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1

Feminization of genetic males by a symbiotic bacterium in a butterfly, Eurema hecabe (Lepidoptera: Pieridae)  

Science.gov (United States)

Wolbachia are symbiotic bacteria found in many arthropods and filarian nematodes. They often manipulate the reproduction of host arthropods. In the present study, female-biased sex-ratio distortion in the butterfly Eurema hecabe was investigated. Breeding experiments showed that this distorted sex ratio is maternally inherited. When treated with tetracycline, adult females of the thelygenic line produced male progeny only. After PCR using Wolbachia-specific primers for the ftsZ gene a positive result was seen in the thelygenic females, but not in male progeny from tetracycline-treated females, or individuals from a Tokyo population with normal sex ratio and reproduction. Cytological observations showed that thelygenic females lack the sex chromatin body (W chromosome). The results strongly suggest that the sex-ratio distortion in E. hecabe is due to feminization of genetic males by Wolbachia.

Hiroki, Masato; Kato, Yoshiomi; Kamito, Takehiko; Miura, Kazuki

2002-03-01

2

Feminization of genetic males by a symbiotic bacterium in a butterfly, Eurema hecabe (Lepidoptera: Pieridae).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Wolbachia are symbiotic bacteria found in many arthropods and filarian nematodes. They often manipulate the reproduction of host arthropods. In the present study, female-biased sex-ratio distortion in the butterfly Eurema hecabe was investigated. Breeding experiments showed that this distorted sex ratio is maternally inherited. When treated with tetracycline, adult females of the thelygenic line produced male progeny only. After PCR using Wolbachia-specific primers for the ftsZ gene a positive result was seen in the thelygenic females, but not in male progeny from tetracycline-treated females, or individuals from a Tokyo population with normal sex ratio and reproduction. Cytological observations showed that thelygenic females lack the sex chromatin body (W chromosome). The results strongly suggest that the sex-ratio distortion in E. hecabe is due to feminization of genetic males by Wolbachia.

Hiroki M; Kato Y; Kamito T; Miura K

2002-04-01

3

Multiple infection with Wolbachia inducing different reproductive manipulations in the butterfly Eurema hecabe.  

Science.gov (United States)

Wolbachia are rickettsial intracellular symbionts of arthropods and nematodes. In arthropods, they act as selfish genetic elements and manipulate host reproduction, including sex-ratio distortion and cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI). Previous studies showed that infection of feminizing Wolbachia and CI Wolbachia sympatrically occurred in the butterfly Eurema hecabe. We demonstrate that feminization-infecting individuals can rescue sperm modified by CI-infecting males. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that feminized individuals are infected with two distinct Wolbachia strains: one is shared with CI-inducing matrilines, and the other is only found in feminized matrilines. Therefore, the simultaneous double manipulation, CI rescue and feminization, is caused by different Wolbachia strains in feminized individuals, not by a single Wolbachia with two functions. This is the first finding of double infection of Wolbachia with different reproductive manipulations. PMID:15306297

Hiroki, Masato; Tagami, Yohsuke; Miura, Kazuki; Kato, Yoshiomi

2004-08-22

4

Multiple infection with Wolbachia inducing different reproductive manipulations in the butterfly Eurema hecabe.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Wolbachia are rickettsial intracellular symbionts of arthropods and nematodes. In arthropods, they act as selfish genetic elements and manipulate host reproduction, including sex-ratio distortion and cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI). Previous studies showed that infection of feminizing Wolbachia and CI Wolbachia sympatrically occurred in the butterfly Eurema hecabe. We demonstrate that feminization-infecting individuals can rescue sperm modified by CI-infecting males. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that feminized individuals are infected with two distinct Wolbachia strains: one is shared with CI-inducing matrilines, and the other is only found in feminized matrilines. Therefore, the simultaneous double manipulation, CI rescue and feminization, is caused by different Wolbachia strains in feminized individuals, not by a single Wolbachia with two functions. This is the first finding of double infection of Wolbachia with different reproductive manipulations.

Hiroki M; Tagami Y; Miura K; Kato Y

2004-08-01

5

Unexpected Mechanism of Symbiont-Induced Reversal of Insect Sex: Feminizing Wolbachia Continuously Acts on the Butterfly Eurema hecabe during Larval Development?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

When the butterfly Eurema hecabe is infected with two different strains (wHecCI2 and wHecFem2) of the bacterial endosymbiont Wolbachia, genetic males are transformed into functional females, resulting in production of all-female broods. In an attempt to understand how and when the Wolbachia endosymb...

Narita, Satoko; Kageyama, Daisuke; Nomura, Masashi; Fukatsu, Takema

6

Influence of visual stimuli on host location in the butterfly, Eurema hecabe.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The influence of visual stimuli on female host location was investigated in Eurema hecabe (Lepidoptera: Pieridae). Mated females with no oviposition experience were presented with artificial plant models treated with the methanol extract of the host plant, Lespedeza cuneata (Fabaceae). When models of different colours were presented to females, they landed and deposited eggs predominantly on the yellow-green model. However, the size of the model was not important. When females were presented with simple square models and a model on which small squares were assembled, they predominantly chose the assembly model. This suggests that female discern the pattern which resembles the leaf of their main host plants, which consists of many small leaflets. However, the whole image of a leaf of the host plant was not an essential cue for host location, as females also chose the square with the central space more frequently than that without the space. We suggest that the long contour of a complicated form plays a role in female host location.

Hirota T; Kato Y

2001-11-01

7

A natural population of the butterfly Eurema hecabe with Wolbachia-induced female-biased sex ratio not by feminization.  

Science.gov (United States)

In butterflies, the adult sex ratio observed in the field is usually male-biased, although the sex ratio of their progeny is 1:1. This is due to the higher motility and larger behavioral range of males than females. As expected, the sex ratio of Eurema hecabe butterflies collected at 6 localities throughout Japan was male-biased. However, in Tsukuba, located in the central part of Japan, the sex ratio was found to be biased toward females. Their progeny reared in the laboratory also exhibited a female-biased sex ratio. A single strain of Wolbachia is considered to be the cause of the sex-ratio distortion, because antibiotic treatment reversed the sex ratio to 1:1, and only a single nucleotide sequence of wsp, a highly variable Wolbachia gene, was detected by molecular analysis. Cytogenetic analysis excluded the possibility of feminization as the underlying mechanism. In addition, when the wild-caught females that had already mated in nature were treated with antibiotics before oviposition, egg-hatch rates were extremely low, suggesting that the same Wolbachia strain also caused cytoplasmic incompatibility. Our findings suggest the possibility that a single strain of Wolbachia induces 2 distinct reproductive manipulations in the same host. PMID:17546095

Narita, Satoko; Nomura, Masashi; Kageyama, Daisuke

2007-04-01

8

A natural population of the butterfly Eurema hecabe with Wolbachia-induced female-biased sex ratio not by feminization.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In butterflies, the adult sex ratio observed in the field is usually male-biased, although the sex ratio of their progeny is 1:1. This is due to the higher motility and larger behavioral range of males than females. As expected, the sex ratio of Eurema hecabe butterflies collected at 6 localities throughout Japan was male-biased. However, in Tsukuba, located in the central part of Japan, the sex ratio was found to be biased toward females. Their progeny reared in the laboratory also exhibited a female-biased sex ratio. A single strain of Wolbachia is considered to be the cause of the sex-ratio distortion, because antibiotic treatment reversed the sex ratio to 1:1, and only a single nucleotide sequence of wsp, a highly variable Wolbachia gene, was detected by molecular analysis. Cytogenetic analysis excluded the possibility of feminization as the underlying mechanism. In addition, when the wild-caught females that had already mated in nature were treated with antibiotics before oviposition, egg-hatch rates were extremely low, suggesting that the same Wolbachia strain also caused cytoplasmic incompatibility. Our findings suggest the possibility that a single strain of Wolbachia induces 2 distinct reproductive manipulations in the same host.

Narita S; Nomura M; Kageyama D

2007-04-01

9

Plant constituents biologically active to insects. VI. Antifeedants for larvae of the yellow butterfly, Eurema hecabe mandarina, in Osmunda japonica. (2).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Three antifeedants for larvae of the yellow butterfly, Eurema hecabe mandarina de l'Orza, were isolated from Osmunda japonica Thunb. and identified as osmundalin, parasorboside and methyl (3S,5S)-5-hydroxy-3-(beta-D-glucopyranosyloxy)hexanoate. In the course of isolation of the antifeedants, a new glycoside, dihydroisoosmudalin (9), was isolated together with maltol beta-D-glucopyranoside, 2-deoxy-L-ribopyranolactone, 5-hydroxymethyl.2-furfural and glycerin. The structure of 9 was elucidated as (4R,5S)-5-(beta-D-glucopyranosyloxy)hexan-4-olide on the basis of chemical and spectroscopic evidence.

Numata A; Takahashi C; Fujiki R; Kitano E; Kitajima A; Takemura T

1990-10-01

10

Plant constituents biologically active to insects. VI. Antifeedants for larvae of the yellow butterfly, Eurema hecabe mandarina, in Osmunda japonica. (2).  

Science.gov (United States)

Three antifeedants for larvae of the yellow butterfly, Eurema hecabe mandarina de l'Orza, were isolated from Osmunda japonica Thunb. and identified as osmundalin, parasorboside and methyl (3S,5S)-5-hydroxy-3-(beta-D-glucopyranosyloxy)hexanoate. In the course of isolation of the antifeedants, a new glycoside, dihydroisoosmudalin (9), was isolated together with maltol beta-D-glucopyranoside, 2-deoxy-L-ribopyranolactone, 5-hydroxymethyl.2-furfural and glycerin. The structure of 9 was elucidated as (4R,5S)-5-(beta-D-glucopyranosyloxy)hexan-4-olide on the basis of chemical and spectroscopic evidence. PMID:2076573

Numata, A; Takahashi, C; Fujiki, R; Kitano, E; Kitajima, A; Takemura, T

1990-10-01

11

Naturally occurring single and double infection with Wolbachia strains in the butterfly Eurema hecabe: transmission efficiencies and population density dynamics of each Wolbachia strain.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Wolbachia belonging to Alphaproteobacteria are transovarially transmitted bacteria responsible for reproductive alterations in a wide range of arthropods. In natural populations of the butterfly Eurema hecabe, there are two different types of Wolbachia-infected individuals. Individuals singly infected with Wolbachia strain wHecCI exhibit strong cytoplasmic incompatibility, whereas those doubly infected with wHecCI and wHecFem exhibit feminization. Here, we examined the infection frequencies and population densities of each Wolbachia strain in different host tissues (ovary, testis, fat body, midgut, Malpighian tubule and leg), and the cost of infection in offspring produced by single-infected and double-infected mothers of E. hecabe. The vertical transmission rate of wHecCI was nearly 100%, and that of wHecFem was c. 80%. The wHecCI densities were 10(3)-10(4)-fold higher than the wHecFem densities. In most tissues, the wHecCI densities were significantly higher in offspring of single-infected mothers than in offspring of double-infected mothers. In offspring of double-infected mothers, however, the wHecCI densities were not affected by the presence of wHecFem, suggesting a lack of interaction between the wHecCI and wHecFem densities. The offspring development time was dependent on the infection status of the mothers. These results imply that the maternal infection status affects the Wolbachia densities and fitness of offspring.

Narita S; Nomura M; Kageyama D

2007-08-01

12

Naturally occurring single and double infection with Wolbachia strains in the butterfly Eurema hecabe: transmission efficiencies and population density dynamics of each Wolbachia strain.  

Science.gov (United States)

Wolbachia belonging to Alphaproteobacteria are transovarially transmitted bacteria responsible for reproductive alterations in a wide range of arthropods. In natural populations of the butterfly Eurema hecabe, there are two different types of Wolbachia-infected individuals. Individuals singly infected with Wolbachia strain wHecCI exhibit strong cytoplasmic incompatibility, whereas those doubly infected with wHecCI and wHecFem exhibit feminization. Here, we examined the infection frequencies and population densities of each Wolbachia strain in different host tissues (ovary, testis, fat body, midgut, Malpighian tubule and leg), and the cost of infection in offspring produced by single-infected and double-infected mothers of E. hecabe. The vertical transmission rate of wHecCI was nearly 100%, and that of wHecFem was c. 80%. The wHecCI densities were 10(3)-10(4)-fold higher than the wHecFem densities. In most tissues, the wHecCI densities were significantly higher in offspring of single-infected mothers than in offspring of double-infected mothers. In offspring of double-infected mothers, however, the wHecCI densities were not affected by the presence of wHecFem, suggesting a lack of interaction between the wHecCI and wHecFem densities. The offspring development time was dependent on the infection status of the mothers. These results imply that the maternal infection status affects the Wolbachia densities and fitness of offspring. PMID:17506822

Narita, Satoko; Nomura, Masashi; Kageyama, Daisuke

2007-05-16

13

Changes in Age-Related Reproductive Tactics in the Female of the Butterfly, Eurema hecabe  

Science.gov (United States)

The occurrence of mate solicitation by virgin females was investigated in the butterfly Euremahecabe. Young (1-day-old) virgin females rarely showed mate solicitation to male model, however, old (at least 6-day-old) virgin females frequently showed such flight. The duration of solicitation was significantly longer in older females than in younger ones. The age-related behavioral change occurs with female oogenesis (Hiroki and Kato 1996), and such behavior may thus be a result of female adaptation to maximize their fecundity.

Hiroki, Masato; Obara, Yoshiaki; Kato, Yoshiomi

14

Transfection of feminizing Wolbachia endosymbionts of the butterfly, Eurema hecabe, into the cell culture and various immature stages of the silkmoth, Bombyx mori.  

Science.gov (United States)

Wolbachia are maternally inherited endosymbiotic bacteria of invertebrates that can manipulate the reproductive systems of their arthropod hosts in a variety of ways. To establish a useful model system for investigating the mechanism of Wolbachia-induced host feminization, we conducted the following series of experiments: (1) feminizing Wolbachia of the butterfly, Eurema hecabe, were transferred into cell cultures of the silkmoth, Bombyx mori, and (2) the transfected Wolbachia in cell cultures were inoculated into B. mori at four immature stages. Wolbachia were successfully transfected into the cell cultures and stably maintained for more than 1 year (>30 passages). However, none of the inoculated insects produced mature oocytes that were Wolbachia-positive. This finding was consistent with the fact that Wolbachia was not detected in individuals in subsequent generations. In contrast, Wolbachia were detected at relatively high frequencies (60-80% of individuals) in the somatic tissues of inoculated insects. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction revealed that the Wolbachia densities in the cultured cells were approximately tenfold higher than those in the native host E. hecabe. Among B. mori individuals inoculated at various developmental stages, those inoculated at early stages exhibited higher Wolbachia densities at the adult stage. The Wolbachia densities in individuals inoculated at the second-instar stage were comparable to those in intact E. hecabe. These results suggest that infection and/or proliferation of Wolbachia in germline cells are actively hindered by regulation in B. mori but feasible in somatic cells and that the Wolbachia densities in somatic tissues are regulated by the living host insects. PMID:18458997

Kageyama, Daisuke; Narita, Satoko; Noda, Hiroaki

2008-05-06

15

Transfection of feminizing Wolbachia endosymbionts of the butterfly, Eurema hecabe, into the cell culture and various immature stages of the silkmoth, Bombyx mori.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Wolbachia are maternally inherited endosymbiotic bacteria of invertebrates that can manipulate the reproductive systems of their arthropod hosts in a variety of ways. To establish a useful model system for investigating the mechanism of Wolbachia-induced host feminization, we conducted the following series of experiments: (1) feminizing Wolbachia of the butterfly, Eurema hecabe, were transferred into cell cultures of the silkmoth, Bombyx mori, and (2) the transfected Wolbachia in cell cultures were inoculated into B. mori at four immature stages. Wolbachia were successfully transfected into the cell cultures and stably maintained for more than 1 year (>30 passages). However, none of the inoculated insects produced mature oocytes that were Wolbachia-positive. This finding was consistent with the fact that Wolbachia was not detected in individuals in subsequent generations. In contrast, Wolbachia were detected at relatively high frequencies (60-80% of individuals) in the somatic tissues of inoculated insects. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction revealed that the Wolbachia densities in the cultured cells were approximately tenfold higher than those in the native host E. hecabe. Among B. mori individuals inoculated at various developmental stages, those inoculated at early stages exhibited higher Wolbachia densities at the adult stage. The Wolbachia densities in individuals inoculated at the second-instar stage were comparable to those in intact E. hecabe. These results suggest that infection and/or proliferation of Wolbachia in germline cells are actively hindered by regulation in B. mori but feasible in somatic cells and that the Wolbachia densities in somatic tissues are regulated by the living host insects.

Kageyama D; Narita S; Noda H

2008-11-01

16

Unexpected mechanism of symbiont-induced reversal of insect sex: feminizing Wolbachia continuously acts on the butterfly Eurema hecabe during larval development.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

When the butterfly Eurema hecabe is infected with two different strains (wHecCI2 and wHecFem2) of the bacterial endosymbiont Wolbachia, genetic males are transformed into functional females, resulting in production of all-female broods. In an attempt to understand how and when the Wolbachia endosymbiont feminizes genetically male insects, larval insects were fed an antibiotic-containing diet beginning at different developmental stages until pupation. When the adult insects emerged, strikingly, many of them exhibited sexually intermediate traits in their wings, reproductive organs, and genitalia. The expression of intersexual phenotypes was strong in the insects treated from first instar, moderate in the insects treated from third instar, and weak in the insects treated from fourth instar. The insects treated from early larval instar grew and pupated normally but frequently failed to emerge and died in the pupal case. The dead insects in the pupal case contained lower densities of the feminizing Wolbachia endosymbiont than the successfully emerged insects, although none of them were completely cured of the symbiont infection. These results suggest the following: (i) the antibiotic treatment suppressed the population of feminizing Wolbachia endosymbionts; (ii) the suppression probably resulted in attenuated feminizing activity of the symbiont, leading to expression of intersexual host traits; (iii) many of the insects suffered pupal mortality, possibly due to either intersexual defects or Wolbachia-mediated addiction; and hence (iv) the feminizing Wolbachia endosymbiont continuously acts on the host insects during larval development for expression of female phenotypes under a male genotype. Our finding may prompt reconsideration of the notion that Wolbachia-induced reproductive manipulations are already complete before the early embryonic stage and provide insights into the mechanism underlying the symbiont-induced reversal of insect sex.

Narita S; Kageyama D; Nomura M; Fukatsu T

2007-07-01

17

Unexpected mechanism of symbiont-induced reversal of insect sex: feminizing Wolbachia continuously acts on the butterfly Eurema hecabe during larval development.  

Science.gov (United States)

When the butterfly Eurema hecabe is infected with two different strains (wHecCI2 and wHecFem2) of the bacterial endosymbiont Wolbachia, genetic males are transformed into functional females, resulting in production of all-female broods. In an attempt to understand how and when the Wolbachia endosymbiont feminizes genetically male insects, larval insects were fed an antibiotic-containing diet beginning at different developmental stages until pupation. When the adult insects emerged, strikingly, many of them exhibited sexually intermediate traits in their wings, reproductive organs, and genitalia. The expression of intersexual phenotypes was strong in the insects treated from first instar, moderate in the insects treated from third instar, and weak in the insects treated from fourth instar. The insects treated from early larval instar grew and pupated normally but frequently failed to emerge and died in the pupal case. The dead insects in the pupal case contained lower densities of the feminizing Wolbachia endosymbiont than the successfully emerged insects, although none of them were completely cured of the symbiont infection. These results suggest the following: (i) the antibiotic treatment suppressed the population of feminizing Wolbachia endosymbionts; (ii) the suppression probably resulted in attenuated feminizing activity of the symbiont, leading to expression of intersexual host traits; (iii) many of the insects suffered pupal mortality, possibly due to either intersexual defects or Wolbachia-mediated addiction; and hence (iv) the feminizing Wolbachia endosymbiont continuously acts on the host insects during larval development for expression of female phenotypes under a male genotype. Our finding may prompt reconsideration of the notion that Wolbachia-induced reproductive manipulations are already complete before the early embryonic stage and provide insights into the mechanism underlying the symbiont-induced reversal of insect sex. PMID:17496135

Narita, Satoko; Kageyama, Daisuke; Nomura, Masashi; Fukatsu, Takema

2007-05-11

18

Unexpected Mechanism of Symbiont-Induced Reversal of Insect Sex: Feminizing Wolbachia Continuously Acts on the Butterfly Eurema hecabe during Larval Development?  

Science.gov (United States)

When the butterfly Eurema hecabe is infected with two different strains (wHecCI2 and wHecFem2) of the bacterial endosymbiont Wolbachia, genetic males are transformed into functional females, resulting in production of all-female broods. In an attempt to understand how and when the Wolbachia endosymbiont feminizes genetically male insects, larval insects were fed an antibiotic-containing diet beginning at different developmental stages until pupation. When the adult insects emerged, strikingly, many of them exhibited sexually intermediate traits in their wings, reproductive organs, and genitalia. The expression of intersexual phenotypes was strong in the insects treated from first instar, moderate in the insects treated from third instar, and weak in the insects treated from fourth instar. The insects treated from early larval instar grew and pupated normally but frequently failed to emerge and died in the pupal case. The dead insects in the pupal case contained lower densities of the feminizing Wolbachia endosymbiont than the successfully emerged insects, although none of them were completely cured of the symbiont infection. These results suggest the following: (i) the antibiotic treatment suppressed the population of feminizing Wolbachia endosymbionts; (ii) the suppression probably resulted in attenuated feminizing activity of the symbiont, leading to expression of intersexual host traits; (iii) many of the insects suffered pupal mortality, possibly due to either intersexual defects or Wolbachia-mediated addiction; and hence (iv) the feminizing Wolbachia endosymbiont continuously acts on the host insects during larval development for expression of female phenotypes under a male genotype. Our finding may prompt reconsideration of the notion that Wolbachia-induced reproductive manipulations are already complete before the early embryonic stage and provide insights into the mechanism underlying the symbiont-induced reversal of insect sex.

Narita, Satoko; Kageyama, Daisuke; Nomura, Masashi; Fukatsu, Takema

2007-01-01

19

Characterization of a new insect cell line (NTU-YB) derived from the common grass yellow butterfly, Eurema hecabe (Linnaeus) (Pieridae: Lepidoptera) and its susceptibility to microsporidia.  

Science.gov (United States)

A new lepidopteran cell line, NTU-YB, was derived from pupal tissue of Eurema hecabe (Linnaeus) (Pieridae: Lepidoptera). The doubling time of YB cells in TNM-FH medium supplemented with 8% FBS at 28 degrees C was 26.87h. The chromosome numbers of YB cells varied widely from 21 to 196 with a mean of 86. Compared to other insect cell lines, the YB cells produced distinct esterase, malate dehydrogenase, and lactate dehydrogenase isozyme patterns. Identity of the internal transcribed spacer region-I (ITS-I) of YB cells to E. hecabe larvae was 96% and to Eurema blanda larvae (tissue isolated from head) was 81%. The YB cells were permissive to Nosema sp. isolated from E. blanda and the infected YB cells showed obvious cytopathic effects after 3weeks post inoculation. The highest level of spore production was at 4weeks post inoculation when cells were infected with the Nosema isolate, and spore production was 1.34+/-0.9x10(6)spore/ml. Ultrastructrual studies showed that YB cells can host in vitro propagation of the E. blanda Nosema isolate, and developing stages were observed in the host cell nuclei as observed in the natural host, E. blanda. The NTU-YB cell line is also susceptible to Nosema bombycis. PMID:19761771

Chen, Yun-Ru; Solter, Leellen F; Chien, Tsz-Ying; Jiang, Ming-Han; Lin, Hsieh-Fang; Fan, Huai-Sheng; Lo, Chu-Fang; Wang, Chung-Hsiung

2009-09-15

20

Characterization of a new insect cell line (NTU-YB) derived from the common grass yellow butterfly, Eurema hecabe (Linnaeus) (Pieridae: Lepidoptera) and its susceptibility to microsporidia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A new lepidopteran cell line, NTU-YB, was derived from pupal tissue of Eurema hecabe (Linnaeus) (Pieridae: Lepidoptera). The doubling time of YB cells in TNM-FH medium supplemented with 8% FBS at 28 degrees C was 26.87h. The chromosome numbers of YB cells varied widely from 21 to 196 with a mean of 86. Compared to other insect cell lines, the YB cells produced distinct esterase, malate dehydrogenase, and lactate dehydrogenase isozyme patterns. Identity of the internal transcribed spacer region-I (ITS-I) of YB cells to E. hecabe larvae was 96% and to Eurema blanda larvae (tissue isolated from head) was 81%. The YB cells were permissive to Nosema sp. isolated from E. blanda and the infected YB cells showed obvious cytopathic effects after 3weeks post inoculation. The highest level of spore production was at 4weeks post inoculation when cells were infected with the Nosema isolate, and spore production was 1.34+/-0.9x10(6)spore/ml. Ultrastructrual studies showed that YB cells can host in vitro propagation of the E. blanda Nosema isolate, and developing stages were observed in the host cell nuclei as observed in the natural host, E. blanda. The NTU-YB cell line is also susceptible to Nosema bombycis.

Chen YR; Solter LF; Chien TY; Jiang MH; Lin HF; Fan HS; Lo CF; Wang CH

2009-11-01

 
 
 
 
21

Molecular phylogeography of two sibling species of Eurema butterflies.  

Science.gov (United States)

The common yellow butterfly Eurema hecabe is widely distributed in East Asia, and is one of the most burdensome species for taxonomists due to the numerous geographic and seasonal wing colour patterns. Moreover, within this species, individuals with a yellow wing fringe that occur in temperate regions of Japan (Y type) proved to be biologically different from others that occur widely in subtropical regions of Japan and all over East Asia (B type). To unveil the genetic variation within and between the two types, a total of 50 butterflies collected at 18 geographic localities in East Asia were examined for nucleotide sequence variation of three mitochondrial regions: cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI), cytochrome c oxidase subunit III (COIII) and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 5 (ND5). In addition, they were also examined for infection status with the endosymbiotic bacteria Wolbachia. The three mitochondrial sequences consistently showed that (i) Y type and B type were highly divergent, (ii) nucleotide variation within B type was very small although sampled from a geographically wide range, and (iii) a weak association existed between mitochondrial DNA haplotypes and Wolbachia infection status. PMID:17216550

Narita, Satoko; Nomura, Masashi; Kato, Yoshiomi; Yata, Osamu; Kageyama, Daisuke

2007-01-11

22

Molecular phylogeography of two sibling species of Eurema butterflies.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The common yellow butterfly Eurema hecabe is widely distributed in East Asia, and is one of the most burdensome species for taxonomists due to the numerous geographic and seasonal wing colour patterns. Moreover, within this species, individuals with a yellow wing fringe that occur in temperate regions of Japan (Y type) proved to be biologically different from others that occur widely in subtropical regions of Japan and all over East Asia (B type). To unveil the genetic variation within and between the two types, a total of 50 butterflies collected at 18 geographic localities in East Asia were examined for nucleotide sequence variation of three mitochondrial regions: cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI), cytochrome c oxidase subunit III (COIII) and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 5 (ND5). In addition, they were also examined for infection status with the endosymbiotic bacteria Wolbachia. The three mitochondrial sequences consistently showed that (i) Y type and B type were highly divergent, (ii) nucleotide variation within B type was very small although sampled from a geographically wide range, and (iii) a weak association existed between mitochondrial DNA haplotypes and Wolbachia infection status.

Narita S; Nomura M; Kato Y; Yata O; Kageyama D

2007-11-01

23

Multiple infection with Wolbachia inducing different reproductive manipulations in the butterfly Eurema hecabe.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Wolbachia are rickettsial intracellular symbionts of arthropods and nematodes. In arthropods, they act as selfish genetic elements and manipulate host reproduction, including sex-ratio distortion and cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI). Previous studies showed that infection of feminizing Wolbachia and...

Hiroki, Masato; Tagami, Yohsuke; Miura, Kazuki; Kato, Yoshiomi

24

Butterfly diversity along a gradient of urbanization: Chongqing as a case study  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

To investigate the butterfly diversity in Chongqing Municipality, we selected five sampling sec-tions along a gradient of urbanization from Shaping District to Beibei District, namely Shaping Park, Nanxikou, Huitoupo, Jigong Mountain, and Jinyun Mountain. A total of 4,802 butterfly individuals were col-lected, belonging to 11 families and 41 genera. Of these, the dominant species are Pieris canidia, P. rapae, and Pseudozizeeria maha, while common species are Graphium sarpedon, Eurema hecabe, Lethe syrcis, Polygonia caureum, Tongeia filicaudis, and Parnara guttata. The diversity indexes ranked in the following order?Jinyun Mountain>Huitoupo>Jigong Mountain>Nanxikou>Shaping Park. It is concluded that butterfly diversity, which is the highest in Jinyun Mountain and lowest in Shaping Park, increases with vegetation richness, vegetation coverage, and sunlight. Being significantly impacted by urbanization, butterfly diversity can serve as an effective indicator of urban environmental quality and change.

Yan Hua; Yuan Xingzhong; Liu Wenping; Deng Heli

2006-01-01

25

Ecological correlates of polyphenism and gregarious roosting in the grass yellow butterfly Eurema elathea (Pieridae) Correlatos ecológicos do polifenismo e dormitórios gregários da borboleta-amarela-da-grama Eurema elathea (Pieridae)  

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Full Text Available Eurema elathea adults were censused weekly (1992-1994) in six night-roosts around a forest fragment on a farm, and in two roosts in the urban area of Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Males were grouped in six phenotypic classes. These were based on a range between having a conspicuous wide black bar at the dorsal forewing inner margin (wet season dark morphs) and the absence of that bar (dry season light morphs). The body mass and wing area of co-occurring morphs were compared: differents morphs showed similar means. The abundance of butterflies and morph frequencies varied in close relation to humidity (rainfall). Individuals were infrequent and monomorphically dark in the wet season while light morphs predominated in dry periods when population peaked. A lower fraction of recaptured individuals and higher recruitment were recorded compared to other night-roosting butterflies. Dispersal potential was similar between the sexes and varied seasonally with a more sedentary population in dry periods. The maximum residence time recorded was 91 days for a female and 84 days for a male. The fraction of individuals that moved from one roosting site to another was similar in both sexes and male morphs, but significantly higher on the farm than in the urban area. Also, a significantly higher fraction (21.3%) of marked butterflies was recaptured in the urban area than on the farm (15.6%), suggesting a behavioral modification for sedentariness in the urban individuals. The selective forces shaping a gregarious roosting habit in E. elathea and other butterflies are discussed and a protocooperational strategy for saving energy is proposed.Adultos de Eurema elathea foram estudados semanalmente (1992-1994) em seis locais (dormitórios), ao redor de um fragmento de mata em uma fazenda e em dois locais na área urbana de Uberlândia, MG. Os machos foram classificados em seis categorias fenotípicas, as quais variam desde a presença de uma grande e conspícua barra preta na margem interna dorsal da asa anterior (forma escura da estação úmida) até a ausência da barra (forma clara da estação seca). A massa corporal e a área da asa foram comparadas: formas diferentes mostraram médias similares. A abundância das borboletas e a freqüência das formas variaram conforme a umidade (chuvas). Na estação úmida, os indivíduos foram menos freqüentes e monomorficamente escuros, enquanto na seca, a população aumenta e as formas claras predominam. As taxas de recaptura e recrutamento são comparadas com outras borboletas que se agregam durante a noite. O potencial de dispersão foi similar entre os sexos e variou sazonalmente, sendo que a população é mais sedentária no período seco. O máximo tempo de residência registrado foi de 91 dias para uma fêmea e de 84 dias para um macho. A fração de indivíduos que se moveram de um sítio de descanso para outro foi similar em ambos os sexos e formas de machos, mas foi significativamente maior na fazenda em relação à área urbana. Da mesma forma, foi recapturada uma fração significativamente maior (21,3%) de borboletas marcadas na área urbana do que na fazenda (15,6%), sugerindo modificação comportamental para o sedentarismo nos indivíduos urbanos. São discutidas as forças seletivas que moldam o hábito de descanso gregário em E. elathea e em outras borboletas, e propõe-se uma estratégia protocooperativa de economia de energia.

A. Ruszczyk; P. C. Motta; R. L. Barros; A. M. Araújo

2004-01-01

26

Genetic structure of sibling butterfly species affected by Wolbachia infection sweep: evolutionary and biogeographical implications.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

It was recently recognized that in Japan, the common yellow butterfly, Eurema hecabe, consists of two sibling species, which have been unnamed yet and tentatively called yellow (Y) type and brown (B) type. We investigated the diversity of nuclear and mitochondrial genes in Japanese populations of Y type and B type of E. hecabe. The phylogeny based on nuclear genes agreed with the distinction between Y type and B type, which had been also supported by a wide array of biological data. However, the phylogeny based on mitochondrial genes did not reflect the distinction. PCR survey of Wolbachia revealed that B-type populations were all infected while Y-type populations contained both infected and uninfected individuals. A single genotype of Wolbachia, which was inferred to be a CI-inducing strain from their wsp gene sequence, was prevalent in these populations. Notably, the mitochondrial phylogeny was in perfect agreement with the pattern of Wolbachia infection, suggesting that the Wolbachia infection had affected the mitochondrial genetic structure of the host insects. Probably, the Wolbachia strain and the associated mitochondrial genomes have been occasionally introduced from B-type populations to Y-type populations through migration and subsequent interspecific hybridization, and CI-driven population sweep has been spreading the Wolbachia strain and the particular mitochondrial haplotypes, which originated from B-type populations, into Y-type populations. On the basis of these results together with the geological and biogeographical knowledge of the Japanese Archipelago, we proposed an evolutionary hypothesis on the invasion and spread of Wolbachia infection in B-type and Y-type of E. hecabe.

Narita S; Nomura M; Kato Y; Fukatsu T

2006-04-01

27

Genetic structure of sibling butterfly species affected by Wolbachia infection sweep: evolutionary and biogeographical implications.  

Science.gov (United States)

It was recently recognized that in Japan, the common yellow butterfly, Eurema hecabe, consists of two sibling species, which have been unnamed yet and tentatively called yellow (Y) type and brown (B) type. We investigated the diversity of nuclear and mitochondrial genes in Japanese populations of Y type and B type of E. hecabe. The phylogeny based on nuclear genes agreed with the distinction between Y type and B type, which had been also supported by a wide array of biological data. However, the phylogeny based on mitochondrial genes did not reflect the distinction. PCR survey of Wolbachia revealed that B-type populations were all infected while Y-type populations contained both infected and uninfected individuals. A single genotype of Wolbachia, which was inferred to be a CI-inducing strain from their wsp gene sequence, was prevalent in these populations. Notably, the mitochondrial phylogeny was in perfect agreement with the pattern of Wolbachia infection, suggesting that the Wolbachia infection had affected the mitochondrial genetic structure of the host insects. Probably, the Wolbachia strain and the associated mitochondrial genomes have been occasionally introduced from B-type populations to Y-type populations through migration and subsequent interspecific hybridization, and CI-driven population sweep has been spreading the Wolbachia strain and the particular mitochondrial haplotypes, which originated from B-type populations, into Y-type populations. On the basis of these results together with the geological and biogeographical knowledge of the Japanese Archipelago, we proposed an evolutionary hypothesis on the invasion and spread of Wolbachia infection in B-type and Y-type of E. hecabe. PMID:16599969

Narita, Satoko; Nomura, Masashi; Kato, Yoshiomi; Fukatsu, Takema

2006-04-01

28

Distribution of cytotoxic and DNA ADP-ribosylating activity in crude extracts from butterflies among the family Pieridae.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Cabbage butterflies, Pieris rapae and Pieris brassicae, contain strong cytotoxic proteins, designated as pierisin-1 and -2, against cancer cell lines. These proteins exhibit DNA ADP-ribosylating activity. To determine the distribution of substances with cytotoxicity and DNA ADP-ribosylating activity among other species, crude extracts from 20 species of the family Pieridae were examined for cytotoxicity in HeLa cells and DNA ADP-ribosylating activity. Both activities were detected in extracts from 13 species: subtribes Pierina (Pieris rapae, Pieris canidia, Pieris napi, Pieris melete, Pieris brassicae, Pontia daplidice, and Talbotia naganum), Aporiina (Aporia gigantea, Aporia crataegi, Aporia hippia, and Delias pasithoe), and Appiadina (Appias nero and Appias paulina). All of these extracts contained substances recognized by anti-pierisin-1 antibodies, with a molecular mass of approximately 100 kDa established earlier for pierisin-1. Moreover, sequences containing NAD-binding sites, conserved in ADP-ribosyltransferases, were amplified from genomic DNA from 13 species of butterflies with cytotoxicity and DNA ADP-ribosylating activity by PCR. Extracts from seven species, Appias lyncida, Leptosia nina, Anthocharis scolymus, Eurema hecabe, Catopsilia pomona, Catopsilia scylla, and Colias erate, showed neither cytotoxicity nor DNA ADP-ribosylating activity, and did not contain substances recognized by anti-pierisin-1 antibodies. Sequences containing NAD-binding sites were not amplified from genomic DNA from these seven species. Thus, pierisin-like proteins, showing cytotoxicity and DNA ADP-ribosylating activity, are suggested to be present in the extracts from butterflies not only among the subtribe Pierina, but also among the subtribes Aporiina and Appiadina. These findings offer insight to understanding the nature of DNA ADP-ribosylating activity in the butterfly.

Matsumoto Y; Nakano T; Yamamoto M; Matsushima-Hibiya Y; Odagiri K; Yata O; Koyama K; Sugimura T; Wakabayashi K

2008-02-01

29

Distribution of cytotoxic and DNA ADP-ribosylating activity in crude extracts from butterflies among the family Pieridae.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cabbage butterflies, Pieris rapae and Pieris brassicae, contain strong cytotoxic proteins, designated as pierisin-1 and -2, against cancer cell lines. These proteins exhibit DNA ADP-ribosylating activity. To determine the distribution of substances with cytotoxicity and DNA ADP-ribosylating activity among other species, crude extracts from 20 species of the family Pieridae were examined for cytotoxicity in HeLa cells and DNA ADP-ribosylating activity. Both activities were detected in extracts from 13 species: subtribes Pierina (Pieris rapae, Pieris canidia, Pieris napi, Pieris melete, Pieris brassicae, Pontia daplidice, and Talbotia naganum), Aporiina (Aporia gigantea, Aporia crataegi, Aporia hippia, and Delias pasithoe), and Appiadina (Appias nero and Appias paulina). All of these extracts contained substances recognized by anti-pierisin-1 antibodies, with a molecular mass of approximately 100 kDa established earlier for pierisin-1. Moreover, sequences containing NAD-binding sites, conserved in ADP-ribosyltransferases, were amplified from genomic DNA from 13 species of butterflies with cytotoxicity and DNA ADP-ribosylating activity by PCR. Extracts from seven species, Appias lyncida, Leptosia nina, Anthocharis scolymus, Eurema hecabe, Catopsilia pomona, Catopsilia scylla, and Colias erate, showed neither cytotoxicity nor DNA ADP-ribosylating activity, and did not contain substances recognized by anti-pierisin-1 antibodies. Sequences containing NAD-binding sites were not amplified from genomic DNA from these seven species. Thus, pierisin-like proteins, showing cytotoxicity and DNA ADP-ribosylating activity, are suggested to be present in the extracts from butterflies not only among the subtribe Pierina, but also among the subtribes Aporiina and Appiadina. These findings offer insight to understanding the nature of DNA ADP-ribosylating activity in the butterfly. PMID:18256183

Matsumoto, Yasuko; Nakano, Tsuyoshi; Yamamoto, Masafumi; Matsushima-Hibiya, Yuko; Odagiri, Ken-Ichi; Yata, Osamu; Koyama, Kotaro; Sugimura, Takashi; Wakabayashi, Keiji

2008-02-06

30

Resource-mediated condition dependence in sexually dichromatic butterfly wing coloration.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Theory predicts that traits subject to strong sexual selection should evolve to be more exaggerated and developmentally integrated than nonsexual traits, thus leading to heightened condition dependence. Until recently, however, efforts to evaluate this prediction have suffered from either a purely correlational (nonmanipulative) approach, or from using manipulations of doubtful ecological relevance. Here I address these issues by integrating observation and manipulation to study condition- and sex-related color variation in a butterfly. The focal species, Eurema hecabe (Pieridae), possesses three sexually homologous and morphogenetically discrete dorsal wing color elements-coherently scattered ultraviolet (UV), pteridine yellow, and melaninic black. The UV is most strongly sexually selected, and is also the only color element with restricted distribution across female wings. Condition dependence and sexual dichromatism were pervasive, characterizing all color traits except the melanic black, and acting such that low condition males resembled high condition females. Although female coloration tended to exhibit greater phenotypic variation, size-scaled UV was more variable and condition dependent in males. Importantly, manipulation of larval resources was sufficient to closely reconstruct the extent and patterns of field-observed phenotypic variation in condition, and color trait expression, which implicates larval resource acquisition as a primary driver of condition dependence. These results support theories regarding phenotypic variation in sexually selected traits.

Kemp DJ

2008-09-01

31

Resource-mediated condition dependence in sexually dichromatic butterfly wing coloration.  

Science.gov (United States)

Theory predicts that traits subject to strong sexual selection should evolve to be more exaggerated and developmentally integrated than nonsexual traits, thus leading to heightened condition dependence. Until recently, however, efforts to evaluate this prediction have suffered from either a purely correlational (nonmanipulative) approach, or from using manipulations of doubtful ecological relevance. Here I address these issues by integrating observation and manipulation to study condition- and sex-related color variation in a butterfly. The focal species, Eurema hecabe (Pieridae), possesses three sexually homologous and morphogenetically discrete dorsal wing color elements-coherently scattered ultraviolet (UV), pteridine yellow, and melaninic black. The UV is most strongly sexually selected, and is also the only color element with restricted distribution across female wings. Condition dependence and sexual dichromatism were pervasive, characterizing all color traits except the melanic black, and acting such that low condition males resembled high condition females. Although female coloration tended to exhibit greater phenotypic variation, size-scaled UV was more variable and condition dependent in males. Importantly, manipulation of larval resources was sufficient to closely reconstruct the extent and patterns of field-observed phenotypic variation in condition, and color trait expression, which implicates larval resource acquisition as a primary driver of condition dependence. These results support theories regarding phenotypic variation in sexually selected traits. PMID:18637962

Kemp, Darrell J

2008-07-15

32

Butterflies Diversity in Brawijaya University, Veteran, Jakarta and Velodrom Green Open Space  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Butterflies have some roles in environmental as pollinator and bioindicator. Habitat is one of important factor to support butterflies growth. The aim of this research was to describe butterflies diversity in some green open spaces in Malang. Direct observations of butterflies diversity, vegetation structures and abiotic factors in Brawijaya University, Veteran, Jakarta and Velodrom Green Open Space were conducted on June 2012. Sampling was took place in each sites using cruising method in three times observation at 07.00, 11.00 a.m. and 3.30 p.m . Data were analyzed by statistical descriptive using Microsoft Excel 2007 and PAST. The result showed that butterflies composition in all sites dominated by Delias sp., Leptosia nina and Eurema venusta. The diversity index of all sites showed moderate rank that indicate communities equilibrium in environment was still good. In this case, Velodrom Green Open Space has the highest one of diversity index, it was about 2,199. Brawijaya University and Jakarta Green Open Space have a high similarity index based on Morisita Index. The highest abundance of butterflies was observed at 11.00-12.30 a.m. Delias sp. and Leptosia nina has temporal spread all day long, while Eurema venusta just in day light.

Ayu Raisa Khairun Nisa'; Minahanggari Mukti; Muhammad Fathoni Hamzah; Arif Mustakim; Zainal Abidin

2013-01-01

33

Butterfly Lab  

Science.gov (United States)

This Web site comes from the Peggy Notebaert Nature Museum's Judy Istock Butterfly Haven, located in Chicago, Illinois. Designed for students in grades 7-12, Butterfly Lab offers online activities and materials covering butterfly anatomy, life cycle, behavior, and related topics. Detailed information is accompanied by colorful diagrams and photographs. Butterfly Lab also offers three offline activities involving butterfly anatomy, movement, identification, handling, and more. Students may submit their offline creations to be posted on the Web site. An audio feature allows users to listen to the Museum's director of biology discuss butterfly biology. The site includes a guide for teachers and a FAQ page.

34

Monarch butterfly  

Science.gov (United States)

Monarch butterflies migrate every year for winter and then back to their homes to mate in the spring. Monarch butterflies lay eggs, the eggs hatch into larvae, the larvae pupate, and finally, an adult monarch butterfly emerges from the pupal case.

N/A N/A (None;)

2008-04-03

35

Hidden Butterflies  

Science.gov (United States)

In this activity, learners explore animal coloration and camouflage by creating butterflies from fabric. Learners work with each other to camouflage their butterflies and then play a game to see who can find a butterfly hiding in their classroom or outdoor area the fastest. This lesson plan includes questions to ask learners and helpful resources.

Houston, Children'S M.

2013-05-15

36

Checklist of butterfly fauna of Kohat, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The butterflies play dual role, firstly as the pollinator, carries pollen from one flower to another and secondly their larvae act as the pest, injurious to various crops. Their 21 species were identified belonging to 3 different families from Kohat, Pakistan during September-December 2008. The reported families Namphalidae covered 33%, Papilionidae 10%, and Pieridae 57% biodiversity of butterflies of Kohat. In Namphalidae included: species belonging to subfamily Nymphalinae, Indian fritillary, Argynnis hyperbius Linnaeus; common castor, Ariadne merione (Cramer); painted lady, Cynthia cardui (Linnaeus); peacock pansy, Junonia almanac Linnaeus; blue pansy, J. orithya Linnaeus; common leopard, Phalantha phalantha (Drury); species belonging to subfamily Satyrinae, white edged rock brown, Hipparchia parisatis (Kollar). In Papilionidae included: subfamily Papilioninae, lime butterfly, Papilio demoleus Linnaeus and common mormon, Pa. polytes Linnaeus. In Pieridae included: subfamily Coliaclinae, dark clouded yellow, Colias croceus (Geoffroy); subfamily Coliadinae, lemon emigrant, Catopsilia pomona Fabricius; little orange tip, C. etrida Boisduval; blue spot arab,Colotis protractus Butler; common grass yellow, Eumera hecab (Linnaeus); common brimstone, Gonepteryx rhamni (Linnaeus); yellow orange tip, Ixias pyrene Linnaeus; subfamily Pierinae, pioneer white butterfly, Belenoi aurota Bingham; Murree green-veined white, Pieris ajaka Moore; large cabbage white, P. brassicae Linnaeus; green-veined white, P. napi (Linnaeus); small cabbage white, P. rapae Linnaeus. The wingspan of collected butterflies, minimum was 25 mm of C. etrida which was the smallest butterfly, however, maximum was 100 mm of P. demoleus and P. polytes which were the largest butterflies. A detail study is required for further exploration of butterflies' fauna of Kohat.

Farzana Perveen; Ayaz Ahmad

2012-01-01

37

Hidden Butterfly  

Science.gov (United States)

This reasoning activity challenges students to use the clues provided to figure out which number the butterfly was hidden behind. Students read each clue and eliminate the numbers from 1- 50 that don't fit, crossing them off on the number grid. They continue clue by clue until only one number remains. Included is the PDF document (downloadable), which includes 6 logic problems, answer key and a blank template for students to create their own Hidden Butterfly logic problems to challenge their classmates.

Kawas, Terry

2011-05-09

38

Adult butterfly anatomy  

Science.gov (United States)

The butterfly can fly around using its wings and sees where it is going through its eyes. The spiracles allow the butterfly to breathe and the legs are what it uses to walk or crawl around on. The antennae help the butterfly know where it is going. The proboscis is what the butterfly uses to drink nectar from flowers.

Shannon Murphy (Earth's Birthday Project;Program Development)

1998-01-01

39

The Butterfly Conservatory  

Science.gov (United States)

This Web site, created to complement the museum's Butterfly Conservatory exhibit, looks at the butterflies that color our world. It includes an overview of butterfly anatomy, metamorphosis, defense mechanisms, evolution, and their role in ecology; as well as conservation efforts and the architecture of the exhibit's butterfly vivarium. There are movie clips and a Virtual Tour of the exhibit. Tips for how to cultivate a garden that attracts butterflies, an image library of nectar and host plants, and books and Web sites for further reference are also included.

40

The butterfly effect of the "butterfly effect".  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The "Butterfly Effect" metaphor states with variance that the flap of a butterfly's wings in Brazil can cause a tornado in Texas. This metaphor has become part of the common vernacular of Western culture. In this paper I discuss the origins of the metaphor, examine its current usage within popular culture, and present an argument as to why it is popular. I propose that the metaphor is a type of semantic attractor, a narrative device with invariant meaning but audience-specific contextualization. Finally I address whether the Butterfly Effect metaphor is a good example of itself.

Dooley KJ

2009-07-01

 
 
 
 
41

The butterfly effect of the "butterfly effect".  

Science.gov (United States)

The "Butterfly Effect" metaphor states with variance that the flap of a butterfly's wings in Brazil can cause a tornado in Texas. This metaphor has become part of the common vernacular of Western culture. In this paper I discuss the origins of the metaphor, examine its current usage within popular culture, and present an argument as to why it is popular. I propose that the metaphor is a type of semantic attractor, a narrative device with invariant meaning but audience-specific contextualization. Finally I address whether the Butterfly Effect metaphor is a good example of itself. PMID:19527619

Dooley, Kevin J

2009-07-01

42

Butterfly Life Cycle  

Science.gov (United States)

In this project we will be learning about the life cycle of a butterfly and how the caterpillar becomes to be a butterfly. WHAT IS THE LIFE CYCLE OF A BUTTERFLY??? Subject: Science, Grade level:3rd and 4th Grade. Objective# 5-Describing life cycles of various animals to include incomplete and complete metamorphosis. In this project, I am going to show the students what an amazing and unique tranformation the a Caterpillar goes through and ...

Katie

2009-10-22

43

Butterfly emergence chamber  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present invention relates to a butterfly emergence chamber for displaying, shipping, growing, and releasing an insect larvae, pupae, and butterfly. More specifically, the present invention is comprised of a chamber with a stand and pupae attachment member. The pupae is suspended within the chamber and is provided with adequate growth conditions to mature. The chamber contains a removable stabilizing element that supports the pupae and prevents damage during shipment. Once, the pupae has matured into a butterfly, the chamber is adapted to release the butterfly.

LEPORI MICHELLE

44

Adaptation of Butterflies  

Science.gov (United States)

One of the bellwether species on the impact of climate change to our environment is the butterfly. Scientists say that warmer temperatures are affecting where butterflies live and breed, causing some species to migrate toward cooler climates near the earthÂs poles. "Changing Planet" is produced in partnership with the National Science Foundation.

Learn, Nbc

2010-10-07

45

Un posible complejo de especies gemelas en el género Eurema (Lepidoptera: Pieridae). I - Evidencias biológicas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This research is a biological and ecological study of a polymorphic population of Eurema salome Felder similar to that previously described by Klots (1928) as composed by two different forms according to the wing color pattern of its males. The two supposed forms showed different host plant and specific color in both larva and adult stage. Host plant exchange experiment indicate that the two color forms are genetically determined rather than induced by the host plant or enviroment. These results suggest that the polymorphic populations studied is composed of two distinct species reproductively isolated rather than two polymorphic forms of the same species. We also speculate that host plant use played a crucial role in the initial diferentiation of these two species. We conclude that these species could be consider as sibbling species because of their significant morphological likeness.En este trabajo se realiza un estudio biológico y ecológico a una presunta población polimórfica de Eurema salome Felder, conformada por dos formas descritas por Klot Sen 1928 con base en el patrón de coloración alar de los machos. Se encontró que estas presuntas formas presentan diferentes plantas hospederas y características específicas de coloración tanto a nivel larvario como del adulto. Al realizar intercambio de hospederos se estableció que las características que diferencian las dos formas son heredadas genéticamente y no inducidas por condiciones de hospedero o medioambientales. A partir de estos resultados se plantea que la población en estudio probablemente no está conformada, como se pensó inicialmente, por dos formas de la especie E. salome Feld., sino por dos especies diferentes actualmente aisladas reproductivamente y cuya diferenciación se dio inicialmente a partir del hospedero. Dichas especies presentan un grado de semejanza morfológica tal que permite tratarlas como especies gemelas.

Moreno F. Liz Patricia; Torres N. Rodrigo; Acosta Orlando; Peñaranda José

1995-01-01

46

Butterflies of Myanmar  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The document talks about species and habits of Myanmar butterflies that were mentioned by the Nature and Wildlife Conservation Division of the Forest Department under the Ministry of Forestry in Myanmar

2001-01-01

47

Supergene Controls Butterfly Mimicry  

Science.gov (United States)

The colorful Amazonian butterfly Heliconius Numata increases its odds of survival by mimicking the wing patterns of other closely-related species. New research reveals these varied wing patterns are under the control of a supergene.

n/a n/a (Scientific American;)

2011-08-17

48

Draw a Monarch Butterfly  

Science.gov (United States)

This OLogy activity helps kids to learn about scientific illustrations by walking them through the steps for drawing a monarch butterfly. The activity begins by introducing kids to the importance of scientific illustration and why scientists prefer drawings to photographs. A photograph of a monarch and a printable monarch butterfly outline are included. In addition, students need color photographs, other research materials, paper, an eraser, and a variety of pencils. The process of creating the scientific illustration is broken down into five steps: researching, developing observational skills, tracing, filling in the illustration, and doing the background. Notes about how to research and plant a butterfly garden are included for a follow-up activity.

