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1

Multiple infection with Wolbachia inducing different reproductive manipulations in the butterfly Eurema hecabe.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Wolbachia are rickettsial intracellular symbionts of arthropods and nematodes. In arthropods, they act as selfish genetic elements and manipulate host reproduction, including sex-ratio distortion and cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI). Previous studies showed that infection of feminizing Wolbachia and CI Wolbachia sympatrically occurred in the butterfly Eurema hecabe. We demonstrate that feminization-infecting individuals can rescue sperm modified by CI-infecting males. Phylogenetic analysis re...

Hiroki, Masato; Tagami, Yohsuke; Miura, Kazuki; Kato, Yoshiomi

2004-01-01

2

Feminization of genetic males by a symbiotic bacterium in a butterfly, Eurema hecabe (Lepidoptera: Pieridae)  

Science.gov (United States)

Wolbachia are symbiotic bacteria found in many arthropods and filarian nematodes. They often manipulate the reproduction of host arthropods. In the present study, female-biased sex-ratio distortion in the butterfly Eurema hecabe was investigated. Breeding experiments showed that this distorted sex ratio is maternally inherited. When treated with tetracycline, adult females of the thelygenic line produced male progeny only. After PCR using Wolbachia-specific primers for the ftsZ gene a positive result was seen in the thelygenic females, but not in male progeny from tetracycline-treated females, or individuals from a Tokyo population with normal sex ratio and reproduction. Cytological observations showed that thelygenic females lack the sex chromatin body (W chromosome). The results strongly suggest that the sex-ratio distortion in E. hecabe is due to feminization of genetic males by Wolbachia.

Hiroki, Masato; Kato, Yoshiomi; Kamito, Takehiko; Miura, Kazuki

2002-03-01

3

Plant constituents biologically active to insects. VI. Antifeedants for larvae of the yellow butterfly, Eurema hecabe mandarina, in Osmunda japonica. (2).  

Science.gov (United States)

Three antifeedants for larvae of the yellow butterfly, Eurema hecabe mandarina de l'Orza, were isolated from Osmunda japonica Thunb. and identified as osmundalin, parasorboside and methyl (3S,5S)-5-hydroxy-3-(beta-D-glucopyranosyloxy)hexanoate. In the course of isolation of the antifeedants, a new glycoside, dihydroisoosmudalin (9), was isolated together with maltol beta-D-glucopyranoside, 2-deoxy-L-ribopyranolactone, 5-hydroxymethyl.2-furfural and glycerin. The structure of 9 was elucidated as (4R,5S)-5-(beta-D-glucopyranosyloxy)hexan-4-olide on the basis of chemical and spectroscopic evidence. PMID:2076573

Numata, A; Takahashi, C; Fujiki, R; Kitano, E; Kitajima, A; Takemura, T

1990-10-01

4

Ecological correlates of polyphenism and gregarious roosting in the grass yellow butterfly Eurema elathea (Pieridae) / Correlatos ecológicos do polifenismo e dormitórios gregários da borboleta-amarela-da-grama Eurema elathea (Pieridae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Adultos de Eurema elathea foram estudados semanalmente (1992-1994) em seis locais (dormitórios), ao redor de um fragmento de mata em uma fazenda e em dois locais na área urbana de Uberlândia, MG. Os machos foram classificados em seis categorias fenotípicas, as quais variam desde a presença de uma gr [...] ande e conspícua barra preta na margem interna dorsal da asa anterior (forma escura da estação úmida) até a ausência da barra (forma clara da estação seca). A massa corporal e a área da asa foram comparadas: formas diferentes mostraram médias similares. A abundância das borboletas e a freqüência das formas variaram conforme a umidade (chuvas). Na estação úmida, os indivíduos foram menos freqüentes e monomorficamente escuros, enquanto na seca, a população aumenta e as formas claras predominam. As taxas de recaptura e recrutamento são comparadas com outras borboletas que se agregam durante a noite. O potencial de dispersão foi similar entre os sexos e variou sazonalmente, sendo que a população é mais sedentária no período seco. O máximo tempo de residência registrado foi de 91 dias para uma fêmea e de 84 dias para um macho. A fração de indivíduos que se moveram de um sítio de descanso para outro foi similar em ambos os sexos e formas de machos, mas foi significativamente maior na fazenda em relação à área urbana. Da mesma forma, foi recapturada uma fração significativamente maior (21,3%) de borboletas marcadas na área urbana do que na fazenda (15,6%), sugerindo modificação comportamental para o sedentarismo nos indivíduos urbanos. São discutidas as forças seletivas que moldam o hábito de descanso gregário em E. elathea e em outras borboletas, e propõe-se uma estratégia protocooperativa de economia de energia. Abstract in english Eurema elathea adults were censused weekly (1992-1994) in six night-roosts around a forest fragment on a farm, and in two roosts in the urban area of Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Males were grouped in six phenotypic classes. These were based on a range between having a conspicuous wide black ba [...] r at the dorsal forewing inner margin (wet season dark morphs) and the absence of that bar (dry season light morphs). The body mass and wing area of co-occurring morphs were compared: differents morphs showed similar means. The abundance of butterflies and morph frequencies varied in close relation to humidity (rainfall). Individuals were infrequent and monomorphically dark in the wet season while light morphs predominated in dry periods when population peaked. A lower fraction of recaptured individuals and higher recruitment were recorded compared to other night-roosting butterflies. Dispersal potential was similar between the sexes and varied seasonally with a more sedentary population in dry periods. The maximum residence time recorded was 91 days for a female and 84 days for a male. The fraction of individuals that moved from one roosting site to another was similar in both sexes and male morphs, but significantly higher on the farm than in the urban area. Also, a significantly higher fraction (21.3%) of marked butterflies was recaptured in the urban area than on the farm (15.6%), suggesting a behavioral modification for sedentariness in the urban individuals. The selective forces shaping a gregarious roosting habit in E. elathea and other butterflies are discussed and a protocooperational strategy for saving energy is proposed.

A., Ruszczyk; P. C., Motta; R. L., Barros; A. M., Araújo.

5

Butterfly diversity as a data base for the development plan of Butterfly Garden at Bosscha Observatory, Lembang, West Java  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Subahar TSS, Yuliana A (2010 Butterfly diversity as a data base for the development plan of Butterfly Garden at Bosscha Observatory, Lembang, West Java. Biodiversitas 11: 24-28. Change of land use and the increasing number of visitors to Bosscha area was one factor for the development plan of butterfly garden in the area. The objectives of this research were to examine butterfly diversity and its potential for development plan of butterfly garden. Butterfly diversity and its richness conducted by standard walk methods. Host plant and larval food plant was recorded during butterfly survey. Public perception on the development plan of butterfly garden was examined by questionnaire. The results showed that 26 species of butterfly was found in Bosscha area and Delias belisama belisama was the most dominant species. Public perceptions consider that the development plan of butterfly garden will give benefit to the community; not only providing new insight (40.41%, additional tourism object (23.97% and will gave aesthetical value (17.12%. Twelve local species should be considered for development plan of butterfly garden: Papilio agamemnon, P. demoleus, P. memnon, P. sarpedon, Delias belisama, Eurema hecabe, Danaus chrysippus, Argynis hiperbius, Cethosia penthesilea, Hypolimnas missipus, Melanitis phedima and Euthalia Adonijah. Host plant: Bougainvillea spectabilis, Citrus aurantium, Lantana camara, Macaranga tanarius and food plants: Citrus aurantium, Cosmos caudatus, Eupatorium inulifolium, Gomphrena globosa, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Lantana camara, and Tithonia diversifolia.

TATI SURYATI SYAMSUDIN SUBAHAR

2010-01-01

6

Distribution of cytotoxic and DNA ADP-ribosylating activity in crude extracts from butterflies among the family Pieridae.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cabbage butterflies, Pieris rapae and Pieris brassicae, contain strong cytotoxic proteins, designated as pierisin-1 and -2, against cancer cell lines. These proteins exhibit DNA ADP-ribosylating activity. To determine the distribution of substances with cytotoxicity and DNA ADP-ribosylating activity among other species, crude extracts from 20 species of the family Pieridae were examined for cytotoxicity in HeLa cells and DNA ADP-ribosylating activity. Both activities were detected in extracts from 13 species: subtribes Pierina (Pieris rapae, Pieris canidia, Pieris napi, Pieris melete, Pieris brassicae, Pontia daplidice, and Talbotia naganum), Aporiina (Aporia gigantea, Aporia crataegi, Aporia hippia, and Delias pasithoe), and Appiadina (Appias nero and Appias paulina). All of these extracts contained substances recognized by anti-pierisin-1 antibodies, with a molecular mass of approximately 100 kDa established earlier for pierisin-1. Moreover, sequences containing NAD-binding sites, conserved in ADP-ribosyltransferases, were amplified from genomic DNA from 13 species of butterflies with cytotoxicity and DNA ADP-ribosylating activity by PCR. Extracts from seven species, Appias lyncida, Leptosia nina, Anthocharis scolymus, Eurema hecabe, Catopsilia pomona, Catopsilia scylla, and Colias erate, showed neither cytotoxicity nor DNA ADP-ribosylating activity, and did not contain substances recognized by anti-pierisin-1 antibodies. Sequences containing NAD-binding sites were not amplified from genomic DNA from these seven species. Thus, pierisin-like proteins, showing cytotoxicity and DNA ADP-ribosylating activity, are suggested to be present in the extracts from butterflies not only among the subtribe Pierina, but also among the subtribes Aporiina and Appiadina. These findings offer insight to understanding the nature of DNA ADP-ribosylating activity in the butterfly. PMID:18256183

Matsumoto, Yasuko; Nakano, Tsuyoshi; Yamamoto, Masafumi; Matsushima-Hibiya, Yuko; Odagiri, Ken-Ichi; Yata, Osamu; Koyama, Kotaro; Sugimura, Takashi; Wakabayashi, Keiji

2008-02-19

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Biology and distribution of butterfly fauna of Hazara University, Garden Campus, Mansehra, Pakistan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The butterflies are beautiful creature of nature with great economic importance as pollinator as well as bio-indicator of environments. The present survey was conducted to determine the biology and distribution of butterfly fauna of Hazara University, Garden Campus, Mansehra, Pakistan during March-June 2012. The study area was divided into 3 quadrates, i.e., residential area, administration area and main campus. A total of 170 specimens were collected, 10 species were identified belonging to 3 different families and falling in 8 genera. The species were identified. The painted lady, Cynthia cardui (Linnaeus; blue pansy, Junonia orithya Linnaeus; and plain tiger, Danaus chrysippus (Linnaeus were belonging to family Nymphalidae. The lime butterfly, Papilio demoleus Linnaeus and com-mon mormon, P. polytes Linnaeus were belonging to family Papilionidae. The dark clouded yellow, Colias croceus (Geoffroy; common grass yellow, Eumera hecab (Linnaeus; Murree green-veined white, Pieris ajaka Moore; green-veined white, P. napi (Linnaeus and Bath white, Pontia daplidice (Linnaeus were belonging to family Pieridae. The body sizes of E. hecabe and J. orithya were minimum, i.e., 1.4 cm (n = 4 - 13, however, D. chrysippus was maximum, i.e., 2.5 cm (n = 1. The wingspan of E. hecabe was minimum, i.e., 3.7 cm (n = 4, however, P. polytes was maximum, i.e., 7.5 cm (n = 1. Proper preventive measures should be taken into consideration in order to minimize the natural habitat loss, as butterfly fauna is dependent upon proper environmental conditions.

Farzana Perveen

2013-06-01

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Checklist of butterfly fauna of Kohat, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The butterflies play dual role, firstly as the pollinator, carries pollen from one flower to another and secondly their larvae act as the pest, injurious to various crops. Their 21 species were identified belonging to 3 different families from Kohat, Pakistan during September-December 2008. The reported families Namphalidae covered 33%, Papilionidae 10%, and Pieridae 57% biodiversity of butterflies of Kohat. In Namphalidae included: species belonging to subfamily Nymphalinae, Indian fritillary, Argynnis hyperbius Linnaeus; common castor, Ariadne merione (Cramer; painted lady, Cynthia cardui (Linnaeus; peacock pansy, Junonia almanac Linnaeus; blue pansy, J. orithya Linnaeus; common leopard, Phalantha phalantha (Drury; species belonging to subfamily Satyrinae, white edged rock brown, Hipparchia parisatis (Kollar. In Papilionidae included: subfamily Papilioninae, lime butterfly, Papilio demoleus Linnaeus and common mormon, Pa. polytes Linnaeus. In Pieridae included: subfamily Coliaclinae, dark clouded yellow, Colias croceus (Geoffroy; subfamily Coliadinae, lemon emigrant, Catopsilia pomona Fabricius; little orange tip, C. etrida Boisduval; blue spot arab,Colotis protractus Butler; common grass yellow, Eumera hecab (Linnaeus; common brimstone, Gonepteryx rhamni (Linnaeus; yellow orange tip, Ixias pyrene Linnaeus; subfamily Pierinae, pioneer white butterfly, Belenoi aurota Bingham; Murree green-veined white, Pieris ajaka Moore; large cabbage white, P. brassicae Linnaeus; green-veined white, P. napi (Linnaeus; small cabbage white, P. rapae Linnaeus. The wingspan of collected butterflies, minimum was 25 mm of C. etrida which was the smallest butterfly, however, maximum was 100 mm of P. demoleus and P. polytes which were the largest butterflies. A detail study is required for further exploration of butterflies' fauna of Kohat.

Farzana Perveen

2012-09-01

9

Adult butterfly anatomy  

Science.gov (United States)

The butterfly can fly around using its wings and sees where it is going through its eyes. The spiracles allow the butterfly to breathe and the legs are what it uses to walk or crawl around on. The antennae help the butterfly know where it is going. The proboscis is what the butterfly uses to drink nectar from flowers.

Shannon Murphy (Earth's Birthday Project;Program Development)

1998-01-01

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The butterfly effect of the "butterfly effect".  

Science.gov (United States)

The "Butterfly Effect" metaphor states with variance that the flap of a butterfly's wings in Brazil can cause a tornado in Texas. This metaphor has become part of the common vernacular of Western culture. In this paper I discuss the origins of the metaphor, examine its current usage within popular culture, and present an argument as to why it is popular. I propose that the metaphor is a type of semantic attractor, a narrative device with invariant meaning but audience-specific contextualization. Finally I address whether the Butterfly Effect metaphor is a good example of itself. PMID:19527619

Dooley, Kevin J

2009-07-01

11

Lupine and Butterflies  

Science.gov (United States)

In this two-part activity about the connection between the lupine plant and butterflies, learners first read "Miss Rumphius," a storybook about lupine by Barbara Cooney. Then learners plant their own seeds that can be transplanted into the wild. Learners discuss what plants need to grow. Next, learners review the butterfly life cycle and create a butterfly puppet that emerges from a pupa. Educators can also use this activity to introduce learners to endangered species (the Karner Blue butterfly is endangered in Wisconsin because of the decreased lupine population).

Huff, Paula R.

2005-01-01

12

Butterflies of Myanmar  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The document talks about species and habits of Myanmar butterflies that were mentioned by the Nature and Wildlife Conservation Division of the Forest Department under the Ministry of Forestry in Myanmar

2001-01-01

13

Completing the operadic butterfly  

CERN Document Server

We complete a certain diagram (the operadic butterfly) of categories of algebras involving Com, As, and Lie by constructing a type of algebras which have 4 generating operations and 16 relations. The associated operad is self-dual for Koszul duality.

Loday, J L

2004-01-01

14

Lorenz Attractor -- Butterfly Effect  

Science.gov (United States)

The "Butterfly Effect", or more technically the "sensitive dependence on initial conditions", is the essence of chaos. This is illustrated an applet of the Lorenz Attractor. The demonstration shows a graphical representation of the time variation of three variables X(t),Y(t) and Z(t), coupled by non-linear evolution equations.

Michael Cross, Cal T.

15

Bonjour Papillon (Hello Butterfly).  

Science.gov (United States)

This story in French about a butterfly who talks to children is presented in comic-book style and is intended for use in a bilingual education setting. Words and expressions peculiar to the Franco-American idiom are marked and translated into standard French. The drawings are in black and white. (AMH)

Dugas, Donald G.; Ogrydziak, Dan

16

Analysis of reproduction proteins from butterflies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Male butterflies have some certain pathways to prevent the female butterfly which has mated with them from mating with other butterflies. Research shows that some proteins from the male butterflies may play an important role in this mechanism. To investigate how the pathway works, the proteins contained in the spermatophore which is injected into the female butterfly by the male one during mating are very important. In this study, the butterfly spermatophore proteins were mainly studied. The ...

Xu, Jiawei

2011-01-01

17

Butterfly Effect Fractal  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, a new concept of integration of fractal and the butterfly effect is proposed and implemented. A new fractal program was designed and developed to perform such integration. Among many existing fractal and chaos software programs, none of them allow us to achieve the resulting patterns demonstrated in this paper. Moreover, it is the first time that a fractal program provides functional concepts of overlapping results in 3D space and sequential transformations, which allow us to generate a wider variety of patterns. Therefore, potentially an artist can use this program to create 2D digital artworks.

Chang, Yin-Wei; Huang, Fay

18

Butterflies and topological quantum numbers  

CERN Document Server

The Hofstadter model illustrates the notion of topological quantum numbers and how they account for the quantization of the Hall conductance. It gives rise to colorful fractal diagrams of butterflies where the colors represent the topological quantum numbers.

Avron, J E

2001-01-01

19

A new representation of Links: Butterflies  

CERN Document Server

With the idea of an eventual classification of 3-bridge links,\\ we define a very nice class of 3-balls (called butterflies) with faces identified by pairs, such that the identification space is $S^{3},$ and the image of a prefered set of edges is a link. Several examples are given. We prove that every link can be represented in this way (butterfly representation). We define the butterfly number of a link, and we show that the butterfly number and the bridge number of a link coincide. This is done by defining a move on the butterfly diagram. We give an example of two different butterflies with minimal butterfly number representing the knot $8_{20}.$ This raises the problem of finding a set of moves on a butterfly diagram connecting diagrams representing the same link. This is left as an open problem.

Hilden, H M; Tejada, D M; Toro, M M

2012-01-01

20

Monarch Watch: Planting a Butterfly Garden  

Science.gov (United States)

This Planting a Butterfly Garden website from Monarch Watch is a great introductory resource for teachers interested in starting an educational butterfly garden at their school. This site provides several useful information pages including Good Nectar Sources and lists of Larval Host Plants organized both by butterfly and by plant. The site also features a simple step-by-step teacher's guide written by a teacher from Maryland who planned and planted a butterfly garden at her middle school.

 
 
 
 
21

Butterfly larvae fool ants into mothering them  

Science.gov (United States)

Danish researchers have found that in some areas in their country, beautiful blue Alcon butterflies fool ants into raising the butterfly larvae instead of their own, a report explains. The reason? The butterflies have developed an outer coating that mimics that of the ants.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS;)

2008-01-03

22

Mutant butterflies discovered at Fukushima  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A Japanese study has shown that malformations are more and more common in butterflies (Zizeeria maha specie) leaving near the damaged nuclear plant of Fukushima Daiichi. A population of 144 butterflies were caught in 10 villages in a radius of 200 km around Fukushima in may 2011, the ratio of malformations was 12.4%. Obvious malformations were withered antennas and wings. In september 2011 a population of 238 butterflies were caught in the same places and the ratio of malformations was then 28.1%. The increase of the malformation ratio could be explained by a cumulative effect of the radiation exposition. In a second experiment, a population of butterflies was caught in a region non-affected by the radioactive contamination and was submitted in laboratory to radiations similar to that of the contamination around Fukushima and similar malformations appeared. The conclusion of the study is that radionuclides released during the Fukushima accident have caused genetic and physiological damages to this butterfly specie. (A.C.)

2012-10-01

23

Hofstadter butterflies of carbon nanotubes  

CERN Document Server

The electronic spectrum of a two-dimensional square lattice in a perpendicular magnetic field has become known as Hofstadter butterfly[1]. We have calculated quasi one-dimensional analogons of the Hofstadter butterfly for carbon nanotubes (CNTs). For the case of single wall CNTs, it is straightforward to implement magnetic fields parallel to the tube axis by means of zone-folding in the graphene reciprocal lattice. We have also studied perpendicular magnetic fields which, in contrast to the parallel case, lead to a much richer, \\textit{pseudofractal} spectrum. Moreover, we have investigated magnetic fields piercing double wall CNTs and found strong signatures of inter-wall interaction in the resulting Hofstadter butterfly spectrum. Ubiquitous to all perpendicular magnetic field spectra is the presence cusp-catastrophes at specific values of energy and magnetic field. Resolving the density of states along the tube circumference allows to recognize snake states already predicted for non-uniform magnetic fields ...

Nemec, N; Nemec, Norbert; Cuniberti, Gianaurelio

2006-01-01

24

Bt Corn and Monarch Butterflies  

Science.gov (United States)

The US Department of Agriculture's Agriculture Research Service provides this research question and answer page to outline its recent findings about Bt corn, which is genetically modified to include a natural soil bacteria that functions as an insecticide. The findings indicate that "there is no significant risk to monarch butterflies from environmental exposure to Bt corn." Several other questions about the research are answered in non-scientific terms, and there are several links to general information about Bt corn and monarch butterflies, as well as scientific papers including the one that this Web page summarizes.

2002-01-01

25

ESTUDIO DE LA COMUNIDAD DE LEPIDÓPTEROS DIURNOS EN ZONAS NATURALES Y SISTEMAS PRODUCTIVOS DEL MUNICIPIO DE CALOTO (CAUCA, COLOMBIA) / STUDY OF THE BUTTERFLY COMMUNITY IN NATURAL AND INTERVENED AREAS OF CALOTO (CAUCA, COLOMBIA)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Con el objetivo primordial de conocer la diversidad de lepidópteros diurnos en zonas intervenidas de la vereda Morales (Caloto, Cauca), se realizaron muestreos en marzo de 2007 y abril de 2008, utilizando trampas Van Someren-Rydon, captura directa y visual. Se estudiaron 4 biotopos: bosque ripario, [...] cultivo de caña de azúcar, cafetal en policultivo y cerca viva. De 1594 individuos observados, se identificaron 90 especies de mariposas de seis familias; Nymphalidae con 60 especies de las subfamilias Nymphalinae (14), Charaxinae (6), Morphinae (2), Satyrinae (5), Heliconiinae (8), Ithomiinae (6), Danainae (3), Acraeinae (5), Limenitidinae (2), Biblidinae (5) y Melitaeinae (4); Pieridae (11 especies), Hesperiidae (6), Papilionidae (7), Lycaenidae (4) y Riodinidae (2). El 39% de la abundancia, incluyó especies generalistas y polífagas representadas por los géneros Anartia (144 individuos), Actinote (69), Caligo (14), Urbanus (72), Anteos (44), Phoebis (56) y Eurema (223), reconocidas por estar frecuentemente asociadas a zonas altamente intervenidas por el hombre. De lo anterior, se desprende que la presencia de la subfamilia Satyrinae (108 individuos) y del género Morpho (9), indica actividad de lepidópteros característicos de bosque conservado. En este mismo sentido, la alta abundancia de Ithomiinae (199 individuos) en cafetales de sombra alternado con siembra de plátano, indica que este policultivo ofrece un hábitat apropiado para esta subfamilia. Abstract in english Two sampling activities (March 2007 and April 2008) were carried out in the municipal rural settlement of Morales (Caloto-Cauca) in order to evaluate the day-butterfly diversity associated with four intervened biotopes: riparian forest, sugarcane plantations, coffee-plantain crop and natural fence. [...] The 1594 individuals were collected using Van Someren-Rydon traps, belonging to 90 species from six families; Nymphalidae with 60 species from the subfamilies Nymphalinae (14), Charaxinae (6), Morphinae (2), Satyrinae (5), Heliconiinae (8), Ithomiinae (6), Danainae (3), Acraeinae (5), Limenitidinae (2), Biblidinae (5) and Melitaeinae (4), Pieridae (11) Hesperiidae (6), Papilionidae (7), Lycaenidae (4) and Riodinidae (2). Additionally, 39% of the species were polyphagous and generalists, represented by the genera Anartia (144 individuals), Actinote (69), Caligo (14), Urbanus (72), Anteos (44), Phoebis (56) and Eurema (223). All these have been recognized as genera associated to anthropogenic intervened areas. The presence of the Satyrinae subfamily (108 individuals) and the Morpho genus (9 individuals) in the study zone, suggest the presence of high quality forest relicts. The abundance of Ithomiinae (199 individuals) in the shaded coffee-plantain crop indicates that this biotope offers a suitable habitat for this subfamily.

Millán-J., Carolina; Chacón, Patricia; Giraldo, Alan.

26

Measuring Straight Line Segments Using HT Butterflies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper addresses the features of Hough Transform (HT) butterflies suitable for image-based segment detection and measurement. The full segment parameters such as the position, slope, width, length, continuity, and uniformity are related to the features of the HT butterflies. Mathematical analysis and experimental data are presented in order to demonstrate and build the relationship between the measurements of segments and the features of HT butterflies. An effective method is subsequently...

Du, Shengzhi; Tu, Chunling; Wyk, Barend J.; Ochola, Elisha Oketch; Chen, Zengqiang

2012-01-01

27

Simultaneous brightness contrast of foraging Papilio butterflies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study focuses on the sense of brightness in the foraging Japanese yellow swallowtail butterfly, Papilio xuthus. We presented two red discs of different intensity on a grey background to butterflies, and trained them to select one of the discs. They were successfully trained to select either a high intensity or a low intensity disc. The trained butterflies were tested on their ability to perceive brightness in two different protocols: (i) two orange discs of different intensity presented ...

Kinoshita, Michiyo; Takahashi, Yuki; Arikawa, Kentaro

2012-01-01

28

Drawing butterflies from the almost Mathieu operator  

CERN Document Server

Plotting spectra of a range of almost Mathieu operators reveals a beautiful fractal-like image that contains multiple copies of a butterfly image. We demonstrate that plotting the butterflies using a gap-labelling scheme based on K-theory or Chern numbers reveals systematic discontinuities in the gap positioning. A proper image is produced only when we take into account these discontinuities, and close the butterfly wingtips at the points of discontinuity. A conjecture is presented showing a simple formula for locating the discontinuities, and numerical evidence is given to support the conjecture. We also present new renderings of this butterfly.

Lamoureux, Michael P

2010-01-01

29

A survey design for monitoring butterflies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A technique commonly used for surveying butterflies is the Pollard - Yates method (Pollard, 1977; Pollard and Yates, 1993). This method was originally developed for surveying butterflies at Monks Wood, UK (Pollard et al., 1975) and is now widely used in the UK. The method is based on a count of the number of butterflies seen along a fixed survey route. The Pollard - Yates method is easy to implement in the field but it does not allow for differences in the ability to detect butterflies among ...

Jennifer Ann Brown; Mark Stephen Boyce

2001-01-01

30

Hofstadter butterflies of bilayer graphene  

CERN Document Server

We calculate the electronic spectrum of bilayer graphene in perpendicular magnetic fields non-perturbatively. To accomodate arbitrary displacements between the two layers, we apply a periodic gauge based on singular flux vortices of phase $2\\pi$. The resulting Hofstadter-like butterfly plots show a reduced symmetry, depending on the relative position of the two layers against each other. The split of the zero-energy relativistic Landau level differs by one order of magnitude between Bernal- and non-Bernal stacking.

Nemec, N; Nemec, Norbert; Cuniberti, Gianaurelio

2006-01-01

31

Butterfly valve torque prediction methodology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As part of the Motor-Operated Valve (MOV) Performance Prediction Program, the Electric Power Research Institute has sponsored the development of methodologies for predicting thrust and torque requirements of gate, globe, and butterfly MOVs. This paper presents the methodology that will be used by utilities to calculate the dynamic torque requirements for butterfly valves. The total dynamic torque at any disc position is the sum of the hydrodynamic torque, bearing torque (which is induced by the hydrodynamic force), as well as other small torque components (such as packing torque). The hydrodynamic torque on the valve disc, caused by the fluid flow through the valve, depends on the disc angle, flow velocity, upstream flow disturbances, disc shape, and the disc aspect ratio. The butterfly valve model provides sets of nondimensional flow and torque coefficients that can be used to predict flow rate and hydrodynamic torque throughout the disc stroke and to calculate the required actuation torque and the maximum transmitted torque throughout the opening and closing stroke. The scope of the model includes symmetric and nonsymmetric discs of different shapes and aspects ratios in compressible and incompressible fluid applications under both choked and nonchoked flow conditions. The model features were validated against test data from a comprehensive flowloop and in situ test program. These tests were designed to systematically address the effect of the following parameters on the required torque: valve size, disc shapes and disc aspect ratios, upstream elbow orientation and its proximity, and flow conditions. The applicability of the nondimensional coefficients to valves of different sizes was validated by performing tests on 42-in. valve and a precisely scaled 6-in. model. The butterfly valve model torque predictions were found to bound test data from the flow-loop and in situ testing, as shown in the examples provided in this paper

1994-07-01

32

Mouthpart separation does not impede butterfly feeding.  

Science.gov (United States)

The functionality of butterfly mouthparts (proboscis) plays an important role in pollination systems, which is driven by the reward of nectar. Proboscis functionality has been assumed to require action of the sucking pump in the butterfly's head coupled with the straw-like structure. Proper proboscis functionality, however, also is dependent on capillarity and wettability dynamics that facilitate acquisition of liquid films from porous substrates. Due to the importance of wettability dynamics in proboscis functionality, we hypothesized that proboscides of eastern black swallowtail (Papilio polyxenes asterius Stoll) (Papilionidae) and cabbage butterflies (Pieris rapae Linnaeus) (Pieridae) that were experimentally split (i.e., proboscides no longer resembling a sealed straw-like tube) would retain the ability to feed. Proboscides were split either in the drinking region (distal 6-10% of proboscis length) or approximately 50% of the proboscis length 24 h before feeding trials when butterflies were fed a red food-coloring solution. Approximately 67% of the butterflies with proboscides split reassembled prior to the feeding trials and all of these butterflies displayed evidence of proboscis functionality. Butterflies with proboscides that did not reassemble also demonstrated fluid uptake capabilities, thus suggesting that wild butterflies might retain fluid uptake capabilities, even when the proboscis is partially injured. PMID:24389004

Lehnert, Matthew S; Mulvane, Catherine P; Brothers, Aubrey

2014-03-01

33

[Keratouveitis and lens opacity caused by butterfly hair].  

Science.gov (United States)

Butterfly hair is known to cause eye injury. In Africa, incriminated butterflies are Hylesia (spp). We report a case of a sub-epithelial keratitis associated with anterior uveitis following a trauma by a butterfly that was complicated by late lens opacity due to butterfly hair. Ocular lesions caused by butterfly hair are rare, but require an urgent management to prevent late and severe complications due to intraocular migration of the hairs. PMID:22978182

Domngang Noche, C; Kengmogne, B; Bella, A L

2012-01-01

34

Minimum Cycle Covers of Butterfly and Benes Networks  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Butterfly network is the most popular bounded-degree derivative of the hypercube network. The benes network consists of back-to-back butterflies. In this paper, we obtain the minimum vertex-disjoint cycle cover number for the odd dimensional butterfly networks and prove that it is not possible to find the same for the even dimensional butterfly networks and benes networks. Further we obtain the minimum edge-disjoint cycle cover number for butterfly networks.

Albert William

2012-01-01

35

Butterflies on the Stretched Horizon  

CERN Document Server

In this paper I return to the question of what kind of perturbations on Alice's side of an Einstein-Rosen bridge can send messages to Bob as he enters the horizon at the other end. By definition "easy" operators do not activate messages and "hard" operators do, but there are no clear criteria to identify the difference between easy and hard. In this paper I argue that the difference is related to the time evolution of a certain measure of computational complexity, associated with the stretched horizon of Alice's black hole. The arguments suggest that the AMPSS commutator argument is more connected with butterflies than with firewalls.

Susskind, Leonard

2013-01-01

36

Biology: Birds and butterflies in climatic debt  

Science.gov (United States)

A European-wide analysis of changing species distributions shows that butterflies outrun birds in the race to move northwards in response to climate change, but that neither group keeps up with increasing temperatures.

Visser, Marcel E.

2012-02-01

37

Solid-state physics: The butterfly emerges  

Science.gov (United States)

Through carefully controlled deposition of graphene on hexagonal boron nitride, an experimental system is created with which to probe the quantum physics of electrons in two dimensions -- allowing experimental access to the elusive 'Hofstadter butterfly'.

Weiss, Dieter

2013-07-01

38

Biophotonics: Blue butterflies feel the heat  

Science.gov (United States)

Bio-inspired by the nano-architectures of iridescent Morpho butterfly scales, scientists have demonstrated a highly sensitive infrared detector that can efficiently upconvert mid-infrared radiation to visible iridescence changes.

Sambles, J. R.

2012-03-01

39

Quantum Hall Effect on the Hofstadter Butterfly  

CERN Document Server

Motivated by recent experimental attempts to detect the Hofstadter butterfly, we numerically calculate the Hall conductivity in a modulated two-dimensional electron system with disorder in the quantum Hall regime. We identify the critical energies where the states are extended for each of butterfly subbands, and obtain the trajectory as a function of the disorder. Remarkably, we find that when the modulation becomes anisotropic, the critical energy branches accompanying a change of the Hall conductivity.

Koshino, M; Koshino, Mikito; Ando, Tsuneya

2004-01-01

40

Encroaching forests decouple alpine butterfly population dynamics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Over the past 50 years, the rising tree line along Jumpingpound Ridge in the Rocky Mountains of Alberta, Canada, has reduced the area of alpine meadows and isolated populations that reside within them. By analyzing an 11-year data set of butterfly population sizes for 17 subpopulations along the ridge, we show that forest habitat separating alpine meadows decouples the dynamics of populations of the alpine butterfly Parnassius smintheus. Although the distance between populations is often nega...

Roland, Jens; Matter, Stephen F.

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

Quantum Hall Effect on the Hofstadter Butterfly  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Motivated by recent experimental attempts to detect the Hofstadter butterfly, we numerically calculate the Hall conductivity in a modulated two-dimensional electron system with disorder in the quantum Hall regime. We identify the critical energies where the states are extended for each of butterfly subbands, and obtain the trajectory as a function of the disorder. Remarkably, we find that when the modulation becomes anisotropic, the critical energy branches accompanying a ch...

Koshino, Mikito; Ando, Tsuneya

2005-01-01

42

Sea gulls, butterflies, and grasshoppers: A brief history of the butterfly effect in nonlinear dynamics  

Science.gov (United States)

The butterfly effect has become a popular metaphor for sensitive dependence on initial conditions-the hallmark of chaotic behavior. I describe how, where, and when this term was conceived in the 1970s. Surprisingly, the butterfly metaphor was predated by more than 70 years by the grasshopper effect.

Hilborn, Robert C.

2004-04-01

43

The Return of the Blue Butterfly  

Science.gov (United States)

The Return of the Blue Butterfly The English writer Charles Dickens once wrote: "I only ask to be free. The butterflies are free". But are they really? The work that I performed with a group of students from 8th grade, had a starting point of climate change and the implications it has on ecosystems. Joining the passion I have for butterflies, I realized that they are also in danger of extinction due to these climatic effects. Thus, it was easy to seduce my students wanting to know more. Luckily I found Dr. Paula Seixas Arnaldo, a researcher at the University of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro, who has worked on butterflies and precisely investigated this issue. Portugal is the southern limit of butterfly-blue (Phengaris alcon), and has been many years in the red book of endangered species. Butterfly-blue is very demanding of their habitat, and disappears very easily if ideal conditions are not satisfied. Increased fragmentation of landscapes and degradation of suitable habitats, are considered the greatest challenges of the conservation of Phengaris butterfly in Portugal. In recent decades, climate change has also changed butterfly-blue spatial distribution with a movement of the species northward to colder locations, and dispersion in latitude. Butterflies of Europe must escape to the North because of the heat. Dr. Paula Seixas Arnaldo and her research team began a project, completed in December 2013, wanted to preserve and restore priority habitats recognized by the European Union to help species in danger of disappearing with increasing temperature. The blue butterfly is extremely important because it is a key indicator of the quality of these habitats. In the field, the butterflies are monitored to collect all possible data in order to identify the key species. Butterflies start flying in early July and cease in late August. Mating takes about an hour and occurs in the first days of life. The gentian-peat (Gentiana pneumonanthe) serves as the host plant for laying eggs. Each female lays an average of 60 eggs. Larva must grow in a plant near an anthill of Myrmica aloba species. This is important because butterfly larvae are myrmecophilous, living with ants that feed the butterfly larvae for 11 months, because the ants think the butterfly larvae are ant larvae. In early summer the larvae pupate in the nest of ants. Before expanding their wings, they have to leave quickly to avoid being killed by ants when the ants discover have been deceived. My students became aware of this research; we studied and prepared in order to carry out fieldwork. Thus students learn the content and curricular in a scientifically fun way, first with group work in the classroom with my guidance and in a second stage carry knowledge to the field under the guidance of Dra Paula Seixas Arnaldo. We know where we started ... where we arrives is success!

Santos, Anabela

2014-05-01

44

Flutter-by Interactive Butterfly Using interactivity to excite and educate children about butterflies and the National Museum of Play at The Strong's Dancing Wings Butterfly Garden  

Science.gov (United States)

The National Museum of Play at The Strong's Dancing Wings Butterfly Garden is a tropical rainforest that allows visitors to step into the world of butterflies, but lacks a more comprehensive educational element to teach visitors additional information about butterflies. Flutter-by Interactive Butterfly is a thesis project designed to enhance younger visitors' experience of the Dancing Wings Butterfly Garden with an interactive educational application that aligns with The Strong's mission of encouraging learning, creativity, and discovery. This was accomplished through a series of fun and educational games and animations, designed for use as a kiosk outside the garden and as a part of The Strong's website. Content, planning, and organization of this project has been completed through research and observation of the garden in the following areas: its visitors, butterflies, best usability practices for children, and game elements that educate and engage children. Flutter-by Interactive Butterfly teaches users about the butterfly's life cycle, anatomy, and characteristics as well as their life in the Dancing Wings Butterfly Garden. Through the use of the design programs Adobe Illustrator, Flash, and After Effects; the programming language ActionScript3.0; a child-friendly user interface and design; audio elements and user takeaways, Flutter-by Interactive Butterfly appeals to children of all ages, interests, and learning styles. The project can be viewed at lydiapowers.com/Thesis/FlutterByButterfly.html

Powers, Lydia

45

Do monarch butterflies use polarized skylight for migratory orientation?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

To test if migratory monarch butterflies use polarized light patterns as part of their time-compensated sun compass, we recorded their virtual flight paths in a flight simulator while the butterflies were exposed to patches of naturally polarized blue sky, artificial polarizers or a sunny sky. In addition, we tested butterflies with and without the polarized light detectors of their compound eye being occluded. The monarchs' orientation responses suggested that the butterflies did not use the...

Stalleicken, J.; Mukhida, M.; Labhart, T.; Wehner, R.; Frost, B.; Mouritsen, H.

2005-01-01

46

Male-killing in African butterflies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Female-biased sex ratios occur in many insect species as a consequence of infection by maternally-inherited male-killing bacterial endosymbionts. In this paper, we revise the research conducted on the phenomenon of male-killing in African nymphalid butterflies, with special focus on the cases of Danaus chrysippus, Acraea encedon and Acraea encedana. The evolution of male-killing in each case was addressed, together with the phylogeny of male-killers that were identified from this group. Moreover, the potential impacts that male-killers might impose on the evolution of their butterfly hosts were thoroughly investigated. In the end of this review, we present a number of unanswered questions to be targeted by future research work on the male-killing in these butterflies.

Sami Saeed M. Hassan

2013-02-01

47

Fault-Tolerant Routing in Butterfly Networks  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This research shows that Butterfly networks can be fault-tolerant using Masked Interval Routing Scheme (MIRS. The MIRS was introduced with the aim of compressing the routing tables in a network. It was shown that MIRS could drastically reduce interval information stored in networks such as globe and hypercube graphs, compared to the classical Interval Routing Scheme (IRS. In Butterfly graphs of O(N vertices the number of intervals per edge goes down from ? in IRS to O(logN in MIRS. This research shows that MIRS may be advantageously used in Butterfly networks, proving that optimal routing with one interval per edge is still possible with a harmless subset of faulty vertices. This research gives an optimal algorithm to reconfigure the intervals in the presence of faults.

Mohammed H. Mahafzah

2010-01-01

48

Butterflies II: Torsors for 2-group stacks  

CERN Document Server

We study torsors over 2-groups and their morphisms. In particular, we study the first non-abelian cohomology group with values in a 2-group. Butterfly diagrams encode morphisms of 2-groups and we employ them to examine the functorial behavior of non-abelian cohomology under change of coefficients. We re-interpret the first non-abelian cohomology with coefficients in a 2-group in terms of gerbes bound by a crossed module. Our main result is to provide a geometric version of the change of coefficients map by lifting a gerbe along the ``fraction'' (weak morphism) determined by a butterfly. As a practical byproduct, we show how butterflies can be used to obtain explicit maps at the cocycle level. In addition, we discuss various commutativity conditions on cohomology induced by various degrees of commutativity on the coefficient 2-groups, as well as specific features pertaining to group extensions.

Aldrovandi, Ettore

2009-01-01

49

Chromosome evolution in Neotropical butterflies.  

Science.gov (United States)

We list the chromosome numbers for 65 species of Neotropical Hesperiidae and 104 species or subspecies of Pieridae. In Hesperiidae the tribe Pyrrhopygini have a modal n = 28, Eudaminae and Pyrgini a modal n = 31, while Hesperiinae have n = around 29. Among Pieridae, Coliadinae have a strong modal n = 31 and among Pierinae Anthocharidini are almost fixed for n = 15 while Pierini vary with n = 26 as the most common chromosome number. Dismorphiinae show wide variation. We discuss these results in the context of chromosome numbers of over 1400 Neotropical butterfly species and subspecies derived from about 3000 populations published here and in earlier papers of a series. The overall results show that many Neotropical groups are characterized by karyotype instability with several derived modal numbers or none at all, while almost all taxa of Lepidoptera studied from the other parts of the world have one of n = 29-31 as modal numbers. Possibly chromosome number changes become fixed in the course of speciation driven by biotic interactions. Population subdivision and structuring facilitate karyotype change. Factors that stabilize chromosome numbers include hybridization among species sharing the same number, migration, sexual selection and possibly the distribution of chromosomes within the nucleus. PMID:23865963

Saura, Anssi; Von Schoultz, Barbara; Saura, Anja O; Brown, Keith S

2013-06-01

50

Cavitation noise from butterfly valves  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cavitation in valves can produce levels of intense noise. It is possible to mathematically express a limit for a design level of cavitation noise in terms of the cavitation parameter sigma. Using the cavitation parameter or limit, it is then possible to calculate the flow conditions at which a design level of cavitation noise will occur. However, the intensity of cavitation increases with the upstream pressure and valve size at a constant sigma. Therefore, it is necessary to derive equations to correct or scale the cavitation limit for the effects of different upstream pressures and valve sizes. The following paper discusses and presents experimental data for the cavitation noise limit as well as the cavitation limits of incipient, critical, incipient damage, and choking cavitation for butterfly valves. The main emphasis is on the design limit of cavitation noise, and a noise level of 85 decibels was selected as the noise limit. Tables of data and scaling exponents are included for applying the design limits for the effects of upstream pressure and valve size.

Rahmeyer, W.J. (Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins (USA))

1982-10-01

51

Butterfly rash with periodontitis: A diagnostic dilemma  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Rashes can occur in any part of the body. But rash which appears on face has got both psychological and cosmetic effect on the patient. Rashes on face can sometimes be very challenging to physicians and dermatologists and those associated with oral manifestations pose a challenge to dentists. Butterfly rash is a red flat facial rash involving the malar region bilaterally and the bridge of the nose. The presence of a butterfly rash is generally a sign of lupus erythematosus (LE), but it can al...

Aggarwal, Manvi; Mittal, Mudit; Dwivedi, Swati; Vashisth, Pallavi; Jaiswal, Deepesh

2012-01-01

52

Czech butterfly and moths recording scheme.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

. Cluj : Babes-Bolyai University Cluj, 2009. s. 14-14.[Proceedings of the European Congress of Lepidopterology /16./. 25.05.2009-31.05.2009, Cluj]Grant CEP: GA MŠk LC06073Výzkumný zám?r: CEZ:AV0Z50070508Klí?ová slova: czech butterflyKód oboru RIV: EH - Ekologie - spole?enstva

Beneš, Ji?í; Kepka, Pavel; Konvi?ka, Martin

53

The Butterfly Decomposition of Plane Trees  

CERN Document Server

We introduce the notion of doubly rooted plane trees and give a decomposition of these trees, called the butterfly decomposition which turns out to have many applications. From the butterfly decomposition we obtain a one-to-one correspondence between doubly rooted plane trees and free Dyck paths, which implies a simple derivation of a relation between the Catalan numbers and the central binomial coefficients. We also establish a one-to-one correspondence between leaf-colored doubly rooted plane trees and free Schr\\"oder paths. The classical Chung-Feller theorem on free Dyck paths and some generalizations and variations with respect to Dyck paths and Schr\\"oder paths with flaws turn out to be immediate consequences of the butterfly decomposition and the preorder traversal of plane trees. We obtain two involutions on free Dyck paths and free Schr\\"oder paths, leading to two combinatorial identities. We also use the butterfly decomposition to give a combinatorial treatment of the generating function for the numb...

Chen, W Y C; Shapiro, L W; Chen, William Y.C.; Li, Nelson Y.; Shapiro, Louis W.

