Sample records for bustarviejo spain mobility

  1. Historia de las minas de plata de Bustarviejo

    Jordá Bordehore, Luis; Octavio PUCHE RIART; Mazadiego Martínez, Luis Felipe


    En las proximidades de la localidad de Bustarviejo, se encuentra una de las minas de metales más importantes de toda la Sierra de Guadarrama. Se trata de una explotación de plata, que contó también con varias fundiciones, tanto a pie de mina como en el propio pueblo; en ésta última se obtuvieron lingotes en los siglos XVII y XVIII. Las crónicas hablan incluso de la obtención de oro. Las minas de la Cuesta de la Plata de Bustarviejo han estado activas desde el siglo XVII (aunque hay pequeños t...

  2. Residential mobile phone users complaints' in Spain

    Pérez-Amaral, Teodosio; Gijón, Covadonga; Garín-Muñoz, Teresa; López, Rafael


    Consumer satisfaction is a key determinant of customer retention, profitability of operators, consumer welfare and a strategic variable for competition and international comparisons. Spain's mobile customer satisfaction is the lowest in the European Union according to recent EU studies (SMREC, 2013). Consumer complaints are numerous according to official statistics. In turn, consumer complaints (and how well they are dealt with) influence customer satisfaction and retention. This paper analyz...

  3. Mobile Applications and Destination Branding in Spain

    Carlos Alberto Scolari; José Fernández-Cavia


    The article sets out the findings of research carried out in 2013 on the Spanish tourism mobile applications. The research that covered 66 apps combined a quantitative description of this sector with qualitative categories based on a semiotic analysis. The article evaluates and compares the apps, identifies their main traits, and proposes a taxonomy: the content-based app, the participatory app and the leisure app.

  4. Mobile Applications and Destination Branding in Spain

    Carlos Alberto Scolari


    Full Text Available The article sets out the findings of research carried out in 2013 on the Spanish tourism mobile applications. The research that covered 66 apps combined a quantitative description of this sector with qualitative categories based on a semiotic analysis. The article evaluates and compares the apps, identifies their main traits, and proposes a taxonomy: the content-based app, the participatory app and the leisure app.

  5. The labour trajectories of immigrant women in Spain: Are there signs of upward social mobility?

    Elena Vidal-Coso


    Full Text Available Background: In Spain, foreign-born women are disproportionately employed in housework or care work, and quantitative research has shown that female migrants are disadvantaged relative to male migrants in the occupational status of their first job in Spain. However, the process that created this female penalty has not yet been explored. Objective: In this paper, we focus on female occupational mobility at migration and during settlement in Spain. First, we compare female and male labour mobility at migration. Second, we identify the main socio-demographic factors which increase the likelihood that the first job a foreign-born woman holds in Spain will be as a cleaner or a domestic worker. Third, we investigate female labour mobility from the time of migration, particularly trajectories that lead away from the cleaning and domestic occupations, and consider the importance of the assimilation process in occupational mobility. Methods: We apply quantitative methods to Spain's 2007 National Immigrant Survey (Encuesta Nacional de Inmigrantes, using descriptive (mobility matrixes and simple and multinomial logistic regression analyses. We include the main socio-demographic, family, and migratory characteristics of immigrants in the explanatory models. Results: The results of our analysis revealed that female migrants to Spain are more likely than their male counterparts to experience occupational downgrading at the time of migration, and that 41.6Š of women work in domestic services in their first job in Spain. Finally, our results have demonstrated that, although occupational immobility is common among female migrants in Spain, movement out of domestic services is possible, especially for the most assimilated immigrant women. Conclusions: This paper contextualises female immigration in Spain, attributing the labour market choices made by female migrants to the externalisation of domestic and cleaning occupations in private households, and to the


    Joaquín Beltrán Antolín


    Full Text Available Spain, an European Union country, has become a new location for Asian transnationalism, a new territory to explore, an horizon to discover, a border to cross over. The Spanish economy is an attractive sector for Asian investment and business initiatives, that receives projects and initiatives already tested in other places, or new ones, particularly adapted to the local factors. The diasporas that have taken place, can be categorised, in general terms, into three typologies: the commercial diaspora, the elite and “bottom-up transnationalism”; three models of transnationalism which –in Spain– have demonstrated great adaptability and a high level of integration into the social and economic life of the welcoming country. However, at the same time, inevitable processes of economic competition have been unleashed and have sometimes given rise to violent outbreaks of racism and xenophobia. The Asian disembarkation of its diasporas in a boundary territory of Europe such as Spain, together with the accompanying economic and entrepreneurial dynamism, foster both the increase of wealth and the internationalisation of the national economy. Asian transnationalism –in the context of Spain– should be considered as multinodal and not exclusively binational (origin and destination, as the links actively maintained by the actors-agents of transnationalism include different Asian immigrant communities scattered throughout the world, as well as the countrie of origin. Spain is just another location, one step more in the cross-over that Asian transnationalism involves; in short, a boundary territory that is still filled with opportunities to explore.

