product and service innovations are the result of mutually interacting creative and coordination tasks within a system that has to balance technical decisions, marketplace taste, personnel management, and stakeholder commitment. The constituent elements of such systems are often scattered across multiple firms and across the globe and constitute a complex system consisting of many interacting parts. In the spirit of the "butterfly effect", metaphorically describing the sensitivity to initials conditions of chaotic systems, this book builds an argument that "innovation butterflies" can, in the short term, take up significant amounts of effort and sap efficiencies within individual innovation projects. Such "innovation butterflies" can be prompted by external forces such as government legislation or unexpected spikes in the price of basic goods (such as oil), unexpected shifts in market tastes, or from a company manager’s decisions or those of its competitors. Even the smallest change, the smallest disruption...

Anderson Jr , Edward G

2012-01-01

309

Study of the surface structure of butterfly wings using the scanning electron microscopic moiré method  

Science.gov (United States)

Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) moiré method was used to study the surface structure of three kinds of butterfly wings: Papilio maackii Menetries, Euploea midamus (Linnaeus), and Stichophthalma howqua (Westwood). Gratings composed of curves with different orientations were found on scales. The planar characteristics of gratings and some other planar features of the surface structure of these wings were revealed, respectively, in terms of virtual strain. Experimental results demonstrate that SEM moiré method is a simple, nonlocal, economical, effective technique for determining which grating exists on one whole scale, measuring the dimension and the whole planar structural character of the grating on each scale, as well as characterizing the relationship between gratings on different scales of each butterfly wing. Thus, the SEM moiré method is a useful tool to assist with characterizing the structure of butterfly wings and explaining their excellent properties.

Kishimoto, Satoshi; Wang, Qinghua; Xie, Huimin; Zhao, Yapu

2007-10-01

310

Effects of a butterfly scale microstructure on the iridescent color observed at different angles  

Science.gov (United States)

Multilayer thin-film structures in butterfly wing scales produce a colorful iridescence from reflected sunlight. Because of optical phenomena, changes in the angle of incidence of light and the viewing angle of an observer result in shifts in the color of butterfly wings. Colors ranging from green to purple, which are due to nonplanar specular reflection, can be observed on Papilio blumei iridescent scales. This refers to a phenomenon in which the curved surface patterns in the thin-film structure cause the specular component of the reflected light to be directed at various angles while affecting the spectral reflectivity at the same time by changing the optical path length through the structure. We determined the spectral reflectivities of P. blumei iridescent scales numerically by using models of a butterfly scale microstructure and experimentally by using a microscale-reflectance spectrometer. The numerical models accurately predict the shifts in spectral reflectivity observed experimentally.

Tada, Haruna; Mann, Seth E.; Miaoulis, Ioannis N.; Wong, Peter Y.

1999-08-01

311

Butterfly Pea (Clitoria ternatea: A Nutritive Multipurpose Forage Legume for the Tropics - An Overview  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Butterfly pea (Clitoria ternatea is a multi-purpose forage legume. It provides bioactive compounds for medicinal use and it is also an ornamental plant and cover crop. It is adaptable to a wide range of temperature, rainfall and altitude. Butterfly pea, a highly palatable forage legume is generally preferred by livestock over other legumes. It has thin stem and large leaves, nil bloat and non toxic which make it ideal for forage and hay making. It`s vigorous growth, tolerance to frost and dry periods and heavy grazing pressures make this suitable for waste land development. Production and utilization of this legume for animal production will provide adequate nutrition and also reduce grazing pressure on natural ranges. This paper reviews distribution, plant description, agronomic characteristics, genetic variation, medicinal use, chemical composition and utilization of butterfly pea in livestock production.

S. Michael Gomez

2003-01-01

312

Butterfly Arch: A Device for Precise Controlling of the Upper Molars in Three Planes of Space  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Intra-oral appliances such as transpalatal arch and Nance appliance fail to resist against forces that tend to loosen the anchorage. The infirmity arises due to the long lever arm and the mesial force that is perpendicular to the long axis of the appliance. The butterfly arch is presented here as an intra-oral appliance that withstands the mesially directed forces with a mechanism that puts strain on a stiff wire along its long axis. The unique shape of the butterfly arch is advantageous in maximum anchorage cases, cases in which arch width preservation is critical and cases with a vertical growth pattern. With the aid of the butterfly arch, clinical concerns such as patient cooperation, wearing extra-oral appliances, complicated mechanics in extraction cases and control of the arch length, arch width and vertical dimension would be greatly diminished.

Alireza Nikkerdar

2013-01-01

313

Butterfly Classification by HSI and RGB Color Models Using Neural Networks  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study aims the classification of Butterfly species through the implementation of Neural Networks and Image Processing. A total of 9 species of Morpho genre which has blue as a characteristic color are processed. For Butterfly segmentation we used image processing tools such as: Binarization, edge processing and mathematical morphology. For data processing RGB values are obtained for every image which are converted to HSI color model to identify blue pixels and obtain the data to the proposed Neural Networks: Back-Propagation and Perceptron. For analysis and verification of results confusion matrix are built and analyzed with the results of neural networks with the lowest error levels. We obtain error levels close to 1% in classification of some Butterfly species.

Jorge E. Grajales-Múnera

2013-11-01

314

Diversity pattern of Butterfly Lepidoptera (Papilio demoleus in Union Council Koaz Bahram Dheri Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In ecosystem the butterflies ply dual role as pollinators, silk producers and indicators of environmental quality. The present study was conducted in Union Council Koaz Bahram Dehri during the period July 2012 to August 2012. The collection of butterflies was done randomly by using the sweep net. A total of 32 specimens of Papilio demoleus were collected from different villages of the said area. The high number of specimen was collected from Aratt Kally (21.88%. The wing span is 9.8±0.40 cm and body length 2.9±0.16 cm. From the present investigation it was concluded that the Papilio demoleus species is common in Union Council Koaz Bahram Dehri. The area has rich fauna of butterflies and recommended further studies.

HAROON

2013-04-01

315

Application of new designed butterfly type intermediate valve for nuclear steam turbine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To cope with a large capacity nuclear steam turbine, a butterfly type intermediate valve has been developed. Compared to the conventional valve, or globe valve, the butterfly valve has the following design features: a) Higher thermal efficiency due to lower pressure loss, b) Easier maintenance due to simplified construction, and c) Lower station cost due to the smaller size of the valve assembly. An experiment with a scaled-down test valve was carried out using compressed air. Subsequently a full-scale valve was tested using steam under actual steam conditions. As a result, these tests gave us no problems. The first nuclear turbine (1100MW) equipped with a butterfly valve is operating satisfactorily with good performance as expected. (author)

316

Flow characteristics and performance evaluation of butterfly valves using numerical analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The industrial butterfly valves have been applied to various fields that transport fluid in volume, especially water supply and drainage pipeline for flow control. The butterfly valves in various shapes are manufactured, but a fitting performance comparison is not made up. For this reason, we carried out numerical analysis of some kind of butterfly valves for water supply and drainage pipeline using commercial CFD code FLUENT, and made a comparative study of these results. Also, the flow coefficient, the loss coefficient, and pressure distribution of valves according to valve opening rate were compared each other and the influence of these design variables on valve performance were checked over. Through flow around the valve disk, such as pressure distribution, flow pattern, velocity vectors, and form of vortex, we grasped flow characteristics.

Jeon, S Y; Shin, M S [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Hanyang University, 17 Haengdang-dong Seongdong-gu, Seoul, 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, J Y, E-mail: lo21c@hanyang.ac.k [Division of Mechanical and Management Engineering, Hanyang University, 1271 Sa-3-dong Sangnok-gu, Ansan, 425-791 (Korea, Republic of)

2010-08-15

317

The study on flow characteristics of butterfly valve using flow visualization  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Flow visualization of butterfly valve is tested for four types(15 deg., 30 .deg., 45 .deg., and 90 .deg.) of valve opening angle. The inner flow characteristics of valve are studied. The flow variation was measured using a high speed camera which takes 500 frames per second with 1024 x 1024 pixels. These captured images were used for calculation to analyze two dimensional flow velocity of the valve. The smaller opening angle, the more increasing the differential pressure of a butterfly valve. Therefore, we know that the complex flow is occurred by increasing the differential pressure. And it is found that the flowing backward is more increased according to the increase of the opening angle of a butterfly valve. However, its flow pattern is similar to a simple pipe flow when the opening angle is 90 .deg.

318

Flow characteristics and performance evaluation of butterfly valves using numerical analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The industrial butterfly valves have been applied to various fields that transport fluid in volume, especially water supply and drainage pipeline for flow control. The butterfly valves in various shapes are manufactured, but a fitting performance comparison is not made up. For this reason, we carried out numerical analysis of some kind of butterfly valves for water supply and drainage pipeline using commercial CFD code FLUENT, and made a comparative study of these results. Also, the flow coefficient, the loss coefficient, and pressure distribution of valves according to valve opening rate were compared each other and the influence of these design variables on valve performance were checked over. Through flow around the valve disk, such as pressure distribution, flow pattern, velocity vectors, and form of vortex, we grasped flow characteristics.

319

Flow characteristics and performance evaluation of butterfly valves using numerical analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

The industrial butterfly valves have been applied to various fields that transport fluid in volume, especially water supply and drainage pipeline for flow control. The butterfly valves in various shapes are manufactured, but a fitting performance comparison is not made up. For this reason, we carried out numerical analysis of some kind of butterfly valves for water supply and drainage pipeline using commercial CFD code FLUENT, and made a comparative study of these results. Also, the flow coefficient, the loss coefficient, and pressure distribution of valves according to valve opening rate were compared each other and the influence of these design variables on valve performance were checked over. Through flow around the valve disk, such as pressure distribution, flow pattern, velocity vectors, and form of vortex, we grasped flow characteristics.

Jeon, S. Y.; Yoon, J. Y.; Shin, M. S.

2010-08-01

320

Use of fruit bait traps for monitoring of butterflies (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There exists great interest in using fruit-feeding adult nymphalid butterflies to monitor changes in tropical forest ecosystems. We intensively sampled the butterfly fauna of mid-elevation tropical moist forest in southern Costa Rica with fruit bait traps to address a series of practical issues concerning the development of a robust, efficient sampling program. Variation in the number of captures and escapes of butterflies at the traps was better explained by the time of day than by the age of bait. Species’ escape rates varied widely, suggesting that short term, less intensive surveys aimed at determining presence or absence of species may be biased. Individuals did not appear to become "trap-happy" or to recognize the traps as food sources. Considering the tradeoff between numbers of traps and frequency of trap servicing, the most efficient sampling regime appears to be baiting and sampling the traps once every other day.

Jennifer B. Hughes

1998-09-01

321

A wing expressed sequence tag resource for Bicyclus anynana butterflies, an evo-devo model  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Butterfly wing color patterns are a key model for integrating evolutionary developmental biology and the study of adaptive morphological evolution. Yet, despite the biological, economical and educational value of butterflies they are still relatively under-represented in terms of available genomic resources. Here, we describe an Expression Sequence Tag (EST project for Bicyclus anynana that has identified the largest available collection to date of expressed genes for any butterfly. Results By targeting cDNAs from developing wings at the stages when pattern is specified, we biased gene discovery towards genes potentially involved in pattern formation. Assembly of 9,903 ESTs from a subtracted library allowed us to identify 4,251 genes of which 2,461 were annotated based on BLAST analyses against relevant gene collections. Gene prediction software identified 2,202 peptides, of which 215 longer than 100 amino acids had no homology to any known proteins and, thus, potentially represent novel or highly diverged butterfly genes. We combined gene and Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP identification by constructing cDNA libraries from pools of outbred individuals, and by sequencing clones from the 3' end to maximize alignment depth. Alignments of multi-member contigs allowed us to identify over 14,000 putative SNPs, with 316 genes having at least one high confidence double-hit SNP. We furthermore identified 320 microsatellites in transcribed genes that can potentially be used as genetic markers. Conclusion Our project was designed to combine gene and sequence polymorphism discovery and has generated the largest gene collection available for any butterfly and many potential markers in expressed genes. These resources will be invaluable for exploring the potential of B. anynana in particular, and butterflies in general, as models in ecological, evolutionary, and developmental genetics.

Gruber Jonathan D

2006-05-01

322

Structural analysis of eyespots: dynamics of morphogenic signals that govern elemental positions in butterfly wings  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background To explain eyespot colour-pattern determination in butterfly wings, the induction model has been discussed based on colour-pattern analyses of various butterfly eyespots. However, a detailed structural analysis of eyespots that can serve as a foundation for future studies is still lacking. In this study, fundamental structural rules related to butterfly eyespots are proposed, and the induction model is elaborated in terms of the possible dynamics of morphogenic signals involved in the development of eyespots and parafocal elements (PFEs based on colour-pattern analysis of the nymphalid butterfly Junonia almana. Results In a well-developed eyespot, the inner black core ring is much wider than the outer black ring; this is termed the inside-wide rule. It appears that signals are wider near the focus of the eyespot and become narrower as they expand. Although fundamental signal dynamics are likely to be based on a reaction-diffusion mechanism, they were described well mathematically as a type of simple uniformly decelerated motion in which signals associated with the outer and inner black rings of eyespots and PFEs are released at different time points, durations, intervals, and initial velocities into a two-dimensional field of fundamentally uniform or graded resistance; this produces eyespots and PFEs that are diverse in size and structure. The inside-wide rule, eyespot distortion, structural differences between small and large eyespots, and structural changes in eyespots and PFEs in response to physiological treatments were explained well using mathematical simulations. Natural colour patterns and previous experimental findings that are not easily explained by the conventional gradient model were also explained reasonably well by the formal mathematical simulations performed in this study. Conclusions In a mode free from speculative molecular interactions, the present study clarifies fundamental structural rules related to butterfly eyespots, delineates a theoretical basis for the induction model, and proposes a mathematically simple mode of long-range signalling that may reflect developmental mechanisms associated with butterfly eyespots.

Otaki Joji M

2012-03-01

323

Dual leading-edge vortex structure for flow over a simplified butterfly model  

Science.gov (United States)

The dye visualization experiments show that a dual leading-edge vortex (LEV) structure exists on the suction side of a simplified butterfly model of Papilio ulysses at ? = 8°-12°. Furthermore, the results of particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurement indicate that the axial velocity of the primary (outer) vortex core reaches the lower extreme value while a transition from a "wake-like" to a "jet-like" axial velocity profile occurs. The work reveals for the first time the existence of dual LEV structure on the butterfly-like forward-sweep wing configuration.

Hu, Y.; Wang, J. J.

2011-05-01

324

Diversity pattern of Butterfly Lepidoptera (Papilio demoleus) in Union Council Koaz Bahram Dheri Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan  

OpenAIRE

In ecosystem the butterflies ply dual role as pollinators, silk producers and indicators of environmental quality. The present study was conducted in Union Council Koaz Bahram Dehri during the period July 2012 to August 2012. The collection of butterflies was done randomly by using the sweep net. A total of 32 specimens of Papilio demoleus were collected from different villages of the said area. The high number of specimen was collected from Aratt Kally (21.88%). The wing span is 9.8±0.40 cm...

HAROON; tauseef ahmad; ATIZAZ AHSAN; IJAZ AHMAD

2013-01-01

325

Performance Evaluation of Camb Biopesticides to Control Cabbage Butterfly (Pieris brassicae in Cauliflower Crop  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available CAMB Bt. based and fungus based biopesticides, commercial Bt. formulation from mycogen and a new chemical pesticide Methoxyfenozide (RH2485-240SC were tested on cauliflower field against cabbage butterfly (Pieris brassicae. All pesticides successfully controlled the population of cabbage butterfly in cauliflower crop. The efficacy against I to V instar larvae and field stability of CAMB Bt. biopesticide was better than chemical and other biopesticides. So, CAMB Bt. can be safely recommended for pest management strategies against Lepidopteral pests on vegetables with no harmful effects on its predators as in case with chemical pesticides.

Ahmad Usman Zafar

2002-01-01

326

Graphene quantum dot on boron nitride: Dirac cone replica and Hofstadter butterfly  

Science.gov (United States)

Graphene flakes placed on hexagonal boron nitride feature in the presence of a magnetic field a complex electronic structure due to a hexagonal moiré potential resulting from the van der Waals interaction with the substrate. The slight lattice mismatch gives rise to a periodic supercell potential. Zone folding is expected to create replicas of the original Dirac cone and Hofstadter butterflies. Our large-scale tight-binding simulation reveals an unexpected coexistence of a relativistic and nonrelativistic Landau level structure. The presence of the zeroth Landau level and its associated butterfly is shown to be the unambiguous signature for the occurrence of the Dirac cone replica.

Chizhova, L. A.; Libisch, F.; Burgdörfer, J.

2014-10-01

327

Hofstadter's Butterfly and Phase Transition of Checkerboard Superconducting Network in a Magnetic Field  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We study the magnetic effect of the checkerboard superconducting wire network. Based on the de Gennes-Alexader theory, we obtain difference equations for superconducting order parameter in the wire network. Through solving these difference equations, we obtain the eigenvalues, linked to the coherence length, as a function of magnetic field. The diagram of eigenvalues shows a fractal structure, being so-called Hofstadter's butterfly. We also calculate and discuss the dependence of the transition temperature of the checkerboard superconducting wire network on the applied magnetic field, which is related to up-edge of the Hofstadter's butterfly spectrum. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

328

The Butterfly Effect on the Agricultural Bank System at the Grass-Roots Level  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The competition power of the Agricultural Bank of China has beendropping down for several years. The reason is that banks at the grass-rootslevel don’t think much of managing the subtle links. The paper uses the theoryof butterfly effect in Chaos for reference to discusses the risks existed in theAgricultural Bank of China at the grass-roots level such as the credit risk, theincomplete internal control, the loose accounting system, the disorder marketcompetitiveness, the brain drain, the weak service consciousness, the financialinnovation lag and the unbalanced development. Finally eight pieces of adviceare brought forward as the measures against the eight butterfly effects.

Xu QINXIAN

2009-01-01

329

Substance specific chemical sensing with pristine and modified photonic nanoarchitectures occurring in blue butterfly wing scales.  