2005-01-01

54

Hofstadter butterfly as Quantum phase diagram  

CERN Document Server

The Hofstadter butterfly is viewed as a quantum phase diagram with infinitely many phases, labelled by their (integer) Hall conductance, and a fractal structure. We describe various properties of this phase diagram: We establish Gibbs phase rules; count the number of components of each phase, and characterize the set of multiple phase coexistence.

Osadchy, D

2001-01-01

55

Honeybees, Butterflies, and Ladybugs: Partners to Plants  

Science.gov (United States)

Honeybees, butterflies, and ladybugs all have fascinating mutually beneficial relationships with plants and play important ecosystem roles. Children also love these creatures. But how do we teach children about these symbiotic interactions and help them appreciate their vital roles in our environment? One must is to give children direct experience…

Campbell, Ashley

2009-01-01

56

The Invasive Buddleja Daviddi (Butterfly Bush)  

Science.gov (United States)

Buddleja davidii Franchet (Synonym. Buddleia davidii; common name butterfly bush) is a perennial, semi-deciduous, multi-stemmed shrub that is resident in gardens and disturbed areas. Since its introduction to the United Kingdom from China in the late 1800s, B. davidii has become...

57

75 FR 10309 - Wisconsin Statewide Habitat Conservation Plan for Karner Blue Butterfly  

Science.gov (United States)

...additional conservation and protection of butterfly habitat, without the ``fear'' sometimes associated with government regulation. Management protocols have been refined, populations of butterflies have increased and others discovered,...

2010-03-05

58

MonarchBase: the monarch butterfly genome database  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) is emerging as a model organism to study the mechanisms of circadian clocks and animal navigation, and the genetic underpinnings of long-distance migration. The initial assembly of the monarch genome was released in 2011, and the biological interpretation of the genome focused on the butterfly’s migration biology. To make the extensive data associated with the genome accessible to the general biological and lepidopteran communities, we established Mo...

2013-01-01

59

Tracking butterfly flight paths across the landscape with harmonic radar  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

For the first time, the flight paths of five butterfly species were successfully tracked using harmonic radar within an agricultural landscape. Until now, butterfly mobility has been predominantly studied using visual observations and mark–recapture experiments. Attachment of a light-weight radar transponder to the butterfly's thorax did not significantly affect behaviour or mobility. Tracks were analysed for straightness, duration, displacement, ground speed, foraging and the influence of ...

Cant, E. T.; Smith, A. D.; Reynolds, D. R.; Osborne, J. L.

2005-01-01

60

On Random Linear Network Coding for Butterfly Network  

CERN Document Server

Random linear network coding is a feasible encoding tool for network coding, specially for the non-coherent network, and its performance is important in theory and application. In this letter, we study the performance of random linear network coding for the well-known butterfly network by analyzing the failure probabilities. We determine the failure probabilities of random linear network coding for the well-known butterfly network and the butterfly network with channel failure probability p.

Guang, Xuan

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

On Random Linear Network Coding for Butterfly Network  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Random linear network coding is a feasible encoding tool for network coding, specially for the non-coherent network, and its performance is important in theory and application. In this letter, we study the performance of random linear network coding for the well-known butterfly network by analyzing the failure probabilities. We determine the failure probabilities of random linear network coding for the well-known butterfly network and the butterfly network with channel failu...

Guang, Xuan; Fu, Fang-wei

2010-01-01

62

Lounge Butterfly märgiti ära rahvusvaheliselt kõrgelt hinnatud erialaajakirjas  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Ülevaade erialaajakirjas "Drinks International" ilmunud artiklist, mis hindab Lounge Butterfly'd paremuselt Baltimaade teiseks joogikohaks ning joogikoha rahvusvahelistel võistlustel auhindu noppinud barmenidest-omanikest

2011-01-01

63

Acoustic characterization of Hofstadter butterfly with resonant scatterers  

CERN Document Server

We are interested in the experimental characterization of the Hofstadter butterfly by means of acoustical waves. The transmission of an acoustic pulse through an array of 60 variable and resonant scatterers periodically distribued along a waveguide is studied. An arbitrary scattering arrangement is realized by using the variable length of each resonator cavity. For a periodic modulation, the structures of forbidden bands of the transmission reproduce the Hofstadter butterfly. We compare experimental, analytical, and computational realizations of the Hofstadter butterfly and we show the influence of the resonances of the scatterers on the structure of the butterfly.

Richoux, Olivier

2009-01-01

64

Seeing Hofstadter's butterfly in atomic Fermi gases  

Science.gov (United States)

We propose a way to detect the fractal energy spectrum of the Hofstadter model from the density distributions of ultracold fermions in an external trap. At low temperature, the local compressibility is proportional to the density of states of the system, which reveals the fractal energy spectrum. However, thermal broadening and noises in the real experimental situation inevitably smear out fine features in the density distribution. To overcome this difficulty, we use the maximum entropy method to extract the density of states directly from the noisy thermal density distributions. Simulations show that one is able to restore the core feature of the Hofstadter's butterfly spectrum with current experimental techniques. By further reducing the noise or the temperature, one can refine the resolution and observe fine structures of the butterfly spectrum.

Wang, Lei; Troyer, Matthias

2014-01-01

65

From the Hofstadter to the Fibonacci butterfly  

CERN Document Server

We show that the electronic spectrum of a tight-binding hamiltonian defined in a quasiperiodic chain with an on-site potential given by a Fibonacci sequence, can be obtained as a superposition of Harper potentials. The electronic spectrum of the Harper equation is a fractal set, known as Hofstadter butterfly. Here we show that is possible to construct a similar butterfly for the Fibonacci potential just by adding harmonics to the Harper potential. As a result, the equations in reciprocal space for the Fibonacci case have the form of a chain with a long range interaction between Fourier components. Then we explore the transformation between both spectra, and specifically the origin of energy gaps due to the analytical calculation of the components in reciprocal space of the potentials. We also calculate some localization properties by finding the correlator of each potential.

Naumis, G G; Naumis, Gerardo G.

2006-01-01

66

Butterflies in a Semi-Abelian Context  

CERN Document Server

It is known that monoidal functors between internal groupoids in the category Grp of groups constitute the bicategory of fractions of the 2-category Grpd(Grp) of internal groupoids, internal functors and internal natural transformations in Grp with respect to weak equivalences. Monoidal functors can be described equivalently by a kind of weak morphisms introduced by B. Noohi under the name of "butter ies". In order to internalize monoidal functors in a wide context, we introduce the notion of internal butterflies between internal crossed modules in a semi-abelian category C, and we show that they are morphisms of a bicategory B(C): Our main result states that, when in C the notions of Huq commutator and Smith commutator coincide, then the bicategory B(C) of internal butterflies is the bicategory of fractions of Grpd(C) with respect to weak equivalences (that is, internal functors which are internally fully faithful and essentially surjective on objects).

Abbad, Omar; Metere, Giuseppe; Vitale, Enrico M

2011-01-01

67

Navigational Mechanisms of Migrating Monarch Butterflies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Recent studies of the iconic fall migration of monarch butterflies have illuminated the mechanisms behind the navigation south, using a time-compensated sun compass. Skylight cues, such as the sun itself and polarized light, are processed through both eyes and likely integrated in the brain’s central complex, the presumed site of the sun compass. Time compensation is provided by circadian clocks that have a distinctive molecular mechanism and that reside in the antennae. Monarchs may also u...

2010-01-01

68

Monitoring Butterfly Abundance: Beyond Pollard Walks  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Most butterfly monitoring protocols rely on counts along transects (Pollard walks) to generate species abundance indices and track population trends. It is still too often ignored that a population count results from two processes: the biological process (true abundance) and the statistical process (our ability to properly quantify abundance). Because individual detectability tends to vary in space (e.g., among sites) and time (e.g., among years), it remains unclear whether index counts truly...

Pellet, Je?ro?me; Bried, Jason T.; Parietti, David; Gander, Antoine; Heer, Patrick O.; Cherix, Daniel; Arlettaz, Raphae?l

2012-01-01

69

Male-killing in African butterflies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Female-biased sex ratios occur in many insect species as a consequence of infection by maternally-inherited male-killing bacterial endosymbionts. In this paper, we revise the research conducted on the phenomenon of male-killing in African nymphalid butterflies, with special focus on the cases of Danaus chrysippus, Acraea encedon and Acraea encedana. The evolution of male-killing in each case was addressed, together with the phylogeny of male-killers that were identi...

Hassan, Sami Saeed M.; Eihab Idris

2013-01-01

70

Determinants of paternity in a butterfly  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Success in sperm competition is of fundamental importance to males, yet little is known about what factors determine paternity. Theory predicts that males producing high sperm numbers have an advantage in sperm competition. Large spermatophore size (the sperm containing package) also correlates with paternity in some species, but the relative importance of spermatophore size and sperm numbers has remained unexplored. Males of the small white butterfly, Pieris rapae (Lepidoptera: Pieridae), pr...

Wedell, N.; Cook, P. A.

1998-01-01

71

Butterflies I: morphisms of 2-group stacks  

CERN Document Server

Weak morphisms of non-abelian complexes of length 2, or crossed modules, are morphisms of the associated 2-group stacks, or gr-stacks. We present a full description of the weak morphisms in terms of diagrams we call butterflies. We give a complete description of the resulting bicategory of crossed modules, which we show is fibered and biequivalent to the 2-stack of 2-group stacks. As a consequence we obtain a complete characterization of the non-abelian derived category of complexes of length 2. Deligne's analogous theorem in the case of Picard stacks and abelian sheaves becomes an immediate corollary. Commutativity laws on 2-group stacks are also analyzed in terms of butterflies, yielding new characterizations of braided, symmetric, and Picard 2-group stacks. Furthermore, the description of a weak morphism in terms of the corresponding butterfly diagram allows us to obtain a long exact sequence in non-abelian cohomology, removing a preexisting fibration condition on the coefficients short exact sequence.

Aldrovandi, Ettore

2008-01-01

72

Directionally controlled fluorescence emission in butterflies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recently developed, high-efficiency, light-emitting diodes use two-dimensional photonic crystals to enhance the extraction of otherwise internally trapped light and multilayer reflectors to control the direction of light emission. This work describes the characterization of a naturally evolved light-extraction system on the wing scales of a small group of Papilio butterflies. The efficient extraction of fluorescence from these scales is facilitated by a two-dimensional photonic crystal slab that uses a multilayer to help control emission direction. Its light-extraction function is analogous to that of the light-emitting diode. PMID:16293753

Vukusic, Pete; Hooper, Ian

2005-11-18

73

Hofstadter butterfly for a finite correlated system  

CERN Document Server

We investigate a finite two-dimensional system in the presence of external magnetic field. We discuss how the energy spectrum depends on the system size, boundary conditions and Coulomb repulsion. On one hand, using these results we present the field dependence of the transport properties of a nanosystem. In particular, we demonstrate that these properties depend on whether the system consists of even or odd number of sites. On the other hand, on the basis of exact results obtained for a finite system we investigate whether the Hofstadter butterfly is robust against strong electronic correlations. We show that for sufficiently strong Coulomb repulsion the Hubbard gap decreases when the magnetic field increases.

Czajka, K; Maska, M M; Mierzejewski, M; Czajka, Katarzyna; Gorczyca, Anna; Maska, Maciej M.; Mierzejewski, Marcin

2006-01-01

74

Forward flight of swallowtail butterfly with simple flapping motion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Unlike other flying insects, the wing motion of swallowtail butterflies is basically limited to flapping because their fore wings partly overlap their hind wings, structurally restricting the feathering needed for active control of aerodynamic force. Hence, it can be hypothesized that the flight of swallowtail butterflies is realized with simple flapping, requiring little feedback control of the feathering angle. To verify this hypothesis, we fabricated an artificial butterfly mimicking the wing motion and wing shape of a swallowtail butterfly and analyzed its flights using images taken with a high-speed video camera. The results demonstrated that stable forward flight could be realized without active feathering or feedback control of the wing motion. During the flights, the artificial butterfly's body moved up and down passively in synchronization with the flapping, and the artificial butterfly followed an undulating flight trajectory like an actual swallowtail butterfly. Without feedback control of the wing motion, the body movement is directly affected by change of aerodynamic force due to the wing deformation; the degree of deformation was determined by the wing venation. Unlike a veinless wing, a mimic wing with veins generated a much higher lift coefficient during the flapping flight than in a steady flow due to the large body motion.

2010-06-01

75

Forward flight of swallowtail butterfly with simple flapping motion.  

Science.gov (United States)

Unlike other flying insects, the wing motion of swallowtail butterflies is basically limited to flapping because their fore wings partly overlap their hind wings, structurally restricting the feathering needed for active control of aerodynamic force. Hence, it can be hypothesized that the flight of swallowtail butterflies is realized with simple flapping, requiring little feedback control of the feathering angle. To verify this hypothesis, we fabricated an artificial butterfly mimicking the wing motion and wing shape of a swallowtail butterfly and analyzed its flights using images taken with a high-speed video camera. The results demonstrated that stable forward flight could be realized without active feathering or feedback control of the wing motion. During the flights, the artificial butterfly's body moved up and down passively in synchronization with the flapping, and the artificial butterfly followed an undulating flight trajectory like an actual swallowtail butterfly. Without feedback control of the wing motion, the body movement is directly affected by change of aerodynamic force due to the wing deformation; the degree of deformation was determined by the wing venation. Unlike a veinless wing, a mimic wing with veins generated a much higher lift coefficient during the flapping flight than in a steady flow due to the large body motion. PMID:20484782

Tanaka, Hiroto; Shimoyama, Isao

2010-06-01

76

Monitoring butterfly abundance: beyond Pollard walks.  

Science.gov (United States)

Most butterfly monitoring protocols rely on counts along transects (Pollard walks) to generate species abundance indices and track population trends. It is still too often ignored that a population count results from two processes: the biological process (true abundance) and the statistical process (our ability to properly quantify abundance). Because individual detectability tends to vary in space (e.g., among sites) and time (e.g., among years), it remains unclear whether index counts truly reflect population sizes and trends. This study compares capture-mark-recapture (absolute abundance) and count-index (relative abundance) monitoring methods in three species (Maculinea nausithous and Iolana iolas: Lycaenidae; Minois dryas: Satyridae) in contrasted habitat types. We demonstrate that intraspecific variability in individual detectability under standard monitoring conditions is probably the rule rather than the exception, which questions the reliability of count-based indices to estimate and compare specific population abundance. Our results suggest that the accuracy of count-based methods depends heavily on the ecology and behavior of the target species, as well as on the type of habitat in which surveys take place. Monitoring programs designed to assess the abundance and trends in butterfly populations should incorporate a measure of detectability. We discuss the relative advantages and inconveniences of current monitoring methods and analytical approaches with respect to the characteristics of the species under scrutiny and resources availability. PMID:22859980

Pellet, Jérôme; Bried, Jason T; Parietti, David; Gander, Antoine; Heer, Patrick O; Cherix, Daniel; Arlettaz, Raphaël

2012-01-01

77

Monitoring Butterfly Abundance: Beyond Pollard Walks  

Science.gov (United States)

Most butterfly monitoring protocols rely on counts along transects (Pollard walks) to generate species abundance indices and track population trends. It is still too often ignored that a population count results from two processes: the biological process (true abundance) and the statistical process (our ability to properly quantify abundance). Because individual detectability tends to vary in space (e.g., among sites) and time (e.g., among years), it remains unclear whether index counts truly reflect population sizes and trends. This study compares capture-mark-recapture (absolute abundance) and count-index (relative abundance) monitoring methods in three species (Maculinea nausithous and Iolana iolas: Lycaenidae; Minois dryas: Satyridae) in contrasted habitat types. We demonstrate that intraspecific variability in individual detectability under standard monitoring conditions is probably the rule rather than the exception, which questions the reliability of count-based indices to estimate and compare specific population abundance. Our results suggest that the accuracy of count-based methods depends heavily on the ecology and behavior of the target species, as well as on the type of habitat in which surveys take place. Monitoring programs designed to assess the abundance and trends in butterfly populations should incorporate a measure of detectability. We discuss the relative advantages and inconveniences of current monitoring methods and analytical approaches with respect to the characteristics of the species under scrutiny and resources availability.

Pellet, Jerome; Bried, Jason T.; Parietti, David; Gander, Antoine; Heer, Patrick O.; Cherix, Daniel; Arlettaz, Raphael

2012-01-01

78

Effects of herbicides on Behr's metalmark butterfly, a surrogate species for the endangered butterfly, Lange's metalmark.  

Science.gov (United States)

Lange's metalmark butterfly, Apodemia mormo langei Comstock, is in danger of extinction due to loss of habitat caused by invasive exotic plants which are eliminating its food, naked stem buckwheat. Herbicides are being used to remove invasive weeds from the dunes; however, little is known about the potential effects of herbicides on butterflies. To address this concern we evaluated potential toxic effects of three herbicides on Behr's metalmark, a close relative of Lange's metalmark. First instars were exposed to recommended field rates of triclopyr, sethoxydim, and imazapyr. Life history parameters were recorded after exposure. These herbicides reduced the number of adults that emerged from pupation (24-36%). Each herbicide has a different mode of action. Therefore, we speculate that effects are due to inert ingredients or indirect effects on food plant quality. If these herbicides act the same in A. mormo langei, they may contribute to the decline of this species. PMID:22310058

Stark, John D; Chen, Xue Dong; Johnson, Catherine S

2012-05-01

79

Interactions between butterfly scales and unsteady flows during flapping flight  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent research has shown that the highly flexible wings of butterflies in flapping flight develop vortices along their leading and trailing edges. Butterfly scales (approximately 100 microns) have a shingled pattern and extend into the boundary layer. These scales could play a part in controlling separation in this 3-dimensional complex flow field. Biomimetic applications of butterfly scales may aid in the development of flapping wing micro air vehicles. In this study, we observed that the orientation of the scales may relate to the local flow field, and might move or shift during flight. Monarch butterflies were trained to fly in a low speed smoke tunnel for visualization. Scales were removed from the leading and trailing edges and specimens were photographed at 500 frames per second. Variation in flapping pattern and flight fitness are discussed.

Jones, Robert; Lang, Amy

2008-11-01

80

Butterfly morphology in a molecular age -- does it still matter in butterfly systematics?  

Science.gov (United States)

We review morphological characters considered important for understanding butterfly phylogeny and evolution in the light of recent large-scale molecular phylogenies of the group. A number of the most important morphological works from the past half century are reviewed and morphological character evolution is reassessed based on the most recent phylogenetic results. In particular, higher level butterfly morphology is evaluated based on a very recent study combining an elaborate morphological dataset with a similar molecular one. Special attention is also given to the families Papilionidae, Nymphalidae and Hesperiidae which have all seen morphological and molecular efforts come together in large, combined works in recent years. In all of the examined cases the synergistic effect of combining elaborate morphological datasets with ditto molecular clearly outweigh the merits of either data type analysed on its own (even for 'genome size' molecular datasets). It is evident that morphology, far from being obsolete or arcane, still has an immensely important role to play in butterfly (and insect) phylogenetics. Not least because understanding morphology is essential for understanding and evaluating the evolutionary scenarios phylogenetic trees are supposed to illustrate. PMID:22583793

Simonsen, Thomas J; de Jong, Rienk; Heikkilä, Maria; Kaila, Lauri

2012-07-01

 
 
 
 
81

Host ant independent oviposition in the parasitic butterfly Maculinea alcon  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Parasitic Maculinea alcon butterflies can only develop in nests of a subset of available Myrmica ant species, so female butterflies have been hypothesized to preferentially lay eggs on plants close to colonies of the correct host ants. Previous correlational investigations of host-ant-dependent oviposition in this and other Maculinea species have, however, shown equivocal results, leading to a long-term controversy over support for this hypothesis. We therefore conducted a controlled field ex...

2010-01-01

82

The population genetics of mimetic diversity in Heliconius butterflies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Theory predicts strong stabilizing selection on warning patterns within species and convergent evolution among species in Müllerian mimicry systems yet Heliconius butterflies exhibit extreme wing pattern diversity. One potential explanation for the evolution of this diversity is that genetic drift occasionally allows novel warning patterns to reach the frequency threshold at which they gain protection. This idea is controversial, however, because Heliconius butterflies are unlikely to experi...

Kronforst, Marcus R.; Gilbert, Lawrence E.

2008-01-01

83

Pollen Processing Behavior of Heliconius Butterflies: A Derived Grooming Behavior  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Pollen feeding behaviors Heliconius and Laparus (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) represent a key innovation that has shaped other life history traits of these neotropical butterflies. Although all flower visiting Lepidoptera regularly come in contact with pollen, only Heliconius and Laparus butterflies actively collect pollen with the proboscis and subsequently take up nutrients from the pollen grains. This study focused on the behavior of pollen processing and compared the movement patterns with p...

Hikl, Anna-laetitia; Krenn, Harald W.

2011-01-01

84

Evidence for positive density-dependent emigration in butterfly metapopulations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A positive effect of (meta)population density on emigration has been predicted by many theoretical models and confirmed empirically in various organisms. However, in butterflies, the most popular species for dispersal studies, the evidence for its existence has so far been equivocal, with negative relationships between density and emigration being reported more frequently. We analysed dispersal in sympatric metapopulations of two Maculinea butterflies, intensively surveyed with mark–release...

Nowicki, Piotr; Vrabec, Vladimir

2011-01-01

85

Quantified interference and diffraction in single Morpho butterfly scales  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Brilliant iridescent colouring in male butterflies enables long-range conspecific communication and it has long been accepted that microstructures, rather than pigments, are responsible for this coloration. Few studies, however, explicitly relate the intra-scale microstructures to overall butterfly visibility, both in terms of reflected and transmitted intensities and viewing angles. Using a focused-laser technique, we investigated the absolute reflectivity and transmissivity associated with ...

Vukusic, P.; Sambles, J. R.; Lawrence, C. R.; Wootton, R. J.

1999-01-01

86

Phylogenomics provides strong evidence for relationships of butterflies and moths.  

Science.gov (United States)

Butterflies and moths constitute some of the most popular and charismatic insects. Lepidoptera include approximately 160 000 described species, many of which are important model organisms. Previous studies on the evolution of Lepidoptera did not confidently place butterflies, and many relationships among superfamilies in the megadiverse clade Ditrysia remain largely uncertain. We generated a molecular dataset with 46 taxa, combining 33 new transcriptomes with 13 available genomes, transcriptomes and expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Using HaMStR with a Lepidoptera-specific core-orthologue set of single copy loci, we identified 2696 genes for inclusion into the phylogenomic analysis. Nucleotides and amino acids of the all-gene, all-taxon dataset yielded nearly identical, well-supported trees. Monophyly of butterflies (Papilionoidea) was strongly supported, and the group included skippers (Hesperiidae) and the enigmatic butterfly-moths (Hedylidae). Butterflies were placed sister to the remaining obtectomeran Lepidoptera, and the latter was grouped with greater than or equal to 87% bootstrap support. Establishing confident relationships among the four most diverse macroheteroceran superfamilies was previously challenging, but we recovered 100% bootstrap support for the following relationships: ((Geometroidea, Noctuoidea), (Bombycoidea, Lasiocampoidea)). We present the first robust, transcriptome-based tree of Lepidoptera that strongly contradicts historical placement of butterflies, and provide an evolutionary framework for genomic, developmental and ecological studies on this diverse insect order. PMID:24966318

Kawahara, Akito Y; Breinholt, Jesse W

2014-08-01

87

Developing `Butterfly Warriors': a Case Study of Science for Citizenship  

Science.gov (United States)

Given worldwide concern about a decline in student engagement in school science and an increasing call for science for citizenship in New Zealand Curriculum, this study focused on a butterfly unit that investigated how students in a year-4 primary classroom learnt about New Zealand butterflies through thinking, talking, and acting as citizen scientists. The butterfly unit included five lessons. The researchers observed the lessons and interviewed students and the classroom teacher. The students completed a unit evaluation survey after the unit. Findings indicate that the students enjoyed and were interested in activities such as reading about butterflies, learning and using new vocabulary, drawing butterfly life cycles, as well as hunting, tagging and releasing butterflies and publishing the data they had collected on a dedicated website. Through their participation in the unit, students had opportunities to act locally and globally, and to `see themselves' in science through `being there' experience. Units like this have the potential to develop students' interest for longer-term engagement in science, even those students who may never envision themselves as professional scientists.

Chen, Junjun; Cowie, Bronwen

2013-12-01

88

A magnetic compass aids monarch butterfly migration.  

Science.gov (United States)

Convincing evidence that migrant monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) use a magnetic compass to aid their fall migration has been lacking from the spectacular navigational capabilities of this species. Here we use flight simulator studies to show that migrants indeed possess an inclination magnetic compass to help direct their flight equatorward in the fall. The use of this inclination compass is light-dependent utilizing ultraviolet-A/blue light between 380 and 420?nm. Notably, the significance of light monarch studies. The antennae are important for the inclination compass because they appear to contain light-sensitive magnetosensors. For migratory monarchs, the inclination compass may serve as an important orientation mechanism when directional daylight cues are unavailable and may also augment time-compensated sun compass orientation for appropriate directionality throughout the migration. PMID:24960099

Guerra, Patrick A; Gegear, Robert J; Reppert, Steven M

2014-01-01

89

Sparse Fourier Transform via Butterfly Algorithm  

CERN Document Server

We introduce a fast algorithm for computing sparse Fourier transforms supported on smooth curves or surfaces. This problem appear naturally in several important problems in wave scattering and reflection seismology. The main observation is that the interaction between a frequency region and a spatial region is approximately low rank if the product of their radii are bounded by the maximum frequency. Based on this property, equivalent sources located at Cartesian grids are used to speed up the computation of the interaction between these two regions. The overall structure of our algorithm follows the recently-introduced butterfly algorithm. The computation is further accelerated by exploiting the tensor-product property of the Fourier kernel in two and three dimensions. The proposed algorithm is accurate and has an $O(N \\log N)$ complexity. Finally, we present numerical results in both two and three dimensions.

Ying, Lexing

2008-01-01

90

Quantum computation over the butterfly network  

CERN Document Server

In order to investigate distributed quantum computation under restricted network resources, we introduce a quantum computation task over the butterfly network where both quantum and classical communications are limited. We consider performing a two qubit global unitary operation on two unknown inputs given at different nodes, with outputs at two distinct nodes. By using a particular resource scenario introduced by Hayashi, which is capable of performing a swap operation by adding two maximally entangled qubits (ebits) between the two input nodes, we show that any controlled unitary operation can be performed without adding any entanglement resource. We also construct protocols for performing controlled traceless unitary operations with a 1-ebit resource and for performing global Clifford operations with a 2-ebit resource.

Kinjo, Yoshiyuki; Soeda, Akihito; Turner, Peter S

2010-01-01

91

Local and effective: Two projects of butterfly farming in Cambodia and Tanzania (Insecta: Lepidoptera  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Los proyectos "Banteay Srey Butterfly Centre" en Camboya (Asia y "Zanzibar Butterfly Centre" in Tanzania (África se describen como modelos de cría sostenible de mariposas en apoyo para comunidades locales.

T. van der Heyden

2011-01-01

92

Monitoring of butterflies within a landscape context in south-eastern Sweden  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Monitoring of butterflies is often directed only towards grassland fauna. Species associated with other habitats, as well as the impact of the surrounding landscape, are often neglected. The aim with this study was, in contrast, to perform and evaluate a landscape-based monitoring method for butterflies in diverse habitats and more specifically to (i) evaluate the impact of environmental variables on butterfly abundance; (ii) compare the distribution of butterflies in different habitats; and ...

Jonason, Dennis; Milberg, Per; Bergman, Karl-olof

2010-01-01

93

The aerodynamic costs of warning signals in palatable mimetic butterflies and their distasteful models.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Bates hypothesized that some butterfly species that are palatable gain protection from predation by appearing similar to distasteful butterflies. When undisturbed, distasteful butterflies fly slowly and in a straight line, and palatable Batesian mimics also adopt this nonchalant behaviour. When seized by predators, distasteful butterflies are defended by toxic or nauseous chemicals. Lacking chemical defences, Batesian mimics depend on flight to escape attacks. Here, I demonstrate that flight ...

Srygley, Robert B.

2004-01-01

94

Odour Maps in the Brain of Butterflies with Divergent Host-Plant Preferences  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Butterflies are believed to use mainly visual cues when searching for food and oviposition sites despite that their olfactory system is morphologically similar to their nocturnal relatives, the moths. The olfactory ability in butterflies has, however, not been thoroughly investigated. Therefore, we performed the first study of odour representation in the primary olfactory centre, the antennal lobes, of butterflies. Host plant range is highly variable within the butterfly family Nymphalidae, w...

Carlsson, Mikael A.; Bisch-knaden, Sonja; Scha?pers, Alexander; Mozuraitis, Raimondas; Hansson, Bill S.; Janz, Niklas

2011-01-01

95

Monitoring of butterflies in semi-natural grasslands : diurnal variation and weather effects  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The butterfly fauna was monitored in six semi-natural grasslands in southeastern Sweden. The aim was to evaluate monitoring criteria for wind, sunshine, temperature and time of day for butterfly species richness and abundances when using the line transect method. A total of 30,111 butterflies belonging to 46 species were recorded. Data from this study suggests somewhat stricter criteria for temperature and sunshine than stated in the widely used "Pollards walk". A sharp decline in butterfly n...

Wikstroem, Linnea; Milberg, Per; Bergman, Karl-olof

2009-01-01

96

The Subversion of the Oriental Stereotype in M. Butterfly  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper is to examine the Oriental stereotype propagated by Giacomo Puccini’s Madame Butterfly and how it is subverted in David Henry Hwang’s M. Butterfly. Puccini portrays a docile, self-sacrificial Oriental woman who is totally submissive to and finally dies for her unworthy White lover. The opera’s popularity has perpetuated the stereotype of an ideal Oriental woman. In Hwang’s M. Butterfly, the stereotype of the ideal Oriental woman is subverted as the gender roles and the power structure of the Oriental woman and the Occidental man have been reversed. The White man, Gallimard, rather than a powerful sexual predator, is manipulated by his Oriental lover, a man masquerading woman, and finally dies for his Oriental lover. By analyzing the stereotype in Madame Butterfly and its subversion in M. Butterfly, it is hoped to reveal the insidiousness of stereotyping in understanding different cultures and peoples and it is also called for to rid people of stereotyping in cross-cultural communications.

Songfeng Wen

2013-04-01

97

Host ant independent oviposition in the parasitic butterfly Maculinea alcon  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Parasitic Maculinea alcon butterflies can only develop in nests of a subset of available Myrmica ant species, so female butterflies have been hypothesized to preferentially lay eggs on plants close to colonies of the correct host ants. Previous correlational investigations of host-ant-dependent oviposition in this and other Maculinea species have, however, shown equivocal results, leading to a long-term controversy over support for this hypothesis. We therefore conducted a controlled field experiment to study the egg-laying behaviour of M. alcon. Matched potted Gentiana plants were set out close to host-ant nests and non-host-ant nests, and the number and position of eggs attached were assessed. Our results show no evidence for host-ant-based oviposition in M. alcon, but support an oviposition strategy based on plant characteristics. This suggests that careful management of host-ant distribution is necessary for conservation of this endangered butterfly.

Fürst, Matthias A; Nash, David Richard

2010-01-01

98

Fire creates host plant patches for monarch butterflies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) depend on the presence of host plants (Asclepias spp.) within their breeding range for reproduction. In the southern Great Plains, Asclepias viridis is a perennial that flowers in May and June, and starts to senesce by August. It is locally abundant and readily used by monarchs as a host plant. We evaluated the effects of summer prescribed fire on A. viridis and the use of A. viridis by monarch butterflies. Summer prescribed fire generated a newly emergent population of A. viridis that was absent in other areas. Pre-migrant monarch butterflies laid eggs on A. viridis in summer burned plots in late August and September, allowing adequate time for a new generation of adult monarchs to emerge and migrate south to their overwintering grounds. Thus, summer prescribed fire may provide host plant patches and/or corridors for pre-migrant monarchs during a time when host plant availability may be limited in other areas. PMID:22859559

Baum, Kristen A; Sharber, Wyatt V

2012-12-23

99

A mosaic of chemical coevolution in a large blue butterfly.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Mechanisms of recognition are essential to the evolution of mutualistic and parasitic interactions between species. One such example is the larval mimicry that Maculinea butterfly caterpillars use to parasitize Myrmica ant colonies. We found that the greater the match between the surface chemistry of Maculinea alcon and two of its host Myrmica species, the more easily ant colonies were exploited. The geographic patterns of surface chemistry indicate an ongoing coevolutionary arms race between the butterflies and Myrmica rubra, which has significant genetic differentiation between populations, but not between the butterflies and a second, sympatric host, Myrmica ruginodis, which has panmictic populations. Alternative hosts may therefore provide an evolutionary refuge for a parasite during periods of counteradaptation by their preferred hosts. Udgivelsesdato: 2008-Jan-4

Nash, David R; Als, Thomas D

2008-01-01

100

Hall plateau diagram for the Hofstadter butterfly energy spectrum  

CERN Document Server

We extensively study the localization and the quantum Hall effect in the Hofstadter butterfly, which emerges in a two-dimensional electron system with a weak two-dimensional periodic potential. We numerically calculate the Hall conductivity and the localization length for finite systems with the disorder in general magnetic fields, and estimate the energies of the extended levels in an infinite system. We obtain the Hall plateau diagram on the whole region of the Hofstadter butterfly, and propose a theory for the evolution of the plateau structure with increasing disorder. There we show that a subband with the Hall conductivity $n e^2/h$ has $|n|$ separated bunches of extended levels, at least for an integer $n \\leq 2$. We also find that the clusters of the subbands with identical Hall conductivity, which repeatedly appear in the Hofstadter butterfly, have a similar localization property.

Koshino, M; Koshino, Mikito; Ando, Tsuneya

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Distribution and evolutionary impact of wolbachia on butterfly hosts.  

Science.gov (United States)

Wolbachia are maternally inherited endosymbiotic alpha-proteobacteria found in terrestrial arthropods and filarial nematodes. They are transmitted vertically through host cytoplasm and alter host biology by inducing various reproductive alterations, like feminization, parthenogenesis, male killing (MK) and cytoplasmic incompatibility. In butterflies, some effects especially MK and sperm-egg incompatibility are well established. All these effects skew the sex ratio towards female and subsequently favor the vertical transmission of Wolbachia. Some of the insects are also infected with multiple Wolbachia strains which may results in some complex phenomenon. In the present review the potential of Wolbachia for promoting evolutionary changes in its hosts with emphasis on recent advances in interactions of butterfly-Wolbachia is discussed. In addition to this, strain diversity of Wolbachia and its effects on various butterfly hosts are also highlighted. PMID:24891730

Salunkhe, Rahul C; Narkhede, Ketan P; Shouche, Yogesh S

2014-09-01

102

The Effect of Wing Scales on Monarch Butterfly Flight Characteristics  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent research has shown that the highly flexible wings of butterflies in flapping flight develop vortices along their leading and trailing edges. Butterfly scales (approximately 100 microns in length) have a shingled pattern and extend into the boundary layer. These scales, which make up approximately 3% of the body weight or less, could play a part in controlling separation and vortex formation in this unsteady, three-dimensional complex flow field. A better understanding of this mechanism may lead to bio-inspired applications for flapping wing micro-air vehicles. In this study, the flight performance of Monarch (Danaus plexippus) butterflies with and without scales was analyzed. Scales were removed from the upper and lower wing surfaces and specimens were videotaped at 600 frames per second. Variation in flapping patterns and flight fitness were observed.

Shaw, Angela; Jones, Robert; Lang, Amy

2010-11-01

103

A mosaic of chemical coevolution in a large blue butterfly  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Mechanisms of recognition are essential to the evolution of mutualistic and parasitic interactions between species. One such example is the larval mimicry that Maculinea butterfly caterpillars use to parasitize Myrmica ant colonies. We found that the greater the match between the surface chemistry of Maculinea alcon and two of its host Myrmica species, the more easily ant colonies were exploited. The geographic patterns of surface chemistry indicate an ongoing coevolutionary arms race between the butterflies and Myrmica rubra, which has significant genetic differentiation between populations, but not between the butterflies and a second, sympatric host, Myrmica ruginodis, which has panmictic populations. Alternative hosts may therefore provide an evolutionary refuge for a parasite during periods of counteradaptation by their preferred hosts.

Nash, David R; Als, Thomas Damm

2008-01-01

104

Selection on the wing in Heliconius butterflies.  

Science.gov (United States)

To what extent population structure favours the establishment of new phenotypes within a species remains a fundamental question in evolutionary studies. By reducing gene flow, habitat fragmentation is a major factor shaping the genetic structuring of populations, favouring isolation of small populations in which drift may rapidly change frequencies of new variants. When these variants provide advantages to individuals, the combined effect of selection and drift can lead to rapid shifts in phenotypes. In a study published in BMC Genetics, Albuquerque de Moura et al. asked whether such a general pattern of population structure can be observed in Heliconius species, which could have strong implication in the evolution of colour pattern diversification in these butterflies. In this commentary we discuss the potential roles of these three processes (drift, selection and dispersal) on the evolution of Heliconius wing patterns in regard to the findings of a common fine-scale population structure within the co-mimetic species H. melpomene and H. erato. Indeed, a general pattern of population subdivision in the history of these two species may have provoked the major phenotypical shifts observed in their wing colour patterns. The suggestion that coupled environmental pressures (counter-selection of dispersal and selection on co-evolved traits) could be responsible for identical genetic differentiation profiles in H. erato and H. melpomene clearly merits further investigations using both detailed population genetic (including landscape genetic) and ecological studies. PMID:21443788

Legrand, Delphine; Stevens, Virginie M; Baguette, Michel

2011-01-01

105

Selection on the wing in Heliconius butterflies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Asbtract To what extent population structure favours the establishment of new phenotypes within a species remains a fundamental question in evolutionary studies. By reducing gene flow, habitat fragmentation is a major factor shaping the genetic structuring of populations, favouring isolation of small populations in which drift may rapidly change frequencies of new variants. When these variants provide advantages to individuals, the combined effect of selection and drift can lead to rapid shifts in phenotypes. In a study published in BMC Genetics, Albuquerque de Moura et al. asked whether such a general pattern of population structure can be observed in Heliconius species, which could have strong implication in the evolution of colour pattern diversification in these butterflies. In this commentary we discuss the potential roles of these three processes (drift, selection and dispersal on the evolution of Heliconius wing patterns in regard to the findings of a common fine-scale population structure within the co-mimetic species H. melpomene and H. erato. Indeed, a general pattern of population subdivision in the history of these two species may have provoked the major phenotypical shifts observed in their wing colour patterns. The suggestion that coupled environmental pressures (counter-selection of dispersal and selection on co-evolved traits could be responsible for identical genetic differentiation profiles in H. erato and H. melpomene clearly merits further investigations using both detailed population genetic (including landscape genetic and ecological studies.

Stevens Virginie M

2011-03-01

106

AFM Study of Structure Influence on Butterfly Wings Coloration  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study describes the structural coloration of the butterfly Vanessa Atalanta wings and shows how the atomic force microscopy (AFM can be applied to the study of wings morphology and wings surface behavior under the temperature. The role of the wings morphology in colors was investigated. Different colors of wings have different topology and can be identified by them. AFM in semi-contact mode was used to study the wings surface. The wing surface area, which is close to the butterfly body, has shiny brown color and the peak of surface roughness is about 600 nm. The changing of morphology at different temperatures is shown.

Dinara Sultanovna Dallaeva

2012-01-01

107

Does the butterfly diagram indicate asolar flux-transport dynamo?  

CERN Document Server

We address the question whether the properties of the observed latitude-time diagram of sunspot occurence (the butterfly diagram) provide evidence for the operation of a flux-transport dynamo, which explains the migration of the sunspot zones and the period of the solar cycle in terms of a deep equatorward meridional flow. We show that the properties of the butterfly diagram are equally well reproduced by a conventional dynamo model with migrating dynamo waves, but without transport of magnetic flux by a flow. These properties seem to be generic for an oscillatory and migratory field of dipole parity and thus do not permit an observational distinction between different dynamo approaches.

Schüssler, M

2004-01-01

108

Negative density-distribution relationship in butterflies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Because "laws of nature" do not exist in ecology, much of the foundations of community ecology rely on broad statistical generalisations. One of the strongest generalisations is the positive relationship between density and distribution within a given taxonomic assemblage; that is, locally abundant species are more widespread than locally sparse species. Several mechanisms have been proposed to create this positive relationship, and the testing of these mechanisms is attracting increasing attention. Results We report a strong, but counterintuitive, negative relationship between density and distribution in the butterfly fauna of Finland. With an exceptionally comprehensive data set (data includes all 95 resident species in Finland and over 1.5 million individuals, we have been able to submit several of the mechanisms to powerful direct empirical testing. Without exception, we failed to find evidence for the proposed mechanisms creating a positive density-distribution relationship. On the contrary, we found that many of the mechanisms are equally able to generate a negative relationship. Conclusion We suggest that one important determinant of density-distribution relationships is the geographical location of the study: on the edge of a distribution range, suitable habitat patches are likely to be more isolated than in the core of the range. In such a situation, only the largest and best quality patches are likely to be occupied, and these by definition can support a relatively dense population leading to a negative density-distribution relationship. Finally, we conclude that generalizations about the positive density-distribution relationship should be made more cautiously.

Kotiaho Janne S

2005-03-01

109

Iteradensovirus from the Monarch Butterfly, Danaus plexippus plexippus.  

Science.gov (United States)

The 5,006-nucleotide (nt)-long genome of a new virus from monarch butterfly pupae was cloned and sequenced. It was flanked by inverted terminal repeats (ITRs) of 239 nt with 163-nt hairpins. The monosense genome with three open reading frames is typical of the genus Iteradensovirus in the subfamily Densovirinae of the family Parvoviridae. PMID:24744339

Yu, Qian; Tijssen, Peter

2014-01-01

110

Controlling the cavitation phenomenon of evolution on a butterfly valve  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Development of the phenomenon of cavitation in cavitation behavior requires knowledge of both plant and equipment working in the facility. This paper presents a diagram of cavitational behavior for a butterfly valve with a diameter of 100 mm at various openings, which was experimentally built. We proposed seven stages of evolution of the phenomenon of cavitation in the case of a butterfly valve. All these phases are characterized by pressure drop, noise and vibration at various flow rates and flow sections through the valve. The level of noise and vibration for the seven stages of development of the phenomenon of cavitation were measured simultaneously. The experimental measurements were comprised in a knowledge database used in training of a neural network of a neural flow controller that maintains flow rate constantly in the facility by changing the opening butterfly valve. A fuzzy position controller is used to access the valve open. This is the method proposed to provide operational supervision outside the cavitation for a butterfly valve.

Baran, G; Safta, C A [Department of Hydraulic and Hydraulic Machineries, University Politehnica of Bucharest, 313 Splaiul Independentei, Bucharest, 060042 (Romania); Catana, I [Department of Control and Computer Science, University Politehnica of Bucharest (Romania); Magheti, I; Savu, M, E-mail: baran_gheorghe@yahoo.co.u [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University Politehnica of Bucharest (Romania)

2010-08-15

111

Adolescent butterfly swimmer with bilateral subluxing sternoclavicular joints  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sternoclavicular joint subluxation/dislocation injuries in the athlete are uncommon. They can be organised by degree (subluxation, dislocation), timing (acute, chronic, recurrent, congenital), direction (anterior, posterior), and cause (traumatic, atraumatic). The unusual case reported is an adolescent butterfly swimmer with recurrent bilateral sternoclavicular subluxation associated with pain and discomfort. The condition was treated and resolved with conservative management. The diagnosis, ...

Echlin, P. S.; Michaelson, J. E.

2006-01-01

112

Vegetation associated with the occurrence of the Brenton blue butterfly  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english The Brenton blue butterfly, Orachrysops niobe (Trimen), is critically endangered and known only from one site near Knysna in the Western Cape province of South Africa, now proclaimed as the Brenton Blue Butterfly Reserve (BBBR). We have explored associations between vegetation types and the presence [...] of O. niobe's only host plant, Indigofera erecta (Thunb.), using Braun-Blanquet vegetation classification and ordination techniques as part of a broader research project at the BBBR. Positive correlations are demonstrated between the occurrence of I. erecta and certain thicket vegetation types dominated by Pterocelastrus tricuspidatus (candlewood trees). Ordinations using soil analysis and slope data have not detected significant environmental gradients influencing vegetation types. The high degree of vegetation heterogeneity at the BBBR appears to be driven in part by various disturbance histories. Historical ecological events at the site such as fire and megaherbivore impacts, and their role in sustaining the ideal habitat for I. erecta and O. niobe, are discussed. Management techniques for the BBBR such as controlled fires or the cutting of paths through the vegetation are evaluated and an optimum future management strategy is recommended. This is the most comprehensive vegetation study ever carried out at the habitat of an endangered butterfly in South Africa, and breaks new ground by using vegetation analysis to develop a well-informed management plan for conservation of this species. It has significance for the management of small sites where many such endangered butterflies occur.

D.A., Edge; S.S., Cilliers; R.F., Terblanche.

113

But Madame Butterfly, Where Are All the Males?  

Science.gov (United States)

This Scientific American article reports that a population of Samoan blue moon butterflies has been able to develop resistance to the male-killing bacteria Wolbachia. It explores how an introduced suppressor gene allowed resistant males to proliferate within the population in less than a year and includes future research questions.