  7. Spain

    This paper reports on nuclear export activities in Spain, as elsewhere, which occur in a political, economic, and technological context. The factors operating the process are not always explicitly related in the public and the private sectors, nor between these sectors, by the relevant decision makers. A redefinition of Spain's policies in the nuclear sector has been going on since at least 1984, when a new energy plan was legislated by the newly elected Socialist government. It would be accurate to suggest that this process remains dynamic and not fully completed for policy purposes. This condition has resulted from the fact that Spain underwent a crucial political regime change from dictatorship to parliamentary democracy about a decade ago, with the transition to democracy only recently consolidated. Moreover, no policy in regard to nuclear nonproliferation existed during the Franco regime. Instead, Spain's official position was to maintain the right to preserve a nuclear option for national defense. However, this option was not developed into a concerted program to develop a nuclear military capability

  8. Web 2.0 Goes Mobile: Motivations and Barriers of Mobile Social Networks Use in Spain

    Ruiz Mafé, Carla; Sanz Blas, Silvia; Martí Parreño, José


    Mobile social networking sites have become one of the fastest growing Web 2.0 services worldwide both in developing and developed countries and have a major interest for the information systems research community. This chapter aims to give managers and students insight into the mobile social networking industry and the different drivers and barriers to mobile social networking sites adoption. The chapter’s specific goals are to: (i) Identify consumer segments more likely to adopt mobile socia...

  9. Proceedings of the International Conference on Mobile Learning 2014. (10th, Madrid, Spain, February 28-March 2, 2014)

    Sánchez, Inmaculada Arnedillo, Ed.; Isaías, Pedro, Ed.


    These proceedings contain the papers of the 10th International Conference on Mobile Learning 2014, which was organised by the International Association for Development of the Information Society, in Madrid, Spain, February 28-March 2, 2014. The Mobile Learning 2014 International Conference seeks to provide a forum for the presentation and…

  10. Spain

    This document provides information on the status of institutional and financial arrangements in Spain for the long term management of HLW and SNF, It includes the following elements: A consistent set of requirements for the technical and legal infrastructure including: funding, liability, institutional control, records management, and research activities; An organizational structure with clearly defined responsibilities; and Provisions for participation by interested parties in decisions and outcomes

  11. PPCPs wet weather mobilization in a combined sewer in NW Spain.

    Del Río, Héctor; Suárez, Joaquín; Puertas, Jerónimo; Ures, Pablo


    An intense campaign was carried out over a 14 month period to characterize concentrations and loads of 7 well-known Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products (PPCPs), during dry and wet weather conditions, in an urban combined catchment in the northwest of Spain, a geographical zone with an average annual rainfall over 1500 mm. The main objective was to gather more in-depth knowledge of the mobilization of these "micropollutants" in an urban combined sewer and the possible pressures on water receiving bodies due to combined sewer overflows (CSOs). Hydrographs and pollutographs of these substances in dry weather flows (DWF), on weekdays and weekends, and wet weather flows (WWF) during 10 rain events have been characterized to obtain data that are sufficiently representative for statistical analysis. The research findings show that there is a considerable mobilization of these substances during rain events, mainly in the first part of the hydrographs, especially HHCB galaxolide, ibuprofen and paracetamol with maximum concentrations of 9.76, 8.51 and 5.71 μg/L respectively, whereas these concentrations in dry weather only reached 2.57, 2.11 and 0.72 μg/L respectively. There is a good correlation between the degree of mobilization in wet weather flows and the percentage of dry weather particulate phase of each studied substance, indicating that such mobilization may be associated with adsorption on the sediments deposited on the collectors during the antecedent dry period. These results are in good agreement with removal in conventional WWTP, especially for compounds that tend to adsorb onto sewage sludge. PMID:23425796

  12. An experiment on brand loyalty among mobile phone users in the basque region of Spain

    M.Z.Ye. Salem


    Full Text Available The aim of the article. This paper attempts to examine brand loyalty among mobile phone users – the case of the main six mobile phone companies operating in the Basque region of Spain. The results of the analysis. Marketers always try to develop a strong and healthy brand in the mind of existing as well as potential consumers. There are different views regarding the meanings and measurement of brand loyalty depending on the professional backgrounds of the individuals conducting the research. More research is necessary about brand loyalty because conceptual and empirical gaps remain in the marketing literature. Competitive studies are vital considering the differences between nations' cultures, governments and economies which affect the way companies and customers respond to markets. An empirical study was conducted to collect the primary data using a questionnaire as a tool in order to test the hypotheses. The questionnaire was distributed to 400 respondents who were randomly selected from the population. Conclusions and directions of further researches. The findings proved that there is low loyalty toward phone mobile companies according to users' attitudes through: they have moderate confidence in the services of the companies, they consider themselves moderate loyal to the companies in return for the excellent service, the companies improve its services by a moderate way, promotion of competitive companies affect their attitudes, and they will not remain committed to the companies' brands, if prices increase. In addition, there is no loyalty among mobile phone users toward companies they deal with according to users' behaviors through: the respondents intend to sign out of the companies they deal with in the next few years, they will switch to competitors if they face problems regarding the companies' services, they will intend to sign up with competitors that offer better prices, they do not encourage others to sign up for these companies

  13. Are commuting and residential mobility decisions simultaneous? : the case of Catalonia (Spain)

    Romaní Fernández, Javier, 1969-; Suriñach Caralt, Jordi; Artís Ortuño, Manuel


    In this paper we study the commuting and moving decisions of workers in Catalonia (Spain) and its evolution in the 1986-1996 period. Using a microdata sample from the 1991 Spanish Population Census, we estimate a simultaneous, discrete choice model of commuting and moves, thus indirectly addressing the home and job location decisions. The econometrical framework is a simultaneous, binary probit model with a commute equation and a move equation

  14. Metal mobilization from base-metal smelting slag dumps in Sierra Almagrera (Almería, Spain)

    Navarro Flores, Andrés Francisco; Cardellach, Esteve; Mendoza, José L.; Corbella Cordomí, Mercé; Domènech Rubio, Luis Miguel


    Smelting slags associated with base-metal vein deposits of the Sierra Almagrera area (SE Spain) show high concentrations of Ag (2.0 mg/L), Fe (0.22–9.8 mg/L), Mn (0.85–40.2 mg/L), Ni (0.092–2.7 mg/L), Pb (>2.0 mg/L) and Zn (>2.5 mg/L), and mobilization of Ag (0.2–31 lg/L), As (5.2–31 lg/L), Cd (1.3–36.8 lg/L) and Hg (0.2–7 lg/L). The leachates were modeled using the numerical code PHREEQC. The results suggested the dissolution of fayalite, ferrihydrite, jarosite, pyrrhotite, goethite...

