WorldWideScience

Sample records for butterfly eurema hecabe

  1. Feminization of genetic males by a symbiotic bacterium in a butterfly, Eurema hecabe (Lepidoptera: Pieridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiroki, Masato; Kato, Yoshiomi; Kamito, Takehiko; Miura, Kazuki

    2002-03-01

    Wolbachia are symbiotic bacteria found in many arthropods and filarian nematodes. They often manipulate the reproduction of host arthropods. In the present study, female-biased sex-ratio distortion in the butterfly Eurema hecabe was investigated. Breeding experiments showed that this distorted sex ratio is maternally inherited. When treated with tetracycline, adult females of the thelygenic line produced male progeny only. After PCR using Wolbachia-specific primers for the ftsZ gene a positive result was seen in the thelygenic females, but not in male progeny from tetracycline-treated females, or individuals from a Tokyo population with normal sex ratio and reproduction. Cytological observations showed that thelygenic females lack the sex chromatin body (W chromosome). The results strongly suggest that the sex-ratio distortion in E. hecabe is due to feminization of genetic males by Wolbachia.

  2. Unexpected mechanism of symbiont-induced reversal of insect sex: feminizing Wolbachia continuously acts on the butterfly Eurema hecabe during larval development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narita, Satoko; Kageyama, Daisuke; Nomura, Masashi; Fukatsu, Takema

    2007-07-01

    When the butterfly Eurema hecabe is infected with two different strains (wHecCI2 and wHecFem2) of the bacterial endosymbiont Wolbachia, genetic males are transformed into functional females, resulting in production of all-female broods. In an attempt to understand how and when the Wolbachia endosymbiont feminizes genetically male insects, larval insects were fed an antibiotic-containing diet beginning at different developmental stages until pupation. When the adult insects emerged, strikingly, many of them exhibited sexually intermediate traits in their wings, reproductive organs, and genitalia. The expression of intersexual phenotypes was strong in the insects treated from first instar, moderate in the insects treated from third instar, and weak in the insects treated from fourth instar. The insects treated from early larval instar grew and pupated normally but frequently failed to emerge and died in the pupal case. The dead insects in the pupal case contained lower densities of the feminizing Wolbachia endosymbiont than the successfully emerged insects, although none of them were completely cured of the symbiont infection. These results suggest the following: (i) the antibiotic treatment suppressed the population of feminizing Wolbachia endosymbionts; (ii) the suppression probably resulted in attenuated feminizing activity of the symbiont, leading to expression of intersexual host traits; (iii) many of the insects suffered pupal mortality, possibly due to either intersexual defects or Wolbachia-mediated addiction; and hence (iv) the feminizing Wolbachia endosymbiont continuously acts on the host insects during larval development for expression of female phenotypes under a male genotype. Our finding may prompt reconsideration of the notion that Wolbachia-induced reproductive manipulations are already complete before the early embryonic stage and provide insights into the mechanism underlying the symbiont-induced reversal of insect sex. PMID:17496135

  3. Wolbachia Sequence Typing in Butterflies Using Pyrosequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sungmi; Shin, Su-Kyoung; Jeong, Gilsang; Yi, Hana

    2015-09-01

    Wolbachia is an obligate symbiotic bacteria that is ubiquitous in arthropods, with 25-70% of insect species estimated to be infected. Wolbachia species can interact with their insect hosts in a mutualistic or parasitic manner. Sequence types (ST) of Wolbachia are determined by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) of housekeeping genes. However, there are some limitations to MLST with respect to the generation of clone libraries and the Sanger sequencing method when a host is infected with multiple STs of Wolbachia. To assess the feasibility of massive parallel sequencing, also known as next-generation sequencing, we used pyrosequencing for sequence typing of Wolbachia in butterflies. We collected three species of butterflies (Eurema hecabe, Eurema laeta, and Tongeia fischeri) common to Korea and screened them for Wolbachia STs. We found that T. fischeri was infected with a single ST of Wolbachia, ST41. In contrast, E. hecabe and E. laeta were each infected with two STs of Wolbachia, ST41 and ST40. Our results clearly demonstrate that pyrosequencing-based MLST has a higher sensitivity than cloning and Sanger sequencing methods for the detection of minor alleles. Considering the high prevalence of infection with multiple Wolbachia STs, next-generation sequencing with improved analysis would assist with scaling up approaches to Wolbachia MLST. PMID:26139612

  4. Butterfly diversity as a data base for the development plan of Butterfly Garden at Bosscha Observatory, Lembang, West Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TATI SURYATI SYAMSUDIN SUBAHAR

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Subahar TSS, Yuliana A (2010 Butterfly diversity as a data base for the development plan of Butterfly Garden at Bosscha Observatory, Lembang, West Java. Biodiversitas 11: 24-28. Change of land use and the increasing number of visitors to Bosscha area was one factor for the development plan of butterfly garden in the area. The objectives of this research were to examine butterfly diversity and its potential for development plan of butterfly garden. Butterfly diversity and its richness conducted by standard walk methods. Host plant and larval food plant was recorded during butterfly survey. Public perception on the development plan of butterfly garden was examined by questionnaire. The results showed that 26 species of butterfly was found in Bosscha area and Delias belisama belisama was the most dominant species. Public perceptions consider that the development plan of butterfly garden will give benefit to the community; not only providing new insight (40.41%, additional tourism object (23.97% and will gave aesthetical value (17.12%. Twelve local species should be considered for development plan of butterfly garden: Papilio agamemnon, P. demoleus, P. memnon, P. sarpedon, Delias belisama, Eurema hecabe, Danaus chrysippus, Argynis hiperbius, Cethosia penthesilea, Hypolimnas missipus, Melanitis phedima and Euthalia Adonijah. Host plant: Bougainvillea spectabilis, Citrus aurantium, Lantana camara, Macaranga tanarius and food plants: Citrus aurantium, Cosmos caudatus, Eupatorium inulifolium, Gomphrena globosa, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Lantana camara, and Tithonia diversifolia.

  5. Diversity and distribution of butterflies (Insecta: Lepidoptera of district Dir lower, Khyber Pukhtoonkhwa, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Inayatullah Khan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Butterflies are the fine-looking creatures and act as ecological indicators and pollinators. The present study is the first record of Butterfly fauna of Dir lower. Collection was carried out during March - August 2013. The specimens were collected and identified with the help of taxonomic keys and preserved specimens in National Insect Museum Islamabad. The collection of 375 specimens were preserved. Identification revealed 24 species belonging to 20 genera and 7 families. The species are Papilio polyctor Boisduval, Papilio demoleus Linnaeus, Junonia almanac Linnaeus, Pararge schakra Kollar, Junonia hierta Fabricius, Junonia orythea Linnaeus, Argyrius hyperbius Linnaeus, Hypolimnus bolina Linnaeus, Vanessa cashmiriensis Kollar, Phalantha phalantha Drury, Melitea didyma Esper, Lycaena phalaeas Linnaeus, Lybithea lipita Moore, Danius chrysippus Linnaeus, Hipparchia parasitas Kollar, Lethe rohria Fabricius, Maniola davendra Moore, Pontia daplidice Linnaeus, Belenois aurota Fabricius, Pieris brassicae Linnaeus, Colias erate Esper, Eurema hecabe Linnaeus, Colias fieldi Linnaeus and Cynthia cardui Linnaeus. The highest population was shown by Pieris brassicae followed by Danius chrysippus and Cynthia cardui. Twelve species belong to family Nymphalidae (50%, which shows the highest abundance rate. Butterfly density was the highest at Timergara. Butterfly fauna was the highest in May followed by August and lowest in March. It is concluded that pollution free environment of Dir Lower is more suitable for the survival of butterfly fauna. Large scale study is required to fully explore the butterfly fauna of the area.

  6. Presence and distribution of two sub-species of Eurema agave (Lepidoptera, Pieridae in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Cordoba-Alfaro

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Austin (1992 reported Eurema a. agave (Cramer 1775 to the Caribbean of Costa Rica. However, he actually had found E. a. millerorum, described by Bousquets & Luis-Martinez (1987 for the Caribbean of Mexico. The presence of Eurema a. agave is confirmed on this paper with information of specimens collected in the Pacific and Atlantic slopes of Costa Rica. Aspects on distribution of both subspecies are included.

  7. Butterflies Diversity in Brawijaya University, Veteran, Jakarta and Velodrom Green Open Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayu Raisa Khairun Nisa'

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Butterflies have some roles in environmental as pollinator and bioindicator. Habitat is one of important factor to support butterflies growth. The aim of this research was to describe butterflies diversity in some green open spaces in Malang. Direct observations of butterflies diversity, vegetation structures and abiotic factors in Brawijaya University, Veteran, Jakarta and Velodrom Green Open Space were conducted on June 2012. Sampling was took place in each sites using cruising method in three times observation at 07.00, 11.00 a.m. and 3.30 p.m . Data were analyzed by statistical descriptive using Microsoft Excel 2007 and PAST. The result showed that butterflies composition in all sites dominated by Delias sp., Leptosia nina and Eurema venusta. The diversity index of all sites showed moderate rank that indicate communities equilibrium in environment was still good. In this case, Velodrom Green Open Space has the highest one of diversity index, it was about 2,199. Brawijaya University and Jakarta Green Open Space have a high similarity index based on Morisita Index. The highest abundance of butterflies was observed at 11.00-12.30 a.m. Delias sp. and Leptosia nina has temporal spread all day long, while Eurema venusta just in day light.

  8. Checklist of butterfly fauna of Kohat, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzana Perveen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The butterflies play dual role, firstly as the pollinator, carries pollen from one flower to another and secondly their larvae act as the pest, injurious to various crops. Their 21 species were identified belonging to 3 different families from Kohat, Pakistan during September-December 2008. The reported families Namphalidae covered 33%, Papilionidae 10%, and Pieridae 57% biodiversity of butterflies of Kohat. In Namphalidae included: species belonging to subfamily Nymphalinae, Indian fritillary, Argynnis hyperbius Linnaeus; common castor, Ariadne merione (Cramer; painted lady, Cynthia cardui (Linnaeus; peacock pansy, Junonia almanac Linnaeus; blue pansy, J. orithya Linnaeus; common leopard, Phalantha phalantha (Drury; species belonging to subfamily Satyrinae, white edged rock brown, Hipparchia parisatis (Kollar. In Papilionidae included: subfamily Papilioninae, lime butterfly, Papilio demoleus Linnaeus and common mormon, Pa. polytes Linnaeus. In Pieridae included: subfamily Coliaclinae, dark clouded yellow, Colias croceus (Geoffroy; subfamily Coliadinae, lemon emigrant, Catopsilia pomona Fabricius; little orange tip, C. etrida Boisduval; blue spot arab,Colotis protractus Butler; common grass yellow, Eumera hecab (Linnaeus; common brimstone, Gonepteryx rhamni (Linnaeus; yellow orange tip, Ixias pyrene Linnaeus; subfamily Pierinae, pioneer white butterfly, Belenoi aurota Bingham; Murree green-veined white, Pieris ajaka Moore; large cabbage white, P. brassicae Linnaeus; green-veined white, P. napi (Linnaeus; small cabbage white, P. rapae Linnaeus. The wingspan of collected butterflies, minimum was 25 mm of C. etrida which was the smallest butterfly, however, maximum was 100 mm of P. demoleus and P. polytes which were the largest butterflies. A detail study is required for further exploration of butterflies' fauna of Kohat.

  9. Un posible complejo de especies gemelas en el gnero Eurema (Lepidoptera: Pieridae. I - Evidencias biolgicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreno F. Liz Patricia

    1995-11-01

    Full Text Available This research is a biological and ecological study of a polymorphic population of Eurema salome Felder similar to that previously described by Klots (1928 as composed by two different forms according to the wing color pattern of its males. The two supposed forms showed different host plant and specific color in both larva and adult stage. Host plant exchange experiment indicate that the two color forms are genetically determined rather than induced by the host plant or enviroment. These results suggest that the polymorphic populations studied is composed of two distinct species reproductively isolated rather than two polymorphic forms of the same species. We also speculate that host plant use played a crucial role in the initial diferentiation of these two species. We conclude that these species could be consider as sibbling species because of their significant morphological likeness.En este trabajo se realiza un estudio biolgico y ecolgico a una presunta poblacin polimrfica de Eurema salome Felder, conformada por dos formas descritas por Klot Sen 1928 con base en el patrn de coloracin alar de los machos. Se encontr que estas presuntas formas presentan diferentes plantas hospederas y caractersticas especficas de coloracin tanto a nivel larvario como del adulto. Al realizar intercambio de hospederos se estableci que las caractersticas que diferencian las dos formas son heredadas genticamente y no inducidas por condiciones de hospedero o medioambientales. A partir de estos resultados se plantea que la poblacin en estudio probablemente no est conformada, como se pens inicialmente, por dos formas de la especie E. salome Feld., sino por dos especies diferentes actualmente aisladas reproductivamente y cuya diferenciacin se dio inicialmente a partir del hospedero. Dichas especies presentan un grado de semejanza morfolgica tal que permite tratarlas como especies gemelas.

  10. Teaching and Learning with Butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisberg, Saul

    1996-01-01

    Presents butterflies as an introduction to natural history. Describes observation tips and metamorphosis of butterflies in the classroom. Includes butterfly resources for naturalists and educators. (AIM)

  11. Butterfly Nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) is back at work, capturing this image of the 'butterfly wing'- shaped nebula, NGC 2346. The nebula is about 2,000 light-years away from Earth in the direction of the constellation Monoceros. It represents the spectacular 'last gasp' of a binary star system at the nebula's center. The image was taken on March 6, 1997 as part of the recommissioning of the Hubble Space Telescope's previously installed scientific instruments following the successful servicing of the HST by NASA shuttle astronauts in February. WFPC2 was installed in HST during the servicing mission in 1993. At the center of the nebula lies a pair of stars that are so close together that they orbit around each other every 16 days. This is so close that, even with Hubble, the pair of stars cannot be resolved into its two components. One component of this binary is the hot core of a star that has ejected most of its outer layers, producing the surrounding nebula. Astronomers believe that this star, when it evolved and expanded to become a red giant, actually swallowed its companion star in an act of stellar cannibalism. The resulting interaction led to a spiraling together of the two stars, culminating in ejection of the outer layers of the red giant. Most of the outer layers were ejected into a dense disk, which can still be seen in the Hubble image, surrounding the central star. Later the hot star developed a fast stellar wind. This wind, blowing out into the surrounding disk, has inflated the large, wispy hourglass-shaped wings perpendicular to the disk. These wings produce the butterfly appearance when seen in projection. The total diameter of the nebula is about one-third of a light-year, or 2 trillion miles.

  12. Butterfly Ejecta

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Released 4 September 2003In the heavily cratered southern highlands of Mars, the type of crater seen in this THEMIS visible image is relatively rare. Elliptical craters with 'butterfly' ejecta patterns make up roughly 5% of the total crater population of Mars. They are caused by impactors which hit the surface at oblique, or very shallow angles. Similar craters are also seen in about the same abundance on the Moon and Venus.Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -24.6, Longitude 41 East (319 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  13. On the butterfly effect

    CERN Document Server

    Shnirelman, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The term "butterfly effect" means an extreme sensitivity of a dynamical system to small perturbations: "The beating of a butterfly wing in South America can result in the considerable change of positions and force of a tropical cyclon in Atlantic 2 weeks later". Numerical simulations of R.Robert show the absence of the butterfly effect in some simple flows of 2-d ideal incompressible fluid which is a model of the atmosphere. In this work a more complicated flow is considered. Numerical simulation demonstrates the butterfly effect in the strongest form. The effect is robust, and the experiment is 100% reproducible.

  14. Butterflies of Myanmar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document talks about species and habits of Myanmar butterflies that were mentioned by the Nature and Wildlife Conservation Division of the Forest Department under the Ministry of Forestry in Myanmar

  15. Butterfly valves for seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently in thermal and nuclear power stations and chemical plants which have become large capacity, large quantity of cooling water is required, and mostly seawater is utilized. In these cooling water systems, considering thermal efficiency and economy, the pipings become complex, and various control functions are demanded. For the purpose, the installation of shut-off valves and control valves for pipings is necessary. The various types of valves have been employed, and in particular, butterfly valves have many merits in their function, size, structure, operation, maintenance, usable period, price and so on. The corrosion behavior of seawater is complicated due to the pollution of seawater, therefore, the environment of the valves used for seawater became severe. The structure and the features of the butterfly valves for seawater, the change of the structure of the butterfly valves for seawater and the checkup of the butterfly valves for seawater are reported. The corrosion of metallic materials is complicatedly different due to the locating condition of plants, the state of pipings and the condition of use. The corrosion countermeasures for butterfly valves must be examined from the synthetic viewpoints. (K.I.)

  16. Completing the operadic butterfly

    OpenAIRE

    Loday, Jean-Louis

    2004-01-01

    We complete a certain diagram (the operadic butterfly) of categories of algebras involving Com, As, and Lie by constructing a type of algebras which have 4 generating operations and 16 relations. The associated operad is self-dual for Koszul duality.

  17. The real butterfly effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Historical evidence is reviewed to show that what Ed Lorenz meant by the iconic phrase ‘the butterfly effect’ is not at all captured by the notion of sensitive dependence on initial conditions in low-order chaos. Rather, as presented in his 1969 Tellus paper, Lorenz intended the phrase to describe the existence of an absolute finite-time predicability barrier in certain multi-scale fluid systems, implying a breakdown of continuous dependence on initial conditions for large enough forecast lead times. To distinguish from ‘mere’ sensitive dependence, the effect discussed in Lorenz's Tellus paper is referred to as ‘the real butterfly effect’. Theoretical evidence for such a predictability barrier in a fluid described by the three-dimensional Navier–Stokes equations is discussed. Whilst it is still an open question whether the Navier–Stokes equation has this property, evidence from both idealized atmospheric simulators and analysis of operational weather forecasts suggests that the real butterfly effect exists in an asymptotic sense, i.e. for initial-time atmospheric perturbations that are small in scale and amplitude compared with (weather) scales of interest, but still large in scale and amplitude compared with variability in the viscous subrange. Despite this, the real butterfly effect is an intermittent phenomenon in the atmosphere, and its presence can be signalled a priori, and hence mitigated, by ensemble forecast methods. (invited article)

  18. The IBS Butterfly

    OpenAIRE

    Lomolino, Mark V.

    2009-01-01

    cover: Butterfly logo designed by Mark V. Lomolino for the original Frontiers of Biogeography book , which we are adopting as the logo of this new journal. See the editorial From the Foundations to the Frontiers of Biogeography for further details.

  19. A Parallel Butterfly Algorithm

    KAUST Repository

    Poulson, Jack

    2014-02-04

    The butterfly algorithm is a fast algorithm which approximately evaluates a discrete analogue of the integral transform (Equation Presented.) at large numbers of target points when the kernel, K(x, y), is approximately low-rank when restricted to subdomains satisfying a certain simple geometric condition. In d dimensions with O(Nd) quasi-uniformly distributed source and target points, when each appropriate submatrix of K is approximately rank-r, the running time of the algorithm is at most O(r2Nd logN). A parallelization of the butterfly algorithm is introduced which, assuming a message latency of α and per-process inverse bandwidth of β, executes in at most (Equation Presented.) time using p processes. This parallel algorithm was then instantiated in the form of the open-source DistButterfly library for the special case where K(x, y) = exp(iΦ(x, y)), where Φ(x, y) is a black-box, sufficiently smooth, real-valued phase function. Experiments on Blue Gene/Q demonstrate impressive strong-scaling results for important classes of phase functions. Using quasi-uniform sources, hyperbolic Radon transforms, and an analogue of a three-dimensional generalized Radon transform were, respectively, observed to strong-scale from 1-node/16-cores up to 1024-nodes/16,384-cores with greater than 90% and 82% efficiency, respectively. © 2014 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  20. The State of the UK's Butterflies 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Fox, R.; Brereton, T. M.; Asher, J.; M. S. Botham; Middlebrook, I; Roy, D.B; Warren, M S

    2011-01-01

    This report summarises the findings of two world-leading citizen science projects: the UK Butterfly Monitoring Scheme, which involves weekly butterfly counts at over 1,000 sites, and Butterflies for the New Millennium, which has collated over six million butterfly sightings across the UK from thousands of members of the public.

  1. Structural color of Morpho butterflies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Glenn S.

    2009-11-01

    Structural color is caused by wavelength-selective scattering of light by microscopic features, such as those on the scales of some insects. The brilliant blue displayed by some male Morpho butterflies is a classic example of this phenomenon. In this paper, experiments used to distinguish structural color from color due to pigmentation are reviewed. A simple electromagnetic model is developed for the structural scattering from Morpho butterfly scales, and the blue color and iridescence normally seen for these butterflies are predicted by this model. The analysis is based on topics usually discussed in courses on electromagnetism and optics and can be used as an example to supplement classroom discussions of these topics.

  2. Butterfly gene flow goes berserk

    OpenAIRE

    Ffrench-Constant, Richard H.

    2016-01-01

    A new study shows that genomic introgression between two Heliconius butterfly species is not solely confined to color pattern loci. Please see related Research article: www.dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13059-016-0889-0

  3. Karner Blue Butterfly Recovery Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This recovery plan has been prepared by the Karner Blue Butterfly Recovery Team under the leadership of Dr. David Andow, University of MinnesotaSt. Paul. Dr. John...

  4. Butterflies and topological quantum numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Avron, J. E.; Osadchy, D.

    2001-01-01

    The Hofstadter model illustrates the notion of topological quantum numbers and how they account for the quantization of the Hall conductance. It gives rise to colorful fractal diagrams of butterflies where the colors represent the topological quantum numbers.

  5. Comparative study of Butterfly valves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work tries to justify the hydrodynamic butterfly valves performance, using the EPRI tests, results carried out in laboratory and in situ. This justification will be possible if: - The valves to study are similar - Their performance is calculated using EPRI's methodology Looking for this objective, the elements of the present work are: 1. Brief EPRI butterfly valve description it wild provide the factors which are necessary to define the butterfly valves similarity. 2. EPRI tests description and range of validation against test data definition. 3. Description of the spanish butterfly analyzed valves, and comparison with the EPRI performance results, to prove that this valves are similar to the EPRI test valves. In this way, it will not be necessary to carry out particular dynamic tests on the spanish valves to describe their hydrodynamic performance. (Author)

  6. Status of six endangered California Butterflies 1977

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A survey was conducted from MarchSeptember 1977 to determine the current status of six federally endangered butterflies which reside in California. The butterflies...

  7. Mutant butterflies discovered at Fukushima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Japanese study has shown that malformations are more and more common in butterflies (Zizeeria maha specie) leaving near the damaged nuclear plant of Fukushima Daiichi. A population of 144 butterflies were caught in 10 villages in a radius of 200 km around Fukushima in may 2011, the ratio of malformations was 12.4%. Obvious malformations were withered antennas and wings. In september 2011 a population of 238 butterflies were caught in the same places and the ratio of malformations was then 28.1%. The increase of the malformation ratio could be explained by a cumulative effect of the radiation exposition. In a second experiment, a population of butterflies was caught in a region non-affected by the radioactive contamination and was submitted in laboratory to radiations similar to that of the contamination around Fukushima and similar malformations appeared. The conclusion of the study is that radionuclides released during the Fukushima accident have caused genetic and physiological damages to this butterfly specie. (A.C.)

  8. Extended season for northern butterflies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Bengt

    2014-07-01

    Butterflies are like all insects in that they are temperature sensitive and a changing climate with higher temperatures might effect their phenology. Several studies have found support for earlier flight dates among the investigated species. A comparative study with data from a citizen science project, including 66 species of butterflies in Sweden, was undertaken, and the result confirms that most butterfly species now fly earlier during the season. This is especially evident for butterflies overwintering as adults or as pupae. However, the advancement in phenology is correlated with flight date, and some late season species show no advancement or have even postponed their flight dates and are now flying later in the season. The results also showed that latitude had a strong effect on the adult flight date, and most of the investigated species showed significantly later flights towards the north. Only some late flying species showed an opposite trend, flying earlier in the north. A majority of the investigated species in this study showed a general response to temperature and advanced their flight dates with warmer temperatures (on average they advanced their flight dates by 3.8 days/°C), although not all species showed this response. In essence, a climate with earlier springs and longer growing seasons seems not to change the appearance patterns in a one-way direction. We now see butterflies on the wings both earlier and later in the season and some consequences of these patterns are discussed. So far, studies have concentrated mostly on early season butterfly-plant interactions but also late season studies are needed for a better understanding of long-term population consequences.

  9. Butterfly gene flow goes berserk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ffrench-Constant, Richard H

    2016-01-01

    A new study shows that genomic introgression between two Heliconius butterfly species is not solely confined to color pattern loci.Please see related Research article: www.dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13059-016-0889-0. PMID:26921260

  10. Better butterfly theorem in the isotropic plane

    OpenAIRE

    Beban-Brkić, J.

    2006-01-01

    A real affine plane A_2 is called an isotropic plane I_2, if in A_2 a metric is induced by an absolute {f, F}, consisting of the line at infinity f of A_2 and a point $Fin f$. Better butterfly theorem is one of the generalisations of the well-known butterfly theorem ([1], [4]). In this paper the better butterfly theorem has been adapted for the isotropic plane and its validity in I_2 has been proved.

  11. Measuring Straight Line Segments Using HT Butterflies

    OpenAIRE

    Du, Shengzhi; Tu, Chunling; Barend J. van Wyk; Ochola, Elisha Oketch; Chen, Zengqiang

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses the features of Hough Transform (HT) butterflies suitable for image-based segment detection and measurement. The full segment parameters such as the position, slope, width, length, continuity, and uniformity are related to the features of the HT butterflies. Mathematical analysis and experimental data are presented in order to demonstrate and build the relationship between the measurements of segments and the features of HT butterflies. An effective method is subsequently...

  12. Monitoring of butterflies within a landscape context

    OpenAIRE

    Jonason, Dennis

    2007-01-01

    Monitoring of butterflies is most often only directed towards the grassland fauna. Species associated with other vegetation types, as well as the impact of the surrounding landscape, often become neglected. The aim with this study was, in contrast, to perform a novel landscape-based monitoring method for butterflies in diverse vegetation types and more specifically (i) evaluate the impact of environmental variables on butterfly abundance, (ii) compare the distribution...

  13. The Conchal Cartilage Butterfly Graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Oren; Coblens, Orly

    2016-02-01

    Nasal obstruction due to weakening of the nasal sidewall is a very common patient complaint. The conchal cartilage butterfly graft is a proven technique for the correction of nasal valve collapse. It allows for excellent functional results, and with experience and attention to technical detail, it may also provide excellent cosmetic results. While this procedure is most useful for restoring form and function in cases of secondary rhinoplasty following the reduction of nasal support structures, we have found it to be a very powerful and satisfying technique in primary rhinoplasty as well. This article aims to describe the butterfly graft, discuss its history, and detail the technical considerations which we have found useful. PMID:26862963

  14. Neurobiology of Monarch Butterfly Migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reppert, Steven M; Guerra, Patrick A; Merlin, Christine

    2016-03-11

    Studies of the migration of the eastern North American monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) have revealed mechanisms behind its navigation. The main orientation mechanism uses a time-compensated sun compass during both the migration south and the remigration north. Daylight cues, such as the sun itself and polarized light, are processed through both eyes and integrated through intricate circuitry in the brain's central complex, the presumed site of the sun compass. Monarch circadian clocks have a distinct molecular mechanism, and those that reside in the antennae provide time compensation. Recent evidence shows that migrants can also use a light-dependent inclination magnetic compass for orientation in the absence of directional daylight cues. The monarch genome has been sequenced, and genetic strategies using nuclease-based technologies have been developed to edit specific genes. The monarch butterfly has emerged as a model system to study the neural, molecular, and genetic basis of long-distance animal migration. PMID:26473314

  15. The Butterfly Diagram Internal Structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A time-latitude diagram, where the spotgroup area is taken into account, is presented for cycles 12 through 23. The results show that the spotted area is concentrated in few, small portions (knots) of the Butterfly Diagram (BD). The BD may be described as a cluster of knots. Knots are distributed in the butterfly wings in a seemingly randomly way. A knot may appear at either lower or higher latitudes than previous ones, in spite of the prevalent tendency to appear at lower and lower latitudes. Accordingly, the spotted area centroid, far from continuously drifting equatorward, drifts poleward or remains stationary in any hemisphere for significant fractions (≈ 1/3) of the cycle total duration. In a relevant number of semicycles, knots seem to form two roughly parallel, oblique chains, separated by an underspotted band. This picture suggests that two (or more) ''activity streams'' approach the equator at a rate higher than the spot zone as a whole.

  16. Butterfly valve torque prediction methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of the Motor-Operated Valve (MOV) Performance Prediction Program, the Electric Power Research Institute has sponsored the development of methodologies for predicting thrust and torque requirements of gate, globe, and butterfly MOVs. This paper presents the methodology that will be used by utilities to calculate the dynamic torque requirements for butterfly valves. The total dynamic torque at any disc position is the sum of the hydrodynamic torque, bearing torque (which is induced by the hydrodynamic force), as well as other small torque components (such as packing torque). The hydrodynamic torque on the valve disc, caused by the fluid flow through the valve, depends on the disc angle, flow velocity, upstream flow disturbances, disc shape, and the disc aspect ratio. The butterfly valve model provides sets of nondimensional flow and torque coefficients that can be used to predict flow rate and hydrodynamic torque throughout the disc stroke and to calculate the required actuation torque and the maximum transmitted torque throughout the opening and closing stroke. The scope of the model includes symmetric and nonsymmetric discs of different shapes and aspects ratios in compressible and incompressible fluid applications under both choked and nonchoked flow conditions. The model features were validated against test data from a comprehensive flowloop and in situ test program. These tests were designed to systematically address the effect of the following parameters on the required torque: valve size, disc shapes and disc aspect ratios, upstream elbow orientation and its proximity, and flow conditions. The applicability of the nondimensional coefficients to valves of different sizes was validated by performing tests on 42-in. valve and a precisely scaled 6-in. model. The butterfly valve model torque predictions were found to bound test data from the flow-loop and in situ testing, as shown in the examples provided in this paper

  17. Blame it on the butterfly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Kate

    2009-08-01

    Last year at a science networking event in a Central London pub, I was cornered by the manager of an "alternative healing centre", who regaled me with stories about her patients' miraculous recoveries from ailments that modern medicine had been unable to address. "After all," she said, leaning forward with the air of someone confiding an esoteric, but unassailable, argument, "if a butterfly flapping its wings in a forest can cause a hurricane, imagine what a positive attitude can do!"

  18. The Butterfly Effect for Physics Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claycomb, James R.; Valentine, John H.

    2015-01-01

    A low-cost chaos dynamics lab is developed for quantitative demonstration of the butterfly effect using a magnetic pendulum. Chaotic motion is explored by recording magnetic time series. Students analyze the data in Excel® to investigate the butterfly effect as well as the reconstruction of the strange attractor using time delay plots. The lab…

  19. Ecology and evolution of mountain butterflies

    OpenAIRE

    KLEČKOVÁ, Irena

    2014-01-01

    The thesis deals with speciation processes, thermal ecology and habitat use in Holarctic mountain and arctic butterflies. It demonstrates a crucial role of environmental heterogeneity for speciation, survival of butterfly lineages, coexistence of closely related species and, finally, for resource use of sexes with different habitats demands at the level of individual species.

  20. Butterfly valves: greater use in power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Improvements in butterfly valves, particularly in the areas of automatic control and leak tightness are described. The use of butterfly valves in nuclear power plants is discussed. These uses include service in component cooling, containment cooling, and containment isolation. The outlook for further improvements and greater uses is examined. (U.S.)

  1. Numerical Analysis of Large Diameter Butterfly Valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngchul, Park; Xueguan, Song

    In this paper, a butterfly valve with the diameter of 1,800 mm was studied. Three-dimensional numerical technique by using commercial code CFX were conducted to observe the flow patterns and to measure flow coefficient, hydrodynamic torque coefficient and so on, when the large butterfly valve operated with various angles and uniform incoming velocity.

  2. Minimum Cycle Covers of Butterfly and Benes Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Albert William; A. Shanthakumari

    2012-01-01

    Butterfly network is the most popular bounded-degree derivative of the hypercube network. The benes network consists of back-to-back butterflies. In this paper, we obtain the minimum vertex-disjoint cycle cover number for the odd dimensional butterfly networks and prove that it is not possible to find the same for the even dimensional butterfly networks and benes networks. Further we obtain the minimum edge-disjoint cycle cover number for butterfly networks.

  3. Minimum Cycle Covers of Butterfly and Benes Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert William

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Butterfly network is the most popular bounded-degree derivative of the hypercube network. The benes network consists of back-to-back butterflies. In this paper, we obtain the minimum vertex-disjoint cycle cover number for the odd dimensional butterfly networks and prove that it is not possible to find the same for the even dimensional butterfly networks and benes networks. Further we obtain the minimum edge-disjoint cycle cover number for butterfly networks.

  4. Butterflies on the Stretched Horizon

    CERN Document Server

    Susskind, Leonard

    2013-01-01

    In this paper I return to the question of what kind of perturbations on Alice's side of an Einstein-Rosen bridge can send messages to Bob as he enters the horizon at the other end. By definition "easy" operators do not activate messages and "hard" operators do, but there are no clear criteria to identify the difference between easy and hard. In this paper I argue that the difference is related to the time evolution of a certain measure of computational complexity, associated with the stretched horizon of Alice's black hole. The arguments suggest that the AMPSS commutator argument is more connected with butterflies than with firewalls.

  5. Butterflies with rotation and charge

    OpenAIRE

    Reynolds, Alan P.; Ross, Simon F.

    2016-01-01

    We explore the butterfly effect for black holes with rotation or charge. We perturb rotating BTZ and charged black holes in 2+1 dimensions by adding a small perturbation on one asymptotic region, described by a shock wave in the spacetime, and explore the effect of this shock wave on the length of geodesics through the wormhole and hence on correlation functions. We find the effect of the perturbation grows exponentially at a rate controlled by the temperature; dependence on the angular momen...

  6. Butterflies with rotation and charge

    CERN Document Server

    Reynolds, Alan P

    2016-01-01

    We explore the butterfly effect for black holes with rotation or charge. We perturb rotating BTZ and charged black holes in 2+1 dimensions by adding a small perturbation on one asymptotic region, described by a shock wave in the spacetime, and explore the effect of this shock wave on the length of geodesics through the wormhole and hence on correlation functions. We find the effect of the perturbation grows exponentially at a rate controlled by the temperature; dependence on the angular momentum or charge does not appear explicitly. We comment on issues affecting the extension to higher-dimensional charged black holes.

  7. Subtractive Structural Modification of Morpho Butterfly Wings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Qingchen; He, Jiaqing; Ni, Mengtian; Song, Chengyi; Zhou, Lingye; Hu, Hang; Zhang, Ruoxi; Luo, Zhen; Wang, Ge; Tao, Peng; Deng, Tao; Shang, Wen

    2015-11-11

    Different from studies of butterfly wings through additive modification, this work for the first time studies the property change of butterfly wings through subtractive modification using oxygen plasma etching. The controlled modification of butterfly wings through such subtractive process results in gradual change of the optical properties, and helps the further understanding of structural optimization through natural evolution. The brilliant color of Morpho butterfly wings is originated from the hierarchical nanostructure on the wing scales. Such nanoarchitecture has attracted a lot of research effort, including the study of its optical properties, its potential use in sensing and infrared imaging, and also the use of such structure as template for the fabrication of high-performance photocatalytic materials. The controlled subtractive processes provide a new path to modify such nanoarchitecture and its optical property. Distinct from previous studies on the optical property of the Morpho wing structure, this study provides additional experimental evidence for the origination of the optical property of the natural butterfly wing scales. The study also offers a facile approach to generate new 3D nanostructures using butterfly wings as the templates and may lead to simpler structure models for large-scale man-made structures than those offered by original butterfly wings. PMID:26397977

  8. Butterfly Tachyons in Vacuum String Field Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Matlock, Peter

    2002-01-01

    We use geometrical conformal field theory methods to investigate tachyon fluctuations about the butterfly projector state in Vacuum String Field Theory. We find that the on-shell condition for the tachyon field is equivalent to the requirement that the quadratic term in the string-field action vanish on shell. This further motivates the interpretation of the butterfly state as a D-brane. We begin a calculation of the tension of the butterfly, and conjecture that this will match the case of th...

  9. Butterfly tachyons in vacuum string field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We use geometrical conformal field theory methods to investigate tachyon fluctuations about the butterfly projector state in vacuum string field theory. We find that the on-shell condition for the tachyon field is equivalent to the requirement that the quadratic term in the string-field action vanish on shell. This further motivates the interpretation of the butterfly state as a D-brane. We begin a calculation of the tension of the butterfly, and conjecture that this will match the case of the sliver and further strengthen this interpretation

  10. Butterfly Surveys in Southeastern North Dakota : 1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The goal of this study was to inventory butterflies and skippers on a number of wetland prairie sites in southeastern North Dakota, and pinpoint the location and...

  11. Butterfly Survey on Pinckney Island NWR (2001)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Butterfly adult Lepidoptera survey conducted monthly MayNov 2001 at nine locations within Pinckney Island NWR. These nine locations include Ibis Pond, Woodstork...

  12. Butterfly Surveys in Southeastern North Dakota : 1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The goal of this study was to inventory butterflies and skippers on a number of wetland prairie sites in southeastern North Dakota, and pinpoint the location and...

  13. Butterfly Surveys in North Dakota : 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The main goal of this study was to conduct inventories of butterflies and skippers on a number of prairie and wetland sites in North Dakota and determine the...

  14. Biology: Birds and butterflies in climatic debt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Marcel E.

    2012-02-01

    A European-wide analysis of changing species distributions shows that butterflies outrun birds in the race to move northwards in response to climate change, but that neither group keeps up with increasing temperatures.

  15. Butterfly wing color: A photonic crystal demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proietti Zaccaria, Remo

    2016-01-01

    We have theoretically modeled the optical behavior of a natural occurring photonic crystal, as defined by the geometrical characteristics of the Teinopalpus Imperialis butterfly. In particular, following a genetic algorithm approach, we demonstrate how its wings follow a triclinic crystal geometry with a tetrahedron unit base. By performing both photonic band analysis and transmission/reflection simulations, we are able to explain the characteristic colors emerging by the butterfly wings, thus confirming their crystal form.

  16. White butterflies as solar photovoltaic concentrators

    OpenAIRE

    Katie Shanks; Senthilarasu, S.; Ffrench-Constant, Richard H.; Tapas K. Mallick

    2015-01-01

    Man’s harvesting of photovoltaic energy requires the deployment of extensive arrays of solar panels. To improve both the gathering of thermal and photovoltaic energy from the sun we have examined the concept of biomimicry in white butterflies of the family Pieridae. We tested the hypothesis that the V-shaped posture of basking white butterflies mimics the V-trough concentrator which is designed to increase solar input to photovoltaic cells. These solar concentrators improve harvesting efficie...

  17. A clinically isolated syndrome: butterfly glioma mimic

    OpenAIRE

    Ramshekhar Menon; Bejoy Thomas; Hariharan Venkat Easwer; Samvedam Sandhyamani; Amita Nair; Muralidharan Nair

    2015-01-01

    The report explores a unique and treatable "butterfly"- glioma mimic and the neuroimaging characteristics that help to diagnose this entity. A 35-year-old patient presented with subacute-onset, progressive frontal lobe dysfunction followed by features of raised intracranial pressure. Neuroimaging features were consistent with a "butterfly" lesion that favored the possibility of a gliomatosis cerebri with significant edema and marked corpus callosum and fornix thickening. Contrast-enhanced and...

  18. The Return of the Blue Butterfly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Anabela

    2014-05-01

    The Return of the Blue Butterfly The English writer Charles Dickens once wrote: "I only ask to be free. The butterflies are free". But are they really? The work that I performed with a group of students from 8th grade, had a starting point of climate change and the implications it has on ecosystems. Joining the passion I have for butterflies, I realized that they are also in danger of extinction due to these climatic effects. Thus, it was easy to seduce my students wanting to know more. Luckily I found Dr. Paula Seixas Arnaldo, a researcher at the University of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro, who has worked on butterflies and precisely investigated this issue. Portugal is the southern limit of butterfly-blue (Phengaris alcon), and has been many years in the red book of endangered species. Butterfly-blue is very demanding of their habitat, and disappears very easily if ideal conditions are not satisfied. Increased fragmentation of landscapes and degradation of suitable habitats, are considered the greatest challenges of the conservation of Phengaris butterfly in Portugal. In recent decades, climate change has also changed butterfly-blue spatial distribution with a movement of the species northward to colder locations, and dispersion in latitude. Butterflies of Europe must escape to the North because of the heat. Dr. Paula Seixas Arnaldo and her research team began a project, completed in December 2013, wanted to preserve and restore priority habitats recognized by the European Union to help species in danger of disappearing with increasing temperature. The blue butterfly is extremely important because it is a key indicator of the quality of these habitats. In the field, the butterflies are monitored to collect all possible data in order to identify the key species. Butterflies start flying in early July and cease in late August. Mating takes about an hour and occurs in the first days of life. The gentian-peat (Gentiana pneumonanthe) serves as the host plant for laying eggs. Each female lays an average of 60 eggs. Larva must grow in a plant near an anthill of Myrmica aloba species. This is important because butterfly larvae are myrmecophilous, living with ants that feed the butterfly larvae for 11 months, because the ants think the butterfly larvae are ant larvae. In early summer the larvae pupate in the nest of ants. Before expanding their wings, they have to leave quickly to avoid being killed by ants when the ants discover have been deceived. My students became aware of this research; we studied and prepared in order to carry out fieldwork. Thus students learn the content and curricular in a scientifically fun way, first with group work in the classroom with my guidance and in a second stage carry knowledge to the field under the guidance of Dra Paula Seixas Arnaldo. We know where we started ... where we arrives is success!

  19. Do monarch butterflies use polarized skylight for migratory orientation?

    OpenAIRE

    Stalleicken, J; Mukhida, M; Labhart, T.; Wehner, R; Frost, B; Mouritsen, H

    2005-01-01

    To test if migratory monarch butterflies use polarized light patterns as part of their time-compensated sun compass, we recorded their virtual flight paths in a flight simulator while the butterflies were exposed to patches of naturally polarized blue sky, artificial polarizers or a sunny sky. In addition, we tested butterflies with and without the polarized light detectors of their compound eye being occluded. The monarchs' orientation responses suggested that the butterflies did not use the...

  20. Host ant independent oviposition in the parasitic butterfly Maculinea alcon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fürst, Matthias A; Nash, David Richard

    2010-01-01

    Parasitic Maculinea alcon butterflies can only develop in nests of a subset of available Myrmica ant species, so female butterflies have been hypothesized to preferentially lay eggs on plants close to colonies of the correct host ants. Previous correlational investigations of host...... is necessary for conservation of this endangered butterfly....

  1. Importance of body rotation during the flight of a butterfly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Yueh-Han John; Yang, Jing-Tang

    2016-03-01

    In nature the body motion of a butterfly is clearly observed to involve periodic rotation and varied flight modes. The maneuvers of a butterfly in flight are unique. Based on the flight motion of butterflies (Kallima inachus) recorded in free flight, a numerical model of a butterfly is created to study how its flight relates to body pose; the body motion in a simulation is prescribed and tested with varied initial body angle and rotational amplitude. A butterfly rotates its body to control the direction of the vortex rings generated during flapping flight; the flight modes are found to be closely related to the body motion of a butterfly. When the initial body angle increases, the forward displacement decreases, but the upward displacement increases within a stroke. With increased rotational amplitudes, the jet flows generated by a butterfly eject more downward and further enhance the generation of upward force, according to which a butterfly executes a vertical jump at the end of the downstroke. During this jumping stage, the air relative to the butterfly is moving downward; the butterfly pitches up its body to be parallel to the flow and to decrease the projected area so as to avoid further downward force generated. Our results indicate the importance of the body motion of a butterfly in flight. The inspiration of flight controlled with body motion from the flight of a butterfly might yield an alternative way to control future flight vehicles.

  2. Effects of herbicides on Behr's metalmark butterfly, a surrogate species for the endangered butterfly, Lange's metalmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lange's metalmark butterfly, Apodemia mormo langei Comstock, is in danger of extinction due to loss of habitat caused by invasive exotic plants which are eliminating its food, naked stem buckwheat. Herbicides are being used to remove invasive weeds from the dunes; however, little is known about the potential effects of herbicides on butterflies. To address this concern we evaluated potential toxic effects of three herbicides on Behr's metalmark, a close relative of Lange's metalmark. First instars were exposed to recommended field rates of triclopyr, sethoxydim, and imazapyr. Life history parameters were recorded after exposure. These herbicides reduced the number of adults that emerged from pupation (24–36%). Each herbicide has a different mode of action. Therefore, we speculate that effects are due to inert ingredients or indirect effects on food plant quality. If these herbicides act the same in A. mormo langei, they may contribute to the decline of this species. - Highlights: ► We evaluated the effects of three herbicides on the butterfly, Behr's metalmark. ► These herbicides are used to control invasive weeds in butterfly habitat. ► The herbicides reduced adult butterfly emergence. - Herbicides are used to remove invasive weeds from butterfly habitat. Certain herbicides may be having a negative effect on butterflies.

  3. Cavitation noise from butterfly valves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavitation in valves can produce levels of intense noise. It is possible to mathematically express a limit for a design level of cavitation noise in terms of the cavitation parameter sigma. Using the cavitation parameter or limit, it is then possible to calculate the flow conditions at which a design level of cavitation noise will occur. However, the intensity of cavitation increases with the upstream pressure and valve size at a constant sigma. Therefore, it is necessary to derive equations to correct or scale the cavitation limit for the effects of different upstream pressures and valve sizes. The following paper discusses and presents experimental data for the caviation noise limit as well as the cavitation limits of incipient, critical, incipient damage, and choking cavitation for butterfly valves. The main emphasis is on the design limit of caviation noise, and a noise level of 85 decibels was selected as the noise limit. Tables of data and scaling exponents are included for applying the design limits for the effects of upstream pressure and valve size. (orig.)

  4. Chromosome evolution in Neotropical butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saura, Anssi; Von Schoultz, Barbara; Saura, Anja O; Brown, Keith S

    2013-06-01

    We list the chromosome numbers for 65 species of Neotropical Hesperiidae and 104 species or subspecies of Pieridae. In Hesperiidae the tribe Pyrrhopygini have a modal n = 28, Eudaminae and Pyrgini a modal n = 31, while Hesperiinae have n = around 29. Among Pieridae, Coliadinae have a strong modal n = 31 and among Pierinae Anthocharidini are almost fixed for n = 15 while Pierini vary with n = 26 as the most common chromosome number. Dismorphiinae show wide variation. We discuss these results in the context of chromosome numbers of over 1400 Neotropical butterfly species and subspecies derived from about 3000 populations published here and in earlier papers of a series. The overall results show that many Neotropical groups are characterized by karyotype instability with several derived modal numbers or none at all, while almost all taxa of Lepidoptera studied from the other parts of the world have one of n = 29-31 as modal numbers. Possibly chromosome number changes become fixed in the course of speciation driven by biotic interactions. Population subdivision and structuring facilitate karyotype change. Factors that stabilize chromosome numbers include hybridization among species sharing the same number, migration, sexual selection and possibly the distribution of chromosomes within the nucleus. PMID:23865963

  5. Observation of pendular butterfly Rydberg molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Niederprüm, Thomas; Eichert, Tanita; Lippe, Carsten; Pérez-Ríos, Jesús; Greene, Chris H; Ott, Herwig

    2016-01-01

    Obtaining full control over the internal and external quantum states of molecules is the central goal of ultracold chemistry and allows for the study of coherent molecular dynamics, collisions and tests of fundamental laws of physics. When the molecules additionally have a permanent electric dipole moment, the study of dipolar quantum gases and spin-systems with long-range interactions as well as applications in quantum information processing are possible. Rydberg molecules constitute a class of exotic molecules, which are bound by the interaction between the Rydberg electron and the ground state atom. They exhibit extreme bond lengths of hundreds of Bohr radii and giant permanent dipole moments in the kilo-Debye range. A special type with exceptional properties are the so-called butterfly molecules, whose electron density resembles the shape of a butterfly. Here, we report on the photoassociation of butterfly Rydberg molecules and their orientation in a weak electric field. Starting from a Bose-Einstein cond...

  6. Butterfly rash with periodontitis: A diagnostic dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manvi Aggarwal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Rashes can occur in any part of the body. But rash which appears on face has got both psychological and cosmetic effect on the patient. Rashes on face can sometimes be very challenging to physicians and dermatologists and those associated with oral manifestations pose a challenge to dentists. Butterfly rash is a red flat facial rash involving the malar region bilaterally and the bridge of the nose. The presence of a butterfly rash is generally a sign of lupus erythematosus (LE, but it can also include a plethora of conditions. The case presented here is of a female with butterfly rash along with typical bright red discoloration of gingiva. The clinical, histopathological and biochemical investigations suggested the presence of rosacea.

  7. Fault-Tolerant Routing in Butterfly Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed H. Mahafzah

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This research shows that Butterfly networks can be fault-tolerant using Masked Interval Routing Scheme (MIRS. The MIRS was introduced with the aim of compressing the routing tables in a network. It was shown that MIRS could drastically reduce interval information stored in networks such as globe and hypercube graphs, compared to the classical Interval Routing Scheme (IRS. In Butterfly graphs of O(N vertices the number of intervals per edge goes down from Ω in IRS to O(logN in MIRS. This research shows that MIRS may be advantageously used in Butterfly networks, proving that optimal routing with one interval per edge is still possible with a harmless subset of faulty vertices. This research gives an optimal algorithm to reconfigure the intervals in the presence of faults.

  8. Butterfly rash with periodontitis: A diagnostic dilemma

    OpenAIRE

    Manvi Aggarwal; Mudit Mittal; Swati Dwivedi; Pallavi Vashisth; Deepesh Jaiswal

    2012-01-01

    Rashes can occur in any part of the body. But rash which appears on face has got both psychological and cosmetic effect on the patient. Rashes on face can sometimes be very challenging to physicians and dermatologists and those associated with oral manifestations pose a challenge to dentists. Butterfly rash is a red flat facial rash involving the malar region bilaterally and the bridge of the nose. The presence of a butterfly rash is generally a sign of lupus erythematosus (LE), but it can al...

  9. Wheels and Butterflies: Title, Structure, Cover Design

    OpenAIRE

    Gould, Warwick

    2015-01-01

    The gold-stamped heraldic design of Yeats’s Wheels and Butterflies (London: Macmillan, 1934; Wade 175), together with a colour to approximate to that of the cloth on that book, have been represented on the top board of the present volume. In Wheels and Butterflies that device was also replicated in black on the title-page. It was created by an unknown (and probably in-house) artist commissioned by Macmillan, working from photographs of masks by Hildo Van Krop for Vrouwe Emer’s Groote Strijd, ...