Basu, Sourish; American, Scientific

114

Controlling the cavitation phenomenon of evolution on a butterfly valve  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Development of the phenomenon of cavitation in cavitation behavior requires knowledge of both plant and equipment working in the facility. This paper presents a diagram of cavitational behavior for a butterfly valve with a diameter of 100 mm at various openings, which was experimentally built. We proposed seven stages of evolution of the phenomenon of cavitation in the case of a butterfly valve. All these phases are characterized by pressure drop, noise and vibration at various flow rates and flow sections through the valve. The level of noise and vibration for the seven stages of development of the phenomenon of cavitation were measured simultaneously. The experimental measurements were comprised in a knowledge database used in training of a neural network of a neural flow controller that maintains flow rate constantly in the facility by changing the opening butterfly valve. A fuzzy position controller is used to access the valve open. This is the method proposed to provide operational supervision outside the cavitation for a butterfly valve.

2010-08-01

115

Cretaceous origin and repeated tertiary diversification of the redefined butterflies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although the taxonomy of the ca 18 000 species of butterflies and skippers is well known, the family-level relationships are still debated. Here, we present, to our knowledge, the most comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of the superfamilies Papilionoidea, Hesperioidea and Hedyloidea to date based on morphological and molecular data. We reconstructed their phylogenetic relationships using parsimony and Bayesian approaches. We estimated times and rates of diversification along lineages in order to reconstruct their evolutionary history. Our results suggest that the butterflies, as traditionally understood, are paraphyletic, with Papilionidae being the sister-group to Hesperioidea, Hedyloidea and all other butterflies. Hence, the families in the current three superfamilies should be placed in a single superfamily Papilionoidea. In addition, we find that Hedylidae is sister to Hesperiidae, and this novel relationship is supported by two morphological characters. The families diverged in the Early Cretaceous but diversified after the Cretaceous-Palaeogene event. The diversification of butterflies is characterized by a slow speciation rate in the lineage leading to Baronia brevicornis, a period of stasis by the skippers after divergence and a burst of diversification in the lineages leading to Nymphalidae, Riodinidae and Lycaenidae. PMID:21920981

Heikkilä, Maria; Kaila, Lauri; Mutanen, Marko; Peña, Carlos; Wahlberg, Niklas

2012-03-22

116

Birds, Bugs, and Butterflies: Science Lessons for Your Outdoor Classroom  

Science.gov (United States)

Among the wild animals that may travel through a school yard, birds, bugs, and butterflies are the most common--the focus of most of the lessons in this chapter. It offers a variety of activities to allow you to "tame" the wildlife to help you teach. Instr

Rich, Steve

2010-02-01

117

The Phase Shifts of the Paired Wings of Butterfly Diagrams  

CERN Document Server

Sunspot groups observed by Royal Greenwich Observatory/US Air Force/NOAA from May 1874 to November 2008 and the Carte Synoptique solar filaments from March 1919 to December 1989 are used to investigate the relative phase shift of the paired wings of butterfly diagrams of sunspot and filament activities. Latitudinal migration of sunspot groups (or filaments) does asynchronously occur in the northern and southern hemispheres, and there is a relative phase shift between the paired wings of their butterfly diagrams in a cycle, making the paired wings spatially asymmetrical on the solar equator. It is inferred that hemispherical solar activity strength should evolve in a similar way within the paired wings of a butterfly diagram in a cycle, making the paired wings just and only keep the phase relationship between the northern and southern hemispherical solar activity strengths, but a relative phase shift between the paired wings of a butterfly diagram should bring about an almost same relative phase shift of hemis...

Li, Kejun; Feng, Wen

2010-01-01

118

New insights into butterfly–environment relationships using partitioning methods  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Variation partitioning and hierarchical partitioning are novel statistical approaches that provide deeper understanding of the importance of different explanatory variables for biodiversity patterns than traditional regression methods. Using these methods, the variation in occupancy and abundance of the clouded apollo butterfly (Parnassius mnemosyne L.) was decomposed into independent and joint effects of larval and adult food resources, microclimate and habitat quantity. The independent effe...

Heikkinen, Risto K.; Luoto, Miska; Kuussaari, Mikko; Po?yry, Juha

2005-01-01

119

Influence of detuning on the butterfly effect of laser oscillation  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper the butterfly effects of single mode laser oscillation are studied. It is shown that the detuning between laser oscillation and atomic transition frequency leads to a decrease in second threshold, which makes the demonstration of chaos theory in experiment easy.

Wei-han, Tan; Guo-bin, Ma; Jun, Zhuang; Ren-hong, Liu

1994-12-01

120

Corridor Length and Patch Colonization by a Butterfly Junonia coenia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Habitat corridors have been proposed to reduce patch isolation and increase population persistence in fragmented landscapes. This study tested whether patch colonization was increased by the presence and various length corridors. The specific butterfly species tested has been shown to use corridors, however, the results indicate that neither the distance between patches or the presence of a corridor influenced colonization.

Nick Haddad

2000-06-01

 
 
 
 
121

BUDDLEJA DAVIDII (BUTTERFLY BUSH): A GROWING THREAT TO RIPARIA?  

Science.gov (United States)

Buddleja davidii, an Asian shrub or small tree (family Buddlejaceae; commonly referred to as Butterfly bush) is found in the United States, New Zealand, Australia, and Europe as a popular ornamental and an aggressive invasive that has become widespread in floodplains, riverbeds, ...

122

Palaearctic butterfly ecology model for Oriental species conservation.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

. Hong Kong : Kadoorie Farm & Botainc Garden Corporation, 2007 - (Kendrick, R.), s. 63-69 ISBN 978-962-8869-49-7Grant CEP: GA ?R GD206/03/H034; GA AV ?R KJB600070601Výzkumný zám?r: CEZ:AV0Z50070508Klí?ová slova: palaearctic butterflyKód oboru RIV: EH - Ekologie - spole?enstva

Fric, Zden?k; Pech, Pavel

123

Risk assessment for adult butterflies exposed to the mosquito control pesticide naled  

Science.gov (United States)

A prospective risk assessment was conducted for adult butterflies potentially exposed to the mosquito control insecticide naled. Published acute mortality data, exposure data collected during field studies, and morphometric data (total surface area and fresh body weight) for adult butterflies were combined in a probabilistic estimate of the likelihood that adult butterfly exposure to naled following aerial applications would exceed levels associated with acute mortality. Adult butterfly exposure was estimated based on the product of (1) naled residues on samplers and (2) an exposure metric that normalized total surface area for adult butterflies to their fresh weight. The likelihood that the 10th percentile refined effect estimate for adult butterflies exposed to naled would be exceeded following aerial naled applications was 67 to 80%. The greatest risk would be for butterflies in the family Lycaenidae, and the lowest risk would be for those in the family Hesperidae, assuming equivalent sensitivity to naled. A range of potential guideline naled deposition levels is presented that, if not exceeded, would reduce the risk of adult butterfly mortality. The results for this risk assessment were compared with other risk estimates for butterflies, and the implications for adult butterflies in areas targeted by aerial naled applications are discussed.

Bargar, Timothy A.

2012-01-01

124

A meta-analysis of dispersal in butterflies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dispersal has recently gained much attention because of its crucial role in the conservation and evolution of species facing major environmental changes such as habitat loss and fragmentation, climate change, and their interactions. Butterflies have long been recognized as ideal model systems for the study of dispersal and a huge amount of data on their ability to disperse has been collected under various conditions. However, no single 'best' method seems to exist leading to the co-occurrence of various approaches to study butterfly mobility, and therefore a high heterogeneity among data on dispersal across this group. Accordingly, we here reviewed the knowledge accumulated on dispersal and mobility in butterflies, to detect general patterns. This meta-analysis specifically addressed two questions. Firstly, do the various methods provide a congruent picture of how dispersal ability is distributed across species? Secondly, is dispersal species-specific? Five sources of data were analysed: multisite mark-recapture experiments, genetic studies, experimental assessments, expert opinions, and transect surveys. We accounted for potential biases due to variation in genetic markers, sample sizes, spatial scales or the level of habitat fragmentation. We showed that the various dispersal estimates generally converged, and that the relative dispersal ability of species could reliably be predicted from their relative vagrancy (records of butterflies outside their normal habitat). Expert opinions gave much less reliable estimates of realized dispersal but instead reflected migration propensity of butterflies. Within-species comparisons showed that genetic estimates were relatively invariable, while other dispersal estimates were highly variable. This latter point questions dispersal as a species-specific, invariant trait. PMID:20055815

Stevens, Virginie M; Turlure, Camille; Baguette, Michel

2010-08-01

125

Coevolution of non-fertile sperm and female receptivity in a butterfly  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sexual conflict can promote rapid evolution of male and female reproductive traits. Males of many polyandrous butterflies transfer nutrients at mating that enhances female fecundity, but generates sexual conflict over female remating due to sperm competition. Butterflies produce both normal fertilizing sperm and large numbers of non-fertile sperm. In the green-veined white butterfly, Pieris napi, non-fertile sperm fill the females' sperm storage organ, switching off receptivity and thereby re...

2009-01-01

126

Virtual migration in tethered flying monarch butterflies reveals their orientation mechanisms  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A newly developed flight simulator allows monarch butterflies to fly actively for up to several hours in any horizontal direction while their fall migratory flight direction can be continuously recorded. From these data, long segments of virtual flight paths of tethered, flying, migratory monarch butterflies were reconstructed, and by advancing or retarding the butterflies' circadian clocks, we have shown that they possess a time-compensated sun compass. Control monarchs on local time fly app...

Mouritsen, Henrik; Frost, Barrie J.

2002-01-01

127

Using Butterflies to Measure Biodiversity Health in Wazo Hill Restored Quarry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study butterflies were used in assessing re-vegetation as a way of biodiversity restoration at Wazo hill quarry. The Butterflies were used as indicator species because of their high sensitivity in ecosystems alteration. The study was done in two different areas each 4.8 acre, namely the re-vegetated and un-quarried areas. Butterfly sweep nets and Butterfly traps baited were used for Butterflies capturing. Thirty six (36 species of Butterflies were identified and voucher specimens were preserved in Kingupira Museum. Variation in species diversity was evaluated using diversity indices and tested using special t-test. Variation in Butterfly abundance in two study sites and in different habitats was determined using Kruskal-Wallis Test Statistic and Mann-Whitney U test statistic. The diversity of Butterflies was significant higher in re-vegetated site than in un-quarried site while the abundance difference in the two sites were insignificance The two sites varied in plants species diversity and level of succession, a condition attributed to variation in Butterfly diversity. The re-vegetated sites were recommended for aesthetic, education purposes and further studies on organisms.

Kelvin Ngongolo

2013-08-01

128

Prediction of a required dynamic torque for motor-operated butterfly valves  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study describes the methodology for predicting a required dynamic torque in motor-operated butterfly valves. The results of this methodology have been compared with test data for motor-operated butterfly valves in nuclear power plant. With the close review of test data and torque prediction, it is concluded that the prediction methodology is conservative to predict a required dynamic torque of motor-operated butterfly valves. In addition, the information of correct differential pressure is vital to predict a required dynamic torque of motor-operated butterfly valves.0.

Bae, J. H.; Lee, K. N.; Jeong, W. K. [KHNP, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

2002-05-01

129

Prediction of a required dynamic torque for motor-operated butterfly valves  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study describes the methodology for predicting a required dynamic torque in motor-operated butterfly valves. The results of this methodology have been compared with test data for motor-operated butterfly valves in nuclear power plant. With the close review of test data and torque prediction, it is concluded that the prediction methodology is conservative to predict a required dynamic torque of motor-operated butterfly valves. In addition, the information of correct differential pressure is vital to predict a required dynamic torque of motor-operated butterfly valves

2002-05-01

130

Japanese Papilio butterflies puddle using Na+ detected by contact chemosensilla in the proboscis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Many butterflies acquire nutrients from non-nectar sources such as puddles. To better understand how male Papilio butterflies identify suitable sites for puddling, we used behavioral and electrophysiological methods to examine the responses of Japanese Papilio butterflies to Na+, K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+. Based on behavioral analyses, these butterflies preferred a 10-mM Na+ solution to K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ solutions of the same concentration and among a tested range of 1 mM to 1 M NaCl. We also mea...

Inoue, Takashi A.; Hata, Tamako; Asaoka, Kiyoshi; Ito, Tetsuo; Niihara, Kinuko; Hagiya, Hiroshi; Yokohari, Fumio

2012-01-01

131

Hofstadter butterfly and integer quantum Hall effect in three dimensions  

CERN Document Server

For a three-dimensional lattice in magnetic fields we have shown that the hopping along the third direction, which normally tends to smear out the Landau quantization gaps, can rather give rise to a fractal energy spectram akin to Hofstadter's butterfly when a criterion, found here by mapping the problem to two dimensions, is fulfilled by anisotropic (quasi-one-dimensional) systems. In 3D the angle of the magnetic field plays the role of the field intensity in 2D, so that the butterfly can occur in much smaller fields. The mapping also enables us to calculate the Hall conductivity, in terms of the topological invariant in the Kohmoto-Halperin-Wu's formula, where each of $\\sigma_{xy}, \\sigma_{zx}$ is found to be quantized.

Koshino, M; Kuroki, K; Kagoshima, S; Osada, T

2000-01-01

132

The butterfly diagram in the 18th century  

CERN Document Server

Digitized images of the drawings by J.C. Staudacher were used to determine sunspot positions for the period of 1749-1796. From the entire set of drawings, 6285 sunspot positions were obtained for a total of 999 days. Various methods have been applied to find the orientation of the solar disk which is not given for the vast majority of the drawings by Staudacher. Heliographic latitudes and longitudes in the Carrington rotation frame were determined. The resulting butterfly diagram shows a highly populated equator during the first two cycles (Cycles 0 and 1 in the usual counting since 1749). An intermediate period is Cycle 2, whereas Cycles 3 and 4 show a typical butterfly shape. A tentative explanation may be the transient dominance of a quadrupolar magnetic field during the first two cycles.

Arlt, Rainer

2008-01-01

133

Butterfly survival on an isolated island by improved grip  

Science.gov (United States)

On small isolated islands, natural selection is expected to reduce the dispersal capacity of organisms, as short distances do not require a high rate of dispersal, which might lead to accidental emigration from the population. In addition, individuals foregoing the high cost of maintaining flight capacity may instead allocate resources to other functions. However, in butterflies and many other insects, flight is necessary not only for dispersal but also for most other activities. A weakly flying individual would probably do worse and have an elevated rather than reduced probability of accidental emigration. Here, we report results consistent with the hypothesis that a butterfly population on an isolated island, instead of having lost its flight capacity, has evolved better grip to resist the force of wind and to avoid being blown off the island. Our study suggests that local adaptation has occurred in this population in spite of its very small size (Ne ? 100), complete isolation, low genetic variation and high genetic load.

Duplouy, Anne; Hanski, Ilkka

2013-01-01

134

Eco-evolutionary spatial dynamics in the Glanville fritillary butterfly  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Demographic population dynamics, gene flow, and local adaptation may influence each other and lead to coupling of ecological and evolutionary dynamics, especially in species inhabiting fragmented heterogeneous environments. Here, I review long-term research on eco-evolutionary spatial dynamics in the Glanville fritillary butterfly inhabiting a large network of approximately 4,000 meadows in Finland. The metapopulation persists in a balance between frequent local extinctions and recolonization...

Hanski, Ilkka A.

2011-01-01

135

Quantum Reality, Complex Numbers and the Meteorological Butterfly Effect  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A not-too-technical version of the paper: "A Granular Permutation-based Representation of Complex Numbers and Quaternions: Elements of a Realistic Quantum Theory" - Proc. Roy. Soc.A (2004) 460, 1039-1055. The phrase "meteorological butterfly effect" is introduced to illustrate, not the familiar loss of predictability in low-dimensional chaos, but the much less familiar and much more radical paradigm of the finite-time predictability horizon, associated with upscale transfer ...

Palmer, T. N.

2004-01-01

136

Corridor Length and Patch Colonization by a Butterfly, Junonia coenia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Study hypothesized that corridors increase patch colonization by Junonia coenia regardless of insects initial distance from patch, as the butterfly is known to move between patches preferentially through corridors. Neither corridor nor distance had significant effect on patch colonization, but significant interaction between presence or absence of corridors and distance. One critical factor is interpatch distance which may determine the relative effectiveness of corridors and other landscape configurations.

Haddad, N.

1999-01-22

137

Juvenile hormone regulation of longevity in the migratory monarch butterfly.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) of eastern North America are well known for their long-range migration to overwintering roosts in south-central Mexico. An essential feature of this migration involves the exceptional longevity of the migrant adults; individuals persist from August/September to March while their summer counterparts are likely to live less than two months as adults. Migrant adults persist during a state of reproductive diapause in which both male and female reproductive d...

2001-01-01

138

Diversity of Butterflies from District Muzaffarabad, Azad Kashmir  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The adult butterflies were collected from nine localities of district Muzaffarabad through out the summer season of (April to October 2001. A total of 28 species belonging to 7 families were collected. Diversity was calculated by using Shannon-Wiener diversity index, Shannon`s equitability, Margalef`s index, Simpson`s index and RI index. The calculated values showed that the lowest diversity was obtained from Kohala and highest diversity was obtained from Shaeed Gali and Gari Dopatta.

M. Rafique Khan

2004-01-01

139

Biased learning affects mate choice in a butterfly  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Early acquisition of mate preferences or mate-preference learning is associated with signal diversity and speciation in a wide variety of animal species. However, the diversity of mechanisms of mate-preference learning across taxa remains poorly understood. Using the butterfly Bicyclus anynana we uncover a mechanism that can lead to directional sexual selection via mate-preference learning: a bias in learning enhanced ornamentation, which is independent of preexisting mating biases. Naïve fe...

Westerman, Erica L.; Hodgins-davis, Andrea; Dinwiddie, April; Monteiro, Anto?nia

2012-01-01

140

CLIMBER: Climatic niche characteristics of the butterflies in Europe  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Detailed information on species' ecological niche characteristics that can be related to declines and extinctions is indispensable for a better understanding of the relationship between the occurrence and performance of wild species and their environment and, moreover, for an improved assessment of the impacts of global change. Knowledge on species characteristics such as habitat requirements is already available in the ecological literature for butterflies, but information about their climat...

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Monarch butterfly oviposition on swallow-worts (Vincetoxicum spp.).  

Science.gov (United States)

As black swallow-wort, Vincetoxicum nigrum L. Moench, and pale swallow-wort, V. rossicum (Kleopow) Barbar., spread throughout the northeastern United States and southern Canada, there is concern about the impact of these invasive plants on populations of the native North American monarch butterfly Danaus plexippus L. Recent laboratory studies in New York and Ontario, Canada, have found little or no oviposition by monarch butterflies on the two Vincetoxicum species. In Rhode Island, we found 10.5-21.7% oviposition on Vincetoxicum species relative to common milkweed Asclepias syriaca L. in choice tests and 11.9-20.3% in no-choice tests in 2 yr of laboratory testing. These results were supported by field cage trials where monarchs given a choice between V. nigrum and A. syriaca laid 24.5% of their eggs on V. nigrum. In surveys of three pasture fields in Rhode Island where relative coverage of A. syriaca exceeded that of V. nigrum by a 0.77:0.23 ratio, 15.4% of monarch eggs were found on V. nigrum plants. In V. nigrum stands with very little A. syriaca (6.25 stems/ha), monarch egg density on V. nigrum was found to be over five times greater than in the three mixed pasture fields. In none of our laboratory or field evaluations was there any survival of monarch larvae on Vincetoxicum species. It seems that in Rhode Island, Vincetoxicum species serve as an oviposition sink for monarch butterflies. These findings suggest that East Coast butterflies may differ in host selection from those in central New York and southern Ontario, Canada. PMID:17540075

Casagrande, R A; Dacey, J E

2007-06-01

142

Latitude and rates of diversification in birds and butterflies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Central to many explanations of latitudinal diversity gradients is the idea that rates of species diversification increase towards the equator. However, there have been few explicit tests of whether or not this pattern exists. Using sister-group analyses to compare 48 clades of passerine birds and swallowtail butterflies from different latitudes, I found evidence that relative rates of diversification per unit time are indeed higher towards the equator. This pattern is explicable in terms of ...

1999-01-01

143

Discrimination of flying mimetic, passion-vine butterflies Heliconius  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Wing-beat frequency and the degree of asymmetry in wing motion were more similar among mimics than among sister species of passion-vine butterflies in the genus Heliconius. Asymmetry in wing motion is not attributed to lift production, and serves as the first clear example of a mimetic behavioural signal for a flying organism. Because the similarities in wing motion are too subtle for humans to observe with the naked eye, they serve as a previously unexplored mimetic signal.

Srygley, R. B.; Ellington, C. P.

1999-01-01

144

Cretaceous origin and repeated tertiary diversification of the redefined butterflies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Although the taxonomy of the ca 18 000 species of butterflies and skippers is well known, the family-level relationships are still debated. Here, we present, to our knowledge, the most comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of the superfamilies Papilionoidea, Hesperioidea and Hedyloidea to date based on morphological and molecular data. We reconstructed their phylogenetic relationships using parsimony and Bayesian approaches. We estimated times and rates of diversification along lineages in orde...

Heikkila?, Maria; Kaila, Lauri; Mutanen, Marko; Pen?a, Carlos; Wahlberg, Niklas

2012-01-01

145

Butterfly Floquet Spectrum in Driven SU(2) Systems  

CERN Document Server

The Floquet spectrum of a class of driven SU(2) systems is shown to display a butterfly pattern with multi-fractal properties. The level crossing between Floquet states of the same parity or different parities is studied. The results are relevant to studies of fractal statistics, quantum chaos, coherent destruction of tunneling, and the validity of mean-field descriptions of Bose-Einstein condensates.

Wang, Jiao

2009-01-01

146

Interrelation Between Some Butterflies and Plant Associations (Turkey)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The butterfly fauna in Ordu province (N-Turkey) was determined in this study. Their relations with the phytosociological associations found in the zone were evaluated and the Lepidoptera taxa in these units were presented. The numbers of determined taxa in each plant association are Castanea-Carpinus-Corylus (23), Fagus orientalis, Carpinus betulus and Picea orientalis Mixed Forest Zone (23), Subalpine Zone (Rhododendron luteum-Vaccinium myrtillus) (25), Low...

O?zdemir, M.; Seven, S.

2007-01-01

147

Butterfly eyespot serial homology: enter the Hox genes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Hox genes modify serial homology patterns in many organisms, exemplified in vertebrates by modification of the axial skeleton and in arthropods by diversification of the body segments. Butterfly wing eyespots also appear in a serial homologous pattern that, in certain species, is subject to local modification. A paper in EvoDevo reports the Hox gene Antp is the earliest known gene to have eyespot-specific expression; however, not all Lepidoptera express

Hombría James

2011-01-01

148

Diversity of Butterflies from District Muzaffarabad, Azad Kashmir  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The adult butterflies were collected from nine localities of district Muzaffarabad through out the summer season of (April to October) 2001. A total of 28 species belonging to 7 families were collected. Diversity was calculated by using Shannon-Wiener diversity index, Shannon`s equitability, Margalef`s index, Simpson`s index and RI index. The calculated values showed that the lowest diversity was obtained from Kohala and highest diversity was obtained from Shaeed Gali and Gari Dopatta.

Rafique Khan, M.; Nasim, M.; Rahim Khan, M.; Rafi, M. A.

2004-01-01

149

What initiates speciation in passion-vine?butterflies?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Studies of the continuum between geographic races and species provide the clearest insights into the causes of speciation. Here we report on mate choice and hybrid viability experiments in a pair of warningly colored butterflies, Heliconius erato and Heliconius himera, that maintain their genetic integrity in the face of hybridization. Hybrid sterility and inviability have been unimportant in the early stages of speciation of these two Heliconius. We find no evidence of reduced fecundity, egg...

Mcmillan, W. Owen; Jiggins, Chris D.; Mallet, James

1997-01-01

150

Polymorphic butterfly reveals the missing link in ecological speciation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Ecological speciation occurs when ecologically-based divergent selection causes the evolution of reproductive isolation. While there are many empirical examples of this process, there exists a poorly characterized stage during which the traits that distinguish species ecologically and reproductively segregate in a single population. Using a combination of genetic mapping, mate choice experiments, field observations, and population genetics, we studied a butterfly population with a mimetic win...

Chamberlain, Nicola L.; Hill, Ryan I.; Kapan, Durrell D.; Gilbert, Lawrence E.; Kronforst, Marcus R.

2009-01-01

151

Wing patterning gene redefines the mimetic history of Heliconius butterflies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The mimetic butterflies Heliconius erato and Heliconius melpomene have undergone parallel radiations to form a near-identical patchwork of over 20 different wing-pattern races across the Neotropics. Previous molecular phylogenetic work on these radiations has suggested that similar but geographically disjunct color patterns arose multiple times independently in each species. The neutral markers used in these studies, however, can move freely across color pattern boundaries, and therefore migh...

Hines, Heather M.; Counterman, Brian A.; Papa, Riccardo; Albuquerque Moura, Priscila; Cardoso, Marcio Z.; Linares, Mauricio; Mallet, James; Reed, Robert D.; Jiggins, Chris D.; Kronforst, Marcus R.; Mcmillan, W. Owen

2011-01-01

152

Early emergence in a butterfly causally linked to anthropogenic warming  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

There is strong correlative evidence that human-induced climate warming is contributing to changes in the timing of natural events. Firm attribution, however, requires cause-and-effect links between observed climate change and altered phenology, together with statistical confidence that observed regional climate change is anthropogenic. We provide evidence for phenological shifts in the butterfly Heteronympha merope in response to regional warming in the southeast Australian city of Melbourne...

Kearney, Michael R.; Briscoe, Natalie J.; Karoly, David J.; Porter, Warren P.; Norgate, Melanie; Sunnucks, Paul

2010-01-01

153

Butterfly effect on the control methods of chaos and multistability  

Science.gov (United States)

In this work we study the Butterfly Effect and its influence on the efficiency of the Control Methods. A comparative analysis shows that when we applied Control into a bistable system, monostability can be reach for a calculation performed with precision of 6 decimal numbers, although for the same system parameters, this does not happen when the calculation is performed using a precision with 9 decimal numbers.

Ventura, J.; Zerega, B.

2007-06-01

154

The Benefit of Additional Oviposition Targets for a Polyphagous Butterfly  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

While the reasons for the prevalence of specialists over generalists among herbivorous insects have been at the focus of much interest, less effort has been put into understanding the polyphagous exceptions. Recent studies have suggested that these exceptions may be important for insect diversification, which calls for a better understanding of the potential factors that can lead to an increased host plant repertoire. Females of the Nymphalid butterfly, Polygonia c-album, were used to test if...

Johansson, Josefin; Bergstro?m, Anders; Janz, Niklas

2007-01-01

155

Limited-view iridescence in the butterfly Ancyluris meliboeus.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Few mechanisms exist in nature that effect colour reflectivity, simultaneously high in spectral purity and in intensity, over a strictly limited portion of solid angle above a surface. Fewer still bring about such colour reflectivity with an angle dependence that is distinct from the colour transition associated with conventional multilayer interference. We have discovered that the ventral wings of the butterfly Ancyluris meliboeus exhibit these optical effects, and that they result from rema...

Vukusic, P.; Sambles, J. R.; Lawrence, C. R.; Wootton, R. J.

2002-01-01

156

Multiple approaches to study color pattern evolution in butterflies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The myriad colors and patterns on butterfly wings have caught the attention of biologists for well over a century. Today, with the advent of more sophisticated genetic and developmental tools, it is possible to identify and study the evolution of genes, gene networks, and the effect of the environment on the networks underlying wing color patterning. In addition, using molecular phylogenies and the comparative approach, it is possible to infer ancestral wing patterns, direction of evolutionar...

Antonia Monteiro; Prudic, Kathleen M.

2010-01-01

157

Hall plateau diagram for the Hofstadter butterfly energy spectrum  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We extensively study the localization and the quantum Hall effect in the Hofstadter butterfly, which emerges in a two-dimensional electron system with a weak two-dimensional periodic potential. We numerically calculate the Hall conductivity and the localization length for finite systems with the disorder in general magnetic fields, and estimate the energies of the extended levels in an infinite system. We obtain the Hall plateau diagram on the whole region of the Hofstadter ...

Koshino, Mikito; Ando, Tsuneya

2006-01-01

158

High power hydraulic speed control system of a butterfly survey  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Volume of work is 51 pages and contains 23 pictures. References inventory consists of 36 literary sources. The main aim of the investigation - to analyze the hydraulic cylinder shaft speed characteristics of dependency, changing the working pressure of hydraulic system and droseliavimo character. Master's thesis consists of three parts: an overview of sources of information, an overview of theoretical studies and experimental studies. Review of information sources describe butterfly hydraulic...

2010-01-01

159

Social benefits of ecotourism : the monarch butterfly reserve in Mexico  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Ecotourism can contribute to both positive and negative socioeconomic impacts at the local level. However, ecotourism’s socioeconomic impacts have received limited scholarly attention in the context of developing countries. Based on qualitative interviews and observations, this paper looks at the socioeconomic benefits of ecotourism in a local community in the Monarch Butterfly Reserve in Mexico. It was found that ecotourism replaced most of the economic activities in the ...

Monterrubio Cordero, Juan Carlos; Rodri?guez Mun?oz, Gregoria; Mendoza Ontiveros, Martha Marivel

2013-01-01

160

Polarisation-dependent colour vision in Papilio butterflies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Butterflies of the genus Papilio have polarisation-sensitive photoreceptors in all regions of the eye, and different spectral types of receptor are sensitive to different e-vector orientations. We have studied the consequences of this eye design for colour vision in behavioural tests and find that Papilio spp. see false colours due to the polarisation of light. They discriminate between vertically and horizontally polarised light of the same colour in the contexts of oviposition and feeding. ...

Kelber, Almut; Thunell, Christel; Arikawa, Kentaro

2001-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Genetic population structure of the vulnerable bog fritillary butterfly.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Populations of the bog fritillary butterfly Proclossiana eunomia (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae) occur in patchy habitat in central and western Europe. P. eunomia is a vulnerable species in the Belgian Ardennes and the number of occupied sites has significantly decreased in this region since the 1960s. RAPD (random amplified polymorphic DNA) markers were used to study the consequences of habitat loss and fragmentation on the genetic population structure of this species. Gene diversity was lower in...

Vandewoestijne, Sofie; Baguette, Michel

2004-01-01

162

CLIMBER: Climatic niche characteristics of the butterflies in Europe  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Detailed information on species’ ecological niche characteristics that can be related to declines and extinctions is indispensable for a better understanding of the relationship between the occurrence and performance of wild species and their environment and, moreover, for an improved assessment of the impacts of global change. Knowledge on species characteristics such as habitat requirements is already available in the ecological literature for butterflies, but information about their clim...

Settele, Josef; Schweiger, Oliver; Harpke, Alexander; Wiemers, Martin

2014-01-01

163

BUTTERFLIES OF UGANDA: MEMORIES OF A CHILD SOLDIER  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available "I was conceived in rape."[i] At least for this reviewer, this is one of the most powerful, hard-hitting opening lines of any book he has read to date. Moreover, from there this powerful text continues to hold the reader captive, and refuses to allow him or her to fall back in a slumber of indifference. [i] Opening line of Butterflies of Uganda.

Gerhard Van Zyl

2012-11-01

164

CLIMBER: Climatic niche characteristics of the butterflies in Europe.  

Science.gov (United States)

Detailed information on species' ecological niche characteristics that can be related to declines and extinctions is indispensable for a better understanding of the relationship between the occurrence and performance of wild species and their environment and, moreover, for an improved assessment of the impacts of global change. Knowledge on species characteristics such as habitat requirements is already available in the ecological literature for butterflies, but information about their climatic requirements is still lacking. Here we present a unique dataset on the climatic niche characteristics of 397 European butterflies representing 91% of the European species (see Appendix). These characteristics were obtained by combining detailed information on butterfly distributions in Europe (which also led to the 'Distribution Atlas of Butterflies in Europe') and the corresponding climatic conditions. The presented dataset comprises information for the position and breadth of the following climatic niche characteristics: mean annual temperature, range in annual temperature, growing degree days, annual precipitation sum, range in annual precipitation and soil water content. The climatic niche position is indicated by the median and mean value for each climate variable across a species' range, accompanied by the 95% confidence interval for the mean and the number of grid cells used for calculations. Climatic niche breadth is indicated by the standard deviation and the minimum and maximum values for each climatic variable across a species' range. Database compilation was based on high quality standards and the data are ready to use for a broad range of applications. It is already evident that the information provided in this dataset is of great relevance for basic and applied ecology. Based on the species temperature index (STI, i.e. the mean temperature value per species), the community temperature index (CTI, i.e. the average STI value across the species in a community) was recently adopted as an indicator of climate change impact on biodiversity by the pan-European framework supporting the Convention on Biological Diversity (Streamlining European Biodiversity Indicators 2010) and has already been used in several scientific publications. The application potential of this database ranges from theoretical aspects such as assessments of past niche evolution or analyses of trait interdependencies to the very applied aspects of measuring, monitoring and projecting historical, ongoing and potential future responses to climate change using butterflies as an indicator. PMID:24478578

Schweiger, Oliver; Harpke, Alexander; Wiemers, Martin; Settele, Josef

2014-01-01

165

Cavitation erosion of piping line behind a butterfly valve. Butterfly valve koryu ni hasseisuru cavitation ni yoru haikan no kaishoku  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this study is to clarify the characteristics of cavitation erosion in piping line behind a butterfly valve and to propose a method of predicting the erosion resistance. One of the major obstructions in the experiment of cavitation erosion is to take a long time by using a metal specimen. Then, a substitutive material having the fragile property to anti-cavitation erosion was used in this study. The similarity of erosion characteristics was confirmed between the substitutive material and the real material. In the second stage of this study, the substitutive material was placed as pipe wall at a bend behind a butterfly valve. It was verified from observations and measurements of the erosion position that the erosion of the material was caused by cavitation occurred at the butterfly valve. Accordingly, it was demonstrated that the erosion resistance under the real condition can be predicted from the result of the similarities of erosion characteristics of the substitutive material. 7 refs., 14 figs.

Kimura, T.; Ogawa, K. (Kobe University, Kobe (Japan)); Uehara, I. (Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)); Kuwata, C.

1993-11-01

166

Butterfly interconnection network: design of multiplier, flip-flop, and shift register.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 2 × 2 bit multiplier is designed by the use of a butterfly interconnection network. The butterfly topology is also used to design a sequential flip-flop and a multibit parallel-in parallel-out shift register. PMID:20862171

Iftekharuddin, K M; Karim, M A

1994-03-10

167

Field Based Learning About Butterfly Diversity in School Garden-A Case Study From Puducherry, India  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Butterflies are essential components for well functioning of ecosystems due to their key roles as pollinators and as indicators of ecosystem health. Butterflies are also beloved by public as well as young students and children, who are largely unaware that many species are threatened or endangered. The main objectives of field based education for butterfly conservation were to create knowledge, interest and necessary skills to investigate and, identify the butterfly species and conserve its diversity in school gardens. For butterfly survey the census technique method was taught to the students to investigate the diversity of butterflies during the field trips. During the field trip a total of 34 butterfly species, belonging to 4 families, were recorded with standard literature and colour photographs. The Nymphalidae family was the dominant species found in school gardens. The study concluded that the young students must be given the chance to investigate, engage with and experience nature in order to appreciate and be motivated to conserve and protect these fascinating insects at local level. The conservation of our natural biological resources will be dependent upon future generations. This field based learning program inspired to identify and conserve the butterfly diversity within the school gardens.

Gopalsomy Poyyamoli

2012-01-01

168

The effect of atomic power plant accident on organisms as studied by using butterflies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The biological radiation effect of the Fukushima powerplant accident on a butterfly, Yamotoshijimi has been examined. Consequently it was resulted that the radioactive materials released from the accident had a bad influence upon Yamatoshijimi, that is, the lowering of life rate, the shape diminishing and the malformation of this butterfly. (M.H.)

2013-09-01

169

Phase Diagram for the Hofstadter butterfly and integer quantum Hall effect in three dimensions  

CERN Document Server

We give a perspective on the Hofstadter butterfly (fractal energy spectrum in magnetic fields), which we have shown to arise specifically in three-dimensional(3D) systems in our previous work. (i) We first obtain the `phase diagram' on a parameter space of the transfer energies and the magnetic field for the appearance of Hofstadter's butterfly spectrum in anisotropic crystals in 3D. (ii) We show that the orientation of the external magnetic field can be arbitrary to have the 3D butterfly. (iii) We show that the butterfly is beyond the semiclassical description. (iv) The required magnetic field for a representative organic metal is estimated to be modest ($\\sim 40$ T) if we adopt higher Landau levels for the butterfly. (v) We give a simpler way of deriving the topological invariants that represent the quantum Hall numbers (i.e., two Hall conductivity in 3D, $\\sigma_{xy}, \\sigma_{zx}$, in units of $e^2/h$).

Koshino, M; Osada, T; Kuroki, K; Kagoshima, S

2001-01-01

170

El poder de las representaciones sociales: M. Butterfly, la mujer perfecta The power of social representations: M. Butterfly, the perfect woman  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available En este trabajo se presenta un análisis del film M. Butterfly , dirigido por David Cronenberg, en 1993 y se trata de una versión basada en la ópera “Madame Butterfly” de Puccini.  El objetivo es demostrar el poder y la fuerza de las representaciones sociales como mecanismos de producción de sentido que permitem que los sujetos sociales construyan, desconstruyan y reconstruyan el mundo en que viven y para el cual buscan sentido.This paper presents an analysis of the film M. Butterfly, directed by David Cronenberg, in 1993. This film is a version based on the opera Madame Butterfly, by Puccini. It aims to demonstrate the power and the strength of social representations as mechanisms for the production of meaning which allow social actors to construct, deconstruct and reconstruct the world in which they live and for which they loook for its meaning.

Maria Angela Silveira Paulilo

2011-07-01

171

A Genetic Linkage Map of the Mimetic Butterfly Heliconius melpomene  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Heliconius melpomene is a mimetic butterfly that exhibits great geographic variation in color pattern. We present here a genetic linkage map based on analysis of genetic markers in 73 individuals from a single F2 family, offspring of a cross between H. m. cythera from western Ecuador and H. m. melpomene from French Guiana. A novel “three-step method” is described for the analysis of dominant markers in an F2 cross, using outbred parental strains and taking advantage of the lack of crossin...

Jiggins, Chris D.; Mavarez, Jesus; Beltra?n, Margarita; Mcmillan, W. Owen; Johnston, J. Spencer; Bermingham, Eldredge

2005-01-01

172

Diversity of Butterflies from District Bagh, Azad Kashmir  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The adult butterflies were collected from ten localities of Distt. Bagh through out the year 1998. A total of 27 species belonging to 5 families and 15 genera were collected. Diversity was calculated by using Shannon-Wiener`s diversity index, Shannon`s equitability, Margalef`s index, Simpson`s index and RI index. The calculated values showed that diversity was slightly higher at Sudhan Gali and Mang Bajri, where as it was lower at Naumanpura. None of the reported species was found to be threa...

Rafique Khan, M.; Ahmed, R.; Rahim Khan, M.; Hayat, A.; Khalid, M.

2003-01-01

173

Density driven symmetry breaking and Butterfly effect in holographic superconductors  

CERN Document Server

We study the density driven symmetry breaking in holographic superconductors by considering positive mass squared case. We show that with small values of positive $m^2$, scalar condensation still forms. As $m^2$ increases, however, the phase space folds due to the non-linearity of the equation of motion, and two nearby points in phase space can represent symmetry broken and unbroken configurations respectively, leading to an analogue of the butterfly effect. We also calculate the specific heat and electrical conductivity for various $m^2$ and compare them with experimentally observed numbers in condensed matter systems.

Kim, Youngman; Sin, Sang-Jin

2009-01-01

174

Field-Induced SDW and Butterfly Spectrum in Three Dimensions  

CERN Document Server

Landau's quantization for incompletely nested Fermi surfaces is known to give rise to magnetic-field-induced spin-density waves(FISDW) in two-dimensional organic metals. Here we show that three-dimensional(3D) systems can exhibit novel FISDW phases peculiar to 3D, which are characterized by quantized Hall effect with both $\\sigma_{xy}$ and $\\sigma_{zx}$ being nonzero integers, and reside on a fractal spectrum like Hofstadter's butterfly. The emergence of the 3D FISDW is discussed in terms of the topology of the 3D Fermi surface.

Koshino, M; Osada, T

2001-01-01

175

Manifestation of the Hofstadter butterfly in far-infrared absorption  

CERN Document Server

The far-infrared absorption of a two-dimensional electron gas with a square-lattice modulation in a perpendicular constant magnetic field is calculated self-consistently within the Hartree approximation. For strong modulation and short period we obtain intra- and intersubband magnetoplasmon modes reflecting the subbands of the Hofstadter butterfly in two or more Landau bands. The character of the absorption and the correlation of the peaks to the number of flux quanta through each unit cell of the periodic potential depends strongly on the location of the chemical potential with respect to the subbands, or what is the same, on the density of electrons in the system.

Gudmundsson, V; Gudmundsson, Vidar; Gerhardts, Rolf R

1996-01-01

176

Hofstadter butterfly and integer quantum Hall effect in three dimensions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

For a three-dimensional lattice in magnetic fields we have shown that the hopping along the third direction, which normally tends to smear out the Landau quantization gaps, can rather give rise to a fractal energy spectram akin to Hofstadter's butterfly when a criterion, found here by mapping the problem to two dimensions, is fulfilled by anisotropic (quasi-one-dimensional) systems. In 3D the angle of the magnetic field plays the role of the field intensity in 2D, so that th...

Koshino, M.; Aoki, H.; Kuroki, K.; Kagoshima, S.; Osada, T.

2000-01-01

177

Compensation for fluctuations in crosswind drift without stationary landmarks in butterflies migrating over seas.  

Science.gov (United States)

Migrating insects may fly over large bodies of water that lack landmarks, but little is known about their ability to navigate in such a fluid environment. Using boat navigation instruments to measure compensation for fluctuations in crosswind drift, I investigated the ability of butterflies (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae, Nymphalidae and Pieridae) to orient with and without landmarks as they migrated naturally over the Caribbean Sea. I used the presence or absence of landmarks or clouds to evaluate their use by the butterflies as guides for compensation. Forty-one per cent of the butterflies compensated for crosswind drift, whereas only 16% did not compensate. No conclusion could be drawn for the remainder. Without landmarks or clouds, butterflies were significantly less likely to compensate for drift than when these local cues were present. Butterflies were more likely to compensate fully in the presence of a landmark than when only clouds were present. Phoebis sennae butterflies drifted in the morning and overcompensated for drift in the afternoon, a pattern found both within and between individuals independent of landmarks. Although I cannot exclude the use of clouds, this would probably result in undercompensation. Hence, a ground reference in conjunction with a sun or magnetic compass is the most likely orientation cue. In the absence of clouds, one butterfly compensated, at least in part, indicating that it was using ripples on the sea surface as a ground reference in conjunction with a sun or magnetic compass. Copyright 2001 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. PMID:11170709

Srygley, Robert B.

2001-01-01

178

Temporal occurrence of two morpho butterflies (lepidoptera: nymphalidae): influence of weather and food resources.  

Science.gov (United States)

The seasonality of fruit-feeding butterflies is very well known. However, few studies have analyzed the influence of climatic variables and resource availability on the temporal distributions of butterflies. Morpho helenor achillides (C. Felder and R. Felder 1867) and Morpho menelaus coeruleus (Perry 1810) (Nymphalidae) were used as models to investigate the influences of climatic factors and food resources on the temporal distribution of these Morphinae butterflies. These butterflies were collected weekly from January 2005 to December 2006 in the Parque Nacional de Brasília (PNB). In total, 408 individuals were collected, including 274 of M. helenor and 134 of M. menelaus. The relative abundance of the two species was similar in 2005 (n = 220) and 2006 (n = 188). Of the variables considered, only the relative humidity and resource availability measured in terms of phenology of zoochorous fruits of herbaceous plants explained a large proportion of the variation in the abundance of these butterflies. Both of the explanatory variables were positively associated with the total abundance of individuals and with the abundances of M. helenor and M. menelaus considered separately. The phenology of anemochorous fruits was negatively associated with butterfly abundance. The temporal distribution of the butterflies was better predicted by the phenology of the zoochorous fruits of herbaceous plants than by the climatic predictors. PMID:24495483

Freire, Geraldo; Nascimento, André Rangel; Malinov, Ivan Konstantinov; Diniz, Ivone R

2014-04-01

179

Quasi-ordered photonic bandgap materials of biologic origin: butterfly scales  

Science.gov (United States)

Individual, unsupported scales of two male butterflies with dorsal blue and ventral green color were compared by microscpectrometric measurements, optical and electronic microscopy. All the scales are colored by photonic band gap type materials built of chitin (n = 1.58) and air. The different scales are characterized by different degrees of order from fully ordered single crystalline blue scales of the Cyanophrys remus butterfly through polycrystalline green scales on the ventral side of the same butterfly, to the most disordered dorsal blue scales of the Albulina metallica, where only the distance of the first neighbors is constant. The different scale nanoarchitectures and their properties are compared.

Biró, L. P.; Bálint, Zs.; Kertész, K.; Vértesy, Z.; Márk, G. I.; Tapasztó, L.; Lousse, V.; Vigneron, J. P.

2007-05-01

180

The effect of forest ski-pistes on butterfly assemblages in the Alps.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

1. The abandonment of man-made pastures below the tree line is favouring natural reforestation in the European Alps. As such, the creation of forest ski-pistes might, paradoxically, be beneficial to butterflies. This study is the first to focus on the effects of forest ski-pistes on butterfly assemblages (Lepidoptera, Rhopalocera). 2. We sampled both butterflies and flowers on ski-pistes, in adjacent forests and in the nearest pastures at three sites in the Aosta Valley (north-western Italian...