Science.gov (United States)

Butterfly wing scales containing photonic nanoarchitectures act as chemically selective sensors due to their color change when mixing vapors in the atmosphere. Based on butterfly vision, we built a model for efficient characterization of the spectral changes in different atmospheres. The spectral shift is vapor specific and proportional with the vapor concentration. Results were compared to standard principal component analysis. The modification of the chemical properties of the scale surface by the deposition of 5 nm of Al(2)O(3) significantly alters the character of the optical response. This is proof of the possibility to purposefully tune the selectivity of such sensors. PMID:25321733

Piszter, Gábor; Kertész, Krisztián; Vértesy, Zofia; Bálint, Zsolt; Biró, László Péter

2014-09-22

330

A List of Butterfly Fauna in Jahangirnagar University Campus in Bangladesh  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During January to Decmber, 2003 in an extensive survey of butterfly in Jahangirnagar University campus, a total of 80 species of butterfly were identified. Among them 44 species were common and 36 were completely new. These species belonged to 10 families, 11 species belong to the family Nymphalidae, 14 to Pieridae, 23 to Lycaenidae, 3 to Satyridae, 7 to Papilionidae, 4 to Danaidae, 15 to Hesperiidae and 1 species to each family of Acraeidae, Riodinidae and Amathusiidae. The three families viz., Acraeidae, Riodinidae and Amathusiidae were completely new report in Bangladesh.(author)

331

Sex chromosome mosaicism and hybrid speciation among tiger swallowtail butterflies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hybrid speciation, or the formation of a daughter species due to interbreeding between two parental species, is a potentially important means of diversification, because it generates new forms from existing variation. However, factors responsible for the origin and maintenance of hybrid species are largely unknown. Here we show that the North American butterfly Papilio appalachiensis is a hybrid species, with genomic admixture from Papilio glaucus and Papilio canadensis. Papilio appalachiensis has a mosaic phenotype, which is hypothesized to be the result of combining sex-linked traits from P. glaucus and P. canadensis. We show that P. appalachiensis' Z-linked genes associated with a cooler thermal habitat were inherited from P. canadensis, whereas its W-linked mimicry and mitochondrial DNA were inherited from P. glaucus. Furthermore, genome-wide AFLP markers showed nearly equal contributions from each parental species in the origin of P. appalachiensis, indicating that it formed from a burst of hybridization between the parental species, with little subsequent backcrossing. However, analyses of genetic differentiation, clustering, and polymorphism based on molecular data also showed that P. appalachiensis is genetically distinct from both parental species. Population genetic simulations revealed P. appalachiensis to be much younger than the parental species, with unidirectional gene flow from P. glaucus and P. canadensis into P. appalachiensis. Finally, phylogenetic analyses, combined with ancestral state reconstruction, showed that the two traits that define P. appalachiensis' mosaic phenotype, obligatory pupal diapause and mimicry, evolved uniquely in P. canadensis and P. glaucus, respectively, and were then recombined through hybridization to form P. appalachiensis. These results suggest that natural selection and sex-linked traits may have played an important role in the origin and maintenance of P. appalachiensis as a hybrid species. In particular, ecological barriers associated with a steep thermal cline appear to maintain the distinct, mosaic genome of P. appalachiensis despite contact and occasional hybridization with both parental species. PMID:21931567

Kunte, Krushnamegh; Shea, Cristina; Aardema, Matthew L; Scriber, J Mark; Juenger, Thomas E; Gilbert, Lawrence E; Kronforst, Marcus R

2011-09-01

332

Allochronic isolation and incipient hybrid speciation in tiger swallowtail butterflies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hybridization leading to reproductively isolated, novel genotypes is poorly understood as a means of speciation and few empirical examples have been studied. In 1999, a previously non-existent delayed flight of what appeared to be the Canadian tiger swallowtail butterfly, Papilio canadensis, was observed in the Battenkill River Valley, USA. Allozyme frequencies and morphology suggest that this delayed flight was the product of hybridization between Papilio canadensis and its sibling species Papilio glaucus. The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) restriction fragment length polymorphisms presented here indicate that only P. canadensis-like mtDNA occurs in this population, suggesting that introgression likely occurred from hybrid males mating with P. canadensis females. Preliminary studies of this population indicated that delayed post-diapause pupal emergence in this hybrid genotype was the root cause behind the observed delayed flight, which suggests a potential empirical example of a mechanism leading to reproductive isolation. Here we provide further evidence of the role of adult pupal emergence as a reproductive barrier likely leading to reproductive isolation. In particular, we present results from pupal emergence studies using four different spring and two different winter temperature treatments. The results indicate a clear separation of adult emergences between the hybrid population and both parental species. However, our results indicate that exceptionally hot springs are likely to lead to greater potential for overlap between the local parental species, P. canadensis, and this delayed population with hybrid origins. Conversely, our results also show that warmer winters are likely to increase the temporal separation of the hybrid population and the parental species. Finally, we report recently collected evidence that this hybrid population remains morphologically distinct. PMID:19937057

Ording, Gabriel James; Mercader, Rodrigo J; Aardema, Matthew L; Scriber, J M

2010-02-01

333

Neurons innervating the lamina in the butterfly, Papilio xuthus.  

Science.gov (United States)

The butterfly Papilio xuthus has compound eyes with three types of ommatidia. Each type houses nine spectrally heterogeneous photoreceptors (R1-R9) that are divided into six spectral classes: ultraviolet, violet, blue, green, red, and broad-band. Analysis of color discrimination has shown that P. xuthus uses the ultraviolet, blue, green, and red receptors for foraging. The ultraviolet and blue receptors are long visual fibers terminating in the medulla, whereas the green and red receptors are short visual fibers terminating in the lamina. This suggests that processing of wavelength information begins in the lamina in P. xuthus, unlike in flies. To establish the anatomical basis of color discrimination mechanisms, we examined neurons innervating the lamina by injecting neurobiotin into this neuropil. We found that in addition to photoreceptors and lamina monopolar cells, three distinct groups of cells project fibers into the lamina. Their cell bodies are located (1) at the anterior rim of the medulla, (2) between the proximal surface of the medulla and lobula plate, and (3) in the medulla cell body rind. Neurobiotin injection also labeled distinct terminals in medulla layers 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5. Terminals in layer 4 belong to the long visual fibers (R1, 2 and 9), while arbors in layers 1, 2 and 3 probably correspond to terminals of three subtypes of lamina monopolar cells, respectively. Immunocytochemistry coupled with neurobiotin injection revealed their transmitter candidates; neurons in (1) and a subset of neurons in (2) are immunoreactive to anti-serotonin and anti-?-aminobutyric acid, respectively. PMID:23407865

Hamanaka, Yoshitaka; Shibasaki, Hiromichi; Kinoshita, Michiyo; Arikawa, Kentaro

2013-05-01

334

Timpanoplastía con injerto en mariposa Tympanoplasty with butterfly graft  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La timpanoplastía es una cirugía frecuente para el otorrino. El año 1998 el Dr Eavey presenta la técnica de injerto en mariposa, la que es avalada posteriormente por varios autores y se afirma que es una técnica eficiente, con menor tiempo quirúrgico y mejor confort para el paciente. Se trata de un estudio prospectivo realizado en el Hospital Dr. Sofera del Río entre los meses de septiembre 2005 a febrero 2006. En el que se realizó esta técnica a 5 pacientes obteniendo como resultado anatómico cierre de la perforación en 4 pacientes y una extrusión del injerto en í paciente post supuración ótica. En cuanto al resultado auditivo la mejoría promedio de los PTP aéreos fue de 15,64 dB. Se concluye que esta técnica presenta las ventajas descritas en la literatura, y se deben realizar estudios sucesivos para determinar qué pacientes se benefician mejor de esta técnica comparándolas con las técnicas tradicionalesTympanoplasty is a frequent surgery for the otolaringologist. In 1998 Dr. Eavey presents the technique of butterfly gran, which is later supported by several authors and it is considered an efficient technique, with less surgical time and better comfort for the patient. It is a prospective study made at Dr. Sofera del Rio Hospital between the months of September 2005 and February 2006, where this technique was applied to 5 patients, obtaining as anatomical result the closing of the perforation in 4 patients and an extrusion of the graft in 1 patient post otic supuration. In relation to the auditive result the average improvement of the air PTP's was 15,64 dB. It is concluded that this technique presents the advantages described in the literature, and successive studies must be made to determine which patients obtain a better benefit from this technique as compared to the traditional techniques

Iván González Y

2006-04-01

335

Timpanoplastía con injerto en mariposa / Tympanoplasty with butterfly graft  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La timpanoplastía es una cirugía frecuente para el otorrino. El año 1998 el Dr Eavey presenta la técnica de injerto en mariposa, la que es avalada posteriormente por varios autores y se afirma que es una técnica eficiente, con menor tiempo quirúrgico y mejor confort para el paciente. Se trata de un [...] estudio prospectivo realizado en el Hospital Dr. Sofera del Río entre los meses de septiembre 2005 a febrero 2006. En el que se realizó esta técnica a 5 pacientes obteniendo como resultado anatómico cierre de la perforación en 4 pacientes y una extrusión del injerto en í paciente post supuración ótica. En cuanto al resultado auditivo la mejoría promedio de los PTP aéreos fue de 15,64 dB. Se concluye que esta técnica presenta las ventajas descritas en la literatura, y se deben realizar estudios sucesivos para determinar qué pacientes se benefician mejor de esta técnica comparándolas con las técnicas tradicionales Abstract in english Tympanoplasty is a frequent surgery for the otolaringologist. In 1998 Dr. Eavey presents the technique of butterfly gran, which is later supported by several authors and it is considered an efficient technique, with less surgical time and better comfort for the patient. It is a prospective study mad [...] e at Dr. Sofera del Rio Hospital between the months of September 2005 and February 2006, where this technique was applied to 5 patients, obtaining as anatomical result the closing of the perforation in 4 patients and an extrusion of the graft in 1 patient post otic supuration. In relation to the auditive result the average improvement of the air PTP's was 15,64 dB. It is concluded that this technique presents the advantages described in the literature, and successive studies must be made to determine which patients obtain a better benefit from this technique as compared to the traditional techniques

Iván, González Y; Cristian, Lara M; Marcela, Castillo F.

2006-04-01

336

Seasonal selection and resource dynamics in a seasonally polyphenic butterfly.  

Science.gov (United States)

Seasonal polyphenisms are widespread in nature, yet the selective pressures responsible for their evolution remain poorly understood. Previous work has largely focussed either on the developmental regulation of seasonal polyphenisms or putative 'top-down' selective pressures such as predation that may have acted to drive phenotypic divergence. Much less is known about the influence of seasonal variation in resource availability or seasonal selection on optimal resource allocation. We studied seasonal variation in resource availability, uptake and allocation in Araschnia levana L., a butterfly species that exhibits a striking seasonal colour polyphenism consisting of predominantly orange 'spring form' adults and black-and-white 'summer form' adults. 'Spring form' individuals develop as larvae in the late summer, enter a pupal diapause in the fall and emerge in the spring, whereas 'summer form' individuals develop directly during the summer months. We find evidence for seasonal declines in host plant quality, and we identify similar reductions in resource uptake in late summer, 'spring form' larvae. Further, we report shifts in the body composition of diapausing 'spring form' pupae consistent with a physiological cost to overwintering. However, these differences do not translate into detectable differences in adult body composition. Instead, we find minor seasonal differences in adult body composition consistent with augmented flight capacity in 'summer form' adults. In comparison, we find much stronger signatures of sex-specific selection on patterns of resource uptake and allocation. Our results indicate that resource dynamics in A. levana are shaped by seasonal fluctuations in host plant nutrition, climatic conditions and intraspecific interactions. PMID:23194094

Morehouse, N I; Mandon, N; Christides, J-P; Body, M; Bimbard, G; Casas, J

2013-01-01

337

Inferring the provenance of an alien species with DNA barcodes: the neotropical butterfly Dryas iulia in Thailand.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Neotropical butterfly Dryas iulia has been collected from several locations in Thailand and Malaysia since 2007, and has been observed breeding in the wild, using introduced Passiflora foetida as a larval host plant. The butterfly is bred by a butterfly house in Phuket, Thailand, for release at weddings and Buddhist ceremonies, and we hypothesized that this butterfly house was the source of wild, Thai individuals. We compared wing patterns and COI barcodes from two, wild Thai populations with individuals obtained from this butterfly house. All Thai individuals resemble the subspecies D. iulia modesta, and barcodes from wild and captive Thai specimens were identical. This unique, Thai barcode was not found in any of the 30 specimens sampled from the wild in the species' native range, but is most similar to specimens from Costa Rica, where many exporting butterfly farms are located. These data implicate the butterfly house as the source of Thailand's wild D. iulia populations, which are currently so widespread that eradication efforts are unlikely to be successful. PMID:25119899

Burg, Noah A; Pradhan, Ashman; Gonzalez, Rebecca M; Morban, Emely Z; Zhen, Erica W; Sakchoowong, Watana; Lohman, David J

2014-01-01

338

Does Skipping a Meal Matter to a Butterfly's Appearance? Effects of Larval Food Stress on Wing Morphology and Color in Monarch Butterflies  

OpenAIRE

In animals with complex life cycles, all resources needed to form adult tissues are procured at the larval stage. For butterflies, the proper development of wings involves synthesizing tissue during metamorphosis based on the raw materials obtained by larvae. Similarly, manufacture of pigment for wing scales also requires resources acquired by larvae. We conducted an experiment to test the effects of food deprivation in the larval stage on multiple measures of adult wing morphology and colora...

Johnson, Haley; Solensky, Michelle J.; Satterfield, Dara A.; Davis, Andrew K.

2014-01-01

339

Use of the butterflies like bio-indicators of the habitat type and their biodiversity in Colombia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This work is the result of the study of Colombian butterflies, across an altitudinal range between 250 and 3000 m, whose primary objective was to describe the local distributions of a community of butterflies in three different leinds of ecosystems: primary forest (BP), secondary forest (BS), and disturbed zones (ZP). These descriptions took under consideration environmental parameters and gradients, such as: altitude, climate and how the vegetation had been changed. At the same time, based on observations and captures of butterflies, the seasonality of several species, their daily activity cycles, and micro habitat fidelity were described

340

A Study on Coevolutionary Relationship of Four Plants With Their Butterfly Pollinators on Basis of Their Nectar Physiology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Present study is aimed to reveal the co evolutionary relationship of four butterfly pollinated flowers Cadaba fruticosa (L. Druce, Caesalpinia pulcherrima (L. Sw., Clerodendrum infortunatum L. and Clerodendrum phlomidis L.f. Not only the floral morphology, nectar quality the main energy source of insects including butterflies is also a promiscuous character which excludes other insects than specified. So, nectar characters of these flowers are studied and found a good correlation with butterfly preferred nectars. Here one-sided adaptation was there and it was described as “non-promiscuous”. It is one of the most significant events in organic evolution.

Meerabai Guddeti

2014-02-01

341

[The butterflies (Lepidoptera, Diurna) of the boreal forests in southeastern Russia. II. Light coniferous forests].  

Science.gov (United States)

Species groupings formed in dark coniferous forests of southeastern Russia are analyzed by the example of butterflies. The species and chorological composition of these groupings are discussed. Classification analysis of species checklists for twelve local faunas is given. It is indicated that the applicability of a single faunistic category to all the dark coniferous forests of the studied region is doubtful. PMID:19548618

Martynenko, A B

2009-01-01

342

Artificial selection for structural color on butterfly wings and comparison with natural evolution.  

Science.gov (United States)

Brilliant animal colors often are produced from light interacting with intricate nano-morphologies present in biological materials such as butterfly wing scales. Surveys across widely divergent butterfly species have identified multiple mechanisms of structural color production; however, little is known about how these colors evolved. Here, we examine how closely related species and populations of Bicyclus butterflies have evolved violet structural color from brown-pigmented ancestors with UV structural color. We used artificial selection on a laboratory model butterfly, B. anynana, to evolve violet scales from UV brown scales and compared the mechanism of violet color production with that of two other Bicyclus species, Bicyclus sambulos and Bicyclus medontias, which have evolved violet/blue scales independently via natural selection. The UV reflectance peak of B. anynana brown scales shifted to violet over six generations of artificial selection (i.e., in less than 1 y) as the result of an increase in the thickness of the lower lamina in ground scales. Similar scale structures and the same mechanism for producing violet/blue structural colors were found in the other Bicyclus species. This work shows that populations harbor large amounts of standing genetic variation that can lead to rapid evolution of scales' structural color via slight modifications to the scales' physical dimensions. PMID:25092295

Wasik, Bethany R; Liew, Seng Fatt; Lilien, David A; Dinwiddie, April J; Noh, Heeso; Cao, Hui; Monteiro, Antónia

2014-08-19

343

Do territorial butterflies show a macroecological fighting pattern in response to environmental stability?  

Science.gov (United States)

The territorial defense of mating sites by males should be favored when female monopolization is possible. Such monopolization should occur in species in which females emerge asynchronously, since males may have time to copulate with one female before the arrival of other. However, regions with smaller reproductive windows should promote higher synchronicity of female emergence, generating a predictable macroecological pattern associated to the rewards from territorial defense. In this study we evaluated the hypothesis that territorial male butterflies should invest more in fighting in species that occur in areas with stable climatic conditions that should present longer reproductive windows. We compiled studies reporting mean butterfly fighting times, mean trait differences among winners and losers and local Köppen climatic classification (a surrogate for climatic stability). We found that males from butterfly species located in areas with stable climatic conditions fight for longer times. However, although winners were stronger than intruders only in areas with intermediate climatic conditions, there was a marked variation among winner-loser comparisons in species in areas with stable climatic conditions. We conclude that males from butterfly species that occur in areas with stable climatic regimes invest more in fighting due to the higher payoffs accrued with territorial defense, but that such investment does not change the effect of trait asymmetries in settling territorial conflicts. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Special Issue:Neotropical Behaviour. PMID:25013990

Peixoto, Paulo Enrique Cardoso; Medina, Anderson Matos; Mendoza-Cuenca, Luis

2014-11-01

344

The relationship between total cholinesterase activity and mortality in four butterfly species  

Science.gov (United States)

The relationship between total cholinesterase activity (TChE) and mortality in four butterfly species (great southern white [Ascia monuste], common buckeye [Junonia coenia], painted lady [Vanessa cardui], and julia butterflies [Dryas julia]) was investigated. Acute contact toxicity studies were conducted to evaluate the response (median lethal dose [LD50] and TChE) of the four species following exposure to the organophosphate insecticide naled. The LD50 for these butterflies ranged from 2.3 to 7.6 ?g/g. The average level of TChE inhibition associated with significant mortality ranged from 26 to 67%, depending on the species. The lower bounds of normal TChE activity (2 standard deviations less than the average TChE for reference butterflies) ranged from 8.4 to 12.3 ?M/min/g. As a percentage of the average reference TChE activity for the respective species, the lower bounds were similar to the inhibition levels associated with significant mortality, indicating there was little difference between the dose resulting in significant TChE inhibition and that resulting in mortality.

Bargar, Timothy A.

2012-01-01

345

Flavonoid pigments in marbled white butterfly (Melanargia galathea) are dependent on flavonoid content of larval diet.  

Science.gov (United States)

Analyses of two-dimensional chromatographic flavonoid patterns of butterflies reared on different grass species have shown that the flavonoid pattern ofMelanargia galathea is dependent on the flavonoid content of the larval diet. This confirms the dietary origin of flavonoid pigments inM. galathea. The flavonoid patterns of butterflies reared on different grass species differ from each other and from the larval food plants;M. galathea reared on the same grass species have identical flavonoid patterns. Differences in the butterfly and larval food plant flavonoid patterns indicate that the ingested flavonoids are metabolized byM. galathea or its gut flora before sequestration. The distinct flavonoid patterns of butterflies reared on different larval food plants have been defined as the flavonoid fingerprint profiles for each grass species. Similarity between theFestuca rubra flavonoid fingerprint profile and the constant flavonoid pattern characteristic of wild-capturedMelanargia suggests thatMelanargia larvae are not generalist grass feeders, but are specific toF. rubra or toF. rubra and a few closely related grass species in the wild. PMID:24310380

Wilson, A

1985-09-01

346

"Butterfly under a Pin": An Emergent Teacher Image amid Mandated Curriculum Reform  

Science.gov (United States)

The author examines 1 experienced teacher's image of teaching and how it was purposely changed--through external intervention and against the individual's will--from the view of teacher as curriculum maker to the view of teacher as curriculum implementer. Laura's account of the "butterfly under a pin" image, a version of the…

Craig, Cheryl J.

2012-01-01

347

Changes in nectar supply: A possible cause of widespread butterfly decline  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recent studies have documented declining trends of various groups of flower-visiting insects, even common butterfly species. Causes of these declines are still unclear but the loss of habitat quality across the wider countryside is thought to be a major factor. Nectar supply constitutes one of the main resources determining habitat quality. Yet, data on changes in nectar abundance are lacking. In this study, we provide the first analysis of changes in floral nectar abundance on a national scale and link these data to trends in butterfly species richness and abundance. We used transect data from the Dutch Butterfly Monitoring Scheme to compare two time periods: 1994-1995 and 2007-2008. The results show that butterfly decline can indeed be linked to a substantial decline in overall flower abundance and specific nectar plants, such as thistles. The decline is as severe in reported flower generalists as in flower specialists. We suggest that eutrophication is a main cause of the decline of nectar sources [Current Zoology 58 (3: 384-391, 2012].