  15. Mobile Phones for Spain's University Entrance Examination Language Test

    García Laborda, Jesús; Magal Royo, Teresa; Litzler, Mary Frances; Giménez López, José Luis


    Few tests were delivered using mobile phones a few years ago, but the flexibility and capability of these devices make them valuable tools even for high stakes testing. This paper addresses research done through the PAULEX (2007-2010) and OPENPAU (2012-2014) research projects at the Universidad Politécnica de Valencia and Universidad de Alcalá…

  16. The Cyborg Astrobiologist: Testing a Novelty-Detection Algorithm on Two Mobile Exploration Systems at Rivas Vaciamadrid in Spain and at the Mars Desert Research Station in Utah

    McGuire, P C; Wendt, L; Bonnici, A; Souza-Egipsy, V; Ormo, J; Diaz-Martinez, E; Foing, B H; Bose, R; Walter, S; Oesker, M; Ontrup, J; Haschke, R; Ritter, H


    (ABRIDGED)In previous work, two platforms have been developed for testing computer-vision algorithms for robotic planetary exploration (McGuire et al. 2004b,2005; Bartolo et al. 2007). The wearable-computer platform has been tested at geological and astrobiological field sites in Spain (Rivas Vaciamadrid and Riba de Santiuste), and the phone-camera has been tested at a geological field site in Malta. In this work, we (i) apply a Hopfield neural-network algorithm for novelty detection based upon color, (ii) integrate a field-capable digital microscope on the wearable computer platform, (iii) test this novelty detection with the digital microscope at Rivas Vaciamadrid, (iv) develop a Bluetooth communication mode for the phone-camera platform, in order to allow access to a mobile processing computer at the field sites, and (v) test the novelty detection on the Bluetooth-enabled phone-camera connected to a netbook computer at the Mars Desert Research Station in Utah. This systems engineering and field testing hav...

  17. Mobilities

    . The selection will cover diverse topics such as theories, concepts, methods, and approaches as well as it will explore various modes of mobilities and the relationship to everyday life practices. The selection also covers the ‘politics of mobilities’ from local urban planning schemes to geopolitical...... issues of refugees and environmental degradation. The spaces and territories marked by mobilities as well as the sites marked by the bypassing of such are explored. Moreover, the architectural and technological dimensions to infrastructures and sites of mobilities will be included as well as the issues...... of power, social exclusion, consumption, surveillance and mobilities history to mention some of the many themes covered by this reference work. This new title will focus on the academic contributions to this understanding by primarily focusing on works and publications in the aftermath of the seminal...

  18. Plain Language in Spain

    Cassany, Daniel


    This article reviews the communicative style Spain inherited from the dictatorship, Spain???s conception of plain language, the goals it set for the four most widely used languages, and the results achieved.

  19. Mobility of Po and U-isotopes under acid mine drainage conditions: an experimental approach with samples from Río Tinto area (SW Spain)

    Under acid mine drainage (AMD) conditions, the solubilities and mobilities of many elements are vastly different from conditions prevailing in most natural waters. Studies are underway in the Río Tinto area (Iberian Pyrite Belt), in order to understand the behavior and mobility of long-lived U-series radionuclides under AMD conditions. A set of leaching experiments utilizing typical country rocks from the Tinto River basin, waste rock pile composite materials, iron-rich riverbed sediments and gossan (weathered naturally rock) were performed towards this purpose. Initial leaching experiments using distilled water kept in contact with solid material for 300, 100, 50 and 1 h resulted in very low concentrations of U with 234U/238U activity ratios close to equilibrium and activity concentrations of 210Po < 0.03 mBq/g. Leaching experiments performed with sulfuric acid media (0.1 and 0.01 M), and contact times between the solid and solution for 24 h were conducted to quantify the amount of U-isotopes and 210Po leached, and the radioactive disequilibria generated between the radionuclides in the leachate. These experiments show that Po mobility in acidic conditions (pH around 1–2) is very low, with 210Po activity in the leachate to be 6% in average for the solid sample. By contrast, mobility of U-isotopes is higher than that of Po, around 1.2%

  20. Antimony distribution and mobility in topsoils and plants (Cytisus striatus, Cistus ladanifer and Dittrichia viscosa) from polluted Sb-mining areas in Extremadura (Spain)

    A study about topsoil antimony distribution and mobility from the soils to the biomass has been afforded in three abandoned Sb mining areas located at Extremadura. Physico-chemical characteristics of the soils and total antimony levels were measured in soils and autochthonous plant species (Cytisus striatus, Cistus ladanifer and Dittrichia viscosa). Comparison with corresponding values in reference areas isolated from the mining activities is discussed. Antimony mobility in the soils was estimated by measuring the water extractable fraction; low results were obtained for the three soil areas, with no statistical differences. Plant ability to accumulate antimony was estimated by use of plant accumulation coefficients (PAC). Seasonal (spring vs. autumn) effects on the antimony content in the plant species. Cytisus striatus from Mari Rosa mine presented antimony excluder characteristics, whereas Dittrichia viscosa specimens growing in San Antonio mine showed a significant antimony bioaccumulation. - Bioaccumulation of antimony in vegetal species growing in mining areas