Balletto, Emilio; Rolando, Antonio; Passerin D Entreves, Pietro; Palestrini, Claudia; Negro, Matteo

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Butterfly diversity in Dry Deciduous Teak forests of Gir Protected Area, Gujarat, India  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Butterflies were sampled during 2011 and 2012 using pollard walk method to assess the species diversity in the Dry Deciduous Teak forest habitats ofSasanGir protected Area in Junagadh District of Gujarat State, India. The study revealed high alpha diversity of butterflies in these forest tracts, with 67 species recorded. Of these, 23 species are new records for Gir Protected Area wherein 9 species are listed in the Indian Wildlife (Protection Act 1972. This study providesthe revised and annotated checklist of species of butterflies of SasanGir Protected Area.

Dr. S. I. Ahmed

2013-09-01

182

BIF butterfly valve life extension at WNP-2  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Primary containment purging, venting, inerting, and reactor building ventilation at the WNP-2 plant are accomplished with a series of large butterfly valves. A total of 31 valves which are similar in design, but of different sizes, employ an elastomer to achieve sealing integrity when closed. These valves, which were originally manufactured by BIF, a unit of General Signal, range in size from 18 to 84 inches in diameter. Service life in the plant was much less than desired for safety-related equipment, and several seal failures had been experienced shortly after valve overhaul. This program covers a design change made to enhance performance of the elastomer seal to achieve a very meaningful life extension. While numerous configurations of BIF valves exist, this work relates only to the model 657 unit assembled with an elastomer seal mounted onto the valve disc by a stainless steel clamping ring held with studs and nuts. The problems encountered, and the steps taken to resolve the deficiencies may, however, be applicable to other butterfly valve configurations

1991-06-01

183

Reverse altitudinal cline in cold hardiness among Erebia butterflies.  

Science.gov (United States)

There is strong evidence for a shifting of range boundaries by many temperate butterfly species to higher altitudes and latitudes. Climate change represents a potential threat to mountain fauna. Nevertheless, information on ecophysiological limits of individual species is scarce. We studied the lower thermal limits of four species representing the prevailingly mountain Holarctic butterfly genus Erebia. We measured the cold tolerance of hibernating larvae, namely the supercooling point (SCP) and the lower lethal temperature (LLT). Three mountain species were freeze avoiding, with various levels of SCP (-8 to -22 degree C), and LLT close to SCP. The only exception was lowland E. medusa, whose caterpillars were freeze tolerant with LLT (-21 degree C) slightly below its SCP (-17 degree C). Surprisingly, LLT was highest in the alpine E. tyndarus and lowest in E. medusa inhabiting lower altitudes with higher mean winter temperatures. We explain the observed reversed altitudinal cline in cold hardiness by the buffering function of snow cover in the hibernacula of caterpillars that is strong at high mountains but irregular, unpredictable and thus unreliable in lowlands. PMID:22987236

Vrba, Pavel; Konvicka, Martin; Nedved, Oldrich

2012-01-01

184

Butterfly-shaped pentanuclear dysprosium single-molecule magnets.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two new "butterfly-shaped" pentanuclear dysprosium(III) clusters, [Dy5(?3-OH)3(opch)6(H2O)3]?3?MeOH?9?H2O (1) and [Dy5(?3-OH)3(Hopch)2(opch)4(MeOH)(H2O)2]?(ClO4)2?6?MeOH?4?H2O (2), which were based on the heterodonor-chelating ligand o-vanillin pyrazine acylhydrazone (H2opch), have been successfully synthesized by applying different reaction conditions. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that the butterfly-shaped cores in both compounds were comparable. However, their magnetic properties were drastically different. Indeed, compound 1 showed dual slow-relaxation processes with a transition between them that corresponded to energy gaps (?) of 8.1 and 37.9?K and pre-exponential factors (?0) of 1.7×10(-5) and 9.7×10(-8) ?s for the low- and high-temperature domains, respectively, whilst only a single relaxation process was noted for compound 2 (? = 197?K, ?0 = 3.2×10(-9) ?s). These significant disparities are most likely due to the versatile coordination of the H2opch ligands with particular keto-enol tautomerism, which alters the strength of the local crystal field and, hence, the nature or direction of the easy axes of anisotropic dysprosium ions. PMID:23934765

Tian, Haiquan; Zhao, Lang; Lin, Haifeng; Tang, Jinkui; Li, Guangshe

2013-09-23

185

Theoretical seismic analysis of butterfly valve for nuclear power plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Valves are one of the most important components of a pipeline system in a nuclear power plant, and it is important to ensure their structural safety under seismic loads. A crucial aspect of structural safety verification is the seismic qualification, and therefore, an optimal shape design and experimental seismic qualification is necessary in case the configuration of the valve parts needs to be modified and their performance needs to be improved. Recently, intensive numerical analyses have been preformed before the experimental verification in order to determine the appropriate design variables that satisfy the performance requirements under seismic loads. In this study, static and dynamic numerical structural analyses of a 200A butterfly valve for a nuclear power plant were performed according to the KEPIC MFA. The result of static analysis considering an equivalent static load under SSE condition gave an applied stress of 135MPa. In addition, the result of dynamic analysis gave an applied stress of 183MPa, where the CQC method using response spectrums was taken into account. These values are under the allowable strength of the materials used for manufacturing the butterfly valve, and therefore, its structural safety satisfies the requirements of KEPIC MFA

2012-09-01

186

Sex pheromone biosynthetic pathways are conserved between moths and the butterfly Bicyclus anynana  

Science.gov (United States)

Although phylogenetically nested within the moths, butterflies have diverged extensively in a number of life history traits. Whereas moths rely greatly on chemical signals, visual advertisement is the hallmark of mate finding in butterflies. In the context of courtship, however, male chemical signals are widespread in both groups although they likely have multiple evolutionary origins. Here, we report that in males of the butterfly Bicyclus anynana, courtship scents are produced de novo via biosynthetic pathways shared with females of many moth species. We show that two of the pheromone components that play a major role in mate choice, namely the (Z)-9-tetradecenol and hexadecanal, are produced through the activity of a fatty acyl ?11-desaturase and two specialized alcohol-forming fatty acyl reductases. Our study provides the first evidence of conservation and sharing of ancestral genetic modules for the production of FA-derived pheromones over a long evolutionary timeframe thereby reconciling mate communication in moths and butterflies.

Lienard, Marjorie A; Wang, Hong-Lei; Lassance, Jean-Marc; Lofstedt, Christer

2014-01-01

187

Field Studies Reveal Strong Postmating Isolation between Ecologically Divergent Butterfly Populations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A mismatch between hybrid butterflies and their ecological environment restricts gene flow between populations that feed on different host plants, highlighting the potential importance of a seldom-studied mechanism of reproductive isolation.

Mcbride, Carolyn S.; Singer, Michael C.

2010-01-01

188

Generating a Fractal Butterfly Floquet Spectrum in a Class of Driven SU(2) Systems  

CERN Document Server

A scheme for generating a fractal butterfly Floquet spectrum, first proposed by Wang and Gong [Phys. Rev. A {\\bf 77}, 031405(R) (2008)], is extended to driven SU(2) systems such as a driven two-mode Bose-Einstein condensate. A new class of driven systems without a link with the Harper model context is shown to have an intriguing butterfly Floquet spectrum. The found butterfly spectrum shows remarkable deviations from the known Hosftadter's butterfly. In addition, the level crossings between Floquet states of the same parity and between Floquet states of different parities are studied and highlighted. The results are relevant to studies of fractal statistics, quantum chaos, coherent destruction of tunneling, as well as the validity of mean-field descriptions of Bose-Einstein condensates.

Wang, Jiao

2009-01-01

189

Effects of structural flexibility of wings in flapping flight of butterfly  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this paper is to clarify the effects of structural flexibility of wings of a butterfly in flapping flight. For this purpose, a dynamics model of a butterfly is derived by Lagrange’s method, where the butterfly is considered as a rigid multi-body system. The panel method is employed to simulate the flow field and the aerodynamic forces acting on the wings. The mathematical model is validated by the agreement of the numerical result with the experimentally measured data. Then, periodic orbits of flapping-of-wings flights are parametrically searched in order to fly the butterfly models. Almost periodic orbits are found, but they are unstable. Deformation of the wings is modeled in two ways. One is bending and its effect on the aerodynamic forces is discussed. The other is passive wing torsion caused by structural flexibility. Numerical simulations demonstrate that flexible torsion reduces the flight instability. (paper)

2012-06-01

190

Effects of structural flexibility of wings in flapping flight of butterfly.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this paper is to clarify the effects of structural flexibility of wings of a butterfly in flapping flight. For this purpose, a dynamics model of a butterfly is derived by Lagrange's method, where the butterfly is considered as a rigid multi-body system. The panel method is employed to simulate the flow field and the aerodynamic forces acting on the wings. The mathematical model is validated by the agreement of the numerical result with the experimentally measured data. Then, periodic orbits of flapping-of-wings flights are parametrically searched in order to fly the butterfly models. Almost periodic orbits are found, but they are unstable. Deformation of the wings is modeled in two ways. One is bending and its effect on the aerodynamic forces is discussed. The other is passive wing torsion caused by structural flexibility. Numerical simulations demonstrate that flexible torsion reduces the flight instability. PMID:22617048

Senda, Kei; Obara, Takuya; Kitamura, Masahiko; Yokoyama, Naoto; Hirai, Norio; Iima, Makoto

2012-06-01

191

Sex pheromone biosynthetic pathways are conserved between moths and the butterfly Bicyclus anynana.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although phylogenetically nested within the moths, butterflies have diverged extensively in a number of life history traits. Whereas moths rely greatly on chemical signals, visual advertisement is the hallmark of mate finding in butterflies. In the context of courtship, however, male chemical signals are widespread in both groups although they likely have multiple evolutionary origins. Here, we report that in males of the butterfly Bicyclus anynana, courtship scents are produced de novo via biosynthetic pathways shared with females of many moth species. We show that two of the pheromone components that play a major role in mate choice, namely the (Z)-9-tetradecenol and hexadecanal, are produced through the activity of a fatty acyl ?11-desaturase and two specialized alcohol-forming fatty acyl reductases. Our study provides the first evidence of conservation and sharing of ancestral genetic modules for the production of FA-derived pheromones over a long evolutionary timeframe thereby reconciling mate communication in moths and butterflies. PMID:24862548

Liénard, Marjorie A; Wang, Hong-Lei; Lassance, Jean-Marc; Löfstedt, Christer

2014-01-01

192

77 FR 61937 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing Taylor's Checkerspot Butterfly and...  

Science.gov (United States)

...checkerspot butterfly feeds primarily on plants of the family Scrophulariaceae (snapdragon family, including species of Castilleja...other members of the Orobanchaceae (broomrape; formerly Scrophulariaceae (snapdragon or figwort)) family, which are...

2012-10-11

193

Performance Evaluation of Camb Biopesticides to Control Cabbage Butterfly (Pieris brassicae) in Cauliflower Crop  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

CAMB Bt. based and fungus based biopesticides, commercial Bt. formulation from mycogen and a new chemical pesticide Methoxyfenozide (RH2485-240SC) were tested on cauliflower field against cabbage butterfly (Pieris brassicae). All pesticides successfully controlled the population of cabbage butterfly in cauliflower crop. The efficacy against I to V instar larvae and field stability of CAMB Bt. biopesticide was better than chemical and other biopesticides. So, CAMB Bt. can be safely reco...

Ahmad Usman Zafar; Idrees Ahmad Nasir; Ahmed Ali Shahid; Muhammad Sarwar Rahi; Sheikh Riazuddin

2002-01-01

194

Synergistic effects of combining morphological and molecular data in resolving the phylogeny of butterflies and skippers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Phylogenetic relationships among major clades of butterflies and skippers have long been controversial, with no general consensus even today. Such lack of resolution is a substantial impediment to using the otherwise well studied butterflies as a model group in biology. Here we report the results of a combined analysis of DNA sequences from three genes and a morphological data matrix for 57 taxa (3258 characters, 1290 parsimony informative) representing all major lineages from the three putat...

Wahlberg, Niklas; Braby, Michael F.; Brower, Andrew V. Z.; Jong, Rienk; Lee, Ming-min; Nylin, So?ren; Pierce, Naomi E.; Sperling, Felix A. H.; Vila, Roger; Warren, Andrew D.; Zakharov, Evgueni

2005-01-01

195

Cryptochromes Define a Novel Circadian Clock Mechanism in Monarch Butterflies That May Underlie Sun Compass Navigation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The circadian clock plays a vital role in monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) migration by providing the timing component of time-compensated sun compass orientation, a process that is important for successful navigation. We therefore evaluated the monarch clockwork by focusing on the functions of a Drosophila-like cryptochrome (cry), designated cry1, and a vertebrate-like cry, designated cry2, that are both expressed in the butterfly and by placing these genes in the context of other releva...

2008-01-01

196

Antennal circadian clocks coordinate sun compass orientation in migratory monarch butterflies#  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

During their fall migration, Eastern North American monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) use a time-compensated sun compass to aid navigation to their overwintering grounds in central Mexico. It has been assumed that the circadian clock that provides time compensation resides in the brain, although this assumption has never been examined directly. Here we show that the antennae are necessary for proper time-compensated sun compass orientation in migratory monarch butterflies, that antennal ...

2009-01-01

197

Modeling current and future potential wintering distributions of eastern North American monarch butterflies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Monarch butterflies overwinter in restricted areas in montane oyamel fir forests in central Mexico with specific microclimates that allow the butterflies to survive for up to 5 months. We use ecological niche modeling (ENM) to identify areas adequate for overwintering monarch colonies under both current and future climate scenarios. The ENM approach permits testing and validation of model predictivity, and yields quantitative, testable predictions regarding likely future climate change effect...

2003-01-01

198

Distribution patterns and indicator species of butterfly assemblages of wet meadows in southern Belgium  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Focal species are a valuable tool for proposing and evaluating management practices for biodiversity conservation. Assemblages of indicator species could be used to cover a wide range of habitats. We identified the main patterns of variation in butterfly assemblages on a diverse set of wet meadows in southern Belgium. We used multivariate techniques to identify the butterfly assemblages and the species that characterize these habitats. Three main assemblages were identified, based principally...

Sawchik, Javier; Dufre?ne, Marc; Lebrun, Philippe

2005-01-01

199

Time-Varying Wing-Twist Improves Aerodynamic Efficiency of Forward Flight in Butterflies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Insect wings can undergo significant chordwise (camber) as well as spanwise (twist) deformation during flapping flight but the effect of these deformations is not well understood. The shape and size of butterfly wings leads to particularly large wing deformations, making them an ideal test case for investigation of these effects. Here we use computational models derived from experiments on free-flying butterflies to understand the effect of time-varying twist and camber on the aerodynamic per...

Zheng, Lingxiao; Hedrick, Tyson L.; Mittal, Rajat

2013-01-01

200

Phoresy in the field: natural occurrence of Trichogramma egg parasitoids on butterflies and moths  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Phoretic insects utilize other animals to disperse to new environments. We recently discovered how egg parasitoids use an exciting phoretic strategy to reach egg-laying sites of their butterfly hosts. In the laboratory, female Trichogramma wasps detect and mount mated female cabbage white butterflies that emit an anti-aphrodisiac pheromone. Hardly any information exists about the natural occurrence of phoresy in wasps of this genus. Therefore, we monitored the presence of phoretic Trichogramm...

Fatouros, N. E.; Huigens, M. E.

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Defining behavioral and molecular differences between summer and migratory monarch butterflies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background In the fall, Eastern North American monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) undergo a magnificent long-range migration. In contrast to spring and summer butterflies, fall migrants are juvenile hormone deficient, which leads to reproductive arrest and increased longevity. Migrants also use a time-compensated sun compass to help them navigate in the south/southwesterly direction en route for Mexico. Central issues in this area are defining the relati...

Zhu Haisun; Gegear Robert J; Casselman Amy; Kanginakudru Sriramana; Reppert Steven M

2009-01-01

202

Prey survival by predator intimidation: an experimental study of peacock butterfly defence against blue tits  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Long-lived butterflies that hibernate as adults are expected to have well-developed antipredation devices as a result of their long exposure to natural enemies. The peacock butterfly, Inachis io, for instance, is a cryptic leaf mimic when resting, but shifts to active defence when disturbed, performing a repeated sequence of movements exposing major eyespots on the wings accompanied by a hissing noise. We studied the effect of visual and auditory defence by staging experiments in which wild-c...

Vallin, Adrian; Jakobsson, Sven; Lind, Johan; Wiklund, Christer

2005-01-01

203

The white 'comma' as a distractive mark on the wings of comma butterflies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Distractive marks have been suggested to prevent predator detection or recognition of a prey, by drawing the attention away from recognizable traits of the bearer. The white 'comma' on the wings of comma butterflies, Polygonia c-album, has been suggested to represent such a distractive mark. In a laboratory experiment using blue tits, Cyanistes caeruleus, as predators, we show that the comma increased survival, since the blue tits attacked butterflies with overpainted commas more often than s...

Olofsson, Martin; Dimitrova, Marina; Wiklund, Christer

2013-01-01

204

Monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus L.) use a magnetic compass for navigation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Fall migratory monarch butterflies, tested for their directional responses to magnetic cues under three conditions, amagnetic, normal, and reversed magnetic fields, showed three distinct patterns. In the absence of a magnetic field, monarchs lacked directionality as a group. In the normal magnetic field, monarchs oriented to the southwest with a group pattern typical for migrants. When the horizontal component of the magnetic field was reversed, the butterflies oriented to the northeast. In c...

Etheredge, Jason A.; Perez, Sandra M.; Taylor, Orley R.; Jander, Rudolf

1999-01-01

205

Polarization-based brightness discrimination in the foraging butterfly, Papilio xuthus  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The human eye is insensitive to the angular direction of the light e-vector, but several animal species have the ability to discriminate differently polarized lights. How the polarization is detected is often unclear, however. Egg-laying Papilio butterflies have been shown to see false colours when presented with differently polarized lights. Here we asked whether this also holds in foraging butterflies. After training individuals to feed on nectar in front of an unpolarized spectral light, w...

Kinoshita, Michiyo; Yamazato, Kei; Arikawa, Kentaro

2011-01-01

206

Towards a Cold-atom Realization of Quantum Maps with Hofstadter's Butterfly Spectrum  

CERN Document Server

Quantum systems with Hofstadter's butterfly spectrum are of fundamental interest to many research areas. Based upon slight modifications of existing cold-atom experiments, a cold-atom realization of quantum maps with Hofstadter's butterfly spectrum is proposed. Connections and differences between our realization and the kicked Harper model are identified. This work also exposes, for the first time, a simple connection between the kicked Harper model and the kicked rotor model, the two paradigms of classical and quantum chaos.

Wang, Jiao

2007-01-01

207

Photonic Crystal Structure and Coloration of Wing Scales of Butterflies Exhibiting Selective Wavelength Iridescence  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The coloration of butterflies that exhibit human visible iridescence from violet to green has been elucidated. Highly tilted multilayers of cuticle on the ridges, which were found in the scales of male S. charonda and E. mulciber butterflies, produce a limited-view, selective wavelength iridescence (ultraviolet (UV)~green) as a result of multiple interference between the cuticle-ai...

Filip Mika; Ji?ina Mat?jková-Plšková; Suratwadee Jiwajinda; Punyavee Dechkrong; Makoto Shiojiri

2012-01-01

208

Replication of polypyrrole with photonic structures from butterfly wings as biosensor  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Polypyrrole (PPy) with photonic structures from butterfly wings was synthesized based on a two-step templating and in situ polymerization process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The hierarchical structures down to nanometer level were kept in the resultant PPy replicas. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The PPy replicas exhibit brilliant color due to Bragg diffraction through its ordered periodic structures. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The PPy replicas showed a much higher biological activity compared with common PPy powders as a biosensor. - Abstract: Polypyrrole (PPy) with photonic crystal structures were synthesized from Morpho butterfly wings using a two-step templating process. In the first step photonic crystal SiO{sub 2} butterfly wings were synthesized from Morpho butterfly wings and in the second step the SiO{sub 2} butterfly wings were used as templates for the replication of PPy butterfly wings using an in situ polymerization method. The SiO{sub 2} templates were then removed from the PPy butterfly wings using a HF solution. The hierarchical structures down to the nanometer level, especially the photonic crystal structures, were retained in the final PPy replicas, as evidenced directly by field-emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The optical properties of the resultant PPy replicas were investigated using reflectance spectroscopy and the PPy replicas exhibit brilliant color due to Bragg diffraction through its ordered periodic structures. The preliminary biosensing application was investigated and it was found that the PPy replicas showed a much higher biological activity compared with PPy powders through their response to dopamine (DA), probably due to the hierarchical structures as well as controlled porosity inherited from Morpho butterfly wings. It is expected that our strategy will open up new avenues for the synthesis of functional polymers with photonic crystal structures, which may form applications as biosensors.

Tang Jie [State Key Laboratory of Metal Matrix Composites, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China); Zhu Shenmin, E-mail: smzhu@sjtu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Metal Matrix Composites, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China); Chen Zhixin [Faculty of Engineering, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); Feng Chuanliang; Shen Yanjun; Yao Fan [State Key Laboratory of Metal Matrix Composites, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China); Zhang Di, E-mail: zhangdi@sjtu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Metal Matrix Composites, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China); Moon, Won-Jin; Song, Deok-Min [Gwangju Center, Korea Basic Science Institute, Yongbong-dong, Buk-Gu, Gwang ju 500-757 (Korea, Republic of)

2012-01-05

209

A model for colour pattern formation in the butterfly wing of Papilio dardanus.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The butterfly Papilio dardanus is well known for the spectacular phenotypic polymorphism in the female of the species. We show that numerical simulations of a reaction diffusion model on a geometrically accurate wing domain produce spatial patterns that are consistent with many of those observed on the butterfly. Our results suggest that the wing coloration is due to a simple underlying stripe-like pattern of some pigment-inducing morphogen. We focus on the effect of key factors such as param...

Sekimura, T.; Madzvamuse, A.; Wathen, A. J.; Maini, P. K.

2000-01-01

210

Tracking butterfly movements with harmonic radar reveals an effect of population age on movement distance  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We used harmonic radar to track freely flying Glanville fritillary butterfly (Melitaea cinxia) females within an area of 30 ha. Butterflies originated from large and continuous populations in China and Estonia, and from newly established or old (> 5 years) small local populations in a highly fragmented landscape in Finland. Caterpillars were raised under common garden conditions and unmated females were tested soon after eclosion. The reconstructed flight paths for 66 individuals comprised a ...

Ovaskainen, Otso; Smith, Alan D.; Osborne, Juliet L.; Reynolds, Don R.; Carreck, Norman L.; Martin, Andrew P.; Niitepo?ld, Kristjan; Hanski, Ilkka

2008-01-01

211

Does Dietary Restriction Reduce Life Span in Male Fruit-feeding Butterflies?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Male life history and resource allocation is not frequently studied in aging and life span research. Here we verify that males of long-lived fruit-feeding butterfly species have reduced longevity on restricted diets (Beck 2007 Oecologia), in contrast to the common finding of longevity extension in dietary restriction experiments in Drosophila and some other organisms. Males of some of the most long-lived species of fruit-feeding butterflies were collected from Kibale Fores...

2009-01-01

212

Phase Diagram for the Hofstadter butterfly and integer quantum Hall effect in three dimensions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We give a perspective on the Hofstadter butterfly (fractal energy spectrum in magnetic fields), which we have shown to arise specifically in three-dimensional(3D) systems in our previous work. (i) We first obtain the `phase diagram' on a parameter space of the transfer energies and the magnetic field for the appearance of Hofstadter's butterfly spectrum in anisotropic crystals in 3D. (ii) We show that the orientation of the external magnetic field can be arbitrary to have th...

Koshino, M.; Aoki, H.; Osada, T.; Kuroki, K.; Kagoshima, S.

2001-01-01

213

Population Fluctuations and Synchrony of Grassland Butterflies in Relation to Species Traits  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Population fluctuations and synchrony influence population persistence; species with larger fluctuations and more synchronised population fluctuations face higher extinction risks. Here, we analyse the effect of diet specialisation, mobility, length of the flight period, and distance to the northern edge of the species' distribution in relation to between-year population fluctuations and synchrony of butterfly species. All butterfly species associated with grasslands were surveyed over five s...

Franzen, Markus; Nilsson, Sven G.; Johansson, Victor; Ranius, Thomas

2013-01-01

214

Evolution and Mechanism of Spectral Tuning of Blue-Absorbing Visual Pigments in Butterflies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The eyes of flower-visiting butterflies are often spectrally highly complex with multiple opsin genes generated by gene duplication, providing an interesting system for a comparative study of color vision. The Small White butterfly, Pieris rapae, has duplicated blue opsins, PrB and PrV, which are expressed in the blue (?max?=?453 nm) and violet receptors (?max?=?425 nm), respectively. To reveal accurate absorption profiles and the molecular basis of the spectral tuning of these visu...

Wakakuwa, Motohiro; Terakita, Akihisa; Koyanagi, Mitsumasa; Stavenga, Doekele G.; Shichida, Yoshinori; Arikawa, Kentaro

2010-01-01

215

Adaptive evolution of color vision as seen through the eyes of butterflies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Butterflies and primates are interesting for comparative color vision studies, because both have evolved middle- (M) and long-wavelength- (L) sensitive photopigments with overlapping absorbance spectrum maxima (?max values). Although positive selection is important for the maintenance of spectral variation within the primate pigments, it remains an open question whether it contributes similarly to the diversification of butterfly pigments. To examine this issue, we performed epimicrospectrop...

Frentiu, Francesca D.; Bernard, Gary D.; Cuevas, Cristina I.; Sison-mangus, Marilou P.; Prudic, Kathleen L.; Briscoe, Adriana D.

2007-01-01

216

Standardised methods for the GMO monitoring of butterflies and moths: the whys and hows  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Butterflies and moths (Lepidoptera) are correlated with many biotic and abiotic characteristics of the environment, and are widely accepted as relevant protection goals. Adverse effects on butterflies and moths through genetically modified (GM) crops have been demonstrated, by both insect-resistant and herbicide-tolerant events. Thus, Lepidoptera are considered suitable bio-indicators for monitoring the potential adverse effects due to the cultivation of GM crops, and guidelines were develope...

2013-01-01

217

Identifying time lags in the restoration of grassland butterfly communities: a multi-site assessment  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Although grasslands are crucial habitats for European butterflies, large-scale declines in quality and area have devastated many species. Grassland restoration can contribute to the recovery of butterfly populations, although there is a paucity of information on the long-term effects of management. Using eight UK data sets (9-21 years), we investigate changes in restoration success for (1) arable reversion sites, were grassland was established on bare ground using seed mixtures, and (2) grass...

Woodcock, B. A.; Bullock, J. M.; Mortimer, S. R.; Brereton, T.; Redhead, J. W.; Thomas, J. A.; Pywell, R. F.

2012-01-01

218

Do forest ski-pistes represent a habitat gain for butterflies?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The abandonment of man-made pastures below the tree line is favouring natural reforestation in the European Alps. As a consequence, although the development of ski areas has severely disturbed the environment in the Alps, the creation of forest ski-pistes might, paradoxically, be beneficial to butterflies, which are predominantly open-habitat species. This study is the first to focus on the effects of forest ski-pistes on butterfly assemblages (Lepidoptera, Rhopalocera). We sampled both butte...

Balletto, Emilio; Rolando, Antonio; Passerin D Entreves, Pietro; Palestrini, Claudia; Negro, Matteo

2012-01-01

219

The evolution of movements and behaviour at boundaries in different landscapes: a common arena experiment with butterflies.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

As landscapes change, mobility patterns of species may alter. Different mechanistic scenarios may, however, lead to particular patterns. Here, we tested conflicting predictions from two hypotheses on butterfly movements in relation to habitat fragmentation. According to the resource distribution hypothesis, butterflies in more fragmented landscapes would have higher levels of mobility as resources are more scattered. However, these butterflies could have lower levels of mobility as they exper...

Merckx, Thomas; Dyck, Hans; Karlsson, Bengt; Leimar, Olof

2003-01-01

220

Dynamic behavior of the vortex ring formed on a butterfly wing  

Science.gov (United States)

Micro-air-vehicles (MAVs) and micro-flight robots that mimic the flight mechanisms of insects have attracted significant attention in recent years. A number of MAVs and micro-flight robots that use various devices have been reported. However, these robots were not practical. One of the reasons for this is that the flying mechanism of insects has not yet been clarified sufficiently. In particular, the dynamic behavior of the vortex formed on the insect wing and its growth process have not been clarified. The purpose of the present study is to clarify the dynamic behavior and the detailed structure of the vortices of the flapping butterfly wing. The authors conducted a particle image velocimetry measurement around the flapping butterfly wing of Cynthia cardui and Idea leuconoe and investigated the vortex structure of the wing and its dynamic behavior. A vortex ring is formed over the butterfly wings when the wings flap downward to the bottom dead position. The vortex ring then passes over the butterfly completely and grows until reaching the wake at the bottom dead position. The vortex ring is formed over the wings regardless of the type of butterfly, although the scale of the vortex ring varies with the butterfly type.

Fuchiwaki, Masaki; Kuroki, Taichi; Tanaka, Kazuhiro; Tababa, Takahide

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Biodiversity of Butterflies from Districts Poonch and Sudhnoti, Azad Kashmir  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The adult butterflies were collected from ten localities of district Poonch and eight localities of district Sudhnoti through out the summer season of (April to October 2000. A total of 29 species belonging to 5 families from district Rawalakot and 21 species belonging to 5 families were collected from district Sudhnoti. Biodiversity was calculated by using Shannon-Wiener diversity index, Shannon`s equitability, Margalef`s index, Simpson`s index and RI index. The calculated values of diversity indices showed that from district Rawalakot the highest diversity was obtained from Khaigala and lowest diversity was obtained from Topa and Paniola. From district Sudhnoti the highest diversity was calculated from Azad Pattan and the lowest diversity was calculated from Pallandri city.

M. Rafique Khan

2004-01-01

222

Width of Sunspot Generating Zone and Reconstruction of Butterfly Diagram  

CERN Document Server

Based on the extended Greenwich-NOAA/USAF catalogue of sunspot groups it is demonstrated that the parameters describing the latitudinal width of the sunspot generating zone (SGZ) are closely related to the current level of solar activity, and the growth of the activity leads to the expansion of SGZ. The ratio of the sunspot number to the width of SGZ shows saturation at a certain level of the sunspot number, and above this level the increase of the activity takes place mostly due to the expansion of SGZ. It is shown that the mean latitudes of sunspots can be reconstructed from the amplitudes of solar activity. Using the obtained relations and the group sunspot numbers by Hoyt and Schatten (1998), the latitude distribution of sunspot groups ("the Maunder butterfly diagram") for the 18th and the first half of the 19th centuries is reconstructed and compared with historical sunspot observations.

Ivanov, V G; 10.1007/s11207-010-9665-6

2010-01-01

223

Colors and pterin pigmentation of pierid butterfly wings.  

Science.gov (United States)

The reflectance of pierid butterfly wings is principally determined by the incoherent scattering of incident light and the absorption by pterin pigments in the scale structures. Coherent scattering causing iridescence is frequently encountered in the dorsal wings or wing tips of male pierids. We investigated the effect of the pterins on wing reflectance by local extraction of the pigments with aqueous ammonia and simultaneous spectrophotometric measurements. The ultraviolet-absorbing leucopterin was extracted prominently from the white Pieris species, and the violet-absorbing xanthopterin and blue-absorbing erythropterin were mainly derived from the yellow- and orange-colored Coliadinae, but they were also extracted from the dorsal wing tips of many male Pierinae. Absorption spectra deduced from wing reflectance spectra distinctly diverge from the absorption spectra of the extracted pigments, which indicate that when embedded in wing scales the pterins differ from those in solution. The evolution of pierid wing coloration is discussed. PMID:17669418

Wijnen, B; Leertouwer, H L; Stavenga, D G

2007-12-01

224

A butterfly shaped alveolar hemorrhage caused by cytomegalovirus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract. We report here a 35 year-old immunocompetent male, with a fulminantly lethal diffuse alveolar hemorrhage caused by CMV pneumonia. The patient was admitted with fever, rust colored sputum and exertional dyspnea. A chest x-ray revealed bilateral alveolar infiltration in a butterfly pattern. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed which revealed alveolar hemorrhage. Microscopic findings of the lavage fluid revealed large numbers of erythrocytes and hemosiderin-laden macrophages. The patient did not improve with empiric antibiotic treatment. High CMV IgG and IgM titers were found in the serum. The patient died from respiratory failure after detection of inclusion bodies on BAL before initiation of antiviral therapy. PMID:21073064

Ciledag, Aydin; Karnak, Demet; Kayacan, Oya

2010-07-01

225

Butterfly (Rhopalocera fauna of Maharashtra Nature Park, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mumbai, one of the largest metro cities in the world, holds rich biodiversity in few green fragmented naturalor manmade habitats. One such habitat is the Maharashtra Nature Park (MNP. MNP is located in a highly polluted areaof Mumbai; this was a dumping ground for nearly 26 years. In 1983, it was restored into a semi-natural forest with theinitial technical inputs from World Wide Fund for Nature-India (WWF-India. Presently, this nature park supports a richbiodiversity but lacks proper documentation. Such information is essential as the park serves as an important study areafor many schools, college students and for many nature lovers. Previous documentation has reported 38 butterfly speciesfrom the park. The present study carried out from June 2005 to November 2005 has documented 53 species belonging tofive families from MNP.

Raut, N. B.

2010-01-01

226

The Rorschach butterfly effect: it L.L. a mistake.  

Science.gov (United States)

Errors in Rorschach coding and interpretation have contributed substantially to the ink-blot literature, with reported discrepancies on even the simplest scoring tasks. A review of the underlying assumptions uncovered a long-standing location aberration, stemming from Beck's adaptation of Klopfer and perpetuated through Exner. The resulting coding errors (D3 or Dd28, and "o" or "u") in a highly-scrutinized and regularly selected domain of card II potentiates a "butterfly effect" escalation of interpretative malfeasance. It remains unclear whether review of the vast data-base of collected protocol summaries will undo the cumulative putative error, or whether the creation of a fresh approach to Rorschach may be the best way forward for Rorschach in the 21st century. PMID:18084910

King, Michael G

2007-01-01

227

Phase Retrapping in a Pointlike ? Josephson Junction: The Butterfly Effect  

Science.gov (United States)

We consider a ? Josephson junction, which has a bistable zero-voltage state with the stationary phases ?=±?. In the nonzero voltage state the phase “moves” viscously along a tilted periodic double-well potential. When the tilting is reduced quasistatically, the phase is retrapped in one of the potential wells. We study the viscous phase dynamics to determine in which well (-? or +?) the phase is retrapped for a given damping, when the junction returns from the finite-voltage state back to the zero-voltage state. In the limit of low damping, the ? Josephson junction exhibits a butterfly effect—extreme sensitivity of the destination well on damping. This leads to an impossibility to predict the destination well.

Goldobin, E.; Kleiner, R.; Koelle, D.; Mints, R. G.

2013-08-01

228

Negative relationship between dispersal distance and demography in butterfly metapopulations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Little is known about the connection between demography and dispersal in metapopulations. The meta-analysis of the population time series of five butterfly species indicated that (meta)population dynamics are driven by density-dependent factors. Inter-specific comparison reveals a significant inverse relationship between population growth rate and the magnitude of dispersal distance. As the range of dispersal distances is constrained by the patch system, dispersing individuals moving too far away would (probably) get lost. This generates selective pressures on individuals with a high dispersal propensity, but favors individuals investing more in reproduction and results in a higher (meta)population growth rate. From a conservation perspective, individuals from (meta)populations and species sacrificing dispersal for the sake of reproductive performances are most vulnerable because of their higher sensitivity to stochastic events: the temporal variation of growth rate was much higher in the two metapopulations where dispersal was limited. PMID:16602294

Baguette, Michel; Schtickzelle, Nicolas

2006-03-01

229

Land-use changes, farm management and the decline of butterflies associated with semi-natural grasslands in southern Sweden  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Currently, we are experiencing biodiversity loss on different spatial scales. One of the best studied taxonomic groups in decline is the butterflies. Here, we review evidence for such declines using five systematic studies from southern Sweden that compare old butterfly surveys with the current situation. Additionally, we provide data on butterfly and burnet moth extinctions in the region’s counties. In some local areas, half of the butterfly fauna has been lost during the last 60-100 years...

Pettersson, Lars; Nilsson, Sven G.; Franze?n, Markus

2013-01-01

230

Effect of widespread agricultural chemical use on butterfly diversity across Turkish provinces.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although agricultural intensification is thought to pose a significant threat to species, little is known about its role in driving biodiversity loss at regional scales. I assessed the effects of a major component of agricultural intensification, agricultural chemical use, and land-cover and climatic variables on butterfly diversity across 81 provinces in Turkey, where agriculture is practiced extensively but with varying degrees of intensity. I determined butterfly species presence in each province from data on known butterfly distributions and calculated agricultural chemical use as the proportion of agricultural households that use chemical fertilizers and pesticides. I used constrained correspondence analyses and regression-based multimodel inference to determine the effect of environmental variables on species composition and richness, respectively. The variation in butterfly species composition across the provinces was largely explained (78%) by the combination of agricultural chemical use, particularly pesticides, and climatic and land-cover variables. Although overall butterfly richness was primarily explained by climatic and land-cover variables, such as the area of natural vegetation cover, threatened butterfly richness and the relative number of threatened butterfly species decreased substantially as the proportion of agricultural households using pesticides increased. These findings suggest that widespread use of agricultural chemicals, or other components of agricultural intensification that may be collinear with pesticide use, pose an imminent threat to the biodiversity of Turkey. Accordingly, policies that mitigate agricultural intensification and promote low-input farming practices are crucial for protecting threatened species from extinction in rapidly industrializing nations such as Turkey. Efectos del Uso Extensivo de Agroquímicos sobre la Diversidad de Mariposas en Provincias Turcas. PMID:23869856

Pekin, Burak K

2013-12-01

231

Contribution of urban expansion and a changing climate to decline of a butterfly fauna.  

Science.gov (United States)

Butterfly populations are naturally patchy and undergo extinctions and recolonizations. Analyses based on more than 2 decades of data on California's Central Valley butterfly fauna show a net loss in species richness through time. We analyzed 22 years of phenological and faunistic data for butterflies to investigate patterns of species richness over time. We then used 18-22 years of data on changes in regional land use and 37 years of seasonal climate data to develop an explanatory model. The model related the effects of changes in land-use patterns, from working landscapes (farm and ranchland) to urban and suburban landscapes, and of a changing climate on butterfly species richness. Additionally, we investigated local trends in land use and climate. A decline in the area of farmland and ranchland, an increase in minimum temperatures during the summer and maximum temperatures in the fall negatively affected net species richness, whereas increased minimum temperatures in the spring and greater precipitation in the previous summer positively affected species richness. According to the model, there was a threshold between 30% and 40% working-landscape area below which further loss of working-landscape area had a proportionally greater effect on butterfly richness. Some of the isolated effects of a warming climate acted in opposition to affect butterfly richness. Three of the 4 climate variables that most affected richness showed systematic trends (spring and summer mean minimum and fall mean maximum temperatures). Higher spring minimum temperatures were associated with greater species richness, whereas higher summer temperatures in the previous year and lower rainfall were linked to lower richness. Patterns of land use contributed to declines in species richness (although the pattern was not linear), but the net effect of a changing climate on butterfly richness was more difficult to discern. Contribución de la Expansión Urbana y un Clima Cambiante a la Declinación de la Fauna de Mariposas. PMID:24527888

Casner, Kayce L; Forister, Matthew L; O'Brien, Joshua M; Thorne, James; Waetjen, David; Shapiro, Arthur M

2014-06-01

232

The role of the North Atlantic Oscillation in controlling U.K. butterfly population size and phenology  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

1. The North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) exerts considerable control on U.K. weather. This study investigates the impact of the NAO on butterfly abundance and phenology using 34 years of data from the U.K. Butterfly Monitoring Scheme (UKBMS).

Westgarth-smith, Angus R.; Roy, David B.; Scholze, Martin; Tucker, Allan; Sumpter, John P.

2012-01-01

233

Butterfly magnetization in YBa2Cu3-xFexO7-y: Correlation with the microstructure and the macrostructure  

Science.gov (United States)

The butterfly anomaly in the critical current density (J) of a large number of YBa2Cu3-xFexO7-y samples is investigated as a function of the magnetic field (0butterfly effect is consistent with the collective creep theory in the field region around Hm2. This field marks a crossover between small and large bundle pinning regimes.

Senoussi, S.; Mosbah, F.; Frikach, K.; Hammond, S.; Manuel, P.

1996-05-01

234

Ultrastructure of antennal sensilla of four skipper butterflies in Parnara sp. and Pelopidas sp. (Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae).  

Science.gov (United States)

Most species of Parnara and Pelopidas (Hesperiidae) are important pests of rice. In this study, the antennal morphology, types of sensilla, and their distribution of four skipper butterflies, including Parnara guttata (Bremer & Grey), Pa. bada (Moore), Pelopidas mathias (Fabricius) and Pe. agna (Moore), were observed using a scanning electron microscope. Six distinct morphological types of sensilla were found on the antennae of all of these species: sensilla squamiformia, sensilla trichodea, sensilla chaetica, sensilla auricillica, sensilla coeloconica, and Böhm sensilla. The sensilla trichodea are the most abundant sensilla among the four skipper butterflies, and the sensilla auricillica are confirmed on the antennae of butterflies for the second time. In addition, the possible functions of these sensilla are discussed in the light of previously reported lepidopteran insects, which may provide useful information for further study of the function of these antennal sensilla and for related pests control by applying sex pheromones. PMID:24843250

Xiangqun, Yuan; Ke, Gao; Feng, Yuan; Yalin, Zhang

2014-01-01

235

Diversity pattern of Butterfly Lepidoptera (Papilio demoleus in Union Council Koaz Bahram Dheri Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In ecosystem the butterflies ply dual role as pollinators, silk producers and indicators of environmental quality. The present study was conducted in Union Council Koaz Bahram Dehri during the period July 2012 to August 2012. The collection of butterflies was done randomly by using the sweep net. A total of 32 specimens of Papilio demoleus were collected from different villages of the said area. The high number of specimen was collected from Aratt Kally (21.88%. The wing span is 9.8±0.40 cm and body length 2.9±0.16 cm. From the present investigation it was concluded that the Papilio demoleus species is common in Union Council Koaz Bahram Dehri. The area has rich fauna of butterflies and recommended further studies.

HAROON

2013-04-01

236

Butterfly Arch: A Device for Precise Controlling of the Upper Molars in Three Planes of Space  

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Full Text Available Intra-oral appliances such as transpalatal arch and Nance appliance fail to resist against forces that tend to loosen the anchorage. The infirmity arises due to the long lever arm and the mesial force that is perpendicular to the long axis of the appliance. The butterfly arch is presented here as an intra-oral appliance that withstands the mesially directed forces with a mechanism that puts strain on a stiff wire along its long axis. The unique shape of the butterfly arch is advantageous in maximum anchorage cases, cases in which arch width preservation is critical and cases with a vertical growth pattern. With the aid of the butterfly arch, clinical concerns such as patient cooperation, wearing extra-oral appliances, complicated mechanics in extraction cases and control of the arch length, arch width and vertical dimension would be greatly diminished.

Alireza Nikkerdar

2013-01-01

237

The Innovation Butterfly Managing Emergent Opportunities and Risks During Distributed Innovation  

CERN Document Server

Product and service innovations are the result of mutually interacting creative and coordination tasks within a system that has to balance technical decisions, marketplace taste, personnel management, and stakeholder commitment. The constituent elements of such systems are often scattered across multiple firms and across the globe and constitute a complex system consisting of many interacting parts. In the spirit of the "butterfly effect", metaphorically describing the sensitivity to initials conditions of chaotic systems, this book builds an argument that "innovation butterflies" can, in the short term, take up significant amounts of effort and sap efficiencies within individual innovation projects. Such "innovation butterflies" can be prompted by external forces such as government legislation or unexpected spikes in the price of basic goods (such as oil), unexpected shifts in market tastes, or from a company manager’s decisions or those of its competitors. Even the smallest change, the smallest disruption...

Anderson Jr , Edward G

2012-01-01

238

Butterfly Pea (Clitoria ternatea: A Nutritive Multipurpose Forage Legume for the Tropics - An Overview  

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Full Text Available Butterfly pea (Clitoria ternatea is a multi-purpose forage legume. It provides bioactive compounds for medicinal use and it is also an ornamental plant and cover crop. It is adaptable to a wide range of temperature, rainfall and altitude. Butterfly pea, a highly palatable forage legume is generally preferred by livestock over other legumes. It has thin stem and large leaves, nil bloat and non toxic which make it ideal for forage and hay making. It`s vigorous growth, tolerance to frost and dry periods and heavy grazing pressures make this suitable for waste land development. Production and utilization of this legume for animal production will provide adequate nutrition and also reduce grazing pressure on natural ranges. This paper reviews distribution, plant description, agronomic characteristics, genetic variation, medicinal use, chemical composition and utilization of butterfly pea in livestock production.