Michiel F. WALLISDEVRIES, Chris A.M. Van SWAAY, Calijn L. PLATE

2012-06-01

348

On the Butterfly Diversity of Different Habitat Types in Three Gorge Reservoir  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The faunal composition of butterflies in five different habitat types in the Three Gorges Reservoir was surveyed from 1998 to 2003. A total of 380 species belonging to 157 genera and 12 families were recorded, among which, Nymphalidae is the fittest one in the environment according to the highest number of specie, genera and families. Acraeidae, Libytheidae and Parnassiidae are the unusual rare and key species of biodiversity conservation. Farmlands and shrubs had small fluctuation of diversity indices between 6 years, while grasslands had big one, and they were 0.584 5, 0.474 0 and 0.329 8 respectively. Shrubs are the most suitable vegetations for butterfly in TGR. The investigation shows that butterfly community is closely related to habitat types, and the similarity of different butterfly communities increased with the similarity of vegetation and spatial structure between different habitat types. The shrub is important habitat of biodiversity and hence protection of these habitats is important for biodiversity conservation.?

WU Yu-yuan

2012-09-01

349

Butterfly Species Richness Patterns in Canada: Energy, Heterogeneity, and the Potential Consequences of Climate Change  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The distributions of most pollinator species are poorly documented despite their importance in providing ecosystem services. While these and other organisms are threatened by many aspects of the human enterprise, anthropogenic climate change is potentially the most severe threat to pollinator biodiversity. Mounting evidence demonstrates that there have already been biotic responses to the relatively small climate changes that have occurred this century. These include wholesale shifts of relatively well-documented butterfly and bird species in Europe and North America. Although studies of such phenomena are supported by circumstantial evidence, their findings are also consistent with predictions derived from current models of spatial patterns of species richness. Using new GIS methods that are highly precise and accurate, I document spatial patterns of Canadian butterfly diversity. These are strongly related to contemporary climate and particularly to potential evapotranspiration. An even more noteworthy finding is the fact that, for the first time, habitat heterogeneity, measured as the number of land cover types in each study unit, is proven to be an equally strong predictor of butterfly richness in a region where energy alone was thought to be the best predictor of diversity. Although previous studies reveal similar relationships between energy and diversity, they fail to detect the powerful link between richness and habitat heterogeneity. The butterflies of Canada provide a superb baseline for studying the effects of climate on contemporary patterns of species richness and comprise the only complete pollinator taxon for which this sort of analysis is currently possible.

Jeremy T. Kerr

2001-06-01

350

The All-Ones Problem for Binomial Trees, Butterfly and Benes Networks  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The all-ones problem is an NP-complete problem introduced by Sutner [11], with wide applicationsin linear cellular automata. In this paper, we solve the all-ones problem for some of the widelystudied architectures like binomial trees, butterfly, and benes networks.

Paul Manuel

2012-07-01

351

Distribution of Nymphalid Butterflies (Brush Footed) in District Rawalpindi and Islamabad  

OpenAIRE

Nymphalidae is by for the largest family of butterflies represented the world over. In the present studies from Rawalpindi and Islamabad, eight selected sites were sampled. The collected specimens were compared with the previously reported species of this family and out of 18 species, Kallima inachus was recorded for the first time from Pakistan.

Arshed Makhdoom Sabir; Amir Hassan Bhatti; Muhammad Ather Rafi; Anjum Suhail

2000-01-01

352

Experimental study for flow characteristics and performance evaluation of butterfly valves  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The industrial butterfly valves have been applied to transport a large of fluid with various fields of industry. Also, these are mainly used a control of fluid flux to the water and waste-water pipeline. Present, butterfly valves are manufacturing for multiplicity shape of bodies and discs with many producers. However, appropriate performance evaluation was not yet accomplished to compare about these valves through experiments. This study is performed the experiment of flow characteristics and performance of manufactured 400A butterfly valves for the water and waste pipeline, and compared experimental results. We performed experiments that were controlled fixed a differential pressure condition (1 psi) and the range of the flow rate conditions (500 m{sup 3}/hr {approx} 2500 m{sup 3}/hr), and also opened the disc of valves to a range of angle from 9 degree to 90 degree. We investigated and compared the valve flow coefficient and the valve loss coefficient of results through experiments with each butterfly valve.

Kim, C K; Shin, M S [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Hanyang University 17 Haengdang-dong Seongdong-gu, Seoul, 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, J Y, E-mail: kck0513@hanyang.ac.k [Division of Mechanical and Management Engineering, Hanyang University 1271 Sa-3-dong Sangnok-gu, Ansan, 425-791 (Korea, Republic of)

2010-08-15

353

Large butterfly valve design copes with out-of-round pipe  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two 96 inch circulating water lines at the Trojan reactor were joined to butterfly valves which had to be distorted to conform to the badly out-of-round pipes. Bubble tight seating was achieved by positioning a flexible seat ring after the valve was installed

354

Distribution of Nymphalid Butterflies (Brush Footed in District Rawalpindi and Islamabad  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nymphalidae is by for the largest family of butterflies represented the world over. In the present studies from Rawalpindi and Islamabad, eight selected sites were sampled. The collected specimens were compared with the previously reported species of this family and out of 18 species, Kallima inachus was recorded for the first time from Pakistan.

Arshed Makhdoom Sabir

2000-01-01

355

A new butterfly-shaped attractor of Lorenz-like system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this letter a new butterfly-shaped chaotic attractor is reported. Some basic dynamical properties, such as Poincare mapping, Lyapunov exponents, fractal dimension, continuous spectrum and chaotic dynamical behaviors of the new chaotic system are studied. Furthermore, we clarify that the chaotic attractors of the system is a compound structure obtained by merging together two simple attractors through a mirror operation

356

Paradox of the drinking-straw model of the butterfly proboscis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fluid-feeding Lepidoptera use an elongated proboscis, conventionally modeled as a drinking straw, to feed from pools and films of liquid. Using the monarch butterfly, Danaus plexippus (Linnaeus), we show that the inherent structural features of the lepidopteran proboscis contradict the basic assumptions of the drinking-straw model. By experimentally characterizing permeability and flow in the proboscis, we show that tapering of the food canal in the drinking region increases resistance, significantly hindering the flow of fluid. The calculated pressure differential required for a suction pump to support flow along the entire proboscis is greater than 1 atm (~101 kPa) when the butterfly feeds from a pool of liquid. We suggest that behavioral strategies employed by butterflies and moths can resolve this paradoxical pressure anomaly. Butterflies can alter the taper, the interlegular spacing and the terminal opening of the food canal, thereby controlling fluid entry and flow, by splaying the galeal tips apart, sliding the galeae along one another, pulsing hemolymph into each galeal lumen, and pressing the proboscis against a substrate. Thus, although physical construction of the proboscis limits its mechanical capabilities, its functionality can be modified and enhanced by behavioral strategies. PMID:24920837

Tsai, Chen-Chih; Monaenkova, Daria; Beard, Charles E; Adler, Peter H; Kornev, Konstantin G

2014-06-15

357

Convergent evolution of neuroendocrine control of phenotypic plasticity in pupal colour in butterflies  

Science.gov (United States)

Phenotypic plasticity in pupal colour occurs in three families of butterflies (the Nymphalidae, Papilionidae and Pieridae), typically in species whose pupation sites vary unpredictably in colour. In all species studied to date, larvae ready for pupation respond to environmental cues associated with the colour of their pupation sites and moult into cryptic light (yellow–green) or dark (brown–black) pupae. In nymphalids and pierids, pupal colour is controlled by a neuroendocrine factor, pupal melanization-reducing factor (PMRF), the release of which inhibits the melanization of the pupal cuticle resulting in light pupae. In contrast, the neuroendocrine factor controlling pupal colour in papilionid butterflies results in the production of brown pupae. PMRF was extracted from the ventral nerve chains of the peacock butterfly Inachis io (Nymphalidae) and black swallowtail butterfly Papilio polyxenes (Papilionidae). When injected into pre-pupae, the extracts resulted in yellow pupae in I. io but brown pupae in P. polyxenes. These results suggest that the same neuroendocrine factor controls the plasticity in pupal colour, but that plasticity in pupal colour in these species has evolved independently (convergently).

Starnecker, G.; Hazel, W.

1999-01-01

358

Will the Butterfly Cipher keep your Network Data secure? Developments in Computer Encryption  

OpenAIRE

This paper explains the recent developments in security and encryption. The Butterfly cipher and quantum cryptography are reviewed and compared. Examples of their relative uses are discussed and suggestions for future developments considered. In addition application to network security together with a substantial review of classification of encryption systems and a summary of security weaknesses are considered.

Hinze-hoare, Vita

2006-01-01

359

Characterization of Structural and Pigmentary Colors in Common Emigrant (Catopsilia Pomona) Butterfly  

Science.gov (United States)

Study of structural colors in case of insects and butterflies is important for their biomimic and biophotonics applications. Structural color is the color which is produced by physical structures and their interaction with light while pigmentary color is produced by absorption of light by pigments. Common Emigrant butterfly is widely distributed in India. It is of moderate size with wing span of about 60-80 mm. The wings are broadly white with yellow or sulphur yellow coloration at places as well as few dark black patches. It belongs to family Pieridae. A study of structural color in case of Common Emigrant butterfly has been carried out in the present work. The characterization of wing color was performed using absorption spectroscopy. Scanning electron microscopic study of the wings of Common Emigrant butterfly showed that three different types of scales are present on the wing surface dorsally. Diffracting structures are present in certain parts of the surfaces of the various scales. Bead like structures are embedded in the intricate structures of the scales. Absorption spectra revealed that a strong absorption peak is seen in the UV-range. Crystalline structure of beads was confirmed by the X-ray diffraction analysis.

Ghate, Ekata; Kulkarni, G. R.; Bhoraskar, S. V.; Adhi, K. P.

2011-10-01

360

In the Shadows of a Diva: Committing Homosexuality in David Henry Hwang's "M. Butterfly."  

Science.gov (United States)

Discusses racism, sexism, and sexual orientation through an analysis of the play "M. Butterfly." Focusing on the French diplomat, Gallimard, the essay discusses sexual orientation, explores Gallimard's racist investments in his orientalized vision of Song, and discusses his attempt to explain his love affair as heterosexual love gone awry. (GLR)

Eng, David L.

1994-01-01

361

Inbreeding uncovers fundamental differences in the genetic load affecting male and female fertility in a butterfly  

OpenAIRE

Inbreeding depression is most pronounced for traits closely associated with fitness. The traditional explanation is that natural selection eliminates deleterious mutations with additive or dominant effects more effectively than recessive mutations, leading to directional dominance for traits subject to strong directional selection. Here we report the unexpected finding that, in the butterfly Bicyclus anynana, male sterility contributes disproportionately to inbreeding depression for fitness (...

Saccheri, Ilik J.; Lloyd, Hywel D.; Helyar, Sarah J.; Brakefield, Paul M.

2005-01-01

362

Checkerspot Butterflies, Science, and Conservation Policy: A Grassroots View of Nitrogen Overdose  

Science.gov (United States)

Educating policy makers and the general public about the global “Nitrogen Overdose” has proved challenging because of the complexities of the global nitrogen cycle and its effect on terrestrial, freshwater, estuarine, and marine ecosystems. In this presentation, I present my grassroots experience as a scientist who transitioned into a scientist/activist, working with elected officials, regulators, private industry, activist groups, and the general public, to conserve the rare, beautiful, and charismatic Bay checkerspot butterfly in the San Francisco Bay Area. The butterfly is threatened by atmospheric nitrogen deposition (5-20 kg-N/ha/year) that enriches nutrient poor soils derived from serpentinite rock. This eutrophication allows nitrophilous grasses to invade and displace the dazzling wildflower displays that provide essential food and nectar for the butterfly. Over the past 25 years, I have been involved in all phases of the conservation of this ecosystem, drawing on long-term scientific investigations (literally hundreds of papers by dozens of researchers) on the population dynamics and conservation of the butterfly, and the biogeochemistry of the serpentine grassland ecosystem. Publication of a 1999 paper on N-deposition impacts on the butterfly led to consultations with government agencies and a powerplant company, and development of precedent setting N-deposition mitigation through habitat acquisition and grazing management. This process has evolved into a regional-scale Habitat Conservation Plan (HCP) that is nearing completion in 2010. A key to the success of this ongoing endeavor is education about biodiversity and N-deposition. Field-tours during spring wildflower season put diverse groups of people in direct contact with the obvious beauty of the ecosystem, creating an opening to learning about the complexities of N-deposition, the population biology of the butterfly, and the convoluted conservation history of the sites. Informal tours have developed into a docent program that led more than 1500 people to the site over the past 4 years, including targeted tours for elected officials, decision makers, land managers, and scientists. Outreach has also included more than a dozen articles in local, regional, and national press, television spots, public presentations (Kiwanis, garden clubs, local conferences), and behind the scenes work in policy development for the HCP. When political decisions on the HCP are finalized in the next year, there will be a cadre of educated people, motivated by first hand experience with the ecosystem, to support final approval and implementation of a rigorous plan that will secure the butterfly, numerous imperiled plants, and the entire flower-filled ecosystem. The experience provides a case study and model of how effective grassroots action by concerned scientists can make a difference.

Weiss, S. B.

2009-12-01

363

Experimental and numerical assessment of the improvement of the load-carrying capacities of butterfly-shaped coupling components in composite structures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study was designed to analyze the load-carrying capacities of composite structures connected face-to-face by a butterfly coupling component experimentally and numerically without adhesive. The results of the experimental studies were supported with numerical analysis. In addition, the butterfly coupling component was developed geometrically with a view to the results of the numerical and experimental studies. The change in the load-carrying capacity of the improved butterfly coupling components was analyzed numerically and experimentally to obtain new results. Half-specimens and butterfly-shaped lock components were cut with a water jet machine. Experiments and analyses were conducted to analyze the effects of coupling geometry parameters, such as the ratio of the butterfly end width to the specimen width (w/b), the ratio of the butterfly middle width to the butterfly end width (x/w), and the ratio of the butterfly half height to the specimen width (y/b). It was intended to determine the damage in the butterfly before any damage to the composite structure and to increase the service-life span of the composite structure with the repair of the butterfly lock. As a result of this study, it was determined that the geometrical fixed ratios (w/b) and (x/w) were 0.4 and 0.2 at 0.4 of (y/b) according to the experimental and numerical studies with basic and modified models

364

Positive effects of cyanogenic glycosides in food plants on larval development of the common blue butterfly.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cyanogenesis is a widespread chemical defence mechanism in plants against herbivory. However, some specialised herbivores overcome this protection by different behavioural or metabolic mechanisms. In the present study, we investigated the effect of presence or absence of cyanogenic glycosides in birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus, Fabaceae) on oviposition behaviour, larval preference, larval development, adult weight and nectar preference of the common blue butterfly (Polyommatus icarus, Lycaenidae). For oviposition behaviour there was a female-specific reaction to cyanogenic glycoside content; i.e. some females preferred to oviposit on cyanogenic over acyanogenic plants, while other females behaved in the opposite way. Freshly hatched larvae did not discriminate between the two plant morphs. Since the two plant morphs differed not only in their content of cyanogenic glycoside, but also in N and water content, we expected these differences to affect larval growth. Contrary to our expectations, larvae feeding on cyanogenic plants showed a faster development and stronger weight gain than larvae feeding on acyanogenic plants. Furthermore, female genotype affected development time, larval and pupal weight of the common blue butterfly. However, most effects detected in the larval phase disappeared for adult weight, indicating compensatory feeding of larvae. Adult butterflies reared on the two cyanogenic glycoside plant morphs did not differ in their nectar preference. But a gender-specific effect was found, where females preferred amino acid-rich nectar while males did not discriminate between the two nectar mimics. The presented results indicate that larvae of the common blue butterfly can metabolise the surplus of N in cyanogenic plants for growth. Additionally, the female-specific behaviour to oviposit preferably on cyanogenic or acyanogenic plant morphs and the female-genotype-specific responses in life history traits indicate the genetic flexibility of this butterfly species and its potential for local adaptation. PMID:18600348

Goverde, Marcel; Bazin, Alain; Kéry, Marc; Shykoff, Jacqui A; Erhardt, Andreas

2008-09-01

365

The Peculiar Solar Minimum 23/24 Revealed by the Microwave Butterfly Diagram  

Science.gov (United States)

The diminished polar magnetic field strength during the minimum between cycles 23 and 24 is also reflected in the thermal radio emission originating from the polar chromosphere. During solar minima, the polar corona has extended coronal holes containing intense unipolar flux. In microwave images, the coronal holes appear bright, with a brightness enhancement of 500 to 2000 K with respect to the quiet Sun. The brightness enhancement corresponds to the upper chromosphere, where the plasma temperature is approx.10000 K. We constructed a microwave butterfly diagram using the synoptic images obtained by the Nobeyama radioheliograph (NoRH) showing the evolution of the polar and low latitude brightness temperature. While the polar brightness reveals the chromospheric conditions, the low latitude brightness is attributed to active regions in the corona. When we compared the microwave butterfly diagram with the magnetic butterfly diagram, we found a good correlation between the microwave brightness enhancement and the polar field strength. The microwave butterfly diagram covers part of solar cycle 22, whole of cycle 23, and part of cycle 24, thus enabling comparison between the cycle 23/24 and cycle 22/23 minima. The microwave brightness during the cycle 23/24 minimum was found to be lower than that during the cycle 22/23 minimum by approx.250 K. The reduced brightness temperature is consistent with the reduced polar field strength during the cycle 23/24 minimum seen in the magnetic butterfly diagram. We suggest that the microwave brightness at the solar poles is a good indicator of the speed of the solar wind sampled by Ulysses at high latitudes..

Gopalswamy, Natchimuthuk; Yashiro, Seiji; Makela, Pertti; Shibasaki, Kiyoto; Hathaway, David

2010-01-01

366

Low power reconfigurable FP-FFT core with an array of folded DA butterflies  

Science.gov (United States)

A variable length (32 ~ 2,048), low power, floating point fast Fourier transform (FP-FFT) processor is designed and implemented using energy-efficient butterfly elements. The butterfly elements are implemented using distributed arithmetic (DA) algorithm that eliminates the power-consuming complex multipliers. The FFT computations are scheduled in a quasi-parallel mode with an array of 16 butterflies. The nodes of the data flow graph (DFG) of the FFT are folded to these 16 butterflies for any value of N by the control unit. Register minimization is also applied after folding to decrease the number of scratch pad registers to (log 2 N - 1) × 16. The real and imaginary parts of the samples are represented by 32-bit single-precision floating point notation to achieve high precision in the results. Thus, each sample is represented using 64 bits. Twiddle factor ROM size is reduced by 25% using the symmetry of the twiddle factors. Reconfigurability based on the sample size is achieved by the control unit. This distributed floating point arithmetic (DFPA)-based design of FFT processor implemented in 45-nm process occupies an area of 0.973 mm2 and dissipates a power of 68 mW at an operating frequency of 100 MHz. When compared with FFT processor designed in the same technology with multiplier-based butterflies, this design shows 33% less area and 38% less power. The throughput for 2,048-point FFT is 222 KS/s and the energy spent per FFT is 7.4 to 14 nJ for 64 to 2,048 points being one among the most energy-efficient FFT processors.

Beulet Paul, Augusta Sophy; Raju, Srinivasan; Janakiraman, Raja

2014-12-01

367

Wolbachia endosymbiont infection in two Indian butterflies and female-biased sex ratio in the Red Pierrot, Talicada nyseus.  