49

Lorenz Attractor -- Butterfly Effect  

Science.gov (United States)

The "Butterfly Effect", or more technically the "sensitive dependence on initial conditions", is the essence of chaos. This is illustrated an applet of the Lorenz Attractor. The demonstration shows a graphical representation of the time variation of three variables X(t),Y(t) and Z(t), coupled by non-linear evolution equations.

Michael Cross, Cal T.

50

Bonjour Papillon (Hello Butterfly).  

Science.gov (United States)

This story in French about a butterfly who talks to children is presented in comic-book style and is intended for use in a bilingual education setting. Words and expressions peculiar to the Franco-American idiom are marked and translated into standard French. The drawings are in black and white. (AMH)

Dugas, Donald G.; Ogrydziak, Dan

51

Confocal imaging of butterfly tissue.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

To understand the molecular events responsible for morphological change requires the ability to examine gene expression in a wide range of organisms in addition to model systems to determine how the differences in gene expression correlate with phenotypic differences. There are approximately 12,000 species of butterflies, most, with distinct patterns on their wings. The most important tool for studying gene expression in butterflies is confocal imaging of butterfly tissue by indirect immunofluorescence using either cross-reactive antibodies from closely related species such as Drosophila or developing butterfly-specific antibodies. In this report, we describe how indirect immunofluorescence protocols can be used to visualize protein expression patterns on the butterfly wing imaginal disc and butterfly embryo.

Brunetti CR

2014-01-01

52

From Butterflies to Humans  

Science.gov (United States)

This indexed webcast video along with synchronized lecture slides is from Howard Hughes Medical Institute's 2005 Holiday Lectures on Science: Evolution: Constant Change and Common Threads. Sean B. Carroll presents examples from Darwin's Allies, Henry Walker Bates and T.X. Huxley, and their studies on butterfly evolution and human evolution. This lecture ends with the importance of studying evolution. This video is 58 minutes and 31 seconds and requires RealPlayer 10.

Sean B. Carroll, Ph.D. (Howard Hughes Medical Institute;)

2008-04-15

53

Monarch Watch: Planting a Butterfly Garden  

Science.gov (United States)

This Planting a Butterfly Garden website from Monarch Watch is a great introductory resource for teachers interested in starting an educational butterfly garden at their school. This site provides several useful information pages including Good Nectar Sources and lists of Larval Host Plants organized both by butterfly and by plant. The site also features a simple step-by-step teacher's guide written by a teacher from Maryland who planned and planted a butterfly garden at her middle school.

54

Butterflied bivalves as paleoenvironmental indicators  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fossil bivalves are seldom preserved in a flat-open, yet still articulated position, or butterflied. A study of butterflied bivalves in the Delphi Station of the Hamilton Fm. suggests that this preservation mode is limited to one or possibly two sedimentary environments: deltaic and fluvial. Three parameters control the mode of preservation of fossil bivalves: 1) rate of sedimentation, 2) depth of bioturbation, and 3) time of ligament failure. Using these three parameters a model for the occurrence of butterflied bivalves can be constructed: bioturbation depth divided by sedimentation rate gives the disturbance time (DST), during which shells on one bedding plane would be subject to reworking. This can be seen as a time window into which ligament failure times - or disarticulation time (DAT) - can be fitted. If DATbutterflied mode of preservation. Only in deltaic and possibly some fluvial environments are the sedimentation rates high enough to bury the shells before complete disarticulation and reworking of the valves can occur. This model suggest that butterflied bivalves may be used as partial indicators of conditions prevailing in environments of deposition.

Allmon, R.A.

1985-01-01

55

Extended season for northern butterflies  

Science.gov (United States)

Butterflies are like all insects in that they are temperature sensitive and a changing climate with higher temperatures might effect their phenology. Several studies have found support for earlier flight dates among the investigated species. A comparative study with data from a citizen science project, including 66 species of butterflies in Sweden, was undertaken, and the result confirms that most butterfly species now fly earlier during the season. This is especially evident for butterflies overwintering as adults or as pupae. However, the advancement in phenology is correlated with flight date, and some late season species show no advancement or have even postponed their flight dates and are now flying later in the season. The results also showed that latitude had a strong effect on the adult flight date, and most of the investigated species showed significantly later flights towards the north. Only some late flying species showed an opposite trend, flying earlier in the north. A majority of the investigated species in this study showed a general response to temperature and advanced their flight dates with warmer temperatures (on average they advanced their flight dates by 3.8 days/°C), although not all species showed this response. In essence, a climate with earlier springs and longer growing seasons seems not to change the appearance patterns in a one-way direction. We now see butterflies on the wings both earlier and later in the season and some consequences of these patterns are discussed. So far, studies have concentrated mostly on early season butterfly-plant interactions but also late season studies are needed for a better understanding of long-term population consequences.

Karlsson, Bengt

2013-03-01

56

Draw a Monarch Butterfly: Scientific Illustration  

Science.gov (United States)

Ivy Rutzky, a scientific assistant at the American Museum of Natural History, introduces an activity where learners create a scientific illustration of a monarch butterfly. Learners will discover why scientists prefer to use drawings rather than photographs, as well as learn about butterflies. Learners will practice their research, observation, and drawing skills. Learners are encouraged to follow up this activity by planting their own butterfly gardens.

History, American M.

2012-07-17

57

Ecological Speciation in Mimetic Butterflies  

Science.gov (United States)

There has been a recent revival of interest in the role of ecology in speciation. The wing patterns of Heliconius butterflies are signals to predators as well as mates, and can cause strong reproductive isolation between populations. Reproductive isolation has been studied in some detail between the sympatric species Heliconius melpomene and Heliconius cydno, and in reviewing this work I show that habitat isolation and color pattern preference are by far the most important factors causing speciation. The surprising observation that genes for mate preference and color pattern are genetically associated implies divergence in sympatry or resulting from sexual selection. Color pattern is therefore an example of an ecological trait that contributes to speciation through pleiotropic effects on mate choice, although phylogenetic evidence shows that it is only one of many factors responsible for speciation in mimetic butterflies.

Chris D. Jiggins (University of Cambridge (UK);)

2008-06-01

58

Butterfly valve torque prediction methodology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As part of the Motor-Operated Valve (MOV) Performance Prediction Program, the Electric Power Research Institute has sponsored the development of methodologies for predicting thrust and torque requirements of gate, globe, and butterfly MOVs. This paper presents the methodology that will be used by utilities to calculate the dynamic torque requirements for butterfly valves. The total dynamic torque at any disc position is the sum of the hydrodynamic torque, bearing torque (which is induced by the hydrodynamic force), as well as other small torque components (such as packing torque). The hydrodynamic torque on the valve disc, caused by the fluid flow through the valve, depends on the disc angle, flow velocity, upstream flow disturbances, disc shape, and the disc aspect ratio. The butterfly valve model provides sets of nondimensional flow and torque coefficients that can be used to predict flow rate and hydrodynamic torque throughout the disc stroke and to calculate the required actuation torque and the maximum transmitted torque throughout the opening and closing stroke. The scope of the model includes symmetric and nonsymmetric discs of different shapes and aspects ratios in compressible and incompressible fluid applications under both choked and nonchoked flow conditions. The model features were validated against test data from a comprehensive flowloop and in situ test program. These tests were designed to systematically address the effect of the following parameters on the required torque: valve size, disc shapes and disc aspect ratios, upstream elbow orientation and its proximity, and flow conditions. The applicability of the nondimensional coefficients to valves of different sizes was validated by performing tests on 42-in. valve and a precisely scaled 6-in. model. The butterfly valve model torque predictions were found to bound test data from the flow-loop and in situ testing, as shown in the examples provided in this paper

1994-01-01

59

The Human Side of Butterflies  

Science.gov (United States)

There is one important aspect of science that sometimes proves a bit more difficult to teach than other areas: introducing students to the the idea of nature of science. Nature of science speaks to how scientific knowledge is developed--from observation and inferences; it is also partially the product of a creative imagination. In this article an entomologist's life brings understandings about nature of science to a butterfly unit.

Mclaughlin, Kathleen; Scribner-Maclean, Michelle

2005-10-01

60

[Keratouveitis and lens opacity caused by butterfly hair].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Butterfly hair is known to cause eye injury. In Africa, incriminated butterflies are Hylesia (spp). We report a case of a sub-epithelial keratitis associated with anterior uveitis following a trauma by a butterfly that was complicated by late lens opacity due to butterfly hair. Ocular lesions caused by butterfly hair are rare, but require an urgent management to prevent late and severe complications due to intraocular migration of the hairs.

Domngang Noche C; Kengmogne B; Bella AL

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Preventing cavitation in butterfly valves  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Some of the mechanical problems that plagued butterfly valves in the past are discussed. The authors suggest integrated packages to alleviate these problems. These packages include such innovations as backlash-free stem connections, allenclosed actuator packages, and torque-compensated vanes. Some disadvantages to these packages are outlined and examined, including: high noise levels with compressible fluids, and an increased tendency to cavitate with liquids. A discussion follows on cavitation--how it is caused, just how much of it can be tolerated, and how it can be avoided or reduced.

Baumann, H.D.

1985-03-18

62

Butterfly tachyons in vacuum string field theory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] We use geometrical conformal field theory methods to investigate tachyon fluctuations about the butterfly projector state in vacuum string field theory. We find that the on-shell condition for the tachyon field is equivalent to the requirement that the quadratic term in the string-field action vanish on shell. This further motivates the interpretation of the butterfly state as a D-brane. We begin a calculation of the tension of the butterfly, and conjecture that this will match the case of the sliver and further strengthen this interpretation

2003-04-15

63

Effects of herbicides on Behr's metalmark butterfly, a surrogate species for the endangered butterfly, Lange's metalmark  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Lange's metalmark butterfly, Apodemia mormo langei Comstock, is in danger of extinction due to loss of habitat caused by invasive exotic plants which are eliminating its food, naked stem buckwheat. Herbicides are being used to remove invasive weeds from the dunes; however, little is known about the potential effects of herbicides on butterflies. To address this concern we evaluated potential toxic effects of three herbicides on Behr's metalmark, a close relative of Lange's metalmark. First instars were exposed to recommended field rates of triclopyr, sethoxydim, and imazapyr. Life history parameters were recorded after exposure. These herbicides reduced the number of adults that emerged from pupation (24–36%). Each herbicide has a different mode of action. Therefore, we speculate that effects are due to inert ingredients or indirect effects on food plant quality. If these herbicides act the same in A. mormo langei, they may contribute to the decline of this species. - Highlights: ? We evaluated the effects of three herbicides on the butterfly, Behr's metalmark. ? These herbicides are used to control invasive weeds in butterfly habitat. ? The herbicides reduced adult butterfly emergence. - Herbicides are used to remove invasive weeds from butterfly habitat. Certain herbicides may be having a negative effect on butterflies.

2012-01-01

64

Monarch butterfly spatially discrete advection model.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We study the population cycles of the Monarch butterfly using one of the simplest systems incorporating both migration and local dynamics. The annual migration of the Monarch involves four generations. Members of Generations 1-3 (occasionally 4) migrate from the over-wintering site in Central Mexico to breeding grounds that extend as far north as the Northern United States and Southern Canada. A portion of the Generation 3 and all members of the Generation 4 butterflies begin their return to the over-wintering grounds in August through October where they enter reproductive diapause for several months. We developed a simple discrete-time island chain model in which different fecundity functions are used to model the reproductive strategies of each generation. The fecundity functions are selected from broad classes of functions that capture the effects of either contest or scramble intraspecific competition in the Monarch population. The objectives of our research are multiple and include the study of the generationally dependent intraspecific competition and its effect on the pool size of migrants as well as the persistence of the overall butterfly populations. The stage structure used in modeling the Monarch butterfly dynamics and their generationally dependent reproductive strategies naturally support fluctuating patterns and multiple attractors. The implications of these fluctuations and attractors on the long-term survival of the Monarch butterfly population are explored.

Yakubu AA; Sáenz R; Stein J; Jones LE

2004-08-01

65

Measuring straight line segments using HT butterflies.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper addresses the features of Hough Transform (HT) butterflies suitable for image-based segment detection and measurement. The full segment parameters such as the position, slope, width, length, continuity, and uniformity are related to the features of the HT butterflies. Mathematical analysis and experimental data are presented in order to demonstrate and build the relationship between the measurements of segments and the features of HT butterflies. An effective method is subsequently proposed to employ these relationships in order to discover the parameters of segments. Power line inspection is considered as an application of the proposed method. The application demonstrates that the proposed method is effective for power line inspection, especially for corner detection when they cross poles. PMID:22479442

Du, Shengzhi; Tu, Chunling; van Wyk, Barend J; Ochola, Elisha Oketch; Chen, Zengqiang

2012-03-27

66

Measuring straight line segments using HT butterflies.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper addresses the features of Hough Transform (HT) butterflies suitable for image-based segment detection and measurement. The full segment parameters such as the position, slope, width, length, continuity, and uniformity are related to the features of the HT butterflies. Mathematical analysis and experimental data are presented in order to demonstrate and build the relationship between the measurements of segments and the features of HT butterflies. An effective method is subsequently proposed to employ these relationships in order to discover the parameters of segments. Power line inspection is considered as an application of the proposed method. The application demonstrates that the proposed method is effective for power line inspection, especially for corner detection when they cross poles.

Du S; Tu C; van Wyk BJ; Ochola EO; Chen Z

2012-01-01

67

Male-killing in African butterflies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Female-biased sex ratios occur in many insect species as a consequence of infection by maternally-inherited male-killing bacterial endosymbionts. In this paper, we revise the research conducted on the phenomenon of male-killing in African nymphalid butterflies, with special focus on the cases of Danaus chrysippus, Acraea encedon and Acraea encedana. The evolution of male-killing in each case was addressed, together with the phylogeny of male-killers that were identified from this group. Moreover, the potential impacts that male-killers might impose on the evolution of their butterfly hosts were thoroughly investigated. In the end of this review, we present a number of unanswered questions to be targeted by future research work on the male-killing in these butterflies.

Sami Saeed M. Hassan; Eihab Idris

2013-01-01

68

Chromosome evolution in Neotropical butterflies.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We list the chromosome numbers for 65 species of Neotropical Hesperiidae and 104 species or subspecies of Pieridae. In Hesperiidae the tribe Pyrrhopygini have a modal n = 28, Eudaminae and Pyrgini a modal n = 31, while Hesperiinae have n = around 29. Among Pieridae, Coliadinae have a strong modal n = 31 and among Pierinae Anthocharidini are almost fixed for n = 15 while Pierini vary with n = 26 as the most common chromosome number. Dismorphiinae show wide variation. We discuss these results in the context of chromosome numbers of over 1400 Neotropical butterfly species and subspecies derived from about 3000 populations published here and in earlier papers of a series. The overall results show that many Neotropical groups are characterized by karyotype instability with several derived modal numbers or none at all, while almost all taxa of Lepidoptera studied from the other parts of the world have one of n = 29-31 as modal numbers. Possibly chromosome number changes become fixed in the course of speciation driven by biotic interactions. Population subdivision and structuring facilitate karyotype change. Factors that stabilize chromosome numbers include hybridization among species sharing the same number, migration, sexual selection and possibly the distribution of chromosomes within the nucleus.

Saura A; Schoultz BV; Saura AO; Brown KS Jr

2013-06-01

69

Chromosome evolution in Neotropical butterflies.  

Science.gov (United States)

We list the chromosome numbers for 65 species of Neotropical Hesperiidae and 104 species or subspecies of Pieridae. In Hesperiidae the tribe Pyrrhopygini have a modal n = 28, Eudaminae and Pyrgini a modal n = 31, while Hesperiinae have n = around 29. Among Pieridae, Coliadinae have a strong modal n = 31 and among Pierinae Anthocharidini are almost fixed for n = 15 while Pierini vary with n = 26 as the most common chromosome number. Dismorphiinae show wide variation. We discuss these results in the context of chromosome numbers of over 1400 Neotropical butterfly species and subspecies derived from about 3000 populations published here and in earlier papers of a series. The overall results show that many Neotropical groups are characterized by karyotype instability with several derived modal numbers or none at all, while almost all taxa of Lepidoptera studied from the other parts of the world have one of n = 29-31 as modal numbers. Possibly chromosome number changes become fixed in the course of speciation driven by biotic interactions. Population subdivision and structuring facilitate karyotype change. Factors that stabilize chromosome numbers include hybridization among species sharing the same number, migration, sexual selection and possibly the distribution of chromosomes within the nucleus. PMID:23865963

Saura, Anssi; Schoultz, Barbara Von; Saura, Anja O; Brown, Keith S

2013-06-01

70

ESTUDIO DE LA COMUNIDAD DE LEPIDÓPTEROS DIURNOS EN ZONAS NATURALES Y SISTEMAS PRODUCTIVOS DEL MUNICIPIO DE CALOTO (CAUCA, COLOMBIA)/ STUDY OF THE BUTTERFLY COMMUNITY IN NATURAL AND INTERVENED AREAS OF CALOTO (CAUCA, COLOMBIA)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Con el objetivo primordial de conocer la diversidad de lepidópteros diurnos en zonas intervenidas de la vereda Morales (Caloto, Cauca), se realizaron muestreos en marzo de 2007 y abril de 2008, utilizando trampas Van Someren-Rydon, captura directa y visual. Se estudiaron 4 biotopos: bosque ripario, cultivo de caña de azúcar, cafetal en policultivo y cerca viva. De 1594 individuos observados, se identificaron 90 especies de mariposas de seis familias; Nymphalidae con 60 (more) especies de las subfamilias Nymphalinae (14), Charaxinae (6), Morphinae (2), Satyrinae (5), Heliconiinae (8), Ithomiinae (6), Danainae (3), Acraeinae (5), Limenitidinae (2), Biblidinae (5) y Melitaeinae (4); Pieridae (11 especies), Hesperiidae (6), Papilionidae (7), Lycaenidae (4) y Riodinidae (2). El 39% de la abundancia, incluyó especies generalistas y polífagas representadas por los géneros Anartia (144 individuos), Actinote (69), Caligo (14), Urbanus (72), Anteos (44), Phoebis (56) y Eurema (223), reconocidas por estar frecuentemente asociadas a zonas altamente intervenidas por el hombre. De lo anterior, se desprende que la presencia de la subfamilia Satyrinae (108 individuos) y del género Morpho (9), indica actividad de lepidópteros característicos de bosque conservado. En este mismo sentido, la alta abundancia de Ithomiinae (199 individuos) en cafetales de sombra alternado con siembra de plátano, indica que este policultivo ofrece un hábitat apropiado para esta subfamilia. Abstract in english Two sampling activities (March 2007 and April 2008) were carried out in the municipal rural settlement of Morales (Caloto-Cauca) in order to evaluate the day-butterfly diversity associated with four intervened biotopes: riparian forest, sugarcane plantations, coffee-plantain crop and natural fence. The 1594 individuals were collected using Van Someren-Rydon traps, belonging to 90 species from six families; Nymphalidae with 60 species from the subfamilies Nymphalinae (14), (more) Charaxinae (6), Morphinae (2), Satyrinae (5), Heliconiinae (8), Ithomiinae (6), Danainae (3), Acraeinae (5), Limenitidinae (2), Biblidinae (5) and Melitaeinae (4), Pieridae (11) Hesperiidae (6), Papilionidae (7), Lycaenidae (4) and Riodinidae (2). Additionally, 39% of the species were polyphagous and generalists, represented by the genera Anartia (144 individuals), Actinote (69), Caligo (14), Urbanus (72), Anteos (44), Phoebis (56) and Eurema (223). All these have been recognized as genera associated to anthropogenic intervened areas. The presence of the Satyrinae subfamily (108 individuals) and the Morpho genus (9 individuals) in the study zone, suggest the presence of high quality forest relicts. The abundance of Ithomiinae (199 individuals) in the shaded coffee-plantain crop indicates that this biotope offers a suitable habitat for this subfamily.

Millán-J., Carolina; Chacón, Patricia; Giraldo, Alan

2009-01-01

71

Monarch Butterflies: Spirits of Loved Ones  

Science.gov (United States)

|The study of the beautiful monarch butterfly lends itself to a vast array of subject matter, and offers the opportunity to meet a large and varied number of standards and objectives for many grade levels. Art projects featuring monarchs may include many cross-curricular units such as math (symmetry and number graphing), science (adaptation and…

Crumpecker, Cheryl

2011-01-01

72

Polarized light helps monarch butterflies navigate.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

During their spectacular migratory journey in the fall, North American monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) use a time-compensated sun compass to help them navigate to their overwintering sites in central Mexico. One feature of the sun compass mechanism not fully explored in monarchs is the sunlight-dependent parameters used to navigate. We now provide data suggesting that the angle of polarized skylight (the e-vector) is a relevant orientation parameter. By placing butterflies in a flight simulator outdoors and using a linear polarizing filter, we show that manipulating the e-vector alters predictably the direction of oriented flight. Butterflies studied in either the morning or afternoon showed similar responses to filter rotation. Monarch butterflies possess the anatomical structure needed for polarized skylight detection, as rhabdoms in the dorsalmost row of photoreceptor cells in monarch eye show the organization characteristic of polarized-light receptors. The existence of polarized-light detection could allow migrants to accurately navigate under a variety of atmospheric conditions and reveals a critical input pathway into the sun compass mechanism.

Reppert SM; Zhu H; White RH

2004-01-01

73

Tetrapterous butterfly attractors in modified Lorenz systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper, the Lorenz-type tetrapterous butterfly attractors are firstly reported. With the introduction of multiple segment piecewise linear functions, these interesting and complex attractors are obtained from two different modified Lorenz models. This approach are verified in both simulations and experiments.

2009-08-30

74

Navigational mechanisms of migrating monarch butterflies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent studies of the iconic fall migration of monarch butterflies have illuminated the mechanisms behind their southward navigation while using a time-compensated sun compass. Skylight cues, such as the sun itself and polarized light, are processed through both eyes and are probably integrated in the brain's central complex, the presumed site of the sun compass. Time compensation is provided by circadian clocks that have a distinctive molecular mechanism and that reside in the antennae. Monarchs might also use a magnetic compass because they possess two cryptochromes that have the molecular capability for light-dependent magnetoreception. Multiple genomic approaches are now being used with the aim of identifying navigation genes. Monarch butterflies are thus emerging as an excellent model organism in which to study the molecular and neural basis of long-distance migration. PMID:20627420

Reppert, Steven M; Gegear, Robert J; Merlin, Christine

2010-06-02

75

Navigational mechanisms of migrating monarch butterflies.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Recent studies of the iconic fall migration of monarch butterflies have illuminated the mechanisms behind their southward navigation while using a time-compensated sun compass. Skylight cues, such as the sun itself and polarized light, are processed through both eyes and are probably integrated in the brain's central complex, the presumed site of the sun compass. Time compensation is provided by circadian clocks that have a distinctive molecular mechanism and that reside in the antennae. Monarchs might also use a magnetic compass because they possess two cryptochromes that have the molecular capability for light-dependent magnetoreception. Multiple genomic approaches are now being used with the aim of identifying navigation genes. Monarch butterflies are thus emerging as an excellent model organism in which to study the molecular and neural basis of long-distance migration.

Reppert SM; Gegear RJ; Merlin C

2010-09-01

76

Do monarch butterflies use polarized skylight for migratory orientation?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

To test if migratory monarch butterflies use polarized light patterns as part of their time-compensated sun compass, we recorded their virtual flight paths in a flight simulator while the butterflies were exposed to patches of naturally polarized blue sky, artificial polarizers or a sunny sky. In ad...

Stalleicken, J; Mukhida, M; Labhart, T; Wehner, R; Frost, B; Mouritsen, H

77

The School of Mandarin Duck and Butterfly’s Creative Push on Early Chinese Publishing Industry  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The School of Mandarin Duck and Butterfly, as an early Chinese popular literature important school, is a participant of early Chinese publishing industry who promoted early Chinese publishing industry development through creativities on publishing from four aspects such as publishing content creativ...

Bin Li

78

The School of Mandarin Duck and Butterfly’s Creative Push on Early Chinese Publishing Industry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The School of Mandarin Duck and Butterfly, as an early Chinese popular literature important school, is a participant of early Chinese publishing industry who promoted early Chinese publishing industry development through creativities on publishing from four aspects such as publishing content creativity, graphic design creativity, marketing creativity and cross-media industry creativity.

Bin Li

2012-01-01

79

That awkward age for butterflies: insights from the age of the butterfly subfamily Nymphalinae (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae).  

Science.gov (United States)

The study of the historical biogeography of butterflies has been hampered by a lack of well-resolved phylogenies and a good estimate of the temporal span over which butterflies have evolved. Recently there has been surge of phylogenetic hypotheses for various butterfly groups, but estimating ages of divergence is still in its infancy for this group of insects. The main problem has been the sparse fossil record for butterflies. In this study I have used a surprisingly good fossil record for the subfamily Nymphalinae (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) to estimate the ages of diversification of major lineages using Bayesian relaxed clock methods. I have investigated the effects of varying priors on posterior estimates in the analyses. For this data set, it is clear that the prior of the rate of molecular evolution at the ingroup node had the largest effect on the results. Taking this into account, I have been able to arrive at a plausible history of lineage splits, which appears to be correlated with known paleogeological events. The subfamily appears to have diversified soon after the K/T event about 65 million years ago. Several splits are coincident with major paleogeological events, such as the connection of the African and Asian continents about 21 million years ago and the presence of a peninsula of land connecting the current Greater Antilles to the South American continent 35 to 33 million years ago. My results suggest that the age of Nymphalidae is older than the 70 million years speculated to be the age of butterflies as a whole. PMID:16952908

Wahlberg, Niklas

2006-10-01

80

That awkward age for butterflies: insights from the age of the butterfly subfamily Nymphalinae (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The study of the historical biogeography of butterflies has been hampered by a lack of well-resolved phylogenies and a good estimate of the temporal span over which butterflies have evolved. Recently there has been surge of phylogenetic hypotheses for various butterfly groups, but estimating ages of divergence is still in its infancy for this group of insects. The main problem has been the sparse fossil record for butterflies. In this study I have used a surprisingly good fossil record for the subfamily Nymphalinae (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) to estimate the ages of diversification of major lineages using Bayesian relaxed clock methods. I have investigated the effects of varying priors on posterior estimates in the analyses. For this data set, it is clear that the prior of the rate of molecular evolution at the ingroup node had the largest effect on the results. Taking this into account, I have been able to arrive at a plausible history of lineage splits, which appears to be correlated with known paleogeological events. The subfamily appears to have diversified soon after the K/T event about 65 million years ago. Several splits are coincident with major paleogeological events, such as the connection of the African and Asian continents about 21 million years ago and the presence of a peninsula of land connecting the current Greater Antilles to the South American continent 35 to 33 million years ago. My results suggest that the age of Nymphalidae is older than the 70 million years speculated to be the age of butterflies as a whole.

Wahlberg N

2006-10-01

 
 
 
 
81

Honeybees, Butterflies, and Ladybugs: Partners to Plants  

Science.gov (United States)

Honeybees, butterflies, and ladybugs all have fascinating mutually beneficial relationships with plants and play important ecosystem roles. Children also love these creatures. But how do we teach children about these symbiotic interactions and help them appreciate their vital roles in our environment? One must is to give children direct experience observing and exploring living things in the world around them. Direct experiences excite children about science, but Louv notes that "most children today are hard-pressed to develop a sense of wonder" (2005, p. 95). With that in mind, this series of experiences with living things was designed to encourage this kind of wonder in students.

Campbell, Ashley

2009-02-01

82

Forward flight of swallowtail butterfly with simple flapping motion  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Unlike other flying insects, the wing motion of swallowtail butterflies is basically limited to flapping because their fore wings partly overlap their hind wings, structurally restricting the feathering needed for active control of aerodynamic force. Hence, it can be hypothesized that the flight of swallowtail butterflies is realized with simple flapping, requiring little feedback control of the feathering angle. To verify this hypothesis, we fabricated an artificial butterfly mimicking the wing motion and wing shape of a swallowtail butterfly and analyzed its flights using images taken with a high-speed video camera. The results demonstrated that stable forward flight could be realized without active feathering or feedback control of the wing motion. During the flights, the artificial butterfly's body moved up and down passively in synchronization with the flapping, and the artificial butterfly followed an undulating flight trajectory like an actual swallowtail butterfly. Without feedback control of the wing motion, the body movement is directly affected by change of aerodynamic force due to the wing deformation; the degree of deformation was determined by the wing venation. Unlike a veinless wing, a mimic wing with veins generated a much higher lift coefficient during the flapping flight than in a steady flow due to the large body motion.

Tanaka, Hiroto [School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, 60 Oxford Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Shimoyama, Isao, E-mail: isao@i.u-tokyo.ac.j [Department of Mechano-Informatics, Graduate School of Information Science and Technology, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8656 (Japan)

2010-06-15

83

Forward flight of swallowtail butterfly with simple flapping motion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Unlike other flying insects, the wing motion of swallowtail butterflies is basically limited to flapping because their fore wings partly overlap their hind wings, structurally restricting the feathering needed for active control of aerodynamic force. Hence, it can be hypothesized that the flight of swallowtail butterflies is realized with simple flapping, requiring little feedback control of the feathering angle. To verify this hypothesis, we fabricated an artificial butterfly mimicking the wing motion and wing shape of a swallowtail butterfly and analyzed its flights using images taken with a high-speed video camera. The results demonstrated that stable forward flight could be realized without active feathering or feedback control of the wing motion. During the flights, the artificial butterfly's body moved up and down passively in synchronization with the flapping, and the artificial butterfly followed an undulating flight trajectory like an actual swallowtail butterfly. Without feedback control of the wing motion, the body movement is directly affected by change of aerodynamic force due to the wing deformation; the degree of deformation was determined by the wing venation. Unlike a veinless wing, a mimic wing with veins generated a much higher lift coefficient during the flapping flight than in a steady flow due to the large body motion.

2010-01-01

84

Resources Organization and Searching Specification: The “Butterflies of Taiwan” Project  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available “Butterflies of Taiwan” is a sub-project under Taiwan Digital Museum Project (TDMP), sponsored by the National Science Council of Taiwan. ”Butterflies of Taiwan”, a cooperative project, was proposed by National Chi-Nan University and National Museum of Natural Science; its metadata was developed by Resources Organization Searching Specification (ROSS, also a sub-project under TDMP) Research Team. In order to design the appropriate elements and create the butterfly metadata, ROSS started to gather relevant information on butterfly and information cataloging in August 1998. The main purpose of this project is to establish a digital museum to support and promote science education. Task of ROSS is the following: with respect to information storage and retrieval demand, to develop butterfly metadata format and design system specification based on the project content. This article presents the metadata format created for butterfly project and discusses issues related with its implementation. In order to promote information exchange, mapping of butterfly metadata to Dublin Core will also be presented.[Article content in Chinese

Szu-Chia Lo; Hsueh-Hua Chen

1999-01-01

85

Grazing-incidence iridescence from a butterfly wing.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The Troides magellanus butterfly exhibits a specialized iridescence that is visible only when its hind wings are both illuminated and viewed at near-grazing incidence. The effect is due to the presence of a constrained bigrating structure in its wing scales that has been previously observed in only one other species of butterfly (Ancyluris meliboeus). However, whereas the Ancyluris presents wide-angle flickering iridescence, the Troides butterfly uses pigmentary coloration at all but a narrow tailored range of angles, producing a characteristic effect.

Lawrence C; Vukusic P; Sambles R

2002-01-01

86

Butterfly morphology in a molecular age -- does it still matter in butterfly systematics?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We review morphological characters considered important for understanding butterfly phylogeny and evolution in the light of recent large-scale molecular phylogenies of the group. A number of the most important morphological works from the past half century are reviewed and morphological character evolution is reassessed based on the most recent phylogenetic results. In particular, higher level butterfly morphology is evaluated based on a very recent study combining an elaborate morphological dataset with a similar molecular one. Special attention is also given to the families Papilionidae, Nymphalidae and Hesperiidae which have all seen morphological and molecular efforts come together in large, combined works in recent years. In all of the examined cases the synergistic effect of combining elaborate morphological datasets with ditto molecular clearly outweigh the merits of either data type analysed on its own (even for 'genome size' molecular datasets). It is evident that morphology, far from being obsolete or arcane, still has an immensely important role to play in butterfly (and insect) phylogenetics. Not least because understanding morphology is essential for understanding and evaluating the evolutionary scenarios phylogenetic trees are supposed to illustrate.

Simonsen TJ; de Jong R; Heikkilä M; Kaila L

2012-07-01

87

Do monarch butterflies use polarized skylight for migratory orientation?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

To test if migratory monarch butterflies use polarized light patterns as part of their time-compensated sun compass, we recorded their virtual flight paths in a flight simulator while the butterflies were exposed to patches of naturally polarized blue sky, artificial polarizers or a sunny sky. In addition, we tested butterflies with and without the polarized light detectors of their compound eye being occluded. The monarchs' orientation responses suggested that the butterflies did not use the polarized light patterns as a compass cue, nor did they exhibit a specific alignment response towards the axis of polarized light. When given direct view of the sun, migratory monarchs with their polarized light detectors painted out were still able to use their time-compensated compass: non-clockshifted butterflies, with their dorsal rim area occluded, oriented in their typical south-southwesterly migratory direction. Furthermore, they shifted their flight course clockwise by the predicted approximately 90 degrees after being advance clockshifted 6 h. We conclude that in migratory monarch butterflies, polarized light cues are not necessary for a time-compensated celestial compass to work and that the azimuthal position of the sun disc and/or the associated light-intensity and spectral gradients seem to be the migrants' major compass cue.

Stalleicken J; Mukhida M; Labhart T; Wehner R; Frost B; Mouritsen H

2005-06-01

88

Do neotropical migrant butterflies navigate using a solar compass?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Many tropical butterfly species are well-known for their migratory behaviour. Although these insects can maintain a constant direction throughout the day, the physiological mechanisms of orientation are unknown. It has been argued that tropical migrant butterflies must use a time-compensated sun compass to accomplish their journey, but the crucial experimental manipulations to test this hypothesis have not been conducted. This study reports the results of clock-shift experiments performed with two species of migrating butterflies (Pieridae: Aphrissa statira and Phoebis argante) captured during flight across Lake Gatun, Panama. The observed constant flight bearing of natural controls suggests that these species are capable of performing time-compensated celestial navigation. Our clock-shift experiments suggest that a sun compass is involved. Individuals submitted to a 4 h advance shift took significantly different mean orientations on release compared with control butterflies. The direction of this difference was consistent with the use of a sun compass. The magnitude was approximately half the predicted value if the vanishing bearing of released butterflies was used as the variable to evaluate the effect of time-shifting and approximately three-quarters of that predicted if the estimated heading was the variable used. Mean vanishing bearings of control and experimental butterflies did not correspond to predicted values. This difference can be attributed largely to the combined effects of wind and handling.

Oliveira EG; Srygley RB; Dudley R

1998-12-01

89

The effects of seasonally variable dragonfly predation on butterfly assemblages.  

Science.gov (United States)

Where predation is seasonally variable, the potential impact of a predator on individual prey species will critically depend on phenological synchrony of the predator with the prey. Here we explored the effects of seasonally variable predation in multispecies assemblages of short-lived prey. The study was conducted in a landscape in which we had previously demonstrated generally high, but spatially and seasonally variable dragonfly-induced mortality in adult butterflies. In this system, we show that patterns of patch occupancy in butterfly species flying during periods of peak dragonfly abundance are more strongly associated with spatial variation in dragonfly abundance than patch occupancy of species flying when dragonfly density was low. We provide evidence indicating that this differential sensitivity of different butterfly species to between-habitat differences in dragonfly abundance is causally tied to seasonal variation in the intensity of dragonfly predation. The effect of dragonfly predation could also be measured at the level of whole local butterfly assemblages. With dragonfly density increasing, butterfly species richness decreased, and butterfly species composition tended to show a shift toward a greater proportion of species flying during periods of off-peak dragonfly abundance. PMID:23600254

Tiitsaar, Anu; Kaasik, Ants; Teder, Tiit

2013-01-01

90

Painted Lady (Vanessa cardui) butterfly foraging on the invasive spotted knapweed (Centaurea maculosa) in summerer  

Science.gov (United States)

The butterfly is showing the behavior of foraging for nectar as well as the concept of plant-animal interactions. The flower that the Painted Lady butterfly is foraging on is a invasive species (spotted knapweed) of serious management concern in the United States generally, and Michigan specifically. With regard to mutualisms, the plant benefits from being pollinated while the butterfly gains food.

Lepczyk, Christopher

2010-02-16

91

Aerodynamic forces and vortical structures in flapping butterfly's forward flight  

Science.gov (United States)

Forward flights of a bilaterally symmetrically flapping butterfly modeled as a four-link rigid-body system consisting of a thorax, an abdomen, and left and right wings are numerically simulated. The joint motions of the butterflies are adopted from experimental observations. Three kinds of the simulations, distinguished by ways to determine the position and attitude of the thorax, are carried out: a tethered simulation, a prescribed simulation, and free-flight simulations. The upward and streamwise forces as well as the wake structures in the tethered simulation, where the thorax of the butterfly is fixed, reasonably agree with those in the corresponding tethered experiment. In the prescribed simulation, where the thoracic trajectories as well as the joint angles are given by those observed in a free-flight experiment, it is confirmed that the butterfly can produce enough forces to achieve the flapping flights. Moreover, coherent vortical structures in the wake and those on the wings are identified. The generation of the aerodynamic forces due to the vortical structures are also clarified. In the free-flight simulation, where only the joint angles are given as periodic functions of time, it is found that the free flight is longitudinally unstable because the butterfly cannot maintain the attitude in a proper range. Focusing on the abdominal mass, which largely varies owing to feeding and metabolizing, we have shown that the abdominal motion plays an important role in periodic flights. The necessity of control of the thoracic attitude for periodic flights and maneuverability is also discussed.

Yokoyama, Naoto; Senda, Kei; Iima, Makoto; Hirai, Norio

2013-02-01

92

Fire creates host plant patches for monarch butterflies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) depend on the presence of host plants (Asclepias spp.) within their breeding range for reproduction. In the southern Great Plains, Asclepias viridis is a perennial that flowers in May and June, and starts to senesce by August. It is locally abundant and readily used by monarchs as a host plant. We evaluated the effects of summer prescribed fire on A. viridis and the use of A. viridis by monarch butterflies. Summer prescribed fire generated a newly emergent population of A. viridis that was absent in other areas. Pre-migrant monarch butterflies laid eggs on A. viridis in summer burned plots in late August and September, allowing adequate time for a new generation of adult monarchs to emerge and migrate south to their overwintering grounds. Thus, summer prescribed fire may provide host plant patches and/or corridors for pre-migrant monarchs during a time when host plant availability may be limited in other areas. PMID:22859559

Baum, Kristen A; Sharber, Wyatt V

2012-08-01

93

Fire creates host plant patches for monarch butterflies.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) depend on the presence of host plants (Asclepias spp.) within their breeding range for reproduction. In the southern Great Plains, Asclepias viridis is a perennial that flowers in May and June, and starts to senesce by August. It is locally abundant and readily used by monarchs as a host plant. We evaluated the effects of summer prescribed fire on A. viridis and the use of A. viridis by monarch butterflies. Summer prescribed fire generated a newly emergent population of A. viridis that was absent in other areas. Pre-migrant monarch butterflies laid eggs on A. viridis in summer burned plots in late August and September, allowing adequate time for a new generation of adult monarchs to emerge and migrate south to their overwintering grounds. Thus, summer prescribed fire may provide host plant patches and/or corridors for pre-migrant monarchs during a time when host plant availability may be limited in other areas.

Baum KA; Sharber WV

2012-12-01

94

The Effect of Wing Scales on Monarch Butterfly Flight Characteristics  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent research has shown that the highly flexible wings of butterflies in flapping flight develop vortices along their leading and trailing edges. Butterfly scales (approximately 100 microns in length) have a shingled pattern and extend into the boundary layer. These scales, which make up approximately 3% of the body weight or less, could play a part in controlling separation and vortex formation in this unsteady, three-dimensional complex flow field. A better understanding of this mechanism may lead to bio-inspired applications for flapping wing micro-air vehicles. In this study, the flight performance of Monarch (Danaus plexippus) butterflies with and without scales was analyzed. Scales were removed from the upper and lower wing surfaces and specimens were videotaped at 600 frames per second. Variation in flapping patterns and flight fitness were observed.

Shaw, Angela; Jones, Robert; Lang, Amy

2010-11-01

95

Implementation Of The FFT Butterfly With Redundant Arithmetic  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We present an architecture for the implementation of the radix--4 FFT butterfly with redundantarithemtic, based in the utilization of carry--save adders and a signed--digit representation of themultipliers in the multiplications. As the carry propagation is eliminated, a high throughput ismaintained with a reduced hardware cost, when compared to other architectures based on carry--propagate additions.1 INTRODUCTIONSince the introduction of VLSI technology, much work has been done to develop architectures whichefficiently compute the FFT with one or more integrated circuits [5] [6] [8] [14]. The radix of thealgorithm affects the number of operations needed to compute the basic butterfly operation: radix--2results in simple butterflies and radix--4 results in a reduction of the number of stages. Moreover, thetype of arithmetic utilized has special impact on the final throughput of the architecture [2] [15].We present an architecture for the evaluation of the radix-4 FFT...

J. D. Bruguera; Facultad De Fisica

96

Host ant independent oviposition in the parasitic butterfly Maculinea alcon  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Parasitic Maculinea alcon butterflies can only develop in nests of a subset of available Myrmica ant species, so female butterflies have been hypothesized to preferentially lay eggs on plants close to colonies of the correct host ants. Previous correlational investigations of host-ant-dependent oviposition in this and other Maculinea species have, however, shown equivocal results, leading to a long-term controversy over support for this hypothesis. We therefore conducted a controlled field experiment to study the egg-laying behaviour of M. alcon. Matched potted Gentiana plants were set out close to host-ant nests and non-host-ant nests, and the number and position of eggs attached were assessed. Our results show no evidence for host-ant-based oviposition in M. alcon, but support an oviposition strategy based on plant characteristics. This suggests that careful management of host-ant distribution is necessary for conservation of this endangered butterfly.

Fürst, Matthias A; Nash, David Richard

2010-01-01

97

Unconventional lift-generating mechanisms in free-flying butterflies.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Flying insects generate forces that are too large to be accounted for by conventional steady-state aerodynamics. To investigate these mechanisms of force generation, we trained red admiral butterflies, Vanessa atalanta, to fly freely to and from artificial flowers in a wind tunnel, and used high-resolution, smoke-wire flow visualizations to obtain qualitative, high-speed digital images of the air flow around their wings. The images show that free-flying butterflies use a variety of unconventional aerodynamic mechanisms to generate force: wake capture, two different types of leading-edge vortex, active and inactive upstrokes, in addition to the use of rotational mechanisms and the Weis-Fogh 'clap-and-fling' mechanism. Free-flying butterflies often used different aerodynamic mechanisms in successive strokes. There seems to be no one 'key' to insect flight, instead insects rely on a wide array of aerodynamic mechanisms to take off, manoeuvre, maintain steady flight, and for landing.

Srygley RB; Thomas AL

2002-12-01

98

Two component butterfly hysteresis in Ru1222 ruthenocuprate  

CERN Multimedia

We report detailed studies of the ac susceptibility butterfly hysteresis on the Ru1222 ruthenocuprate compounds. Two separate contributions to these hysteresis have been identified and studied. One contribution is ferromagnetic-like and is characterized by the coercive field maximum. Another contribution, represented by the so called inverted maximum, is related to the unusual inverted loops, unique feature of Ru1222 butterfly hysteresis. The different nature of the two identified magnetic contributions is proved by the different temperature dependences involved. By lowering the temperature the inverted peak gradually disappears while the coercive field slowly raises. If the maximum dc field for the hysteresis is increased, the size of the inverted part of the butterfly hysteresis monotonously grows while the position of the peak saturates. In reaching saturation exponential field dependence has been demonstrated to take place. At T = 78 K the saturation field is 42 Oe.

Zivkovic, L; Prester, M

2005-01-01

99

AFM Study of Structure Influence on Butterfly Wings Coloration  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study describes the structural coloration of the butterfly Vanessa Atalanta wings and shows how the atomic force microscopy (AFM) can be applied to the study of wings morphology and wings surface behavior under the temperature. The role of the wings morphology in colors was investigated. Different colors of wings have different topology and can be identified by them. AFM in semi-contact mode was used to study the wings surface. The wing surface area, which is close to the butterfly body, has shiny brown color and the peak of surface roughness is about 600 nm. The changing of morphology at different temperatures is shown.

Dinara Sultanovna Dallaeva; Pavel Tomanek

2012-01-01

100

Fueling the fall migration of the monarch butterfly.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Monarch butterflies in eastern North America accumulate lipids during their fall migration to central Mexico, and use them as their energy source during a 5 month overwintering period. When and where along their migratory journey the butterflies accumulate these lipids has implications for the importance of fall nectar sources in North America. We analyzed the lipid content of 765 summer breeding and fall migrant monarch butterflies collected at 1 nectaring site in central Virginia over 4 years (1998-2001), and compared them with 16 additional published and unpublished datasets from other sites, dating back to 1941. Virginia migrants store significantly more lipid than summer butterflies, and show significant intraseason and between-year variation. None of the Virginia samples, and none of the historical samples, with one exception, had lipid levels comparable with those found in migrants that had reached Texas and northern Mexico. This evidence suggests that upon reaching Texas, the butterflies undergo a behavioral shift and spend more time nectaring. The one exceptional sample led us to the discovery that monarchs that form roosts along their migratory routes have higher lipid contents than monarchs collected while nectaring at flowers. We propose that for much of their journey monarchs are opportunistic migrants, and the variation within and between samples reflects butterflies' individual experiences. The stored lipids appear to be of less importance as fuel for the butterflies' migration than for their survival during their overwintering period, in part because soaring on favorable winds reduces the energetic cost of flying. The conservation of nectar plants in Texas and northern Mexico is crucial to sustaining the monarch's migratory spectacle, and nectar abundance throughout eastern North America is also important. As generalists in their selection of nectar sources and nectaring habitats, monarchs are unlikely to be affected by small changes in plant communities. Agricultural transformations of natural communities in the eastern United States and Great Plains, however, and especially the extensive planting of genetically modified herbicide-resistant soybeans and corn, may be changing the availability of nectar for monarchs and other pollinators. This new technology is eliminating virtually all forbs in and surrounding agricultural fields, including the monarch's larval hostplants (milkweeds) and native and nonnative nectar sources. To evaluate whether changes in nectar availability are altering the butterflies' ability to accumulate energy, we recommend that monarchs' lipid contents be assayed annually at sites throughout eastern North America.

Brower LP; Fink LS; Walford P

2006-12-01

 
 
 
 
101

MONARCH BUTTERFLIES AND BT CORN POLLEN: PHENOLOGY AND MOVEMENT CONSIDERATIONS  

Science.gov (United States)

Proven methods of risk assessment were used by a consortium of scientists to investigate the potential impact of Bt corn pollen on the monarch butterfly. Toxicity of Bt corn pollen and larval exposure to harmful levels of pollen were investigated. Research indicates that the potential risk to monarc...

102

MonarchBase: the monarch butterfly genome database  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) is emerging as a model organism to study the mechanisms of circadian clocks and animal navigation, and the genetic underpinnings of long-distance migration. The initial assembly of the monarch genome was released in 2011, and the biological interpretation of ...

Zhan, Shuai; Reppert, Steven M.

103

MONARCH BUTTERFLIES AND BT CORN: REPLACING HOOPLA WITH SCIENCE  

Science.gov (United States)

Proven methods of risk assessment were used by a consortium of scientists to investigate the potential impact of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) corn pollen on the monarch butterfly. Toxicity of Bt corn pollen and larval exposure to harmful levels of pollen were investigated. Research indicates that the...

104

Juvenile hormone regulation of longevity in the migratory monarch butterfly.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) of eastern North America are well known for their long-range migration to overwintering roosts in south-central Mexico. An essential feature of this migration involves the exceptional longevity of the migrant adults; individuals persist from August/September to March while their summer counterparts are likely to live less than two months as adults. Migrant adults persist during a state of reproductive diapause in which both male and female reproductive development is arrested as a consequence of suppressed synthesis of juvenile hormone. Here, we describe survival in monarch butterflies as a function of the migrant syndrome. We show that migrant adults are longer lived than summer adults when each are maintained under standard laboratory conditions, that the longevity of migrant adults is curtailed by treatment with juvenile hormone and that the longevity of summer adults is increased by 100% when juvenile hormone synthesis is prevented by surgical removal of its source, the corpora allatum. Thus, monarch butterfly persistence through a long winter season is ensured in part by reduced ageing that is under endocrine regulation, as well as by the unique environmental properties of their winter roost sites. Phenotypic plasticity for ageing is an integral component of the monarch butterflies' migration-diapause syndrome.

Herman WS; Tatar M

2001-12-01

105

The case of the monarch butterfly a verdict is returned  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A publication reporting the harmful effects on the monarch butterfly of maize genetically modified to express insecticidal delta-endotoxins from the soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis Bt caused much public interest. A series of ecologically based studies were subsequently carried out to evaluate ...

Romaan JM Raemaekers; Angharad MR Gatehouse; N Ferry

106

But Madame Butterfly, Where Are All the Males?  

Science.gov (United States)

This Scientific American article reports that a population of Samoan blue moon butterflies has been able to develop resistance to the male-killing bacteria Wolbachia. It explores how an introduced suppressor gene allowed resistant males to proliferate within the population in less than a year and includes future research questions.

Basu, Sourish; American, Scientific

107

Butterfly Floquet Spectrum in Driven SU(2) Systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Floquet spectrum of a class of driven SU(2) systems is shown to display a butterfly pattern with multifractal properties. The level crossing between Floquet states of the same parity or different parities is studied. The results are relevant to studies of fractal statistics, quantum chaos, coherent destruction of tunneling, and the validity of mean-field descriptions of Bose-Einstein condensates.

2009-06-19

108

Juvenile hormone regulation of longevity in the migratory monarch butterfly.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) of eastern North America are well known for their long-range migration to overwintering roosts in south-central Mexico. An essential feature of this migration involves the exceptional longevity of the migrant adults; individuals persist from August/September to...

Herman, W S; Tatar, M

109

Vegetation associated with the occurrence of the Brenton blue butterfly  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english The Brenton blue butterfly, Orachrysops niobe (Trimen), is critically endangered and known only from one site near Knysna in the Western Cape province of South Africa, now proclaimed as the Brenton Blue Butterfly Reserve (BBBR). We have explored associations between vegetation types and the presence of O. niobe's only host plant, Indigofera erecta (Thunb.), using Braun-Blanquet vegetation classification and ordination techniques as part of a broader research project at th (more) e BBBR. Positive correlations are demonstrated between the occurrence of I. erecta and certain thicket vegetation types dominated by Pterocelastrus tricuspidatus (candlewood trees). Ordinations using soil analysis and slope data have not detected significant environmental gradients influencing vegetation types. The high degree of vegetation heterogeneity at the BBBR appears to be driven in part by various disturbance histories. Historical ecological events at the site such as fire and megaherbivore impacts, and their role in sustaining the ideal habitat for I. erecta and O. niobe, are discussed. Management techniques for the BBBR such as controlled fires or the cutting of paths through the vegetation are evaluated and an optimum future management strategy is recommended. This is the most comprehensive vegetation study ever carried out at the habitat of an endangered butterfly in South Africa, and breaks new ground by using vegetation analysis to develop a well-informed management plan for conservation of this species. It has significance for the management of small sites where many such endangered butterflies occur.

Edge, D.A.; Cilliers, S.S.; Terblanche, R.F.

2008-12-01

110

Corridor Length and Patch Colonization by a Butterfly Junonia coenia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Habitat corridors have been proposed to reduce patch isolation and increase population persistence in fragmented landscapes. This study tested whether patch colonization was increased by the presence and various length corridors. The specific butterfly species tested has been shown to use corridors, however, the results indicate that neither the distance between patches or the presence of a corridor influenced colonization.

Nick Haddad

2000-06-01

111

Butterfly lesion of the corpus callosum due to Schilder's disease.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A 50 year old woman developed memory impairment and confusion over a 2 week period. CT scans of the brain showed a 'butterfly lesion' of the corpus callosum extending into the frontal lobes bilaterally. Stereotactic biopsy determined the lesion to be du e to demyelination. Further diagnostic investigations and the subsequent clinical course support the diagnosis of Schilder's disease.