  10. Advantages of butterfly valves for power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butterfly valves are increasingly used in nuclear power plants. They are used in CANDU reactors for class 2 and 3 service, to provide emergency and tight shutoff valves for all inlets and outlets of heat exchangers and all calandria penetrations. Guidelines for meeting nuclear power plant valve specifications are set out in ASME Section 3, Nuclear Power Plant Components. Some details of materials of construction, type of actuator, etc., for various classes of nuclear service are tabulated in the present article. The 'fishtail' butterfly valve is an improved design with reduced drag, as is illustrated and explained. (N.D.H.)

  11. Algorithmic Identification for Wings in Butterfly Diagrams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illarionov, E. A.; Sokolov, D. D.

    2012-12-01

    We investigate to what extent the wings of solar butterfly diagrams can be separated without an explicit usage of Hale's polarity law as well as the location of the solar equator. Two algorithms of cluster analysis, namely DBSCAN and C-means, have demonstrated their ability to separate the wings of contemporary butterfly diagrams based on the sunspot group density in the diagram only. Here we generalize the method for continuous tracers, give results concerning the migration velocities and presented clusters for 12 - 20 cycles.

  12. The Invasive Buddleja Daviddi (Butterfly Bush)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buddleja davidii Franchet (Synonym. Buddleia davidii; common name butterfly bush) is a perennial, semi-deciduous, multi-stemmed shrub that is resident in gardens and disturbed areas. Since its introduction to the United Kingdom from China in the late 1800s, B. davidii has become...

  13. Functional significance of butterfly wing morphology variation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Shreeve, T.; Konvička, Martin; Van Dyck, H.

    Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, 2009 - (Settele, J.; Shreeve, T.; Konvička, M.; Van Dyck, H.), s. 171-188 ISBN 978-0-521-76697-5 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : butterfly Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  14. The Butterfly Decomposition of Plane Trees

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, W Y C; Shapiro, L W; Chen, William Y.C.; Li, Nelson Y.; Shapiro, Louis W.

    2005-01-01

    We introduce the notion of doubly rooted plane trees and give a decomposition of these trees, called the butterfly decomposition which turns out to have many applications. From the butterfly decomposition we obtain a one-to-one correspondence between doubly rooted plane trees and free Dyck paths, which implies a simple derivation of a relation between the Catalan numbers and the central binomial coefficients. We also establish a one-to-one correspondence between leaf-colored doubly rooted plane trees and free Schr\\"oder paths. The classical Chung-Feller theorem on free Dyck paths and some generalizations and variations with respect to Dyck paths and Schr\\"oder paths with flaws turn out to be immediate consequences of the butterfly decomposition and the preorder traversal of plane trees. We obtain two involutions on free Dyck paths and free Schr\\"oder paths, leading to two combinatorial identities. We also use the butterfly decomposition to give a combinatorial treatment of the generating function for the numb...

  15. Raising Butterflies from Your Own Garden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howley-Pfeifer, Patricia

    2002-01-01

    Describes how raising monarch, black swallowtail, and mourning cloak butterflies in a kindergarten class garden can provide opportunities for observation experiences. Includes detailed steps for instruction and describes stages of growth. Excerpts children's journal dictations to illustrate ways to support the discovery process. Describes related…

  16. Monarch Butterflies: Spirits of Loved Ones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crumpecker, Cheryl

    2011-01-01

    The study of the beautiful monarch butterfly lends itself to a vast array of subject matter, and offers the opportunity to meet a large and varied number of standards and objectives for many grade levels. Art projects featuring monarchs may include many cross-curricular units such as math (symmetry and number graphing), science (adaptation and…

  17. Honeybees, Butterflies, and Ladybugs: Partners to Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Ashley

    2009-01-01

    Honeybees, butterflies, and ladybugs all have fascinating mutually beneficial relationships with plants and play important ecosystem roles. Children also love these creatures. But how do we teach children about these symbiotic interactions and help them appreciate their vital roles in our environment? One must is to give children direct experience…

  18. Tetrapterous butterfly attractors in modified Lorenz systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, the Lorenz-type tetrapterous butterfly attractors are firstly reported. With the introduction of multiple segment piecewise linear functions, these interesting and complex attractors are obtained from two different modified Lorenz models. This approach are verified in both simulations and experiments.

  19. A clinically isolated syndrome: butterfly glioma mimic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramshekhar Menon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The report explores a unique and treatable "butterfly"- glioma mimic and the neuroimaging characteristics that help to diagnose this entity. A 35-year-old patient presented with subacute-onset, progressive frontal lobe dysfunction followed by features of raised intracranial pressure. Neuroimaging features were consistent with a "butterfly" lesion that favored the possibility of a gliomatosis cerebri with significant edema and marked corpus callosum and fornix thickening. Contrast-enhanced and perfusion images revealed a confluent tumefactive lesion with a characteristic "broken-ring" pattern of enhancement, mass-effect and low perfusion; features favoring an alternative inflammatory pathology. This was peculiar as calloso-forniceal involvement of this nature has not been previously reported in inflammatory demyelinating mass lesions. This was confirmed as a tumefactive demyelination on histopathology. Following treatment, on clinical and imaging follow-up, significant resolution was evident suggesting a monophasic illness. This case highlights the stringent clinico-radiological-pathological approach required in the evaluation and management of butterfly lesions despite the striking imaging appearances. Tumefactive demyelination in this patient represents a clinically isolated syndromic presentation of an inflammatory pathology that can resemble gliomatosis cerebri. These "butterfly"-glioma mimics are scarcely reported in the literature, are eminently treatable with variable prognosis and prone for relapse.

  20. Comparisons of some andean butterfly faunas

    OpenAIRE

    Hovanitz, William

    2012-01-01

    Observations of the butterfly fauna at significant points along the top of the Andean mountain chain from near Venezuela in Colombia to central Ecuador in comparable ecologic niches has brought out some interesting facts concerning the sub-ecological prererences of the species and their mtercombination in building up the fauna of a particular region.

  1. Lieb-Robinson and the butterfly effect

    CERN Document Server

    Roberts, Daniel A

    2016-01-01

    As experiments are increasingly able to probe the quantum dynamics of systems with many degrees of freedom, it is interesting to probe fundamental bounds on the dynamics of quantum information. We elaborate on the relationship between one such bound---the Lieb-Robinson bound---and the butterfly effect in strongly-coupled quantum systems. The butterfly effect implies the ballistic growth of local operators in time, which can be quantified with the "butterfly" velocity $v_B$. Similarly, the Lieb-Robinson velocity places a state independent ballistic upper bound on the size of time evolved operators in non-relativistic lattice models. Here, we argue that $v_B$ is a state-dependent effective Lieb-Robinson velocity. We study the butterfly velocity in a wide variety of quantum field theories using holography and compare with free particle computations to understand the role of strong coupling. We find that, depending on the way length and time scale, $v_B$ acquires a temperature dependence and decreases towards the...

  2. White butterflies as solar photovoltaic concentrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanks, Katie; Senthilarasu, S.; Ffrench-Constant, Richard H.; Mallick, Tapas K.

    2015-07-01

    Man’s harvesting of photovoltaic energy requires the deployment of extensive arrays of solar panels. To improve both the gathering of thermal and photovoltaic energy from the sun we have examined the concept of biomimicry in white butterflies of the family Pieridae. We tested the hypothesis that the V-shaped posture of basking white butterflies mimics the V-trough concentrator which is designed to increase solar input to photovoltaic cells. These solar concentrators improve harvesting efficiency but are both heavy and bulky, severely limiting their deployment. Here, we show that the attachment of butterfly wings to a solar cell increases its output power by 42.3%, proving that the wings are indeed highly reflective. Importantly, and relative to current concentrators, the wings improve the power to weight ratio of the overall structure 17-fold, vastly expanding their potential application. Moreover, a single mono-layer of scale cells removed from the butterflies’ wings maintained this high reflectivity showing that a single layer of scale cell-like structures can also form a useful coating. As predicted, the wings increased the temperature of the butterflies’ thorax dramatically, showing that the V-shaped basking posture of white butterflies has indeed evolved to increase the temperature of their flight muscles prior to take-off.

  3. Hofstadter butterfly as Quantum phase diagram

    OpenAIRE

    Osadchy, D.; Avron, J.

    2001-01-01

    The Hofstadter butterfly is viewed as a quantum phase diagram with infinitely many phases, labelled by their (integer) Hall conductance, and a fractal structure. We describe various properties of this phase diagram: We establish Gibbs phase rules; count the number of components of each phase, and characterize the set of multiple phase coexistence.

  4. Butterfly responses to prairie restoration through fire and grazing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Jennifer A.; Debinski, Diane M.; Koford, Rolf R.; Miller, J.R.

    2007-01-01

    The development of land for modern agriculture has resulted in losses of native prairie habitat. The small, isolated patches of prairie habitat that remain are threatened by fire suppression, overgrazing, and invasion by non-native species. We evaluated the effects of three restoration practices (grazing only, burning only, and burning and grazing) on the vegetation characteristics and butterfly communities of remnant prairies. Total butterfly abundance was highest on prairies that were managed with burning and grazing and lowest on those that were only burned. Butterfly species richness did not differ among any of the restoration practices. Butterfly species diversity was highest on sites that were only burned. Responses of individual butterfly species to restoration practices were highly variable. In the best predictive regression model, total butterfly abundance was negatively associated with the percent cover of bare ground and positively associated with the percent cover of forbs. Canonical correspondence analysis revealed that sites with burned only and grazed only practices could be separated based on their butterfly community composition. Butterfly communities in each of the three restoration practices are equally species rich but different practices yield compositionally different butterfly communities. Because of this variation in butterfly species responses to different restoration practices, there is no single practice that will benefit all species or even all species within habitat-specialist or habitat-generalist habitat guilds. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Butterflies of Vidarbha region, Maharashtra State, central India

    OpenAIRE

    A.D. Tiple

    2011-01-01

    Vidarbha region of Maharashtra State, India, is gifted with diverse butterfly habitats. A comprehensive review of various studies on butterflies from this region was carried out. Based on all previous studies, approximately 167 species of butterflies, belonging to 90 genera representing five families were reported. Besides this, seven species reported from the region by previous workers appear to be unusual records for the Vidarbha region. These are treated separately. Out of the 167 species ...

  6. On Random Linear Network Coding for Butterfly Network

    OpenAIRE

    Guang, Xuan; Fu, Fang-Wei

    2010-01-01

    Random linear network coding is a feasible encoding tool for network coding, specially for the non-coherent network, and its performance is important in theory and application. In this letter, we study the performance of random linear network coding for the well-known butterfly network by analyzing the failure probabilities. We determine the failure probabilities of random linear network coding for the well-known butterfly network and the butterfly network with channel failure probability p.

  7. An Evaluation of Butterfly Gardens for Restoring Habitat for the Monarch Butterfly (Lepidoptera: Danaidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutting, Brian T; Tallamy, Douglas W

    2015-10-01

    The eastern migratory monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus L.) population in North America hit record low numbers during the 2013-2014 overwintering season, prompting pleas by scientists and conservation groups to plant the butterfly's milkweed host plants (Asclepias spp.) in residential areas. While planting butterfly gardens with host plants seems like an intuitive action, no previous study has directly compared larval survival in gardens and natural areas to demonstrate that gardens are suitable habitats for Lepidoptera. In this study, milkweed was planted in residential gardens and natural areas. In 2009 and 2010, plants were monitored for oviposition by monarch butterflies and survival of monarch eggs and caterpillars. Monarchs oviposited significantly more frequently in gardens than in natural sites, with 2.0 and 6.2 times more eggs per plant per observation in 2009 and 2010, respectively. There were no significant differences in overall subadult survival between gardens and natural areas. Significant differences in survival were measured for egg and larval cohorts when analyzed separately, but these were not consistent between years. These results suggest that planting gardens with suitable larval host plants can be an effective tool for restoring habitat for monarch butterflies. If planted over a large area, garden plantings may be useful as a partial mitigation for dramatic loss of monarch habitat in agricultural settings. PMID:26314013

  8. Interactions between butterfly-shaped pulses in the inhomogeneous media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Wen-Jun [State Key Laboratory of Information Photonics and Optical Communications, School of Science, P. O. Box 91, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China); Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Huang, Long-Gang; Pan, Nan [State Key Laboratory of Information Photonics and Optical Communications, School of Science, P. O. Box 91, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China); Lei, Ming, E-mail: mlei@bupt.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Information Photonics and Optical Communications, School of Science, P. O. Box 91, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China)

    2014-10-15

    Pulse interactions affect pulse qualities during the propagation. Interactions between butterfly-shaped pulses are investigated to improve pulse qualities in the inhomogeneous media. In order to describe the interactions between butterfly-shaped pulses, analytic two-soliton solutions are derived. Based on those solutions, influences of corresponding parameters on pulse interactions are discussed. Methods to control the pulse interactions are suggested. - Highlights: • Interactions between butterfly-shaped pulses are investigated. • Methods to control the pulse interactions are suggested. • Analytic two-soliton solutions for butterfly-shaped pulses are derived.

  9. Interactions between butterfly-shaped pulses in the inhomogeneous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulse interactions affect pulse qualities during the propagation. Interactions between butterfly-shaped pulses are investigated to improve pulse qualities in the inhomogeneous media. In order to describe the interactions between butterfly-shaped pulses, analytic two-soliton solutions are derived. Based on those solutions, influences of corresponding parameters on pulse interactions are discussed. Methods to control the pulse interactions are suggested. - Highlights: • Interactions between butterfly-shaped pulses are investigated. • Methods to control the pulse interactions are suggested. • Analytic two-soliton solutions for butterfly-shaped pulses are derived

  10. Comments on compressible flow through butterfly valves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakenship, John G.

    In the flow analysis of process piping systems, it is desirable to treat control valves in the same way as elbow, reducers, expansions, and other pressure loss elements. In a recently reported research program, the compressible flow characteristics of butterfly valves were investigated. Fisher Controls International, Inc., manufacturer of a wide range of control valves, publishes coefficients that can be used to calculate flow characteristics for the full range of valve movement. The use is described of the manufacturer's data to calculate flow parameters as reported by the researchers who investigated compressible flow through butterfly valves. The manufacturer's data produced consistent results and can be used to predict choked flow and the pressure loss for unchoked flow.

  11. Navigational mechanisms of migrating monarch butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reppert, Steven M; Gegear, Robert J; Merlin, Christine

    2010-09-01

    Recent studies of the iconic fall migration of monarch butterflies have illuminated the mechanisms behind their southward navigation while using a time-compensated sun compass. Skylight cues, such as the sun itself and polarized light, are processed through both eyes and are probably integrated in the brain's central complex, the presumed site of the sun compass. Time compensation is provided by circadian clocks that have a distinctive molecular mechanism and that reside in the antennae. Monarchs might also use a magnetic compass because they possess two cryptochromes that have the molecular capability for light-dependent magnetoreception. Multiple genomic approaches are now being used with the aim of identifying navigation genes. Monarch butterflies are thus emerging as an excellent model organism in which to study the molecular and neural basis of long-distance migration. PMID:20627420

  12. Fractional Statistics and the Butterfly Effect

    CERN Document Server

    Gu, Yingfei

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we point out a connection between quantum chaos, known as the "butterfly effect", in (1+1)-dimensional rational conformal field theories and fractional statistics in (2+1)-dimensional topologically ordered states. This connection comes from the characteristics of the butterfly effect by the out-of-time-order-correlator proposed recently. We show that the late-time behavior of such correlators is determined by universal properties of the rational conformal field theory such as the modular S-matrix. Using the bulk-boundary correspondence between rational conformal field theories and (2+1)-dimensional topologically ordered states, we show that the late time behavior of out-of-time-order-correlators is intrinsically connected with fractional statistics in the topological order. We also propose a quantitative measure of chaos in a rational conformal field theory, which turns out to be determined by the topological entanglement entropy of the corresponding topological order.

  13. A magnetic compass aids monarch butterfly migration

    OpenAIRE

    Guerra, Patrick A.; Gegear, Robert J.; Reppert, Steven M.

    2014-01-01

    Convincing evidence that migrant monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) use a magnetic compass to aid their fall migration has been lacking from the spectacular navigational capabilities of this species. Here we use flight simulator studies to show that migrants indeed possess an inclination magnetic compass to help direct their flight equatorward in the fall. The use of this inclination compass is light-dependent utilizing ultraviolet-A/blue light between 380 and 420 nm. Notably, the signifi...

  14. Navigational Mechanisms of Migrating Monarch Butterflies

    OpenAIRE

    Reppert, Steven M.; Gegear, Robert J.; Merlin, Christine

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies of the iconic fall migration of monarch butterflies have illuminated the mechanisms behind the navigation south, using a time-compensated sun compass. Skylight cues, such as the sun itself and polarized light, are processed through both eyes and likely integrated in the brain’s central complex, the presumed site of the sun compass. Time compensation is provided by circadian clocks that have a distinctive molecular mechanism and that reside in the antennae. Monarchs may also use...

  15. Colorful butterfly eyes: regionalization and sexual dimorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kentaro Arikawa

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Butterflies are amongst the most colorful animals. Having a strong association with flowers, most of them appear to possess color vision. Earlier studies on the Japanese yellow swallowtail, Papilio xuthus (Papilionidae demonstrated that the eyes are equipped with UV, violet, blue, green, red and broad-band receptors, with each ommatidium housing nine photoreceptor cells in one of three fixed combinations. This makes the Papilio compound eye a rather complex patchwork of three spectrally distinct ommatidia types. However, the eye organization is not identical among butterflies; it appears to be almost species-specific. To extract the features that are essential for color vision in general, an extensive comparative approach is required. We thus focused on species of Papilionidae and Pieridae, in which we analysed opsins, photoreceptor spectral sensitivities, and ommatidial structure. We found multiple long wavelength opsins due to gene duplication in species from four major papilionid tribes (Parnassiinae, Leptocircini, Troidini, Papilionini. In Pieridae, we found three middle wavelength opsins in the subfamily Coliadinae, two in Pierinae, and only one in Dismorphinae. Coexpression of multiple opsins in single photoreceptors, tuning of photoreceptor spectral sensitivities by pigment filtering, and sexual dimorphism were found to be highly variable between species, and therefore may reflect particular ecological niches. On the other hand, features basically shared by all tested species include: the existence of three types of spectrally heterogeneous ommatidia, irregularly distributed within the eye; two short and six long wavelength receptors embedded in each ommatidium; and dorso-ventral specialization. These reflect the basic design of butterfly eyes and maybe crucial for color vision in general. In this talk, I will introduce some examples of these remarkable features of butterfly eyes, with special attention to regionalization and sexual dimorphism.

  16. Hyperspectral image segmentation: the butterfly approach

    OpenAIRE

    Gorretta, N.; Roger, J.M.; Rabatel, G.; Fiorio, C.; Lelong, C.

    2009-01-01

    Few methods are proposed in the litterature for coupling the spectral and the spatial dimension available on hyperspectral images. This paper proposes a generic segmentation scheme named butterfly based on an iterative process and a cross analysis of spectral and spatial information. Indeed, spatial and spatial structures are extracted in spatial and spectral space respectively both taking into account the other one. To apply this layout on hyperspectral imgages, we focus particulary on spati...

  17. Quantum computation over the butterfly network

    OpenAIRE

    Soeda, Akihito; Kinjo, Yoshiyuki; Turner, Peter S.; Murao, Mio

    2010-01-01

    In order to investigate distributed quantum computation under restricted network resources, we introduce a quantum computation task over the butterfly network where both quantum and classical communications are limited. We consider deterministically performing a two-qubit global unitary operation on two unknown inputs given at different nodes, with outputs at two distinct nodes. By using a particular resource setting introduced by M. Hayashi [Phys. Rev. A \\textbf{76}, 040301(R) (2007)], which...

  18. Speciation and biogeography of heliconiine butterflies

    OpenAIRE

    Rosser, N. S.

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis I investigate the speciation and biogeography of neotropical heliconiine butterflies (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Heliconiina). In Chapter 2, I present a large database of locality records for heliconiine species and subspecies, and use these data to test evolutionary and biogeographic hypotheses for their diversification. I find evidence that geographical gradients in species richness are driven at least in part by variation in speciation and/or extinction rates, rather than via...

  19. Hofstadter Butterfly Diagram in Noncommutative Space

    OpenAIRE

    Takahashi, Hidenori; Yamanaka, Masanori

    2006-01-01

    We study an energy spectrum of electron moving under the constant magnetic field in two dimensional noncommutative space. It take place with the gauge invariant way. The Hofstadter butterfly diagram of the noncommutative space is calculated in terms of the lattice model which is derived by the Bopp's shift for space and by the Peierls substitution for external magnetic field. We also find the fractal structure in new diagram. Although the global features of the new diagram are similar to the ...

  20. Underwater flight by the planktonic sea butterfly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, David W; Adhikari, Deepak; Webster, Donald R; Yen, Jeannette

    2016-02-01

    In a remarkable example of convergent evolution, we show that the zooplanktonic sea butterfly Limacina helicina 'flies' underwater in the same way that very small insects fly in the air. Both sea butterflies and flying insects stroke their wings in a characteristic figure-of-eight pattern to produce lift, and both generate extra lift by peeling their wings apart at the beginning of the power stroke (the well-known Weis-Fogh 'clap-and-fling' mechanism). It is highly surprising to find a zooplankter 'mimicking' insect flight as almost all zooplankton swim in this intermediate Reynolds number range (Re=10-100) by using their appendages as paddles rather than wings. The sea butterfly is also unique in that it accomplishes its insect-like figure-of-eight wing stroke by extreme rotation of its body (what we call 'hyper-pitching'), a paradigm that has implications for micro aerial vehicle (MAV) design. No other animal, to our knowledge, pitches to this extent under normal locomotion. PMID:26889002

  1. Butterfly valve of all rubber lining type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The valves used for the circulating water pipes for condensers in nuclear and thermal power stations have become large with the increase of power output, and their specifications have become strict. The materials for the valves change from cast iron to steel plate construction. To cope with sea water corrosion, rubber lining has been applied to the internal surfaces of valve boxes, and the build-up welding of stainless steel has been made on the edges of valves. However, recently it is desired to develop butterfly valves, of which the whole valve disks are lined with hard rubber. For the purpose of confirming the performance of large bore valves, a 2600 mm bore butterfly valve of all rubber lining type was used, and the opening and closing test of 1100 times was carried out by applying thermal cycle and pressure difference and using artifical sea water. Also the bending test of hard rubber lining was performed with test pieces. Thus, it was confirmed that the butterfly valves of all rubber lining type have the performance exceeding that of the valves with build-up welding. The course of development of the valves of all rubber lining type, the construction and the items of confirmation by tests of these valves, and the tests of the valve and the hard rubber lining described above are reported. (Kako, I.)

  2. Comparisons of some Andean Butterfly Faunas Comparisons of some Andean Butterfly Faunas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hovanitz William

    1945-04-01

    Full Text Available Observations of the butterfly fauna at significant points along the top of the Andean mountain chain from near Venezuela in Colombia to central Ecuador in comparable ecologic niches has brought out some interesting facts concerning the sub-ecological prererences of the species and their mtercombination in building up the fauna of a particular region. Observations of the butterfly fauna at significant points along the top of the Andean mountain chain from near Venezuela in Colombia to central Ecuador in comparable ecologic niches has brought out some interesting facts concerning the sub-ecological prererences of the species and their mtercombination in building up the fauna of a particular region.

  3. Climatic Risk Atlas of European Butterflies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Settele

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The overarching aim of the atlas is to communicate the potential risks of climatic change to the future of European butterflies. The main objectives are to: (1 provide a visual aid to discussions on climate change risks and impacts on biodiversity and thus contribute to risk communication as a core element of risk assessment; (2 present crucial data on a large group of species which could help to prioritise conservation efforts in the face of climatic change; (3 reach a broader audience through the combination of new scientific results with photographs of all treated species and some straight forward information about the species and their ecology. The results of this atlas show that climate change is likely to have a profound effect on European butterflies. Ways to mitigate some of the negative impacts are to (1 maintain large populations in diverse habitats; (2 encourage mobility across the landscape; (3 reduce emissions of greenhouse gasses; (4 allow maximum time for species adaptation; (4 conduct further research on climate change and its impacts on biodiversity. The book is a result of long-term research of a large international team of scientists, working at research institutes and non-governmental organizations, many within the framework of projects funded by the European Commission. Each chapter may be browsed/downloaded from the links below: 0. COVER, TITLE PAGE, CONTENTS [PDF, 608 KB] A. CLIMATE CHANGE, BIODIVERSITY, BUTTERFLIES, AND RISK ASSESSMENT [PDF, 208 KB] B. METHODOLOGY [PDF, 516 KB] C. CLIMATE RISKS OF EUROPEAN BUTTERFLY SPECIES. Introduction and Hesperidae [PDF, 5.6 MB]; Papilionidae [PDF, 1.61 MB]; Pieridae [PDF, 5.0 MB]; Lycaenidae, Riodinidae, Libytheidae [PDF, 12 MB]; Nymphalidae, Danaidae [PDF, 21.2 MB]; Non-modelled species and summary [PDF, 328 KB] D. DISCUSSION OF METHODOLOGICAL LIMITATIONS [PDF, 572 KB] E. OUTLOOK: CLIMATE CHANGE AND BUTTERFLY CONSERVATION [PDF, 228 KB] F. APPENDICES, REFERENCES AND INDEX [PDF, 424 KB] Full-color paperback (EURO 59.00 and/or hardback (EURO 89.00 versions may be ordered at info@pensoft.net.

  4. Flow Characteristics of Butterfly Valve by PIV and CFD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S. W.; Kim, J. H.; Choi, Y. D.; Lee, Y. H.

    Butterfly valves are widely used as on-off and control valves for industrial process. The importance of butterfly valves as control valves has been increasing because the pressure loss is smaller than other types of valves and compactness is very desirable for installation. These features are desirable for saving energy and high efficiency of instruments.

  5. Developing "Butterfly Warriors": A Case Study of Science for Citizenship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Junjun; Cowie, Bronwen

    2013-01-01

    Given worldwide concern about a decline in student engagement in school science and an increasing call for science for citizenship in New Zealand Curriculum, this study focused on a butterfly unit that investigated how students in a year-4 primary classroom learnt about New Zealand butterflies through thinking, talking, and acting as citizen…

  6. Fractality of Hofstadter Butterfly in Specific Heat Oscillation

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, L. P.; Xu, W. H.; Qin, M. P.; Xiang, T.

    2010-01-01

    We calculate thermodynamical properties of the Hofstadter model using a recently developed quantum transfer matrix method. We find intrinsic oscillation features in specific heat that manifest the fractal structure of the Hofstadter butterfly. We also propose experimental approaches which use specific heat as an access to detect the Hofstadter butterfly.

  7. A European perspective on butterfly habitats and their conservation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Konvička, Martin

    Wageningen : De Vlinderstichting, 2008. s. 76-76. ISBN N. [International Symposium Future of Butterflies in Europe II. 17.04.2008-19.04.2008, Wageningen] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : butterfly Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  8. Are neonicotinoid insecticides driving declines of widespread butterflies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunnefeld, Nils; Wilson, John McVean; Botham, Marc S.; Brereton, Tom M.; Fox, Richard; Goulson, Dave

    2015-01-01

    There has been widespread concern that neonicotinoid pesticides may be adversely impacting wild and managed bees for some years, but recently attention has shifted to examining broader effects they may be having on biodiversity. For example in the Netherlands, declines in insectivorous birds are positively associated with levels of neonicotinoid pollution in surface water. In England, the total abundance of widespread butterfly species declined by 58% on farmed land between 2000 and 2009 despite both a doubling in conservation spending in the UK, and predictions that climate change should benefit most species. Here we build models of the UK population indices from 1985 to 2012 for 17 widespread butterfly species that commonly occur at farmland sites. Of the factors we tested, three correlated significantly with butterfly populations. Summer temperature and the index for a species the previous year are both positively associated with butterfly indices. By contrast, the number of hectares of farmland where neonicotinoid pesticides are used is negatively associated with butterfly indices. Indices for 15 of the 17 species show negative associations with neonicotinoid usage. The declines in butterflies have largely occurred in England, where neonicotinoid usage is at its highest. In Scotland, where neonicotinoid usage is comparatively low, butterfly numbers are stable. Further research is needed urgently to show whether there is a causal link between neonicotinoid usage and the decline of widespread butterflies or whether it simply represents a proxy for other environmental factors associated with intensive agriculture. PMID:26623186

  9. Colour vision of the foraging swallowtail butterfly papilio xuthus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita; Shimada; Arikawa

    1999-01-01

    This paper demonstrates that foraging summer-form females of the Japanese yellow swallowtail butterfly Papilio xuthus have colour vision. The butterflies were trained to feed on sucrose solution placed on a disk of a particular colour in a cage set in the laboratory. After a few such training runs, a butterfly was presented with the training colour randomly positioned within an array of disks of other colours, but with no sucrose solution. The results indicate that the butterflies learn rapidly to select the training colour reliably among different colours. The training colour was also correctly selected when it was covered with neutral density filters to reduce its brightness, or even when the colour was presented together with disks of a variety of shades of grey. These results demonstrate convincingly, for the first time, that a butterfly has true colour vision. PMID:9851899

  10. Congruence and Diversity of Butterfly-Host Plant Associations at Higher Taxonomic Levels

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrer-Paris, José R.; Sánchez-Mercado, Ada; Viloria, Ángel L.; Donaldson, John

    2013-01-01

    We aggregated data on butterfly-host plant associations from existing sources in order to address the following questions: (1) is there a general correlation between host diversity and butterfly species richness?, (2) has the evolution of host plant use followed consistent patterns across butterfly lineages?, (3) what is the common ancestral host plant for all butterfly lineages? The compilation included 44,148 records from 5,152 butterfly species (28.6% of worldwide species of Papilionoidea)...

  11. Ithomiini butterflies (Lepidoptera: Hymphalidae) of Antioquia, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraldo, C E; Willmott, K R; Vila, R; Uribe, S I

    2013-04-01

    Colombia is one of the most biodiverse countries on the planet. However, economic and scientific investment in completing inventories of its biodiversity has been relatively poor in comparison with other Neotropical countries. Butterflies are the best studied group of invertebrates, with the highest proportion of known to expected species. More than 3,200 species of butterflies have been recorded in Colombia, although the study of the still many unexplored areas will presumably increase this number. This work provides a list of Ithomiini butterflies collected in the department of Antioquia and estimates the total number of species present, based on revision of entomological collections, records in the literature and field work performed between 2003 and 2011. The list includes 99 species and 32 genera, representing 27% of all Ithomiini species. We report 50 species of Ithomiini not formerly listed from Antioquia, and found the highest diversity of ithomiine species to be at middle elevations (900-1,800m). The mean value of the Chao2 estimator for number of species in Antioquia is 115 species, which is close to a predicted total of 109 based on known distributions of other Ithomiini not yet recorded from the department. Nine species are potentially of particular conservation importance because of their restricted distributions, and we present range maps for each species. We also highlight areas in Antioquia with a lack of biodiversity knowledge to be targeted in future studies. This paper contributes to mapping the distribution of the Lepidoptera of Antioquia department in particular and of Colombia in general. PMID:23949748

  12. Universal Charge Diffusion and the Butterfly Effect

    CERN Document Server

    Blake, Mike

    2016-01-01

    We study charge diffusion in holographic scaling theories with a particle-hole symmetry. We show that these theories have a universal regime in which the diffusion constant is given by $D_c = C v_B^2/ (2 \\pi T)$ where $v_B$ is the velocity of the butterfly effect. The constant of proportionality, $C$, depends only on the scaling exponents of the infra-red theory. Our results suggest an unexpected connection between transport at strong coupling and quantum chaos.

  13. Forward flight of swallowtail butterfly with simple flapping motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Hiroto [School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, 60 Oxford Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Shimoyama, Isao, E-mail: isao@i.u-tokyo.ac.j [Department of Mechano-Informatics, Graduate School of Information Science and Technology, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8656 (Japan)

    2010-06-15

    Unlike other flying insects, the wing motion of swallowtail butterflies is basically limited to flapping because their fore wings partly overlap their hind wings, structurally restricting the feathering needed for active control of aerodynamic force. Hence, it can be hypothesized that the flight of swallowtail butterflies is realized with simple flapping, requiring little feedback control of the feathering angle. To verify this hypothesis, we fabricated an artificial butterfly mimicking the wing motion and wing shape of a swallowtail butterfly and analyzed its flights using images taken with a high-speed video camera. The results demonstrated that stable forward flight could be realized without active feathering or feedback control of the wing motion. During the flights, the artificial butterfly's body moved up and down passively in synchronization with the flapping, and the artificial butterfly followed an undulating flight trajectory like an actual swallowtail butterfly. Without feedback control of the wing motion, the body movement is directly affected by change of aerodynamic force due to the wing deformation; the degree of deformation was determined by the wing venation. Unlike a veinless wing, a mimic wing with veins generated a much higher lift coefficient during the flapping flight than in a steady flow due to the large body motion.

  14. Forward flight of swallowtail butterfly with simple flapping motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unlike other flying insects, the wing motion of swallowtail butterflies is basically limited to flapping because their fore wings partly overlap their hind wings, structurally restricting the feathering needed for active control of aerodynamic force. Hence, it can be hypothesized that the flight of swallowtail butterflies is realized with simple flapping, requiring little feedback control of the feathering angle. To verify this hypothesis, we fabricated an artificial butterfly mimicking the wing motion and wing shape of a swallowtail butterfly and analyzed its flights using images taken with a high-speed video camera. The results demonstrated that stable forward flight could be realized without active feathering or feedback control of the wing motion. During the flights, the artificial butterfly's body moved up and down passively in synchronization with the flapping, and the artificial butterfly followed an undulating flight trajectory like an actual swallowtail butterfly. Without feedback control of the wing motion, the body movement is directly affected by change of aerodynamic force due to the wing deformation; the degree of deformation was determined by the wing venation. Unlike a veinless wing, a mimic wing with veins generated a much higher lift coefficient during the flapping flight than in a steady flow due to the large body motion.

  15. Research on optical multistage butterfly interconnection and optoelectronic logic operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, De-Gui; Wang, Na-Xin; He, Li-Ming; Xu, Mai; Liang, Guo-Dong; Zheng, Jie

    We briefly study butterfly interconnection construction and propose an experimental approach to implementing multistage butterfly interconnection networks by using a special interconnection grating with the reflection ladder structure and liquid crystal light valves (LCLVs), and implementing the optical butterfly interconnections and primary optical digital logic operations. With this foundation, we analyse and discuss the features of the approach by computer simulations. In terms of our theoretical analyses, we improve the ring-circuit approach, based on the reflection ladder structure gratings, into a more suitable form based on transmission gratings, and we substitute the LCLVs with optoelectronic switches. Finally we give the experimental results of both the transmission grating and optoelectronic switches.

  16. Differential diagnosis of multiple vertebral compression: butterfly vertebrae

    OpenAIRE

    Ozaras, Nihal; Gumussu, Kevser; Demir, Saliha Eroglu; Rezvani, Aylin

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] A butterfly vertebra is a rare congenital anomaly resulting from a symmetric fusion defect. Only a few cases of butterfly vertebra have been described. This anomaly may be isolated or associated with Pfeiffer, Jarcho-Levins, Crouzon, or Alagille syndrome. [Subject and Methods] We herein describe a 38-year-old man who presented with neck and low back pain and was found to have butterfly vertebrae at the T9 and L3 levels. He also had Behçet’s disease and psoriasis. [Results] The patie...

  17. Photonic nanoarchitectures of biologic origin in butterflies and beetles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Photonic nanoarchitectures occurring in butterflies and beetles, which produce structural color in the visible range of the electromagnetic spectrum by the selective reflection of light, are investigated under the aspect of being used as possible 'blueprints' for artificial, bioinspired nanoarchitectures. The role of order and disorder and of regularity/irregularity in photonic nanoarchitectures of biologic origin is discussed. Three recent case studies are briefly reviewed for butterflies (Albulina metallica, Cyanophrys remus, Troides magellanus) and three for beetles (Hoeplia coerulea, Chrysochroa vittata, Charidotella egregia). The practical realization of bioinspired artificial structures is discussed for the A. metallica butterfly and for the C. vittata beetle.

  18. Photonic nanoarchitectures of biologic origin in butterflies and beetles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biro, L.P., E-mail: biro@mfa.kfki.h [Research Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science, H-1525 Budapest, POB 49 (Hungary)

    2010-05-25

    Photonic nanoarchitectures occurring in butterflies and beetles, which produce structural color in the visible range of the electromagnetic spectrum by the selective reflection of light, are investigated under the aspect of being used as possible 'blueprints' for artificial, bioinspired nanoarchitectures. The role of order and disorder and of regularity/irregularity in photonic nanoarchitectures of biologic origin is discussed. Three recent case studies are briefly reviewed for butterflies (Albulina metallica, Cyanophrys remus, Troides magellanus) and three for beetles (Hoeplia coerulea, Chrysochroa vittata, Charidotella egregia). The practical realization of bioinspired artificial structures is discussed for the A. metallica butterfly and for the C. vittata beetle.

  19. The Subversion of the Oriental Stereotype in M. Butterfly

    OpenAIRE

    Songfeng Wen

    2013-01-01

    This paper is to examine the Oriental stereotype propagated by Giacomo Puccini’s Madame Butterfly and how it is subverted in David Henry Hwang’s M. Butterfly. Puccini portrays a docile, self-sacrificial Oriental woman who is totally submissive to and finally dies for her unworthy White lover. The opera’s popularity has perpetuated the stereotype of an ideal Oriental woman. In Hwang’s M. Butterfly, the stereotype of the ideal Oriental woman is subverted as the gender roles and the power struct...

  20. Effects of herbicides on Behr's metalmark butterfly, a surrogate species for the endangered butterfly, Lange's metalmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, John D; Chen, Xue Dong; Johnson, Catherine S

    2012-05-01

    Lange's metalmark butterfly, Apodemia mormo langei Comstock, is in danger of extinction due to loss of habitat caused by invasive exotic plants which are eliminating its food, naked stem buckwheat. Herbicides are being used to remove invasive weeds from the dunes; however, little is known about the potential effects of herbicides on butterflies. To address this concern we evaluated potential toxic effects of three herbicides on Behr's metalmark, a close relative of Lange's metalmark. First instars were exposed to recommended field rates of triclopyr, sethoxydim, and imazapyr. Life history parameters were recorded after exposure. These herbicides reduced the number of adults that emerged from pupation (24-36%). Each herbicide has a different mode of action. Therefore, we speculate that effects are due to inert ingredients or indirect effects on food plant quality. If these herbicides act the same in A. mormo langei, they may contribute to the decline of this species. PMID:22310058

  1. Butterflies of North Mississippi National Wildlife Refuges and

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Contains an inventory of collected and potential butterflies found on or near Dahomey and Tallahatchie NWRs. Report does not give specific locations of collected...

  2. Karner blue butterfly: Annual summary for Necedah National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report discusses research being conducted on the Karner blue butterfly and historic landscape changes in Necedah National Wildlife Refuge.

  3. Butterfly Count 2001 Wallkill River National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These are the data sheets from the annual butterfly count at Wallkill River National Wildlife Refuge for 2001. There were 20 people involved in this oneday survey.

  4. Butterfly Count 2002 Wallkill River National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These are the data sheets from the annual butterfly count at Wallkill River National Wildlife Refuge for 2002. There were 20 people involved in this oneday survey.

  5. Illustrate the Butterfly Effect on the Chaos Rikitake system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousof Gholipour

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This letter presents butterfly effect on a Chaos system. In this letter we want to briefly introduce Chaos Rikitake system and monitor the butterfly effect on this system. In chaos theory, the butterfly effect is the sensitive dependency on initial conditions. For this goal at the first we suppose initiation point and plot it, for base of work, later will apply small change on one item of initiation point and monitor behavior of Rikitake system. At the end we want to reclaim the famous lecture of Edward Lorenz in 1972 “Does the flap of a butterfly’s wings in Brazil set off a tornado in Texas?”. The numerical simulations by use of MATLAB software are given to illustrate the butterfly effect on this system.

  6. Neuroethology of ultrasonic hearing in nocturnal butterflies (Hedyloidea)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yack, Jayne E.; Kalko, Elisabeth K.V.; Surlykke, Annemarie

    2007-01-01

    Nocturnal Hedyloidea butterflies possess ultrasound-sensitive ears that mediate evasive flight maneuvers. Tympanal ear morphology, auditory physiology and behavioural responses to ultrasound are described for Macrosoma heliconiaria, and evidence for hearing is described for eight other hedylid...

  7. Acoustic characterization of Hofstadter butterfly with resonant scatterers

    OpenAIRE

    Richoux, Olivier; PAGNEUX, Vincent

    2002-01-01

    We are interested in the experimental characterization of the Hofstadter butterfly by means of acoustical waves. The transmission of an acoustic pulse through an array of 60 variable and resonant scatterers periodically distribued along a waveguide is studied. An arbitrary scattering arrangement is realized by using the variable length of each resonator cavity. For a periodic modulation, the structures of forbidden bands of the transmission reproduce the Hofstadter butterfly. We compare exper...

  8. Fire creates host plant patches for monarch butterflies

    OpenAIRE

    Baum, Kristen A.; Sharber, Wyatt V.

    2012-01-01

    Monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) depend on the presence of host plants (Asclepias spp.) within their breeding range for reproduction. In the southern Great Plains, Asclepias viridis is a perennial that flowers in May and June, and starts to senesce by August. It is locally abundant and readily used by monarchs as a host plant. We evaluated the effects of summer prescribed fire on A. viridis and the use of A. viridis by monarch butterflies. Summer prescribed fire generated a newly emerge...

  9. Butterflies of the Vlasina region in Southeast Serbia (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea)

    OpenAIRE

    Tot, Ivan Stevica; Slacki, Anja; Đurić, Milan; Popović, Miloš

    2016-01-01

    Although the Vlasina plateau has proved to be an interesting area hosting diverse and unique flora and fauna, its butterflies have not been thoroughly studied. Consolidating several known records and our field observations, a total of 101 butterfly species were listed for this region. The area hosts a number of important species to be conserved under Natura 2000 and Emerald networks and a significant number of nationally important species. The most interesting record is Colias caucasica, a bu...

  10. Butterflies of Sanjay Gandhi National Park, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amol P Patwardhan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Sanjay Gandhi National Park (SGNP is spread over 103 sq km in Mumbai and Thane districts of Maharashtra, India. During the study I have sighted 142 species of butterflies with another 7 unconfirmed sightings. The butterflies recorded belong to Papilionidae (10 spp., Pieridae (17 spp, Lycaenidae (47 spp., Nymphalidae (40 spp. and Hesperiidae (28 spp.. The study emphasizes the importance of this park as a hotspot which is surrounded by 17 million people.

  11. Butterflies of Sanjay Gandhi National Park, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India

    OpenAIRE

    Amol P Patwardhan

    2014-01-01

    Sanjay Gandhi National Park (SGNP) is spread over 103 sq km in Mumbai and Thane districts of Maharashtra, India. During the study I have sighted 142 species of butterflies with another 7 unconfirmed sightings. The butterflies recorded belong to Papilionidae (10 spp.), Pieridae (17 spp), Lycaenidae (47 spp.), Nymphalidae (40 spp.) and Hesperiidae (28 spp.). The study emphasizes the importance of this park as a hotspot which is surrounded by 17 million people.

  12. Steel-fabricated butterfly valves for condenser circulating water system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The steel-fabricated butterfly valves, which are large in general, and gave rubber linings inside to prevent the corrosion due to sea Water, are utilized for the condenser circulating water systems of thermal and nuclear power plants. Cast iron butterfly valves, having been used hitherto, have some technical irrationalities, such as corrosion prevention, the techniques for manufacturing large castings, severe thermal transient operation. On the contrary, the steel plate-fabricated butterfly valves have the following advantages; much superior characteristics in strength, rigidity and shock resistance, the streamline shape of valve plates, the narrow width between two flanges, superior execution of works for rubber lining, the perfect sealed structure, safety to vibration, light weight and easy maintenance. The structural design and the main specifications for the steel plate butterfly valves with the nominal bore from 1350 mm to 3500 mm are presented. Concerning the design criteria, the torque of operating butterfly valves and the strength of valve bodies, valve plates and valve stems are explained. The performance tests utilizing the mock-up valve were carried out for the measurements of stress distribution, the deformation of valve body, the endurance and the operating torque. In the welding standards for steel plate butterfly valves, three kinds of welded parts are classified, and the inspection method for each part is stipulated. The vibration of the valves induced by flow vortexes and cavitation is explained. (Nakai, Y.)

  13. Liquid-intake flow around the tip of butterfly proboscis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Joon; Lee, Seung Chul; Kim, Bo Heum

    2014-05-01

    Butterflies drink liquid through a slender proboscis using a large pressure gradient induced by the systaltic operation of a muscular pump inside their head. Although the proboscis is a naturally well-designed coiled micro conduit for liquid uptake and deployment, it has been regarded as a simple straw connected to the muscular pump. There are few studies on the transport of liquid food in the proboscis of a liquid-feeding butterfly. To understand the liquid-feeding mechanism in the proboscis of butterflies, the intake flow around the tip of the proboscis was investigated in detail. In this study, the intake flow was quantitatively visualized using a micro-PIV (particle image velocimetry) velocity field measurement technique. As a result, the liquid-feeding process consists of an intake phase, an ejection phase and a rest phase. When butterflies drink pooled liquid, the liquid is not sucked into the apical tip of the proboscis, but into the dorsal linkage aligned longitudinally along the proboscis. To analyze main characteristics of the intake flow around a butterfly proboscis, a theoretical model was established by assuming that liquid is sucked into a line sink whose suction rate linearly decreases proximally. In addition, the intake flow around the tip of a female mosquito?s proboscis which has a distinct terminal opening was also visualized and modeled for comparison. The present results would be helpful to understand the liquid-feeding mechanism of a butterfly. PMID:24512912

  14. Observation of Cs Trilobite and Butterfly Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jin; Booth, Donald; Reschke, Margarita; Rittenhouse, Seth; Sadeghpour, Hossein; Shaffer, James

    2015-05-01

    Ultralong range Rydberg molecules formed by one Rydberg atom and one ground state atom through the low-energy scattering of a Rydberg electron from the nearby ground state atom are attracting more and more interest because of the novel physics associated with them, such as the generation of kilo-Debye dipole moments. We report on our work on these molecules including the observation of ultralong range trilobite and butterfly molecules for Cs s-states. We compare and contrast these results to what has been observed in Rb experiments and new work of ours on Cs d-states. The experiments and theory directly show the role of state mixing, p-wave scattering resonances, and the Rydberg state structure of the Rydberg atoms involved in the formation of ultralong range Rydberg molecules. We acknowledge funding from the NSF and the AFOSR.

  15. A magnetic compass aids monarch butterfly migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Patrick A; Gegear, Robert J; Reppert, Steven M

    2014-01-01

    Convincing evidence that migrant monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) use a magnetic compass to aid their fall migration has been lacking from the spectacular navigational capabilities of this species. Here we use flight simulator studies to show that migrants indeed possess an inclination magnetic compass to help direct their flight equatorward in the fall. The use of this inclination compass is light-dependent utilizing ultraviolet-A/blue light between 380 and 420 nm. Notably, the significance of light <420 nm for inclination compass function was not considered in previous monarch studies. The antennae are important for the inclination compass because they appear to contain light-sensitive magnetosensors. For migratory monarchs, the inclination compass may serve as an important orientation mechanism when directional daylight cues are unavailable and may also augment time-compensated sun compass orientation for appropriate directionality throughout the migration. PMID:24960099

  16. Quantum computation over the butterfly network

    CERN Document Server

    Kinjo, Yoshiyuki; Soeda, Akihito; Turner, Peter S

    2010-01-01

    In order to investigate distributed quantum computation under restricted network resources, we introduce a quantum computation task over the butterfly network where both quantum and classical communications are limited. We consider performing a two qubit global unitary operation on two unknown inputs given at different nodes, with outputs at two distinct nodes. By using a particular resource scenario introduced by Hayashi, which is capable of performing a swap operation by adding two maximally entangled qubits (ebits) between the two input nodes, we show that any controlled unitary operation can be performed without adding any entanglement resource. We also construct protocols for performing controlled traceless unitary operations with a 1-ebit resource and for performing global Clifford operations with a 2-ebit resource.

  17. Local and effective: Two projects of butterfly farming in Cambodia and Tanzania (Insecta: Lepidoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. van der Heyden

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Los proyectos "Banteay Srey Butterfly Centre" en Camboya (Asia y "Zanzibar Butterfly Centre" in Tanzania (África se describen como modelos de cría sostenible de mariposas en apoyo para comunidades locales.

  18. Generating a Fractal Butterfly Floquet Spectrum in a Class of Driven SU(2) Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Jiao; Gong, Jiangbin

    2009-01-01

    A scheme for generating a fractal butterfly Floquet spectrum, first proposed by Wang and Gong [Phys. Rev. A {\\bf 77}, 031405(R) (2008)], is extended to driven SU(2) systems such as a driven two-mode Bose-Einstein condensate. A new class of driven systems without a link with the Harper model context is shown to have an intriguing butterfly Floquet spectrum. The found butterfly spectrum shows remarkable deviations from the known Hosftadter's butterfly. In addition, the level crossings between F...

  19. K+ Excretion: The Other Purpose for Puddling Behavior in Japanese Papilio Butterflies

    OpenAIRE

    Inoue, Takashi A.; Ito, Tetsuo; Hagiya, Hiroshi; Hata, Tamako; Asaoka, Kiyoshi; Yokohari, Fumio; Niihara, Kinuko

    2015-01-01

    To elucidate the purpose of butterfly puddling, we measured the amounts of Na+, K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ that were absorbed or excreted during puddling by male Japanese Papilio butterflies through a urine test. All of the butterflies that sipped water with a Na+ concentration of 13 mM absorbed Na+ and excreted K+, although certain butterflies that sipped solutions with high concentrations of Na+ excreted Na+. According to the Na+ concentrations observed in naturally occurring water sources, water w...

  20. Butterflies Diversity in Brawijaya University, Veteran, Jakarta and Velodrom Green Open Space

    OpenAIRE

    Ayu Raisa Khairun Nisa'; Minahanggari Mukti; Muhammad Fathoni Hamzah; Arif Mustakim; Zainal Abidin

    2013-01-01

    Butterflies have some roles in environmental as pollinator and bioindicator. Habitat is one of important factor to support butterflies growth. The aim of this research was to describe butterflies diversity in some green open spaces in Malang. Direct observations of butterflies diversity, vegetation structures and abiotic factors in Brawijaya University, Veteran, Jakarta and Velodrom Green Open Space were conducted on June 2012. Sampling was took place in each sites using cruising method in th...

  1. Odour maps in the brain of butterflies with divergent host-plant preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Carlsson, M; Bisch-Knaden, S.; Schäpers, A.; Mozuraitis, R.; Hansson, B; Janz, N.

    2011-01-01

    Butterflies are believed to use mainly visual cues when searching for food and oviposition sites despite that their olfactory system is morphologically similar to their nocturnal relatives, the moths. The olfactory ability in butterflies has, however, not been thoroughly investigated. Therefore, we performed the first study of odour representation in the primary olfactory centre, the antennal lobes, of butterflies. Host plant range is highly variable within the butterfly family Nymphalidae, w...