Science.gov (United States)

The maternally inherited obligate bacteria Wolbachia is known to infect various lepidopteran insects. However, so far only a few butterfly species harbouring this bacterium have been thoroughly studied. The current study aims to identify the infection status of these bacteria in some of the commonly found butterfly species in India. A total of nine butterfly species belonging to four different families were screened using PCR with Wolbachia-specific wsp and ftsZ primers. The presence of the Wolbachia super group 'B' in the butterflies Red Pierrot, Talicada nyseus (Guerin) (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) and Blue Mormon, Papilio polymnestor Cramer (Papilionidae), is documented for the first time in India. The study also gives an account on the lifetime fecundity and female-biased sex ratio in T. nyseus, suggesting a putative role for Wolbachia in the observed female-biased sex ratio distortion. PMID:22116282

Ankola, Kunal; Brueckner, Dorothea; Puttaraju, H P

2011-12-01

368

Using the sensitive dependence of chaos (the ''butterfly effect'') to direct trajectories in an experimental chaotic system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper we present the first experimental verification that the sensitivity of a chaotic system to small perturbations (the ''butterfly effect'') can be used to rapidly direct orbits from an arbitrary initial state to an arbitrary accessible desired state

369

The taxonomy, biogeography and conservation of the myrmecophilous Chrysoritis butterflies (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) in South Africa  

OpenAIRE

The relevance and integration of scientific knowledge to conservation management of the locally popular and highly endemic butterfly genus Chrysoritis are investigated within the research fields of taxonomy and biogeography. The butterfly genus Chrysoritis contains at least 41 species endemic to South Africa. The taxonomy of Chrysoritis has reached a state where revisions could easily result in a plethora of names between “lumpi...

Hamburg, H.; Terblanche, R. F.

2003-01-01

370

The taxonomy, biogeography and conservation of the myrmecophilous Chrysoritis butterflies (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae in South Africa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The relevance and integration of scientific knowledge to conservation management of the locally popular and highly endemic butterfly genus Chrysoritis are investigated within the research fields of taxonomy and biogeography. The butterfly genus Chrysoritis contains at least 41 species endemic to South Africa. The taxonomy of Chrysoritis has reached a state where revisions could easily result in a plethora of names between “lumping and splitting”. In practice, the state of the taxonomy of these butterflies on species level may alter their conservation priority. The two most species rich species groups in Chrysoritis have different centres of endemism, however, a butterfly atlas becomes a necessity to reveal more about their biogeography. There is an absence of butterfly species lists in many of our National Parks and Nature Reserves. Legislation should facilitate rather than limit the valuable role of the amateur lepidopterist to add distribution records. In turn, the amateur lepidopterists should adapt and make an effort to explore unknown localities, apart from monitoring butterflies at their well-known localities. The red listing of localised butterflies in South Africa, including a number of Chrysoritis species, is in need of an urgent review in the light of the most recent IUCN categories. A species such as Chrysoritis dicksoni should be protected by law - but at its known localities. The scenario that real conservation action is only needed if the last known locality of a butterfly is threatened, should be abolished. A paradigm shift to conserve the metapopulations of the highly endemic Chrysoritis genus and not merely a few of its species as items that appear on lists, seems necessary.

H. van Hamburg

2003-12-01

371

A wing expressed sequence tag resource for Bicyclus anynana butterflies, an evo-devo model  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Butterfly wing color patterns are a key model for integrating evolutionary developmental biology and the study of adaptive morphological evolution. Yet, despite the biological, economical and educational value of butterflies they are still relatively under-represented in terms of available genomic resources. Here, we describe an Expression Sequence Tag (EST) project for Bicyclus anynana that has identified the largest available collection to date ...

Gruber Jonathan D; Rudd Stephen; Beldade Patrícia; Long Anthony D

2006-01-01

372

Building a DNA Barcode Reference Library for the True Butterflies (Lepidoptera) of Peninsula Malaysia: What about the Subspecies?  

OpenAIRE

The objective of this study was to build a DNA barcode reference library for the true butterflies of Peninsula Malaysia and assess the value of attaching subspecies names to DNA barcode records. A new DNA barcode library was constructed with butterflies from the Museum of Zoology, University of Malaya collection. The library was analysed in conjunction with publicly available DNA barcodes from other Asia-Pacific localities to test the ability of the DNA barcodes to discriminate species and su...

Wilson, John-james; Sing, Kong-wah; Sofian-azirun, Mohd

2013-01-01

373

Some ecological factors influencing the breeding success of the Brenton Blue butterfly, Orachrysops niobe (Trimen) (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae)  

OpenAIRE

The Brenton Blue butterfly, Orachrysops niobe (Trimen, 1862) (Lepidoptera:Lycaenidae), is endemic to the southern Cape and is currently listed as Endangered. This study looks at some of the key ecological factors influencing the breeding success of the species—host plant abundance and condition, nectar sources, climate/ microclimate, and vegetation management techniques. The adult butterfly population was monitored over an entire breeding season; host plants were identi...

Edge, D. A.

2002-01-01

374

Ecological factors influencing the survival of the Brenton Blue butterfly Orachrysops niobe (Trimen) (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) / David A. Edge  

OpenAIRE

The Brenton Blue butterfly, Orachrysops niobe (Trimen) is currently only known to be extant at one locality in the southern Cape (the Brenton Blue Butterfly Reserve = BBBR), and currently globally Red Listed as "Critically Endangered". This research investigates the life history and ecological interactions of o. niobe and recommends management techniques for the BBBR. Adult nectar sources and female oviposition behaviour are described. The first two larval instars feed on the l...

Edge, David Alan

2005-01-01

375

Structure, function, and self-assembly of single network gyroid (I4132) photonic crystals in butterfly wing scales  

OpenAIRE

Complex three-dimensional biophotonic nanostructures produce the vivid structural colors of many butterfly wing scales, but their exact nanoscale organization is uncertain. We used small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) on single scales to characterize the 3D photonic nanostructures of five butterfly species from two families (Papilionidae, Lycaenidae). We identify these chitin and air nanostructures as single network gyroid (I4132) photonic crystals. We describe their optical function from SAXS...

Saranathan, Vinodkumar; Osuji, Chinedum O.; Mochrie, Simon G. J.; Noh, Heeso; Narayanan, Suresh; Sandy, Alec; Dufresne, Eric R.; Prum, Richard O.

2010-01-01

376

Alfred Russel Wallace and the Darwinian Species Concept: His Paper on the Swallowtail Butterflies (Papilionidae) of 1865  

OpenAIRE

Soon after his return from the Malay Archipelago, Alfred Russel Wallace published one of his most significant papers. The paper used butterflies of the family Papilionidae as a model system for testing evolutionary hypotheses, and included a revision of the Papilionidae of the region, as well as the description of some 20 new species. Wallace argued that the Papilionidae were the most advanced butterflies, against some of his colleagues such as Bates and Trimen who had claimed that the Nympha...

Mallet, J.

2009-01-01

377

Chasing Migration Genes: A Brain Expressed Sequence Tag Resource for Summer and Migratory Monarch Butterflies (Danaus plexippus)  

OpenAIRE

North American monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) undergo a spectacular fall migration. In contrast to summer butterflies, migrants are juvenile hormone (JH) deficient, which leads to reproductive diapause and increased longevity. Migrants also utilize time-compensated sun compass orientation to help them navigate to their overwintering grounds. Here, we describe a brain expressed sequence tag (EST) resource to identify genes involved in migratory behaviors. A brain EST library was constr...

Zhu, Haisun; Casselman, Amy; Reppert, Steven M.

2008-01-01

378

Effect of Flow Characteristics in the Downstream of Butterfly Valve on the Flow Rate Measurement using Venturi Tube  

Science.gov (United States)

For testing large-capacity pump, the accurate flow rate measurement is needed in the test loop. As a measuring method of flow rate, venturi tube is recommended due to its low pressure loss. However, upstream disturbance of loop component such as valve has an effect upon the accuracy of flow rate measurement. For controlling flow rate in case of high flow rate and large-scale piping system, butterfly-type valve is generally used due to its compactness. However, butterfly valve disturbs downstream flow by generating turbulence, cavities, or abrupt pressure change. In this study, the effect of downstream disturbance of butterfly valve on the flow rate measurement using venturi tube is investigated. Test loop consists of circulation pump, reservoir, butterfly valve, venturi tube, and reference flow meter. The test is conducted with regard to a different valve opening angle of butterfly valve. PIV system is used to visualize and analyze flow in the downstream region of butterfly valve. According to valve opening angle, the flow characteristics and the accuracy of flow rate measurement are investigated.

Yoon, Seok Ho; Lee, Jungho; Yu, Cheong Hwan; Park, San-Jin; Chung, Chang-Hwan

2010-06-01

379

Butterflies (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea and Hesperioidea) visiting flowers in the Botanical Garden of the Federal University of Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS, Brazil  

OpenAIRE

Urban environments, such as parks and gardens, may offer many alimentary resources, besides shelter and favorable conditions, for butterfly survival. This study aimed to make an inventory of butterflies visiting flowers in the Botanical Garden of the Federal University of Santa Maria (UFSM). From March 2006 to March 2007, the floral visitors were observed weekly for 2h. After 108 hours’ observations, 1114 visits by 39 butterfly species, associated with 43 plant species (21 families), were c...

Ana Beatriz Barros de Morais; Camila Duarte Ritter; Renata Lemes

2008-01-01

380

Anti-fouling properties of microstructured surfaces bio-inspired by rice leaves and butterfly wings.  

Science.gov (United States)

Material scientists often look to biology for new engineering solutions to materials science problems. For example, unique surface characteristics of rice leaves and butterfly wings combine the shark skin (antifouling) and lotus leaf (self-cleaning) effects, producing the so-called rice and butterfly wing effect. In this paper, we study antifouling properties of four microstructured surfaces inspired by rice leaves and fabricated with photolithography and hot embossing techniques. Anti-biofouling effectiveness is determined with bioassays using Escherichia coli whilst inorganic fouling with simulated dirt particles. Antifouling data are presented to understand the role of surface geometrical features resistance to fouling. Conceptual modeling provides design guidance when developing novel antifouling surfaces for applications in the medical, marine, and industrial fields. PMID:24491339

Bixler, Gregory D; Theiss, Andrew; Bhushan, Bharat; Lee, Stephen C

2014-04-01

381

Bioinspired Au/TiO2 photocatalyst derived from butterfly wing (Papilio Paris).  

Science.gov (United States)

The reticular hierarchical structure of butterfly wings (Papilio Paris) is introduced as template for Au/TiO(2) photocatalyst by depositing the Au nanoparticles on TiO(2) matrix, which is carried out by a water-ethanol sol-gel procedure combined with subsequent calcination. The obtained Au/TiO(2) nanocomposites present the reticular hierarchical structure of butterfly wings, and Au nanoparticles with an average size of 7 nm are homogeneously dispersed in TiO(2) substrate. Benefiting from such unique reticular hierarchical structure and composition, the biomorphic Au/TiO(2) exhibits high-harvesting capability and presents superior photocatalytic activity. Especially, the biomorphic Au/TiO(2) at the nominal content of gold to titanium of 8 wt% shows the highest photocatalytic activity and can completely decompose methyl orange within 80 min, which is obviously higher than that of commercial Degussa P25 powders. PMID:22244864

Chen, Jianjun; Su, Huilan; Song, Fang; Moon, Won-Jin; Kim, Yang-Soo; Zhang, Di

2012-03-15

382

Mimicking the colourful wing scale structure of the Papilio blumei butterfly  

Science.gov (United States)

The brightest and most vivid colours in nature arise from the interaction of light with surfaces that exhibit periodic structure on the micro- and nanoscale. In the wings of butterflies, for example, a combination of multilayer interference, optical gratings, photonic crystals and other optical structures gives rise to complex colour mixing. Although the physics of structural colours is well understood, it remains a challenge to create artificial replicas of natural photonic structures. Here we use a combination of layer deposition techniques, including colloidal self-assembly, sputtering and atomic layer deposition, to fabricate photonic structures that mimic the colour mixing effect found on the wings of the Indonesian butterfly Papilio blumei. We also show that a conceptual variation to the natural structure leads to enhanced optical properties. Our approach offers improved efficiency, versatility and scalability compared with previous approaches.

Kolle, Mathias; Salgard-Cunha, Pedro M.; Scherer, Maik R. J.; Huang, Fumin; Vukusic, Pete; Mahajan, Sumeet; Baumberg, Jeremy J.; Steiner, Ullrich

2010-07-01

383

Trail Marking by Caterpillars of the Silverspot Butterfly Dione Juno Huascuma  

Science.gov (United States)

A pheromone is implicated in the trail marking behavior of caterpillars of the nymphalid silverspot butterfly, Dione juno huascuma (Reakirt) (Lepidoptera: Heliconiinae) that feed gregariously on Passiflora (Malpighiales: Passifloraceae) vines in Mexico. Although they mark pathways leading from one feeding site to another with silk, this study shows that the silk was neither adequate nor necessary to elicit trail following behavior. Caterpillars marked trails with a long-lived pheromone that was deposited when they brushed the ventral surfaces of the tips of their abdomens along branch pathways. The caterpillars distinguished between pathways deposited by different numbers of siblings and between trails of different ages. Caterpillars also preferentially followed the trails of conspecifics over those of another nymphalid, Nymphalis antiopa L., the mourning cloak butterfly. PMID:21861659

Pescador-Rubio, Alfonso; Stanford-Camargo, Sergio G.; Páez-Gerardo, Luis E; Ramírez-Reyes, Alberto J.; Ibarra-Jiménez, René A.; Fitzgerald, Terrence D.

2011-01-01

384

The butterflies of Turquino National Park, Sierra Maestra, Cuba (Lepidoptera, Papilionoidea  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Between February and November 2011, we conducted a species inventory, created a natural history database and a made a first approach to the composition and structure of the butterfly communities present at several vegetation types in the Turquino National Park. The inventory included 83 species, 29 of them endemic. We recorded 57 species (18 endemic in transects along main vegetation pathways. In disturbed vegetation, species richness was higher (48 and abundance was better distributed, but the proportion of endemism was lower (23%. Species richness decreased and the dominance and proportion of endemism increased with altitude. Numbers of species and the proportions of endemism at natural habitats sampled were: 19 and 58% for evergreen forest, 10 and 60% for rainforest, eight and 100% for cloud forest, and four and 100% for the elfin thicket. Flowers of 27 plants were recorded as nectar sources for 30 butterfly species, and host plants were recorded for nine species.

Núñez, R.

2012-01-01

385

The electronic spectrum of a quasiperiodic potential: From the Hofstadter butterfly to the Fibonacci chain  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We show that an electronic tight-binding Hamiltonian, defined in a quasiperiodic chain with an on-site potential given by a Fibonacci sequence, can be obtained using a superposition of Harper potentials. Since the spectrum of the Harper equation as a function of the magnetic flux is a fractal set, known as the Hofstadter butterfly, we follow the transformation of the butterfly to a new one that contains the Fibonacci potential and related approximants. As a result, the equation in reciprocal space for the Fibonacci case has the form of a chain with long range interaction between Fourier components. Then, the structure of the resulting spectrum is analyzed by calculating the components in reciprocal space of the related potentials. As an application, the correlator of each potential and some localization properties are obtained.

Naumis, Gerardo G. [Departamento de Fisica-Qumica, Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), Apartado Postal 20-364, 01000 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)], E-mail: naumis@fisica.unam.mx; Lopez-Rodriguez, F.J. [Departamento de Fisica-Qumica, Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), Apartado Postal 20-364, 01000 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

2008-05-01

386

Variable Length Floating Point FFT Processor Using Radix-22 Butterfly Elements  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A mixed radix, floating point FFT processor is designed using radix-2 and radix-22 butterfly elements, adapting a pipelined architecture for a variable length of 128/512/2048. The single-path delay feedback (SDF architecture is employed to exploit the symmetry in signal flow graph of FFT algorithm. Area minimization has been achieved for the reconfigurable FFT processor by using pipelining and higher radix butterfly structures. (radix-22. Then area power trade off is done with parallel mixed radix processing blocks, to achieve better throughput. A reconfigurable architecture has been achieved by bypassing certain processing blocks while keeping the other blocks functional through control mechanism. The proposed design is implemented in 45nm technology and the synthesis results show a silicon area of 4.7mm2 and a power consumption of 152mw at 50MHz and 208.5mw at 100MHz.

P.Augusta Sophy

2014-05-01

387

A Scalable and Minimized Butterfly Fat Tree (SMBFT Switching Network for On-Chip Communication  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study proposes a scalable and cost effective Network on Chip (NoC based architecture that is a modified version of Butterfly Fat Tree (BFT network and is known as Scalable and Minimized Butterfly Fat Tree (SMBFT switching network. The corresponding floor plan and scalable routing algorithm for the proposed network is also presented. Component Based Interconnection Network Simulator (CINSIM was used to evaluate the steady state as well as transient behaviors of SMBFT, BFT and Binary Tree switching networks for average delay at targets. Results show that the proposed on-chip network outperforms the other two in terms of average delay, area and cost. SMFBT also comprises of less number of routers, links and levels. Hence the proposed network of switches is superior to BFT and Binary Tree and can efficiently be used for on-chip communication networks.

Sheraz Anjum

2012-07-01

388

Butterfly Graphs with Shell Orders m and 2m+1 are Graceful  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A graceful labelling of an un directed graph G with n edges is a one-one function from the set of vertices V(G to the set {0, 1, ,2, . . ., n} such that the induced edge labels are all distinct. An induced edge label is the absolute difference between the two end vertex labels. A shell graph is defined as a cycle Cn with (n -3 chords sharing a common end point called the apex . A double shell is one vertex union of two shells. A bow graph is defined to be a double shell in which each shell has any order. In this paper we define a butterfly graph as a bow graph with exactly two pendant edges at the apex and we prove that all butterfly graphs with one shell of order m and the other shell of order (2m + 1 are graceful.

Ezhilarasi Hilda Stanley

2012-06-01

389

The significance of moment-of-inertia variation in flight manoeuvres of butterflies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this study is to understand the role that changes in body moment of inertia might play during flight manoeuvres of insects. High-speed, high-resolution videogrammetry is used to quantify the trajectory and body conformation of Painted Lady butterflies during flight manoeuvres; the 3D kinematics of the centre of masses of the various body parts of the insect is determined experimentally. Measurements of the mass properties of the insect are used to parameterize a simple flight dynamics model of the butterfly. Even though the mass of the flapping wings is small compared to the total mass of the insect, these experiments and subsequent analysis indicate that changes in moment of inertia during flight are large enough to influence the manoeuvres of these insects. (communication)

390

The electronic spectrum of a quasiperiodic potential: From the Hofstadter butterfly to the Fibonacci chain  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We show that an electronic tight-binding Hamiltonian, defined in a quasiperiodic chain with an on-site potential given by a Fibonacci sequence, can be obtained using a superposition of Harper potentials. Since the spectrum of the Harper equation as a function of the magnetic flux is a fractal set, known as the Hofstadter butterfly, we follow the transformation of the butterfly to a new one that contains the Fibonacci potential and related approximants. As a result, the equation in reciprocal space for the Fibonacci case has the form of a chain with long range interaction between Fourier components. Then, the structure of the resulting spectrum is analyzed by calculating the components in reciprocal space of the related potentials. As an application, the correlator of each potential and some localization properties are obtained

391

Formation and magnetic properties of butterfly-shaped martensite in an Fe-Ni-Cr alloy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The butterfly-shaped martensitic transformation has been examined by means of transmission electron microscope (TEM) and the magnetic properties of the alloy have been studied by using Moessbauer spectroscopy in an Fe-16.24%Ni-0.46%Cr (at.%) alloy. Moessbauer spectroscopy examinations showed that the austenite state is paramagnetic and butterfly martensite is ferromagnetic. The volume fraction changes, the effective hyperfine field of the ferromagnetic martensite phase and isomery shift values have also been determined by Moessbauer spectroscopy. In situ TEM studies were carried out in order to elucidate the nucleation and growth mechanisms of the martensite. The nucleation and growth of martensite is related to the motion of dislocations in austenite and this fact plays an important role in the kinetics of the martensitic transformation. Based on these experimental results, the nucleation and growth mechanisms of martensite crystals are discussed in detail

392

The enigmatic fast leaflet rotation in Desmodium motorium: butterfly mimicry for defense?  