Kiernan MC; Vonau M; Bullpitt PR; Tohver E; Milder DG

2001-07-01

112

Butterfly lesion of the corpus callosum due to Schilder's disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 50 year old woman developed memory impairment and confusion over a 2 week period. CT scans of the brain showed a 'butterfly lesion' of the corpus callosum extending into the frontal lobes bilaterally. Stereotactic biopsy determined the lesion to be du e to demyelination. Further diagnostic investigations and the subsequent clinical course support the diagnosis of Schilder's disease. PMID:11437583

Kiernan, M C; Vonau, M; Bullpitt, P R; Tohver, E; Milder, D G

2001-07-01

113

A meta-analysis of dispersal in butterflies.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Dispersal has recently gained much attention because of its crucial role in the conservation and evolution of species facing major environmental changes such as habitat loss and fragmentation, climate change, and their interactions. Butterflies have long been recognized as ideal model systems for the study of dispersal and a huge amount of data on their ability to disperse has been collected under various conditions. However, no single 'best' method seems to exist leading to the co-occurrence of various approaches to study butterfly mobility, and therefore a high heterogeneity among data on dispersal across this group. Accordingly, we here reviewed the knowledge accumulated on dispersal and mobility in butterflies, to detect general patterns. This meta-analysis specifically addressed two questions. Firstly, do the various methods provide a congruent picture of how dispersal ability is distributed across species? Secondly, is dispersal species-specific? Five sources of data were analysed: multisite mark-recapture experiments, genetic studies, experimental assessments, expert opinions, and transect surveys. We accounted for potential biases due to variation in genetic markers, sample sizes, spatial scales or the level of habitat fragmentation. We showed that the various dispersal estimates generally converged, and that the relative dispersal ability of species could reliably be predicted from their relative vagrancy (records of butterflies outside their normal habitat). Expert opinions gave much less reliable estimates of realized dispersal but instead reflected migration propensity of butterflies. Within-species comparisons showed that genetic estimates were relatively invariable, while other dispersal estimates were highly variable. This latter point questions dispersal as a species-specific, invariant trait.

Stevens VM; Turlure C; Baguette M

2010-08-01

114

Virtual migration in tethered flying monarch butterflies reveals their orientation mechanisms.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A newly developed flight simulator allows monarch butterflies to fly actively for up to several hours in any horizontal direction while their fall migratory flight direction can be continuously recorded. From these data, long segments of virtual flight paths of tethered, flying, migratory monarch butterflies were reconstructed, and by advancing or retarding the butterflies' circadian clocks, we have shown that they possess a time-compensated sun compass. Control monarchs on local time fly approximately southwest, those 6-h time-advanced fly southeast, and 6-h time-delayed butterflies fly in northwesterly directions. Moreover, butterflies flown in the same apparatus under simulated overcast in natural magnetic fields were randomly oriented and did not change direction when magnetic fields were rotated. Therefore, these experiments do not provide any evidence that monarch butterflies use a magnetic compass during migration.

Mouritsen H; Frost BJ

2002-07-01

115

Photonic nanoarchitectures occurring in butterfly scales as selective gas/vapor sensors  

Science.gov (United States)

Photonic band gap material type nanoarchitectures occurring in the wing scales of butterflies possessing structural color were investigated as selective gas/vapor sensors. From 20 examined butterfly species all showed selective sensing when various volatile organic compounds were introduced as additives in ambient air. Four butterflies species: Chrysiridia ripheus (Geometridae), Pseudolycena marsyas, Cyanophrys remus (both Lycaenidae) and Morpho aega (Nymphalidae) were selected to demonstrate the possibilities of selective sensing offered by these natural nanoarchitectures. Each butterfly species gives characteristic response both for species, i.e., for its typical nanoarchitecture, and for the seven test vapors used. Fast response time, reproducible and concentration dependent signals are demonstrated.

Biró, L. P.; Kertész, K.; Vértesy, Z.; Bálint, Zs.

2008-08-01

116

Probing viscosity of nanoliter droplets of butterfly saliva by magnetic rotational spectroscopy  

Science.gov (United States)

Magnetic rotational spectroscopy was employed for rheological analysis of nanoliter droplets of butterfly saliva. Saliva viscosity of butterflies is 4-5 times greater than that of water and similar to that of 30%-40% sucrose solutions at 25 °C. Hence, viscosity stratification would not be expected when butterflies feed on nectar with 30%-40% sugar concentrations. We did not observe any viscoelastic effects or non-Newtonian behavior of saliva droplets. Thus, butterfly saliva is significantly different rheologically from that of humans, which demonstrates a viscoelastic behavior.

Tokarev, Alexander; Kaufman, Bethany; Gu, Yu; Andrukh, Taras; Adler, Peter H.; Kornev, Konstantin G.

2013-01-01

117

Sun compass integration of skylight cues in migratory monarch butterflies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Migrating monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) use a time-compensated sun compass to navigate from eastern North America to their overwintering grounds in central Mexico. Here we describe the neuronal layout of those aspects of the butterfly's central complex likely to establish part of the internal sun compass and find them highly homologous to those of the desert locust. Intracellular recordings from neurons in the monarch sun compass network reveal responses tuned to specific E-vector angles of polarized light, as well as azimuth-dependent responses to unpolarized light, independent of spectral composition. The neural responses to these two stimuli in individual neurons are mediated through different regions of the compound eye. Moreover, these dual responses are integrated to create a consistent representation of skylight cues in the sun compass throughout the day. The results advance our understanding of how ambiguous sensory signals are processed by the brain to elicit a robust behavioral response. PMID:21262471

Heinze, Stanley; Reppert, Steven M

2011-01-27

118

Sun compass integration of skylight cues in migratory monarch butterflies.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Migrating monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) use a time-compensated sun compass to navigate from eastern North America to their overwintering grounds in central Mexico. Here we describe the neuronal layout of those aspects of the butterfly's central complex likely to establish part of the internal sun compass and find them highly homologous to those of the desert locust. Intracellular recordings from neurons in the monarch sun compass network reveal responses tuned to specific E-vector angles of polarized light, as well as azimuth-dependent responses to unpolarized light, independent of spectral composition. The neural responses to these two stimuli in individual neurons are mediated through different regions of the compound eye. Moreover, these dual responses are integrated to create a consistent representation of skylight cues in the sun compass throughout the day. The results advance our understanding of how ambiguous sensory signals are processed by the brain to elicit a robust behavioral response.

Heinze S; Reppert SM

2011-01-01

119

Multiple approaches to study color pattern evolution in butterflies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The myriad colors and patterns on butterfly wings have caught the attention of biologists for well over a century. Today, with the advent of more sophisticated genetic and developmental tools, it is possible to identify and study the evolution of genes, gene networks, and the effect of the environment on the networks underlying wing color patterning. In addition, using molecular phylogenies and the comparative approach, it is possible to infer ancestral wing patterns, direction of evolutionary change, and occurrence of parallelism and convergence. Finally, the driving forces behind wing pattern evolution can be estimated using bioassay studies such as predator–prey and mate choice experiments. Here we review the different approaches to answer both proximate and ultimate questions about butterfly wing pattern evolution, and we highlight future research directions in a field that has the potential to become truly integrative.

Antonia Monteiro; Kathleen M. Prudic

2010-01-01

120

Optimal laser welding assembly sequences for butterfly laser module packages.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We present an optimal laser welding assembly sequence for butterfly laser packages: 1) initial shift, 2) front welding, 3) rear welding, 4) joint gripper releasing, 5) mechanical fine tuning of horizontal misalignment. This sequence has been optimized significantly by modeling the initial shift and experimental investigations of three assembly sequences. Our results show that misalignment from the Post-Weld-Shift (PWS) can be compensated by accurately estimating the initial shift in the vertical direction. Furthermore, the laser hammering procedure, to compensate for misalignment of the vertical direction, can be eliminated by proper package design. Using only final mechanical tuning for horizontal misalignments, optical coupling efficiencies of 73-99% have been achieved for lasers packaged in butterfly modules.

Song JH; O'Brien P; Peters FH

2009-09-01

 
 
 
 
121

Optimal laser welding assembly sequences for butterfly laser module packages.  

Science.gov (United States)

We present an optimal laser welding assembly sequence for butterfly laser packages: 1) initial shift, 2) front welding, 3) rear welding, 4) joint gripper releasing, 5) mechanical fine tuning of horizontal misalignment. This sequence has been optimized significantly by modeling the initial shift and experimental investigations of three assembly sequences. Our results show that misalignment from the Post-Weld-Shift (PWS) can be compensated by accurately estimating the initial shift in the vertical direction. Furthermore, the laser hammering procedure, to compensate for misalignment of the vertical direction, can be eliminated by proper package design. Using only final mechanical tuning for horizontal misalignments, optical coupling efficiencies of 73-99% have been achieved for lasers packaged in butterfly modules. PMID:19770854

Song, Jeong Hwan; O'Brien, Peter; Peters, Frank H

2009-09-14

122

Bloch electrons in a magnetic field: Hofstadter's butterfly  

Science.gov (United States)

The quantum mechanics of Bloch electrons in a magnetic field has been in the focus of theoretical studies since long times. Hofstadter's butterfly, this highly aesthetic, self-similar single-particle spectrum calculated by Douglas R. Hofstadter during a visit 1976 in Regensburg, has probably become the most popular result in this field. Having in mind electrons in real crystal lattices Hofstadter at his time did not expect experimental verification of the butterfly. However, with the advent of 2D electron systems confined to semiconductor interfaces artificial periodic structures with sufficiently large lattice constants can be realized, that make the Hofstadter spectrum a target of experimental investigations. This contribution reviews the essential concepts of describing 2D Bloch electrons in a magnetic field, and in particular more recent efforts to demonstrate the peculiarities of the magnetic miniband structure in magnetotransport.

Rössler, Ulrich; Suhrke, Michael

123

Diversity of Butterflies from District Muzaffarabad, Azad Kashmir  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The adult butterflies were collected from nine localities of district Muzaffarabad through out the summer season of (April to October) 2001. A total of 28 species belonging to 7 families were collected. Diversity was calculated by using Shannon-Wiener diversity index, Shannon`s equitability, Margalef`s index, Simpson`s index and RI index. The calculated values showed that the lowest diversity was obtained from Kohala and highest diversity was obtained from Shaeed Gali and Gari Dopatta.

M. Rafique Khan; M. Nasim; M. Rahim Khan; M.A. Rafi

2004-01-01

124

Evidence for positive density-dependent emigration in butterfly metapopulations.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A positive effect of (meta)population density on emigration has been predicted by many theoretical models and confirmed empirically in various organisms. However, in butterflies, the most popular species for dispersal studies, the evidence for its existence has so far been equivocal, with negative relationships between density and emigration being reported more frequently. We analysed dispersal in sympatric metapopulations of two Maculinea butterflies, intensively surveyed with mark-release-recapture methods for 7 years. Dispersal parameters, derived using the virtual migration model, were assessed against butterfly densities, which fluctuated strongly over the study period. Emigration was positively correlated with density, and this effect was particularly strong at densities above carrying capacity, when emigration increased up to threefold in females and twofold in males compared with the normal levels. In turn, density had little impact on other dispersal parameters analysed. Our findings provide good evidence for positive density-dependence of emigration in butterflies. Emigrating at high densities is particularly beneficial for females, because it gives them a chance to lay part of their egg-load in less crowded patches, where offspring survival is higher due to lower intraspecific competition. Even though the rise in emigration becomes considerable at densities exceeding carrying capacity, i.e. relatively infrequently, it still has serious implications for many ecological phenomena, such as species range expansions, gene flow, and metapopulation persistence. Consequently, instead of treating emigration as a fixed trait, it is worth allowing for its density-dependence in applications such as population viability analyses, genetic models or metapopulation models.

Nowicki P; Vrabec V

2011-11-01

125

Monarch butterfly migration in North America: Controversy and conservation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The monarch butterfly is the most spectacular example of insect migration known. Monarchs are threatened by the destruction of their over-wintering sites in Mexico, California and elsewhere, and many efforts are being made to conserve these sites. However, a controversial recent suggestion, that some monarch populations may not migrate at all, has jeopardized some of these efforts. This article assesses the evidence for and against the new suggestion. PMID:21227836

Malcolm, S B

1987-05-01

126

Monarch butterfly migration in North America: Controversy and conservation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The monarch butterfly is the most spectacular example of insect migration known. Monarchs are threatened by the destruction of their over-wintering sites in Mexico, California and elsewhere, and many efforts are being made to conserve these sites. However, a controversial recent suggestion, that some monarch populations may not migrate at all, has jeopardized some of these efforts. This article assesses the evidence for and against the new suggestion.

Malcolm SB

1987-05-01

127

Corridor Length and Patch Colonization by a Butterfly, Junonia coenia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Study hypothesized that corridors increase patch colonization by Junonia coenia regardless of insects initial distance from patch, as the butterfly is known to move between patches preferentially through corridors. Neither corridor nor distance had significant effect on patch colonization, but significant interaction between presence or absence of corridors and distance. One critical factor is interpatch distance which may determine the relative effectiveness of corridors and other landscape configurations.

Haddad, N.

1999-01-22

128

BUTTERFLIES OF UGANDA: MEMORIES OF A CHILD SOLDIER  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available "I was conceived in rape."[i] At least for this reviewer, this is one of the most powerful, hard-hitting opening lines of any book he has read to date. Moreover, from there this powerful text continues to hold the reader captive, and refuses to allow him or her to fall back in a slumber of indifference. [i] Opening line of Butterflies of Uganda.

Gerhard Van Zyl

2012-01-01

129

Assessing citizen contributions to butterfly monitoring in two large cities.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Citizen science may be especially effective in urban landscapes due to the large pool of potential volunteers. However, there have been few evaluations of the contributions of citizen scientists to knowledge of biological communities in and around cities. To assess the effectiveness of citizen scientists' monitoring of species in urban areas, we compared butterfly data collected over 10 years in Chicago, Illinois (U.S.A.), and New York City, New York (U.S.A.). The dates, locations, and methods of data collection in Chicago were standardized, whereas data from New York were collected at any location at any time. For each city, we evaluated whether the number of observers, observation days (days on which observations were reported), and sampling locations were associated with the reported proportion of the estimated regional pool of butterfly species. We also compared the number of volunteers, duration of volunteer involvement, and consistency of sampling efforts at individual locations within each city over time. From 2001 to 2010, there were 73 volunteers in Chicago and 89 in New York. During this period, volunteers observed 86% and 89% of the estimated number of butterfly species present in Chicago and New York, respectively. Volunteers in New York reported a greater proportion of the estimated pool of butterfly species per year. In addition, more species were observed per volunteer and observation day in New York, largely due to the unrestricted sampling season in New York. Chicago volunteers were active for more years and monitored individual locations more consistently over time than volunteers in New York. Differences in monitoring protocol--especially length of sampling season and selection protocol for monitoring locations--influenced the relationship between species accrual and sampling effort, which suggests these factors are important in volunteer-based species-monitoring programs.

Matteson KC; Taron DJ; Minor ES

2012-06-01

130

MonarchBase: the monarch butterfly genome database.  

Science.gov (United States)

The monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) is emerging as a model organism to study the mechanisms of circadian clocks and animal navigation, and the genetic underpinnings of long-distance migration. The initial assembly of the monarch genome was released in 2011, and the biological interpretation of the genome focused on the butterfly's migration biology. To make the extensive data associated with the genome accessible to the general biological and lepidopteran communities, we established MonarchBase (available at http://monarchbase.umassmed.edu). The database is an open-access, web-available portal that integrates all available data associated with the monarch butterfly genome. Moreover, MonarchBase provides access to an updated version of genome assembly (v3) upon which all data integration is based. These include genes with systematic annotation, as well as other molecular resources, such as brain expressed sequence tags, migration expression profiles and microRNAs. MonarchBase utilizes a variety of retrieving methods to access data conveniently and for integrating biological interpretations. PMID:23143105

Zhan, Shuai; Reppert, Steven M

2012-11-09

131

MonarchBase: the monarch butterfly genome database.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) is emerging as a model organism to study the mechanisms of circadian clocks and animal navigation, and the genetic underpinnings of long-distance migration. The initial assembly of the monarch genome was released in 2011, and the biological interpretation of the genome focused on the butterfly's migration biology. To make the extensive data associated with the genome accessible to the general biological and lepidopteran communities, we established MonarchBase (available at http://monarchbase.umassmed.edu). The database is an open-access, web-available portal that integrates all available data associated with the monarch butterfly genome. Moreover, MonarchBase provides access to an updated version of genome assembly (v3) upon which all data integration is based. These include genes with systematic annotation, as well as other molecular resources, such as brain expressed sequence tags, migration expression profiles and microRNAs. MonarchBase utilizes a variety of retrieving methods to access data conveniently and for integrating biological interpretations.

Zhan S; Reppert SM

2013-01-01

132

Morphological comparison of pupal wing cuticle patterns in butterflies.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Butterfly wing color-patterns are determined in the prospective wing tissues during the late larval and early pupal stages. To study the cellular differentiation process of wings, morphological knowledge on pupal wings is prerequisite. Here we systematically examined morphological patterns of the pupal wing cuticular surface in a wide variety of nymphalid butterflies in relation to adult color-patterns. Several kinds of pupal wing patterns corresponding to particular adult color-pattern elements were widely observed in many species. Especially noteworthy were the pupal "focal" spots corresponding to the adult border ocelli system, which were detected in many species of Nymphalinae, Apaturinae, Argynninae, Satyrinae, and Danainae. Striped patterns on the pupal wing cuticle seen in some species of Limenitinae, Ariadnae, and Marpesiinae directly corresponded to those of the adult wings. In Vanessa cardui, eyespot-like pattern elements were tentatively produced during development in the wing tissue underneath the pupal spots and subsequently erased, suggesting a mechanism for producing novel color-patterns in the course of development and evolution. The pupal focal spots reasonably correlated with the adult eyespots in size in Precis orithya and Ypthima argus. We physically damaged the pupal focal spots and their corresponding cells underneath in these species, which abolished or inhibited the formation of the adult eyespots. Taken together, our results clarified that pupal cuticle patterns were often indicative of the adult color-patterns and apparently reflect molecular activity of organizing centers for the adult color-pattern formation at least in nymphalid butterflies.

Otaki JM; Ogasawara T; Yamamoto H

2005-01-01

133

Species-specific color-pattern modifications of butterfly wings.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We have previously shown that the systemic injection of sodium tungstate, a general protein-tyrosine phosphatase (PTPase) inhibitor, efficiently produces characteristic color-pattern modifications on the wings of the Painted Lady butterfly, Vanessa cardui. By using this method in the present study, we analyzed modification patterns of six species of Japanese butterflies. Whereas in Vanessa indica the black spots on the forewings reduced in size in response to the treatment, in Lycaena phlaeas the morphologically similar black spots enlarged in size. However, the metallic blue spots on the forewings of V. indica did enlarge in size, showing different behavior even within a single wing surface. The response patterns of Ypthima argus differed markedly from those of other species in that ectopic color-pattern elements were created. Colias erate showed minor modifications that coincidentally resembled the natural color-pattern of a closely related species, Colias palaeno. Through a comprehensive literature search, we confirmed the existence of naturally occurring aberrant color patterns with close similarities to the experimentally induced phenocopies in each of the modified species. Our results point out the possibility that a hypothetical transduction pathway with a PTPase for the scale-cell differentiation globally coordinates the wing-wide color-pattern development in butterflies.

Otaki JM; Yamamoto H

2004-02-01

134

Morphological comparison of pupal wing cuticle patterns in butterflies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Butterfly wing color-patterns are determined in the prospective wing tissues during the late larval and early pupal stages. To study the cellular differentiation process of wings, morphological knowledge on pupal wings is prerequisite. Here we systematically examined morphological patterns of the pupal wing cuticular surface in a wide variety of nymphalid butterflies in relation to adult color-patterns. Several kinds of pupal wing patterns corresponding to particular adult color-pattern elements were widely observed in many species. Especially noteworthy were the pupal "focal" spots corresponding to the adult border ocelli system, which were detected in many species of Nymphalinae, Apaturinae, Argynninae, Satyrinae, and Danainae. Striped patterns on the pupal wing cuticle seen in some species of Limenitinae, Ariadnae, and Marpesiinae directly corresponded to those of the adult wings. In Vanessa cardui, eyespot-like pattern elements were tentatively produced during development in the wing tissue underneath the pupal spots and subsequently erased, suggesting a mechanism for producing novel color-patterns in the course of development and evolution. The pupal focal spots reasonably correlated with the adult eyespots in size in Precis orithya and Ypthima argus. We physically damaged the pupal focal spots and their corresponding cells underneath in these species, which abolished or inhibited the formation of the adult eyespots. Taken together, our results clarified that pupal cuticle patterns were often indicative of the adult color-patterns and apparently reflect molecular activity of organizing centers for the adult color-pattern formation at least in nymphalid butterflies. PMID:15684580

Otaki, Joji M; Ogasawara, Tsuyoshi; Yamamoto, Haruhiko

2005-01-01

135

EFFECTS OF CRY1AB-EXPRESSING CORN ANTHERS ON MONARCH BUTTERFLY LARVAE  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous studies suggest that exposure to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) corn anthers may have adverse effects on populations of the monarch butterfly, Danaus plexippus (L.). To explore the risk of Bt-corn anthers to monarch butterflies, studies were designed to quantify anther distribution in space an...

136

Study of nano-architecture of the wings of Paris Peacock butterfly  

Science.gov (United States)

Butterflies are one of the most colorful creatures in animal Kingdom. Wings of the male butterfly are brilliantly colored to attract females. Color of the wings plays an important role in camouflage. Study of structural colors in case of insects and butterflies are important for their biomimic and biophotonic applications. Structural color is the color which is produced by physical structures and their interaction with light. Paris Peacock or Papilio paris butterfly belongs to the family Papilionidae. The basis of structural color of this butterfly is investigated in the present study. The upper surface of the wings in this butterfly is covered with blue, green and brown colored scales. Nano-architecture of these scales was investigated with scanning electron microscope (SEM) and environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM). Photomicrographs were analyzed using image analysis software. Goniometric color or iridescence in blue and green colored scales of this butterfly was observed and studied with the help of gonio spectrophotometer in the visible range. No iridescence was observed in brown colored scales of the butterfly. Hues of the blue and green color were measured with spectrophotometer and were correlated with nano-architecture of the wing. Results of electron microscopy and reflection spectroscopy are used to explain the iridescent nature of blue and green scales. Sinusoidal grating like structures of these scales were prominently seen in the blue scales. It is possible that the structure of these wings can act as a template for the fabrication of sinusoidal gratings using nano-imprint technology.

Ghate, Ekata; Bhoraskar, S. V.; Kulkarni, G. R.

137

Butterfly Pea (Clitoria ternatea): A Nutritive Multipurpose Forage Legume for the Tropics - An Overview  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Butterfly pea (Clitoria ternatea) is a multi-purpose forage legume. It provides bioactive compounds for medicinal use and it is also an ornamental plant and cover crop. It is adaptable to a wide range of temperature, rainfall and altitude. Butterfly pea, a highly palatable forage legume is ge...

S. Michael Gomez; A. Kalamani

138

Behavioural resistance against a protozoan parasite in the monarch butterfly.  

Science.gov (United States)

1. As parasites can dramatically reduce the fitness of their hosts, there should be strong selection for hosts to evolve and maintain defence mechanisms against their parasites. One way in which hosts may protect themselves against parasitism is through altered behaviours, but such defences have been much less studied than other forms of parasite resistance. 2. We studied whether monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus L.) use altered behaviours to protect themselves and their offspring against the protozoan parasite Ophryocystis elektroscirrha (McLaughlin & Myers (1970), Journal of Protozoology, 17, p. 300). In particular, we studied whether (i) monarch larvae can avoid contact with infectious parasite spores; (ii) infected larvae preferentially consume therapeutic food plants when given a choice or increase the intake of such plants in the absence of choice; and (iii) infected female butterflies preferentially lay their eggs on medicinal plants that make their offspring less sick. 3. We found that monarch larvae were unable to avoid infectious parasite spores. Larvae were also not able to preferentially feed on therapeutic food plants or increase the ingestion of such plants. However, infected female butterflies preferentially laid their eggs on food plants that reduce parasite growth in their offspring. 4. Our results suggest that animals may use altered behaviours as a protection against parasites and that such behaviours may be limited to a single stage in the host-parasite life cycle. Our results also suggest that animals may use altered behaviours to protect their offspring instead of themselves. Thus, our study indicates that an inclusive fitness approach should be adopted to study behavioural defences against parasites. PMID:21939438

Lefèvre, Thierry; Chiang, Allen; Kelavkar, Mangala; Li, Hui; Li, James; de Castillejo, Carlos Lopez Fernandez; Oliver, Lindsay; Potini, Yamini; Hunter, Mark D; de Roode, Jacobus C

2011-09-21

139

Behavioural resistance against a protozoan parasite in the monarch butterfly.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

1. As parasites can dramatically reduce the fitness of their hosts, there should be strong selection for hosts to evolve and maintain defence mechanisms against their parasites. One way in which hosts may protect themselves against parasitism is through altered behaviours, but such defences have been much less studied than other forms of parasite resistance. 2. We studied whether monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus L.) use altered behaviours to protect themselves and their offspring against the protozoan parasite Ophryocystis elektroscirrha (McLaughlin & Myers (1970), Journal of Protozoology, 17, p. 300). In particular, we studied whether (i) monarch larvae can avoid contact with infectious parasite spores; (ii) infected larvae preferentially consume therapeutic food plants when given a choice or increase the intake of such plants in the absence of choice; and (iii) infected female butterflies preferentially lay their eggs on medicinal plants that make their offspring less sick. 3. We found that monarch larvae were unable to avoid infectious parasite spores. Larvae were also not able to preferentially feed on therapeutic food plants or increase the ingestion of such plants. However, infected female butterflies preferentially laid their eggs on food plants that reduce parasite growth in their offspring. 4. Our results suggest that animals may use altered behaviours as a protection against parasites and that such behaviours may be limited to a single stage in the host-parasite life cycle. Our results also suggest that animals may use altered behaviours to protect their offspring instead of themselves. Thus, our study indicates that an inclusive fitness approach should be adopted to study behavioural defences against parasites.

Lefèvre T; Chiang A; Kelavkar M; Li H; Li J; de Castillejo CL; Oliver L; Potini Y; Hunter MD; de Roode JC

2012-01-01

140

Diversity of Butterflies from District Bagh, Azad Kashmir  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The adult butterflies were collected from ten localities of Distt. Bagh through out the year 1998. A total of 27 species belonging to 5 families and 15 genera were collected. Diversity was calculated by using Shannon-Wiener`s diversity index, Shannon`s equitability, Margalef`s index, Simpson`s index and RI index. The calculated values showed that diversity was slightly higher at Sudhan Gali and Mang Bajri, where as it was lower at Naumanpura. None of the reported species was found to be threatened to become extinct or found to be favored by enriched flora.

M. Rafique Khan; R. Ahmed; M. Rahim Khan; A. Hayat; M. Khalid

2003-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Interrelation Between Some Butterflies and Plant Associations (Turkey)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The butterfly fauna in Ordu province (N-Turkey) was determined in this study. Their relations with the phytosociological associations found in the zone were evaluated and the Lepidoptera taxa in these units were presented. The numbers of determined taxa in each plant association are Castanea-Carpinus-Corylus (23), Fagus orientalis, Carpinus betulus and Picea orientalis Mixed Forest Zone (23), Subalpine Zone (Rhododendron luteum-Vaccinium myrtillus) (25), Lower Alpine Zone (Festuca lazistanica ssp. giresunica) (20), Mid-alpine Zone (Festuca lazistanica ssp. giresunica) (13). Fifteen taxa are new for Ordu province.

M. Özdemir; S. Seven

2007-01-01

142

Illuminating the circadian clock in monarch butterfly migration.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Migratory monarch butterflies use a time-compensated Sun compass to navigate to their overwintering grounds in Mexico. Here, we report that constant light, which disrupts circadian clock function at both the behavioral and molecular levels in monarchs, also disrupts the time-compensated component of flight navigation. We further show that ultraviolet light is important for flight navigation but is not required for photic entrainment of circadian rhythms. Tracing these distinct light-input pathways into the brain should aid our understanding of the clock-compass mechanisms necessary for successful migration.

Froy O; Gotter AL; Casselman AL; Reppert SM

2003-05-01

143

Butterfly eyespot serial homology: enter the Hox genes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Hox genes modify serial homology patterns in many organisms, exemplified in vertebrates by modification of the axial skeleton and in arthropods by diversification of the body segments. Butterfly wing eyespots also appear in a serial homologous pattern that, in certain species, is subject to local modification. A paper in EvoDevo reports the Hox gene Antp is the earliest known gene to have eyespot-specific expression; however, not all Lepidoptera express Antp in eyespots, suggesting some developmental flexibility. See research article: http://www.evodevojournal.com/content/2/1/9

Hombría James

2011-01-01

144

Butterfly-shaped macular dystrophy in four generations.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Four generations in a family were affected by butterfly-shaped macular dystrophy. Affected members ranged in age from 8 to 77 years. In addition to the primary features of autosomal dominant inheritance, bilateral symmetrical pigmented macular lesion, and a low electrooculographic light peak-dark trough ratio, we discovered additional progressive changes: peripapillary and parafoveal chorioretinal atrophy, enlarged blind spots, and paracentral scotomas with diminished visual acuity late. Because of the progressive change in the ophthalmologic appearance of the fundus, the diagnosis could easily be overlooked in advanced cases.

Prensky JG; Bresnick GH

1983-08-01

145

Eyespot display in the peacock butterfly triggers antipredator behaviors in naïve adult fowl.  

Science.gov (United States)

Large conspicuous eyespots have evolved in multiple taxa and presumably function to thwart predator attacks. Traditionally, large eyespots were thought to discourage predator attacks because they mimicked eyes of the predators' own predators. However, this idea is controversial and the intimidating properties of eyespots have recently been suggested to simply be a consequence of their conspicuousness. Some lepidopteran species include large eyespots in their antipredation repertoire. In the peacock butterfly, Inachis io, eyespots are typically hidden during rest and suddenly exposed by the butterfly when disturbed. Previous experiments have shown that small wild passerines are intimidated by this display. Here, we test whether eyespots also intimidate a considerably larger bird, domestic fowl, Gallus gallus domesticus, by staging interactions between birds and peacock butterflies that were sham-painted or had their eyespots painted over. Our results show that birds typically fled when peacock butterflies performed their display regardless of whether eyespots were visible or painted over. However, birds confronting butterflies with visible eyespots delayed their return to the butterfly, were more vigilant, and more likely to utter alarm calls associated with detection of ground-based predators, compared with birds confronting butterflies with eyespots painted over. Because production of alarm calls and increased vigilance are antipredation behaviors in the fowl, their reaction suggests that eyespots may elicit fear rather than just an aversion to conspicuous patterns. Our results, therefore, suggest that predators perceive large lepidopteran eyespots as belonging to the eyes of a potential predator. PMID:23243378

Olofsson, Martin; Løvlie, Hanne; Tibblin, Jessika; Jakobsson, Sven; Wiklund, Christer

2012-12-17

146

Compensation for fluctuations in crosswind drift without stationary landmarks in butterflies migrating over seas.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Migrating insects may fly over large bodies of water that lack landmarks, but little is known about their ability to navigate in such a fluid environment. Using boat navigation instruments to measure compensation for fluctuations in crosswind drift, I investigated the ability of butterflies (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae, Nymphalidae and Pieridae) to orient with and without landmarks as they migrated naturally over the Caribbean Sea. I used the presence or absence of landmarks or clouds to evaluate their use by the butterflies as guides for compensation. Forty-one per cent of the butterflies compensated for crosswind drift, whereas only 16% did not compensate. No conclusion could be drawn for the remainder. Without landmarks or clouds, butterflies were significantly less likely to compensate for drift than when these local cues were present. Butterflies were more likely to compensate fully in the presence of a landmark than when only clouds were present. Phoebis sennae butterflies drifted in the morning and overcompensated for drift in the afternoon, a pattern found both within and between individuals independent of landmarks. Although I cannot exclude the use of clouds, this would probably result in undercompensation. Hence, a ground reference in conjunction with a sun or magnetic compass is the most likely orientation cue. In the absence of clouds, one butterfly compensated, at least in part, indicating that it was using ripples on the sea surface as a ground reference in conjunction with a sun or magnetic compass. Copyright 2001 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

Srygley RB

2001-01-01

147

Larval starvation reduces responsiveness to feeding stimuli and does not affect feeding preferences in a butterfly.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

It is commonly assumed that holometabolic insects such as Lepidoptera rely primarily on larval storage reserves for reproduction. Recent studies though have documented a prominent role of adult-derived carbohydrates for butterfly reproduction. Moreover, a few studies have shown that adult butterflies may also benefit from adult-derived amino acids, at least when larval storage reserves are reduced. Given that in holometabolous insects larval deficiencies are carried over into the adult stage, reduced storage reserves have the potential to modulate adult feeding preferences and responses in order to allow for a successful compensation. We tested this hypothesis here in the fruit-feeding butterfly Bicyclus anynana using larval food stress to manipulate storage reserves. Alcohols (methanol, ethanol, butanol, propanol), sugars (maltose, glucose, fructose, sucrose), and acetic acid acted as feeding stimuli, while butterflies did not respond to other substances such as amino acids, yeast, salts, or vitamins. Contrary to expectations, stressed butterflies showed a weaker response than controls to several feeding stimuli. In preference tests, butterflies preferred sugar solutions containing proline, arginine, glutamic acid, acetic acid, or ethanol over plain sugar solutions, but discriminated against salts. However, there were no general differences among starved and control butterflies. We conclude that larval food-stress does not elicit compensatory feeding behavior such as a stronger preference for amino acids or other essential nutrients in B. anynana. Instead, the stress imposed by a period of starvation yielded negative effects.

Kehl T; Fischer K

2012-07-01

148

Assessing the effect of the time since transition to organic farming on plants and butterflies.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

1.Environmental changes may not always result in rapid changes in species distributions, abundances or diversity. In order to estimate the effects of, for example, land-use changes caused by agri-environment schemes (AES) on biodiversity and ecosystem services, information on the time-lag between the application of the scheme and the responses of organisms is essential.2.We examined the effects of time since transition (TST) to organic farming on plant species richness and butterfly species richness and abundance. Surveys were conducted in cereal fields and adjacent field margins on 60 farms, 20 conventional and 40 organic, in two regions in Sweden. The organic farms were transferred from conventional management between 1 and 25 years before the survey took place. The farms were selected along a gradient of landscape complexity, indicated by the proportion of arable land, so that farms with similar TST were represented in all landscape types. Organism responses were assessed using model averaging.3.Plant and butterfly species richness was c.20% higher on organic farms and butterfly abundance was about 60% higher, compared with conventional farms. Time since transition affected butterfly abundance gradually over the 25-year period, resulting in a 100% increase. In contrast, no TST effect on plant or butterfly species richness was found, indicating that the main effect took place immediately after the transition to organic farming.4.Increasing landscape complexity had a positive effect on butterfly species richness, but not on butterfly abundance or plant species richness. There was no indication that the speed of response to organic farming was affected by landscape complexity.5.Synthesis and applications. The effect of organic farming on diversity was rapid for plant and butterfly species richness, whereas butterfly abundance increased gradually with time since transition. If time-lags in responses to AESs turn out to be common, long-term effects would need to be included in management recommendations and policy to capture the full potential of such schemes.

Jonason D; Andersson GK; Ockinger E; Rundlöf M; Smith HG; Bengtsson J

2011-06-01

149

Butterfly (Lepidoptera: Insecta) Diversity from Different Sites of Jhagadia, Ankleshwar, District-Bharuch, Gujarat  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Lepidoptera is a large order of insects that includes moths and butterflies. Lepidoptera is the second largest order in the class Insecta. Some of the butterfly species were identified as indicators of disturbance in any area. The present study conducted in three sites of taluka Jhagadia, Ankleshwar, District-Bharuch, Gujarat. In the present study a total of 484 individuals belonging to 58 species of 9 families were identified. Among which Pieridae was found to be the most dominant family. The area of study having rich diversity of butterflies, therefore it should be of great importance for conservation.

Ashok Kumar

2013-01-01

150

Unsteady Flow and Force Control in Butterfly Take-off Flight  

CERN Multimedia

In this work, high-resolution, high-speed videos of a Monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) in take-off flight were obtained using a photogrammetry system. Using a 3D subdivision surface reconstruction methodology, the butterfly's body/wing deformation and kinematics were modeled and reconstructed from those videos. High fidelity simulations were then carried out in order to understand vortex formation in both near-field and far-field of butterfly wings and examine the associated aerodynamic performance. A Cartesian grid based sharp interface immersed boundary solver was used to handle such flows in all their complexity.

Dong, Haibo; Liang, Zongxian; Yun, Xiang

2012-01-01

151

Butterfly-shaped pentanuclear dysprosium single-molecule magnets.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two new "butterfly-shaped" pentanuclear dysprosium(III) clusters, [Dy5 (?3 -OH)3 (opch)6 (H2 O)3 ]?3?MeOH? 9?H2 O (1) and [Dy5 (?3 -OH)3 (Hopch)2 (opch)4 (MeOH)(H2 O)2 ]?(ClO4 )2 ? 6?MeOH?4?H2 O (2), which were based on the heterodonor-chelating ligand o-vanillin pyrazine acylhydrazone (H2 opch), have been successfully synthesized by applying different reaction conditions. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that the butterfly-shaped cores in both compounds were comparable. However, their magnetic properties were drastically different. Indeed, compound 1 showed dual slow-relaxation processes with a transition between them that corresponded to energy gaps (?) of 8.1 and 37.9?K and pre-exponential factors (?0 ) of 1.7×10(-5) and 9.7×10(-8) ?s for the low- and high-temperature domains, respectively, whilst only a single relaxation process was noted for compound 2 (?=197?K, ?0 =3.2×10(-9) ?s). These significant disparities are most likely due to the versatile coordination of the H2 opch ligands with particular keto-enol tautomerism, which alters the strength of the local crystal field and, hence, the nature or direction of the easy axes of anisotropic dysprosium ions. PMID:23934765

Tian, Haiquan; Zhao, Lang; Lin, Haifeng; Tang, Jinkui; Li, Guangshe

2013-08-09

152

ButterflyBase: a platform for lepidopteran genomics.  

Science.gov (United States)

With over 100 000 species and a large community of evolutionary biologists, population ecologists, pest biologists and genome researchers, the Lepidoptera are an important insect group. Genomic resources [expressed sequence tags (ESTs), genome sequence, genetic and physical maps, proteomic and microarray datasets] are growing, but there has up to now been no single access and analysis portal for this group. Here we present ButterflyBase (http://www.butterflybase.org), a unified resource for lepidopteran genomics. A total of 273 077 ESTs from more than 30 different species have been clustered to generate stable unigene sets, and robust protein translations derived from each unigene cluster. Clusters and their protein translations are annotated with BLAST-based similarity, gene ontology (GO), enzyme classification (EC) and Kyoto encyclopaedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) terms, and are also searchable using similarity tools such as BLAST and MS-BLAST. The database supports many needs of the lepidopteran research community, including molecular marker development, orthologue prediction for deep phylogenetics, and detection of rapidly evolving proteins likely involved in host-pathogen or other evolutionary processes. ButterflyBase is expanding to include additional genomic sequence, ecological and mapping data for key species. PMID:17933781

Papanicolaou, Alexie; Gebauer-Jung, Steffi; Blaxter, Mark L; Owen McMillan, W; Jiggins, Chris D

2007-10-12

153

The genetics of the mimetic butterfly Hypolimnas bolina (L.).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Hypolimnas bolina is a Nymphalid butterfly having a west to east distribution from Madagascar to Easter Island, and a north to south one from Japan to Australasia. It is highly migratory in some areas. In much of the western part of its range the female is both monomorphic and a mimic of Euploea. Further east it is frequently polymorphic with the majority of the forms being non-mimetic. The polymorphism is sex-limited to the female and controlled by two unlinked loci, one with two allelomorphs, E and e, determining the extent of the dark pigmentation, the other with three allelomorphs, P, Pn and p, determining the presence and distribution of orange-brown. Only butterflies of the genotypes EEpp and to a lesser extent Eepp are satisfactory Batesian mimics of their Euploea models. The details of the mimetic pattern are under multifactorial control, following those of their local model, as is much of the variation within the non-mimetic forms, particularly with regard to the distribution of white and blue scaling.

Clarke C; Sheppard PM

1975-11-01

154

Wing shape variation associated with mimicry in butterflies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mimetic resemblance in unpalatable butterflies has been studied by evolutionary biologists for over a century, but has largely focused on the convergence in wing color patterns. In Heliconius numata, discrete color-pattern morphs closely resemble comimics in the distantly related genus Melinaea. We examine the possibility that the shape of the butterfly wing also shows adaptive convergence. First, simple measures of forewing dimensions were taken of individuals in a cross between H. numata morphs, and showed quantitative differences between two of the segregating morphs, f. elegans and f. silvana. Second, landmark-based geometric morphometric and elliptical Fourier outline analyses were used to more fully characterize these shape differences. Extension of these techniques to specimens from natural populations suggested that, although many of the coexisting morphs could not be discriminated by shape, the differences we identified between f. elegans and f. silvana hold in the wild. Interestingly, despite extensive overlap, the shape variation between these two morphs is paralleled in their respective Melinaea comimics. Our study therefore suggests that wing-shape variation is associated with mimetic resemblance, and raises the intriguing possibility that the supergene responsible for controlling the major switch in color pattern between morphs also contributes to wing shape differences in H. numata. PMID:23888854

Jones, Robert T; Le Poul, Yann; Whibley, Annabel C; Mérot, Claire; ffrench-Constant, Richard H; Joron, Mathieu

2013-04-24

155

Butterfly genome reveals promiscuous exchange of mimicry adaptations among species.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The evolutionary importance of hybridization and introgression has long been debated. Hybrids are usually rare and unfit, but even infrequent hybridization can aid adaptation by transferring beneficial traits between species. Here we use genomic tools to investigate introgression in Heliconius, a rapidly radiating genus of neotropical butterflies widely used in studies of ecology, behaviour, mimicry and speciation. We sequenced the genome of Heliconius melpomene and compared it with other taxa to investigate chromosomal evolution in Lepidoptera and gene flow among multiple Heliconius species and races. Among 12,669 predicted genes, biologically important expansions of families of chemosensory and Hox genes are particularly noteworthy. Chromosomal organization has remained broadly conserved since the Cretaceous period, when butterflies split from the Bombyx (silkmoth) lineage. Using genomic resequencing, we show hybrid exchange of genes between three co-mimics, Heliconius melpomene, Heliconius timareta and Heliconius elevatus, especially at two genomic regions that control mimicry pattern. We infer that closely related Heliconius species exchange protective colour-pattern genes promiscuously, implying that hybridization has an important role in adaptive radiation.

2012-07-01

156

Effects of structural flexibility of wings in flapping flight of butterfly  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The objective of this paper is to clarify the effects of structural flexibility of wings of a butterfly in flapping flight. For this purpose, a dynamics model of a butterfly is derived by Lagrange’s method, where the butterfly is considered as a rigid multi-body system. The panel method is employed to simulate the flow field and the aerodynamic forces acting on the wings. The mathematical model is validated by the agreement of the numerical result with the experimentally measured data. Then, periodic orbits of flapping-of-wings flights are parametrically searched in order to fly the butterfly models. Almost periodic orbits are found, but they are unstable. Deformation of the wings is modeled in two ways. One is bending and its effect on the aerodynamic forces is discussed. The other is passive wing torsion caused by structural flexibility. Numerical simulations demonstrate that flexible torsion reduces the flight instability. (paper)

2012-01-01

157

Effects of structural flexibility of wings in flapping flight of butterfly.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this paper is to clarify the effects of structural flexibility of wings of a butterfly in flapping flight. For this purpose, a dynamics model of a butterfly is derived by Lagrange's method, where the butterfly is considered as a rigid multi-body system. The panel method is employed to simulate the flow field and the aerodynamic forces acting on the wings. The mathematical model is validated by the agreement of the numerical result with the experimentally measured data. Then, periodic orbits of flapping-of-wings flights are parametrically searched in order to fly the butterfly models. Almost periodic orbits are found, but they are unstable. Deformation of the wings is modeled in two ways. One is bending and its effect on the aerodynamic forces is discussed. The other is passive wing torsion caused by structural flexibility. Numerical simulations demonstrate that flexible torsion reduces the flight instability. PMID:22617048

Senda, Kei; Obara, Takuya; Kitamura, Masahiko; Yokoyama, Naoto; Hirai, Norio; Iima, Makoto

2012-05-22

158

Comparing organic farming and land sparing: optimizing yield and butterfly populations at a landscape scale.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Organic farming aims to be wildlife-friendly, but it may not benefit wildlife overall if much greater areas are needed to produce a given quantity of food. We measured the density and species richness of butterflies on organic farms, conventional farms and grassland nature reserves in 16 landscapes. Organic farms supported a higher density of butterflies than conventional farms, but a lower density than reserves. Using our data, we predict the optimal land-use strategy to maintain yield whilst maximizing butterfly abundance under different scenarios. Farming conventionally and sparing land as nature reserves is better for butterflies when the organic yield per hectare falls below 87% of conventional yield. However, if the spared land is simply extra field margins, organic farming is optimal whenever organic yields are over 35% of conventional yields. The optimal balance of land sparing and wildlife-friendly farming to maintain production and biodiversity will differ between landscapes.

Hodgson JA; Kunin WE; Thomas CD; Benton TG; Gabriel D

2010-11-01

159

Generating a fractal butterfly Floquet spectrum in a class of driven SU(2) systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A scheme for generating a fractal butterfly Floquet spectrum, first proposed by Wang and Gong [Phys. Rev. A 77, 031405(R) (2008)], is extended to driven SU(2) systems such as a driven two-mode Bose-Einstein condensate. A class of driven systems without a link with the Harper-model context is shown to have an intriguing butterfly Floquet spectrum. The found butterfly spectrum shows remarkable deviations from the known Hofstadter's butterfly. In addition, the level crossings between Floquet states of the same parity and between Floquet states of different parities are studied and highlighted. The results are relevant to studies of fractal statistics, quantum chaos, and coherent destruction of tunneling, as well as the validity of mean-field descriptions of Bose-Einstein condensates.

1175-01-00

160

Pollen Preference for Psychotria sp. is Not Learned in the Passion Flower Butterfly, Heliconius erato  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Heliconius butterflies are known to maximize fitness by feeding on pollen from Gurania sp. and Psiguria sp. (Cucurbitales: Curcurbitaceae), and Psychotria sp. (Gentianales: Rubiaceae). This specialization involves specific physical, physiological, and behavioral adaptations including efficient searc...

Salcedo, Christian

 
 
 
 
161

Inorganic chiral 3-D photonic crystals with bicontinuous gyroid structure replicated from butterfly wing scales.  

Science.gov (United States)

Three dimensional silica photonic crystals with the gyroid minimal surface structure have been synthesized. The butterfly Callophrys rubi was used as a biotemplate. This material represents a significant addition to the small family of synthetic bicontinuous photonic crystals. PMID:21818463

Mille, Christian; Tyrode, Eric C; Corkery, Robert W

2011-08-04

162

The vegetation of three localities of the threatened butterfly species Chrysoritis aureus (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The butterfly Chrysoritis aureus—previously known as Poecilmitis aureus before the new combination was designated by Heath (1997) —is considered to be Rare in the Red Data book of butterflies (Henning & Henning 1989) and the updated list of the Red Data book of butterfly species (Henning & Henning 1995). C.R. Barrett and F. Coetzee discovered Chrysoritis aureus on Christmas Day 1959 on a rocky slope below the water tower near the Natal road of Heidelberg in Gauteng (Pringle et al. 1994). During 1983, Chrysoritis aureus was added to the protected wild animal list of the former Transvaal under Ordinance 12, since the type locality had been the only known area where the butterfly ocurred (De Wet 1987). G.A. Henning found another locality near Greylingstad (Pringle et al. 1994).

R. F. Terblanche; T. L. Morgenthal; S. S. Cilliers

2003-01-01

163

Phylogenetic perspective on host plant use, colonization and speciation in butterflies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this thesis we have studied speciation in three butterfly genera Polygonia (Nymphalidae, Nymphalini), Pararge (Nymphalidae, Satyrinae) and Celastrina (Lycaenidae: Polyommatinae). In the first paper a dated phylogeny, based on molecular data, of Polygonia was constructed. We found strong conflict ...

Weingartner, Elisabet

164

The taxonomy, biogeography and conservation of the myrmecophilous Chrysoritis butterflies (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) in South Africa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The relevance and integration of scientific knowledge to conservation management of the locally popular and highly endemic butterfly genus Chrysoritis are investigated within the research fields of taxonomy and biogeography. The butterfly genus Chrysoritis contains at least 41 species endemic to South Africa. The taxonomy of Chrysoritis has reached a state where revisions could easily result in a plethora of names between “lumping and splitting”. In practice, the state of the taxonomy of these butterflies on species level may alter their conservation priority. The two most species rich species groups in Chrysoritis have different centres of endemism, however, a butterfly atlas becomes a necessity to reveal more about their biogeography. There is an absence of butterfly species lists in many of our National Parks and Nature Reserves. Legislation should facilitate rather than limit the valuable role of the amateur lepidopterist to add distribution records. In turn, the amateur lepidopterists should adapt and make an effort to explore unknown localities, apart from monitoring butterflies at their well-known localities. The red listing of localised butterflies in South Africa, including a number of Chrysoritis species, is in need of an urgent review in the light of the most recent IUCN categories. A species such as Chrysoritis dicksoni should be protected by law - but at its known localities. The scenario that real conservation action is only needed if the last known locality of a butterfly is threatened, should be abolished. A paradigm shift to conserve the metapopulations of the highly endemic Chrysoritis genus and not merely a few of its species as items that appear on lists, seems necessary.

R.F. Terblanche; H. van Hamburg

2003-01-01

165

Intensive game keeping, coppicing and butterflies: The story of Milovicky Wood, Czech Republic  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

While transfers of formerly coppiced or grazed woodlands into shady high forests cause severe declines of woodland butterflies across Europe, increasing numbers of wild ungulates contribute to maintaining stand openness. To disentangle the relative effects of management and ungulates, we studied butterfly assemblages in the Milovicky Wood, southeastern Czech Republic. After centuries of short-rotation coppicing, the wood was abandoned in the 1950s and two game parks, for deer and mouflon, were established there in the 1960s. Comparisons of historical and recent records show severe declines, but the wood still hosts 83 butterfly and burnet species, including 19 nationally endangered ones. Recording along fixed transects disentangled effects of game keeping and management. Stands situated in the mouflon park hosted fewer species than those in either the deer park or outside of the parks. Clearings, coppice, coppice with standards and rides hosted more species than closed forest. The strongest predictors of composition of butterfly assemblages were plant communities and stand management, followed by vegetation covers, plant species richness and kind of game (mouflon, deer, none). Both game and management exhibited independent effects. Past high game densities contributed to butterfly losses, but have maintained open structures absent from woods managed for timber. Under reduced densities, mouflon exhibit adverse effects on butterflies but deer do not. Recent plans to transfer the area to high forest are incompatible with conserving local butterflies and incur high costs of forest protection against the animals. In contrast, re-establishment of active coppicing for fuel wood production would be optimal for butterflies, compatible with game keeping. Finding a balance between game and traditional forms of management offers an opportunity for threatened biodiversity of European lowland forests.

Benes J; Cizek O; Dovala J; Konvicka M

2006-12-01

166

Replication of polypyrrole with photonic structures from butterfly wings as biosensor  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Polypyrrole (PPy) with photonic structures from butterfly wings was synthesized based on a two-step templating and in situ polymerization process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The hierarchical structures down to nanometer level were kept in the resultant PPy replicas. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The PPy replicas exhibit brilliant color due to Bragg diffraction through its ordered periodic structures. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The PPy replicas showed a much higher biological activity compared with common PPy powders as a biosensor. - Abstract: Polypyrrole (PPy) with photonic crystal structures were synthesized from Morpho butterfly wings using a two-step templating process. In the first step photonic crystal SiO{sub 2} butterfly wings were synthesized from Morpho butterfly wings and in the second step the SiO{sub 2} butterfly wings were used as templates for the replication of PPy butterfly wings using an in situ polymerization method. The SiO{sub 2} templates were then removed from the PPy butterfly wings using a HF solution. The hierarchical structures down to the nanometer level, especially the photonic crystal structures, were retained in the final PPy replicas, as evidenced directly by field-emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The optical properties of the resultant PPy replicas were investigated using reflectance spectroscopy and the PPy replicas exhibit brilliant color due to Bragg diffraction through its ordered periodic structures. The preliminary biosensing application was investigated and it was found that the PPy replicas showed a much higher biological activity compared with PPy powders through their response to dopamine (DA), probably due to the hierarchical structures as well as controlled porosity inherited from Morpho butterfly wings. It is expected that our strategy will open up new avenues for the synthesis of functional polymers with photonic crystal structures, which may form applications as biosensors.