  1. Antimony distribution and mobility in topsoils and plants (Cytisus striatus, Cistus ladanifer and Dittrichia viscosa) from polluted Sb-mining areas in Extremadura (Spain)

    Murciego, A. Murciego [Area de Cristalografia y Mineralogia, Universidad de Extremadura, Avda. Elvas, s/n, E-06071 Badajoz (Spain); Sanchez, A. Garcia [IRNA-CSIC, Departamento de Geoquimica Ambiental, Aptdo. 257, Salamanca (Spain); Gonzalez, M.A. Rodriguez [Area de Cristalografia y Mineralogia, Universidad de Extremadura, Avda. Elvas, s/n, E-06071 Badajoz (Spain); Gil, E. Pinilla [Departamento de Quimica Analitica y Electroquimica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Extremadura, Avda. Elvas, s/n, E-06071 Badajoz (Spain)]. E-mail:; Gordillo, C. Toro [Departamento de Quimica Analitica y Electroquimica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Extremadura, Avda. Elvas, s/n, E-06071 Badajoz (Spain); Fernandez, J. Cabezas [Area de Ecologia, Universidad de Extremadura, Avda. Elvas, s/n, E-06071 Badajoz (Spain); Triguero, T. Buyolo [Area de Ecologia, Universidad de Extremadura, Avda. Elvas, s/n, E-06071 Badajoz (Spain)


    A study about topsoil antimony distribution and mobility from the soils to the biomass has been afforded in three abandoned Sb mining areas located at Extremadura. Physico-chemical characteristics of the soils and total antimony levels were measured in soils and autochthonous plant species (Cytisus striatus, Cistus ladanifer and Dittrichia viscosa). Comparison with corresponding values in reference areas isolated from the mining activities is discussed. Antimony mobility in the soils was estimated by measuring the water extractable fraction; low results were obtained for the three soil areas, with no statistical differences. Plant ability to accumulate antimony was estimated by use of plant accumulation coefficients (PAC). Seasonal (spring vs. autumn) effects on the antimony content in the plant species. Cytisus striatus from Mari Rosa mine presented antimony excluder characteristics, whereas Dittrichia viscosa specimens growing in San Antonio mine showed a significant antimony bioaccumulation. - Bioaccumulation of antimony in vegetal species growing in mining areas.

  2. Mobile genetic elements related to the diffusion of plasmid-mediated AmpC β-lactamases or carbapenemases from Enterobacteriaceae: findings from a multicenter study in Spain.

    Zamorano, L; Miró, E; Juan, C; Gómez, L; Bou, G; González-López, J J; Martínez-Martínez, L; Aracil, B; Conejo, M C; Oliver, A; Navarro, F


    We examined the genetic context of 74 acquired ampC genes and 17 carbapenemase genes from 85 of 640 Enterobacteriaceae isolates collected in 2009. Using S1 pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and Southern hybridization, 37 of 74 bla AmpC genes were located on large plasmids of different sizes belonging to six incompatibility groups. We used sequencing and PCR mapping to investigate the regions flanking the acquired ampC genes. The bla CMY-2-like genes were associated with ISEcp1; the surrounding bla DHA genes were similar to Klebsiella pneumoniae plasmid pTN60013 associated with IS26 and the psp and sap operons; and the bla ACC-1 genes were associated with IS26 elements inserted into ISEcp1. All of the carbapenemase genes (bla VIM-1, bla IMP-22, and bla IMP-28) were located in class 1 integrons. Therefore, although plasmids are the main cause of the rapid dissemination of ampC genes among Enterobacteriaceae, we need to be aware that other mobile genetic elements, such as insertion sequences, transposons, or integrons, can be involved in the mobilization of these genes of chromosomal origin. Additionally, three new integrons (In846 to In848) are described in this study. PMID:26077249

  3. Mobilities Mobilities

    César Pompeyo


    Full Text Available Urry, John (2007 Mobilities.Oxford: Polity Press.Urry, John (2007 Mobilities.Oxford: Polity Press.John Urry (1946-, profesor en la Universidad de Lancaster, es un sociólogo de sobra conocido y altamente reputado en el panorama internacional de las ciencias sociales. Su dilatada carrera, aparentemente dispersa y diversificada, ha seguido senderos bastante bien definidos dejando tras de sí un catálogo extenso de obras sociológicas de primer nivel. Sus primeros trabajos se centraban en el campo de la teoría social y la filosofía de las ciencias sociales o de la sociología del poder [...

  4. The Nuclear Safety Council actions to reduce the evolution of the operational doses from the industrial radiography (using mobile gammagraphy equipment) in Spain

    Since 1993 the Nuclear Safety Council has been making efforts for the reduction of the doses in the mobile gammagraphy industry, by means of a greater control of the operation of these facilities, the improvement of radiological protection equipment and the operational and emergency procedures. The enclosure of this paper will be to present: A summary of the actions that have been carried out from 1993 promoted by the Nuclear Safety Council with the purpose of the progressive reduction of the doses; First Radiological Protection Improvement Plan (1993-2000); Audits program to facilities with highest gammagraphy activity to detect problems; Sending Technical Instructions and recommendations; Development of Safety Guide 5.14 'Safety and Radiological requirements in the industrial gamma radiography facilities'. The study of doses evolution from 1993 to 2000 showed the need to elaborate a Second Radiological Protection Improvement Plan (approved in 2001) to reduce doses and to enforce ALARA principle. In this Plan CSN through complementary technical instructions (CTI) request to the licensees the establishment of: An Inspection program; A gammagraphy operation task plan; A continued training program. (author)

  5. The L120 Mobile Project

    Demouy, Valérie; Eardley, Annie; Kukulska-Hulme, Agnes; Thomas, Rhodri


    This is the abstract and the powerpoint presentation used for the L120 Mobile Project presentation at the conference on Mobile Learning and autonomy in second language acquisition (MLASLA) held at the University of Castilla-La Macha, Toledo, Spain (September 2009) Abstract: The Department of Languages at the Open University has always been keen to explore the use of new technologies to deliver its language courses more effectively and dynamically. As mobile learning is playing an incr...