Science.gov (United States)

I propose that the enigmatic leaflet movements in elliptical circles every few minutes of the Indian telegraph (semaphore) plant Desmodium motorium ( = D. gyrans = Hedysarum gyrans = Codariocalyx motorius), which has intrigued scientists for centuries, is a new type of butterfly or general winged arthropod mimicry by this plant. Such leaflet movement may deceive a passing butterfly searching for an un-occupied site suitable to deposit its eggs, that the plant is already occupied. It may also attract insectivorous birds, reptiles or arthropods to the plant because it looks as if it is harboring a potential prey and while they patrol there, they can find insects or other invertebrates that indeed attack the plant. The possibility that diurnal mammalian herbivores may also be deterred by these movements should not be dismissed. PMID:23603964

Lev-Yadun, Simcha

2013-06-01

393

Torque characteristics of a 122-centimeter butterfly valve with a hydro/pneumatic actuator  

Science.gov (United States)

Actuating torque data from field testing of a 122-centimeter (48 in.) butterfly valve with a hydro/pneumatic actuator is presented. The hydraulic cylinder functions as either a forward or a reverse brake. Its resistance torque increases when the valve speeds up and decreases when the valve slows down. A reduction of flow resistance in the hydraulic flow path from one end of the hydraulic cylinder to the other will effectively reduce the hydraulic resistance torque and hence increase the actuating torque. The sum of hydrodynamic and friction torques (combined resistance torque) of a butterfly valve is a function of valve opening time. An increase in the pneumatic actuating pressure will result in a decrease in both the combined resistance torque and the actuator opening torque; however, it does shorten the valve opening time. As the pneumatic pressure increases, the valve opening time for a given configuration approaches an asymptotical value.

Lin, F. N.; Moore, W. I.; Lundy, F. E.

1981-01-01

394

QCD in magnetic fields: from Hofstadter's butterfly to the phase diagram  

CERN Document Server

I revisit the problem of a charged particle on a two-dimensional lattice immersed in a constant (electro)magnetic field, and discuss the energy spectrum - Hofstadter's butterfly - from a new, quantum field theoretical perspective. In particular, I point out that there is an intricate interplay between a) the structure of the butterfly at low magnetic flux, b) the absence of asymptotic freedom in QED and c) the enhancement of the quark condensate by a magnetic field at zero temperature. I proceed to discuss the response of the QCD condensate to the magnetic field at nonzero temperatures in four space-time dimensions, present the resulting phase diagram and compare it to low-energy model predictions.

Endrodi, G

2014-01-01

395

[Diversity of butterflies in Lianhua Mountain Nature Reserve of Dongguan City, Guangdong Province].  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper dealt with the diversity of butterflies collected from Lianhua Mountain Nature Reserve of Dongguan in April, June, September and December 2001. In this area, there were 50 species butterflies belonging to 9 families, 36 genera. Data analysis showed that the species richness and the highest diversity index were the highest in June, followed by in September, April and December, and the evenness index was the highest in April, then in September, June and December. The dominance index was the highest in December, then in September, June and April. At the level of families, Nymphalidae was the highest in richness, diversity [H'(GS), H'(G)] and evenness, the second was Papilionidae, and then was Hesperiidae. As for individual quantity, Danaidae was the most abundant, and the following were Pieridae and Papilionidea. For diversity index [H'G(S)], Papiliondae was the highest, and the next was Nymphalidae. PMID:15334947

Liu, Guilin; Pang, Hong; Zhou, Changqing; Wen, Ruizhen; Chen, Haidong; Jia, Fenglong; Mo, Zhenqiu

2004-04-01

396

[Butterflies (Lepidoptera, Diurna) in boreal forests of southeastern Russia: 1. Light coniferous forests].  

Science.gov (United States)

Species groups formed in light coniferous forests prevailing in southeastern Russia are considered using the example of butterflies. Problems concerning the formation of species composition and its originality in some insects groups are discussed. A classification analysis of species checklists for twelve local faunas of Transbaikalia and the southern Russian Far East is performed. It is shown that the faunas of areas occupied by light coniferous forests have a common background. PMID:19391481

Martynenko, A B

2009-01-01

397

Impacts of belowground herbivory on oviposition decisions in two congeneric butterfly species  

OpenAIRE

Root-feeding insects can affect the performance of aboveground insect herbivores when they are forced to feed on the same host plant. Here we explored whether the oviposition behaviour of two closely related herbivorous species (cabbage butterflies; Lepidoptera: Pieridae) is influenced by root-feeding insects, when they are given the chance to choose between host plants with and without root herbivores. Considering that egg load is an important physiological factor influencing the foraging be...

Soler, R.; Harvey, J. A.; Rouchet, R.; Schaper, S. V.; Bezemer, T. M.

2010-01-01

398

Variation in Butterfly Larval Acoustics as a Strategy to Infiltrate and Exploit Host Ant Colony Resources  

OpenAIRE

About 10,000 arthropods live as ants' social parasites and have evolved a number of mechanisms allowing them to penetrate and survive inside the ant nests. Many of them can intercept and manipulate their host communication systems. This is particularly important for butterflies of the genus Maculinea, which spend the majority of their lifecycle inside Myrmica ant nests. Once in the colony, caterpillars of Maculinea “predatory species” directly feed on the ant larvae, while those of “cuc...

Sala, Marco; Casacci, Luca Pietro; Balletto, Emilio; Bonelli, Simona; Barbero, Francesca

2014-01-01

399

Trail Marking by Caterpillars of the Silverspot Butterfly Dione Juno Huascuma  

OpenAIRE

A pheromone is implicated in the trail marking behavior of caterpillars of the nymphalid silverspot butterfly, Dione juno huascuma (Reakirt) (Lepidoptera: Heliconiinae) that feed gregariously on Passiflora (Malpighiales: Passifloraceae) vines in Mexico. Although they mark pathways leading from one feeding site to another with silk, this study shows that the silk was neither adequate nor necessary to elicit trail following behavior. Caterpillars marked trails with a long-lived pheromone that w...

Pescador-rubio, Alfonso; Stanford-camargo, Sergio G.; Pa?ez-gerardo, Luis E.; Rami?rez-reyes, Alberto J.; Ibarra-jime?nez, Rene? A.; Fitzgerald, Terrence D.

2011-01-01

400

The plasticity and geography of host use and the diversification of butterflies  

OpenAIRE

Our world is changing rapidly and factors like urbanisation, changed agricultural practices and climate change are causing losses in butterfly diversity. It is therefore of importance to understand the source of their diversity. Given the remarkable diversity of herbivorous insects compared to their non-herbivorous sister groups, changes in host use have been implicated as a promoter of speciation. This thesis looks at geographical aspects of host range evolution and the plasticity of host us...

Slove Davidson, Jessica

2012-01-01

401

Life-history consequenses of host plant choice in the comma butterfly  

OpenAIRE

There is much evidence that herbivory is a key innovation for the tremendous success of insect. In this thesis I have investigated different aspects of host plant utilization and phenotypic plasticity using the polyphagous comma butterfly, Polygonia c-album. Even though external conditions affect a phenotypic plastic response, the outcome is often influenced by a genetic background which may differ among populations. In Paper I we suspected the genetic background to seasonal polymorphism to b...

So?derlind, Lina

2012-01-01

402

Butterfly Catastrophe for Fronts in a Three-Component Reaction-Diffusion System  

Science.gov (United States)

We study the dynamics of front solutions in a three-component reaction-diffusion system via a combination of geometric singular perturbation theory, Evans function analysis, and center manifold reduction. The reduced system exhibits a surprisingly complicated bifurcation structure including a butterfly catastrophe. Our results shed light on numerically observed accelerations and oscillations and pave the way for the analysis of front interactions in a parameter regime where the essential spectrum of a single front approaches the imaginary axis asymptotically.

Chirilus-Bruckner, Martina; Doelman, Arjen; van Heijster, Peter; Rademacher, Jens D. M.

2015-02-01

403

Sculpted-multilayer optical effects in two species of Papilio butterfly  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The wing-scale microstructures associated with two species of Papilio butterfly are described and characterized. Despite close similarities in their structures, they do not exhibit analogous optical effects. With Papilio palinurus, deep modulations in its multilayering create bicolor reflectivity with strong polarization effects, and this leads to additive color mixing in certain visual systems. In contrast to this, Papilio ulysses features shallow multilayer modulation that produces monocolor reflectivity without significant polarization effects

404

Convergent evolution of neuroendocrine control of phenotypic plasticity in pupal colour in butterflies  

OpenAIRE

Phenotypic plasticity in pupal colour occurs in three families of butterflies (the Nymphalidae, Papilionidae and Pieridae), typically in species whose pupation sites vary unpredictably in colour. In all species studied to date, larvae ready for pupation respond to environmental cues associated with the colour of their pupation sites and moult into cryptic light (yellow–green) or dark (brown–black) pupae. In nymphalids and pierids, pupal colour is controlled by a neuroendocrine factor, pup...

Starnecker, G.; Hazel, W.

1999-01-01

405

Population dynamic of the swallowtail butterfly, Papilio polytes (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) in dry and wet seasons  

OpenAIRE

Suwarno (2010) Population dynamic of the swallowtail butterfly, Papilio polytes (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) in dry and wet seasons. Biodiversitas 11: 19-23. The population dynamic of Papilio polytes L. (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) in dry and wet seasons was investigated in the citrus orchard in Tasek Gelugor, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia. Population of immature stages of P. polytes was observed alternate day from January to March 2006 (dry season, DS), from April to July 2006 (secondary wet season, ...

SUWARNO

2010-01-01

406

Pigmentation pattern formation in butterfly wings: Global patterns on fore- and hindwing  

OpenAIRE

Pigmentation patterns in butterfly wings are one of the most spectacular and vivid examples of pattern formation in biology. In this chapter, we devote our attention to the mechanisms for generating global patterns. We focus on the relationship between pattern forming mechanisms for the fore- and hindwing patterns. Through mathematical modeling and computational analysis of Papilio dardanus and polytes, our results indicate that the patterns formed on the forewing need not correlate to those ...

Sekimura, T.; Madzvamuse, A.; Maini, Pk

2007-01-01

407

A model for population dynamics of the mimetic butterfly Papilio polytes in the Sakishima Islands, Japan.  

Science.gov (United States)

We present a mathematical model for population dynamics of the mimetic swallowtail butterfly Papilio polytes in the Sakishima Islands, Japan. The model includes four major variables, that is, population densities of three kinds of butterflies (two female forms f. cyrus, f. polytes and the unpalatable butterfly Pachliopta aristolochiae) and their predator. It is well-known that the non-mimic f. cyrus resembles and attracts the male most, and the mimic f. polytes mimics the model butterfly P. aristolochiae. Based on experimental evidence, we assume that two forms f. cyrus and f. polytes interact under intraspecific competition for resources including the male, and the growth rate of f. cyrus is higher than that of f. polytes. We further assume that both the benefit of mimicry for the mimic f. polytes and the cost for the model are dependent on their relative frequencies, i.e. the motality of the mimic by predation decreases with increase in frequency of the model, while the motality of the model increases as the frequency of the mimic increases. Taking the density-dependent effect through carrying capacity into account, we set up a model system consisting of three ordinary differential equations (ODEs), analyze it mathematically and provide computer simulations that confirm the analytical results. Our results reproduce field records on population dynamics of P. polytes in the Miyako-jima Island. They also explain the positive dependence of the relative abundance (RA) of the mimic on the advantage index (AI) of the mimicry in the Sakishima Islands defined in Section 2. PMID:25036440

Sekimura, Toshio; Fujihashi, Yuta; Takeuchi, Yasuhiro

2014-11-21

408

Tetrachromacy in a butterfly that has eight varieties of spectral receptors  

OpenAIRE

This paper presents the first evidence of tetrachromacy among invertebrates. The Japanese yellow swallowtail butterfly, Papilio xuthus, uses colour vision when foraging. The retina of Papilio is furnished with eight varieties of spectral receptors of six classes that are the ultraviolet (UV), violet, blue (narrow-band and wide-band), green (single-peaked and double-peaked), red and broad-band classes. We investigated whether all of the spectral receptors are involved in colour vision by measu...

Koshitaka, Hisaharu; Kinoshita, Michiyo; Vorobyev, Misha; Arikawa, Kentaro

2008-01-01

409

Behavioral Batesian mimicry involving intraspecific polymorphism in the butterfly Papilio polytes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Batesian mimics gain protection from predation by their similarity to distasteful models. In butterflies, it has been thought that distasteful species and Batesian mimics fly slowly and in a straight line, but few studies have demonstrated their behavioral similarity, and no studies have been conducted on behavioral mimicry Involving Batesian intraspecific polymorphism. Here, we compared the wing stroke among various butterflies: palatable non-mimetic Papilio xuthus, unpalatable Pachliopta aristolochiae, and palatable polymorphic Papilio polytes (cyrus form, non-mimetic females; polytes form, Batesian mimetic females) to clarify whether the wing stroke of unpalatable butterflies is different from that of palatable species, whether that of the non-mimetic females of Pap. polytes is different from the mimetic females, and whether that of the mimetic females resembles that of the model. We found that the minimum positional angle (phi(min)) of Pach. aristolochiae and mimetic females of Pap. polytes was significantly larger than that of Pap. xuthus and non-mimetic females. We did not detect significant differences between that of Pach. aristolochiae and mimetic females of Pap. polytes. These results show that phi(min) differed between the mimicry group and palatable butterflies. In addition, the wingbeat frequency (WBF) of Pach. aristolochiae and mimetic females tended to differ from that of Pap. xuthus and non-mimetic females. This result suggests that there may be convergence of WBF in Batesian mimicry groups, as in the case of Müllerian mimicry groups, and serves as the first evidence of behavioral mimicry in Batesian intraspecific polymorphism. PMID:20192689

Kitamura, Tasuku; Imafuku, Michio

2010-03-01

410

Photoreceptor spectral sensitivities of the Small White butterfly Pieris rapae crucivora interpreted with optical modeling  

OpenAIRE

The compound eye of the Small White butterfly, Pieris rapae crucivora, has four classes of visual pigments, with peak absorption in the ultraviolet, violet, blue and green, but electrophysiological recordings yielded eight photoreceptors classes: an ultraviolet, violet, blue, double-peaked blue, green, blue-suppressed-green, pale-red and deep-red class. These photoreceptor classes were identified in three types of ommatidia, distinguishable by the different eye shine spectra and fluorescence;...

Stavenga, Doekele G.; Arikawa, Kentaro

2011-01-01

411

An expanded set of photoreceptors in the Eastern Pale Clouded Yellow butterfly, Colias erate  

OpenAIRE

We studied the spectral and polarisation sensitivities of photoreceptors of the butterfly Colias erate by using intracellular electrophysiological recordings and stimulation with light pulses. We developed a method of response waveform comparison (RWC) for evaluating the effective intensity of the light pulses. We identified one UV, four violet-blue, two green and two red photoreceptor classes. We estimated the peak wavelengths of four rhodopsins to be at about 360, 420, 460 and 560 nm. The ...

Pirih, Primoz?; Arikawa, Kentaro; Stavenga, Doekele G.

2010-01-01

412

Pervasive genetic associations between traits causing reproductive isolation in Heliconius butterflies  

OpenAIRE

Ecological speciation proceeds through the accumulation of divergent traits that contribute to reproductive isolation, but in the face of gene flow traits that characterize incipient species may become disassociated through recombination. Heliconius butterflies are well known for bright mimetic warning patterns that are also used in mate recognition and cause both pre- and post-mating isolation between divergent taxa. Sympatric sister taxa representing the final stages of speciation, such as ...

Merrill, Richard M.; Schooten, Bas; Scott, Janet A.; Jiggins, Chris D.

2011-01-01

413

Genetic analysis of a wild-caught hybrid between non-sister Heliconius butterfly species  

OpenAIRE

Interspecific hybridization occurs regularly in wild Heliconius butterflies, although hybrid individuals are usually very rare. However, hybridization generally occurs only between the most closely related species. We report a rare naturally occurring hybrid between non-sister species and carry out the first genetic analysis of such distant hybridization. Mitochondrial and nuclear genes indicate that the specimen is an F-1 hybrid between a female Heliconius ethilla and a male Heliconius melpo...

Dasmahapatra, K. K.; Silva-vasquez, A.; Chung, J. W.; Mallet, J.

2007-01-01

414

Butterflies from the Uberlândia region, Central Brazil: species list and biological comments  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A total of 251 butterfly species were recorded in Uberlândia region, with collecting concentrated mainly in forest areas. Aspects of geographic distribution of some Ithomiinae, as well as interactions of both adults and immatures with plants, and reproduction periods for the more abundant species are discussed. Collections in open, riverside, and wetland areas, as well as the use of bait, should substantially increase the number of species.

MOTTA P. C.

2002-01-01

415

Is male puddling behaviour of tropical butterflies targeted at sodium for nuptial gifts or activity?  

OpenAIRE

An apparent sexual difference in adult feeding behaviour in many species of Lepidoptera relates to puddling on mud, dung and carrion. In most butterfly species, puddling is exclusively a male behaviour. A possible explanation for this division in feeding behaviour is that nutrients derived from puddling are transferred to the female in the spermatophore during mating as a nuptial gift. Sodium derived from puddling has been shown to act as a nuptial gift in a few Lepidoptera species. It can al...

Molleman, F.; Grunsven, R. H. A.; Liefting, M.; Zwaan, B. J.; Brakefield, P. M.

2005-01-01

416

Toward reconstructing the evolution of advanced moths and butterflies (Lepidoptera: Ditrysia): an initial molecular study  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background In the mega-diverse insect order Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths; 165,000 described species), deeper relationships are little understood within the clade Ditrysia, to which 98% of the species belong. To begin addressing this problem, we tested the ability of five protein-coding nuclear genes (6.7 kb total), and character subsets therein, to resolve relationships among 123 species representing 27 (of 33) superfamilies and 55 (of 100) families of Ditrysia...

Hausmann Axel; Hallwachs Winifred; Epstein Marc; Davis Donald R; Parr Cynthia; Brown John W; Baixeras Joaquin; Roe Amanda; Weller Susan; Cho Soowon; Kawahara Akito Y; Cummings Michael P; Zwick Andreas; Regier Jerome C; Janzen Daniel H

2009-01-01

417

The Studies on Diurnal Butterflies (Lepidoptera: Rhopalocera in Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University Terzio?lu Campus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to determine lepidopteran species on Terzio?lu Campus during March 2005–April 2007. We surveyed Rhopalocera butterflies in Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Terzio?lu Campus, in Çanakkale, Turkey. In this study, total of 44 species belonging to to Papilionidae (4, Nymphalidae (23, Pieridae (8, Lycaenidae (4 and Hesperiidae (5, were identified. The most abundant species throughout the campus are Pieris brassicae, P. rapae, P. napi, Colias crocea, Iphiclides podalirius, and Melanargia larissa.

