Sample records for butorphanol

  1. Butorphanol Nasal Spray

    Butorphanol nasal spray is used to relieve moderate to severe pain. Butorphanol is in a class of medications called opioid agonist- ... Butorphanol nasal spray comes as a solution (liquid) to spray in the nose. It is usually used as needed for pain, ...

  2. 21 CFR 520.246 - Butorphanol tartrate tablets.


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Butorphanol tartrate tablets. 520.246 Section 520.246 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... tartrate tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains 1, 5, or 10 milligrams of butorphanol...

  3. Bier′s block using lignocaine and butorphanol

    Abhishek Bansal


    Full Text Available Background : Opioids are most commonly used as adjuncts in intravenous regional anesthesia (IVRA to improve the quality of intraoperative and postoperative analgesia. There is paucity of literature on the use of butorphanol in IVRA. Aims : The aim of this study was to evaluate the likely benefits of addition of butorphanol to lignocaine in Bier′s block in terms of onset and duration of sensory block and also for analgesic requirement in postoperative period. Settings and Design : A randomized double blind study was conducted at Tertiary Care Educational Institute. Patients and Methods : A total of 40 adult ASA I or II patients scheduled to undergo upper limb surgery were randomized in two groups (n=20. Group I received 3 mg/kg of lignocaine alone and group II received 1 mg butorphanol in addition to 3 mg/kg lignocaine. Sensory block onset time and time to recovery from sensory block after tourniquet deflation were noted using the pin prick method. Duration of postoperative analgesia was noted using a visual analogue scale. All the patients were compared for the time to first rescue analgesic consumption and total analgesic consumption in first 24 hours postoperatively. Statistical Analysis Used : The statistical analysis was done using unpaired Student′s t-test. Results : Our study showed significant prolongation of postoperative analgesia in group II as noted by the time to first analgesic requirement. Total analgesic consumption in first 24 hours postoperatively was less in group II. Sensory block onset time and time to recovery from sensory block after tourniquet deflation, did not show any significant difference between the two groups. Conclusions : Addition of butorphanol to lignocaine in IVRA significantly prolongs the duration of postoperative analgesia and 24 hours analgesic consumption is less in patients receiving butorphanol along with lignocaine in IVRA. However, there is no effect on sensory block onset time and time to recovery

  4. Combining isoflurane anesthesia with midazolam and butorphanol in rats.

    Tsukamoto, Atsushi; Uchida, Kaho; Maesato, Shizuka; Sato, Reiichiro; Kanai, Eiichi; Inomata, Tomo


    Representative inhalant anesthetic agent, isoflurane is commonly used during surgery in rats. However, isoflurane mediates relatively strong respiratory depression. In human and veterinary medicine, sedatives and analgesics are co-administered to complement the anesthetic action of inhalant anesthesia. The present study aimed to establish the novel balanced anesthesia that combines midazolam and butorphanol with isoflurane (MBI) in rats. Male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into 2 groups, and administered either isoflurane monoanesthesia or isoflurane with midazolam (2.5 mg/kg, ip) and butorphanol (2.0 mg/kg, ip). The minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) in each group was evaluated. Induction and recovery times were measured in each group. Adverse reactions during induction were also recorded. In each group, vital signs were assessed for 1 h under 1.5×MAC of isoflurane. Instability of vital signs was assessed under each anesthesia by calculating coefficient of variance. Compared with isoflurane monoanesthesia, MBI anesthesia caused 32% MAC reduction (isoflurane monoanesthesia: 1.30 ± 0.09%, MBI 0.87 ± 0.08%, PMBI anesthesia resulted in a relatively stable respiratory rate without decreases in SPO2 during the anesthetic period. In summary, MB premedication is effective for attenuating respiratory depression induced by isoflurane, and achieving smooth induction. This anesthetic protocol serves as a novel option for appropriate anesthesia in rats. PMID:26876437

  5. Abolished thermal and mechanical antinociception but retained visceral chemical antinociception induced by butorphanol in μ-opioid receptor knockout mice

    Ide, Soichiro; Minami, Masabumi; Ishihara, Kumatoshi; Uhl, George R; Satoh, Masamichi; Sora, Ichiro; Ikeda, Kazutaka


    Butorphanol is hypothesized to induce analgesia via opioid pathways, although the precise mechanisms for its effects remain unknown. In this study, we investigated the role of the μ-opioid receptor (MOP) in thermal, mechanical, and visceral chemical antinociception induced by butorphanol using MOP knockout (KO) mice. Butorphanol-induced thermal antinociception, assessed by the hot-plate and tail-flick tests, was significantly reduced in heterozygous and abolished in homozygous MOP-KO mice com...

  6. Effect of ketamine combined with butorphanol on emergence agitation of postoperative patients with gastric cancer

    Lin L; Liu SC; Chen ZY; Lin SL


    Liang Lin, Shuncui Liu, Zhenyi Chen, Shaoli Lin Department of Anesthesiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian, People’s Republic of China Background: This study aimed to investigate the effect of ketamine combined with butorphanol on emergence agitation (EA) in postoperative gastric cancer patients. Materials and methods: A total of 150 patients with gastric cancer were included and divided into group B (1 mg butorphanol before anesthesia induction, ...

  7. A comparison of anesthetic and cardiorespiratory effects of tiletamine-zolazepam-butorphanol and tiletamine-zolazepam-butorphanol- medetomidine in cats.

    Ko, Jeff C; Abbo, Lisa A; Weil, Ann B; Johnson, Brenda M; Payton, Mark


    Using a randomized crossover design, this study compared the anesthetic and cardiorespiratory effects of three intramuscular anesthetic combinations in seven 2-year-old cats: tiletamine-zolazepam (8 mg/kg) and butorphanol (0.2 mg/kg) (TT); tiletamine-zolazepam (3 mg/kg), butorphanol (0.15 mg/kg), and medetomidine (15 microg/kg) (TTD); or the TTD protocol plus atipamezole (75 microg/kg IM) given 20 minutes later to reverse medetomidine. Analgesia was assessed using algometry and needle pricking. All three combinations effectively induced anesthesia suitable for orotracheal intubation within 5 minutes after injection. Hemoglobin oxygen saturation was lower than 90% at least once in all three groups between 5 and 15 minutes after drug administration. Blood pressure and heart and respiratory rates were within normal ranges. Both TT and TTD appeared to be effective injectable anesthetic combinations. TTD provided significantly better analgesia with a longer duration than did TT. Atipamezole administration shortened the duration of analgesia and decreased blood pressure but did not shorten total recovery time. PMID:17926302




    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We compared the effects of oral midazolam, butorphanol and clonidine on preoperative sedation and anxiolysis and postoperative recovery profile of the children undergoing elective surgery. MATERIAL AND METHODS : 105 children of either sex, aged between 2 - 6 years, of ASA grade I scheduled for elective surgery were randomized into three groups. Group I: 35 children received midazolam 0.5 mg/kg body weight orally, Group II: 35 children received butorphanol 0.2 mg/kg orally, Group III: 35 children received cloni dine 4 μ/kg orally. Premedication was given 30 minutes before induction of anaesthesia. Children were assessed for attitude to venepuncture and face mask acceptance during induction of anaesthesia. RESULTS: The groups were statistically comparable (p>0.05 , regarding the patients’ demographic profile, hemodynamic variables, duration of surgery and awakening. Less time was required for the onset and time of maximum sedation in midazolam group. Sedation scores were highest in the clonidine group at the time o f induction (p0.05 and minimal with butorphanol. Reaction to i.v cannulation was minimal with clonidine whi le it was comparable in midazolam and butorphanol group. CONCLUSION: clonidine causes the best sedation among the three drugs and it causes minimum response to i.v cannulation and comparable mask acceptance with midazolam followed by butorphanol.

  9. Effect of ketamine combined with butorphanol on emergence agitation of postoperative patients with gastric cancer

    Lin L


    Full Text Available Liang Lin, Shuncui Liu, Zhenyi Chen, Shaoli Lin Department of Anesthesiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian, People’s Republic of China Background: This study aimed to investigate the effect of ketamine combined with butorphanol on emergence agitation (EA in postoperative gastric cancer patients. Materials and methods: A total of 150 patients with gastric cancer were included and divided into group B (1 mg butorphanol before anesthesia induction, n=50, group K (1 mg/kg ketamine, n=50, and group C (1 mg butorphanol combined with 1 mg/kg ketamine, n=50. Mean arterial pressure (MAP and heart rate (HR at the end of operation, just before extubation (T0 and at 0 minute (T1, 5 minutes (T2, and 30 minutes (T3 after extubation were compared. Statistical analysis of recovery time, extubation time, time in postanesthesia care unit, and EA incidence and adverse reactions were performed. Results: There were no differences among groups with respect to MAP and HR at T0 and T1 (P>0.05. Compared with patients in group C, significant reduction of MAP and HR were observed in groups K and B at T2 and T3 (P<0.05, while no differences were found between group K and group B (P>0.05. Recovery time, extubation time, time in postanesthesia care unit, and incidence of EA in group C were significantly less than those in groups K and B (P<0.05, but no differences were observed between group K and group B (P>0.05. Total incidence of adverse reactions were significantly increased in group K compared to those in groups C and B (P<0.05. Conclusion: Injection of ketamine combined with butorphanol before anesthesia induction was more effective than injection of ketamine or butorphanol separately in the prevention of EA. Keywords: emergence agitation, ketamine, butorphanol, gastric cancer

  10. Effect of sedation with detomidine and butorphanol on pulmonary gas exchange in the horse

    Morgan Karin


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sedation with α2-agonists in the horse is reported to be accompanied by impairment of arterial oxygenation. The present study was undertaken to investigate pulmonary gas exchange using the Multiple Inert Gas Elimination Technique (MIGET, during sedation with the α2-agonist detomidine alone and in combination with the opioid butorphanol. Methods Seven Standardbred trotter horses aged 3–7 years and weighing 380–520 kg, were studied. The protocol consisted of three consecutive measurements; in the unsedated horse, after intravenous administration of detomidine (0.02 mg/kg and after subsequent butorphanol administration (0.025 mg/kg. Pulmonary function and haemodynamic effects were investigated. The distribution of ventilation-perfusion ratios (VA/Q was estimated with MIGET. Results During detomidine sedation, arterial oxygen tension (PaO2 decreased (12.8 ± 0.7 to 10.8 ± 1.2 kPa and arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2 increased (5.9 ± 0.3 to 6.1 ± 0.2 kPa compared to measurements in the unsedated horse. Mismatch between ventilation and perfusion in the lungs was evident, but no increase in intrapulmonary shunt could be detected. Respiratory rate and minute ventilation did not change. Heart rate and cardiac output decreased, while pulmonary and systemic blood pressure and vascular resistance increased. Addition of butorphanol resulted in a significant decrease in ventilation and increase in PaCO2. Alveolar-arterial oxygen content difference P(A-aO2 remained impaired after butorphanol administration, the VA/Q distribution improved as the decreased ventilation and persistent low blood flow was well matched. Also after subsequent butorphanol no increase in intrapulmonary shunt was evident. Conclusion The results of the present study suggest that both pulmonary and cardiovascular factors contribute to the impaired pulmonary gas exchange during detomidine and butorphanol sedation in the horse.

  11. Pharmacokinetics and intramuscular bioavailability of a single dose of butorphanol in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus).

    Tana, Leann M; Isaza, Ramiro; Koch, David E; Hunter, Robert P


    Captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) are susceptible to lameness resulting from foot and joint pain, including chronic arthritis. In the past, opioid analgesics, such as butorphanol, have been used clinically for pain management. However, dosages used in treating elephants were often extrapolated from data in horses, with no pharmacokinetic information on the specific agents used in elephant species. In this pharmacokinetic study, six adult captive Asian elephants (5 female, 1 male castrate) were administered a 0.015 mg/kg dose of butorphanol by both i.v. and i.m. routes. A complete crossover design was used with a 3-wk washout period between treatments. Serial blood samples were collected immediately prior to butorphanol administration and at 5, 10, 20, and 40 min and 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, and 24 h after administration. The butorphanol analysis was performed using a validated liquid chromatography-mass spectrophotometric assay with a limit of quantitation of 0.025 ng/ml. The mean Cmax after i.m. administration was 7.9 ng/ml, with a corresponding Tmax, of 40 min and t(1/3), of 7.1 h. After i.v. administration, the mean Vd(ss) was 1.4 L/kg and the mean Cl(p) was 0.26 L/kg/h. Mean i.m. bioavailability was 37%. The results indicate that butorphanol used at 0.015 mg/kg i.m. or i.v. could be useful in elephants when given for pain control. PMID:20945638

  12. Comparative evaluation of halothane anaesthesia in medetomidine–butorphanol and midazolam–butorphanol premedicated water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis

    V. Malik


    Full Text Available Six clinically healthy male water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis 2–3 years of age and weighing 290–325 kg were used for 2 different treatments (H1 andH2. The animals of groupH1 were premedicated with medetomidine (2.5 g/kg, i.v. and butorphanol (0.05 mg/kg, i.v., while in groupH2 midazolam (0.25 mg/kg and butorphanol (0.05 mg/kg were used intravenously. Induction of anaesthesia was achieved by 5%thiopental sodium inH1 (3.85±0.63 mg/kg and H2 (6.96 ± 0.45 mg/kg groups. The anaesthesia was maintained with halothane in 100 % oxygen through a large animal anaesthetic machine. Better analgesia and sedation with a significantly lower dose of thiopental for induction and significantly higher values of sternal recumbency time and standing time were recorded in group H1 than in group H2 , whereas no significant (P > 0.05 difference for the halothane concentration was observed between groups H1 and H2. Significant decrease in heart rate was observed in group H1 whereas it significantly increased in group H2. In both groups, RR decreased during the preanaesthetic period, which increased significantly (P<0.01 after halothane administration. In both groups a significant (P<0.01 fall in RT was recorded from 20 min to the end of observation period. A significant (P < 0.05 fall in MAP was observed in group H1 from 15 min until the end, while in group H2 MAP increased nonsignificantly (P > 0.05 after premedication and a significant (P<0.05 occurredafter thiopental administration. In both groups a significant (P<0.01 increase in CVP and a significant (P<0.01 decrease in SpO2 were observed after premedication which persisted up to 120 min. ECG changes included significant (P<0.01 decrease and increase in QRS amplitudes in groupsH1 andH2 respectively, a significant (P < 0.05 increase in PR interval was recorded at 15 min in group H1, a significant (P<0.05 decrease in PR interval in groupH2 , a significant (P<0.05 decrease in T wave amplitude in groupH1, and a

  13. N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor expression in the spinal dorsal horn of a rat model of formalin-induced inflammatory pain following intrathecal injection of butorphanol

    Yichun Wang; Yuan Zhang; Qulian Guo; Xiaohong Liu; Mingde Wang; Hui Luo


    Clinical and animal experiments have proved that intrathecal injection of butorphanol has an analgesic effect. However, whether the analgesic effect is associated with activation of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor remains unclear. This study presumed that intrathecal injection of butorphanol has an analgesic effect on formalin-induced inflammatory pain in rats, and its analgesic effect is associated with inhibition of NMDA receptors. Concurrently, ketamine was injected into the intrathecal space, which is a non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist, to determine the analgesic mechanism of butorphanol. The total reflection time in phase 1 and phase 2 of rat hind paws carding action was reduced when the butorphanol dose was increased to 25 μg,or a low dose of butorphanol was combined with ketamine. Intrathecal injection of a high dose of butorphanol alone or a Iow dose of butorphanol combined with ketamine can remarkably reduce NMDA receptor expression in the L5 spinal dorsal horn of formalin-induced pain rats. The results suggest that intrathecal injection of butorphanol has analgesic effects on formalin-induced inflammatory pain, and remarkably reduces NMDA receptor expression in the rat spinal dorsal horn.Ketamine strengthens this analgesic effect. The analgesic mechanism of intrathecal injection of butorphanol is associated with inhibition of NMDA receptor activation.

  14. Clinical Evaluation of Xylazine-Butorphanol-Guaifenesin-Ketamine as Short-Term TIVA in Equines

    Bhanu Partap Singh Thakur


    Full Text Available Xylazine (1.1 mg/kg, butorphanol (0.02 mg/kg, guaifenesin 5% (20 mg/kg, and ketamine (2.2 mg/kg combinations were able to induce short-term surgical anaesthesia for 23.33 ± 2.57 min in Spiti ponies with excellent to good muscle relaxation and analgesia. Urination and neighing was a constant feature during recovery period. Biphasic P wave, biphasic T wave, and depressed PR segment were common electrocardiographic findings. Biochemical attributes were within physiological limits except a significant increase in ALT values during anaesthesia. The values returned to normal during recovery ruling out any renal or hepatic toxicity. Occasionally, negative T wave, notched P wave, and sinus block were noticed. It is recommended that the anaesthetic combinations xylazine-butorphanol-guaifenesin-ketamine can be safely used for short-term total intravenous anaesthesia (TIVA in equines under field conditions.

  15. Effect of sedation with detomidine and butorphanol on pulmonary gas exchange in the horse

    Morgan Karin; Funkquist Pia; Edner Anna; Marntell Stina; Nyman Görel; Hedenstierna Göran


    Abstract Background Sedation with α2-agonists in the horse is reported to be accompanied by impairment of arterial oxygenation. The present study was undertaken to investigate pulmonary gas exchange using the Multiple Inert Gas Elimination Technique (MIGET), during sedation with the α2-agonist detomidine alone and in combination with the opioid butorphanol. Methods Seven Standardbred trotter horses aged 3–7 years and weighing 380–520 kg, were studied. The protocol consisted of three consecuti...