  6. Factors affecting quits and layoffs in Spain

    Antonio Caparrós Ruiz; Mª Lucía Navarro Gómez


    During the last decade, unemployment rates in the European Union have been higher than in other regions, e.g., the United States, and these are even higher in Spain. It has been argued that the different degrees of labour mobility between the European and the American labour markets can account for the differences in the pattern observed. This paper follows the McLaughlin's model (1991) and provides empirical evidence regarding the factors determining quits and layoffs due to contract termina...

  7. Spain accepts safeguards controls

    Spain became the 26th country to accept safeguards controls by the Agency in December. An agreement was signed in Vienna, transferring to IAEA the administration of safeguards against diversion of materials and installations to military purposes provided for under a nuclear co-operation agreement concluded between Spain and USA in 1957

  8. Andalucian (Spain, sw)

    Orihuela, Antonio


    We present the main types of vernacular architecture in Andalucia (Spain): city houses, mountain village houses and those of the villages on the plains. Also the flat roof houses in the Alpujarras and the caves are studied.

  9. Evaluation of Hybrid and Distance Education Learning Environments in Spain

    Ferrer-Cascales, Rosario; Walker, Scott L.; Reig-Ferrer, Abilio; Fernandez-Pascual, Maria Dolores; Albaladejo-Blazquez, Natalia


    This article describes the adaptation and validation of the "Distance Education Learning Environments Survey" (DELES) for use in investigating the qualities found in distance and hybrid education psycho-social learning environments in Spain. As Europe moves toward post-secondary student mobility, equanimity in access to higher education, and more…

  10. Staging Mobilities / Designing Mobilities

    Jensen, Ole B.


    people are ‘staging themselves’ (from below). Staging mobilities is a dynamic process between ‘being staged’ (for example, being stopped at traffic lights) and the ‘mobile staging’ of interacting individuals (negotiating a passage on the pavement). Staging mobilities is about the fact that mobility is...

  11. Worst in Spain

    Cotarelo, P. [Ecologistas en Accion (Spain)


    The As Pontes coal-fired power plant in northwest Spain is the largest single emitter of sulphur dioxide in the 'old' EU15. The plant is also among the largest emitters of nitrogen oxides and carbon dioxide in the region, according to the EPER (European Pollutant Emission Register). But Spain has also several other large emitters of air pollutants. The Andorra which is located in the province of Teruel is one of them. The Andorra power plant emitted 209,148 tones of SO{sub 2} in 2002 which makes it the second largest single emitter of SO{sub 2} in the EU15. It also emitts large quantities of NOx. Also in the northwest of Spain, the Composilla and La Robla power plants are the SO{sub 2} and NOx emitters.

  12. Molecular gastronomy in Spain

    García-Segovia, P.; Garrido, M. D.; Vercet, A.;


    Beyond the overwhelming international success of Ferrán Adria, Spain has been one of the countries with a more active implication in molecular gastronomy as a scientific discipline but also in the use of ingredients, technologies, and equipment from the scientific and technological universe in th...... scientists for facing the future of Spanish gastronomy. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC....

  13. Test Reviewing in Spain

    Muniz, Jose; Fernandez-Hermida, Jose R.; Fonseca-Pedrero, Eduardo; Campillo-Alvarez, Angela; Pena-Suarez, Elsa


    The proper use of psychological tests requires that the measurement instruments have adequate psychometric properties, such as reliability and validity, and that the professionals who use the instruments have the necessary expertise. In this article, we present the first review of tests published in Spain, carried out with an assessment model…

  14. Nuclear energy in Spain

    The 'Plan Energetico Nacional de 1983' (1983 National Energy Program)(PEN-83) was approved recently by the Spanish Government and presented to the 'Cortes Espanolas' (Spanish Parliament) in May 1984. The PEN-83 is being discussed at present in the Parliament and it is possible that some modifications be introduced, but expectedly will be rather limited and minor. PEN-83 covers the period 1983-1992. It includes a comparative analysis of the evolution and situation in OECD countries and in Spain. In Spain the offer, supply and consumption of primary energy and of the interrelation with other economic indicators, such as the gross domestic product, inflation rate and unemployment compared with that of the industrialized OECD countries, has shown a much lower capability to adapt its structure to the energy price increases

  15. Spain; Selected Issues

    International Monetary Fund


    This Selected Issues paper analyzes the sources of the persistence of geographical unemployment imbalances and low speed of adjustment to regional labor demand shocks in Spain. The paper argues that, under present labor market arrangements, these imbalances are unlikely to be corrected in the near future. In particular, the current wage bargaining system appears to be excessively centralized and to result in nationally set wages that are too high to reduce unemployment in high-unemployment ar...

  16. Spain; Selected Issues

    International Monetary Fund


    This Selected Issues paper presents a preliminary assessment of recent labor market reforms in Spain, where the 2012 labor market reforms are making a difference. Wage moderation is contributing to a visible recovery in headline employment growth, and the reforms have made the labor market more resilient to shocks. Some evidence exists that the contribution of temporary contracts to employment growth has started to decrease. However, the reliance on temporary workers remains strong overall, a...