  2. Field Based Learning About Butterfly Diversity in School Garden-A Case Study From Puducherry, India

    OpenAIRE

    Gopalsomy Poyyamoli; Ramadoss Alexandar

    2012-01-01

    Butterflies are essential components for well functioning of ecosystems due to their key roles as pollinators and as indicators of ecosystem health. Butterflies are also beloved by public as well as young students and children, who are largely unaware that many species are threatened or endangered. The main objectives of field based education for butterfly conservation were to create knowledge, interest and necessary skills to investigate and, identify the butterfly species and conserve its d...

  3. Butterfly wing coloration studied with a novel imaging scatterometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavenga, Doekele

    2010-03-01

    Animal coloration functions for display or camouflage. Notably insects provide numerous examples of a rich variety of the applied optical mechanisms. For instance, many butterflies feature a distinct dichromatism, that is, the wing coloration of the male and the female differ substantially. The male Brimstone, Gonepteryx rhamni, has yellow wings that are strongly UV iridescent, but the female has white wings with low reflectance in the UV and a high reflectance in the visible wavelength range. In the Small White cabbage butterfly, Pieris rapae crucivora, the wing reflectance of the male is low in the UV and high at visible wavelengths, whereas the wing reflectance of the female is higher in the UV and lower in the visible. Pierid butterflies apply nanosized, strongly scattering beads to achieve their bright coloration. The male Pipevine Swallowtail butterfly, Battus philenor, has dorsal wings with scales functioning as thin film gratings that exhibit polarized iridescence; the dorsal wings of the female are matte black. The polarized iridescence probably functions in intraspecific, sexual signaling, as has been demonstrated in Heliconius butterflies. An example of camouflage is the Green Hairstreak butterfly, Callophrys rubi, where photonic crystal domains exist in the ventral wing scales, resulting in a matte green color that well matches the color of plant leaves. The spectral reflection and polarization characteristics of biological tissues can be rapidly and with unprecedented detail assessed with a novel imaging scatterometer-spectrophotometer, built around an elliptical mirror [1]. Examples of butterfly and damselfly wings, bird feathers, and beetle cuticle will be presented. [4pt] [1] D.G. Stavenga, H.L. Leertouwer, P. Pirih, M.F. Wehling, Optics Express 17, 193-202 (2009)

  4. On the Analysis and Construction of the Butterfly Curve Using "Mathematica"[R

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geum, Y. H.; Kim, Y. I.

    2008-01-01

    The butterfly curve was introduced by Temple H. Fay in 1989 and defined by the polar curve r = e[superscript cos theta] minus 2 cos 4 theta plus sin[superscript 5] (theta divided by 12). In this article, we develop the mathematical model of the butterfly curve and analyse its geometric properties. In addition, we draw the butterfly curve and…

  5. 75 FR 10309 - Wisconsin Statewide Habitat Conservation Plan for Karner Blue Butterfly

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Wisconsin Statewide Habitat Conservation Plan for Karner Blue Butterfly... for a 10-year period and would authorize incidental take of the endangered Karner blue butterfly... Karner blue butterfly to the maximum extent practicable, under section 10(a)(1)(B) of the Act (16...

  6. The Butterfly House Industry: Conservation Risks and Education Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Boppré

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the mass supply and use of butterflies for live exhibits, discusses the risks to biodiversity which this creates, and the educational opportunities it presents. Over the past 30 years a new type of insect zoo has become popular worldwide: the butterfly house. This has given rise to the global Butterfly House Industry (BHI based on the mass production of butterfly pupae as a cash crop. Production is largely carried out by privately-owned butterfly farms in tropical countries, notably Central America and Southeast Asia. Most pupae are exported to North America and Europe, although the number of butterfly houses in tropical countries is growing. The BHI is described with respect to its stakeholders, their diverse interests, and its extent. It is estimated that the global turnover of the BHI is in the order of USD 100 million. From a conservation perspective, there is a tension between risks and benefits. The risks to biodiversity are primarily unsustainable production, potential bastardisation of local faunas and floras, and genetic mixing within and even between butterfly species. This paper discusses general ways of managing these risks. Ethical concerns range from fair trade issues to animal husbandry and the use of wildlife for entertainment. For the risks to biodiversity and unresolved ethical issues to be tolerable, the BHI needs to make a significant contribution to conservation, primarily through effective education about butterfly biology as a means to raise public awareness of basic ecological processes, and conservation and environmental issues. It should also engage with local conservation initiatives. Currently the BHI′s great potential for public good in these respects is rarely realised. The paper concludes by looking at the special nature of the BHI, and its need for effective self-regulation if it is to continue to escape from public scrutiny and the introduction of restrictive regulations. The BHI needs to engage in active cooperation between its various stakeholders regarding a raft of critical issues if it is to survive and fulfil a beneficial role in society. The BHI also needs to forge active partnerships with conservation NGOs, educationalists, and scientists-communities that also need to recognise their own responsibilities towards the industry. We also discuss the need for an effective umbrella organisation for the BHI, as well as a "Code for trading and exhibiting live butterflies".

  7. Refractive index dependence of Papilio Ulysses butterfly wings reflectance spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isnaeni, Muslimin, Ahmad Novi; Birowosuto, Muhammad Danang

    2016-02-01

    We have observed and utilized butterfly wings of Papilio Ulysses for refractive index sensor. We noticed this butterfly wings have photonic crystal structure, which causes blue color appearance on the wings. The photonic crystal structure, which consists of cuticle and air void, is approximated as one dimensional photonic crystal structure. This photonic crystal structure opens potential to several optical devices application, such as refractive index sensor. We have utilized small piece of Papilio Ulysses butterfly wings to characterize refractive index of several liquid base on reflectance spectrum of butterfly wings in the presence of sample liquid. For comparison, we simulated reflectance spectrum of one dimensional photonic crystal structure having material parameter based on real structure of butterfly wings. We found that reflectance spectrum peaks shifted as refractive index of sample changes. Although there is a slight difference in reflectance spectrum peaks between measured spectrum and calculated spectrum, the trend of reflectance spectrum peaks as function of sample's refractive index is the similar. We assume that during the measurement, the air void that filled by sample liquid is expanded due to liquid pressure. This change of void shape causes non-similarity between measured spectrum and calculated spectrum.

  8. Development of linear flow rate control system for eccentric butter-fly valve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butter-fly valves are advantageous over gate, globe, plug, and ball valves in a variety of installations, particularly in the large sizes. The purpose of this project development of linear flow rate control system for eccentric butter-fly valve (intelligent butter-fly valve system). The intelligent butter-fly valve system consist of a valve body, micro controller. The micro controller consist of torque control system, pressure censor, worm and worm gear and communication line etc. The characteristics of intelligent butter-fly valve system as follows: Linear flow rate control function. Digital remote control function. guard function. Self-checking function. (author)

  9. Hybridization promotes speciation in Coenonympha butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capblancq, Thibaut; Després, Laurence; Rioux, Delphine; Mavárez, Jesús

    2015-12-01

    Hybridization has become a central element in theories of animal evolution during the last decade. New methods in population genomics and statistical model testing now allow the disentangling of the complexity that hybridization brings into key evolutionary processes such as local adaptation, colonization of new environments, species diversification and extinction. We evaluated the consequences of hybridization in a complex of three alpine butterflies in the genus Coenonympha, by combining morphological, genetic and ecological analyses. A series of approximate Bayesian computation procedures based on a large SNP data set strongly suggest that the Darwin's Heath (Coenonympha darwiniana) originated through hybridization between the Pearly Heath (Coenonympha arcania) and the Alpine Heath (Coenonympha gardetta) with different parental contributions. As a result of hybridization, the Darwin's Heath presents an intermediate morphology between the parental species, while its climatic niche seems more similar to the Alpine Heath. Our results also reveal a substantial genetic and morphologic differentiation between the two geographically disjoint Darwin's Heath lineages leading us to propose the splitting of this taxon into two different species. PMID:26581657

  10. Quantum computation over the butterfly network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to investigate distributed quantum computation under restricted network resources, we introduce a quantum computation task over the butterfly network where both quantum and classical communications are limited. We consider deterministically performing a two-qubit global unitary operation on two unknown inputs given at different nodes, with outputs at two distinct nodes. By using a particular resource setting introduced by M. Hayashi [Phys. Rev. A 76, 040301(R) (2007)], which is capable of performing a swap operation by adding two maximally entangled qubits (ebits) between the two input nodes, we show that unitary operations can be performed without adding any entanglement resource, if and only if the unitary operations are locally unitary equivalent to controlled unitary operations. Our protocol is optimal in the sense that the unitary operations cannot be implemented if we relax the specifications of any of the channels. We also construct protocols for performing controlled traceless unitary operations with a 1-ebit resource and for performing global Clifford operations with a 2-ebit resource.

  11. Selection on the wing in Heliconius butterflies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevens Virginie M

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Asbtract To what extent population structure favours the establishment of new phenotypes within a species remains a fundamental question in evolutionary studies. By reducing gene flow, habitat fragmentation is a major factor shaping the genetic structuring of populations, favouring isolation of small populations in which drift may rapidly change frequencies of new variants. When these variants provide advantages to individuals, the combined effect of selection and drift can lead to rapid shifts in phenotypes. In a study published in BMC Genetics, Albuquerque de Moura et al. asked whether such a general pattern of population structure can be observed in Heliconius species, which could have strong implication in the evolution of colour pattern diversification in these butterflies. In this commentary we discuss the potential roles of these three processes (drift, selection and dispersal on the evolution of Heliconius wing patterns in regard to the findings of a common fine-scale population structure within the co-mimetic species H. melpomene and H. erato. Indeed, a general pattern of population subdivision in the history of these two species may have provoked the major phenotypical shifts observed in their wing colour patterns. The suggestion that coupled environmental pressures (counter-selection of dispersal and selection on co-evolved traits could be responsible for identical genetic differentiation profiles in H. erato and H. melpomene clearly merits further investigations using both detailed population genetic (including landscape genetic and ecological studies.

  12. Numerical Analysis for Structural Safety Evaluation of Butterfly Valves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Myung-Seob; Yoon, Joon-Yong; Park, Han-Yung

    2010-06-01

    Butterfly valves are widely used in current industry to control the fluid flow. They are used for both on-off and throttling applications involving large flows at relatively low operating pressure especially in large size pipelines. For the industrial application of butterfly valves, it must be ensured that the valve could be used safety under the fatigue life and the deformations produced by the pressure of the fluid. In this study, we carried out the structure analysis of the body and the valve disc of the butterfly valve and the numerical simulation was performed by using ANSYS v11.0. The reliability of valve is evaluated under the investigation of the deformation, the leak test and the durability of the valve.

  13. The Effect of Wing Scales on Monarch Butterfly Flight Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Angela; Jones, Robert; Lang, Amy

    2010-11-01

    Recent research has shown that the highly flexible wings of butterflies in flapping flight develop vortices along their leading and trailing edges. Butterfly scales (approximately 100 microns in length) have a shingled pattern and extend into the boundary layer. These scales, which make up approximately 3% of the body weight or less, could play a part in controlling separation and vortex formation in this unsteady, three-dimensional complex flow field. A better understanding of this mechanism may lead to bio-inspired applications for flapping wing micro-air vehicles. In this study, the flight performance of Monarch (Danaus plexippus) butterflies with and without scales was analyzed. Scales were removed from the upper and lower wing surfaces and specimens were videotaped at 600 frames per second. Variation in flapping patterns and flight fitness were observed.

  14. Fire creates host plant patches for monarch butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Kristen A; Sharber, Wyatt V

    2012-12-23

    Monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) depend on the presence of host plants (Asclepias spp.) within their breeding range for reproduction. In the southern Great Plains, Asclepias viridis is a perennial that flowers in May and June, and starts to senesce by August. It is locally abundant and readily used by monarchs as a host plant. We evaluated the effects of summer prescribed fire on A. viridis and the use of A. viridis by monarch butterflies. Summer prescribed fire generated a newly emergent population of A. viridis that was absent in other areas. Pre-migrant monarch butterflies laid eggs on A. viridis in summer burned plots in late August and September, allowing adequate time for a new generation of adult monarchs to emerge and migrate south to their overwintering grounds. Thus, summer prescribed fire may provide host plant patches and/or corridors for pre-migrant monarchs during a time when host plant availability may be limited in other areas. PMID:22859559

  15. A mosaic of chemical coevolution in a large blue butterfly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nash, David R; Als, Thomas Damm; Maile, Roland; Jones, Graeme R; Boomsma, Jacobus J

    2008-01-01

    Mechanisms of recognition are essential to the evolution of mutualistic and parasitic interactions between species. One such example is the larval mimicry that Maculinea butterfly caterpillars use to parasitize Myrmica ant colonies. We found that the greater the match between the surface chemistry...... of Maculinea alcon and two of its host Myrmica species, the more easily ant colonies were exploited. The geographic patterns of surface chemistry indicate an ongoing coevolutionary arms race between the butterflies and Myrmica rubra, which has significant genetic differentiation between populations......, but not between the butterflies and a second, sympatric host, Myrmica ruginodis, which has panmictic populations. Alternative hosts may therefore provide an evolutionary refuge for a parasite during periods of counteradaptation by their preferred hosts. Udgivelsesdato: 2008-Jan-4...

  16. Changing biodiversity scenario in the Himalayan ecosystem: Mussoorie, Uttarakhand, India, as revealed by the study of blue butterflies (Lycaenidae)

    OpenAIRE

    A.K. Sidhu

    2011-01-01

    Any change in the population of butterflies is an early warning of pollution or other kinds of habitat degradation. An area rich in butterfly diversity has its own significance in the ecosystem. The current status of butterflies in Mussoorie (Uttarakhand) is reviewed. The degradation of the butterfly-rich spots of Mussoorie is discussed. A comparative chart of 66 species of Lycaenid butterflies compares species collected by earlier authors from Mussoorie with current observations. Some of the...

  17. A case study of butterfly road kills from Anaikatty Hills, Western Ghats, Tamil Nadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. K. Sony

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available  Anaikatty Hills of the Western Ghats in Tamil Nadu witness the annual spectacle of mass movement of lakhs of butterflies.  The present paper examines the impact of vehicular traffic on this ‘butterfly migration’ through a survey of butterfly mortality along a road stretch in Anaikatty Hills.  A high rate of mortality due to road traffic was observed during the mass movement of butterflies.  One-hundred-and-thirty-five butterfly road kills belonging to three families, nine genera and 12 species were recorded during the study.  The proportion of nymphalid butterflies among the road kills (70% was very high compared to their respective share in the background population (39%, indicating a higher road mortality risk for nymphalids.  The conservation significance of the road traffic impact on butterfly assemblage and management options are discussed. 

  18. Both Palatable and Unpalatable Butterflies Use Bright Colors to Signal Difficulty of Capture to Predators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, C E G; Freitas, A V L; Campos, V C; DeVries, P J; Penz, C M

    2016-04-01

    Birds are able to recognize and learn to avoid attacking unpalatable, chemically defended butterflies after unpleasant experiences with them. It has also been suggested that birds learn to avoid prey that are efficient at escaping. This, however, remains poorly documented. Here, we argue that butterflies may utilize a variety of escape tactics against insectivorous birds and review evidence that birds avoid attacking butterflies that are hard to catch. We suggest that signaling difficulty of capture to predators is a widespread phenomenon in butterflies, and this ability may not be limited to palatable butterflies. The possibility that both palatable and unpalatable species signal difficulty of capture has not been fully explored, but helps explain the existence of aposematic coloration and escape mimicry in butterflies lacking defensive chemicals. This possibility may also change the role that putative Müllerian and Batesian mimics play in a variety of classical mimicry rings, thus opening new perspectives in the evolution of mimicry in butterflies. PMID:26911159

  19. AFM Study of Structure Influence on Butterfly Wings Coloration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinara Sultanovna Dallaeva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the structural coloration of the butterfly Vanessa Atalanta wings and shows how the atomic force microscopy (AFM can be applied to the study of wings morphology and wings surface behavior under the temperature. The role of the wings morphology in colors was investigated. Different colors of wings have different topology and can be identified by them. AFM in semi-contact mode was used to study the wings surface. The wing surface area, which is close to the butterfly body, has shiny brown color and the peak of surface roughness is about 600 nm. The changing of morphology at different temperatures is shown.

  20. Fueling the fall migration of the monarch butterfly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brower, Lincoln P; Fink, Linda S; Walford, Peter

    2006-12-01

    Monarch butterflies in eastern North America accumulate lipids during their fall migration to central Mexico, and use them as their energy source during a 5 month overwintering period. When and where along their migratory journey the butterflies accumulate these lipids has implications for the importance of fall nectar sources in North America. We analyzed the lipid content of 765 summer breeding and fall migrant monarch butterflies collected at 1 nectaring site in central Virginia over 4 years (1998-2001), and compared them with 16 additional published and unpublished datasets from other sites, dating back to 1941. Virginia migrants store significantly more lipid than summer butterflies, and show significant intraseason and between-year variation. None of the Virginia samples, and none of the historical samples, with one exception, had lipid levels comparable with those found in migrants that had reached Texas and northern Mexico. This evidence suggests that upon reaching Texas, the butterflies undergo a behavioral shift and spend more time nectaring. The one exceptional sample led us to the discovery that monarchs that form roosts along their migratory routes have higher lipid contents than monarchs collected while nectaring at flowers. We propose that for much of their journey monarchs are opportunistic migrants, and the variation within and between samples reflects butterflies' individual experiences. The stored lipids appear to be of less importance as fuel for the butterflies' migration than for their survival during their overwintering period, in part because soaring on favorable winds reduces the energetic cost of flying. The conservation of nectar plants in Texas and northern Mexico is crucial to sustaining the monarch's migratory spectacle, and nectar abundance throughout eastern North America is also important. As generalists in their selection of nectar sources and nectaring habitats, monarchs are unlikely to be affected by small changes in plant communities. Agricultural transformations of natural communities in the eastern United States and Great Plains, however, and especially the extensive planting of genetically modified herbicide-resistant soybeans and corn, may be changing the availability of nectar for monarchs and other pollinators. This new technology is eliminating virtually all forbs in and surrounding agricultural fields, including the monarch's larval hostplants (milkweeds) and native and nonnative nectar sources. To evaluate whether changes in nectar availability are altering the butterflies' ability to accumulate energy, we recommend that monarchs' lipid contents be assayed annually at sites throughout eastern North America. PMID:21672813

  1. Anomalous reparametrizations and butterfly states in string field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reparametrization symmetries of Witten's vertex in ordinary or vacuum string field theories can be used to extract useful information about classical solutions of the equations of motion corresponding to D-branes. It follows, that the vacuum string field theory in general has to be regularized. For the regularization recently considered by Gaiotto et al., we show that the identities we derive, are so constraining, that among all surface states they uniquely select the simplest butterfly projector discovered numerically by these authors. The reparametrization symmetries are also used to give a simple proof that the butterfly states and their generalizations are indeed projectors

  2. Analysis, synchronization and circuit design of a novel butterfly attractor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pehlivan, Ihsan; Moroz, Irene M.; Vaidyanathan, Sundarapandian

    2014-09-01

    This research paper introduces a novel three-dimensional autonomous system, whose dynamics support periodic and chaotic butterfly attractors as certain parameters vary. A special case of this system, exhibiting reflectional symmetry, is amenable to analytical and numerical analysis. Qualitative properties of the new chaotic system are discussed in detail. Adaptive control laws are derived to achieve global chaotic synchronization of the new chaotic system with unknown parameters. Furthermore, a novel electronic circuit realization of the new chaotic system is presented, examined and realized using Orcad-PSpice program and physical components. The proposed novel butterfly chaotic attractor is very useful for the deliberate generation of chaos in applications.

  3. Optical butterfly interconnections and applications in optical logic operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, DeGui; Wang, Na-Xin; Weng, Zhao-Heng

    1993-02-01

    In this paper, the optical butterfly interconnections have first been implemented in theory and experiment by using the special reflected interconnect gratings and liquid crystal light valve (LCLV), and two most primitive optical logic operations (AND and OR) have been completed on the basis in parallel. Hence, this work makes the fundamental for more complex digital optical computings.

  4. Noise Caused by Cavitating Butterfly and Monovar Valves

    Science.gov (United States)

    HASSIS, H.

    1999-08-01

    An experimental study of the effects of cavitation was carried out through an analysis of cavitating Butterfly and Monovar values. Focus is particularly placed on both unsteady pressure and acoustic pressure fluctuations. In this paper, the effects of cavitation on local fluctuation pressure (turbulence), acoustic propagation (damping and sound velocity), resonance frequencies and level of noise are presented.

  5. Controlling the cavitation phenomenon of evolution on a butterfly valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, G.; Catana, I.; Magheti, I.; Safta, C. A.; Savu, M.

    2010-08-01

    Development of the phenomenon of cavitation in cavitation behavior requires knowledge of both plant and equipment working in the facility. This paper presents a diagram of cavitational behavior for a butterfly valve with a diameter of 100 mm at various openings, which was experimentally built. We proposed seven stages of evolution of the phenomenon of cavitation in the case of a butterfly valve. All these phases are characterized by pressure drop, noise and vibration at various flow rates and flow sections through the valve. The level of noise and vibration for the seven stages of development of the phenomenon of cavitation were measured simultaneously. The experimental measurements were comprised in a knowledge database used in training of a neural network of a neural flow controller that maintains flow rate constantly in the facility by changing the opening butterfly valve. A fuzzy position controller is used to access the valve open. This is the method proposed to provide operational supervision outside the cavitation for a butterfly valve.

  6. BUDDLEJA DAVIDII (BUTTERFLY BUSH): A GROWING THREAT TO RIPARIA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buddleja davidii, an Asian shrub or small tree (family Buddlejaceae; commonly referred to as Butterfly bush) is found in the United States, New Zealand, Australia, and Europe as a popular ornamental and an aggressive invasive that has become widespread in floodplains, riverbeds, ...

  7. Evolution of the Hofstadter butterfly in a tunable optical lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, F.; Ünal, F. Nur; Oktel, M. Ã.-.

    2015-06-01

    Recent advances in realizing artificial gauge fields on optical lattices promise experimental detection of topologically nontrivial energy spectra. Self-similar fractal energy structures generally known as Hofstadter butterflies depend sensitively on the geometry of the underlying lattice, as well as the applied magnetic field. The recent demonstration of an adjustable lattice geometry [L. Tarruell, D. Greif, T. Uehlinger, G. Jotzu, and T. Esslinger, Nature (London) 483, 302 (2012), 10.1038/nature10871] presents a unique opportunity to study this dependence. In this paper, we calculate the Hofstadter butterflies that can be obtained in such an adjustable lattice and find three qualitatively different regimes. We show that the existence of Dirac points at zero magnetic field does not imply the topological equivalence of spectra at finite field. As the real-space structure evolves from the checkerboard lattice to the honeycomb lattice, two square-lattice Hofstadter butterflies merge to form a honeycomb lattice butterfly. This merging is topologically nontrivial, as it is accomplished by sequential closings of gaps. Ensuing Chern number transfer between the bands can be probed with the adjustable lattice experiments. We also calculate the Chern numbers of the gaps for qualitatively different spectra and discuss the evolution of topological properties with underlying lattice geometry.

  8. Butterfly Chronicles: Imagination and Desire in Natural & Literary Histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacRae, Ian J.

    2008-01-01

    Fragile, ethereal, beautiful, the butterfly is at the same time decidedly strange in appearance. They are without mandibles, unlike most insects, but sport instead a proboscis, sometimes one and a half times their body length, which they use to drink liquids as if through a straw. They have large, compound eyes, tiny nails or claws, and strange…

  9. Becoming Butterflies: Making Metamorphosis Meaningful for Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Rebecca M.; Baggett, Paige V.; Shaw, Edward L., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Although butterflies are a common topic of study in many early childhood classrooms, integrating art production broadens the scope of the study and allows children to deepen their knowledge and understanding through creative self-expression. This article presents a set of integrated activities that focus on helping children fully grasp the process…

  10. Juvenile hormone regulation of longevity in the migratory monarch butterfly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, W. S.; Tatar, M.

    2001-01-01

    Monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) of eastern North America are well known for their long-range migration to overwintering roosts in south-central Mexico. An essential feature of this migration involves the exceptional longevity of the migrant adults; individuals persist from August/September to March while their summer counterparts are likely to live less than two months as adults. Migrant adults persist during a state of reproductive diapause in which both male and female reproductive development is arrested as a consequence of suppressed synthesis of juvenile hormone. Here, we describe survival in monarch butterflies as a function of the migrant syndrome. We show that migrant adults are longer lived than summer adults when each are maintained under standard laboratory conditions, that the longevity of migrant adults is curtailed by treatment with juvenile hormone and that the longevity of summer adults is increased by 100% when juvenile hormone synthesis is prevented by surgical removal of its source, the corpora allatum. Thus, monarch butterfly persistence through a long winter season is ensured in part by reduced ageing that is under endocrine regulation, as well as by the unique environmental properties of their winter roost sites. Phenotypic plasticity for ageing is an integral component of the monarch butterflies' migration-diapause syndrome. PMID:11749703

  11. Iteradensovirus from the Monarch Butterfly, Danaus plexippus plexippus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qian; Tijssen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The 5,006-nucleotide (nt)-long genome of a new virus from monarch butterfly pupae was cloned and sequenced. It was flanked by inverted terminal repeats (ITRs) of 239 nt with 163-nt hairpins. The monosense genome with three open reading frames is typical of the genus Iteradensovirus in the subfamily Densovirinae of the family Parvoviridae. PMID:24744339

  12. Iteradensovirus from the Monarch Butterfly, Danaus plexippus plexippus.

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Qian; Tijssen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The 5,006-nucleotide (nt)-long genome of a new virus from monarch butterfly pupae was cloned and sequenced. It was flanked by inverted terminal repeats (ITRs) of 239 nt with 163-nt hairpins. The monosense genome with three open reading frames is typical of the genus Iteradensovirus in the subfamily Densovirinae of the family Parvoviridae.

  13. MONARCH BUTTERFLIES AND BT CORN POLLEN: PHENOLOGY AND MOVEMENT CONSIDERATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proven methods of risk assessment were used by a consortium of scientists to investigate the potential impact of Bt corn pollen on the monarch butterfly. Toxicity of Bt corn pollen and larval exposure to harmful levels of pollen were investigated. Research indicates that the potential risk to monarc...

  14. Controlling the cavitation phenomenon of evolution on a butterfly valve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development of the phenomenon of cavitation in cavitation behavior requires knowledge of both plant and equipment working in the facility. This paper presents a diagram of cavitational behavior for a butterfly valve with a diameter of 100 mm at various openings, which was experimentally built. We proposed seven stages of evolution of the phenomenon of cavitation in the case of a butterfly valve. All these phases are characterized by pressure drop, noise and vibration at various flow rates and flow sections through the valve. The level of noise and vibration for the seven stages of development of the phenomenon of cavitation were measured simultaneously. The experimental measurements were comprised in a knowledge database used in training of a neural network of a neural flow controller that maintains flow rate constantly in the facility by changing the opening butterfly valve. A fuzzy position controller is used to access the valve open. This is the method proposed to provide operational supervision outside the cavitation for a butterfly valve.

  15. Contribution to the knowledge of the butterfly fauna of Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Šašić

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Albanian insect fauna is one of the least studied in Europe. In 2012 and 2013 surveys were undertaken with the aim of improving the knowledge of the distribution of butterflies, particularly in the southern part of the country. This research has resulted in the publication of three new species records for Albania. Here we add two new species to the list of native butterflies of Albania, Melitaea ornata Christoph, 1893 and Cupido alcetas (Hoffmannsegg, 1804. We recorded a total of 143 species including several confirmations of historical published records. The total number of species has consequently increased to 198, which is comparable with butterfly diversity in neighbouring countries. Unlike its neighbours, Albania has preserved many of its traditional agricultural practices and consequently its rich fauna has been well protected during the last decades. However, with the opening up of the country to outside influences this will undoubtedly change as the process of intensification has already started in more populated coastal areas. It is therefore imperative to identify important butterfly areas in need of conservation and to take decisive measures to preserve traditional agricultural practices.

  16. Attack risk for butterflies changes with eyespot number and size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Sebastian; Schachat, Sandra R; Piel, William H; Monteiro, Antónia

    2016-01-01

    Butterfly eyespots are known to function in predator deflection and predator intimidation, but it is still unclear what factors cause eyespots to serve one function over the other. Both functions have been demonstrated in different species that varied in eyespot size, eyespot number and wing size, leaving the contribution of each of these factors to butterfly survival unclear. Here, we study how each of these factors contributes to eyespot function by using paper butterfly models, where each factor is varied in turn, and exposing these models to predation in the field. We find that the presence of multiple, small eyespots results in high predation, whereas single large eyespots (larger than 6 mm in diameter) results in low predation. These data indicate that single large eyespots intimidate predators, whereas multiple small eyespots produce a conspicuous, but non-intimidating signal to predators. We propose that eyespots may gain an intimidation function by increasing in size. Our measurements of eyespot size in 255 nymphalid butterfly species show that large eyespots are relatively rare and occur predominantly on ventral wing surfaces. By mapping eyespot size on the phylogeny of the family Nymphalidae, we show that these large eyespots, with a potential intimidation function, are dispersed throughout multiple nymphalid lineages, indicating that phylogeny is not a strong predictor of eyespot size. PMID:26909190

  17. Reverse altitudinal cline in cold hardiness among Erebia butterflies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vrba, Pavel; Konvička, Martin; Nedvěd, Oldřich

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 33, č. 4 (2012), s. 251-258. ISSN 0143-2044 Grant ostatní: GA ČR(CZ) GAP505/10/1630; University of South Bohemia(CZ) 144/2010/100 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Alpine habitats * butterfly ecology * climate change Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.837, year: 2012

  18. Airspeed adjustment and lipid reserves in migratory Neotropical butterflies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerodynamic theory predicts that migrant fliers should reduce their speed of flight as endogenous energy reserves are gradually consumed. This prediction was tested for butterfly species that engage in annual rainy season migrations through central Panama. Direct airspeed measurements together wit...

  19. MONARCH BUTTERFLIES AND BT CORN: REPLACING HOOPLA WITH SCIENCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proven methods of risk assessment were used by a consortium of scientists to investigate the potential impact of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) corn pollen on the monarch butterfly. Toxicity of Bt corn pollen and larval exposure to harmful levels of pollen were investigated. Research indicates that the...

  20. Butterfly Floquet Spectrum in Driven SU(2) Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Floquet spectrum of a class of driven SU(2) systems is shown to display a butterfly pattern with multifractal properties. The level crossing between Floquet states of the same parity or different parities is studied. The results are relevant to studies of fractal statistics, quantum chaos, coherent destruction of tunneling, and the validity of mean-field descriptions of Bose-Einstein condensates.

  1. Contrasting supercooling ability in lowland and mountain European Colias butterflies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vrba, P.; Nedvěd, Oldřich; Konvička, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 1 (2014), s. 63-69. ISSN 0749-8004 Grant ostatní: GA ČR(CZ) GAP505/10/1630; GA JU(CZ) 144/2010/100 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : butterfly ecology * diapause * frost survival Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.512, year: 2014

  2. Phase shifts of the paired wings of butterfly diagrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunspot groups observed by the Royal Greenwich Observatory/US Air Force/NOAA from 1874 May to 2008 November and the Carte Synoptique solar filaments from 1919 March to 1989 December are used to investigate the relative phase shift of the paired wings of butterfly diagrams of sunspot and filament activities. Latitudinal migration of sunspot groups (or filaments) does asynchronously occur in the northern and southern hemispheres, and there is a relative phase shift between the paired wings of their butterfly diagrams in a cycle, making the paired wings spatially asymmetrical on the solar equator. It is inferred that hemispherical solar activity strength should evolve in a similar way within the paired wings of a butterfly diagram in a cycle, demonstrating the paired wings phenomenon and showing the phase relationship between the northern and southern hemispherical solar activity strengths, as well as a relative phase shift between the paired wings of a butterfly diagram, which should bring about almost the same relative phase shift of hemispheric solar activity strength. (research papers)

  3. Palaearctic butterfly ecology model for Oriental species conservation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fric, Zdeněk; Pech, Pavel

    Hong Kong : Kadoorie Farm & Botainc Garden Corporation, 2007 - (Kendrick, R.), s. 63-69 ISBN 978-962-8869-49-7 R&D Projects: GA ČR GD206/03/H034; GA AV ČR KJB600070601 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : palaearctic butterfly Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  4. Controlling the cavitation phenomenon of evolution on a butterfly valve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baran, G; Safta, C A [Department of Hydraulic and Hydraulic Machineries, University Politehnica of Bucharest, 313 Splaiul Independentei, Bucharest, 060042 (Romania); Catana, I [Department of Control and Computer Science, University Politehnica of Bucharest (Romania); Magheti, I; Savu, M, E-mail: baran_gheorghe@yahoo.co.u [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University Politehnica of Bucharest (Romania)

    2010-08-15

    Development of the phenomenon of cavitation in cavitation behavior requires knowledge of both plant and equipment working in the facility. This paper presents a diagram of cavitational behavior for a butterfly valve with a diameter of 100 mm at various openings, which was experimentally built. We proposed seven stages of evolution of the phenomenon of cavitation in the case of a butterfly valve. All these phases are characterized by pressure drop, noise and vibration at various flow rates and flow sections through the valve. The level of noise and vibration for the seven stages of development of the phenomenon of cavitation were measured simultaneously. The experimental measurements were comprised in a knowledge database used in training of a neural network of a neural flow controller that maintains flow rate constantly in the facility by changing the opening butterfly valve. A fuzzy position controller is used to access the valve open. This is the method proposed to provide operational supervision outside the cavitation for a butterfly valve.

  5. Risk assessment for adult butterflies exposed to the mosquito control pesticide naled

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargar, Timothy A.

    2012-01-01

    A prospective risk assessment was conducted for adult butterflies potentially exposed to the mosquito control insecticide naled. Published acute mortality data, exposure data collected during field studies, and morphometric data (total surface area and fresh body weight) for adult butterflies were combined in a probabilistic estimate of the likelihood that adult butterfly exposure to naled following aerial applications would exceed levels associated with acute mortality. Adult butterfly exposure was estimated based on the product of (1) naled residues on samplers and (2) an exposure metric that normalized total surface area for adult butterflies to their fresh weight. The likelihood that the 10th percentile refined effect estimate for adult butterflies exposed to naled would be exceeded following aerial naled applications was 67 to 80%. The greatest risk would be for butterflies in the family Lycaenidae, and the lowest risk would be for those in the family Hesperidae, assuming equivalent sensitivity to naled. A range of potential guideline naled deposition levels is presented that, if not exceeded, would reduce the risk of adult butterfly mortality. The results for this risk assessment were compared with other risk estimates for butterflies, and the implications for adult butterflies in areas targeted by aerial naled applications are discussed.

  6. A preliminary checklist of butterflies (Lepidoptera: Rhophalocera) of Mendrelgang, Tsirang District, Bhutan

    OpenAIRE

    I.J. Singh; M. Chib

    2014-01-01

    The survey was conducted to prepare a preliminary checklist of butterflies of Mendrelgang, Bhutan. Butterflies were sampled from February 2012 to February 2013 to assess the species richness in a degraded forest patch of a sub-tropical broadleaf forest. This short-term study recorded 125 species of butterflies in 78 genera from five families. Of these, Sordid Emperor Apatura sordida Moore, Black-veined Sergeant Athyma ranga ranga Moore, Sullied Sailor Neptis soma soma Linnaeus, Blue Duke Euth...

  7. A study on modelling of a butterfly-type control valve by a pneumatic actuator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper studies on the modelling of a butterfly-type control valve actuating by an on-off pneumatic solenoid valve. The mathematical model is composed of nonlinear differential equations three parts: (i) a solenoid valve, (ii) a pneumatic cylinder, (iii) a rotary-type butterfly valve. The flow characteristics of the butterfly control valve is analysed by a computer simulator, then its simple transfer function is identified from the step responses.

  8. Virtual migration in tethered flying monarch butterflies reveals their orientation mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Mouritsen, Henrik; Frost, Barrie J.

    2002-01-01

    A newly developed flight simulator allows monarch butterflies to fly actively for up to several hours in any horizontal direction while their fall migratory flight direction can be continuously recorded. From these data, long segments of virtual flight paths of tethered, flying, migratory monarch butterflies were reconstructed, and by advancing or retarding the butterflies' circadian clocks, we have shown that they possess a time-compensated sun compass. Control monarchs on local time fly app...

  9. An assessment of riparian environmental quality by using butterflies and disturbance susceptibility scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, S. Mark; Andersen, Douglas C.

    1994-01-01

    The butterfly community at a revegetated riparian site on the lower Colorado River near Parker, Arizona, was compared to that found in a reference riparian site. Data indicated that the herbaceous plant community, which was lacking at the revegetated site, was important to several butterfly taxa. An index using butterfly sensitivity to habitat change (species classified into risk groups) and number of taxa was developed to monitor revegetation projects and to determine restoration effectiveness.

  10. Prediction of a required dynamic torque for motor-operated butterfly valves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, J. H.; Lee, K. N.; Jeong, W. K. [KHNP, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-05-01

    This study describes the methodology for predicting a required dynamic torque in motor-operated butterfly valves. The results of this methodology have been compared with test data for motor-operated butterfly valves in nuclear power plant. With the close review of test data and torque prediction, it is concluded that the prediction methodology is conservative to predict a required dynamic torque of motor-operated butterfly valves. In addition, the information of correct differential pressure is vital to predict a required dynamic torque of motor-operated butterfly valves.0.

  11. Japanese Papilio butterflies puddle using Na+ detected by contact chemosensilla in the proboscis

    OpenAIRE

    Inoue, Takashi A.; Hata, Tamako; Asaoka, Kiyoshi; Ito, Tetsuo; Niihara, Kinuko; Hagiya, Hiroshi; Yokohari, Fumio

    2012-01-01

    Many butterflies acquire nutrients from non-nectar sources such as puddles. To better understand how male Papilio butterflies identify suitable sites for puddling, we used behavioral and electrophysiological methods to examine the responses of Japanese Papilio butterflies to Na+, K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+. Based on behavioral analyses, these butterflies preferred a 10-mM Na+ solution to K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ solutions of the same concentration and among a tested range of 1 mM to 1 M NaCl. We also measu...

  12. Prediction of a required dynamic torque for motor-operated butterfly valves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study describes the methodology for predicting a required dynamic torque in motor-operated butterfly valves. The results of this methodology have been compared with test data for motor-operated butterfly valves in nuclear power plant. With the close review of test data and torque prediction, it is concluded that the prediction methodology is conservative to predict a required dynamic torque of motor-operated butterfly valves. In addition, the information of correct differential pressure is vital to predict a required dynamic torque of motor-operated butterfly valves

  13. Using Butterflies to Measure Biodiversity Health in Wazo Hill Restored Quarry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelvin Ngongolo

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study butterflies were used in assessing re-vegetation as a way of biodiversity restoration at Wazo hill quarry. The Butterflies were used as indicator species because of their high sensitivity in ecosystems alteration. The study was done in two different areas each 4.8 acre, namely the re-vegetated and un-quarried areas. Butterfly sweep nets and Butterfly traps baited were used for Butterflies capturing. Thirty six (36 species of Butterflies were identified and voucher specimens were preserved in Kingupira Museum. Variation in species diversity was evaluated using diversity indices and tested using special t-test. Variation in Butterfly abundance in two study sites and in different habitats was determined using Kruskal-Wallis Test Statistic and Mann-Whitney U test statistic. The diversity of Butterflies was significant higher in re-vegetated site than in un-quarried site while the abundance difference in the two sites were insignificance The two sites varied in plants species diversity and level of succession, a condition attributed to variation in Butterfly diversity. The re-vegetated sites were recommended for aesthetic, education purposes and further studies on organisms.

  14. A fast butterfly algorithm for generalized Radon transforms

    KAUST Repository

    Hu, Jingwei

    2013-06-21

    Generalized Radon transforms, such as the hyperbolic Radon transform, cannot be implemented as efficiently in the frequency domain as convolutions, thus limiting their use in seismic data processing. We have devised a fast butterfly algorithm for the hyperbolic Radon transform. The basic idea is to reformulate the transform as an oscillatory integral operator and to construct a blockwise lowrank approximation of the kernel function. The overall structure follows the Fourier integral operator butterfly algorithm. For 2D data, the algorithm runs in complexity O(N2 log N), where N depends on the maximum frequency and offset in the data set and the range of parameters (intercept time and slowness) in the model space. From a series of studies, we found that this algorithm can be significantly more efficient than the conventional time-domain integration. © 2013 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  15. Sun compass integration of skylight cues in migratory monarch butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinze, Stanley; Reppert, Steven M

    2011-01-27

    Migrating monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) use a time-compensated sun compass to navigate from eastern North America to their overwintering grounds in central Mexico. Here we describe the neuronal layout of those aspects of the butterfly's central complex likely to establish part of the internal sun compass and find them highly homologous to those of the desert locust. Intracellular recordings from neurons in the monarch sun compass network reveal responses tuned to specific E-vector angles of polarized light, as well as azimuth-dependent responses to unpolarized light, independent of spectral composition. The neural responses to these two stimuli in individual neurons are mediated through different regions of the compound eye. Moreover, these dual responses are integrated to create a consistent representation of skylight cues in the sun compass throughout the day. The results advance our understanding of how ambiguous sensory signals are processed by the brain to elicit a robust behavioral response. PMID:21262471

  16. Scales affect performance of Monarch butterfly forewings in autorotational flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demko, Anya; Lang, Amy

    2012-11-01

    Butterfly wings are characterized by rows of scales (approximately 100 microns in length) that create a shingle-like pattern of cavities over the entire surface. It is hypothesized that these cavities influence the airflow around the wing and increase aerodynamic performance. A forewing of the Monarch butterfly (Danus plexippus) naturally undergoes autorotational flight in the laminar regime. Autorotational flight is an accurate representation of insect flight because the rotation induces a velocity gradient similar to that found over a flapping wing. Drop test flights of 22 forewings before and after scale removal were recorded with a high-speed camera and flight behavior was quantified. It was found that removing the scales increased the descent speed and decreased the descent factor, a measure of aerodynamic efficacy, suggesting that scales increased the performance of the forewings. Funded by NSF REU Grant 1062611.

  17. Annotated checklist of Albanian butterflies (Lepidoptera, Papilionoidea and Hesperioidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudi Verovnik

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The Republic of Albania has a rich diversity of flora and fauna. However, due to its political isolation, it has never been studied in great depth, and consequently, the existing list of butterfly species is outdated and in need of radical amendment. In addition to our personal data, we have studied the available literature, and can report a total of 196 butterfly species recorded from the country. For some of the species in the list we have given explanations for their inclusion and made other annotations. Doubtful records have been removed from the list, and changes in taxonomy have been updated and discussed separately. The purpose of our paper is to remove confusion and conflict regarding published records. However, the revised checklist should not be considered complete: it represents a starting point for further research.

  18. Cluster analysis for pattern recognition in solar butterfly diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illarionov, E.; Sokoloff, D.; Arlt, R.; Khlystova, A.

    2011-07-01

    We investigate to what extent the wings of solar butterfly diagrams can be separated without an explicit usage of Hale's polarity law as well as the location of the solar equator. We apply two algorithms of cluster analysis for this purpose, namely DBSCAN and C-means, and demonstrate their ability to separate the wings of contemporary butterfly diagrams based on the sunspot group density in the diagram only. Then we apply the method to historical data concerning the solar activity in the 18th century (Staudacher data). The method separates the two wings for Cycle 2, but fails to separate them for Cycle 1. In our opinion, this finding supports the interpretation of the Staudacher data as an indication of the unusual nature of the solar cycle in the 18th century.

  19. The genetics of monarch butterfly migration and warning coloration

    OpenAIRE

    Zhan, Shuai; Zhang, Wei; Niitepõld, Kristjan; Hsu, Jeremy; Haeger, Juan Fernández; Zalucki, Myron P; Altizer, Sonia; De Roode, Jacobus C.; Reppert, Steven M.; Kronforst, Marcus R

    2014-01-01

    The monarch butterfly, Danaus plexippus, is famous for its spectacular annual migration across North America, recent worldwide dispersal, and orange warning coloration. Despite decades of study and broad public interest, we know little about the genetic basis of these hallmark traits. By sequencing 101 monarch genomes from around the globe, we uncover the history of the monarch's evolutionary origin and global dispersal, characterize the genes and pathways associated with migratory behavior, ...

  20. MonarchBase: the monarch butterfly genome database

    OpenAIRE

    Zhan, Shuai; Reppert, Steven M.

    2012-01-01

    The monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) is emerging as a model organism to study the mechanisms of circadian clocks and animal navigation, and the genetic underpinnings of long-distance migration. The initial assembly of the monarch genome was released in 2011, and the biological interpretation of the genome focused on the butterfly’s migration biology. To make the extensive data associated with the genome accessible to the general biological and lepidopteran communities, we established Mona...

  1. Juvenile hormone regulation of longevity in the migratory monarch butterfly.

    OpenAIRE

    Herman, W.S.; Tatar, M

    2001-01-01

    Monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) of eastern North America are well known for their long-range migration to overwintering roosts in south-central Mexico. An essential feature of this migration involves the exceptional longevity of the migrant adults; individuals persist from August/September to March while their summer counterparts are likely to live less than two months as adults. Migrant adults persist during a state of reproductive diapause in which both male and female reproductive d...

  2. Social benefits of ecotourism : the monarch butterfly reserve in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Monterrubio Cordero, Juan Carlos; Rodríguez Muñoz, Gregoria; Mendoza Ontiveros, Martha Marivel

    2013-01-01

    Ecotourism can contribute to both positive and negative socioeconomic impacts at the local level. However, ecotourism’s socioeconomic impacts have received limited scholarly attention in the context of developing countries. Based on qualitative interviews and observations, this paper looks at the socioeconomic benefits of ecotourism in a local community in the Monarch Butterfly Reserve in Mexico. It was found that ecotourism replaced most of the economic activities in the lo...

  3. Monarch butterfly oviposition on swallow-worts (Vincetoxicum spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casagrande, R A; Dacey, J E

    2007-06-01

    As black swallow-wort, Vincetoxicum nigrum L. Moench, and pale swallow-wort, V. rossicum (Kleopow) Barbar., spread throughout the northeastern United States and southern Canada, there is concern about the impact of these invasive plants on populations of the native North American monarch butterfly Danaus plexippus L. Recent laboratory studies in New York and Ontario, Canada, have found little or no oviposition by monarch butterflies on the two Vincetoxicum species. In Rhode Island, we found 10.5-21.7% oviposition on Vincetoxicum species relative to common milkweed Asclepias syriaca L. in choice tests and 11.9-20.3% in no-choice tests in 2 yr of laboratory testing. These results were supported by field cage trials where monarchs given a choice between V. nigrum and A. syriaca laid 24.5% of their eggs on V. nigrum. In surveys of three pasture fields in Rhode Island where relative coverage of A. syriaca exceeded that of V. nigrum by a 0.77:0.23 ratio, 15.4% of monarch eggs were found on V. nigrum plants. In V. nigrum stands with very little A. syriaca (6.25 stems/ha), monarch egg density on V. nigrum was found to be over five times greater than in the three mixed pasture fields. In none of our laboratory or field evaluations was there any survival of monarch larvae on Vincetoxicum species. It seems that in Rhode Island, Vincetoxicum species serve as an oviposition sink for monarch butterflies. These findings suggest that East Coast butterflies may differ in host selection from those in central New York and southern Ontario, Canada. PMID:17540075

  4. Gyroid cuticular structures in butterfly wing scales: biological photonic crystals

    OpenAIRE

    MICHIELSEN, K; Stavenga, D.G

    2008-01-01

    We present a systematic study of the cuticular structure in the butterfly wing scales of some papilionids (Parides sesostris and Teinopalpus imperialis) and lycaenids (Callophrys rubi, Cyanophrys remus, Mitoura gryneus and Callophrys dumetorum). Using published scanning and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images, analytical modelling and computer-generated TEM micrographs, we find that the three-dimensional cuticular structures can be modelled by gyroid structures with various filling ...

  5. Topological Supersymmetry Breaking as the Origin of the Butterfly Effect

    OpenAIRE

    Ovchinnikov, Igor V.

    2012-01-01

    Previously, there existed no clear explanation why chaotic dynamics is always accompanied by the infinitely long memory of perturbations (and/or initial conditions) known as the butterfly effect (BE). In this paper, it is shown that within the recently proposed approximation-free supersymmetric theory of stochastic (partial) differential equations (SDE), the BE is a derivable consequence of (stochastic) chaos, a rigorous definition of which is the spontaneous breakdown of topological supersym...

  6. BUTTERFLIES OF UGANDA: MEMORIES OF A CHILD SOLDIER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard Van Zyl

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available "I was conceived in rape."[i] At least for this reviewer, this is one of the most powerful, hard-hitting opening lines of any book he has read to date. Moreover, from there this powerful text continues to hold the reader captive, and refuses to allow him or her to fall back in a slumber of indifference. [i] Opening line of Butterflies of Uganda.

  7. Host plant defences and voltinism in European butterflies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čížek, Lukáš; Fric, Zdeněk; Konvička, Martin

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 4 (2006), s. 337-344. ISSN 0307-6946 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) KJB6007306; GA ČR(CZ) GD206/03/H034 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : butterfly phylogeny * comparative method * herbivory Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.960, year: 2006

  8. Are neonicotinoid insecticides driving declines of widespread butterflies?

    OpenAIRE

    Gilburn, Andre S; Bunnefeld, Nils; Wilson, John McVean; Botham, Marc S.; Brereton, Tom M.; Fox, Richard; Goulson, Dave

    2015-01-01

    There has been widespread concern that neonicotinoid pesticides may be adversely impacting wild and managed bees for some years, but recently attention has shifted to examining broader effects they may be having on biodiversity. For example in the Netherlands, declines in insectivorous birds are positively associated with levels of neonicotinoid pollution in surface water. In England, the total abundance of widespread butterfly species declined by 58% on farmed land between 2000 and 2009 desp...

  9. ButterflyBase: a platform for lepidopteran genomics

    OpenAIRE

    Papanicolaou, Alexie; Gebauer-Jung, Steffi; Blaxter, Mark L; Owen McMillan, W.; Jiggins, Chris D.

    2007-01-01

    With over 100 000 species and a large community of evolutionary biologists, population ecologists, pest biologists and genome researchers, the Lepidoptera are an important insect group. Genomic resources [expressed sequence tags (ESTs), genome sequence, genetic and physical maps, proteomic and microarray datasets] are growing, but there has up to now been no single access and analysis portal for this group. Here we present ButterflyBase (http://www.butterflybase.org), a unified resource for l...

  10. Evolution of the Hofstadter butterfly in a tunable optical lattice

    OpenAIRE

    F. Yılmaz; Ünal, F. Nur; Oktel, M. Ö.

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in realizing artificial gauge fields on optical lattices promise experimental detection of topologically non-trivial energy spectra. Self-similar fractal energy structures generally known as Hofstadter butterflies depend sensitively on the geometry of the underlying lattice, as well as the applied magnetic field. The recent demonstration of an adjustable lattice geometry [L. Tarruell \\textit{et al.}, Nature 483, 302--305 (2012)] presents a unique opportunity to study this depe...