    Gopal Reddy


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to compare the efficacy of butorphanol and Fentanyl as an adjuvant to local anaesthetics in relation to onset, degree and recovery time of sensory and motor blockade in orthopaedi c procedures done under spinal anaesthesia. METHODS: In a Randomized double blind study, 90 cases of ASA grade 1 & 2 between the ages of 18 - 60yrs of either sex undergoing elective lower limb orthopaedic procedures were allocated into three groups of 30 each. Group A received intrathecal 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine 3ml with 0.2 ml of normal saline (n=30. Group B received intrathecal 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine 3ml with Butorphanol 200microgram. (n=30 Group C received intrathecal 0.5% hyperbaric bupivaca ine 3ml with fentanyl 20microgram. (n=30.Vital parameters, onset, level, duration and regression of sensory & motor block, duration of effective analgesia were recorded and compared. Analysis was done by of variance (ANOVA test. RESULTS: Intrathecal admi nistration of Bupivacaine + Butorphanol (141.6±7.2 min Bupivacaine + Fentanyl (124.5±7.1min prolongs 2 segment regression times compared to Bupivacaine with Normal saline (118.3±12.5min without altering the duration of motor blockade. Duration of effect ive analgesia was 191.8±19,272.8±17.2 min and 270.0±27.4 min in Group A, Group B and Group C respectively. Post - operative side effects were comparable in all the three groups. CONCLUSION: Both fentanyl and butorphanol given intrathecally along with hyperba ric Bupivacaine prolong the d uration of effective analgesia.

  17. Sedative effects of dexmedetomidine, dexmedetomidine-pethidine and dexmedetomidine-butorphanol in cats.

    Nagore, L; Soler, C; Gil, L; Serra, I; Soler, G; Redondo, J I


    The purpose of this study was to assess the clinical effects of dexmedetomidine, both alone and combined with pethidine or butorphanol, in cats. A prospective randomized blind study was performed. Thirty cats were randomly assigned to three groups of 10 animals: D: dexmedetomidine (20 μg/kg IM); DP: dexmedetomidine (10 μg/kg IM) and pethidine (2.5 mg/kg IM); DB: dexmedetomidine (10 μg/kg IM) and butorphanol (0.4 mg/kg IM). Quality of sedation, analgesia, muscle relaxation and the possibility of performing some clinical procedures were compared using a multifactorial scale. Sedation, analgesia and muscle relaxation increased progressively over time and did not differ in the three protocols. The three protocols facilitated the completion of several clinical procedures. The clinical variables studied showed a similar behaviour in the three protocols and remained close to the baseline, except for a drop in heart rate in protocol D. In conclusion, dexmedetomidine, either alone or combined with pethidine or butorphanol, offers suitable sedation, analgesia and relaxation to perform various clinical procedures in cats. PMID:22607033

  18. Butorphanol with oxygen insufflation improves cardiorespiratory function in field-immobilised white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum

    Anna Haw


    Full Text Available Opioid-induced immobilisation results in severe respiratory compromise in the white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum. The effectiveness of oxygen insufflation combined with butorphanol in alleviating respiratory depression in free-ranging chemically immobilised white rhinoceroses was investigated. In this prospective intervention study 14 freeranging white rhinoceroses were immobilised with a combination of etorphine, azaperone and hyaluronidase. Six minutes (min after the animals became recumbent, intravenous butorphanol was administered and oxygen insufflation was initiated. Previous boma trial results were used for comparison, using repeated measures two-way analysis of variance. The initial immobilisation-induced hypoxaemia in free-ranging rhinoceroses (arterial partial pressure of oxygen [PaO2] 35.4 mmHg ± 6.6 mmHg was similar to that observed in bomaconfined rhinoceroses (PaO2 31 mmHg ± 6 mmHg, n = 8. Although the initial hypercapnia (PaCO2 63.0 mmHg ± 7.5 mmHg was not as severe as that in animals in the boma trial (79 mmHg ± 7 mmHg, the field-immobilised rhinoceroses were more acidaemic (pH 7.10 ± 0.14 at the beginning of the immobilisation compared with boma-immobilised rhinoceroses (pH 7.28 ± 0.04. Compared with pre-intervention values, butorphanol with oxygen insufflation improved the PaO2 (81.2 mmHg ± 23.7 mmHg, p < 0.001, 5 min vs 20 min, arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide (55.3 mmHg ± 5.2 mmHg, p < 0.01, 5 min vs 20 min, pH (7.17 ± 0.11, p < 0.001, 5 min vs 20 min, heart rate (78 breaths/min ± 20 breaths/min, p < 0.001, 5 min vs 20 min and mean arterial blood pressure (105 mmHg ± 14 mmHg, p < 0.01, 5 min vs 20 min. Oxygen insufflation combined with a single intravenous dose of butorphanol improved oxygenation and reduced hypercapnia and acidaemia in immobilised free-ranging white rhinoceroses.

  19. Clinical Evaluation of Xylazine-Butorphanol-Guaifenesin-Ketamine as Short-Term TIVA in Equines

    Bhanu Partap Singh Thakur; Sandeep Kumar Sharma; Arvind Sharma; Adarsh Kumar


    Xylazine (1.1 mg/kg), butorphanol (0.02 mg/kg), guaifenesin 5% (20 mg/kg), and ketamine (2.2 mg/kg) combinations were able to induce short-term surgical anaesthesia for 23.33 ± 2.57 min in Spiti ponies with excellent to good muscle relaxation and analgesia. Urination and neighing was a constant feature during recovery period. Biphasic P wave, biphasic T wave, and depressed PR segment were common electrocardiographic findings. Biochemical attributes were within physiological limits except a si...

  20. A prospective multi-centre clinical trial to compare buprenorphine and butorphanol for postoperative analgesia in cats.

    Taylor, Polly M; Kirby, Jonathan J; Robinson, Clare; Watkins, Elizabeth A; Clarke, David D; Ford, Marion A; Church, Karen E


    One hundred and fifty-three cats undergoing surgery in seven veterinary practices in Great Britain were studied. They were randomly allocated to receive either 10-20 microg/kg buprenorphine or 0.4 mg/kg butorphanol with acepromazine before anaesthesia with propofol, Saffan or thiopentone and isoflurane or halothane. Routine monitoring was undertaken. Pain and sedation were assessed blind using a four point (0-3) simple descriptive scale (SDS) at 1, 2, 4, 8 and 24h. Pain and sedation data were compared using non-parametric statistical tests and continuous data using t tests or analysis of variance (ANOVA). Anaesthesia and surgery were uneventful, and cardiorespiratory data were within normal limits. After surgery, overall, more cats had pain score 0 after buprenorphine and more had pain score 3 after butorphanol (P=0.0465). At individual time points, more cats had lower pain scores after buprenorphine at 2 (P=0.040) and 24 (P=0.036)h. At 24h 83% after buprenorphine and 63% after butorphanol had pain score 0 (P<0.04). Buprenorphine provided better and longer lasting postoperative analgesia than butorphanol. PMID:19836984

  1. Clinical evaluation of detomidine-butorphanol-guaifenesin-ketamine as short term TIVA in Spiti ponies.

    Thakur, B P S; Sharma, S K; Sharma, Arvind; Kumar, Adarsh


    Veterinarians working under remote field conditions are routinely presented with variety of surgical interventions in equines like castrations, management of wound, traumatic and congenital hernias and musculoskeletal disorders thus necessitating the use of general anaesthesia for management of these conditions. The present study was carried out to evaluate and recommend the suitable short term anaesthetic technique for Spiti ponies under field conditions. Seven clinically healthy male Spiti ponies presented for castration were evaluated for short term Total Intravenous Anaesthesia (TIVA) using detomidine (0.02 mg kg(-1)), butorphanol (0.01 mg kg(-1)), 5% guaifenesin (20 mg kg(-1)) and ketamine (2.0 mg kg(-1)). The studies conducted were open label trials and all the animals received same treatment. After proper tetanus prophylaxis and preanesthetic fasting, detomidine was administered intravenously. Subsequently at head down position the animals received butorphanol intravenously. Thereafter, guaifenesin was administered intravenously. As soon as the signs of ataxia developed, the induction of surgical anaesthesia was achieved by intravenous administration of ketamine hydrochloride. The onset of sedation was observed in 2.43 +/- 0.53 min following detomidine administration and the animals were ataxic in 1.43 +/- 0.43 min after butorphanol and guaifenesin administration when ketamine was injected. The ponies were in surgical plane of anaesthesia within 2.28 +/- 0.42 min following ketamine administration. During recovery the limb/head movement and sternal recumbency were attained in 18.71 +/- 1.98 and 26.14 +/- 1.62 min, respectively whereas standing ataxia and normal gait were seen at 29.42 +/- 3.21 and 71.14 +/- 4.74 min, respectively. There was excellent to good muscle relaxation. The surgical anaesthesia remained for 22.57 +/- 1.48 min. The recovery was smooth. Moderate to good suppression of palpebral and corneal reflexes were observed immediately after

  2. Comparison of epidural butorphanol and fentanyl as adjuvants in the lower abdominal surgery: A randomized clinical study

    Jasleen Kaur


    Full Text Available Background: Epidural opioids acting through the spinal cord receptors improve the quality and duration of analgesia along with dose-sparing effect with the local anesthetics. The present study compared the efficacy and safety profile of epidurally administered butorphanol and fentanyl combined with bupivacaine (B. Materials and Methods: A total of 75 adult patients of either sex of American Society of Anesthesiologist physical status I and II, aged 20-60 years, undergoing lower abdominal under epidural anesthesia were enrolled into the study. Patients were randomly divided into three groups of 25 each: B, bupivacaine and butorphanol (BB and bupivacaine + fentanyl (BF. B (0.5% 20 ml was administered epidurally in all the three groups with the addition of 1 mg butorphanol in BB group and 100 μg fentanyl in the BF group. The hemodynamic parameters as well as various block characteristics including onset, completion, level and duration of sensory analgesia as well as onset, completion and regression of motor block were observed and compared. Adverse events and post-operative visual analgesia scale scores were also noted and compared. Data was analyzed using ANOVA with post-hoc significance, Chi-square test and Fisher′s exact test. Value of P < 0.05 was considered significant and P < 0.001 as highly significant. Results: The demographic profile of patients was comparable in all the three groups. Onset and completion of sensory analgesia was earliest in BF group, followed by BB and B group. The duration of analgesia was significantly prolonged in BB group followed by BF as compared with group B. Addition of butorphanol and fentanyl to B had no effect on the time of onset, completion and regression of motor block. No serious cardio-respiratory side effects were observed in any group. Conclusions: Butorphanol and fentanyl as epidural adjuvants are equally safe and provide comparable stable hemodynamics, early onset and establishment of sensory

  3. A comparative evaluation of intrathecal bupivacaine alone, sufentanil or butorphanol in combination with bupivacaine for endoscopic urological surgery

    Manpreet Kaur


    Full Text Available Background: The objective of the present study was to compare the onset, degree and recovery time of sensory and motor block and hemodynamic effects of intrathecal bupivacaine alone and bupivacaine with sufentanil or butorphanol in endoscopic urological surgeries. Methods: In a randomized, double-blind study, 90 patients of either sex and age, belonging to ASA Grades I and II, scheduled for elective endoscopic urological surgeries under spinal anesthesia, were allocated into three groups of 30 each. Patients received either 2.5 ml of 0.5% hyperbaric buypivacaine 12.5 mg (Group A, 1.5 ml of 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine 7.5 mg with 10 μg sufentanil (Group B or 1.5 ml of 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine 7.5 mg with 25 μg butorphanol (Group C. Vital parameters, level, duration and regression of sensory block and motor block and side-effects were recorded and compared. Statistical Analysis Analysis of variance (ANOVA, post hoc test and Chi-square test were used. Results: Intrathecal addition of sufentanil/butorphanol prolonged the duration of sensory block (DOSB compared with bupivacaine alone (DOSB being 156.83±23.83 min, 170.87 ± 22.21 min and 171.17 ± 23.99 min in groups A, B and C, respectively without altering the duration of motor blockade. Bromage score 3 was achieved in 100%, 90% and 54.4% patients in groups A, B and C, respectively. The time to first request for analgesia was 112 ± 46.3 min, 323 ± 65.0 min and 299 ± 73.9 min in groups A, B and C, respectively. Complications were reduced by the addition of butorphanol, which also has a lower tendency than sufentanil to produce pruritus (60%. Conclusions: The analgesia was significantly prolonged in groups B and C; group C had a less-intense motor block. Complications were reduced by the addition of butorphanol, which also has a lower tendency than sufentanil to produce pruritus. Thus, this combination of butorphanol with low-dose bupivacaine is especially beneficial in the geriatric group

  4. Alfaxalone-butorphanol versus alfaxalone-morphine combination for immersion anaesthesia in oriental fire-bellied toads (Bombina orientalis).

    Adami, Chiara; d'Ovidio, Dario; Casoni, Daniela


    Oriental fire-bellied toads (Bombina orientalis) are small semi-aquatic anuran species popular as both pets and laboratory animals. Although they are commonly anaesthetized to undergo clinical and experimental procedures, very little is known about their anaesthetic management. The aims of this prospective, randomized, cross-over experimental trial were to establish effective butorphanol and morphine concentrations to be added to alfaxalone for immersion anaesthesia (pilot study), and to compare the anaesthetic and antinociceptive effects of the two drug mixtures (alfaxalone-butorphanol and alfaxalone-morphine), in Bombina orientalis toads. For the actual trial, the toads were randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups: AB and AM, with seven animals in each group, which received alfaxalone-butorphanol and alfaxalone-morphine combinations, respectively, at the concentrations established during the pilot study. Heart rate, respiratory rate, von Frey filament threshold and response to nociceptive withdrawal (NWR), righting and myotactic reflexes were measured at 5 min intervals until return of righting reflex was observed. The investigator who carried out all the measurements was blinded to the treatment. Any undesired effect or complication was noted and recorded. The two treatments were found to be comparable in terms of onset and duration of anaesthesia, and occurrence of undesired effects. However, group AM resulted in lower NWR scores and higher von Frey filament thresholds than group AB. It is concluded that, at the investigated concentrations and in combination with alfaxalone by immersion, morphine provides better antinociception than butorphanol in oriental fire-bellied toads. PMID:26306614

  5. Dose sparing of induction dose of propofol by fentanyl and butorphanol: A comparison based on entropy analysis

    Jasleen Kaur


    Full Text Available Background: The induction dose of propofol is reduced with concomitant use of opioids as a result of a possible synergistic action. Aim and Objectives: The present study compared the effect of fentanyl and two doses of butorphanol pre-treatment on the induction dose of propofol, with specific emphasis on entropy. Methods: Three groups of 40 patients each, of the American Society of Anaesthesiologistsphysical status I and II, were randomized to receive fentanyl 2 μg/kg (Group F, butorphanol 20 μg/kg (Group B 20 or 40 μg/kg (Group B 40 as pre-treatment. Five minutes later, the degree of sedation was assessed by the observer′s assessment of alertness scale (OAA/S. Induction of anesthesia was done with propofol (30 mg/10 s till the loss of response to verbal commands. Thereafter, rocuronium 1 mg/kg was administered and endotracheal intubation was performed 2 min later. OAA/S, propofol induction dose, heart rate, blood pressure, oxygen saturation and entropy (response and state were compared in the three groups. Statistical Analysis: Data was analyzed using ANOVA test with posthoc significance, Kruskal-Wallis test, Chi-square test and Fischer exact test. A P<0.05 was considered as significant. Results: The induction dose of propofol (mg/kg was observed to be 1.1±0.50 in Group F, 1.05±0.35 in Group B 20 and 1.18±0.41 in Group B40. Induction with propofol occurred at higher entropy values on pre-treatment with both fentanyl as well as butorphanol. Hemodynamic variables were comparable in all the three groups. Conclusion: Butorphanol 20 μg/kg and 40 μg/kg reduce the induction requirement of propofol, comparable to that of fentanyl 2 μg/kg, and confer hemodynamic stability at induction and intubation.