S. Michael Gomez

2003-01-01

239

Analyzing the reflections from single ommatidia in the butterfly compound eye with Voronoi diagrams.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents a robust method for the automated segmentation and quantitative measurement of reflections from single ommatidia in the butterfly compound eye. Digital pictures of the butterfly eye shine recorded with a digital camera are processed to yield binary images from which single facet centers can be extracted using a morphological image analysis procedure. The location of the facet centers is corrected by fitting in-line facet centers to a second-order polynomial. Based on the new centers a Voronoi diagram is constructed. In the case of the eye shine images, the Voronoi diagram defines a hexagonal lattice that overlaps with the original facet borders, allowing instantaneous quantification of the reflections from single ommatidia. We provide two typical examples to demonstrate that the developed technique may be a powerful tool to characterize in vivo the heterogeneity of butterfly eyes and to study the dynamic control of the light flux by the pupil mechanism. PMID:14659839

Vanhoutte, Kurt J A; Michielsen, Kristel F L; Stavenga, Doekele G

2003-12-30

240

Use of fruit bait traps for monitoring of butterflies (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae  

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Full Text Available There exists great interest in using fruit-feeding adult nymphalid butterflies to monitor changes in tropical forest ecosystems. We intensively sampled the butterfly fauna of mid-elevation tropical moist forest in southern Costa Rica with fruit bait traps to address a series of practical issues concerning the development of a robust, efficient sampling program. Variation in the number of captures and escapes of butterflies at the traps was better explained by the time of day than by the age of bait. Species’ escape rates varied widely, suggesting that short term, less intensive surveys aimed at determining presence or absence of species may be biased. Individuals did not appear to become "trap-happy" or to recognize the traps as food sources. Considering the tradeoff between numbers of traps and frequency of trap servicing, the most efficient sampling regime appears to be baiting and sampling the traps once every other day.

Jennifer B. Hughes

1998-09-01

 
 
 
 
241

Flow characteristics and performance evaluation of butterfly valves using numerical analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The industrial butterfly valves have been applied to various fields that transport fluid in volume, especially water supply and drainage pipeline for flow control. The butterfly valves in various shapes are manufactured, but a fitting performance comparison is not made up. For this reason, we carried out numerical analysis of some kind of butterfly valves for water supply and drainage pipeline using commercial CFD code FLUENT, and made a comparative study of these results. Also, the flow coefficient, the loss coefficient, and pressure distribution of valves according to valve opening rate were compared each other and the influence of these design variables on valve performance were checked over. Through flow around the valve disk, such as pressure distribution, flow pattern, velocity vectors, and form of vortex, we grasped flow characteristics.

2010-08-01

242

Application of butterfly Clos-network in network-on-chip.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper studied the topology of NoC (Network-on-Chip). By combining the characteristics of the Clos network and butterfly network, a new topology named BFC (Butterfly Clos-network) network was proposed. This topology integrates several modules, which belongs to the same layer but different dimensions, into a new module. In the BFC network, a bidirectional link is used to complete information exchange, instead of information exchange between different layers in the original network. During the routing period, other nondestination nodes can be used as middle stages to transfer data packets to complete the routing mission. Therefore, this topology has the characteristic of multistage. Simulation analyses show that BFC inherits the rich path diversity of Clos network, and it has a better performance than butterfly network in throughput and delay in a quite congested traffic pattern. PMID:24688357

Liu, Hui; Xie, Linquan; Liu, Jiansheng; Ding, Lei

2014-01-01

243

Occurrence of the wax cetyl palmitate in stomachs of the corallivorous butterfly fish Chaetodon trifascialis  

Science.gov (United States)

Various organs of the butterfly fish Chaetodon trifascialis, which has been reported to feed exclusively on coral polyps, were analyzed for their content of lipid and of the wax cetyl palmitate which has been found to occur in various corals. Cetyl palmitate was isolated from stomachs containing food. The total lipids accounted for 12% of dry weight of stomachs and contents, with cetyl palmitate making up 30% of total lipids. Two stomachs contained a total of 315 mg of cetyl palmitate. No significant amounts of the wax were found in heads, ovaries, swim bladders and intestines of the fish, indicating an exogenous source of the cetyl palmitate present in the stomach. This finding supports the view that the butterfly fish feeds on corals, which contain cetyl palmitate. The butterfly fish does not appear to store wax.

Kung, Shian-Shien; Ciereszko, Leon S.

1985-04-01

244

Coldness triggers northward flight in remigrant monarch butterflies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Each fall, eastern North American monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) migrate from their northern range to their overwintering grounds in central Mexico. Fall migrants are in reproductive diapause, and they use a time-compensated sun compass to navigate during the long journey south. Eye-sensed directional cues from the daylight sky (e.g., the horizontal or azimuthal position of the sun) are integrated in the sun compass in the midbrain central complex region. Sun compass output is time compensated by circadian clocks in the antennae so that fall migrants can maintain a fixed flight direction south. In the spring, the same migrants remigrate northward to the southern United States to initiate the northern leg of the migration cycle. Here we show that spring remigrants also use an antenna-dependent time-compensated sun compass to direct their northward flight. Remarkably, fall migrants prematurely exposed to overwintering-like coldness reverse their flight orientation to the north. The temperature microenvironment at the overwintering site is essential for successful completion of the migration cycle, because without cold exposure, aged migrants continue to orient south. Our discovery that coldness triggers the northward flight direction in spring remigrants solves one of the long-standing mysteries of the monarch migration. PMID:23434279

Guerra, Patrick A; Reppert, Steven M

2013-03-01

245

Biased learning affects mate choice in a butterfly.  

Science.gov (United States)

Early acquisition of mate preferences or mate-preference learning is associated with signal diversity and speciation in a wide variety of animal species. However, the diversity of mechanisms of mate-preference learning across taxa remains poorly understood. Using the butterfly Bicyclus anynana we uncover a mechanism that can lead to directional sexual selection via mate-preference learning: a bias in learning enhanced ornamentation, which is independent of preexisting mating biases. Naïve females mated preferentially with wild-type males over males with enhanced wing ornamentation, but females briefly exposed to enhanced males mated significantly more often with enhanced males. In contrast, females exposed to males with reduced wing ornamentation did not learn to prefer drab males. Thus, we observe both a learned change of a preexisting mating bias, and a bias in ability to learn enhanced male ornaments over reduced ornaments. Our findings demonstrate that females are able to change their preferences in response to a single social event, and suggest a role for biased learning in the evolution of visual sexual ornamentation. PMID:22689980

Westerman, Erica L; Hodgins-Davis, Andrea; Dinwiddie, April; Monteiro, Antónia

2012-07-01

246

What initiates speciation in passion-vine butterflies?  

Science.gov (United States)

Studies of the continuum between geographic races and species provide the clearest insights into the causes of speciation. Here we report on mate choice and hybrid viability experiments in a pair of warningly colored butterflies, Heliconius erato and Heliconius himera, that maintain their genetic integrity in the face of hybridization. Hybrid sterility and inviability have been unimportant in the early stages of speciation of these two Heliconius. We find no evidence of reduced fecundity, egg hatch, or larval survival nor increases in developmental time in three generations of hybrid crosses. Instead, speciation in this pair appears to have been catalyzed by the association of strong mating preferences with divergence in warning coloration and ecology. In mate choice experiments, matings between the two species are a tenth as likely as matings within species. F1 hybrids of both sexes mate frequently with both pure forms. However, male F1 progeny from crosses between H. himera mothers and H. erato fathers have somewhat reduced mating success. The strong barrier to gene flow provided by divergence in mate preference is probably enhanced by frequency-dependent predation against hybrids similar to the type known to occur across interracial hybrid zones of H. erato. In addition, the transition between this pair falls at the boundary between wet and dry forest, and rare hybrids may also be selected against because they are poorly adapted to either biotope. These results add to a growing body of evidence that challenge the importance of genomic incompatibilities in the earliest stages of speciation. PMID:9238028

McMillan, W O; Jiggins, C D; Mallet, J

1997-08-01

247

Reflections on Lupus 2013: butterflies, wolves and prophecies.  

Science.gov (United States)

The recently concluded Tenth International Congress on Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) held in Buenos Aires was a resounding success. This overview summarizes some of the origins of the First International Congress held in Calgary, Canada in 1986, predictions offered by past Congress Presidents, and a perspective on the trends in autoantibody testing, which remains one of the key approaches to the early and accurate diagnosis of SLE. The last few decades have witnessed a remarkable proliferation of new diagnostic technologies including addressable laser bead immunoassays and, more recently, chemiluminescence and lateral flow technologies that could find a clinical niche in point-of-care diagnostics. Against the backdrop of these constantly emerging technologies, indirect immunofluorescence has remained the platform of choice for many laboratories and diagnosticians. The notion that autoantibodies are pathogenic has been challenged by evidence that some autoantibodies are protective, some may have catalytic capacity while others may be neutral or have no function at all. The latter notion of functionless or "junk" autoantibodies needs to be taken under some advisement, because there was a time when a great proportion of the human genome was considered to include "junk DNA". The butterfly as a symbol of hope and progress in SLE research over the past 27 years since the First International Congress on SLE is almost certainly to be even more appropriate when future Congresses are held in Geneva (2015), Melbourne (2017) and eventually one in 2050. PMID:23989735

Fritzler, Mj

2013-10-01

248

Genetic population structure of the vulnerable bog fritillary butterfly.  

Science.gov (United States)

Populations of the bog fritillary butterfly Proclossiana eunomia (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae) occur in patchy habitat in central and western Europe. P. eunomia is a vulnerable species in the Belgian Ardennes and the number of occupied sites has significantly decreased in this region since the 1960s. RAPD (random amplified polymorphic DNA) markers were used to study the consequences of habitat loss and fragmentation on the genetic population structure of this species. Gene diversity was lower in populations with smaller population sizes. Genetic subdivision was high (Fst=0.0887) considering the small spatial scale of this study (150 km2). The most geographically isolated population was also the most genetically differentiated one. The genetic population structure and genetic differentiation detected in this study were explained by (1) differences in altitude of the sampled locations and, (2) lower dispersal propensity and dispersal rate in fragmented landscapes versus continuous landscapes. Results from the RAPD analyses were compared with a previous allozyme based study on the same populations. The results of this study suggest that increased fragmentation has lead to a greater genetic differentiation between remaining P. eunomia populations. PMID:15703036

Vandewoestijne, S; Baguette, M

2004-01-01

249

Impact of duplicate gene copies on phylogenetic analysis and divergence time estimates in butterflies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The increase in availability of genomic sequences for a wide range of organisms has revealed gene duplication to be a relatively common event. Encounters with duplicate gene copies have consequently become almost inevitable in the context of collecting gene sequences for inferring species trees. Here we examine the effect of incorporating duplicate gene copies evolving at different rates on tree reconstruction and time estimation of recent and deep divergences in butterflies. Results Sequences from ultraviolet-sensitive (UVRh, blue-sensitive (BRh, and long-wavelength sensitive (LWRh opsins,EF-1? and COI were obtained from 27 taxa representing the five major butterfly families (5535 bp total. Both BRh and LWRh are present in multiple copies in some butterfly lineages and the different copies evolve at different rates. Regardless of the phylogenetic reconstruction method used, we found that analyses of combined data sets using either slower or faster evolving copies of duplicate genes resulted in a single topology in agreement with our current understanding of butterfly family relationships based on morphology and molecules. Interestingly, individual analyses of BRh and LWRh sequences also recovered these family-level relationships. Two different relaxed clock methods resulted in similar divergence time estimates at the shallower nodes in the tree, regardless of whether faster or slower evolving copies were used, with larger discrepancies observed at deeper nodes in the phylogeny. The time of divergence between the monarch butterfly Danaus plexippus and the queen D. gilippus (15.3–35.6 Mya was found to be much older than the time of divergence between monarch co-mimic Limenitis archippus and red-spotted purple L. arthemis (4.7–13.6 Mya, and overlapping with the time of divergence of the co-mimetic passionflower butterflies Heliconius erato and H. melpomene (13.5–26.1 Mya. Our family-level results are congruent with recent estimates found in the literature and indicate an age of 84–113 million years for the divergence of all butterfly families. Conclusion These results are consistent with diversification of the butterfly families following the radiation of angiosperms and suggest that some classes of opsin genes may be usefully employed for both phylogenetic reconstruction and divergence time estimation.

Liswi Saif W

2009-05-01

250

Butterfly-like spectra and collective modes of antidot superlattices in magnetic fields  

CERN Document Server

We calculate the energy band structure for electrons in an external periodic potential combined with a perpendicular magnetic field. Electron-electron interactions are included within a Hartree approximation. The calculated energy spectra display a considerable degree of self-similarity, just as the ``Hofstadter butterfly.'' However, screening affects the butterfly, most importantly the bandwidths oscillate with magnetic field in a characteristic way. We also investigate the dynamic response of the electron system in the far-infrared (FIR) regime. Some of the peaks in the FIR absorption spectra can be interpreted mainly in semiclassical terms, while others originate from inter(sub)band transitions.

Anisimovas, E; Anisimovas, Egidijus; Johansson, Peter

1999-01-01

251

The Butterfly Effect on the Agricultural Bank System at the Grass-Roots Level  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The competition power of the Agricultural Bank of China has beendropping down for several years. The reason is that banks at the grass-rootslevel don’t think much of managing the subtle links. The paper uses the theoryof butterfly effect in Chaos for reference to discusses the risks existed in theAgricultural Bank of China at the grass-roots level such as the credit risk, theincomplete internal control, the loose accounting system, the disorder marketcompetitiveness, the brain drain, the weak service consciousness, the financialinnovation lag and the unbalanced development. Finally eight pieces of adviceare brought forward as the measures against the eight butterfly effects.

Xu QINXIAN

2009-01-01

252

A List of Butterfly Fauna in Jahangirnagar University Campus in Bangladesh  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During January to Decmber, 2003 in an extensive survey of butterfly in Jahangirnagar University campus, a total of 80 species of butterfly were identified. Among them 44 species were common and 36 were completely new. These species belonged to 10 families, 11 species belong to the family Nymphalidae, 14 to Pieridae, 23 to Lycaenidae, 3 to Satyridae, 7 to Papilionidae, 4 to Danaidae, 15 to Hesperiidae and 1 species to each family of Acraeidae, Riodinidae and Amathusiidae. The three families viz., Acraeidae, Riodinidae and Amathusiidae were completely new report in Bangladesh.(author)

2007-12-01

253

Performance Evaluation of Camb Biopesticides to Control Cabbage Butterfly (Pieris brassicae in Cauliflower Crop  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available CAMB Bt. based and fungus based biopesticides, commercial Bt. formulation from mycogen and a new chemical pesticide Methoxyfenozide (RH2485-240SC were tested on cauliflower field against cabbage butterfly (Pieris brassicae. All pesticides successfully controlled the population of cabbage butterfly in cauliflower crop. The efficacy against I to V instar larvae and field stability of CAMB Bt. biopesticide was better than chemical and other biopesticides. So, CAMB Bt. can be safely recommended for pest management strategies against Lepidopteral pests on vegetables with no harmful effects on its predators as in case with chemical pesticides.

Ahmad Usman Zafar

2002-01-01

254

Flow visualization in the high shear flow on cavitation erosion around a butterfly valve. Butterfly ben karyu no ko sendanryoiki ni okeru cavitation shogekiatsu bunpu  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In order to suppress the cavitation erosion occurring at a butterfly valve, the spatial distribution of cavitation induced pressure pulses and the aspect of extremely erosive vortex cavitation in the erosive region recognized in a practical valve were clarified, using pressure sensitive films and an instant stereophotography for the representative valve opening and cavitation factor. The highly erosive cavitation taking place at the orifice side downstream of the butterfly valve is an extremely erosive cavitation, and the occurred region is limited to the highly shear layers forming the violent disturbance of the orifice jet. It was found that the erosion could greatly be alleviated by eliminating this highly shear layers being the basis of the extremely erosive vortex cavitation. It was also found that the risk of erosion was very low for the nozzle side by the measurement of cavitation impact pressure ranging all periphery of the pipe wall around the valve body. 10 refs., 5 figs.

Tani, K. (Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan)); Ito, Y.; Oba, R. (Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Inst. of Fluid Science)

1991-05-25

255

Field transplants reveal summer constraints on a butterfly range expansion.  

Science.gov (United States)

The geographic ranges of most species are expected to shift to higher elevations and latitudes in response to global warming. But species react to specific environmental changes in individualistic ways, and we are far from a detailed understanding of range-shifts. Summer temperature often limits the ranges of insects and plants, so many range-shifts are expected to track summer warming. I explore this potential range-limiting factor in a case study of a northwardly expanding American butterfly, Atalopedes campestris (Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae). This species has recently colonized the Pacific Northwest, USA, where the mean annual temperature has risen 0.8-1.8 degrees C over the past 100 years. Using field transplant experiments across the current range edge, I measured development time, survivorship, fecundity and predation rates along a naturally occurring thermal gradient of 3 degrees C. Development time was significantly slower outside the current range in eastern Washington (WA), as expected because of cooler temperatures there. Slower development would reduce the number of generations possible per year outside the current range, dramatically lowering the probability that a population could survive there. Differences in survivorship, fecundity and predation rate across the range edge were not significant. The interaction between summer and winter temperature appears to be crucial in defining the current range limit. The estimated difference in temperature required to affect the number of generations is greater than the extent of summer warming observed over the past century, however, and thus historically winter temperature alone probably limited the range in southeastern WA. Nonetheless, extraordinarily warm summers may have improved colonization success, increasing the probability of a range expansion. These results suggest that extreme climatic events may influence rates of response to long-term climate change. They also demonstrate that range-limiting factors can change over time, and that the asymmetry in seasonal warming trends will have biological consequences. PMID:15278427

Crozier, Lisa G

2004-09-01

256

Dispersal depression with habitat fragmentation in the bog fritillary butterfly.  

Science.gov (United States)

Habitat fragmentation is expected to impose strong selective pressures on dispersal rates. However, evolutionary responses of dispersal are not self-evident, since various selection pressures act in opposite directions. Here we disentangled the components of dispersal behavior in a metapopulation context using the Virtual Migration model, and we linked their variation to habitat fragmentation in the specialist butterfly Proclossiana eunomia. Our study provided a nearly unique opportunity to study how habitat fragmentation modifies dispersal at the landscape scale, as opposed to microlandscapes or simulation studies. Indeed, we studied the same species in four landscapes with various habitat fragmentation levels, in which large amounts of field data were collected and analyzed using similar methodologies. We showed the existence of quantitative variations in dispersal behavior correlated with increased fragmentation. Dispersal propensity from habitat patches (for a given patch size), and mortality during dispersal (for a given patch connectivity) were lower in more fragmented landscapes. We suggest that these were the consequences of two different evolutionary responses of dispersal behavior at the individual level: (1) when fragmentation increased, the reluctance of individuals to cross habitat patch boundaries also increased; (2) when individuals dispersed, they flew straighter in the matrix, which is the best strategy to improve dispersal success. Such evolutionary responses could generate complex nonlinear patterns of dispersal changes at the metapopulation level according to habitat fragmentation. Due to the small size and increased isolation of habitat patches in fragmented landscapes, overall emigration rate and mortality during dispersal remained high. As a consequence, successful dispersal at the metapopulation scale remained limited. Therefore, to what extent the selection of individuals with a lower dispersal propensity and a higher survival during dispersal is able to limit detrimental effects of habitat fragmentation on dispersal success is unknown, and any conclusion that metapopulations would compensate for them is flawed. PMID:16676549

Schtickzelle, Nicolas; Mennechez, Gwénaëlle; Baguette, Michel

2006-04-01

257

Use of the butterflies like bio-indicators of the habitat type and their biodiversity in Colombia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This work is the result of the study of Colombian butterflies, across an altitudinal range between 250 and 3000 m, whose primary objective was to describe the local distributions of a community of butterflies in three different leinds of ecosystems: primary forest (BP), secondary forest (BS), and disturbed zones (ZP). These descriptions took under consideration environmental parameters and gradients, such as: altitude, climate and how the vegetation had been changed. At the same time, based on observations and captures of butterflies, the seasonality of several species, their daily activity cycles, and micro habitat fidelity were described

1998-09-01

258

A Study on Coevolutionary Relationship of Four Plants With Their Butterfly Pollinators on Basis of Their Nectar Physiology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Present study is aimed to reveal the co evolutionary relationship of four butterfly pollinated flowers Cadaba fruticosa (L. Druce, Caesalpinia pulcherrima (L. Sw., Clerodendrum infortunatum L. and Clerodendrum phlomidis L.f. Not only the floral morphology, nectar quality the main energy source of insects including butterflies is also a promiscuous character which excludes other insects than specified. So, nectar characters of these flowers are studied and found a good correlation with butterfly preferred nectars. Here one-sided adaptation was there and it was described as “non-promiscuous”. It is one of the most significant events in organic evolution.

Meerabai Guddeti

2014-02-01

259

Paradox of the drinking-straw model of the butterfly proboscis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fluid-feeding Lepidoptera use an elongated proboscis, conventionally modeled as a drinking straw, to feed from pools and films of liquid. Using the monarch butterfly, Danaus plexippus (Linnaeus), we show that the inherent structural features of the lepidopteran proboscis contradict the basic assumptions of the drinking-straw model. By experimentally characterizing permeability and flow in the proboscis, we show that tapering of the food canal in the drinking region increases resistance, significantly hindering the flow of fluid. The calculated pressure differential required for a suction pump to support flow along the entire proboscis is greater than 1 atm (~101 kPa) when the butterfly feeds from a pool of liquid. We suggest that behavioral strategies employed by butterflies and moths can resolve this paradoxical pressure anomaly. Butterflies can alter the taper, the interlegular spacing and the terminal opening of the food canal, thereby controlling fluid entry and flow, by splaying the galeal tips apart, sliding the galeae along one another, pulsing hemolymph into each galeal lumen, and pressing the proboscis against a substrate. Thus, although physical construction of the proboscis limits its mechanical capabilities, its functionality can be modified and enhanced by behavioral strategies. PMID:24920837

Tsai, Chen-Chih; Monaenkova, Daria; Beard, Charles E; Adler, Peter H; Kornev, Konstantin G

2014-06-15

260

On the Butterfly Diversity of Different Habitat Types in Three Gorge Reservoir  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The faunal composition of butterflies in five different habitat types in the Three Gorges Reservoir was surveyed from 1998 to 2003. A total of 380 species belonging to 157 genera and 12 families were recorded, among which, Nymphalidae is the fittest one in the environment according to the highest number of specie, genera and families. Acraeidae, Libytheidae and Parnassiidae are the unusual rare and key species of biodiversity conservation. Farmlands and shrubs had small fluctuation of diversity indices between 6 years, while grasslands had big one, and they were 0.584 5, 0.474 0 and 0.329 8 respectively. Shrubs are the most suitable vegetations for butterfly in TGR. The investigation shows that butterfly community is closely related to habitat types, and the similarity of different butterfly communities increased with the similarity of vegetation and spatial structure between different habitat types. The shrub is important habitat of biodiversity and hence protection of these habitats is important for biodiversity conservation.?

WU Yu-yuan

2012-09-01

 
 
 
 
261

Distribution of Nymphalid Butterflies (Brush Footed in District Rawalpindi and Islamabad  

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Full Text Available Nymphalidae is by for the largest family of butterflies represented the world over. In the present studies from Rawalpindi and Islamabad, eight selected sites were sampled. The collected specimens were compared with the previously reported species of this family and out of 18 species, Kallima inachus was recorded for the first time from Pakistan.

Arshed Makhdoom Sabir

2000-01-01

262

The All-Ones Problem for Binomial Trees, Butterfly and Benes Networks  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The all-ones problem is an NP-complete problem introduced by Sutner [11], with wide applicationsin linear cellular automata. In this paper, we solve the all-ones problem for some of the widelystudied architectures like binomial trees, butterfly, and benes networks.

Paul Manuel

2012-07-01

263

Genome Sequence of a Novel Iflavirus from mRNA Sequencing of the Butterfly Heliconius erato  

Science.gov (United States)

Here, we report the genome sequence of a novel iflavirus strain recovered from the neotropical butterfly Heliconius erato. The coding DNA sequence (CDS) of the iflavirus genome was 8,895 nucleotides in length, encoding a polyprotein that was 2,965 amino acids long.

Macias-Munoz, Aide; Briscoe, Adriana D.

2014-01-01

264

Butterfly Species Richness Patterns in Canada: Energy, Heterogeneity, and the Potential Consequences of Climate Change  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The distributions of most pollinator species are poorly documented despite their importance in providing ecosystem services. While these and other organisms are threatened by many aspects of the human enterprise, anthropogenic climate change is potentially the most severe threat to pollinator biodiversity. Mounting evidence demonstrates that there have already been biotic responses to the relatively small climate changes that have occurred this century. These include wholesale shifts of relatively well-documented butterfly and bird species in Europe and North America. Although studies of such phenomena are supported by circumstantial evidence, their findings are also consistent with predictions derived from current models of spatial patterns of species richness. Using new GIS methods that are highly precise and accurate, I document spatial patterns of Canadian butterfly diversity. These are strongly related to contemporary climate and particularly to potential evapotranspiration. An even more noteworthy finding is the fact that, for the first time, habitat heterogeneity, measured as the number of land cover types in each study unit, is proven to be an equally strong predictor of butterfly richness in a region where energy alone was thought to be the best predictor of diversity. Although previous studies reveal similar relationships between energy and diversity, they fail to detect the powerful link between richness and habitat heterogeneity. The butterflies of Canada provide a superb baseline for studying the effects of climate on contemporary patterns of species richness and comprise the only complete pollinator taxon for which this sort of analysis is currently possible.

Jeremy T. Kerr

2001-06-01

265

Will the Butterfly Cipher keep your Network Data secure? Developments in Computer Encryption  

CERN Document Server

This paper explains the recent developments in security and encryption. The Butterfly cipher and quantum cryptography are reviewed and compared. Examples of their relative uses are discussed and suggestions for future developments considered. In addition application to network security together with a substantial review of classification of encryption systems and a summary of security weaknesses are considered.

Hinze-Hoare, V

2006-01-01

266

First solar butterfly diagram from Schwabe's observations in 1825-1867  

CERN Document Server

The original sunspot observations by Heinrich Samuel Schwabe of 1825-1867 were digitized and a first subset of spots was measured. In this initial project, we determined more than 14 000 sunspot positions and areas comprising about 11% of the total amount of spots available from that period. The resulting butterfly diagram has a typical appearance, but with evident north-south asymmetries.

Arlt, Rainer

2010-01-01

267

Distribution of Nymphalid Butterflies (Brush Footed) in District Rawalpindi and Islamabad  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Nymphalidae is by for the largest family of butterflies represented the world over. In the present studies from Rawalpindi and Islamabad, eight selected sites were sampled. The collected specimens were compared with the previously reported species of this family and out of 18 species, Kallima inachus was recorded for the first time from Pakistan.

Arshed Makhdoom Sabir; Amir Hassan Bhatti; Muhammad Ather Rafi; Anjum Suhail

2000-01-01

268

Parallel Genetic Architecture of Parallel Adaptive Radiations in Mimetic Heliconius Butterflies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

It is unknown whether homologous loci underlie the independent and parallel wing pattern radiations of Heliconius butterflies. By comparing the locations of color patterning genes on linkage maps we show that three loci that act similarly in the two radiations are in similar positions on homologous chromosomes.

Kronforst, Marcus R.; Kapan, Durrell D.; Gilbert, Lawrence E.

2006-01-01

269

Changes in nectar supply: A possible cause of widespread butterfly decline  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recent studies have documented declining trends of various groups of flower-visiting insects, even common butterfly species. Causes of these declines are still unclear but the loss of habitat quality across the wider countryside is thought to be a major factor. Nectar supply constitutes one of the main resources determining habitat quality. Yet, data on changes in nectar abundance are lacking. In this study, we provide the first analysis of changes in floral nectar abundance on a national scale and link these data to trends in butterfly species richness and abundance. We used transect data from the Dutch Butterfly Monitoring Scheme to compare two time periods: 1994-1995 and 2007-2008. The results show that butterfly decline can indeed be linked to a substantial decline in overall flower abundance and specific nectar plants, such as thistles. The decline is as severe in reported flower generalists as in flower specialists. We suggest that eutrophication is a main cause of the decline of nectar sources [Current Zoology 58 (3: 384-391, 2012].

Michiel F. WALLISDEVRIES, Chris A.M. Van SWAAY, Calijn L. PLATE

2012-06-01

270

Molecular-Level Variation Affects Population Growth in a Butterfly Metapopulation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The dynamics of natural populations are thought to be dominated by demographic and environmental processes with little influence of intraspecific genetic variation and natural selection, apart from inbreeding depression possibly reducing population growth in small populations. Here we analyse hundreds of well-characterised local populations in a large metapopulation of the Glanville fritillary butterfly

Hanski, Ilkka; Saccheri, Ilik

2006-01-01

271

Genome Sequence of a Novel Iflavirus from mRNA Sequencing of the Butterfly Heliconius erato.  

Science.gov (United States)

Here, we report the genome sequence of a novel iflavirus strain recovered from the neotropical butterfly Heliconius erato. The coding DNA sequence (CDS) of the iflavirus genome was 8,895 nucleotides in length, encoding a polyprotein that was 2,965 amino acids long. PMID:24831145

Smith, Gilbert; Macias-Muñoz, Aide; Briscoe, Adriana D

2014-01-01

272

Effect of habitat fragmentation on dispersal in the butterfly Proclossiana eunomia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Comparison of dispersal rates of the bog fritillary butterfly between continuous and fragmented landscapes indicates that between patch dispersal is significantly lower in the fragmented landscape, while population densities are of the same order of magnitude. Analyses of the dynamics of the suitable habitat for the butterfly in the fragmented landscape reveal a severe, non linear increase in spatial isolation of patches over a time period of 30 years (i.e. 30 butterfly generations), but simulations of the butterfly metapopulation dynamics using a structured population model show that the lower dispersal rates in the fragmented landscape are far above the critical threshold leading to metapopulation extinction. These results indicate that changes in individual behaviour leading to the decrease of dispersal rates in the fragmented landscape were rapidly selected for when patch spatial isolation increased. The evidence of such an adaptive answer to habitat fragmentation suggests that dispersal mortality is a key factor for metapopulation persistence in fragmented landscapes. We emphasise that landscape spatial configuration and patch isolation have to be taken into account in the debate about large-scale conservation strategies. PMID:14558470

Baguette, Michel; Mennechez, Gwénnaëlle; Petit, Sandrine; Schtickzelle, Nicolas

2003-08-01

273

Butterfly and scaling law in YBa2Cu4O8.  

Science.gov (United States)

Magnetization hysteresis loops have been studied over a wide range of field and temperature for a single crystal of Y-124 in order to look for scaling in characteristic fields of the loops. A multivalued magnetization curve in the shape of ''butterfly'' i...

M. Xu D. K. Finnemore K. Zhang B. Dabrowski G. W. Crabtree

1994-01-01

274

Characterization of Structural and Pigmentary Colors in Common Emigrant (Catopsilia Pomona) Butterfly  

Science.gov (United States)

Study of structural colors in case of insects and butterflies is important for their biomimic and biophotonics applications. Structural color is the color which is produced by physical structures and their interaction with light while pigmentary color is produced by absorption of light by pigments. Common Emigrant butterfly is widely distributed in India. It is of moderate size with wing span of about 60-80 mm. The wings are broadly white with yellow or sulphur yellow coloration at places as well as few dark black patches. It belongs to family Pieridae. A study of structural color in case of Common Emigrant butterfly has been carried out in the present work. The characterization of wing color was performed using absorption spectroscopy. Scanning electron microscopic study of the wings of Common Emigrant butterfly showed that three different types of scales are present on the wing surface dorsally. Diffracting structures are present in certain parts of the surfaces of the various scales. Bead like structures are embedded in the intricate structures of the scales. Absorption spectra revealed that a strong absorption peak is seen in the UV-range. Crystalline structure of beads was confirmed by the X-ray diffraction analysis.

Ghate, Ekata; Kulkarni, G. R.; Bhoraskar, S. V.; Adhi, K. P.

2011-10-01

275

Experimental and numerical assessment of the improvement of the load-carrying capacities of butterfly-shaped coupling components in composite structures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study was designed to analyze the load-carrying capacities of composite structures connected face-to-face by a butterfly coupling component experimentally and numerically without adhesive. The results of the experimental studies were supported with numerical analysis. In addition, the butterfly coupling component was developed geometrically with a view to the results of the numerical and experimental studies. The change in the load-carrying capacity of the improved butterfly coupling components was analyzed numerically and experimentally to obtain new results. Half-specimens and butterfly-shaped lock components were cut with a water jet machine. Experiments and analyses were conducted to analyze the effects of coupling geometry parameters, such as the ratio of the butterfly end width to the specimen width (w/b), the ratio of the butterfly middle width to the butterfly end width (x/w), and the ratio of the butterfly half height to the specimen width (y/b). It was intended to determine the damage in the butterfly before any damage to the composite structure and to increase the service-life span of the composite structure with the repair of the butterfly lock. As a result of this study, it was determined that the geometrical fixed ratios (w/b) and (x/w) were 0.4 and 0.2 at 0.4 of (y/b) according to the experimental and numerical studies with basic and modified models

2010-06-01

276

Experimental and numerical assessment of the improvement of the load-carrying capacities of butterfly-shaped coupling components in composite structures  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study was designed to analyze the load-carrying capacities of composite structures connected face-to-face by a butterfly coupling component experimentally and numerically without adhesive. The results of the experimental studies were supported with numerical analysis. In addition, the butterfly coupling component was developed geometrically with a view to the results of the numerical and experimental studies. The change in the load-carrying capacity of the improved butterfly coupling components was analyzed numerically and experimentally to obtain new results. Half-specimens and butterfly-shaped lock components were cut with a water jet machine. Experiments and analyses were conducted to analyze the effects of coupling geometry parameters, such as the ratio of the butterfly end width to the specimen width (w/b), the ratio of the butterfly middle width to the butterfly end width (x/w), and the ratio of the butterfly half height to the specimen width (y/b). It was intended to determine the damage in the butterfly before any damage to the composite structure and to increase the service-life span of the composite structure with the repair of the butterfly lock. As a result of this study, it was determined that the geometrical fixed ratios (w/b) and (x/w) were 0.4 and 0.2 at 0.4 of (y/b) according to the experimental and numerical studies with basic and modified models

Altan, Gurkan; Topcu, Muzaffer [Pamukkale University, Denizli (Turkmenistan)

2010-06-15

277

Synergistic effects of combining morphological and molecular data in resolving the phylogeny of butterflies and skippers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Phylogenetic relationships among major clades of butterflies and skippers have long been controversial, with no general consensus even today. Such lack of resolution is a substantial impediment to using the otherwise well studied butterflies as a model group in biology. Here we report the results of a combined analysis of DNA sequences from three genes and a morphological data matrix for 57 taxa (3258 characters, 1290 parsimony informative) representing all major lineages from the three putative butterfly super-families (Hedyloidea, Hesperioidea and Papilionoidea), plus out-groups representing other ditrysian Lepidoptera families. Recently, the utility of morphological data as a source of phylogenetic evidence has been debated. We present the first well supported phylogenetic hypothesis for the butterflies and skippers based on a total-evidence analysis of both traditional morphological characters and new molecular characters from three gene regions (COI, EF-1alpha and wingless). All four data partitions show substantial hidden support for the deeper nodes, which emerges only in a combined analysis in which the addition of morphological data plays a crucial role. With the exception of Nymphalidae, the traditionally recognized families are found to be strongly supported monophyletic clades with the following relationships: (Hesperiidae+(Papilionidae+(Pieridae+(Nymphalidae+(Lycaenidae+Riodinidae))))). Nymphalidae is recovered as a monophyletic clade but this clade does not have strong support. Lycaenidae and Riodinidae are sister groups with strong support and we suggest that the latter be given family rank. The position of Pieridae as the sister taxon to nymphalids, lycaenids and riodinids is supported by morphology and the EF-1alpha data but conflicted by the COI and wingless data. Hedylidae are more likely to be related to butterflies and skippers than geometrid moths and appear to be the sister group to Papilionoidea+Hesperioidea. PMID:16048773

Wahlberg, Niklas; Braby, Michael F; Brower, Andrew V Z; de Jong, Rienk; Lee, Ming-Min; Nylin, Sören; Pierce, Naomi E; Sperling, Felix A H; Vila, Roger; Warren, Andrew D; Zakharov, Evgueni

2005-08-01

278

Signals of Climate Change in Butterfly Communities in a Mediterranean Protected Area  

Science.gov (United States)

The European protected-area network will cease to be efficient for biodiversity conservation, particularly in the Mediterranean region, if species are driven out of protected areas by climate warming. Yet, no empirical evidence of how climate change influences ecological communities in Mediterranean nature reserves really exists. Here, we examine long-term (1998–2011/2012) and short-term (2011–2012) changes in the butterfly fauna of Dadia National Park (Greece) by revisiting 21 and 18 transects in 2011 and 2012 respectively, that were initially surveyed in 1998. We evaluate the temperature trend for the study area for a 22-year-period (1990–2012) in which all three butterfly surveys are included. We also assess changes in community composition and species richness in butterfly communities using information on (a) species’ elevational distributions in Greece and (b) Community Temperature Index (calculated from the average temperature of species' geographical ranges in Europe, weighted by species' abundance per transect and year). Despite the protected status of Dadia NP and the subsequent stability of land use regimes, we found a marked change in butterfly community composition over a 13 year period, concomitant with an increase of annual average temperature of 0.95°C. Our analysis gave no evidence of significant year-to-year (2011–2012) variability in butterfly community composition, suggesting that the community composition change we recorded is likely the consequence of long-term environmental change, such as climate warming. We observe an increased abundance of low-elevation species whereas species mainly occurring at higher elevations in the region declined. The Community Temperature Index was found to increase in all habitats except agricultural areas. If equivalent changes occur in other protected areas and taxonomic groups across Mediterranean Europe, new conservation options and approaches for increasing species’ resilience may have to be devised.

Zografou, Konstantina; Kati, Vassiliki; Grill, Andrea; Wilson, Robert J.; Tzirkalli, Elli; Pamperis, Lazaros N.; Halley, John M.

2014-01-01

279

Defining behavioral and molecular differences between summer and migratory monarch butterflies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background In the fall, Eastern North American monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus undergo a magnificent long-range migration. In contrast to spring and summer butterflies, fall migrants are juvenile hormone deficient, which leads to reproductive arrest and increased longevity. Migrants also use a time-compensated sun compass to help them navigate in the south/southwesterly direction en route for Mexico. Central issues in this area are defining the relationship between juvenile hormone status and oriented flight, critical features that differentiate summer monarchs from fall migrants, and identifying molecular correlates of behavioral state. Results Here we show that increasing juvenile hormone activity to induce summer-like reproductive development in fall migrants does not alter directional flight behavior or its time-compensated orientation, as monitored in a flight simulator. Reproductive summer butterflies, in contrast, uniformly fail to exhibit directional, oriented flight. To define molecular correlates of behavioral state, we used microarray analysis of 9417 unique cDNA sequences. Gene expression profiles reveal a suite of 40 genes whose differential expression in brain correlates with oriented flight behavior in individual migrants, independent of juvenile hormone activity, thereby molecularly separating fall migrants from summer butterflies. Intriguing genes that are differentially regulated include the clock gene vrille and the locomotion-relevant tyramine beta hydroxylase gene. In addition, several differentially regulated genes (37.5% of total are not annotated. We also identified 23 juvenile hormone-dependent genes in brain, which separate reproductive from non-reproductive monarchs; genes involved in longevity, fatty acid metabolism, and innate immunity are upregulated in non-reproductive (juvenile-hormone deficient migrants. Conclusion The results link key behavioral traits with gene expression profiles in brain that differentiate migratory from summer butterflies and thus show that seasonal changes in genomic function help define the migratory state.

Kanginakudru Sriramana

2009-03-01

280

Time-varying wing-twist improves aerodynamic efficiency of forward flight in butterflies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Insect wings can undergo significant chordwise (camber) as well as spanwise (twist) deformation during flapping flight but the effect of these deformations is not well understood. The shape and size of butterfly wings leads to particularly large wing deformations, making them an ideal test case for investigation of these effects. Here we use computational models derived from experiments on free-flying butterflies to understand the effect of time-varying twist and camber on the aerodynamic performance of these insects. High-speed videogrammetry is used to capture the wing kinematics, including deformation, of a Painted Lady butterfly (Vanessa cardui) in untethered, forward flight. These experimental results are then analyzed computationally using a high-fidelity, three-dimensional, unsteady Navier-Stokes flow solver. For comparison to this case, a set of non-deforming, flat-plate wing (FPW) models of wing motion are synthesized and subjected to the same analysis along with a wing model that matches the time-varying wing-twist observed for the butterfly, but has no deformation in camber. The simulations show that the observed butterfly wing (OBW) outperforms all the flat-plate wings in terms of usable force production as well as the ratio of lift to power by at least 29% and 46%, respectively. This increase in efficiency of lift production is at least three-fold greater than reported for other insects. Interestingly, we also find that the twist-only-wing (TOW) model recovers much of the performance of the OBW, demonstrating that wing-twist, and not camber is key to forward flight in these insects. The implications of this on the design of flapping wing micro-aerial vehicles are discussed. PMID:23341923

Zheng, Lingxiao; Hedrick, Tyson L; Mittal, Rajat

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Dispersal-related life-history trade-offs in a butterfly metapopulation.  

Science.gov (United States)

1. Recent studies on butterflies have documented apparent evolutionary changes in dispersal rate in response to climate change and habitat change. These studies often assume a trade-off between dispersal rate (or flight capacity) and reproduction, which is the rule in wing-dimorphic species but might not occur equally in wing-monomorphic species such as butterflies. 2. To investigate the relationship between dispersal rate and fecundity in the Glanville fritillary butterfly Melitaea cinxia we recorded lifetime individual movements, matings, ovipositions, and maximal life span in a large (32 x 26 m) population cage in the field. Experimental material was obtained from 20 newly established and 20 old local populations within a large metapopulation in the Aland Islands in Finland. 3. Females of the Glanville fritillary from newly established populations are known to be more dispersive in the field, and in the cage they showed significantly greater mobility, mated earlier, and laid more egg clutches than females from old populations. The dispersive females from new populations exhibited no reduced lifetime fecundity in the cage, but they had a shorter maximal life span than old-population females. 4. These results challenge the dispersal-fecundity trade-off for nonmigratory butterflies but instead suggest a physiological trade-off between high metabolic performance and reduced maximal life span. High metabolic performance may explain high rates of dispersal and oviposition in early life. 5. In fragmented landscapes, an ecological trade-off exists between being more dispersive and hence spending more time in the landscape matrix vs. having more time for reproduction in the habitat. We estimate with a dispersal model parameterized for the Glanville fritillary that the lifetime egg production is 4% smaller on average in the more dispersive butterflies in a representative landscape, with much variation depending on landscape structure in the neighbourhood of the natal patch, from--26 to 45% in the landscape analysed in this paper. PMID:16903046

Hanski, Ilkka; Saastamoinen, Marjo; Ovaskainen, Otso

2006-01-01

282

Borboletas (Lepidoptera ameaçadas de extinção em Minas Gerais, Brasil Butterflies (Lepidoptera considered as threatened in Minas Gerais, Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The twenty species of butterflies (diurnal Lepidoptera considered as threatened in the Minas Gerais (by statute are described and discussed in relation to distribution, appearance and known records.

Mirna M Casagrande

1998-01-01

283

Using the sensitive dependence of chaos (the ``butterfly effect'') to direct trajectories in an experimental chaotic system  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper we present the first experimental verification that the sensitivity of a chaotic system to small perturbations (the ``butterfly effect'') can be used to rapidly direct orbits from an arbitrary initial state to an arbitrary accessible desired state.

Shinbrot, Troy; Ditto, William; Grebogi, Celso; Ott, Edward; Spano, Mark; Yorke, James A.

1992-05-01

284

Using the sensitive dependence of chaos (the ''butterfly effect'') to direct trajectories in an experimental chaotic system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper we present the first experimental verification that the sensitivity of a chaotic system to small perturbations (the ''butterfly effect'') can be used to rapidly direct orbits from an arbitrary initial state to an arbitrary accessible desired state

1992-05-11

285

Some ecological factors influencing the breeding success of the Brenton Blue butterfly, Orachrysops niobe (Trimen) (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Brenton Blue butterfly, Orachrysops niobe (Trimen, 1862) (Lepidoptera:Lycaenidae), is endemic to the southern Cape and is currently listed as Endangered. This study looks at some of the key ecological factors influencing the breeding success of the species—host plant abundance and condition, nectar sources, climate/ microclimate, and vegetation management techniques. The adult butterfly population was monitored over an entire breeding season; host plants were identi...

Edge, D. A.

2002-01-01

286

DNA barcodes and cryptic species of skipper butterflies in the genus Perichares in Area de Conservación Guanacaste, Costa Rica  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

DNA barcodes can be used to identify cryptic species of skipper butterflies previously detected by classic taxonomic methods and to provide first clues to the existence of yet other cryptic species. A striking case is the common geographically and ecologically widespread neotropical skipper butterfly Perichares philetes (Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae), described in 1775, which barcoding splits into a complex of four species in Area de Conservación Guanacaste (ACG) in northwestern Costa Rica. Thre...

Burns, John M.; Janzen, Daniel H.; Hajibabaei, Mehrdad; Hallwachs, Winnie; Hebert, Paul D. N.

2008-01-01

287

Chasing Migration Genes: A Brain Expressed Sequence Tag Resource for Summer and Migratory Monarch Butterflies (Danaus plexippus)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

North American monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) undergo a spectacular fall migration. In contrast to summer butterflies, migrants are juvenile hormone (JH) deficient, which leads to reproductive diapause and increased longevity. Migrants also utilize time-compensated sun compass orientation to help them navigate to their overwintering grounds. Here, we describe a brain expressed sequence tag (EST) resource to identify genes involved in migratory behaviors. A brain EST library was constr...