Tang Jie [State Key Laboratory of Metal Matrix Composites, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China); Zhu Shenmin, E-mail: smzhu@sjtu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Metal Matrix Composites, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China); Chen Zhixin [Faculty of Engineering, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); Feng Chuanliang; Shen Yanjun; Yao Fan [State Key Laboratory of Metal Matrix Composites, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China); Zhang Di, E-mail: zhangdi@sjtu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Metal Matrix Composites, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China); Moon, Won-Jin; Song, Deok-Min [Gwangju Center, Korea Basic Science Institute, Yongbong-dong, Buk-Gu, Gwang ju 500-757 (Korea, Republic of)

2012-01-05

167

Replication of polypyrrole with photonic structures from butterfly wings as biosensor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? Polypyrrole (PPy) with photonic structures from butterfly wings was synthesized based on a two-step templating and in situ polymerization process. ? The hierarchical structures down to nanometer level were kept in the resultant PPy replicas. ? The PPy replicas exhibit brilliant color due to Bragg diffraction through its ordered periodic structures. ? The PPy replicas showed a much higher biological activity compared with common PPy powders as a biosensor. - Abstract: Polypyrrole (PPy) with photonic crystal structures were synthesized from Morpho butterfly wings using a two-step templating process. In the first step photonic crystal SiO2 butterfly wings were synthesized from Morpho butterfly wings and in the second step the SiO2 butterfly wings were used as templates for the replication of PPy butterfly wings using an in situ polymerization method. The SiO2 templates were then removed from the PPy butterfly wings using a HF solution. The hierarchical structures down to the nanometer level, especially the photonic crystal structures, were retained in the final PPy replicas, as evidenced directly by field-emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The optical properties of the resultant PPy replicas were investigated using reflectance spectroscopy and the PPy replicas exhibit brilliant color due to Bragg diffraction through its ordered periodic structures. The preliminary biosensing application was investigated and it was found that the PPy replicas showed a much higher biological activity compared with PPy powders through their response to dopamine (DA), probably due to the hierarchical structures as well as controlled porosity inherited from Morpho butterfly wings. It is expected that our strategy will open up new avenues for the synthesis of functional polymers with photonic crystal structures, which may form applications as biosensors.

2012-01-05

168

Odour maps in the brain of butterflies with divergent host-plant preferences.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Butterflies are believed to use mainly visual cues when searching for food and oviposition sites despite that their olfactory system is morphologically similar to their nocturnal relatives, the moths. The olfactory ability in butterflies has, however, not been thoroughly investigated. Therefore, we performed the first study of odour representation in the primary olfactory centre, the antennal lobes, of butterflies. Host plant range is highly variable within the butterfly family Nymphalidae, with extreme specialists and wide generalists found even among closely related species. Here we measured odour evoked Ca(2+) activity in the antennal lobes of two nymphalid species with diverging host plant preferences, the specialist Aglais urticae and the generalist Polygonia c-album. The butterflies responded with stimulus-specific combinations of activated glomeruli to single plant-related compounds and to extracts of host and non-host plants. In general, responses were similar between the species. However, the specialist A. urticae responded more specifically to its preferred host plant, stinging nettle, than P. c-album. In addition, we found a species-specific difference both in correlation between responses to two common green leaf volatiles and the sensitivity to these compounds. Our results indicate that these butterflies have the ability to detect and to discriminate between different plant-related odorants.

Carlsson MA; Bisch-Knaden S; Schäpers A; Mozuraitis R; Hansson BS; Janz N

2011-01-01

169

Biodiversity of Butterflies from Districts Poonch and Sudhnoti, Azad Kashmir  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The adult butterflies were collected from ten localities of district Poonch and eight localities of district Sudhnoti through out the summer season of (April to October) 2000. A total of 29 species belonging to 5 families from district Rawalakot and 21 species belonging to 5 families were collected from district Sudhnoti. Biodiversity was calculated by using Shannon-Wiener diversity index, Shannon`s equitability, Margalef`s index, Simpson`s index and RI index. The calculated values of diversity indices showed that from district Rawalakot the highest diversity was obtained from Khaigala and lowest diversity was obtained from Topa and Paniola. From district Sudhnoti the highest diversity was calculated from Azad Pattan and the lowest diversity was calculated from Pallandri city.

M. Rafique Khan; M. Rahim Khan; Khurshid Ali; Ikram Bashir; Israr Ahmed Malik; Adil Mir

2004-01-01

170

Width of Sunspot Generating Zone and Reconstruction of Butterfly Diagram  

CERN Document Server

Based on the extended Greenwich-NOAA/USAF catalogue of sunspot groups it is demonstrated that the parameters describing the latitudinal width of the sunspot generating zone (SGZ) are closely related to the current level of solar activity, and the growth of the activity leads to the expansion of SGZ. The ratio of the sunspot number to the width of SGZ shows saturation at a certain level of the sunspot number, and above this level the increase of the activity takes place mostly due to the expansion of SGZ. It is shown that the mean latitudes of sunspots can be reconstructed from the amplitudes of solar activity. Using the obtained relations and the group sunspot numbers by Hoyt and Schatten (1998), the latitude distribution of sunspot groups ("the Maunder butterfly diagram") for the 18th and the first half of the 19th centuries is reconstructed and compared with historical sunspot observations.

Ivanov, V G; 10.1007/s11207-010-9665-6

2010-01-01

171

Submillimeter Structure of the Disk of the Butterfly Star  

CERN Multimedia

We present a spatially resolved 894 micron map of the circumstellar disk of the Butterfly star in Taurus (IRAS 04302+2247), obtained with the Submillimeter Array (SMA). The predicted and observed radial brightness profile agree well in the outer disk region, but differ in the inner region with an outer radius of ~80-120 AU. In particular, we find a local minimum of the radial brightness distribution at the center, which can be explained by an increasing density / optical depth combined with the decreasing vertical extent of the disk towards the center. Our finding indicates that young circumstellar disks can be optically thick at wavelengths as long as 894 micron. While earlier modeling lead to general conclusions about the global disk structure and, most importantly, evidence for grain growth in the disk (Wolf, Padgett, & Stapelfeldt 2003), the presented SMA observations provide more detailed constraints for the disk structure and dust grain properties in the inner, potentially planet-forming region (ins...

Wolf, S; Beuther, H; Padgett, D L; Stapelfeldt, K R

2008-01-01

172

Tracking climate impacts on the migratory monarch butterfly  

Science.gov (United States)

Understanding the impacts of climate on migratory species is complicated by the fact that these species travel through several climates that may be changing in diverse ways throughout their complete migratory cycle. Most studies are not designed to tease out the direct and indirect effects of climate at various stages along the migration route. We assess the impacts of spring and summer climate conditions on breeding monarch butterflies, a species that completes its annual migration cycle over several generations. No single, broad-scale climate metric can explain summer breeding phenology or the substantial year-to-year fluctuations observed in population abundances. As such, we built a Poisson regression model to help explain annual arrival times and abundances in the Midwestern United States. We incorporated the climate conditions experienced both during a spring migration/breeding phase in Texas as well as during subsequent arrival and breeding during the main recruitment period in Ohio. Using data from a state-wide butterfly monitoring network in Ohio, our results suggest that climate acts in conflicting ways during the spring and summer seasons. High spring precipitation in Texas is associated with the largest annual population growth in Ohio and the earliest arrival to the summer breeding ground, as are intermediate spring temperatures in Texas. On the other hand, the timing of monarch arrivals to the summer breeding grounds is not affected by climate conditions within Ohio. Once in Ohio for summer breeding, precipitation has minimal impacts on overall abundances, whereas warmer summer temperatures are generally associated with the highest expected abundances, yet this effect is mitigated by the average seasonal temperature of each location in that the warmest sites receive no benefit of above average summer temperatures. Our results highlight the complex relationship between climate and performance for a migrating species and suggest that attempts to understand how monarchs will be affected by future climate conditions will be challenging.

Zipkin, Elise F.; Ries, Leslie; Reeves, Rick; Regetz, James; Oberhauser, Karen S.

2012-01-01

173

Odorants of the Flowers of Butterfly Bush, Buddleia davidii as Possible Attractants of Pest Species of Moths  

Science.gov (United States)

Flowers of the butterfly bush, Buddleia davidii Franch., are visited by butterflies and moths, as well as other insects. Moths captured in traps over flowers were 21 species of Geometridae, Noctuidae, Pyralidae, and Tortricidae. The most abundant moths trapped at these flowers were the cabbage loop...

174

Tracking butterfly movements with harmonic radar reveals an effect of population age on movement distance.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We used harmonic radar to track freely flying Glanville fritillary butterfly (Melitaea cinxia) females within an area of 30 ha. Butterflies originated from large and continuous populations in China and Estonia, and from newly established or old (> 5 years) small local populations in a highly fragmented landscape in Finland. Caterpillars were raised under common garden conditions and unmated females were tested soon after eclosion. The reconstructed flight paths for 66 individuals comprised a total distance of 51 km with high spatial resolution. Butterflies originating from large continuous populations and from old local populations in Finland exhibited similar movement behaviors, whereas butterflies originating from newly established local populations in the fragmented landscape in Finland moved significantly more than the others. There was no difference in the lengths of individual flight bouts, but the new-population females flew more frequently, resulting in longer daily movement tracks. The flight activity of all individuals was affected by environmental conditions, peaking at 19-23 degrees C (depending on population type), in the early afternoon, and during calm weather. Butterflies from all population types showed a strong tendency to follow habitat edges between the open study area and the neighboring woodlands.

Ovaskainen O; Smith AD; Osborne JL; Reynolds DR; Carreck NL; Martin AP; Niitepõld K; Hanski I

2008-12-01

175

Similarity and difference among rainforest fruit-feeding butterfly communities in Central and South America.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

1. Documenting species abundance distributions in natural environments is critical to ecology and conservation biology. Tropical forest insect faunas vary in space and time, and these partitions can differ in their contribution to overall species diversity. 2. In the Neotropics, the Central American butterfly fauna is best known in terms of general natural history, but butterfly community diversity is best documented by studies on South American fruit-feeding butterflies. Here, we present the first long-term study of fruit-feeding nymphalid species diversity from Central America and provide a unique comparison between Central and South American butterfly communities. 3. This study used 60 months of sampling among multiple spatial and temporal partitions to assess species diversity in a Costa Rican rainforest butterfly community. Abundance distributions varied significantly at the species and higher taxonomic group levels, and canopy and understorey samples were found to be composed of distinct species assemblages. 4. Strong similarities in patterns of species diversity were found between this study and one from Ecuador; yet, there was an important difference in how species richness was distributed in vertical space. In contrast to the Ecuadorian site, Costa Rica had significantly higher canopy richness and lower understorey richness. 5. This study affirms that long-term sampling is vital to understanding tropical insect species abundance distributions and points to potential differences in vertical structure among Central and South American forest insect communities that need to be explored.

Devries PJ; Alexander LG; Chacon IA; Fordyce JA

2012-03-01

176

Importance of vegetation analysis in the conservation management of the endangered butterfly Aloeides dentatis dentatis (Swierstra) (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study of the vegetation of the Ruimsig Entomological Reserve, Gauteng, South Africa revealed four plant communities one of which could be subdivided into two subcommunities and variants. The extensive climax stage of the vegetation represented by the Themeda triandra - Trachypogon spicatus grassland was found to be too dense and tall to support the butterfly Aloeides dentatis dentatis and the host ant Lepisiota capensis (Mayr). A degraded phase caused by succession in an area where pipes have been laid was found to be ideal habitat for both ant and butterfly. This vegetation also contained adequate numbers of the food plant Hermannia depressa. A serai community with tall- growing Hyparrhenia hirta was also found to be an unsuitable habitat for the butterfly. The identification of the preferred ideal habitat for the host ant and butterfly resulted in the compilation of a conservation management strategy that ensured the survival of the rare and endangered butterfly.

M.S Deutschlander; G.J Bredenkamp

1999-01-01

177

Use of fruit bait traps for monitoring of butterflies (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english There exists great interest in using fruit-feeding adult nymphalid butterflies to monitor changes in tropical forest ecosystems. We intensively sampled the butterfly fauna of mid-elevation tropical moist forest in southern Costa Rica with fruit bait traps to address a series of practical issues concerning the development of a robust, efficient sampling program. Variation in the number of captures and escapes of butterflies at the traps was better explained by the time of (more) day than by the age of bait. Species? escape rates varied widely, suggesting that short term, less intensive surveys aimed at determining presence or absence of species may be biased. Individuals did not appear to become "trap-happy" or to recognize the traps as food sources. Considering the tradeoff between numbers of traps and frequency of trap servicing, the most efficient sampling regime appears to be baiting and sampling the traps once every other day.

Hughes, Jennifer B.; Daily, Gretchen C.; Ehrlich, Paul R.

1998-09-01

178

Butterfly Pea (Clitoria ternatea): A Nutritive Multipurpose Forage Legume for the Tropics - An Overview  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Butterfly pea (Clitoria ternatea) is a multi-purpose forage legume. It provides bioactive compounds for medicinal use and it is also an ornamental plant and cover crop. It is adaptable to a wide range of temperature, rainfall and altitude. Butterfly pea, a highly palatable forage legume is generally preferred by livestock over other legumes. It has thin stem and large leaves, nil bloat and non toxic which make it ideal for forage and hay making. It`s vigorous growth, tolerance to frost and dry periods and heavy grazing pressures make this suitable for waste land development. Production and utilization of this legume for animal production will provide adequate nutrition and also reduce grazing pressure on natural ranges. This paper reviews distribution, plant description, agronomic characteristics, genetic variation, medicinal use, chemical composition and utilization of butterfly pea in livestock production.

S. Michael Gomez; A. Kalamani

2003-01-01

179

Use of fruit bait traps for monitoring of butterflies (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There exists great interest in using fruit-feeding adult nymphalid butterflies to monitor changes in tropical forest ecosystems. We intensively sampled the butterfly fauna of mid-elevation tropical moist forest in southern Costa Rica with fruit bait traps to address a series of practical issues concerning the development of a robust, efficient sampling program. Variation in the number of captures and escapes of butterflies at the traps was better explained by the time of day than by the age of bait. Species’ escape rates varied widely, suggesting that short term, less intensive surveys aimed at determining presence or absence of species may be biased. Individuals did not appear to become "trap-happy" or to recognize the traps as food sources. Considering the tradeoff between numbers of traps and frequency of trap servicing, the most efficient sampling regime appears to be baiting and sampling the traps once every other day.

Jennifer B. Hughes; Gretchen C. Daily; Paul R. Ehrlich

1998-01-01

180

Monarch butterfly migration and parasite transmission in eastern North America.  

Science.gov (United States)

Seasonal migration occurs in many animal systems and is likely to influence interactions between animals and their parasites. Here, we focus on monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) and a protozoan parasite (Ophryocystis elektroscirrha) to investigate how host migration affects infectious disease processes. Previous work showed that parasite prevalence was lower among migratory than nonmigratory monarch populations; two explanations for this pattern are that (1) migration allows animals to periodically escape contaminated habitats (i.e., migratory escape), and (2) long-distance migration weeds out infected animals (i.e., migratory culling). We combined field-sampling and analysis of citizen science data to examine spatiotemporal trends of parasite prevalence and evaluate evidence for these two mechanisms. Analysis of within-breeding-season variation in eastern North America showed that parasite prevalence increased from early to late in the breeding season, consistent with the hypothesis of migratory escape. Prevalence was also positively related to monarch breeding activity, as indexed by larval density. Among adult monarchs captured at different points along the east coast fall migratory flyway, parasite prevalence declined as monarchs progressed southward, consistent with the hypothesis of migratory culling. Parasite prevalence was also lower among monarchs sampled at two overwintering sites in Mexico than among monarchs sampled during the summer breeding period. Collectively, these results indicate that seasonal migration can affect parasite transmission in wild animal populations, with implications for predicting disease risks for species with threatened migrations. PMID:21618914

Bartel, Rebecca A; Oberhauser, Karen S; De Roode, Jacobus C; Altizer, Sonia M

2011-02-01

 
 
 
 
181

Monarch butterfly migration and parasite transmission in eastern North America.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Seasonal migration occurs in many animal systems and is likely to influence interactions between animals and their parasites. Here, we focus on monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) and a protozoan parasite (Ophryocystis elektroscirrha) to investigate how host migration affects infectious disease processes. Previous work showed that parasite prevalence was lower among migratory than nonmigratory monarch populations; two explanations for this pattern are that (1) migration allows animals to periodically escape contaminated habitats (i.e., migratory escape), and (2) long-distance migration weeds out infected animals (i.e., migratory culling). We combined field-sampling and analysis of citizen science data to examine spatiotemporal trends of parasite prevalence and evaluate evidence for these two mechanisms. Analysis of within-breeding-season variation in eastern North America showed that parasite prevalence increased from early to late in the breeding season, consistent with the hypothesis of migratory escape. Prevalence was also positively related to monarch breeding activity, as indexed by larval density. Among adult monarchs captured at different points along the east coast fall migratory flyway, parasite prevalence declined as monarchs progressed southward, consistent with the hypothesis of migratory culling. Parasite prevalence was also lower among monarchs sampled at two overwintering sites in Mexico than among monarchs sampled during the summer breeding period. Collectively, these results indicate that seasonal migration can affect parasite transmission in wild animal populations, with implications for predicting disease risks for species with threatened migrations.

Bartel RA; Oberhauser KS; De Roode JC; Altizer SM

2011-02-01

182

Coldness triggers northward flight in remigrant monarch butterflies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Each fall, eastern North American monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) migrate from their northern range to their overwintering grounds in central Mexico. Fall migrants are in reproductive diapause, and they use a time-compensated sun compass to navigate during the long journey south. Eye-sensed directional cues from the daylight sky (e.g., the horizontal or azimuthal position of the sun) are integrated in the sun compass in the midbrain central complex region. Sun compass output is time compensated by circadian clocks in the antennae so that fall migrants can maintain a fixed flight direction south. In the spring, the same migrants remigrate northward to the southern United States to initiate the northern leg of the migration cycle. Here we show that spring remigrants also use an antenna-dependent time-compensated sun compass to direct their northward flight. Remarkably, fall migrants prematurely exposed to overwintering-like coldness reverse their flight orientation to the north. The temperature microenvironment at the overwintering site is essential for successful completion of the migration cycle, because without cold exposure, aged migrants continue to orient south. Our discovery that coldness triggers the northward flight direction in spring remigrants solves one of the long-standing mysteries of the monarch migration. PMID:23434279

Guerra, Patrick A; Reppert, Steven M

2013-02-21

183

Dynamic mechanical oscillations during metamorphosis of the monarch butterfly.  

Science.gov (United States)

The mechanical oscillation of the heart is fundamental during insect metamorphosis, but it is unclear how morphological changes affect its mechanical dynamics. Here, the micromechanical heartbeat with the monarch chrysalis (Danaus plexippus) during metamorphosis is compared with the structural changes observed through in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We employ a novel ultra-sensitive detection approach, optical beam deflection, in order to measure the microscale motions of the pupae during the course of metamorphosis. We observed very distinct mechanical contractions occurring at regular intervals, which we ascribe to the mechanical function of the heart organ. Motion was observed to occur in approximately 15 min bursts of activity with frequencies in the 0.4-1.0 Hz range separated by periods of quiescence during the first 83 per cent of development. In the final stages, the beating was found to be uninterrupted until the adult monarch butterfly emerged. Distinct stages of development were characterized by changes in frequency, amplitude, mechanical quality factor and de/repolarization times of the mechanical pulsing. The MRI revealed that the heart organ remains functionally intact throughout metamorphosis but undergoes morphological changes that are reflected in the mechanical oscillation. PMID:18682363

Pelling, Andrew E; Wilkinson, Paul R; Stringer, Richard; Gimzewski, James K

2009-01-01

184

Coldness triggers northward flight in remigrant monarch butterflies.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Each fall, eastern North American monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) migrate from their northern range to their overwintering grounds in central Mexico. Fall migrants are in reproductive diapause, and they use a time-compensated sun compass to navigate during the long journey south. Eye-sensed directional cues from the daylight sky (e.g., the horizontal or azimuthal position of the sun) are integrated in the sun compass in the midbrain central complex region. Sun compass output is time compensated by circadian clocks in the antennae so that fall migrants can maintain a fixed flight direction south. In the spring, the same migrants remigrate northward to the southern United States to initiate the northern leg of the migration cycle. Here we show that spring remigrants also use an antenna-dependent time-compensated sun compass to direct their northward flight. Remarkably, fall migrants prematurely exposed to overwintering-like coldness reverse their flight orientation to the north. The temperature microenvironment at the overwintering site is essential for successful completion of the migration cycle, because without cold exposure, aged migrants continue to orient south. Our discovery that coldness triggers the northward flight direction in spring remigrants solves one of the long-standing mysteries of the monarch migration.

Guerra PA; Reppert SM

2013-03-01

185

Dynamic mechanical oscillations during metamorphosis of the monarch butterfly.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The mechanical oscillation of the heart is fundamental during insect metamorphosis, but it is unclear how morphological changes affect its mechanical dynamics. Here, the micromechanical heartbeat with the monarch chrysalis (Danaus plexippus) during metamorphosis is compared with the structural changes observed through in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We employ a novel ultra-sensitive detection approach, optical beam deflection, in order to measure the microscale motions of the pupae during the course of metamorphosis. We observed very distinct mechanical contractions occurring at regular intervals, which we ascribe to the mechanical function of the heart organ. Motion was observed to occur in approximately 15 min bursts of activity with frequencies in the 0.4-1.0 Hz range separated by periods of quiescence during the first 83 per cent of development. In the final stages, the beating was found to be uninterrupted until the adult monarch butterfly emerged. Distinct stages of development were characterized by changes in frequency, amplitude, mechanical quality factor and de/repolarization times of the mechanical pulsing. The MRI revealed that the heart organ remains functionally intact throughout metamorphosis but undergoes morphological changes that are reflected in the mechanical oscillation.

Pelling AE; Wilkinson PR; Stringer R; Gimzewski JK

2009-01-01

186

Genomic tools and cDNA derived markers for butterflies.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Lepidoptera have long been used as examples in the study of evolution, but some questions remain difficult to resolve due to a lack of molecular genetic data. However, as technology improves, genomic tools are becoming increasingly available to tackle unanswered evolutionary questions. Here we have used expressed sequence tags (ESTs) to develop genetic markers for two Müllerian mimic species, Heliconius melpomene and Heliconius erato. In total 1363 ESTs were generated, representing 330 gene objects in H. melpomene and 431 in H. erato. User-friendly bioinformatic tools were used to construct a nonredundant database of these putative genes (available at http://www.heliconius.org), and annotate them with blast similarity searches, InterPro matches and Gene Ontology terms. This database will be continually updated with EST sequences for the Papilionideae as they become publicly available, providing a tool for gene finding in the butterflies. Alignments of the Heliconius sequences with putative homologues derived from Bombyx mori or other public data sets were used to identify conserved PCR priming sites, and develop 55 markers that can be amplified from genomic DNA in both H. erato and H. melpomene. These markers will be used for comparative linkage mapping in Heliconius and will have applications in other phylogenetic and genomic studies in the Lepidoptera. PMID:16029486

Papanicolaou, Alexie; Joron, Mathieu; McMillan, W Owen; Blaxter, Mark L; Jiggins, Chris D

2005-08-01

187

Reflections on Lupus 2013: butterflies, wolves and prophecies.  

Science.gov (United States)

The recently concluded Tenth International Congress on Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) held in Buenos Aires was a resounding success. This overview summarizes some of the origins of the First International Congress held in Calgary, Canada in 1986, predictions offered by past Congress Presidents, and a perspective on the trends in autoantibody testing, which remains one of the key approaches to the early and accurate diagnosis of SLE. The last few decades have witnessed a remarkable proliferation of new diagnostic technologies including addressable laser bead immunoassays and, more recently, chemiluminescence and lateral flow technologies that could find a clinical niche in point-of-care diagnostics. Against the backdrop of these constantly emerging technologies, indirect immunofluorescence has remained the platform of choice for many laboratories and diagnosticians. The notion that autoantibodies are pathogenic has been challenged by evidence that some autoantibodies are protective, some may have catalytic capacity while others may be neutral or have no function at all. The latter notion of functionless or "junk" autoantibodies needs to be taken under some advisement, because there was a time when a great proportion of the human genome was considered to include "junk DNA". The butterfly as a symbol of hope and progress in SLE research over the past 27 years since the First International Congress on SLE is almost certainly to be even more appropriate when future Congresses are held in Geneva (2015), Melbourne (2017) and eventually one in 2050. PMID:23989735

Fritzler, Mj

2013-08-29

188

Reflections on Lupus 2013: butterflies, wolves and prophecies.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The recently concluded Tenth International Congress on Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) held in Buenos Aires was a resounding success. This overview summarizes some of the origins of the First International Congress held in Calgary, Canada in 1986, predictions offered by past Congress Presidents, and a perspective on the trends in autoantibody testing, which remains one of the key approaches to the early and accurate diagnosis of SLE. The last few decades have witnessed a remarkable proliferation of new diagnostic technologies including addressable laser bead immunoassays and, more recently, chemiluminescence and lateral flow technologies that could find a clinical niche in point-of-care diagnostics. Against the backdrop of these constantly emerging technologies, indirect immunofluorescence has remained the platform of choice for many laboratories and diagnosticians. The notion that autoantibodies are pathogenic has been challenged by evidence that some autoantibodies are protective, some may have catalytic capacity while others may be neutral or have no function at all. The latter notion of functionless or "junk" autoantibodies needs to be taken under some advisement, because there was a time when a great proportion of the human genome was considered to include "junk DNA". The butterfly as a symbol of hope and progress in SLE research over the past 27 years since the First International Congress on SLE is almost certainly to be even more appropriate when future Congresses are held in Geneva (2015), Melbourne (2017) and eventually one in 2050.

Fritzler M

2013-01-01

189

Butterfly Diagram and Activity Cycles in HR 1099  

CERN Multimedia

We analyze photometric data of the active RS CVn--type star HR 1099 for the years 1975--2006 with an inversion technique and reveal the nature of two activity cycles of 15--16 yr and 5.3$\\pm$0.1 yr duration. The 16 yr cycle is related to variations of the total spot area and is coupled with the differential rotation, while the 5.3 yr cycle is caused by the symmetric redistribution of the spotted area between the opposite stellar hemispheres (flip-flop cycle). We recover long-lived active regions comprising two active longitudes that migrate in the orbital reference frame with a variable rate because of the differential rotation along with changes in the mean spot latitudes. The migration pattern is periodic with the 16 yr cycle. Combining the longitudinal migration of the active regions with a previously measured differential rotation law, we recover the first stellar butterfly diagram without an assumption about spot shapes. We find that mean latitudes of active regions at opposite longitudes change antisymm...

Berdyugina, S V

2007-01-01

190

The Nation and the Subaltern in Yvonne Vera's Butterfly Burning  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Yvonne Vera's death in 2005 brought to a tragic close the career of one of Zimbabwe's, indeed Africa's, more engaging contemporary writers. But her powerful novel, Butterfly Burning continues to mirror an aspect of Vera's enduring concern: the place of African women in the context of power both within the colonial and the postcolonial moments. This image of the "woman in shadows" also resonates in the kernel of the subaltern subject in Spivak's essay, "Can the Subaltern S (more) peak?" I draw from Spivak's canonical essay, but simply as a critique of its notion of the burdened subjectivity of the colonized reified in the widow's self-immolation, and seen as a problematic condition of representation-a form of impotent silence. In contrast, I suggest that Vera's Phephelaphi directs our attention by a votive suicide that speaks. This essay thus proceeds from a re-reading of the discourse of subalternity to situate Yvonne Vera's novel as an act primarily of resistance against the situation of patriarchal enclosure under colonialism.

Nwakanma, Obi

2013-01-01

191

Observation of the Hofstadter butterfly in graphene on boron nitride  

Science.gov (United States)

In 1976, Douglas Hofstadter considered the general problem of 2D electrons subject to both a magnetic field and a periodic potential. His solution predicted a remarkably complex energy spectrum exhibiting self-similar fractal structure, termed the Hofstadter Butterfly. Experimental exploration of this problem has been limited by the difficulty of fabricating a system with a lattice constant on the order of the magnetic length. It has recently been shown that single layer graphene on hexagonal-BN develops a Moiré pattern with a length of up to 15 nm when the rotational angle between the two lattices approaches zero. We present data demonstrating that for bilayer graphene on hexagonal boron nitride, the effect of the modulation potential associated with the Moiré pattern is large enough to be observable by standard transport. Under large magnetic fields, additional gaps appear within the usual bilayer quantum Hall spectrum, consistent with calculations of the Hofstadter spectrum. We present the first direct experimental evidence of the longstanding theoretical prediction that the gaps arising from the superlattice are characterized by two integer quantum numbers.

Maher, Patrick; Dean, Cory; Forsythe, Carlos; Wang, Lei; Ghahari, Fereshte; Moon, Pilkyung; Koshino, Mikito; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Shepard, Ken; Hone, James; Kim, Philip

2013-03-01

192

Biogeography and systematics of Aricia butterflies (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Butterflies of the Aricia species group represent a paradigm of unresolved taxonomy, both at the genus and species levels. We studied phylogenetic relationships, biogeography, and systematics based on genetic--nuclear and mitochondrial--and morphometric--external (wings) and internal (genitalia) - data. We show that Aricia is a monophyletic genus comprising the taxa Pseudoaricia, Ultraaricia and Umpria, which are here considered junior synonyms of Aricia. The taxa allous, inhonora, issekutzi, mandzhuriana, myrmecias and transalaica, which have often been raised to species rank, are shown to probably represent subspecies or synonyms. We show that montensis is likely a good species that is sister to all A. artaxerxes populations across the Palearctic region. The species A. anteros and A. morronensis are shown to display deep intraspecific divergences and they may harbor cryptic species. We also discovered that A. cramera and A. agestis exhibit a pattern of mutual exclusion on islands, and a parapatric distribution in mainland with a narrow contact zone where potential hybrids were detected. The lack of a prezygotic barrier that prevents their coexistence could explain this phenomenon. This study will hopefully contribute to the stability of the systematics of Aricia, a group with potential for the study of the link between speciation and biogeography.

Sañudo-Restrepo CP; Dinc? V; Talavera G; Vila R

2013-01-01

193

Ligand-induced distortion of a tetranuclear manganese butterfly complex.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The reaction of the pentadentate Schiff-base ligand 1,3-bis(salicylideneamino)-2-propanol (salproH3) with [Mn3O(O2CR)6(py)3] (R = Me, Et, But) gives the corresponding tetranuclear manganese product [Mn4O2O2CR)5(salpro)] (4Mn(III)). The syntheses, structure and magnetochemical characterization of these complexes are reported. The structure of the [Mn4(mu3-O)2]8+ is butterfly-like much more closed than in previous complexes with this core as a result of the alkoxide oxygen of the salpro ligand bridging the two wingtip Mn atoms. Variable-temperature, solid-state magnetic susceptibility studies reveal that these complexes possess S = 0 ground state spins. Fitting of the magnetic susceptibility data to the theoretical chiMT vs. T expression derived for a C2v symmetry complex, assuming an isotropic Heisenberg spin-Hamiltonian and using the Van Vleck equation, revealed that the various exchange parameters are all antiferromagnetic, and the core thus experiences spin frustration effects.

Bagai R; Abboud KA; Christou G

2006-07-01

194

Nettle-feeding nymphalid butterflies: temperature, development and distribution.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

1. Four nymphalid butterflies, Aglais urticae L., Inachis io L., Polygonia c-album L. and Vanessa atalanta L., share the same primary host plant, Urtica dioica L., but have different margins to their U.K. and European ranges. Their developmental responses to a series of constant temperatures were measured. 2. Degree-day requirements were found broadly to explain the relative distributions and differences in voltinism of A. urticae, P. c-album and I. io. The migrant V. atalanta did not fit into the predicted pattern, and this species may be more limited by its ability to overwinter. 3. Although the most northerly distributed species, A. urticae, had the lowest degree-day requirement, it had the highest developmental threshold and performed best (for mortality, pupal weight and relative growth rate) at high experimental temperatures. It is suggested that this may be due to the gregarious nature of its larvae and their possible ability to thermoregulate. 4. At southern margins, different distributional limits may be explained partly by larval gregariousness (a more northern trait) and maximum temperatures at which development is possible. 5. Limits to the distributions of these mobile species are at least partially explicable by the interaction of climatic patterns and thermal biology. A rapid response to climate change is predicted, and has already been observed in two of the species.

Bryant SR; Thomas CD; Bale JS

1997-11-01

195

Host plant species affects virulence in monarch butterfly parasites.  

Science.gov (United States)

1. Studies have considered how intrinsic host and parasite properties determine parasite virulence, but have largely ignored the role of extrinsic ecological factors in its expression. 2. We studied how parasite genotype and host plant species interact to determine virulence of the protozoan parasite Ophryocystis elektroscirrha (McLaughlin & Myers 1970) in the monarch butterfly Danaus plexippus L. We infected monarch larvae with one of four parasite genotypes and reared them on two milkweed species that differed in their levels of cardenolides: toxic chemicals involved in predator defence. 3. Parasite infection, replication and virulence were affected strongly by host plant species. While uninfected monarchs lived equally long on both plant species, infected monarchs suffered a greater reduction in their life spans (55% vs. 30%) on the low-cardenolide vs. the high-cardenolide host plant. These life span differences resulted from different levels of parasite replication in monarchs reared on the two plant species. 4. The virulence rank order of parasite genotypes was unaffected by host plant species, suggesting that host plant species affected parasite genotypes similarly, rather than through complex plant species-parasite genotype interactions. 5. Our results demonstrate that host ecology importantly affects parasite virulence, with implications for host-parasite dynamics in natural populations. PMID:18177332

de Roode, Jacobus C; Pedersen, Amy B; Hunter, Mark D; Altizer, Sonia

2008-01-01

196

Virulence determinants in a natural butterfly-parasite system.  

Science.gov (United States)

Much evolutionary theory assumes that parasite virulence (i.e. parasite-induced host mortality) is determined by within-host parasite reproduction and by the specific parasite genotypes causing infection. However, many other factors could influence the level of virulence experienced by hosts. We studied the protozoan parasite Ophryocystis elektroscirrha in its host, the monarch butterfly, Danaus plexippus. We exposed monarch larvae to wild-isolated parasites and assessed the effects of within-host replication and parasite genotype on host fitness measures, including pre-adult development time and adult weight and longevity. Per capita replication rates of parasites were high, and infection resulted in high parasite loads. Of all host fitness traits, adult longevity showed the clearest relationship with infection status, and decreased continuously with increasing parasite loads. Parasite genotypes differed in their virulence, and these differences were maintained across ecologically relevant variables, including inoculation dose, host sex and host age at infection. Thus, virulence appears to be a robust genetic parasite trait in this system. Although parasite loads and genotypes had strong effects on virulence, inoculation dose, host sex and age at infection were also important. These results have implications for virulence evolution and emphasize the need for a detailed understanding of specific host-parasite systems for addressing theory. PMID:17140464

de Roode, J C; Gold, L R; Altizer, S

2006-12-04

197

Historical demography of Mullerian mimicry in the neotropical Heliconius butterflies.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We compare the historical demographies of two Müllerian comimetic butterfly species: Heliconius erato and Heliconius melpomene. These species show an extensive parallel geographic divergence in their aposematic wing phenotypes. Recent studies suggest that this coincident mosaic results from simultaneous demographic processes shaped by extrinsic forces over Pleistocene climate fluctuations. However, DNA sequence variation at two rapidly evolving unlinked nuclear loci, Mannose phosphate isomerase (Mpi) and Triose phosphate isomerase (Tpi), show that the comimetic species have quite different quaternary demographies. In H. erato, despite ongoing lineage sorting across the Andes, nuclear genealogical estimates showed little geographical structure, suggesting high historical gene flow. Coalescent-based demographic analysis revealed population growth since the Pliocene period. Although these patterns suggest vicariant population subdivision associated with the Andean orogeny, they are not consistent with hypotheses of Pleistocene population fragmentation facilitating allopatric wing phenotype radiation in H. erato. In contrast, nuclear genetic diversity, theta, in H. melpomene was reduced relative to its comimic and revealed three phylogeographical clades. The pattern of coalescent events within regional clades was most consistent with population growth in relatively isolated populations after a recent period of restricted population size. These different demographic histories suggest that the wing-pattern radiations were not coincident in the two species. Instead, larger effective population size (N(e)) in H. erato, together with profound population change in H. melpomene, supports an earlier hypothesis that H. erato diversified first as the model species of this remarkable mimetic association.

Flanagan NS; Tobler A; Davison A; Pybus OG; Kapan DD; Planas S; Linares M; Heckel D; McMillan WO

2004-06-01

198

Structural analysis of eyespots: dynamics of morphogenic signals that govern elemental positions in butterfly wings  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background To explain eyespot colour-pattern determination in butterfly wings, the induction model has been discussed based on colour-pattern analyses of various butterfly eyespots. However, a detailed structural analysis of eyespots that can serve as a foundation for future studies is still lacking. In this study, fundamental structural rules related to butterfly eyespots are proposed, and the induction model is elaborated in terms of the possible dynamics of morphogenic signals involved in the development of eyespots and parafocal elements (PFEs) based on colour-pattern analysis of the nymphalid butterfly Junonia almana. Results In a well-developed eyespot, the inner black core ring is much wider than the outer black ring; this is termed the inside-wide rule. It appears that signals are wider near the focus of the eyespot and become narrower as they expand. Although fundamental signal dynamics are likely to be based on a reaction-diffusion mechanism, they were described well mathematically as a type of simple uniformly decelerated motion in which signals associated with the outer and inner black rings of eyespots and PFEs are released at different time points, durations, intervals, and initial velocities into a two-dimensional field of fundamentally uniform or graded resistance; this produces eyespots and PFEs that are diverse in size and structure. The inside-wide rule, eyespot distortion, structural differences between small and large eyespots, and structural changes in eyespots and PFEs in response to physiological treatments were explained well using mathematical simulations. Natural colour patterns and previous experimental findings that are not easily explained by the conventional gradient model were also explained reasonably well by the formal mathematical simulations performed in this study. Conclusions In a mode free from speculative molecular interactions, the present study clarifies fundamental structural rules related to butterfly eyespots, delineates a theoretical basis for the induction model, and proposes a mathematically simple mode of long-range signalling that may reflect developmental mechanisms associated with butterfly eyespots.

Otaki Joji M

2012-01-01

199

Impact of duplicate gene copies on phylogenetic analysis and divergence time estimates in butterflies.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The increase in availability of genomic sequences for a wide range of organisms has revealed gene duplication to be a relatively common event. Encounters with duplicate gene copies have consequently become almost inevitable in the context of collecting gene sequences for inferring species trees. Here we examine the effect of incorporating duplicate gene copies evolving at different rates on tree reconstruction and time estimation of recent and deep divergences in butterflies. RESULTS: Sequences from ultraviolet-sensitive (UVRh), blue-sensitive (BRh), and long-wavelength sensitive (LWRh) opsins,EF-1 and COI were obtained from 27 taxa representing the five major butterfly families (5535 bp total). Both BRh and LWRh are present in multiple copies in some butterfly lineages and the different copies evolve at different rates. Regardless of the phylogenetic reconstruction method used, we found that analyses of combined data sets using either slower or faster evolving copies of duplicate genes resulted in a single topology in agreement with our current understanding of butterfly family relationships based on morphology and molecules. Interestingly, individual analyses of BRh and LWRh sequences also recovered these family-level relationships. Two different relaxed clock methods resulted in similar divergence time estimates at the shallower nodes in the tree, regardless of whether faster or slower evolving copies were used, with larger discrepancies observed at deeper nodes in the phylogeny. The time of divergence between the monarch butterfly Danaus plexippus and the queen D. gilippus (15.3-35.6 Mya) was found to be much older than the time of divergence between monarch co-mimic Limenitis archippus and red-spotted purple L. arthemis (4.7-13.6 Mya), and overlapping with the time of divergence of the co-mimetic passionflower butterflies Heliconius erato and H. melpomene (13.5-26.1 Mya). Our family-level results are congruent with recent estimates found in the literature and indicate an age of 84-113 million years for the divergence of all butterfly families. CONCLUSION: These results are consistent with diversification of the butterfly families following the radiation of angiosperms and suggest that some classes of opsin genes may be usefully employed for both phylogenetic reconstruction and divergence time estimation.

Pohl N; Sison-Mangus MP; Yee EN; Liswi SW; Briscoe AD

2009-01-01

200

Wing scale microstructures and nanostructures in butterflies--natural photonic crystals.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of our study was to investigate the correlation between structural colour and scale morphology in butterflies. Detailed correlations between blue colour and structure were investigated in three lycaenid subfamilies, which represent a monophylum in the butterfly family Lycaenidae (Lepidoptera): the Coppers (Lycaeninae), the Hairstreaks (Theclinae) and the Blues (Polyommatinae). Complex investigations such as spectral measurements and characterization by means of light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy enabled us to demonstrate that: (i) a wide array of nanostructures generate blue colours; (ii) monophyletic groups use qualitatively similar structures; and (iii) the hue of the blue colour is characteristic for the microstructure and nanostructure of the body of the scales.

Vértesy Z; Bálint Z; Kertész K; Vigneron JP; Lousse V; Biró LP

2006-10-01

 
 
 
 
201

Performance Evaluation of Camb Biopesticides to Control Cabbage Butterfly (Pieris brassicae) in Cauliflower Crop  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available CAMB Bt. based and fungus based biopesticides, commercial Bt. formulation from mycogen and a new chemical pesticide Methoxyfenozide (RH2485-240SC) were tested on cauliflower field against cabbage butterfly (Pieris brassicae). All pesticides successfully controlled the population of cabbage butterfly in cauliflower crop. The efficacy against I to V instar larvae and field stability of CAMB Bt. biopesticide was better than chemical and other biopesticides. So, CAMB Bt. can be safely recommended for pest management strategies against Lepidopteral pests on vegetables with no harmful effects on its predators as in case with chemical pesticides.

Ahmad Usman Zafar; Idrees Ahmad Nasir; Ahmed Ali Shahid; Muhammad Sarwar Rahi; Sheikh Riazuddin

2002-01-01

202

Hofstadter's Butterfly and Phase Transition of Checkerboard Superconducting Network in a Magnetic Field  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We study the magnetic effect of the checkerboard superconducting wire network. Based on the de Gennes-Alexader theory, we obtain difference equations for superconducting order parameter in the wire network. Through solving these difference equations, we obtain the eigenvalues, linked to the coherence length, as a function of magnetic field. The diagram of eigenvalues shows a fractal structure, being so-called Hofstadter's butterfly. We also calculate and discuss the dependence of the transition temperature of the checkerboard superconducting wire network on the applied magnetic field, which is related to up-edge of the Hofstadter's butterfly spectrum. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

2010-03-15

203

Impact of duplicate gene copies on phylogenetic analysis and divergence time estimates in butterflies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The increase in availability of genomic sequences for a wide range of organisms has revealed gene duplication to be a relatively common event. Encounters with duplicate gene copies have consequently become almost inevitable in the context of collecting gene sequences for inferring species trees. Here we examine the effect of incorporating duplicate gene copies evolving at different rates on tree reconstruction and time estimation of recent and deep divergences in butterflies. Results Sequences from ultraviolet-sensitive (UVRh), blue-sensitive (BRh), and long-wavelength sensitive (LWRh) opsins,EF-1? and COI were obtained from 27 taxa representing the five major butterfly families (5535 bp total). Both BRh and LWRh are present in multiple copies in some butterfly lineages and the different copies evolve at different rates. Regardless of the phylogenetic reconstruction method used, we found that analyses of combined data sets using either slower or faster evolving copies of duplicate genes resulted in a single topology in agreement with our current understanding of butterfly family relationships based on morphology and molecules. Interestingly, individual analyses of BRh and LWRh sequences also recovered these family-level relationships. Two different relaxed clock methods resulted in similar divergence time estimates at the shallower nodes in the tree, regardless of whether faster or slower evolving copies were used, with larger discrepancies observed at deeper nodes in the phylogeny. The time of divergence between the monarch butterfly Danaus plexippus and the queen D. gilippus (15.3–35.6 Mya) was found to be much older than the time of divergence between monarch co-mimic Limenitis archippus and red-spotted purple L. arthemis (4.7–13.6 Mya), and overlapping with the time of divergence of the co-mimetic passionflower butterflies Heliconius erato and H. melpomene (13.5–26.1 Mya). Our family-level results are congruent with recent estimates found in the literature and indicate an age of 84–113 million years for the divergence of all butterfly families. Conclusion These results are consistent with diversification of the butterfly families following the radiation of angiosperms and suggest that some classes of opsin genes may be usefully employed for both phylogenetic reconstruction and divergence time estimation.

Pohl Nélida; Sison-Mangus Marilou P; Yee Emily N; Liswi Saif W; Briscoe Adriana D

2009-01-01

204

The Butterfly Effect on the Agricultural Bank System at the Grass-Roots Level  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The competition power of the Agricultural Bank of China has beendropping down for several years. The reason is that banks at the grass-rootslevel don’t think much of managing the subtle links. The paper uses the theoryof butterfly effect in Chaos for reference to discusses the risks existed in theAgricultural Bank of China at the grass-roots level such as the credit risk, theincomplete internal control, the loose accounting system, the disorder marketcompetitiveness, the brain drain, the weak service consciousness, the financialinnovation lag and the unbalanced development. Finally eight pieces of adviceare brought forward as the measures against the eight butterfly effects.

Xu QINXIAN; Zhang JIAN

2009-01-01

205

On the origins of sexual dimorphism in butterflies.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The processes governing the evolution of sexual dimorphism provided a foundation for sexual selection theory. Two alternative processes, originally proposed by Darwin and Wallace, differ primarily in the timing of events creating the dimorphism. In the process advocated by Darwin, a novel ornament arises in a single sex, with no temporal separation in the origin and sex-limitation of the novel trait. By contrast, Wallace proposed a process where novel ornaments appear simultaneously in both sexes, but are then converted into sex-limited expression by natural selection acting against showy coloration in one sex. Here, we investigate these alternative modes of sexual dimorphism evolution in a phylogenetic framework and demonstrate that both processes contribute to dimorphic wing patterns in the butterfly genera Bicyclus and Junonia. In some lineages, eyespots and bands arise in a single sex, whereas in other lineages they appear in both sexes but are then lost in one of the sexes. In addition, lineages displaying sexual dimorphism were more likely to become sexually monomorphic than they were to remain dimorphic. This derived monomorphism was either owing to a loss of the ornament ('drab monomorphism') or owing to a gain of the same ornament by the opposite sex ('mutual ornamentation'). Our results demonstrate the necessity of a plurality in theories explaining the evolution of sexual dimorphism within and across taxa. The origins and evolutionary fate of sexual dimorphism are probably influenced by underlying genetic architecture responsible for sex-limited expression and the degree of intralocus sexual conflict. Future comparative and developmental work on sexual dimorphism within and among taxa will provide a better understanding of the biases and constraints governing the evolution of animal sexual dimorphism.

Oliver JC; Monteiro A

2011-07-01

206

Neurons innervating the lamina in the butterfly, Papilio xuthus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The butterfly Papilio xuthus has compound eyes with three types of ommatidia. Each type houses nine spectrally heterogeneous photoreceptors (R1-R9) that are divided into six spectral classes: ultraviolet, violet, blue, green, red, and broad-band. Analysis of color discrimination has shown that P. xuthus uses the ultraviolet, blue, green, and red receptors for foraging. The ultraviolet and blue receptors are long visual fibers terminating in the medulla, whereas the green and red receptors are short visual fibers terminating in the lamina. This suggests that processing of wavelength information begins in the lamina in P. xuthus, unlike in flies. To establish the anatomical basis of color discrimination mechanisms, we examined neurons innervating the lamina by injecting Neurobiotin into this neuropil. We found that in addition to photoreceptors and lamina monopolar cells, three distinct groups of cells project fibers into the lamina. Their cell bodies are located (1) at the anterior rim of the medulla, (2) between the proximal surface of the medulla and lobula plate, and (3) in the medulla cell body rind. Neurobiotin injection also labeled distinct terminals in medulla layers 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5. Terminals in layer 4 belong to the long visual fibers (R1, 2 and 9), while arbors in layers 1, 2 and 3 probably correspond to terminals of three subtypes of lamina monopolar cells, respectively. Immunocytochemistry coupled with Neurobiotin injection revealed their transmitter candidates; neurons in (1) and a subset of neurons in (2) are immunoreactive to anti-serotonin and anti-?-aminobutyric acid, respectively.

Hamanaka Y; Shibasaki H; Kinoshita M; Arikawa K

2013-05-01

207

Pleistocene origin and population history of a neoendemic alpine butterfly.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Alpine environments underwent dramatic transformation during glacial-interglacial cycles, with the consequence that geographical, ecological and demographic changes of alpine populations provided the opportunity for formation of neoendemic species. Several biogeographical models have been proposed to account for the unique history of alpine populations, with different expectations of genetic divergence and speciation. The expanding alpine archipelago model proposes that alpine populations expand spatially and demographically during glacial events, dispersing between mountain ranges. Under this model, alpine populations are unlikely to diverge in isolation due to substantial interpopulation gene flow. In contrast, the alpine archipelago refuge model proposes that gene flow during glacial phases is limited and populations expand demographically during interglacial phases, increasing genetic isolation and the likelihood of speciation. We assess these models by reconstructing the evolutionary history of Colias behrii, a morphologically and ecologically distinct alpine butterfly restricted to the California Sierra Nevada. C. behrii exhibits very low genetic diversity at mitochondrial and nuclear loci, limited population structure and evidence of population expansion. C. behrii and Rocky Mountain C. meadii share identical mitochondrial haplotypes, while in contrast, nuclear data indicate common ancestry between C. behrii and Cascades Range Colias pelidne. The conflict in gene genealogies may be a result of recent expansion in North American Colias, but an isolation with migration analysis indicates that genetic patterns in C. behrii might result from differential introgression following hybridization. Based on the timing of population expansion and gene flow between mountain ranges, the expanding alpine archipelago model is supported in C. behrii.

Schoville SD; Stuckey M; Roderick GK

2011-03-01

208

Allochronic isolation and incipient hybrid speciation in tiger swallowtail butterflies.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Hybridization leading to reproductively isolated, novel genotypes is poorly understood as a means of speciation and few empirical examples have been studied. In 1999, a previously non-existent delayed flight of what appeared to be the Canadian tiger swallowtail butterfly, Papilio canadensis, was observed in the Battenkill River Valley, USA. Allozyme frequencies and morphology suggest that this delayed flight was the product of hybridization between Papilio canadensis and its sibling species Papilio glaucus. The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) restriction fragment length polymorphisms presented here indicate that only P. canadensis-like mtDNA occurs in this population, suggesting that introgression likely occurred from hybrid males mating with P. canadensis females. Preliminary studies of this population indicated that delayed post-diapause pupal emergence in this hybrid genotype was the root cause behind the observed delayed flight, which suggests a potential empirical example of a mechanism leading to reproductive isolation. Here we provide further evidence of the role of adult pupal emergence as a reproductive barrier likely leading to reproductive isolation. In particular, we present results from pupal emergence studies using four different spring and two different winter temperature treatments. The results indicate a clear separation of adult emergences between the hybrid population and both parental species. However, our results indicate that exceptionally hot springs are likely to lead to greater potential for overlap between the local parental species, P. canadensis, and this delayed population with hybrid origins. Conversely, our results also show that warmer winters are likely to increase the temporal separation of the hybrid population and the parental species. Finally, we report recently collected evidence that this hybrid population remains morphologically distinct.

Ording GJ; Mercader RJ; Aardema ML; Scriber JM

2010-02-01

209

High genetic load in an old isolated butterfly population.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We investigated inbreeding depression and genetic load in a small (N(e) ? 100) population of the Glanville fritillary butterfly (Melitaea cinxia), which has been completely isolated on a small island [Pikku Tytärsaari (PT)] in the Baltic Sea for at least 75 y. As a reference, we studied conspecific populations from the well-studied metapopulation in the Åland Islands (ÅL), 400 km away. A large population in Saaremaa, Estonia, was used as a reference for estimating genetic diversity and N(e). We investigated 58 traits related to behavior, development, morphology, reproductive performance, and metabolism. The PT population exhibited high genetic load (L = 1 - W(PT)/W(ÅL)) in a range of fitness-related traits including adult weight (L = 0.12), flight metabolic rate (L = 0.53), egg viability (L = 0.37), and lifetime production of eggs in an outdoor population cage (L = 0.70). These results imply extensive fixation of deleterious recessive mutations, supported by greatly reduced diversity in microsatellite markers and immediate recovery (heterosis) of egg viability and flight metabolic rate in crosses with other populations. There was no significant inbreeding depression in most traits due to one generation of full-sib mating. Resting metabolic rate was significantly elevated in PT males, which may be related to their short lifespan (L = 0.25). The demographic history and the effective size of the PT population place it in the part of the parameter space in which models predict mutation accumulation. This population exemplifies the increasingly common situation in fragmented landscapes, in which small and completely isolated populations are vulnerable to extinction due to high genetic load.

Mattila AL; Duplouy A; Kirjokangas M; Lehtonen R; Rastas P; Hanski I

2012-09-01

210

Chromosomal rearrangements maintain a polymorphic supergene controlling butterfly mimicry.  