  6. Effects of butorphanol on luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone levels in ovariectomized rats: comparison with the effects of morphine sulphate

    The effects of the synthetic morphine derivative, butorphanol, which was claimed to be a potent analgesic with few side effects, in comparison to the effects of the naturally occurring alkaloid, morphine on pituitary gonadotrophic hormones was investigated in ovariectomized rats. For this purpose 3 groups of ovariectomized rats were used. Rats of the first group were injected with butorphanol at 2 dose levels (1 or 2 mg/Kg b.w). Those of the second group were injected with morphine sulphate -(10 or 20 mg/Kg b.w). The third group was injected with saline and served as control. Blood samples were collected from theorbital sinus puncture just before treatment and then one hour post injection. Luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone levels were determined in blood sera of rats by radioimmunoassay. The results revealed that, the two dose levels used of morphine produced more than 90% decrease in serum LH concentration, whereas butorphanol produced more than 70% decrease in serum LH levels. Both morphine and butorphanol, at the two doses used produced more than 76% decrease in serum FSH concentration. It is concluded that butorphanol, the morphine derivative has a depressant effect on the synthesis and/or release of gonadotrophic hormones. This inhibitory effect, however, was nearly as potent as that produced by morphine sulphate.2 fig., 1 tab


    Nagarjuna Reddy


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pain is a subjective experience with sensory and emotional components that are inextricably linked to each other. P ain during labour is very intense for many mothers. Severe labour pains may adversely affect both mother and fetus. Variety of regional anal gesia techniques are available, Of all these techniques epidural analgesia using local anaesthetics and opiates has gained popularity as a safe and effective technique of pain relief largely replacing other modalities. AIM: The present study was undertaken to compare bupivacaine and fentanyl with a combination of bupivacaine and butorphanol by intermittent bolus epidural technique in relieving pain during labour. DESIGN: Randomized control study . METHODS: A total number of 100 parturients studied were divid ed into two groups randomly. Group - 1: received a combination of Bupivacaine and Fentanyl. The initial bolus dose was 0.1% Bupivacaine 10ml with 2mcg/ml [20mcg] of Fentanyl and top up doses were 0.1% Bupivacaine with Fentanyl 2mcg/ml [10ml]. Group - 2: This G roup received a combination of Bupivacaine and Butorphanol. The initial bolus dose was 0.1% Bupivacaine 10ml with 0.01% of Butorphanol [1mg] and top up doses were with 0.1% Bupivacaine [10ml]. Maternal blood pressure, pulse rate, fetal heart rate were moni tored every 1 - 2 min for first 10 min and then every 5 - 10 min for subsequent 30 min and later every half an hour. Time of onset of analgesia, level of sensory blockade and motor blockade, if any was noted. VISUAL ANALOGUE PAIN SCALE [VAPS] assessed pain a t different time intervals. The sedation was assessed by WILSON GRADING, BROMAGE SCALE assessed the motor blockade. RESULTS: The onsets of analgesia were quicker in group - 1 parturients who received 0.1% bupivacaine with 0.0002% fentanyl. The duration of anal gesia with the 1st dose was significantly more in the group - 2 also the requirement of top up doses was also less in group - 2 and also the quality in group

  8. Preemptive analgesia with butorphanol in psychotic patients following modified electroconvulsive therapy A randomized controlled trial

    Lingxi Wu; Handong Zou; Qingshan Zhou; Zhongchun Liu; Bangchang Cheng


    BACKGROUND: Preemptive analgesia involves introducing an analgesic prior to the onset of pain stimulation to prevent sensitizing the nervous system to subsequent stimuli that could amplify pain. OBJECTIVE: To treat psychiatric patients with intravenous (i.v.) injection of butorphanol prior to modified electroconvulsive therapy, and to observe its effect on alleviating myalgia after treatment and adverse reactions. DESIGN: A randomized controlled observation. SETTING: Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University.PARTICIPANTS: A total of 120 psychiatric patients, who accepted modified electroconvulsive therapy, were selected from the Mental Health Center of Wuhan University from June to September in 2006. All patients corresponded to the Chinese Classification and Diagnostic Criteria of Mental Disorders, and those with diseases of heart, liver, lung and kidney, glaucoma, intracranial hypertension, hyperthyreosis, and hyperkalemia were excluded. The patients were randomly divided into a control group (n = 60) and treatment group (n = 60). In the control group, there were 42 males and 18 females, aged 17–50 years, with a mean age of (34 ± 11) years. The patients weighed 50–70 kg, with a mean body mass of (63 ± 18) kg. In the treatment group, there were 40 males and 20 females, aged 20–54 years, with a mean age of (36 ± 13) years. The patients weighed 48–72 kg, with a mean body mass of (64 ± 16) kg. Approval was obtained from the Hospital's Ethics Committee. Informed consents were obtained from the patients' relatives. A SPECTRUM5000Q multifunctional mobile electroconvulsive therapy apparatus (CORPERATION, USA) was used.METHODS: ① Treatments: In the control group, the patients were anesthetized by I.v. Injection of propofol (AstraZeneca, Italy, No.CN309) containing 0.075% efedrina, and then modified electroconvulsive therapy was performed. Circulation, respiration, and firing of brain electrical activity were continuously monitored. In the treatment group, the

  9. Standing sedation in African elephants (Loxodonta africana) using detomidine-butorphanol combinations.

    Neiffer, Donald L; Miller, Michele A; Weber, Martha; Stetter, Mark; Fontenot, Deidre K; Robbins, P K; Pye, Geoffrey W


    Standing sedation was provided for 14 clinical procedures in three African elephants (Loxodonta africana) managed by combined protected and modified-protected contact and trained through operant conditioning. An initial hand-injection of detomidine hydrochloride and butorphanol tartrate at a ratio of 1:1 on a microg:microg basis was administered intramuscularly, with a dosage range of 50-70 mg (12.9-19.7 microg/kg) for each drug. The initial injection resulted in adequate sedation for initiation and completion of eight procedures, whereas supplemental doses were required for the remaining procedures. The dosage range for the supplemental injections of each drug was 4.0-7.3 microg/kg. Initial effect was noted within 3.0-25 min (mean = 11.6 min, SD +/- 5.9 min), with maximal effect occurring at 25-30 min for those procedures not requiring supplementation. In all but one procedure, this effect was maintained until the end of the procedure, which ranged from 47 to 98 min (mean = 74.7 min, SD +/- 18.8 min). No cardiac or respiratory depression was appreciated. Recovery after administration of reversal agents was rapid and complete, ranging from 2 to 20 min (mean = 9.0 min, SD +/- 7.0 min). On the basis of the authors' experience, recommended dosage ranges for reversal agents would be intravenous yohimbine (73.4-98.5 microg/kg), intravenous naltrexone (48.9-98.5 microg/kg), and intramuscular naltrexone (73.4-98.5 microg/kg). Approximately one-third to one-half of the total naltrexone dose should be administered intravenously. Mild adverse side effects limited to the gastrointestinal tract were observed in association with five procedures including abdominal distention with or without transient anorexia. Administration of reversal agents, encouraging exercise and water consumption, and administration of flunixin meglumine were helpful in the resolution of signs. In addition to gastrointestinal signs, slight ataxia was observed before initiation of surgical stimulation

  10. Effets de l’administration intramusculaire du butorphanol et de l’instillation oculaire du tropicamide sur l’ouverture pupillaire et la pression intraoculaire chez le chien‎

    Grillot, Aure-Eline


    Le but de cette étude était d’évaluer chez le chien sédaté par le butorphanol si la mydriase induite par l’instillation de tropicamide était retardée, et si l’augmentation de la pression intraoculaire (PIO) par le butorphanol était renforcée par celle-ci. Douze chiens Beagles sains ont reçu une injection intramusculaire de butorphanol 0,2 mg/kg ou de NaCl 0,9%. Des mesures du diamètre pupillaire et de la PIO ont été réalisées sur les yeux de chaque chien dont un tiré au sort ayant reçu une in...

  11. Naloxone-precipitated changes in biogenic amines and their metabolites in various brain regions of butorphanol-dependent rats.

    Tokuyama, S; Wakabayashi, H; Hoskins, B; Ho, I K


    Influence of a naloxone (an opioid receptor antagonist) challenge (5 mg/kg, IP) on levels of biogenic amines and their metabolites in various brain regions of rats infused continuously with butorphanol (a mu/delta/kappa mixed opioid receptor agonist; 26 nmol/microliter/h) or morphine (a mu-opioid receptor agonist; 26 nmol/microliter/h) was investigated using high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection (HPLC-ED). Naloxone precipitated a withdrawal syndrome and decreased the levels of: dopamine (DA) in the cortex and striatum, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) in the striatum, homovanilic acid (HVA) in the striatum, limbic, midbrain, and pons/medulla regions in butorphanol-dependent rats. However, the levels of norepinephrine (NE), serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT), and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) in the regions studied were not affected by naloxone-precipitated withdrawal. In addition, naloxone increased the HVA/DA ratio in the cortex, while this ratio was reduced in the limbic, midbrain, and pons/medulla. The reduction of 5-HIAA/5-HT ratio was also detected in the limbic area. In the animals rendered dependent on morphine, the results obtained were similar to those of butorphanol-dependent rats except for changes of 5-HIAA levels in some brain regions. These results suggest that an alteration of dopaminergic neuron activity following a reduction of DA and its metabolites in specific brain regions (e.g., striatum, limbic, midbrain, and pons/medulla) play an important role in the expression of the opioid withdrawal syndrome. PMID:8743609

  12. Effects of acepromazine and butorphanol on positive-contrast upper gastrointestinal tract examination in dogs

    To determine whether acepromazine (ACE) and butorphanol (BUT) combination can be used for restraint of dogs during positive-contrast upper gastrointestinal tract (UGIT) examination. 6 healthy dogs. In a randomized crossover design study, weekly UGIT examinations were performed on each dog for 5 weeks after administration of normal saline solution (0.5 ml), xylazine (1.0 mg/kg of body weight), or a combination of ACE (0.1 mg/kg) and 1 of 3 doses of BUT (0.05, 0.2, 1.0 mg/kg). Gastrointestinal tract emptying time, GI motility, pulse, respiratory rate, and quality of restraint were assessed. Total gastric emptying time was significantly prolonged by use of an ACE and BUT (0.05 mg/kg) combination. Xylazine and higher dosages of BUT significantly prolonged gastric and intestinal emptying times. All anesthetic protocols significantly decreased motility and facilitated nonmanual restraint. Xylazine and BUT (1.0 mg/kg) significantly decreased pulse and respiratory rate. The ACE and BUT combination prolonged GI tract emptying times, decreased GI motility, and facilitated nonmanual restraint for duration of the examination. Although GI motility was decreased and total gastric emptying time was prolonged, administration of ACE (0.1 mg/kg) plus BUT (0.05 mg/kg) allowed morphologic examination of the GI tract within 5 hours. Xylazine prolonged GI tract emptying, decreased GI motility, and provided good to excellent initial restraint. Clinical Relevance-The ACE and BUT combination prohibits functional examination of the GI tract; however, morphologic examination is possible when low dosages of BUT (0.05 mg/kg) are used

  13. Sedative, hematologic and hemostatic effects of dexmedetomidine-butorphanol alone or in combination with ketamine in cats.

    Volpato, Julieta; Mattoso, Cláudio Roberto Scabelo; Beier, Suzane Lilian; Coelho, Mirelly Medeiros; Tocheto, Ronise; Kirsten, Cristine Elizabeth; Yonezawa, Letícia Andreza; Saito, Mere Erika


    Acute stress induced by physical restraint can interfere with the validity of laboratory findings. Sedation could minimize such stress. However, it is not known whether sedation can affect hematologic and hemostatic parameters in cats. The purpose of this study was to evaluate hematologic and hemostatic parameters in domestic cats subjected to physical restraint in addition to one of two sedation protocols. In total, 50 cats were subjected to physical restraint and were then randomly divided into two groups of 25 animals, receiving dexmedetomidine (5 µg/kg) and butorphanol (0.3 mg/kg; DB group) or dexmedetomidine (5 µg/kg), butorphanol (0.3 mg/kg) and ketamine (3 mg/kg; DBK group). The cats were assessed for acute stress, sedation level, onset of sedation and duration of sedation. Blood samples were collected after handling and after sedation. The complete blood count (CBC), platelet count, buccal mucosal bleeding time (BMBT), whole-blood clotting time, prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) and thrombin time (TT) were determined for each sample, before and after chemical restraint. No statistically significant differences were found in the hematologic parameters. Certain hemostatic parameters (PT, aPTT and TT) were higher in the DB group (P cats, and no clinically relevant effects on hematologic or hemostatic parameters were detected. PMID:25216730

  14. Cardiorespiratory and anesthetic effects produced by the combination of butorphanol, medetomidine and alfaxalone administered intramuscularly in Beagle dogs.

    Lee, Jongsung; Suh, Sangil; Choi, Ran; Hyun, Changbaig


    This study evaluated anesthesia quality, degree of analgesia and cardiorespiratory parameters after intramuscular (IM) injection of a combination of butorphanol (0.1 mg/kg), medetomidine (10 µg/kg) and alfaxalone (1.5 mg/kg) in ten healthy adult Beagle dogs. Rectal temperature (T), heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (fR), arterial pressure, arterial blood gases and M-mode echocardiographic left ventricular (LV) indices were measured before drug administration and every 10 min thereafter until extubation. Mean duration of anesthesia, recovery and analgesia were 89 ± 17, 6 ± 1 and 80 ± 12 min. HR, fR, partial pressure of arterial CO2 and O2, arterial pressure, and LV contractility were significantly altered during anesthesia. IM administration of the drug combination provided acceptable anesthesia, but produced substantial cardiorespiratory suppression. PMID:26256405




    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Epidural anaesthesia is used extensively for both intra-operative and post-operative analgesia. This prospective randomized study was conducted using opioids epidurally for post-operative analgesia. Fentanyl is a pure opioid agonist. Butorphanol tartarate which is an agonist antagonist opioid is considered safer than pure opioid agonist. Hence, we compared epidural 4mg butorphanol and epidural 100 µg fentanyl for the relief of post-operative pain. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To compare the onset, duration, quality of analgesia, hemodynamic effects and side effects between the 2 study drugs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 60 patients of either sex posted for elective lower abdominal and lower limb surgeries were randomly divided into 2 groups of 30 each. Group A received butorphanol 4mg epidurally. Group B received fentanyl 100 µg epidurally. All surgeries were done under lumbar epidural anaesthesia with catheter in situ. Post-operatively when patients complained of pain, intensity of pain was assessed using visual analogue scale [VAS]. When the VAS score was > 5, Group A received butorphanol 4mg diluted to 10 ml with NS or Group B received 100 µg fentanyl epidurally diluted to 10 ml with NS. Onset, duration, quality of analgesia, hemodynamic effects and incidence of side effects were compared between the two groups and treated accordingly. RESULTS: Demographic profile was comparable in both groups. Mean time of onset of analgesia was rapid (3.22 ±0.9 (S.D min in group B compared to group A (6.38± 1.26 (S.D min. Duration of analgesia was longer in group A (344.00 ±63.39 min compared to group B (227±38.12 min. Quality of analgesia was better with group A compared to group B. There was no significant difference in hemodynamic parameters in both groups. Sedation was the main side effect in group A. Incidence of pruritis, vomiting, hypotension and respiratory depression was more in group B. CONCLUSION: Epidural Butorphanol though has a delayed

  16. Absolute quantification of swine brain glutamate compounds concentration using MR spectroscopy and LCModel after nasal spraying butorphanol tartrate

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the central nervous system (CNS) analgesics affect the metabolites of swine brain by nasal spraying. Methods: Single voxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) was performed on 9 swine. The data were post-processed using LCModel software. Results: Before nasal spraying butorphanol tartrate, the mean Glutamate compounds (Glxs) concentration was (9.276±0.542) mmol/kg. After nasal spraying, the mean Glx concentration was (7.283±0.540) mmol/kg. Using paired sample t-test we found that swine brain ax level was significantly decreased after using nasal spray analgesic (t=2.826, P=0.022). However, there were no significant differences in mean NAA and Choline (Cho) concentrations before and after nasal spraying [(6.094±0.384) mmol/kg vs. (5.530±0.346) mmol/kg (t=1.270, P=0.240) and (1.547±0.114) mmol/kg vs. (1.255±0.079) mmol/kg (t=1.800, P=0.110), respectively). Conclusion: Our results imply that Glxs are nociceptive neurotransmitters and play an important role in the analgesia. (authors)

  17. Role of butorphanol and ondansetron premedication in reducing postoperative shivering after general and spinal anesthesia: A randomized comparative study from North India

    Rai, Sujeet; Verma, Satyajeet; Pandey, H. P.; Yadav, Pramod; Patel, Amit


    Background: Postoperative shivering (PAS) is a common problem following general and spinal anesthesia and may lead to multiple complications. This placebo-controlled, randomized study was performed to evaluate the efficacy of Ondansetron and butorphanol premedication reduces shivering after general and spinal anaesthesia. Aims: The aim of this study to highlight the efficacy of Butorphenol and ondosteron in controlling postoperative shivering. Materials and Methods: This clinical trial included 180 patients scheduled for elective general surgery, E.N.T., Ophthamological operations, randomly divided to six groups. Three groups in which General Anaesthesia was used i.e. Group 1-ondansetron 8 mg intravenously(IV).Group 2 butorphanol 2 mg IV and Group 3 – saline 4 ml IV. And three groups where spinal Anaesthesia was used i.e. Group 4-Ondosteron 8 mg IV, Group 5 butorphanol 2 mg IV and Group 6 – saline 4 ml IV 3-5 minutes before anaesthesia. Patients were observed in terms of vital signs, side effects and shivering. Settings and Design: The type of the study was double blind randomized trial. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 13.0 statistical analysis software. Results: Postoperative shivering was observed in 15.5%, 22.2% and 60% in general anaesthesia groups I II and III respectively. The reduction of core and dermal temperature during the anaesthesia and recovery, changes in systolic and diastolic blood pressure and heart rate were similar in all three groups (i.e. Group I,II,III). In spinal anaesthesia groups, PAS occurred 10%, 13.3% and 43.3% in group IV, V, VI respectively. The reduction of core temperature is similar in all three groups of spinal anaesthesia. But heart rate and mean arterial pressure increase were significant in control saline group in post operative recovery time. No complication seen in any of the six groups. Conclusion: This study suggested that use of Butorphanol and Ondansteron both are effective

  18. Analgesia effect of tartaric acid butorphanol for after total hysterectomy%酒石酸布托啡诺用于全子宫切除术后镇痛效果分析



    Objective: To observe analgesia effect of tartaric acid butorphanol for after total hysterectomy. Methods: A total of 60 patients with total hysterectomy and morphine were randomly divided into group (group A) , and butorphanol group (group B). Postoperative analgesia effect was observed and compared. Result: Butorphanol showed the same analgesia effect as morphine, but was of for less adverse reaction. Conclusions: Tartaric acid butorphanol has satisfactory analgesia effect for total hysterectomy good analgesia and is of no adverse reactions.%目的:观察酒石酸布托啡诺在全子宫切除术后镇痛中的临床效果.方法:选择60例全子宫切除术后镇痛患者,随机分为吗啡组(A组)、布托啡诺组(B组),进行术后镇痛临床效果比较.结果:布托啡诺用于全子宫术后镇痛与吗啡有相同镇痛效果,且不良反应比吗啡少.结论:酒石酸布托啡诺用于全子宫切除术镇痛效果好,且无不良反应.