2008-01-01

288

The butterfly effect: a physical phenomenon of hypromellose matrices during dissolution and the factors affecting its occurrence.  

Science.gov (United States)

A phenomenon was observed for the behavior of hypromellose matrices during dissolution. The tablet laminated radially, with both edges curled outwards, forming a "butterfly" shape. The butterfly effect is thus coined to describe this behavior. Due to the flamboyant shape assumed by the hydrated matrix, the apparent surface area for drug release was significantly increased. This study attempted to elucidate mechanistically the cause of this butterfly effect. Two formative mechanisms were proposed based on the behavior of moving solvent fronts and the anisotropic expansion of materials in solution. It was hypothesized that the particle size of hypromellose, applied compaction force used and proportions of both insoluble and soluble excipients contributed to the butterfly effect. The influence of the expanded shape on the mechanism and rate of drug release was also investigated. Matrix formulation was an important factor. Greater drug release was observed when the butterfly-shaped hydrated matrix was formed. The drug release profiles generally fitted the Higuchi and Korsmeyer-Peppas equations, indicating a combination of both diffusion and erosional drug release mechanisms. A combination of both fine and coarse hypromellose size fractions and adequate compaction force (more than 3 kN) were necessary for the manifestation of the butterfly effect. PMID:21187134

Cahyadi, C; Chan, L W; Colombo, P; Heng, P W S

2011-03-15

289

Monitoring change in the abundance and distribution of insects using butterflies and other indicator groups.  

Science.gov (United States)

Conservative estimates suggest that 50-90% of the existing insect species on Earth have still to be discovered, yet the named insects alone comprise more than half of all known species of organism. With such poor baseline knowledge, monitoring change in insect diversity poses a formidable challenge to scientists and most attempts to generalize involve large extrapolations from a few well-studied taxa. Butterflies are often the only group for which accurate measures of change can be obtained. Four schemes, used successfully to assess change in British butterflies, that are increasingly being applied across the world are described: Red Data Books (RDB) list the best judgements of experts of the conservation status of species in their field of expertise; mapping schemes plot the changing distributions of species at scales of 1-100 km2; transect monitoring schemes generate time series of changes in abundance in sample populations of species on fixed sites across the UK; and occasional surveys measure the number, boundaries and size of all populations of a (usually RDB) species at intervals of 10-30 years. All schemes describe consistent patterns of change, but if they are to be more generally useful, it is important to understand how well butterflies are representative of other taxa. Comparisons with similarly measured changes in native bird and plant species suggest that butterflies have declined more rapidly that these other groups in Britain; it should soon be possible to test whether this pattern exists elsewhere. It is also demonstrated that extinction rates in British butterflies are similar to those in a range of other insect groups over 100 years once recording bias is accounted for, although probably lower than in aquatic or parasitic taxa. It is concluded that butterflies represent adequate indicators of change for many terrestrial insect groups, but recommended that similar schemes be extended to other popular groups, especially dragonflies, bumblebees, hoverflies and ants. Given institutional backing, similar projects could be employed internationally and standardized. Finally, a range of schemes designed to monitor change in communities of aquatic macro-invertebrates is described. Although designed to use invertebrates as a bio-indicator of water quality for human use, these programmes could be extended to monitor the 2010 biodiversity targets of the World Summit on Sustainable Development. PMID:15814349

Thomas, J A

2005-02-28

290

The enigmatic fast leaflet rotation in Desmodium motorium: butterfly mimicry for defense?  

Science.gov (United States)

I propose that the enigmatic leaflet movements in elliptical circles every few minutes of the Indian telegraph (semaphore) plant Desmodium motorium ( = D. gyrans = Hedysarum gyrans = Codariocalyx motorius), which has intrigued scientists for centuries, is a new type of butterfly or general winged arthropod mimicry by this plant. Such leaflet movement may deceive a passing butterfly searching for an un-occupied site suitable to deposit its eggs, that the plant is already occupied. It may also attract insectivorous birds, reptiles or arthropods to the plant because it looks as if it is harboring a potential prey and while they patrol there, they can find insects or other invertebrates that indeed attack the plant. The possibility that diurnal mammalian herbivores may also be deterred by these movements should not be dismissed. PMID:23603964

Lev-Yadun, Simcha

2013-06-01

291

Synthesis and photophysical properties of novel butterfly-shaped blue emitters based on pyrene.  

Science.gov (United States)

Using 1,3,5,9-tetrabromo-7-tert-butylpyrene as the bromide precursor, a series of novel butterfly-shaped 1,3,5,9-tetraaryl substituted pyrene derivatives were synthesized by the Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling reaction. Their thermal, photophysical, electrochemical and related properties were systematically investigated. All compounds were found to exhibit high thermal stabilities with decomposition temperatures (Td) of up to 300 °C. All compounds show highly blue fluorescence emissions in the spectral region of 412-469 nm in solution (?f: 0.45-0.92) and 410-470 nm in the solid- state (?f: 0.48-0.75). It is noteworthy that these butterfly-shaped pyrenes 4 possess low-lying HOMO levels ranging from -4.76 to -5.93 eV, which make them promising candidates in OLED applications. PMID:24169866

Feng, Xing; Hu, Jian-Yong; Tomiyasu, Hirotsugu; Seto, Nobuyuki; Redshaw, Carl; Elsegood, Mark R J; Yamato, Takehiko

2013-12-28

292

Butterfly Graphs with Shell Orders m and 2m+1 are Graceful  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A graceful labelling of an un directed graph G with n edges is a one-one function from the set of vertices V(G to the set {0, 1, ,2, . . ., n} such that the induced edge labels are all distinct. An induced edge label is the absolute difference between the two end vertex labels. A shell graph is defined as a cycle Cn with (n -3 chords sharing a common end point called the apex . A double shell is one vertex union of two shells. A bow graph is defined to be a double shell in which each shell has any order. In this paper we define a butterfly graph as a bow graph with exactly two pendant edges at the apex and we prove that all butterfly graphs with one shell of order m and the other shell of order (2m + 1 are graceful.

Ezhilarasi Hilda Stanley

2012-06-01

293

Self-assembled carbon nanotube honeycomb networks using a butterfly wing template as a multifunctional nanobiohybrid.  

Science.gov (United States)

Insect wings have many unique and complex nano/microstructures that are presently beyond the capabilities of any current technology to reproduce them artificially. In particular, Morpho butterflies are an attractive type of insect because their multifunctional wings are composed of nano/microstructures. In this paper, we show that carbon nanotube-containing composite adopts honeycomb-shaped networks when simply self-assembled on Morpho butterfly wings used as a template. The unique nano/microstructure of the composites exhibits multifunctionalities such as laser-triggered remote-heating, high electrical conductivity, and repetitive DNA amplification. Our present study highlights the important progress that has been made toward the development of smart nanobiomaterials for various applications such as digital diagnosis, soft wearable electronic devices, photosensors, and photovoltaic cells. PMID:23952240

Miyako, Eijiro; Sugino, Takushi; Okazaki, Toshiya; Bianco, Alberto; Yudasaka, Masako; Iijima, Sumio

2013-10-22

294

Management of uterine adhesions with 'Massouras Duck's Foot' and 'Butterfly' IUDs.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Massouras Duck's Foot (MDF) IUD and the Butterfly IUD have been clinically evaluated. The MDF, which is Y-shaped, has 2 or 3 horizontal arms on a vertical stem and 2 triangular wings, in between the 'V'. When inserted after curettage, it prevents intrauterine or intracervical adhesions. The fan-shaped Butterfly IUD has 2 overlapping wings, thereby facilitating adjustment of the IUD to variable uterine cavities. Its wing span occupies the entire uterine cavity when inserted according to the instructions. Both IUDs are made of polyethylene plastic with barium sulfate. Several substitutions for barium sulfate are suggested, e.g., copper, silver, hormones, biodegradable polymers. The high antifertility action of these IUDs is due primarily to their occupancy of the entire uterine cavity. PMID:12264125

Massouras, H G; Coutifaris, B; Kalogirou, D

1982-01-01

295

Controlling Chaos: Using the Butterfly Effect to Direct Trajectories to Targets in Chaotic Systems.  

Science.gov (United States)

We develop a method which uses the exponential sensitivity of a chaotic system to tiny perturbations (the "butterfly effect") to direct the system to a desired accessible state in a short time. We show that, in one of the cases studied, a neighborhood which would typically take 10,000,000,000 time units to reach without control can be reached using our technique in only about 10 of the same time units. This is done by applying a small, judiciously chosen, perturbation to an available system parameter. An expression for the time required to reach an accessible state by applying such a perturbation is derived and confirmed by numerical experiment. The method introduced is shown to be effective even in the presence of small amplitude noise or small modeling errors. We also present the first verification that the butterfly effect can be used to rapidly direct orbits in an experimental chaotic system.

Shinbrot, Troy

296

Chemical defense in the zebra swallowtail butterfly, Eurytides marcellus, involving annonaceous acetogenins.  

Science.gov (United States)

Few herbivores feed on the foliage of the North American paw paw tree, Asimina triloba; notable exceptions are the larvae of the zebra swallowtail butterfly, Eurytides marcellus. Toxic annonaceous acetogenins, produced by A. triloba, are responsible for the relative unpalatability of the leaves. Acetogenins found in A. triloba extracts are potent pesticidal and antineoplastic agents and have emetic activity in vertebrates. In this study, partitioned aqueous MeOH fractions of the bioactive CH2Cl2 extracts, of freeze-dried and pulverized larvae, and of mature butterflies revealed acetogenin content through the use of HPLC coupled to tandem MS (LC-MS/MS). This sensitive technique provides an uncomplicated method for the detection of trace compounds and, in this instance, has confirmed tissue presence of acetogenins that serve a probable role as chemical defense agents against bird predation in zebra swallowtail larvae and adults. PMID:9917274

Martin, J M; Madigosky, S R; Gu, Z M; Zhou, D; Wu, J; McLaughlin, J L

1999-01-01

297

Oviposition Cues for a Specialist Butterfly–Plant Chemistry and Size  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The oviposition choice of an insect herbivore is based on a complex set of stimuli and responses. In this study, we examined the effect of plant secondary chemistry (the iridoid glycosides aucubin and catalpol) and aspects of size of the plant Plantago lanceolata, on the oviposition behavior of the specialist butterfly Melitaea cinxia. Iridoid glycosides are known to deter feeding or decrease the growth rate of generalist insect herbivores, but can act as oviposition cues and feeding stimulan...

Reudler Talsma, J. H.; Biere, A.; Harvey, J. A.; Nouhuys, S.

2008-01-01

298

An oviposition stimulant binding protein in a butterfly: Immunohistochemical localization and electrophysiological responses to plant compounds  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Oviposition is evoked by plant compounds, which are recognized by chemoreceptive organs of insects. The swallowtail butterfly, Atrophaneura alcinous, oviposits its eggs on the host plant, Aristolochia debilis, in the presence of only two stimulating compounds: an alkaloid, aristolochic acid, and a monosaccharide, sequoyitol. In our previous study, a unique protein of 23 kDa [Oviposition stimulant(s) binding protein (OSBP)] was found in the forelegs of female, but not male A. alcinous. The ele...

Tsuchihara, Kazuko; Hisatomi, Osamu; Tokunaga, Fumio; Asaoka, Kiyoshi

2009-01-01

299

The Studies on Diurnal Butterflies (Lepidoptera: Rhopalocera in Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University Terzio?lu Campus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to determine lepidopteran species on Terzio?lu Campus during March 2005–April 2007. We surveyed Rhopalocera butterflies in Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Terzio?lu Campus, in Çanakkale, Turkey. In this study, total of 44 species belonging to to Papilionidae (4, Nymphalidae (23, Pieridae (8, Lycaenidae (4 and Hesperiidae (5, were identified. The most abundant species throughout the campus are Pieris brassicae, P. rapae, P. napi, Colias crocea, Iphiclides podalirius, and Melanargia larissa.

D. Zobar

2008-09-01

300

Immature stages of the Brazilian crescent butterfly Ortilia liriope (Cramer) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We provide the first information on the morphology of the immature stages (egg, larva, and pupa), oviposition and larval behavior, and host plant, for the Brazilian crescent butterfly Ortilia liriope (Cramer), based on material from Santarém Municipality, Pará State, Northern Brazil. Females of O. liriope lay eggs in clusters. After hatching, larvae eat the exochorion and remain gregarious in all but the final instar. The host plant recorded in the study site is Justicia sp. (Acanthaceae). ...

Pl, Silva; Np, Oliveira; Ep, Barbosa; Okada, Y.; La, Kaminski; Avl, Freitas

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Identification of Butterfly (Lepidoptera; Rhopalocera) Fauna of Gokçeada and Bozcaada, Turkey  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study was carried out to determine the butterflies of Gökçeada and Bozcaada in Turkey. As a result, a total of 61 Lepidoptera species in the two islands was recorded. Of these, species 45 were found in Gökçeada and 16 species were found in Bozcaada. Additionally, it was appeared that 13 species for Gökçeada and all of the 16 species for Bozcaada were the first records.

Okyar, Z.; Aktac, N.

2006-01-01

302

Identification of Butterfly (Lepidoptera; Rhopalocera Fauna of Gokçeada and Bozcaada, Turkey  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the butterflies of Gökçeada and Bozcaada in Turkey. As a result, a total of 61 Lepidoptera species in the two islands was recorded. Of these, species 45 were found in Gökçeada and 16 species were found in Bozcaada. Additionally, it was appeared that 13 species for Gökçeada and all of the 16 species for Bozcaada were the first records.

Z. Okyar

2006-01-01

303

Monitoring change in the abundance and distribution of insects using butterflies and other indicator groups  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Conservative estimates suggest that 50–90% of the existing insect species on Earth have still to be discovered, yet the named insects alone comprise more than half of all known species of organism. With such poor baseline knowledge, monitoring change in insect diversity poses a formidable challenge to scientists and most attempts to generalize involve large extrapolations from a few well-studied taxa. Butterflies are often the only group for which accurate measures of change can be obtained...

Thomas, J. A.

2005-01-01

304

Plants and butterflies of a small urban preserve in the Central Valley of Costa Rica  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Costa Rica’s most populated area, the Central valley, has lost much of its natural habitat, and the little that remains has been altered to varying degrees. Yet few studies have been conducted to assess the need for conservation in this area. We present preliminary inventories of plants, butterflies, and day-flying moths of the Reserva Ecológica Leonelo Oviedo (RELO), a small Premontane Moist Forest preserve within the University of Costa Rica campus, located in the urbanized part of the v...

Kenji Nishida; Ichiro Nakamura; Morales, Carlos O.

2009-01-01

305

Ten species in one: DNA barcoding reveals cryptic species in the neotropical skipper butterfly Astraptes fulgerator  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Astraptes fulgerator, first described in 1775, is a common and widely distributed neotropical skipper butterfly (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae). We combine 25 years of natural history observations in northwestern Costa Rica with morphological study and DNA barcoding of museum specimens to show that A. fulgerator is a complex of at least 10 species in this region. Largely sympatric, these taxa have mostly different caterpillar food plants, mostly distinctive caterpillars, and somewhat different eco...

Hebert, Paul D. N.; Penton, Erin H.; Burns, John M.; Janzen, Daniel H.; Hallwachs, Winnie

2004-01-01

306

Convergent Evolution in the Genetic Basis of Müllerian Mimicry in Heliconius Butterflies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The neotropical butterflies Heliconius melpomene and H. erato are Müllerian mimics that display the same warningly colored wing patterns in local populations, yet pattern diversity between geographic regions. Linkage mapping has previously shown convergent red wing phenotypes in these species are controlled by loci on homologous chromosomes. Here, AFLP bulk segregant analysis using H. melpomene crosses identified genetic markers tightly linked to two red wing-patterning loci. These markers w...

Baxter, Simon W.; Papa, Riccardo; Chamberlain, Nicola; Humphray, Sean J.; Joron, Mathieu; Morrison, Clay; Ffrench-constant, Richard H.; Mcmillan, W. Owen; Jiggins, Chris D.

2008-01-01

307

Impact of Bt corn pollen on monarch butterfly populations: A risk assessment  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A collaborative research effort by scientists in several states and in Canada has produced information to develop a formal risk assessment of the impact of Bt corn on monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) populations. Information was sought on the acute toxic effects of Bt corn pollen and the degree to which monarch larvae would be exposed to toxic amounts of Bt pollen on its host plant, the common milkweed, Asclepias syriaca, found in and around cornfields. Expression of Cry proteins, the act...

2001-01-01

308

Genetic Factors and Host Traits Predict Spore Morphology for a Butterfly Pathogen  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) throughout the world are commonly infected by the specialist pathogen Ophryocystis elektroscirrha (OE). This protozoan is transmitted when larvae ingest infectious stages (spores) scattered onto host plant leaves by infected adults. Parasites replicate internally during larval and pupal stages, and adult monarchs emerge covered with millions of dormant spores on the outsides of their bodies. Across multiple monarch populations, OE varies in prevalence an...

2013-01-01

309

The monarch butterfly genome yields insights into long-distance migration  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We present the draft 273 Mb genome of the migratory monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) and a set of 16, 866 protein-coding genes. Orthology properties suggest that the Lepidoptera are the fastest evolving insect order yet examined. Compared to the silkmoth Bombyx mori, the monarch genome shares prominent similarity in orthology content, microsynteny, and protein family sizes. The monarch genome reveals: a vertebrate-like opsin whose existence in insects is widespread; a full repertoire of m...

2011-01-01

310

Efficient targeted mutagenesis in the monarch butterfly using zinc-finger nucleases  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The development of reverse-genetic tools in “nonmodel” insect species with distinct biology is critical to establish them as viable model systems. The eastern North American monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus), whose genome is sequenced, has emerged as a model to study animal clocks, navigational mechanisms, and the genetic basis of long-distance migration. Here, we developed a highly efficient gene-targeting approach in the monarch using zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs), engineered nuclease...

2013-01-01

311

Natal origins of migratory monarch butterflies at wintering colonies in Mexico: New isotopic evidence  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Each year, millions of monarch butterflies from eastern North America migrate to overwinter in 10–13 discrete colonies located in the Oyamel forests of central Mexico. For decades efforts to track monarch migration have relied on observations and tag-recapture methods, culminating with the discovery of the wintering colonies in 1975. Monarch tag returns from Mexico, however, are few and primarily from two accessible colonies, and therefore tag-recapture techniques have not quantified natal ...

1998-01-01

312

Climate and habitat availability determine 20th century changes in a butterfly's range margin  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Evidence of anthropogenic global climate change is accumulating, but its potential consequences for insect distributions have received little attention. We use a 'climate response surface' model to investigate distribution changes at the northern margin of the speckled wood butterfly, Pararge aegeria. We relate its current European distribution to a combination of three bioclimatic variables. We document that P. aegeria has expanded its northern margin substantially since 1940, that changes i...

Hill, J. K.; Thomas, C. D.; Huntley, B.

1999-01-01

313

Progress report: baseline monitoring of indicator species (butterflies) at tallgrass prairie restorations  

Science.gov (United States)

This project provides baseline data of butterfly populations at two coastal prairie restoration sites in Louisiana, the Duralde Unit of Lacassine National Wildlife Refuge (hereafter, the Duralde site) and the Cajun Prairie Restoration Project in Eunice (hereafter, the Eunice site). In all, four distinct habitat types representing different planting methods were sampled. These data will be used to assess biodiversity and health of native grasslands and also provide a basis for adaptive management.

Allain, Larry; Vidrine, Malcolm

2014-01-01

314

Hofstadter butterflies and magnetically induced band gap quenching in graphene antidot lattices  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We study graphene antidot lattices (GALs) in magnetic fields. Using a tight-binding model and a recursive Green's function technique that we extend to deal with periodic structures, we calculate Hofstadter butterflies of GALs. We compare the results to those obtained in a simpler gapped graphene model. A crucial difference emerges in the behaviour of the lowest Landau level, which in a gapped graphene model is independent of magnetic field. In stark contrast to this picture,...

Pedersen, Jesper Goor; Pedersen, Thomas Garm

2013-01-01

315

Linkage of butterfly mate preference and wing color preference cue at the genomic location of wingless  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sexual isolation is a critical form of reproductive isolation in the early stages of animal speciation, yet little is known about the genetic basis of divergent mate preferences and preference cues in young species. Heliconius butterflies, well known for their diversity of wing color patterns, mate assortatively as a result of divergence in male preference for wing patterns. Here we show that the specific cue used by Heliconius cydno and Heliconius pachinus males to recognize conspecific fema...

Kronforst, Marcus R.; Young, Laura G.; Kapan, Durrell D.; Mcneely, Camille; O Neill, Rachel J.; Gilbert, Lawrence E.

2006-01-01

316

Hydro-acoustic excitation at low frequencies of industrial pipe systems by cavitating butterfly valves  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cavitating valves induce important vibrations at low frequencies in pipe systems. In this note a model is developed in order to characterize the hydro-acoustic behavior of the cavitating valves. This model is based on the transfer matrix theory. This theory can be deduced from the linearization of the Navier-Stokes equations. The experimental identification and validation of the model is made by testing a cavitating butterfly valve. (author). 5 figs., 7 refs

1992-01-01

317

Responses of butterflies to twentieth century climate warming : implications for future ranges.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We analyse distribution records for 51 British butterfly species to investigate altitudinal and latitudinal responses to twentieth century climate warming. Species with northern and/or montane distributions have disappeared from low elevation sites and colonized sites at higher elevations during the twentieth century, consistent with a climate explanation. We found no evidence for a systematic shift northwards across all species, even though 11 out of 46 southerly distributed species have exp...

2002-01-01

318

Responses of butterflies to twentieth century climate warming: implications for future ranges.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We analyse distribution records for 51 British butterfly species to investigate altitudinal and latitudinal responses to twentieth century climate warming. Species with northern and/or montane distributions have disappeared from low elevation sites and colonized sites at higher elevations during the twentieth century, consistent with a climate explanation. We found no evidence for a systematic shift northwards across all species, even though 11 out of 46 southerly distributed species have exp...

2002-01-01

319

Rapid diversification and not clade age explains high diversity in neotropical Adelpha butterflies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Latitudinal gradients in species richness are among the most well-known biogeographic patterns in nature, and yet there remains much debate and little consensus over the ecological and evolutionary causes of these gradients. Here, we evaluated whether two prominent alternative hypotheses (namely differences in diversification rate or clade age) could account for the latitudinal diversity gradient in one of the most speciose neotropical butterfly genera (Adelpha) and its close relatives. We ge...

Mullen, Sean P.; Savage, Wesley K.; Wahlberg, Niklas; Willmott, Keith R.

2011-01-01

320

Protein detection in spermatids and spermatozoa of the butterfly Euptoieta hegesia (Lepidoptera)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study was undertaken to detect protein components in both sperm types of the butterfly Euptoieta hegesia. These spermatozoa possess complex extracellular structures for which the composition and functional significance are still unclear. In the apyrene sperm head, the proteic cap presented an external ring and an internal dense content; basic proteins were detected only in external portions. In the tail, the paracrystalline core of mitochondrial derivatives and the axoneme are rich in pr...

Karina Mancini; Heidi Dolder

2004-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Noise caused by cavitating Butterfly and Monovar Valves. Effects of cavitation on acoustic sources; numerical simulation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An experimental study of the effects of cavitation was carried out through an analysis of cavitating Butterfly and Monovar valves. For each variation case, the nature of the dominant source is determined in relation to frequency. Once the parameters of the cavitation zone are identified, a three-zone model is used in order to pinpoint the acoustic sources with cavitation. In order to determine acoustic sources, we present a numerical simulation using a bubbles population. (authors)

1996-01-01

322

An expanded set of photoreceptors in the Eastern Pale Clouded Yellow butterfly, Colias erate  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We studied the spectral and polarisation sensitivities of photoreceptors of the butterfly Colias erate by using intracellular electrophysiological recordings and stimulation with light pulses. We developed a method of response waveform comparison (RWC) for evaluating the effective intensity of the light pulses. We identified one UV, four violet-blue, two green and two red photoreceptor classes. We estimated the peak wavelengths of four rhodopsins to be at about 360, 420, 460 and 560 nm. The ...

Pirih, Primoz?; Arikawa, Kentaro; Stavenga, Doekele G.

2010-01-01

323

Plant quality and local adaptation undermine relocation in a bog specialist butterfly  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The butterfly Boloria aquilonaris is a specialist of oligotrophic ecosystems. Population viability analysis predicted the species to be stable in Belgium and to collapse in the Netherlands with reduced host plant quality expected to drive species decline in the latter. We tested this hypothesis by rearing B. aquilonaris caterpillars from Belgian and Dutch sites on host plants (the cranberry, Vaccinium oxycoccos). Dutch plant quality was lower than Belgian one conferring lower caterpillar grow...

Turlure, C.; Radchuk, V.; Baguette, M.; Meijrink, M.; Burg, A.; Wallis Vries, M. F.; Duinen, G. J.

2013-01-01

324

Assessing the conservation status of the Sinai Baton Blue butterfly (Pseudophilotes sinaicus)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Arid environments are resource-limited, with scarcity of water the key limiting factor for plants and their associated fauna. Consequentially bottom-up forces often control food webs, influencing the whole system through high levels of competition. The Sinai Baton Blue butterfly, Pseudophilotes sinaicus, is Critically Endangered, with a tiny endemic distribution in the St Katherine Protectorate, South Sinai, an arid environment. Its range is restricted to that of its sole host plant, the near...

Thompson, Katy

2013-01-01

325

Comprehensive gene and taxon coverage elucidates radiation patterns in moths and butterflies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths) represent one of the most diverse animals groups. Yet, the phylogeny of advanced ditrysian Lepidoptera, accounting for about 99 per cent of lepidopteran species, has remained largely unresolved. We report a rigorous and comprehensive analysis of lepidopteran affinities. We performed phylogenetic analyses of 350 taxa representing nearly 90 per cent of lepidopteran families. We found Ditrysia to be a monophyletic taxon with the clade Tischerioidea + Palaephat...

Mutanen, Marko; Wahlberg, Niklas; Kaila, Lauri

2010-01-01

326

Tetrachromacy in a butterfly that has eight varieties of spectral receptors  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper presents the first evidence of tetrachromacy among invertebrates. The Japanese yellow swallowtail butterfly, Papilio xuthus, uses colour vision when foraging. The retina of Papilio is furnished with eight varieties of spectral receptors of six classes that are the ultraviolet (UV), violet, blue (narrow-band and wide-band), green (single-peaked and double-peaked), red and broad-band classes. We investigated whether all of the spectral receptors are involved in colour vision by measu...

Koshitaka, Hisaharu; Kinoshita, Michiyo; Vorobyev, Misha; Arikawa, Kentaro

2008-01-01

327

Butterflies from the Uberlândia region, Central Brazil: species list and biological comments  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A total of 251 butterfly species were recorded in Uberlândia region, with collecting concentrated mainly in forest areas. Aspects of geographic distribution of some Ithomiinae, as well as interactions of both adults and immatures with plants, and reproduction periods for the more abundant species are discussed. Collections in open, riverside, and wetland areas, as well as the use of bait, should substantially increase the number of species.

MOTTA P. C.

2002-01-01

328

Signatures of selection in loci governing major colour patterns in Heliconius butterflies and related species  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Protein-coding change is one possible genetic mechanism underlying the evolution of adaptive wing colour pattern variation in Heliconius butterflies. Here we determine whether 38 putative genes within two major Heliconius patterning loci, HmYb and HmB, show evidence of positive selection. Ratios of nonsynonymous to synonymous nucleotide changes (?) were used to test for selection, as a means of identifying candidate genes within each locus that control wing pattern. R...

Wu, Grace C.; Joron, Mathieu; Jiggins, Chris D.

2010-01-01

329

The use of chemical and visual cues in female choice in the butterfly Bicyclus anynana  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Investigating the relative importance of multiple cues for mate choice within a species may highlight possible mechanisms that led to the diversification of closely related species in the past. Here, we investigate the importance of close-range pheromones produced by male Bicyclus anynana butterflies and determine the relative importance of these chemical cues versus visual cues in sexual selection by female choice. We first blocked putative androconial organs on the fore- and hindwings of ma...

Costanzo, Katie; Monteiro, Anto?nia

2007-01-01

330

Pervasive genetic associations between traits causing reproductive isolation in Heliconius butterflies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Ecological speciation proceeds through the accumulation of divergent traits that contribute to reproductive isolation, but in the face of gene flow traits that characterize incipient species may become disassociated through recombination. Heliconius butterflies are well known for bright mimetic warning patterns that are also used in mate recognition and cause both pre- and post-mating isolation between divergent taxa. Sympatric sister taxa representing the final stages of speciation, such as ...

Merrill, Richard M.; Schooten, Bas; Scott, Janet A.; Jiggins, Chris D.

2011-01-01

331

Compounded effects of climate change and habitat alteration shift patterns of butterfly diversity  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Climate change and habitat destruction have been linked to global declines in vertebrate biodiversity, including mammals, amphibians, birds, and fishes. However, invertebrates make up the vast majority of global species richness, and the combined effects of climate change and land use on invertebrates remain poorly understood. Here we present 35 years of data on 159 species of butterflies from 10 sites along an elevational gradient spanning 0–2,775 m in a biodiversity hotspot, the Sierra Ne...

2010-01-01

332

Changes in nectar supply: A possible cause of widespread butterfly decline  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Recent studies have documented declining trends of various groups of flower-visiting insects, even common butterfly species. Causes of these declines are still unclear but the loss of habitat quality across the wider countryside is thought to be a major factor. Nectar supply constitutes one of the main resources determining habitat quality. Yet, data on changes in nectar abundance are lacking. In this study, we provide the first analysis of changes in floral nectar abundance on a national sca...

2012-01-01

333

Changes in nectar supply: A possible cause of widespread butterfly decline  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Recent studies have documented declining trends of various groups of flower-visiting insects, even common butterfly species. Causes of these declines are still unclear but the loss of habitat quality across the wider countryside is thought to be a major factor. Nectar supply constitutes one of the main resources determining habitat quality. Yet, data on changes in nectar abundance are lacking. In this study, we provide the first analysis of changes in floral nectar abundance on a national ...

2012-01-01

334

Dissecting comimetic radiations in Heliconius reveals divergent histories of convergent butterflies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Mimicry among Heliconius butterflies provides a classic example of coevolution but unresolved relationships among mimetic subspecies have prevented examination of codiversification between species. We present amplified fragment length polymorphism and mtDNA datasets for the major comimetic races of Heliconius erato and H. melpomene. The AFLP data reveal unprecedented resolution, clustering samples by geography and race in both species. Our results show that, although H. erato and H. melpomene...

Quek, Swee-peck; Counterman, Brian A.; Albuquerque Moura, Priscila; Cardoso, Marcio Z.; Marshall, Charles R.; Mcmillan, W. Owen; Kronforst, Marcus R.

2010-01-01

335

Light on the moth-eye corneal nipple array of butterflies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The outer surface of the facet lenses in the compound eyes of moths consists of an array of excessive cuticular protuberances, termed corneal nipples. We have investigated the moth-eye corneal nipple array of the facet lenses of 19 diurnal butterfly species by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscope, as well as by optical modelling. The nipples appeared to be arranged in domains with almost crystalline, hexagonal packing. The nipple distances...

Stavenga, D. G.; Foletti, S.; Palasantzas, G.; Arikawa, K.

2006-01-01

336

Significant effects of Pgi genotype and body reserves on lifespan in the Glanville fritillary butterfly  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Individuals with a particular variant of the gene phosphoglucose isomerase (Pgi ) have been shown to have superior dispersal capacity and fecundity in the Glanville fritillary butterfly (Melitaea cinxia), raising questions about the mechanisms that maintain polymorphism in this gene in the field. Here, we investigate how variation in the Pgi genotype affects female and male life history under controlled conditions. The most striking effect is the longer lifespan of genotypes with high dispers...

Saastamoinen, Marjo Anna Kaarina; Ikonen, Suvi; Hanski, Ilkka

2009-01-01

337

Modelling the effect of habitat fragmentation on range expansion in a butterfly  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

There is an increasing need for conservation programmes to make quantitative predictions of biodiversity responses to changed environments. Such predictions will be particularly important to promote species recovery in fragmented landscapes, and to understand and facilitate distribution responses to climate change. Here, we model expansion rates of a test species (a rare butterfly, Hesperia comma) in five landscapes over 18 years (generations), using a metapopulation model (the incidence func...

Wilson, Robert J.; Davies, Zoe G.; Thomas, Chris D.

2009-01-01

338

Associative learning of visual and gustatory cues in the large cabbage white butterfly, Pieris brassicae  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The landing response of the large cabbage white butterfly Pieris brassicae was studied under controlled optical and gustatory stimulus conditions. Experience-based changes in landing behaviour were examined by offering cardboard circles of two different shades of green, treated with either an oviposition stimulant or a deterrent. We employed two training situations. In one situation the two shades of green, carrying either the stimulant or the deterrent, were offered simultaneously, in the ot...

Smallegange, R. C.; Everaarts, T. C.; Loon, J. J. A.

2006-01-01

339

Does Tropical Forest Fragmentation Increase Long-Term Variability of Butterfly Communities?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Habitat fragmentation is a major driver of biodiversity loss. Yet, the overall effects of fragmentation on biodiversity may be obscured by differences in responses among species. These opposing responses to fragmentation may be manifest in higher variability in species richness and abundance (termed hyperdynamism), and in predictable changes in community composition. We tested whether forest fragmentation causes long-term hyperdynamism in butterfly communities, a taxon that naturally displays...

Leidner, Allison K.; Haddad, Nick M.; Lovejoy, Thomas E.

2010-01-01

340

A 3D Strange Attractor with a Distinctive Silhouette. The Butterfly Effect Revisited  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We propose firstly an autonomous system of three first order differential equations which has two nonlinear terms and generating a new and distinctive strange attractor. Furthermore, this new 3D chaotic system performs a new feature of the Sensitive Dependency on Initial Conditions (SDIC) popularized as the Butterfly Effect discovered by Lorenz (1963). We noticed that the variation of the Initial Conditions for our system leads not only to different attractors but also to a ...

Bouali, Safieddine

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Significant effects of Pgi genotype and body reserves on lifespan in the Glanville fritillary butterfly  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Individuals with a particular variant of the gene phosphoglucose isomerase (Pgi) have been shown to have superior dispersal capacity and fecundity in the Glanville fritillary butterfly (Melitaea cinxia), raising questions about the mechanisms that maintain polymorphism in this gene in the field. Here, we investigate how variation in the Pgi genotype affects female and male life history under controlled conditions. The most striking effect is the longer lifespan of genotypes with high dispersa...

Saastamoinen, Marjo; Ikonen, Suvi; Hanski, Ilkka

2009-01-01

342

The plasticity and geography of host use and the diversification of butterflies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Our world is changing rapidly and factors like urbanisation, changed agricultural practices and climate change are causing losses in butterfly diversity. It is therefore of importance to understand the source of their diversity. Given the remarkable diversity of herbivorous insects compared to their non-herbivorous sister groups, changes in host use have been implicated as a promoter of speciation. This thesis looks at geographical aspects of host range evolution and the plasticity of host us...

Slove Davidson, Jessica

2012-01-01

343

Wavelength-selective and anisotropic light-diffusing scale on the wing of the Morpho butterfly.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We have found that cover scales on the wing of the butterfly Morpho didius possess specially designed microscopic structures for wavelength-selective reflection and contribute considerably to the brilliant blue colour of the wing. In addition, the cover scale functions as an anisotropic optical diffuser which diffuses light only in one plane, while it makes the range of reflection narrower in the orthogonal plane. The quantitative analyses for the wavelength-selection mechanism and the peculi...

Yoshioka, Shinya; Kinoshita, Shuichi

2004-01-01

344

Pterin pigments amplify iridescent ultraviolet signal in males of the orange sulphur butterfly, Colias eurytheme  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Animal colouration is typically the product of nanostructures that reflect or scatter light and pigments that absorb it. The interplay between these colour-producing mechanisms may influence the efficacy and potential information content of colour signals, but this notion has received little empirical attention. Wing scales in the male orange sulphur butterfly (Colias eurytheme) possess ridges with lamellae that produce a brilliant iridescent ultraviolet (UV) reflectance via thin-film interfe...

Rutowski, R. L.; Macedonia, J. M.; Morehouse, N.; Taylor-taft, L.

2005-01-01

345

Molecular-level variation affects population growth in a butterfly metapopulation.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The dynamics of natural populations are thought to be dominated by demographic and environmental processes with little influence of intraspecific genetic variation and natural selection, apart from inbreeding depression possibly reducing population growth in small populations. Here we analyse hundreds of well-characterised local populations in a large metapopulation of the Glanville fritillary butterfly (Melitaea cinxia), which persists in a balance between stochastic local extinctions and re...

Hanski, Ilkka; Saccheri, Ilik

2006-01-01

346

Extinction-colonization dynamics and host-plant choice in butterfly metapopulations.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Species living in highly fragmented landscapes often occur as metapopulations with frequent population turnover. Turnover rate is known to depend on ecological factors, such as population size and connectivity, but it may also be influenced by the phenotypic and genotypic composition of populations. The Glanville fritillary butterfly (Melitaea cinxia) in Finland uses two host-plant species that vary in their relative abundance among distinct habitat patches (dry meadows) in a large network of...

Hanski, -i Singer

2001-01-01

347

A candidate locus for variation in dispersal rate in a butterfly metapopulation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Frequent extinctions of local populations in metapopulations create opportunities for migrant females to establish new populations. In a metapopulation of the Glanville fritillary butterfly (Melitaea cinxia), more mobile individuals are more likely to establish new populations, especially in habitat patches that are poorly connected to existing populations. Here we show that flight metabolic rate and the frequency of a specific allele of the metabolic enzyme phosphoglucose isomerase (pgi) wer...

Haag, Christoph R.; Saastamoinen, Marjo; Marden, James H.; Hanski, Ilkka

2005-01-01

348

Immature stages of the butterfly Diaethria clymena janeira (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Biblidinae)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The immature stages (egg, larva, and pupa) morphology, larval and oviposition behavior, and host plant of the "eighty-eight" butterfly Diaethria clymena janeira (C. Felder, 1862) are described. Eggs are laid singly under leaf, and have pronounced vertical ribs ending up in a crown. Larvae of early instars construct stick-like frass chains where they rest when not feeding. Late instars are green with reduced body scoli and long branched head scoli. Pupae are entirely green, and pupation occurs...

Barbosa, Eduardo P.; Kaminski, Lucas A.; Freitas, Andre? V. L.

2010-01-01

349

Noise caused by cavitating Butterfly and Monovar Valves. Effects of cavitation on acoustic sources; numerical simulation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An experimental study of the effects of cavitation was carried out through an analysis of cavitating Butterfly and Monovar valves. For each variation case, the nature of the dominant source is determined in relation to frequency. Once the parameters of the cavitation zone are identified, a three-zone model is used in order to pinpoint the acoustic sources with cavitation. In order to determine acoustic sources, we present a numerical simulation using a bubbles population. (authors). 13 refs.

Hassis, H. [Enit, Belvedere - Tunis (Tunisia); Lauro, J.F.; Boyer, A.; Dueymes, E.

1996-12-31

350

Photoreceptor spectral sensitivities of the Small White butterfly Pieris rapae crucivora interpreted with optical modeling  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The compound eye of the Small White butterfly, Pieris rapae crucivora, has four classes of visual pigments, with peak absorption in the ultraviolet, violet, blue and green, but electrophysiological recordings yielded eight photoreceptors classes: an ultraviolet, violet, blue, double-peaked blue, green, blue-suppressed-green, pale-red and deep-red class. These photoreceptor classes were identified in three types of ommatidia, distinguishable by the different eye shine spectra and fluorescence;...

Stavenga, Doekele G.; Arikawa, Kentaro

2011-01-01

351

Color vision in Lycaena butterflies: spectral tuning of receptor arrays in relation to behavioral ecology.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Males of two closely related, co-occurring species of Lycaena butterflies have dorsally blue (Lycaena heteronea) or red-orange plus ultraviolet (Lycaena rubidus) wings. Males are selectively territorial against conspecific males. Virgin females accept only conspecific males, probably chosen by wing color. Females are nonterritorial and spend most of their adult activity ovipositing on the correct larval food plants. Eyes of both species contain four spectral types of visual pigments (P360, P4...

Bernard, G. D.; Remington, C. L.

1991-01-01

352

In Vivo Electroporation of DNA into the Wing Epidermis of the Butterfly, Bicyclus anynana  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The direct transfer of genes into differentiated insect tissues is a useful method of determining gene function because it circumvents the need to perform germ line transformations and of having information on tissue-specific gene promoters. Here in vivo gene delivery is achieved through electroporation of a reporter gene into the pupal forewing of the butterfly Bicyclus anynana (Butler) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae). Plasmids containing the coding sequence for enhanced green fluorescent protein...

Golden, Kyle; Sagi, Veena; Markwarth, Nathan; Chen, Bin; Monteiro, Anto?nia

2007-01-01

353

Directional selection on cold tolerance does not constrain plastic capacity in a butterfly  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Organisms may respond to environmental change by means of genetic adaptation, phenotypic plasticity or both, which may result in genotype-environment interactions (G x E) if genotypes differ in their phenotypic response. We here specifically target the latter source of variation (i.e. G x E) by comparing plastic responses among lines of the tropical butterfly Bicyclus anynana that had been selected for increased cold tolerance and according contro...

Franke Kristin; Dierks Anneke; Fischer Klaus

2012-01-01

354

Parasitism cost of living in a high quality habitat in the bog fritillary butterfly  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Habitat quality and the impact of natural enemies might profoundly affect metapopulation dynamics and viability. However, their relative impact has usually been considered independently. Here we address the question of how caterpillar habitat quality and parasitism prevalence interact to shape habitat selection in the bog fritillary butterfly Boloria eunomia, parasitized at the caterpillar stage by a specialist wasp, Cotesia euno- miae. We first classified habitat quality by relating caterpil...

Choutt, Julie; Turlure, Camille; Baguette, Michel; Schtickzelle, Nicolas

2011-01-01

355

Luminous Butterflies: Efficient Exciton Harvesting by Benzophenone Derivatives for Full-Color Delayed Fluorescence OLEDs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Butterfly-shaped luminescent benzophenone derivatives with small energy gaps between their singlet and triplet excited states are used to achieve efficient full-color delayed fluorescence. Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) with these benzophenone derivatives doped in the emissive layer can generate electroluminescence ranging from blue to orange-red and white, with maximum external quantum efficiencies of up to 14.3?%. Triplet excitons are efficiently harvested through delayed fluorescence channels. PMID:24839234

Lee, Sae Youn; Yasuda, Takuma; Yang, Yu Seok; Zhang, Qisheng; Adachi, Chihaya

2014-06-16

356

Reward and non-reward learning of flower colours in the butterfly Byasa alcinous (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae)  

Science.gov (United States)

Learning plays an important role in food acquisition for a wide range of insects. To increase their foraging efficiency, flower-visiting insects may learn to associate floral cues with the presence (so-called reward learning) or the absence (so-called non-reward learning) of a reward. Reward learning whilst foraging for flowers has been demonstrated in many insect taxa, whilst non-reward learning in flower-visiting insects has been demonstrated only in honeybees, bumblebees and hawkmoths. This study examined both reward and non-reward learning abilities in the butterfly Byasa alcinous whilst foraging among artificial flowers of different colours. This butterfly showed both types of learning, although butterflies of both sexes learned faster via reward learning. In addition, females learned via reward learning faster than males. To the best of our knowledge, these are the first empirical data on the learning speed of both reward and non-reward learning in insects. We discuss the adaptive significance of a lower learning speed for non-reward learning when foraging on flowers.

Kandori, Ikuo; Yamaki, Takafumi

2012-09-01

357

Lack of genetic differentiation between monarch butterflies with divergent migration destinations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Monarch butterflies are best known for their spectacular annual migration from eastern North America to Mexico. Monarchs also occur in the North American states west of the Rocky Mountains, from where they fly shorter distances to the California Coast. Whether eastern and western North American monarchs form one genetic population or are genetically differentiated remains hotly debated, and resolution of this debate is essential to understand monarch migration patterns and to protect this iconic insect species. We studied the genetic structure of North American migratory monarch populations, as well as nonmigratory populations in Hawaii and New Zealand. Our results show that eastern and western migratory monarchs form one admixed population and that monarchs from Hawaii and New Zealand have genetically diverged from North American butterflies. These findings suggest that eastern and western monarch butterflies maintain their divergent migrations despite genetic mixing. The finding that eastern and western monarchs form one genetic population also suggests that the conservation of overwintering sites in Mexico is crucial for the protection of monarchs in both eastern and western North America. PMID:22574833

Lyons, Justine I; Pierce, Amanda A; Barribeau, Seth M; Sternberg, Eleanore D; Mongue, Andrew J; De Roode, Jacobus C

2012-07-01

358

Anthropogenic changes in sodium affect neural and muscle development in butterflies.  