Science.gov (United States)

Supergenes are tight clusters of loci that facilitate the co-segregation of adaptive variation, providing integrated control of complex adaptive phenotypes. Polymorphic supergenes, in which specific combinations of traits are maintained within a single population, were first described for 'pin' and 'thrum' floral types in Primula and Fagopyrum, but classic examples are also found in insect mimicry and snail morphology. Understanding the evolutionary mechanisms that generate these co-adapted gene sets, as well as the mode of limiting the production of unfit recombinant forms, remains a substantial challenge. Here we show that individual wing-pattern morphs in the polymorphic mimetic butterfly Heliconius numata are associated with different genomic rearrangements at the supergene locus P. These rearrangements tighten the genetic linkage between at least two colour-pattern loci that are known to recombine in closely related species, with complete suppression of recombination being observed in experimental crosses across a 400-kilobase interval containing at least 18 genes. In natural populations, notable patterns of linkage disequilibrium (LD) are observed across the entire P region. The resulting divergent haplotype clades and inversion breakpoints are found in complete association with wing-pattern morphs. Our results indicate that allelic combinations at known wing-patterning loci have become locked together in a polymorphic rearrangement at the P locus, forming a supergene that acts as a simple switch between complex adaptive phenotypes found in sympatry. These findings highlight how genomic rearrangements can have a central role in the coexistence of adaptive phenotypes involving several genes acting in concert, by locally limiting recombination and gene flow. PMID:21841803

Joron, Mathieu; Frezal, Lise; Jones, Robert T; Chamberlain, Nicola L; Lee, Siu F; Haag, Christoph R; Whibley, Annabel; Becuwe, Michel; Baxter, Simon W; Ferguson, Laura; Wilkinson, Paul A; Salazar, Camilo; Davidson, Claire; Clark, Richard; Quail, Michael A; Beasley, Helen; Glithero, Rebecca; Lloyd, Christine; Sims, Sarah; Jones, Matthew C; Rogers, Jane; Jiggins, Chris D; ffrench-Constant, Richard H

2011-08-14

211

Chromosomal rearrangements maintain a polymorphic supergene controlling butterfly mimicry.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Supergenes are tight clusters of loci that facilitate the co-segregation of adaptive variation, providing integrated control of complex adaptive phenotypes. Polymorphic supergenes, in which specific combinations of traits are maintained within a single population, were first described for 'pin' and 'thrum' floral types in Primula and Fagopyrum, but classic examples are also found in insect mimicry and snail morphology. Understanding the evolutionary mechanisms that generate these co-adapted gene sets, as well as the mode of limiting the production of unfit recombinant forms, remains a substantial challenge. Here we show that individual wing-pattern morphs in the polymorphic mimetic butterfly Heliconius numata are associated with different genomic rearrangements at the supergene locus P. These rearrangements tighten the genetic linkage between at least two colour-pattern loci that are known to recombine in closely related species, with complete suppression of recombination being observed in experimental crosses across a 400-kilobase interval containing at least 18 genes. In natural populations, notable patterns of linkage disequilibrium (LD) are observed across the entire P region. The resulting divergent haplotype clades and inversion breakpoints are found in complete association with wing-pattern morphs. Our results indicate that allelic combinations at known wing-patterning loci have become locked together in a polymorphic rearrangement at the P locus, forming a supergene that acts as a simple switch between complex adaptive phenotypes found in sympatry. These findings highlight how genomic rearrangements can have a central role in the coexistence of adaptive phenotypes involving several genes acting in concert, by locally limiting recombination and gene flow.

Joron M; Frezal L; Jones RT; Chamberlain NL; Lee SF; Haag CR; Whibley A; Becuwe M; Baxter SW; Ferguson L; Wilkinson PA; Salazar C; Davidson C; Clark R; Quail MA; Beasley H; Glithero R; Lloyd C; Sims S; Jones MC; Rogers J; Jiggins CD; ffrench-Constant RH

2011-09-01

212

Experimental and numerical assessment of the improvement of the load-carrying capacities of butterfly-shaped coupling components in composite structures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study was designed to analyze the load-carrying capacities of composite structures connected face-to-face by a butterfly coupling component experimentally and numerically without adhesive. The results of the experimental studies were supported with numerical analysis. In addition, the butterfly coupling component was developed geometrically with a view to the results of the numerical and experimental studies. The change in the load-carrying capacity of the improved butterfly coupling components was analyzed numerically and experimentally to obtain new results. Half-specimens and butterfly-shaped lock components were cut with a water jet machine. Experiments and analyses were conducted to analyze the effects of coupling geometry parameters, such as the ratio of the butterfly end width to the specimen width (w/b), the ratio of the butterfly middle width to the butterfly end width (x/w), and the ratio of the butterfly half height to the specimen width (y/b). It was intended to determine the damage in the butterfly before any damage to the composite structure and to increase the service-life span of the composite structure with the repair of the butterfly lock. As a result of this study, it was determined that the geometrical fixed ratios (w/b) and (x/w) were 0.4 and 0.2 at 0.4 of (y/b) according to the experimental and numerical studies with basic and modified models

2010-01-01

213

Experimental and numerical assessment of the improvement of the load-carrying capacities of butterfly-shaped coupling components in composite structures  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study was designed to analyze the load-carrying capacities of composite structures connected face-to-face by a butterfly coupling component experimentally and numerically without adhesive. The results of the experimental studies were supported with numerical analysis. In addition, the butterfly coupling component was developed geometrically with a view to the results of the numerical and experimental studies. The change in the load-carrying capacity of the improved butterfly coupling components was analyzed numerically and experimentally to obtain new results. Half-specimens and butterfly-shaped lock components were cut with a water jet machine. Experiments and analyses were conducted to analyze the effects of coupling geometry parameters, such as the ratio of the butterfly end width to the specimen width (w/b), the ratio of the butterfly middle width to the butterfly end width (x/w), and the ratio of the butterfly half height to the specimen width (y/b). It was intended to determine the damage in the butterfly before any damage to the composite structure and to increase the service-life span of the composite structure with the repair of the butterfly lock. As a result of this study, it was determined that the geometrical fixed ratios (w/b) and (x/w) were 0.4 and 0.2 at 0.4 of (y/b) according to the experimental and numerical studies with basic and modified models

Altan, Gurkan; Topcu, Muzaffer [Pamukkale University, Denizli (Turkmenistan)

2010-06-15

214

Natal origins of migratory monarch butterflies at wintering colonies in Mexico: New isotopic evidence  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Each year, millions of monarch butterflies from eastern North America migrate to overwinter in 10–13 discrete colonies located in the Oyamel forests of central Mexico. For decades efforts to track monarch migration have relied on observations and tag-recapture methods, culminating with the discovery...

Wassenaar, Leonard I.; Hobson, Keith A.

215

Effects of Cry1Ab-Expressing Corn Anthers on the Movement of Monarch Butterfly Larvae  

Science.gov (United States)

Studies have shown that anthers from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) corn, Zea mays L., do not pose a significant risk to the monarch butterfly, Danaus plexippus (L.). However, adverse effects (decreased feeding and weight) have been detected after 4 days of exposure in the laboratory to a high density ...

216

Tracking multi-generational colonization of the breeding grounds by monarch butterflies in eastern North America.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Insect migration may involve movements over multiple breeding generations at continental scales, resulting in formidable challenges to their conservation and management. Using distribution models generated from citizen scientist occurrence data and stable-carbon and -hydrogen isotope measurements, we tracked multi-generational colonization of the breeding grounds of monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) in eastern North America. We found that monarch breeding occurrence was best modelled with geographical and climatic variables resulting in an annual breeding distribution of greater than 12 million km(2) that encompassed 99% occurrence probability. Combining occurrence models with stable isotope measurements to estimate natal origin, we show that butterflies which overwintered in Mexico came from a wide breeding distribution, including southern portions of the range. There was a clear northward progression of monarchs over successive generations from May until August when reproductive butterflies began to change direction and moved south. Fifth-generation individuals breeding in Texas in the late summer/autumn tended to originate from northern breeding areas rather than regions further south. Although the Midwest was the most productive area during the breeding season, monarchs that re-colonized the Midwest were produced largely in Texas, suggesting that conserving breeding habitat in the Midwest alone is insufficient to ensure long-term persistence of the monarch butterfly population in eastern North America.

Flockhart DT; Wassenaar LI; Martin TG; Hobson KA; Wunder MB; Norris DR

2013-10-01

217

Dispersal and egg shortfall in Monarch butterflies: what happens when the matrix is cleaned up  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

1. We use an individual-based model describing the life of a monarch butterfly, which utilises milkweeds both aggregated in patches and scattered across the wider landscape as a substrate for laying eggs. The model simplifies the metapopulation of milkweed habitat patches by representing them as a proportion of the overall landscape, with the rest of the landscape considered matrix, which may contain some low density of milkweed plants. 2. The model simulates the number of eggs laid daily by a butterfly as it searches for hosts. The likelihood of finding hosts is related to the density of plants and the search ability of the butterfly. For an empty matrix, remaining in a habitat patch results in more eggs laid. However individuals that are good searchers have almost equivalent success without remaining in a habitat patch. These individuals are most affected by the presence of hosts in the matrix. 3. Given realistic values of habitat patch availability, our model shows that the presence of plants at a low density in the matrix has a substantial impact on the number of eggs laid; removing these plants can reduce lifetime potential fecundity by ca. 20%. These results have implications for monarch butterflies inhabiting agricultural landscapes, in which genetically modified soybean that is resistant to herbicides has resulted in the decimation of milkweeds over large areas.

ZALUCKI MYRONP; LAMMERS JANH

2010-02-01

218

Descend towards unimodality: butterfly loss in Czechia changes a major macroecological pattern.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

. Sofia : Pensoft, 2005 - (Kühn, E.; Feldmann, R.; Thomas, J.; Settele, J.), s. 88-88 ISBN 954-642-247-9Výzkumný zám?r: CEZ:AV0Z50070508Klí?ová slova: butterflyKód oboru RIV: EH - Ekologie - spole?enstva

Konvi?ka, MartinG; Fric, Zden?k; Beneš, Ji?í; ?ížek, Old?ich; Záme?ník, J.

219

Field scale organic farming does not counteract landscape effects on butterfly trait composition  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We tested how dispersal capacity, host plant specificity and reproductive rate influenced the effects of farming system and landscape composition on butterfly species richness and abundance. In no case did variation in these traits explain species responses to organic farming, indicating that all species benefit equally. In contrast, butterflies with high mobility and reproductive rate were disproportionally more abundant in landscapes dominated by arable land, and the species richness of butterflies with low mobility tended to decrease with increasing proportion of arable land whereas those of high mobility remained fairly constant. Hence, although organic farming increased biodiversity, it did not counteract landscape effects on butterfly trait composition. As a trait dependent loss of biodiversity may result in a larger decline of functional trait diversity compared to species diversity, these results imply that organic farming may not increase or restore functional agro-ecosystem diversity. Information provided by species traits, rather than biodiversity per se, may provide important information for successful revisions of future agri-environment schemes.

Jonason D; Andersson GKS; Öckinger E; Smith HG; Bengtsson J

2012-09-01

220

Distribution patterns and indicator species of butterfly assemblages of wet meadows in southern Belgium  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Focal species are a valuable tool for proposing and evaluating management practices for biodiversity conservation. Assemblages of indicator species could be used to cover a wide range of habitats. We identified the main patterns of variation in butterfly assemblages on a diverse set of wet meadows i...

Sawchik, Javier; Dufrêne, Marc; Lebrun, Philippe

 
 
 
 
221

Tracking multi-generational colonization of the breeding grounds by monarch butterflies in eastern North America.  

Science.gov (United States)

Insect migration may involve movements over multiple breeding generations at continental scales, resulting in formidable challenges to their conservation and management. Using distribution models generated from citizen scientist occurrence data and stable-carbon and -hydrogen isotope measurements, we tracked multi-generational colonization of the breeding grounds of monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) in eastern North America. We found that monarch breeding occurrence was best modelled with geographical and climatic variables resulting in an annual breeding distribution of greater than 12 million km(2) that encompassed 99% occurrence probability. Combining occurrence models with stable isotope measurements to estimate natal origin, we show that butterflies which overwintered in Mexico came from a wide breeding distribution, including southern portions of the range. There was a clear northward progression of monarchs over successive generations from May until August when reproductive butterflies began to change direction and moved south. Fifth-generation individuals breeding in Texas in the late summer/autumn tended to originate from northern breeding areas rather than regions further south. Although the Midwest was the most productive area during the breeding season, monarchs that re-colonized the Midwest were produced largely in Texas, suggesting that conserving breeding habitat in the Midwest alone is insufficient to ensure long-term persistence of the monarch butterfly population in eastern North America. PMID:23926146

Flockhart, D T Tyler; Wassenaar, Leonard I; Martin, Tara G; Hobson, Keith A; Wunder, Michael B; Norris, D Ryan

2013-08-07

222

The lycaenid butterfly Polyommatus icarus uses a duplicated blue opsin to see green.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The functional significance of gene duplication is rarely addressed at the level of animal behavior. Butterflies are excellent models in this regard because they can be trained and the use of their opsin-based visual pigments in color vision can be assessed. In the present study, we demonstrate that the lycaenid Polyommatus icarus uses its duplicate blue (B2) opsin, BRh2, in conjunction with its long-wavelength (LW) opsin, LWRh, to see color in the green part of the light spectrum extending up to 560 nm. This is in contrast to butterflies in the genus Papilio, which use duplicate LW opsins to discriminate colors in the long-wavelength range. We also found that P. icarus has a heterogeneously expressed red filtering pigment and red-reflecting ommatidia in the ventral eye region. In behavioural tests, the butterflies could not discriminate colors in the red range (570-640 nm). This finding is significant because we have previously found that the nymphalid butterfly Heliconius erato has filter-pigment mediated color vision in the long wavelength range. Our results suggest that lateral filtering pigments may not always influence color vision in insects.

Sison-Mangus MP; Briscoe AD; Zaccardi G; Knüttel H; Kelber A

2008-02-01

223

The lycaenid butterfly Polyommatus icarus uses a duplicated blue opsin to see green.  

Science.gov (United States)

The functional significance of gene duplication is rarely addressed at the level of animal behavior. Butterflies are excellent models in this regard because they can be trained and the use of their opsin-based visual pigments in color vision can be assessed. In the present study, we demonstrate that the lycaenid Polyommatus icarus uses its duplicate blue (B2) opsin, BRh2, in conjunction with its long-wavelength (LW) opsin, LWRh, to see color in the green part of the light spectrum extending up to 560 nm. This is in contrast to butterflies in the genus Papilio, which use duplicate LW opsins to discriminate colors in the long-wavelength range. We also found that P. icarus has a heterogeneously expressed red filtering pigment and red-reflecting ommatidia in the ventral eye region. In behavioural tests, the butterflies could not discriminate colors in the red range (570-640 nm). This finding is significant because we have previously found that the nymphalid butterfly Heliconius erato has filter-pigment mediated color vision in the long wavelength range. Our results suggest that lateral filtering pigments may not always influence color vision in insects. PMID:18203991

Sison-Mangus, Marilou P; Briscoe, Adriana D; Zaccardi, Guillermo; Knüttel, Helge; Kelber, Almut

2008-02-01

224

Comparative population genetics of mimetic Heliconius butterflies in an endangered habitat; Brazil's Atlantic Forest  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Brazil's Atlantic Forest is a biodiversity hotspot endangered by severe habitat degradation and fragmentation. Habitat fragmentation is expected to reduce dispersal among habitat patches resulting in increased genetic differentiation among populations. Here we examined genetic diversity and differentiation among populations of two Heliconius butterfly species in the northern portion of Brazil's Atlantic Forest to estimate the potential impact of habitat fragmentation on population connectivity in butterflies with home-range behavior. Results We generated microsatellite, AFLP and mtDNA sequence data for 136 Heliconius erato specimens from eight collecting locations and 146 H. melpomene specimens from seven locations. Population genetic analyses of the data revealed high levels of genetic diversity in H. erato relative to H. melpomene, widespread genetic differentiation among populations of both species, and no evidence for isolation-by-distance. Conclusions These results are consistent with the hypothesis that the extensive habitat fragmentation along Brazil's Atlantic Forest has reduced dispersal of Heliconius butterflies among neighboring habitat patches. The results also lend support to the observation that fine-scale population genetic structure may be common in Heliconius. If such population structure also exists independent of human activity, and has been common over the evolutionary history of Heliconius butterflies, it may have contributed to the evolution of wing pattern diversity in the genus.

Albuquerque de Moura Priscila; Quek Swee-Peck; Cardoso Márcio Z; Kronforst Marcus R

2011-01-01

225

Performance Evaluation of Camb Biopesticides to Control Cabbage Butterfly (Pieris brassicae) in Cauliflower Crop  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

CAMB Bt. based and fungus based biopesticides, commercial Bt. formulation from mycogen and a new chemical pesticide Methoxyfenozide (RH2485-240SC) were tested on cauliflower field against cabbage butterfly (Pieris brassicae). All pesticides successfully controlled the population of cabbage bu...

Ahmad Usman Zafar; Idrees Ahmad Nasir; Ahmed Ali Shahid; Muhammad Sarwar Rahi; Sheikh Riazuddin

226

Delayed egg laying and Ne/N ratio in a threatened butterfly, Chazara briseis L.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

. Roma : Tor Vergata University, 2007. s. 129-129.[International Conference on the Biology of Butterflies /5./. 02.07.2007-07.07.2007, Villa Mondragone, Roma]Výzkumný zám?r: CEZ:AV0Z50070508Klí?ová slova: Chazara briseisKód oboru RIV: EH - Ekologie - spole?enstva

Kadlec, T.; Vrba, P.; Kepka, P.; Konvi?ka, MartinG

227

The relationship between total cholinesterase activity and mortality in four butterfly species.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The relationship between total cholinesterase activity (TChE) and mortality in four butterfly species (great southern white [Ascia monuste], common buckeye [Junonia coenia], painted lady [Vanessa cardui], and julia butterflies [Dryas julia]) was investigated. Acute contact toxicity studies were conducted to evaluate the response (median lethal dose [LD50] and TChE) of the four species following exposure to the organophosphate insecticide naled. The LD50 for these butterflies ranged from 2.3 to 7.6 µg/g. The average level of TChE inhibition associated with significant mortality ranged from 26 to 67%, depending on the species. The lower bounds of normal TChE activity (2 standard deviations less than the average TChE for reference butterflies) ranged from 8.4 to 12.3 µM/min/g. As a percentage of the average reference TChE activity for the respective species, the lower bounds were similar to the inhibition levels associated with significant mortality, indicating there was little difference between the dose resulting in significant TChE inhibition and that resulting in mortality.

Bargar TA

2012-09-01

228

Distribution of Nymphalid Butterflies (Brush Footed) in District Rawalpindi and Islamabad  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nymphalidae is by for the largest family of butterflies represented the world over. In the present studies from Rawalpindi and Islamabad, eight selected sites were sampled. The collected specimens were compared with the previously reported species of this family and out of 18 species, Kallima inachus was recorded for the first time from Pakistan.

Arshed Makhdoom Sabir; Amir Hassan Bhatti; Muhammad Ather Rafi; Anjum Suhail

2000-01-01

229

Distribution of Nymphalid Butterflies (Brush Footed) in District Rawalpindi and Islamabad  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Nymphalidae is by for the largest family of butterflies represented the world over. In the present studies from Rawalpindi and Islamabad, eight selected sites were sampled. The collected specimens were compared with the previously reported species of this family and out of 18 species, Kallima inachu...

Arshed Makhdoom Sabir; Amir Hassan Bhatti; Muhammad Ather Rafi; Anjum Suhail

230

Butterfly Species Richness Patterns in Canada: Energy, Heterogeneity, and the Potential Consequences of Climate Change  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The distributions of most pollinator species are poorly documented despite their importance in providing ecosystem services. While these and other organisms are threatened by many aspects of the human enterprise, anthropogenic climate change is potentially the most severe threat to pollinator biodiversity. Mounting evidence demonstrates that there have already been biotic responses to the relatively small climate changes that have occurred this century. These include wholesale shifts of relatively well-documented butterfly and bird species in Europe and North America. Although studies of such phenomena are supported by circumstantial evidence, their findings are also consistent with predictions derived from current models of spatial patterns of species richness. Using new GIS methods that are highly precise and accurate, I document spatial patterns of Canadian butterfly diversity. These are strongly related to contemporary climate and particularly to potential evapotranspiration. An even more noteworthy finding is the fact that, for the first time, habitat heterogeneity, measured as the number of land cover types in each study unit, is proven to be an equally strong predictor of butterfly richness in a region where energy alone was thought to be the best predictor of diversity. Although previous studies reveal similar relationships between energy and diversity, they fail to detect the powerful link between richness and habitat heterogeneity. The butterflies of Canada provide a superb baseline for studying the effects of climate on contemporary patterns of species richness and comprise the only complete pollinator taxon for which this sort of analysis is currently possible.

Jeremy T. Kerr

2001-01-01

231

Critical Incident Analysis and the Semiosphere: The Curious Case of the Spitting Butterfly  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In January 2007, media outlets across Australia reported the local court decision Police v Rose. Mr Rose pleaded guilty and the presiding magistrate recorded no conviction. This event sparked a ‘butterfly effect’ that culminated in legislative amendments changing the make-up of ...

Bob Hodge; Ingrid Matthews

232

Changes in nectar supply: A possible cause of widespread butterfly decline  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recent studies have documented declining trends of various groups of flower-visiting insects, even common butterfly species. Causes of these declines are still unclear but the loss of habitat quality across the wider countryside is thought to be a major factor. Nectar supply constitutes one of the main resources determining habitat quality. Yet, data on changes in nectar abundance are lacking. In this study, we provide the first analysis of changes in floral nectar abundance on a national scale and link these data to trends in butterfly species richness and abundance. We used transect data from the Dutch Butterfly Monitoring Scheme to compare two time periods: 1994-1995 and 2007-2008. The results show that butterfly decline can indeed be linked to a substantial decline in overall flower abundance and specific nectar plants, such as thistles. The decline is as severe in reported flower generalists as in flower specialists. We suggest that eutrophication is a main cause of the decline of nectar sources [Current Zoology 58 (3): 384-391, 2012].

Michiel F. WALLISDEVRIES, Chris A.M. Van SWAAY, Calijn L. PLATE

2012-01-01

233

Defining behavioral and molecular differences between summer and migratory monarch butterflies.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: In the fall, Eastern North American monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) undergo a magnificent long-range migration. In contrast to spring and summer butterflies, fall migrants are juvenile hormone deficient, which leads to reproductive arrest and increased longevity. Migrants also use a time-compensated sun compass to help them navigate in the south/southwesterly direction en route for Mexico. Central issues in this area are defining the relationship between juvenile hormone status and oriented flight, critical features that differentiate summer monarchs from fall migrants, and identifying molecular correlates of behavioral state. RESULTS: Here we show that increasing juvenile hormone activity to induce summer-like reproductive development in fall migrants does not alter directional flight behavior or its time-compensated orientation, as monitored in a flight simulator. Reproductive summer butterflies, in contrast, uniformly fail to exhibit directional, oriented flight. To define molecular correlates of behavioral state, we used microarray analysis of 9417 unique cDNA sequences. Gene expression profiles reveal a suite of 40 genes whose differential expression in brain correlates with oriented flight behavior in individual migrants, independent of juvenile hormone activity, thereby molecularly separating fall migrants from summer butterflies. Intriguing genes that are differentially regulated include the clock gene vrille and the locomotion-relevant tyramine beta hydroxylase gene. In addition, several differentially regulated genes (37.5% of total) are not annotated. We also identified 23 juvenile hormone-dependent genes in brain, which separate reproductive from non-reproductive monarchs; genes involved in longevity, fatty acid metabolism, and innate immunity are upregulated in non-reproductive (juvenile-hormone deficient) migrants. CONCLUSION: The results link key behavioral traits with gene expression profiles in brain that differentiate migratory from summer butterflies and thus show that seasonal changes in genomic function help define the migratory state.

Zhu H; Gegear RJ; Casselman A; Kanginakudru S; Reppert SM

2009-01-01

234

Time-varying wing-twist improves aerodynamic efficiency of forward flight in butterflies.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Insect wings can undergo significant chordwise (camber) as well as spanwise (twist) deformation during flapping flight but the effect of these deformations is not well understood. The shape and size of butterfly wings leads to particularly large wing deformations, making them an ideal test case for investigation of these effects. Here we use computational models derived from experiments on free-flying butterflies to understand the effect of time-varying twist and camber on the aerodynamic performance of these insects. High-speed videogrammetry is used to capture the wing kinematics, including deformation, of a Painted Lady butterfly (Vanessa cardui) in untethered, forward flight. These experimental results are then analyzed computationally using a high-fidelity, three-dimensional, unsteady Navier-Stokes flow solver. For comparison to this case, a set of non-deforming, flat-plate wing (FPW) models of wing motion are synthesized and subjected to the same analysis along with a wing model that matches the time-varying wing-twist observed for the butterfly, but has no deformation in camber. The simulations show that the observed butterfly wing (OBW) outperforms all the flat-plate wings in terms of usable force production as well as the ratio of lift to power by at least 29% and 46%, respectively. This increase in efficiency of lift production is at least three-fold greater than reported for other insects. Interestingly, we also find that the twist-only-wing (TOW) model recovers much of the performance of the OBW, demonstrating that wing-twist, and not camber is key to forward flight in these insects. The implications of this on the design of flapping wing micro-aerial vehicles are discussed.

Zheng L; Hedrick TL; Mittal R

2013-01-01

235

Time-varying wing-twist improves aerodynamic efficiency of forward flight in butterflies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Insect wings can undergo significant chordwise (camber) as well as spanwise (twist) deformation during flapping flight but the effect of these deformations is not well understood. The shape and size of butterfly wings leads to particularly large wing deformations, making them an ideal test case for investigation of these effects. Here we use computational models derived from experiments on free-flying butterflies to understand the effect of time-varying twist and camber on the aerodynamic performance of these insects. High-speed videogrammetry is used to capture the wing kinematics, including deformation, of a Painted Lady butterfly (Vanessa cardui) in untethered, forward flight. These experimental results are then analyzed computationally using a high-fidelity, three-dimensional, unsteady Navier-Stokes flow solver. For comparison to this case, a set of non-deforming, flat-plate wing (FPW) models of wing motion are synthesized and subjected to the same analysis along with a wing model that matches the time-varying wing-twist observed for the butterfly, but has no deformation in camber. The simulations show that the observed butterfly wing (OBW) outperforms all the flat-plate wings in terms of usable force production as well as the ratio of lift to power by at least 29% and 46%, respectively. This increase in efficiency of lift production is at least three-fold greater than reported for other insects. Interestingly, we also find that the twist-only-wing (TOW) model recovers much of the performance of the OBW, demonstrating that wing-twist, and not camber is key to forward flight in these insects. The implications of this on the design of flapping wing micro-aerial vehicles are discussed. PMID:23341923

Zheng, Lingxiao; Hedrick, Tyson L; Mittal, Rajat

2013-01-16

236

Defining behavioral and molecular differences between summer and migratory monarch butterflies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background In the fall, Eastern North American monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) undergo a magnificent long-range migration. In contrast to spring and summer butterflies, fall migrants are juvenile hormone deficient, which leads to reproductive arrest and increased longevity. Migrants also use a time-compensated sun compass to help them navigate in the south/southwesterly direction en route for Mexico. Central issues in this area are defining the relationship between juvenile hormone status and oriented flight, critical features that differentiate summer monarchs from fall migrants, and identifying molecular correlates of behavioral state. Results Here we show that increasing juvenile hormone activity to induce summer-like reproductive development in fall migrants does not alter directional flight behavior or its time-compensated orientation, as monitored in a flight simulator. Reproductive summer butterflies, in contrast, uniformly fail to exhibit directional, oriented flight. To define molecular correlates of behavioral state, we used microarray analysis of 9417 unique cDNA sequences. Gene expression profiles reveal a suite of 40 genes whose differential expression in brain correlates with oriented flight behavior in individual migrants, independent of juvenile hormone activity, thereby molecularly separating fall migrants from summer butterflies. Intriguing genes that are differentially regulated include the clock gene vrille and the locomotion-relevant tyramine beta hydroxylase gene. In addition, several differentially regulated genes (37.5% of total) are not annotated. We also identified 23 juvenile hormone-dependent genes in brain, which separate reproductive from non-reproductive monarchs; genes involved in longevity, fatty acid metabolism, and innate immunity are upregulated in non-reproductive (juvenile-hormone deficient) migrants. Conclusion The results link key behavioral traits with gene expression profiles in brain that differentiate migratory from summer butterflies and thus show that seasonal changes in genomic function help define the migratory state.

Zhu Haisun; Gegear Robert J; Casselman Amy; Kanginakudru Sriramana; Reppert Steven M

2009-01-01

237

77 FR 20947 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing of the Miami Blue Butterfly as Endangered...  

Science.gov (United States)

...50 CFR Part 17 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants...of the Miami Blue Butterfly as Endangered Throughout Its Range; Listing...4500030113] RIN 1018-AX83 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and...

2012-04-06

238

Large scale steam valve test: Performance testing of large butterfly valves and full scale high flowrate steam testing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report presents the results of the design testing of large (36-inch diameter) butterfly valves under high flow conditions. The two butterfly valves were pneumatically operated air-open, air-shut valves (termed valves 1 and 2). These butterfly valves were redesigned to improve their ability to function under high flow conditions. Concern was raised regarding the ability of the butterfly valves to function as required with high flow-induced torque imposed on the valve discs during high steam flow conditions. High flow testing was required to address the flow-induced torque concerns. The valve testing was done using a heavily instrumented piping system. This test program was called the Large Scale Steam Valve Test (LSSVT). The LSSVT program demonstrated that the redesigned valves operated satisfactorily under high flow conditions.

Meadows, J.B.; Robbins, G.E.; Roselius, D.G. [and others

1995-05-01

239

Borboletas (Lepidoptera) ameaçadas de extinção em Minas Gerais, Brasil Butterflies (Lepidoptera) considered as threatened in Minas Gerais, Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The twenty species of butterflies (diurnal Lepidoptera) considered as threatened in the Minas Gerais (by statute) are described and discussed in relation to distribution, appearance and known records.

Mirna M Casagrande; Olaf H.H Mielke; Keith S Brown Jr

1998-01-01

240

Effects of patch size and type of coffee matrix on ithomiine butterfly diversity and dispersal in cloud-forest fragments.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Determining the permeability of different types of landscape matrices to animal movement is essential for conserving populations in fragmented landscapes. We evaluated the effects of habitat patch size and matrix type on diversity, isolation, and dispersal of ithomiine butterflies in forest fragments surrounded by coffee agroecosystems in the Colombian Andes. Because ithomiines prefer a shaded understory, we expected the highest diversity and abundance in large fragments surrounded by shade coffee and the lowest in small fragments surrounded by sun coffee. We also thought shade coffee would favor butterfly dispersal and immigration into forest patches. We marked 9675 butterflies of 39 species in 12 forest patches over a year. Microclimate conditions were more similar to the forest interior in the shade-coffee matrix than in the sun-coffee matrix, but patch size and matrix type did not affect species richness and abundance in forest fragments. Furthermore, age structure and temporal recruitment patterns of the butterfly community were similar in all fragments, independent of patch size or matrix type. There were no differences in the numbers of butterflies flying in the matrices at two distances from the forest patch, but their behavior differed. Flight in the sun-coffee matrix was rapid and directional, whereas butterflies in shade-coffee matrix flew slowly. Seven out of 130 recaptured butterflies immigrated into patches in the shade-coffee matrix, and one immigrated into a patch surrounded by sun coffee. Although the shade-coffee matrix facilitated movement in the landscape, sun-coffee matrix was not impermeable to butterflies. Ithomiines exhibited behavioral plasticity in habitat use and high mobility. These traits favor their persistence in heterogeneous landscapes, opening opportunities for their conservation. Understanding the dynamics and resource requirements of different organisms in rural landscapes is critical for identifying management options that address both animals' and farmers' needs.

Muriel SB; Kattan GH

2009-08-01

 
 
 
 
241

Comparing the response of birds and butterflies to vegetation-based mountain ecotones using boundary detection approaches.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Mountains provide an opportunity to examine changes in biodiversity across environmental gradients and areas of transition (ecotones). Mountain ecotones separate vegetation belts. Here, we aimed to examine whether transition areas for birds and butterflies spatially correspond with ecotones between three previously described altitudinal vegetation belts on Mt. Hermon, northern Israel. These include the Mediterranean Maquis, xero-montane open forest and Tragacanthic mountain steppe vegetation belts. We sampled the abundance of bird and butterfly species in 34 sampling locations along an elevational gradient between 500 and 2200 m. We applied wombling, a boundary-detection technique, which detects rapid changes in a continuous variable, in order to locate the transition areas for bird and butterfly communities and compare the location of these areas with the location of vegetation belts as described in earlier studies of Mt. Hermon. We found some correspondence between the areas of transition of both bird and butterfly communities and the ecotones between vegetation belts. For birds and butterflies, important transitions occurred at the lower vegetation ecotone between Mediterranean maquis and the xero-montane open forest vegetation belts, and between the xero-montane open forest and the mountain steppe Tragacanthic belts. While patterns of species turnover with elevation were similar for birds and butterflies, the change in species richness and diversity with elevation differed substantially between the two taxa. Birds and butterflies responded quite similarly to the elevational gradient and to the shift between vegetation belts in terms of species turnover rates. While the mechanisms generating these patterns may differ, the resulting areas of peak turnover in species show correspondence among three different taxa (plants, birds and butterflies).

Kent R; Levanoni O; Banker E; Pe'er G; Kark S

2013-01-01

242

Odorants of the Flowers of Butterfly Bush, Buddleja davidii, as Possible Attractants of Pest Species of Moths  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Flowers of the butterfly bush, Buddleja davidii Franch., are visited by butterflies as well as other insects. Night captures revealed also that moths visit butterfly bush flowers. Moths captured in traps over flowers included 12 species of Noctuidae, 6 species of Pyralidae, 2 species of Geometridae, and 1 tortricid species. The majority of moths trapped at these flowers were cabbage loopers, Trichoplusia ni (Hübner), and alfalfa loopers, Autographa californica (Speyer). Both males and females were captured at butterfly bush flowers. Additionally, butterflies, bees, wasps, flies, and other insects also were captured. Analysis of volatile compounds collected from air over clusters of butterfly bush flowers yielded the consistent presence of nine chemicals: benzaldehyde, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one, hexyl acetate, 4-oxoisophorone, (E,E)-?-farnesene, (Z)-cinnamaldehyde, dihydrooxoisophorone, ?-cyclocitral, and oxoisophorone oxide. Emitted amounts of these floral odorants averaged 57 ng per h per floret or 21 ?g per h per flower cluster (raceme). Five of those floral chemicals, benzaldehyde, 4-oxoisophorone, dihydrooxoisophorone, oxoisophorone oxide, and (E,E)-?-farnesene triggered antennal responses in cabbage looper moths, while benzaldehyde, oxoisophorone oxide, and 4-oxoisophorone also stimulated antennal responses in alfalfa looper moths. Some of these compounds may be attractants or co-attractants for moths and play a key role in locating flowers as nectar sources.

Guédot Christelle; Landolt PeterJ; Smithhisler ConstanceL

2008-12-01

243

Antennal circadian clocks coordinate sun compass orientation in migratory monarch butterflies.  

Science.gov (United States)

During their fall migration, Eastern North American monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) use a time-compensated Sun compass to aid navigation to their overwintering grounds in central Mexico. It has been assumed that the circadian clock that provides time compensation resides in the brain, although this assumption has never been examined directly. Here, we show that the antennae are necessary for proper time-compensated Sun compass orientation in migratory monarch butterflies, that antennal clocks exist in monarchs, and that they likely provide the primary timing mechanism for Sun compass orientation. These unexpected findings pose a novel function for the antennae and open a new line of investigation into clock-compass connections that may extend widely to other insects that use this orientation mechanism. PMID:19779201

Merlin, Christine; Gegear, Robert J; Reppert, Steven M

2009-09-25

244

Antennal circadian clocks coordinate sun compass orientation in migratory monarch butterflies.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

During their fall migration, Eastern North American monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) use a time-compensated Sun compass to aid navigation to their overwintering grounds in central Mexico. It has been assumed that the circadian clock that provides time compensation resides in the brain, although this assumption has never been examined directly. Here, we show that the antennae are necessary for proper time-compensated Sun compass orientation in migratory monarch butterflies, that antennal clocks exist in monarchs, and that they likely provide the primary timing mechanism for Sun compass orientation. These unexpected findings pose a novel function for the antennae and open a new line of investigation into clock-compass connections that may extend widely to other insects that use this orientation mechanism.

Merlin C; Gegear RJ; Reppert SM

2009-09-01

245

Butterfly Graphs with Shell Orders m and 2m+1 are Graceful  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A graceful labelling of an un directed graph G with n edges is a one-one function from the set of vertices V(G) to the set {0, 1, ,2, . . ., n} such that the induced edge labels are all distinct. An induced edge label is the absolute difference between the two end vertex labels. A shell graph is defined as a cycle Cn with (n -3) chords sharing a common end point called the apex . A double shell is one vertex union of two shells. A bow graph is defined to be a double shell in which each shell has any order. In this paper we define a butterfly graph as a bow graph with exactly two pendant edges at the apex and we prove that all butterfly graphs with one shell of order m and the other shell of order (2m + 1) are graceful.

Ezhilarasi Hilda Stanley

2012-01-01

246

Carbohydrate chelation in neutral aqueous solution: the threo-tetritolato-Pd(4) butterfly motif.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Alditols ("sugar alcohols", "glycitols") form palladium(II) complexes in neutral aqueous solution if they can provide the threitol partial structure. This requirement excludes erythritol, ribitol, and allitol when applied to the common tetritols, pentitols, and hexitols. The remaining alditols are able to arrange their threo-tetraol-O(4) pattern to an almost planar rhomb, to which four Pd(II) N(2) (N(2) =bidentate nitrogen ligand) centres bind in a butterfly-shaped Pd(4) motif. Bridging is the exclusive bonding mode of the four alkoxido donors. In contrast to the butterfly complexes, all alditols are able to form a species at a pH intermediate between neutrality and the stronger alkaline conditions of non-bridging diolato-palladium(II) binding, namely, the ?-triolato bonding mode. A Pd(2) (?-triolato) unit shows the middle O atom of a propanetriolato fragment as a bridging ligator, with the lateral O atoms binding in the terminal mode.

Allscher T; Klüfers P

2012-08-01

247

Carbohydrate chelation in neutral aqueous solution: the threo-tetritolato-Pd(4) butterfly motif.  

Science.gov (United States)

Alditols ("sugar alcohols", "glycitols") form palladium(II) complexes in neutral aqueous solution if they can provide the threitol partial structure. This requirement excludes erythritol, ribitol, and allitol when applied to the common tetritols, pentitols, and hexitols. The remaining alditols are able to arrange their threo-tetraol-O(4) pattern to an almost planar rhomb, to which four Pd(II) N(2) (N(2) =bidentate nitrogen ligand) centres bind in a butterfly-shaped Pd(4) motif. Bridging is the exclusive bonding mode of the four alkoxido donors. In contrast to the butterfly complexes, all alditols are able to form a species at a pH intermediate between neutrality and the stronger alkaline conditions of non-bridging diolato-palladium(II) binding, namely, the ?-triolato bonding mode. A Pd(2) (?-triolato) unit shows the middle O atom of a propanetriolato fragment as a bridging ligator, with the lateral O atoms binding in the terminal mode. PMID:22786800

Allscher, Thorsten; Klüfers, Peter

2012-07-11

248

The significance of moment-of-inertia variation in flight manoeuvres of butterflies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The objective of this study is to understand the role that changes in body moment of inertia might play during flight manoeuvres of insects. High-speed, high-resolution videogrammetry is used to quantify the trajectory and body conformation of Painted Lady butterflies during flight manoeuvres; the 3D kinematics of the centre of masses of the various body parts of the insect is determined experimentally. Measurements of the mass properties of the insect are used to parameterize a simple flight dynamics model of the butterfly. Even though the mass of the flapping wings is small compared to the total mass of the insect, these experiments and subsequent analysis indicate that changes in moment of inertia during flight are large enough to influence the manoeuvres of these insects. (communication)

2012-01-01

249

Chemical defense in the zebra swallowtail butterfly, Eurytides marcellus, involving annonaceous acetogenins.  

Science.gov (United States)

Few herbivores feed on the foliage of the North American paw paw tree, Asimina triloba; notable exceptions are the larvae of the zebra swallowtail butterfly, Eurytides marcellus. Toxic annonaceous acetogenins, produced by A. triloba, are responsible for the relative unpalatability of the leaves. Acetogenins found in A. triloba extracts are potent pesticidal and antineoplastic agents and have emetic activity in vertebrates. In this study, partitioned aqueous MeOH fractions of the bioactive CH2Cl2 extracts, of freeze-dried and pulverized larvae, and of mature butterflies revealed acetogenin content through the use of HPLC coupled to tandem MS (LC-MS/MS). This sensitive technique provides an uncomplicated method for the detection of trace compounds and, in this instance, has confirmed tissue presence of acetogenins that serve a probable role as chemical defense agents against bird predation in zebra swallowtail larvae and adults. PMID:9917274

Martin, J M; Madigosky, S R; Gu, Z M; Zhou, D; Wu, J; McLaughlin, J L

1999-01-01

250

Self-assembled carbon nanotube honeycomb networks using a butterfly wing template as a multifunctional nanobiohybrid.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Insect wings have many unique and complex nano/microstructures that are presently beyond the capabilities of any current technology to reproduce them artificially. In particular, Morpho butterflies are an attractive type of insect because their multifunctional wings are composed of nano/microstructures. In this paper, we show that carbon nanotube-containing composite adopts honeycomb-shaped networks when simply self-assembled on Morpho butterfly wings used as a template. The unique nano/microstructure of the composites exhibits multifunctionalities such as laser-triggered remote-heating, high electrical conductivity, and repetitive DNA amplification. Our present study highlights the important progress that has been made toward the development of smart nanobiomaterials for various applications such as digital diagnosis, soft wearable electronic devices, photosensors, and photovoltaic cells.

Miyako E; Sugino T; Okazaki T; Bianco A; Yudasaka M; Iijima S

2013-10-01

251

A Scalable and Minimized Butterfly Fat Tree (SMBFT) Switching Network for On-Chip Communication  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study proposes a scalable and cost effective Network on Chip (NoC) based architecture that is a modified version of Butterfly Fat Tree (BFT) network and is known as Scalable and Minimized Butterfly Fat Tree (SMBFT) switching network. The corresponding floor plan and scalable routing algorithm for the proposed network is also presented. Component Based Interconnection Network Simulator (CINSIM) was used to evaluate the steady state as well as transient behaviors of SMBFT, BFT and Binary Tree switching networks for average delay at targets. Results show that the proposed on-chip network outperforms the other two in terms of average delay, area and cost. SMFBT also comprises of less number of routers, links and levels. Hence the proposed network of switches is superior to BFT and Binary Tree and can efficiently be used for on-chip communication networks.

Sheraz Anjum; Imran Ali Khan; Waqas Anwar; Ehsan Ullah Munir; Babar Nazir

2012-01-01

252

Selection toward shorter flowers by butterflies whose probosces are shorter than floral tubes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Darwin's meticulous observations on the function of floral shape led to his famous prediction of a long-tongued pollinator, which he believed to be the evolutionary trigger for the long-spurred flowers of the Madagascar star orchid. Although tubular flowers are common, long tubes or spurs are an exception, suggesting that selection maintaining short flowers is widespread. Using the butterfly-pollinated carnation Dianthus carthusianorum and two butterfly species differing in proboscis length (Melanargia galathea and Inachis io) as model organisms, we experimentally demonstrate a reduction in pollinator efficiency with an increasing difference between proboscis length and floral tube length. Such a relationship is a prerequisite for the evolution of floral shape in response to pollinator morphology. PMID:18831167

Bloch, Daniel; Erhardt, Andreas

2008-09-01

253

The electronic spectrum of a quasiperiodic potential: From the Hofstadter butterfly to the Fibonacci chain  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We show that an electronic tight-binding Hamiltonian, defined in a quasiperiodic chain with an on-site potential given by a Fibonacci sequence, can be obtained using a superposition of Harper potentials. Since the spectrum of the Harper equation as a function of the magnetic flux is a fractal set, known as the Hofstadter butterfly, we follow the transformation of the butterfly to a new one that contains the Fibonacci potential and related approximants. As a result, the equation in reciprocal space for the Fibonacci case has the form of a chain with long range interaction between Fourier components. Then, the structure of the resulting spectrum is analyzed by calculating the components in reciprocal space of the related potentials. As an application, the correlator of each potential and some localization properties are obtained.

Naumis, Gerardo G. [Departamento de Fisica-Qumica, Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), Apartado Postal 20-364, 01000 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)], E-mail: naumis@fisica.unam.mx; Lopez-Rodriguez, F.J. [Departamento de Fisica-Qumica, Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), Apartado Postal 20-364, 01000 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

2008-05-01

254

The electronic spectrum of a quasiperiodic potential: From the Hofstadter butterfly to the Fibonacci chain  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We show that an electronic tight-binding Hamiltonian, defined in a quasiperiodic chain with an on-site potential given by a Fibonacci sequence, can be obtained using a superposition of Harper potentials. Since the spectrum of the Harper equation as a function of the magnetic flux is a fractal set, known as the Hofstadter butterfly, we follow the transformation of the butterfly to a new one that contains the Fibonacci potential and related approximants. As a result, the equation in reciprocal space for the Fibonacci case has the form of a chain with long range interaction between Fourier components. Then, the structure of the resulting spectrum is analyzed by calculating the components in reciprocal space of the related potentials. As an application, the correlator of each potential and some localization properties are obtained

2008-05-01

255

Vanessa cardui adipokinetic hormone (Vanca-AKH) in butterflies and a moth.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Small neuropeptides of the adipokinetic hormone/red pigment-concentrating hormone (AKH/RPCH) family regulate energy metabolism in insects. Within lepidopterans, the nonapeptide Manduca sexta AKH (Manse-AKH) represents a widely occurring AKH, whereas the decapeptide Helze-HrTH (at first isolated from Heliothis zea) seems to be restricted to moths. Here we show that Vanca-AKH, a non-amidated undecapeptide which we recently found in the painted lady butterfly, Vanessa cardui, is also present in the retrocerebral complex of several other butterflies (Danaus plexippus, Precis coenia, Aglais urticae) and a moth (Spodoptera frugiperda). This study also demonstrates the power of modern nano-electrospray-quadrupole TOF tandem mass spectrometry in the sequence confirmation of peptides from minute amounts of small neuropeptides.

Köllisch GV; Verhaert PD; Hoffmann KH

2003-06-01

256

Color vision and learning in the monarch butterfly, Danaus plexippus (Nymphalidae).  

Science.gov (United States)

The monarch butterfly, Danaus plexippus, is well known for its intimate association with milkweed plants and its incredible multi-generational trans-continental migrations. However, little is known about monarch butterflies' color perception or learning ability, despite the importance of visual information to butterfly behavior in the contexts of nectar foraging, host-plant location and mate recognition. We used both theoretical and experimental approaches to address basic questions about monarch color vision and learning ability. Color space modeling based on the three known spectral classes of photoreceptors present in the eye suggests that monarchs should not be able to discriminate between long wavelength colors without making use of a dark orange lateral filtering pigment distributed heterogeneously in the eye. In the context of nectar foraging, monarchs show strong innate preferences, rapidly learn to associate colors with sugar rewards and learn non-innately preferred colors as quickly and proficiently as they do innately preferred colors. Butterflies also demonstrate asymmetric confusion between specific pairs of colors, which is likely a function of stimulus brightness. Monarchs readily learn to associate a second color with reward, and in general, learning parameters do not vary with temporal sequence of training. In addition, monarchs have true color vision; that is, they can discriminate colors on the basis of wavelength, independent of intensity. Finally, behavioral trials confirm that monarchs do make use of lateral filtering pigments to enhance long-wavelength discrimination. Our results demonstrate that monarchs are proficient and flexible color learners; these capabilities should allow them to respond rapidly to changing nectar availabilities as they travel over migratory routes, across both space and time. PMID:21228210

Blackiston, Douglas; Briscoe, Adriana D; Weiss, Martha R

2011-02-01

257

Color vision and learning in the monarch butterfly, Danaus plexippus (Nymphalidae).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The monarch butterfly, Danaus plexippus, is well known for its intimate association with milkweed plants and its incredible multi-generational trans-continental migrations. However, little is known about monarch butterflies' color perception or learning ability, despite the importance of visual information to butterfly behavior in the contexts of nectar foraging, host-plant location and mate recognition. We used both theoretical and experimental approaches to address basic questions about monarch color vision and learning ability. Color space modeling based on the three known spectral classes of photoreceptors present in the eye suggests that monarchs should not be able to discriminate between long wavelength colors without making use of a dark orange lateral filtering pigment distributed heterogeneously in the eye. In the context of nectar foraging, monarchs show strong innate preferences, rapidly learn to associate colors with sugar rewards and learn non-innately preferred colors as quickly and proficiently as they do innately preferred colors. Butterflies also demonstrate asymmetric confusion between specific pairs of colors, which is likely a function of stimulus brightness. Monarchs readily learn to associate a second color with reward, and in general, learning parameters do not vary with temporal sequence of training. In addition, monarchs have true color vision; that is, they can discriminate colors on the basis of wavelength, independent of intensity. Finally, behavioral trials confirm that monarchs do make use of lateral filtering pigments to enhance long-wavelength discrimination. Our results demonstrate that monarchs are proficient and flexible color learners; these capabilities should allow them to respond rapidly to changing nectar availabilities as they travel over migratory routes, across both space and time.

Blackiston D; Briscoe AD; Weiss MR

2011-02-01

258

Butterflies (Lepidoptera, Papilionoidea and Hesperioidea) of the "Baixada Santista" region, coastal São Paulo, southeastern Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Butterflies (Lepidoptera, Papilionoidea and Hesperioidea) of the "Baixada Santista" region, coastal São Paulo, southeastern Brazil. A list with 538 species of butterflies recorded in the Baixada Santista, São Paulo ( SE Brazil) is presented. Standard sampling protocols (i.e. with entomological nets) were followed. Baited traps were installed for fruit feeding species. Data from the literature and entomological collections were also considered in the total estimated species richness. The species richness recorded in the Baixada Santista region represents about 16% of the Brazilian butterfly fauna, and 34% of the known butterfly fauna for the state of São Paulo. The present list contains an appreciably higher number of species in comparison to other lists from similar biomes farther south, such as Blumenau in Santa Catarina, and Maquiné in Rio Grande do Sul.Borboletas (Lepidoptera, Papilionoidea e Hesperioidea) da região da Baixada Santista, litoral de São Paulo (SE Brasil). Uma lista com 538 espécies de borboletas registradas na Baixada Santista é apresentada. Foram seguidos os protocolos amostrais padronizados (i.e. redes entomológicas). Armadilhas com iscas foram instaladas para coleta de espécies frugívoras. Dados de literatura e coleções entomológicas também foram considerados nas estimativas de riqueza de espécies. A riqueza de espécies registrada na Baixada Santista representa cerca de 16% da fauna de borboletas do Brasil, e 34% da fauna de borboletas do Estado de São Paulo. A presente lista contém um número consideravelmente alto de espécies em comparação com outras listas de biomas similares mais ao sul, como Blumenau em Santa Catarina, e Maquiné no Rio Grande do Sul.

Ronaldo Bastos Francini; Marcelo Duarte; Olaf Hermann Hendrik Mielke; Astrid Caldas; André Victor Lucci Freitas

2011-01-01

259

Noise caused by cavitating Butterfly and Monovar Valves. Effects of cavitation on acoustic sources; numerical simulation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An experimental study of the effects of cavitation was carried out through an analysis of cavitating Butterfly and Monovar valves. For each variation case, the nature of the dominant source is determined in relation to frequency. Once the parameters of the cavitation zone are identified, a three-zone model is used in order to pinpoint the acoustic sources with cavitation. In order to determine acoustic sources, we present a numerical simulation using a bubbles population. (authors). 13 refs.

Hassis, H. [Enit, Belvedere - Tunis (Tunisia); Lauro, J.F.; Boyer, A.; Dueymes, E.

1996-12-31

260

The coming and going of Batesian mimicry in a Holarctic butterfly clade  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract A study using phylogenetic hypothesis testing, published in BMC Evolutionary Biology, suggests that non-mimetic forms of the North American white admiral butterfly evolved from a mimetic ancestor. This case might provide one of the first examples in which mimicry was gained and then lost again, emphasizing the evolutionary lability of Batesian mimicry. See research article http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/10/239

Fiedler Konrad

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Identification of Butterfly (Lepidoptera; Rhopalocera) Fauna of Gokçeada and Bozcaada, Turkey  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the butterflies of Gökçeada and Bozcaada in Turkey. As a result, a total of 61 Lepidoptera species in the two islands was recorded. Of these, species 45 were found in Gökçeada and 16 species were found in Bozcaada. Additionally, it was appeared that 13 species for Gökçeada and all of the 16 species for Bozcaada were the first records.

Z. Okyar; N. Aktac

2006-01-01

262

The Studies on Diurnal Butterflies (Lepidoptera: Rhopalocera) in Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University Terzio?lu Campus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to determine lepidopteran species on Terzio?lu Campus during March 2005–April 2007. We surveyed Rhopalocera butterflies in Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Terzio?lu Campus, in Çanakkale, Turkey. In this study, total of 44 species belonging to to Papilionidae (4), Nymphalidae (23), Pieridae (8), Lycaenidae (4) and Hesperiidae (5), were identified. The most abundant species throughout the campus are Pieris brassicae, P. rapae, P. napi, Colias crocea, Iphiclides podalirius, and Melanargia larissa.