  19. The effect of anesthesia with propofol and sedation with butorphanol on quantitative contrast-enhanced ultrasonography of the healthy feline kidney.

    Stock, Emmelie; Vanderperren, Katrien; Van der Vekens, Elke; Haers, Hendrik; Duchateau, Luc; Polis, Ingeborgh; Hesta, Myriam; Saunders, Jimmy H


    Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography of the left kidney was performed using a commercial contrast agent in six healthy adult purpose-bred cats. A cross-over design was used to compare three protocols: (1) awake, (2) butorphanol (0.4 mg/kg IM), and (3) propofol (3.5-7.7 mg/kg IV boluses to effect). Time-intensity curves were created from two regions-of-interest drawn in the renal cortex. The curves were analyzed for blood flow parameters representing blood volume (base intensity, peak intensity, area-under-curve) and blood velocity (arrival time, time-to-peak, wash-in/out). There was no difference in the subjective enhancement pattern between the three protocols. No significant effect of butorphanol was observed in any of the perfusion parameters (P > 0.05). Propofol did not influence the most important perfusion parameter, area-under-the-curve, and is adequate for use in contrast-enhanced ultrasound studies. PMID:25458879




    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Addition of adjuvant in caudal block along with bu pivacaine prolongs the duration of postoperative analgesia. AIMS: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of caudal bupivacaine alone or in combi nation with butorphanol or clonidine for postoperative analgesia in children undergoing infra- umbilical surgeries. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study was a prospective, randomized, double bli nd study and seventy five children of ASA grade I and II of either sex aged 3 -8yr were randomized to one of the three groups. Group A received 1 ml/kg of 0.25% bupivacaine ; Group B received 20 μg/kg of butorphanol in combination with 1 ml/kg of 0.25% bupi vacaine; and Group C received 2 μg/kg of clonidine in combination with 1 ml/kg of 0.25% b upivacaine caudally after general anaesthesia was induced. Hemodynamic variables (HR, SpO2, RR and NIBP were monitored in all patients. Sedation score, mean duration of analg esia, modified objective pain score and requirement of rescue analgesia were recorded at pre set time intervals along with various complications like nausea, vomiting, hypotension, bra dycardia, respiratory depression, retention of urine, sweating, pruritis, hallucinatio ns. STATISTYICAL ANALYSIS: ANOVA test ( Analysis of variance for intergroup comparison with parametric data, Student’s paired t test for intragroup comparison, chi square test for non parame tric data and complications and coefficient of variation for variation of parameters from the baseline. RESULTS: Mean duration of analgesia was maximum in group B (822.0±217.41 mi n than in group A (383.2±81.04 min and group C (745.4± 216.69 min and it was statistic ally significant . The longer duration of sedation observed in group C was also statistically significant. No significant difference was observed in incidence of hemodynamic changes or sid e effects. CONCLUSION: Our results concluded that the addition of butorphanol and clonidine to bupivaca ine

  1. Cardiorespiratory effects of induction and maintenance of anesthesia with ketamine-midazolam combination, with and without prior administration of butorphanol or oxymorphone.

    Jacobson, J D; McGrath, C J; Smith, E P


    Cardiorespiratory effects of an IV administered bolus of ketamine (7.5 mg/kg of body weight) and midazolam (0.375 mg/kg) followed by IV infusion of ketamine (200 micrograms/kg/min) and midazolam (10 micrograms/kg/min) for 60 minutes was determined in 6 dogs. Ketamine-midazolam combination was administered to dogs on 3 occasions to determine effects of prior administration of IV administered saline solution (1 ml), butorphanol (0.2 mg/kg), or oxymorphone (0.1 mg/kg). The infusion rate of ketamine and midazolam was decreased by 25% for anesthetic maintenance after opioid administration. There were no significant differences in cardiorespiratory variables after saline solution or butorphanol administration; however, oxymorphone caused significant (P ketamine-midazolam combination after saline solution caused significant (P < 0.05) increases in heart rate, mean arterial blood pressure, cardiac index, mean pulmonary blood pressure, venous admixture, and significant decreases in stroke index, pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, arterial and mixed venous oxygen tension, arterial oxygen content, and alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient. Opioid administration was associated with significantly (P < 0.05) lower values than was saline administration for heart rate, mean arterial blood pressure, and arterial and mixed venous pH and with higher values for stroke index, pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, and arterial and mixed venous carbon dioxide tension. Prior oxymorphone administration resulted in the highest (P < 0.05) values for mean pulmonary blood pressure, venous admixture, and arterial and mixed venous carbon dioxide tension, and the lowest values for arterial oxygen tension, and arterial and mixed venous pH. Each treatment provided otherwise uncomplicated anesthetic induction, maintenance, and recovery.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8017701

  2. 布托啡诺、哌替啶与曲马多治疗围麻醉期病人寒战的效果%A comparison among butorphanol, pethidine and tramadol in treating perioperative chilling

    曹亚; 鲁卫华; 柳兆芳; 鲁美静


    AIM: To study the effects of butorphanol , pethidine and tramadol in treatment of patients with perioperative shivering. METHODS: Sixty ASA I - II patients with shivering response during anesthesia were randomly divided into three groups(n = 20) : butorphanol group (group B), intravenous injection of butorphanol 0.02 mg/kg; pethidine group (group P), intravenous injection of pethidine 0.5 mg/kg; and tramadol group (group T), intravenous tramadol 1 mg/kg. Observed the degree and time of occurrence of shivering, shivering response after treatment and adverse effect in sedation score. RESULTS: Butorphanol group and tramadol group were effective than pethidine group in treatment of shivering (P<0. 01). Butorphanol group was significantly higher than tramadol group and pethidine group in sedation (P < 0. 05). Tramadol group was significantly higher than pethidine group and butorphanol group in incidence of nausea and vomiting ( P < 0. 05 ). CONCLUSION: Butorphanol and tramadol can effectively treat perioperative shivering,but clinical patients should be reasonable select different drugs according to particular case.%目的:观察布托啡诺、哌替啶与曲马多三种药物治疗围麻醉期病人寒战的效果.方法:60例ASAⅠ~Ⅱ级麻醉期间发生寒战反应的病人,随机分为三组,每组20例:布托啡诺组,静脉注射布托啡诺0.02 mg/kg;哌替啶组,静脉注射哌替啶0.5mg/kg;曲马多组,静脉注射曲马多1 mg/kg.观察寒战程度及治疗效果,用药后镇静评分及不良反应.结果:布托啡诺组和曲马多组寒战治疗有效率高于哌替啶组(P<0.01);哌替啶组和曲马多组的镇静评分显著高于布托啡诺组(P<0.05);曲马多组恶心呕吐发生率高于哌替啶组和布托啡诺组(P<0.05).结论:布托啡诺与曲马多可有效控制麻醉后的寒战反应,但布托啡诺镇静作用较强,而曲马多增加恶心呕吐发生率,临床上应根据患者的情况合理应用相应药物.

  3. Analgesia after feline ovariohysterectomy under midazolam-medetomidine-ketamine anaesthesia with buprenorphine or butorphanol, and carprofen or meloxicam: a prospective, randomised clinical trial.

    Polson, Sally; Taylor, Polly M; Yates, David


    One hundred female cats undergoing routine ovariohysterectomy under midazolam-medetomidine-ketamine anaesthesia were included in a blinded, randomised, prospective clinical study to compare postoperative analgesia produced by four analgesic drug combinations given preoperatively (n = 25 per group). A secondary aim was to assess the effects in kittens and pregnant animals. Buprenorphine 180 µg/m(2) or butorphanol 6 mg/m(2) were given with either carprofen 4 mg/kg (groups BUPC and BUTC, respectively) or meloxicam 0.3 mg/kg (groups BUPM or BUTM, respectively). Medetomidine was not antagonised. A simple, descriptive scale (SDS; 0-4), a dynamic and interactive visual analogue scale (DIVAS; 0-100 mm) and mechanical nociceptive thresholds (MT; 2.5-mm diameter probe) were used to evaluate postoperative pain. All pain scores were low (DIVAS 10 N) and there were no significant differences between the groups. It was concluded that all protocols provided adequate analgesia and when used with midazolam-medetomidine-ketamine are effective for routine feline ovariohysterectomy. PMID:22505603

  4. 酒石酸布托啡诺对全麻诱导期枸橼酸芬太尼诱发呛咳的影响%Effects of Butorphanol Pretreatment on Fentanyl-induced Cough during General Aneasthesia Induction

    万路; 贾佳; 刘瑶; 黄宁; 王国年


    Objective: To investigate the effects of pre-induction butorphanol administration on fentanyl-induced cough during aneasthesia induction. Methods: 80 elective surgical patients, scaled Ⅰ - Ⅱ by ASA, were randomly divided into two groups. Butorphanol or equal volume normal saline was injected through peripheral cannula 5 minutes prior to intravenous administration of 3 μg/kg fentanyl in 2 seconds. The incidence of cough was observed in 2 minutes and hemodynamics during the procedure were recorded. Results: Only 2 (5 %) patients had mild to moderate cough in pre-treatment butorphanol group, while 27 (67.5 %) patients in control group, in which there were 8 mild cases (20.0 %), 15 moderate (37.5 %) and 4 severe (10.0 %). Besides, compared with control group, the blood-pressure and heartrate of patients in pre-treatment butorphanol group were more stable. Conclusions: Butorphanol pre-treatment 5 min before induction significantly suppresses fentanyl-induced cough and intubation reaction during general aneasthesia induction.%目的:探讨布托啡诺对全麻诱导期芬太尼诱发呛咳的影响.方法:将80例ASA Ⅰ-Ⅱ级患者随机分成两组,布托啡诺组和对照组(每组40例).麻醉诱导前预注布托啡诺(布托啡诺组)或等量生理盐水(对照组),5 min后由外周静脉快速注射芬太尼3μg/kg(2s内),观察2min内呛咳反应的发生率,随后给予依托咪酯0.3 mg/kg,顺式阿曲库铵0.15 mg/kg进行气管插管,行机械通气并观测血流动力学变化.结果:布托啡诺组仅有2例患者出现轻中度呛咳(5%),而对照组有27例(67.5%)出现不同程度的呛咳,其中轻度8例(20.0%),中度15例(37.5%),重度为4例(10.0%).与对照组相比,布托啡诺组血流动力学更为平稳.结论:全麻诱导前5 min预注射布托啡诺可显著抑制芬太尼诱发的呛咳反应,且可减轻插管反应.

  5. Observation on Effects of Butorphanol for Preventing Shivering during Abdominal Operation under Epidural Anesthesia%布托啡诺预防硬膜外麻醉下腹部手术中寒战30例



    Objective To observe the effect of butorphanol in the prevention of shivering during abdominal surgery under epidural anesthesia. Methods Ninety patients undergoing abdominal surgery under epidural anesthesia were randomly divided into three groups: butorphanol group (group B), pethidine group (group D) and the control group (normal saline, group C).The group B was given intravenous injection of butorphanol at a dose of 1 mg/5 mL, the group D was given intravenous injection of pethidine at a dose of 15 ~ 30 mg/5 mL and the group C was given intravenous injection of 5 mL normal saline. The preventive effects of shivering, changes of vital signs and adverse reactions were recorded at 5, 15, 30 min after administration for comparing with group C ascontrol. Results The effectiveness of shivering prevention in the group B and D within 5 min after administration were 96. 67% and 86. 67% respectively, without significant difference between the two groups. But comparing one of these two groups with the control group showed significant difference (P < 0. 05). The changes of vital signs before and after administration in the group B and C had no significant difference, the changes in the group D showed significant difference compared with before administration(P <0. 05). The group B was prone to sleepiness than the group D {P<0. 05). The group D was more likely to nausea and vomiting than the group B {P<0. 05). Allthree groups had no respiratory depression. Conclusion Butorphanol and pethidine both have significant effects on the prevention of shivering in abdominal surgery under epidural anesthesia. Butorphanol is superior to pethidine in the curative effects without significant difference.%目的 观察布托啡诺在预防硬膜外麻醉下腹部手术中寒战的效果.方法 选取硬膜外麻醉下腹部手术患者90例,随机均分成布托啡诺组(B组)、哌替啶组(D组)、对照组(生理盐水组,C组).记录各组在给药后5,15,30min时的寒战预防效

  6. Butorphanol significantly suppresses fentanyl-induced cough during general anesthesia induction%布托菲诺显著抑制全麻诱导时芬太尼诱发的咳嗽

    张军; 周伟; 徐振东; 丁晓楠; 梁伟民


    Objective To evaluate the effects of pre-induction butorphanol administration on fentanyl-induced cough during anesthesia induction. Methods This was a random, double-blind study. One hundred and sixty elective surgical patients were equally and randomly assigned to one of the following groups in which butorphnol or equal volume normal saline (control) was injected through peripheral cannula 1 minute prior to intravenous administration of 3 μg/kg fentanyl in 3 seconds. The grade of cough and hemodynamics during the procedure were recorded. Results Only 2 (2.50 % )patients had mild to moderate cough in pre-treatment butorphanol group, while 23 (28.75 % )patients in control group coughed after giving fentanyl intravenously, in which there were 5 mild cases (6.25%), 14 moderate (17.5%) ,and 7 severe (8.75 % ). Compared with the control group, pre-induction butorphanol did not influenced heart rate(HR) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) before tracheal intubation, but significantly suppressed increase of HR and MAP caused by intubation. Conclusions Butorphanol pre-treatment significantly suppresses 3 μg/kg fentanyl-induced cough during anesthesia induction.%目的 评价在麻醉诱导前预注布托菲诺对全麻诱导时芬太尼诱发咳嗽的抑制效应.方法 本试验为随机双盲研究.160例患者随机分为2组(每组80例):麻醉诱导前预注布托菲诺组或等量生理盐水组(对照组).观察外周静脉快速注射3 μg/kg芬太尼(3 s内)所诱发的咳嗽发生情况以及实验过程中的血流动力学变化即心率(HR)和平均动脉压(MAP).结果 布托菲诺组仅有2位患者出现轻中度咳嗽(2.5%),而生理盐水组则有26位(32.5%)患者出现不同程度的咳嗽,其中轻度为5例(6.25%),中度为14例(17.5%),重度为7例(8.75%).与对照组相比,诱导前预注布托菲诺不影响插管前HR和MAP,但可以降低气管插管后HR和MAP的升高.结论 布托菲诺显著降低全麻诱导时注射3 μg/kg芬太尼所诱发的咳嗽反应.