  11. Colors and pterin pigmentation of pierid butterfly wings

    OpenAIRE

    B. Wijnen; Leertouwer, H. L.; Stavenga, D.G

    2007-01-01

    The reflectance of pierid butterfly wings is principally determined by the incoherent scattering of incident light and the absorption by pterin pigments in the scale structures. Coherent scattering causing iridescence is frequently encountered in the dorsal wings or wing tips of male pierids. We investigated the effect of the pterins on wing reflectance by local extraction of the pigments with aqueous ammonia and simultaneous spectrophotometric measurements. The ultraviolet-absorbing leucopte...

  12. Evolutionary Novelty in a Butterfly Wing Pattern through Enhancer Shuffling.

    OpenAIRE

    Wallbank, Richard W. R.; Baxter, Simon W.; Pardo-D?az, Carolina; Hanly, Joseph J.; Martin, Simon H.; Mallet, James; Dasmahapatra, Kanchon K.; Salazar, Camilo; Joron, Mathieu; Nadeau, Nicola; McMillan, W. Owen; Jiggins, Chris D.

    2016-01-01

    An important goal in evolutionary biology is to understand the genetic changes underlying novel morphological structures. We investigated the origins of a complex wing pattern found among Amazonian Heliconius butterflies. Genome sequence data from 142 individuals across 17 species identified narrow regions associated with two distinct red colour pattern elements, dennis and ray. We hypothesise that these modules in non-coding sequence represent distinct cis-regulatory loci that control expres...

  13. Early emergence in a butterfly causally linked to anthropogenic warming

    OpenAIRE

    Kearney, Michael R.; Briscoe, Natalie J.; Karoly, David J.; Porter, Warren P; Norgate, Melanie; Sunnucks, Paul

    2010-01-01

    There is strong correlative evidence that human-induced climate warming is contributing to changes in the timing of natural events. Firm attribution, however, requires cause-and-effect links between observed climate change and altered phenology, together with statistical confidence that observed regional climate change is anthropogenic. We provide evidence for phenological shifts in the butterfly Heteronympha merope in response to regional warming in the southeast Australian city of Melbourne...

  14. The butterfly community of an urban wetland system - a case study of Oussudu Bird Sanctuary, Puducherry, India

    OpenAIRE

    Murugesan, M; Arun, P. R.; B.A.K. Prusty

    2013-01-01

    In a study on the butterfly community of the Oussudu (Ousteri) Bird Sanctuary and its environs at Puducherry, a total of 63 butterfly species belonging to 47 genera under five families were recorded which included two endemics and three Schedule I species. Nymphalidae was the most diverse and abundant butterfly family of the area followed by Pieridae. The paper also discusses the abundance and species assemblage pattern in the local butterfly fauna along with their legal/protection status a...

  15. Inferring the Provenance of an Alien Species with DNA Barcodes: The Neotropical Butterfly Dryas iulia in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Burg, Noah A.; Pradhan, Ashman; Gonzalez, Rebecca M.; Morban, Emely Z.; Zhen, Erica W.; Sakchoowong,Watana; Lohman, David J

    2014-01-01

    The Neotropical butterfly Dryas iulia has been collected from several locations in Thailand and Malaysia since 2007, and has been observed breeding in the wild, using introduced Passiflora foetida as a larval host plant. The butterfly is bred by a butterfly house in Phuket, Thailand, for release at weddings and Buddhist ceremonies, and we hypothesized that this butterfly house was the source of wild, Thai individuals. We compared wing patterns and COI barcodes from two, wild Thai populations ...

  16. Predator mimicry, not conspicuousness, explains the efficacy of butterfly eyespots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bona, Sebastiano; Valkonen, Janne K; López-Sepulcre, Andrés; Mappes, Johanna

    2015-05-01

    Large conspicuous eyespots on butterfly wings have been shown to deter predators. This has been traditionally explained by mimicry of vertebrate eyes, but recently the classic eye-mimicry hypothesis has been challenged. It is proposed that the conspicuousness of the eyespot, not mimicry, is what causes aversion due to sensory biases, neophobia or sensory overloads. We conducted an experiment to directly test whether the eye-mimicry or the conspicuousness hypothesis better explain eyespot efficacy. We used great tits (Parus major) as model predator, and tested their reaction towards animated images on a computer display. Birds were tested against images of butterflies without eyespots, with natural-looking eyespots, and manipulated spots with the same contrast but reduced resemblance to an eye, as well as images of predators (owls) with and without eyes. We found that mimetic eyespots were as effective as true eyes of owls and more efficient in eliciting an aversive response than modified, less mimetic but equally contrasting eyespots. We conclude that the eye-mimicry hypothesis explains our results better than the conspicuousness hypothesis and is thus likely to be an important mechanism behind the evolution of butterfly eyespots. PMID:25854889

  17. Cavitation detection of butterfly valve using support vector machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bo-Suk; Hwang, Won-Woo; Ko, Myung-Han; Lee, Soo-Jong

    2005-10-01

    Butterfly valves are popularly used in service in the industrial and water works pipeline systems with large diameter because of its lightweight, simple structure and the rapidity of its manipulation. Sometimes cavitation can occur, resulting in noise, vibration and rapid deterioration of the valve trim, and do not allow further operation. Thus, monitoring of cavitation is of economic interest and is very important in industry. This paper proposes a condition monitoring scheme using statistical feature evaluation and support vector machine (SVM) to detect the cavitation conditions of butterfly valve which used as a flow control valve at the pumping stations. The stationary features of vibration signals are extracted from statistical moments. The SVMs are trained, and then classify normal and cavitation conditions of control valves. The SVMs with the reorganized feature vectors can distinguish the class of the untrained and untested data. The classification validity of this method is examined by various signals acquired from butterfly valves in the pumping stations. And the classification success rate is compared with that of self-organizing feature map neural network (SOFM).

  18. MonarchBase: the monarch butterfly genome database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Shuai; Reppert, Steven M

    2013-01-01

    The monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) is emerging as a model organism to study the mechanisms of circadian clocks and animal navigation, and the genetic underpinnings of long-distance migration. The initial assembly of the monarch genome was released in 2011, and the biological interpretation of the genome focused on the butterfly's migration biology. To make the extensive data associated with the genome accessible to the general biological and lepidopteran communities, we established MonarchBase (available at http://monarchbase.umassmed.edu). The database is an open-access, web-available portal that integrates all available data associated with the monarch butterfly genome. Moreover, MonarchBase provides access to an updated version of genome assembly (v3) upon which all data integration is based. These include genes with systematic annotation, as well as other molecular resources, such as brain expressed sequence tags, migration expression profiles and microRNAs. MonarchBase utilizes a variety of retrieving methods to access data conveniently and for integrating biological interpretations. PMID:23143105

  19. Hofstadter butterflies in nonlinear Harper lattices, and their optical realizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manela, Ofer; Segev, Mordechai [Department of Physics and Solid State Institute, Technion, Haifa 32000 (Israel); Christodoulides, Demetrios N [College of Optics/CREOL, University of Central Florida, FL 32816-2700 (United States); Kip, Detlef, E-mail: msegev@tx.technion.ac.i [Department of Electrical Engineering, Helmut Schmidt University, 22043 Hamburg (Germany)

    2010-05-15

    The ubiquitous Hofstadter butterfly describes a variety of systems characterized by incommensurable periodicities, ranging from Bloch electrons in magnetic fields and the quantum Hall effect to cold atoms in optical lattices and more. Here, we introduce nonlinearity into the underlying (Harper) model and study the nonlinear spectra and the corresponding extended eigenmodes of nonlinear quasiperiodic systems. We show that the spectra of the nonlinear eigenmodes form deformed versions of the Hofstadter butterfly and demonstrate that the modes can be classified into two families: nonlinear modes that are a 'continuation' of the linear modes of the system and new nonlinear modes that have no counterparts in the linear spectrum. Finally, we propose an optical realization of the linear and nonlinear Harper models in transversely modulated waveguide arrays, where these Hofstadter butterflies can be observed. This work is relevant to a variety of other branches of physics beyond optics, such as disorder-induced localization in ultracold bosonic gases, localization transition processes in disordered lattices, and more.

  20. Hofstadter butterflies in nonlinear Harper lattices, and their optical realizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ubiquitous Hofstadter butterfly describes a variety of systems characterized by incommensurable periodicities, ranging from Bloch electrons in magnetic fields and the quantum Hall effect to cold atoms in optical lattices and more. Here, we introduce nonlinearity into the underlying (Harper) model and study the nonlinear spectra and the corresponding extended eigenmodes of nonlinear quasiperiodic systems. We show that the spectra of the nonlinear eigenmodes form deformed versions of the Hofstadter butterfly and demonstrate that the modes can be classified into two families: nonlinear modes that are a 'continuation' of the linear modes of the system and new nonlinear modes that have no counterparts in the linear spectrum. Finally, we propose an optical realization of the linear and nonlinear Harper models in transversely modulated waveguide arrays, where these Hofstadter butterflies can be observed. This work is relevant to a variety of other branches of physics beyond optics, such as disorder-induced localization in ultracold bosonic gases, localization transition processes in disordered lattices, and more.

  1. Solving Witten's string field theory using the butterfly state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We solve the equation of motion of Witten's cubic open string field theory in a series expansion using the regulated butterfly state. The expansion parameter is given by the regularization parameter of the butterfly state, which can be taken to be arbitrarily small. Unlike the case of level truncation, the equation of motion can be solved for an arbitrary component of the Fock space up to a positive power of the expansion parameter. The energy density of the solution is well defined and remains finite even in the singular butterfly limit, and it gives approximately 68% of the D25-brane tension for the solution at the leading order. Moreover, it simultaneously solves the equation of motion of vacuum string field theory, providing support for the conjecture at this order. We further improve our ansatz by taking into account next-to-leading terms, and find two numerical solutions which give approximately 88% and 109%, respectively, of the D25-brane tension for the energy density. These values are interestingly close to those by level truncation at level 2 without gauge fixing studied by Rastelli and Zwiebach and by Ellwood and Taylor

  2. Liquid-feeding strategy of the proboscis of butterflies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Chul; Lee, Sang Joon; CenterBiofluid; Biomimic Research Team

    2015-11-01

    The liquid-feeding strategy of the proboscis of butterflies was experimentally investigated. Firstly, the liquid uptake from a pool by the proboscis of a nectar-feeding butterfly, cabbage white (Pieris rapae) was tested. Liquid-intake flow phenomenon at the submerged proboscis was visualized by micro-particle image velocimetry. The periodic liquid-feeding flow is induced by the systaltic motion of the cibarial pump. Reynolds number and Womersley number of the liquid-intake flow in the proboscis are low enough to assume quasi-steady laminar flow. Next, the liquid feeding from wet surfaces by the brush-tipped proboscis of a nymphalid butterfly, Asian comma (Polygonia c-aureum) was investigated. The tip of the proboscis was observed especially brush-like sensilla styloconica. The liquid-feeding flow between the proboscis and wet surfaces was also quantitatively visualized. During liquid drinking from the wet surface, the sensilla styloconica enhance liquid uptake rate with accumulation of liquid. This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korea government (MSIP) (No. 2008-0061991).

  3. Low Reynolds Number Drag Alteration Inspired by Butterfly Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laforte, Brent; Kronenberger, Courtney; Lang, Amy

    2012-11-01

    Biomimetics is the process of looking towards nature's adaptations for answers to today's engineering obstacles. An age-old engineering dilemma is trying to find new methods to reduce the amount of drag over a body. This research finds inspiration from butterfly scales which are hypothesized to alter surface friction over the wings. Drop testing was performed on axisymmetric, streamlined, teardrop models which were rapid-prototyped such that the surface was covered with either streamwise or transverse cavities modeled after the Monarch butterfly. The drop tank contained silicone oil with a viscosity two hundred times that of water insuring flow similarity between the model cavities (2.5 mm cavity depth) and the butterfly scale structures (about 30 microns cavity depth). A variation in Reynolds number was achieved by altering the model weight such that terminal speeds ranged from 5 to 70 cm/s. Results showed a reduction in surface friction for the transverse cavity configurations based on the roller-bearing effect. These findings suggest that the cavity shape and ratio is directly correlated to the amount of drag alteration. Funded by NSF REU grant 1062611.

  4. 76 FR 49541 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Emergency Listing of the Miami Blue Butterfly as...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-10

    ... Listing as Endangered or Threatened Species (49 FR 21664), which included the Miami blue butterfly... proposal. In a January 6, 1989, Animal Notice of Review (54 FR 572), the Miami blue butterfly continued as... Miami blue butterfly as a Federal candidate subspecies in our annual Candidate Notice of Review (70...

  5. Study of nano-architecture of the wings of Paris Peacock butterfly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghate, Ekata; Bhoraskar, S. V.; Kulkarni, G. R.

    Butterflies are one of the most colorful creatures in animal Kingdom. Wings of the male butterfly are brilliantly colored to attract females. Color of the wings plays an important role in camouflage. Study of structural colors in case of insects and butterflies are important for their biomimic and biophotonic applications. Structural color is the color which is produced by physical structures and their interaction with light. Paris Peacock or Papilio paris butterfly belongs to the family Papilionidae. The basis of structural color of this butterfly is investigated in the present study. The upper surface of the wings in this butterfly is covered with blue, green and brown colored scales. Nano-architecture of these scales was investigated with scanning electron microscope (SEM) and environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM). Photomicrographs were analyzed using image analysis software. Goniometric color or iridescence in blue and green colored scales of this butterfly was observed and studied with the help of gonio spectrophotometer in the visible range. No iridescence was observed in brown colored scales of the butterfly. Hues of the blue and green color were measured with spectrophotometer and were correlated with nano-architecture of the wing. Results of electron microscopy and reflection spectroscopy are used to explain the iridescent nature of blue and green scales. Sinusoidal grating like structures of these scales were prominently seen in the blue scales. It is possible that the structure of these wings can act as a template for the fabrication of sinusoidal gratings using nano-imprint technology.

  6. Evolution of the wave: aerodynamic and aposematic functions of butterfly wing motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many unpalatable butterfly species use color to signal their distastefulness to birds, but motion cues may also be crucial to ward off predatory attacks. In previous research, captive passion-vine butterflies Heliconius mimetic in color pattern were also mimetic in motion. Here I investigate whethe...

  7. Butterfly valve with metal seals controls flow of hydrogen from cryogenic through high temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, L. D.

    1967-01-01

    Butterfly valve with metal seals operates over a temperature range of minus 423 degrees to plus 440 degrees F with hydrogen as a medium and in a radiation environment. Media flow is controlled by an internal butterfly disk which is rotated by an actuation shaft.

  8. El Niño and other determinants of butterfly migrations in a Neotropical wet forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    What factors regulate insect populations and their movement in the tropics? We censused butterflies flying across the Panama Canal at Barro Colorado Island (BCI) for 16 years to address two questions. What environmental factors determine the date on which the number of migrating butterflies peaked...

  9. The butterflies of Barro Colorado Island: Local extinction rates since the 1930's

    Science.gov (United States)

    Few data are available about the regional or local extinction of tropical butterfly species. When confirmed, local extinction was often due to the loss of host-plant species. We used published lists and recent monitoring programs to evaluate changes in butterfly composition on Barro Colorado Island ...

  10. The effect of atomic power plant accident on organisms as studied by using butterflies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biological radiation effect of the Fukushima powerplant accident on a butterfly, Yamotoshijimi has been examined. Consequently it was resulted that the radioactive materials released from the accident had a bad influence upon Yamatoshijimi, that is, the lowering of life rate, the shape diminishing and the malformation of this butterfly. (M.H.)

  11. Enhanced thrust and speed revealed in the forward flight of a butterfly with transient body translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Yueh-Han John; Yang, Jing-Tang

    2015-09-01

    A butterfly with broad wings, flapping at a small frequency, flies an erratic trajectory at an inconstant speed. A large variation of speed within a cycle is observed in the forward flight of a butterfly. A self-propulsion model to simulate a butterfly is thus created to investigate the transient translation of the body; the results, which are in accordance with experimental data, show that the shape of the variation of the flight speed is similar to a sinusoidal wave with a maximum (J =0.89 ) at the beginning of the downstroke, and a decrease to a minimum (J =0.17 ) during a transition from downstroke to upstroke; the difference between the extrema of the flight speed is enormous in a flapping cycle. At a high speed, a clapping motion of the butterfly wings decreases the generation of drag. At a small speed, a butterfly is able to capture the induced wakes generated in a downstroke, and effectively generates a thrust at the beginning of an upstroke. The wing motion of a butterfly skillfully interacts with its speed so as to enable an increased speed with the same motion. Considering a butterfly to fly in a constant inflow leads to either an underestimate of its speed or an overestimate of its generated lift, which yields an inaccurate interpretation of the insect's flight. Our results reveal the effect of transient translation on a butterfly in forward flight, which is especially important for an insect with a small flapping frequency.

  12. Quantitative assessment of a Tanzanian integrated conservation and development project involving butterfly farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan-Brown, Theron; Jacobson, Susan K; Wald, Kenneth; Child, Brian

    2010-04-01

    Scientific understanding of the role of development in conservation has been hindered by the quality of evaluations of integrated conservation and development projects. We used a quasi-experimental design to quantitatively assess a conservation and development project involving commercial butterfly farming in the East Usambara Mountains of Tanzania. Using a survey of conservation attitudes, beliefs, knowledge, and behavior, we compared 150 butterfly farmers with a control group of 170 fellow community members. Due to the nonrandom assignment of individuals to the two groups, we used propensity-score matching and weighting in our analyses to control for observed bias. Eighty percent of the farmers believed butterfly farming would be impossible if local forests were cleared, and butterfly farmers reported significantly more participation in forest conservation behaviors and were more likely to believe that conservation behaviors were effective. The two groups did not differ in terms of their general conservation attitudes, attitudes toward conservation officials, or knowledge of conservation-friendly building techniques. The relationship between butterfly farming and conservation behavior was mediated by dependency on butterfly farming income. Assuming unobserved bias played a limited role, our findings suggest that participation in butterfly farming increased participation in conservation behaviors among project participants because farmers perceive a link between earnings from butterfly farming and forest conservation. PMID:20151990

  13. Wave-driven butterfly distribution of Van Allen belt relativistic electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Fuliang; Yang, Chang; Su, Zhenpeng; Zhou, Qinghua; He, Zhaoguo; He, Yihua; Baker, D. N.; Spence, H. E.; Funsten, H. O.; Blake, J. B.

    2015-10-01

    Van Allen radiation belts consist of relativistic electrons trapped by Earth's magnetic field. Trapped electrons often drift azimuthally around Earth and display a butterfly pitch angle distribution of a minimum at 90° further out than geostationary orbit. This is usually attributed to drift shell splitting resulting from day-night asymmetry in Earth's magnetic field. However, direct observation of a butterfly distribution well inside of geostationary orbit and the origin of this phenomenon have not been provided so far. Here we report high-resolution observation that a unusual butterfly pitch angle distribution of relativistic electrons occurred within 5 Earth radii during the 28 June 2013 geomagnetic storm. Simulation results show that combined acceleration by chorus and magnetosonic waves can successfully explain the electron flux evolution both in the energy and butterfly pitch angle distribution. The current provides a great support for the mechanism of wave-driven butterfly distribution of relativistic electrons.

  14. Woodland habitat quality prevails over fragmentation for shaping butterfly diversity in deciduous forest remnants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Halder, Inge; Barnagaud, Jean-Yves; Jactel, Herve; Barbaro, Luc

    2015-01-01

    The effects of forest fragmentation on biodiversity can be partitioned into habitat loss and increased isolation of habitat fragments. Habitat quality may however prevail over the effects of fragment area and isolation, especially for mobile animals such as butterflies. To test this hypothesis we...... surveyed butterfly communities in 36 deciduous forest fragments embedded in a conifer plantation matrix, along two orthogonal gradients of fragment area and isolation. We also sampled eight deciduous riparian forests to compare the complete pool of forest butterflies, expected to be found in riparian...... forests, to the composition of deciduous fragments. We quantified the effects of deciduous woodland area, isolation and quality on total and forest butterfly richness, community composition and several Community-Weighted Mean traits known to mediate butterfly responses to habitat fragmentation. For the 36...

  15. Fractal butterflies of chiral fermions in bilayer graphene: Phase transitions and emergent properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazaryan, Areg; Chakraborty, Tapash

    2015-12-01

    We have studied the influence of electron-electron interaction on the fractal butterfly spectrum of Dirac fermions in biased bilayer graphene in the fractional quantum Hall effect (FQHE) regime. We demonstrate that the butterfly spectrum exhibits remarkable phase transitions between the FQHE gap and the butterfly gap for chiral electrons in bilayer graphene, when the periodic potential strength or the bias voltage is varied. We also find that, in addition to those phase transitions, by varying the bias voltage one can effectively control the periodic potential strength experienced by the electrons. The electron-electron interaction causes the butterfly spectrum to exhibit new gaps inside the Bloch sub-bands not found in the single-particle case. We expect that both the observed phase transition and other new features in the butterfly spectrum of interacting Dirac fermions will be of great interest to researchers from diverse fields.

  16. Phase Diagram for the Hofstadter butterfly and integer quantum Hall effect in three dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Koshino, M; Osada, T; Kuroki, K; Kagoshima, S

    2001-01-01

    We give a perspective on the Hofstadter butterfly (fractal energy spectrum in magnetic fields), which we have shown to arise specifically in three-dimensional(3D) systems in our previous work. (i) We first obtain the `phase diagram' on a parameter space of the transfer energies and the magnetic field for the appearance of Hofstadter's butterfly spectrum in anisotropic crystals in 3D. (ii) We show that the orientation of the external magnetic field can be arbitrary to have the 3D butterfly. (iii) We show that the butterfly is beyond the semiclassical description. (iv) The required magnetic field for a representative organic metal is estimated to be modest ($\\sim 40$ T) if we adopt higher Landau levels for the butterfly. (v) We give a simpler way of deriving the topological invariants that represent the quantum Hall numbers (i.e., two Hall conductivity in 3D, $\\sigma_{xy}, \\sigma_{zx}$, in units of $e^2/h$).

  17. Maunder's Butterfly Diagram in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathaway, David H.

    2005-01-01

    E. Walter Maunder created his first "Butterfly Diagram" showing the equatorward drift of the sunspot latitudes over the course of each of two solar cycles in 1903. This diagram was constructed from data obtained through the Royal Greenwich Observatory (RGO) starting in 1874. The RGO continued to acquire data up until 1976. Fortunately, the US Air Force (USAF) and the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) have continued to acquire similar data since that time. This combined RGO/USAF/NOAA dataset on sunspot group positions and areas now extends virtually unbroken from the 19th century to the 21st century. The data represented in the Butterfly Diagram contain a wealth of information about solar activity and the solar cycle. Solar activity (as represented by the sunspots) appears at mid-latitudes at the start of each cycle. The bands of activity spread in each hemisphere and then drift toward the equator as the cycle progresses. Although the equator itself tends to be avoided, the spread of activity reaches the equator at about the time of cycle maximum. The cycles overlap at minimum with old cycle spots appearing near the equator while new cycle spots emerge in the mid-latitudes. Large amplitude cycles tend to have activity starting at higher latitudes with the activity spreading to higher latitudes as well. Large amplitude cycles also tend to be preceded by earlier cycles with faster drift rates. These drift rates may be tied to the Sun s meridional circulation - a component in many dynamo theories for the origin of the sunspot cycle. The Butterfly Diagram must be reproduced in any successful dynamo model for the Sun.

  18. Behavioural resistance against a protozoan parasite in the monarch butterfly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefèvre, Thierry; Chiang, Allen; Kelavkar, Mangala; Li, Hui; Li, James; de Castillejo, Carlos Lopez Fernandez; Oliver, Lindsay; Potini, Yamini; Hunter, Mark D; de Roode, Jacobus C

    2012-01-01

    1. As parasites can dramatically reduce the fitness of their hosts, there should be strong selection for hosts to evolve and maintain defence mechanisms against their parasites. One way in which hosts may protect themselves against parasitism is through altered behaviours, but such defences have been much less studied than other forms of parasite resistance. 2. We studied whether monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus L.) use altered behaviours to protect themselves and their offspring against the protozoan parasite Ophryocystis elektroscirrha (McLaughlin & Myers (1970), Journal of Protozoology, 17, p. 300). In particular, we studied whether (i) monarch larvae can avoid contact with infectious parasite spores; (ii) infected larvae preferentially consume therapeutic food plants when given a choice or increase the intake of such plants in the absence of choice; and (iii) infected female butterflies preferentially lay their eggs on medicinal plants that make their offspring less sick. 3. We found that monarch larvae were unable to avoid infectious parasite spores. Larvae were also not able to preferentially feed on therapeutic food plants or increase the ingestion of such plants. However, infected female butterflies preferentially laid their eggs on food plants that reduce parasite growth in their offspring. 4. Our results suggest that animals may use altered behaviours as a protection against parasites and that such behaviours may be limited to a single stage in the host-parasite life cycle. Our results also suggest that animals may use altered behaviours to protect their offspring instead of themselves. Thus, our study indicates that an inclusive fitness approach should be adopted to study behavioural defences against parasites. PMID:21939438

  19. Opsin clines in butterflies suggest novel roles for insect photopigments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frentiu, Francesca D; Yuan, Furong; Savage, Wesley K; Bernard, Gary D; Mullen, Sean P; Briscoe, Adriana D

    2015-02-01

    Opsins are ancient molecules that enable animal vision by coupling to a vitamin-derived chromophore to form light-sensitive photopigments. The primary drivers of evolutionary diversification in opsins are thought to be visual tasks related to spectral sensitivity and color vision. Typically, only a few opsin amino acid sites affect photopigment spectral sensitivity. We show that opsin genes of the North American butterfly Limenitis arthemis have diversified along a latitudinal cline, consistent with natural selection due to environmental factors. We sequenced single nucleotide (SNP) polymorphisms in the coding regions of the ultraviolet (UVRh), blue (BRh), and long-wavelength (LWRh) opsin genes from ten butterfly populations along the eastern United States and found that a majority of opsin SNPs showed significant clinal variation. Outlier detection and analysis of molecular variance indicated that many SNPs are under balancing selection and show significant population structure. This contrasts with what we found by analysing SNPs in the wingless and EF-1 alpha loci, and from neutral amplified fragment length polymorphisms, which show no evidence of significant locus-specific or genome-wide structure among populations. Using a combination of functional genetic and physiological approaches, including expression in cell culture, transgenic Drosophila, UV-visible spectroscopy, and optophysiology, we show that key BRh opsin SNPs that vary clinally have almost no effect on spectral sensitivity. Our results suggest that opsin diversification in this butterfly is more consistent with natural selection unrelated to spectral tuning. Some of the clinally varying SNPs may instead play a role in regulating opsin gene expression levels or the thermostability of the opsin protein. Lastly, we discuss the possibility that insect opsins might have important, yet-to-be elucidated, adaptive functions in mediating animal responses to abiotic factors, such as temperature or photoperiod. PMID:25371434

  20. Controlling public speaking jitters: making the butterflies fly in formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Hannah; Baum, Neil

    2014-01-01

    Nearly every person who has been asked to give a speech or who has volunteered to make a presentation to a group of strangers develops fear and anxiety prior to the presentation. Most of us, the authors included, start hyperventilating, our pulse quickens, and we feel a little weak in the knees. We grab the lectern and our knuckles turn white as we hold on for dear life. This is a normal response that everyone experiences. However, this stress can be controlled and made manageable by understanding the stress response cycle and practicing a few techniques that calm those butterflies flying around in the pit of your stomach. PMID:25807629

  1. Implementing controlled-unitary operations over the butterfly network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We introduce a multiparty quantum computation task over a network in a situation where the capacities of both the quantum and classical communication channels of the network are limited and a bottleneck occurs. Using a resource setting introduced by Hayashi [1], we present an efficient protocol for performing controlled-unitary operations between two input nodes and two output nodes over the butterfly network, one of the most fundamental networks exhibiting the bottleneck problem. This result opens the possibility of developing a theory of quantum network coding for multiparty quantum computation, whereas the conventional network coding only treats multiparty quantum communication

  2. Light-Induced Hofstadter's Butterfly Spectrum in Optical Lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose a scheme to create an effective magnetic field, which can be perceived by cold neutral atoms in a two-dimensional optical lattice, with a laser field with a space-dependent phase and a conventional laser field acting on Λ-type three-level atoms. When the dimensionless parameter α, being the ratio of flux through a lattice cell to one flux quantum, is rational, the energy spectrum shows a fractal band structure, which is so-called Hofstadter's butterfly. (general)

  3. 3D Flight Path Tracking of Butterflies by Image Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Mitesser, Oliver; Kőrösi, Ádám; Hovestadt, Thomas; Möhringer, Peter; Bohn, Günther

    2015-01-01

    The first results of an interdisciplinary cooperation of the UoAS Würzburg-Schweinfurt, the Faculty of Electrical Engineering and the University of Würzburg, Biozentrum, are introduced in the paper. The principal goal is to identify the abilities, motivation, and decision rules underlying the movement of small butterflies (Polyommatus Icarus, Common Blue) and to develop a ‘cognitive’ movement model. The described part of the UoAS Würzburg-Schweinfurt is the record of movements by installing h...

  4. Implementing controlled-unitary operations over the butterfly network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soeda, Akihito; Kinjo, Yoshiyuki; Turner, Peter S. [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Murao, Mio [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan and NanoQuine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    2014-12-04

    We introduce a multiparty quantum computation task over a network in a situation where the capacities of both the quantum and classical communication channels of the network are limited and a bottleneck occurs. Using a resource setting introduced by Hayashi [1], we present an efficient protocol for performing controlled-unitary operations between two input nodes and two output nodes over the butterfly network, one of the most fundamental networks exhibiting the bottleneck problem. This result opens the possibility of developing a theory of quantum network coding for multiparty quantum computation, whereas the conventional network coding only treats multiparty quantum communication.

  5. Field-Induced SDW and Butterfly Spectrum in Three Dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Koshino, M; Osada, T

    2001-01-01

    Landau's quantization for incompletely nested Fermi surfaces is known to give rise to magnetic-field-induced spin-density waves(FISDW) in two-dimensional organic metals. Here we show that three-dimensional(3D) systems can exhibit novel FISDW phases peculiar to 3D, which are characterized by quantized Hall effect with both $\\sigma_{xy}$ and $\\sigma_{zx}$ being nonzero integers, and reside on a fractal spectrum like Hofstadter's butterfly. The emergence of the 3D FISDW is discussed in terms of the topology of the 3D Fermi surface.

  6. Change in a butterfly community on a gradually overgrowing site

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kočíková, Lenka; Čanády, A.; Panigaj, L.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 5 (2014), s. 391-398. ISSN 1067-4136 Grant ostatní: Slovak Scientific Grant Agency VEGA(SK) 1/0434/03; Slovak Scientific Grant Agency VEGA(SK) 1/0477/10; Slovak Scientific Grant Agency VEGA(SK) 1/1025/12; Internal Research Grants(SK) I-10-001-00-F-VVGS; Internal Research Grants(SK) VVGS-PF-2012-19 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : butterflies * monitoring * water pan traps Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.390, year: 2014 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1134%2FS1067413614050087

  7. Resources Organization and Searching Specification: The “Butterflies of Taiwan” Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szu-Chia Lo

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available “Butterflies of Taiwan” is a sub-project under Taiwan Digital Museum Project (TDMP, sponsored by the National Science Council of Taiwan. ”Butterflies of Taiwan”, a cooperative project, was proposed by National Chi-Nan University and National Museum of Natural Science; its metadata was developed by Resources Organization Searching Specification (ROSS, also a sub-project under TDMP Research Team. In order to design the appropriate elements and create the butterfly metadata, ROSS started to gather relevant information on butterfly and information cataloging in August 1998. The main purpose of this project is to establish a digital museum to support and promote science education. Task of ROSS is the following: with respect to information storage and retrieval demand, to develop butterfly metadata format and design system specification based on the project content. This article presents the metadata format created for butterfly project and discusses issues related with its implementation. In order to promote information exchange, mapping of butterfly metadata to Dublin Core will also be presented.[Article content in Chinese

  8. Urban Rights-of-Way as Reservoirs for Tall-Grass Prairie Plants and Butterflies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leston, Lionel; Koper, Nicola

    2016-03-01

    Urban rights-of-way may be potential reservoirs of tall-grass prairie plants and butterflies. To determine if this is true, in 2007-2008, we conducted vegetation surveys of species richness and cover, and butterfly surveys of species richness and abundance, along 52 transmission lines and four remnant prairies in Winnipeg, Manitoba. We detected many prairie plants and butterflies within transmission lines. Some unmowed and infrequently managed transmission lines had native plant species richness and total percent cover of native plants comparable to that of similar-sized remnant tall-grass prairies in the region. Although we did not find significant differences in overall native butterfly numbers or species richness between rights-of-way and remnant prairies, we found lower numbers of some prairie butterflies along frequently mowed rights-of-way than within remnant tall-grass prairies. We also observed higher butterfly species richness along sites with more native plant species. By reducing mowing and spraying and reintroducing tall-grass prairie plants, urban rights-of-way could serve as extensive reservoirs for tall-grass prairie plants and butterflies in urban landscapes. Eventually, managing urban rights-of-way as reservoirs for tall-grass prairie plants and animals could contribute to the restoration of tall-grass prairie in the North American Midwest.

  9. Direct and indirect responses of tallgrass prairie butterflies to prescribed burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Jennifer A.; Koford, Rolf R.; Debinski, Diane M.

    2010-01-01

    Fire is an important tool in the conservation and restoration of tallgrass prairie ecosystems. We investigated how both the vegetation composition and butterfly community of tallgrass prairie remnants changed in relation to the elapsed time (in months) since prescribed fire. Butterfly richness and butterfly abundance were positively correlated with the time since burn. Habitat-specialist butterfly richness recovery time was greater than 70 months post-fire and habitat-specialist butterfly abundance recovery time was approximately 50 months post-fire. Thus, recovery times for butterfly populations after prescribed fires in our study were potentially longer than those previously reported. We used Path Analysis to evaluate the relative contributions of the direct effect of time since fire and the indirect effects of time since fire through changes in vegetation composition on butterfly abundance. Path models highlighted the importance of the indirect effects of fire on habitat features, such as increases in the cover of bare ground. Because fire return intervals on managed prairie remnants are often less than 5 years, information on recovery times for habitat-specialist insect species are of great importance. ?? 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  10. Temporal occurrence of two morpho butterflies (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae): influence of weather and food resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, Geraldo; Nascimento, Andr Rangel; Malinov, Ivan Konstantinov; Diniz, Ivone R

    2014-04-01

    The seasonality of fruit-feeding butterflies is very well known. However, few studies have analyzed the influence of climatic variables and resource availability on the temporal distributions of butterflies. Morpho helenor achillides (C. Felder and R. Felder 1867) and Morpho menelaus coeruleus (Perry 1810) (Nymphalidae) were used as models to investigate the influences of climatic factors and food resources on the temporal distribution of these Morphinae butterflies. These butterflies were collected weekly from January 2005 to December 2006 in the Parque Nacional de Braslia (PNB). In total, 408 individuals were collected, including 274 of M. helenor and 134 of M. menelaus. The relative abundance of the two species was similar in 2005 (n = 220) and 2006 (n = 188). Of the variables considered, only the relative humidity and resource availability measured in terms of phenology of zoochorous fruits of herbaceous plants explained a large proportion of the variation in the abundance of these butterflies. Both of the explanatory variables were positively associated with the total abundance of individuals and with the abundances of M. helenor and M. menelaus considered separately. The phenology of anemochorous fruits was negatively associated with butterfly abundance. The temporal distribution of the butterflies was better predicted by the phenology of the zoochorous fruits of herbaceous plants than by the climatic predictors. PMID:24495483

  11. Butterfly Wings Are Three-Dimensional: Pupal Cuticle Focal Spots and Their Associated Structures in Junonia Butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taira, Wataru; Otaki, Joji M

    2016-01-01

    Butterfly wing color patterns often contain eyespots, which are developmentally determined at the late larval and early pupal stages by organizing activities of focal cells that can later form eyespot foci. In the pupal stage, the focal position of a future eyespot is often marked by a focal spot, one of the pupal cuticle spots, on the pupal surface. Here, we examined the possible relationships of the pupal focal spots with the underneath pupal wing tissues and with the adult wing eyespots using Junonia butterflies. Large pupal focal spots were found in two species with large adult eyespots, J. orithya and J. almana, whereas only small pupal focal spots were found in a species with small adult eyespots, J. hedonia. The size of five pupal focal spots on a single wing was correlated with the size of the corresponding adult eyespots in J. orithya. A pupal focal spot was a three-dimensional bulge of cuticle surface, and the underside of the major pupal focal spot exhibited a hollowed cuticle in a pupal case. Cross sections of a pupal wing revealed that the cuticle layer shows a curvature at a focal spot, and a positional correlation was observed between the cuticle layer thickness and its corresponding cell layer thickness. Adult major eyespots of J. orithya and J. almana exhibited surface elevations and depressions that approximately correspond to the coloration within an eyespot. Our results suggest that a pupal focal spot is produced by the organizing activity of focal cells underneath the focal spot. Probably because the focal cell layer immediately underneath a focal spot is thicker than that of its surrounding areas, eyespots of adult butterfly wings are three-dimensionally constructed. The color-height relationship in adult eyespots might have an implication in the developmental signaling for determining the eyespot color patterns. PMID:26731532

  12. Numerical simulation on a throttle governing system with hydraulic butterfly valves in a marine environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Hui-Xiong; Fang, Jun; Huang, Hui

    2010-12-01

    Hydraulic butterfly valves have been widely applied in marine engineering because of their large switching torque, low pressure loss and suitability for large and medium diameter pipelines. Due to control problems resulting from switching angular speeds of the hydraulic butterfly valve, a throttle-governing control mode has been widely adopted, and detailed analysis has been carried out worldwide on the structural principle concerning speed-regulation and the load torque on the shaft while opening or closing a hydraulic butterfly valve. However relevant reports have yet been published on the change law, the error and the influencing factors of the rotational angular velocity of the hydraulic butterfly valve while opening and closing. In this article, research was based on some common specifications of a hydraulic butterfly valve with a symmetrical valve flap existing in a marine environment. The throttle governing system supplied by the accumulator to achieve the switching of the hydraulic control valve was adopted, and the mathematical models of the system were established in the actual conditions while the numerical simulations took place. The simulation results and analysis show that the rotational angular velocity and the error of the hydraulic butterfly valve while switching is influenced greatly by the drainage amount of the accumulator, resulting in pressure loss in the pipeline, the temperature of hydraulic medium and the load of the hydraulic butterfly valve. The simulation results and analysis provide a theoretical basis for the choice of the total capacity of the accumulator and pipeline diameters in a throttle governing system with a hydraulic butterfly valve. It also determines the type and specification of the hydraulic butterfly valve and the design of motion parameters of the transported fluid.

  13. Effects of spatial heterogeneity on butterfly species richness in Rocky Mountain National Park, CO, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S.; Simonson, S.E.; Stohlgren, T.J.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated butterfly responses to plot-level characteristics (plant species richness, vegetation height, and range in NDVI [normalized difference vegetation index]) and spatial heterogeneity in topography and landscape patterns (composition and configuration) at multiple spatial scales. Stratified random sampling was used to collect data on butterfly species richness from seventy-six 20 ?? 50 m plots. The plant species richness and average vegetation height data were collected from 76 modified-Whittaker plots overlaid on 76 butterfly plots. Spatial heterogeneity around sample plots was quantified by measuring topographic variables and landscape metrics at eight spatial extents (radii of 300, 600 to 2,400 m). The number of butterfly species recorded was strongly positively correlated with plant species richness, proportion of shrubland and mean patch size of shrubland. Patterns in butterfly species richness were negatively correlated with other variables including mean patch size, average vegetation height, elevation, and range in NDVI. The best predictive model selected using Akaike's Information Criterion corrected for small sample size (AICc), explained 62% of the variation in butterfly species richness at the 2,100 m spatial extent. Average vegetation height and mean patch size were among the best predictors of butterfly species richness. The models that included plot-level information and topographic variables explained relatively less variation in butterfly species richness, and were improved significantly after including landscape metrics. Our results suggest that spatial heterogeneity greatly influences patterns in butterfly species richness, and that it should be explicitly considered in conservation and management actions. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  14. Unsteady Flow and Force Control in Butterfly Take-off Flight

    CERN Document Server

    Dong, Haibo; Liang, Zongxian; Yun, Xiang

    2012-01-01

    In this work, high-resolution, high-speed videos of a Monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) in take-off flight were obtained using a photogrammetry system. Using a 3D subdivision surface reconstruction methodology, the butterfly's body/wing deformation and kinematics were modeled and reconstructed from those videos. High fidelity simulations were then carried out in order to understand vortex formation in both near-field and far-field of butterfly wings and examine the associated aerodynamic performance. A Cartesian grid based sharp interface immersed boundary solver was used to handle such flows in all their complexity.

  15. Testing species distribution models across space and time: high latitude butterflies and recent warming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskildsen, Anne; LeRoux, Peter C.; Heikkinen, Risto K.; Høye, Toke Thomas; Kissling, W. Daniel; Pöyry, Juha; Wisz, Mary; Luoto, Miska

    2013-01-01

    changes at expanding range margins can be predicted accurately. Location. Finland. Methods. Using 10-km resolution butterfly atlas data from two periods, 1992–1999 (t1) and 2002–2009 (t2), with a significant between-period temperature increase, we modelled the effects of climatic warming on butterfly...... butterfly distributions under climate change. Model performance was lower with independent compared to non-independent validation and improved when land cover and soil type variables were included, compared to climate-only models. SDMs performed less well for highly mobile species and for species with long...

  16. Hofstadter's butterfly in a two-dimensional lattice consisting of two sublattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harper's equations for simple and complex two-dimensional lattices subject to a magnetic field have been derived in the tight-binding approximation. In our derivation we do not neglect the influence of the magnetic field on the electron eigenfunctions and eigenvalues in isolated atoms. Using a variational procedure for finding eigenfunctions and eigenvalues, we have self-consistently obtained Hofstadter's butterflies. Even for a simple square lattice Hofstadter's butterfly differs from the butterfly obtained in the case in which the influence of the magnetic field on the electron eigenvalues and eigenfunctions in isolated atoms is not taken into account

  17. Some notes on the butterflies (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea of Tantirimale Archaeological Site, Anuradhapura District, Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.D.C. Asela

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available There are 243 species of butterflies which including 5 families in Sri Lanka and 20 of them are endemic. However out of the 243 species 37 butterfly species belonging to 4 families was discovered from Tanthirimale Archaeological Forest area. This forest is classified as a Tropical dry mixed evergreen forests and its situated dry zone in Anuradapura district of Sri Lanka. We select three habitat types such as: forests, Rock outcrops and scrublands for studding composition and structure of butterflies in Archaeological Forest area. However, this important forest is threatened by harmful human activities such as man made fire, illegal logging, chena cultivation and road kills.

  18. An Investigation of the Water Flow Past the Butterfly Valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaiworapuek, Weerachai; Champagne, Jean-Yves; El Haj em, Mahmoud; Kittichaikan, Chawalit

    2010-06-01

    This paper presents a numerical simulation of flow past the butterfly valve using Commercial Fluid Dynamics software FLUENT. In static analysis, the positions of the disk were set to be 0° (completely opened), 30°, 45°, 60° and 75° under 1, 2 and 3 m/s water speed. The angular velocities were set to be 0.039 and 1.57 rad/s under 1 m/s water speed in dynamic analysis. The study focuses on the investigation of the characteristic of loss coefficient and torque behavior of the 150 mm and 300 mm in diameter butterfly valves. From the results obtained, it was found that the loss coefficient and torque increased when the disk angle was increased. By increasing the water speed, the loss coefficient remained constant while the torque increased. In dynamic analysis of both angular speeds, the maximum torque occurred at 70°-80° in closing turn and 100°-110° in opening turn. The experiment was also carried out to verify the numerical results. By comparing between the experimental and numerical results, it was found that the loss coefficients and torques obtained from these methods were similar.

  19. Theoretical seismic analysis of butterfly valve for nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Sang Uk; Ahn, Jun Tae; Han, Seung Ho [Donga Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kyung Chul [Dukwon Valve Co., Ltd., Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    Valves are one of the most important components of a pipeline system in a nuclear power plant, and it is important to ensure their structural safety under seismic loads. A crucial aspect of structural safety verification is the seismic qualification, and therefore, an optimal shape design and experimental seismic qualification is necessary in case the configuration of the valve parts needs to be modified and their performance needs to be improved. Recently, intensive numerical analyses have been preformed before the experimental verification in order to determine the appropriate design variables that satisfy the performance requirements under seismic loads. In this study, static and dynamic numerical structural analyses of a 200A butterfly valve for a nuclear power plant were performed according to the KEPIC MFA. The result of static analysis considering an equivalent static load under SSE condition gave an applied stress of 135MPa. In addition, the result of dynamic analysis gave an applied stress of 183MPa, where the CQC method using response spectrums was taken into account. These values are under the allowable strength of the materials used for manufacturing the butterfly valve, and therefore, its structural safety satisfies the requirements of KEPIC MFA.

  20. Hydrophobic–hydrophilic dichotomy of the butterfly proboscis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehnert, Matthew S.; Monaenkova, Daria; Andrukh, Taras; Beard, Charles E.; Adler, Peter H.; Kornev, Konstantin G.

    2013-01-01

    Mouthparts of fluid-feeding insects have unique material properties with no human-engineered analogue: the feeding devices acquire sticky and viscous liquids while remaining clean. We discovered that the external surface of the butterfly proboscis has a sharp boundary separating a hydrophilic drinking region and a hydrophobic non-drinking region. The structural arrangement of the proboscis provides the basis for the wetting dichotomy. Theoretical and experimental analyses show that fluid uptake is associated with enlargement of hydrophilic cuticular structures, the legulae, which link the two halves of the proboscis together. We also show that an elliptical proboscis produces a higher external meniscus than does a cylindrical proboscis of the same circumference. Fluid uptake is additionally facilitated in sap-feeding butterflies that have a proboscis with enlarged chemosensory structures forming a brush near the tip. This structural modification of the proboscis enables sap feeders to exploit films of liquid more efficiently. Structural changes along the proboscis, including increased legular width and presence of a brush-like tip, occur in a wide range of species, suggesting that a wetting dichotomy is widespread in the Lepidoptera. PMID:23760299

  1. Theoretical seismic analysis of butterfly valve for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valves are one of the most important components of a pipeline system in a nuclear power plant, and it is important to ensure their structural safety under seismic loads. A crucial aspect of structural safety verification is the seismic qualification, and therefore, an optimal shape design and experimental seismic qualification is necessary in case the configuration of the valve parts needs to be modified and their performance needs to be improved. Recently, intensive numerical analyses have been preformed before the experimental verification in order to determine the appropriate design variables that satisfy the performance requirements under seismic loads. In this study, static and dynamic numerical structural analyses of a 200A butterfly valve for a nuclear power plant were performed according to the KEPIC MFA. The result of static analysis considering an equivalent static load under SSE condition gave an applied stress of 135MPa. In addition, the result of dynamic analysis gave an applied stress of 183MPa, where the CQC method using response spectrums was taken into account. These values are under the allowable strength of the materials used for manufacturing the butterfly valve, and therefore, its structural safety satisfies the requirements of KEPIC MFA

  2. BIF butterfly valve life extension at WNP-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primary containment purging, venting, inerting, and reactor building ventilation at the WNP-2 plant are accomplished with a series of large butterfly valves. A total of 31 valves which are similar in design, but of different sizes, employ an elastomer to achieve sealing integrity when closed. These valves, which were originally manufactured by BIF, a unit of General Signal, range in size from 18 to 84 inches in diameter. Service life in the plant was much less than desired for safety-related equipment, and several seal failures had been experienced shortly after valve overhaul. This program covers a design change made to enhance performance of the elastomer seal to achieve a very meaningful life extension. While numerous configurations of BIF valves exist, this work relates only to the model 657 unit assembled with an elastomer seal mounted onto the valve disc by a stainless steel clamping ring held with studs and nuts. The problems encountered, and the steps taken to resolve the deficiencies may, however, be applicable to other butterfly valve configurations

  3. Butterfly-shaped pentanuclear dysprosium single-molecule magnets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Haiquan; Zhao, Lang; Lin, Haifeng; Tang, Jinkui; Li, Guangshe

    2013-09-23

    Two new "butterfly-shaped" pentanuclear dysprosium(III) clusters, [Dy5(?3-OH)3(opch)6(H2O)3]?3?MeOH?9?H2O (1) and [Dy5(?3-OH)3(Hopch)2(opch)4(MeOH)(H2O)2]?(ClO4)2?6?MeOH?4?H2O (2), which were based on the heterodonor-chelating ligand o-vanillin pyrazine acylhydrazone (H2opch), have been successfully synthesized by applying different reaction conditions. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that the butterfly-shaped cores in both compounds were comparable. However, their magnetic properties were drastically different. Indeed, compound 1 showed dual slow-relaxation processes with a transition between them that corresponded to energy gaps (?) of 8.1 and 37.9?K and pre-exponential factors (?0) of 1.710(-5) and 9.710(-8) ?s for the low- and high-temperature domains, respectively, whilst only a single relaxation process was noted for compound 2 (? = 197?K, ?0 = 3.210(-9) ?s). These significant disparities are most likely due to the versatile coordination of the H2opch ligands with particular keto-enol tautomerism, which alters the strength of the local crystal field and, hence, the nature or direction of the easy axes of anisotropic dysprosium ions. PMID:23934765

  4. Effect of hand paddles and parachute on butterfly coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telles, Thiago; Barroso, Renato; Barbosa, Augusto Carvalho; Salgueiro, Diego Fortes de Souza; Colantonio, Emilson; Andries Jnior, Orival

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of hand paddles, parachute and hand paddles plus parachute on the inter-limb coordination of butterfly swimming. Thirteen male swimmers were evaluated in four random maximal intensity conditions: without equipment, with hand paddles, with parachute and with hand paddles+parachute. Arm and leg stroke phases were identified by 2D video analysis to calculate the total time gap (T1: time between hands' entry in the water and high break-even point of the first undulation; T2: time between the beginning of the hand's backward movement and low break-even point of the first undulation; T3: time between the hand's arrival in a vertical plane to the shoulders and high break-even point of the second undulation; T4: time between the hand's release from the water and low break-even point of the second undulation). The swimming velocity was reduced and T1, T2 and T3 increased in parachute and hand paddles+parachute. No changes were observed in T4. Total time gap decreased in parachute and hand paddles+parachute. It is concluded that hand paddles do not influence the arm-to-leg coordination in butterfly, while parachute and hand paddles+parachute do change it, providing a greater propulsive continuity. PMID:25583184

  5. Butterfly survival on an isolated island by improved grip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duplouy, Anne; Hanski, Ilkka

    2013-01-01

    On small isolated islands, natural selection is expected to reduce the dispersal capacity of organisms, as short distances do not require a high rate of dispersal, which might lead to accidental emigration from the population. In addition, individuals foregoing the high cost of maintaining flight capacity may instead allocate resources to other functions. However, in butterflies and many other insects, flight is necessary not only for dispersal but also for most other activities. A weakly flying individual would probably do worse and have an elevated rather than reduced probability of accidental emigration. Here, we report results consistent with the hypothesis that a butterfly population on an isolated island, instead of having lost its flight capacity, has evolved better grip to resist the force of wind and to avoid being blown off the island. Our study suggests that local adaptation has occurred in this population in spite of its very small size (Ne ∼ 100), complete isolation, low genetic variation and high genetic load. PMID:23445946

  6. Experimental study for flow characteristics and performance evaluation of butterfly valves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, C. K.; Yoon, J. Y.; Shin, M. S.