D. Zobar; H. Genc

2008-01-01

263

[Butterflies (Lepidoptera, Diurna) in boreal forests of southeastern Russia: 1. Light coniferous forests].  

Science.gov (United States)

Species groups formed in light coniferous forests prevailing in southeastern Russia are considered using the example of butterflies. Problems concerning the formation of species composition and its originality in some insects groups are discussed. A classification analysis of species checklists for twelve local faunas of Transbaikalia and the southern Russian Far East is performed. It is shown that the faunas of areas occupied by light coniferous forests have a common background. PMID:19391481

Martynenko, A B

264

[Butterflies (Lepidoptera, Diurna) in boreal forests of southeastern Russia: 1. Light coniferous forests  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Species groups formed in light coniferous forests prevailing in southeastern Russia are considered using the example of butterflies. Problems concerning the formation of species composition and its originality in some insects groups are discussed. A classification analysis of species checklists for twelve local faunas of Transbaikalia and the southern Russian Far East is performed. It is shown that the faunas of areas occupied by light coniferous forests have a common background.

Martynenko AB

2009-03-01

265

Differential involvement of Hedgehog signaling in butterfly wing and eyespot development.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Butterfly eyespots may have evolved from the recruitment of pre-existent gene circuits or regulatory networks into novel locations on the wing. Gene expression data suggests one such circuit, the Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway and its target gene engrailed (en), was recruited from a role in patterning the anterior-posterior insect wing axis to a role patterning butterfly eyespots. However, while Junonia coenia expresses hh and en both in the posterior compartment of the wing and in eyespot centers, Bicyclus anynana lacks hh eyespot-specific expression. This suggests that Hh signaling may not be functioning in eyespot development in either species or that it functions in J. coenia but not in B. anynana. In order to test these hypotheses, we performed functional tests of Hh signaling in these species. We investigated the effects of Hh protein sequestration during the larval stage on en expression levels, and on wing size and eyespot size in adults. Hh sequestration led to significantly reduced en expression and to significantly smaller wings and eyespots in both species. But while eyespot size in B. anynana was reduced proportionately to wing size, in J. coenia, eyespots were reduced disproportionately, indicating an independent role of Hh signaling in eyespot development in J. coenia. We conclude that while Hh signaling retains a conserved role in promoting wing growth across nymphalid butterflies, it plays an additional role in eyespot development in some, but not all, lineages of nymphalid butterflies. We discuss our findings in the context of alternative evolutionary scenarios that led to the differential expression of hh and other Hh pathway signaling members across nymphalid species.

Tong X; Lindemann A; Monteiro A

2012-01-01

266

Differential involvement of Hedgehog signaling in butterfly wing and eyespot development.  

Science.gov (United States)

Butterfly eyespots may have evolved from the recruitment of pre-existent gene circuits or regulatory networks into novel locations on the wing. Gene expression data suggests one such circuit, the Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway and its target gene engrailed (en), was recruited from a role in patterning the anterior-posterior insect wing axis to a role patterning butterfly eyespots. However, while Junonia coenia expresses hh and en both in the posterior compartment of the wing and in eyespot centers, Bicyclus anynana lacks hh eyespot-specific expression. This suggests that Hh signaling may not be functioning in eyespot development in either species or that it functions in J. coenia but not in B. anynana. In order to test these hypotheses, we performed functional tests of Hh signaling in these species. We investigated the effects of Hh protein sequestration during the larval stage on en expression levels, and on wing size and eyespot size in adults. Hh sequestration led to significantly reduced en expression and to significantly smaller wings and eyespots in both species. But while eyespot size in B. anynana was reduced proportionately to wing size, in J. coenia, eyespots were reduced disproportionately, indicating an independent role of Hh signaling in eyespot development in J. coenia. We conclude that while Hh signaling retains a conserved role in promoting wing growth across nymphalid butterflies, it plays an additional role in eyespot development in some, but not all, lineages of nymphalid butterflies. We discuss our findings in the context of alternative evolutionary scenarios that led to the differential expression of hh and other Hh pathway signaling members across nymphalid species. PMID:23227236

Tong, Xiaoling; Lindemann, Anna; Monteiro, Antónia

2012-12-05

267

On-Chip Implementation of Pipeline Digit-Slicing Multiplier-Less Butterfly for Fast Fourier Transform Architecture  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: The need for wireless communication has driven the communication systems to high performance. However, the main bottleneck that affects the communication capability is the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT), which is the core of most modulators. Approach: This study presented on-chip implementation of pipeline digit-slicing multiplier-less butterfly for FFT structure. The approach taken; in order to reduce computation complexity in butterfly, digit-slicing multiplierless single constant technique was utilized in the critical path of Radix-2 Decimation In Time (DIT) FFT structure. The proposed design focused on the trade-off between the speed and active silicon area for the chip implementation. The new architecture was investigated and simulated with MATLAB software. The Verilog HDL code in Xilinx ISE environment was derived to describe the FFT Butterfly functionality and was downloaded to Virtex II FPGA board. Consequently, the Virtex-II FG456 Proto board was used to implement and test the design on the real hardware. Results: As a result, from the findings, the synthesis report indicates the maximum clock frequency of 549.75 MHz with the total equivalent gate count of 31,159 is a marked and significant improvement over Radix 2 FFT butterfly. In comparison with the conventional butterfly architecture, design that can only run at a maximum clock frequency of 198.987 MHz and the conventional multiplier can only run at a maximum clock frequency of 220.160 MHz, the proposed system exhibits better results. The resulting maximum clock frequency increases by about 276.28% for the FFT butterfly and about 277.06% for the multiplier. Conclusion: It can be concluded that on-chip implementation of pipeline digit-slicing multiplier-less butterfly for FFT structure is an enabler in solving problems that affect communications capability in FFT and possesses huge potentials for future related works and research areas.

Yazan S. Algnabi; Rozita Teymourzadeh; Masuri Othman; Md S. Islam; Mok V. Hong

2010-01-01

268

Moths Behaving like Butterflies. Evolutionary Loss of Long Range Attractant Pheromones in Castniid Moths: A Paysandisia archon Model  

Science.gov (United States)

Background In the course of evolution butterflies and moths developed two different reproductive behaviors. Whereas butterflies rely on visual stimuli for mate location, moths use the ‘female calling plus male seduction’ system, in which females release long-range sex pheromones to attract conspecific males. There are few exceptions from this pattern but in all cases known female moths possess sex pheromone glands which apparently have been lost in female butterflies. In the day-flying moth family Castniidae (“butterfly-moths”), which includes some important crop pests, no pheromones have been found so far. Methodology/Principal Findings Using a multidisciplinary approach we described the steps involved in the courtship of P. archon, showing that visual cues are the only ones used for mate location; showed that the morphology and fine structure of the antennae of this moth are strikingly similar to those of butterflies, with male sensilla apparently not suited to detect female-released long range pheromones; showed that its females lack pheromone-producing glands, and identified three compounds as putative male sex pheromone (MSP) components of P. archon, released from the proximal halves of male forewings and hindwings. Conclusions/Significance This study provides evidence for the first time in Lepidoptera that females of a moth do not produce any pheromone to attract males, and that mate location is achieved only visually by patrolling males, which may release a pheromone at short distance, putatively a mixture of Z,E-farnesal, E,E-farnesal, and (E,Z)-2,13-octadecadienol. The outlined behavior, long thought to be unique to butterflies, is likely to be widespread in Castniidae implying a novel, unparalleled butterfly-like reproductive behavior in moths. This will also have practical implications in applied entomology since it signifies that the monitoring/control of castniid pests should not be based on the use of female-produced pheromones, as it is usually done in many moths.

Sarto i Monteys, Victor; Acin, Patricia; Rosell, Gloria; Quero, Carmen; Jimenez, Miquel A.; Guerrero, Angel

2012-01-01

269

Moths behaving like butterflies. Evolutionary loss of long range attractant pheromones in castniid moths: a Paysandisia archon model.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: In the course of evolution butterflies and moths developed two different reproductive behaviors. Whereas butterflies rely on visual stimuli for mate location, moths use the 'female calling plus male seduction' system, in which females release long-range sex pheromones to attract conspecific males. There are few exceptions from this pattern but in all cases known female moths possess sex pheromone glands which apparently have been lost in female butterflies. In the day-flying moth family Castniidae ("butterfly-moths"), which includes some important crop pests, no pheromones have been found so far. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using a multidisciplinary approach we described the steps involved in the courtship of P. archon, showing that visual cues are the only ones used for mate location; showed that the morphology and fine structure of the antennae of this moth are strikingly similar to those of butterflies, with male sensilla apparently not suited to detect female-released long range pheromones; showed that its females lack pheromone-producing glands, and identified three compounds as putative male sex pheromone (MSP) components of P. archon, released from the proximal halves of male forewings and hindwings. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study provides evidence for the first time in Lepidoptera that females of a moth do not produce any pheromone to attract males, and that mate location is achieved only visually by patrolling males, which may release a pheromone at short distance, putatively a mixture of Z,E-farnesal, E,E-farnesal, and (E,Z)-2,13-octadecadienol. The outlined behavior, long thought to be unique to butterflies, is likely to be widespread in Castniidae implying a novel, unparalleled butterfly-like reproductive behavior in moths. This will also have practical implications in applied entomology since it signifies that the monitoring/control of castniid pests should not be based on the use of female-produced pheromones, as it is usually done in many moths.

Sarto i Monteys V; Acín P; Rosell G; Quero C; Jiménez MA; Guerrero A

2012-01-01

270

Genetic variation in resistance, but not tolerance, to a protozoan parasite in the monarch butterfly.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Natural selection should strongly favour hosts that can protect themselves against parasites. Most studies on animals so far have focused on resistance, a series of mechanisms through which hosts prevent infection, reduce parasite growth or clear infection. However, animals may instead evolve tolerance, a defence mechanism by which hosts do not reduce parasite infection or growth, but instead alleviate the negative fitness consequences of such infection and growth. Here, we studied genetic variation in resistance and tolerance in the monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) to its naturally occurring protozoan parasite, Ophryocystis elektroscirrha. We exposed 560 monarch larvae of 19 different family lines to one of five different parasite inoculation doses (0, 1, 5, 10 and 100 infective spores) to create a range of parasite loads in infected butterflies. We then used two proxies of host fitness (adult lifespan and body mass) to quantify: (i) qualitative resistance (the ability to prevent infection; also known as avoidance or anti-infection resistance); (ii) quantitative resistance (the ability to limit parasite growth upon infection; also known as control or anti-growth resistance); and (iii) tolerance (the ability to maintain fitness with increasing parasite infection intensity). We found significant differences among host families in qualitative and quantitative resistance, indicating genetic variation in resistance. However, we found no genetic variation in tolerance. This may indicate that all butterflies in our studied population have evolved maximum tolerance, as predicted by some theoretical models.

Lefèvre T; Williams AJ; de Roode JC

2011-03-01

271

Genetic variation in resistance, but not tolerance, to a protozoan parasite in the monarch butterfly.  

Science.gov (United States)

Natural selection should strongly favour hosts that can protect themselves against parasites. Most studies on animals so far have focused on resistance, a series of mechanisms through which hosts prevent infection, reduce parasite growth or clear infection. However, animals may instead evolve tolerance, a defence mechanism by which hosts do not reduce parasite infection or growth, but instead alleviate the negative fitness consequences of such infection and growth. Here, we studied genetic variation in resistance and tolerance in the monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) to its naturally occurring protozoan parasite, Ophryocystis elektroscirrha. We exposed 560 monarch larvae of 19 different family lines to one of five different parasite inoculation doses (0, 1, 5, 10 and 100 infective spores) to create a range of parasite loads in infected butterflies. We then used two proxies of host fitness (adult lifespan and body mass) to quantify: (i) qualitative resistance (the ability to prevent infection; also known as avoidance or anti-infection resistance); (ii) quantitative resistance (the ability to limit parasite growth upon infection; also known as control or anti-growth resistance); and (iii) tolerance (the ability to maintain fitness with increasing parasite infection intensity). We found significant differences among host families in qualitative and quantitative resistance, indicating genetic variation in resistance. However, we found no genetic variation in tolerance. This may indicate that all butterflies in our studied population have evolved maximum tolerance, as predicted by some theoretical models. PMID:20843849

Lefèvre, Thierry; Williams, Amanda Jo; de Roode, Jacobus C

2010-09-15

272

Lack of genetic differentiation between monarch butterflies with divergent migration destinations.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Monarch butterflies are best known for their spectacular annual migration from eastern North America to Mexico. Monarchs also occur in the North American states west of the Rocky Mountains, from where they fly shorter distances to the California Coast. Whether eastern and western North American monarchs form one genetic population or are genetically differentiated remains hotly debated, and resolution of this debate is essential to understand monarch migration patterns and to protect this iconic insect species. We studied the genetic structure of North American migratory monarch populations, as well as nonmigratory populations in Hawaii and New Zealand. Our results show that eastern and western migratory monarchs form one admixed population and that monarchs from Hawaii and New Zealand have genetically diverged from North American butterflies. These findings suggest that eastern and western monarch butterflies maintain their divergent migrations despite genetic mixing. The finding that eastern and western monarchs form one genetic population also suggests that the conservation of overwintering sites in Mexico is crucial for the protection of monarchs in both eastern and western North America.

Lyons JI; Pierce AA; Barribeau SM; Sternberg ED; Mongue AJ; De Roode JC

2012-07-01

273

An ingenious replica templated from the light trapping structure in butterfly wing scales.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Although the physical mechanism of light trapping property of butterfly wings is well understood, it remains a challenge to create artificial replicas of these natural functional structures. Here, we synthesized a SiO2 inverse replica of a light trapping structure in butterfly wing scales using a method combining a sol-gel process and subsequent selective etching. First, the reflectance spectrum was taken to measure the reflectivity. Then, FESEM and TEM were used to observe the coupling structure of scales and the replicas. Afterwards, assisted by SEM and TEM data, 3D optimized models of the structures and fabrication process were generated by software. Finally, the parametric comparisons of the morphologies and structures between the original template and the inverse SiO2 replica were carefully conducted, and it was found that the original structures of bio-templates were well inherited by the structures of the inverse replica. This work would open up possibilities for an extensive study of mimicking novel bio-inspired functional materials, and the reported biomimetic technique confirms the feasibility of extending the functional structures in butterfly wings to particular optical devices in the field of space exploration, space equipment, photoelectrical devices and photo-induced sensors.

Han Z; Niu S; Yang M; Zhang J; Yin W; Ren L

2013-08-01

274

DNA barcode analysis of butterfly species from Pakistan points towards regional endemism.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

DNA barcodes were obtained for 81 butterfly species belonging to 52 genera from sites in north-central Pakistan to test the utility of barcoding for their identification and to gain a better understanding of regional barcode variation. These species represent 25% of the butterfly fauna of Pakistan and belong to five families, although the Nymphalidae were dominant, comprising 38% of the total specimens. Barcode analysis showed that maximum conspecific divergence was 1.6%, while there was 1.7-14.3% divergence from the nearest neighbour species. Barcode records for 55 species showed <2% sequence divergence to records in the Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD), but only 26 of these cases involved specimens from neighbouring India and Central Asia. Analysis revealed that most species showed little incremental sequence variation when specimens from other regions were considered, but a threefold increase was noted in a few cases. There was a clear gap between maximum intraspecific and minimum nearest neighbour distance for all 81 species. Neighbour-joining cluster analysis showed that members of each species formed a monophyletic cluster with strong bootstrap support. The barcode results revealed two provisional species that could not be clearly linked to known taxa, while 24 other species gained their first coverage. Future work should extend the barcode reference library to include all butterfly species from Pakistan as well as neighbouring countries to gain a better understanding of regional variation in barcode sequences in this topographically and climatically complex region.

Ashfaq M; Akhtar S; Khan AM; Adamowicz SJ; Hebert PD

2013-09-01

275

The genetic consequences of different dispersal behaviours in lycaenid butterfly species.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Many studies in population ecology have shown that related species have different dispersal behaviours. Species with sedentary and migratory behaviour exist in butterflies. While the genetic responses to population isolation are well studied, the effects of different dispersal behaviours of species are widely unknown. Therefore, we analysed 19 allozyme loci of two lycaenid butterflies, Cupido minimus as a sedentary butterfly and Aricia agestis as a mobile and expansive species. We collected 594 individuals (280 of C. minimus and 314 of A. agestis) in a western German study region with adjacent areas in Luxembourg and northeastern France. The genetic differentiation among populations of A. agestis (FST=3.9%) was lower than in C. minimus (FST=5.6%). Both species built up an isolation-by-distance system, which is more pronounced in A. agestis than in C. minimus. The genetic diversity in C. minumus populations (e.g. Ptot=73.5%) is higher for all analysed parameters than in A. agestis (e.g. Ptot=52.1%). Both species show specific genetic characteristics fitting with their different dispersal behaviours and respective ecological strategies. In the light of conservation genetics, we deduce that highly fragmented populations do not necessarily have a high extinction probability, but this risk depending much more on specific population genetic structures. In the studied species, C. minimus preserves a complex genetic constitution by high population densities. The patchily distributed A. agestis represents less rare alleles, present only in some populations, and holds up genetic diversity by high mobility.

Habel JC; Schmitt T

2009-10-01

276

The eyes of Macrosoma sp. (Lepidoptera: Hedyloidea): a nocturnal butterfly with superposition optics.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The visual system of nocturnal Hedyloidea butterflies was investigated for the first time, using light and electron microscopy. This study was undertaken to determine whether hedylids possess the classic superposition eye design characteristic of most moths, or apposition eyes of true butterflies (Papilionoidea), and, to gain insights into the sensory ecology of the Hedyloidea. We show that Macrosoma heliconiaria possesses a superposition-type visual mechanism, characterized by long cylindrical crystalline cones, a lack of corneal processes, 8 constricted retinular sense cells, rhabdoms separated from the crystalline cones forming a translucent 'clear zone', and tight networks of trachea that form a tapetum proximal to the retina and which also surround the rhabdoms to form a tracheal sheath. Dark-adapted individuals of M. heliconiaria, M. conifera, and M. rubidinarea exhibited distal retinular pigment migration, forming an eye glow. Correspondingly, light-exposure induced pigment to migrate proximally, causing the eye glow to be replaced by a dark pseudopupil. Other characteristics of the visual system, including relative eye size, facet size, and external morphology of the optic lobes, are mostly 'moth like' and correlate with an active, nocturnal lifestyle. The results are discussed in relation to the evolution of lepidopteran eyes, and the sensory ecology of this poorly understood butterfly superfamily.

Yack JE; Johnson SE; Brown SG; Warrant EJ

2007-03-01

277

Population structure of a large blue butterfly and its specialist parasitoid in a fragmented landscape.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Habitat fragmentation may interrupt trophic interactions if herbivores and their specific parasitoids respond differently to decreasing connectivity of populations. Theoretical models predict that species at higher trophic levels are more negatively affected by isolation than lower trophic level species. By combining ecological data with genetic information from microsatellite markers we tested this hypothesis on the butterfly Maculinea nausithous and its specialist hymenopteran parasitoid Neotypus melanocephalus. We assessed the susceptibility of both species to habitat fragmentation by measuring population density, rate of parasitism, overall genetic differentiation (theta(ST)) and allelic richness in a large metapopulation. We also simulated the dynamics of genetic differentiation among local populations to asses the relative effects of migration rate, population size, and haplodiploid (parasitoid) and diploid (host) inheritance on metapopulation persistence. We show that parasitism by N. melanocephalus is less frequent at larger distances to the nearest neighbouring population of M. nausithous hosts, but that host density itself is not affected by isolation. Allelic richness was independent of isolation, but the mean genetic differentiation among local parasitoid populations increased with the distance between these populations. Overall, genetic differentiation in the parasitoid wasp was much greater than in the butterfly host and our simulations indicate that this difference is due to a combination of haplodiploidy and small local population sizes. Our results thus support the hypothesis that Neotypus parasitoid wasps are more sensitive to habitat fragmentation than their Maculinea butterfly hosts.

Anton C; Zeisset I; Musche M; Durka W; Boomsma JJ; Settele J

2007-09-01

278

Scenario-based assessment of future land use change on butterfly species distributions  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Species distribution models (SDMs) are increasingly used to predict environmentally induced range shifts of habitats of plant and animal species. Consequently SDMs are valuable tools for scientifically based conservation decisions. The aims of this paper are (1) to identify important drivers of butterfly species persistence or extinction, and (2) to analyse the responses of endangered butterfly species of dry grasslands and wetlands to likely future landscape changes in Switzerland. Future land use was represented by four scenarios describing: (1) ongoing land use changes as observed at the end of the last century; (2) a liberalisation of the agricultural markets; (3) a slightly lowered agricultural production; and (4) a strongly lowered agricultural production. Two model approaches have been applied. The first (logistic regression with principal components) explains what environmental variables have significant impact on species presence (and absence). The second (predictive SDM) is used to project species distribution under current and likely future land uses. The results of the explanatory analyses reveal that four principal components related to urbanisation, abandonment of open land and intensive agricultural practices as well as two climate parameters are primary drivers of species occurrence (decline). The scenario analyses show that lowered agricultural production is likely to favour dry grassland species due to an increase of non-intensively used land, open canopy forests, and overgrown areas. In the liberalisation scenario dry grassland species show a decrease in abundance due to a strong increase of forested patches. Wetland butterfly species would decrease under all four scenarios as their habitats become overgrown.

Lütolf M; Bolliger J; Kienast F; Guisan A

2009-05-01

279

Magnetic resonance butterfly coils: Design and application for hyperpolarized 13C studies  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Hyperpolarized 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopy in pig models enables cardiac metabolism assessment and provides a powerful tool for heart physiology studies, although the low molar concentration of derivate metabolites gives rise to technological limitations in terms of data quality. The design of dedicated coils capable of providing large field of view with high Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) data is of fundamental importance. This work presents magnetostatic simulations and tests of two butterfly coils with different geometries, both designed for 13C hyperpolarized studies of pig heart with a clinical 3T scanner. In particular, the paper provides details of the design, modeling, construction and application of the butterfly style coils. While both coils could be successfully employed in single configuration (linear mode), the second prototype was used to design a quadrature surface coil constituted by the butterfly and a circular loop both in receive (RX) mode while using a birdcage coil as transmitter (TX). The performance of this coils configuration was compared with the single TX/RX birdcage coil, in order to verify the advantage of the proposed configuration over the volume coil throughout the volume of interest for cardiac imaging in pig. Experimental SNR-vs-depth profiles, extracted from the [1-13C]acetate phantom chemical shift image (CSI), permitted to highlight the performance of the proposed coils configuration. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Giovannetti, Giulio; Frijia, Francesca

2013-01-01

280

An ingenious replica templated from the light trapping structure in butterfly wing scales.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although the physical mechanism of light trapping property of butterfly wings is well understood, it remains a challenge to create artificial replicas of these natural functional structures. Here, we synthesized a SiO2 inverse replica of a light trapping structure in butterfly wing scales using a method combining a sol-gel process and subsequent selective etching. First, the reflectance spectrum was taken to measure the reflectivity. Then, FESEM and TEM were used to observe the coupling structure of scales and the replicas. Afterwards, assisted by SEM and TEM data, 3D optimized models of the structures and fabrication process were generated by software. Finally, the parametric comparisons of the morphologies and structures between the original template and the inverse SiO2 replica were carefully conducted, and it was found that the original structures of bio-templates were well inherited by the structures of the inverse replica. This work would open up possibilities for an extensive study of mimicking novel bio-inspired functional materials, and the reported biomimetic technique confirms the feasibility of extending the functional structures in butterfly wings to particular optical devices in the field of space exploration, space equipment, photoelectrical devices and photo-induced sensors. PMID:23779021

Han, Zhiwu; Niu, Shichao; Yang, Meng; Zhang, Junqiu; Yin, Wei; Ren, Luquan

2013-08-22

 
 
 
 
281

Fluid drag reduction and efficient self-cleaning with rice leaf and butterfly wing bioinspired surfaces  

Science.gov (United States)

Researchers are continually inspired by living nature to solve complex challenges. For example, unique surface characteristics of rice leaves and butterfly wings combine the shark skin (anisotropic flow leading to low drag) and lotus leaf (superhydrophobic and self-cleaning) effects, producing the so-called rice and butterfly wing effect. In this paper, we present an overview of rice leaf and butterfly wing fluid drag and self-cleaning studies. In addition, we examine two other promising aquatic surfaces in nature known for such properties, including fish scales and shark skin. Morphology, drag, self-cleaning, contact angle, and contact angle hysteresis data are presented to understand the role of wettability, viscosity, and velocity. Liquid repellent coatings are utilized to recreate or combine various effects. Discussion is provided along with conceptual models describing the role of surface structures related to low drag, self-cleaning, and antifouling properties. Modeling provides design guidance when developing novel low drag and self-cleaning surfaces for applications in the medical, marine, and industrial fields.

Bixler, Gregory D.; Bhushan, Bharat

2013-08-01

282

Mysterious coloring: structural origin of color mixing for two breeds of Papilio butterflies.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The structural origin of the coloration mechanisms and related extraordinary optical properties of the wing scales of two breeds of Papilio butterflies, namely, Papilio ulysses and Papilio blumei, are explored. The precise ordered biophotonic nanostructures of the wing scales are characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Despite their structural similarities, the two breeds of Papilio butterflies do not exhibit any analogy in their optical performances. When illuminated with UV-Vis light, P. ulysses gives rise to two reflection peaks: one is from concavities, and the other is from ridges. These two spectral peaks shift their positions under different illumination angles (normal and 45° incident light). In contrast, the spectra for the green scales of P. blumei give one broad reflection peak, and the peak remains the same under normal and 45° incident light. The optical microscopy images indicate that the cap-shaped concavities on P. blumei's wing scales generate an abnormal bicolor reflection with a strong polarization effect. Both of these two breeds of butterflies take advantage of color mixing strategy: the blue color of P. ulysses is mixed by the colors reflected from concavities and ridges; the green color of P. blumei is produced by the biocolor reflection from concavities. The differences of their coloration mixing mechanisms and optical performances are due to the variations of their nanostructures. The investigation of the color mixing mechanisms of these biologically photonic nanostructures may offer a convenient way for fabricating optical devices based on biomimicry.

Diao YY; Liu XY

2011-05-01

283

Mysterious coloring: structural origin of color mixing for two breeds of Papilio butterflies.  

Science.gov (United States)

The structural origin of the coloration mechanisms and related extraordinary optical properties of the wing scales of two breeds of Papilio butterflies, namely, Papilio ulysses and Papilio blumei, are explored. The precise ordered biophotonic nanostructures of the wing scales are characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Despite their structural similarities, the two breeds of Papilio butterflies do not exhibit any analogy in their optical performances. When illuminated with UV-Vis light, P. ulysses gives rise to two reflection peaks: one is from concavities, and the other is from ridges. These two spectral peaks shift their positions under different illumination angles (normal and 45° incident light). In contrast, the spectra for the green scales of P. blumei give one broad reflection peak, and the peak remains the same under normal and 45° incident light. The optical microscopy images indicate that the cap-shaped concavities on P. blumei's wing scales generate an abnormal bicolor reflection with a strong polarization effect. Both of these two breeds of butterflies take advantage of color mixing strategy: the blue color of P. ulysses is mixed by the colors reflected from concavities and ridges; the green color of P. blumei is produced by the biocolor reflection from concavities. The differences of their coloration mixing mechanisms and optical performances are due to the variations of their nanostructures. The investigation of the color mixing mechanisms of these biologically photonic nanostructures may offer a convenient way for fabricating optical devices based on biomimicry. PMID:21643177

Diao, Ying-Ying; Liu, Xiang-Yang

2011-05-01

284

The vegetation of three localities of the threatened butterfly species Chrysoritis aureus (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The vegetation and habitat characteristics of three localities of Chrysoritis aureus at theAlice Glockner Nature Reserve, Suikerbosrand Nature Reserve and Malanskraal farmnear Heidelberg in South Africa, were compared. A numerical classification technique,TWINSPAN, was used and refined by using Braun Blanquet procedures to classify thevegetation at the different localities. A DCA ordination was applied to confirm theresults of the classification. Although the general vegetation structure at the three habitats of Chrysoritis aureus were found to be similar, marked differences in the floristiccomposition were evidenced. A different sub-community, compared to the vegetation atSuikerbosrand and Alice Glockner Nature Reserve, was recorded at the Malanskraalhabitat of Chrysoritis aureus. These differences in floristic composition, but with similarities in vegetation structure, indicate the possible importance of fire for the ultimatesurvival of these butterflies in the Rocky Highveld Grassland. The host plant ofChrysoritis aureus, Clutia pulchella, collected at Malanskraal differed markedly andconsistently in their morphology, compared to the individuals from the habitats atSuikerbosrand and Alice Glockner Nature Reserve. These differences in the floristiccomposition of one of the habitats compared to the others, raise research questions concerning the butterfly metapopulation structure, since the subpopulations seem to beadapted to slightly different habitat conditions. The variation in the habitat suggests thatthe “last remaining locality scenario” for other localised butterflies in South Africa, suchas  Orachrysops niobe, needs to be redressed. Management strategies are addressedwhile the importance of conserving rare, localised ecosystems are highlighted by thephytosociological study

R.F. Terblanche; T.L. Morgenthal; S.S. Cilliers

2003-01-01

285

Lack of genetic differentiation between monarch butterflies with divergent migration destinations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Monarch butterflies are best known for their spectacular annual migration from eastern North America to Mexico. Monarchs also occur in the North American states west of the Rocky Mountains, from where they fly shorter distances to the California Coast. Whether eastern and western North American monarchs form one genetic population or are genetically differentiated remains hotly debated, and resolution of this debate is essential to understand monarch migration patterns and to protect this iconic insect species. We studied the genetic structure of North American migratory monarch populations, as well as nonmigratory populations in Hawaii and New Zealand. Our results show that eastern and western migratory monarchs form one admixed population and that monarchs from Hawaii and New Zealand have genetically diverged from North American butterflies. These findings suggest that eastern and western monarch butterflies maintain their divergent migrations despite genetic mixing. The finding that eastern and western monarchs form one genetic population also suggests that the conservation of overwintering sites in Mexico is crucial for the protection of monarchs in both eastern and western North America. PMID:22574833

Lyons, Justine I; Pierce, Amanda A; Barribeau, Seth M; Sternberg, Eleanore D; Mongue, Andrew J; De Roode, Jacobus C

2012-05-11

286

“Darwin’s butterflies”? DNA barcoding and the radiation of the endemic Caribbean butterfly genus Calisto (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Satyrinae)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The genus Calisto Hübner, 1823 is the only member of the diverse, global subfamily Satyrinae found in the West Indies, and by far the richest endemic Caribbean butterfly radiation. Calisto species occupy an extremely diverse array of habitats, suggestive of adaptive radiation on the scale of other classic examples such as the Galápagos or Darwin’s finches. However, a reliable species classification is a key requisite before further evolutionary or ecological research. An analysis of 111 DNA ‘barcodes’ (655 bp of the mitochondrial gene COI) from 29 putative Calisto species represented by 31 putative taxa was therefore conducted to elucidate taxonomic relationships among these often highly cryptic and confusing taxa. The sympatric, morphologically and ecologically similar taxa C. confusa Lathy, 1899 and C. confusa debarriera Clench, 1943 proved to be extremely divergent, and we therefore recognize Calisto debarriera stat. n. as a distinct species, with Calisto neiba Schwartz et Gali, 1984 as a junior synonym syn. n. Species status of certain allopatric, morphologically similar sister species has been confirmed: Calisto hysius (Godart, 1824) (including its subspecies C. hysius aleucosticha Correa et Schwartz, 1986, stat. n.), and its former subspecies C. batesi Michener, 1943 showed a high degree of divergence (above 6%) and should be considered separate species. Calisto lyceius Bates, 1935/C. crypta Gali, 1985/C. franciscoi Gali, 1985 complex, also showed a high degree of divergence (above 6%), confirming the species status of these taxa. In contrast, our data suggest that the Calisto grannus Bates, 1939 species complex (including Calisto grannus dilemma González, 1987, C. grannus amazona González, 1987, stat. n., C. grannus micrommata Schwartz et Gali, 1984, stat. n., C. grannus dystacta González, 1987, stat. n., C. grannus phoinix González, 1987, stat. n., C. grannus sommeri Schwartz et Gali, 1984, stat. n., and C. grannus micheneri Clench, 1944, stat. n.) should be treated as a single polytypic species, as genetic divergence among sampled populations representing these taxa is low (and stable morphological apomorphies are absent). A widely-distributed pest of sugar cane, Calisto pulchella Lathy, 1899 showed higher diversification among isolated populations (3.5%) than expected, hence supporting former separation of this species into two taxa (pulchella and darlingtoni Clench, 1943), of which the latter might prove to be a separate species rather than subspecies. The taxonomic revisions presented here result in Calisto now containing 34 species and 17 subspecies. Three species endemic to islands other than Hispaniola appear to be derived lineages of various Hispaniolan clades, indicating ancient dispersal events from Hispaniola to Puerto Rico, Cuba, and Jamaica. Overall, the degree of intrageneric and intraspecific divergence within Calisto suggests a long and continuous diversification period of 4–8 Myr. The maximum divergence within the genus (ca. 13.3%) is almost equivalent to the maximum divergence of Calisto from the distant pronophiline relative Auca Hayward, 1953 from the southern Andes (14.1%) and from the presumed closest relative Eretris Thieme, 1905 (14.4%), suggesting that the genus began to diversify soon after its split from its continental sister taxon. In general, this ‘barcode’ divergence corresponds to the high degree of morphological and ecological variation found among major lineages within the genus.

Andrei Sourakov; Evgeny Zakharov

2011-01-01

287

Buried hurts and colliding dreams in Yvonne Vera’s Butterfly Burning = Feridas escondidas e sonhos conflitantes em Butterfly Burning de Yvonne Vera  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Zimbabwean author Yvonne Vera’s Butterfly Burning (1998) depicts anintense and tragically concluded love relationship between a middle-aged colonised male labourer, Fumbatha, and an idealistic and much younger woman, Phephelaphi. The context is the ghetto adjoining the city of Bulawayo in late colonial Southern Rhodesia. The articleemploys the concepts of genealogies and of transmodernity to delineate Vera’s reinscription of colonised African men and women in her illocutionary, densely poetic account of the growth of modernity in Africa, tragic because (despite similar, buried hurts) theprotagonists’ dreams are at odds.O romance Butterfly Burning (1998), da autora zimbabuana Yvonne Veramostra o relacionamento amoroso, intenso e trágico, entre Fumbatha, um trabalhador colonizado de meia idade, e Phephelaphi, uma mulher jovem e idealista. O contexto do enredo é o gueto perto da cidade de Bulawayo na ex-colônia da Rodésia do Sul. O artigo emprega os conceitos de genealogias e da transmodernidade para delinear as re-inscrições dos africanos e africanas colonizados em sua narração ilocucionária, profundamente poética, do desenvolvimento da modernidade na África. É também trágica (apesar da semelhança dasferidas escondidas) pela não-coincidência dos sonhos dos protagonistas.

Annie Gagiano

2009-01-01

288

Butterfly-shaped tetrasubstituted carbazole derivatives as a new class of hosts for highly efficient solution-processable green phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A new bromination method, where butterfly-shaped tetrasubstituted carbazole derivatives TSPFCz and TTPhCz have been designed and synthesized, which possess the twist butterfly skeletons and exhibit excellent thermal and morphological stabilities, has been adopted. By utilizing these novel compounds as host materials, high efficiency solution-processed green phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes (PhOLEDs) have been achieved.

Huang H; Fu Q; Pan B; Zhuang S; Wang L; Chen J; Ma D; Yang C

2012-09-01

289

The role of power line rights-of-way as an alternative habitat for declined mire butterflies.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Habitat loss is one of the greatest threats for biodiversity. In Finland, two thirds of natural mires have been drained for silviculture, which transforms open wetlands into dense forests. However, vegetation management of power line rights-of-way (ROW) maintain the drained mires as open areas. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the power line ROW vegetation management on butterfly abundance, species richness and community structure by comparing the managed power line ROWs to unmanaged drained control sites and to natural mires. The species richness or abundance of mire butterflies did not differ between the power line ROWs and natural mires. In contrast, both species richness and abundance of butterflies was low on the unmanaged control sites. Tree canopy cover had a negative effect on mire butterflies and this is most likely related to changes in microclimate. The results indicate that the active vegetation removal in the power line ROWs maintain alternative habitats for mire butterflies; yet, the power line ROWs cannot substitute the natural mires.

Lensu T; Komonen A; Hiltula O; Päivinen J; Saari V; Kotiaho JS

2011-10-01

290

The application of life history information to the conservation management of Chrysoritis butterflies (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) in South Africa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Due to their intricate life histories and the unique wing patterns and colouring the butterflies of the genus Chrysoritis are of significant conservation and aesthetic value. Thisoverview probes into practical examples of butterfly life history research applicable to environmental management of this relatively well-known invertebrate group in South Africa. Despite the pioneer work on life histories of Chrysoritis in the past, more should be done to understand the life history of the butterflies in the wild, especially their natural host plants and the behaviour of adults and larvae. A system of voucher specimens of host plants should be introduced in South Africa. Although various host plant species in nature are used by the members of Chrysoritis, including the Chrysoritis chrysaor group, the choice of these in nature by each species is significant for conservation management and in the case of Chrysoritis aureus perhaps even as a specific characteristic.A revision of the ant genus Crematogaster will benefit the conservation management of Chrysoritis species since some of these ant species may consist of a number of specieswith much more restricted distributions than previously thought. Rigorous quantified tudies of population dynamics of Chrysoritis butterflies are absent and the introductionof such studies will benefit conservation management of these localised butterflies extensively.

R.F. Terblanche; H. van Hamburg

2004-01-01

291

Checkerspot Butterflies as Charismatic Media Stars: Getting the Word Out From the Grassroots on Global Nitrogen Overdose  

Science.gov (United States)

Getting the word out to the general public about the global "nitrogen overdose" has proved challenging because of the complexities of the global nitrogen cycle and the insidious nature of cumulative effects on ecosystems. This presentation recounts successful media outreach efforts to bring attention to the nitrogen issue, using the threatened Bay checkerspot butterfly as a "charismatic" focal species and victim. The butterfly is threatened by atmospheric nitrogen deposition that enriches nutrient poor soils derived from serpentinite rock an allows nitrophilous grasses to invade and displace the dazzling wildflower displays that the butterfly depends on. Over the past decade, public and media outreach have resulted in numerous articles in local, regional, and national print media, and extensive TV and radio coverage of the reintroduction of the butterfly into restored habitat in 2007. The grassroots media strategy has several elements of success, including: 1) the public's (and journalists') love of butterflies and wildflowers; 2) field tours to dramatically illustrate the effects of N-deposition; 3) time-tested soundbites, humor, and amiable relationships with journalists; 4) careful fact checking; and 5) political outreach. Through these efforts, journalists effectively told relatively complex stories in creative approachable ways that have educated the public about the nitrogen pollution issue.

Weiss, S. B.

2007-12-01

292

Synthesis of naturally cross-linked polycrystalline ZrO2 hollow nanowires using butterfly as templates  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Highlights: ? Naturally cross-linked ZrO2 nanotubes with ?2.4 ?m in length, ?35 nm in diameter and ?12 nm in wall thickness was synthesized via the selection of suitable butterfly bio-templates followed by heat processing. ? The contractions, which are main defects of the former hard-template method based on butterflies, are well controlled with the help of the surface tension effect. ? The achieved hollow ZrO2 nanowires suggest a new optional approach that uses bio-templates in fabricating and designing nano systems. - Abstract: Butterfly wing skeleton is a widely used hard-template in recent years for fabricating photonic crystal structures. However, the smallest construction units for the most species of butterflies are commonly larger than ?50 nm, which greatly hinders their applications in designing much smaller functional parts down to real “nano scale”. This work indicates, however, that hollow ZrO2 nanowires with ?2.4 ?m in length, ?35 nm in diameter and ?12 nm in wall thickness can be synthesized via the selection of suitable butterfly bio-templates followed by heat processing. Especially, the successful fabrication of these naturally cross-linked ZrO2 nanotubes suggests a new optional approach in fabricating assembled nano systems.

2012-05-15

293

The effect of an agro-pasture landscape on diversity and migration patterns of frugivorous butterflies in Chiapas, Mexico  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Few relevant data are available to analyze how landscape structure and composition affect the abundance and movement patterns of tropical insects. Using mark-release recapture experiments we examine the effect of an agro-pasture matrix on changes in diversity and migration of frugivorous butterflies in a tropical fragmented landscape in southern Mexico. In total, 53 frugivorous butterfly species were recorded in the entire landscape. Butterfly species composition was much more similar between sites than plant composition. A total of 3,501 individuals belonging to 41 butterfly species were captured, out of which 23 species (56%) were recaptured at least once. A large fraction of individuals was recaptured at the site of release (91%). We failed to find a significant relationship between the proportion occupied by the matrix and rates of residence, emigration, and immigration. Our results suggest that matrix quality in this and other traditionally managed agro-pasture landscapes plays a key role in both keeping important levels of biodiversity and maintaining constant movements of butterflies between otherwise isolated habitat patches.

Marín L; León-Cortés JL; Stefanescu C

2009-04-01

294

Population Dynamics of Cabbage Butterfly (Pieris brassicae) and Cabbage Aphids (Brevicoryne brassicae) on Five Cultivars of Cauliflower at Peshawar  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The studies on population dynamics of Cabbage butterfly and Cabbage aphids on different Cultivars of cauliflower namely Snowball, Snowdrift, Tropical, Pioneer and Meigettsal were carried out at the Research Farm of Entomology Section, Agricultural Research Institute Tarnab Peshawar. Cabbage butterfly (Pieris brassicae) and aphids (Bravicoryne brassicae) were recorded as the major insect pests of Cauliflower crop at ARI, Tarnab, Peshawar. None of the 5 Cultivars was found completely resistant to the infestation of Cabbage butterfly and aphids. The highest average of 86.67 larvae/plant was recorded in the first week of November and the lowest average of 0.67 larvae/plant was recorded in the first week of December. The lowest and the highest average mean population of larvae were observed on Cultivars Meigettsal and snow ball, respectively. During study population density of aphids on cauliflower Cultivars ranged from 0.00 to 31.76 aphids/cm2 leaf area. The lowest and highest average mean population of aphids recorded on Cultivars Snow Drift and Meigettsal, respectively. Cultivar snow drift was found the least preferred to aphids throughout the season. During study cultivar Meigettsal proved to be best against Cabbage butterfly, but showed poor performance against aphids. Cultivar snowdrift showed good performance against aphids and cabbage butterfly

Mohammad Younas; Mohammad Naeem; Abdur Raqib; Shah Masud

2004-01-01

295

Structure, function, and self-assembly of single network gyroid (I4132) photonic crystals in butterfly wing scales.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Complex three-dimensional biophotonic nanostructures produce the vivid structural colors of many butterfly wing scales, but their exact nanoscale organization is uncertain. We used small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) on single scales to characterize the 3D photonic nanostructures of five butterfly species from two families (Papilionidae, Lycaenidae). We identify these chitin and air nanostructures as single network gyroid (I4(1)32) photonic crystals. We describe their optical function from SAXS data and photonic band-gap modeling. Butterflies apparently grow these gyroid nanostructures by exploiting the self-organizing physical dynamics of biological lipid-bilayer membranes. These butterfly photonic nanostructures initially develop within scale cells as a core-shell double gyroid (Ia3d), as seen in block-copolymer systems, with a pentacontinuous volume comprised of extracellular space, cell plasma membrane, cellular cytoplasm, smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER) membrane, and intra-SER lumen. This double gyroid nanostructure is subsequently transformed into a single gyroid network through the deposition of chitin in the extracellular space and the degeneration of the rest of the cell. The butterflies develop the thermodynamically favored double gyroid precursors as a route to the optically more efficient single gyroid nanostructures. Current approaches to photonic crystal engineering also aim to produce single gyroid motifs. The biologically derived photonic nanostructures characterized here may offer a convenient template for producing optical devices based on biomimicry or direct dielectric infiltration.

Saranathan V; Osuji CO; Mochrie SG; Noh H; Narayanan S; Sandy A; Dufresne ER; Prum RO

2010-06-01

296

Structure, function, and self-assembly of single network gyroid (I4132) photonic crystals in butterfly wing scales.  

Science.gov (United States)

Complex three-dimensional biophotonic nanostructures produce the vivid structural colors of many butterfly wing scales, but their exact nanoscale organization is uncertain. We used small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) on single scales to characterize the 3D photonic nanostructures of five butterfly species from two families (Papilionidae, Lycaenidae). We identify these chitin and air nanostructures as single network gyroid (I4(1)32) photonic crystals. We describe their optical function from SAXS data and photonic band-gap modeling. Butterflies apparently grow these gyroid nanostructures by exploiting the self-organizing physical dynamics of biological lipid-bilayer membranes. These butterfly photonic nanostructures initially develop within scale cells as a core-shell double gyroid (Ia3d), as seen in block-copolymer systems, with a pentacontinuous volume comprised of extracellular space, cell plasma membrane, cellular cytoplasm, smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER) membrane, and intra-SER lumen. This double gyroid nanostructure is subsequently transformed into a single gyroid network through the deposition of chitin in the extracellular space and the degeneration of the rest of the cell. The butterflies develop the thermodynamically favored double gyroid precursors as a route to the optically more efficient single gyroid nanostructures. Current approaches to photonic crystal engineering also aim to produce single gyroid motifs. The biologically derived photonic nanostructures characterized here may offer a convenient template for producing optical devices based on biomimicry or direct dielectric infiltration. PMID:20547870

Saranathan, Vinodkumar; Osuji, Chinedum O; Mochrie, Simon G J; Noh, Heeso; Narayanan, Suresh; Sandy, Alec; Dufresne, Eric R; Prum, Richard O

2010-06-14

297

HSP70 expression in the copper butterfly Lycaena tityrus across altitudes and temperatures.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The ability to express heat-shock proteins (HSP) under thermal stress is an essential mechanism for ectotherms to cope with unfavourable conditions. In this study, we investigate if Copper butterflies originating from different altitudes and/or being exposed to different rearing and induction temperatures show differences in HSP70 expression. HSP70 expression increased substantially at the higher rearing temperature in low-altitude butterflies, which might represent an adaptation to occasionally occurring heat spells. On the other hand, high-altitude butterflies showed much less plasticity in response to rearing temperatures, and overall seem to rely more on genetically fixed thermal stress resistance. Whether the latter indicates a higher vulnerability of high-altitude populations to global warming needs further investigation. HSP70 expression increased with both colder and warmer induction temperatures.

Karl, I.; SØrensen, Jesper Givskov

2009-01-01

298

Chasing migration genes: a brain expressed sequence tag resource for summer and migratory monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

North American monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) undergo a spectacular fall migration. In contrast to summer butterflies, migrants are juvenile hormone (JH) deficient, which leads to reproductive diapause and increased longevity. Migrants also utilize time-compensated sun compass orientation to help them navigate to their overwintering grounds. Here, we describe a brain expressed sequence tag (EST) resource to identify genes involved in migratory behaviors. A brain EST library was constructed from summer and migrating butterflies. Of 9,484 unique sequences, 6068 had positive hits with the non-redundant protein database; the EST database likely represents approximately 52% of the gene-encoding potential of the monarch genome. The brain transcriptome was cataloged using Gene Ontology and compared to Drosophila. Monarch genes were well represented, including those implicated in behavior. Three genes involved in increased JH activity (allatotropin, juvenile hormone acid methyltransfersase, and takeout) were upregulated in summer butterflies, compared to migrants. The locomotion-relevant turtle gene was marginally upregulated in migrants, while the foraging and single-minded genes were not differentially regulated. Many of the genes important for the monarch circadian clock mechanism (involved in sun compass orientation) were in the EST resource, including the newly identified cryptochrome 2. The EST database also revealed a novel Na+/K+ ATPase allele predicted to be more resistant to the toxic effects of milkweed than that reported previously. Potential genetic markers were identified from 3,486 EST contigs and included 1599 double-hit single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 98 microsatellite polymorphisms. These data provide a template of the brain transcriptome for the monarch butterfly. Our "snap-shot" analysis of the differential regulation of candidate genes between summer and migratory butterflies suggests that unbiased, comprehensive transcriptional profiling will inform the molecular basis of migration. The identified SNPs and microsatellite polymorphisms can be used as genetic markers to address questions of population and subspecies structure.

Zhu H; Casselman A; Reppert SM

2008-01-01

299

Female behaviour drives expression and evolution of gustatory receptors in butterflies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Secondary plant compounds are strong deterrents of insect oviposition and feeding, but may also be attractants for specialist herbivores. These insect-plant interactions are mediated by insect gustatory receptors (Grs) and olfactory receptors (Ors). An analysis of the reference genome of the butterfly Heliconius melpomene, which feeds on passion-flower vines (Passiflora spp.), together with whole-genome sequencing within the species and across the Heliconius phylogeny has permitted an unprecedented opportunity to study the patterns of gene duplication and copy-number variation (CNV) among these key sensory genes. We report in silico gene predictions of 73 Gr genes in the H. melpomene reference genome, including putative CO2, sugar, sugar alcohol, fructose, and bitter receptors. The majority of these Grs are the result of gene duplications since Heliconius shared a common ancestor with the monarch butterfly or the silkmoth. Among Grs but not Ors, CNVs are more common within species in those gene lineages that have also duplicated over this evolutionary time-scale, suggesting ongoing rapid gene family evolution. Deep sequencing (?1 billion reads) of transcriptomes from proboscis and labial palps, antennae, and legs of adult H. melpomene males and females indicates that 67 of the predicted 73 Gr genes and 67 of the 70 predicted Or genes are expressed in these three tissues. Intriguingly, we find that one-third of all Grs show female-biased gene expression (n?=?26) and nearly all of these (n?=?21) are Heliconius-specific Grs. In fact, a significant excess of Grs that are expressed in female legs but not male legs are the result of recent gene duplication. This difference in Gr gene expression diversity between the sexes is accompanied by a striking sexual dimorphism in the abundance of gustatory sensilla on the forelegs of H. melpomene, suggesting that female oviposition behaviour drives the evolution of new gustatory receptors in butterfly genomes. PMID:23950722

Briscoe, Adriana D; Macias-Muñoz, Aide; Kozak, Krzysztof M; Walters, James R; Yuan, Furong; Jamie, Gabriel A; Martin, Simon H; Dasmahapatra, Kanchon K; Ferguson, Laura C; Mallet, James; Jacquin-Joly, Emmanuelle; Jiggins, Chris D

2013-07-11

300

Female behaviour drives expression and evolution of gustatory receptors in butterflies.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Secondary plant compounds are strong deterrents of insect oviposition and feeding, but may also be attractants for specialist herbivores. These insect-plant interactions are mediated by insect gustatory receptors (Grs) and olfactory receptors (Ors). An analysis of the reference genome of the butterfly Heliconius melpomene, which feeds on passion-flower vines (Passiflora spp.), together with whole-genome sequencing within the species and across the Heliconius phylogeny has permitted an unprecedented opportunity to study the patterns of gene duplication and copy-number variation (CNV) among these key sensory genes. We report in silico gene predictions of 73 Gr genes in the H. melpomene reference genome, including putative CO2, sugar, sugar alcohol, fructose, and bitter receptors. The majority of these Grs are the result of gene duplications since Heliconius shared a common ancestor with the monarch butterfly or the silkmoth. Among Grs but not Ors, CNVs are more common within species in those gene lineages that have also duplicated over this evolutionary time-scale, suggesting ongoing rapid gene family evolution. Deep sequencing (?1 billion reads) of transcriptomes from proboscis and labial palps, antennae, and legs of adult H. melpomene males and females indicates that 67 of the predicted 73 Gr genes and 67 of the 70 predicted Or genes are expressed in these three tissues. Intriguingly, we find that one-third of all Grs show female-biased gene expression (n?=?26) and nearly all of these (n?=?21) are Heliconius-specific Grs. In fact, a significant excess of Grs that are expressed in female legs but not male legs are the result of recent gene duplication. This difference in Gr gene expression diversity between the sexes is accompanied by a striking sexual dimorphism in the abundance of gustatory sensilla on the forelegs of H. melpomene, suggesting that female oviposition behaviour drives the evolution of new gustatory receptors in butterfly genomes.