  7. 布托啡诺与曲马朵治疗剖宫产术中寒颤效果比较%Comparison of the effects of butorphanol and tramadol on shiver in patients with cesarean section

    董美荣; 姜东; 刘满生; 陈锋; 张帆; 张琴


    目的 比较布托啡诺与曲马朵治疗剖宫产术中寒颤的效果.方法 选择剖宫产术中发生寒颤产妇200例(均为腰硬联合麻醉,ASA Ⅰ ~Ⅱ级),按数字表法随机分为两组(各100例),观察组(Ⅰ组)术中给予布托啡诺(0.015 mg/kg),对照组(Ⅱ组)术中给予曲马朵(1 mg/kg),分别记录用药前及用药后5 min、10 min寒颤的评级、不良反应及平均动脉压(MAP)、心率(HR)、呼吸(RR)、脉搏血氧饱和度(SpO2)、不良反应发生率等.结果 两组术中、术后BP、HR、RR、SpO2等差异均无统计学意义(均P>0.05).观察组于5 min、10 min时寒颤消失总有效率分别为100%、98%,对照组分别为100%、88%,两组差异均无统计学意义(均P>0.05).观察组术中发生血压下降5例、嗜睡8例、恶心呕吐1例、寒颤复发2例,对照组分别为4例、6例、26例、12例,两组血压下降、嗜睡发生率差异均无统计学意义(均P >0.05),两组恶心呕吐、寒颤复发的发生率差异均有统计学意义(x2=26.7609、7.6805,均P<0.05).结论 治疗剖宫产术中寒颤布托啡诺比曲马朵更优.%Objective To compare the effects of butorphanol and tramadol on shiver in patients with cesarean section.Methods 200 cases with maternal shiver (both for waist hard combined anesthesia,ASA Ⅰ ~ Ⅱ) were chosen in this study.According to the digital meter method,they were randomly divided into two groups,100 cases in each group.The observation group(group Ⅰ) was intraoperatively given butorphanol (0.015mg/kg),the control group(group Ⅱ) was intraoperatively given tramadol(1mg/kg).Shivers rating before and after drug use 5min,10min,adverse reactions,blood pressure (MAP),heart rate (HR),respiratory (RR),pulse oxygen saturation (SpO2)and incidence rate of adverse reaction were recorded.Results Perioperative and postoperative BP,HR,RR,SpO2,etc between two groups had no statistically significant differences (P > 0.05).At 5 min,10 min,the total

  8. Hemogasometria e variáveis cardiopulmonares após administração do butorfanol em cães anestesiados pelo desfluorano sob ventilação espontânea Acid-base and cardiopulmonary effects after butorphanol administration in spontaneously breathing dogs anesthetized by desflurane

    Paulo Sérgio Patto dos Santos


    Full Text Available Este experimento teve por objetivos avaliar as possíveis alterações cardiopulmonares e hemogasométricas decorrentes do uso do butorfanol em cães submetidos à anestesia pelo desfluorano sob ventilação espontânea. Para tal, foram utilizados vinte cães adultos, clinicamente saudáveis, pesando 12±3kg. Os animais foram distribuídos igualmente em dois grupos, GS e GB, e induzidos à anestesia com propofol (8,4±0,8mg kg-1, IV, intubados e submetidos à anestesia inalatória pelo desfluorano (10V%. Decorridos 40 minutos da indução, foi administrado aos animais do GS 0,05mL kg-1 de solução fisiológica a 0,9% (salina, enquanto que, no GB, foi aplicado butorfanol na dose de 0,4mg kg-1, ambos pela via intramuscular. As observações das variáveis freqüências cardíaca (FC e respiratória (f, pressões arteriais sistólica (PAS, diastólica (PAD e média (PAM, pH arterial (pH, pressão parcial de oxigênio no sangue arterial (PaO2, pressão parcial de dióxido de carbono no sangue arterial (PaCO2, déficit de base (DB, bicarbonato (HCO3 e saturação de oxigênio na hemoglobina (SatO2 tiveram início imediatamente antes da aplicação do opióide ou salina (M0. Novas mensurações foram realizadas 15 minutos após a administração do butorfanol ou salina (M15 e as demais colheitas foram realizadas a intervalos de 15 minutos, por um período de 60 minutos (M30, M45, M60 e M75. Os dados numéricos dessas variáveis foram submetidos à Análise de Perfil (PThe cardiopulmonary and acid-base effects of butorphanol in desflurane anesthetized dogs breathing spontaneously were evaluated. Twenty adult healthy, male and female dogs were used. They were separated into two groups of 10 animals each (GS and GB. Anesthesia was induced with propofol (8.4±0.8mg kg-1 IV and maintained with desflurane (10V%. After 40 minutes of induction, the animals from GS received saline solution at 0.9% (0.05mL kg-1 and from GB received butorphanol (0.4mg kg-1

  9. Alterações cardiovasculares de gatos submetidos à toracotomia intercostal, pré-medicados com associação de tramadol, butorfanol e atropina e anestesiados com propofol e halotano Cardiovascular changes in cats submitted to intercostal thoracotomy, premedication with association tramadol, butorphanol, atropine, anesthetised with propofol and halothane

    Juliana Tabarelli Brondani


    Full Text Available A toracotomia é um procedimento cirúrgico que produz estímulo doloroso intenso. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito cardiovascular da associação tramadol, butorfanol e atropina na medicação pré-anestésica de gatos anestesiados com propofol e halotano. Doze animais, SRD, machos ou fêmeas, com peso médio de 2,7 ± 0,62kg receberam como medicação pré-anestésica (MPA, a associação de tramadol (2,0mg kg-1, butorfanol (0,4mg kg-1 e atropina (0,044mg kg-1, via intramuscular. Trinta minutos após MPA, a indução foi realizada com propofol (5,0mg kg-1 por via intravenosa. A manutenção anestésica foi obtida com halotano e oxigênio 100% sob ventilação artificial manual. Os gatos foram submetidos à toracotomia intercostal para implante de um segmento autólogo de pericárdio no diafragma. As variáveis avaliadas foram: freqüência cardíaca (bpm, saturação de oxigênio da hemoglobina (%, pressão arterial sistólica (mmHg e vaporização de halotano (%. As variáveis foram mensuradas 20 minutos após a MPA (TMPA, 10 minutos após indução e a cada 10 minutos até o final do procedimento cirúrgico (T10 a T100.Os dados obtidos foram analisados estatisticamente através de ANOVA e teste de Bonferroni (pIntercostal thoracotomy is a very painful procedure that deserves proper prevention and treatment. In this study we aimed to investigate the cardiovascular effect of the association of tramadol, butorphanol and atropine in the premedication of cats anesthetised with propofol and halothane. Twelve cats of mixed breed, female and male, with mean body weight of 2.7 ± 0.62kg were premedicated with 2.0mg kg-1 tramadol and 0.4mg kg-1 butorphanol and 0.044mg kg-1 atropine combined in the same syringe intramuscularly administered. After 30 minutes of premedication, anesthetic induction was obtained with 5.0mg kg-1 propofol intravenously. Anesthetic maintenance was done with halothane and 100% oxygen with manual artificial

  10. Plasma and cerebrospinal fluid alfentanil, butorphanol, and morphine concentrations following caudal epidural administration in horses Concentrações plasmáticas e no líquido cérebro-espinhal de alfentanil, butorfanol e morfina após administração epidural caudal em eqüinos

    Cláudio Corrêa Natalini


    Full Text Available This study was conducted with the objective of determining the plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF concentrations after epidurally administered alfentanil, butorphanol, and morphine in horses. Five clinically healthy adult horses were studied. Morphine 0.1mg kg-1, alfentanil 0.02mg kg-1, and butorphanol 0.08mg kg-1 in equal volumes (20ml were epidurally injected. A 10-ml sample of CSF and blood were drawn at sampling times before the epidural administration and at 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60 and 120 minutes, and hourly for 24 hours Enzyme-linked immonosorbent assay (ELISA was used as the screening test to detect the injected opioids. ANOVA and Bonferroni’s test were used with a P values Este estudo foi realizado com o objetivo de se detectar as concentrações plasmáticas e no líquido cérebro-espinhal de alfentanil, butorfanol e morfina administrados por via epidural caudal em cavalos. Foram utilizados cinco eqüinos adultos, clinicamente hígidos. Doses de morfina (0,1mg kg-1, alfentanil (0,02mg kg-1, e butorfanol (0,08mg kg-1, diluídos em volume idêntico de 20ml em solução salina 0,9%, foram administrados por via epidural. Uma amostra de 10ml de sangüe venoso e de líqüido cérebro-espinhal foram colhidas anteriormente à administração epidural e 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60 e 120 minutos e a cada hora por 24 horas. O teste enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA foi utilizado como método analítico para detecção dos opióides. Os resultados foram avaliados com teste ANOVA e Bonferroni com valor de P<0,05. O teste de ELISA mostrou-se eficiente para detecção plasmática e no LCE de alfentanil, butorfanol, e morfina administrados por via epidural. A administração epidural de alfentanil em eqüinos produz níveis no líquido cérebro-espinhal mais rapidamente que no plasma. Opióides de maior hidrossolubilidade tais como morfina e butorfanol produzem níveis plasmáticos mais rapidamente do que no líquido cérebro-espinhal quando

  11. 预先静注布托啡诺对腰硬联合麻醉后寒战反应的影响%The effects of pre-treatment with butorphanol on postanesthesia shivering in patients undergoing operation of hypogustric zone after combined spinal-epidural anesthesia

    茆庆洪; 阮加萍; 柳胜安


    Objective To assess the effects of pre-treatment with butorphanol on postanesthesia shivering in patients undergoing operation of hypogastric zone after combined spinal-epidural anesthesia. Methods Sixty patients (ASA Ⅰ,Ⅱ) undergoing operation of hypogastric zone were randomly assigned into two groups(n = 30). Group A(test group) : The patients were injected intravenously with butorphanoi 1 mg/5 ml at the time of 10 min before combined spinal-epidural anesthesia. Group B(control group) : The patients were injected intravenously with 0.9% saline 5 ml at the same time point. The development of shivering and sedation degree was observed after the anesthesia. Results The incidence rate on shivering in test group was significantly lower than that in control group(P <0.01). While the satisfaction rate on sedation score in test group was higher than that in control group(P < 0.05). Conclusion Pre-treatment with butorphanol is effective and safe on poatanesthesia shivering in patients undergoing operation of hypogastric zone.%目的 观察预先静脉注射布托啡诺对下腹部手术腰硬联合麻醉后寒战反应的影响.方法 选择60例ASA Ⅰ~Ⅱ级下腹部手术腰硬联合麻醉患者,随机分为两组A组(观察组)、B组(对照组),A组在腰硬联合麻醉前10 min静脉注射布托啡诺1 mg/5 ml,B组注射5 ml生理盐水.观察麻醉后两组患者寒战发生的情况及镇静评分.结果 观察组寒战反应发生率明显低于对照组(P<0.01),镇静评分满意率观察组显著高于对照组(P<0.05).结论 预先静脉注射布托啡诺能够有效地预防下腹部手术腰硬联合麻醉后寒战的发生,且镇静效果满意.

  12. Butorphanol Clinical Research on the Prevention of Gynecological Surgical Spinal-epidural Anesthesia Shivering Reaction%布托啡诺对预防妇科手术腰-硬联合麻醉后寒战反应的临床研究



      目的探讨布托啡诺对预防妇科手术腰-硬联合麻醉(CSEA)后寒战反应的临床效果。方法收集我院2011年~2012年70例行妇科手术治疗患者70例,随机分为观察组及对照组,各35例,两组患者手术均在CSEA下进行,观察组患者静脉应用布托啡诺,对照组患者注射哌替啶,观察两组患者麻醉后寒战发生率及改善情况。结果观察组患者寒战反应发生率低,与对照组患者比较差异明显,有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论布托啡诺可有效预防妇科手术CSEA后寒战反应,对生命体征影响较小,值得在临床推广。%  Objective To investigate the butorphanol clinical effect of shivering after to preventive gynecological surgery waist-epidural anesthesia (CSEA). Method Collected in our hospital from 2011 to 2012, 70 gynecological surgical treatment of 70 patients were randomly divided into observation group and the control group, 35 cases in each, the two groups of patients were operated in the CSEA under observation group patients intravenous Bhutto brown promise, the control group patients were injected with pethidine, the observed incidence of shivering in the two groups of patients were anesthetized and improve the situation. Results The patients chills reaction low incidence of significant differences compared with the control group patients, a statistically significant (P<0.05). Conclusion Butorphanol effective prevention of gynecological surgery CSEA shivering little effect on vital signs, worth in clinical practice.

  13. Avaliação algimétrica por estímulo nociceptivo térmico e pressórico em cães pré-tratados com levomepromazina, midazolam e quetamina associados ou não ao butorfanol ou buprenorfina The algimetry evaluation for thermic and pressoric nociceptive stimulus in pre treated dogs with methotrimeprazine, midazolam and ketamine associated or not with butorphanol or buprenorphine

    André Leguthe Rosa


    methotrimeprazine and midazolam put on the same syringe with ketamine. The animals of GII received the same treatment of GI but associated with butorphanol and finally the animals of GIII received the same treatment of GI but associated with buprenorphine. The routine parametric evaluations has been proceeded, although using the thermo algimetry measured in °C with the average of 52°C and the pressoric algimetry in Kg. RESULTS: In the thermo algimetry, there has been significant difference in GI at the moments M0, M1, M4 and M5; in GII it was found at M0, M1, M5 and M6 and in GIII it was observed the significant at M0 and M1. It has also been shown in pressoric algimetry significant difference in GI at the moments M0, M2 and M3. Among GII it has observed significant difference at all moments and it has found at M0, M9 in GIII. Thus, it has observed significant differences between all groups; for such the M2 of GII smaller than the others; and M4, M5 of GIII bigger than GI and GII. In the assessment of all periods it was observed significant latent period bigger in GI, however, with reasonable period and short recovery in GII and GIII. In the order hand, the postural tonus recovery it was longer in GIII, followed by GII and finally GI. CONCLUSION: The used method for the measurement of algic stimulus was efficient, noticing a reasonable analgesic period of 3 hours for butorphanol and 6 hours for buprenorphine.

  14. 77 FR 60442 - Withdrawal of Approval of New Animal Drug Applications; Butorphanol; Doxapram; Triamcinolone...


    ..., 2012. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: David Alterman, Center for Veterinary Medicine (HFV-212), Food... Commissioner of Food and Drugs and redelegated to the Center for Veterinary Medicine, and in accordance with... applications. Dated: September 27, 2012. Bernadette Dunham, Director, Center for Veterinary Medicine....

  15. 75 FR 22524 - Implantation or Injectable Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Butorphanol


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 522 Implantation or Injectable Dosage Form New...--IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS 0 1. The authority citation for 21 CFR part...

  16. Perioperative stress in dogs : Different aspects of manifestation and characteristics with medetomidine and acepromazine preanaesthetic medication

    VÀisÀnen, Misse


    The series of investigations presented in this thesis examined different aspects of the manifestation of perioperative stress in client-owned dogs and compared the influences of two preanaesthetic medications. Data were obtained from 43 overtly healthy dogs that underwent ovariohysterectomy following preanaesthetic administration of medetomidine and butorphanol (MED) or acepromazine and butorphanol (ACE) (Study 1) and from 96 dogs that were recovering from day-case soft-tissue operations at h...

  17. Anesthetic and Airways Management of a Dog with Severe Tracheal Collapse during Intraluminal Stent Placement

    Argano, M.; Gendron, K.; U. Rytz; Adami, C.


    This case report describes the anesthetic and airways management of a dog affected by 4th degree tracheal collapse and undergoing endoscope-guided intraluminal stent placement. After premedication with acepromazine and butorphanol, general anesthesia was induced with propofol and maintained with intravenous propofol and butorphanol in constant rate infusion. During intraluminal stent placement, oxygen was supplemented by means of a simple and inexpensive handmade device, namely, a ureteral ca...

  18. Influence of anesthetic regimens on the perioperative catecholamine response associated with onychectomy in cats.

    Lin, H C; Benson, G J; Thurmon, J C; Tranquilli, W J; Olson, W A; Bevill, R F


    Plasma catecholamine concentrations in response to onychectomy were examined in 27 cats receiving different anesthetic regimens. Each cat was anesthetized with a dissociative-tranquilizer combination, and onychectomy was performed on 1 forefoot. One week later, each cat was anesthetized with the same dissociative-tranquilizer combination plus either butorphanol or oxymorphone, and onychectomy was performed on the other forefoot. Four treatment groups were studied: tiletamine-zolazepam and tiletamine-zolazepam-butorphanol combinations were administered to group-1 cats, ketamine-acepromazine and ketamine-acepromazine-butorphanol combinations were administered to group-2 cats, tiletamine-zolazepam and tiletamine-zolazepam-oxymorphone combinations were administered to group-3 cats, and ketamine-acepromazine and ketamine-acepromazine-oxymorphone combinations were administered to group-4 cats. All drug combinations were administered IM. Central venous blood samples were drawn for catecholamine analysis after injection of drug(s), after onychectomy, and 1, 2, and 4 hours after injection. Tiletamine-zolazepam alone or tiletamine-zolazepam-butorphanol prevented epinephrine release for 2 hours after injection of drug(s). Norepinephrine concentration increased significantly (P onychectomy for tiletamine-zolazepam-butorphanol and at 4 hours for tiletamine-zolazepam and tiletamine-zolazepam-butorphanol. After onychectomy, there was no difference in epinephrine values between tiletamine-zolazepam and tiletamine-zolazepam-oxymorphone. Ketamine-acepromazine prevented increases in norepinephrine and epinephrine concentrations for up to 2 hours after surgery. Addition of butorphanol to ketamine-acepromazine decreased norepinephrine values immediately after onychectomy. Addition of oxymorphone to ketamine-acepromazine resulted in lower epinephrine values 4 hours after surgery. PMID:8250399

  19. Effects of sedation on echocardiographic variables of left atrial and left ventricular function in healthy cats.

    Ward, Jessica L; Schober, Karsten E; Fuentes, Virginia Luis; Bonagura, John D


    Although sedation is frequently used to facilitate patient compliance in feline echocardiography, the effects of sedative drugs on echocardiographic variables have been poorly documented. This study investigated the effects of two sedation protocols on echocardiographic indices in healthy cats, with special emphasis on the assessment of left atrial size and function, as well as left ventricular diastolic performance. Seven cats underwent echocardiography (transthoracic two-dimensional, spectral Doppler, color flow Doppler and tissue Doppler imaging) before and after sedation with both acepromazine (0.1 mg/kg IM) and butorphanol (0.25 mg/kg IM), or acepromazine (0.1 mg/kg IM), butorphanol (0.25 mg/kg IM) and ketamine (1.5 mg/kg IV). Heart rate increased significantly following acepromazine/butorphanol/ketamine (mean±SD of increase, 40±26 beats/min) and non-invasive systolic blood pressure decreased significantly following acepromazine/butorphanol (mean±SD of decrease, 12±19 mmHg). The majority of echocardiographic variables were not significantly different after sedation compared with baseline values. Both sedation protocols resulted in mildly decreased left ventricular end-diastolic dimension and mildly increased left ventricular end-diastolic wall thickness. This study therefore failed to demonstrate clinically meaningful effects of these sedation protocols on echocardiographic measurements, suggesting that sedation with acepromazine, butorphanol and/or ketamine can be used to facilitate echocardiography in healthy cats. PMID:22577049

  20. Alterações cardiovasculares de gatos submetidos à toracotomia intercostal, pré-medicados com associação de tramadol, butorfanol e atropina e anestesiados com propofol e halotano Cardiovascular changes in cats submitted to intercostal thoracotomy, premedication with association tramadol, butorphanol, atropine, anesthetised with propofol and halothane

    Juliana Tabarelli Brondani; Cláudio Corrêa Natalini; João Eduardo Wallau Schossler; Saulo Tadeu Lemos Pinto Filho; Adriana Paula Bertin


    A toracotomia é um procedimento cirúrgico que produz estímulo doloroso intenso. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito cardiovascular da associação tramadol, butorfanol e atropina na medicação pré-anestésica de gatos anestesiados com propofol e halotano. Doze animais, SRD, machos ou fêmeas, com peso médio de 2,7 ± 0,62kg receberam como medicação pré-anestésica (MPA), a associação de tramadol (2,0mg kg-1), butorfanol (0,4mg kg-1) e atropina (0,044mg kg-1), via intramuscular. Trinta minut...