  17. Restructuring in SMEs: Spain

    Durán, Jessica; Isusi, Iñigo


    Based on information derived from 85 case studies across all EU Member States and other sources, the project outlines the features peculiar to SMEs in their anticipation and management of restructuring, explores the main drivers of change and analyses the factors influencing successful restructuring. It offers some insight into how restructuring impacts on workers and the company itself and sets out several policy pointers for future action. This is the country report for Spain.

  18. La movilidad residencial europea actual en el contexto de la relación histórica España-Europa (Current European residential mobility in the context of the historic relationship between Spain and Europe

    García Jiménez, Modesto


    Full Text Available Resumen: En la primera década del presente siglo, España, que ya tenía una larga trayectoria como destino turístico privilegiado, se dispone a acoger una verdadera avalancha de personas del norte y centro de Europa que eligen nuestro país como lugar de residencia. El fenómeno puede caracterizarse como un paso más en la elección de estilos de vida propios de las sociedades contemporáneas, y como uno de los más importantes ensayos de libertad de circulación internacional y de ejercicio de los derechos de la ciudadanía de todos los europeos. Este texto quiere ahondar en aspectos de la interacción social y la relación antropológica de los nuevos residentes y la población autóctona, también europeos; a la vez que hacerse eco de las diversas actitudes críticas que este experimento social despierta en las ciencias sociales. Y va a procurar hacerlo ubicándolo en el contexto de las relaciones históricas de España y Europa y de cierta desesperanza que provoca la situación de crisis mundial que vivimos. Abstract: In the first decade of this century, Spain, which already had a long trajectory as an exceptional tourist destination, prepared to receive a deluge of people from North and Central Europe, who chose our country as their place of residence. The phenomenon could be characterised as a further step in the choosing of lifestyles in contemporary societies, and as one of the most important tests of international freedom of movement and the rights of citizenship of all Europeans. This text wishes to expand on aspects of social interaction and the anthropological relationship of the new residents and the native population, also European; at the same time as echoing the diverse critical attitudes that this social experiment provokes in the social sciences. It will attempt to achieve this by placing it in the context of the historical relations between Spain and Europe and the sense of desperation caused by the situation of the world

  19. Health Disparities by Income in Spain before and after the Economic Crisis

    Coveney, Max; Gomez, Pilar Garcia; van Doorslaer, Eddy; Ourti, Tom


    Little is known about what the economic crisis has done to health disparities by income. We apply a decomposition method to unravel the contributions of income growth, income inequality and differential income mobility across socio-demographic groups to changes in health disparities by income in Spain using longitudinal data from the Survey of Income and Living Conditions (SILC) for the period 2004-2012. We find a modest rise in health inequality by income in Spain in the five years of econom...

  20. Liver transplantation in Spain.

    de la Rosa, Gloria; Fondevila, Constantino; Navasa, Miquel


    Liver transplantation (LT) activity started in Spain in 1984 and has exceeded 23,700 interventions, with more than 1000 transplants performed yearly. Every hospital needs official authorization to perform a LT, which implies the obligation to register all patients on the national waiting list. The Spanish National Transplant Organization (ONT) provides essential support for organ procurement, allocation, and management of the waiting list at a national level. Liver allocation is center-oriented as all available organs are referred to the ONT for the whole country. The allocation rules for LT are made according to disease severity after consensus among professionals from every transplant center and ratified by representatives of the regional health authorities. Authorization and location/distribution of transplant centers are regulated by the country (Spain) and by the different regions according to the Real Decreto 1723/2012. For a total population of 47,850,795 inhabitants, there are 24 centers for LT for adults (1 team/2 million people) and 5 for LT for children (1 team/9.5 million people). Nonbiliary cirrhosis, particularly alcohol- and hepatitis C virus-related cirrhosis (60%), and tumors, mainly hepatocellular carcinoma (19%), are the most common indications for LT in Spain. Unusual causes of LT include metabolic diseases like Wilson's disease, familial amyloid polyneuropathy and hyperoxaluria type I, polycystic kidney and liver disease, and some tumors (epithelioid hemangioendothelioma and neuroendocrine tumors). Important efforts are now being undertaken to improve the quality and transplantability of extended criteria livers, in particular those arising from DCD, which represent the greatest opportunity to expand the donor pool. These efforts have to be addressed to adapt the organ preservation procedures, be it through the application of regional perfusion in situ or the use of machine perfusion preservation ex situ. Liver Transplantation 22 1259-1264 2016

  1. Measuring deprivation in Spain

    Perez-Mayo, Jesus


    This paper analyses the deprivation in Spain based on ECHP data for 1996. Usually, an indirect approach for measuring deprivation or poverty is used with poverty lines. That is, income is used as a proxy for analysing living conditions. However, some studies have used a direct approach to measure deprivation or poverty (Townsend 1988, Mayer and Jencks 1988, Muffels 1993, Callan et al 1993, Dirven and Fouarge 1995, Layte et al 1999, Whelan et al 2000). The aim of this paper is improving the id...

  2. Nuclear material control in Spain

    A general view about the safeguards activities in Spain is presented. The national system of accounting for and control of nuclear materials is described. The safeguards agreements signed by Spain are presented and the facilities and nuclear materials under these agreements are listed. (E.G.)

  3. Environmental performance reviews: Spain



    The second OECD Review of Spain's environmental performance reviews Spain's progress in the context of OECD environmental strategy for the first decade of the 21st century in relation to its own policy objectives. It praises a number of achievements such as in commitments to climate change policies and developments of cogeneration and renewable energy sources. Although emissions of sulphur dioxide from the energy sector have fallen since 1990 they are still high when measured per capita and per unit of GDP. The OECD recommends further control of emissions of SOx, NOx, VOCs and NH{sub 3}. Subsidies such as compulsory purchase of domestic coal by electricity producers are set to increase. The report recommends the phasing out of environmental subsidies (which has begun) and making use of economic instruments to encourage efficient resource management and reduction of pollutants. Greenhouse gas emissions increased by 38% between 1990 and 2002 and the outlook for the next few years is pessimistic. 39 figs., 31 tabs.