Briscoe AD; Macias-Muñoz A; Kozak KM; Walters JR; Yuan F; Jamie GA; Martin SH; Dasmahapatra KK; Ferguson LC; Mallet J; Jacquin-Joly E; Jiggins CD

2013-07-01

 
 
 
 
301

Toward reconstructing the evolution of advanced moths and butterflies (Lepidoptera: Ditrysia): an initial molecular study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background In the mega-diverse insect order Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths; 165,000 described species), deeper relationships are little understood within the clade Ditrysia, to which 98% of the species belong. To begin addressing this problem, we tested the ability of five protein-coding nuclear genes (6.7 kb total), and character subsets therein, to resolve relationships among 123 species representing 27 (of 33) superfamilies and 55 (of 100) families of Ditrysia under maximum likelihood analysis. Results Our trees show broad concordance with previous morphological hypotheses of ditrysian phylogeny, although most relationships among superfamilies are weakly supported. There are also notable surprises, such as a consistently closer relationship of Pyraloidea than of butterflies to most Macrolepidoptera. Monophyly is significantly rejected by one or more character sets for the putative clades Macrolepidoptera as currently defined (P P ? 0.005), and nearly so for the superfamily Drepanoidea as currently defined (P Separate analyses of mostly synonymous versus non-synonymous character sets revealed notable differences (though not strong conflict), including a marked influence of compositional heterogeneity on apparent signal in the third codon position (nt3). As available model partitioning methods cannot correct for this variation, we assessed overall phylogeny resolution through separate examination of trees from each character set. Exploration of "tree space" with GARLI, using grid computing, showed that hundreds of searches are typically needed to find the best-feasible phylogeny estimate for these data. Conclusion Our results (a) corroborate the broad outlines of the current working phylogenetic hypothesis for Ditrysia, (b) demonstrate that some prominent features of that hypothesis, including the position of the butterflies, need revision, and (c) resolve the majority of family and subfamily relationships within superfamilies as thus far sampled. Much further gene and taxon sampling will be needed, however, to strongly resolve individual deeper nodes.

Regier Jerome C; Zwick Andreas; Cummings Michael P; Kawahara Akito Y; Cho Soowon; Weller Susan; Roe Amanda; Baixeras Joaquin; Brown John W; Parr Cynthia; Davis Donald R; Epstein Marc; Hallwachs Winifred; Hausmann Axel; Janzen Daniel H; Kitching Ian J; Solis M Alma; Yen Shen-Horn; Bazinet Adam L; Mitter Charles

2009-01-01

302

Wingless and aristaless2 define a developmental ground plan for moth and butterfly wing pattern evolution.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Butterfly wing patterns have long been a favorite system for studying the evolutionary radiation of complex morphologies. One of the key characteristics of the system is that wing patterns are based on a highly conserved ground plan of pattern homologies. In fact, the evolution of lepidopteran wing patterns is proposed to have occurred through the repeated gain, loss, and modification of only a handful of serially repeated elements. In this study, we examine the evolution and development of stripe wing pattern elements. We show that expression of the developmental morphogen wingless (wg) is associated with early determination of the major basal (B), discal (DI and DII), and marginal (EI) stripe patterns in a broad sampling of Lepidoptera, suggesting homology of these pattern elements across moths and butterflies. We describe for the first time a novel Lepidoptera-specific homeobox gene, aristaless2 (al2), which precedes wg expression during the early determination of DII stripe patterns. We show that al2 was derived from a tandem duplication of the aristaless gene, whereupon it underwent a rapid coding and cis-regulatory divergence relative to its more conserved paralog aristaless1 (al1), which retained an ancestral expression pattern. The al2 stripe expression domain evolutionarily preceded the appearance of the DII pattern elements in multiple lineages, leading us to speculate that al2 represented preexisting positional information that may have facilitated DII evolution via a developmental drive mechanism. In contrast to butterfly eyespot patterns, which are often cited as a key example of developmental co-option of preexisting developmental genes, this study provides an example where the origin of a major color pattern element is associated with the evolution of a novel lepidopteran homeobox gene.

Martin A; Reed RD

2010-12-01

303

Wingless and aristaless2 define a developmental ground plan for moth and butterfly wing pattern evolution.  

Science.gov (United States)

Butterfly wing patterns have long been a favorite system for studying the evolutionary radiation of complex morphologies. One of the key characteristics of the system is that wing patterns are based on a highly conserved ground plan of pattern homologies. In fact, the evolution of lepidopteran wing patterns is proposed to have occurred through the repeated gain, loss, and modification of only a handful of serially repeated elements. In this study, we examine the evolution and development of stripe wing pattern elements. We show that expression of the developmental morphogen wingless (wg) is associated with early determination of the major basal (B), discal (DI and DII), and marginal (EI) stripe patterns in a broad sampling of Lepidoptera, suggesting homology of these pattern elements across moths and butterflies. We describe for the first time a novel Lepidoptera-specific homeobox gene, aristaless2 (al2), which precedes wg expression during the early determination of DII stripe patterns. We show that al2 was derived from a tandem duplication of the aristaless gene, whereupon it underwent a rapid coding and cis-regulatory divergence relative to its more conserved paralog aristaless1 (al1), which retained an ancestral expression pattern. The al2 stripe expression domain evolutionarily preceded the appearance of the DII pattern elements in multiple lineages, leading us to speculate that al2 represented preexisting positional information that may have facilitated DII evolution via a developmental drive mechanism. In contrast to butterfly eyespot patterns, which are often cited as a key example of developmental co-option of preexisting developmental genes, this study provides an example where the origin of a major color pattern element is associated with the evolution of a novel lepidopteran homeobox gene. PMID:20624848

Martin, Arnaud; Reed, Robert D

2010-07-12

304

Color-pattern evolution in response to environmental stress in butterflies.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

It is generally accepted that butterfly wing color-patterns have ecological and behavioral functions that evolved through natural selection. However, particular wing color-patterns may be produced physiologically in response to environmental stress, and they may lack significant function. These patterns would represent an extreme expression of phenotypic plasticity and can eventually be fixed genetically in a population. Here, three such cases in butterflies are concisely reviewed, and their possible mechanisms of genetic assimilation are discussed. First, a certain modified color-pattern of Vanessa indica induced by temperature treatments resembles the natural color-patterns of its closely related species of the genus Vanessa (sensu stricto). Second, a different type of color-pattern modification can be induced in Vanessa cardui as a result of a general stress response. This modified pattern is very similar to the natural color-pattern of its sister species Vanessa kershawi. Third, a field observation was reported, together with experimental support, to show that the color-pattern diversity of a regional population of Zizeeria maha increased at the northern range margin of this species in response to temperature stress. In these three cases, modified color-patterns are unlikely to have significant functions, and these cases suggest that phenotypic plasticity plays an important role in butterfly wing color-pattern evolution. A neutral or non-functional trait can be assimilated genetically if it is linked, like a parasitic trait, with another functional trait. In addition, it is possible that environmental stress causes epigenetic modifications of genes related to color-patterns and that their transgenerational inheritance facilitates the process of genetic assimilation of a neutral or non-functional trait.

Hiyama A; Taira W; Otaki JM

2012-01-01

305

Priority of color over scent during flower visitation by adult Vanessa indica butterflies.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Most flower visitors innately prefer a particular color and scent, and use them as cues for flower recognition and selection. However, in most cases, since color and scent serve as a combined signal, not only does the preference for an individual cue, but also the preference hierarchy among different cues, influence their flower visitation. In the present study, we attempted to reveal (1) the chromatic and (2) the olfactory cues that stimulate flower visiting, and (3) the preference hierarchy between these cues, using the naive adult butterfly Vanessa indica. When we offered 12 different-colored (six chromatic and six achromatic) paper flower models, V. indica showed a color preference for yellow and blue. When we examined the proboscis extension reflex (PER) of V. indica towards 16 individual compounds identified in the floral scents from two nectar plants belonging to the family Compositae, Taraxacum officinale and Cirsium japonicum, six compounds were found to have relatively high PER-eliciting activities, including benzaldehyde, acetophenone, and (E+Z)-nerolidol. When we combined color and scent cues in two-choice bioassays, where butterflies were offered flower models that were purple (a relatively unattractive color), the models scented with these active compounds were significantly more attractive than the odorless controls. In addition, synthetic blends mimicking the floral scents of T. officinale and C. japonicum (at doses equivalent to that of ten flowers) enhanced the number of visits to the scented models. However, the effect of odorizing was not conspicuous in parallel bioassays when yellow flower models were used, and the butterflies also significantly preferred odorless yellow models to scented purple models. These results demonstrate that V. indica depends primarily on color and secondarily on scent during flower visitation.

Omura H; Honda K

2005-02-01

306

Monitoring of the eggs of the Karkloof blue butterfly, Orachrysops ariadne, for its conservation management  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Endangered Orachrysops ariadne (Butler 1898) (Karkloof blue butterfly) is endemic to the Endangered Moist Midlands Grassland in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, and is extant at four sites. The results from the monitoring of the eggs laid by O. ariadne in a grassland area that is frequently burnt by poor rural people to ensure that palatable grass is available to their livestock, suggested the implementation of management interventions (fencing and firebreak burning) to prevent the local extinction of the butterfly. The number of eggs at the monitoring site declined dramatically between 2002 and 2003 and fluctuated after the management interventions were initiated properly in 2008, but had nearly reached the target number of 250 by 2013. An index count method for the monitoring of O. ariadne eggs at the other three known colonies, where plant invasion rather than uncontrolled burning is a major threat, was developed and shown to be efficient with regard to time relative to the number of eggs sampled. The host ant Camponotus natalensis (F. Smith 1858) (Natal sugar ant) was found to be present in all the host-plant patches at one colony site, indicating that all host-plant patches are likely to be breeding areas for the butterfly. Invasive plant control at and appropriate burning of the habitat of O. ariadne should assist in ensuring the survival of these colonies. Conservation implications: Adaptive monitoring and management of threatened endemic invertebrates and their habitats may be crucial for their continued survival. The development of efficient methods for the monitoring of such species is required where resources are limited, as threats to the species may cause sudden and irreversible declines in population size.

Adrian J. Armstrong; Sharon L. Louw

2013-01-01

307

Distal-less regulates eyespot patterns and melanization in Bicyclus butterflies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Butterfly eyespots represent novel complex traits that display substantial diversity in number and size within and across species. Correlative gene expression studies have implicated a large suite of transcription factors, including Distal-less (Dll), Engrailed (En), and Spalt (Sal), in eyespot development in butterflies, but direct evidence testing the function of any of these proteins is still missing. Here we show that the characteristic two-eyespot pattern of wildtype Bicyclus anynana forewings is correlated with dynamic progression of Dll, En, and Sal expression in larval wings from four spots to two spots, whereas no such decline in gene expression ensues in a four-eyespot mutant. We then conduct transgenic experiments testing whether over-expression of any of these genes in a wild-type genetic background is sufficient to induce eyespot differentiation in these pre-patterned wing compartments. We also produce a Dll-RNAi transgenic line to test how Dll down-regulation affects eyespot development. Finally we test how ectopic expression of these genes during the pupal stages of development alters adults color patters. We show that over-expressing Dll in larvae is sufficient to induce the differentiation of additional eyespots and increase the size of eyespots, whereas down-regulating Dll leads to a decrease in eyespot size. Furthermore, ectopic expression of Dll in the early pupal wing led to the appearance of ectopic patches of black scales. We conclude that Dll is a positive regulator of focal differentiation and eyespot signaling and that this gene is also a possible selector gene for scale melanization in butterflies. PMID:23633220

Monteiro, Antónia; Chen, Bin; Ramos, Diane M; Oliver, Jeffrey C; Tong, Xiaoling; Guo, Min; Wang, Wen-Kai; Fazzino, Lisa; Kamal, Firdous

2013-04-30

308

Contemporary habitat loss reduces genetic diversity in an ecologically specialized butterfly  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study investigated the influence of contemporary habitat loss on the genetic diversity and structure of animal species using a common, but ecologically specialized, butterfly, Theclinesthes albocincta (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae), as a model. South Australia. We used amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and allozyme datasets to investigate the genetic structure and genetic diversity among populations of T. albocincta in a fragmented landscape and compared this diversity and structure with that of populations in two nearby landscapes that have more continuous distributions of butterflies and their habitat. Butterflies were sampled from 15 sites and genotyped, first using 363 informative AFLP bands and then using 17 polymorphic allozyme loci (n = 248 and 254, respectively). We complemented these analyses with phylogeographic information based on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplotype information derived from a previous study in the same landscapes. Both datasets indicated a relatively high level of genetic structuring across the sampling range (AFLP, FST = 0.34; allozyme, FST = 0.13): structure was greatest among populations in the fragmented landscape (AFLP, FST = 0.15; allozyme, FST = 0.13). Populations in the fragmented landscape also had significantly lower genetic diversity than populations in the other two landscapes: there were no detectable differences in genetic diversity between the two continuous landscapes. There was also evidence (r² = 0.33) of an isolation by distance effect across the sampled range of the species. The multiple lines of evidence, presented within a phylogeographic context, support the hypothesis that contemporary habitat fragmentation has been a major driver of genetic erosion and differentiation in this species. Theclinesthes albocincta populations in the fragmented landscape are thus likely to be at greater risk of extinction because of reduced genetic diversity, their isolation from conspecific subpopulations in other landscapes, and other extrinsic forces acting on their small population sizes. Our study provides compelling evidence that habitat loss and fragmentation have significant rapid impacts on the genetic diversity and structure of butterfly populations, especially specialist species with particular habitat preferences and poor dispersal abilities.

Collier Neil; Gardner Mike; Adams Mark; McMahon CliveR; Benkendorff Kirsten; Mackay DuncanA

2010-07-01

309

Study on the factors affecting seed embryo germination of butterfly orhid Plaenopsis  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Results of this eperiment shoed that (10 mproved KC culture medium was a optimum culture medium for seed embryo germinating of butterfly orchid (Phalaenopsis); (2) seed embryo germinationg fo utterlfy orchid was not affected by light treament; (3) germination rates fo the seeds in the capsules 3-4 moths after pollination wer the higheest (95%); and (4) optimum environmental conditions for root growth forchid seedings wer 26±2?. 1000 lx light, and culture medium constitued of 1/2MS+0.5mg/L NAA+10% cocontu juice(v/v).

Xu Xiaowei; Lin Shaosheng; Yao Lijuang; Chen Zhonglin; You Jubing

2004-01-01

310

Stoichiometric self-assembly of isomeric, shape-persistent, supramacromolecular bowtie and butterfly structures.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Two novel macromolecular constitutional isomers have been self-assembled from previously unreported terpyridine ligands in a three-component system. The terpyridine ligands were synthesized in high yields via a key Suzuki coupling. Restrictions of the possible outcomes for self-assembly ultimately provided optimum conditions for isolation of either a molecular bowtie or its isomeric butterfly motif. These isomers have been characterized by ESI-MS, TWIM-MS, (1)H NMR, and (13)C NMR. Notably, these structural isomers have remarkably different drift times in ion mobility separation, corresponding to different sizes and shapes at high charge states.

Schultz A; Li X; Barkakaty B; Moorefield CN; Wesdemiotis C; Newkome GR

2012-05-01

311

Waterproof and translucent wings at the same time: problems and solutions in butterflies.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Although the colour of butterflies attracts the most attention, the waterproofing properties of their wings are also extremely interesting. Most butterfly wings are considered "super-hydrophobic" because the contact angle (CA) with a water drop exceeds 150 degrees. Usually, butterfly wings are covered with strongly overlapping scales; however, in the case of transparent or translucent wings, scale cover is reduced; thus, the hydrophobicity could be affected. Here, we present a comparative analysis of wing hydrophobicity and its dependence on morphology for two species with translucent wings Parantica sita (Nymphalidae) and Parnassius glacialis (Papilionidae). These species have very different life histories: P. sita lives for up to 6 months as an adult and migrates over long distance, whereas P. glacialis lives for less than 1 month and does not migrate. We measured the water CA and analysed wing morphology with scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. P. sita has super-hydrophobic wing surfaces, with CA > 160 degrees, whereas P. glacialis did not (CA = 100-135 degrees). Specialised scales were found on the translucent portions of P. sita wings. These scales were ovoid and much thinner than common scales, erect at about 30 degrees, and leaving up to 80% of the wing surface uncovered. The underlying bare wing surface had a remarkable pattern of ridges and knobs. P. glacialis also had over 80% of the wing surface uncovered, but the scales were either setae-like or spade-like. The bare surface of the wing had an irregular wavy smooth pattern. We suggest a mode of action that allows this super-hydrophobic effect with an incompletely covered wing surface. The scales bend, but do not collapse, under the pressure of a water droplet, and the elastic recovery of the structure at the borders of the droplet allows a high apparent CA. Thus, P. sita can be translucent without losing its waterproof properties. This characteristic is likely necessary for the long life and migration of this species. This is the first study of some of the effects on the hydrophobicity of translucency through scales' cover reduction in butterfly wings and on the morphology associated with improved waterproofing.

Goodwyn PP; Maezono Y; Hosoda N; Fujisaki K

2009-07-01

312

Vertical distribution, flight behaviour and evolution of wing morphology in Morpho butterflies.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

1. Flight is a key innovation in the evolution of insects that is crucial to their dispersal, migration, territoriality, courtship and predator avoidance. Male butterflies have characteristic territoriality and courtship flight behaviours, and females use a characteristic flight behaviour when searching for host plants. This implies that selection acts on wing morphology to maximize flight performance for conducting important behaviours among sexes. 2. Butterflies in the genus Morpho are obvious components of neotropical forests, and many observations indicate that they show two broad categories of flight behaviour and flight height. Although species can be categorized as using gliding or flapping flight, and flying at either canopy or understorey height, the association of flight behaviour and flight height with wing shape evolution has never been explored. 3. Two clades within Morpho differ in flight behaviour and height. Males and females of one clade inhabit the forest understorey and use flapping flight, whereas in the other clade, males use gliding flight at canopy level and females use flapping flight in both canopy and understorey. 4. We used independent contrasts to answer whether wing shape is associated with flight behaviour and height. Given a single switch to canopy habitation and gliding flight, we compared contrasts for the node at which the switch to canopy flight occurred with the distribution of values in the two focal clades. We found significant changes in wing shape at the transition to canopy flight only in males, and no change in size for either sex. A second node within the canopy clade suggests that other factors may also be involved in wing shape evolution. Our results reinforce the hypothesis that natural selection acts differently on male and female butterfly wing shape and indicate that the transition to canopy flight cannot explain all wing shape diversity in Morpho. 5. This study provides a starting point for characterizing evolution of wing morphology in forest butterflies in the contexts of habitat selection and flight behaviour. Further, these observations suggest that exploring wing shape evolution for canopy and understorey species in other insects may help understand the effects of habitat destruction on biological diversity.

Devries PJ; Penz CM; Hill RI

2010-09-01

313

Immature stages of the butterfly Diaethria clymena janeira (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Biblidinae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english The immature stages (egg, larva, and pupa) morphology, larval and oviposition behavior, and host plant of the "eighty-eight" butterfly Diaethria clymena janeira (C. Felder, 1862) are described. Eggs are laid singly under leaf, and have pronounced vertical ribs ending up in a crown. Larvae of early instars construct stick-like frass chains where they rest when not feeding. Late instars are green with reduced body scoli and long branched head scoli. Pupae are entirely green (more) , and pupation occurs on the upper leaf surface. In general, morphology and behavior of immature stages are similar to those of related species in the tribe Callicorini.

Barbosa, Eduardo P.; Kaminski, Lucas A.; Freitas, André V. L.

2010-10-01

314

UV photoreceptors and UV-yellow wing pigments in Heliconius butterflies allow a color signal to serve both mimicry and intraspecific communication.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Mimetic wing coloration evolves in butterflies in the context of predator confusion. Unless butterfly eyes have adaptations for discriminating mimetic color variation, mimicry also carries a risk of confusion for the butterflies themselves. Heliconius butterfly eyes, which express recently duplicated ultraviolet (UV) opsins, have such an adaptation. To examine bird and butterfly color vision as sources of selection on butterfly coloration, we studied yellow wing pigmentation in the tribe Heliconiini. We confirmed, using reflectance and mass spectrometry, that only Heliconius use 3-hydroxy-DL-kynurenine (3-OHK), which looks yellow to humans but reflects both UV- and long-wavelength light, whereas butterflies in related genera have chemically unknown yellow pigments mostly lacking UV reflectance. Modeling of these color signals reveals that the two UV photoreceptors of Heliconius are better suited to separating 3-OHK from non-3-OHK spectra compared with the photoreceptors of related genera or birds. The co-occurrence of potentially enhanced UV vision and a UV-reflecting yellow wing pigment could allow unpalatable Heliconius private intraspecific communication in the presence of mimics. Our results are the best available evidence for the correlated evolution of a color signal and color vision. They also suggest that predator visual systems are error prone in the context of mimicry.

Bybee SM; Yuan F; Ramstetter MD; Llorente-Bousquets J; Reed RD; Osorio D; Briscoe AD

2012-01-01

315

Establishment of a Monarch Butterfly (Danaus plexippus, Lepidoptera: Danaidae) Cell Line and its Susceptibility to Insect Viruses  

Science.gov (United States)

A cell line from the monarch butterfly Danaus plexippus designated BCIRL-DP-AM/JG was established from adult ovaries. The cell line consisted mainly of round cells and took a prolonged period of time in the growth medium ExCell 401 containing 10% fetal bovine serum and antibiotics before it could be...

316

EFFECTS ON MONARCH BUTTERFLY LARVAE (LEPIDOPTERA: DANAIDAE) AFTER CONTINUOUS EXPOSURE TO CRY1AB-EXPRESSING CORN DURING ANTHESIS  

Science.gov (United States)

Chronic effects on monarch butterfly, Danaus plexippus (L.), following long-term exposure of larvae to naturally deposited levels of Bt and non-Bt pollen on milkweed, were determined in five studies. First instars were exposed at 3-4 and 6-7 days after initial anthesis, either directly on milkweed p...

317

Risk of egg parasitoid attraction depends on anti-aphrodisiac titre in the large cabbage white butterfly Pieris brassicae.  

Science.gov (United States)

Males of a variety of insects transfer an anti-aphrodisiac pheromone to females during mating that renders them less attractive to conspecific males. In cabbage white butterflies, the transfer of an anti-aphrodisiac can result in the unwanted attraction of tiny egg parasitoid wasps of the genus Trichogramma that hitch-hike with mated female butterflies to a host plant where they parasitize the freshly laid butterfly eggs. Here, we show that the anti-aphrodisiac benzyl cyanide (BC) of the large cabbage white Pieris brassicae is depleted by frequent display of the mate-refusal posture that signals a female's unreceptivity to mating. This depletion of BC is ecologically important because it results in a reduced risk of attracting the hitch-hiking egg parasitoid Trichogramma brassicae to mated female butterflies over time since mating. Our results indicate for the first time that a reduction in anti-aphrodisiac titre in mated females due to frequent adoption of the mate-refusal posture is beneficial to both mated females and males particularly when parasitoid pressure is high. PMID:21452001

Huigens, Martinus E; de Swart, Erik; Mumm, Roland

2011-03-31

318

Risk of egg parasitoid attraction depends on anti-aphrodisiac titre in the large cabbage white butterfly Pieris brassicae.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Males of a variety of insects transfer an anti-aphrodisiac pheromone to females during mating that renders them less attractive to conspecific males. In cabbage white butterflies, the transfer of an anti-aphrodisiac can result in the unwanted attraction of tiny egg parasitoid wasps of the genus Trichogramma that hitch-hike with mated female butterflies to a host plant where they parasitize the freshly laid butterfly eggs. Here, we show that the anti-aphrodisiac benzyl cyanide (BC) of the large cabbage white Pieris brassicae is depleted by frequent display of the mate-refusal posture that signals a female's unreceptivity to mating. This depletion of BC is ecologically important because it results in a reduced risk of attracting the hitch-hiking egg parasitoid Trichogramma brassicae to mated female butterflies over time since mating. Our results indicate for the first time that a reduction in anti-aphrodisiac titre in mated females due to frequent adoption of the mate-refusal posture is beneficial to both mated females and males particularly when parasitoid pressure is high.

Huigens ME; de Swart E; Mumm R

2011-04-01

319

Butterfly abundance and movements among prairie patches: the roles of habitat quality, edge, and forest matrix permeability.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The spatial distribution of patchy insect populations is partly caused by behavioral patterns of insect movement that are influenced by habitat quality, isolation, and the permeability of the surrounding matrix. We recorded insect movements, abundance, and edge behaviors in two species of butterflies, the great-spangled fritillary (Speyeria cybele F., Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) and the pearl crescent (Phyciodes tharos Drury, Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae), inhabiting remnant prairies surrounded by a forest matrix in south-central Ohio. We also determined the number of forest matrix types present and recorded the permeability of the different types to butterfly movement. The great-spangled fritillary exhibited a relatively high number of interpatch movements, a higher abundance at patch edges, and a propensity to cross the prairie-forest edges, and the forest matrix had a high permeability to butterfly movement. The pearl crescent, in contrast, rarely crossed edge boundaries, moved infrequently among patches, and was more abundant within the patch interior and in patches with high host-plant and flower densities. There were three structurally different forest matrix types separating habitat patches, which in previous studies would have been classified as a single deciduous forest matrix. Butterfly movement and edge behaviors mechanistically interact with patch quality, isolation, and the matrix permeability to determine the spatial structure of these populations in fragmented habitats.

Stasek DJ; Bean C; Crist TO

2008-08-01

320

Conservation potential of abandoned military areas matches that of established reserves: plants and butterflies in the Czech Republic.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Military training generates frequent and irregular disturbance followed by succession, resulting in fine-scaled mosaics of ecological conditions in military training areas (MTAs). The awareness that MTAs may represent important biodiversity sanctuaries is increasing recently. Concurrently, changes in military doctrine are leading to abandonment of many MTAs, which are being brought under civilian administration and opened for development. We surveyed vascular plants in 43 and butterflies in 41 MTAs in the Czech Republic and compared the records with plants and butterfly records from 301 and 125 nature reserves, respectively. After controlling for effects of area, geography, and climate, we found that plant species richness was equal in the two land use categories; butterfly richness was higher in MTAs; reserves hosted more endangered plants and more endangered butterflies. Ordination analyses, again controlled for potential nuisance effects, showed that MTAs and reserves differed also in species composition. While specialist species of nationally rarest habitat types inclined towards the reserves, MTAs hosted a high representation of endangered species depending on either disturbed ground, or successionaly transient conditions. These patterns reflect the history of the national nature reserves network, and the disturbance-succession dynamics within MTAs. The conservation value of formerly army-used lands is increasingly threatened by abandonment, and conservationists should support either alternative uses mimicking army activities, or sustainable management regimes.

Cizek O; Vrba P; Benes J; Hrazsky Z; Koptik J; Kucera T; Marhoul P; Zamecnik J; Konvicka M

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Stepwise evolution of resistance to toxic cardenolides via genetic substitutions in the na(+) /k(+) -ATPase of milkweed butterflies (lepidoptera: danaini).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Despite the monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) being famous for its adaptations to the defensive traits of its milkweed host plants, little is known about the macroevolution of these traits. Unlike most other animal species, monarchs are largely insensitive to cardenolides, because their target site, the sodium pump (Na(+) /K(+) -ATPase), has evolved amino acid substitutions that reduce cardenolide binding (so-called target site insensitivity, TSI). Because many, but not all, species of milkweed butterflies (Danaini) are associated with cardenolide-containing host plants, we analyzed 16 species, representing all phylogenetic lineages of milkweed butterflies, for the occurrence of TSI by sequence analyses of the Na(+) /K(+) -ATPase gene and by enzymatic assays with extracted Na(+) /K(+) -ATPase. Here we report that sensitivity to cardenolides was reduced in a stepwise manner during the macroevolution of milkweed butterflies. Strikingly, not all Danaini typically consuming cardenolides showed TSI, but rather TSI was more strongly associated with sequestration of toxic cardenolides. Thus, the interplay between bottom-up selection by plant compounds and top-down selection by natural enemies can explain the evolutionary sequence of adaptations to these toxins.

Petschenka G; Fandrich S; Sander N; Wagschal V; Boppré M; Dobler S

2013-09-01

322

Stepwise evolution of resistance to toxic cardenolides via genetic substitutions in the na(+) /k(+) -ATPase of milkweed butterflies (lepidoptera: danaini).  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite the monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) being famous for its adaptations to the defensive traits of its milkweed host plants, little is known about the macroevolution of these traits. Unlike most other animal species, monarchs are largely insensitive to cardenolides, because their target site, the sodium pump (Na(+) /K(+) -ATPase), has evolved amino acid substitutions that reduce cardenolide binding (so-called target site insensitivity, TSI). Because many, but not all, species of milkweed butterflies (Danaini) are associated with cardenolide-containing host plants, we analyzed 16 species, representing all phylogenetic lineages of milkweed butterflies, for the occurrence of TSI by sequence analyses of the Na(+) /K(+) -ATPase gene and by enzymatic assays with extracted Na(+) /K(+) -ATPase. Here we report that sensitivity to cardenolides was reduced in a stepwise manner during the macroevolution of milkweed butterflies. Strikingly, not all Danaini typically consuming cardenolides showed TSI, but rather TSI was more strongly associated with sequestration of toxic cardenolides. Thus, the interplay between bottom-up selection by plant compounds and top-down selection by natural enemies can explain the evolutionary sequence of adaptations to these toxins. PMID:24033181

Petschenka, Georg; Fandrich, Steffi; Sander, Nils; Wagschal, Vera; Boppré, Michael; Dobler, Susanne

2013-05-30

323

Conservation potential of abandoned military areas matches that of established reserves: plants and butterflies in the Czech Republic.  

Science.gov (United States)

Military training generates frequent and irregular disturbance followed by succession, resulting in fine-scaled mosaics of ecological conditions in military training areas (MTAs). The awareness that MTAs may represent important biodiversity sanctuaries is increasing recently. Concurrently, changes in military doctrine are leading to abandonment of many MTAs, which are being brought under civilian administration and opened for development. We surveyed vascular plants in 43 and butterflies in 41 MTAs in the Czech Republic and compared the records with plants and butterfly records from 301 and 125 nature reserves, respectively. After controlling for effects of area, geography, and climate, we found that plant species richness was equal in the two land use categories; butterfly richness was higher in MTAs; reserves hosted more endangered plants and more endangered butterflies. Ordination analyses, again controlled for potential nuisance effects, showed that MTAs and reserves differed also in species composition. While specialist species of nationally rarest habitat types inclined towards the reserves, MTAs hosted a high representation of endangered species depending on either disturbed ground, or successionaly transient conditions. These patterns reflect the history of the national nature reserves network, and the disturbance-succession dynamics within MTAs. The conservation value of formerly army-used lands is increasingly threatened by abandonment, and conservationists should support either alternative uses mimicking army activities, or sustainable management regimes. PMID:23326388

Cizek, Oldrich; Vrba, Pavel; Benes, Jiri; Hrazsky, Zaboj; Koptik, Jiri; Kucera, Tomas; Marhoul, Pavel; Zamecnik, Jaroslav; Konvicka, Martin

2013-01-09

324

Case of multiple sclerosis with multi-ring-like and butterfly-like enhancement on computerized tomography  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We report a case of multiple sclerosis in which CT showed multiple ring-like enhancement and butterfly-like distribution of a low density area with marginal enhancement. The latter finding is found in other demyelinating disorders but is less common in tumors or abscesses. Therefore, it seems to have some diagnostic value in multiple sclerosis. (author).

Morimoto, Takehiko; Nagao, Hideo; Sano, Nozomi; Habara, Shinji; Takahashi, Mitsugi; Matsuda, Hiroshi; Beppu, Keiko; Shoda, Takaaki

1985-01-01

325

Anatomical basis of sun compass navigation I: the general layout of the monarch butterfly brain.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Each fall, eastern North American monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) use a time-compensated sun compass to migrate to their overwintering grounds in central Mexico. The sun compass mechanism involves the neural integration of skylight cues with timing information from circadian clocks to maintain a constant heading. The neuronal substrates for the necessary interactions between compass neurons in the central complex, a prominent structure of the central brain, and circadian clocks are largely unknown. To begin to unravel these neural substrates, we performed 3D reconstructions of all neuropils of the monarch brain based on anti-synapsin labeling. Our work characterizes 21 well-defined neuropils (19 paired, 2 unpaired), as well as all synaptic regions between the more classically defined neuropils. We also studied the internal organization of all major neuropils on brain sections, using immunocytochemical stainings against synapsin, serotonin, and ?-aminobutyric acid. Special emphasis was placed on describing the neuroarchitecture of sun-compass-related brain regions and outlining their homologies to other migratory species. In addition to finding many general anatomical similarities to other insects, interspecies comparison also revealed several features that appear unique to the monarch brain. These distinctive features were especially apparent in the visual system and the mushroom body. Overall, we provide a comprehensive analysis of the brain anatomy of the monarch butterfly that will ultimately aid our understanding of the neuronal processes governing animal migration.

Heinze S; Reppert SM

2012-06-01

326

Efficient targeted mutagenesis in the monarch butterfly using zinc-finger nucleases.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The development of reverse-genetic tools in "nonmodel" insect species with distinct biology is critical to establish them as viable model systems. The eastern North American monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus), whose genome is sequenced, has emerged as a model to study animal clocks, navigational mechanisms, and the genetic basis of long-distance migration. Here, we developed a highly efficient gene-targeting approach in the monarch using zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs), engineered nucleases that generate mutations at targeted genomic sequences. We focused our ZFN approach on targeting the type 2 vertebrate-like cryptochrome gene of the monarch (designated cry2), which encodes a putative transcriptional repressor of the monarch circadian clockwork. Co-injections of mRNAs encoding ZFNs targeting the second exon of monarch cry2 into "one nucleus" stage embryos led to high-frequency nonhomologous end-joining-mediated, mutagenic lesions in the germline (up to 50%). Heritable ZFN-induced lesions in two independent lines produced truncated, nonfunctional CRY2 proteins, resulting in the in vivo disruption of circadian behavior and the molecular clock mechanism. Our work genetically defines CRY2 as an essential transcriptional repressor of the monarch circadian clock and provides a proof of concept for the use of ZFNs for manipulating genes in the monarch butterfly genome. Importantly, this approach could be used in other lepidopterans and "nonmodel" insects, thus opening new avenues to decipher the molecular underpinnings of a variety of biological processes.

Merlin C; Beaver LE; Taylor OR; Wolfe SA; Reppert SM

2013-01-01

327

The redder the better: wing color predicts flight performance in monarch butterflies.  

Science.gov (United States)

The distinctive orange and black wings of monarchs (Danaus plexippus) have long been known to advertise their bitter taste and toxicity to potential predators. Recent work also showed that both the orange and black coloration of this species can vary in response to individual-level and environmental factors. Here we examine the relationship between wing color and flight performance in captive-reared monarchs using a tethered flight mill apparatus to quantify butterfly flight speed, duration and distance. In three different experiments (totaling 121 individuals) we used image analysis to measure body size and four wing traits among newly-emerged butterflies prior to flight trials: wing area, aspect ratio (length/width), melanism, and orange hue. Results showed that monarchs with darker orange (approaching red) wings flew longer distances than those with lighter orange wings in analyses that controlled for sex and other morphometric traits. This finding is consistent with past work showing that among wild monarchs, those sampled during the fall migration are darker in hue (redder) than non-migratory monarchs. Together, these results suggest that pigment deposition onto wing scales during metamorphosis could be linked with traits that influence flight, such as thorax muscle size, energy storage or metabolism. Our results reinforce an association between wing color and flight performance in insects that is suggested by past studies of wing melansim and seasonal polyphenism, and provide an important starting point for work focused on mechanistic links between insect movement and color. PMID:22848463

Davis, Andrew K; Chi, Jean; Bradley, Catherine; Altizer, Sonia

2012-07-25

328

The monarch butterfly genome yields insights into long-distance migration.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We present the draft 273 Mb genome of the migratory monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) and a set of 16,866 protein-coding genes. Orthology properties suggest that the Lepidoptera are the fastest evolving insect order yet examined. Compared to the silkmoth Bombyx mori, the monarch genome shares prominent similarity in orthology content, microsynteny, and protein family sizes. The monarch genome reveals a vertebrate-like opsin whose existence in insects is widespread; a full repertoire of molecular components for the monarch circadian clockwork; all members of the juvenile hormone biosynthetic pathway whose regulation shows unexpected sexual dimorphism; additional molecular signatures of oriented flight behavior; microRNAs that are differentially expressed between summer and migratory butterflies; monarch-specific expansions of chemoreceptors potentially important for long-distance migration; and a variant of the sodium/potassium pump that underlies a valuable chemical defense mechanism. The monarch genome enhances our ability to better understand the genetic and molecular basis of long-distance migration.

Zhan S; Merlin C; Boore JL; Reppert SM

2011-11-01

329

Anatomical basis of sun compass navigation I: the general layout of the monarch butterfly brain.  

Science.gov (United States)

Each fall, eastern North American monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) use a time-compensated sun compass to migrate to their overwintering grounds in central Mexico. The sun compass mechanism involves the neural integration of skylight cues with timing information from circadian clocks to maintain a constant heading. The neuronal substrates for the necessary interactions between compass neurons in the central complex, a prominent structure of the central brain, and circadian clocks are largely unknown. To begin to unravel these neural substrates, we performed 3D reconstructions of all neuropils of the monarch brain based on anti-synapsin labeling. Our work characterizes 21 well-defined neuropils (19 paired, 2 unpaired), as well as all synaptic regions between the more classically defined neuropils. We also studied the internal organization of all major neuropils on brain sections, using immunocytochemical stainings against synapsin, serotonin, and ?-aminobutyric acid. Special emphasis was placed on describing the neuroarchitecture of sun-compass-related brain regions and outlining their homologies to other migratory species. In addition to finding many general anatomical similarities to other insects, interspecies comparison also revealed several features that appear unique to the monarch brain. These distinctive features were especially apparent in the visual system and the mushroom body. Overall, we provide a comprehensive analysis of the brain anatomy of the monarch butterfly that will ultimately aid our understanding of the neuronal processes governing animal migration. PMID:22473804

Heinze, Stanley; Reppert, Steven M

2012-06-01

330

Populations of Monarch butterflies with different migratory behaviors show divergence in wing morphology.  

Science.gov (United States)

The demands of long-distance flight represent an important evolutionary force operating on the traits of migratory species. Monarchs are widespread butterflies known for their annual migrations in North America. We examined divergence in wing morphology among migratory monarchs from eastern and western N. America, and nonmigratory monarchs in S. Florida, Puerto Rico, Costa Rica, and Hawaii. For the three N. American populations, we also examined monarchs reared in four common environment experiments. We used image analysis to measure multiple traits including forewing area and aspect ratio; for laboratory-reared monarchs we also quantified body area and wing loading. Results showed wild monarchs from all nonmigratory populations were smaller than those from migratory populations. Wild and captive-reared eastern monarchs had the largest and most elongated forewings, whereas monarchs from Puerto Rico and Costa Rica had the smallest and roundest forewings. Eastern monarchs also had the largest bodies and high measures of wing loading, whereas western and S. Florida monarchs had less elongated forewings and smaller bodies. Among captive-reared butterflies, family-level effects provided evidence that genetic factors contributed to variation in wing traits. Collectively, these results support evolutionary responses to long-distance flight in monarchs, with implications for the conservation of phenotypically distinct wild populations. PMID:20067519

Altizer, Sonia; Davis, Andrew K

2010-01-11

331

The monarch butterfly genome yields insights into long-distance migration.  

Science.gov (United States)

We present the draft 273 Mb genome of the migratory monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) and a set of 16,866 protein-coding genes. Orthology properties suggest that the Lepidoptera are the fastest evolving insect order yet examined. Compared to the silkmoth Bombyx mori, the monarch genome shares prominent similarity in orthology content, microsynteny, and protein family sizes. The monarch genome reveals a vertebrate-like opsin whose existence in insects is widespread; a full repertoire of molecular components for the monarch circadian clockwork; all members of the juvenile hormone biosynthetic pathway whose regulation shows unexpected sexual dimorphism; additional molecular signatures of oriented flight behavior; microRNAs that are differentially expressed between summer and migratory butterflies; monarch-specific expansions of chemoreceptors potentially important for long-distance migration; and a variant of the sodium/potassium pump that underlies a valuable chemical defense mechanism. The monarch genome enhances our ability to better understand the genetic and molecular basis of long-distance migration. PMID:22118469

Zhan, Shuai; Merlin, Christine; Boore, Jeffrey L; Reppert, Steven M

2011-11-23

332

The redder the better: wing color predicts flight performance in monarch butterflies.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The distinctive orange and black wings of monarchs (Danaus plexippus) have long been known to advertise their bitter taste and toxicity to potential predators. Recent work also showed that both the orange and black coloration of this species can vary in response to individual-level and environmental factors. Here we examine the relationship between wing color and flight performance in captive-reared monarchs using a tethered flight mill apparatus to quantify butterfly flight speed, duration and distance. In three different experiments (totaling 121 individuals) we used image analysis to measure body size and four wing traits among newly-emerged butterflies prior to flight trials: wing area, aspect ratio (length/width), melanism, and orange hue. Results showed that monarchs with darker orange (approaching red) wings flew longer distances than those with lighter orange wings in analyses that controlled for sex and other morphometric traits. This finding is consistent with past work showing that among wild monarchs, those sampled during the fall migration are darker in hue (redder) than non-migratory monarchs. Together, these results suggest that pigment deposition onto wing scales during metamorphosis could be linked with traits that influence flight, such as thorax muscle size, energy storage or metabolism. Our results reinforce an association between wing color and flight performance in insects that is suggested by past studies of wing melansim and seasonal polyphenism, and provide an important starting point for work focused on mechanistic links between insect movement and color.

Davis AK; Chi J; Bradley C; Altizer S

2012-01-01

333

Populations of Monarch butterflies with different migratory behaviors show divergence in wing morphology.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The demands of long-distance flight represent an important evolutionary force operating on the traits of migratory species. Monarchs are widespread butterflies known for their annual migrations in North America. We examined divergence in wing morphology among migratory monarchs from eastern and western N. America, and nonmigratory monarchs in S. Florida, Puerto Rico, Costa Rica, and Hawaii. For the three N. American populations, we also examined monarchs reared in four common environment experiments. We used image analysis to measure multiple traits including forewing area and aspect ratio; for laboratory-reared monarchs we also quantified body area and wing loading. Results showed wild monarchs from all nonmigratory populations were smaller than those from migratory populations. Wild and captive-reared eastern monarchs had the largest and most elongated forewings, whereas monarchs from Puerto Rico and Costa Rica had the smallest and roundest forewings. Eastern monarchs also had the largest bodies and high measures of wing loading, whereas western and S. Florida monarchs had less elongated forewings and smaller bodies. Among captive-reared butterflies, family-level effects provided evidence that genetic factors contributed to variation in wing traits. Collectively, these results support evolutionary responses to long-distance flight in monarchs, with implications for the conservation of phenotypically distinct wild populations.

Altizer S; Davis AK

2010-04-01

334

Food plant derived disease tolerance and resistance in a natural butterfly-plant-parasite interactions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Organisms can protect themselves against parasite-induced fitness costs through resistance or tolerance. Resistance includes mechanisms that prevent infection or limit parasite growth while tolerance alleviates the fitness costs from parasitism without limiting infection. Although tolerance and resistance affect host-parasite coevolution in fundamentally different ways, tolerance has often been ignored in animal-parasite systems. Where it has been studied, tolerance has been assumed to be a genetic mechanism, unaffected by the host environment. Here we studied the effects of host ecology on tolerance and resistance to infection by rearing monarch butterflies on 12 different species of milkweed food plants and infecting them with a naturally occurring protozoan parasite. Our results show that monarch butterflies experience different levels of tolerance to parasitism depending on the species of milkweed that they feed on, with some species providing over twofold greater tolerance than other milkweed species. Resistance was also affected by milkweed species, but there was no relationship between milkweed-conferred resistance and tolerance. Chemical analysis suggests that infected monarchs obtain highest fitness when reared on milkweeds with an intermediate concentration, diversity, and polarity of toxic secondary plant chemicals known as cardenolides. Our results demonstrate that environmental factors-such as interacting species in ecological food webs-are important drivers of disease tolerance.

Sternberg ED; Lefèvre T; Li J; de Castillejo CL; Li H; Hunter MD; de Roode JC

2012-11-01

335

HIGH SPEED BUTTERFLY ARCHITECTURE FOR CIRCULAR CONVOLUTION USING FNT WITH PARTIAL PRODUCT MULTIPLIER  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents high speed butterfly architecture for circular convolution based on FNT using partial product multipliers. FNT is ideally suited to digital computation requiring the order of N log N additions, subtractions and bit shifts, but no multiplications. In addition to being efficient, the FNT implementation is exact with no round off errors. Binary arithmetic permits the exact computation of FNT. This technique involves arithmetic in a binary code orresponding to the simplest one of a set of code translations from the normal binary representation of each integer in the ring of integer. In the first stage normal binary numbers are converted intotheir diminished-1 representation using code conversion (CC). Then butterfly operation (BO) is carried out to perform FNT and IFNT where the point wise multiplication is performed using modulo 2n+1 partial product multipliers. Thus modulo 2n+1 additions are avoided in the final stages of FNT and IFNT and hence execution delay is reduced compared to circular convolution done with FFT and DFT. This architecture has better throughput and involves less hardware complexity.

HEMALATHA BANDARI; ALAHARI RADHIKA,; SAKE POTHALAIAH; Dr.K ASHOK BABU

2011-01-01

336

Dispersal and gene flow in the rare, parasitic Large Blue butterfly Maculinea arion.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Dispersal is crucial for gene flow and often determines the long-term stability of meta-populations, particularly in rare species with specialized life cycles. Such species are often foci of conservation efforts because they suffer disproportionally from degradation and fragmentation of their habitat. However, detailed knowledge of effective gene flow through dispersal is often missing, so that conservation strategies have to be based on mark-recapture observations that are suspected to be poor predictors of long-distance dispersal. These constraints have been especially severe in the study of butterfly populations, where microsatellite markers have been difficult to develop. We used eight microsatellite markers to analyse genetic population structure of the Large Blue butterfly Maculinea arion in Sweden. During recent decades, this species has become an icon of insect conservation after massive decline throughout Europe and extinction in Britain followed by reintroduction of a seed population from the Swedish island of Öland. We find that populations are highly structured genetically, but that gene flow occurs over distances 15 times longer than the maximum distance recorded from mark-recapture studies, which can only be explained by maximum dispersal distances at least twice as large as previously accepted. However, we also find evidence that gaps between sites with suitable habitat exceeding ?20km induce genetic erosion that can be detected from bottleneck analyses. Although further work is needed, our results suggest that M. arion can maintain fully functional metapopulations when they consist of optimal habitat patches that are no further apart than ?10km.

Ugelvig LV; Andersen A; Boomsma JJ; Nash DR

2012-07-01

337

Compounded effects of climate change and habitat alteration shift patterns of butterfly diversity.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Climate change and habitat destruction have been linked to global declines in vertebrate biodiversity, including mammals, amphibians, birds, and fishes. However, invertebrates make up the vast majority of global species richness, and the combined effects of climate change and land use on invertebrates remain poorly understood. Here we present 35 years of data on 159 species of butterflies from 10 sites along an elevational gradient spanning 0-2,775 m in a biodiversity hotspot, the Sierra Nevada Mountains of Northern California. Species richness has declined at half of the sites, with the most severe reductions at the lowest elevations, where habitat destruction is greatest. At higher elevations, we observed clear upward shifts in the elevational ranges of species, consistent with the influence of global warming. Taken together, these long-term data reveal the interacting negative effects of human-induced changes on both the climate and habitat available to butterfly species in California. Furthermore, the decline of ruderal, disturbance-associated species indicates that the traditional focus of conservation efforts on more specialized and less dispersive species should be broadened to include entire faunas when estimating and predicting the effects of pervasive stressors.

Forister ML; McCall AC; Sanders NJ; Fordyce JA; Thorne JH; O'Brien J; Waetjen DP; Shapiro AM

2010-02-01

338

Color-producing mechanism of morpho butterfly wings and biomimetics; Cho no hasshoku kiko to biomimetics  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Although the synthetic dyes and pigments originating in the 19th century are now at the height of their prosperity, there is an earnest hope for technology for realizing `supercolor.` If it is presumed that the features of such supercolor are to be found in outstanding clearness and high resistance to fading in the presence of ultraviolet rays, etc., the supercolor will be quite tough to deal with. When attention is steered toward the living world, however, there are cases of easily producing such by morphogenesis at the level of several tens of nanometers. In this paper, the development of a novel material is presented from the viewpoint of biomimetic engineering that the author et al. are engaged in. The coloring on the wings of a butterfly Morpho Sulkowskyi of South American origin is the product of interaction between light and the physical, microscopic structure of scales, and the coloring is extremely clear and remains free of fading except in case the microstructure is destroyed. This mechanism is applied for the development of a supercolor fiber. As the result, a structurally coloring fiber is created by stretching a molten composite string. In this effort, reformed polyester and polyamide different in refraction factor are used in place of substance layers and air layers on the butterfly wings. (NEDO)

Tabata, H. [Nissan Motor Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

1999-07-01

339

Robustness of the bacterial community in the cabbage white butterfly larval midgut.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Microbial communities typically vary in composition and structure over space and time. Little is known about the inherent characteristics of communities that govern various drivers of these changes, such as random variation, changes in response to perturbation, or susceptibility to invasion. In this study, we use 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequences to describe variation among bacterial communities in the midguts of cabbage white butterfly (Pieris rapae) larvae and examine the influence of community structure on susceptibility to invasion. We compared communities in larvae experiencing the same conditions at different times (temporal variation) or fed different diets (perturbation). The most highly represented phylum was Proteobacteria, which was present in all midgut communities. The observed species richness ranged from six to 15, and the most abundant members affiliated with the genera Methylobacteria, Asaia, Acinetobacter, Enterobacter, and Pantoea. Individual larvae subjected to the same conditions at the same time harbored communities that were highly similar in structure and membership, whereas the communities observed within larval populations changed with diet and over time. In addition, structural changes due to perturbation coincided with enhanced susceptibility to invasion by Enterobacter sp. NAB3R and Pantoea stewartii CWB600, suggesting that resistance to invasion is in part governed by community structure. These findings along with the observed conservation of membership at the phylum level, variation in structure and membership at lower taxonomic levels, and its relative simplicity make the cabbage white butterfly larval community an attractive model for studying community dynamics and robustness.

Robinson CJ; Schloss P; Ramos Y; Raffa K; Handelsman J

2010-02-01

340

Robustness of the bacterial community in the cabbage white butterfly larval midgut.  

Science.gov (United States)

Microbial communities typically vary in composition and structure over space and time. Little is known about the inherent characteristics of communities that govern various drivers of these changes, such as random variation, changes in response to perturbation, or susceptibility to invasion. In this study, we use 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequences to describe variation among bacterial communities in the midguts of cabbage white butterfly (Pieris rapae) larvae and examine the influence of community structure on susceptibility to invasion. We compared communities in larvae experiencing the same conditions at different times (temporal variation) or fed different diets (perturbation). The most highly represented phylum was Proteobacteria, which was present in all midgut communities. The observed species richness ranged from six to 15, and the most abundant members affiliated with the genera Methylobacteria, Asaia, Acinetobacter, Enterobacter, and Pantoea. Individual larvae subjected to the same conditions at the same time harbored communities that were highly similar in structure and membership, whereas the communities observed within larval populations changed with diet and over time. In addition, structural changes due to perturbation coincided with enhanced susceptibility to invasion by Enterobacter sp. NAB3R and Pantoea stewartii CWB600, suggesting that resistance to invasion is in part governed by community structure. These findings along with the observed conservation of membership at the phylum level, variation in structure and membership at lower taxonomic levels, and its relative simplicity make the cabbage white butterfly larval community an attractive model for studying community dynamics and robustness. PMID:19924467

Robinson, Courtney J; Schloss, Patrick; Ramos, Yolied; Raffa, Kenneth; Handelsman, Jo

2010-02-01

 
 
 
 
341

Characterising electron butterfly pitch angle distributions in the magnetosphere through observations and simulations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Imaging Electron Spectrometer (IES) on the Polar satellite has measured the average characteristics of the equatorial electron pitch angle distributions (PADs) in the midnight sector as a function of radial distance out to the 9 RE apogee of the Polar satellite. Depressions in the observed fluxes of electrons occur with pitch angles around 90° in the equatorial zone, while the more field-aligned electrons remain largely unchanged. The orbital precessions of the satellite have allowed much of the inner equatorial magnetosphere to be observed. Statistically, butterfly PADs with different shapes are observed selectively in different regions, which can provide insight to their source and possible history. Electron paths of varied pitch angles were modelled using Runge-Kutta approximations of the Lorentz force in a Tsyganenko (T96) simulated magnetosphere. The resulting drift paths suggest that the process of magnetopause shadowing plays a significant role in the loss of these electrons. Case studies of the drifting patterns of electrons with varied pitch angles were simulated from Polar's orbit when a butterfly PAD was observed on 3 October 2002 at an altitude near 9 RE and on 12 September 2000 at an altitude near 6 RE. These two locations represent regions on each side of the boundary of stable trapping. The modelling effort strongly suggests that magnetopause shadowing does play a significant role in the loss of equatorially drifting electrons from the outer regions of the inner magnetosphere.