    2010-08-01

    The industrial butterfly valves have been applied to transport a large of fluid with various fields of industry. Also, these are mainly used a control of fluid flux to the water and waste-water pipeline. Present, butterfly valves are manufacturing for multiplicity shape of bodies and discs with many producers. However, appropriate performance evaluation was not yet accomplished to compare about these valves through experiments. This study is performed the experiment of flow characteristics and performance of manufactured 400A butterfly valves for the water and waste pipeline, and compared experimental results. We performed experiments that were controlled fixed a differential pressure condition (1 psi) and the range of the flow rate conditions (500 m3/hr ~ 2500 m3/hr), and also opened the disc of valves to a range of angle from 9 degree to 90 degree. We investigated and compared the valve flow coefficient and the valve loss coefficient of results through experiments with each butterfly valve.

  7. Butterfly Surveys at Harris Neck NWR (03 AUG 1993 - 25 JULY 1998)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Data compiled from annual summer butterfly counts conducted at Harris Neck NWR by Mike Chapman and others. Data includes Lepidoptera species and abundance.

  8. Landscape heterogeneity and butterflies: effects on species richness and community composition

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Konvička, Martin; Beneš, Jiří; Fric, Zdeněk

    Berlin : Societas Europaea Lepidopterologica, 2007. s. 23-23. [European Congress of Lepidopterology /15./. 08.09.2007-12.09.2007, Erkner near Berlin] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : butterflies Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  9. Experimental study for flow characteristics and performance evaluation of butterfly valves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The industrial butterfly valves have been applied to transport a large of fluid with various fields of industry. Also, these are mainly used a control of fluid flux to the water and waste-water pipeline. Present, butterfly valves are manufacturing for multiplicity shape of bodies and discs with many producers. However, appropriate performance evaluation was not yet accomplished to compare about these valves through experiments. This study is performed the experiment of flow characteristics and performance of manufactured 400A butterfly valves for the water and waste pipeline, and compared experimental results. We performed experiments that were controlled fixed a differential pressure condition (1 psi) and the range of the flow rate conditions (500 m3/hr ∼ 2500 m3/hr), and also opened the disc of valves to a range of angle from 9 degree to 90 degree. We investigated and compared the valve flow coefficient and the valve loss coefficient of results through experiments with each butterfly valve.

  10. Final Critical Habitat for the Oregon Silverspot Butterfly (Speyeria zerene hippolyta)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These data identify, in general, the areas where final critical habitat for the Oregon Silverspot Butterfly (Speyeria zerene hippolyta) occur.

  11. Generating a fractal butterfly Floquet spectrum in a class of driven SU(2) systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A scheme for generating a fractal butterfly Floquet spectrum, first proposed by Wang and Gong [Phys. Rev. A 77, 031405(R) (2008)], is extended to driven SU(2) systems such as a driven two-mode Bose-Einstein condensate. A class of driven systems without a link with the Harper-model context is shown to have an intriguing butterfly Floquet spectrum. The found butterfly spectrum shows remarkable deviations from the known Hofstadter's butterfly. In addition, the level crossings between Floquet states of the same parity and between Floquet states of different parities are studied and highlighted. The results are relevant to studies of fractal statistics, quantum chaos, and coherent destruction of tunneling, as well as the validity of mean-field descriptions of Bose-Einstein condensates.

  12. Final Critical Habitat for the Quino Checkerspot Butterfly (Euphydryas editha quino)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These data identify, in general, the areas where final critical habitat for the Quino checkerspot butterfly (Euphydryas editha quino) occurs.

  13. Final Critical Habitat for the Fender's blue butterfly (Icaricia icarioides fenderi)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These data identify, in general, the areas where final critical habitat for the Fender's blue butterfly (Icaricia icarioides fenderi) occur.

  14. Descend towards unimodality: butterfly loss in Czechia changes a major macroecological pattern

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Konvička, Martin; Fric, Zdeněk; Beneš, Jiří; Čížek, Oldřich; Zámečník, J.

    Sofia : Pensoft, 2005 - (Kühn, E.; Feldmann, R.; Thomas, J.; Settele, J.), s. 88-88 ISBN 954-642-247-9 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : butterfly Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  15. Effects of structural flexibility of wings in flapping flight of butterfly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this paper is to clarify the effects of structural flexibility of wings of a butterfly in flapping flight. For this purpose, a dynamics model of a butterfly is derived by Lagrange’s method, where the butterfly is considered as a rigid multi-body system. The panel method is employed to simulate the flow field and the aerodynamic forces acting on the wings. The mathematical model is validated by the agreement of the numerical result with the experimentally measured data. Then, periodic orbits of flapping-of-wings flights are parametrically searched in order to fly the butterfly models. Almost periodic orbits are found, but they are unstable. Deformation of the wings is modeled in two ways. One is bending and its effect on the aerodynamic forces is discussed. The other is passive wing torsion caused by structural flexibility. Numerical simulations demonstrate that flexible torsion reduces the flight instability. (paper)

  16. Inorganic chiral 3-D photonic crystals with bicontinuous gyroid structure replicated from butterfly wing scales

    OpenAIRE

    Mille, Christian; Tyrode, Eric; Corkery, Robert W.

    2011-01-01

    Three dimensional silica photonic crystals with the gyroid minimal surface structure have been synthesized. The butterfly Callophrys rubi was used as a biotemplate. This material represents a significant addition to the small family of synthetic bicontinuous photonic crystals.

  17. Monitoring Oregon Silverspot Butterfly Habitat Restoration Methods: Willapa Bay National Wildlife Refuge and Oregon Coast NWRs

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Oregon Silverspot Butterfly is thought to be extirpated from the northern portion oftheir historic range. Currently the entire population is only known to...

  18. Lounge Butterfly märgiti ära rahvusvaheliselt kõrgelt hinnatud erialaajakirjas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Ülevaade erialaajakirjas "Drinks International" ilmunud artiklist, mis hindab Lounge Butterfly'd paremuselt Baltimaade teiseks joogikohaks ning joogikoha rahvusvahelistel võistlustel auhindu noppinud barmenidest-omanikest

  19. Green Roof Performance Towards Good Habitat for Butterflies in the Compact City

    OpenAIRE

    Lee-Hsueh Lee; Jun-Cheng Lin

    2015-01-01

    Urban ecology is threatened by habitat loss and fragmentation due to increasing urbanization. Green roofs may act as habitats to compensate for loss of green space at the ground level. Here, we assessed greening variables of 11 green roofs for butterflies in Taipei City. Butterfly number, species, and richness on green roofs were lower than parks, but some less common species were observed on green roofs. The nectar plant area, number of nectar plant species and age of green roof were the mai...

  20. Oviposition stimulants of an Aristolochiaceae-feeding swallowtail butterfly,Atrophaneura alcinous.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, R; Fukami, H

    1989-11-01

    Oviposition stimulants of an Aristolochiaceae-feeding swallowtail butterfly,Atrophaneura alcinous, were isolated from the leaves ofAristolochla debilis and characterized as a mixture of aristolochic acids and sequoyitol. An artificial blend of these components applied to filter paper induced a significant oviposition response by the female butterflies, identical to that elicited by intact leaves of theAristolochia host plant. PMID:24271598

  1. Defining behavioral and molecular differences between summer and migratory monarch butterflies

    OpenAIRE

    Kanginakudru Sriramana; Casselman Amy; Gegear Robert J; Zhu Haisun; Reppert Steven M

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background In the fall, Eastern North American monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) undergo a magnificent long-range migration. In contrast to spring and summer butterflies, fall migrants are juvenile hormone deficient, which leads to reproductive arrest and increased longevity. Migrants also use a time-compensated sun compass to help them navigate in the south/southwesterly direction en route for Mexico. Central issues in this area are defining the relationship between juvenile ho...

  2. Monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus L.) use a magnetic compass for navigation

    OpenAIRE

    Etheredge, Jason A.; Perez, Sandra M.; Taylor, Orley R.; Jander, Rudolf

    1999-01-01

    Fall migratory monarch butterflies, tested for their directional responses to magnetic cues under three conditions, amagnetic, normal, and reversed magnetic fields, showed three distinct patterns. In the absence of a magnetic field, monarchs lacked directionality as a group. In the normal magnetic field, monarchs oriented to the southwest with a group pattern typical for migrants. When the horizontal component of the magnetic field was reversed, the butterflies oriented to the northeast. In c...

  3. Modeling current and future potential wintering distributions of eastern North American monarch butterflies

    OpenAIRE

    Oberhauser, Karen; Peterson, A. Townsend

    2003-01-01

    Monarch butterflies overwinter in restricted areas in montane oyamel fir forests in central Mexico with specific microclimates that allow the butterflies to survive for up to 5 months. We use ecological niche modeling (ENM) to identify areas adequate for overwintering monarch colonies under both current and future climate scenarios. The ENM approach permits testing and validation of model predictivity, and yields quantitative, testable predictions regarding likely future climate change effect...

  4. Antennal circadian clocks coordinate sun compass orientation in migratory monarch butterflies#

    OpenAIRE

    Merlin, Christine; Gegear, Robert J.; Reppert, Steven M.

    2009-01-01

    During their fall migration, Eastern North American monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) use a time-compensated sun compass to aid navigation to their overwintering grounds in central Mexico. It has been assumed that the circadian clock that provides time compensation resides in the brain, although this assumption has never been examined directly. Here we show that the antennae are necessary for proper time-compensated sun compass orientation in migratory monarch butterflies, that antennal ...

  5. Butterflies of the high-altitude Atacama Desert: habitat use and conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Despland, Emma

    2014-01-01

    The butterfly fauna of the high-altitude desert of Northern Chile, though depauperate, shows high endemism, is poorly known and is of considerable conservation concern. This study surveys butterflies along the Andean slope between 2400 and 5000 m asl (prepuna, puna and Andean steppe habitats) as well as in high and low-altitude wetlands and in the neoriparian vegetation of agricultural sites. We also include historical sightings from museum records. We compare abundances between altitudes, be...

  6. Crystal geometry and structural peculiarities of butterfly martensite formed under magnetic field action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Position of the habitus plane and orientation ratios of butterfly martensite formed under pulsed magnetic field action in the 24Kh2N22 low-carbon chronium-nickel steel is determined. Basic crystallographic characteristics of the butterfly martensite formed in the magnetic field and under cooling without field action coincide. A slight difference of the martensite prepared in both cases is observed only in the internal structure

  7. Hofstadter's butterfly energy spectrum of ultracold fermions on the two-dimensional triangular optical lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the energy spectrum of ultracold fermionic atoms on the two-dimensional triangular optical lattice subjected to a perpendicular effective magnetic field, which can be realized with laser beams. We derive the generalized Harper's equations and numerically solve them, then we obtain the Hofstadter's butterfly-like energy spectrum, which has a novel fractal structure. The observability of the Hofstadter's butterfly spectrum is also discussed

  8. Replication of polypyrrole with photonic structures from butterfly wings as biosensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Polypyrrole (PPy) with photonic structures from butterfly wings was synthesized based on a two-step templating and in situ polymerization process. ► The hierarchical structures down to nanometer level were kept in the resultant PPy replicas. ► The PPy replicas exhibit brilliant color due to Bragg diffraction through its ordered periodic structures. ► The PPy replicas showed a much higher biological activity compared with common PPy powders as a biosensor. - Abstract: Polypyrrole (PPy) with photonic crystal structures were synthesized from Morpho butterfly wings using a two-step templating process. In the first step photonic crystal SiO2 butterfly wings were synthesized from Morpho butterfly wings and in the second step the SiO2 butterfly wings were used as templates for the replication of PPy butterfly wings using an in situ polymerization method. The SiO2 templates were then removed from the PPy butterfly wings using a HF solution. The hierarchical structures down to the nanometer level, especially the photonic crystal structures, were retained in the final PPy replicas, as evidenced directly by field-emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The optical properties of the resultant PPy replicas were investigated using reflectance spectroscopy and the PPy replicas exhibit brilliant color due to Bragg diffraction through its ordered periodic structures. The preliminary biosensing application was investigated and it was found that the PPy replicas showed a much higher biological activity compared with PPy powders through their response to dopamine (DA), probably due to the hierarchical structures as well as controlled porosity inherited from Morpho butterfly wings. It is expected that our strategy will open up new avenues for the synthesis of functional polymers with photonic crystal structures, which may form applications as biosensors.

  9. Prey survival by predator intimidation: an experimental study of peacock butterfly defence against blue tits

    OpenAIRE

    Vallin, Adrian; Jakobsson, Sven; Lind, Johan; Wiklund, Christer

    2005-01-01

    Long-lived butterflies that hibernate as adults are expected to have well-developed antipredation devices as a result of their long exposure to natural enemies. The peacock butterfly, Inachis io, for instance, is a cryptic leaf mimic when resting, but shifts to active defence when disturbed, performing a repeated sequence of movements exposing major eyespots on the wings accompanied by a hissing noise. We studied the effect of visual and auditory defence by staging experiments in which wild-c...

  10. Replication of polypyrrole with photonic structures from butterfly wings as biosensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang Jie [State Key Laboratory of Metal Matrix Composites, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China); Zhu Shenmin, E-mail: smzhu@sjtu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Metal Matrix Composites, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China); Chen Zhixin [Faculty of Engineering, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); Feng Chuanliang; Shen Yanjun; Yao Fan [State Key Laboratory of Metal Matrix Composites, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China); Zhang Di, E-mail: zhangdi@sjtu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Metal Matrix Composites, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China); Moon, Won-Jin; Song, Deok-Min [Gwangju Center, Korea Basic Science Institute, Yongbong-dong, Buk-Gu, Gwang ju 500-757 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-01-05

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Polypyrrole (PPy) with photonic structures from butterfly wings was synthesized based on a two-step templating and in situ polymerization process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The hierarchical structures down to nanometer level were kept in the resultant PPy replicas. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The PPy replicas exhibit brilliant color due to Bragg diffraction through its ordered periodic structures. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The PPy replicas showed a much higher biological activity compared with common PPy powders as a biosensor. - Abstract: Polypyrrole (PPy) with photonic crystal structures were synthesized from Morpho butterfly wings using a two-step templating process. In the first step photonic crystal SiO{sub 2} butterfly wings were synthesized from Morpho butterfly wings and in the second step the SiO{sub 2} butterfly wings were used as templates for the replication of PPy butterfly wings using an in situ polymerization method. The SiO{sub 2} templates were then removed from the PPy butterfly wings using a HF solution. The hierarchical structures down to the nanometer level, especially the photonic crystal structures, were retained in the final PPy replicas, as evidenced directly by field-emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The optical properties of the resultant PPy replicas were investigated using reflectance spectroscopy and the PPy replicas exhibit brilliant color due to Bragg diffraction through its ordered periodic structures. The preliminary biosensing application was investigated and it was found that the PPy replicas showed a much higher biological activity compared with PPy powders through their response to dopamine (DA), probably due to the hierarchical structures as well as controlled porosity inherited from Morpho butterfly wings. It is expected that our strategy will open up new avenues for the synthesis of functional polymers with photonic crystal structures, which may form applications as biosensors.

  11. The butterfly plant arms-race escalated by gene and genome duplications

    OpenAIRE

    Edger, Patrick P; Heidel-Fischer, Hanna M; Bekaert, Michaël; Rota, Jadranka; Glöckner, Gernot; Platts, Adrian E; Heckel, David G.; Der, Joshua P; Wafula, Eric K; Tang, Michelle; Hofberger, Johannes A.; Smithson, Ann; Hall, Jocelyn C.; Blanchette, Matthieu; Bureau, Thomas E.

    2015-01-01

    This research uncovers the mechanisms of an ancient arms race between butterflies and plants, seen today in countless gardens as caterpillars of cabbage butterflies that devour cabbage crop varieties. Nearly 90 million years ago, the ancestors of Brassica (mustards, cabbage) and related plants developed a chemical defense called glucosinolates. While very toxic to most insects, humans experience glucosinolates as the sharp taste in wasabi, horseradish and mustard. Here we report that this tri...

  12. Standardised methods for the GMO monitoring of butterflies and moths: the whys and hows

    OpenAIRE

    Andreas Lang; Bernhard Theißen; Matthias Dolek

    2013-01-01

    Butterflies and moths (Lepidoptera) are correlated with many biotic and abiotic characteristics of the environment, and are widely accepted as relevant protection goals. Adverse effects on butterflies and moths through genetically modified (GM) crops have been demonstrated, by both insect-resistant and herbicide-tolerant events. Thus, Lepidoptera are considered suitable bio-indicators for monitoring the potential adverse effects due to the cultivation of GM crops, and guidelines were develope...

  13. Biology and distribution of butterfly fauna of Hazara University, Garden Campus, Mansehra, Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Farzana Perveen; Fatima Fazal

    2013-01-01

    The butterflies are beautiful creature of nature with great economic importance as pollinator as well as bio-indicator of environments. The present survey was conducted to determine the biology and distribution of butterfly fauna of Hazara University, Garden Campus, Mansehra, Pakistan during March-June 2012. The study area was divided into 3 quadrates, i.e., residential area, administration area and main campus. A total of 170 specimens were collected, 10 species were identified belonging to ...

  14. Application of Butterfly Clos-Network in Network-on-Chip

    OpenAIRE

    Hui Liu; Linquan Xie; Jiansheng Liu; Lei Ding

    2014-01-01

    This paper studied the topology of NoC (Network-on-Chip). By combining the characteristics of the Clos network and butterfly network, a new topology named BFC (Butterfly Clos-network) network was proposed. This topology integrates several modules, which belongs to the same layer but different dimensions, into a new module. In the BFC network, a bidirectional link is used to complete information exchange, instead of information exchange between different layers in the original network. During ...

  15. The Butterflies of Barro Colorado Island, Panama: Local Extinction since the 1930s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basset, Yves; Barrios, Héctor; Segar, Simon; Srygley, Robert B.; Aiello, Annette; Warren, Andrew D.; Delgado, Francisco; Coronado, James; Lezcano, Jorge; Arizala, Stephany; Rivera, Marleny; Perez, Filonila; Bobadilla, Ricardo; Lopez, Yacksecari; Ramirez, José Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    Few data are available about the regional or local extinction of tropical butterfly species. When confirmed, local extinction was often due to the loss of host-plant species. We used published lists and recent monitoring programs to evaluate changes in butterfly composition on Barro Colorado Island (BCI, Panama) between an old (1923–1943) and a recent (1993–2013) period. Although 601 butterfly species have been recorded from BCI during the 1923–2013 period, we estimate that 390 species are currently breeding on the island, including 34 cryptic species, currently only known by their DNA Barcode Index Number. Twenty-three butterfly species that were considered abundant during the old period could not be collected during the recent period, despite a much higher sampling effort in recent times. We consider these species locally extinct from BCI and they conservatively represent 6% of the estimated local pool of resident species. Extinct species represent distant phylogenetic branches and several families. The butterfly traits most likely to influence the probability of extinction were host growth form, wing size and host specificity, independently of the phylogenetic relationships among butterfly species. On BCI, most likely candidates for extinction were small hesperiids feeding on herbs (35% of extinct species). However, contrary to our working hypothesis, extinction of these species on BCI cannot be attributed to loss of host plants. In most cases these host plants remain extant, but they probably subsist at lower or more fragmented densities. Coupled with low dispersal power, this reduced availability of host plants has probably caused the local extinction of some butterfly species. Many more bird than butterfly species have been lost from BCI recently, confirming that small preserves may be far more effective at conserving invertebrates than vertebrates and, therefore, should not necessarily be neglected from a conservation viewpoint. PMID:26305111

  16. The taxonomy, biogeography and conservation of the myrmecophilous Chrysoritis butterflies (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.F. Terblanche

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The relevance and integration of scientific knowledge to conservation management of the locally popular and highly endemic butterfly genus Chrysoritis are investigated within the research fields of taxonomy and biogeography. The butterfly genus Chrysoritis contains at least 41 species endemic to South Africa. The taxonomy of Chrysoritis has reached a state where revisions could easily result in a plethora of names between “lumping and splitting”. In practice, the state of the taxonomy of these butterflies on species level may alter their conservation priority. The two most species rich species groups in Chrysoritis have different centres of endemism, however, a butterfly atlas becomes a necessity to reveal more about their biogeography. There is an absence of butterfly species lists in many of our National Parks and Nature Reserves. Legislation should facilitate rather than limit the valuable role of the amateur lepidopterist to add distribution records. In turn, the amateur lepidopterists should adapt and make an effort to explore unknown localities, apart from monitoring butterflies at their well-known localities. The red listing of localised butterflies in South Africa, including a number of Chrysoritis species, is in need of an urgent review in the light of the most recent IUCN categories. A species such as Chrysoritis dicksoni should be protected by law - but at its known localities. The scenario that real conservation action is only needed if the last known locality of a butterfly is threatened, should be abolished. A paradigm shift to conserve the metapopulations of the highly endemic Chrysoritis genus and not merely a few of its species as items that appear on lists, seems necessary.

  17. Identifying time lags in the restoration of grassland butterfly communities: a multi-site assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Woodcock, B.A.; Bullock, J.M.; Mortimer, S.R.; Brereton, T; Redhead, J.W.; Thomas, J.A; Pywell, R.F.

    2012-01-01

    Although grasslands are crucial habitats for European butterflies, large-scale declines in quality and area have devastated many species. Grassland restoration can contribute to the recovery of butterfly populations, although there is a paucity of information on the long-term effects of management. Using eight UK data sets (9-21 years), we investigate changes in restoration success for (1) arable reversion sites, were grassland was established on bare ground using seed mixtures, and (2) grass...

  18. Development of a butterfly check valve model under natural circulation conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Bases on Lim’s swing check valve model, a butterfly check valve model was developed. • The method to quantify the friction torque TF in Li’s model was corrected. • The developed model was implemented into the RELAP5 code and verified. - Abstract: A butterfly check valve is widely used to prevent a reverse flow in the pipe lines of a marine nuclear power plant. Under some conditions, the natural circulation conditions in particular, the fluid velocity through the butterfly check valve might become too low to hold the valve disk fully open, thereby the flow resistance of the butterfly check valve varies with the location of the valve disk and as a result the fluid flow is significantly affected by the dynamic motion of the valve disk. Simulation of a pipe line that includes some butterfly check valves, especially under natural circulation conditions, is thus complicated. This paper focuses on the development of a butterfly check valve model to enhance the capability of the thermal–hydraulic system code and the developed model is implemented into the RELAP5 code. Both steady-state calculations and transient calculations were carried out for the primary loop system of a marine nuclear power plant and the calculation results are compared with the experimental data for verification purpose. The simulation results show an agreement with the experimental data

  19. Butterfly community assemblages in relation to human disturbance in a tropical upland forest in Ghana, and implications for conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick Addo-Fordjour; Benjamin A. Osei; Elizabeth A. Kpontsu

    2015-01-01

    The present study determined butterfly diversity, species composition and abundance in different forests of varying human disturbance intensities in the Atewa Range Forest Reserve, Ghana (i.e. non-disturbed, moderately disturbed and heavily disturbed forests). Vegetation characteristics and butterflies were sampled within ten 50 m × 50 m plots in each forest type. The study revealed that butterfly Shannon diversity index was similar in the non-disturbed and moderately disturbed forests althou...

  20. Hot summers, long life: egg laying strategies of Maniola butterflies are affected by geographic provenance rather than adult diet

    OpenAIRE

    Grill, A.; Cerny, A; Fiedler, K.

    2013-01-01

    Maniola butterflies undergo summer dormancy in dry and hot habitats and deposit their eggs only in early autumn when conditions become more favourable for their offspring. Female individuals of this genus are therefore relatively long-lived. For long-lived butterflies adult diet is of particular importance. We tested if added amino acids in nectar substitute fed to the butterflies affected timing of oviposition, fecundity and longevity. A hundred Maniola females were sampled from Mediterranea...

  1. The evolution of movements and behaviour at boundaries in different landscapes: a common arena experiment with butterflies.

    OpenAIRE

    Merckx, Thomas; Van Dyck, Hans; Karlsson, Bengt; Leimar, Olof

    2003-01-01

    As landscapes change, mobility patterns of species may alter. Different mechanistic scenarios may, however, lead to particular patterns. Here, we tested conflicting predictions from two hypotheses on butterfly movements in relation to habitat fragmentation. According to the resource distribution hypothesis, butterflies in more fragmented landscapes would have higher levels of mobility as resources are more scattered. However, these butterflies could have lower levels of mobility as they exper...

  2. Noise generated by flow through large butterfly valves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, Ronald G.

    1987-01-01

    A large butterfly valve (1.37 m diam) was acoustically tested to measure the noise generated and propagating in both the upstream and downstream directions. The experimental investigation used wall mounted pressure transducers to measure the fluctuating component of the pipe static pressure upstream and downstream of the valve. Microphones upstream of the pipe inlet and located in a plenum were used to measure the noise radiated from the valve in the upstream direction. Comparison of the wall pressure downstream of the valve to a prediction were made. Reasonable agreement was obtained with the valve operating at a choked condition. The noise upstream of the valve is 30 dB less than that measured downstream.

  3. LES of Turbulent Flows Through a Butterfly Valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, J. F.; Ming, P. J.; Zhang, W. P.

    2011-09-01

    Large-eddy simulation (LES) is used to analyze the wake flow characteristics around a butterfly valve. The Smagorinsky- Lilly (SML) model is used for the investigation. The turbulent fluctuations and power spectrum of the wake flow are analyzed for Re = 5.23 × 105 based on the mean inlet velocity and the diameter of the pipe. Four dominating frequencies corresponding to the Strouhal number equal to 0.084, 0.114, 0.152 and 0.175 are found both in the near-wall region and in the midst of the pipe. The evolution of vortices around the valve is presented to illustrate the formation of the single vortex propagating downstream.

  4. Non-target effects of clothianidin on monarch butterflies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecenka, Jacob R.; Lundgren, Jonathan G.

    2015-04-01

    Monarch butterflies ( Danaus plexippus) frequently consume milkweed in and near agroecosystems and consequently may be exposed to pesticides like neonicotinoids. We conducted a dose response study to determine lethal and sublethal doses of clothianidin using a 36-h exposure scenario. We then quantified clothianidin levels found in milkweed leaves adjacent to maize fields. Toxicity assays revealed LC10, LC50, and LC90 values of 7.72, 15.63, and 30.70 ppb, respectively. Sublethal effects (larval size) were observed at 1 ppb. Contaminated milkweed plants had an average of 1.14 ± 0.10 ppb clothianidin, with a maximum of 4 ppb in a single plant. This research suggests that clothianidin could function as a stressor to monarch populations.

  5. The genetics of monarch butterfly migration and warning coloration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Shuai; Zhang, Wei; Niitepõld, Kristjan; Hsu, Jeremy; Haeger, Juan Fernández; Zalucki, Myron P.; Altizer, Sonia; de Roode, Jacobus C.; Reppert, Steven M.; Kronforst, Marcus R.

    2014-01-01

    The monarch butterfly, Danaus plexippus, is famous for its spectacular annual migration across North America, recent worldwide dispersal, and orange warning coloration. Despite decades of study and broad public interest, we know little about the genetic basis of these hallmark traits. By sequencing 101 monarch genomes from around the globe, we uncover the history of the monarch's evolutionary origin and global dispersal, characterize the genes and pathways associated with migratory behavior, and identify the discrete genetic basis of warning coloration. The results rewrite our understanding of this classic system, showing that D. plexippus was ancestrally migratory and dispersed out of North America to occupy its broad distribution. We find the strongest signatures of selection associated with migration center on flight muscle function, resulting in greater flight efficiency among migratory monarchs, and that variation in monarch warning coloration is controlled by a single myosin gene not previously implicated in insect pigmentation. PMID:25274300

  6. Sensory basis of lepidopteran migration: focus on the monarch butterfly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Patrick A; Reppert, Steven M

    2015-10-01

    In response to seasonal habitats, migratory lepidopterans, exemplified by the monarch butterfly, have evolved migration to deal with dynamic conditions. During migration, monarchs use orientation mechanisms, exploiting a time-compensated sun compass and a light-sensitive inclination magnetic compass to facilitate fall migration south. The sun compass is bidirectional with overwintering coldness triggering the change in orientation direction for remigration northward in the spring. The timing of the remigration and milkweed emergence in the southern US have co-evolved for propagation of the migration. Current research is uncovering the anatomical and molecular substrates that underlie migratory-relevant sensory mechanisms with the antennae being critical components. Orientation mechanisms may be detrimentally affected by environmental factors such as climate change and sensory interference from human-generated sources. PMID:25625216

  7. The genetics of monarch butterfly migration and warning colouration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Shuai; Zhang, Wei; Niitepõld, Kristjan; Hsu, Jeremy; Haeger, Juan Fernández; Zalucki, Myron P; Altizer, Sonia; de Roode, Jacobus C; Reppert, Steven M; Kronforst, Marcus R

    2014-10-16

    The monarch butterfly, Danaus plexippus, is famous for its spectacular annual migration across North America, recent worldwide dispersal, and orange warning colouration. Despite decades of study and broad public interest, we know little about the genetic basis of these hallmark traits. Here we uncover the history of the monarch's evolutionary origin and global dispersal, characterize the genes and pathways associated with migratory behaviour, and identify the discrete genetic basis of warning colouration by sequencing 101 Danaus genomes from around the globe. The results rewrite our understanding of this classic system, showing that D. plexippus was ancestrally migratory and dispersed out of North America to occupy its broad distribution. We find the strongest signatures of selection associated with migration centre on flight muscle function, resulting in greater flight efficiency among migratory monarchs, and that variation in monarch warning colouration is controlled by a single myosin gene not previously implicated in insect pigmentation. PMID:25274300

  8. Manifestation of the Hofstadter butterfly in far-infrared absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The far-infrared absorption of a two-dimensional electron gas with a square-lattice modulation in a perpendicular constant magnetic field is calculated self-consistently within the Hartree approximation. For strong modulation and short period we obtain intrasubband and intersubband magnetoplasmon modes reflecting the subbands of the Hofstadter butterfly in two or more Landau bands. The character of the absorption and the correlation of the peaks to the number of flux quanta through each unit cell of the periodic potential depends strongly on the location of the chemical potential with respect to the subbands, or equivalently, on the density of electrons in the system. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  9. Characterizing the Hofstadter butterfly's outline with Chern numbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, we report original properties inherent to independent particles subjected to a magnetic field by emphasizing the existence of regular structures in the energy spectrum's outline. We show that this fractal curve, the well-known Hofstadter butterfly's outline, is associated with a specific sequence of Chern numbers that correspond to the quantized transverse conductivity. Indeed the topological invariant that characterizes the fundamental energy band depicts successive stairways as the magnetic flux varies. Moreover each stairway is shown to be labelled by another Chern number which measures the charge transported under displacement of the periodic potential. We put forward the universal character of these properties by comparing the results obtained for the square and the honeycomb geometries.

  10. Competitions hatch butterfly attractors in foreign exchange markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yu Ying

    2005-03-01

    Chaos in foreign exchange markets is a common issue of concern in the study of economic dynamics. In this work, we mainly investigate the competition effect on chaos in foreign exchange markets. As one of the main economic structures in the globalization process, competition between two target exchange rates with the same base currency forms a simple competitive exchange rate relation, where each exchange rate follows the chaotic model of De Grauwe (Exchange Rate Theory-Chaotic Models of Foreign Exchange Markets, Blackwell, Oxford, Cambridge, MA, 1993). The main discovery is, while each exchange rate is in its non-chaotic parameter regions, the effect of competition will hatch butterfly-like chaotic attractors in the competitive market. The positive Lyapunov exponent in the market explains the reason why chaos occurs.

  11. Structural colors from Morpho peleides butterfly wing scales

    KAUST Repository

    Ding, Yong

    2009-01-01

    A male Morpho peleides butterfly wing is decorated by two types of scales, cover and ground scales. We have studied the optical properties of each type of scales in conjunction with the structural information provided by cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy and computer simulation. The shining blue color is mainly from the Bragg reflection of the one-dimensional photonic structure, e.g., the shelf structure packed regularly in each ridges on cover scales. A thin-film-like interference effect from the base plate of the cover scale enhances such blue color and further gives extra reflection peaks in the infrared and ultraviolet regions. The analogy in the spectra acquired from the original wing and that from the cover scales suggests that the cover scales take a dominant role in its structural color. This study provides insight of using the biotemplates for fabricating smart photonic structures. © 2009 American Institute of Physics.

  12. Early emergence in a butterfly causally linked to anthropogenic warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, Michael R; Briscoe, Natalie J; Karoly, David J; Porter, Warren P; Norgate, Melanie; Sunnucks, Paul

    2010-10-23

    There is strong correlative evidence that human-induced climate warming is contributing to changes in the timing of natural events. Firm attribution, however, requires cause-and-effect links between observed climate change and altered phenology, together with statistical confidence that observed regional climate change is anthropogenic. We provide evidence for phenological shifts in the butterfly Heteronympha merope in response to regional warming in the southeast Australian city of Melbourne. The mean emergence date for H. merope has shifted -1.5 days per decade over a 65-year period with a concurrent increase in local air temperatures of approximately 0.16C per decade. We used a physiologically based model of climatic influences on development, together with statistical analyses of climate data and global climate model projections, to attribute the response of H. merope to anthropogenic warming. Such mechanistic analyses of phenological responses to climate improve our ability to forecast future climate change impacts on biodiversity. PMID:20236964

  13. Colors and pterin pigmentation of pierid butterfly wings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijnen, B; Leertouwer, H L; Stavenga, D G

    2007-12-01

    The reflectance of pierid butterfly wings is principally determined by the incoherent scattering of incident light and the absorption by pterin pigments in the scale structures. Coherent scattering causing iridescence is frequently encountered in the dorsal wings or wing tips of male pierids. We investigated the effect of the pterins on wing reflectance by local extraction of the pigments with aqueous ammonia and simultaneous spectrophotometric measurements. The ultraviolet-absorbing leucopterin was extracted prominently from the white Pieris species, and the violet-absorbing xanthopterin and blue-absorbing erythropterin were mainly derived from the yellow- and orange-colored Coliadinae, but they were also extracted from the dorsal wing tips of many male Pierinae. Absorption spectra deduced from wing reflectance spectra distinctly diverge from the absorption spectra of the extracted pigments, which indicate that when embedded in wing scales the pterins differ from those in solution. The evolution of pierid wing coloration is discussed. PMID:17669418

  14. The butterfly and the tornado: chaos theory and climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this book, the author addresses two topics: the theory of chaos, and climate change. The first chapters propose a prehistory and history of chaos, from Newton, Laplace and Lorenz and their controversies as far as prehistory of chaos is concerned, and with different works performed during the twentieth century (Hadamard, Birkhoff, van der Pol, and so on, until Lorenz, the MIT meteorologist and the discovery of the Butterfly Effect, and more recent works by Yorke and Feigenbaum about the logistic equation and the transition to chaos) as far as recent history is concerned. The next chapter describes the deterministic chaos by introducing non linear dynamic systems and distinguishing three regimes: steady, periodic or chaotic. The second part addresses climate change, outlines that global warming is a reality, that the main origin is the increase of greenhouse effect, and that CO2 emissions related to human activity are the main origin of this additional greenhouse effect. The author notably recalls the controversy about the analysis of the global average temperature curve, discusses the assessment of average temperatures from a statistical point of view and in relationship with the uneven distribution of survey stations. The last chapter discusses the numerical modelling of time and climate, and the validity of the Butterfly Effect. The author also proposes a brief overview of the IPCC, discusses the emergence of an international climate policy (UN convention, Kyoto protocol), evokes the use of game theory to ensure a convergence of treaties, and analyses the economic situation of several countries (including Spain) since the Kyoto protocol

  15. Tracking climate impacts on the migratory monarch butterfly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zipkin, Elise F.; Ries, Leslie; Reeves, Rick; Regetz, James; Oberhauser, Karen S.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the impacts of climate on migratory species is complicated by the fact that these species travel through several climates that may be changing in diverse ways throughout their complete migratory cycle. Most studies are not designed to tease out the direct and indirect effects of climate at various stages along the migration route. We assess the impacts of spring and summer climate conditions on breeding monarch butterflies, a species that completes its annual migration cycle over several generations. No single, broad-scale climate metric can explain summer breeding phenology or the substantial year-to-year fluctuations observed in population abundances. As such, we built a Poisson regression model to help explain annual arrival times and abundances in the Midwestern United States. We incorporated the climate conditions experienced both during a spring migration/breeding phase in Texas as well as during subsequent arrival and breeding during the main recruitment period in Ohio. Using data from a state-wide butterfly monitoring network in Ohio, our results suggest that climate acts in conflicting ways during the spring and summer seasons. High spring precipitation in Texas is associated with the largest annual population growth in Ohio and the earliest arrival to the summer breeding ground, as are intermediate spring temperatures in Texas. On the other hand, the timing of monarch arrivals to the summer breeding grounds is not affected by climate conditions within Ohio. Once in Ohio for summer breeding, precipitation has minimal impacts on overall abundances, whereas warmer summer temperatures are generally associated with the highest expected abundances, yet this effect is mitigated by the average seasonal temperature of each location in that the warmest sites receive no benefit of above average summer temperatures. Our results highlight the complex relationship between climate and performance for a migrating species and suggest that attempts to understand how monarchs will be affected by future climate conditions will be challenging.

  16. An updated comprehensive annotated list of the butterflies (Lepidoptera: Rhopalocera) occurring at Chase Lake National Wildlife Refuge Complex Stutsman County, North Dakota

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A project to produce a comprehensive, sitespecific butterfly list that could serve as a basis for future monitoring of butterfly populations and as an aid in making...

  17. An updated comprehensive annotated list of the butterflies (Lepidoptera: Rhopalocera) occuring at Sullys Hill National Game Preserve Benson County, North Dakota 1995-1996

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royer, Ron

    1996-01-01

    A project to produce a comprehensive, site-specific butterfly list that could serve as a basis for future monitoring of butterfly populations and as an aid in making management decisions for the area.

  18. An updated comprehensive annotated list of the butterflies (Lepidoptera: Rhopalocera) occurring at Chase Lake National Wildlife Refuge Complex Stutsman County, North Dakota 1995-1996

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royer, Ron

    1996-01-01

    A project to produce a comprehensive, site-specific butterfly list that could serve as a basis for future monitoring of butterfly populations and as an aid in making management decisions for the area.

  19. Does tropical forest fragmentation increase long-term variability of butterfly communities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leidner, Allison K; Haddad, Nick M; Lovejoy, Thomas E

    2010-01-01

    Habitat fragmentation is a major driver of biodiversity loss. Yet, the overall effects of fragmentation on biodiversity may be obscured by differences in responses among species. These opposing responses to fragmentation may be manifest in higher variability in species richness and abundance (termed hyperdynamism), and in predictable changes in community composition. We tested whether forest fragmentation causes long-term hyperdynamism in butterfly communities, a taxon that naturally displays large variations in species richness and community composition. Using a dataset from an experimentally fragmented landscape in the central Amazon that spanned 11 years, we evaluated the effect of fragmentation on changes in species richness and community composition through time. Overall, adjusted species richness (adjusted for survey duration) did not differ between fragmented forest and intact forest. However, spatial and temporal variation of adjusted species richness was significantly higher in fragmented forests relative to intact forest. This variation was associated with changes in butterfly community composition, specifically lower proportions of understory shade species and higher proportions of edge species in fragmented forest. Analysis of rarefied species richness, estimated using indices of butterfly abundance, showed no differences between fragmented and intact forest plots in spatial or temporal variation. These results do not contradict the results from adjusted species richness, but rather suggest that higher variability in butterfly adjusted species richness may be explained by changes in butterfly abundance. Combined, these results indicate that butterfly communities in fragmented tropical forests are more variable than in intact forest, and that the natural variability of butterflies was not a buffer against the effects of fragmentation on community dynamics. PMID:20224772

  20. Foraging behavior of the Blue Morpho and other tropical butterflies: The chemical and electrophysiological basis of olfactory preferences and the role of color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inside a live butterfly exhibit housing a variety of tropical butterfly species under north-central Florida ambient conditions, we conducted bioassays to determine whether the presence of color would facilitate the location of attractants by the butterflies. In two separate bioassays, the baits (hon...

  1. El Niño and Dry Season Rainfall Influence Hostplant Phenology and an Annual Butterfly Migration from Neotropical Wet to Dry Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    We censused butterflies flying across the Panama Canal at Barro Colorado Island for 16 years and butterfly hostplants for eight years to address the question: What environmental factors influence the timing and magnitude of migrating Aphrissa statira butterflies? The peak migration date was earlier...

  2. Odorants of the Flowers of Butterfly Bush, Buddleia davidii as Possible Attractants of Pest Species of Moths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowers of the butterfly bush, Buddleia davidii Franch., are visited by butterflies and moths, as well as other insects. Moths captured in traps over flowers were 21 species of Geometridae, Noctuidae, Pyralidae, and Tortricidae. The most abundant moths trapped at these flowers were the cabbage loop...

  3. 77 FR 23745 - Proposed Low-Effect Habitat Conservation Plan for the Bay Checkerspot Butterfly and Serpentine...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-20

    ... Butterfly and Serpentine Grasslands, City of San Jose, Santa Clara County, CA AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... Conservation Plan for Bay checkerspot butterfly and serpentine grasslands, Santa Clara County California: U.S... serpentine grassland, Temporary construction fencing, Salvage of individual Santa Clara Valley dudleya...

  4. The Impact of Landscape Heterogeneity on the Composition of Local Communities: Butterflies in the Steppe Reserves of South Moravia

    OpenAIRE

    ŠLANCAROVÁ, Jana

    2010-01-01

    This thesis aims to answer the question whether heterogeneity of agricultural landscapes affects the richness of species, and looks at community composition of butterflies inhabiting 38 insular steppe grassland reserves situated in Southern Moravia, Czech Republic, using quantitative butterfly records and digitised data on landscape composition within the reserves and in surrounding perimeters.

  5. How Many Butterflies Are There in a City of Circa Half a Million People?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Ramírez-Restrepo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization poses severe threats to biodiversity; thus, there is an urge to understand urban areas and their biological, physical, and social components if we aim to integrate sustainable practices as part of their processes. Among urban wildlife groups, butterflies have been used as biological indicators due to their high sensitivity to environmental changes. In this study, we estimated the number of butterflies that live within a neotropical medium-sized city (Xalapa, Veracruz, Mexico using a robust interpolation procedure (ordinary kriging. Our calculations added an average of 1,077,537 (± SE 172 butterfly individuals that dwelt in Xalapa in the surveyed space and time. The interpolation procedures showed to be robust and reliable, and up to some extent conservative. Thus, our results suggest that there are at least 1.8 butterfly individuals per capita in Xalapa. Notably, higher butterfly abundances tended to be recorded near highly vegetated areas and along city borders. Besides providing the basis for further ecological studies, our results will contribute to the crucial need of scientific data that is lacking, but critically important, for adequate urban management and planning, as well as environmental education.

  6. Tracking butterfly movements with harmonic radar reveals an effect of population age on movement distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovaskainen, Otso; Smith, Alan D.; Osborne, Juliet L.; Reynolds, Don R.; Carreck, Norman L.; Martin, Andrew P.; Niitepõld, Kristjan; Hanski, Ilkka

    2008-01-01

    We used harmonic radar to track freely flying Glanville fritillary butterfly (Melitaea cinxia) females within an area of 30 ha. Butterflies originated from large and continuous populations in China and Estonia, and from newly established or old (> 5 years) small local populations in a highly fragmented landscape in Finland. Caterpillars were raised under common garden conditions and unmated females were tested soon after eclosion. The reconstructed flight paths for 66 individuals comprised a total distance of 51 km with high spatial resolution. Butterflies originating from large continuous populations and from old local populations in Finland exhibited similar movement behaviors, whereas butterflies originating from newly established local populations in the fragmented landscape in Finland moved significantly more than the others. There was no difference in the lengths of individual flight bouts, but the new-population females flew more frequently, resulting in longer daily movement tracks. The flight activity of all individuals was affected by environmental conditions, peaking at 19–23°C (depending on population type), in the early afternoon, and during calm weather. Butterflies from all population types showed a strong tendency to follow habitat edges between the open study area and the neighboring woodlands. PMID:19060191

  7. Importance of vegetation analysis in the conservation management of the endangered butterfly Aloeides dentatis dentatis (Swierstra (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Deutschlander

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available The study of the vegetation of the Ruimsig Entomological Reserve, Gauteng, South Africa revealed four plant communities one of which could be subdivided into two subcommunities and variants. The extensive climax stage of the vegetation represented by the Themeda triandra - Trachypogon spicatus grassland was found to be too dense and tall to support the butterfly Aloeides dentatis dentatis and the host ant Lepisiota capensis (Mayr. A degraded phase caused by succession in an area where pipes have been laid was found to be ideal habitat for both ant and butterfly. This vegetation also contained adequate numbers of the food plant Hermannia depressa. A serai community with tall- growing Hyparrhenia hirta was also found to be an unsuitable habitat for the butterfly. The identification of the preferred ideal habitat for the host ant and butterfly resulted in the compilation of a conservation management strategy that ensured the survival of the rare and endangered butterfly.

  8. Synthesis of Three-Dimensional Butterfly Slit-Cyclobisazaanthracenes and Hydrazinobisanthenes through One-Step Cyclodimerization and Their Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Koji; Higashibayashi, Shuhei

    2016-01-11

    New three-dimensional (3D) ?-conjugated molecules, butterfly-shaped slit-cyclobisazaanthracenes, were synthesized in high yields by Ni-mediated one-step cyclodimerization of dibromoazaanthracenes with a dimethylacridine, phenothiazine, or acridone skeleton. The 3D slit butterfly shape was formed by folded azaanthracene skeletons. Closure of the slit via N?N bond formation afforded hydrazinobisanthenes with an embedded hydrazine structure in a bisanthene skeleton, which exhibited a 3D butterfly or a 2D plane structure depending on the type of heterocycle used. Extensive study of the stereoselective chemical reactivity of the butterfly shape, X-ray analysis, DFT calculations, electrochemical/chemical oxidations, and photophysical measurements revealed that the properties of these materials included stereoselective oxidation, a rigid or flexible butterfly shape, dynamic conformational behavior, unique crystal-packing structures, excellent electron donation with low oxidation potential, a radical cation, a long absorption wavelength, and fluorescence property. PMID:26616833

  9. Fluid and Structural Analysis of Large Butterfly Valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xueguan; Wang, Lin; Park, Youngchul

    2008-10-01

    A butterfly valve of large diameter is commonly used as control equipments in applications where the inlet velocity is fast and the pressure is relatively high. Because of the size of the valve is too large, therefore it's too difficult to conduct the experiment in a laboratory. In this paper, the numerical simulation using commercial package-CFX and ANSYS was conducted. In order to do fluid analysis and structural analysis perfectly, large valve models are generated in three dimensions without much simplification, the result of fluid analysis is also fully coupled to the structural domain by the fluid-structural interface to provide an exacter initial condition. In addition to describe the flow patterns and to measure the performance coefficients when the valves with various open angles were used, the verification of the safety performance whether the valve could work normally at those conditions or not was conducted. Fortunately, the result shows this type valve is safe in a given inlet velocity of 3m/s, and it's not necessary to be strengthened anywhere, and if need be, the shape of valve disc can be optimized to reduce the weight of disc, and also to make the flow coefficient be closer to the suggested level.

  10. Morpho peleides butterfly wing imprints as structural colour stamp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zobl, Sigrid; Salvenmoser, Willi; Schwerte, Thorsten; Gebeshuber, Ille C; Schreiner, Manfred

    2016-02-01

    This study presents the replication of a color-causing nanostructure based on the upper laminae of numerous cover scales of Morpho peleides butterfly wings and obtained solely by imprinting their upper-wing surfaces. Our results indicate that a simple casting technique using a novel integrated release agent can obtain a large positive replica using negative imprints via Polyvinylsiloxane. The developed method is low-tech and high-yield and is thus substantially easier and less expensive than previous methods. The microstructures were investigated with light microscopy, the nanostructures with both scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and the reflections with UV visible spectrometry. The influence of the release agent and the quality of the master stamp were determined by comparing measurements of the cover-scale sizes and their chromaticity values obtained by their images and with their positive imprints. The master stamp provided multiple positive replicas up to 3 cm(2) in just 1 h with structural coloration effects visible to the naked eye. Thus, the developed method proves the accuracy of the replicated nanostructure and its potential industrial application as a color-producing nanostamp. PMID:26835900

  11. Fractional quantum Hall effect in Hofstadter butterflies of Dirac fermions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazaryan, Areg; Chakraborty, Tapash; Pietiläinen, Pekka

    2015-05-01

    We report on the influence of a periodic potential on the fractional quantum Hall effect (FQHE) states in monolayer graphene. We have shown that for two values of the magnetic flux per unit cell (one-half and one-third flux quantum) an increase of the periodic potential strength results in a closure of the FQHE gap and appearance of gaps due to the periodic potential. In the case of one-half flux quantum this causes a change of the ground state and consequently the change of the momentum of the system in the ground state. While there is also crossing between low-lying energy levels for one-third flux quantum, the ground state does not change with the increase of the periodic potential strength and is always characterized by the same momentum. Finally, it is shown that for one-half flux quantum the emergent gaps are due entirely to the electron-electron interaction, whereas for the one-third flux quantum per unit cell these are due to both non-interacting electrons (Hofstadter butterfly pattern) and the electron-electron interaction.