D. Zobar

2008-09-01

418

Identification of Butterfly (Lepidoptera; Rhopalocera) Fauna of Gokçeada and Bozcaada, Turkey  

OpenAIRE

This study was carried out to determine the butterflies of Gökçeada and Bozcaada in Turkey. As a result, a total of 61 Lepidoptera species in the two islands was recorded. Of these, species 45 were found in Gökçeada and 16 species were found in Bozcaada. Additionally, it was appeared that 13 species for Gökçeada and all of the 16 species for Bozcaada were the first records.

Okyar, Z.; Aktac, N.

2006-01-01

419

Comprehensive gene and taxon coverage elucidates radiation patterns in moths and butterflies  

OpenAIRE

Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths) represent one of the most diverse animals groups. Yet, the phylogeny of advanced ditrysian Lepidoptera, accounting for about 99 per cent of lepidopteran species, has remained largely unresolved. We report a rigorous and comprehensive analysis of lepidopteran affinities. We performed phylogenetic analyses of 350 taxa representing nearly 90 per cent of lepidopteran families. We found Ditrysia to be a monophyletic taxon with the clade Tischerioidea + Palaephat...

Mutanen, Marko; Wahlberg, Niklas; Kaila, Lauri

2010-01-01

420

Butterflies (Lepidoptera, Papilionoidea and Hesperioidea of the "Baixada Santista" region, coastal São Paulo, southeastern Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Butterflies (Lepidoptera, Papilionoidea and Hesperioidea of the "Baixada Santista" region, coastal São Paulo, southeastern Brazil. A list with 538 species of butterflies recorded in the Baixada Santista, São Paulo ( SE Brazil is presented. Standard sampling protocols (i.e. with entomological nets were followed. Baited traps were installed for fruit feeding species. Data from the literature and entomological collections were also considered in the total estimated species richness. The species richness recorded in the Baixada Santista region represents about 16% of the Brazilian butterfly fauna, and 34% of the known butterfly fauna for the state of São Paulo. The present list contains an appreciably higher number of species in comparison to other lists from similar biomes farther south, such as Blumenau in Santa Catarina, and Maquiné in Rio Grande do Sul.Borboletas (Lepidoptera, Papilionoidea e Hesperioidea da região da Baixada Santista, litoral de São Paulo (SE Brasil. Uma lista com 538 espécies de borboletas registradas na Baixada Santista é apresentada. Foram seguidos os protocolos amostrais padronizados (i.e. redes entomológicas. Armadilhas com iscas foram instaladas para coleta de espécies frugívoras. Dados de literatura e coleções entomológicas também foram considerados nas estimativas de riqueza de espécies. A riqueza de espécies registrada na Baixada Santista representa cerca de 16% da fauna de borboletas do Brasil, e 34% da fauna de borboletas do Estado de São Paulo. A presente lista contém um número consideravelmente alto de espécies em comparação com outras listas de biomas similares mais ao sul, como Blumenau em Santa Catarina, e Maquiné no Rio Grande do Sul.

Ronaldo Bastos Francini

2011-03-01

421

Butterfly proboscis: combining a drinking straw with a nanosponge facilitated diversification of feeding habits  

OpenAIRE

The ability of Lepidoptera, or butterflies and moths, to drink liquids from rotting fruit and wet soil, as well as nectar from floral tubes, raises the question of whether the conventional view of the proboscis as a drinking straw can account for the withdrawal of fluids from porous substrates or of films and droplets from floral tubes. We discovered that the proboscis promotes capillary pull of liquids from diverse sources owing to a hierarchical pore structure spanning nano- and microscales...

Monaenkova, Daria; Lehnert, Matthew S.; Andrukh, Taras; Beard, Charles E.; Rubin, Binyamin; Tokarev, Alexander; Lee, Wah-keat; Adler, Peter H.; Kornev, Konstantin G.

2011-01-01

422

Ultrastructure of antennal sensilla of four skipper butterflies in Parnara sp. and Pelopidas sp. (Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae)  

OpenAIRE

Most species of Parnara and Pelopidas (Hesperiidae) are important pests of rice. In this study, the antennal morphology, types of sensilla, and their distribution of four skipper butterflies, including Parnara guttata (Bremer & Grey), Pa. bada (Moore), Pelopidas mathias (Fabricius) and Pe. agna (Moore), were observed using a scanning electron microscope. Six distinct morphological types of sensilla were found on the antennae of all of these species: sensilla squamiformia, sensilla trichodea, ...

Xiangqun, Yuan; Ke, Gao; Feng, Yuan; Yalin, Zhang

2014-01-01

423

The butterflies of Turquino National Park, Sierra Maestra, Cuba (Lepidoptera, Papilionoidea)  

OpenAIRE

Between February and November 2011, we conducted a species inventory, created a natural history database and a made a first approach to the composition and structure of the butterfly communities present at several vegetation types in the Turquino National Park. The inventory included 83 species, 29 of them endemic. We recorded 57 species (18 endemic) in transects along main vegetation pathways. In disturbed vegetation, species richness was higher (48) and abundance was better distributed, but...

Nu?n?ez, R.

2012-01-01

424

The Studies on Diurnal Butterflies (Lepidoptera: Rhopalocera) in Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University Terzio?lu Campus  

OpenAIRE

The purpose of the study is to determine lepidopteran species on Terzio?lu Campus during March 2005–April 2007. We surveyed Rhopalocera butterflies in Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Terzio?lu Campus, in Çanakkale, Turkey. In this study, total of 44 species belonging to to Papilionidae (4), Nymphalidae (23), Pieridae (8), Lycaenidae (4) and Hesperiidae (5), were identified. The most abundant species throughout the campus are Pieris brassicae, P. rapae, P. napi, Colias crocea, Iphicli...

Zobar, D.; Genc, H.

2008-01-01

425

Feeding responses by female Pieris brassicae butterflies to carbohydrates and amino acids  

OpenAIRE

Most Lepidoptera feed during the adult stage on carbohydrate-rich food sources, primarily floral nectar. However, little is known about the factors leading to the acceptance of a possible food source. It is reported that butterflies select for nectar rich in sucrose and amino acids. This suggests that the insects have developed a sensitivity to these nectar compounds. We tested females of the large cabbage white, Pieris brassicae L. (Lepidoptera: Pieridae) for their responses to 10 different ...

Romeis, J.; Wa?ckers, F. L.

2000-01-01

426

Nonadditivity of quantum capacities of quantum multiple-access channels and the butterfly network  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Multipartite quantum information transmission without additional classical resources is investigated. We show purely quantum superadditivity of quantum capacity regions of quantum memoryless multiple-access (MA) channels, which are not entanglement breaking. Also, we find that the superadditivity holds when the MA channel extends to the quantum butterfly network, which can achieve quantum network coding. The present widespread effects for the channels which enable entanglement distribution have not been revealed for multipartite scenarios.

Huang Peng; He Guangqiang; Zhu Jun; Zeng Guihua, E-mail: peakeagle1985@hotmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Optical Communication Systems and Networks, Department of Electronic Engineering, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

2011-10-15

427

A 3D Strange Attractor with a Distinctive Silhouette. The Butterfly Effect Revisited  

OpenAIRE

We propose firstly an autonomous system of three first order differential equations which has two nonlinear terms and generating a new and distinctive strange attractor. Furthermore, this new 3D chaotic system performs a new feature of the Sensitive Dependency on Initial Conditions (SDIC) popularized as the Butterfly Effect discovered by Lorenz (1963). We noticed that the variation of the Initial Conditions for our system leads not only to different attractors but also to a ...

Bouali, Safieddine

2013-01-01

428

Effect Analysis of Design Variables on the Disc in a Double-Eccentric Butterfly Valve  

OpenAIRE

We have performed a shape optimization of the disc in an industrial double-eccentric butterfly valve using the effect analysis of design variables to enhance the valve performance. For the optimization, we select three performance quantities such as pressure drop, maximum stress, and mass (weight) as the responses and three dimensions regarding the disc shape as the design variables. Subsequently, we compose a layout of orthogonal array (L16) by performing numerical simulations on the flow an...

Sangmo Kang; Da-Eun Kim; Kuk-Kyeom Kim; Jun-Oh Kim

2014-01-01

429

The Redder the Better: Wing Color Predicts Flight Performance in Monarch Butterflies  

OpenAIRE

The distinctive orange and black wings of monarchs (Danaus plexippus) have long been known to advertise their bitter taste and toxicity to potential predators. Recent work also showed that both the orange and black coloration of this species can vary in response to individual-level and environmental factors. Here we examine the relationship between wing color and flight performance in captive-reared monarchs using a tethered flight mill apparatus to quantify butterfly flight speed, duration a...

Davis, Andrew K.; Chi, Jean; Bradley, Catherine; Altizer, Sonia

2012-01-01

430

Multiple recent co-options of Optix associated with novel traits in adaptive butterfly wing radiations  

Science.gov (United States)

Background While the ecological factors that drive phenotypic radiations are often well understood, less is known about the generative mechanisms that cause the emergence and subsequent diversification of novel features. Heliconius butterflies display an extraordinary diversity of wing patterns due in part to mimicry and sexual selection. Identifying the genetic drivers of this crucible of evolution is now within reach, as it was recently shown that cis-regulatory variation of the optix transcription factor explains red pattern differences in the adaptive radiations of the Heliconius melpomene and Heliconius erato species groups. Results Here, we compare the developmental expression of the Optix protein across a large phylogenetic sample of butterflies and infer that its color patterning role originated at the base of the neotropical passion-vine butterfly clade (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Tribe: Heliconiini), shortly predating multiple Optix-driven wing pattern radiations in the speciose Heliconius and Eueides genera. We also characterize novel Optix and Doublesex expression in the male-specific pheromone wing scales of the basal heliconiines Dryas and Agraulis, thus illustrating that within the Heliconinii lineage, Optix has been evolutionarily redeployed in multiple contexts in association with diverse wing features. Conclusions Our findings reveal that the repeated co-option of Optix into various aspects of wing scale specification was associated with multiple evolutionary novelties over a relatively short evolutionary time scale. In particular, the recruitment of Optix expression in colored scale cell precursors was a necessary condition to the explosive diversification of passion-vine butterfly wing patterns. The novel deployment of a gene followed by spatial modulation of its expression in a given cell type could be a common mode of developmental innovation for triggering phenotypic radiations. PMID:24499528

2014-01-01

431

Brain composition in Godyris zavaleta, a diurnal butterfly, Reflects an increased reliance on olfactory information.  

Science.gov (United States)

Interspecific comparisons of brain structure can inform our functional understanding of brain regions, identify adaptations to species-specific ecologies, and explore what constrains adaptive changes in brain structure, and coevolution between functionally related structures. The value of such comparisons is enhanced when the species considered have known ecological differences. The Lepidoptera have long been a favored model in evolutionary biology, but to date descriptions of brain anatomy have largely focused on a few commonly used neurobiological model species. We describe the brain of Godyris zavaleta (Ithomiinae), a member of a subfamily of Neotropical butterflies with enhanced reliance on olfactory information. We demonstrate for the first time the presence of sexually dimorphic glomeruli within a distinct macroglomerular complex (MGC) in the antennal lobe of a diurnal butterfly. This presents a striking convergence with the well-known moth MGC, prompting a discussion of the potential mechanisms behind the independent evolution of specialized glomeruli. Interspecific analyses across four Lepidoptera further show that the relative size of sensory neuropils closely mirror interspecific variation in sensory ecology, with G. zavaleta displaying levels of sensory investment intermediate between the diurnal monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus), which invests heavily in visual neuropil, and night-flying moths, which invest more in olfactory neuropil. We identify several traits that distinguish butterflies from moths, and several that distinguish D. plexippus and G. zavaleta. Our results illustrate that ecological selection pressures mold the structure of invertebrate brains, and exemplify how comparative analyses across ecologically divergent species can illuminate the functional significance of variation in brain structure. J. Comp. Neurol. 523:869-891, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25400217

Montgomery, Stephen H; Ott, Swidbert R

2015-04-15

432

Phenotypic plasticity in opsin expression in a butterfly compound eye complements sex role reversal  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Animals often display phenotypic plasticity in morphologies and behaviors that result in distinct adaptations to fluctuating seasonal environments. The butterfly Bicyclus anynana has two seasonal forms, wet and dry, that vary in wing ornament brightness and in the identity of the sex that performs the most courting and choosing. Rearing temperature is the cue for producing these alternative seasonal forms. We hypothesized that, barring any develop...

Everett Andrew; Tong Xiaoling; Briscoe Adriana D; Monteiro Antónia

2012-01-01

433

The coming and going of Batesian mimicry in a Holarctic butterfly clade  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract A study using phylogenetic hypothesis testing, published in BMC Evolutionary Biology, suggests that non-mimetic forms of the North American white admiral butterfly evolved from a mimetic ancestor. This case might provide one of the first examples in which mimicry was gained and then lost again, emphasizing the evolutionary lability of Batesian mimicry. See research article http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/10/239

Fiedler Konrad

2010-09-01

434

The coming and going of Batesian mimicry in a Holarctic butterfly clade  

OpenAIRE

Abstract A study using phylogenetic hypothesis testing, published in BMC Evolutionary Biology, suggests that non-mimetic forms of the North American white admiral butterfly evolved from a mimetic ancestor. This case might provide one of the first examples in which mimicry was gained and then lost again, emphasizing the evolutionary lability of Batesian mimicry. See research article http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/10/239

Fiedler Konrad

2010-01-01

435

Identification of Butterfly (Lepidoptera; Rhopalocera Fauna of Gokçeada and Bozcaada, Turkey  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the butterflies of Gökçeada and Bozcaada in Turkey. As a result, a total of 61 Lepidoptera species in the two islands was recorded. Of these, species 45 were found in Gökçeada and 16 species were found in Bozcaada. Additionally, it was appeared that 13 species for Gökçeada and all of the 16 species for Bozcaada were the first records.

Z. Okyar

2006-01-01

436

Nonadditivity of quantum capacities of quantum multiple-access channels and the butterfly network  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Multipartite quantum information transmission without additional classical resources is investigated. We show purely quantum superadditivity of quantum capacity regions of quantum memoryless multiple-access (MA) channels, which are not entanglement breaking. Also, we find that the superadditivity holds when the MA channel extends to the quantum butterfly network, which can achieve quantum network coding. The present widespread effects for the channels which enable entanglement distribution have not been revealed for multipartite scenarios.

437

Wnt signaling underlies evolution and development of the butterfly wing pattern symmetry systems.  

Science.gov (United States)

Most butterfly wing patterns are proposed to be derived from a set of conserved pattern elements known as symmetry systems. Symmetry systems are so-named because they are often associated with parallel color stripes mirrored around linear organizing centers that run between the anterior and posterior wing margins. Even though the symmetry systems are the most prominent and diverse wing pattern elements, their study has been confounded by a lack of knowledge regarding the molecular basis of their development, as well as the difficulty of drawing pattern homologies across species with highly derived wing patterns. Here we present the first molecular characterization of symmetry system development by showing that WntA expression is consistently associated with the major basal, discal, central, and external symmetry system patterns of nymphalid butterflies. Pharmacological manipulations of signaling gradients using heparin and dextran sulfate showed that pattern organizing centers correspond precisely with WntA, wingless, Wnt6, and Wnt10 expression patterns, thus suggesting a role for Wnt signaling in color pattern induction. Importantly, this model is supported by recent genetic and population genomic work identifying WntA as the causative locus underlying wing pattern variation within several butterfly species. By comparing the expression of WntA between nymphalid butterflies representing a range of prototypical symmetry systems, slightly deviated symmetry systems, and highly derived wing patterns, we were able to infer symmetry system homologies in several challenging cases. Our work illustrates how highly divergent morphologies can be derived from modifications to a common ground plan across both micro- and macro-evolutionary time scales. PMID:25196151

Martin, Arnaud; Reed, Robert D

2014-11-15

438

The butterfly fragment in comminuted femoral shaft fracture may be movable following intramedullary nail treatment.  

Science.gov (United States)

The gap among fracture fragments is an important factor which influences the healing of bone fracture, and it may be changeable during the early phase of bone healing. In this letter, we pointed out our view that the gap between the butterfly fragment, and the shaft in femoral shaft fractures can easily be changed, so it is hard to study the potential correlation between the size of the gap and fracture healing. PMID:25047334

Wang, Qikui; Zhou, Junlin

2014-12-01

439

Directional selection on cold tolerance does not constrain plastic capacity in a butterfly  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Organisms may respond to environmental change by means of genetic adaptation, phenotypic plasticity or both, which may result in genotype-environment interactions (G x E) if genotypes differ in their phenotypic response. We here specifically target the latter source of variation (i.e. G x E) by comparing plastic responses among lines of the tropical butterfly Bicyclus anynana that had been selected for increased cold tolerance and according contro...

Franke Kristin; Dierks Anneke; Fischer Klaus

2012-01-01

440

Light-Induced Hofstadter's Butterfly Spectrum of Ultracold Atoms on the Two-Dimensional Kagomé Lattice  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We investigate the energy spectrum of ultracold atoms on the two-dimensional Kagomé optical lattice under an effective magnetic field, which can be realized with laser beams. We derive the generalized Harper's equations from the Schrödinger equation. The energy spectrum with a fractal band structure is obtained by numerically solving the generalized Harper's equations. We analyze the properties of the Hofstadter's butterfly spectrum and discuss its observability

441

Linkage of butterfly mate preference and wing color preference cue at the genomic location of wingless  

OpenAIRE

Sexual isolation is a critical form of reproductive isolation in the early stages of animal speciation, yet little is known about the genetic basis of divergent mate preferences and preference cues in young species. Heliconius butterflies, well known for their diversity of wing color patterns, mate assortatively as a result of divergence in male preference for wing patterns. Here we show that the specific cue used by Heliconius cydno and Heliconius pachinus males to recognize conspecific fema...

Kronforst, Marcus R.; Young, Laura G.; Kapan, Durrell D.; Mcneely, Camille; O Neill, Rachel J.; Gilbert, Lawrence E.

2006-01-01

442

Hydro-acoustic excitation at low frequencies of industrial pipe systems by cavitating butterfly valves  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cavitating valves induce important vibrations at low frequencies in pipe systems. In this note a model is developed in order to characterize the hydro-acoustic behavior of the cavitating valves. This model is based on the transfer matrix theory. This theory can be deduced from the linearization of the Navier-Stokes equations. The experimental identification and validation of the model is made by testing a cavitating butterfly valve. (author). 5 figs., 7 refs

443

Revisiting the Andean butterfly Eryphanis zolvizora group (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae): one or several species?  

OpenAIRE

Eryphanis zolvizora (Hewitson, 1877) is a rare Andean endemic butterfly, described from Bolivia, which has been historically classified either as a unique species, or as part of a group of three allopatric species from Bolivia, Ecuador and Colombia. In this paper, the group is revised using more than 200 specimens housed in 34 European, and North and South American public and private collections. For the first time, the presence of the group in Western Ecuador and Venezuela is confir...

Patrick Blandin; Roger Bristow; Andrew Neild; Juan Carlos de Sousa; Yuvinka Gareca; Blanca Huertas

2014-01-01

444

Latitudinal Body Size Clines in the Butterfly Polyommatus icarus are Shaped by Gene-Environment Interactions  

OpenAIRE

The study of latitudinal body size clines can illuminate processes of local adaptation, but there is a need for an increased understanding of the relative roles of genetic variation, environmental effectstions or this reason, we combined an investigation of a museum collection of the common blue butterfly Polyommatus icarus (Rottemburg) (Lycaenidae: Polyommatini) from Sweden with a common-garden experiment in the laboratory, using strains reared from individuals collected from three different...