M. M. Klida; T. A. Fritz

2013-01-01

342

Characterising electron butterfly pitch angle distributions in the magnetosphere through observations and simulations  

Science.gov (United States)

The Imaging Electron Spectrometer (IES) on the Polar satellite has measured the average characteristics of the equatorial electron pitch angle distributions (PADs) in the midnight sector as a function of radial distance out to the 9 RE apogee of the Polar satellite. Depressions in the observed fluxes of electrons occur with pitch angles around 90° in the equatorial zone, while the more field-aligned electrons remain largely unchanged. The orbital precessions of the satellite have allowed much of the inner equatorial magnetosphere to be observed. Statistically, butterfly PADs with different shapes are observed selectively in different regions, which can provide insight to their source and possible history. Electron paths of varied pitch angles were modelled using Runge-Kutta approximations of the Lorentz force in a Tsyganenko (T96) simulated magnetosphere. The resulting drift paths suggest that the process of magnetopause shadowing plays a significant role in the loss of these electrons. Case studies of the drifting patterns of electrons with varied pitch angles were simulated from Polar's orbit when a butterfly PAD was observed on 3 October 2002 at an altitude near 9 RE and on 12 September 2000 at an altitude near 6 RE. These two locations represent regions on each side of the boundary of stable trapping. The modelling effort strongly suggests that magnetopause shadowing does play a significant role in the loss of equatorially drifting electrons from the outer regions of the inner magnetosphere.

Klida, M. M.; Fritz, T. A.

2013-02-01

343

Differential pressure distribution measurement with an MEMS sensor on a free-flying butterfly wing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] An insect can perform various flight maneuvers. However, the aerodynamic force generated by real insect wings during free flight has never been measured directly. In this study, we present the direct measurement of the four points of the differential pressures acting on the wing surface of a flying insect. A small-scale differential pressure sensor of 1.0 mm × 1.0 mm × 0.3 mm in size was developed using microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and was attached to a butterfly wing. Total weight of the sensor chip and the flexible electrode on the wing was 4.5 mg, which was less than 10% of the wing weight. Four points on the wing were chosen as measurement points, and one sensor chip was attached in each flight experiment. During takeoff, the wing's flapping motion induced a periodic and symmetric differential pressure between upstroke and downstroke. The average absolute value of the local differential pressure differed significantly with the location: 7.4 Pa at the forewing tip, 5.5 Pa at the forewing center, 2.1 Pa at the forewing root and 2.1 Pa at the hindwing center. The instantaneous pressure at the forewing tip reached 10 Pa, which was ten times larger than wing loading of the butterfly. (paper)

2012-01-01

344

Landform resources for territorial nettle-feeding Nymphalid butterflies: biases at different spatial scales  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Observations of perch sites for three territorial nymphalid butterflies reveals a bias in landform use at two spatial scales: at macro-scale, sunlit wood edges at the top of slopes; at micro-scale, molehills and bare ground compared to vegetation substrates. There is a hierarchy in landform exploitation; slope and edge position outweighsmicro-landform feature use. Landforms for territories tend to be prominent landmarks. This is especially the case at macro-scale (e.g., wood edges and corners); though also the case at micro-scale (e.g.; molehills, earth bank edge) it is not invariably the case and highly apparent substrates (white boards) entered into territories were ignored. The predominant characteristic of all landforms chosen is that they are all hotspots: warm and sheltered sites. Substrates used for perching change with ambient conditions. In cool spring weather warm sites are essential for territorial defence, acquisition of females and predator evasion. As air temperatures increase there is an increasing propensity for territorial incumbents to use non-apparent, vegetation substrates. Bare earth sites are suggested to be important habitat components for butterfly biology as is their continued renewal through human activity.

Dennis, R. H.

2004-01-01

345

Bioinspired fabrication of magneto-optic hierarchical architecture by hydrothermal process from butterfly wing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] We developed a green solution to incorporate nano-Fe3O4 into the hierarchical architecture of a natural butterfly wing, thus obtaining unique magneto-optic nanocomposites with otherwise unavailable photonic features. Morphological characterization and Fourier Transform Infrared-Raman Spectroscope measurements indicate the assembly of Fe3O4 nanocrystallites. The magnetic and optical responses of Fe3O4/wing show a coupling effect between the biological structure and magnetic material. The saturation magnetization and coercivity values of the as-prepared magneto-optic architecture varied with change of subtle structure. Such a combination of nano-Fe3O4 and natural butterfly wing might create novel magneto-optic properties, and the relevant ideas could inspire the investigation of magneto-optical devices. - Highlights: ? We develop a green, easy controlled hydrothermal process to synthesize magnetite hierarchical architecture. ? The optical response of Fe3O4/wing exhibits a coupling effect between the structure and material. ? The saturation magnetization value is mediated by shape anisotropy and the stress of different subtle structure, which has provided unique insights into studying the mysterious magnetic property of magnetite.

2002-01-00

346

Changing demography and dispersal behaviour: ecological adaptations in an alpine butterfly.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

High mountain ecosystems are extreme habitats for all organisms and therefore demand specific adaptations. In this context, we studied the ecology of the butterfly Euphydryas aurinia debilis in the High Tauern (Austria) and compared the obtained data against the ecology of the species in lower elevation habitats. We performed mark-release-recapture studies over the entire flight periods (end of June to end of July) in 2007 and 2008 to analyse the fundamental ecological parameters of a population. The demography of males and females was similar in both years, and no indication of typical protandry was detected. We observed a generally low dispersal of the individuals in both years, but males dispersed significantly more than females in 2008; this finding of low vagility was supported by allozyme analyses. Furthermore, butterflies survived periods of several days of continuously closed snow cover without any indication of increased mortality rates. In these three traits, this alpine population of E. aurinia apparently has ecological and physiological adaptations to the extreme requirements of high-altitude habitats and strongly deviates from the lower elevation populations.

Junker M; Wagner S; Gros P; Schmitt T

2010-12-01

347

Color pattern analysis of nymphalid butterfly wings: revision of the nymphalid groundplan.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

To better understand the developmental mechanisms of color pattern variation in butterfly wings, it is important to construct an accurate representation of pattern elements, known as the "nymphalid groundplan". However, some aspects of the current groundplan remain elusive. Here, I examined wing-wide elemental patterns of various nymphalid butterflies and confirmed that wing-wide color patterns are composed of the border, central, and basal symmetry systems. The central and basal symmetry systems can express circular patterns resembling eyespots, indicating that these systems have developmental mechanisms similar to those of the border symmetry system. The wing root band commonly occurs as a distinct symmetry system independent from the basal symmetry system. In addition, the marginal and submarginal bands are likely generated as a single system, referred to as the "marginal band system". Background spaces between two symmetry systems are sometimes light in coloration and can produce white bands, contributing significantly to color pattern diversity. When an element is enlarged with a pale central area, a visually similar (yet developmentally distinct) white band is produced. Based on the symmetric relationships of elements, I propose that both the central and border symmetry systems are comprised of "core elements" (the discal spot and the border ocelli, respectively) and a pair of "paracore elements" (the distal and proximal bands and the parafocal elements, respectively). Both core and paracore elements can be doubled, or outlined. Developmentally, this system configuration is consistent with the induction model, but not with the concentration gradient model for positional information.

Otaki JM

2012-09-01

348

Influence of swimsuit design and fabric surface properties on the butterfly kinematics.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study investigated the influence of the covering swimsuit and the fabric surface properties on the butterfly stroke kinematics. Surface properties were evaluated by wetting measurements of two fabric samples: one for training suits and one for competition suits. The surface of the second one was coated by mechanochemical treatment in order to modify its surface properties. Nine national level swimmers performed a 50-m butterfly at submaximal velocity in three swimsuit conditions: conventional, long, and coated long swimsuits. From video recording, the hip was digitized at the entry and exit of the swimmer's hand in order to calculate the duration, hip displacement, and hip linear velocity during underwater and recovery phases and during stroke. The results for wetting show that competition fabric was more water-repellent than training fabric, but both were isotropic. Moreover, the mechanochemical treatment increased water repellency and anisotropy. The swimming results indicated that, when compared to a conventional swimsuit, wearing a coated long swimsuit increased hip linear velocity during stroke, and particularly during the recovery phase which had a shorter duration. These results suggest that the covering swimsuit should be coupled with the water repellent and anisotropic properties of the fabric surface in order to improve swimming performance.

Rogowski I; Monteil K; Legreneur P; Lanteri P

2006-02-01

349

A Computational Study on Hydrodynamic Torque Coefficients of a Butterfly Valve  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Butterfly valves have been widely used for on-off or control purposes in the process industry, since they provide quick opening and closing operation and good flow control characteristics. For the evaluation of the adequacy of valve operability and the actuator sizing, the required torque estimation is necessary. Since the principal contributing component of the require torque in the mid-stroke position is hydrodynamic torque, it is necessary to predict the torque properly under the actual flow conditions. The research on the prediction of the valve performance was led by EPRI (Electric Power Research Institute) in early 1990s. A performance prediction model was developed based on the experimental results and the free-streamline analysis by Sarpkaya. Recently, Kalsi Engineering carried out extended tests and developed the improved model. Variation of disk geometries and upstream flow conditions were tried to obtain accurate hydrodynamic torque coefficients. However, since the model is only commercially available, a general method to obtain hydrodynamic torque for butterfly valves is called for.

2007-01-01

350

Host plant use among closely related Anaea butterfly species (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Charaxinae)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There is a great number of Charaxinae (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) species in the tropics whose larvae feed on several plant families. However the genus Anaea is almost always associated with Croton species (Euphorbiaceae). This work describes patterns of host plant use by immature and adult abundance on different vertical strata of sympatric Anaea species in a forest of Southeastern Brazil. Quantitative samples of leaves were taken in April/1999 and May/2000 to collect eggs and larvae of four Anaea species on C.alchorneicarpus, C. floribundus and C. salutaris in a semideciduous forest. Sampled leaves were divided into three classes of plant phenological stage: saplings, shrubs and trees. The results showed that the butterfly species are segregating in host plant use on two scales: host plant species and plant phenological stages. C. alchorneicarpus was used by only one Anaea species, whereas C. floribundus was used by three species and C. salutaris by four Anaea species. There was one Anaea species concentrated on sapling, another on sapling/shrub and two others on shrub/tree leaves. Adults of Anaea were more frequent at canopy traps but there were no differences among species caught in traps at different vertical positions. This work supplements early studies on host plant use among Charaxinae species and it describes how a guild of closely related butterfly species may be organized in a complex tropical habitat.

QUEIROZ J. M.

2002-01-01

351

Gustatory sensing mechanism coding for multiple oviposition stimulants in the swallowtail butterfly, Papilio xuthus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The swallowtail butterfly, Papilio xuthus, selectively uses a limited number of plants in the Rutaceae family. The butterfly detects oviposition stimulants in leaves through foreleg chemosensilla and requires a specific combination of multiple oviposition stimulants to lay eggs on the leaf of its host plants. In this study, we sought to elucidate the mechanism underlying the regulation of oviposition behavior by multiple oviposition stimulants. We classified chemosensilla on the tarsomere of the foreleg into three types (L1, L2, and S) according to their size and response to oviposition stimulants and general tastants. The L1 was more abundant in females than in males and responded preferentially to oviposition stimulants. Both L2 and S were common to both sexes and responded to general tastants. We found that five oviposition stimulants (synephrine, stachydrine, 5-hydroxy-N?-methyltryptamine, narirutin, and chiro-inositol) elicited spikes from three specific gustatory receptor neurons (GRNs) within L1 sensilla. These three GRNs responded to a mixture of the five stimulants at concentrations equivalent to those found in the whole-leaf extract of citrus, and the mixture induced oviposition at levels comparable to whole-leaf extract. We propose that oviposition is triggered by the firing of three specific GRNs in L1 sensilla that encode the chemical signatures of multiple oviposition stimulants.

Ryuda M; Calas-List D; Yamada A; Marion-Poll F; Yoshikawa H; Tanimura T; Ozaki K

2013-01-01

352

Butterfly proboscis: combining a drinking straw with a nanosponge facilitated diversification of feeding habits.  

Science.gov (United States)

The ability of Lepidoptera, or butterflies and moths, to drink liquids from rotting fruit and wet soil, as well as nectar from floral tubes, raises the question of whether the conventional view of the proboscis as a drinking straw can account for the withdrawal of fluids from porous substrates or of films and droplets from floral tubes. We discovered that the proboscis promotes capillary pull of liquids from diverse sources owing to a hierarchical pore structure spanning nano- and microscales. X-ray phase-contrast imaging reveals that Plateau instability causes liquid bridges to form in the food canal, which are transported to the gut by the muscular sucking pump in the head. The dual functionality of the proboscis represents a key innovation for exploiting a vast range of nutritional sources. We suggest that future studies of the adaptive radiation of the Lepidoptera take into account the role played by the structural organization of the proboscis. A transformative two-step model of capillary intake and suctioning can be applied not only to butterflies and moths but also potentially to vast numbers of other insects such as bees and flies. PMID:21849382

Monaenkova, Daria; Lehnert, Matthew S; Andrukh, Taras; Beard, Charles E; Rubin, Binyamin; Tokarev, Alexander; Lee, Wah-Keat; Adler, Peter H; Kornev, Konstantin G

2011-08-17

353

Butterfly proboscis: combining a drinking straw with a nanosponge facilitated diversification of feeding habits.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The ability of Lepidoptera, or butterflies and moths, to drink liquids from rotting fruit and wet soil, as well as nectar from floral tubes, raises the question of whether the conventional view of the proboscis as a drinking straw can account for the withdrawal of fluids from porous substrates or of films and droplets from floral tubes. We discovered that the proboscis promotes capillary pull of liquids from diverse sources owing to a hierarchical pore structure spanning nano- and microscales. X-ray phase-contrast imaging reveals that Plateau instability causes liquid bridges to form in the food canal, which are transported to the gut by the muscular sucking pump in the head. The dual functionality of the proboscis represents a key innovation for exploiting a vast range of nutritional sources. We suggest that future studies of the adaptive radiation of the Lepidoptera take into account the role played by the structural organization of the proboscis. A transformative two-step model of capillary intake and suctioning can be applied not only to butterflies and moths but also potentially to vast numbers of other insects such as bees and flies.

Monaenkova D; Lehnert MS; Andrukh T; Beard CE; Rubin B; Tokarev A; Lee WK; Adler PH; Kornev KG

2012-04-01

354

Butterfly proboscis: natural combination of a drinking straw with a nanosponge  

Science.gov (United States)

The ability of Lepidoptera, or butterflies and moths, to drink liquids from rotting fruit and wet soil, as well as nectar from floral tubes, raises the question of whether the conventional view of the proboscis as a drinking straw can account for the withdrawal of fluids from porous substrates or of films and droplets from floral tubes. We discovered that the proboscis promotes capillary pull of liquids from diverse sources due to a hierarchical pore structure spanning nano- and microscales. X-ray phase-contrast imaging reveals that Plateau instability causes liquid bridges to form in the food canal, which are transported to the gut by the muscular sucking pump in the head. The dual functionality of the proboscis represents a key innovation for exploiting a vast range of nutritional sources. A transformative two-step model of capillary intake and suctioning can be applied not only to butterflies and moths but also potentially to vast numbers of other insects such as bees and flies.

Kornev, Kostya; Monaenkova, Daria; Adler, Peter; Lee, Wah-Keat; Lehnert, Matthew; Andrukh, Taras; Beard, Charles; Rubin, Binyamin; Tokarev, Alexander

2011-11-01

355

Two lactones in the androconial scent of the lycaenid butterfly Celastrina argiolus ladonides  

Science.gov (United States)

Male adult butterflies of many species have characteristic odors originating from the disseminating organs known as androconia. Despite the fact that androconia exist in several species, there have been few investigations on adult scents from the lycaenid species. Celastrina argiolus ladonides (Lycaenidae) is a common species in Eurasia. We have reported that male adults of this species emit a faint odor, and the major components causing this odor have been newly found in the Insecta. By using field-caught individuals, we determined the chemical nature and location of this odor in the butterfly. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses revealed that two lactone compounds, lavender lactone and ?-decalactone, are present in the extracts of males but absent in those of the females. On an average, approximately 50 ng of each compound was found per male. Chiral GC analyses performed using enantiomerically pure standards revealed that the natural lavender lactone was a mixture of two enantiomers with an R/ S ratio of 32:68, whereas the natural ?-decalactone contained only the R-enantiomer. When the analyses were conducted using different parts—forewings, hindwings, and body—of three males, the lactones were more abundantly found on the forewings and hindwings than on the body. Microscopic observation of the wings demonstrated that battledore scales known as androconia are scattered on the upper surface of both the wings of C. argiolus ladonides males. These results indicate that the specialized scales on the wings of males serve as scent-disseminating organs.

Ômura, Hisashi; Yakumaru, Kazuhisa; Honda, Keiichi; Itoh, Takao

2013-04-01

356

Transcriptome analysis reveals novel patterning and pigmentation genes underlying Heliconius butterfly wing pattern variation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Heliconius butterfly wing pattern diversity offers a unique opportunity to investigate how natural genetic variation can drive the evolution of complex adaptive phenotypes. Positional cloning and candidate gene studies have identified a handful of regulatory and pigmentation genes implicated in Heliconius wing pattern variation, but little is known about the greater developmental networks within which these genes interact to pattern a wing. Here we took a large-scale transcriptomic approach to identify the network of genes involved in Heliconius wing pattern development and variation. This included applying over 140 transcriptome microarrays to assay gene expression in dissected wing pattern elements across a range of developmental stages and wing pattern morphs of Heliconius erato. Results We identified a number of putative early prepattern genes with color-pattern related expression domains. We also identified 51 genes differentially expressed in association with natural color pattern variation. Of these, the previously identified color pattern “switch gene” optix was recovered as the first transcript to show color-specific differential expression. Most differentially expressed genes were transcribed late in pupal development and have roles in cuticle formation or pigment synthesis. These include previously undescribed transporter genes associated with ommochrome pigmentation. Furthermore, we observed upregulation of melanin-repressing genes such as ebony and Dat1 in non-melanic patterns. Conclusions This study identifies many new genes implicated in butterfly wing pattern development and provides a glimpse into the number and types of genes affected by variation in genes that drive color pattern evolution.

Hines Heather M; Papa Riccardo; Ruiz Mayte; Papanicolaou Alexie; Wang Charles; Nijhout H; McMillan W; Reed Robert D

2012-01-01

357

Stability analysis of gliding flight of a swallowtail butterfly Papilio xuthus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Preliminary observation of the flights of swallowtail butterfly Papilio xuthus revealed that its dihedral angle is larger than 30 degrees and that the section of its left hind wing close to its body and the counterpart of its right hind wing actually clap and form a "vertical tail". In this study, the effects of these two features on the lateral-directional dynamic flight stability of these butterflies were analyzed theoretically and revealed the following: (a) when the dihedral angle is larger than 30 degrees , the lateral-directional motion of the swallowtail becomes stable; (b) the vertical tail stabilizes the dutch roll mode; (c) the effects of the dihedral angle on the roll and spiral modes of a swallowtail are qualitatively the same as those of a meter-sized airplane; and (d) with increasing dihedral angle, the stability of the dutch roll mode decreases for a meter-sized airplane with vertical and horizontal tails but increases for the swallowtail. A possible explanation for the latter effect is the smaller Reynolds number of the insect that causes the drag coefficient of the swallowtail wings to increase more rapidly with an increasing angle of attack compared to a large airplane. PMID:19101568

Okamoto, Makoto; Sunada, Shigeru; Tokutake, Hiroshi

2008-11-27

358

Stability analysis of gliding flight of a swallowtail butterfly Papilio xuthus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Preliminary observation of the flights of swallowtail butterfly Papilio xuthus revealed that its dihedral angle is larger than 30 degrees and that the section of its left hind wing close to its body and the counterpart of its right hind wing actually clap and form a "vertical tail". In this study, the effects of these two features on the lateral-directional dynamic flight stability of these butterflies were analyzed theoretically and revealed the following: (a) when the dihedral angle is larger than 30 degrees , the lateral-directional motion of the swallowtail becomes stable; (b) the vertical tail stabilizes the dutch roll mode; (c) the effects of the dihedral angle on the roll and spiral modes of a swallowtail are qualitatively the same as those of a meter-sized airplane; and (d) with increasing dihedral angle, the stability of the dutch roll mode decreases for a meter-sized airplane with vertical and horizontal tails but increases for the swallowtail. A possible explanation for the latter effect is the smaller Reynolds number of the insect that causes the drag coefficient of the swallowtail wings to increase more rapidly with an increasing angle of attack compared to a large airplane.

Okamoto M; Sunada S; Tokutake H

2009-03-01

359

Cyclometalated cluster complex with a butterfly-shaped Pt2Ag2 core.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The cyclometalated platinum complex [PtMe(bhq)(dppy)] (1), in which bhq = benzo{h}quinoline and dppy = 2-(diphenylphosphino)pyridine, was prepared by the reaction of [PtMe(SMe(2))(bhq)] with 1 equiv of dppy at room temperature. Complex 1 contains one free pyridyl unit and was readily characterized by multinuclear NMR spectroscopy and elemental microanalysis. The reaction of complex 1 with 1 equiv of [Ag(CH(3)CN)(4)]BF(4) gave the cyclometalated cluster complex [Pt(2)Me(2)(bhq)(2)(mu-dppy)(2)Ag(2)(mu-acetone)](BF(4))(2) (2) in 70% yield. The crystal structure of complex 2 was determined by X-ray crystallography, indicating a rare example of a butterfly cluster with a Pt(2)Ag(2) core in which the Ag atoms occupy the edge-sharing bond. In solution, the bridging acetone dissociates from the cluster complex 2, but as shown by NMR spectroscopy, the Pt(2)Ag(2) core is retained in solution and a dynamic equilibrium is suggested to be established between the planar and butterfly skeletal geometries.

Jamali S; Mazloomi Z; Nabavizadeh SM; Mili? D; Kia R; Rashidi M

2010-03-01

360

Cyclometalated cluster complex with a butterfly-shaped Pt2Ag2 core.  

Science.gov (United States)

The cyclometalated platinum complex [PtMe(bhq)(dppy)] (1), in which bhq = benzo{h}quinoline and dppy = 2-(diphenylphosphino)pyridine, was prepared by the reaction of [PtMe(SMe(2))(bhq)] with 1 equiv of dppy at room temperature. Complex 1 contains one free pyridyl unit and was readily characterized by multinuclear NMR spectroscopy and elemental microanalysis. The reaction of complex 1 with 1 equiv of [Ag(CH(3)CN)(4)]BF(4) gave the cyclometalated cluster complex [Pt(2)Me(2)(bhq)(2)(mu-dppy)(2)Ag(2)(mu-acetone)](BF(4))(2) (2) in 70% yield. The crystal structure of complex 2 was determined by X-ray crystallography, indicating a rare example of a butterfly cluster with a Pt(2)Ag(2) core in which the Ag atoms occupy the edge-sharing bond. In solution, the bridging acetone dissociates from the cluster complex 2, but as shown by NMR spectroscopy, the Pt(2)Ag(2) core is retained in solution and a dynamic equilibrium is suggested to be established between the planar and butterfly skeletal geometries. PMID:20143791

Jamali, Sirous; Mazloomi, Zahra; Nabavizadeh, S Masoud; Mili?, Dalibor; Kia, Reza; Rashidi, Mehdi

2010-03-15

 
 
 
 
361

Color-pattern modifications of butterfly wings induced by transfusion and oxyanions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The color-pattern determination of butterfly wings was studied, focusing on the cold-shock-induced color-pattern modifications of a species of butterfly, Vanessa (Cynthia) cardui (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae). It was shown that the modification property could be transferred to the noncold-shocked individuals by the transfusion of hemolymph taken from the cold-shocked individuals, suggesting the existence of an unknown diffusible factor or hormone, induced or activated by the cold shock. The involvement of a receptor tyrosine kinase for the color-pattern modifications was tested by the simple application of some oxyanions such as sodium tungstate, sodium molybdate, and molybdic acid to pupae, since these oxyanions have been known to up-regulate the process of phosphorylation via receptor tyrosine kinases in general. It was shown that they could modify the wing color-pattern in a way very similar to the cold shock. Moreover, the topical applications of sodium tungstate or molybdic acid induced large ectopic black spots on the treated pupal wings. Among the treatment methods, the sodium tungstate treatment was by far more effective than the cold shock treatment itself. Taken together, these data suggest that an unknown cold-shock hormone activates the process of phosphorylation via a receptor tyrosine kinase necessary for the color-pattern development.

Otaki JM

1998-12-01

362

Gustatory synergism in ants mediates a species-specific symbiosis with lycaenid butterflies.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Here we show that larvae of the lycaenid butterfly Niphanda fusca secrete droplets containing trehalose and glycine. These droplets attract the larva's host ants Camponotus japonicus, which collect and protect the larvae. We comparatively investigated gustatory preference for trehalose, glycine or a mixture of the two between host (C. japonicus) and non-host (Camponotus obscuripes) species of ants in behavioral and electrophysiological experiments. Glycine itself induced no taste sensation in either host or non-host ants. The mixture of trehalose plus glycine was chosen as much as pure trehalose by non-host ants. However, the host ants clearly preferred the mixture of trehalose plus glycine to trehalose alone. When we used sucrose instead of trehalose, the mixture of sucrose plus glycine was chosen as much as sucrose alone, in both species. These behavioral data are supported by the electrophysiological responsiveness to sugars and/or glycine in the sugar-taste receptor cells of the ants. Considering that lycaenid butterflies' secretions have species-specific compositions of sugar and amino acid; our results clearly showed that such species-specific compositions of larval secretions are precisely tuned to the feeding preferences of their host ant species, in which the feeding preferences are synergistically enhanced by amino acid.

Hojo MK; Wada-Katsumata A; Ozaki M; Yamaguchi S; Yamaoka R

2008-12-01

363

Food plant derived disease tolerance and resistance in a natural butterfly-plant-parasite interactions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Organisms can protect themselves against parasite-induced fitness costs through resistance or tolerance. Resistance includes mechanisms that prevent infection or limit parasite growth while tolerance alleviates the fitness costs from parasitism without limiting infection. Although tolerance and resistance affect host-parasite coevolution in fundamentally different ways, tolerance has often been ignored in animal-parasite systems. Where it has been studied, tolerance has been assumed to be a genetic mechanism, unaffected by the host environment. Here we studied the effects of host ecology on tolerance and resistance to infection by rearing monarch butterflies on 12 different species of milkweed food plants and infecting them with a naturally occurring protozoan parasite. Our results show that monarch butterflies experience different levels of tolerance to parasitism depending on the species of milkweed that they feed on, with some species providing over twofold greater tolerance than other milkweed species. Resistance was also affected by milkweed species, but there was no relationship between milkweed-conferred resistance and tolerance. Chemical analysis suggests that infected monarchs obtain highest fitness when reared on milkweeds with an intermediate concentration, diversity, and polarity of toxic secondary plant chemicals known as cardenolides. Our results demonstrate that environmental factors-such as interacting species in ecological food webs-are important drivers of disease tolerance. PMID:23106703

Sternberg, Eleanore D; Lefèvre, Thierry; Li, James; de Castillejo, Carlos Lopez Fernandez; Li, Hui; Hunter, Mark D; de Roode, Jacobus C

2012-06-27

364

The relationship between diet breadth and geographic range size in the butterfly subfamily Nymphalinae--a study of global scale.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The "oscillation hypothesis" has been proposed as a general explanation for the exceptional diversification of herbivorous insect species. The hypothesis states that speciation rates are elevated through repeated correlated changes--oscillations--in degree of host plant specificity and geographic range. The aim of this study is to test one of the predictions from the oscillation hypothesis: a positive correlation between diet breadth (number of host plants used) and geographic range size, using the globally distributed butterfly subfamily Nymphalinae. Data on diet breadth and global geographic range were collected for 182 Nymphalinae butterflies species and the size of the geographic range was measured using a GIS. We tested both diet breadth and geographic range size for phylogenetic signal to see if species are independent of each other with respect to these characters. As this test gave inconclusive results, data was analysed both using cross-species comparisons and taking phylogeny into account using generalised estimating equations as applied in the APE package in R. Irrespective of which method was used, we found a significant positive correlation between diet breadth and geographic range size. These results are consistent for two different measures of diet breadth and removal of outliers. We conclude that the global range sizes of Nymphalinae butterflies are correlated to diet breadth. That is, butterflies that feed on a large number of host plants tend to have larger geographic ranges than do butterflies that feed on fewer plants. These results lend support for an important step in the oscillation hypothesis of plant-driven diversification, in that it can provide the necessary fuel for future population fragmentation and speciation.

Slove J; Janz N

2011-01-01

365

The Relationship between Diet Breadth and Geographic Range Size in the Butterfly Subfamily Nymphalinae - A Study of Global Scale  

Science.gov (United States)

The “oscillation hypothesis” has been proposed as a general explanation for the exceptional diversification of herbivorous insect species. The hypothesis states that speciation rates are elevated through repeated correlated changes – oscillations – in degree of host plant specificity and geographic range. The aim of this study is to test one of the predictions from the oscillation hypothesis: a positive correlation between diet breadth (number of host plants used) and geographic range size, using the globally distributed butterfly subfamily Nymphalinae. Data on diet breadth and global geographic range were collected for 182 Nymphalinae butterflies species and the size of the geographic range was measured using a GIS. We tested both diet breadth and geographic range size for phylogenetic signal to see if species are independent of each other with respect to these characters. As this test gave inconclusive results, data was analysed both using cross-species comparisons and taking phylogeny into account using generalised estimating equations as applied in the APE package in R. Irrespective of which method was used, we found a significant positive correlation between diet breadth and geographic range size. These results are consistent for two different measures of diet breadth and removal of outliers. We conclude that the global range sizes of Nymphalinae butterflies are correlated to diet breadth. That is, butterflies that feed on a large number of host plants tend to have larger geographic ranges than do butterflies that feed on fewer plants. These results lend support for an important step in the oscillation hypothesis of plant-driven diversification, in that it can provide the necessary fuel for future population fragmentation and speciation.

Slove, Jessica; Janz, Niklas

2011-01-01

366

The relationship between diet breadth and geographic range size in the butterfly subfamily Nymphalinae--a study of global scale.  

Science.gov (United States)

The "oscillation hypothesis" has been proposed as a general explanation for the exceptional diversification of herbivorous insect species. The hypothesis states that speciation rates are elevated through repeated correlated changes--oscillations--in degree of host plant specificity and geographic range. The aim of this study is to test one of the predictions from the oscillation hypothesis: a positive correlation between diet breadth (number of host plants used) and geographic range size, using the globally distributed butterfly subfamily Nymphalinae. Data on diet breadth and global geographic range were collected for 182 Nymphalinae butterflies species and the size of the geographic range was measured using a GIS. We tested both diet breadth and geographic range size for phylogenetic signal to see if species are independent of each other with respect to these characters. As this test gave inconclusive results, data was analysed both using cross-species comparisons and taking phylogeny into account using generalised estimating equations as applied in the APE package in R. Irrespective of which method was used, we found a significant positive correlation between diet breadth and geographic range size. These results are consistent for two different measures of diet breadth and removal of outliers. We conclude that the global range sizes of Nymphalinae butterflies are correlated to diet breadth. That is, butterflies that feed on a large number of host plants tend to have larger geographic ranges than do butterflies that feed on fewer plants. These results lend support for an important step in the oscillation hypothesis of plant-driven diversification, in that it can provide the necessary fuel for future population fragmentation and speciation. PMID:21246054

Slove, Jessica; Janz, Niklas

2011-01-05

367

Aphids indirectly increase virulence and transmission potential of a monarch butterfly parasite by reducing defensive chemistry of a shared food plant.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Parasites and hosts live in communities consisting of many interacting species, but few studies have examined how communities affect parasite virulence and transmission. We studied a food web consisting of two species of milkweed, two milkweed herbivores (monarch butterfly and oleander aphid) and a monarch butterfly-specific parasite. We found that the presence of aphids increased the virulence and transmission potential of the monarch butterfly's parasite on one milkweed species. These increases were associated with aphid-induced decreases in the defensive chemicals of milkweed plants. Our experiment suggests that aphids can indirectly increase the virulence and transmission potential of monarch butterfly parasites, probably by altering the chemical composition of a shared food plant. These results indicate that species that are far removed from host-parasite interactions can alter such interactions through cascading indirect effects in the food web. As such, indirect effects within ecological communities may drive the dynamics and evolution of parasites.

de Roode JC; Rarick RM; Mongue AJ; Gerardo NM; Hunter MD

2011-05-01

368

Aphids indirectly increase virulence and transmission potential of a monarch butterfly parasite by reducing defensive chemistry of a shared food plant.  

Science.gov (United States)

Parasites and hosts live in communities consisting of many interacting species, but few studies have examined how communities affect parasite virulence and transmission. We studied a food web consisting of two species of milkweed, two milkweed herbivores (monarch butterfly and oleander aphid) and a monarch butterfly-specific parasite. We found that the presence of aphids increased the virulence and transmission potential of the monarch butterfly's parasite on one milkweed species. These increases were associated with aphid-induced decreases in the defensive chemicals of milkweed plants. Our experiment suggests that aphids can indirectly increase the virulence and transmission potential of monarch butterfly parasites, probably by altering the chemical composition of a shared food plant. These results indicate that species that are far removed from host-parasite interactions can alter such interactions through cascading indirect effects in the food web. As such, indirect effects within ecological communities may drive the dynamics and evolution of parasites. PMID:21375682

de Roode, Jacobus C; Rarick, Rachel M; Mongue, Andrew J; Gerardo, Nicole M; Hunter, Mark D

2011-03-07

369

A male Klug's clearwing butterfly (Dircenna klugii klugii) foraging on a coffee flower (Coffea arabica) in Finca Irlanda of the Sonusco region of Chia  

Science.gov (United States)

A male KlugÃÂs clearwing butterfly (Dircenna klugii klugii) foraging on a coffee flower (Coffea arabica) in the Soconusco region of Chiapas, Mexico. Shade-grown coffee certification programs distinguish shade management practices that contain significantly higher levels of bird and butterfly diversity. This enhanced biodiversity may provide important ecosystem services, such as pollination, shown here. This photograph originally appeared on the cover of Ecological Applications (14:3) in June of 2004.

Philpott, Stacy

2010-02-16

370

Plants and butterflies of a small urban preserve in the Central Valley of Costa Rica  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Costa Rica’s most populated area, the Central valley, has lost much of its natural habitat, and the little that remains has been altered to varying degrees. Yet few studies have been conducted to assess the need for conservation in this area. We present preliminary inventories of plants, butterflies, and day-flying moths of the Reserva Ecológica Leonelo Oviedo (RELO), a small Premontane Moist Forest preserve within the University of Costa Rica campus, located in the urbanized part of the valley. Butterflies are one of the best bio-indicators of a habitat’s health, because they are highly sensitive to environmental changes and are tightly linked to the local flora. A description of the RELO’s physical features and its history is also presented with illustrations. Approximately 432 species of ca. 334 genera in 113 families of plants were identified. However, only 57 % of them represent species native to the Premontane Moist Forest of the region; the rest are either exotic or species introduced mostly from lowland. More than 200 species of butterflies in six families, including Hesperiidae, have been recorded. Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (Suppl. 1): 31-67. Epub 2009 November 30.Por ser el área más poblada del país, el valle Central de Costa Rica perdió su hábitat natural; lo poco que queda ha sido alterado en grados variados. Sin embargo, se han realizado algunos estudios para evaluar la necesidad de conservación en esta área. Se presentan inventarios preliminares de plantas, mariposas y polillas diurnas de la Reserva Ecológica Leonelo Oviedo (RELO); una pequeña reserva de bosque húmedo premontano en del campus de la Universidad de Costa Rica, ubicado en la parte urbanizada del valle. Las mariposas diurnas son uno de los mejores bio-indicadores de la salud del hábitat, porque son muy sensibles a los cambios del ambiente y están estrechamente ligadas a la flora local. Se presenta también una descripción de los caracteres físicos y la historia de la RELO, con ilustraciones. Se identificaron aproximadamente 432 especies de ca. 334 géneros en 113 familias de plantas. Sin embargo, solamente 57% de ellas son especies nativas del bosque húmedo premontano de la región; el resto son especies exóticas o introducidas en su mayoría desde tierras bajas. Se han registrado más de 200 especies de mariposas diurnas en seis familias, incluyendo Hesperiidae.

Kenji Nishida; Ichiro Nakamura; Carlos O Morales

2009-01-01

371

Butterfly effect: understanding and mitigating the local consequences of climate change impacts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Full text: The Butterfly Effect is the notion that tiny differences in initial conditions are amplified in the evolution of a dynamic system and directly affect the eventual outcome. In 1963 mathematician and meteorologist Edward Lorenz proposed that the flapping of a butterfly's wing would cause a disturbance that becomes exponentially amplified so as to eventually affect large-scale atmospheric motion. This was to illustrate the 'sensitive dependence on initial conditions'; sensitivity also true in affecting the extent of damages experienced as a result of climate change. In a climate change context, The Butterfly Effect suggests the local consequences of climate change impacts will depend on their interaction with the economic, environmental, institutional, technological and demographic attributes unique to a city or region. It is this mix of factors that will determine the extent, both positively and negatively, to which climate change will be experienced locally. For a truly effective climate change response, it is imperative that regional risk assessments and adaptation strategies take into account not only the projected impacts but the full range of flow-on implications of those impacts and their sensitivity factors. Understanding of the sensitivity factors that will amplify or mitigate climate change impacts and implications enables government and business leaders to calculate the likely extent of localised damages if no adaptation is undertaken. This allows industries and communities to evaluate the likely significance of a particular impact and to consider how to adjust or counter the sensitivity factor to build resilience and reduce vulnerability. Thus, it also assists in the local prioritisation of issues and responses. Such a strategic response can also mean the required adaptation measures may be less extensive and thereby require less cost and time to implement. This paper discusses the flow-on implications of Australia's projected climate change impacts and their relevant sensitivity factors. Sensitivity factors include local dependence on resource-based industries, population and demographics, infrastructure resilience and capacity, emergency response capacity, institutional capacity and community information, skills and knowledge. To illustrate the flow-on effects of an extreme event, the paper also applies this discussion framework to the recent experience of Newcastle and the Hunter Valley in New South Wales, which encountered the 'once in a generation storm' on the Queens' Birthday 2007. The paper also builds on the research project, a national vulnerability assessment for all Australian settlements, undertaken by this author for the Australian Greenhouse Office during 2006

2007-01-01

372

Toward reconstructing the evolution of advanced moths and butterflies (Lepidoptera: Ditrysia): an initial molecular study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: In the mega-diverse insect order Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths; 165,000 described species), deeper relationships are little understood within the clade Ditrysia, to which 98% of the species belong. To begin addressing this problem, we tested the ability of five protein-coding nuclear genes (6.7 kb total), and character subsets therein, to resolve relationships among 123 species representing 27 (of 33) superfamilies and 55 (of 100) families of Ditrysia under maximum likelihood analysis. RESULTS: Our trees show broad concordance with previous morphological hypotheses of ditrysian phylogeny, although most relationships among superfamilies are weakly supported. There are also notable surprises, such as a consistently closer relationship of Pyraloidea than of butterflies to most Macrolepidoptera. Monophyly is significantly rejected by one or more character sets for the putative clades Macrolepidoptera as currently defined (P < 0.05) and Macrolepidoptera excluding Noctuoidea and Bombycoidea sensu lato (P < or = 0.005), and nearly so for the superfamily Drepanoidea as currently defined (P < 0.08). Superfamilies are typically recovered or nearly so, but usually without strong support. Relationships within superfamilies and families, however, are often robustly resolved. We provide some of the first strong molecular evidence on deeper splits within Pyraloidea, Tortricoidea, Geometroidea, Noctuoidea and others.Separate analyses of mostly synonymous versus non-synonymous character sets revealed notable differences (though not strong conflict), including a marked influence of compositional heterogeneity on apparent signal in the third codon position (nt3). As available model partitioning methods cannot correct for this variation, we assessed overall phylogeny resolution through separate examination of trees from each character set. Exploration of "tree space" with GARLI, using grid computing, showed that hundreds of searches are typically needed to find the best-feasible phylogeny estimate for these data. CONCLUSION: Our results (a) corroborate the broad outlines of the current working phylogenetic hypothesis for Ditrysia, (b) demonstrate that some prominent features of that hypothesis, including the position of the butterflies, need revision, and (c) resolve the majority of family and subfamily relationships within superfamilies as thus far sampled. Much further gene and taxon sampling will be needed, however, to strongly resolve individual deeper nodes.

Regier JC; Zwick A; Cummings MP; Kawahara AY; Cho S; Weller S; Roe A; Baixeras J; Brown JW; Parr C; Davis DR; Epstein M; Hallwachs W; Hausmann A; Janzen DH; Kitching IJ; Solis MA; Yen SH; Bazinet AL; Mitter C

2009-01-01

373

Performance of the butterfly processor-memory interconnection in a vector environment  

Science.gov (United States)

A fundamental hurdle impeding the development of large N common memory multiprocessors is the performance limitation in the switch connecting the processors to the memory modules. Multistage networks currently considered for this connection have a memory latency which grows like (ALPHA)log2N*. For scientific computing, it is natural to look for a multiprocessor architecture that will enable the use of vector operations to mask memory latency. The problem to be overcome here is the chaotic behavior introduced by conflicts occurring in the switch. The performance of the butterfly or indirect binary n-cube network in a vector processing environment is examined. A simple modification of the standard 2X2 switch node used in such networks which adaptively removes chaotic behavior during a vector operation is described.

Brooks, E. D., III

1985-02-01

374

A study on hydrodynamic torque coefficients for symmetric type butterfly valves  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The assessment method for the hydrodynamic torque coefficient of symmetric type butterfly valves from experimental data is presented in the present study. The two prediction models published recently, where one is proposed by EPRI (Electric Power Research Institute) and the other is devised by Ogawa and Kimura, are investigated in the aspect of conservation in predicted results by the comparison of experimental results. The applied result by EPRI method reveals more conservative than that of analytic derivation by Ogawa and Kimura. An overall agreement is found between the experimental coefficient and the estimates by the development of Ogawa and Kimura. However, the comparison displayed that the method gives lower value in the disk opening angle of 25{approx}55 .deg. C that the experimental result. Therefore, for the secure use of the method, an adequate weighting should be enforced to the analytic results, or the experimental factor in the model should be conservatively modified from the accumulated data as indicated by the authors.

Lee, D. H.; Kang, S. C.; Kim, D. W.; Kim, I. H.; Park, S. K.; Hong, S. Y. [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

2002-10-01

375

Massive Dirac fermions and Hofstadter butterfly in a van der Waals heterostructure.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

van der Waals heterostructures constitute a new class of artificial materials formed by stacking atomically thin planar crystals. We demonstrated band structure engineering in a van der Waals heterostructure composed of a monolayer graphene flake coupled to a rotationally aligned hexagonal boron nitride substrate. The spatially varying interlayer atomic registry results in both a local breaking of the carbon sublattice symmetry and a long-range moiré superlattice potential in the graphene. In our samples, this interplay between short- and long-wavelength effects resulted in a band structure described by isolated superlattice minibands and an unexpectedly large band gap at charge neutrality. This picture is confirmed by our observation of fractional quantum Hall states at ± 5/3 filling and features associated with the Hofstadter butterfly at ultrahigh magnetic fields.

Hunt B; Sanchez-Yamagishi JD; Young AF; Yankowitz M; LeRoy BJ; Watanabe K; Taniguchi T; Moon P; Koshino M; Jarillo-Herrero P; Ashoori RC

2013-06-01

376

After 60 years, an answer to the question: what is the Karner blue butterfly?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The Karner blue butterfly (KBB), Lycaeides melissa samuelis, is a federally protected taxon whose relationship to the Melissa blue, Lycaeides melissa, has been a point of contention during the 66 years since the KBB was first described. Using a large population-genomic dataset and a model of population divergence with migration, we investigated the relationship between the KBB and L. melissa, as well as the relationship between L. melissa and a third taxon, Lycaeides idas. We report that gene flow between the KBB and L. melissa is low, and comparable to gene flow between L. melissa and L. idas. Considering this population-genetic evidence, we conclude that the KBB is a unique evolutionary lineage that should be recognized as Lycaeides samuelis.

Forister ML; Gompert Z; Fordyce JA; Nice CC

2011-06-01

377

The complete mitochondrial genome of the endangered butterfly Luehdorfia taibai Chou (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Abstract We have determined the complete mitochondrial genome of the endangered butterfly, Luehdorfia taibai. The total lenth of the L. taibai mitogenome is 15,553?bp with 81% A?+?T content. It consists of 13 protein-coding, 22 tRNA, 2 rRNA genes and an A?+?T-rich region. All the protein-coding genes used ATN as start codon and TAA as stop codon, except for COI gene, which used CGA as start codon. The A?+?T-rich region was 939?bp in lenth with 95% A?+?T content. L. taibai mitogenome contained an extra tRNA(Leu), located from 191?bp to 259?bp, of which function was not clear.

Li PF; Wu J; Wang K; You P; Xing LX

2013-06-01

378

Performance of the butterfly processor-memory interconnection in a vector environment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A fundamental hurdle impeding the development of large N common memory multiprocessors is the performance limitation in the switch connecting the processors to the memory modules. Multistage networks currently considered for this connection have a memory latency which grows like ..cap alpha..log/sub 2/N*. For scientific computing, it is natural to look for a multiprocessor architecture that will enable the use of vector operations to mask memory latency. The problem to be overcome here is the chaotic behavior introduced by conflicts occurring in the switch. In this paper we examine the performance of the butterfly or indirect binary n-cube network in a vector processing environment. We describe a simple modification of the standard 2X2 switch node used in such networks which adaptively removes chaotic behavior during a vector operation.

Brooks, E.D. III

1985-02-01

379

Evaluation of PPGIS empowerment--a case study of Meinong Yellow Butterfly Valley in Taiwan.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

As a tool of public policy making, PPGIS (public participation geographic information system) makes its biggest impact in regard to empowerment. Quite few methods are available for making a complete evaluation of the empowerment. Using the Meinong Yellow Butterfly Valley as a case study, this article analyzes how the processes and outcomes of the PPGIS make an impact on empowerment in terms of three aspects indicated by the questions: "What is empowered?" "Who are empowered?" and "How to empower?" The results show that we are able to completely grasp the impact of PPGIS empowerment by analyzing what, who and how aspects simultaneously. They also indicate that PPGIS empowerment involves mutual transfers of knowledge, capabilities and power among all of the stakeholders, which can't simply be given by outsiders.

Tsai BW; Lu DJ; Chung MK; Lien MC

2013-02-01

380

Immature stages of the Brazilian crescent butterfly Ortilia liriope (Cramer) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english We provide the first information on the morphology of the immature stages (egg, larva, and pupa), oviposition and larval behavior, and host plant, for the Brazilian crescent butterfly Ortilia liriope (Cramer), based on material from Santarém Municipality, Pará State, Northern Brazil. Females of O. liriope lay eggs in clusters. After hatching, larvae eat the exochorion and remain gregarious in all but the final instar. The host plant recorded in the study site is Justici (more) a sp. (Acanthaceae). Despite the scarcity of data on the immature stages of Neotropical Melitaeini, we can already say that some morphological and behavioral traits observed in the immature stages of O. liriope are also present in all known genera in this tribe.

Silva, PL; Oliveira, NP; Barbosa, EP; Okada, Y; Kaminski, LA; Freitas, AVL

2011-06-01

 
 
 
 
381

Faunal component and vertical distribution of butterflies in yuanbao mountain nature reserve of Guangxi, China  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The paper analyses the funal geographic composition, allocation of families and genera, and nature vertical distribution of butterfliex in the Yuanbao Mountain Nature Reserve of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. Now, there wre 122 species beloning to 11 families, 23 subfamilies and 85 genera, and among them 4 species were rare and proteced. There were an evident rule of vertial distribution for the butterflies in this area. From low to high elevation, three vertical zones were divided: (1) Artifical forst and evergreen broad-leaved froest zone, (2) Subtropical mountain evergreeen broad-eaved forest zone, (3) Subtropical middle mountain evergreen and summergreen broad-leaved mixed forest and coniferou s-broad mixed froest zone.

Liu Jianwen; Jiang Guofang

2003-01-01

382

Nymphalid butterflies diversify following near demise at the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The butterfly family Nymphalidae contains some of the most important non-drosophilid insect model systems for evolutionary and ecological studies, yet the evolutionary history of the group has remained shrouded in mystery. We have inferred a robust phylogenetic hypothesis based on sequences of 10 genes and 235 morphological characters for exemplars of 400 of the 540 valid nymphalid genera representing all major lineages of the family. By dating the branching events, we infer that Nymphalidae originated in the Cretaceous at 90 Ma, but that the ancestors of 10-12 lineages survived the end-Cretaceous catastrophe in the Neotropical and Oriental regions. Patterns of diversification suggest extinction of lineages at the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary (65 Ma) and subsequent elevated speciation rates in the Tertiary.

Wahlberg N; Leneveu J; Kodandaramaiah U; Peña C; Nylin S; Freitas AV; Brower AV

2009-12-01

383

Nymphalid butterflies diversify following near demise at the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary.  

Science.gov (United States)

The butterfly family Nymphalidae contains some of the most important non-drosophilid insect model systems for evolutionary and ecological studies, yet the evolutionary history of the group has remained shrouded in mystery. We have inferred a robust phylogenetic hypothesis based on sequences of 10 genes and 235 morphological characters for exemplars of 400 of the 540 valid nymphalid genera representing all major lineages of the family. By dating the branching events, we infer that Nymphalidae originated in the Cretaceous at 90 Ma, but that the ancestors of 10-12 lineages survived the end-Cretaceous catastrophe in the Neotropical and Oriental regions. Patterns of diversification suggest extinction of lineages at the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary (65 Ma) and subsequent elevated speciation rates in the Tertiary. PMID:19793750

Wahlberg, Niklas; Leneveu, Julien; Kodandaramaiah, Ullasa; Peña, Carlos; Nylin, Sören; Freitas, André V L; Brower, Andrew V Z

2009-09-30

384

Pollen preference for Psychotria sp. is not learned in the passion flower butterfly, Heliconius erato.  

Science.gov (United States)

Heliconius butterflies are known to maximize fitness by feeding on pollen from Gurania sp. and Psiguria sp. (Cucurbitales: Curcurbitaceae), and Psychotria sp. (Gentianales: Rubiaceae). This specialization involves specific physical, physiological, and behavioral adaptations including efficient search strategies in the forest to locate pollen host plants, pollen removal, and pollen external digestion. Reducing pollen host plant search time is crucial to out-compete other flower visitors and to reduce exposure to predators. One way in which this can be achieved is by using chemical cues to learn from experienced foragers in roosting aggregations. Similar strategies have been documented in bumblebees, where inexperienced individuals learn floral odors from experienced foragers. Behavioral experiments using plants preferred by Heliconius erato suggest that pollen preference in H. erato is an innate trait and consequently learning of chemical cues at roosting aggregations is unlikely. PMID:21529151

Salcedo, Christian

2011-01-01

385

Physical modelling of the flow behind the butterfly valve of a carburettor  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The flow downstream of the carburettor of a spark-ignited piston engine was investigated experimentally. The geometry was simplified and single phase flow was used. Experiments were done in a straight cylindrical tube in which a butterfly valve was mounted. Both, air and water facilities were employed. The investigation was done using qualitative and quantitative flow visualisation techniques and hot-wire anemometry. The existence of several typical zones within the flow behind the valve could be shown by local velocity measurements and three dimensional particle trajectories. These results for the kinematic behaviour of the flow allow an estimation of the regions with high and low deposition rate of fuel drops on the walls under real conditions. 22 refs..

Lahbabi, F.Z.; Nuglish, H.J.; Couteau, G.; Charnay, G. (Ecole Nationale Superieure d' Electrotechnique, d' Electronique, d' Informatique et d' Hydraulique, 31 - Toulouse (FR))

1991-01-01

386

Pollen preference for Psychotria sp. is not learned in the passion flower butterfly, Heliconius erato.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Heliconius butterflies are known to maximize fitness by feeding on pollen from Gurania sp. and Psiguria sp. (Cucurbitales: Curcurbitaceae), and Psychotria sp. (Gentianales: Rubiaceae). This specialization involves specific physical, physiological, and behavioral adaptations including efficient search strategies in the forest to locate pollen host plants, pollen removal, and pollen external digestion. Reducing pollen host plant search time is crucial to out-compete other flower visitors and to reduce exposure to predators. One way in which this can be achieved is by using chemical cues to learn from experienced foragers in roosting aggregations. Similar strategies have been documented in bumblebees, where inexperienced individuals learn floral odors from experienced foragers. Behavioral experiments using plants preferred by Heliconius erato suggest that pollen preference in H. erato is an innate trait and consequently learning of chemical cues at roosting aggregations is unlikely.

Salcedo C

2011-01-01

387

Photonic band gap materials in butterfly scales: A possible source of 'blueprints'  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The color generating nanoarchitectures in the cover scales of the blue (dorsal)-green (ventral) wing surfaces of the butterfly Albulina metallica were investigated by scanning electron microscopy and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy. A layered, quasiordered structure was revealed in both the dorsal and ventral scales, with different order parameters, associated with their different colors. A successful attempt was made to reproduce the biological structure in the form of a quasiordered composite (SiO/(In and SiO)) multilayer structure using standard thin film deposition techniques. The position of the reflectance maxima of this artificial structure could be tailored by controlling the size of the In inclusions through oxidation. Our results show that photonic band gap materials of biologic origin may constitute valuable blueprints for artificial structures.

Kertesz, K.; Molnar, G.; Vertesy, Z.; Koos, A.A.; Horvath, Z.E.; Mark, G.I.; Tapaszto, L. [Research Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science, POB 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Balint, Zs. [Hungarian Natural History Museum, Baross utca 13, H-1088 Budapest (