  12. Monarch butterfly migration and parasite transmission in eastern North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartel, Rebecca A; Oberhauser, Karen S; De Roode, Jacobus C; Altizer, Sonia M

    2011-02-01

    Seasonal migration occurs in many animal systems and is likely to influence interactions between animals and their parasites. Here, we focus on monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) and a protozoan parasite (Ophryocystis elektroscirrha) to investigate how host migration affects infectious disease processes. Previous work showed that parasite prevalence was lower among migratory than nonmigratory monarch populations; two explanations for this pattern are that (1) migration allows animals to periodically escape contaminated habitats (i.e., migratory escape), and (2) long-distance migration weeds out infected animals (i.e., migratory culling). We combined field-sampling and analysis of citizen science data to examine spatiotemporal trends of parasite prevalence and evaluate evidence for these two mechanisms. Analysis of within-breeding-season variation in eastern North America showed that parasite prevalence increased from early to late in the breeding season, consistent with the hypothesis of migratory escape. Prevalence was also positively related to monarch breeding activity, as indexed by larval density. Among adult monarchs captured at different points along the east coast fall migratory flyway, parasite prevalence declined as monarchs progressed southward, consistent with the hypothesis of migratory culling. Parasite prevalence was also lower among monarchs sampled at two overwintering sites in Mexico than among monarchs sampled during the summer breeding period. Collectively, these results indicate that seasonal migration can affect parasite transmission in wild animal populations, with implications for predicting disease risks for species with threatened migrations. PMID:21618914

  13. Dynamic mechanical oscillations during metamorphosis of the monarch butterfly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelling, Andrew E; Wilkinson, Paul R; Stringer, Richard; Gimzewski, James K

    2009-01-01

    The mechanical oscillation of the heart is fundamental during insect metamorphosis, but it is unclear how morphological changes affect its mechanical dynamics. Here, the micromechanical heartbeat with the monarch chrysalis (Danaus plexippus) during metamorphosis is compared with the structural changes observed through in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We employ a novel ultra-sensitive detection approach, optical beam deflection, in order to measure the microscale motions of the pupae during the course of metamorphosis. We observed very distinct mechanical contractions occurring at regular intervals, which we ascribe to the mechanical function of the heart organ. Motion was observed to occur in approximately 15 min bursts of activity with frequencies in the 0.4-1.0 Hz range separated by periods of quiescence during the first 83 per cent of development. In the final stages, the beating was found to be uninterrupted until the adult monarch butterfly emerged. Distinct stages of development were characterized by changes in frequency, amplitude, mechanical quality factor and de/repolarization times of the mechanical pulsing. The MRI revealed that the heart organ remains functionally intact throughout metamorphosis but undergoes morphological changes that are reflected in the mechanical oscillation. PMID:18682363

  14. Host plant species affects virulence in monarch butterfly parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Roode, Jacobus C; Pedersen, Amy B; Hunter, Mark D; Altizer, Sonia

    2008-01-01

    1. Studies have considered how intrinsic host and parasite properties determine parasite virulence, but have largely ignored the role of extrinsic ecological factors in its expression. 2. We studied how parasite genotype and host plant species interact to determine virulence of the protozoan parasite Ophryocystis elektroscirrha (McLaughlin & Myers 1970) in the monarch butterfly Danaus plexippus L. We infected monarch larvae with one of four parasite genotypes and reared them on two milkweed species that differed in their levels of cardenolides: toxic chemicals involved in predator defence. 3. Parasite infection, replication and virulence were affected strongly by host plant species. While uninfected monarchs lived equally long on both plant species, infected monarchs suffered a greater reduction in their life spans (55% vs. 30%) on the low-cardenolide vs. the high-cardenolide host plant. These life span differences resulted from different levels of parasite replication in monarchs reared on the two plant species. 4. The virulence rank order of parasite genotypes was unaffected by host plant species, suggesting that host plant species affected parasite genotypes similarly, rather than through complex plant species-parasite genotype interactions. 5. Our results demonstrate that host ecology importantly affects parasite virulence, with implications for host-parasite dynamics in natural populations. PMID:18177332

  15. Coldness triggers northward flight in remigrant monarch butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Patrick A; Reppert, Steven M

    2013-03-01

    Each fall, eastern North American monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) migrate from their northern range to their overwintering grounds in central Mexico. Fall migrants are in reproductive diapause, and they use a time-compensated sun compass to navigate during the long journey south. Eye-sensed directional cues from the daylight sky (e.g., the horizontal or azimuthal position of the sun) are integrated in the sun compass in the midbrain central complex region. Sun compass output is time compensated by circadian clocks in the antennae so that fall migrants can maintain a fixed flight direction south. In the spring, the same migrants remigrate northward to the southern United States to initiate the northern leg of the migration cycle. Here we show that spring remigrants also use an antenna-dependent time-compensated sun compass to direct their northward flight. Remarkably, fall migrants prematurely exposed to overwintering-like coldness reverse their flight orientation to the north. The temperature microenvironment at the overwintering site is essential for successful completion of the migration cycle, because without cold exposure, aged migrants continue to orient south. Our discovery that coldness triggers the northward flight direction in spring remigrants solves one of the long-standing mysteries of the monarch migration. PMID:23434279

  16. Butterfly Encryption Scheme for Resource-Constrained Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghav V. Sampangi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Resource-constrained wireless networks are emerging networks such as Radio Frequency Identification (RFID and Wireless Body Area Networks (WBAN that might have restrictions on the available resources and the computations that can be performed. These emerging technologies are increasing in popularity, particularly in defence, anti-counterfeiting, logistics and medical applications, and in consumer applications with growing popularity of the Internet of Things. With communication over wireless channels, it is essential to focus attention on securing data. In this paper, we present an encryption scheme called Butterfly encryption scheme. We first discuss a seed update mechanism for pseudorandom number generators (PRNG, and employ this technique to generate keys and authentication parameters for resource-constrained wireless networks. Our scheme is lightweight, as in it requires less resource when implemented and offers high security through increased unpredictability, owing to continuously changing parameters. Our work focuses on accomplishing high security through simplicity and reuse. We evaluate our encryption scheme using simulation, key similarity assessment, key sequence randomness assessment, protocol analysis and security analysis.

  17. Butterfly Encryption Scheme for Resource-Constrained Wireless Networks †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampangi, Raghav V.; Sampalli, Srinivas

    2015-01-01

    Resource-constrained wireless networks are emerging networks such as Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) and Wireless Body Area Networks (WBAN) that might have restrictions on the available resources and the computations that can be performed. These emerging technologies are increasing in popularity, particularly in defence, anti-counterfeiting, logistics and medical applications, and in consumer applications with growing popularity of the Internet of Things. With communication over wireless channels, it is essential to focus attention on securing data. In this paper, we present an encryption scheme called Butterfly encryption scheme. We first discuss a seed update mechanism for pseudorandom number generators (PRNG), and employ this technique to generate keys and authentication parameters for resource-constrained wireless networks. Our scheme is lightweight, as in it requires less resource when implemented and offers high security through increased unpredictability, owing to continuously changing parameters. Our work focuses on accomplishing high security through simplicity and reuse. We evaluate our encryption scheme using simulation, key similarity assessment, key sequence randomness assessment, protocol analysis and security analysis. PMID:26389899

  18. Butterfly Encryption Scheme for Resource-Constrained Wireless Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampangi, Raghav V; Sampalli, Srinivas

    2015-01-01

    Resource-constrained wireless networks are emerging networks such as Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) and Wireless Body Area Networks (WBAN) that might have restrictions on the available resources and the computations that can be performed. These emerging technologies are increasing in popularity, particularly in defence, anti-counterfeiting, logistics and medical applications, and in consumer applications with growing popularity of the Internet of Things. With communication over wireless channels, it is essential to focus attention on securing data. In this paper, we present an encryption scheme called Butterfly encryption scheme. We first discuss a seed update mechanism for pseudorandom number generators (PRNG), and employ this technique to generate keys and authentication parameters for resource-constrained wireless networks. Our scheme is lightweight, as in it requires less resource when implemented and offers high security through increased unpredictability, owing to continuously changing parameters. Our work focuses on accomplishing high security through simplicity and reuse. We evaluate our encryption scheme using simulation, key similarity assessment, key sequence randomness assessment, protocol analysis and security analysis. PMID:26389899

  19. Butterfly patterns in a sheared lamellar-system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindner, P. [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin (ILL), 38 - Grenoble (France); Zipfel, J.; Richtering, W. [Freiburg Univ. (Germany)

    1997-04-01

    A technologically important extension of `classical` scattering techniques is to investigate soft-matter systems under non-equilibrium conditions. Shear flow is known to have a profound influence on the structure and orientation of complex fluids like thermotropic or lyotropic liquid-crystals, colloidal and polymeric solutions. There is a fundamental interest in understanding the microscopic structure and dynamics of such complex fluids as the macroscopic material properties might change with the application of an external perturbation like shear. The following example illustrates a recent study of the influence of shear on the structure of a lyotropic lamellar phase. Results using a cone-and-plate and the ILL Couette type shear-cell were obtained by rheo-small-angle light scattering (rheo-SALS) and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) at D11. Because of the broad range of momentum transfer Q available at D11 a characteristic butterfly-pattern with a scattering peak revealing both the structure and the supramolecular structure of the system could be detected at very low Q. (author). 5 refs.

  20. Butterfly patterns in a sheared lamellar-system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A technologically important extension of 'classical' scattering techniques is to investigate soft-matter systems under non-equilibrium conditions. Shear flow is known to have a profound influence on the structure and orientation of complex fluids like thermotropic or lyotropic liquid-crystals, colloidal and polymeric solutions. There is a fundamental interest in understanding the microscopic structure and dynamics of such complex fluids as the macroscopic material properties might change with the application of an external perturbation like shear. The following example illustrates a recent study of the influence of shear on the structure of a lyotropic lamellar phase. Results using a cone-and-plate and the ILL Couette type shear-cell were obtained by rheo-small-angle light scattering (rheo-SALS) and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) at D11. Because of the broad range of momentum transfer Q available at D11 a characteristic butterfly-pattern with a scattering peak revealing both the structure and the supramolecular structure of the system could be detected at very low Q. (author)

  1. Evolutionary Novelty in a Butterfly Wing Pattern through Enhancer Shuffling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallbank, Richard W R; Baxter, Simon W; Pardo-Diaz, Carolina; Hanly, Joseph J; Martin, Simon H; Mallet, James; Dasmahapatra, Kanchon K; Salazar, Camilo; Joron, Mathieu; Nadeau, Nicola; McMillan, W Owen; Jiggins, Chris D

    2016-01-01

    An important goal in evolutionary biology is to understand the genetic changes underlying novel morphological structures. We investigated the origins of a complex wing pattern found among Amazonian Heliconius butterflies. Genome sequence data from 142 individuals across 17 species identified narrow regions associated with two distinct red colour pattern elements, dennis and ray. We hypothesise that these modules in non-coding sequence represent distinct cis-regulatory loci that control expression of the transcription factor optix, which in turn controls red pattern variation across Heliconius. Phylogenetic analysis of the two elements demonstrated that they have distinct evolutionary histories and that novel adaptive morphological variation was created by shuffling these cis-regulatory modules through recombination between divergent lineages. In addition, recombination of modules into different combinations within species further contributes to diversity. Analysis of the timing of diversification in these two regions supports the hypothesis of introgression moving regulatory modules between species, rather than shared ancestral variation. The dennis phenotype introgressed into Heliconius melpomene at about the same time that ray originated in this group, while ray introgressed back into H. elevatus much more recently. We show that shuffling of existing enhancer elements both within and between species provides a mechanism for rapid diversification and generation of novel morphological combinations during adaptive radiation. PMID:26771987

  2. The mitochondrial genome of the butterfly Polyura schreiber (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Fan; Cao, Tianwen; Cao, Liangming; Li, Hu; Wang, Juping; Xuan, Shanbin

    2016-09-01

    The nearly complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of the butterfly, Polyura schreiber, was determined. The sequenced mitogenome is a typical circular DNA molecule of 15 320 bp, containing 13 protein-coding genes, two rRNA genes, 21 tRNA genes, and a putative control region. tRNA(Phe) was failed to sequence, which was presumed to be located between tRNA(Glu) and ND5. Protein-coding genes all initiate with ATN codons and terminate with TAA codons except for COII and ND5 use a single T residue as the termination codon. All tRNAs have the clover-leaf structure except for the tRNA(Ser(AGN)) and the length of them range from 65 to 71 bp. The control region is 412 bp long with an A + T content of 90.5%. Our phylogenetic analysis recovered the sister-group relationship between Charaxinae and Satyrinae. PMID:26329346

  3. Historical demography of Mullerian mimicry in the neotropical Heliconius butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, N S; Tobler, A; Davison, A; Pybus, O G; Kapan, D D; Planas, S; Linares, M; Heckel, D; McMillan, W O

    2004-06-29

    We compare the historical demographies of two Müllerian comimetic butterfly species: Heliconius erato and Heliconius melpomene. These species show an extensive parallel geographic divergence in their aposematic wing phenotypes. Recent studies suggest that this coincident mosaic results from simultaneous demographic processes shaped by extrinsic forces over Pleistocene climate fluctuations. However, DNA sequence variation at two rapidly evolving unlinked nuclear loci, Mannose phosphate isomerase (Mpi) and Triose phosphate isomerase (Tpi), show that the comimetic species have quite different quaternary demographies. In H. erato, despite ongoing lineage sorting across the Andes, nuclear genealogical estimates showed little geographical structure, suggesting high historical gene flow. Coalescent-based demographic analysis revealed population growth since the Pliocene period. Although these patterns suggest vicariant population subdivision associated with the Andean orogeny, they are not consistent with hypotheses of Pleistocene population fragmentation facilitating allopatric wing phenotype radiation in H. erato. In contrast, nuclear genetic diversity, theta, in H. melpomene was reduced relative to its comimic and revealed three phylogeographical clades. The pattern of coalescent events within regional clades was most consistent with population growth in relatively isolated populations after a recent period of restricted population size. These different demographic histories suggest that the wing-pattern radiations were not coincident in the two species. Instead, larger effective population size (N(e)) in H. erato, together with profound population change in H. melpomene, supports an earlier hypothesis that H. erato diversified first as the model species of this remarkable mimetic association. PMID:15210977

  4. Evolutionary Novelty in a Butterfly Wing Pattern through Enhancer Shuffling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo-Diaz, Carolina; Hanly, Joseph J.; Martin, Simon H.; Mallet, James; Dasmahapatra, Kanchon K.; Salazar, Camilo; Joron, Mathieu; Nadeau, Nicola; McMillan, W. Owen; Jiggins, Chris D.

    2016-01-01

    An important goal in evolutionary biology is to understand the genetic changes underlying novel morphological structures. We investigated the origins of a complex wing pattern found among Amazonian Heliconius butterflies. Genome sequence data from 142 individuals across 17 species identified narrow regions associated with two distinct red colour pattern elements, dennis and ray. We hypothesise that these modules in non-coding sequence represent distinct cis-regulatory loci that control expression of the transcription factor optix, which in turn controls red pattern variation across Heliconius. Phylogenetic analysis of the two elements demonstrated that they have distinct evolutionary histories and that novel adaptive morphological variation was created by shuffling these cis-regulatory modules through recombination between divergent lineages. In addition, recombination of modules into different combinations within species further contributes to diversity. Analysis of the timing of diversification in these two regions supports the hypothesis of introgression moving regulatory modules between species, rather than shared ancestral variation. The dennis phenotype introgressed into Heliconius melpomene at about the same time that ray originated in this group, while ray introgressed back into H. elevatus much more recently. We show that shuffling of existing enhancer elements both within and between species provides a mechanism for rapid diversification and generation of novel morphological combinations during adaptive radiation. PMID:26771987

  5. Beyond magic traits: Multimodal mating cues in Heliconius butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrot, Claire; Frrot, Brigitte; Leppik, Ene; Joron, Mathieu

    2015-11-01

    Species coexistence involves the evolution of reproductive barriers opposing gene flow. Heliconius butterflies display colorful patterns affecting mate choice and survival through warning signaling and mimicry. These patterns are called "magic traits" for speciation because divergent natural selection may promote mimicry shifts in pattern whose role as mating cue facilitates reproductive isolation. By contrast, between comimetic species, natural selection promotes pattern convergence. We addressed whether visual convergence interferes with reproductive isolation by testing for sexual isolation between two closely related species with similar patterns, H. timareta thelxinoe and H. melpomene amaryllis. Experiments with models confirmed visual attraction based on wing phenotype, leading to indiscriminate approach. Nevertheless, mate choice experiments showed assortative mating. Monitoring male behavior toward live females revealed asymmetry in male preference, H. melpomene males courting both species equally while H. timareta males strongly preferred conspecifics. Experiments with hybrid males suggested an important genetic component for such asymmetry. Behavioral observations support a key role for short-distance cues in determining male choice in H. timareta. Scents extracts from wings and genitalia revealed interspecific divergence in chemical signatures, and hybrid female scent composition was significantly associated with courtship intensity by H. timareta males, providing candidate chemical mating cues involved in sexual isolation. PMID:26513426

  6. Flow characteristics and performance evaluation of butterfly valves using numerical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, S. Y.; Yoon, J. Y.; Shin, M. S.

    2010-08-01

    The industrial butterfly valves have been applied to various fields that transport fluid in volume, especially water supply and drainage pipeline for flow control. The butterfly valves in various shapes are manufactured, but a fitting performance comparison is not made up. For this reason, we carried out numerical analysis of some kind of butterfly valves for water supply and drainage pipeline using commercial CFD code FLUENT, and made a comparative study of these results. Also, the flow coefficient, the loss coefficient, and pressure distribution of valves according to valve opening rate were compared each other and the influence of these design variables on valve performance were checked over. Through flow around the valve disk, such as pressure distribution, flow pattern, velocity vectors, and form of vortex, we grasped flow characteristics.

  7. Flow characteristics and performance evaluation of butterfly valves using numerical analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, S Y; Shin, M S [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Hanyang University, 17 Haengdang-dong Seongdong-gu, Seoul, 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, J Y, E-mail: lo21c@hanyang.ac.k [Division of Mechanical and Management Engineering, Hanyang University, 1271 Sa-3-dong Sangnok-gu, Ansan, 425-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-08-15

    The industrial butterfly valves have been applied to various fields that transport fluid in volume, especially water supply and drainage pipeline for flow control. The butterfly valves in various shapes are manufactured, but a fitting performance comparison is not made up. For this reason, we carried out numerical analysis of some kind of butterfly valves for water supply and drainage pipeline using commercial CFD code FLUENT, and made a comparative study of these results. Also, the flow coefficient, the loss coefficient, and pressure distribution of valves according to valve opening rate were compared each other and the influence of these design variables on valve performance were checked over. Through flow around the valve disk, such as pressure distribution, flow pattern, velocity vectors, and form of vortex, we grasped flow characteristics.

  8. Diversity pattern of Butterfly Lepidoptera (Papilio demoleus in Union Council Koaz Bahram Dheri Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAROON

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In ecosystem the butterflies ply dual role as pollinators, silk producers and indicators of environmental quality. The present study was conducted in Union Council Koaz Bahram Dehri during the period July 2012 to August 2012. The collection of butterflies was done randomly by using the sweep net. A total of 32 specimens of Papilio demoleus were collected from different villages of the said area. The high number of specimen was collected from Aratt Kally (21.88%. The wing span is 9.8±0.40 cm and body length 2.9±0.16 cm. From the present investigation it was concluded that the Papilio demoleus species is common in Union Council Koaz Bahram Dehri. The area has rich fauna of butterflies and recommended further studies.

  9. Application of new designed butterfly type intermediate valve for nuclear steam turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To cope with a large capacity nuclear steam turbine, a butterfly type intermediate valve has been developed. Compared to the conventional valve, or globe valve, the butterfly valve has the following design features: a) Higher thermal efficiency due to lower pressure loss, b) Easier maintenance due to simplified construction, and c) Lower station cost due to the smaller size of the valve assembly. An experiment with a scaled-down test valve was carried out using compressed air. Subsequently a full-scale valve was tested using steam under actual steam conditions. As a result, these tests gave us no problems. The first nuclear turbine (1100MW) equipped with a butterfly valve is operating satisfactorily with good performance as expected. (author)

  10. Reproducing butterflies do not increase intake of antioxidants when they could benefit from them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu, Michaël; Bischofberger, Ines; Lorenz, Isabel; Scheelen, Lucie; Fischer, Klaus

    2016-02-01

    The significance of dietary antioxidants may be limited by the ability of animals to exploit them. However, past studies have focused on the effects of dietary antioxidants after 'antioxidant forced-feeding', and have overlooked spontaneous antioxidant intake. Here, we found that reproducing female Bicyclus anynana butterflies had higher antioxidant defences and enhanced fecundity when forced to consume antioxidants (polyphenols). Interestingly, these positive effects were not constant across the oviposition period. When given the choice between food resources with and without antioxidants, reproducing butterflies did not target antioxidants when they could have benefited the most from them. Moreover, they did not consume more antioxidants than non-reproducing butterflies. These results emphasize that, despite potential positive effects of dietary antioxidants, the ability of animals to exploit them is likely to restrict their ecological significance. PMID:26911341

  11. Flow characteristics and performance evaluation of butterfly valves using numerical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The industrial butterfly valves have been applied to various fields that transport fluid in volume, especially water supply and drainage pipeline for flow control. The butterfly valves in various shapes are manufactured, but a fitting performance comparison is not made up. For this reason, we carried out numerical analysis of some kind of butterfly valves for water supply and drainage pipeline using commercial CFD code FLUENT, and made a comparative study of these results. Also, the flow coefficient, the loss coefficient, and pressure distribution of valves according to valve opening rate were compared each other and the influence of these design variables on valve performance were checked over. Through flow around the valve disk, such as pressure distribution, flow pattern, velocity vectors, and form of vortex, we grasped flow characteristics.

  12. Magnetic resonance butterfly coils: Design and application for hyperpolarized 13C studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giovannetti, Giulio; Frijia, Francesca; Attanasio, Simona; Menichetti, Luca; Hartwig, Valentina; Vanello, Nicola; Ardenkjaer-Larsen, Jan Henrik; De Marchi, Daniele; Positano, Vincenzo; Schulte, Rolf; Landini, Luigi; Lombardi, Massimo; Santarelli, Maria Filomena

    2013-01-01

    of dedicated coils capable of providing large field of view with high Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) data is of fundamental importance. This work presents magnetostatic simulations and tests of two butterfly coils with different geometries, both designed for 13C hyperpolarized studies of pig heart with...... a clinical 3T scanner. In particular, the paper provides details of the design, modeling, construction and application of the butterfly style coils. While both coils could be successfully employed in single configuration (linear mode), the second prototype was used to design a quadrature surface...... coil constituted by the butterfly and a circular loop both in receive (RX) mode while using a birdcage coil as transmitter (TX). The performance of this coils configuration was compared with the single TX/RX birdcage coil, in order to verify the advantage of the proposed configuration over the volume...

  13. The study on flow characteristics of butterfly valve using flow visualization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flow visualization of butterfly valve is tested for four types(15 deg., 30 .deg., 45 .deg., and 90 .deg.) of valve opening angle. The inner flow characteristics of valve are studied. The flow variation was measured using a high speed camera which takes 500 frames per second with 1024 x 1024 pixels. These captured images were used for calculation to analyze two dimensional flow velocity of the valve. The smaller opening angle, the more increasing the differential pressure of a butterfly valve. Therefore, we know that the complex flow is occurred by increasing the differential pressure. And it is found that the flowing backward is more increased according to the increase of the opening angle of a butterfly valve. However, its flow pattern is similar to a simple pipe flow when the opening angle is 90 .deg.

  14. The Innovation Butterfly Managing Emergent Opportunities and Risks During Distributed Innovation

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson Jr , Edward G

    2012-01-01

    Product and service innovations are the result of mutually interacting creative and coordination tasks within a system that has to balance technical decisions, marketplace taste, personnel management, and stakeholder commitment. The constituent elements of such systems are often scattered across multiple firms and across the globe and constitute a complex system consisting of many interacting parts. In the spirit of the "butterfly effect", metaphorically describing the sensitivity to initials conditions of chaotic systems, this book builds an argument that "innovation butterflies" can, in the short term, take up significant amounts of effort and sap efficiencies within individual innovation projects. Such "innovation butterflies" can be prompted by external forces such as government legislation or unexpected spikes in the price of basic goods (such as oil), unexpected shifts in market tastes, or from a company manager’s decisions or those of its competitors. Even the smallest change, the smallest disruption...

  15. Use of fruit bait traps for monitoring of butterflies (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer B. Hughes

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available There exists great interest in using fruit-feeding adult nymphalid butterflies to monitor changes in tropical forest ecosystems. We intensively sampled the butterfly fauna of mid-elevation tropical moist forest in southern Costa Rica with fruit bait traps to address a series of practical issues concerning the development of a robust, efficient sampling program. Variation in the number of captures and escapes of butterflies at the traps was better explained by the time of day than by the age of bait. Species’ escape rates varied widely, suggesting that short term, less intensive surveys aimed at determining presence or absence of species may be biased. Individuals did not appear to become "trap-happy" or to recognize the traps as food sources. Considering the tradeoff between numbers of traps and frequency of trap servicing, the most efficient sampling regime appears to be baiting and sampling the traps once every other day.

  16. Butterfly Classification by HSI and RGB Color Models Using Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge E. Grajales-Múnera

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aims the classification of Butterfly species through the implementation of Neural Networks and Image Processing. A total of 9 species of Morpho genre which has blue as a characteristic color are processed. For Butterfly segmentation we used image processing tools such as: Binarization, edge processing and mathematical morphology. For data processing RGB values are obtained for every image which are converted to HSI color model to identify blue pixels and obtain the data to the proposed Neural Networks: Back-Propagation and Perceptron. For analysis and verification of results confusion matrix are built and analyzed with the results of neural networks with the lowest error levels. We obtain error levels close to 1% in classification of some Butterfly species.

  17. Thermal biology of flight in a butterfly: genotype, flight metabolism, and environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattila, Anniina L K

    2015-12-01

    Knowledge of the effects of thermal conditions on animal movement and dispersal is necessary for a mechanistic understanding of the consequences of climate change and habitat fragmentation. In particular, the flight of ectothermic insects such as small butterflies is greatly influenced by ambient temperature. Here, variation in body temperature during flight is investigated in an ecological model species, the Glanville fritillary butterfly (Melitaea cinxia). Attention is paid on the effects of flight metabolism, genotypes at candidate loci, and environmental conditions. Measurements were made under a natural range of conditions using infrared thermal imaging. Heating of flight muscles by flight metabolism has been presumed to be negligible in small butterflies. However, the results demonstrate that Glanville fritillary males with high flight metabolic rate maintain elevated body temperature better during flight than males with a low rate of flight metabolism. This effect is likely to have a significant influence on the dispersal performance and fitness of butterflies and demonstrates the possible importance of intraspecific physiological variation on dispersal in other similar ectothermic insects. The results also suggest that individuals having an advantage in low ambient temperatures can be susceptible to overheating at high temperatures. Further, tolerance of high temperatures may be important for flight performance, as indicated by an association of heat-shock protein (Hsp70) genotype with flight metabolic rate and body temperature at takeoff. The dynamics of body temperature at flight and factors affecting it also differed significantly between female and male butterflies, indicating that thermal dynamics are governed by different mechanisms in the two sexes. This study contributes to knowledge about factors affecting intraspecific variation in dispersal-related thermal performance in butterflies and other insects. Such information is needed for predictive models of the evolution of dispersal in the face of habitat fragmentation and climate change. PMID:27069604

  18. Monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus L.) use a magnetic compass for navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etheredge, Jason A.; Perez, Sandra M.; Taylor, Orley R.; Jander, Rudolf

    1999-01-01

    Fall migratory monarch butterflies, tested for their directional responses to magnetic cues under three conditions, amagnetic, normal, and reversed magnetic fields, showed three distinct patterns. In the absence of a magnetic field, monarchs lacked directionality as a group. In the normal magnetic field, monarchs oriented to the southwest with a group pattern typical for migrants. When the horizontal component of the magnetic field was reversed, the butterflies oriented to the northeast. In contrast, nonmigratory monarchs lacked directionality in the normal magnetic field. The results are a direct demonstration of magnetic compass orientation in migratory insects. PMID:10570160

  19. A List of Butterfly Fauna in Jahangirnagar University Campus in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During January to Decmber, 2003 in an extensive survey of butterfly in Jahangirnagar University campus, a total of 80 species of butterfly were identified. Among them 44 species were common and 36 were completely new. These species belonged to 10 families, 11 species belong to the family Nymphalidae, 14 to Pieridae, 23 to Lycaenidae, 3 to Satyridae, 7 to Papilionidae, 4 to Danaidae, 15 to Hesperiidae and 1 species to each family of Acraeidae, Riodinidae and Amathusiidae. The three families viz., Acraeidae, Riodinidae and Amathusiidae were completely new report in Bangladesh.(author)

  20. Detrimental effects of low atmospheric humidity and forest fire on a community of western Himalayan butterflies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Smetacek

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Compared to previous years, the period from October 2008 to March 2009 showed marked reductions in species number and population size in the butterfly community of the Maheshkhan Reserve Forest, Nainital District, Uttarakhand. Desiccation of pupae due to abnormally low atmospheric humidity after the failure of seasonal rains appears to have been a major cause of this reduction. The drop in humidity also appears to be linked to the unusual spread of fires affecting broadleaf forests, one of which in May 2009 wiped out the remaining Maheshkhan butterfly community.

  1. Hofstadter's Butterfly and Phase Transition of Checkerboard Superconducting Network in a Magnetic Field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the magnetic effect of the checkerboard superconducting wire network. Based on the de Gennes-Alexader theory, we obtain difference equations for superconducting order parameter in the wire network. Through solving these difference equations, we obtain the eigenvalues, linked to the coherence length, as a function of magnetic field. The diagram of eigenvalues shows a fractal structure, being so-called Hofstadter's butterfly. We also calculate and discuss the dependence of the transition temperature of the checkerboard superconducting wire network on the applied magnetic field, which is related to up-edge of the Hofstadter's butterfly spectrum. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  2. Freestyle versus butterfly swimming performance – effects of age and sex

    OpenAIRE

    Zingg, Matthias Alexander; Wolfrum, Mathias; Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Rosemann, Thomas; Lepers, Romuald; Knechtle, Beat

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Recent studies have suggested that the age of peak freestyle swimming speed is reached earlier in life in women than in men. However, no study has investigated the age of peak swimming speed in other swimming styles such as butterfly. The aims of the present study were to investigate the age of peak swimming speed in elite male and female butterfly and freestyle swimmers at the national level (Switzerland) and the sex differences in both the age of peak swimming speed and swimming sp...

  3. Plant defences against ants provide a pathway to social parasitism in butterflies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patricelli, Dario; Barbero, Francesca; Occhipinti, Andrea; Bertea, Cinzia M; Bonelli, Simona; Casacci, Luca P; Zebelo, Simon A; Crocoll, Christoph; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Maffei, Massimo E; Thomas, Jeremy A; Balletto, Emilio

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the chemical cues and gene expressions that mediate herbivore-host-plant and parasite-host interactions can elucidate the ecological costs and benefits accruing to different partners in tight-knit community modules, and may reveal unexpected complexities. We investigated the...... exploitation of sequential hosts by the phytophagous-predaceous butterfly Maculinea arion, whose larvae initially feed on Origanum vulgare flowerheads before switching to parasitize Myrmica ant colonies for their main period of growth. Gravid female butterflies were attracted to Origanum plants that emitted...

  4. The Butterfly Effect on the Agricultural Bank System at the Grass-Roots Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu QINXIAN

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The competition power of the Agricultural Bank of China has beendropping down for several years. The reason is that banks at the grass-rootslevel dont think much of managing the subtle links. The paper uses the theoryof butterfly effect in Chaos for reference to discusses the risks existed in theAgricultural Bank of China at the grass-roots level such as the credit risk, theincomplete internal control, the loose accounting system, the disorder marketcompetitiveness, the brain drain, the weak service consciousness, the financialinnovation lag and the unbalanced development. Finally eight pieces of adviceare brought forward as the measures against the eight butterfly effects.

  5. Impact of duplicate gene copies on phylogenetic analysis and divergence time estimates in butterflies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liswi Saif W

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The increase in availability of genomic sequences for a wide range of organisms has revealed gene duplication to be a relatively common event. Encounters with duplicate gene copies have consequently become almost inevitable in the context of collecting gene sequences for inferring species trees. Here we examine the effect of incorporating duplicate gene copies evolving at different rates on tree reconstruction and time estimation of recent and deep divergences in butterflies. Results Sequences from ultraviolet-sensitive (UVRh, blue-sensitive (BRh, and long-wavelength sensitive (LWRh opsins,EF-1α and COI were obtained from 27 taxa representing the five major butterfly families (5535 bp total. Both BRh and LWRh are present in multiple copies in some butterfly lineages and the different copies evolve at different rates. Regardless of the phylogenetic reconstruction method used, we found that analyses of combined data sets using either slower or faster evolving copies of duplicate genes resulted in a single topology in agreement with our current understanding of butterfly family relationships based on morphology and molecules. Interestingly, individual analyses of BRh and LWRh sequences also recovered these family-level relationships. Two different relaxed clock methods resulted in similar divergence time estimates at the shallower nodes in the tree, regardless of whether faster or slower evolving copies were used, with larger discrepancies observed at deeper nodes in the phylogeny. The time of divergence between the monarch butterfly Danaus plexippus and the queen D. gilippus (15.3–35.6 Mya was found to be much older than the time of divergence between monarch co-mimic Limenitis archippus and red-spotted purple L. arthemis (4.7–13.6 Mya, and overlapping with the time of divergence of the co-mimetic passionflower butterflies Heliconius erato and H. melpomene (13.5–26.1 Mya. Our family-level results are congruent with recent estimates found in the literature and indicate an age of 84–113 million years for the divergence of all butterfly families. Conclusion These results are consistent with diversification of the butterfly families following the radiation of angiosperms and suggest that some classes of opsin genes may be usefully employed for both phylogenetic reconstruction and divergence time estimation.

  6. Inferring the provenance of an alien species with DNA barcodes: the neotropical butterfly Dryas iulia in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burg, Noah A; Pradhan, Ashman; Gonzalez, Rebecca M; Morban, Emely Z; Zhen, Erica W; Sakchoowong, Watana; Lohman, David J

    2014-01-01

    The Neotropical butterfly Dryas iulia has been collected from several locations in Thailand and Malaysia since 2007, and has been observed breeding in the wild, using introduced Passiflora foetida as a larval host plant. The butterfly is bred by a butterfly house in Phuket, Thailand, for release at weddings and Buddhist ceremonies, and we hypothesized that this butterfly house was the source of wild, Thai individuals. We compared wing patterns and COI barcodes from two, wild Thai populations with individuals obtained from this butterfly house. All Thai individuals resemble the subspecies D. iulia modesta, and barcodes from wild and captive Thai specimens were identical. This unique, Thai barcode was not found in any of the 30 specimens sampled from the wild in the species' native range, but is most similar to specimens from Costa Rica, where many exporting butterfly farms are located. These data implicate the butterfly house as the source of Thailand's wild D. iulia populations, which are currently so widespread that eradication efforts are unlikely to be successful. PMID:25119899

  7. Eco-evolutionary spatial dynamics in the Glanville fritillary butterfly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanski, Ilkka A

    2011-08-30

    Demographic population dynamics, gene flow, and local adaptation may influence each other and lead to coupling of ecological and evolutionary dynamics, especially in species inhabiting fragmented heterogeneous environments. Here, I review long-term research on eco-evolutionary spatial dynamics in the Glanville fritillary butterfly inhabiting a large network of approximately 4,000 meadows in Finland. The metapopulation persists in a balance between frequent local extinctions and recolonizations. The genetic spatial structure as defined by neutral markers is much more coarse-grained than the demographic spatial structure determined by the fragmented habitat, yet small-scale spatial structure has important consequences for the dynamics. I discuss three examples of eco-evolutionary spatial dynamics. (i) Extinction-colonization metapopulation dynamics influence allele frequency changes in the phosphoglucose isomerase (Pgi) gene, which leads to strong associations between genetic variation in Pgi and dispersal, recolonization, and local population dynamics. (ii) Inbreeding in local populations increases their risk for extinction, whereas reciprocal effects between inbreeding, population size, and emigration represent likely eco-evolutionary feedbacks. (iii) Genetically determined female oviposition preference for two host plant species exhibits a cline paralleling a gradient in host plant relative abundances, and host plant preference of dispersing females in relation to the host plant composition of habitat patches influences immigration (gene flow) and recolonization (founder events). Eco-evolutionary spatial dynamics in heterogeneous environments may not lead to directional evolutionary changes unless the environment itself changes, but eco-evolutionary dynamics may contribute to the maintenance of genetic variation attributable to fluctuating selection in space and time. PMID:21788506

  8. Does Skipping a Meal Matter to a Butterfly's Appearance? Effects of Larval Food Stress on Wing Morphology and Color in Monarch Butterflies

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Haley; Solensky, Michelle J.; Satterfield, Dara A.; Davis, Andrew K.

    2014-01-01

    In animals with complex life cycles, all resources needed to form adult tissues are procured at the larval stage. For butterflies, the proper development of wings involves synthesizing tissue during metamorphosis based on the raw materials obtained by larvae. Similarly, manufacture of pigment for wing scales also requires resources acquired by larvae. We conducted an experiment to test the effects of food deprivation in the larval stage on multiple measures of adult wing morphology and colora...

  9. Production of [14C]-labeled 3-hydroxy-L-kynurenine in a butterfly, Heliconius charitonia L. (Heliconidae), and precursor studies in butterfly wing ommatins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, P B

    1993-03-01

    A method was developed to produce radiolabeled 3-hydroxy-L-kynurenine by injection of [14C]-L-tryptophan into pupae of the heliconid butterfly, Heliconius charitonia, which was converted into [14C]-3-hydroxy-L-kynurenine and deposited as a wing pigment. Extractions of 3-hydroxykynurenine (3-OHK) with 60% methanol from wings yielded in 14.4 micrograms per mg dry weight. In extracts from yellow wing areas, 3-OHK represented 100% of detectable amino acids. Resulting specific radioactivity of [14C]-3-OHK was between 0.05 and 0.07 mCi/mmol when 0.5 microCi [14C]-tryptophan was injected into pupae 1 or 2 days before emergence of the butterfly. Incorporation of [14C]-3-OHK into wing ommochromes was studied in nymphalid butterflies, Araschnia levana and Precis coenia. After injection into pupae [14C]-3-OHK as well as [14C]-tryptophan were specifically incorporated into red and red-brown wing scales as shown by autoradiography. The same incorporation occurred in isolated wings after incubation in Grace's medium containing [14C]-3-OHK. In Araschnia levana, [14C]-3-OHK offered to left wing pairs was incorporated into dihydroxanthommatin six times more effectively than [14C]-tryptophan offered to right wing pairs from the same specimen. Therefore, 3-OHK seems to be the ultimate precursor of wing ommatins. PMID:8321868

  10. Plastic butterfly shut-off valves worthwhile in many applications; Kunststoff-Absperrklappen rechnen sich in vielen Anwendungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neye, C.; Paulus, M. [GF Piping Systems, Schaffhausen (Switzerland)

    2007-09-15

    Unequivocal rulings on butterfly valve materials are, unlike the situation with ball and diaphragm valves, not possible in the case of plastic/metal pipelines for applications up to 10 bar fluid pressure. Even in plastic pipelines, butterfly shut-off valves of the same material as the pipeline are subject to severe competition from lined types. The fluid-contacted elements in such butterfly valves are either coated, consist of stainless steel, or are lined with elastomers. The liner performs the sealing function in the valve passage and vis-a-vis the exterior, and also screens the metal off from the fluid. (orig.)

  11. Use of the butterflies like bio-indicators of the habitat type and their biodiversity in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is the result of the study of Colombian butterflies, across an altitudinal range between 250 and 3000 m, whose primary objective was to describe the local distributions of a community of butterflies in three different leinds of ecosystems: primary forest (BP), secondary forest (BS), and disturbed zones (ZP). These descriptions took under consideration environmental parameters and gradients, such as: altitude, climate and how the vegetation had been changed. At the same time, based on observations and captures of butterflies, the seasonality of several species, their daily activity cycles, and micro habitat fidelity were described

  12. New gaskets for butterfly valves in process plants; Neue Dichtungen fuer Klappen in verfahrenstechnischen Anlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clemens, M.; Schmitt, L. [Freudenberg Dichtungs- und Schwingungstechnik KG, Reichelsheim (Germany); Liedtke, U. [Freudenberg Process Seals KG, Viernheim (Germany)

    2005-06-01

    The gasket seating in butterfly valves is subjected to high loadings. The flexible ring is radially compressed at closure, in order that it reliably seals against both high and low viscosity fluids. In order to guarantee this for the longest possible service-life periods, the butterfly valve sealing ring must, on the one hand, permanently provide a low level of friction and, on the other hand, continue to possess a low residual deformation under pressure and high resistances to both temperature and the conveyed fluids. Freudenberg Process Seals counters the increasing technical and economic demands made on valve seals used many thousands of times in process engineering with a completely new and innovative gasket type. It is designed, in terms of geometry and material selection, in such a way that it continues to provide excellent function even in case of use of ever more aggressive cleaning agents in CIP and SIP procedures for food, beverages, biological and fine-chemicals processes. The development of these innovative, non-metallic-sealing butterfly valve sealing seatings achieves excellent operating behaviour and outstanding performance even under the criterion of total life-cycle costs for butterfly valves. (orig.)

  13. Experimental study for flow characteristics and performance evaluation of butterfly valves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, C K; Shin, M S [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Hanyang University 17 Haengdang-dong Seongdong-gu, Seoul, 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, J Y, E-mail: kck0513@hanyang.ac.k [Division of Mechanical and Management Engineering, Hanyang University 1271 Sa-3-dong Sangnok-gu, Ansan, 425-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-08-15

    The industrial butterfly valves have been applied to transport a large of fluid with various fields of industry. Also, these are mainly used a control of fluid flux to the water and waste-water pipeline. Present, butterfly valves are manufacturing for multiplicity shape of bodies and discs with many producers. However, appropriate performance evaluation was not yet accomplished to compare about these valves through experiments. This study is performed the experiment of flow characteristics and performance of manufactured 400A butterfly valves for the water and waste pipeline, and compared experimental results. We performed experiments that were controlled fixed a differential pressure condition (1 psi) and the range of the flow rate conditions (500 m{sup 3}/hr {approx} 2500 m{sup 3}/hr), and also opened the disc of valves to a range of angle from 9 degree to 90 degree. We investigated and compared the valve flow coefficient and the valve loss coefficient of results through experiments with each butterfly valve.

  14. "Butterfly under a Pin": An Emergent Teacher Image amid Mandated Curriculum Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Cheryl J.

    2012-01-01

    The author examines 1 experienced teacher's image of teaching and how it was purposely changed--through external intervention and against the individual's will--from the view of teacher as curriculum maker to the view of teacher as curriculum implementer. Laura's account of the "butterfly under a pin" image, a version of the…

  15. The relationship between total cholinesterase activity and mortality in four butterfly species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargar, Timothy A.

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between total cholinesterase activity (TChE) and mortality in four butterfly species (great southern white [Ascia monuste], common buckeye [Junonia coenia], painted lady [Vanessa cardui], and julia butterflies [Dryas julia]) was investigated. Acute contact toxicity studies were conducted to evaluate the response (median lethal dose [LD50] and TChE) of the four species following exposure to the organophosphate insecticide naled. The LD50 for these butterflies ranged from 2.3 to 7.6 μg/g. The average level of TChE inhibition associated with significant mortality ranged from 26 to 67%, depending on the species. The lower bounds of normal TChE activity (2 standard deviations less than the average TChE for reference butterflies) ranged from 8.4 to 12.3 μM/min/g. As a percentage of the average reference TChE activity for the respective species, the lower bounds were similar to the inhibition levels associated with significant mortality, indicating there was little difference between the dose resulting in significant TChE inhibition and that resulting in mortality.

  16. Mutations in CTNNA1 cause butterfly-shaped pigment dystrophy and perturbed retinal pigment epithelium integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saksens, Nicole T M; Krebs, Mark P; Schoenmaker-Koller, Frederieke E; Hicks, Wanda; Yu, Minzhong; Shi, Lanying; Rowe, Lucy; Collin, Gayle B; Charette, Jeremy R; Letteboer, Stef J; Neveling, Kornelia; van Moorsel, Tamara W; Abu-Ltaif, Sleiman; De Baere, Elfride; Walraedt, Sophie; Banfi, Sandro; Simonelli, Francesca; Cremers, Frans P M; Boon, Camiel J F; Roepman, Ronald; Leroy, Bart P; Peachey, Neal S; Hoyng, Carel B; Nishina, Patsy M; den Hollander, Anneke I

    2016-02-01

    Butterfly-shaped pigment dystrophy is an eye disease characterized by lesions in the macula that can resemble the wings of a butterfly. Here we report the identification of heterozygous missense mutations in the CTNNA1 gene (encoding α-catenin 1) in three families with butterfly-shaped pigment dystrophy. In addition, we identified a Ctnna1 missense mutation in a chemically induced mouse mutant, tvrm5. Parallel clinical phenotypes were observed in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) of individuals with butterfly-shaped pigment dystrophy and in tvrm5 mice, including pigmentary abnormalities, focal thickening and elevated lesions, and decreased light-activated responses. Morphological studies in tvrm5 mice demonstrated increased cell shedding and the presence of large multinucleated RPE cells, suggesting defects in intercellular adhesion and cytokinesis. This study identifies CTNNA1 gene variants as a cause of macular dystrophy, indicates that CTNNA1 is involved in maintaining RPE integrity and suggests that other components that participate in intercellular adhesion may be implicated in macular disease. PMID:26691986

  17. "A Dance with the Butterflies:" A Metamorphosis of Teaching and Learning through Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a web-based collaborative project called "A Dance with the Butterflies" that applied the brain-based research of the Center for Applied Special Technologies (CAST) and principles of Universal Design for Learning (UDL) to Pre-K-4 science curriculum. Learning experiences were designed for students to invoke the Recognition,…

  18. Milkweed: A resource for increasing stink bug parasitism and aiding insect pollinator and monarch butterfly conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The flowers of milkweed species can produce a rich supply of nectar, and therefore, planting an insecticide-free milkweed habitat in agricultural farmscapes could possibly conserve monarch butterflies, bees and other insect pollinators, as well as enhance parasitism of insect pests. In peanut-cotton...

  19. Tracking multi-generational colonization of the breeding grounds by monarch butterflies in eastern North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flockhart, D T Tyler; Wassenaar, Leonard I; Martin, Tara G; Hobson, Keith A; Wunder, Michael B; Norris, D Ryan

    2013-10-01

    Insect migration may involve movements over multiple breeding generations at continental scales, resulting in formidable challenges to their conservation and management. Using distribution models generated from citizen scientist occurrence data and stable-carbon and -hydrogen isotope measurements, we tracked multi-generational colonization of the breeding grounds of monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) in eastern North America. We found that monarch breeding occurrence was best modelled with geographical and climatic variables resulting in an annual breeding distribution of greater than 12 million km(2) that encompassed 99% occurrence probability. Combining occurrence models with stable isotope measurements to estimate natal origin, we show that butterflies which overwintered in Mexico came from a wide breeding distribution, including southern portions of the range. There was a clear northward progression of monarchs over successive generations from May until August when reproductive butterflies began to change direction and moved south. Fifth-generation individuals breeding in Texas in the late summer/autumn tended to originate from northern breeding areas rather than regions further south. Although the Midwest was the most productive area during the breeding season, monarchs that re-colonized the Midwest were produced largely in Texas, suggesting that conserving breeding habitat in the Midwest alone is insufficient to ensure long-term persistence of the monarch butterfly population in eastern North America. PMID:23926146

  20. Butterflies of the high-altitude Atacama Desert: habitat use and conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despland, Emma

    2014-01-01

    The butterfly fauna of the high-altitude desert of Northern Chile, though depauperate, shows high endemism, is poorly known and is of considerable conservation concern. This study surveys butterflies along the Andean slope between 2400 and 5000 m asl (prepuna, puna and Andean steppe habitats) as well as in high and low-altitude wetlands and in the neoriparian vegetation of agricultural sites. We also include historical sightings from museum records. We compare abundances between altitudes, between natural and impacted sites, as well as between two sampling years with different precipitation regimes. The results confirm high altitudinal turnover and show greatest similarity between wetland and slope faunas at similar altitudes. Results also underscore vulnerability to weather fluctuations, particularly in the more arid low-altitude sites, where abundances were much lower in the low precipitation sampling season and several species were not observed at all. Finally, we show that some species have shifted to the neoriparian vegetation of the agricultural landscape, whereas others were only observed in less impacted habitats dominated by native plants. These results suggest that acclimation to novel habitats depends on larval host plant use. The traditional agricultural environment can provide habitat for many, but not all, native butterfly species, but an estimation of the value of these habitats requires better understanding of butterfly life history strategies and relationships with host plants. PMID:25309583

  1. Intensive game keeping, coppicing and butterflies: The story of Milovicky Wood, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Beneš, Jiří; Čížek, Oldřich; Dovala, J.; Konvička, Martin

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 237, 1-3 (2006), s. 353-365. ISSN 0378-1127 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/04/0417 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : butterfly conservation * Central Europe * coppice management Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.839, year: 2006

  2. Fine structures of wing scales in Sasakia charonda butterflies as photonic crystals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matějková, Jiřina; Shiojiri, S.; Shiojiri, M.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 236, č. 2 (2009), s. 88-93. ISSN 0022-2720 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : Butterfly * field-emission scanning electron microscopy * photonic crystal * Sasakia charonda * wing scale Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.612, year: 2009

  3. Large butterfly valve design copes with out-of-round pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two 96 inch circulating water lines at the Trojan reactor were joined to butterfly valves which had to be distorted to conform to the badly out-of-round pipes. Bubble tight seating was achieved by positioning a flexible seat ring after the valve was installed

  4. A new butterfly-shaped attractor of Lorenz-like system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this letter a new butterfly-shaped chaotic attractor is reported. Some basic dynamical properties, such as Poincare mapping, Lyapunov exponents, fractal dimension, continuous spectrum and chaotic dynamical behaviors of the new chaotic system are studied. Furthermore, we clarify that the chaotic attractors of the system is a compound structure obtained by merging together two simple attractors through a mirror operation

  5. Comparison of genetic population structure of the large blue butterflies Maculinea nausithous and M. teleius

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Figurny-Puchalska, Edyta; Gadeberg, Rebekka M.E.; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan

    2000-01-01

    We investigated the genetic population structure of two rare myrmecophilous lycaenid butterflies, Maculinea nausithous and M. teleius, which often live sympatrically and have similar biology. In Europe, both species occur in highly fragmented populations and are vulnerable to local extinction. The...

  6. Hofstadter butterflies and magnetically induced band-gap quenching in graphene antidot lattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jesper Goor; Pedersen, Thomas Garm

    2013-01-01

    We study graphene antidot lattices (GALs) in magnetic fields. Using a tight-binding model and a recursive Green's function technique that we extend to deal with periodic structures, we calculate Hofstadter butterflies of GALs. We compare the results to those obtained in a simpler gapped graphene...

  7. Characterization of Structural and Pigmentary Colors in Common Emigrant (Catopsilia Pomona) Butterfly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Study of structural colors in case of insects and butterflies is important for their biomimic and biophotonics applications. Structural color is the color which is produced by physical structures and their interaction with light while pigmentary color is produced by absorption of light by pigments. Common Emigrant butterfly is widely distributed in India. It is of moderate size with wing span of about 60-80 mm. The wings are broadly white with yellow or sulphur yellow coloration at places as well as few dark black patches. It belongs to family Pieridae. A study of structural color in case of Common Emigrant butterfly has been carried out in the present work. The characterization of wing color was performed using absorption spectroscopy. Scanning electron microscopic study of the wings of Common Emigrant butterfly showed that three different types of scales are present on the wing surface dorsally. Diffracting structures are present in certain parts of the surfaces of the various scales. Bead like structures are embedded in the intricate structures of the scales. Absorption spectra revealed that a strong absorption peak is seen in the UV-range. Crystalline structure of beads was confirmed by the X-ray diffraction analysis.