  4. [Hepatitis C in Spain].

    Bruguera, Miguel; Forns, Xavier


    Spain has a medium endemicity of hepatitic C infection among central Europe countries and Italy. Prevalence of anti-HCV varies among regions and it ranges from 1.6 to 2.6%, which means that there may be between 480,000 and 760,000 people infected with hepatitis C virus in Spain. The prevalence is very low in people under 20 years of age and it increases from age 30 years. Prisoners and drug addicts have the highest infectious rates, between 40 and 98%. Some populations of immigrants also have a high prevalence of HCV infection, especially people from Asia and sub-Saharan countries, whereas people from Latin America have rates lower than those in the autochtones population. Spanish people with chronic hepatitis C were mainly infected via blood transfusions, IV drug use, or during some medical and surgical hospitalization. The reduction in the use of IV drugs and the programs of needle sharing, as well as the eradication of post-transfusional hepatitis, have led to a progressive reduction in the incidence of new infections (from 6.8 per 100,000 in-habitants in 1997 to 2.3 in 2003). Preliminary data suggest that an important rate of new hepatitis C cases owe to nosocomial transmission. Transmission is almost exclusively vertical in children. In spite of a two-third reduction of incident cases of hepatitis C in Spain in last few years, it is foreseeable that the number of patients with advanced HCV liver disease attended in the health-care system will increase in forthcoming years. This is due to the fact that many, still undiagnosed patients will be likely recognized for the first time as a result of some complication of the disease. All efforts to increase the screening of hidden cases of hepatitis C in primary health-care centers, allowing a prompt treatment before an advanced stage, will have a beneficial impact both in economic and social terms. PMID:16828003

  5. Sierra Nevada (Granada, Spain)

    Gilgado, José D.; Enghoff, Henrik; Tinaut, Alberto; Mauriès, Jean-Paul; Ortuño, Vicente M.


    Millipedes (Diplopoda), with a few notable exceptions, are poor dispersers, showing a very high degree of endemicity, not the least in mountains. The first samplings of the Mesovoid Shallow Substratum (MSS) of the higher altitudes of the Sierra Nevada Mountains (Baetic System, Southern Spain) have...... led to the discovery of a high number of millipedes, each of the species present showing a different degree of establishment in this subterranean environment. An update of the knowledge on the millipedes of this region, the first data of the millipede communities in the MSS and the description of...... Ceratosphys cryodeserti Gilgado, Mauriès & Enghoff n. sp. are here provided, as well as the first data on the humidity and temperature fluctuations in the MSS of this high mountain. The new species is similar to other Baetico-Riffan species, while the only previously known congener from the region, C...

  6. Burnup credit in Spain

    The status of development of burnup credit for criticality safety analyses in Spain is described in this paper. Ongoing activities in the country in this field, both national and international, are resumed. Burnup credit is currently being applied to wet storage of PWR fuel, and credit to integral burnable absorbers is given for BWR fuel storage. It is envisaged to apply burnup credit techniques to the new generation of transport casks now in the design phase. The analysis methodologies submitted for the analyses of PWR and BWR fuel wet storage are outlined. Analytical activities in the country are described, as well as international collaborations in this field. Perspectives for future research and development of new applications are finally resumed. (author)

  7. Mobile Learning Using Mobile Phones

    Vicente, Paula


    The participation in mobile learning programs is conditioned by having/using mobile communication technology. Those who do not have or use such technology cannot participate in mobile learning programs. This study evaluates who are the most likely participants of mobile learning programs by examining the demographic profile and mobile phone usage…

  8. Mobile Lexicography

    Køhler Simonsen, Henrik


    Mobile phones are ubiquitous and have completely transformed the way we live, work, learn and conduct our everyday activities. Mobile phones have also changed the way users access lexicographic data. In fact, it can be argued that mobile phones and lexicography are not yet compatible. Modern users...... are already mobile – but lexicography is not yet fully ready for the mobile challenge, mobile users and mobile user situations. The article is based on empirical data from two surveys comprising 10 medical doctors, who were asked to look up five medical substances with the medical dictionary app...... mobile lexicography....


    Mario Izquierdo; Juan F. Jimeno; Aitor Lacuesta


    Since the start of the Great Recession the unemployment rate in Spain has risen by almost 18 percentage points. The unemployment crisis is affecting all population groups, including the more highly educated; but it is even more acute for the foreign population, whose unemployment rate is close to 40%. This situation follows a period of very high immigration flows (1995-2007) that set the number of foreigners living in Spain at 11% of the population. This paper documents the characteristics of...

  10. Hall mobility in multicrystalline silicon

    Schindler, F.; Geilker, J.; Kwapil, W.; Warta, W.; Schubert, M. C.