  1. Effets oculaires de la tranquilisation avec le buthorphanol chez le chien

    Dongay, Agnès


    Le butorphanol est utilisé en médecine vétérinaire pour ses propriétés analgésiques et sédatives dans divers protocoles anesthésiques L’objectif de cette étude était d’évaluer les effets oculaires de la sédation au butorphanol lors d’un examen ophtalmologique de routine. Vingt-deux beagles sans anomalie oculaire ont reçu une injection intramusculaire de butorphanol à la dose de 0,2 mg/kg. Des examens cliniques répétés ont été effectués 20 minutes avant et juste avant l’administration puis 10,...

  2. The effect of whole body irradiation on the action of strong analgesics of mice

    The effect of whole body irradiation of male mice with single doses of 3 and 7 Gy (60Co source) on analgesic action of three morphine-like drugs was studied. Over the first 6 days after irradiation, the analgesic effect of alfentanil and fentanyl was significantly less pronounced in irradiated animals than in control ones. During the subsequent period of 24 days till the end of experiment, the analgesic effect in irradiated animals gradually increased reaching and exceeding the control values. On the contrary, the analgesic effect of butorphanole was less pronounced in irradiated animals than in control ones, although the difference was not significantly. The difference between butorphanole and other two drugs are probably due to chemical structure and the metabolic fate in the body. (author) 8 refs.; 2 figs

  3. Field anaesthetic and surgical techniques for implantation of intraperitoneal radio transmitters in Eurasian beavers Castor fiber

    Ranheim, Birgit; Rosell, Frank; Haga, Henning Andreas; Arnemo, Jon Martin


    Radio transmitters were implanted intraperitoneally in 22 (nine females, 13 males) adult, territorial Eurasian beavers Castor fiber under field conditions. Two different injectable anaesthestic drug combinations were tested. Access to the peritoneal cavity was made through a ventral midline incision. The animals in group # 1 (N = 10) were initially injected with medetomidine (0.05 mg/kg), ketamine (5 mg/kg) and butorphanol (0.1 mg/kg). Three animals needed additional injections of the drug co...

  4. Evaluation of Oral Robenacoxib for the Treatment of Postoperative Pain and Inflammation in Cats: Results of a Randomized Clinical Trial

    Stephen King; Elizabeth S. Roberts; Roycroft, Linda M.; King, Jonathan N


    The efficacy and safety of robenacoxib were assessed for the control of postoperative pain and inflammation in cats. The study was a multicenter, prospective, randomized, blinded, and parallel group clinical trial. A total of 249 client-owned cats scheduled for forelimb onychectomy plus either ovariohysterectomy or castration surgeries were included. All cats received butorphanol prior to anesthesia and forelimb four-point regional nerve blocks with bupivacaine after induction of general anes...

  5. Determination of a sedative protocol for use in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) with neurologic abnormalities undergoing electroencephalographic examination.

    Dennison, Sophie; Haulena, Martin; Williams, D Colette; Dawson, John; Yandell, Brian S; Gulland, Frances M D


    Sedation in sea lions exhibiting abnormal neurologic signs may require modification of established sedatior protocols because of the likely interaction between effects of the sedative and physiologic changes in diseased animals The effects of two sedative combinations, 0.07 mg/kg medetomidine and 0.07 mg/kg medetomidine plus 0.2 mg/kg butorphanol, were compared between California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) with signs of neurologic dysfunctior (n=33) and without neurologic signs (n=8). Sedation depth was scored on a scale of 0 (no effect) to 4 (profound sedation) assessed by response to auditory, tactile, and visual stimuli at the time of perceived maximal sedative effect In the medetomidine-alone group, sea lions with neurologic signs attained a median sedation score of 4 compared to a median sedation score of 1 in the clinically normal sea lions. Sea lions with and without neurologic signs giver medetomidine-butorphanol attained a median sedation score of 4. No statistically significant difference in time to induction and respiratory rate was found between the two sedation protocols in all sea lions. In the sea lions with neurologic signs, the recovery time from medetomidine-butorphanol sedation was prolonged (P < 0.01) and minimum recorded heart rates, although remaining within normal physiologic limits, were lower (P = 0.02) when compared to the sea lions administered medetomidine alone. Muscle jerks were observed in many animals given medetomidine-butorphanol and were detrimental to the diagnostic quality of the electroencephalogram (EEG) recording. Medetomidine alone at a dose rate of 0.07 mg/kg thus provides adequate and safe sedation in sea lions with neurologic signs undergoing EEG evaluation. PMID:19110694

  6. The effect of body position, sedation, and thoracic bandaging on functional residual capacity in healthy deep-chested dogs

    Rozanski, Elizabeth A.; Bedenice, Daniela; Lofgren, Jennifer; Abrams, Julie; Bach, Jonathan; Hoffman, Andrew M.


    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of body position, chest wrap, and sedation on functional residual capacity (FRC) in 6 healthy dogs. Functional residual capacity was determined by helium dilution (re-breathing) whilst in different clinically relevant conditions. These conditions included the standing (sternal) and lateral positions in unsedated dogs and then again both standing and lateral following chest bandaging, and sedation with acepromazine, IV and butorphanol, IV...

  7. Efficacy of preanesthetic intramuscular administration of ephedrine for prevention of anesthesia-induced hypotension in cats and dogs

    Egger, Christine; McCrackin, Mary-Ann; Hofmeister, Erik; Touzot-Jourde, Gwenola; Rohrbach, Bart


    To determine if the preanesthetic administration of ephedrine would prevent anesthesia-induced hypotension in dogs and cats, 10 cats were anesthetized with acepromazine, butorphanol, ketamine, and isoflurane, and 8 dogs were anesthetized with acepromazine, morphine, propofol, and halothane. Cats received ephedrine or saline 10 minutes after premedication. Dogs received ephedrine or saline at the time of premedication. Systolic arterial blood pressure, respiratory rate, heart rate, end-tidal C...

  8. Csik-Salmon, J; Blais, D; Vaillancourt, D; Garon, O; Bisaillon, A


    Loss of rear motor control is the main limiting factor in the use of caudal epidural anesthesia in the horse. In man and laboratory animals, a small dose of an opiate combined with a local anesthetic enhances analgesia without impairing motor function. Thus, the amount of local anesthetic administered may be reduced. Butorphanol is an opiate widely used in horses. It has a good margin of safety and few cardiorespiratory effects. The effects of lidocaine (0.25 mg/kg) and lidocaine-butorphanol (0.25 mg/kg, and 0.04 mg/kg, respectively) were compared in 2 groups of 5 healthy unsedated mares. Horses in each group received either lidocaine or lidocaine-butorphanol in saline solution for a total volume of 0.0165 mg/kg. Epidural injection was performed at the first coccygeal interspace. Each mare was used only once. Cutaneous analgesia was assessed by a response to a pin prick; and visceral analgesia was assessed by response to a noxious stimulus applied to the urethra. Heart rate, respiratory rate, and arterial blood pressure were also measured. Analysis of the results showed an increase in duration of both cutaneous and visceral analgesia in the mares given lidocaine-butorphanol. Cutaneous analgesia increased from 36 +/- 13 to 150 +/- 21 min and visceral analgesia increased from 22 +/- 10 to 162 +/- 16 min. A cranial extension of the cutaneous analgesia was also observed. Cardiorespiratory depression or signs of excitation were not observed. However, these mares demonstrated peculiar walking in the hind limbs, not associated with signs of ataxia or hyperkinesia. PMID:9026402


    Rossi, Federica; Fina, Caroline; Stock, Emmelie; Vanderperren, Katrien; Duchateau, Luc; Saunders, Jimmy H


    Contrast-enhanced ultrasound of the spleen enables the dynamic assessment of the perfusion of this organ, however, both subjective and quantitative evaluation can be strongly influenced by sedative agent administration. The purpose of this prospective, experimental study was to test effects of two sedative agents on splenic perfusion during contrast-enhanced ultrasound of the spleen in a sample of healthy dogs. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound of the spleen was repeated in six healthy Beagles following a cross-over study design comparing three protocols: awake, butorphanol 0.2 mg/Kg intramuscular (IM), and dexmedetomidine 500 μg/m(2) IM. After intravenous injection of a phospholipid stabilized sulfur hexafluoride microbubble solution (SonoVue®, Bracco Imaging, Milano, Italy), the enhancement intensity and perfusion pattern of the splenic parenchyma were assessed and perfusion parameters were calculated. Normal spleen was slightly heterogeneous in the early phase, but the parenchyma was homogeneous at a later phase. Sedation with butorphanol did not modify perfusion of the spleen. Dexmedetomidine significantly reduced splenic enhancement, providing diffuse parenchymal hypoechogenicity during the entire examination. Measured parameters were significantly modified, with increased arrival time (AT; (wash-in (P = 0.0014), and area under the curve (AUC; P = 0.0421). Findings supported the use of butorphanol and contraindicated the use of dexmedetomidine as sedatives for splenic contrast ultrasound procedures in dogs. Short-term and diffuse heterogeneity of the spleen in the early venous phase was determined to be a normal finding. PMID:26777031

  10. Behavioral response and cost comparison of manual versus pharmacologic restraint protocols in healthy dogs.

    Barletta, Michele; Raffe, Marc


    Although sedatives are routinely administered to dogs for diagnostic and minimally invasive procedures, manual restraint is often used. The study compared intra-procedural behavioral response, scored on a 100-point, visual analog scale, and cost of restraint in healthy dogs given 1 of 5 treatments: manual restraint, dexmedetomidine at 125 μg/m(2) (Dex 125) or 375 μg/m(2) (Dex 375), Dex 125 plus butorphanol at 0.4 mg/kg (Dex 125 + Bu), or Dex 375 plus butorphanol at 0.4 mg/kg (Dex 375 + Bu). Mean behavioral response scores in dogs declined from baseline in the manual restraint group and improved in a linear fashion in the group order Dex 125, Dex 375, Dex 125 + Bu, and Dex 375 + Bu. Dexmedetomidine at 375 μg/m(2) or at 125 μg/m(2) or at 375 μg/m(2) in combination with butorphanol produced the best intra-procedural behavioral response. The cost of sedative drugs was offset by the opportunity cost of diverting personnel from revenue-generating activity to manual restraint. PMID:26933261

  11. Effects of diltiazem, a Ca2+ channel blocker, on naloxone-precipitated changes in dopamine and its metabolites in the brains of opioid-dependent rats.

    Tokuyama, S; Ho, I K


    The effects of diltiazem, an L-type Ca2+ channel blocker, on naloxone (an opioid receptor antagonist)-precipitated withdrawal signs and changes in extracellular levels of dopamine (DA) and its metabolites in various brain regions of morphine (a mu-opioid receptor agonist) or butorphanol (a mu/delta/kappa mixed opioid receptor agonist) dependent rats were investigated using high performance liquid chromatography fitted with an electrochemical detector (HPLC-ED). Rats were rendered opioid-dependent by continuous intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) infusion with morphine (26 nmol/microliters per h) or butorphanol (26 nmol/microliters per h) for 3 days. The expression of physical dependence produced by these opioids, as evaluated by naloxone (5 mg/kg. i.p.)-precipitated withdrawal signs, was reduced by concomitant infusion of diltiazem (10 and 100 nmol/microliters per h). Under the same condition, naloxone decreased the levels of: DA in the cortex, striatum, and midbrain; 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) in the cortex, striatum, limbic areas, and midbrain: and homovanilic acid (HVA) in the striatum, limbic areas, and midbrain regions. In animals rendered dependent on butorphanol, the results obtained were similar to those of morphine-dependent rats except for the changes in DOPAC levels. Furthermore, concomitant infusion of diltiazem and opioids blocked the decreases in levels of DA, DOPAC, and HVA in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that the augmentation of intracellular Ca2+ mediated through L-type Ca2+ channels during continuous opioid infusion results in a decrease in extracellular levels of DA and its metabolites in some specific regions, which are intimately involved in the expression of withdrawal syndrome precipitated by naloxone. PMID:8783387

  12. Discovery and development of veterinary pharmaceuticals in telemetered animals

    dr. Zwijnenberg, R.J.G.


    The NMDA antagonist Perzinfotel was tested for anaesthetic sparing properties in telemetered dogs and cats when used in a pre-anaesthetic protocol. In dogs, IV, SQ and IM administration of perzinfotel (10-30 mg/kg) decreased the mean isoflurane MAC values by 32 – 44%. The greatest MAC reduction (59%) was observed with a combination of 20 mg/kg perzinfotel and 0.2 mg/kg butorphanol. Thus, all doses of perzinfotel resulted in a significant reduction of MAC. A dose of 30 mg/kg resulted in signif...

  13. Anaesthesia recovery quality after racemic ketamine or S-ketamine administration to male cats undergoing neutering surgery.

    Larenza, M P; Althaus, H; Conrot, A; Balmer, C; Schatzmann, U; Bettschart-Wolfensberger, R


    Postoperative anaesthesia recovery and analgesia qualities were compared in cats anaesthetised with racemic ketamine (RS-ket) or S-ketamine (S-ket) undergoing orchiectomy. Twenty client-owned male cats received medetomidine (0.03 mg/kg) and S-ket (6 mg/kg; n = 10) or RS-ket (10 mg/kg; n = 10), all intramuscularly. After routine orchiectomy, animals received atipamezole (0.15 mg/kg) intramuscularly. Thirty and 60 min after atipamezole administration, one observer unaware of the treatment identity evaluated analgesia using a visual analogue scale (VAS) and, by means of four points scales, sedation, unprovoked behaviour and behavioural reactions to external stimuli. Cats with a VAS > or = 15 mm were to receive butorphanol. Times to sternal and standing positions were recorded. After 60 min, cats were given carprofen (4 mg/kg) subcutaneously. Anaesthesia with S-ket, at 60% of the RS-ket dose, provided faster recoveries. At 60 min, undisturbed cats in S-ket group had a trend towards fewer behavioural changes. Cats in RS-ket group were more sedate at 30 min and responded with a lower intensity to external stimulation. Immediate postoperative analgesia was considered adequate for both groups and no cat required butorphanol administration. PMID:19034844

  14. The acute treatment of migraine in adults: the american headache society evidence assessment of migraine pharmacotherapies.

    Marmura, Michael J; Silberstein, Stephen D; Schwedt, Todd J


    The study aims to provide an updated assessment of the evidence for individual pharmacological therapies for acute migraine treatment. Pharmacological therapy is frequently required for acutely treating migraine attacks. The American Academy of Neurology Guidelines published in 2000 summarized the available evidence relating to the efficacy of acute migraine medications. This review, conducted by the members of the Guidelines Section of the American Headache Society, is an updated assessment of evidence for the migraine acute medications. A standardized literature search was performed to identify articles related to acute migraine treatment that were published between 1998 and 2013. The American Academy of Neurology Guidelines Development procedures were followed. Two authors reviewed each abstract resulting from the search and determined whether the full manuscript qualified for review. Two reviewers studied each qualifying full manuscript for its level of evidence. Level A evidence requires at least 2 Class I studies, and Level B evidence requires 1 Class I or 2 Class II studies. The specific medications - triptans (almotriptan, eletriptan, frovatriptan, naratriptan, rizatriptan, sumatriptan [oral, nasal spray, injectable, transcutaneous patch], zolmitriptan [oral and nasal spray]) and dihydroergotamine (nasal spray, inhaler) are effective (Level A). Ergotamine and other forms of dihydroergotamine are probably effective (Level B). Effective nonspecific medications include acetaminophen, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (aspirin, diclofenac, ibuprofen, and naproxen), opioids (butorphanol nasal spray), sumatriptan/naproxen, and the combination of acetaminophen/aspirin/caffeine (Level A). Ketoprofen, intravenous and intramuscular ketorolac, flurbiprofen, intravenous magnesium (in migraine with aura), and the combination of isometheptene compounds, codeine/acetaminophen and tramadol/acetaminophen are probably effective (Level B). The antiemetics prochlorperazine

  15. Evaluation of oral robenacoxib for the treatment of postoperative pain and inflammation in cats: results of a randomized clinical trial.