Science.gov (United States)

The development of organisms is changing drastically because of anthropogenic changes in once-limited nutrients. Although the importance of changing macronutrients, such as nitrogen and phosphorus, is well-established, it is less clear how anthropogenic changes in micronutrients will affect organismal development, potentially changing dynamics of selection. We use butterflies as a study system to test whether changes in sodium availability due to road salt runoff have significant effects on the development of sodium-limited traits, such as neural and muscle tissue. We first document how road salt runoff can elevate sodium concentrations in the tissue of some plant groups by 1.5-30 times. Using monarch butterflies reared on roadside- and prairie-collected milkweed, we then show that road salt runoff can result in increased muscle mass (in males) and neural investment (in females). Finally, we use an artificial diet manipulation in cabbage white butterflies to show that variation in sodium chloride per se positively affects male flight muscle and female brain size. Variation in sodium not only has different effects depending on sex, but also can have opposing effects on the same tissue: across both species, males increase investment in flight muscle with increasing sodium, whereas females show the opposite pattern. Taken together, our results show that anthropogenic changes in sodium availability can affect the development of traits in roadside-feeding herbivores. This research suggests that changing micronutrient availability could alter selection on foraging behavior for some roadside-developing invertebrates. PMID:24927579

Snell-Rood, Emilie C; Espeset, Anne; Boser, Christopher J; White, William A; Smykalski, Rhea

2014-07-15

359

Application of source-receptor models to determine source areas of biological components (pollen and butterflies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The source-receptor models allow the establishment of relationships between a receptor point (sampling point and the probable source areas (regions of emission through the association of concentration values at the receptor point with the corresponding atmospheric back-trajectories, and, together with other techniques, to interpret transport phenomena on a synoptic scale. These models are generally used in air pollution studies to determine the areas of origin of chemical compounds measured at a sampling point, and thus be able to target actions to reduce pollutants. However, until now, few studies have applied these types of models to describe the source areas of biological organisms. In Catalonia there are very complete records of pollen (data from the Xarxa Aerobiològica de Catalunya, Aerobiology Network of Catalonia and butterflies (data from the Catalan Butterfly Monitoring Scheme, a biological material that is also liable to be transported long distances and whose areas of origin could be interesting to know. This work presents the results of the use of the Seibert et al. model applied to the study of the source regions of: (1 certain pollen of an allergic nature, observed in Catalonia and the Canary Islands, and (2 the migratory butterfly Vanessa cardui, observed in Catalonia. Based on the results obtained we can corroborate the suitability of these models to determine the area of origin of several species, both chemical and biological, therefore expanding the possibilities of applying the original model to the wider field of Aerobiology.

M. Alarcón

2010-01-01

360

Use of fruit bait traps for monitoring of butterflies (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Costa Rica | Language: English Abstract in english There exists great interest in using fruit-feeding adult nymphalid butterflies to monitor changes in tropical forest ecosystems. We intensively sampled the butterfly fauna of mid-elevation tropical moist forest in southern Costa Rica with fruit bait traps to address a series of practical issues conc [...] erning the development of a robust, efficient sampling program. Variation in the number of captures and escapes of butterflies at the traps was better explained by the time of day than by the age of bait. Species? escape rates varied widely, suggesting that short term, less intensive surveys aimed at determining presence or absence of species may be biased. Individuals did not appear to become "trap-happy" or to recognize the traps as food sources. Considering the tradeoff between numbers of traps and frequency of trap servicing, the most efficient sampling regime appears to be baiting and sampling the traps once every other day.

Hughes, Jennifer B.; Daily, Gretchen C.; Ehrlich, Paul R..

 
 
 
 
361

Asymmetric ratchet effect for directional transport of fog drops on static and dynamic butterfly wings.  

Science.gov (United States)

Inspired by novel creatures, researchers have developed varieties of fog drop transport systems and made significant contributions to the fields of heat transferring, water collecting, antifogging, and so on. Up to now, most of the efforts in directional fog drop transport have been focused on static surfaces. Considering it is not practical to keep surfaces still all the time in reality, conducting investigations on surfaces that can transport fog drops in both static and dynamic states has become more and more important. Here we report the wings of Morpho deidamia butterflies can directionally transport fog drops in both static and dynamic states. This directional drop transport ability results from the micro/nano ratchet-like structure of butterfly wings: the surface of butterfly wings is composed of overlapped scales, and the scales are covered with porous asymmetric ridges. Influenced by this special structure, fog drops on static wings are transported directionally as a result of the fog drops' asymmetric growth and coalescence. Fog drops on vibrating wings are propelled directionally due to the fog drops' asymmetric dewetting from the wings. PMID:24397580

Liu, Chengcheng; Ju, Jie; Zheng, Yongmei; Jiang, Lei

2014-02-25

362

Co-gradient variation in growth rate and development time of a broadly distributed butterfly.  

Science.gov (United States)

Widespread species often show geographic variation in thermally-sensitive traits, providing insight into how species respond to shifts in temperature through time. Such patterns may arise from phenotypic plasticity, genetic adaptation, or their interaction. In some cases, the effects of genotype and temperature may act together to reduce, or to exacerbate, phenotypic variation in fitness-related traits across varying thermal environments. We find evidence for such interactions in life-history traits of Heteronympha merope, a butterfly distributed across a broad latitudinal gradient in south-eastern Australia. We show that body size in this butterfly is negatively related to developmental temperature in the laboratory, in accordance with the temperature-size rule, but not in the field, despite very strong temperature gradients. A common garden experiment on larval thermal responses, spanning the environmental extremes of H. merope's distribution, revealed that butterflies from low latitude (warmer climate) populations have relatively fast intrinsic growth and development rates compared to those from cooler climates. These synergistic effects of genotype and temperature across the landscape (co-gradient variation) are likely to accentuate phenotypic variation in these traits, and this interaction must be accounted for when predicting how H. merope will respond to temperature change through time. These results highlight the importance of understanding how variation in life-history traits may arise in response to environmental change. Without this knowledge, we may fail to detect whether organisms are tracking environmental change, and if they are, whether it is by plasticity, adaptation or both. PMID:24743771

Barton, Madeleine; Sunnucks, Paul; Norgate, Melanie; Murray, Neil; Kearney, Michael

2014-01-01

363

Behavioural thermoregulation and the relative roles of convection and radiation in a basking butterfly.  

Science.gov (United States)

Poikilothermic animals are often reliant on behavioural thermoregulation to elevate core-body temperature above the temperature of their surroundings. Butterflies are able to do this by altering body posture and location while basking, however the specific mechanisms that achieve such regulation vary among species. The role of the wings has been particularly difficult to describe, with uncertainty surrounding whether they are positioned to reduce convective heat loss or to maximise heat gained through radiation. Characterisation of the extent to which these processes affect core-body temperature will provide insights into the way in which a species? thermal sensitivity and morphological traits have evolved. We conducted field and laboratory measurements to assess how basking posture affects the core-body temperature of an Australian butterfly, the common brown (Heteronympha merope). We show that, with wings held open, heat lost through convection is reduced while heat gained through radiation is simultaneously maximised. These responses have been incorporated into a biophysical model that accurately predicts the core-body temperature of basking specimens in the field, providing a powerful tool to explore how climate constrains the distribution and abundance of basking butterflies. PMID:24679974

Barton, Madeleine; Porter, Warren; Kearney, Michael

2014-04-01

364

Photonic Crystal Structure and Coloration of Wing Scales of Butterflies Exhibiting Selective Wavelength Iridescence  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The coloration of butterflies that exhibit human visible iridescence from violet to green has been elucidated. Highly tilted multilayers of cuticle on the ridges, which were found in the scales of male S. charonda and E. mulciber butterflies, produce a limited-view, selective wavelength iridescence (ultraviolet (UV~green as a result of multiple interference between the cuticle-air layers. The iridescence from C. ataxus originates from multilayers in the groove plates between the ridges and ribs. The interference takes place between the top and bottom surfaces of each layer and incoherently between different layers. Consequently, the male with the layers that are ~270 nm thick reflects light of UV~560 nm (green and the female with the layers that are ~191 nm thick reflects light of UV~400 nm (violet. T. aeacus does not produce the iridescent sheen which T. magellanus does. No iridescent sheen is ascribed to microrib layers, which are perpendicular to the scale plane, so that they cannot reflect any backscattering. The structures of these butterflies would provide us helpful hints to manipulate light in photoelectric devices, such as blue or UV LEDs.

Makoto Shiojiri

2012-04-01

365

“Darwin’s butterflies”? DNA barcoding and the radiation of the endemic Caribbean butterfly genus Calisto (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Satyrinae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The genus Calisto Hübner, 1823 is the only member of the diverse, global subfamily Satyrinae found in the West Indies, and by far the richest endemic Caribbean butterfly radiation. Calisto species occupy an extremely diverse array of habitats, suggestive of adaptive radiation on the scale of other classic examples such as the Galápagos or Darwin’s finches. However, a reliable species classification is a key requisite before further evolutionary or ecological research. An analysis of 111 DNA ‘barcodes’ (655 bp of the mitochondrial gene COI from 29 putative Calisto species represented by 31 putative taxa was therefore conducted to elucidate taxonomic relationships among these often highly cryptic and confusing taxa. The sympatric, morphologically and ecologically similar taxa C. confusa Lathy, 1899 and C. confusa debarriera Clench, 1943 proved to be extremely divergent, and we therefore recognize Calisto debarriera stat. n. as a distinct species, with Calisto neiba Schwartz et Gali, 1984 as a junior synonym syn. n. Species status of certain allopatric, morphologically similar sister species has been confirmed: Calisto hysius (Godart, 1824 (including its subspecies C. hysius aleucosticha Correa et Schwartz, 1986, stat. n., and its former subspecies C. batesi Michener, 1943 showed a high degree of divergence (above 6% and should be considered separate species. Calisto lyceius Bates, 1935/C. crypta Gali, 1985/C. franciscoi Gali, 1985 complex, also showed a high degree of divergence (above 6%, confirming the species status of these taxa. In contrast, our data suggest that the Calisto grannus Bates, 1939 species complex (including Calisto grannus dilemma González, 1987, C. grannus amazona González, 1987, stat. n., C. grannus micrommata Schwartz et Gali, 1984, stat. n., C. grannus dystacta González, 1987, stat. n., C. grannus phoinix González, 1987, stat. n., C. grannus sommeri Schwartz et Gali, 1984, stat. n., and C. grannus micheneri Clench, 1944, stat. n. should be treated as a single polytypic species, as genetic divergence among sampled populations representing these taxa is low (and stable morphological apomorphies are absent. A widely-distributed pest of sugar cane, Calisto pulchella Lathy, 1899 showed higher diversification among isolated populations (3.5% than expected, hence supporting former separation of this species into two taxa (pulchella and darlingtoni Clench, 1943, of which the latter might prove to be a separate species rather than subspecies. The taxonomic revisions presented here result in Calisto now containing 34 species and 17 subspecies. Three species endemic to islands other than Hispaniola appear to be derived lineages of various Hispaniolan clades, indicating ancient dispersal events from Hispaniola to Puerto Rico, Cuba, and Jamaica. Overall, the degree of intrageneric and intraspecific divergence within Calisto suggests a long and continuous diversification period of 4–8 Myr. The maximum divergence within the genus (ca. 13.3% is almost equivalent to the maximum divergence of Calisto from the distant pronophiline relative Auca Hayward, 1953 from the southern Andes (14.1% and from the presumed closest relative Eretris Thieme, 1905 (14.4%, suggesting that the genus began to diversify soon after its split from its continental sister taxon. In general, this ‘barcode’ divergence corresponds to the high degree of morphological and ecological variation found among major lineages within the genus.

Andrei Sourakov

2011-08-01

366

The role of the North Atlantic Oscillation in controlling U.K. butterfly population size and phenology.  

Science.gov (United States)

1. The North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) exerts considerable control on U.K. weather. This study investigates the impact of the NAO on butterfly abundance and phenology using 34 years of data from the U.K. Butterfly Monitoring Scheme (UKBMS).2. The study uses a multi-species indicator to show that the NAO does not affect overall U.K. butterfly population size. However, the abundance of bivoltine butterfly species, which have longer flight seasons, were found to be more likely to respond positively to the NAO compared with univoltine species, which show little or a negative response.3. A positive winter NAO index is associated with warmer weather and earlier flight dates for Anthocharis cardamines (Lepidoptera: Pieridae), Melanargia galathea (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae), Aphantopus hyperantus (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae), Pyronia tithonus (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae), Lasiommata megera (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) and Polyommatus icarus (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae). In bivoltine species, the NAO affects the phenology of the first generation, the timing of which indirectly controls the timing of the second generation.4. The NAO influences the timing of U.K. butterfly flight seasons more strongly than it influences population size. PMID:22879687

Westgarth-Smith, Angus R; Roy, David B; Scholze, Martin; Tucker, Allan; Sumpter, John P

2012-06-01

367

Butterfly bones under a pli sky: the folds without organs in the Régis Bonvicino’s collection  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article attempts to handle the operations on the worlds of meaning articulated in Jean-Luc Nancy - The sense of the world - with considerations of Gilles Deleuze and Félix Guattari on How do you make yourself a body without organs. With this French philosophers, we aimed to establish the connections between meaning, truth and desert through the poetic experience of Régis Bonvicino, especially in some books like Butterfly Bones, Sky-Eclipse, the Cosmos and remorse, and Orphan page to articulate a proposal for a policy maximum of life. Questioning the meaning adopted by the natural or real, the goal of this paper is go thought the images of bones of butterfly, borboflores, florbelhas, flormigas, the image of panapaná - a collection of butterflies – seeking the possibility of adopting the attitude of creating for ourselves a Body without Organs.

Fernando Floriani Petry

2010-11-01

368

HSP70 expression in the copper butterfly Lycaena tityrus across altitudes and temperatures.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The ability to express heat-shock proteins (HSP) under thermal stress is an essential mechanism for ectotherms to cope with unfavourable conditions. In this study, we investigate if Copper butterflies originating from different altitudes and/or being exposed to different rearing and induction temperatures show differences in HSP70 expression. HSP70 expression increased substantially at the higher rearing temperature in low-altitude butterflies, which might represent an adaptation to occasionally occurring heat spells. On the other hand, high-altitude butterflies showed much less plasticity in response to rearing temperatures, and overall seem to rely more on genetically fixed thermal stress resistance. Whether the latter indicates a higher vulnerability of high-altitude populations to global warming needs further investigation. HSP70 expression increased with both colder and warmer induction temperatures.

Karl, I.; Sørensen, Jesper Givskov

2009-01-01

369

Butterfly Pea (Clitoria ternatea): A Nutritive Multipurpose Forage Legume for the Tropics - An Overview  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Butterfly pea (Clitoria ternatea) is a multi-purpose forage legume. It provides bioactive compounds for medicinal use and it is also an ornamental plant and cover crop. It is adaptable to a wide range of temperature, rainfall and altitude. Butterfly pea, a highly palatable forage legume is generally preferred by livestock over other legumes. It has thin stem and large leaves, nil bloat and non toxic which make it ideal for forage and hay making. It`s vigorous growth, tolerance to frost...

Michael Gomez, S.; Kalamani, A.

2003-01-01

370

Does skipping a meal matter to a butterfly's appearance? Effects of larval food stress on wing morphology and color in monarch butterflies.  

Science.gov (United States)

In animals with complex life cycles, all resources needed to form adult tissues are procured at the larval stage. For butterflies, the proper development of wings involves synthesizing tissue during metamorphosis based on the raw materials obtained by larvae. Similarly, manufacture of pigment for wing scales also requires resources acquired by larvae. We conducted an experiment to test the effects of food deprivation in the larval stage on multiple measures of adult wing morphology and coloration of monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus), a species in which long-distance migration makes flight efficiency critical. In a captive setting, we restricted food (milkweed) from late-stage larvae for either 24 hrs or 48 hrs, then after metamorphosis we used image analysis methods to measure forewing surface area and elongation (length/width), which are both important for migration. We also measured the brightness of orange pigment and the intensity of black on the wing. There were correlations between several wing features, including an unexpected association between wing elongation and melanism, which will require further study to fully understand. The clearest effect of food restriction was a reduction in adult wing size in the high stress group (by approximately 2%). Patterns observed for other wing traits were ambiguous: monarchs in the low stress group (but not the high) had less elongated and paler orange pigmentation. There was no effect on wing melanism. Although some patterns obtained in this study were unclear, our results concerning wing size have direct bearing on the monarch migration. We show that if milkweed is limited for monarch larvae, their wings become stunted, which could ultimately result in lower migration success. PMID:24695643

Johnson, Haley; Solensky, Michelle J; Satterfield, Dara A; Davis, Andrew K

2014-01-01

371

EST analysis of male accessory glands from Heliconius butterflies with divergent mating systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Heliconius butterflies possess a remarkable diversity of phenotypes, physiologies, and behaviors that has long distinguished this genus as a focal taxon in ecological and evolutionary research. Recently Heliconius has also emerged as a model system for using genomic methods to investigate the causes and consequences of biological diversity. One notable aspect of Heliconius diversity is a dichotomy in mating systems which provides an unusual opportunity to investigate the relationship between sexual selection and the evolution of reproductive proteins. As a first step in pursuing this research, we report the generation and analysis of expressed sequence tags (ESTs from the male accessory gland of H. erato and H. melpomene, species representative of the two mating systems present in the genus Heliconius. Results We successfully sequenced 933 ESTs clustering into 371 unigenes from H. erato and 1033 ESTs clustering into 340 unigenes from H. melpomene. Results from the two species were very similar. Approximately a third of the unigenes showed no significant BLAST similarity (E-value -5 to sequences in GenBank's non-redundant databases, indicating that a large proportion of novel genes are expressed in Heliconius male accessory glands. In both species only a third of accessory gland unigenes were also found among genes expressed in wing tissue. About 25% of unigenes from both species encoded secreted proteins. This includes three groups of highly abundant unigenes encoding repetitive proteins considered to be candidate seminal fluid proteins; proteins encoded by one of these groups were detected in H. erato spermatophores. Conclusion This collection of ESTs will serve as the foundation for the future identification and evolutionary analysis of male reproductive proteins in Heliconius butterflies. These data also represent a significant advance in the rapidly growing collection of genomic resources available in Heliconius butterflies. As such, they substantially enhance this taxon as a model system for investigating questions of ecological, phenotypic, and genomic diversity.

Harrison Richard G

2008-12-01

372

Variation in butterfly larval acoustics as a strategy to infiltrate and exploit host ant colony resources.  

Science.gov (United States)

About 10,000 arthropods live as ants' social parasites and have evolved a number of mechanisms allowing them to penetrate and survive inside the ant nests. Many of them can intercept and manipulate their host communication systems. This is particularly important for butterflies of the genus Maculinea, which spend the majority of their lifecycle inside Myrmica ant nests. Once in the colony, caterpillars of Maculinea "predatory species" directly feed on the ant larvae, while those of "cuckoo species" are fed primarily by attendance workers, by trophallaxis. It has been shown that Maculinea cuckoo larvae are able to reach a higher social status within the colony's hierarchy by mimicking the acoustic signals of their host queen ants. In this research we tested if, when and how myrmecophilous butterflies may change sound emissions depending on their integration level and on stages of their life cycle. We studied how a Maculinea predatory species (M. teleius) can acoustically interact with their host ants and highlighted differences with respect to a cuckoo species (M. alcon). We recorded sounds emitted by Maculinea larvae as well as by their Myrmica hosts, and performed playback experiments to assess the parasites' capacity to interfere with the host acoustic communication system. We found that, although varying between and within butterfly species, the larval acoustic emissions are more similar to queens' than to workers' stridulations. Nevertheless playback experiments showed that ant workers responded most strongly to the sounds emitted by the integrated (i.e. post-adoption) larvae of the cuckoo species, as well as by those of predatory species recorded before any contact with the host ants (i.e. in pre-adoption), thereby revealing the role of acoustic signals both in parasite integration and in adoption rituals. We discuss our findings in the broader context of parasite adaptations, comparing effects of acoustical and chemical mimicry. PMID:24718496

Sala, Marco; Casacci, Luca Pietro; Balletto, Emilio; Bonelli, Simona; Barbero, Francesca

2014-01-01

373

Toward reconstructing the evolution of advanced moths and butterflies (Lepidoptera: Ditrysia: an initial molecular study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background In the mega-diverse insect order Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths; 165,000 described species, deeper relationships are little understood within the clade Ditrysia, to which 98% of the species belong. To begin addressing this problem, we tested the ability of five protein-coding nuclear genes (6.7 kb total, and character subsets therein, to resolve relationships among 123 species representing 27 (of 33 superfamilies and 55 (of 100 families of Ditrysia under maximum likelihood analysis. Results Our trees show broad concordance with previous morphological hypotheses of ditrysian phylogeny, although most relationships among superfamilies are weakly supported. There are also notable surprises, such as a consistently closer relationship of Pyraloidea than of butterflies to most Macrolepidoptera. Monophyly is significantly rejected by one or more character sets for the putative clades Macrolepidoptera as currently defined (P P ? 0.005, and nearly so for the superfamily Drepanoidea as currently defined (P Separate analyses of mostly synonymous versus non-synonymous character sets revealed notable differences (though not strong conflict, including a marked influence of compositional heterogeneity on apparent signal in the third codon position (nt3. As available model partitioning methods cannot correct for this variation, we assessed overall phylogeny resolution through separate examination of trees from each character set. Exploration of "tree space" with GARLI, using grid computing, showed that hundreds of searches are typically needed to find the best-feasible phylogeny estimate for these data. Conclusion Our results (a corroborate the broad outlines of the current working phylogenetic hypothesis for Ditrysia, (b demonstrate that some prominent features of that hypothesis, including the position of the butterflies, need revision, and (c resolve the majority of family and subfamily relationships within superfamilies as thus far sampled. Much further gene and taxon sampling will be needed, however, to strongly resolve individual deeper nodes.

Hausmann Axel

2009-12-01

374

Testing species distribution models across space and time: high latitude butterflies and recent warming  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Aim. To quantify whether species distribution models (SDMs) can reliably forecast species distributions under observed climate change. In particular, to test whether the predictive ability of SDMs depends on species traits or the inclusion of land cover and soil type, and whether distributional changes at expanding range margins can be predicted accurately. Location. Finland. Methods. Using 10-km resolution butterfly atlas data from two periods, 1992â??1999 (t1) and 2002â??2009 (t2), with a significant between-period temperature increase, we modelled the effects of climatic warming on butterfly distributions with boosted regression trees (BRTs) and generalized additive models (GAMs). We evaluated model performance by using the split-sample approach with data from t1 ("non-independent validation"), and then compared model projections based on data from t1 with speciesâ?? observed distributions in t2 ("independent validation"). We compared climate-only SDMs to SDMs including land cover, soil type, or both. Finally,we related model performance to species traits and compared observed and predicted distributional shifts at northern range margins. Results. SDMs showed fair to good model fits when modelling butterfly distributions under climate change. Model performance was lower with independent compared to non-independent validation and improved when land cover and soil type variables were included, compared to climate-only models. SDMs performed less well for highly mobile species and for species with long flight seasons and large ranges. When forecasting changes at northern range margins, correlations between observed and predicted range shifts were predominantly low. Main conclusions. SDMs accurately describe current distributions of most species, yet their performance varies with species traits and the inclusion of land cover and soil type variables. Moreover, their ability to predict range shifts under climate change is limited, especially at the expanding edge. More tests with independent validations are needed to fully understand the predictive potential of SDMs across taxa and biomes.

Eskildsen, Anne; LeRoux, Peter C.

2013-01-01

375

A butterfly-shaped 'Papillon Nebula' yields secrets of massive star birth  

Science.gov (United States)

The newly found massive newborn stars are in one of our satellite galaxies, the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), 170,000 light-years away - right in our cosmic backyard. The Hubble image shows a view of a turbulent cauldron of starbirth, unromantically called N159. Fierce stellar winds from the hot newborn massive stars sculpt ridges, arcs and filaments in the vast cloud, which is over 150 light-years across. This is the clearest image ever obtained of this region. Seen for the first time is the butterfly-shaped or 'Papillon' (French for butterfly) nebula, buried in the centre of the maelstrom of glowing gases and dark dust. The unprecedented details of the structure of the Papillon, itself less than 2 light-years in size (about 1/2000th of a degree in the sky), are seen in the inset. This bipolar shape might be explained by the outflow of gas from the massive star (over 10 times the mass of our Sun) hidden in the central absorption zone. Such stars are so hot and bright that the pressure created by their light halts the infall of gas and directs it away from the star in two opposite directions. This mechanism is not fully understood, but presumably the outflow is constrained around the star's equator and directed to escape along the star's rotation axis. This observation is part of a search for young massive stars in the LMC. This butterfly-shaped nebula is considered to be a rare class of compact 'blob' around newborn, massive stars. The red in this true-colour image comes from the emission of hydrogen and the yellow from hotter oxygen gas. The picture was taken on 5 September 1998 with Wide Field Planetary Camera 2.

1999-06-01

376

Variation in Butterfly Larval Acoustics as a Strategy to Infiltrate and Exploit Host Ant Colony Resources  

Science.gov (United States)

About 10,000 arthropods live as ants' social parasites and have evolved a number of mechanisms allowing them to penetrate and survive inside the ant nests. Many of them can intercept and manipulate their host communication systems. This is particularly important for butterflies of the genus Maculinea, which spend the majority of their lifecycle inside Myrmica ant nests. Once in the colony, caterpillars of Maculinea “predatory species” directly feed on the ant larvae, while those of “cuckoo species” are fed primarily by attendance workers, by trophallaxis. It has been shown that Maculinea cuckoo larvae are able to reach a higher social status within the colony's hierarchy by mimicking the acoustic signals of their host queen ants. In this research we tested if, when and how myrmecophilous butterflies may change sound emissions depending on their integration level and on stages of their life cycle. We studied how a Maculinea predatory species (M. teleius) can acoustically interact with their host ants and highlighted differences with respect to a cuckoo species (M. alcon). We recorded sounds emitted by Maculinea larvae as well as by their Myrmica hosts, and performed playback experiments to assess the parasites' capacity to interfere with the host acoustic communication system. We found that, although varying between and within butterfly species, the larval acoustic emissions are more similar to queens' than to workers' stridulations. Nevertheless playback experiments showed that ant workers responded most strongly to the sounds emitted by the integrated (i.e. post-adoption) larvae of the cuckoo species, as well as by those of predatory species recorded before any contact with the host ants (i.e. in pre-adoption), thereby revealing the role of acoustic signals both in parasite integration and in adoption rituals. We discuss our findings in the broader context of parasite adaptations, comparing effects of acoustical and chemical mimicry.

Sala, Marco; Casacci, Luca Pietro; Balletto, Emilio; Bonelli, Simona; Barbero, Francesca

2014-01-01

377

Monitoring of the eggs of the Karkloof blue butterfly, Orachrysops ariadne, for its conservation management  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english The Endangered Orachrysops ariadne (Butler 1898) (Karkloof blue butterfly) is endemic to the Endangered Moist Midlands Grassland in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, and is extant at four sites. The results from the monitoring of the eggs laid by O. ariadne in a grassland area that is frequently burnt by [...] poor rural people to ensure that palatable grass is available to their livestock, suggested the implementation of management interventions (fencing and firebreak burning) to prevent the local extinction of the butterfly. The number of eggs at the monitoring site declined dramatically between 2002 and 2003 and fluctuated after the management interventions were initiated properly in 2008, but had nearly reached the target number of 250 by 2013. An index count method for the monitoring of O. ariadne eggs at the other three known colonies, where plant invasion rather than uncontrolled burning is a major threat, was developed and shown to be efficient with regard to time relative to the number of eggs sampled. The host ant Camponotus natalensis (F. Smith 1858) (Natal sugar ant) was found to be present in all the host-plant patches at one colony site, indicating that all host-plant patches are likely to be breeding areas for the butterfly. Invasive plant control at and appropriate burning of the habitat of O. ariadne should assist in ensuring the survival of these colonies. CONSERVATION IMPLICATIONS: Adaptive monitoring and management of threatened endemic invertebrates and their habitats may be crucial for their continued survival. The development of efficient methods for the monitoring of such species is required where resources are limited, as threats to the species may cause sudden and irreversible declines in population size.

Armstrong, Adrian J.; Louw, Sharon L..

378

Male-killer dynamics in the tropical butterfly, Acraea encedana (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae).  

Science.gov (United States)

Sex ratio distortion in the tropical butterfly Acraea encedana is caused by infection with a male-killing bacterium of the genus Wolbachia. Previous research on this species has reported extreme female bias, high bacterial prevalences, and full sex role reversal. In this paper, we provide an assessment for the dynamics of the male-killer, based on a survey for sex ratios and Wolbachia prevalences among wild populations of A. encedana in Uganda. The study reveals that Wolbachia infection showed considerable variation over both spatial and temporal scales. PMID:23955974

Hassan, Sami Saeed M; Idris, Eihab; Majerus, Michael E N

2013-12-01

379

Vertical distribution, flight behaviour and evolution of wing morphology in Morpho butterflies.  

Science.gov (United States)

1. Flight is a key innovation in the evolution of insects that is crucial to their dispersal, migration, territoriality, courtship and predator avoidance. Male butterflies have characteristic territoriality and courtship flight behaviours, and females use a characteristic flight behaviour when searching for host plants. This implies that selection acts on wing morphology to maximize flight performance for conducting important behaviours among sexes. 2. Butterflies in the genus Morpho are obvious components of neotropical forests, and many observations indicate that they show two broad categories of flight behaviour and flight height. Although species can be categorized as using gliding or flapping flight, and flying at either canopy or understorey height, the association of flight behaviour and flight height with wing shape evolution has never been explored. 3. Two clades within Morpho differ in flight behaviour and height. Males and females of one clade inhabit the forest understorey and use flapping flight, whereas in the other clade, males use gliding flight at canopy level and females use flapping flight in both canopy and understorey. 4. We used independent contrasts to answer whether wing shape is associated with flight behaviour and height. Given a single switch to canopy habitation and gliding flight, we compared contrasts for the node at which the switch to canopy flight occurred with the distribution of values in the two focal clades. We found significant changes in wing shape at the transition to canopy flight only in males, and no change in size for either sex. A second node within the canopy clade suggests that other factors may also be involved in wing shape evolution. Our results reinforce the hypothesis that natural selection acts differently on male and female butterfly wing shape and indicate that the transition to canopy flight cannot explain all wing shape diversity in Morpho. 5. This study provides a starting point for characterizing evolution of wing morphology in forest butterflies in the contexts of habitat selection and flight behaviour. Further, these observations suggest that exploring wing shape evolution for canopy and understorey species in other insects may help understand the effects of habitat destruction on biological diversity. PMID:20487088

Devries, P J; Penz, Carla M; Hill, Ryan I

2010-09-01

380

An anomalous butterfly-shaped magnetoresistance loop in an alloy, Tb4LuSi3  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Magnetic-field (H) induced first-order magnetic transition and the assiciated electronic phase-separation phenomena are active topics of research in magnetism. Magnetoresistance (MR) is a key property to probe these phenomena and, in literature, a butterfly-shaped MR loop has been noted while cycling the field, with the envelope curve lying below the virgin curve in MR versus H plots of such materials. Here, we report an opposite behavior of MR loop for an alloy, Tb4LuSi3, a...

Mukherjee, K.; Das, Sitikantha D.; Mohapatra, Niharika; Iyer, Kartik K.; Sampathkumaran, E. V.

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

Butterfly hysteresis curve is a signature of adiabatic Landau-Zener transition  

CERN Document Server

We stress that the so-called butterfly hysteresis curves observed in dynamical magnetization measurements on systems of low-spin magnetic molecules such as V-15 and V-6 are a signature of adiabatic Landau-Zener transitions rather than that of a phonon bottleneck. We investigate the magnetization dynamics analytically with the help of a simple relaxation theory in the basis of the adabatic energy levels of the spin 1/2, to a qualitative accordance with experimental observations. In particular, reversible behavior is found near zero field, the corresponding susceptibility being bounded by the equilibrium and adiabatic susceptibilities from below and above, respectively.

Vogelsberger, M; Schilling, R; Vogelsberger, Mark; Schilling, Rolf

2005-01-01

382

Observation of counterclockwise, clockwise and butterfly bistabilty in 1550 nm VCSOAs.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, we report counter-clockwise, clockwise, and, for the first time to our knowledge, butterfly bistability in 1550 nm Vertical Cavity Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers (VCSOA). Bistable operation is experimentally observed for bias currents ranging from 66-122% of threshold with switching powers as low as 2 microW. These switching powers are two orders of magnitude lower than any previous results in 1550 nm VCSOAs. These switching powers are consistent with previous reports on optical bistability in 850 nm VCSOAs and provide an important step towards the realization of small footprint, low power optical logic/switching elements in the 1550 nm wavelength band. PMID:19532744

Marki, Christopher F; Jorgesen, Douglas R; Zhang, Haijiang; Wen, Pengyue; Esener, Sadik C

2007-04-16

383

Immature stages of the butterfly Diaethria clymena janeira (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Biblidinae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The immature stages (egg, larva, and pupa morphology, larval and oviposition behavior, and host plant of the "eighty-eight" butterfly Diaethria clymena janeira (C. Felder, 1862 are described. Eggs are laid singly under leaf, and have pronounced vertical ribs ending up in a crown. Larvae of early instars construct stick-like frass chains where they rest when not feeding. Late instars are green with reduced body scoli and long branched head scoli. Pupae are entirely green, and pupation occurs on the upper leaf surface. In general, morphology and behavior of immature stages are similar to those of related species in the tribe Callicorini.

Eduardo P. Barbosa

2010-10-01

384

A CFD study of the flow field and aerodynamic torque on a triple-offset butterfly valve used in nuclear power plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Triple-offset butterfly valve is one advanced kind of butterfly valve. It is potential in nuclear power plants because of its advantages in high temperature and high pressure occasions. There are few papers on performance of triple-offset butterfly valve. This paper is intended to predict the performance of a triple-offset butterfly valve used in a nuclear power plant using computational fluid dynamics. The flow field and aerodynamic torque on the triple-offset butterfly valve were studied at six different disk positions from 90deg to 20deg (where 90deg is in the full open position). The selected six different disk positions indicated a stroke. The flow fields were predicted using the k-epsilon renormalization group theory (RNG) turbulence model. The computational results were obtained using CFX 12. The flow field is illustrated using velocity contours and disk pressure profiles, illustrating the effects of the disk position. Some results of flow field are compared to those of symmetric disk butterfly valve which have been validated by test results. Based on the flow field, valve resistance coefficient and aerodynamic torque coefficient with the disk positions are obtained, providing a better understanding of the performance of the triple-offset butterfly valve throughout a stroke. (author)

2011-10-24

385

A case of multiple sclerosis with multi-ring-like and butterfly-like enhancement on computerized tomography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We report a case of multiple sclerosis in which CT showed multiple ring-like enhancement and butterfly-like distribution of a low density area with marginal enhancement. The latter finding is found in other demyelinating disorders but is less common in tumors or abscesses. Therefore, it seems to have some diagnostic value in multiple sclerosis. (author)

1985-01-01

386

Fruit-feeding butterflies in the Atlantic Forest at Serra do Tabuleiro State Park, Santa Catarina State, Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fruit-feeding butterflies are used in ecological studies following standardized sampling protocols because they are easily collected using traps baited with food. This trait, and the fact that their populations respond rapidly to changes in habitat, make them good biological indicators. The goal of this study is to present a list of fruit-feeding butterfly species, including morphological and ecological characteristics of this group, for the Atlantic Forest of Serra do Tabuleiro State Park (Santa Catarina, to improve the knowledge about the butterflies from this region. Six field expeditions were carried out between November 2009 and August 2010. Twenty-five bait traps were used, which remained active for ten days and were checked every 48 h to replace the bait and collect individuals. Twenty species and 331 individuals were captured, which belonged to three subfamilies: Biblidinae, Charaxinae and Satyrinae. The study added eleven new species to the already existing list of the Atlantic Forest butterflies of Santa Catarina.

Gabriela Corso

2012-11-01

387

Comparative population genetics of mimetic Heliconius butterflies in an endangered habitat; Brazil's Atlantic Forest  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Brazil's Atlantic Forest is a biodiversity hotspot endangered by severe habitat degradation and fragmentation. Habitat fragmentation is expected to reduce dispersal among habitat patches resulting in increased genetic differentiation among populations. Here we examined genetic diversity and differentiation among populations of two Heliconius butterfly species in the northern portion of Brazil's Atlantic Forest to estimate the potential impact of h...

Albuquerque de Moura Priscila; Quek Swee-Peck; Cardoso Márcio Z; Kronforst Marcus R

2011-01-01

388

Using the sensitive dependence of chaos (the butterfly effect'') to direct trajectories in an experimental chaotic system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper we present the first experimental verification that the sensitivity of a chaotic system to small perturbations (the butterfly effect'') can be used to rapidly direct orbits from an arbitrary initial state to an arbitrary accessible desired state.

Shinbrot, T.; Ditto, W.; Grebogi, C.; Ott, E.; Spano, M.; Yorke, J.A. (University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States) Department of Physics, The College of Wooster, Wooster, Ohio 44691 (United States) Naval Surface Warfare Center, Silver Spring, Maryland 20902 (United States))

1992-05-11

389

Cultural Nuances, Assumptions, and the Butterfly Effect: Addressing the Unpredictability Caused by Unconscious Values Structures in Cross-Cultural Interactions  

Science.gov (United States)

Cultural values, cross-cultural interaction patterns that are produced by dynamical (chaotic) systems, have a significant impact on interaction, particularly among and between people from different cultures. The butterfly effect, which states that small differences in initial conditions may have severe consequences for patterns in the long run,…

Remer, Rory

2007-01-01

390

Extreme Heterogeneity in Parasitism Despite Low Population Genetic Structure among Monarch Butterflies Inhabiting the Hawaiian Islands.  

Science.gov (United States)

Host movement and spatial structure can strongly influence the ecology and evolution of infectious diseases, with limited host movement potentially leading to high spatial heterogeneity in infection. Monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) are best known for undertaking a spectacular long-distance migration in eastern North America; however, they also form non-migratory populations that breed year-round in milder climates such as Hawaii and other tropical locations. Prior work showed an inverse relationship between monarch migratory propensity and the prevalence of the protozoan parasite, Ophryocystis elektroscirrha. Here, we sampled monarchs from replicate sites within each of four Hawaiian Islands to ask whether these populations show consistently high prevalence of the protozoan parasite as seen for monarchs from several other non-migratory populations. Counter to our predictions, we observed striking spatial heterogeneity in parasite prevalence, with infection rates per site ranging from 4-85%. We next used microsatellite markers to ask whether the observed variation in infection might be explained by limited host movement and spatial sub-structuring among sites. Our results showed that monarchs across the Hawaiian Islands form one admixed population, supporting high gene flow among sites. Moreover, measures of individual-level genetic diversity did not predict host infection status, as might be expected if more inbred hosts harbored higher parasite loads. These results suggest that other factors such as landscape-level environmental variation or colonization-extinction processes might instead cause the extreme heterogeneity in monarch butterfly infection observed here. PMID:24926796

Pierce, Amanda A; de Roode, Jacobus C; Altizer, Sonia; Bartel, Rebecca A

2014-01-01

391

Structural safety analysis based on seismic service conditions for butterfly valves in a nuclear power plant.  

Science.gov (United States)

The structural integrity of valves that are used to control cooling waters in the primary coolant loop that prevents boiling within the reactor in a nuclear power plant must be capable of withstanding earthquakes or other dangerous situations. In this study, numerical analyses using a finite element method, that is, static and dynamic analyses according to the rigid or flexible characteristics of the dynamic properties of a 200A butterfly valve, were performed according to the KEPIC MFA. An experimental vibration test was also carried out in order to verify the results from the modal analysis, in which a validated finite element model was obtained via a model-updating method that considers changes in the in situ experimental data. By using a validated finite element model, the equivalent static load under SSE conditions stipulated by the KEPIC MFA gave a stress of 135?MPa that occurred at the connections of the stem and body. A larger stress of 183?MPa was induced when we used a CQC method with a design response spectrum that uses 2% damping ratio. These values were lower than the allowable strength of the materials used for manufacturing the butterfly valve, and, therefore, its structural safety met the KEPIC MFA requirements. PMID:24955416

Han, Sang-Uk; Ahn, Dae-Gyun; Lee, Myeong-Gon; Lee, Kwon-Hee; Han, Seung-Ho

2014-01-01

392

Influence of swimsuit design and fabric surface properties on the butterfly kinematics.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated the influence of the covering swimsuit and the fabric surface properties on the butterfly stroke kinematics. Surface properties were evaluated by wetting measurements of two fabric samples: one for training suits and one for competition suits. The surface of the second one was coated by mechanochemical treatment in order to modify its surface properties. Nine national level swimmers performed a 50-m butterfly at submaximal velocity in three swimsuit conditions: conventional, long, and coated long swimsuits. From video recording, the hip was digitized at the entry and exit of the swimmer's hand in order to calculate the duration, hip displacement, and hip linear velocity during underwater and recovery phases and during stroke. The results for wetting show that competition fabric was more water-repellent than training fabric, but both were isotropic. Moreover, the mechanochemical treatment increased water repellency and anisotropy. The swimming results indicated that, when compared to a conventional swimsuit, wearing a coated long swimsuit increased hip linear velocity during stroke, and particularly during the recovery phase which had a shorter duration. These results suggest that the covering swimsuit should be coupled with the water repellent and anisotropic properties of the fabric surface in order to improve swimming performance. PMID:16760568

Rogowski, Isabelle; Monteil, Karine; Legreneur, Pierre; Lanteri, Pierre

2006-02-01

393

Context-dependent resistance against butterfly herbivory in a polyploid herb.  

Science.gov (United States)

Spatial variation in biotic interactions and natural selection are fundamental parts of natural systems, and can be driven by differences in both trait distributions and the local environmental context of the interaction. Most studies of plant-animal interactions have been performed only in natural settings, making it difficult to disentangle the effects of traits and context. To assess the relative importance of trait differences and environmental context for among-population variation in plant resistance to herbivory, we compared oviposition by the butterfly Anthocharis cardamines on two ploidy types of the herb Cardamine pratensis under experimentally controlled conditions with oviposition in natural populations. Under controlled conditions, plants from octoploid populations were significantly more preferred than plants from tetraploid populations. This difference was largely mediated by differences in flower size. Among natural populations, there was no difference in oviposition rates between the two ploidy types. Our results suggest that differences in oviposition rates among populations of the two cytotypes in the field are caused mainly by differences in environmental context, and that the higher attractiveness of octoploids to herbivores observed under common environmental conditions is balanced by the fact that they occur in habitats which harbor lower densities of butterflies. This illustrates that spatial variation in biotic interactions is the net result of differences in trait distributions of the interacting organisms and differences in environmental context, and that variation in both traits and context are important in understanding species interactions. PMID:24493660

König, Malin A E; Wiklund, Christer; Ehrlén, Johan

2014-04-01

394

Structural Safety Analysis Based on Seismic Service Conditions for Butterfly Valves in a Nuclear Power Plant  

Science.gov (United States)

The structural integrity of valves that are used to control cooling waters in the primary coolant loop that prevents boiling within the reactor in a nuclear power plant must be capable of withstanding earthquakes or other dangerous situations. In this study, numerical analyses using a finite element method, that is, static and dynamic analyses according to the rigid or flexible characteristics of the dynamic properties of a 200A butterfly valve, were performed according to the KEPIC MFA. An experimental vibration test was also carried out in order to verify the results from the modal analysis, in which a validated finite element model was obtained via a model-updating method that considers changes in the in situ experimental data. By using a validated finite element model, the equivalent static load under SSE conditions stipulated by the KEPIC MFA gave a stress of 135?MPa that occurred at the connections of the stem and body. A larger stress of 183?MPa was induced when we used a CQC method with a design response spectrum that uses 2% damping ratio. These values were lower than the allowable strength of the materials used for manufacturing the butterfly valve, and, therefore, its structural safety met the KEPIC MFA requirements.

Han, Sang-Uk; Ahn, Dae-Gyun; Lee, Myeong-Gon

2014-01-01

395

The redder the better: wing color predicts flight performance in monarch butterflies.  

Science.gov (United States)

The distinctive orange and black wings of monarchs (Danaus plexippus) have long been known to advertise their bitter taste and toxicity to potential predators. Recent work also showed that both the orange and black coloration of this species can vary in response to individual-level and environmental factors. Here we examine the relationship between wing color and flight performance in captive-reared monarchs using a tethered flight mill apparatus to quantify butterfly flight speed, duration and distance. In three different experiments (totaling 121 individuals) we used image analysis to measure body size and four wing traits among newly-emerged butterflies prior to flight trials: wing area, aspect ratio (length/width), melanism, and orange hue. Results showed that monarchs with darker orange (approaching red) wings flew longer distances than those with lighter orange wings in analyses that controlled for sex and other morphometric traits. This finding is consistent with past work showing that among wild monarchs, those sampled during the fall migration are darker in hue (redder) than non-migratory monarchs. Together, these results suggest that pigment deposition onto wing scales during metamorphosis could be linked with traits that influence flight, such as thorax muscle size, energy storage or metabolism. Our results reinforce an association between wing color and flight performance in insects that is suggested by past studies of wing melansim and seasonal polyphenism, and provide an important starting point for work focused on mechanistic links between insect movement and color. PMID:22848463

Davis, Andrew K; Chi, Jean; Bradley, Catherine; Altizer, Sonia

2012-01-01

396

Extreme Heterogeneity in Parasitism Despite Low Population Genetic Structure among Monarch Butterflies Inhabiting the Hawaiian Islands  

Science.gov (United States)

Host movement and spatial structure can strongly influence the ecology and evolution of infectious diseases, with limited host movement potentially leading to high spatial heterogeneity in infection. Monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) are best known for undertaking a spectacular long-distance migration in eastern North America; however, they also form non-migratory populations that breed year-round in milder climates such as Hawaii and other tropical locations. Prior work showed an inverse relationship between monarch migratory propensity and the prevalence of the protozoan parasite, Ophryocystis elektroscirrha. Here, we sampled monarchs from replicate sites within each of four Hawaiian Islands to ask whether these populations show consistently high prevalence of the protozoan parasite as seen for monarchs from several other non-migratory populations. Counter to our predictions, we observed striking spatial heterogeneity in parasite prevalence, with infection rates per site ranging from 4–85%. We next used microsatellite markers to ask whether the observed variation in infection might be explained by limited host movement and spatial sub-structuring among sites. Our results showed that monarchs across the Hawaiian Islands form one admixed population, supporting high gene flow among sites. Moreover, measures of individual-level genetic diversity did not predict host infection status, as might be expected if more inbred hosts harbored higher parasite loads. These results suggest that other factors such as landscape-level environmental variation or colonization-extinction processes might instead cause the extreme heterogeneity in monarch butterfly infection observed here.