  8. Forest eternal? Endemic butterflies of the Bamenda Highlands, Cameroon, avoid close-canopy forest

    OpenAIRE

    Tropek, Robert

    2008-01-01

    I studied habitat preferences of three common endemic butterflies in the Bamenda Highlands, Cameroon. Assuming that the life history traits of taxa with limited geographic distribution reflect past habitat conditions within their ranges, the history and conservation of West African mountain landscape is discussed.

  9. Can butterflies evade fire? Pupa location and heat tolerance in fire prone habitats of Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    The imperiled frosted elfin butterfly, Callophrys irus Godart, is restricted to frequently disturbed habitats where its larval host plants, Lupinus perennis L. and Baptisia tinctoria (L.) R. Br. occur. C. irus pupae are noted to reside in both leaf litter and soil, which may allow them to escape dir...

  10. Regression Analyses on the Butterfly Ballot Effect: A Statistical Perspective of the US 2000 Election

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dane W.

    2002-01-01

    The year 2000 US presidential election between Al Gore and George Bush has been the most intriguing and controversial one in American history. The state of Florida was the trigger for the controversy, mainly, due to the use of the misleading "butterfly ballot". Using prediction (or confidence) intervals for least squares regression lines on the…

  11. Revisiting urban refuges: Changes of butterfly and burnet fauna in Prague reserves over three decades

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kadlec, T.; Beneš, Jiří; Jarošík, Vojtěch; Konvička, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 85, č. 1 (2008), s. 1-11. ISSN 0169-2046 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508; CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : butterfly conservation * reserve design * species loss Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.953, year: 2008

  12. The seasonality of butterflies in a semi-evergreen forest: Gibbon Wildlife Sanctuary, Assam, northeastern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun P. Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A study spanning 3.7 years on the butterflies of Gibbon Wildlife Sanctuary GWS (21km2, a semi-evergreen forest, in Jorhat District of Assam, northeastern India revealed 211 species of butterflies belonging to 115 genera including 19 papilionids and seven ‘rare’ and ‘very rare’ species as per Evans list of the Indian sub-continent (Great Blue Mime Papilio paradoxa telearchus; Brown Forest BobScobura woolletti; Snowy Angle Darpa pteria dealbatahas; Constable Dichorragia nesimachus; Grey Baron Euthalia anosia anosia; Sylhet Oakblue Arhopala silhetensis; Branded Yamfly Yasoda tripunctata. The butterflies showed a strong seasonality pattern in this forest with only one significant peak during the post monsoon (September-October when 118 species were in flight inside the forest which slowly declined to 92 species in November-December. Another peak (102 species was visible after winter from March to April. Species composition showed least similarity between pre-monsoon (March-May and post-monsoon (October-November seasons. The number of papilionid species were greater from July to December as compared from January to June. The findings of this study suggest that the pattern of seasonality in a semi-evergreen forest in northeastern India is distinct from that of the sub-tropical lowland forest in the Himalaya. Favourable logistics and rich diversity in GWS points to its rich potential in promoting ‘butterfly inclusive ecotourism’ in this remnant forest.

  13. Delayed egg laying and Ne/N ratio in a threatened butterfly, Chazara briseis L

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kadlec, T.; Vrba, P.; Kepka, P.; Konvička, Martin

    Roma : Tor Vergata University, 2007. s. 129-129. [International Conference on the Biology of Butterflies /5./. 02.07.2007-07.07.2007, Villa Mondragone, Roma] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : Chazara briseis Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  14. Butterfly Redreaming: Rethinking Free, with Zhuangzi Flying Westerly with Descartes, Lacan, Waldman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoo Lee

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Usually, Zhuangzis parable of the butterfly dream/dreaming butterfly is read as an enigmatic version, from the East, of the Cartesian skeptical challenges to objective reality or else the Lacanian psycho-drama of the pure gaze in which he, Zhuangzi, is a butterfly for nobody, who stands for the Real. Retooling some of the critical insights from these standard dialectical or anxiogenic approaches to this allegorical puzzle of self-identity, both of which, however, tend to leave unquestioned or else structurally overrate the binarized inner-exclusivity of typical pairs such as in/out, subject/object, illusion/reality, and all/nothing, this article proposes a relatively novel, fluid model of unraveling the speculative knot, the dots of lepidopterological spacetime irreducible to a simpler point in space and time. As we follow the narrative sequence more micro- and macrologically at once, with holistic, philopoetic attention to its intricate conceptual cues and contextual clues, especially its streaks and energies of oppositional poetics envisaged by Anne Waldman, for instance, we come to see more clearly the trans-categorical auto-generativity of its modal openness, its oddly powerful, non-militarily propelled, avant-garde peripherality. As Zhuangzis butterfly gets freed this way from the discursive net where it is lost and found (often instantly dead, the vocalized figure of the irritating narrator, too, will change more freely, flying in and out and back in daoistically rather than agonistically.

  15. Dispersal kernels of butterflies: power-law functions are invariant to marking frequency

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fric, Zdeněk; Konvička, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 4 (2007), s. 377-386. ISSN 1439-1791 R&D Projects: GA ČR GD206/03/H034; GA ČR GA526/04/0417 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : butterfly dispersal * checkerspots * conservation Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.247, year: 2007

  16. Photonic Crystal Structure and Coloration of Wing Scales of Butterflies Exhibiting Selective Wavelength Iridescence

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mika, Filip; Matějková-Plšková, J.; Jiwajinda, S.; Dechkrong, P.; Shiojiri, M.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 5 (2012), s. 754-771. ISSN 1996-1944 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED0017/01/01 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : butterfly scale * structure color * natural photonic crystal * E. mulciber * S. charonda * C. ataxus * T. aeacus Subject RIV: JJ - Other Materials Impact factor: 2.247, year: 2012

  17. D-(+)-Pinitol, an oviposition stimulant for the pipevine swallowtail butterfly,Battus philenor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaj, D R; Feeny, P; Sachdev-Gupta, K; Rosenberry, L

    1992-05-01

    Oviposition by females of the pipevine swallowtail butterfly,Battus philenor, was stimulated by contact with alcoholic extracts of host foliage.D-(+)-Pinitol was isolated and identified from leaf material of one host species,Aristolochia macrophylla (Aristolochiaceae). In combination with chloroform-soluble components of host leaf material, this compound was comparable to the parent extract in stimulating oviposition. PMID:24253972

  18. Experimental and theoretical investigations of four 3d-4f butterfly single-molecule magnets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Hua-Hong; Sheng, Liang-Bing; Liang, Fu-Pei; Chen, Zi-Lu; Zhang, Yi-Quan

    2015-11-14

    The syntheses, structures, and characterization of four 3d-4f butterfly clusters are described. With different polyhydroxy Schiff-base ligands 2-(((2-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)methylene)amino)-2-(hydroxymethyl)-1,3-propanediol (H4L1) and 2-(2,3-dihydroxpropyliminomethyl)-6-methoxyphenol (H3L2), three heterotetranuclear NiLn complexes (NiDy-L1 (1), NiTb-L2 (2), NiDy-L2 (3)) and one heterohexanuclear CoDy complex (4) were obtained. The three heterotetranuclear NiLn complexes display a central planar butterfly topology. The heterohexanuclear complex was built from butterfly CoDy clusters and two Dy(III) ions by the bridging of pivalate. The vertices of the body positions of the butterfly are occupied by transition metal ions in all four complexes. Magnetic analyses indicate that the complexes exhibit typical single-molecule magnet behaviour with anisotropy barriers of 33.7 cm(-1), 60.3 cm(-1), 39.6 cm(-1), and 18.4 cm(-1) for 1-4, respectively. Ab initio calculations were performed on these complexes, and the low lying electronic structure of each Ln(III) (Ln = Dy, Tb) ion and the magnetic interactions were determined. It was found that the two Ln ions may have much more contribution to the total relaxation barrier through the stronger 3d-4f exchange couplings compared to weak Ln-Ln interactions. PMID:26443303

  19. Global change effects on insect diversity with examples from butterflies in the High Sudetes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bílá, Karolína; Kindlmann, Pavel

    Volume 1. 1. Brno : Global Change Research Centre, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v. v. i, 2015 - ( Urban , O.; Klem, K.), s. 163-175 ISBN 978-80-87902-14-1 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Central Europe * mountains * alpine habitats * butterflies * Pinus mugo Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  20. Comparative population genetics of mimetic Heliconius butterflies in an endangered habitat; Brazil's Atlantic Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cardoso Márcio Z

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brazil's Atlantic Forest is a biodiversity hotspot endangered by severe habitat degradation and fragmentation. Habitat fragmentation is expected to reduce dispersal among habitat patches resulting in increased genetic differentiation among populations. Here we examined genetic diversity and differentiation among populations of two Heliconius butterfly species in the northern portion of Brazil's Atlantic Forest to estimate the potential impact of habitat fragmentation on population connectivity in butterflies with home-range behavior. Results We generated microsatellite, AFLP and mtDNA sequence data for 136 Heliconius erato specimens from eight collecting locations and 146 H. melpomene specimens from seven locations. Population genetic analyses of the data revealed high levels of genetic diversity in H. erato relative to H. melpomene, widespread genetic differentiation among populations of both species, and no evidence for isolation-by-distance. Conclusions These results are consistent with the hypothesis that the extensive habitat fragmentation along Brazil's Atlantic Forest has reduced dispersal of Heliconius butterflies among neighboring habitat patches. The results also lend support to the observation that fine-scale population genetic structure may be common in Heliconius. If such population structure also exists independent of human activity, and has been common over the evolutionary history of Heliconius butterflies, it may have contributed to the evolution of wing pattern diversity in the genus.

  1. Nutrient acquisition across a dietary shift: fruit feeding butterflies crave amino acids, nectivores seek salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravenscraft, Alison; Boggs, Carol L

    2016-05-01

    Evolutionary dietary shifts have major ecological consequences. One likely consequence is a change in nutrient limitation-some nutrients become more abundant in the diet, others become more scarce. Individuals' behavior should change accordingly to match this new limitation regime: they should seek out nutrients that are deficient in the new diet. We investigated the relationship between diet and responses to nutrients using adult Costa Rican butterflies with contrasting feeding habits, testing the hypothesis that animals will respond more positively to nutrients that are scarcer in their diets. Via literature searches and our own data, we showed that nitrogen and sodium are both at lower concentration in nectar than in fruit. We therefore assessed butterflies' acceptance of sodium and four nitrogenous compounds that ranged in complexity from inorganic nitrogen (ammonium chloride) to protein (albumin). We captured wild butterflies, offered them aqueous solutions of each substance, and recorded whether they accepted (drank) or rejected each substance. Support for our hypothesis was mixed. Across the sexes, frugivores were four times more likely to accept amino acids (hydrolyzed casein) than nectivores, in opposition to expectation. In males, nectivores accepted sodium almost three times more frequently than frugivores, supporting expectations. Together, these results suggest that in butterflies, becoming frugivorous is associated with an increased receptivity to amino acids and decreased receptivity to sodium. Nectivory and frugivory are widespread feeding strategies in organisms as diverse as insects, birds, and bats; our results suggest that these feeding strategies may put different pressures on how animals fulfill their nutritional requirements. PMID:26267402

  2. El Niño, host plant growth, and migratory butterfly abundance in a changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the wet forests of Panama, El Niño typically brings a more prolonged and severe dry season. Interestingly, many trees and lianas that comprise the wet forests increase their productivity as a response to El Niño. Here we quantify the abundance of migrating Marpesia chiron butterflies over 17 yea...

  3. Will the Butterfly Cipher keep your Network Data secure? Developments in Computer Encryption

    OpenAIRE

    Hinze-Hoare, Vita

    2006-01-01

    This paper explains the recent developments in security and encryption. The Butterfly cipher and quantum cryptography are reviewed and compared. Examples of their relative uses are discussed and suggestions for future developments considered. In addition application to network security together with a substantial review of classification of encryption systems and a summary of security weaknesses are considered.

  4. Experimental and numerical assessment of the improvement of the load-carrying capacities of butterfly-shaped coupling components in composite structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was designed to analyze the load-carrying capacities of composite structures connected face-to-face by a butterfly coupling component experimentally and numerically without adhesive. The results of the experimental studies were supported with numerical analysis. In addition, the butterfly coupling component was developed geometrically with a view to the results of the numerical and experimental studies. The change in the load-carrying capacity of the improved butterfly coupling components was analyzed numerically and experimentally to obtain new results. Half-specimens and butterfly-shaped lock components were cut with a water jet machine. Experiments and analyses were conducted to analyze the effects of coupling geometry parameters, such as the ratio of the butterfly end width to the specimen width (w/b), the ratio of the butterfly middle width to the butterfly end width (x/w), and the ratio of the butterfly half height to the specimen width (y/b). It was intended to determine the damage in the butterfly before any damage to the composite structure and to increase the service-life span of the composite structure with the repair of the butterfly lock. As a result of this study, it was determined that the geometrical fixed ratios (w/b) and (x/w) were 0.4 and 0.2 at 0.4 of (y/b) according to the experimental and numerical studies with basic and modified models

  5. Experimental and numerical assessment of the improvement of the load-carrying capacities of butterfly-shaped coupling components in composite structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altan, Gurkan; Topcu, Muzaffer [Pamukkale University, Denizli (Turkmenistan)

    2010-06-15

    This study was designed to analyze the load-carrying capacities of composite structures connected face-to-face by a butterfly coupling component experimentally and numerically without adhesive. The results of the experimental studies were supported with numerical analysis. In addition, the butterfly coupling component was developed geometrically with a view to the results of the numerical and experimental studies. The change in the load-carrying capacity of the improved butterfly coupling components was analyzed numerically and experimentally to obtain new results. Half-specimens and butterfly-shaped lock components were cut with a water jet machine. Experiments and analyses were conducted to analyze the effects of coupling geometry parameters, such as the ratio of the butterfly end width to the specimen width (w/b), the ratio of the butterfly middle width to the butterfly end width (x/w), and the ratio of the butterfly half height to the specimen width (y/b). It was intended to determine the damage in the butterfly before any damage to the composite structure and to increase the service-life span of the composite structure with the repair of the butterfly lock. As a result of this study, it was determined that the geometrical fixed ratios (w/b) and (x/w) were 0.4 and 0.2 at 0.4 of (y/b) according to the experimental and numerical studies with basic and modified models

  6. Checkerspot Butterflies, Science, and Conservation Policy: A Grassroots View of Nitrogen Overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, S. B.

    2009-12-01

    Educating policy makers and the general public about the global Nitrogen Overdose has proved challenging because of the complexities of the global nitrogen cycle and its effect on terrestrial, freshwater, estuarine, and marine ecosystems. In this presentation, I present my grassroots experience as a scientist who transitioned into a scientist/activist, working with elected officials, regulators, private industry, activist groups, and the general public, to conserve the rare, beautiful, and charismatic Bay checkerspot butterfly in the San Francisco Bay Area. The butterfly is threatened by atmospheric nitrogen deposition (5-20 kg-N/ha/year) that enriches nutrient poor soils derived from serpentinite rock. This eutrophication allows nitrophilous grasses to invade and displace the dazzling wildflower displays that provide essential food and nectar for the butterfly. Over the past 25 years, I have been involved in all phases of the conservation of this ecosystem, drawing on long-term scientific investigations (literally hundreds of papers by dozens of researchers) on the population dynamics and conservation of the butterfly, and the biogeochemistry of the serpentine grassland ecosystem. Publication of a 1999 paper on N-deposition impacts on the butterfly led to consultations with government agencies and a powerplant company, and development of precedent setting N-deposition mitigation through habitat acquisition and grazing management. This process has evolved into a regional-scale Habitat Conservation Plan (HCP) that is nearing completion in 2010. A key to the success of this ongoing endeavor is education about biodiversity and N-deposition. Field-tours during spring wildflower season put diverse groups of people in direct contact with the obvious beauty of the ecosystem, creating an opening to learning about the complexities of N-deposition, the population biology of the butterfly, and the convoluted conservation history of the sites. Informal tours have developed into a docent program that led more than 1500 people to the site over the past 4 years, including targeted tours for elected officials, decision makers, land managers, and scientists. Outreach has also included more than a dozen articles in local, regional, and national press, television spots, public presentations (Kiwanis, garden clubs, local conferences), and behind the scenes work in policy development for the HCP. When political decisions on the HCP are finalized in the next year, there will be a cadre of educated people, motivated by first hand experience with the ecosystem, to support final approval and implementation of a rigorous plan that will secure the butterfly, numerous imperiled plants, and the entire flower-filled ecosystem. The experience provides a case study and model of how effective grassroots action by concerned scientists can make a difference.

  7. The Peculiar Solar Minimum 23/24 Revealed by the Microwave Butterfly Diagram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalswamy, Natchimuthuk; Yashiro, Seiji; Makela, Pertti; Shibasaki, Kiyoto; Hathaway, David

    2010-01-01

    The diminished polar magnetic field strength during the minimum between cycles 23 and 24 is also reflected in the thermal radio emission originating from the polar chromosphere. During solar minima, the polar corona has extended coronal holes containing intense unipolar flux. In microwave images, the coronal holes appear bright, with a brightness enhancement of 500 to 2000 K with respect to the quiet Sun. The brightness enhancement corresponds to the upper chromosphere, where the plasma temperature is approx.10000 K. We constructed a microwave butterfly diagram using the synoptic images obtained by the Nobeyama radioheliograph (NoRH) showing the evolution of the polar and low latitude brightness temperature. While the polar brightness reveals the chromospheric conditions, the low latitude brightness is attributed to active regions in the corona. When we compared the microwave butterfly diagram with the magnetic butterfly diagram, we found a good correlation between the microwave brightness enhancement and the polar field strength. The microwave butterfly diagram covers part of solar cycle 22, whole of cycle 23, and part of cycle 24, thus enabling comparison between the cycle 23/24 and cycle 22/23 minima. The microwave brightness during the cycle 23/24 minimum was found to be lower than that during the cycle 22/23 minimum by approx.250 K. The reduced brightness temperature is consistent with the reduced polar field strength during the cycle 23/24 minimum seen in the magnetic butterfly diagram. We suggest that the microwave brightness at the solar poles is a good indicator of the speed of the solar wind sampled by Ulysses at high latitudes..

  8. An Ingenious Super Light Trapping Surface Templated from Butterfly Wing Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhiwu; Li, Bo; Mu, Zhengzhi; Yang, Meng; Niu, Shichao; Zhang, Junqiu; Ren, Luquan

    2015-08-01

    Based on the super light trapping property of butterfly Trogonoptera brookiana wings, the SiO2 replica of this bionic functional surface was successfully synthesized using a simple and highly effective synthesis method combining a sol-gel process and subsequent selective etching. Firstly, the reflectivity of butterfly wing scales was carefully examined. It was found that the whole reflectance spectroscopy of the butterfly wings showed a lower level (less than 10 %) in the visible spectrum. Thus, it was confirmed that the butterfly wings possessed a super light trapping effect. Afterwards, the morphologies and detailed architectures of the butterfly wing scales were carefully investigated using the ultra-depth three-dimensional (3D) microscope and field emission scanning electronic microscopy (FESEM). It was composed by the parallel ridges and quasi-honeycomb-like structure between them. Based on the biological properties and function above, an exact SiO2 negative replica was fabricated through a synthesis method combining a sol-gel process and subsequent selective etching. At last, the comparative analysis of morphology feature size and the reflectance spectroscopy between the SiO2 negative replica and the flat plate was conducted. It could be concluded that the SiO2 negative replica inherited not only the original super light trapping architectures, but also the super light trapping characteristics of bio-template. This work may open up an avenue for the design and fabrication of super light trapping materials and encourage people to look for more super light trapping architectures in nature.

  9. Conserving a geographically isolated Charaxes butterfly in response to habitat fragmentation and invasive alien plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casparus J. Crous

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In South Africa, much of the forest biome is vulnerable to human-induced disturbance. The forest-dwelling butterfly Charaxes xiphares occidentalis is naturally confined to a small forest region in the south-western Cape, South Africa. Most of the remaining habitat of this species is within a fragmented agricultural matrix. Furthermore, this geographical area is also heavily invaded by alien plants, especially Acacia mearnsii. We investigated how C. x. occidentalis behaviourally responds to different habitat conditions in the landscape. We were particularly interested in touring, patrolling and settling behaviour as a conservation proxy for preference of a certain habitat configuration in this agricultural matrix. Remnant forest patches in the agricultural matrix showed fewer behavioural incidents than in a reference protected area. Moreover, dense stands of A. mearnsii negatively influenced the incidence and settling pattern of this butterfly across the landscape, with fewer tree settlings associated with more heavily invaded forest patches. This settling pattern was predominantly seen in female butterflies. We also identified specific trees that were settled upon for longer periods by C. x. occidentalis. Distance to a neighbouring patch and patch size influenced behavioural incidences, suggesting that further patch degradation and isolation could be detrimental to this butterfly. Conservation implications: We highlight the importance of clearing invasive tree species from vulnerable forest ecosystems and identify key tree species to consider in habitat conservation and rehabilitation programmes for this butterfly. We also suggest retaining as much intact natural forest as possible. This information should be integrated in local biodiversity management plans.

  10. Defining behavioral and molecular differences between summer and migratory monarch butterflies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanginakudru Sriramana

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the fall, Eastern North American monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus undergo a magnificent long-range migration. In contrast to spring and summer butterflies, fall migrants are juvenile hormone deficient, which leads to reproductive arrest and increased longevity. Migrants also use a time-compensated sun compass to help them navigate in the south/southwesterly direction en route for Mexico. Central issues in this area are defining the relationship between juvenile hormone status and oriented flight, critical features that differentiate summer monarchs from fall migrants, and identifying molecular correlates of behavioral state. Results Here we show that increasing juvenile hormone activity to induce summer-like reproductive development in fall migrants does not alter directional flight behavior or its time-compensated orientation, as monitored in a flight simulator. Reproductive summer butterflies, in contrast, uniformly fail to exhibit directional, oriented flight. To define molecular correlates of behavioral state, we used microarray analysis of 9417 unique cDNA sequences. Gene expression profiles reveal a suite of 40 genes whose differential expression in brain correlates with oriented flight behavior in individual migrants, independent of juvenile hormone activity, thereby molecularly separating fall migrants from summer butterflies. Intriguing genes that are differentially regulated include the clock gene vrille and the locomotion-relevant tyramine beta hydroxylase gene. In addition, several differentially regulated genes (37.5% of total are not annotated. We also identified 23 juvenile hormone-dependent genes in brain, which separate reproductive from non-reproductive monarchs; genes involved in longevity, fatty acid metabolism, and innate immunity are upregulated in non-reproductive (juvenile-hormone deficient migrants. Conclusion The results link key behavioral traits with gene expression profiles in brain that differentiate migratory from summer butterflies and thus show that seasonal changes in genomic function help define the migratory state.

  11. Low power reconfigurable FP-FFT core with an array of folded DA butterflies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beulet Paul, Augusta Sophy; Raju, Srinivasan; Janakiraman, Raja

    2014-12-01

    A variable length (32 ~ 2,048), low power, floating point fast Fourier transform (FP-FFT) processor is designed and implemented using energy-efficient butterfly elements. The butterfly elements are implemented using distributed arithmetic (DA) algorithm that eliminates the power-consuming complex multipliers. The FFT computations are scheduled in a quasi-parallel mode with an array of 16 butterflies. The nodes of the data flow graph (DFG) of the FFT are folded to these 16 butterflies for any value of N by the control unit. Register minimization is also applied after folding to decrease the number of scratch pad registers to (log 2 N - 1) × 16. The real and imaginary parts of the samples are represented by 32-bit single-precision floating point notation to achieve high precision in the results. Thus, each sample is represented using 64 bits. Twiddle factor ROM size is reduced by 25% using the symmetry of the twiddle factors. Reconfigurability based on the sample size is achieved by the control unit. This distributed floating point arithmetic (DFPA)-based design of FFT processor implemented in 45-nm process occupies an area of 0.973 mm2 and dissipates a power of 68 mW at an operating frequency of 100 MHz. When compared with FFT processor designed in the same technology with multiplier-based butterflies, this design shows 33% less area and 38% less power. The throughput for 2,048-point FFT is 222 KS/s and the energy spent per FFT is 7.4 to 14 nJ for 64 to 2,048 points being one among the most energy-efficient FFT processors.

  12. Experimental analysis of the liquid-feeding mechanism of the butterfly Pieris rapae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Chul; Kim, Bo Heum; Lee, Sang Joon

    2014-06-01

    The butterfly Pieirs rapae drinks liquid using a long proboscis. A high pressure gradient is induced in the proboscis when cibarial pump muscles contract. However, liquid feeding through the long proboscis poses a disadvantage of high flow resistance. Hence, butterflies may possess special features to compensate for this disadvantage and succeed in foraging. The main objective of this study is to analyze the liquid-feeding mechanism of butterflies. The systaltic motion of the cibarial pump organ was visualized using the synchrotron X-ray imaging technique. In addition, an ellipsoidal pump model was established based on synchrotron X-ray micro-computed tomography. To determine the relationship between the cyclic variation of the pump volume and the liquid-feeding flow, velocity fields of the intake flow at the tip of the proboscis were measured using micro-particle image velocimetry. Reynolds and Womersley numbers of liquid-feeding flow in the proboscis were ~1.40 and 0.129, respectively. The liquid-feeding flow could be characterized as a quasi-steady state laminar flow. Considering these results, we analyzed the dimensions of the feeding apparatus on the basis of minimum energy consumption during the liquid-feeding process. The relationship between the proboscis and the cibarial pump was determined when minimum energy consumption occurs. As a result, the volume of the cibarial pump is proportional to the cube of the radius of the proboscis. It seems that the liquid-feeding system of butterflies and other long-proboscid insects follow the cube relationship. The present results provide insights into the feeding strategies of liquid-feeding butterflies. PMID:24625646

  13. Dispersal-related life-history trade-offs in a butterfly metapopulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanski, Ilkka; Saastamoinen, Marjo; Ovaskainen, Otso

    2006-01-01

    1. Recent studies on butterflies have documented apparent evolutionary changes in dispersal rate in response to climate change and habitat change. These studies often assume a trade-off between dispersal rate (or flight capacity) and reproduction, which is the rule in wing-dimorphic species but might not occur equally in wing-monomorphic species such as butterflies. 2. To investigate the relationship between dispersal rate and fecundity in the Glanville fritillary butterfly Melitaea cinxia we recorded lifetime individual movements, matings, ovipositions, and maximal life span in a large (32 x 26 m) population cage in the field. Experimental material was obtained from 20 newly established and 20 old local populations within a large metapopulation in the Aland Islands in Finland. 3. Females of the Glanville fritillary from newly established populations are known to be more dispersive in the field, and in the cage they showed significantly greater mobility, mated earlier, and laid more egg clutches than females from old populations. The dispersive females from new populations exhibited no reduced lifetime fecundity in the cage, but they had a shorter maximal life span than old-population females. 4. These results challenge the dispersal-fecundity trade-off for nonmigratory butterflies but instead suggest a physiological trade-off between high metabolic performance and reduced maximal life span. High metabolic performance may explain high rates of dispersal and oviposition in early life. 5. In fragmented landscapes, an ecological trade-off exists between being more dispersive and hence spending more time in the landscape matrix vs. having more time for reproduction in the habitat. We estimate with a dispersal model parameterized for the Glanville fritillary that the lifetime egg production is 4% smaller on average in the more dispersive butterflies in a representative landscape, with much variation depending on landscape structure in the neighbourhood of the natal patch, from--26 to 45% in the landscape analysed in this paper. PMID:16903046

  14. Large scale steam valve test: Performance testing of large butterfly valves and full scale high flowrate steam testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meadows, J.B.; Robbins, G.E.; Roselius, D.G. [and others

    1995-05-01

    This report presents the results of the design testing of large (36-inch diameter) butterfly valves under high flow conditions. The two butterfly valves were pneumatically operated air-open, air-shut valves (termed valves 1 and 2). These butterfly valves were redesigned to improve their ability to function under high flow conditions. Concern was raised regarding the ability of the butterfly valves to function as required with high flow-induced torque imposed on the valve discs during high steam flow conditions. High flow testing was required to address the flow-induced torque concerns. The valve testing was done using a heavily instrumented piping system. This test program was called the Large Scale Steam Valve Test (LSSVT). The LSSVT program demonstrated that the redesigned valves operated satisfactorily under high flow conditions.

  15. Wolbachia endosymbiont infection in two Indian butterflies and female-biased sex ratio in the Red Pierrot, Talicada nyseus

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kunal Ankola; Dorothea Brueckner; H P Puttaraju

    2011-12-01

    The maternally inherited obligate bacteria Wolbachia is known to infect various lepidopteran insects. However, so far only a few butterfly species harbouring this bacterium have been thoroughly studied. The current study aims to identify the infection status of these bacteria in some of the commonly found butterfly species in India. A total of nine butterfly species belonging to four different families were screened using PCR with Wolbachia-specific wsp and ftsZ primers. The presence of the Wolbachia super group ‘B’ in the butterflies Red Pierrot, Talicada nyseus (Guerin) (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) and Blue Mormon, Papilio polymnestor Cramer (Papilionidae), is documented for the first time in India. The study also gives an account on the lifetime fecundity and female-biased sex ratio in T. nyseus, suggesting a putative role for Wolbachia in the observed female-biased sex ratio distortion.

  16. Using the sensitive dependence of chaos (the ''butterfly effect'') to direct trajectories in an experimental chaotic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we present the first experimental verification that the sensitivity of a chaotic system to small perturbations (the ''butterfly effect'') can be used to rapidly direct orbits from an arbitrary initial state to an arbitrary accessible desired state

  17. Structure, function, and self-assembly of single network gyroid (I4132) photonic crystals in butterfly wing scales

    OpenAIRE

    Saranathan, Vinodkumar; Osuji, Chinedum O.; Mochrie, Simon G. J.; Noh, Heeso; Narayanan, Suresh; Sandy, Alec; Dufresne, Eric. R.; Prum, Richard O

    2010-01-01

    Complex three-dimensional biophotonic nanostructures produce the vivid structural colors of many butterfly wing scales, but their exact nanoscale organization is uncertain. We used small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) on single scales to characterize the 3D photonic nanostructures of five butterfly species from two families (Papilionidae, Lycaenidae). We identify these chitin and air nanostructures as single network gyroid (I4132) photonic crystals. We describe their optical function from SAXS...

  18. Chasing Migration Genes: A Brain Expressed Sequence Tag Resource for Summer and Migratory Monarch Butterflies (Danaus plexippus)

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Haisun; Casselman, Amy; Reppert, Steven M.

    2008-01-01

    North American monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) undergo a spectacular fall migration. In contrast to summer butterflies, migrants are juvenile hormone (JH) deficient, which leads to reproductive diapause and increased longevity. Migrants also utilize time-compensated sun compass orientation to help them navigate to their overwintering grounds. Here, we describe a brain expressed sequence tag (EST) resource to identify genes involved in migratory behaviors. A brain EST library was constr...

  19. Measuring Intraspecific Variation in Flight-Related Morphology of Monarch Butterflies (Danaus plexippus): Which Sex Has the Best Flying Gear?

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Andrew K.; Holden, Michael T.

    2015-01-01

    Optimal flight in butterflies depends on structural features of the wings and body, including wing size, flight muscle size, and wing loading. Arguably, there is no butterfly for which flight is more important than the monarch (Danaus plexippus), which undergoes long-distance migrations in North America. We examined morphological features of monarchs that would explain the apparent higher migratory success and flight ability of females over males. We examined 47 male and 45 female monarch spe...

  20. An experimental displacement and over 50 years of tag-recoveries show that monarch butterflies are not true navigators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mourtisen, Henrik; Derbyshirec, Rachael; Stalleickena, Julia; Mouritsen, Ole Ø.; Froste, Barrie J.; Norrisc, D. Ryan

    2013-01-01

    Monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) breeding in eastern North America are famous for their annual fall migration to their overwintering grounds in Mexico. However, the mechanisms they use to successfully reach these sites remain poorly understood. Here, we test whether monarchs are true...... toward Mexican overwintering sites, a remarkable achievement considering that these butterflies weigh less than a gram and travel thousands of kilometers to a site they have never seen....

  1. Flavonoid wing pigments increase attractiveness of female common blue (Polyommatus icarus) butterflies to mate-searching males

    OpenAIRE

    Burghardt, Frank; Knüttel, Helge; Becker, Mechthild; Fiedler, Konrad

    2000-01-01

    Common blue butterflies (Polyommatus icarus) sequester flavonoids from their larval host plants and allocate these UV-absorbing pigments to the wings. In field experiments using dummies constructed from female butterflies, mate-searching males inspected flavonoid-rich dummies more intensively than those with little or no flavonoids. Flavonoid content as signalled by UV-wing pattern may indicate ontogenetically determined female quality or enhance detectability to males.

  2. The taxonomy, biogeography and conservation of the myrmecophilous Chrysoritis butterflies (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    R.F. Terblanche; Hamburg, H

    2003-01-01

    The relevance and integration of scientific knowledge to conservation management of the locally popular and highly endemic butterfly genus Chrysoritis are investigated within the research fields of taxonomy and biogeography. The butterfly genus Chrysoritis contains at least 41 species endemic to South Africa. The taxonomy of Chrysoritis has reached a state where revisions could easily result in a plethora of names between lumping and splitting. In practice, the state of the taxonomy of thes...

  3. New Distributional Data of Butterflies in the Middle of the Mediterranean Basin: An Area Very Sensitive to Expected Climate Change

    OpenAIRE

    Stefano Scalercio

    2014-01-01

    Butterflies are known to be very sensitive to environmental changes. Species distribution is modified by climate warming with latitudinal and altitudinal range shifts, but also environmental perturbations modify abundance and species composition of communities. Changes can be detected and described when large datasets are available, but unfortunately only for few Mediterranean countries they were created. The butterfly fauna of the Mediterranean Basin is very sensitive to climate warming and ...

  4. Effect of Flow Characteristics in the Downstream of Butterfly Valve on the Flow Rate Measurement using Venturi Tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Seok Ho; Lee, Jungho; Yu, Cheong Hwan; Park, San-Jin; Chung, Chang-Hwan

    2010-06-01

    For testing large-capacity pump, the accurate flow rate measurement is needed in the test loop. As a measuring method of flow rate, venturi tube is recommended due to its low pressure loss. However, upstream disturbance of loop component such as valve has an effect upon the accuracy of flow rate measurement. For controlling flow rate in case of high flow rate and large-scale piping system, butterfly-type valve is generally used due to its compactness. However, butterfly valve disturbs downstream flow by generating turbulence, cavities, or abrupt pressure change. In this study, the effect of downstream disturbance of butterfly valve on the flow rate measurement using venturi tube is investigated. Test loop consists of circulation pump, reservoir, butterfly valve, venturi tube, and reference flow meter. The test is conducted with regard to a different valve opening angle of butterfly valve. PIV system is used to visualize and analyze flow in the downstream region of butterfly valve. According to valve opening angle, the flow characteristics and the accuracy of flow rate measurement are investigated.

  5. The application of life history information to the conservation management of Chrysoritis butterflies (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    R.F. Terblanche; Hamburg, H

    2004-01-01

    Due to their intricate life histories and the unique wing patterns and colouring the butterflies of the genus Chrysoritis are of significant conservation and aesthetic value. Thisoverview probes into practical examples of butterfly life history research applicable to environmental management of this relatively well-known invertebrate group in South Africa. Despite the pioneer work on life histories of Chrysoritis in the past, more should be done to understand the life history of the butterfli...

  6. Variable Length Floating Point FFT Processor Using Radix-22 Butterfly Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.Augusta Sophy

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A mixed radix, floating point FFT processor is designed using radix-2 and radix-22 butterfly elements, adapting a pipelined architecture for a variable length of 128/512/2048. The single-path delay feedback (SDF architecture is employed to exploit the symmetry in signal flow graph of FFT algorithm. Area minimization has been achieved for the reconfigurable FFT processor by using pipelining and higher radix butterfly structures. (radix-22. Then area power trade off is done with parallel mixed radix processing blocks, to achieve better throughput. A reconfigurable architecture has been achieved by bypassing certain processing blocks while keeping the other blocks functional through control mechanism. The proposed design is implemented in 45nm technology and the synthesis results show a silicon area of 4.7mm2 and a power consumption of 152mw at 50MHz and 208.5mw at 100MHz.

  7. Butterfly interconnection implementation for an n-bit parallel ripple carry full adder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, D G; Weng, Z H

    1991-05-10

    Free-space optical interconnections are important both in massive digital optical computing and in communication systems. The optical butterfly interconnection has many advantages over other interconnections in implementing various basic logic functions such as addition, subtraction, multiplication. This paper starts with the conventional Karnaugh maps and Boolean algebra to implement a parallel n-bit ripple carry full adder by the use of multilayer butterfly interconnection networks. Then we describe in detail the design and architecture of the full adder and provide accurate interconnection networks and the structures or patterns of key devices such as the masks to implement AND and OR operations in this calculation. Finally, we discuss development of the interconnection in implementing logic operations. PMID:20700358

  8. Considerations Regarding the Stresses and the Deformations of the Butterfly Valve Body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Peris-Bendu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper it is analyzed the “von Mises” equivalent stress distribution, respectively strains, which appear in the body of a butterfly valve with nominal diameter (DN of 2800 mm and operates at a nominal pressure (PN 19 bar. The paper examines the body of a butterfly valve using finite element method and the followings data is considered to be known: boundary conditions for which the analysis is made in both positions, the valve disk in the closed position and the open position, mechanical characteristics and resistance of the materials for valve body components and loads to which it is subject. The result of the analysis obtained allow optimization of the valve body size by highlighting the oversized areas respectively areas where efforts are maximized.

  9. Antennal circadian clocks coordinate sun compass orientation in migratory monarch butterflies#

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlin, Christine; Gegear, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    During their fall migration, Eastern North American monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) use a time-compensated sun compass to aid navigation to their overwintering grounds in central Mexico. It has been assumed that the circadian clock that provides time compensation resides in the brain, although this assumption has never been examined directly. Here we show that the antennae are necessary for proper time-compensated sun compass orientation in migratory monarch butterflies, that antennal clocks exist in monarchs, and that they likely provide the primary timing mechanism for sun compass orientation. These unexpected findings pose a novel function for the antennae and open a new line of investigation into clock-compass connections that may extend widely to other insects that use this orientation mechanism. PMID:19779201

  10. RISK HABITAT OF THE MONARCH BUTTERFLY (Danaus plexippus BY CLIMATE CHANGE SCENARIOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araceli Islas-Báez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The change in temperature and precipitation patterns caused by global climate change is altering the ecosystem functioning, so it is important to conduct studies that contribute to the knowledge of species distribution under climate change scenarios, to locate areas vulnerable to the phenomenon. Potential changes were estimated area under climate change scenarios, obtained by downscaling and Regional Assembly Model (RAM for the winter habitat of the Monarch Butterfly (MM in the nucleus zone of the Biosphere Reserve of the Monarch Butterfly area. According to the study, the overwintering habitat of the MM disappears in the A2 and B2 scenarios downscaling 2030. With the RAM, reducing the area of habitat MM 2030 is estimated at 37.59 % and in 2050 will be 49.13 %. Therefore, the downscaling model indicates that MM habitat disappears, and the RAM shows that there will be significant losses of habitat MM.

  11. Antennal circadian clocks coordinate sun compass orientation in migratory monarch butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlin, Christine; Gegear, Robert J; Reppert, Steven M

    2009-09-25

    During their fall migration, Eastern North American monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) use a time-compensated Sun compass to aid navigation to their overwintering grounds in central Mexico. It has been assumed that the circadian clock that provides time compensation resides in the brain, although this assumption has never been examined directly. Here, we show that the antennae are necessary for proper time-compensated Sun compass orientation in migratory monarch butterflies, that antennal clocks exist in monarchs, and that they likely provide the primary timing mechanism for Sun compass orientation. These unexpected findings pose a novel function for the antennae and open a new line of investigation into clock-compass connections that may extend widely to other insects that use this orientation mechanism. PMID:19779201

  12. Formation and magnetic properties of butterfly-shaped martensite in an Fe-Ni-Cr alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The butterfly-shaped martensitic transformation has been examined by means of transmission electron microscope (TEM) and the magnetic properties of the alloy have been studied by using Moessbauer spectroscopy in an Fe-16.24%Ni-0.46%Cr (at.%) alloy. Moessbauer spectroscopy examinations showed that the austenite state is paramagnetic and butterfly martensite is ferromagnetic. The volume fraction changes, the effective hyperfine field of the ferromagnetic martensite phase and isomery shift values have also been determined by Moessbauer spectroscopy. In situ TEM studies were carried out in order to elucidate the nucleation and growth mechanisms of the martensite. The nucleation and growth of martensite is related to the motion of dislocations in austenite and this fact plays an important role in the kinetics of the martensitic transformation. Based on these experimental results, the nucleation and growth mechanisms of martensite crystals are discussed in detail

  13. QCD in magnetic fields: from Hofstadter's butterfly to the phase diagram

    CERN Document Server

    Endrodi, G

    2014-01-01

    I revisit the problem of a charged particle on a two-dimensional lattice immersed in a constant (electro)magnetic field, and discuss the energy spectrum - Hofstadter's butterfly - from a new, quantum field theoretical perspective. In particular, I point out that there is an intricate interplay between a) the structure of the butterfly at low magnetic flux, b) the absence of asymptotic freedom in QED and c) the enhancement of the quark condensate by a magnetic field at zero temperature. I proceed to discuss the response of the QCD condensate to the magnetic field at nonzero temperatures in four space-time dimensions, present the resulting phase diagram and compare it to low-energy model predictions.

  14. The electronic spectrum of a quasiperiodic potential: From the Hofstadter butterfly to the Fibonacci chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We show that an electronic tight-binding Hamiltonian, defined in a quasiperiodic chain with an on-site potential given by a Fibonacci sequence, can be obtained using a superposition of Harper potentials. Since the spectrum of the Harper equation as a function of the magnetic flux is a fractal set, known as the Hofstadter butterfly, we follow the transformation of the butterfly to a new one that contains the Fibonacci potential and related approximants. As a result, the equation in reciprocal space for the Fibonacci case has the form of a chain with long range interaction between Fourier components. Then, the structure of the resulting spectrum is analyzed by calculating the components in reciprocal space of the related potentials. As an application, the correlator of each potential and some localization properties are obtained

  15. Replication of homologous optical and hydrophobic features by templating wings of butterflies Morpho menelaus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng; Liu, Yuping; Huang, Lei; Hu, Xinhua; Dong, Biqin; Shi, Wangzhou; Xie, Yiqun; Ye, Xiang

    2011-05-01

    The revealed "Christmas-tree" nanostructures in the cover and ground scales of the butterfly Morpho menelaus are responsible for the observed iridescent blue color and the diffraction pattern of the wings. The aspect ratio of nanostructures in ground scales is more than 5 times higher than that of Morpho peleides cover scales. Inspired by the butterfly, artificial nanostructures are fabricated successfully by templating the scales imbricating in the wings with low-temperature atomic layer deposition (ALD) methods. Through structural characterizations and optical measurements, we reveal that the hybrid structures inherit not only the morphology of the scales with high fidelity but also the homologous optical features including iridescence and diffraction. Besides, water contact angle measurements on both uncoated and coated wings show hydrophobic results. The integration of bio-templates and ALD methods provide a potential route to fabricate the nanostructures with multi-functional features, which may be especially crucial in the applications of innovative functional optical devices.

  16. The significance of moment-of-inertia variation in flight manoeuvres of butterflies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study is to understand the role that changes in body moment of inertia might play during flight manoeuvres of insects. High-speed, high-resolution videogrammetry is used to quantify the trajectory and body conformation of Painted Lady butterflies during flight manoeuvres; the 3D kinematics of the centre of masses of the various body parts of the insect is determined experimentally. Measurements of the mass properties of the insect are used to parameterize a simple flight dynamics model of the butterfly. Even though the mass of the flapping wings is small compared to the total mass of the insect, these experiments and subsequent analysis indicate that changes in moment of inertia during flight are large enough to influence the manoeuvres of these insects. (communication)

  17. Torque characteristics of a 122-centimeter butterfly valve with a hydro/pneumatic actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, F. N.; Moore, W. I.; Lundy, F. E.

    1981-01-01

    Actuating torque data from field testing of a 122-centimeter (48 in.) butterfly valve with a hydro/pneumatic actuator is presented. The hydraulic cylinder functions as either a forward or a reverse brake. Its resistance torque increases when the valve speeds up and decreases when the valve slows down. A reduction of flow resistance in the hydraulic flow path from one end of the hydraulic cylinder to the other will effectively reduce the hydraulic resistance torque and hence increase the actuating torque. The sum of hydrodynamic and friction torques (combined resistance torque) of a butterfly valve is a function of valve opening time. An increase in the pneumatic actuating pressure will result in a decrease in both the combined resistance torque and the actuator opening torque; however, it does shorten the valve opening time. As the pneumatic pressure increases, the valve opening time for a given configuration approaches an asymptotical value.

  18. Papilionidae and Pieridae butterflies (Lepidoptera, Papilionoidea of the state of Guanajuato, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander V. Kir'yanov

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available An annotated list of butterflies of the families of Papilionidae and Pieridae (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea of the state of Guanajuato, Mexico, is presented for the first time. The list is the result of systematic monitoring of these taxa in a few localities of the state (mainly, in the vicinities of León and Guanajuato City during 1998-2004, as well as from specimens at the Mexican National Collection of Insects. We report 12 species of Papilionidae (4 new records for the state, and 27 species of Pieridae (15 first records for Guanajuato. Therefore, at least about 30% and 50% of species of, respectively, Papilionidae and Pieridae, are registered as new state records. Some distributional and ecological observations for the butterflies are addressed as well.

  19. Self-assembled carbon nanotube honeycomb networks using a butterfly wing template as a multifunctional nanobiohybrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyako, Eijiro; Sugino, Takushi; Okazaki, Toshiya; Bianco, Alberto; Yudasaka, Masako; Iijima, Sumio

    2013-10-22

    Insect wings have many unique and complex nano/microstructures that are presently beyond the capabilities of any current technology to reproduce them artificially. In particular, Morpho butterflies are an attractive type of insect because their multifunctional wings are composed of nano/microstructures. In this paper, we show that carbon nanotube-containing composite adopts honeycomb-shaped networks when simply self-assembled on Morpho butterfly wings used as a template. The unique nano/microstructure of the composites exhibits multifunctionalities such as laser-triggered remote-heating, high electrical conductivity, and repetitive DNA amplification. Our present study highlights the important progress that has been made toward the development of smart nanobiomaterials for various applications such as digital diagnosis, soft wearable electronic devices, photosensors, and photovoltaic cells. PMID:23952240

  20. The butterflies of Turquino National Park, Sierra Maestra, Cuba (Lepidoptera, Papilionoidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Núñez, R.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Between February and November 2011, we conducted a species inventory, created a natural history database and a made a first approach to the composition and structure of the butterfly communities present at several vegetation types in the Turquino National Park. The inventory included 83 species, 29 of them endemic. We recorded 57 species (18 endemic in transects along main vegetation pathways. In disturbed vegetation, species richness was higher (48 and abundance was better distributed, but the proportion of endemism was lower (23%. Species richness decreased and the dominance and proportion of endemism increased with altitude. Numbers of species and the proportions of endemism at natural habitats sampled were: 19 and 58% for evergreen forest, 10 and 60% for rainforest, eight and 100% for cloud forest, and four and 100% for the elfin thicket. Flowers of 27 plants were recorded as nectar sources for 30 butterfly species, and host plants were recorded for nine species.

  1. Significant effects of Pgi genotype and body reserves on lifespan in the Glanville fritillary butterfly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saastamoinen, Marjo; Ikonen, Suvi; Hanski, Ilkka

    2009-01-01

    Individuals with a particular variant of the gene phosphoglucose isomerase (Pgi) have been shown to have superior dispersal capacity and fecundity in the Glanville fritillary butterfly (Melitaea cinxia), raising questions about the mechanisms that maintain polymorphism in this gene in the field. Here, we investigate how variation in the Pgi genotype affects female and male life history under controlled conditions. The most striking effect is the longer lifespan of genotypes with high dispersal capacity, especially in non-reproducing females. Butterflies use body reserves for somatic maintenance and reproduction, but different resources (in thorax versus abdomen) are used under dissimilar conditions, with some interactions with the Pgi genotype. These results indicate life-history trade-offs that involve resource allocation and genotype×environment interactions, and these trade-offs are likely to contribute to the maintenance of Pgi polymorphism in the natural populations. PMID:19129143

  2. Ten species in one: DNA barcoding reveals cryptic species in the neotropical skipper butterfly Astraptes fulgerator

    OpenAIRE

    Hebert, Paul D. N.; Penton, Erin H.; Burns, John M.; Janzen, Daniel H.; Hallwachs, Winnie

    2004-01-01

    Astraptes fulgerator, first described in 1775, is a common and widely distributed neotropical skipper butterfly (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae). We combine 25 years of natural history observations in northwestern Costa Rica with morphological study and DNA barcoding of museum specimens to show that A. fulgerator is a complex of at least 10 species in this region. Largely sympatric, these taxa have mostly different caterpillar food plants, mostly distinctive caterpillars, and somewhat different eco...

  3. Microscopic and ultrastructural characteristics of Kudoa infection in a butterfly fish (Chaetodon).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelker, F A; Kassel, S H; Weinberg, H D; McKee, A E

    1978-01-01

    Myxosporidiosis of the skeletal muscle was diagnosed in a pearl scale butterfly fish (Chaetodon). On the basis of light and electron microscopy, the infectious agent was thought to be a Kudoa. The muscle had fusiform cysts containing myxosporidian organisms within hypertrophied fibers. Ultrastructural features of the kudoa organisms were four external shell valves joined by sutural planes. Internally, four pyriform polar capsules with polar filaments were anterior to the sporoplasm. PMID:415403

  4. Hydro-acoustic excitation at low frequencies of industrial pipe systems by cavitating butterfly valves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavitating valves induce important vibrations at low frequencies in pipe systems. In this note a model is developed in order to characterize the hydro-acoustic behavior of the cavitating valves. This model is based on the transfer matrix theory. This theory can be deduced from the linearization of the Navier-Stokes equations. The experimental identification and validation of the model is made by testing a cavitating butterfly valve. (author). 5 figs., 7 refs

  5. Impact of Bt corn pollen on monarch butterfly populations: A risk assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Sears, Mark K.; Hellmich, Richard L.; Stanley-Horn, Diane E.; Oberhauser, Karen S.; Pleasants, John M.; Mattila, Heather R; Siegfried, Blair D.; Dively, Galen P.

    2001-01-01

    A collaborative research effort by scientists in several states and in Canada has produced information to develop a formal risk assessment of the impact of Bt corn on monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) populations. Information was sought on the acute toxic effects of Bt corn pollen and the degree to which monarch larvae would be exposed to toxic amounts of Bt pollen on its host plant, the common milkweed, Asclepias syriaca, found in and around cornfields. Expression of Cry proteins, the act...

  6. Discordant timing between antennae disrupts sun compass orientation in migratory monarch butterflies

    OpenAIRE

    Guerra, Patrick A.; Merlin, Christine; Gegear, Robert J.; Reppert, Steven M.