    King, Stephen; Roberts, Elizabeth S; Roycroft, Linda M; King, Jonathan N


    The efficacy and safety of robenacoxib were assessed for the control of postoperative pain and inflammation in cats. The study was a multicenter, prospective, randomized, blinded, and parallel group clinical trial. A total of 249 client-owned cats scheduled for forelimb onychectomy plus either ovariohysterectomy or castration surgeries were included. All cats received butorphanol prior to anesthesia and forelimb four-point regional nerve blocks with bupivacaine after induction of general anesthesia. Cats were randomized to receive daily oral tablet robenacoxib, at a mean (range) dosage of 1.84 (1.03-2.40) mg/kg (n = 167), or placebo (n = 82), once prior to surgery and for two days postoperatively. Significantly (P onychectomy with ovariohysterectomy or castration. PMID:23738129

  16. Partial intravenous anaesthesia in 5 horses using ketamine, lidocaine, medetomidine and halothane

    K. Kruger


    Full Text Available A partial intravenous protocol was used successfully to maintain anaesthesia in 5 healthy horses. Horses were premedicated with acepromazine, romifidine and butorphanol, induced with guaifenesin and ketamine and maintained on a constant rate infusion of lidocaine, ketamine and medetomidine together with halothane inhalation anaesthesia. Mean end-tidal halothane concentration to maintain a surgical plane of anaesthesia was 0.8 ± 0.2 %. Mean dobutamine requirement to maintain mean arterial pressure above 9.31 kPa was 0.42 ± 0.3 µg/kg/min. The administration of relatively low doses of lidocaine, ketamine and medetomidine together with halothane resulted in haemodynamically stable anaesthesia, followed by smooth recovery.

  17. Comparison of Propacetamol and Butorphanol′s effects in preemptive analgesia for brachial plexus%丙帕他莫与布托啡诺超前镇痛辅助臂丛麻醉效果的比较

    陈晓东; 孙霄翀; 华豪; 丁浩中


    目的 观察盐酸丙帕他莫、酒石酸布托啡诺、盐酸哌替啶术前超前镇痛辅助手部显微外科手术臂丛麻醉的效果.方法 选择ASA Ⅰ~Ⅱ级手外科手术患者120例,将其随机分为三组,每组各40例.所有患者都采用神经刺激器辅助定位下行臂丛神经阻滞,使用药物0.5%罗哌卡因30 mL.麻醉前15 min Ⅰ组静脉注射酒石酸布托啡诺1 mg,Ⅱ组注射盐酸丙帕他莫2 mg,Ⅲ组静脉注射盐酸哌替啶50 mg,手术开始前再次重复上述操作.观察记录患者麻醉起效时间、麻醉维持时间、麻醉效果和术中、术毕、术后4 h的VAS评分和镇静评分及不良反应的发生情况.结果 Ⅰ、Ⅱ组麻醉维持时间显著长于Ⅲ组(P < 0.05);Ⅰ组术中、术毕、术后4 h 的VAS评分<3分者明显高于Ⅱ、Ⅲ组(P < 0.05);Ⅰ组不良反应的发生例数明显低于Ⅱ、Ⅲ组(P < 0.05).结论 手部显微外科手术臂丛麻醉辅助使用酒石酸布托啡诺行超前镇痛能够增强臂丛麻醉的麻醉效果,镇痛、镇静效果明显,延长术后镇痛时间,不良反应发生率低,值得临床推广使用.%Objective To observe the effects of Propacetamol, Butorphanol and Pethidine Hydrochloride in preemptive analgesia for hand microsurgeries to brachial plexus. Methods 120 patients (ASA Ⅰ -Ⅱ) were randomly divided into 3 groups, with 40 cases in each group. Neuro-Stimulator was used to help position the lower brachial plexus' s nerve blocking with the use of 30 mL 0.5% Ropivacaine. 1 mg Butorphanol were injected to group Ⅰ , 2 mg Propacetamol to group Ⅱ , and 50 mg Pethidine Hydrochloride to group Ⅲ 15 minutes before anesthesia, then the above procedure were repeated before the surgery. The duration as well as the effects of the anesthesia, the VAS scores during the surgery, right after the surgery and 4 hours after the surgery, the calmness score and any adverse reaction were recorded. Results The duration of anesthesia of group Ⅰand

  18. Cardiopulmonary Effects of Constant-Rate Infusion of Lidocaine for Anesthesia during Abdominal Surgery in Goats.

    Malavasi, Lais M; Greene, Stephen A; Gay, John M; Grubb, Tammy L


    Lidocaine is commonly used in ruminants but has an anecdotal history of being toxic to goats. To evaluate lidocaine's effects on selected cardiopulmonary parameters. Isoflurane-anesthetized adult goats (n = 24) undergoing abdominal surgery received a loading dose of lidocaine (2.5 mg/kg) over 20 min followed by constant-rate infusion of lidocaine (100 μg/kg/min); control animals received saline instead of lidocaine. Data collected at predetermined time points during the 60-min surgery included heart rate, mean arterial blood pressure, pO2, and pCO2. According to Welch 2-sample t tests, cardiopulmonary variables did not differ between groups. For example, after administration of the loading dose, goats in the lidocaine group had a mean heart rate of 88 ± 28 bpm, mean arterial blood pressure of 70 ± 19 mm Hg, pCO2 of 65 ± 13 mm Hg, and pO2 of 212 ± 99 mm Hg; in the saline group, these values were 90 ± 16 bpm, 76 ± 12 mm Hg, 61 ± 9 mm Hg, and 209 ± 83 mm Hg, respectively. One goat in the saline group required an additional dose of butorphanol. Overall our findings indicate that, at the dose provided, intravenous lidocaine did not cause adverse cardiopulmonary effects in adult goats undergoing abdominal surgery. Adding lidocaine infusion during general anesthesia is an option for enhancing transoperative analgesia in goats. PMID:27423150

  19. Efficacy and Safety of Deracoxib for the Control of Postoperative Pain and Inflammation Associated with Dental Surgery in Dogs

    Bienhoff, Stephen E.; Smith, Eric S.; Roycroft, Linda M.; Roberts, Elizabeth S.; Baker, Larry D.


    The efficacy and safety of deracoxib administered at 1-2 mg/kg/day for 3 days was assessed for the control of postoperative pain and inflammation associated with dental surgery in dogs. Client-owned dogs scheduled for dental extractions were premedicated with butorphanol and randomly assigned to receive either deracoxib (n = 31) or placebo (n = 31) preoperatively and again once daily for 2 additional days. Dogs were evaluated prior to and after surgery using a modified Glasgow Composite Pain Scale (mGCPS). Dogs could be rescued at any time if they scored ≥4 on the mGCPS or in cases of obvious discomfort. Rescued dogs were considered treatment failures for determining treatment response and were removed from the study. Of the 62 dogs enrolled, 57 were usable for the efficacy analyses and all were assessed for safety. Four of 27 deracoxib-treated dogs (14.8%) were rescued compared to 20 of 30 placebo dogs (66.7%) (P = 0.0006). Deracoxib-treated dogs also had numerically lower mGCPS scores. Eight of 31 deracoxib dogs (26%) had adverse events reported compared to 6 of 31 placebo dogs (19%). Results indicate perioperative administration of deracoxib to dogs at 1-2 mg/kg/day for 3 days significantly improves analgesia after dental surgery. PMID:23738113

  20. Evaluation of nalbuphine hydrochloride.

    Miller, R R


    The chemical properties, animal and human pharmacology, analgesic efficacy, relative potency, administration, and adverse effects of nalbuphine, a recently marketed, parenteral, strong analgesic with narcotic antagonist properties, are reviewed. Acute, subacute, and chronic toxicity studies in animals revealed no unusual adverse effects. The abuse potential of nalbuphine in man is probably similar to pentazocine. Respiratory depression produced by usual therapeutic doses of nalbuphine is equivalent to that of morphine; at higher than usual doses, nalbuphine produces less respiratory depression. Nalbuphine has few effects on cardiovascular hemodynamics in patients without cardiac disease or with stable ischemic disease. In patients with acute myocardial infarction, nalbuphine has an advantage over morphine, pentazocine, and butorphanol of not producing hypotension. Nalbuphine is as effective and has the same potency as morphine as an analgesic, with about the same onset, peak, and duration of action. Sedation is the most common adverse effect and occurs about as often as with other strong analgesics. Nausea and vomiting occur less often. In contrast to pentazocine, the frequency of psychotomimetic reactions apparently is very low. On the basis of presently available evidence, nalbuphine appears to have fewer disadvantages than any other parenteral strong analgesic. PMID:6994499

  1. Propofol with ketamine following sedation with xylazine for routine induction of general anaesthesia in horses.

    Posner, L P; Kasten, J I; Kata, C


    To document the suitability of intravenous propofol and ketamine following sedation with xylazine for routine anaesthetic induction in horses. Retrospective. 100 client-owned horses. Anaesthetic records were evaluated to determine: signalment, anaesthetic drug and dosages, need for additional induction agents, notation of any adverse events, duration of anaesthesia and recovery characteristics (rough or smooth, and rapid or prolonged). Horses were sedated with xylazine 0.99±(0.2) mg/kg intravenous and 23 horses were also administered butorphanol 0.02±(0.001) mg/kg intravenous. Horses were anaesthetised with a combination of propofol 0.40±(0.1) mg/kg intravenous and ketamine 2.8±(0.3) mg/kg intravenous. Six horses required additional ketamine. None became apnoeic and no adverse events were noted. Anaesthesia was maintained with isoflurane in 66 horses and a combination of guaifenesin, ketamine and xylazine (GKX) in 34 horses. Total anaesthesia time was 125.4±(46) minutes. Fifty-one horses were administered romifidine 0.016 (±0.008) mg/kg intravenous at recovery. Time from orotracheal extubation to standing was 27.6±(25) minutes. Of the 58 records with recovery characteristics, the number per category was: rapid n=6, prolonged n=3, smooth n=46, rough n=6. Intravenous propofol and ketamine following xylazine provided satisfactory anaesthetic inductions and recoveries in a varied population of horses without any clinically relevant adverse events. PMID:24218416


    Kottwitz, Jack; Boothe, Matthew; Harmon, Roy; Citino, Scott B; Zuba, Jeffery R; Boothe, Dawn M


    An online survey utilizing Survey Monkey linked through the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians listserve examined current practices in megavertebrate analgesia. Data collected included drugs administered, dosing regimens, ease of administration, efficacy, and adverse events. Fifty-nine facilities (38 housing elephants, 33 housing rhinoceroses) responded. All facilities administered nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), with phenylbutazone (0.25-10 mg/kg) and flunixin meglumine (0.2-4 mg/kg) being most common. Efficacy was reported as "good" to "excellent" for these medications. Opioids were administered to elephants (11 of 38) and rhinoceroses (7 of 33), with tramadol (0.5-3.0 mg/kg) and butorphanol (0.05-1.0 mg/kg) being most common. Tramadol efficacy scores were highly variable in both elephants and rhinoceroses. While drug choices were similar among institutions, substantial variability in dosing regimens and reported efficacy between and within facilities indicates the need for pharmacokinetic studies and standardized methods of analyzing response to treatment to establish dosing regimens and clinical trials to establish efficacy and safety. PMID:27010292

  3. Blood biochemical changes in mice after administration of a mixture of three anesthetic agents.

    Ochiai, Yuichiro; Iwano, Hidetomo; Sakamoto, Takako; Hirabayashi, Manabu; Kaneko, Eiji; Watanabe, Toshihiko; Yamashita, Kazuto; Yokota, Hiroshi


    Currently, from the viewpoint of animal welfare, anesthesia or analgesia is required during experimental procedures in animals that are likely to cause pain. A part of these anesthetics have been reported to influence a blood biochemical level. It is important for us to understand the effect of the anesthetic on blood biochemistry when we choose the anesthetic agent to be used in experiments. In this study, we examined the blood biochemical changes in mice after administration of a new mixture of three anesthetic agents -medetomidine / midazolam / butorphanol (MMB). We subcutaneously administered two dose combinations of MMB (0.45 / 6 / 7.5 and 0.9 / 12 / 15 mg/kg) in mice, followed by administration of atipamezole, for reversal of anesthetic effects, after 1 hr. Thereafter, blood biochemistry was assessed at 1, 4 and 24 hr after MMB administration. We observed that MMB administration caused a transient increase in blood sugar, inorganic phosphorus, potassium and creatine kinase levels. These, however, returned to the reference range 24 hr after MMB administration. In conclusion, MMB changes the levels of some blood biochemical parameters, but not to an extent that would threaten health. However, when using laboratory animals, this effect of MMB may influence the experimental results, depending on the experimental content. Hence, the choice of anesthetic agents used in laboratory animals should be based on detailed knowledge of their pharmacological effects. PMID:26902544

  4. Efficacy of preanesthetic intramuscular administration of ephedrine for prevention of anesthesia-induced hypotension in cats and dogs.

    Egger, Christine; McCrackin, Mary-Ann; Hofmeister, Erik; Touzot-Jourde, Gwenola; Rohrbach, Bart


    To determine if the preanesthetic administration of ephedrine would prevent anesthesia-induced hypotension in dogs and cats, 10 cats were anesthetized with acepromazine, butorphanol, ketamine, and isoflurane, and 8 dogs were anesthetized with acepromazine, morphine, propofol, and halothane. Cats received ephedrine or saline 10 minutes after premedication. Dogs received ephedrine or saline at the time of premedication. Systolic arterial blood pressure, respiratory rate, heart rate, end-tidal CO2, O2 saturation, cardiac rhythm, and rectal temperature were recorded.The systolic arterial pressure in cats receiving saline was significantly lower than baseline at 10 minutes after premedication, and systolic arterial pressure was cats receiving ephedrine, the systolic arterial pressure was significantly lower than baseline for the duration of anesthesia, but systolic arterial pressure was not < 80 mmHg until 25 min after induction. In dogs, systolic arterial pressure was significantly lower than baseline by 5 and 40 min after pre-medication in dogs receiving saline and ephedrine, respectively. There was no difference in heart rate, respiratory rate, end-tidal CO2, rectal temperature, O2 saturation, or cardiac rhythm among treatment groups. Prophylactic ephedrine delayed, but did not prevent, the onset of hypotension. PMID:19412398

  5. 咪达唑仑伍用不同镇痛药在腰-硬联合麻醉下妇科经腹手术中的应用%Application of combined spinal-epidural anesthesia by midazolam combined with different pain-killers for abdomen operation in gynecological patients



    目的观察比较咪达唑仑伍用不同静脉镇痛药在腰-硬联合麻醉(CSEA)下妇科经腹手术中的镇静镇痛效果和安全性.方法择期妇科手术80例,均行腰-硬联合麻醉,根据咪达唑仑联合不同镇痛药随机分为4组:芬太尼组(FM组)、哌替啶组(PM组)、布托啡诺组(BM组)、地佐辛组(DM组).4组患者均在切皮前15 min静脉缓慢推注咪达唑仑0.05 mg/kg,随后分别在FM组予芬太尼1 μg/kg,PM组予哌替啶0.8 mg/kg,BM组予布托啡诺0.04 mg/kg,DM组予地佐辛0.1 mg/kg缓慢静脉推注.术中患者Ramsay镇静评分小于2分者,酌情追加咪达唑仑和各组镇痛药,剂量为首次的1/2~2/3.记录4组患者切皮时(T0)、打开腹膜上腹腔撑开器时(T1)、分离结扎盆腔脏器时(T2)、术毕清理腹腔时(T3)、关闭腹膜时(T4)和缝皮时(T5)的Ramsay镇静评分;记录4组术中舌后坠、呼吸抑制、低血压、心动过缓、牵拉痛发生率;术后24 h内随访,记录4组患者对手术操作过程的遗忘程度及头晕、嗜睡、恶心呕吐、寒战发生率.结果 FM、PM组在T0-T5各时点Ramsay镇静评分均明显高于BM和DM组(P 0.05);术后24 h内随访,4组完全遗忘率均明显高于无遗忘率和不全遗忘率(P 0.05).结论布托啡诺或地佐辛伍用咪达唑仑辅助腰-硬联合麻醉下行妇科手术,术中镇静镇痛效果好,完全遗忘率高,生命体征平稳,术后不良反应少,较芬太尼或哌替啶与咪达唑仑配伍更安全有效.%Objective To observe the efficacy and safety of mitigation and analgesia of combined spinal-epidural anesthesia (CSEA) by midazolam combined with different pain-killers in gynecological patients undergoing abdomen operation. Methods Eighty gynecological patients undergoing elective abdomen operation by CSEA were randomly divided into four groups according to different pain-killers combined with midazolam: fentanyl group(FM group), pethidine group(PM group), butorphanol group(BM group) and

  6. Effects of anesthesia with isoflurane on plasma concentrations of adrenocorticotropic hormone in samples obtained from the cavernous sinus and jugular vein of horses.