Nygren, Georg H.; Bergstro?m, Anders; Nylin, So?ren

2008-01-01

445

Landform resources for territorial nettle-feeding Nymphalid butterflies: biases at different spatial scales  

OpenAIRE

Observations of perch sites for three territorial nymphalid butterflies reveals a bias in landform use at two spatial scales: at macro-scale, sunlit wood edges at the top of slopes; at micro-scale, molehills and bare ground compared to vegetation substrates. There is a hierarchy in landform exploitation; slope and edge position outweighsmicro-landform feature use. Landforms for territories tend to be prominent landmarks. This is especially the case at macro-scale (e.g., wood edges and corners...

Dennis, R. H.

2004-01-01

446

Impact of Bt corn pollen on monarch butterfly populations: A risk assessment  

OpenAIRE

A collaborative research effort by scientists in several states and in Canada has produced information to develop a formal risk assessment of the impact of Bt corn on monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) populations. Information was sought on the acute toxic effects of Bt corn pollen and the degree to which monarch larvae would be exposed to toxic amounts of Bt pollen on its host plant, the common milkweed, Asclepias syriaca, found in and around cornfields. Expression of Cry proteins, the act...

Sears, Mark K.; Hellmich, Richard L.; Stanley-horn, Diane E.; Oberhauser, Karen S.; Pleasants, John M.; Mattila, Heather R.; Siegfried, Blair D.; Dively, Galen P.

2001-01-01

447

Does Tropical Forest Fragmentation Increase Long-Term Variability of Butterfly Communities?  

OpenAIRE

Habitat fragmentation is a major driver of biodiversity loss. Yet, the overall effects of fragmentation on biodiversity may be obscured by differences in responses among species. These opposing responses to fragmentation may be manifest in higher variability in species richness and abundance (termed hyperdynamism), and in predictable changes in community composition. We tested whether forest fragmentation causes long-term hyperdynamism in butterfly communities, a taxon that naturally displays...

Leidner, Allison K.; Haddad, Nick M.; Lovejoy, Thomas E.

2010-01-01

448

The sand grain and the butterfly. Instability in geodesy and geophysics  

OpenAIRE

The problems of convergence of series in celestial mechanics and of certain series in geodesy (Molodensky's series and spherical harmonics) show similar features, involving a curious instability. This is imaginatively expressed as the « butterfly effect» in chaos theory and the «sand-grain effect» for spherical harmonics. Similarly, the geodetic boundary-value problem (M.S. Molodensky, L. Hormander) and the KAM problem in nonlinear dynamics have a common mathematical structure: a «hard»...

Moritz, H.

1997-01-01

449

Microscopic and ultrastructural characteristics of Kudoa infection in a butterfly fish (Chaetodon).  

Science.gov (United States)

Myxosporidiosis of the skeletal muscle was diagnosed in a pearl scale butterfly fish (Chaetodon). On the basis of light and electron microscopy, the infectious agent was thought to be a Kudoa. The muscle had fusiform cysts containing myxosporidian organisms within hypertrophied fibers. Ultrastructural features of the kudoa organisms were four external shell valves joined by sutural planes. Internally, four pyriform polar capsules with polar filaments were anterior to the sporoplasm. PMID:415403

Voelker, F A; Kassel, S H; Weinberg, H D; McKee, A E

1978-01-01

450

Noise caused by cavitating Butterfly and Monovar Valves. Effects of cavitation on acoustic sources; numerical simulation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An experimental study of the effects of cavitation was carried out through an analysis of cavitating Butterfly and Monovar valves. For each variation case, the nature of the dominant source is determined in relation to frequency. Once the parameters of the cavitation zone are identified, a three-zone model is used in order to pinpoint the acoustic sources with cavitation. In order to determine acoustic sources, we present a numerical simulation using a bubbles population. (authors)

451

Monitoring change in the abundance and distribution of insects using butterflies and other indicator groups  

OpenAIRE

Conservative estimates suggest that 50–90% of the existing insect species on Earth have still to be discovered, yet the named insects alone comprise more than half of all known species of organism. With such poor baseline knowledge, monitoring change in insect diversity poses a formidable challenge to scientists and most attempts to generalize involve large extrapolations from a few well-studied taxa. Butterflies are often the only group for which accurate measures of change can be obtained...

Thomas, J. A.

2005-01-01

452

Light on the moth-eye corneal nipple array of butterflies  

OpenAIRE

The outer surface of the facet lenses in the compound eyes of moths consists of an array of excessive cuticular protuberances, termed corneal nipples. We have investigated the moth-eye corneal nipple array of the facet lenses of 19 diurnal butterfly species by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscope, as well as by optical modelling. The nipples appeared to be arranged in domains with almost crystalline, hexagonal packing. The nipple distances...

Stavenga, D. G.; Foletti, S.; Palasantzas, G.; Arikawa, K.

2005-01-01

453

Color vision in Lycaena butterflies: spectral tuning of receptor arrays in relation to behavioral ecology.  

OpenAIRE

Males of two closely related, co-occurring species of Lycaena butterflies have dorsally blue (Lycaena heteronea) or red-orange plus ultraviolet (Lycaena rubidus) wings. Males are selectively territorial against conspecific males. Virgin females accept only conspecific males, probably chosen by wing color. Females are nonterritorial and spend most of their adult activity ovipositing on the correct larval food plants. Eyes of both species contain four spectral types of visual pigments (P360, P4...

Bernard, G. D.; Remington, C. L.

1991-01-01

454

Butterflies (Lepidoptera, Papilionoidea and Hesperioidea) of the "Baixada Santista" region, coastal São Paulo, southeastern Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Borboletas (Lepidoptera, Papilionoidea e Hesperioidea) da região da Baixada Santista, litoral de São Paulo (SE Brasil). Uma lista com 538 espécies de borboletas registradas na Baixada Santista é apresentada. Foram seguidos os protocolos amostrais padronizados (i.e. redes entomológicas). Armadilhas c [...] om iscas foram instaladas para coleta de espécies frugívoras. Dados de literatura e coleções entomológicas também foram considerados nas estimativas de riqueza de espécies. A riqueza de espécies registrada na Baixada Santista representa cerca de 16% da fauna de borboletas do Brasil, e 34% da fauna de borboletas do Estado de São Paulo. A presente lista contém um número consideravelmente alto de espécies em comparação com outras listas de biomas similares mais ao sul, como Blumenau em Santa Catarina, e Maquiné no Rio Grande do Sul. Abstract in english Butterflies (Lepidoptera, Papilionoidea and Hesperioidea) of the "Baixada Santista" region, coastal São Paulo, southeastern Brazil. A list with 538 species of butterflies recorded in the Baixada Santista, São Paulo ( SE Brazil) is presented. Standard sampling protocols (i.e. with entomological nets) [...] were followed. Baited traps were installed for fruit feeding species. Data from the literature and entomological collections were also considered in the total estimated species richness. The species richness recorded in the Baixada Santista region represents about 16% of the Brazilian butterfly fauna, and 34% of the known butterfly fauna for the state of São Paulo. The present list contains an appreciably higher number of species in comparison to other lists from similar biomes farther south, such as Blumenau in Santa Catarina, and Maquiné in Rio Grande do Sul.

Ronaldo Bastos, Francini; Marcelo, Duarte; Olaf Hermann Hendrik, Mielke; Astrid, Caldas; André Victor Lucci, Freitas.

2011-03-01

455

The biological impacts of the Fukushima nuclear accident on the pale grass blue butterfly  

OpenAIRE

The collapse of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant caused a massive release of radioactive materials to the environment. A prompt and reliable system for evaluating the biological impacts of this accident on animals has not been available. Here we show that the accident caused physiological and genetic damage to the pale grass blue Zizeeria maha, a common lycaenid butterfly in Japan. We collected the first-voltine adults in the Fukushima area in May 2011, some of which showed relative...

Hiyama, Atsuki; Nohara, Chiyo; Kinjo, Seira; Taira, Wataru; Gima, Shinichi; Tanahara, Akira; Otaki, Joji M.

2012-01-01

456

Monitoring of the eggs of the Karkloof blue butterfly, Orachrysops ariadne, for its conservation management  

OpenAIRE

The Endangered Orachrysops ariadne (Butler 1898) (Karkloof blue butterfly) is endemic to the Endangered Moist Midlands Grassland in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, and is extant at four sites. The results from the monitoring of the eggs laid by O. ariadne in a grassland area that is frequently burnt by poor rural people to ensure that palatable grass is available to their livestock, suggested the implementation of management interventions (fencing and firebreak burning) to prevent the local exti...

Armstrong, Adrian J.; Louw, Sharon L.

2013-01-01

457

Diversification of complex butterfly wing patterns by repeated regulatory evolution of a Wnt ligand  

OpenAIRE

Although animals display a rich variety of shapes and patterns, the genetic changes that explain how complex forms arise are still unclear. Here we take advantage of the extensive diversity of Heliconius butterflies to identify a gene that causes adaptive variation of black wing patterns within and between species. Linkage mapping in two species groups, gene-expression analysis in seven species, and pharmacological treatments all indicate that cis-regulatory evolution of the WntA ligand under...

Martin, Arnaud; Papa, Riccardo; Nadeau, Nicola J.; Hill, Ryan I.; Counterman, Brian A.; Halder, Georg; Jiggins, Chris D.; Kronforst, Marcus R.; Long, Anthony D.; Mcmillan, W. Owen; Reed, Robert D.

2012-01-01

458

Host-plant-derived variation in ultraviolet wing patterns influences mate selection by male butterflies  

OpenAIRE

We report on the first case in which sequestered secondary plant compounds determine an insect's external appearance in the ultraviolet spectrum and thereby influence visually mediated mate choice. Larvae of the common blue butterfly Polyommatus icarus specifically sequester flavonoids in different amounts and types, depending on the part or species of food plant. During late pupal development the majority of ultraviolet-absorbing flavonoids are deposited in the wing scales. The flavonoid con...

Knu?ttel, Helge; Fiedler, Konrad

2001-01-01

459

“Darwin’s butterflies”? DNA barcoding and the radiation of the endemic Caribbean butterfly genus Calisto (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Satyrinae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The genus Calisto Hübner, 1823 is the only member of the diverse, global subfamily Satyrinae found in the West Indies, and by far the richest endemic Caribbean butterfly radiation. Calisto species occupy an extremely diverse array of habitats, suggestive of adaptive radiation on the scale of other classic examples such as the Galápagos or Darwin’s finches. However, a reliable species classification is a key requisite before further evolutionary or ecological research. An analysis of 111 DNA ‘barcodes’ (655 bp of the mitochondrial gene COI from 29 putative Calisto species represented by 31 putative taxa was therefore conducted to elucidate taxonomic relationships among these often highly cryptic and confusing taxa. The sympatric, morphologically and ecologically similar taxa C. confusa Lathy, 1899 and C. confusa debarriera Clench, 1943 proved to be extremely divergent, and we therefore recognize Calisto debarriera stat. n. as a distinct species, with Calisto neiba Schwartz et Gali, 1984 as a junior synonym syn. n. Species status of certain allopatric, morphologically similar sister species has been confirmed: Calisto hysius (Godart, 1824 (including its subspecies C. hysius aleucosticha Correa et Schwartz, 1986, stat. n., and its former subspecies C. batesi Michener, 1943 showed a high degree of divergence (above 6% and should be considered separate species. Calisto lyceius Bates, 1935/C. crypta Gali, 1985/C. franciscoi Gali, 1985 complex, also showed a high degree of divergence (above 6%, confirming the species status of these taxa. In contrast, our data suggest that the Calisto grannus Bates, 1939 species complex (including Calisto grannus dilemma González, 1987, C. grannus amazona González, 1987, stat. n., C. grannus micrommata Schwartz et Gali, 1984, stat. n., C. grannus dystacta González, 1987, stat. n., C. grannus phoinix González, 1987, stat. n., C. grannus sommeri Schwartz et Gali, 1984, stat. n., and C. grannus micheneri Clench, 1944, stat. n. should be treated as a single polytypic species, as genetic divergence among sampled populations representing these taxa is low (and stable morphological apomorphies are absent. A widely-distributed pest of sugar cane, Calisto pulchella Lathy, 1899 showed higher diversification among isolated populations (3.5% than expected, hence supporting former separation of this species into two taxa (pulchella and darlingtoni Clench, 1943, of which the latter might prove to be a separate species rather than subspecies. The taxonomic revisions presented here result in Calisto now containing 34 species and 17 subspecies. Three species endemic to islands other than Hispaniola appear to be derived lineages of various Hispaniolan clades, indicating ancient dispersal events from Hispaniola to Puerto Rico, Cuba, and Jamaica. Overall, the degree of intrageneric and intraspecific divergence within Calisto suggests a long and continuous diversification period of 4–8 Myr. The maximum divergence within the genus (ca. 13.3% is almost equivalent to the maximum divergence of Calisto from the distant pronophiline relative Auca Hayward, 1953 from the southern Andes (14.1% and from the presumed closest relative Eretris Thieme, 1905 (14.4%, suggesting that the genus began to diversify soon after its split from its continental sister taxon. In general, this ‘barcode’ divergence corresponds to the high degree of morphological and ecological variation found among major lineages within the genus.

Andrei Sourakov

2011-08-01

460

Pierisins and CARP-1: ADP-Ribosylation of DNA by ARTCs in Butterflies and Shellfish.  

Science.gov (United States)

The cabbage butterfly, Pieris rapae, and related species possess a previously unknown ADP-ribosylating toxin, guanine specific ADP-ribosyltransferase. This enzyme toxin, known as pierisin, consists of enzymatic N-terminal domain and receptor-binding C-terminal domain, or typical AB-toxin structure. Pierisin efficiently transfers an ADP-ribosyl moiety to the N(2) position of the guanine base of dsDNA. Receptors for pierisin are suggested to be the neutral glycosphingolipids, globotriaosylceramide (Gb3), and globotetraosylceramide (Gb4). This DNA-modifying toxin exhibits strong cytotoxicity and induces apoptosis in various human cell lines, which can be blocked by Bcl-2. Pierisin also produces detrimental effects on the eggs and larvae of the non-habitual parasitoids. In contrast, a natural parasitoid of the cabbage butterfly, Cotesia glomerata, was resistant to this toxin. The physiological role of pierisin in the butterfly is suggested to be a defense factor against parasitization by wasps. Other type of DNA ADP-ribosyltransferase is present in certain kinds of edible clams. For example, the CARP-1 protein found in Meretrix lamarckii consists of an enzymatic domain without a possible receptor-binding domain. Pierisin and CARP-1 are almost fully non-homologous at the amino acid sequence level, but other ADP-ribosyltransferases homologous to pierisin are present in different biological species such as eubacterium Streptomyces. Possible diverse physiological roles of the DNA ADP-ribosyltransferases are discussed. PMID:25033755

Nakano, Tsuyoshi; Takahashi-Nakaguchi, Azusa; Yamamoto, Masafumi; Watanabe, Masahiko

2015-01-01

461

Magnetic resonance butterfly coils: Design and application for hyperpolarized 13C studies  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Hyperpolarized 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopy in pig models enables cardiac metabolism assessment and provides a powerful tool for heart physiology studies, although the low molar concentration of derivate metabolites gives rise to technological limitations in terms of data quality. The design of dedicated coils capable of providing large field of view with high Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) data is of fundamental importance. This work presents magnetostatic simulations and tests of two butterfly coils with different geometries, both designed for 13C hyperpolarized studies of pig heart with a clinical 3T scanner. In particular, the paper provides details of the design, modeling, construction and application of the butterfly style coils. While both coils could be successfully employed in single configuration (linear mode), the second prototype was used to design a quadrature surface coil constituted by the butterfly and a circular loop both in receive (RX) mode while using a birdcage coil as transmitter (TX). The performance of this coils configuration was compared with the single TX/RX birdcage coil, in order to verify the advantage of the proposed configuration over the volume coil throughout the volume of interest for cardiac imaging in pig. Experimental SNR-vs-depth profiles, extracted from the [1-13C]acetate phantom chemical shift image (CSI), permitted to highlight the performance of the proposed coils configuration. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Giovannetti, Giulio; Frijia, Francesca

2013-01-01

462

A gustatory receptor involved in host plant recognition for oviposition of a swallowtail butterfly.  

Science.gov (United States)

Swallowtail butterflies belonging to the family of Papilionidae selectively utilize a limited number of plants from a single or a few families. Female butterflies lay eggs on their host only when they detect specific chemicals through their foreleg chemosensilla while drumming on the leaf surface. Here we show that the butterfly, Papilio xuthus, uses a gustatory receptor specific for synephrine to select its host in oviposition behaviour. We identify a gustatory receptor gene involved in the recognition of an oviposition stimulant, synephrine, from the P. xuthus by a combination of in silico, in vitro and in vivo approaches. The receptor, PxutGr1, responds specifically to synephrine in Sf9 cells. The sensitivity of tarsal taste sensilla to synephrine and the oviposition behaviour in response to synephrine are strongly reduced after injecting double-stranded RNA of PxutGr1 into pupae. These observations indicate that the receptor PxutGr1 represents a key factor in host specialization in P. xuthus. PMID:22086342

Ozaki, Katsuhisa; Ryuda, Masasuke; Yamada, Ayumi; Utoguchi, Ai; Ishimoto, Hiroshi; Calas, Delphine; Marion-Poll, Frédéric; Tanimura, Teiichi; Yoshikawa, Hiroshi

2011-01-01

463

Procurement of exogenous ammonia by the swallowtail butterfly, Papilio polytes, for protein biosynthesis and sperm production  

Science.gov (United States)

How to acquire sufficient quantity of nitrogen is a pivotal issue for herbivores, particularly for lepidopterans (butterflies and moths) of which diet quality greatly differs among their life stages. Male Lepidoptera often feed from mud puddles, dung, and carrion, a behavior known as puddling, which is thought to be supplementary feeding targeted chiefly at sodium. During copulation, males transfer a spermatophore to females that contains, besides sperm, nutrients (nuptial gifts) rich in sodium, proteins, and amino acids. However, it is still poorly understood how adults, mostly nectarivores, extract nitrogen from the environment. We examined the availability of two ubiquitous inorganic nitrogenous ions in nature, viz. ammonium (or ammonia) and nitrate ions, as nutrients in a butterfly, and show that exogenous ammonia ingested by adult males of the swallowtail, Papilio polytes, can serve as a resource for protein biosynthesis. Feeding experiments with 15N-labeled ammonium chloride revealed that nitrogen was incorporated into eupyrene spermatozoa, seminal protein, and thoracic muscle. Ammonia uptake by males significantly increased the number of eupyrene sperms in the reproductive tract tissues. The females also had the capacity to assimilate ammonia into egg protein. Consequently, it is evident that acquired ammonia is utilized for the replenishment of proteins allocable for reproduction and somatic maintenance. The active exploitation of exogenous ammonia as a nutrient by a butterfly would foster better understanding of the foraging and reproductive strategies in insects.

Honda, Keiichi; Takase, Hiroyuki; Ômura, Hisashi; Honda, Hiroshi

2012-09-01

464

Fukushima's biological impacts: the case of the pale grass blue butterfly.  