    2012-01-01

    To navigate during their long-distance migration, monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) use a time-compensated sun compass. The sun compass timing elements reside in light-entrained circadian clocks in the antennae. Here we show that either antenna is sufficient for proper time compensation. However, migrants with either antenna painted black (to block light entrainment) and the other painted clear (to permit light entrainment) display disoriented group flight. Remarkably, when the black-pai...

  7. The monarch butterfly genome yields insights into long-distance migration

    OpenAIRE

    Zhan, Shuai; Merlin, Christine; Boore, Jeffrey L.; Reppert, Steven M.

    2011-01-01

    We present the draft 273 Mb genome of the migratory monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) and a set of 16, 866 protein-coding genes. Orthology properties suggest that the Lepidoptera are the fastest evolving insect order yet examined. Compared to the silkmoth Bombyx mori, the monarch genome shares prominent similarity in orthology content, microsynteny, and protein family sizes. The monarch genome reveals: a vertebrate-like opsin whose existence in insects is widespread; a full repertoire of m...

  8. Color vision and learning in the monarch butterfly, Danaus plexippus (Nymphalidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackiston, Douglas; Briscoe, Adriana D; Weiss, Martha R

    2011-02-01

    The monarch butterfly, Danaus plexippus, is well known for its intimate association with milkweed plants and its incredible multi-generational trans-continental migrations. However, little is known about monarch butterflies' color perception or learning ability, despite the importance of visual information to butterfly behavior in the contexts of nectar foraging, host-plant location and mate recognition. We used both theoretical and experimental approaches to address basic questions about monarch color vision and learning ability. Color space modeling based on the three known spectral classes of photoreceptors present in the eye suggests that monarchs should not be able to discriminate between long wavelength colors without making use of a dark orange lateral filtering pigment distributed heterogeneously in the eye. In the context of nectar foraging, monarchs show strong innate preferences, rapidly learn to associate colors with sugar rewards and learn non-innately preferred colors as quickly and proficiently as they do innately preferred colors. Butterflies also demonstrate asymmetric confusion between specific pairs of colors, which is likely a function of stimulus brightness. Monarchs readily learn to associate a second color with reward, and in general, learning parameters do not vary with temporal sequence of training. In addition, monarchs have true color vision; that is, they can discriminate colors on the basis of wavelength, independent of intensity. Finally, behavioral trials confirm that monarchs do make use of lateral filtering pigments to enhance long-wavelength discrimination. Our results demonstrate that monarchs are proficient and flexible color learners; these capabilities should allow them to respond rapidly to changing nectar availabilities as they travel over migratory routes, across both space and time. PMID:21228210

  9. Tracking multi-generational colonization of the breeding grounds by monarch butterflies in eastern North America

    OpenAIRE

    Flockhart, D. T. Tyler; Wassenaar, Leonard I.; Martin, Tara G.; Keith A. Hobson; Wunder, Michael B.; Norris, D Ryan

    2013-01-01

    Insect migration may involve movements over multiple breeding generations at continental scales, resulting in formidable challenges to their conservation and management. Using distribution models generated from citizen scientist occurrence data and stable-carbon and -hydrogen isotope measurements, we tracked multi-generational colonization of the breeding grounds of monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) in eastern North America. We found that monarch breeding occurrence was best modelled wit...

  10. Citizen Science Observations of Monarch Butterfly Overwintering in the Southern United States

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Andrew K.; Harlen Aschen; Elizabeth Howard

    2010-01-01

    Members of the public have long had a fascination with the monarch butterfly, Danaus plexippus, because of its amazing long-distance migration to overwintering sites in central Mexico, and many participate in online citizen-science programs where they report observations of its life history in North America. Here, we examine a little-studied aspect of monarch biology, the degree of overwintering in the southern United States. We compiled 9 years of sightings of overwintering monarchs in the s...

  11. Natal origins of migratory monarch butterflies at wintering colonies in Mexico: New isotopic evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Wassenaar, Leonard I.; Keith A. Hobson

    1998-01-01

    Each year, millions of monarch butterflies from eastern North America migrate to overwinter in 10–13 discrete colonies located in the Oyamel forests of central Mexico. For decades efforts to track monarch migration have relied on observations and tag-recapture methods, culminating with the discovery of the wintering colonies in 1975. Monarch tag returns from Mexico, however, are few and primarily from two accessible colonies, and therefore tag-recapture techniques have not quantified natal or...

  12. The Redder the Better: Wing Color Predicts Flight Performance in Monarch Butterflies

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Andrew K.; Chi, Jean; Bradley, Catherine; Altizer, Sonia

    2012-01-01

    The distinctive orange and black wings of monarchs (Danaus plexippus) have long been known to advertise their bitter taste and toxicity to potential predators. Recent work also showed that both the orange and black coloration of this species can vary in response to individual-level and environmental factors. Here we examine the relationship between wing color and flight performance in captive-reared monarchs using a tethered flight mill apparatus to quantify butterfly flight speed, duration a...

  13. Extreme Heterogeneity in Parasitism Despite Low Population Genetic Structure among Monarch Butterflies Inhabiting the Hawaiian Islands

    OpenAIRE

    Pierce, Amanda A.; De Roode, Jacobus C.; Altizer, Sonia; Bartel, Rebecca A.

    2014-01-01

    Host movement and spatial structure can strongly influence the ecology and evolution of infectious diseases, with limited host movement potentially leading to high spatial heterogeneity in infection. Monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) are best known for undertaking a spectacular long-distance migration in eastern North America; however, they also form non-migratory populations that breed year-round in milder climates such as Hawaii and other tropical locations. Prior work showed an invers...

  14. Efficient targeted mutagenesis in the monarch butterfly using zinc-finger nucleases

    OpenAIRE

    Merlin, Christine; Beaver, Lauren E.; Taylor, Orley R.; Wolfe, Scot A.; Reppert, Steven M.

    2013-01-01

    The development of reverse-genetic tools in “nonmodel” insect species with distinct biology is critical to establish them as viable model systems. The eastern North American monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus), whose genome is sequenced, has emerged as a model to study animal clocks, navigational mechanisms, and the genetic basis of long-distance migration. Here, we developed a highly efficient gene-targeting approach in the monarch using zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs), engineered nucleases th...

  15. The butterfly (Insecta: Lepidoptera) diversity of four sacred groves of Goa, India

    OpenAIRE

    Kiran Gaude; M. K. Janarthanam

    2015-01-01

    The butterfly diversity of four sacred groves in Goa, viz., Nirankarachi Rai, Alvatinichi Rai, Mharinginichi Rai and Azobhachi Rai was selected for study purposes.  A total of 33 species belonging to 31 genera were observed which accounts for about 13% of the species recorded from Goa.  The Family Nymphalidae dominated with a high number of species with maximum diversity in Mharinginichi Rai.  It is concluded that further studies on groves from different habitats will significantly increase t...

  16. Diversity Dynamics in Nymphalidae Butterflies: Effect of Phylogenetic Uncertainty on Diversification Rate Shift Estimates

    OpenAIRE

    Peña, Carlos; Espeland, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    The family Nymphalidae is the largest family within the true butterflies and has been used to develop hypotheses explaining evolutionary interactions between plants and insects. Theories of insect and hostplant dynamics predict accelerated diversification in some scenarios. We investigated whether phylogenetic uncertainty affects a commonly used method (MEDUSA, modelling evolutionary diversity using stepwise AIC) for estimating shifts in diversification rates in lineages of the family Nymphal...

  17. Shotgun assembly of the complete mitochondrial genome of the neotropical cracker butterfly Hamadryas epinome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cally, Sébastien; Lhuillier, Emeline; Iribar, Amaia; Garzón-Orduña, Ivonne; Coissac, Eric; Murienne, Jérôme

    2016-05-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of the cracker butterfly Hamadryas epinome (C. Felder and R. Felder, 1867) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Biblidinae) has been sequenced using a genome-skimming approach on an Illumina Hiseq 2000 platform. The mitochondrial genome of H. epinome was determined to be 15,207 bp long and presents an organization similar to other Ditrysia mitogenomes. A non-coding poly-AT region of uncertain length is present at position 6180. PMID:25319307

  18. Progress report: baseline monitoring of indicator species (butterflies) at tallgrass prairie restorations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allain, Larry; Vidrine, Malcolm

    2014-01-01

    This project provides baseline data of butterfly populations at two coastal prairie restoration sites in Louisiana, the Duralde Unit of Lacassine National Wildlife Refuge (hereafter, the Duralde site) and the Cajun Prairie Restoration Project in Eunice (hereafter, the Eunice site). In all, four distinct habitat types representing different planting methods were sampled. These data will be used to assess biodiversity and health of native grasslands and also provide a basis for adaptive management.

  19. Factors affecting road mortality and the suitability of road verges for butterflies

    OpenAIRE

    Skórka, Piotr; Lenda, Magdalena; Moroń, Dawid; Kalarus, Konrad; Tryjanowski, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    Little is known of the impact of roads on insect mortality. This is a significant gap, because road verges are regarded as an important tool for insect conservation. In this study, we investigated which factors affect the number of roadkills in grassland butterflies and, simultaneously, the species composition and abundance on road verges. We established sixty transects, two hundred metres long, on roads in farmland areas and with differing traffic volume. Each transect consisted ...

  20. Nonadditivity of quantum capacities of quantum multiple-access channels and the butterfly network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multipartite quantum information transmission without additional classical resources is investigated. We show purely quantum superadditivity of quantum capacity regions of quantum memoryless multiple-access (MA) channels, which are not entanglement breaking. Also, we find that the superadditivity holds when the MA channel extends to the quantum butterfly network, which can achieve quantum network coding. The present widespread effects for the channels which enable entanglement distribution have not been revealed for multipartite scenarios.

  1. Tetrachromacy in a butterfly that has eight varieties of spectral receptors

    OpenAIRE

    Koshitaka, Hisaharu; Kinoshita, Michiyo; Vorobyev, Misha; Arikawa, Kentaro

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the first evidence of tetrachromacy among invertebrates. The Japanese yellow swallowtail butterfly, Papilio xuthus, uses colour vision when foraging. The retina of Papilio is furnished with eight varieties of spectral receptors of six classes that are the ultraviolet (UV), violet, blue (narrow-band and wide-band), green (single-peaked and double-peaked), red and broad-band classes. We investigated whether all of the spectral receptors are involved in colour vision by measu...

  2. Historical demography of Müllerian mimicry in the neotropical Heliconius butterflies

    OpenAIRE

    Flanagan, N. S.; Tobler, A; Davison, A.; Pybus, O.G.; Kapan, D.D.; Planas, S.; Linares, M.; Heckel, D.; McMillan, W.O.

    2004-01-01

    We compare the historical demographies of two Müllerian comimetic butterfly species: Heliconius erato and Heliconius melpomene. These species show an extensive parallel geographic divergence in their aposematic wing phenotypes. Recent studies suggest that this coincident mosaic results from simultaneous demographic processes shaped by extrinsic forces over Pleistocene climate fluctuations. However, DNA sequence variation at two rapidly evolving unlinked nuclear loci, Mannose phosphate isomera...

  3. Noise caused by cavitating Butterfly and Monovar Valves. Effects of cavitation on acoustic sources; numerical simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experimental study of the effects of cavitation was carried out through an analysis of cavitating Butterfly and Monovar valves. For each variation case, the nature of the dominant source is determined in relation to frequency. Once the parameters of the cavitation zone are identified, a three-zone model is used in order to pinpoint the acoustic sources with cavitation. In order to determine acoustic sources, we present a numerical simulation using a bubbles population. (authors)

  4. A simulation study of the genetic regulatory hierarchy for butterfly eyespot focus determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Travis M; Marcus, Jeffrey M

    2006-01-01

    The color patterns on the wings of butterflies have been an important model system in evolutionary developmental biology. Two types of models have been used to study these patterns. The first type of model employs computational techniques and generalized mechanisms of pattern formation to make predictions about how color patterns will vary as parameters of the model are changed. These generalized mechanisms include diffusion gradient, reaction-diffusion, lateral inhibition, and threshold responses. The second type of model uses known genetic interactions from Drosophila melanogaster and patterns of candidate gene expression in one of several butterfly species (most often Junonia (Precis) coenia or Bicyclus anynana) to propose specific genetic regulatory hierarchies that appear to be involved in color pattern formation. This study combines these two approaches using computational techniques to test proposed genetic regulatory hierarchies for the determination of butterfly eyespot foci (also known as border ocelli foci). Two computer programs, STELLA 8.1 and Delphi 2.0, were used to simulate the determination of eyespot foci. Both programs revealed weaknesses in a genetic model previously proposed for eyespot focus determination. On the basis of these simulations, we propose two revised models for eyespot focus determination and identify components of the genetic regulatory hierarchy that are particularly sensitive to changes in model parameter values. These components may play a key role in the evolution of butterfly eyespots. Simulations like these may be useful tools for the study of other evolutionary developmental model systems and reveal similar sensitive components of the relevant genetic regulatory hierarchies. PMID:16686638

  5. Optical properties of the Hofstadter butterfly in the Moir\\'{e} superlattice

    OpenAIRE

    Moon, Pilkyung; Koshino, Mikito

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the optical absorption spectrum and the selection rule for the Hofstadter butterfly in twisted bilayer graphene under magnetic fields. We demonstrate that the absorption spectrum exhibits a self-similar recursive pattern reflecting the fractal nature of the energy spectrum. We find that the optical selection rule has a nested self-similar structure as well, and it is governed by the conservation of the total angular momentum summed over different hierarchies.

  6. Mate choice and body pattern variations in the Crown Butterfly fish Chaetodon paucifasciatus (Chaetodontidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Levy, Keren; Lerner, Amit; Shashar, Nadav

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Mate choice is an important ecological behavior in fish, and is often based on visual cues of body patterns. The Crown Butterfly fish Chaetodon paucifasciatus (Chaetodontidae) is a monogamist, territorial species; it swims in close proximity to its partner throughout most of its life. This species is characterized by a pattern of 6–8 vertical black stripes on a white background, on both sides of its body. Our aim was to define spatial features (variations) in body patterns by evaluat...

  7. Robustness of the Bacterial Community in the Cabbage White Butterfly Larval Midgut

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, Courtney J.; Schloss, Patrick; Ramos, Yolied; Raffa, Kenneth; Handelsman, Jo

    2009-01-01

    Microbial communities typically vary in composition and structure over space and time. Little is known about the inherent characteristics of communities that govern various drivers of these changes, such as random variation, changes in response to perturbation, or susceptibility to invasion. In this study, we use 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequences to describe variation among bacterial communities in the midguts of cabbage white butterfly (Pieris rapae) larvae and examine the influence of commun...

  8. Genetic spatial structure in a butterfly metapopulation correlates better with past than present demographic structure

    OpenAIRE

    Orsini, Luisa; Corander, J; Alasentie, A; Hanski, I.

    2008-01-01

    The Glanville fritillary butterfly (Melitaea cinxia) has been studied in the Aland Islands in Finland since 1991, where it occurs as a classic metapopulation in a large network of 4000 dry meadows. Much ecological work has been conducted on this species, but population genetic studies have been hampered by paucity of suitable genetic markers. Here, using single nucleotide polymorphisms and microsatellites developed for the Glanville fritillary, we examine the correspondence between the demogr...

  9. Noise caused by cavitating Butterfly and Monovar Valves. Effects of cavitation on acoustic sources; numerical simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassis, H. [Enit, Belvedere - Tunis (Tunisia); Lauro, J.F.; Boyer, A.; Dueymes, E.

    1996-12-31

    An experimental study of the effects of cavitation was carried out through an analysis of cavitating Butterfly and Monovar valves. For each variation case, the nature of the dominant source is determined in relation to frequency. Once the parameters of the cavitation zone are identified, a three-zone model is used in order to pinpoint the acoustic sources with cavitation. In order to determine acoustic sources, we present a numerical simulation using a bubbles population. (authors). 13 refs.

  10. Deimatic Display in the European Swallowtail Butterfly as a Secondary Defence against Attacks from Great Tits

    OpenAIRE

    Olofsson, Martin; Eriksson, Stephan; Jakobsson, Sven; Wiklund, Christer

    2012-01-01

    Background Many animals reduce the risk of being attacked by a predator through crypsis, masquerade or, alternatively, by advertising unprofitability by means of aposematic signalling. Behavioural attributes in prey employed after discovery, however, signify the importance of also having an effective secondary defence if a predator uncovers, or is immune to, the prey’s primary defence. In butterflies, as in most animals, secondary defence generally consists of escape flights. However, some bu...

  11. Photonic Crystal Structure of Butterfly Wing Scales Exhibiting Selective Wavelength Iridescence

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matějková-Plšková, J.; Mika, Filip; Jiwajinda, S.; Dechkrong, P.; Svidenská, S.; Shiojiri, M.

    Praha : Czechoslovak Microscopy Society, 2014. ISBN 978-80-260-6720-7. [International Microscopy Congres /18./. Praha (CZ), 07.09.2014-12.09.2014] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : butterfly wing * coloration * SEM * TEM * photonic crystal structure Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  12. Adult sex ratio in the Parnassius mnemosyne butterfly: Effects of survival, migration, and water

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vlašánek, Petr; Hauck, D.; Konvička, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 3 (2009), s. 233-252. ISSN 1565-9801 R&D Projects: GA ČR GD206/08/H044; GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : butterfly conservation * effective population size * Jolly-Seber Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.725, year: 2009

  13. Parasitism cost of living in a high quality habitat in the bog fritillary butterfly

    OpenAIRE

    Choutt, Julie; TURLURE, CAMILLE; Baguette, Michel; Schtickzelle, Nicolas

    2011-01-01

    Habitat quality and the impact of natural enemies might profoundly affect metapopulation dynamics and viability. However, their relative impact has usually been considered independently. Here we address the question of how caterpillar habitat quality and parasitism prevalence interact to shape habitat selection in the bog fritillary butterfly Boloria eunomia, parasitized at the caterpillar stage by a specialist wasp, Cotesia euno- miae. We first classified habitat quality by re...

  14. Plant Fertilization Interacts with Life History: Variation in Stoichiometry and Performance in Nettle-Feeding Butterflies

    OpenAIRE

    Audusseau, Hélène; Kolb, Gundula; Janz, Niklas

    2015-01-01

    Variation in food stoichiometry affects individual performance and population dynamics, but it is also likely that species with different life histories should differ in their sensitivity to food stoichiometry. To address this question, we investigated the ability of the three nettle-feeding butterflies (Aglais urticae, Polygonia c-album, and Aglais io) to respond adaptively to induced variation in plant stoichiometry in terms of larval performance. We hypothesized that variation in larval pe...

  15. Effects of Increased Flight on the Energetics and Life History of the Butterfly Speyeria mormonia

    OpenAIRE

    Niitepõld, Kristjan; Boggs, Carol L

    2015-01-01

    Movement uses resources that may otherwise be allocated to somatic maintenance or reproduction. How does increased energy expenditure affect resource allocation? Using the butterfly Speyeria mormonia, we tested whether experimentally increased flight affects fecundity, lifespan or flight capacity. We measured body mass (storage), resting metabolic rate and lifespan (repair and maintenance), flight metabolic rate (flight capacity), egg number and composition (reproduction), and food intake acr...

  16. Of butterflies and birds, of dialects and genres : Essays in honour of Philip Shaw

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    This volume is a tribute to our friend and colleague Philip Shaw, Professor of English linguistics at the Department of English, Stockholm University, on the occasion of his 65th birthday. The 22 contributions to this volume by friends and colleagues worldwide bear witness to Philips academic versatility as well as his interests beyond academia. The first paper, Narratives of Nature in English and Swedish: Butterfly books and the case of Argynnis paphia, a genre study by Annelie del and J...

  17. Darwins butterflies? DNA barcoding and the radiation of the endemic Caribbean butterfly genus Calisto (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Satyrinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Sourakov

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The genus Calisto Hbner, 1823 is the only member of the diverse, global subfamily Satyrinae found in the West Indies, and by far the richest endemic Caribbean butterfly radiation. Calisto species occupy an extremely diverse array of habitats, suggestive of adaptive radiation on the scale of other classic examples such as the Galpagos or Darwins finches. However, a reliable species classification is a key requisite before further evolutionary or ecological research. An analysis of 111 DNA barcodes (655 bp of the mitochondrial gene COI from 29 putative Calisto species represented by 31 putative taxa was therefore conducted to elucidate taxonomic relationships among these often highly cryptic and confusing taxa. The sympatric, morphologically and ecologically similar taxa C. confusa Lathy, 1899 and C. confusa debarriera Clench, 1943 proved to be extremely divergent, and we therefore recognize Calisto debarriera stat. n. as a distinct species, with Calisto neiba Schwartz et Gali, 1984 as a junior synonym syn. n. Species status of certain allopatric, morphologically similar sister species has been confirmed: Calisto hysius (Godart, 1824 (including its subspecies C. hysius aleucosticha Correa et Schwartz, 1986, stat. n., and its former subspecies C. batesi Michener, 1943 showed a high degree of divergence (above 6% and should be considered separate species. Calisto lyceius Bates, 1935/C. crypta Gali, 1985/C. franciscoi Gali, 1985 complex, also showed a high degree of divergence (above 6%, confirming the species status of these taxa. In contrast, our data suggest that the Calisto grannus Bates, 1939 species complex (including Calisto grannus dilemma Gonzlez, 1987, C. grannus amazona Gonzlez, 1987, stat. n., C. grannus micrommata Schwartz et Gali, 1984, stat. n., C. grannus dystacta Gonzlez, 1987, stat. n., C. grannus phoinix Gonzlez, 1987, stat. n., C. grannus sommeri Schwartz et Gali, 1984, stat. n., and C. grannus micheneri Clench, 1944, stat. n. should be treated as a single polytypic species, as genetic divergence among sampled populations representing these taxa is low (and stable morphological apomorphies are absent. A widely-distributed pest of sugar cane, Calisto pulchella Lathy, 1899 showed higher diversification among isolated populations (3.5% than expected, hence supporting former separation of this species into two taxa (pulchella and darlingtoni Clench, 1943, of which the latter might prove to be a separate species rather than subspecies. The taxonomic revisions presented here result in Calisto now containing 34 species and 17 subspecies. Three species endemic to islands other than Hispaniola appear to be derived lineages of various Hispaniolan clades, indicating ancient dispersal events from Hispaniola to Puerto Rico, Cuba, and Jamaica. Overall, the degree of intrageneric and intraspecific divergence within Calisto suggests a long and continuous diversification period of 48 Myr. The maximum divergence within the genus (ca. 13.3% is almost equivalent to the maximum divergence of Calisto from the distant pronophiline relative Auca Hayward, 1953 from the southern Andes (14.1% and from the presumed closest relative Eretris Thieme, 1905 (14.4%, suggesting that the genus began to diversify soon after its split from its continental sister taxon. In general, this barcode divergence corresponds to the high degree of morphological and ecological variation found among major lineages within the genus.

  18. Fluid drag reduction and efficient self-cleaning with rice leaf and butterfly wing bioinspired surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bixler, Gregory D.; Bhushan, Bharat

    2013-08-01

    Researchers are continually inspired by living nature to solve complex challenges. For example, unique surface characteristics of rice leaves and butterfly wings combine the shark skin (anisotropic flow leading to low drag) and lotus leaf (superhydrophobic and self-cleaning) effects, producing the so-called rice and butterfly wing effect. In this paper, we present an overview of rice leaf and butterfly wing fluid drag and self-cleaning studies. In addition, we examine two other promising aquatic surfaces in nature known for such properties, including fish scales and shark skin. Morphology, drag, self-cleaning, contact angle, and contact angle hysteresis data are presented to understand the role of wettability, viscosity, and velocity. Liquid repellent coatings are utilized to recreate or combine various effects. Discussion is provided along with conceptual models describing the role of surface structures related to low drag, self-cleaning, and antifouling properties. Modeling provides design guidance when developing novel low drag and self-cleaning surfaces for applications in the medical, marine, and industrial fields.

  19. Interacting effects of climate change and habitat fragmentation on drought-sensitive butterflies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Tom H.; Marshall, Harry H.; Morecroft, Mike D.; Brereton, Tom; Prudhomme, Christel; Huntingford, Chris

    2015-10-01

    Climate change is expected to increase the frequency of some climatic extremes. These may have drastic impacts on biodiversity, particularly if meteorological thresholds are crossed, leading to population collapses. Should this occur repeatedly, populations may be unable to recover, resulting in local extinctions. Comprehensive time series data on butterflies in Great Britain provide a rare opportunity to quantify population responses to both past severe drought and the interaction with habitat area and fragmentation. Here, we combine this knowledge with future projections from multiple climate models, for different Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs), and for simultaneous modelled responses to different landscape characteristics. Under RCP8.5, which is associated with `business as usual’ emissions, widespread drought-sensitive butterfly population extinctions could occur as early as 2050. However, by managing landscapes and particularly reducing habitat fragmentation, the probability of persistence until mid-century improves from around zero to between 6 and 42% (95% confidence interval). Achieving persistence with a greater than 50% chance and right through to 2100 is possible only under both low climate change (RCP2.6) and semi-natural habitat restoration. Our data show that, for these drought-sensitive butterflies, persistence is achieved more effectively by restoring semi-natural landscapes to reduce fragmentation, rather than simply focusing on increasing habitat area, but this will only be successful in combination with substantial emission reductions.

  20. Behavioural mimicry in flight path of Batesian intraspecific polymorphic butterfly Papilio polytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Tasuku; Imafuku, Michio

    2015-06-22

    Batesian mimics that show similar coloration to unpalatable models gain a fitness advantage of reduced predation. Beyond physical similarity, mimics often exhibit behaviour similar to their models, further enhancing their protection against predation by mimicking not only the model's physical appearance but also activity. In butterflies, there is a strong correlation between palatability and flight velocity, but there is only weak correlation between palatability and flight path. Little is known about how Batesian mimics fly. Here, we explored the flight behaviour of four butterfly species/morphs: unpalatable model Pachliopta aristolochiae, mimetic and non-mimetic females of female-limited mimic Papilio polytes, and palatable control Papilio xuthus. We demonstrated that the directional change (DC) generated by wingbeats and the standard deviation of directional change (SDDC) of mimetic females and their models were smaller than those of non-mimetic females and palatable controls. Furthermore, we found no significant difference in flight velocity among all species/morphs. By showing that DC and SDDC of mimetic females resemble those of models, we provide the first evidence for the existence of behavioural mimicry in flight path by a Batesian mimic butterfly. PMID:26041360

  1. Literature Examined under the Diasporic Lens: Emotional Diaspora Present in Madame Butterfly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doyeun Kwak

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The typical myth of a Caucasian man and an Asian woman’s romance ends with tragedy, and this story is well versed in literature including Madame Butterfly by John Luther Long. In this story, Cho-Cho San, a young Japanese girl waits patiently for her American husband who betrayed her. However, the novel contains more than such myth in the aspect that it portrays emotional diasporic experience of an individual not falling directly into conventional diaspora criteria. Traditionally, diaspora mainly revolves around the notion of a home land, senses of alienation, maladjustment and communally shared experiences in foreign land. However, with the increase in international dislocations, there is paradigm shift in defining diaspora. It does not only envelop people in geographical displacement but in emotional, situational displacements. In this study, I hope to review the point that diaspora can occur to individuals who might not be geographically apart from their home land but are emotionally displaced due to different situational circumstances, which can be termed “emotional diaspora”. In Madame Butterfly, emotional diaspora occurs in Cho-Cho San who is displaced from Japanese society and confined in the walls of Pinkerton’s house which creates a particular diasporic experience for her. Therefore, through Madame Butterfly it can be suggested that the key stone of diaspora is the emotional displacement from whichever society one is in, not only confined by home land/ foreign land segregation or communal experiences of people in the same circumstance.

  2. Outbred genome sequencing and CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing in butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xueyan; Fan, Dingding; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Guichun; Zhang, Lu; Zhao, Li; Fang, Xiaodong; Chen, Lei; Dong, Yang; Chen, Yuan; Ding, Yun; Zhao, Ruoping; Feng, Mingji; Zhu, Yabing; Feng, Yue; Jiang, Xuanting; Zhu, Deying; Xiang, Hui; Feng, Xikan; Li, Shuaicheng; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Guojie; Kronforst, Marcus R; Wang, Wen

    2015-01-01

    Butterflies are exceptionally diverse but their potential as an experimental system has been limited by the difficulty of deciphering heterozygous genomes and a lack of genetic manipulation technology. Here we use a hybrid assembly approach to construct high-quality reference genomes for Papilio xuthus (contig and scaffold N50: 492 kb, 3.4 Mb) and Papilio machaon (contig and scaffold N50: 81 kb, 1.15 Mb), highly heterozygous species that differ in host plant affiliations, and adult and larval colour patterns. Integrating comparative genomics and analyses of gene expression yields multiple insights into butterfly evolution, including potential roles of specific genes in recent diversification. To functionally test gene function, we develop an efficient (up to 92.5%) CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing method that yields obvious phenotypes with three genes, Abdominal-B, ebony and frizzled. Our results provide valuable genomic and technological resources for butterflies and unlock their potential as a genetic model system. PMID:26354079

  3. Butterfly pitch angle distribution of relativistic electrons in the outer radiation belt: Evidence of nonadiabatic scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artemyev, A. V.; Agapitov, O. V.; Mozer, F. S.; Spence, H.

    2015-06-01

    In this paper we investigate the scattering of relativistic electrons in the nightside outer radiation belt (around the geostationary orbit). We consider the particular case of low geomagnetic activity (|Dst|butterfly pitch angle distributions of relativistic electrons (energies about 1-3 MeV). Many previous publications have described such pitch angle distributions over a wide energy range as due to the combined effect of outward radial diffusion and magnetopause shadowing. In this paper we discuss another mechanism that produces butterfly distributions over a limited range of electron energies. We suggest that such distributions can be shaped due to relativistic electron scattering in the equatorial plane of magnetic field lines that are locally deformed by currents of hot ions injected into the inner magnetosphere. Analytical estimates, test particle simulations, and observations of the AE index support this scenario. We conclude that even in the rather quiet magnetosphere, small scale (magnetic local time (MLT)-localized) injection of hot ions from the magnetotail can likely influence the relativistic electron scattering. Thus, observations of butterfly pitch angle distributions can serve as an indicator of magnetic field deformations in the nightside inner magnetosphere. We briefly discuss possible theoretical approaches and problems for modeling such nonadiabatic electron scattering.

  4. Nanofabrication and coloration study of artificial Morpho butterfly wings with aligned lamellae layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sichao; Chen, Yifang

    2015-11-01

    The bright and iridescent blue color from Morpho butterfly wings has attracted worldwide attentions to explore its mysterious nature for long time. Although the physics of structural color by the nanophotonic structures built on the wing scales has been well established, replications of the wing structure by standard top-down lithography still remains a challenge. This paper reports a technical breakthrough to mimic the blue color of Morpho butterfly wings, by developing a novel nanofabrication process, based on electron beam lithography combined with alternate PMMA/LOR development/dissolution, for photonic structures with aligned lamellae multilayers in colorless polymers. The relationship between the coloration and geometric dimensions as well as shapes is systematically analyzed by solving Maxwell’s Equations with a finite domain time difference simulator. Careful characterization of the mimicked blue by spectral measurements under both normal and oblique angles are carried out. Structural color in blue reflected by the fabricated wing scales, is demonstrated and further extended to green as an application exercise of the new technique. The effects of the regularity in the replicas on coloration are analyzed. In principle, this approach establishes a starting point for mimicking structural colors beyond the blue in Morpho butterfly wings.

  5. Lack of genetic differentiation between monarch butterflies with divergent migration destinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Justine I; Pierce, Amanda A; Barribeau, Seth M; Sternberg, Eleanore D; Mongue, Andrew J; De Roode, Jacobus C

    2012-07-01

    Monarch butterflies are best known for their spectacular annual migration from eastern North America to Mexico. Monarchs also occur in the North American states west of the Rocky Mountains, from where they fly shorter distances to the California Coast. Whether eastern and western North American monarchs form one genetic population or are genetically differentiated remains hotly debated, and resolution of this debate is essential to understand monarch migration patterns and to protect this iconic insect species. We studied the genetic structure of North American migratory monarch populations, as well as nonmigratory populations in Hawaii and New Zealand. Our results show that eastern and western migratory monarchs form one admixed population and that monarchs from Hawaii and New Zealand have genetically diverged from North American butterflies. These findings suggest that eastern and western monarch butterflies maintain their divergent migrations despite genetic mixing. The finding that eastern and western monarchs form one genetic population also suggests that the conservation of overwintering sites in Mexico is crucial for the protection of monarchs in both eastern and western North America. PMID:22574833

  6. Genetic variation in resistance, but not tolerance, to a protozoan parasite in the monarch butterfly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefèvre, Thierry; Williams, Amanda Jo; de Roode, Jacobus C

    2011-03-01

    Natural selection should strongly favour hosts that can protect themselves against parasites. Most studies on animals so far have focused on resistance, a series of mechanisms through which hosts prevent infection, reduce parasite growth or clear infection. However, animals may instead evolve tolerance, a defence mechanism by which hosts do not reduce parasite infection or growth, but instead alleviate the negative fitness consequences of such infection and growth. Here, we studied genetic variation in resistance and tolerance in the monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) to its naturally occurring protozoan parasite, Ophryocystis elektroscirrha. We exposed 560 monarch larvae of 19 different family lines to one of five different parasite inoculation doses (0, 1, 5, 10 and 100 infective spores) to create a range of parasite loads in infected butterflies. We then used two proxies of host fitness (adult lifespan and body mass) to quantify: (i) qualitative resistance (the ability to prevent infection; also known as avoidance or anti-infection resistance); (ii) quantitative resistance (the ability to limit parasite growth upon infection; also known as control or anti-growth resistance); and (iii) tolerance (the ability to maintain fitness with increasing parasite infection intensity). We found significant differences among host families in qualitative and quantitative resistance, indicating genetic variation in resistance. However, we found no genetic variation in tolerance. This may indicate that all butterflies in our studied population have evolved maximum tolerance, as predicted by some theoretical models. PMID:20843849

  7. Effects of Cry1Ab-expressing corn anthers on the movement of monarch butterfly larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasifka, Patricia L; Hellmich, Richard L; Prasifka, Jarrad R; Lewis, Leslie C

    2007-02-01

    Decreased larval feeding and weight of the monarch butterfly, Danaus plexippus L., have been detected after 4 d of exposure in the laboratory to a high density of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)-expressing anthers. One hypothesis is that larvae exposed to Bt anthers exhibit increased wandering, resulting in less feeding and lower weight gain. To test this hypothesis, 2-d-old monarch butterfly larvae exposed to milkweed leaf disks with no anthers, anthers that express Bt (Cry1Ab, event MON810), or other non-Bt anthers were observed using a video-tracking system. As had been shown in previous studies, larvae exposed to Bt anthers fed less and gained less weight than larvae exposed to non-Bt or no anthers, yet there was no evidence of feeding on anthers. Total distance moved, maximum displacement from release point, percentage of time spent moving or near anthers, or mean turn angle did not differ across treatments. However, larvae exposed to Bt anthers spent more time off milkweed leaf disks than those exposed to no anthers and were more likely to move off the leaf than larvae exposed to non-Bt anthers. Results suggest that larvae exposed to Bt anthers behave differently and that ingestion may not be the only way Bt can affect nontarget insects like the monarch butterfly. PMID:17349137

  8. The ancestral circadian clock of monarch butterflies: role in time-compensated sun compass orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reppert, S M

    2007-01-01

    The circadian clock has a vital role in monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) migration by providing the timing component of time-compensated sun compass orientation, which contributes to navigation to the overwintering grounds. The location of circadian clock cells in monarch brain has been identified in the dorsolateral protocerebrum (pars lateralis); these cells express PERIOD, TIMELESS, and a Drosophila-like cryptochrome designated CRY1. Monarch butterflies, like all other nondrosophilid insects examined so far, express a second cry gene (designated insect CRY2) that encodes a vertebrate-like CRY that is also expressed in pars lateralis. An ancestral circadian clock mechanism has been defined in monarchs, in which CRY1 functions as a blue light photoreceptor for photic entrainment, whereas CRY2 functionswithin the clockwork as themajor transcriptional repressor of an intracellular negative transcriptional feedback loop. A CRY1-staining neural pathway has been identified that may connect the circadian (navigational) clock to polarized light input important for sun compass navigation, and a CRY2-positive neural pathway has been discovered that may communicate circadian information directly from the circadian clock to the central complex, the likely site of the sun compass. The monarch butterfly may thus use the CRY proteins as components of the circadian mechanism and also as output molecules that connect the clock to various aspects of the sun compass apparatus. PMID:18419268

  9. Evolution of planetary nebulae. III. Position-velocity images of butterfly-type nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Observations of the motions of the shells of the planetary nebulae NGC 2346, NGC 2371-2, NGC 2440, NGC 6058, NGC 6210, IC 1747, IC 5217, J-320, and M2-9 are presented. These are all 'butterfly' type PNs, and show evidence for bipolar shocks. The observations are interpreted in terms of a fast spherical wind, driven by the central star into a quasi-toroidal envelope deposited earlier by the star, during its slow-wind phase on the asymptotic giant branch. It is shown that this model, which is a straightforward extension of a mechanism previously invoked to account for elliptical PNs, reproduces the essential kinematic features of butterfly PNs. It is inferred that the envelopes of butterflies must have a considerable equator-to-pole density gradient, and it is suggested that the origin of this asphericity must be sought in an as yet unknown mechanism during the AGB, Mira, or OH/IR phases of late stellar evolution. 28 references

  10. Characterization and cytotoxic activity of apoptosis-inducing pierisin-5 protein from white cabbage butterfly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbarayan, Sarathbabu; Marimuthu, Satheesh Kumar; Nachimuthu, Senthil Kumar; Zhang, Wenqing; Subramanian, Selvi

    2016-06-01

    In this study, caspase-dependent apoptosis-inducing pierisin-5 gene was identified and characterized from cabbage white butterfly, Pieris canidia. A thousand-fold increase in expression of pierisin-5 gene was observed from second to third instar larvae, gradually decreasing before pupation. Pierisin-5 was purified from the fifth-instar larvae and was found to exhibit cytotoxicity against HeLa and HepG2 human cancer cell lines. Pierisin-5 showed growth inhibition and several morphological changes such as cell shrinkage, chromatin condensation and apoptotic body formation with programmed cell death in HeLa and HepG2 cells. Moreover, DNA fragmentation was observed after gel electrophoresis analysis. Caspase substrate assay showed further cleavage of Ac-DEVD-pNA, suggesting the activation of Caspase-3. Flow cytometry analysis revealed the cell cycle arrest at G1 phase and increased the percentage of apoptotic cells in cancer cell lines treated with pierisin-5. These findings suggest that pierisin-5 could significantly induce apoptosis in cancer cell lines and is mediated by activation of caspase-3 in the mitochondrial pathway. Phylogenetic analysis using pierisin proteins from Pierid butterflies, ADP-ribosylating toxins from bacteria, human, rat, and mouse indicated the possibility of horizontal transfer of pierisin genes from bacteria to butterflies. The single copy of pierisin gene unlike other insect toxin genes also supports lateral transfer. PMID:26812112

  11. X-ray Tomography and Chemical Imaging within Butterfly Wing Scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rainbow like color of butterfly wings is associated with the internal and surface structures of the wing scales. While the photonic structure of the scales is believed to diffract specific lights at different angle, there is no adequate probe directly answering the 3-D structures with sufficient spatial resolution. The NSRRC nano-transmission x-ray microscope (nTXM) with tens nanometers spatial resolution is able to image biological specimens without artifacts usually introduced in sophisticated sample staining processes. With the intrinsic deep penetration of x-rays, the nTXM is capable of nondestructively investigating the internal structures of fragile and soft samples. In this study, we imaged the structure of butterfly wing scales in 3-D view with 60 nm spatial resolution. In addition, synchrotron-radiation-based Fourier transform Infrared (FT-IR) microspectroscopy was employed to analyze the chemical components with spatial information of the butterfly wing scales. Based on the infrared spectral images, we suggest that the major components of scale structure were rich in protein and polysaccharide

  12. Application of source-receptor models to determine source areas of biological components (pollen and butterflies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Alarcón

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The source-receptor models allow the establishment of relationships between a receptor point (sampling point and the probable source areas (regions of emission through the association of concentration values at the receptor point with the corresponding atmospheric back-trajectories, and, together with other techniques, to interpret transport phenomena on a synoptic scale. These models are generally used in air pollution studies to determine the areas of origin of chemical compounds measured at a sampling point, and thus be able to target actions to reduce pollutants. However, until now, few studies have applied these types of models to describe the source areas of biological organisms. In Catalonia there are very complete records of pollen (data from the Xarxa Aerobiològica de Catalunya, Aerobiology Network of Catalonia and butterflies (data from the Catalan Butterfly Monitoring Scheme, a biological material that is also liable to be transported long distances and whose areas of origin could be interesting to know. This work presents the results of the use of the Seibert et al. model applied to the study of the source regions of: (1 certain pollen of an allergic nature, observed in Catalonia and the Canary Islands, and (2 the migratory butterfly Vanessa cardui, observed in Catalonia. Based on the results obtained we can corroborate the suitability of these models to determine the area of origin of several species, both chemical and biological, therefore expanding the possibilities of applying the original model to the wider field of Aerobiology.

  13. Pierisins and CARP-1: ADP-ribosylation of DNA by ARTCs in butterflies and shellfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Tsuyoshi; Takahashi-Nakaguchi, Azusa; Yamamoto, Masafumi; Watanabe, Masahiko

    2015-01-01

    The cabbage butterfly, Pieris rapae, and related species possess a previously unknown ADP-ribosylating toxin, guanine specific ADP-ribosyltransferase. This enzyme toxin, known as pierisin, consists of enzymatic N-terminal domain and receptor-binding C-terminal domain, or typical AB-toxin structure. Pierisin efficiently transfers an ADP-ribosyl moiety to the N(2) position of the guanine base of dsDNA. Receptors for pierisin are suggested to be the neutral glycosphingolipids, globotriaosylceramide (Gb3), and globotetraosylceramide (Gb4). This DNA-modifying toxin exhibits strong cytotoxicity and induces apoptosis in various human cell lines, which can be blocked by Bcl-2. Pierisin also produces detrimental effects on the eggs and larvae of the non-habitual parasitoids. In contrast, a natural parasitoid of the cabbage butterfly, Cotesia glomerata, was resistant to this toxin. The physiological role of pierisin in the butterfly is suggested to be a defense factor against parasitization by wasps. Other type of DNA ADP-ribosyltransferase is present in certain kinds of edible clams. For example, the CARP-1 protein found in Meretrix lamarckii consists of an enzymatic domain without a possible receptor-binding domain. Pierisin and CARP-1 are almost fully non-homologous at the amino acid sequence level, but other ADP-ribosyltransferases homologous to pierisin are present in different biological species such as eubacterium Streptomyces. Possible diverse physiological roles of the DNA ADP-ribosyltransferases are discussed. PMID:25033755

  14. The functional basis of wing patterning in Heliconius butterflies: the molecules behind mimicry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronforst, Marcus R; Papa, Riccardo

    2015-05-01

    Wing-pattern mimicry in butterflies has provided an important example of adaptation since Charles Darwin and Alfred Russell Wallace proposed evolution by natural selection >150 years ago. The neotropical butterfly genus Heliconius played a central role in the development of mimicry theory and has since been studied extensively in the context of ecology and population biology, behavior, and mimicry genetics. Heliconius species are notable for their diverse color patterns, and previous crossing experiments revealed that much of this variation is controlled by a small number of large-effect, Mendelian switch loci. Recent comparative analyses have shown that the same switch loci control wing-pattern diversity throughout the genus, and a number of these have now been positionally cloned. Using a combination of comparative genetic mapping, association tests, and gene expression analyses, variation in red wing patterning throughout Heliconius has been traced back to the action of the transcription factor optix. Similarly, the signaling ligand WntA has been shown to control variation in melanin patterning across Heliconius and other butterflies. Our understanding of the molecular basis of Heliconius mimicry is now providing important insights into a variety of additional evolutionary phenomena, including the origin of supergenes, the interplay between constraint and evolvability, the genetic basis of convergence, the potential for introgression to facilitate adaptation, the mechanisms of hybrid speciation in animals, and the process of ecological speciation. PMID:25953905

  15. Reward and non-reward learning of flower colours in the butterfly Byasa alcinous (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandori, Ikuo; Yamaki, Takafumi

    2012-09-01

    Learning plays an important role in food acquisition for a wide range of insects. To increase their foraging efficiency, flower-visiting insects may learn to associate floral cues with the presence (so-called reward learning) or the absence (so-called non-reward learning) of a reward. Reward learning whilst foraging for flowers has been demonstrated in many insect taxa, whilst non-reward learning in flower-visiting insects has been demonstrated only in honeybees, bumblebees and hawkmoths. This study examined both reward and non-reward learning abilities in the butterfly Byasa alcinous whilst foraging among artificial flowers of different colours. This butterfly showed both types of learning, although butterflies of both sexes learned faster via reward learning. In addition, females learned via reward learning faster than males. To the best of our knowledge, these are the first empirical data on the learning speed of both reward and non-reward learning in insects. We discuss the adaptive significance of a lower learning speed for non-reward learning when foraging on flowers.

  16. Standardised methods for the GMO monitoring of butterflies and moths: the whys and hows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Lang

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Butterflies and moths (Lepidoptera are correlated with many biotic and abiotic characteristics of the environment, and are widely accepted as relevant protection goals. Adverse effects on butterflies and moths through genetically modified (GM crops have been demonstrated, by both insect-resistant and herbicide-tolerant events. Thus, Lepidoptera are considered suitable bio-indicators for monitoring the potential adverse effects due to the cultivation of GM crops, and guidelines were developed under the umbrella of the Association of German Engineers VDI (Verein Deutscher Ingenieure, entitled “Monitoring the effects of genetically modified organisms (GMO – Standardised monitoring of butterflies and moths (Lepidoptera: transect method, light trap and larval survey”. Here, the background and rationale of the VDI guidelines is presented, including a summary of the methods described in the guidelines. Special emphasis is given to the discussion of underlying reasons for the selection and adjustment of the applied methodology with respect to the GMO monitoring of day-active Lepidoptera, of night-active moths and of the recording of lepidopteran larvae, as well as to sample design and strategy. Further aspects possibly interfering with monitoring quality are treated such as landscape patterns, low species number and abundance in agro-ecosystems, or high year-to-year fluctuations of populations of Lepidoptera. Though specifically designed for GM crops, the VDI guidelines may also serve as a template to monitor the effects of a wider range of adverse factors on Lepidoptera in agriculture.

  17. Occurrence of Elymnias obnubila Marshall and de Nicville, 1883 (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae in southern Mizoram: Range extension of the species and an addition to the Indian butterfly fauna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kunte

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a recent sighting of the Chestnut Palmfly Butterfly, Elymnias obnubila Marshall & de Nicville, 1883 (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae from Ngenpui Wildlife Sanctuary in southern Mizoram. It represents a range extension of the species by 1,500km north of its previously known range in southern Myanmar and Thailand, and an addition to the Indian butterfly fauna.

  18. Synthesis of naturally cross-linked polycrystalline ZrO2 hollow nanowires using butterfly as templates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Naturally cross-linked ZrO2 nanotubes with ∼2.4 μm in length, ∼35 nm in diameter and ∼12 nm in wall thickness was synthesized via the selection of suitable butterfly bio-templates followed by heat processing. ► The contractions, which are main defects of the former hard-template method based on butterflies, are well controlled with the help of the surface tension effect. ► The achieved hollow ZrO2 nanowires suggest a new optional approach that uses bio-templates in fabricating and designing nano systems. - Abstract: Butterfly wing skeleton is a widely used hard-template in recent years for fabricating photonic crystal structures. However, the smallest construction units for the most species of butterflies are commonly larger than ∼50 nm, which greatly hinders their applications in designing much smaller functional parts down to real “nano scale”. This work indicates, however, that hollow ZrO2 nanowires with ∼2.4 μm in length, ∼35 nm in diameter and ∼12 nm in wall thickness can be synthesized via the selection of suitable butterfly bio-templates followed by heat processing. Especially, the successful fabrication of these naturally cross-linked ZrO2 nanotubes suggests a new optional approach in fabricating assembled nano systems.

  19. Synthesis of naturally cross-linked polycrystalline ZrO{sub 2} hollow nanowires using butterfly as templates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Yu, E-mail: chenyu_8323@csu.edu.cn [School of Physics Science and Electronics Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); Gu Jiajun, E-mail: gujiajun@sjtu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Metal Matrix Composites, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Zhu Shenmin; Su Huilan [State Key Laboratory of Metal Matrix Composites, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Zhang Di, E-mail: zhangdi@sjtu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Metal Matrix Composites, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Feng Chuanliang [State Key Laboratory of Metal Matrix Composites, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Zhuang Leyan [Measurement Center of Anti-Counterfeiting Technical Products, Shanghai (China)

    2012-05-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Naturally cross-linked ZrO{sub 2} nanotubes with {approx}2.4 {mu}m in length, {approx}35 nm in diameter and {approx}12 nm in wall thickness was synthesized via the selection of suitable butterfly bio-templates followed by heat processing. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The contractions, which are main defects of the former hard-template method based on butterflies, are well controlled with the help of the surface tension effect. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The achieved hollow ZrO{sub 2} nanowires suggest a new optional approach that uses bio-templates in fabricating and designing nano systems. - Abstract: Butterfly wing skeleton is a widely used hard-template in recent years for fabricating photonic crystal structures. However, the smallest construction units for the most species of butterflies are commonly larger than {approx}50 nm, which greatly hinders their applications in designing much smaller functional parts down to real 'nano scale'. This work indicates, however, that hollow ZrO{sub 2} nanowires with {approx}2.4 {mu}m in length, {approx}35 nm in diameter and {approx}12 nm in wall thickness can be synthesized via the selection of suitable butterfly bio-templates followed by heat processing. Especially, the successful fabrication of these naturally cross-linked ZrO{sub 2} nanotubes suggests a new optional approach in fabricating assembled nano systems.

  20. The application of life history information to the conservation management of Chrysoritis butterflies (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.F. Terblanche

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to their intricate life histories and the unique wing patterns and colouring the butterflies of the genus Chrysoritis are of significant conservation and aesthetic value. Thisoverview probes into practical examples of butterfly life history research applicable to environmental management of this relatively well-known invertebrate group in South Africa. Despite the pioneer work on life histories of Chrysoritis in the past, more should be done to understand the life history of the butterflies in the wild, especially their natural host plants and the behaviour of adults and larvae. A system of voucher specimens of host plants should be introduced in South Africa. Although various host plant species in nature are used by the members of Chrysoritis, including the Chrysoritis chrysaor group, the choice of these in nature by each species is significant for conservation management and in the case of Chrysoritis aureus perhaps even as a specific characteristic.A revision of the ant genus Crematogaster will benefit the conservation management of Chrysoritis species since some of these ant species may consist of a number of specieswith much more restricted distributions than previously thought. Rigorous quantified tudies of population dynamics of Chrysoritis butterflies are absent and the introductionof such studies will benefit conservation management of these localised butterflies extensively.