    Carmalt, James L; Duke-Novakovski, Tanya; Schott, Harold C; van der Kolk, Johannes H


    OBJECTIVE To determine effects of anesthesia on plasma concentrations and pulsatility of ACTH in samples obtained from the cavernous sinus and jugular vein of horses. ANIMALS 6 clinically normal adult horses. PROCEDURES Catheters were placed in a jugular vein and into the cavernous sinus via a superficial facial vein. The following morning (day 1), cavernous sinus blood samples were collected every 5 minutes for 1 hour (collection of first sample = time 0) and jugular venous blood samples were collected at 0, 30, and 60 minutes. On day 2, horses were sedated with xylazine hydrochloride and anesthesia was induced with propofol mixed with ketamine hydrochloride. Horses were positioned in dorsal recumbency. Anesthesia was maintained with isoflurane in oxygen and a continuous rate infusion of butorphanol tartrate. One hour after anesthesia was induced, the blood sample protocol was repeated. Plasma ACTH concentrations were quantified by use of a commercially available sandwich assay. Generalized estimating equations that controlled for horse and an expressly automated deconvolution algorithm were used to determine effects of anesthesia on plasma ACTH concentrations and pulsatility, respectively. RESULTS Anesthesia significantly reduced the plasma ACTH concentration in blood samples collected from the cavernous sinus. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Mean plasma ACTH concentrations in samples collected from the cavernous sinus of anesthetized horses were reduced. Determining the success of partial ablation of the pituitary gland in situ for treatment of pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction may require that effects of anesthesia be included in interpretation of plasma ACTH concentrations in cavernous sinus blood. PMID:27347826




    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Inguinal herniorraphy is commonly performed on an outpatient basis under nerve blocks, local, spinal or general anesthesia (GA. We have selected inguinal herniorraphy under general anesthesia and spinal anesthesia (SA. OBJECTIVE: To compare the recovery time, postoperative pain and patient satisfaction in the Post Anesthetic Care Unit (PACU. METHODS: A prospective, single blinded, controlled study involved total 60 patients belonging to American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA I/II scheduled for elective repair of unilateral inguinal hernia. Randomization was done using computer generated random numbers. GA group received intravenous (IV propofol (2mg/kg, butorphanol (40μg/kg and skeletal muscle relaxation was achieved with vecuronium bromide (0.1 mg/kg. Patient was maintained with nitrous oxide and oxygen (66:33 and sevoflurane. SA group received 2ml of 0.5% of hyperbaric bupivacaine intrathecal in lateral decubitus position with 0.04mg/kg midazolam injection IV for sedation. Modified Aldrete scoring system, Visual Analogue Scale (VAS and modified Bromage score were employed to assess recovery time. When pain score was more than 5, rescue analgesia was given with IV injection ketorolac 30mg. All data were analyzed statistically. RESULTS: Patients in GA group (136.23 ±17.82 minutes showed a statistically significant (p< 0.05 recovery time to get shifted from PACU compared with patients in the SA group (176.00 ± 11.92 minutes. But patients in the SA group had significantly less VAS score pain (1.30±1.76 vs. 3.23±2.88, less number of patient received rescue analgesia (16.7% vs. 50% and satisfaction was higher than GA group. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that GA group resulted in faster recovery time from PACU but SA group had less post-operative pain and better satisfied

  8. Anestesia em eqüinos com síndrome cólica: análise de 48 casos e revisão de literatura Anesthesia in horses with colic syndrome: analysis of 48 cases and literature review

    Alonso Gabriel Pereira Guedes


    Full Text Available A cólica eqüina é uma síndrome que cursa com dor abdominal, distúrbios hidroeletrolíticos e ácido-base e disfunção de órgãos vitais como pulmões e coração. Os procedimentos anestésicos nesses animais apresentam particularidades que aumentam o risco de complicações. Os animais devem ser avaliados no período pré-anestésico e as terapias de reposição devem ser instituídas quando necessárias. A medicação pré-anestésica deve proporcionar analgesia e sedação do animal. A xilazina e/ou butorfanol podem ser utilizados com esse objetivo. A indução pode ser realizada com éter gliceril guaiacolato e cetamina com ou sem diazepam, ou mesmo com cetamina e diazepam pela via intravenosa. A manutenção anestésica deve ser feita preferencialmente com isofluorano, mas o halotano também pode ser utilizado. Manter ventilação pulmonar mecânica, com o animal recebendo oxigênio a 100% durante todo o período cirúrgico e pós-operatório imediato. A recuperação deve ser feita em ambiente escurecido e calmo, com forração e piso não escorregadio. Analgesia e oxigenoterapia também são importantes nessa fase.The equine colic is a syndrome that leads to abdominal pain, hydroeletrolitic and acid-base disturbances and functional alterations of the vital organs like lungs and heart. Anesthetic procedures in these animals show certain particularities that elevate the complications risk. The animals should be evaluated at the preanesthetic period and the reposition treatments should be done as necessary. The premeds should give analgesia and sedation to the animal. Xylazina and/or butorphanol may be used to this aim. Induction can be done with guaiacol glycerine ether, ketamine with/without diazepam, or even with ketamine and diazepam by the intravenous route. Isoflurane is the anesthetic of choice for the maintenance of the anesthesia, but halothane also can be used. Intermitent positive pressure ventilation should be established

  9. Effects of pain mitigation and method of castration on behavior and feedlot performance in cull beef bulls.

    Repenning, P E; Ahola, J K; Callan, R J; Fox, J T; French, J T; Giles, R L; Peel, R K; Whittier, J C; Engle, T E


    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of castration method (banding vs. surgical) and use of analgesia on behavior and feedlot performance in cull bulls. Angus, Hereford, and Angus-crossbred bulls (n = 20; initial BW = 384 ± 59.3 kg; 336 ± 20.1 d old) were housed in feedlot pens equipped with the ability to measure individual daily feed intake. A balanced randomized block design using a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments was used. A multimodal analgesia (MMA) protocol was used and consisted of sutcutaneous ketamine stun containing butorphanol (0.01 mg/kg BW), xylazine (0.02 mg/kg BW), ketamine (0.04 mg/kg BW), and a local 2% lidocaine hydrochloride anesthetic block of the spermatic cords (10 mL/cord) and scrotum (10 mL) on d 0. Flunixin meglumine (1.2 mg/kg) was administered intravenously on d 0, 1, 2, and 3 to MMA cattle. Cattle were stratified to treatments based on breed, BW, age, and a temperament score. Treatments included 1) band castration without analgesia (BND), 2) band castration with analgesia (BND-MMA), 3) surgical castration without analgesia (SURG), and 4) surgical castration with analgesia (SURG-MMA). All castrations were performed on d 0. Chute exit velocity (EV) and time in chute (TIC) were collected on d -9, 0, 1, 2, and 13. Willingness-to-enter-chute (WTE) score, rectal temperature (TEMP), heart rate (HR), and respiration (RESP) were collected on d 0, 1, 2, 3, and 13. Cattle were weighed on d -9 and 13 while feeding behaviors were collected continuously for 57 d precastration and 28 d postcastration. There was a tendency (P < 0.09) for ADG to be greater in cattle receiving analgesia. Both SURG treatments exhibited elevated TEMP on d 1 (P < 0.001) and 2 (P < 0.05) compared to BND treatments. Postcastration DMI was greater (P = 0.02) in MMA treatments compared with nonmedicated treatments throughout the trial. Meal duration was greater (P < 0.05) in BND than SURG castrates during the first week postcastration. Results

  10. Search of antimicrobial activity of selected non-antibiotic drugs.

    Kruszewska, Hanna; Zareba, Tomasz; Tyski, Stefan


    A variety of pharmaceutical preparations, which are applied in the management of non-infectious diseases, have shown in vitro some antimicrobial activity. These drugs are called "non-antibiotics". The aim of this study was to detect and characterise the antimicrobial activity of non-antibiotic drugs. selected from the preparations analysed during state control performed at the Drug Institute in Poland. Over 160 pharmaceutical preparations were randomly chosen from different groups of drugs. The surveillance study was performed on standard ATCC microbial strains used for drug control: S aureus, E. coil, P. aeruginosa and C. albicans. It was shown that the drugs listed below inhibited growth of at least one of the examined strains:acyclovir (Awirol 5%, cream), alendronate (Alenato 5 mg, tabl.), alverine (Meteospasmyl 20 mg, caps.), butorphanole (Butamidor 10 mg/ml, amp.), clodronate (Sindronat 400 mg, caps), diclofenac (Olfen 75 mg, amp.), emadastine (Emadine 0.05%, eye dr.), etodolac (Febret 200 mg, caps.), fluvastatine (Lescol 40 mg, tabl.), ketamine (Ketamidor 10%, amp.), levocabastine (Histimet 0.5 mg/ml, eye dr.), losartan (Lorista 50 mg, tabl.), matipranolol (Betaman 0.3% eye dr.), mesalazine (Pentasa 1%, susp.), naproxen (Nalgesin 550 mg, tabl.), oxaprosine (Reumax 600 mg, tabl.), oxymethazoline (Nasivin 0.025%, nose dr.), proxymetacaine (Alcaine 0.5%, eye dr.), ribavirin (Rebetol 200 mg, caps.), rutoside with ascorbic acid (Cerutin 20+200 mg, tabl.), sulodexide (Vessel due F, 250 LSU, caps.), tegaserole (Zelmac 50 mg, tabl.), telmisartan (Pritor 20 mg, tabl.), temosolomide (Temodal 100 mg, caps.), ticlopidine (Ticlid 250 mg, tabl.), tolfenamic acid (Migea rapid 200 mg, tabl.), tramadole (Tramundin 100 mg, tabl.), tropicamide (Tropicamidum 1%, eye dr.). Staphylococcus aureus was susceptible to most of the drugs listed above. Ticlopidine showed activity against S. aureus, E. coli and C. albicans (MICs equal to: 0.45; 0.45 and 0.65 mg/ml, respectively

  11. 不同方式超前镇痛对儿童腹腔镜术后多模式镇痛效果的影响%Effect of multimodal analgesia by different ways of preemptive analgesia after laparoscopic surgery in children

    黄俊伟; 曾彩红; 伍淑韫; 梁秀兰; 关柏锐; 黄丹辉


    目的 观察不同方式超前镇痛对儿童腹腔镜术后多模式镇痛安全性及效果的影响.方法 选择在全身麻醉下接受择期腹腔镜手术的患儿90例,年龄5~ 14岁,美国麻醉医师协会(ASA)分级Ⅰ~Ⅱ级.采用完全随机双盲法均分为对乙酰氨基酚栓塞肛组(A组)、布托啡诺喷鼻组(B组)和空白对照组(C组).A组患儿全身麻醉后予对乙酰氨基酚栓40 mg/kg塞肛;B组患儿予布托啡诺20μg/kg喷鼻;C组于手术开始前10 min缓慢静脉注射生理盐水2 ml.监测三组患儿术后的心率(HR)、平均动脉压(MAP)、血氧饱和度(SpO2)、拔管时间和在PACU停留时间.记录患儿的VAS评分、Ramsay镇静评分及不良反应.结果 A组和B组苏醒期躁动评分显著低于C组(P<0.01).B组镇静评分显著高于A组和C组(P<0.01),A组也高于C组(P<0.05).术后1、4hA组、B组VAS评分显著低于C组(P<0.01),术后8 h VAS评分低于C组(P<0.05);术后1、4、8hB组VAS评分低于A组(P<0.05).C组术后首次按压镇痛泵的时间早于A组和B组(P<0.01),且按压总次数明显多于A组和B组(P< 0.01).结论 对乙酰氨基酚栓塞肛和布托啡诺喷鼻均可为儿童腹腔镜手术提供同样安全、有效的超前镇痛效果,但前者不良反应更少,较适合在基层中推广使用.%Objective To observe the abirritation effect and safety of multimodal analgesia by different ways of preemptive analgesia after laparoscopic surgery in children.Methods 90 patients (5-14 years old,ASA Ⅰ ~ Ⅱ) scheduled for laparoscopic surgery were selected.With a completely randomized and double blind method,they were divided into three groups with 30 patients in each group.Group A received acetaminophen suppository 40 mg/kg by rectal administration after general anesthesia.Group B received transnasal butorphanol 20 μ g/kg after general anesthesia.Group C received an injection of 2 ml saline before the operation.We observed the HR and BP,RR and SPO2,the

  12. Clinical Observation of Propacetamol Hydrochloride Applied in Preemptive Analgesia of Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy%丙帕他莫超前镇痛用于腹腔镜胆囊切除术的临床观察

    曾东; 古军; 何东江; 陈余


    目的:观察丙帕他莫超前镇痛用于腹腔镜胆囊切除术的临床效果和安全性。方法90例ASA I~Ⅱ级拟行腹腔镜胆囊切除术患者随机分为A组、B组和C组,每组30例。麻醉诱导前15 min,A组将盐酸丙帕他莫2g溶入100 ml生理盐水静脉滴入;B组按照布托啡诺20μg/kg计算用量,用生理盐水稀释至100 ml静脉滴入;C组静脉滴注生理盐水100 ml。观察并记录术后患者自主呼吸恢复时间、麻醉苏醒时间、拔管时间。采用视觉模拟镇痛评分法(VAS)评价三组患者术后1h、2h、4h、8h和24 h疼痛程度,同时观察嗜睡、烦躁、恶心呕吐、呼吸抑制等不良反应。结果与B组比较,A组和C组的苏醒时间、拔管时间均明显缩短(P<0.05),A组与C组间比较无统计学意义(P>0.05);与C组比较,A组和B组患者在术后2h、4h、8h和24h的VAS评分明显降低(P<0.05);A组和C组术后嗜睡例数明显少于B组(P<0.05),三组均未发生呼吸抑制,烦躁、恶心呕吐不良反应发生率无统计学意义(P>0.05)。结论丙帕他莫超前镇痛用于腹腔镜胆囊切除术具有显著的术后镇痛作用,且不影响患者的苏醒质量,不增加术后不良反应。%Objective To observe the clinical effect and the safety of propacetamol hydrochloride applied in preemptive analgesia of laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Methods 90 cases to receive laparoscopic cholecystectomy with ASA grading from I to II were ran-domly divided into 3 groups:Group A, Group B and Group C, 30 cases in each;15 minutes before anesthesia, infusion of propacetamol hydrochloride (2g diluted in 100ml saline) was made to cases in Group A, infusion of butorphanol with the dosage calculation of 20μg/kg diluted in 100ml saline was made to cases in Group B and infusion of 100ml saline was made to cases in Group C;the recovery time of spontaneous respiration after operation, the anesthesia awaking time and

  13. 阿片类镇痛药体外对精子运动的影响%Effects of opioid analgesics on sperm motility in vitro

    许波; 王志萍; 王雁娟; 胡毅平; 王丽君; 汪小海


    阿芬太尼相比均有显著性的差异(P<0.05),芬太尼与阿芬太尼相比无显著性差别(P>0.05).结论:不同阿片受体镇痛药在相同作用时间内,低浓度布托啡诺、地佐辛对精子运动无影响,高浓度呈现完全抑制精子活力,而相同低浓度芬太尼、阿芬太尼、舒芬太尼均显著抑制精子活力,所测相同浓度范围内仅部分抑制精子活力.与此相反,高浓度喷他佐辛可促进精子运动.%Objective; To observe the effects of short-term exposure to opioid analgesics on human sperm motility. Methods:Twenty normal semen samples were collected, each divided into 19 groups, one as the control and the others treated in vitro with six opioid analgesics at three different concentrations, respectively, and sperm motility was assessed by computer-assisted sperm analysis at 15 min, 2 h and 4 h. Results-. Compared with the control group, fentanyl, alfentanil and sufentanil at 1×10-15, 2×10-3 and 0.05 mg/ml significantly decreased the percentage of grade a + b sperm at 15 min, 2 h and 4 h ( P 0. 05). Pentazocine effected no significant difference at 3×10 -3 and 0. 05 mg/ml (P > 0.05 ) but a gradual increase in the percentage of grade a + b sperm at 0.5 mg/ml at the three time points ( P 0.05). Conclusion; Given the same length of time of treatment, butorphanol and dezocine totally inhibit sperm motility at a high concentration, but make no significant change at a low concentration. While fentanyl, alfentanil and sufentanil can significantly decrease sperm motility at the same low concentration, and partially inhibit it at all concentrations. On the contrary, a high concentration of pentazocine can promote human sperm motility.

  14. 不同阿片类镇痛药对体外人精子活力的影响%Effect of opioid analgesics on human sperm motility in vitro

    许波; 王志萍; 王雁娟; 胡毅平; 王丽君; 汪小海


    的作用与浓度有关.%Objective To assess the effects of fentanyl (F),alfentanil (A),sufentaril (S),butorphanol (B),dezocine (D) and pentazocine (P) on human sperm motility in vitro.Methods Twenty samples of semen with normal sperm motility were collected.The semen was mixed with HTF liquid culture medium and sperm concentration was adjusted to (40-80) × 106/ml.Then semen suspension 50 μl was added into the culture dishes.The semen suspensions were randomly divided into 3 groups:group Ⅰ control-semen suspension 50 μl + 0.9% NaCl 50 μl.GroupⅡ single opioid-semen suspension 50 μl + 50 μl of 4 concentrations of F,A,S,B,D and P (10-3,10-4,10-5,10-7 mol/L).Group Ⅲ combined opioid-naloxone-semen suspension 50 μl + 25 μl of 3concentrations of naloxone (2 × 10-8,1 × 10-7,2 × 10-7 mol/L) + 25 μl of 4 concentrations of F,A,S,B and D.After being incubated for 1 h the sperm motility was assessed by sperm analyzer and the amplitude of change in sperm motility was calculated.Median inhibition concentration (IC50) and complete inhibition concentration ( IC100 ) of the 6 opioids were calculated from concentration-response curve.Results ( 1 ) The shape of concentration-response curve for F,A and S was straight line.The maximal decrease in sperm motility was (56 ± 5)%(F),(58±7)% (A) and(79±:6)% (S).(2) The shape of concentration-response curve for B,D and P was sigmoid.Low concentrations of B,D and P did not affect sperm motility.Median and high concentrations of B and D could inhibit sperm motility.The maximal inhibition was 100%.High concentration of P increased sperm motility.The maximal increase was (19 ± 6)%.(3) Naloxone shifted the concentration-response curve for F,A,S,B and D to the right,and decreased the maximal inhibitory effect of F,A and S dose-dependently but did not affect the maximal inhibitory effect of B and D.(4) IC50 was in the order of A≈ F > D > S≈- B.IC100 was D > B.Conclusion F,A and S inhibit sperm motility by acting on opioid receptor on human