Science.gov (United States)

To evaluate the effects of the Fukushima nuclear accident on the surrounding area, we studied the pale grass blue butterfly Zizeeria maha, the most common butterfly in Japan. We here review our important findings and their implications. We found forewing size reduction, growth retardation, high mortality rates, and high abnormality rates in the field and reared samples. The abnormality rates observed in September 2011 were higher than those observed in May 2011 in almost all localities, implying transgenerational accumulation of genetic damage. Some of the abnormal traits in the F1 generation were inherited by the F2 generation. In a particular cross, the F2 abnormality rate scored 57%. The forewing size reduction and high mortality and abnormality rates were reproduced in external and internal exposure experiments conducted in our laboratory using Okinawa larvae. We observed the possible real-time evolution of radiation resistance in the Fukushima butterflies, which, in retrospect, indicates that field sampling attempts at the very early stages of such accidents are required to understand the ecodynamics of polluted regions. We propose, as the postulates of pollutant-induced biological impacts, that the collection of phenotypic data from the field and their relevant reproduction in the laboratory should be the basis of experimental design to demonstrate the biological effects of environmental pollutants and to investigate the molecular mechanisms responsible for these effects. PMID:25124816

Taira, Wataru; Nohara, Chiyo; Hiyama, Atsuki; Otaki, Joji M

2014-01-01

465

Reward and non-reward learning of flower colours in the butterfly Byasa alcinous (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae)  

Science.gov (United States)

Learning plays an important role in food acquisition for a wide range of insects. To increase their foraging efficiency, flower-visiting insects may learn to associate floral cues with the presence (so-called reward learning) or the absence (so-called non-reward learning) of a reward. Reward learning whilst foraging for flowers has been demonstrated in many insect taxa, whilst non-reward learning in flower-visiting insects has been demonstrated only in honeybees, bumblebees and hawkmoths. This study examined both reward and non-reward learning abilities in the butterfly Byasa alcinous whilst foraging among artificial flowers of different colours. This butterfly showed both types of learning, although butterflies of both sexes learned faster via reward learning. In addition, females learned via reward learning faster than males. To the best of our knowledge, these are the first empirical data on the learning speed of both reward and non-reward learning in insects. We discuss the adaptive significance of a lower learning speed for non-reward learning when foraging on flowers.

Kandori, Ikuo; Yamaki, Takafumi

2012-09-01

466

Photonic Crystal Structure and Coloration of Wing Scales of Butterflies Exhibiting Selective Wavelength Iridescence  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The coloration of butterflies that exhibit human visible iridescence from violet to green has been elucidated. Highly tilted multilayers of cuticle on the ridges, which were found in the scales of male S. charonda and E. mulciber butterflies, produce a limited-view, selective wavelength iridescence (ultraviolet (UV~green as a result of multiple interference between the cuticle-air layers. The iridescence from C. ataxus originates from multilayers in the groove plates between the ridges and ribs. The interference takes place between the top and bottom surfaces of each layer and incoherently between different layers. Consequently, the male with the layers that are ~270 nm thick reflects light of UV~560 nm (green and the female with the layers that are ~191 nm thick reflects light of UV~400 nm (violet. T. aeacus does not produce the iridescent sheen which T. magellanus does. No iridescent sheen is ascribed to microrib layers, which are perpendicular to the scale plane, so that they cannot reflect any backscattering. The structures of these butterflies would provide us helpful hints to manipulate light in photoelectric devices, such as blue or UV LEDs.

Makoto Shiojiri

2012-04-01

467

Use of fruit bait traps for monitoring of butterflies (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Costa Rica | Language: English Abstract in english There exists great interest in using fruit-feeding adult nymphalid butterflies to monitor changes in tropical forest ecosystems. We intensively sampled the butterfly fauna of mid-elevation tropical moist forest in southern Costa Rica with fruit bait traps to address a series of practical issues conc [...] erning the development of a robust, efficient sampling program. Variation in the number of captures and escapes of butterflies at the traps was better explained by the time of day than by the age of bait. Species’ escape rates varied widely, suggesting that short term, less intensive surveys aimed at determining presence or absence of species may be biased. Individuals did not appear to become "trap-happy" or to recognize the traps as food sources. Considering the tradeoff between numbers of traps and frequency of trap servicing, the most efficient sampling regime appears to be baiting and sampling the traps once every other day.

Jennifer B., Hughes; Gretchen C., Daily; Paul R., Ehrlich.

1998-09-01

468

X-ray Tomography and Chemical Imaging within Butterfly Wing Scales  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The rainbow like color of butterfly wings is associated with the internal and surface structures of the wing scales. While the photonic structure of the scales is believed to diffract specific lights at different angle, there is no adequate probe directly answering the 3-D structures with sufficient spatial resolution. The NSRRC nano-transmission x-ray microscope (nTXM) with tens nanometers spatial resolution is able to image biological specimens without artifacts usually introduced in sophisticated sample staining processes. With the intrinsic deep penetration of x-rays, the nTXM is capable of nondestructively investigating the internal structures of fragile and soft samples. In this study, we imaged the structure of butterfly wing scales in 3-D view with 60 nm spatial resolution. In addition, synchrotron-radiation-based Fourier transform Infrared (FT-IR) microspectroscopy was employed to analyze the chemical components with spatial information of the butterfly wing scales. Based on the infrared spectral images, we suggest that the major components of scale structure were rich in protein and polysaccharide

469

Evolution of planetary nebulae. III. Position-velocity images of butterfly-type nebulae  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Observations of the motions of the shells of the planetary nebulae NGC 2346, NGC 2371-2, NGC 2440, NGC 6058, NGC 6210, IC 1747, IC 5217, J-320, and M2-9 are presented. These are all 'butterfly' type PNs, and show evidence for bipolar shocks. The observations are interpreted in terms of a fast spherical wind, driven by the central star into a quasi-toroidal envelope deposited earlier by the star, during its slow-wind phase on the asymptotic giant branch. It is shown that this model, which is a straightforward extension of a mechanism previously invoked to account for elliptical PNs, reproduces the essential kinematic features of butterfly PNs. It is inferred that the envelopes of butterflies must have a considerable equator-to-pole density gradient, and it is suggested that the origin of this asphericity must be sought in an as yet unknown mechanism during the AGB, Mira, or OH/IR phases of late stellar evolution. 28 references

470

Asymmetric ratchet effect for directional transport of fog drops on static and dynamic butterfly wings.  

Science.gov (United States)

Inspired by novel creatures, researchers have developed varieties of fog drop transport systems and made significant contributions to the fields of heat transferring, water collecting, antifogging, and so on. Up to now, most of the efforts in directional fog drop transport have been focused on static surfaces. Considering it is not practical to keep surfaces still all the time in reality, conducting investigations on surfaces that can transport fog drops in both static and dynamic states has become more and more important. Here we report the wings of Morpho deidamia butterflies can directionally transport fog drops in both static and dynamic states. This directional drop transport ability results from the micro/nano ratchet-like structure of butterfly wings: the surface of butterfly wings is composed of overlapped scales, and the scales are covered with porous asymmetric ridges. Influenced by this special structure, fog drops on static wings are transported directionally as a result of the fog drops' asymmetric growth and coalescence. Fog drops on vibrating wings are propelled directionally due to the fog drops' asymmetric dewetting from the wings. PMID:24397580

Liu, Chengcheng; Ju, Jie; Zheng, Yongmei; Jiang, Lei

2014-02-25

471

Application of source-receptor models to determine source areas of biological components (pollen and butterflies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The source-receptor models allow the establishment of relationships between a receptor point (sampling point and the probable source areas (regions of emission through the association of concentration values at the receptor point with the corresponding atmospheric back-trajectories, and, together with other techniques, to interpret transport phenomena on a synoptic scale. These models are generally used in air pollution studies to determine the areas of origin of chemical compounds measured at a sampling point, and thus be able to target actions to reduce pollutants. However, until now, few studies have applied these types of models to describe the source areas of biological organisms. In Catalonia there are very complete records of pollen (data from the Xarxa Aerobiològica de Catalunya, Aerobiology Network of Catalonia and butterflies (data from the Catalan Butterfly Monitoring Scheme, a biological material that is also liable to be transported long distances and whose areas of origin could be interesting to know. This work presents the results of the use of the Seibert et al. model applied to the study of the source regions of: (1 certain pollen of an allergic nature, observed in Catalonia and the Canary Islands, and (2 the migratory butterfly Vanessa cardui, observed in Catalonia. Based on the results obtained we can corroborate the suitability of these models to determine the area of origin of several species, both chemical and biological, therefore expanding the possibilities of applying the original model to the wider field of Aerobiology.

M. Alarcón

2010-01-01

472

VACTERL association with a rare vertebral anomaly (butterfly vertebra) in a case of monochorionic twin.  

Science.gov (United States)

The VATER/VACTERL association is typically defined by the presence of at least three of the following congenital malformations: vertebral anomalies, anal atresia, cardiac malformations, tracheo-esophageal fistula, renal anomalies, and limb abnormalities (13). We report a rare case of a monochorionic twin gestation in which one of the infants had VACTERL association. Antenatal ultrasound showed bilateral renal dysplasia and cardiac anomaly (ASD) in twin A. Twin A was noted to have the following anomalies: a single umbilical artery, limb anomaly (right hand preaxial polydactyly), vertebral anomalies (T9 and T11 butterfly vertebras, bilateral renal agenesis, bladder agenesis, anal and urethral atresia. A normal-sized stomach and normal amount of amniotic fluid were observed during the prenatal period with no other anomalies. Twin B (male) was healthy and no cardiac, renal, or congenital anomalies were demonstrated on ultrasound and physical examination. Infant A was also diagnosed as having VACTERL association because he had five of the core anomalies (V, A, C, R, L) of VACTERL association. Butterfly vertebra is an uncommon congenital spinal anomaly. To the best of our knowledge, our patient is the second case VACTERL association with butterfly vertebra in the literature. PMID:25059024

Sandal, G; Aslan, N; Duman, L; Ormeci, A R

2014-01-01

473

Anthropogenic changes in sodium affect neural and muscle development in butterflies.  

Science.gov (United States)

The development of organisms is changing drastically because of anthropogenic changes in once-limited nutrients. Although the importance of changing macronutrients, such as nitrogen and phosphorus, is well-established, it is less clear how anthropogenic changes in micronutrients will affect organismal development, potentially changing dynamics of selection. We use butterflies as a study system to test whether changes in sodium availability due to road salt runoff have significant effects on the development of sodium-limited traits, such as neural and muscle tissue. We first document how road salt runoff can elevate sodium concentrations in the tissue of some plant groups by 1.5-30 times. Using monarch butterflies reared on roadside- and prairie-collected milkweed, we then show that road salt runoff can result in increased muscle mass (in males) and neural investment (in females). Finally, we use an artificial diet manipulation in cabbage white butterflies to show that variation in sodium chloride per se positively affects male flight muscle and female brain size. Variation in sodium not only has different effects depending on sex, but also can have opposing effects on the same tissue: across both species, males increase investment in flight muscle with increasing sodium, whereas females show the opposite pattern. Taken together, our results show that anthropogenic changes in sodium availability can affect the development of traits in roadside-feeding herbivores. This research suggests that changing micronutrient availability could alter selection on foraging behavior for some roadside-developing invertebrates. PMID:24927579

Snell-Rood, Emilie C; Espeset, Anne; Boser, Christopher J; White, William A; Smykalski, Rhea

2014-07-15

474

Buried hurts and colliding dreams in Yvonne Vera’s Butterfly Burning = Feridas escondidas e sonhos conflitantes em Butterfly Burning de Yvonne Vera  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Zimbabwean author Yvonne Vera’s Butterfly Burning (1998 depicts anintense and tragically concluded love relationship between a middle-aged colonised male labourer, Fumbatha, and an idealistic and much younger woman, Phephelaphi. The context is the ghetto adjoining the city of Bulawayo in late colonial Southern Rhodesia. The articleemploys the concepts of genealogies and of transmodernity to delineate Vera’s reinscription of colonised African men and women in her illocutionary, densely poetic account of the growth of modernity in Africa, tragic because (despite similar, buried hurts theprotagonists’ dreams are at odds.O romance Butterfly Burning (1998, da autora zimbabuana Yvonne Veramostra o relacionamento amoroso, intenso e trágico, entre Fumbatha, um trabalhador colonizado de meia idade, e Phephelaphi, uma mulher jovem e idealista. O contexto do enredo é o gueto perto da cidade de Bulawayo na ex-colônia da Rodésia do Sul. O artigo emprega os conceitos de genealogias e da transmodernidade para delinear as re-inscrições dos africanos e africanas colonizados em sua narração ilocucionária, profundamente poética, do desenvolvimento da modernidade na África. É também trágica (apesar da semelhança dasferidas escondidas pela não-coincidência dos sonhos dos protagonistas.

Annie Gagiano

2009-01-01

475

Characterisation and expression of microRNAs in developing wings of the neotropical butterfly Heliconius melpomene  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Heliconius butterflies are an excellent system for studies of adaptive convergent and divergent phenotypic traits. Wing colour patterns are used as signals to both predators and potential mates and are inherited in a Mendelian manner. The underlying genetic mechanisms of pattern formation have been studied for many years and shed light on broad issues, such as the repeatability of evolution. In Heliconius melpomene, the yellow hindwing bar is controlled by the HmYb locus. MicroRNAs (miRNAs are important post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression that have key roles in many biological processes, including development. miRNAs could act as regulators of genes involved in wing development, patterning and pigmentation. For this reason we characterised miRNAs in developing butterfly wings and examined differences in their expression between colour pattern races. Results We sequenced small RNA libraries from two colour pattern races and detected 142 Heliconius miRNAs with homology to others found in miRBase. Several highly abundant miRNAs were differentially represented in the libraries between colour pattern races. These candidates were tested further using Northern blots, showing that differences in expression were primarily due to developmental stage rather than colour pattern. Assembly of sequenced reads to the HmYb region identified hme-miR-193 and hme-miR-2788; located 2380 bp apart in an intergenic region. These two miRNAs are expressed in wings and show an upregulation between 24 and 72 hours post-pupation, indicating a potential role in butterfly wing development. A search for miRNAs in all available H. melpomene BAC sequences (~ 2.5 Mb did not reveal any other miRNAs and no novel miRNAs were predicted. Conclusions Here we describe the first butterfly miRNAs and characterise their expression in developing wings. Some show differences in expression across developing pupal stages and may have important functions in butterfly wing development. Two miRNAs were located in the HmYb region and were expressed in developing pupal wings. Future work will examine the expression of these miRNAs in different colour pattern races and identify miRNA targets among wing patterning genes.

Rathjen Tina

2011-01-01

476

Checkerspot Butterflies as Charismatic Media Stars: Getting the Word Out From the Grassroots on Global Nitrogen Overdose  

Science.gov (United States)

Getting the word out to the general public about the global "nitrogen overdose" has proved challenging because of the complexities of the global nitrogen cycle and the insidious nature of cumulative effects on ecosystems. This presentation recounts successful media outreach efforts to bring attention to the nitrogen issue, using the threatened Bay checkerspot butterfly as a "charismatic" focal species and victim. The butterfly is threatened by atmospheric nitrogen deposition that enriches nutrient poor soils derived from serpentinite rock an allows nitrophilous grasses to invade and displace the dazzling wildflower displays that the butterfly depends on. Over the past decade, public and media outreach have resulted in numerous articles in local, regional, and national print media, and extensive TV and radio coverage of the reintroduction of the butterfly into restored habitat in 2007. The grassroots media strategy has several elements of success, including: 1) the public's (and journalists') love of butterflies and wildflowers; 2) field tours to dramatically illustrate the effects of N-deposition; 3) time-tested soundbites, humor, and amiable relationships with journalists; 4) careful fact checking; and 5) political outreach. Through these efforts, journalists effectively told relatively complex stories in creative approachable ways that have educated the public about the nitrogen pollution issue.

Weiss, S. B.

2007-12-01

477

Population Dynamics of Cabbage Butterfly (Pieris brassicae and Cabbage Aphids (Brevicoryne brassicae on Five Cultivars of Cauliflower at Peshawar  

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Full Text Available The studies on population dynamics of Cabbage butterfly and Cabbage aphids on different Cultivars of cauliflower namely Snowball, Snowdrift, Tropical, Pioneer and Meigettsal were carried out at the Research Farm of Entomology Section, Agricultural Research Institute Tarnab Peshawar. Cabbage butterfly (Pieris brassicae and aphids (Bravicoryne brassicae were recorded as the major insect pests of Cauliflower crop at ARI, Tarnab, Peshawar. None of the 5 Cultivars was found completely resistant to the infestation of Cabbage butterfly and aphids. The highest average of 86.67 larvae/plant was recorded in the first week of November and the lowest average of 0.67 larvae/plant was recorded in the first week of December. The lowest and the highest average mean population of larvae were observed on Cultivars Meigettsal and snow ball, respectively. During study population density of aphids on cauliflower Cultivars ranged from 0.00 to 31.76 aphids/cm2 leaf area. The lowest and highest average mean population of aphids recorded on Cultivars Snow Drift and Meigettsal, respectively. Cultivar snow drift was found the least preferred to aphids throughout the season. During study cultivar Meigettsal proved to be best against Cabbage butterfly, but showed poor performance against aphids. Cultivar snowdrift showed good performance against aphids and cabbage butterfly

Mohammad Younas

2004-01-01

478

Synthesis of naturally cross-linked polycrystalline ZrO2 hollow nanowires using butterfly as templates  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? Naturally cross-linked ZrO2 nanotubes with ?2.4 ?m in length, ?35 nm in diameter and ?12 nm in wall thickness was synthesized via the selection of suitable butterfly bio-templates followed by heat processing. ? The contractions, which are main defects of the former hard-template method based on butterflies, are well controlled with the help of the surface tension effect. ? The achieved hollow ZrO2 nanowires suggest a new optional approach that uses bio-templates in fabricating and designing nano systems. - Abstract: Butterfly wing skeleton is a widely used hard-template in recent years for fabricating photonic crystal structures. However, the smallest construction units for the most species of butterflies are commonly larger than ?50 nm, which greatly hinders their applications in designing much smaller functional parts down to real “nano scale”. This work indicates, however, that hollow ZrO2 nanowires with ?2.4 ?m in length, ?35 nm in diameter and ?12 nm in wall thickness can be synthesized via the selection of suitable butterfly bio-templates followed by heat processing. Especially, the successful fabrication of these naturally cross-linked ZrO2 nanotubes suggests a new optional approach in fabricating assembled nano systems.

479

Importance of vegetation analysis in the conservation management of the endangered butterfly Aloeides dentatis dentatis (Swierstra (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae  

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Full Text Available The study of the vegetation of the Ruimsig Entomological Reserve, Gauteng, South Africa revealed four plant communities one of which could be subdivided into two subcommunities and variants. The extensive climax stage of the vegetation represented by the Themeda triandra - Trachypogon spicatus grassland was found to be too dense and tall to support the butterfly Aloeides dentatis dentatis and the host ant Lepisiota capensis (Mayr. A degraded phase caused by succession in an area where pipes have been laid was found to be ideal habitat for both ant and butterfly. This vegetation also contained adequate numbers of the food plant Hermannia depressa. A serai community with tall- growing Hyparrhenia hirta was also found to be an unsuitable habitat for the butterfly. The identification of the preferred ideal habitat for the host ant and butterfly resulted in the compilation of a conservation management strategy that ensured the survival of the rare and endangered butterfly.

M.S. Deutschlander

1999-02-01

480

Two component butterfly hysteresis in RuSr2EuCeCu2O1 ruthenocuprate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We report detailed studies of the ac susceptibility butterfly hysteresis on the RuSr2EuCeCu2O1 (Ru1222) ruthenocuprate compound. Two separate contributions to these hysteresis have been identified and studied. One contribution is ferromagnetic-like and is characterized by the coercive field maximum. Another contribution, represented by the so called inverted maximum, is related to the unusual inverted loops, unique feature of Ru1222 butterfly hysteresis. The different nature of the two identified magnetic contributions is proved by the different temperature dependences involved. By lowering the temperature the inverted peak gradually disappears while the coercive field slowly raises. If the maximum dc field for the hysteresis is increased, the size of the inverted part of the butterfly hysteresis monotonously grows while the position of the peak saturates. In reaching saturation exponential field dependence has been demonstrated to take place. At T = 78 K the saturation field is 42 Oe