Pierce, Amanda A.; de Roode, Jacobus C.; Altizer, Sonia; Bartel, Rebecca A.

2014-01-01

397

The biological impacts of ingested radioactive materials on the pale grass blue butterfly.  

Science.gov (United States)

A massive amount of radioactive materials has been released into the environment by the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, but its biological impacts have rarely been examined. Here, we have quantitatively evaluated the relationship between the dose of ingested radioactive cesium and mortality and abnormality rates using the pale grass blue butterfly, Zizeeria maha. When larvae from Okinawa, which is likely the least polluted locality in Japan, were fed leaves collected from polluted localities, mortality and abnormality rates increased sharply at low doses in response to the ingested cesium dose. This dose-response relationship was best fitted by power function models, which indicated that the half lethal and abnormal doses were 1.9 and 0.76?Bq per larva, corresponding to 54,000 and 22,000?Bq per kilogram body weight, respectively. Both the retention of radioactive cesium in a pupa relative to the ingested dose throughout the larval stage and the accumulation of radioactive cesium in a pupa relative to the activity concentration in a diet were highest at the lowest level of cesium ingested. We conclude that the risk of ingesting a polluted diet is realistic, at least for this butterfly, and likely for certain other organisms living in the polluted area. PMID:24844938

Nohara, Chiyo; Hiyama, Atsuki; Taira, Wataru; Tanahara, Akira; Otaki, Joji M

2014-01-01

398

Color-pattern modifications of butterfly wings induced by transfusion and oxyanions.  

Science.gov (United States)

The color-pattern determination of butterfly wings was studied, focusing on the cold-shock-induced color-pattern modifications of a species of butterfly, Vanessa (Cynthia) cardui (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae). It was shown that the modification property could be transferred to the noncold-shocked individuals by the transfusion of hemolymph taken from the cold-shocked individuals, suggesting the existence of an unknown diffusible factor or hormone, induced or activated by the cold shock. The involvement of a receptor tyrosine kinase for the color-pattern modifications was tested by the simple application of some oxyanions such as sodium tungstate, sodium molybdate, and molybdic acid to pupae, since these oxyanions have been known to up-regulate the process of phosphorylation via receptor tyrosine kinases in general. It was shown that they could modify the wing color-pattern in a way very similar to the cold shock. Moreover, the topical applications of sodium tungstate or molybdic acid induced large ectopic black spots on the treated pupal wings. Among the treatment methods, the sodium tungstate treatment was by far more effective than the cold shock treatment itself. Taken together, these data suggest that an unknown cold-shock hormone activates the process of phosphorylation via a receptor tyrosine kinase necessary for the color-pattern development. PMID:12770318

Otaki, J M.

1998-12-01

399

Spectral selectivity of 3D magnetophotonic crystal film fabricated from single butterfly wing scales.  

Science.gov (United States)

3D magnetophotonic crystal (3D-MPC) film is an excellent platform for tailoring the magneto-optical response of magnetic materials. However, its fabrication is a great challenge due to the limitation of commonly used artificial synthesis methods. Inspired by the unique structures of biospecies, we hereby manipulate the pristine single wing scales of Morpho didius precisely and successfully fabricate Fe3O4 films with photonic structure. The synthesis strategy involves the fabrication of Fe2O3 film from a single wing scale using an improved sol-gel method followed by a subsequent reduction. The intrinsic hierarchical photonic structures as well as the anisotropic optical properties of the pristine butterfly wing scale have been retained in the obtained Fe2O3 and Fe3O4 films. When investigated under an external magnetic field, a spectral blue shift about 43 nm is observed in the designated orientation of the Fe3O4 film, which is useful for the design and creation of novel magnetic-optical modulator devices. Furthermore, these single scales can be used as building blocks to fabricate designable and more complicated assembled nano systems. This biomimetic technique combined with the variety of structures of butterfly wing scales provides an effective approach to produce magneto-photonic films with desired structure, paving a new way for theoretical research and practical applications. PMID:24788678

Peng, Wenhong; Zhu, Shenmin; Zhang, Wang; Yang, Qingqing; Zhang, Di; Chen, Zhixin

2014-06-01

400

Application of hydraulic network analysis to motor operated butterfly valves in nuclear power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents the application of hydraulic network analysis to evaluate the performance of butterfly valves in nuclear power plant applications. Required actuation torque for butterfly valves in high-flow applications is often dictated by peak dynamic torque. The peak dynamic torque, which occurs at some intermediate disc position, requires accurate evaluation of valve flow rate and pressure drop throughout the valve stroke. Valve flow rate and pressure drop are significantly affected by the valve flow characteristics and the hydraulic system characteristics, such as pumping capability, piping resistances, single and parallel flow paths, system hydrostatic pressure, and the location of the motor-operated valve (MOV) within the system. A hydraulic network analysis methodology that addresses the effect of these parameters on the MOV performance is presented. The methodology is based on well-established engineering principles. The application of this methodology requires detailed characteristics of both the MOV and the hydraulic system in which it is installed. The valve characteristics for this analysis can be obtained by flow testing or from the valve manufacturer. Even though many valve users, valve manufacturers, and engineering standards have recognized the importance of performing these analyses, none has provided a detailed procedure for doing so

1992-07-01

 
 
 
 
401

Dynamic testing of POSI-SEAL motor-operated butterfly valves using strain gages  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Utilities operating nuclear power plants recognize that the correct functioning of all motor-operated valves, and particularly those in safety-related systems, is of paramount importance. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission has issued Generic Letter 89-10 relative to this concern. Operability must be demonstrated under design-basis conditions. In order to demonstrate operability of motor-operated butterfly valves, the valve stem torque must be determined. The valve stem torque is a function of seat material, stem packing, stem bearing friction, and hydrodynamic lift and drag. The total valve operating hydrodynamic torque can be predicted using the valve manufacturer's data and the differential pressure. In order to validate the valve manufacturer's data, the actual total valve hydrodynamic torque is measured using strain gages mounted directly on the valve stem. This paper presents the results of comparing the predicted total valve operating hydrodynamic torque with the actual total valve operating hydrodynamic torque for six POSI-SEAL Class 150 high performance butterfly valves

1994-07-01

402

Differential pressure distribution measurement with an MEMS sensor on a free-flying butterfly wing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An insect can perform various flight maneuvers. However, the aerodynamic force generated by real insect wings during free flight has never been measured directly. In this study, we present the direct measurement of the four points of the differential pressures acting on the wing surface of a flying insect. A small-scale differential pressure sensor of 1.0 mm × 1.0 mm × 0.3 mm in size was developed using microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and was attached to a butterfly wing. Total weight of the sensor chip and the flexible electrode on the wing was 4.5 mg, which was less than 10% of the wing weight. Four points on the wing were chosen as measurement points, and one sensor chip was attached in each flight experiment. During takeoff, the wing's flapping motion induced a periodic and symmetric differential pressure between upstroke and downstroke. The average absolute value of the local differential pressure differed significantly with the location: 7.4 Pa at the forewing tip, 5.5 Pa at the forewing center, 2.1 Pa at the forewing root and 2.1 Pa at the hindwing center. The instantaneous pressure at the forewing tip reached 10 Pa, which was ten times larger than wing loading of the butterfly. (paper)

2012-09-01

403

Two lactones in the androconial scent of the lycaenid butterfly Celastrina argiolus ladonides  

Science.gov (United States)

Male adult butterflies of many species have characteristic odors originating from the disseminating organs known as androconia. Despite the fact that androconia exist in several species, there have been few investigations on adult scents from the lycaenid species. Celastrina argiolus ladonides (Lycaenidae) is a common species in Eurasia. We have reported that male adults of this species emit a faint odor, and the major components causing this odor have been newly found in the Insecta. By using field-caught individuals, we determined the chemical nature and location of this odor in the butterfly. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses revealed that two lactone compounds, lavender lactone and ?-decalactone, are present in the extracts of males but absent in those of the females. On an average, approximately 50 ng of each compound was found per male. Chiral GC analyses performed using enantiomerically pure standards revealed that the natural lavender lactone was a mixture of two enantiomers with an R/ S ratio of 32:68, whereas the natural ?-decalactone contained only the R-enantiomer. When the analyses were conducted using different parts—forewings, hindwings, and body—of three males, the lactones were more abundantly found on the forewings and hindwings than on the body. Microscopic observation of the wings demonstrated that battledore scales known as androconia are scattered on the upper surface of both the wings of C. argiolus ladonides males. These results indicate that the specialized scales on the wings of males serve as scent-disseminating organs.

Ômura, Hisashi; Yakumaru, Kazuhisa; Honda, Keiichi; Itoh, Takao

2013-04-01

404

HIGH SPEED BUTTERFLY ARCHITECTURE FOR CIRCULAR CONVOLUTION USING FNT WITH PARTIAL PRODUCT MULTIPLIER  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents high speed butterfly architecture for circular convolution based on FNT using partial product multipliers. FNT is ideally suited to digital computation requiring the order of N log N additions, subtractions and bit shifts, but no multiplications. In addition to being efficient, the FNT implementation is exact with no round off errors. Binary arithmetic permits the exact computation of FNT. This technique involves arithmetic in a binary code orresponding to the simplest one of a set of code translations from the normal binary representation of each integer in the ring of integer. In the first stage normal binary numbers are converted intotheir diminished-1 representation using code conversion (CC. Then butterfly operation (BO is carried out to perform FNT and IFNT where the point wise multiplication is performed using modulo 2n+1 partial product multipliers. Thus modulo 2n+1 additions are avoided in the final stages of FNT and IFNT and hence execution delay is reduced compared to circular convolution done with FFT and DFT. This architecture has better throughput and involves less hardware complexity.

HEMALATHA BANDARI

2011-01-01

405

Immediate and delayed effects of radiation on the genetic endowment of the butterfly, Acraea horta L  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pupae of the butterfly Acraea horta were irradiated with X or gamma rays with doses of 3 000 R, 7 000 R and 15 000 R. Even after the highest doses most of the pupae remained vital, butterflies emerged, and a proportion of them mated and produced offspring. The consequences for the offspring of the irradiated pupae were increased mortality, especially mortality of the eggs, decreased vitality, infertility in some cases, and various morphological abnormalities. The genetic nature of the morphological abnormalities could not be analysed, as some of the affected individuals did not breed, and other abnormalities proved not to be heritable. As a result of decreased virtality and increased mortality the offspring of the more heavily irradiated pupae died out after two (in the case of doses of 15 000 R) or three (in the case of doses of 7 000 R) post-irradiation generations. Some of the offspring of pupae receiving 3 000 R were capable of breeding indefinitely. Morphological abnormalities and increased mortality occured in the second and third post-irradiation generations (as well as in the first), after the previous one or two generations appeared to be completely normal and viable. This was not due to segregation of recessive mutations, but seems to be expressions of a delayed effect of the damage caused to the genotype by the radiation. The possible mechanism of such a delayed effect of the radiation is briefly discussed

1981-01-01

406

Temporal variability of local abundance, sex ratio and activity in the Sardinian chalk hill blue butterfly  

Science.gov (United States)

When capturing and marking of individuals is possible, the application of newly developed capture-recapture models can remove several sources of bias in the estimation of population parameters such as local abundance and sex ratio. For example, observation of distorted sex ratios in counts or captures can reflect either different abundances of the sexes or different sex-specific capture probabilities, and capture-recapture models can help distinguish between these two possibilities. Robust design models and a model selection procedure based on information-theoretic methods were applied to study the local population structure of the endemic Sardinian chalk hill blue butterfly, Polyommatus coridon gennargenti. Seasonal variations of abundance, plus daily and weather-related variations of active populations of males and females were investigated. Evidence was found of protandry and male pioneering of the breeding space. Temporary emigration probability, which describes the proportion of the population not exposed to capture (e.g. absent from the study area) during the sampling process, was estimated, differed between sexes, and was related to temperature, a factor known to influence animal activity. The correlation between temporary emigration and average daily temperature suggested interpreting temporary emigration as inactivity of animals. Robust design models were used successfully to provide a detailed description of the population structure and activity in this butterfly and are recommended for studies of local abundance and animal activity in the field.

Casula, P.; Nichols, J.D.

2003-01-01

407

The biological impacts of ingested radioactive materials on the pale grass blue butterfly  

Science.gov (United States)

A massive amount of radioactive materials has been released into the environment by the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, but its biological impacts have rarely been examined. Here, we have quantitatively evaluated the relationship between the dose of ingested radioactive cesium and mortality and abnormality rates using the pale grass blue butterfly, Zizeeria maha. When larvae from Okinawa, which is likely the least polluted locality in Japan, were fed leaves collected from polluted localities, mortality and abnormality rates increased sharply at low doses in response to the ingested cesium dose. This dose-response relationship was best fitted by power function models, which indicated that the half lethal and abnormal doses were 1.9 and 0.76?Bq per larva, corresponding to 54,000 and 22,000?Bq per kilogram body weight, respectively. Both the retention of radioactive cesium in a pupa relative to the ingested dose throughout the larval stage and the accumulation of radioactive cesium in a pupa relative to the activity concentration in a diet were highest at the lowest level of cesium ingested. We conclude that the risk of ingesting a polluted diet is realistic, at least for this butterfly, and likely for certain other organisms living in the polluted area.

Nohara, Chiyo; Hiyama, Atsuki; Taira, Wataru; Tanahara, Akira; Otaki, Joji M.

2014-01-01

408

Color-producing mechanism of morpho butterfly wings and biomimetics; Cho no hasshoku kiko to biomimetics  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Although the synthetic dyes and pigments originating in the 19th century are now at the height of their prosperity, there is an earnest hope for technology for realizing `supercolor.` If it is presumed that the features of such supercolor are to be found in outstanding clearness and high resistance to fading in the presence of ultraviolet rays, etc., the supercolor will be quite tough to deal with. When attention is steered toward the living world, however, there are cases of easily producing such by morphogenesis at the level of several tens of nanometers. In this paper, the development of a novel material is presented from the viewpoint of biomimetic engineering that the author et al. are engaged in. The coloring on the wings of a butterfly Morpho Sulkowskyi of South American origin is the product of interaction between light and the physical, microscopic structure of scales, and the coloring is extremely clear and remains free of fading except in case the microstructure is destroyed. This mechanism is applied for the development of a supercolor fiber. As the result, a structurally coloring fiber is created by stretching a molten composite string. In this effort, reformed polyester and polyamide different in refraction factor are used in place of substance layers and air layers on the butterfly wings. (NEDO)

Tabata, H. [Nissan Motor Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

1999-07-01

409

Landform resources for territorial nettle-feeding Nymphalid butterflies: biases at different spatial scales  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Observations of perch sites for three territorial nymphalid butterflies reveals a bias in landform use at two spatial scales: at macro-scale, sunlit wood edges at the top of slopes; at micro-scale, molehills and bare ground compared to vegetation substrates. There is a hierarchy in landform exploitation; slope and edge position outweighsmicro-landform feature use. Landforms for territories tend to be prominent landmarks. This is especially the case at macro-scale (e.g., wood edges and corners; though also the case at micro-scale (e.g.; molehills, earth bank edge it is not invariably the case and highly apparent substrates (white boards entered into territories were ignored. The predominant characteristic of all landforms chosen is that they are all hotspots: warm and sheltered sites. Substrates used for perching change with ambient conditions. In cool spring weather warm sites are essential for territorial defence, acquisition of females and predator evasion. As air temperatures increase there is an increasing propensity for territorial incumbents to use non-apparent, vegetation substrates. Bare earth sites are suggested to be important habitat components for butterfly biology as is their continued renewal through human activity.

Dennis, R. H.

2004-01-01

410

Host plant utilization, host range oscillations and diversification in nymphalid butterflies: a phylogenetic investigation.  

Science.gov (United States)

It has been suggested that phenotypic plasticity is a major factor in the diversification of life, and that variation in host range in phytophagous insects is a good model for investigating this claim. We explore the use of angiosperm plants as hosts for nymphalid butterflies, and in particular the evidence for past oscillations in host range and how they are linked to host shifts and to diversification. At the level of orders of plants, a relatively simple pattern of host use and host shifts emerges, despite the 100 million years of history of the family Nymphalidae. We review the evidence that these host shifts and the accompanying diversifications were associated with transient polyphagous stages, as suggested by the "oscillation hypothesis." In addition, we investigate all currently polyphagous nymphalid species and demonstrate that the state of polyphagy is rare, has a weak phylogenetic signal, and a very apical distribution in the phylogeny; we argue that these are signs of its transient nature. We contrast our results with data from the bark beetles Dendroctonus, in which a more specialized host use is instead the apical state. We conclude that plasticity in host use is likely to have contributed to diversification in nymphalid butterflies. PMID:24372598

Nylin, Sören; Slove, Jessica; Janz, Niklas

2014-01-01

411

Dealing with the hidden unphysical constraint and the butterfly effect in spectrum computations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since the order in the diatomic potential (or vibrational energy) expansion may be different from state to state, the algebraic method (AM) proposed by Sun et al. (J Mol Spectrosc 2002; 215: 93–105) is modified to adapt to the individual nature of different energy expansions by changing an original fixed order to a flexible one. The modified AM with a flexible order can be used to deal with the possible “butterfly effect” that may happen in spectroscopic computations, and it is applied to study the full vibrational spectra {E?} and the dissociation energies De for 7Li2?23?g+, K2?31?g, Cs2?33?g+, KLi?X1?+, and RbCs?X1?+ electronic states. The results not only reproduce the known experimental vibrational energies, but also correctly predict the dissociation energies and all unknown energies that have not been obtained for these electronic states using the original AM. These facts demonstrate that the modified AM are good for many more diatomic systems by using the proper order of each corresponding diatomic state. -- Highlights: ? We find that “butterfly effect” may happen in molecular spectroscopic computations. ? We modify our algebraic method (AM) to adapt to different diatomic systems. ? Modified AM can predict the full vibrational spectra rationally and precisely

2013-05-01

412

Fitness costs of thermal reaction norms for wing melanisation in the large white butterfly (Pieris brassicae).  

Science.gov (United States)

The large white butterfly, Pieris brassicae, shows a seasonal polyphenism of wing melanisation, spring individuals being darker than summer individuals. This phenotypic plasticity is supposed to be an adaptive response for thermoregulation in natural populations. However, the variation in individuals' response, the cause of this variation (genetic, non genetic but inheritable or environmental) and its relationship with fitness remain poorly known. We tested the relationships between thermal reaction norm of wing melanisation and adult lifespan as well as female fecundity. Butterflies were reared in cold (18°C), moderate (22°C), and hot (26°C) temperatures over three generations to investigate variation in adult pigmentation and the effects of maternal thermal environment on offspring reaction norms. We found a low heritability in wing melanisation (h(2)?=0.18). Rearing families had contrasted thermal reaction norms. Adult lifespan of males and females from highly plastic families was shorter in individuals exposed to hot developmental temperature. Also, females from plastic families exhibited lower fecundity. We did not find any effect of maternal or grand-maternal developmental temperature on fitness. This study provides new evidence on the influence of phenotypic plasticity on life history-traits' evolution, a crucial issue in the context of global change. PMID:24587196

Chaput-Bardy, Audrey; Ducatez, Simon; Legrand, Delphine; Baguette, Michel

2014-01-01

413

Spectral selectivity of 3D magnetophotonic crystal film fabricated from single butterfly wing scales  

Science.gov (United States)

3D magnetophotonic crystal (3D-MPC) film is an excellent platform for tailoring the magneto-optical response of magnetic materials. However, its fabrication is a great challenge due to the limitation of commonly used artificial synthesis methods. Inspired by the unique structures of biospecies, we hereby manipulate the pristine single wing scales of Morpho didius precisely and successfully fabricate Fe3O4 films with photonic structure. The synthesis strategy involves the fabrication of Fe2O3 film from a single wing scale using an improved sol-gel method followed by a subsequent reduction. The intrinsic hierarchical photonic structures as well as the anisotropic optical properties of the pristine butterfly wing scale have been retained in the obtained Fe2O3 and Fe3O4 films. When investigated under an external magnetic field, a spectral blue shift about 43 nm is observed in the designated orientation of the Fe3O4 film, which is useful for the design and creation of novel magnetic-optical modulator devices. Furthermore, these single scales can be used as building blocks to fabricate designable and more complicated assembled nano systems. This biomimetic technique combined with the variety of structures of butterfly wing scales provides an effective approach to produce magneto-photonic films with desired structure, paving a new way for theoretical research and practical applications.3D magnetophotonic crystal (3D-MPC) film is an excellent platform for tailoring the magneto-optical response of magnetic materials. However, its fabrication is a great challenge due to the limitation of commonly used artificial synthesis methods. Inspired by the unique structures of biospecies, we hereby manipulate the pristine single wing scales of Morpho didius precisely and successfully fabricate Fe3O4 films with photonic structure. The synthesis strategy involves the fabrication of Fe2O3 film from a single wing scale using an improved sol-gel method followed by a subsequent reduction. The intrinsic hierarchical photonic structures as well as the anisotropic optical properties of the pristine butterfly wing scale have been retained in the obtained Fe2O3 and Fe3O4 films. When investigated under an external magnetic field, a spectral blue shift about 43 nm is observed in the designated orientation of the Fe3O4 film, which is useful for the design and creation of novel magnetic-optical modulator devices. Furthermore, these single scales can be used as building blocks to fabricate designable and more complicated assembled nano systems. This biomimetic technique combined with the variety of structures of butterfly wing scales provides an effective approach to produce magneto-photonic films with desired structure, paving a new way for theoretical research and practical applications. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: SEM, optical image of ground scale, XRD of the magnetite with butterfly wing structure. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr00477a

Peng, Wenhong; Zhu, Shenmin; Zhang, Wang; Yang, Qingqing; Zhang, Di; Chen, Zhixin

2014-05-01

414

Plants, Birds and Butterflies: Short-Term Responses of Species Communities to Climate Warming Vary by Taxon and with Altitude  

Science.gov (United States)

As a consequence of climate warming, species usually shift their distribution towards higher latitudes or altitudes. Yet, it is unclear how different taxonomic groups may respond to climate warming over larger altitudinal ranges. Here, we used data from the national biodiversity monitoring program of Switzerland, collected over an altitudinal range of 2500 m. Within the short period of eight years (2003–2010), we found significant shifts in communities of vascular plants, butterflies and birds. At low altitudes, communities of all species groups changed towards warm-dwelling species, corresponding to an average uphill shift of 8 m, 38 m and 42 m in plant, butterfly and bird communities, respectively. However, rates of community changes decreased with altitude in plants and butterflies, while bird communities changed towards warm-dwelling species at all altitudes. We found no decrease in community variation with respect to temperature niches of species, suggesting that climate warming has not led to more homogenous communities. The different community changes depending on altitude could not be explained by different changes of air temperatures, since during the 16 years between 1995 and 2010, summer temperatures in Switzerland rose by about 0.07°C per year at all altitudes. We discuss that land-use changes or increased disturbances may have prevented alpine plant and butterfly communities from changing towards warm-dwelling species. However, the findings are also consistent with the hypothesis that unlike birds, many alpine plant species in a warming climate could find suitable habitats within just a few metres, due to the highly varied surface of alpine landscapes. Our results may thus support the idea that for plants and butterflies and on a short temporal scale, alpine landscapes are safer places than lowlands in a warming world.

Roth, Tobias; Plattner, Matthias; Amrhein, Valentin

2014-01-01

415

Aphids indirectly increase virulence and transmission potential of a monarch butterfly parasite by reducing defensive chemistry of a shared food plant.  

Science.gov (United States)

Parasites and hosts live in communities consisting of many interacting species, but few studies have examined how communities affect parasite virulence and transmission. We studied a food web consisting of two species of milkweed, two milkweed herbivores (monarch butterfly and oleander aphid) and a monarch butterfly-specific parasite. We found that the presence of aphids increased the virulence and transmission potential of the monarch butterfly's parasite on one milkweed species. These increases were associated with aphid-induced decreases in the defensive chemicals of milkweed plants. Our experiment suggests that aphids can indirectly increase the virulence and transmission potential of monarch butterfly parasites, probably by altering the chemical composition of a shared food plant. These results indicate that species that are far removed from host-parasite interactions can alter such interactions through cascading indirect effects in the food web. As such, indirect effects within ecological communities may drive the dynamics and evolution of parasites. PMID:21375682

de Roode, Jacobus C; Rarick, Rachel M; Mongue, Andrew J; Gerardo, Nicole M; Hunter, Mark D

2011-05-01

416

Population Dynamics of Cabbage Butterfly (Pieris brassicae) and Cabbage Aphids (Brevicoryne brassicae) on Five Cultivars of Cauliflower at Peshawar  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The studies on population dynamics of Cabbage butterfly and Cabbage aphids on different Cultivars of cauliflower namely Snowball, Snowdrift, Tropical, Pioneer and Meigettsal were carried out at the Research Farm of Entomology Section, Agricultural Research Institute Tarnab Peshawar. Cabbage butterfly (Pieris brassicae) and aphids (Bravicoryne brassicae) were recorded as the major insect pests of Cauliflower crop at ARI, Tarnab, Peshawar. None of the 5 Cultivars was found ...

Mohammad Younas; Mohammad Naeem; Abdur Raqib; Shah Masud

2004-01-01

417

A male Klug's clearwing butterfly (Dircenna klugii klugii) foraging on a coffee flower (Coffea arabica) in Finca Irlanda of the Sonusco region of Chia  

Science.gov (United States)

A male KlugÃÂs clearwing butterfly (Dircenna klugii klugii) foraging on a coffee flower (Coffea arabica) in the Soconusco region of Chiapas, Mexico. Shade-grown coffee certification programs distinguish shade management practices that contain significantly higher levels of bird and butterfly diversity. This enhanced biodiversity may provide important ecosystem services, such as pollination, shown here. This photograph originally appeared on the cover of Ecological Applications (14:3) in June of 2004.

Philpott, Stacy

2010-02-16

418

Fruit-feeding butterfly assemblages at Dlinza and Entumeni Nature Reserves, KwaZulu-Natal : a quantitative biodiversity study / cWayne S. Forrester.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Fruit-feeding butterfly assemblages at two indigenous forests in KwaZulu-Natal, the Dlinza and Entumeni forests were studied with baited traps during a year cycle June 2008-May 2009 and an additional March-May 2010 (autumn) survey. A total of 2801 butterflies were trapped, which consisted of 28 species, representing five subfamilies of the Nymphalidae, with the most abundant and species rich subfamily being Charaxinae. Higher than expected abundances and numbers of species trapped during the ...

Forrester, Wayne Steven

2011-01-01

419

Reconstructing eight decades of genetic variation in an isolated Danish population of the large blue butterfly Maculinea arion  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background Fragmentation of terrestrial ecosystems has had detrimental effects on metapopulations of habitat specialists. Maculinea butterflies have been particularly affected because of their specialized lifecycles, requiring both specific food-plants and host-ants. However, the interaction between dispersal, effective population size, and long-term genetic erosion of these endangered butterflies remains unknown. Using non-destructive sampling, we investigated the genetic diversity of the la...

Ugelvig, Line V.; Nielsen, Per S.; Boomsma, Jacobus J.; Nash, David Richard

2011-01-01

420

Butterfly effect: understanding and mitigating the local consequences of climate change impacts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: The Butterfly Effect is the notion that tiny differences in initial conditions are amplified in the evolution of a dynamic system and directly affect the eventual outcome. In 1963 mathematician and meteorologist Edward Lorenz proposed that the flapping of a butterfly's wing would cause a disturbance that becomes exponentially amplified so as to eventually affect large-scale atmospheric motion. This was to illustrate the 'sensitive dependence on initial conditions'; sensitivity also true in affecting the extent of damages experienced as a result of climate change. In a climate change context, The Butterfly Effect suggests the local consequences of climate change impacts will depend on their interaction with the economic, environmental, institutional, technological and demographic attributes unique to a city or region. It is this mix of factors that will determine the extent, both positively and negatively, to which climate change will be experienced locally. For a truly effective climate change response, it is imperative that regional risk assessments and adaptation strategies take into account not only the projected impacts but the full range of flow-on implications of those impacts and their sensitivity factors. Understanding of the sensitivity factors that will amplify or mitigate climate change impacts and implications enables government and business leaders to calculate the likely extent of localised damages if no adaptation is undertaken. This allows industries and communities to evaluate the likely significance of a particular impact and to consider how to adjust or counter the sensitivity factor to build resilience and reduce vulnerability. Thus, it also assists in the local prioritisation of issues and responses. Such a strategic response can also mean the required adaptation measures may be less extensive and thereby require less cost and time to implement. This paper discusses the flow-on implications of Australia's projected climate change impacts and their relevant sensitivity factors. Sensitivity factors include local dependence on resource-based industries, population and demographics, infrastructure resilience and capacity, emergency response capacity, institutional capacity and community information, skills and knowledge. To illustrate the flow-on effects of an extreme event, the paper also applies this discussion framework to the recent experience of Newcastle and the Hunter Valley in New South Wales, which encountered the 'once in a generation storm' on the Queens' Birthday 2007. The paper also builds on the research project, a national vulnerability assessment for all Australian settlements, undertaken by this author for the Australian Greenhouse Office during 2006

2007-10-02

 
 
 
 
421

Plants and butterflies of a small urban preserve in the Central Valley of Costa Rica  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Costa Rica’s most populated area, the Central valley, has lost much of its natural habitat, and the little that remains has been altered to varying degrees. Yet few studies have been conducted to assess the need for conservation in this area. We present preliminary inventories of plants, butterflies, and day-flying moths of the Reserva Ecológica Leonelo Oviedo (RELO, a small Premontane Moist Forest preserve within the University of Costa Rica campus, located in the urbanized part of the valley. Butterflies are one of the best bio-indicators of a habitat’s health, because they are highly sensitive to environmental changes and are tightly linked to the local flora. A description of the RELO’s physical features and its history is also presented with illustrations. Approximately 432 species of ca. 334 genera in 113 families of plants were identified. However, only 57 % of them represent species native to the Premontane Moist Forest of the region; the rest are either exotic or species introduced mostly from lowland. More than 200 species of butterflies in six families, including Hesperiidae, have been recorded. Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (Suppl. 1: 31-67. Epub 2009 November 30.Por ser el área más poblada del país, el valle Central de Costa Rica perdió su hábitat natural; lo poco que queda ha sido alterado en grados variados. Sin embargo, se han realizado algunos estudios para evaluar la necesidad de conservación en esta área. Se presentan inventarios preliminares de plantas, mariposas y polillas diurnas de la Reserva Ecológica Leonelo Oviedo (RELO; una pequeña reserva de bosque húmedo premontano en del campus de la Universidad de Costa Rica, ubicado en la parte urbanizada del valle. Las mariposas diurnas son uno de los mejores bio-indicadores de la salud del hábitat, porque son muy sensibles a los cambios del ambiente y están estrechamente ligadas a la flora local. Se presenta también una descripción de los caracteres físicos y la historia de la RELO, con ilustraciones. Se identificaron aproximadamente 432 especies de ca. 334 géneros en 113 familias de plantas. Sin embargo, solamente 57% de ellas son especies nativas del bosque húmedo premontano de la región; el resto son especies exóticas o introducidas en su mayoría desde tierras bajas. Se han registrado más de 200 especies de mariposas diurnas en seis familias, incluyendo Hesperiidae.

Kenji Nishida

2009-11-01

422

Effect of Bt-176 maize pollen on first instar larvae of the Peacock butterfly (Inachis io) (Lepidoptera; Nymphalidae).  

Science.gov (United States)

More than 10 years after registration of the first Bt maize cultivar in Europe, there still exists a remarkable lack of data on effects on Lepidoptera which would be necessary for a complete and comprehensive environmental risk assessment. So far only very few European butterfly species have been tested in this aspect. In our study the effect of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) maize pollen (event Bt-176) on the development and survival of neonate larvae of the Peacock butterfly, Inachis io (L.) was for the first time shown. The results of our study suggest that the Peacock butterfly may serve as a model organism for assessing potential side effects of new developed transgenic Bt crops on non-target butterflies in a GMO environmental risk assessment. The study was done under laboratory conditions by exposing larvae of the Peacock butterfly to various pollen doses of transgenic maize event Bt-176 (cv. PACTOL CB) or the conventional isogenic maize (cv. PACTOL) using a no-choice test. Larvae feeding for 48 h on nettle plants (Urtica dioica) that were contaminated with higher pollen concentrations from Bt-176 maize (205 and 388 applied pollen.cm?²) suffered a significantly higher mortality rate (68 and 85% respectively) compared to larvae feeding on leaves with no pollen (11%), or feeding on leaves with pollen from conventional maize (6 to 25%). At lower Bt maize pollen doses (23-104 applied pollen.cm?²),mortality ranged from 11-25% and there were no apparent differences among treatments. The corresponding LC??-and LC??-values for neonate larvae of the Peacock butterfly were 187 and 448 applied pollen grains.cm?² of Bt-176, respectively.Weight of larvae surviving consumption of Bt-176 maize pollen declined between 10 and 81% with increased pollen doses (r = -0.95). The highest weight reduction (81%) corresponded to the highest pollen concentration (388 pollen grains applied.cm?²). Ingestion of pollen from the conventional maize hybrid did not have negative effects on larval weight gain or survival rate. PMID:21122482

Felke, Martin; Langenbruch, Gustav-Adolf; Feiertag, Simon; Kassa, Adane

2010-01-01

423

Photonic band gap materials in butterfly scales: A possible source of 'blueprints'  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The color generating nanoarchitectures in the cover scales of the blue (dorsal)-green (ventral) wing surfaces of the butterfly Albulina metallica were investigated by scanning electron microscopy and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy. A layered, quasiordered structure was revealed in both the dorsal and ventral scales, with different order parameters, associated with their different colors. A successful attempt was made to reproduce the biological structure in the form of a quasiordered composite (SiO/(In and SiO)) multilayer structure using standard thin film deposition techniques. The position of the reflectance maxima of this artificial structure could be tailored by controlling the size of the In inclusions through oxidation. Our results show that photonic band gap materials of biologic origin may constitute valuable blueprints for artificial structures

2008-04-15

424

Photonic band gap materials in butterfly scales: A possible source of 'blueprints'  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The color generating nanoarchitectures in the cover scales of the blue (dorsal)-green (ventral) wing surfaces of the butterfly Albulina metallica were investigated by scanning electron microscopy and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy. A layered, quasiordered structure was revealed in both the dorsal and ventral scales, with different order parameters, associated with their different colors. A successful attempt was made to reproduce the biological structure in the form of a quasiordered composite (SiO/(In and SiO)) multilayer structure using standard thin film deposition techniques. The position of the reflectance maxima of this artificial structure could be tailored by controlling the size of the In inclusions through oxidation. Our results show that photonic band gap materials of biologic origin may constitute valuable blueprints for artificial structures.

Kertesz, K.; Molnar, G.; Vertesy, Z.; Koos, A.A.; Horvath, Z.E.; Mark, G.I.; Tapaszto, L. [Research Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science, POB 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Balint, Zs. [Hungarian Natural History Museum, Baross utca 13, H-1088 Budapest (Hungary); Tamaska, I. [Research Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science, POB 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Deparis, O.; Vigneron, J.P. [Facultes Universitaires Notre Dame de la Paix, Rue de Bruxelles 61, B-5000 Namur (Belgium); Biro, L.P. [Research Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science, POB 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary)], E-mail: biro@mfa.kfki.hu

2008-04-15

425

Ten species in one: DNA barcoding reveals cryptic species in the neotropical skipper butterfly Astraptes fulgerator.  

Science.gov (United States)

Astraptes fulgerator, first described in 1775, is a common and widely distributed neotropical skipper butterfly (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae). We combine 25 years of natural history observations in northwestern Costa Rica with morphological study and DNA barcoding of museum specimens to show that A. fulgerator is a complex of at least 10 species in this region. Largely sympatric, these taxa have mostly different caterpillar food plants, mostly distinctive caterpillars, and somewhat different ecosystem preferences but only subtly differing adults with no genitalic divergence. Our results add to the evidence that cryptic species are prevalent in tropical regions, a critical issue in efforts to document global species richness. They also illustrate the value of DNA barcoding, especially when coupled with traditional taxonomic tools, in disclosing hidden diversity. PMID:15465915

Hebert, Paul D N; Penton, Erin H; Burns, John M; Janzen, Daniel H; Hallwachs, Winnie

2004-10-12

426

Immature stages of the Brazilian crescent butterfly Ortilia liriope (Cramer) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english We provide the first information on the morphology of the immature stages (egg, larva, and pupa), oviposition and larval behavior, and host plant, for the Brazilian crescent butterfly Ortilia liriope (Cramer), based on material from Santarém Municipality, Pará State, Northern Brazil. Females of O. l [...] iriope lay eggs in clusters. After hatching, larvae eat the exochorion and remain gregarious in all but the final instar. The host plant recorded in the study site is Justicia sp. (Acanthaceae). Despite the scarcity of data on the immature stages of Neotropical Melitaeini, we can already say that some morphological and behavioral traits observed in the immature stages of O. liriope are also present in all known genera in this tribe.

Silva, PL; Oliveira, NP; Barbosa, EP; Okada, Y; Kaminski, LA; Freitas, AVL.

427

The complete mitochondrial genome of the endangered butterfly Luehdorfia taibai Chou (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae).  

Science.gov (United States)

We have determined the complete mitochondrial genome of the endangered butterfly, Luehdorfia taibai. The total lenth of the L. taibai mitogenome is 15,553 bp with 81% A + T content. It consists of 13 protein-coding, 22 tRNA, 2 rRNA genes and an A + T-rich region. All the protein-coding genes used ATN as start codon and TAA as stop codon, except for COI gene, which used CGA as start codon. The A + T-rich region was 939 bp in lenth with 95% A + T content. L. taibai mitogenome contained an extra tRNA(Leu), located from 191 bp to 259 bp, of which function was not clear. PMID:23795835

Lian-Xi, Xing; Peng-Fei, Li; Jia, Wu; Kai, Wang; Ping, You

2014-04-01

428

Modeling the 3D morphology and proper motions of the Butterfly Nebula  

Science.gov (United States)

We present 3D hydrodynamical simulations of an isotropic fast wind interacting with a previously ejected toroidally shaped slow wind in order to model both the observed morphology and kinematics of the planetary nebula (PN) NGC 6302 (so-called the Butterfly Nebula). This nebula is among the most complex ever observed in PNe. From our numerical simulations, we have obtained an intensity map for H alpha emission to make a comparison with the Hubble Space Telescope observations of this object. We have also simulated the proper-motions of nebular knots and contrast them with those measured by comparing two set of observations. We have found that based on a generalized interacting stellar wind model, the morphology as well as the Hubble-type expansion indicated by the proper-motion measurements are explained.

Uscanga, L.; Velazquez, P. F.; Raga, A. C.; Boumis, P.; Canto, J.; Esquivel, A.; Gomez, Y.

2014-04-01

429

Autecology of the common mormon butterfly, Papilio polytes (Lepidoptera : Rhopalocera : Papilionidae).  

Science.gov (United States)

The adults of the common mormon butterfly Papilio polytes Linn. feed on a variety of floral species. The larval food plants in the study area included Citrus limon and Murraya koenigii both of the family Rutaceae. The eggs are laid singly, and the hatching time is three days. The larvae pass through five instars. The larval growth is directly correlated with the quantity of food consumed. The AD (approximate digestibility) values decreased from first instar to the last, whereas the ECD (efficiency of conversion of digested food) and ECI (efficiency of conversion of ingested food) values increased, thus bearing an inverse relationship with AD. The development time from egg to adult is 28-30, giving 11-12 generations in a year, but with better breeding during August-February. Thus P. polytes is multivoltine. PMID:12602858

Atluri, J B; Ramana, S P Venkata; Reddi, C Subba

2002-04-01

430

The colouration toolkit of the Pipevine Swallowtail butterfly, Battus philenor: thin films, papiliochromes, and melanin.  

Science.gov (United States)

The ventral hindwings of Pipevine Swallowtail butterflies, Battus philenor, display a colourful pattern, created by variously coloured wing scales. Reflectance and transmittance measurements of single scales indicate that the cream and orange scales contain papiliochrome pigments, while brown, black and blue scales contain melanin. Microspectrophotometry and scatterometry of both sides of the wing scales show that the lower lamina acts as a thin film, with reflection properties dependent on the scale's pigmentation. Notably in the orange scales, the reflectance spectrum of the lower lamina is tuned to the pigment's absorbance spectrum. The dorsal hindwings of the male (but not the female) B. philenor are blue-green iridescent. At oblique illumination, the light reflected by the male's dorsal hindwings can be highly polarised, which may have a function in intersexual signalling. PMID:24715265

Stavenga, Doekele G; Leertouwer, Hein L; Wilts, Bodo D

2014-06-01

431

External Morphology of Adult Citrus Butterfly, Papilio memnon (Linnaeus, 1758) and Seasonal Abundance of the Species  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sexual dimorphism is obvious in Papilio memnon. The female adult resembles that of Papilio polytes another citrus butterfly species. However, marked difference is observed in the size and red spots on the base of the forewing. The adult male P. memnon is blue black in colour and red spots are present on the base of the underside of both for and hind wings. The win span of sexes ranges from 120mm to 150mm. The breeding season is from end of June to early part of January, the peak being in the month of November. The recorded diagnostic external features of this studied species are described supported by scaled photographs. Seasonal abundance of this species is also mentioned. It is learnt through the internet that a mounted specimen of this species fetched $2.95 in Malaysia. It is therefore concluded that successful rearing of this species in captivity could be of benefit to the country.

2005-01-01

432

Effect analysis of design variables on the disc in a double-eccentric butterfly valve.  

Science.gov (United States)

We have performed a shape optimization of the disc in an industrial double-eccentric butterfly valve using the effect analysis of design variables to enhance the valve performance. For the optimization, we select three performance quantities such as pressure drop, maximum stress, and mass (weight) as the responses and three dimensions regarding the disc shape as the design variables. Subsequently, we compose a layout of orthogonal array (L16) by performing numerical simulations on the flow and structure using a commercial package, ANSYS v13.0, and then make an effect analysis of the design variables on the responses using the design of experiments. Finally, we formulate a multiobjective function consisting of the three responses and then propose an optimal combination of the design variables to maximize the valve performance. Simulation results show that the disc thickness makes the most significant effect on the performance and the optimal design provides better performance than the initial design. PMID:24883380

Kang, Sangmo; Kim, Da-Eun; Kim, Kuk-Kyeom; Kim, Jun-Oh

2014-01-01

433

Spatial and temporal population genetic structure of the butterfly aglais urticae L. (Lepidoptera, nymphalidae)  

Science.gov (United States)

The genetic diversity and the temporal and spatial genetic population structure of the butterfly Aglais urticae, a highly mobile species, were studied by allozyme electrophoresis. High levels of allozyme diversity were found. Most of the total genetic diversity occurred at the within-population scale rather than at the between-population scale. This variation could not be accounted for by Wright's model of 'isolation by distance'. No significant temporal variation was observed for those populations that were sampled in different years. A process combining high movement rate between neighbouring patches, long-distance migration and rare extinction/recolonization is suggested to explain the observed genetic structure. This hypothesis is favoured over an island model of population structure because migration in A. urticae is uniform neither with distance nor with time. PMID:10564461

Vandewoestijne; Neve; Baguette

1999-09-01

434

A butterfly shaped mobile biatrial cardiac mass: Myxoma or something else.  

Science.gov (United States)

Primary cardiac tumors are rare with a reported prevalence of 0.01-0.02% based on pooled autopsy series. Although most mobile cardiac tumors arising from the interatrial septum and extending into the atria are thought to be benign myxomas, this may often not be true. Myxoid fibrosarcomas which in contrast to myxomas are malignant cardiac tumors often mimic the clinical and echocardiographic picture of atrial myxomas. We describe a rare entity of biatrial low-grade myxoid fibrosarcoma presenting in an adult patient as a butterfly shaped mass, with progressive shortness of breath and prolonged PR interval on the ECG that was pre-operatively thought to be a cardiac myxoma. The distinguishing echocardiographic features of the two entities are discussed. PMID:24973849

Gupta, Pallav; Kapoor, Aditya; Jain, Manoj; Kumar, Sudeep; Agarwal, Surendra K; Pande, Shantanu

2014-01-01

435

Effects of the blockage ratio of a valve disk on loss coefficient in a butterfly valve  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The loss coefficient of the butterfly valve which allows partial opening of the valve at closed position and is applicable to the small-sized pipe system with the diameter of 1 inch was measured for the variation of the valve disk blockage ratio. Two different types of the valve disk configuration to adjust the blockage ratio were considered. One was the solid type valve disk of which the diameter was changed into the smaller size rather than the pipe diameter, and the other was the perforate type valve disk on which some holes were perforated. The results from two types of valve disk were compared to identify their characteristics in the loss coefficient distributions. The loss coefficient and the controllable angle of the valve disk were decreased exponentially with the decrease of the blockage ratio. In addition, the perforate valve disk had the effect on the higher loss coefficient rather than the solid type valve disk

2008-01-01

436