    Knowledge of the carrier mobility in silicon is of utmost importance for photovoltaic applications, as it directly influences the diffusion length and thereby the cell efficiency. Moreover, its value is needed for a correct quantitative evaluation of a variety of lifetime measurements. However, models that describe the carrier mobility in silicon are based on theoretical calculations or fits to experimental data in monocrystalline silicon. Multicrystalline (mc) silicon features crystal defects such as dislocations and grain boundaries, with the latter possibly leading to potential barriers through the trapping of charge carriers and thereby influencing the mobility, as shown, for example, by Maruska et al. [Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 381 (1980)]. To quantify the mobilities in multicrystalline silicon, we performed Hall measurements in p-type mc-Si samples of various resistivities and different crystal structures and compared the data to majority carrier Hall mobilities in p-type monocrystalline floatzone (FZ) silicon. For lack of a model that provides reliable values of the Hall mobility in silicon, an empirical fit similar to existing models for conductivity mobilities is proposed based on Hall measurements of monocrystalline p-type FZ silicon. By comparing the measured Hall mobilities obtained from mc silicon with the corresponding Hall mobilities in monocrystalline silicon of the same resistivity, we found that the mobility reduction due to the presence of crystal defects in mc-Si ranges between 0% and 5% only. Mobility decreases of up to 30% as reported by Peter et al. [Proceedings of the 23rd European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, Valencia, Spain, 1-5 September 2008], or even of a factor of 2 to 3 as detected by Palais et al. [Mater. Sci. Eng. B 102, 184 (2003)], in multicrystalline silicon were not observed.

  11. Modification of the availability of trace elements in contaminated mining soils by the use of additives Modificación de la disponibilidad de elementos traza en suelos mineros contaminados mediante la aplicación de enmiendas

    Elvira Esteban; Eduardo Moreno; Rodrigo Sepúlveda


    The experiment was performed in the Universidad Autónoma de Madrid-España. Sampling was performed in Bustarviejo, in the Valle Alto del Lozoya. The Mónica mine is located two km northwest of Bustarviejo, in the southern foothills of the Sierra de Guadarrama. Mining soils are sources of heavy metals; their capacity for retention and mobility depends on the characteristics of the soil. The experiment evaluated different mineral additives (E33P, FeSO4 x 7H2O + CaCO3, KH2PO4 and NPK), and an orga...

  12. Mobile Probes in Mobile Learning

    Ørngreen, Rikke; Blomhøj, Ulla; Duvaa, Uffe


    In this paper experiences from using mobile probes in educational design of a mobile learning application is presented. The probing process stems from the cultural probe method, and was influenced by qualitative interview and inquiry approaches. In the project, the mobile phone was not only acting as an agent for acquiring empirical data (as the situation in hitherto mobile probe settings) but was also the technological medium for which data should say something about (mobile learning). Conse...

  13. PSA results and trends for Spain's NPPs

    The Spain regulatory authority CSN demanded performance of PSA for all Spain nuclear power plants. The specific data analysis carried out as a part of the PSA has contributed to the realistic view on the results which could be achieved by the PSA. The main characteristics of the PSA in Spain and PSA trends in the development are presented in the paper

  14. Groundwater crustaceans of Spain, 13 (Copepoda Calanoida)

    Bowman, Thomas E.


    Two calanoid copepods were collected from groundwaters in Spain by the University of Amsterdam Expeditions in 1983—84 and 1985. Copidodiaptomus numidicus was found in southwestern Spain, in provincias Huelva and Sevilla. Mixodiaptomus laciniatus, previously known in Spain only from the Pyrenees, was collected in the Cantabrian Mountains.

  15. Mobile payment

    Lerner, Thomas


    Paying with mobile devices such as mobile phones or smart phones will expand worldwide in the coming years. This development provides opportunities for various industries (banking, telecommunications, credit card business, manufacturers, suppliers, retail) and for consumers.

  16. Mobile marketing

    Švarc, Ondřej


    The goal of bachelor's thesis on the theme "Mobile marketing" is to outline its development and why is this new phenomen so important for all modern companies around the world. The work is not about simple description of mobile marketing media but it vividly informs about the latest trends and news from the world of mobile apps and games. It presents the most successful mobile apps which registered more than billion downloads and from their unique characteristics it unveils great potential of...

  17. Mobile marketing

    KLEČKOVÁ, Zuzana


    The main aim of this thesis was to provide a comprehensive overview of the mobile marketing and analyze selected campaigns of Czech mobile marketing in comparison to world successful campaigns. The research contained studying of available literature about the theme to gain general knowledge about the issue. The theoretical part of the thesis contains predominantly various definitions of mobile marketing and its tools, advantages of these tools and some information about Mobile Marketing Assoc...

  18. Staging Mobilities

    Jensen, Ole B.

    lived as people are “staging themselves” (from below). Staging mobilities is a dynamic process between “being staged” (for example, being stopped at traffic lights) and the “mobile staging” of interacting individuals (negotiating a passage on the pavement). Staging Mobilities is about the fact that...

  19. The gas industry in Spain

    This short presentation of the Spanish gas industry looks at the industry's different players including Gas Natural, which controls almost all of the gas distribution in Spain. Natural gas, almost all of which is imported, accounts for an ever-growing share in the country's energy balance and has undergone great developments, particularly in industry and in thermal generating plants. (author)

  20. Novel lyssavirus in bat, Spain

    Ceballos, N.A.; Morón, S.V.; Berciano, José M.; Nicolas, O.; López, C.A.; Nevado, C.R.; Juste, Javier; Setién, A.A.; Echevarría, Juan E.


    A new tentative lyssavirus, Lleida bat lyssavirus, was found in a bent-winged bat (Miniopterus schreibersii) in Spain. It does not belong to phylogroups I or II, and it seems to be more closely related to the West Causasian bat virus, and especially to the Ikoma lyssavirus.

  1. Mobile Probes in Mobile Learning

    Ørngreen, Rikke; Blomhøj, Ulla; Duvaa, Uffe

    In this paper experiences from using mobile probes in educational design of a mobile learning application is presented. The probing process stems from the cultural probe method, and was influenced by qualitative interview and inquiry approaches. In the project, the mobile phone was not only acting...... as an agent for acquiring empirical data (as the situation in hitherto mobile probe settings) but was also the technological medium for which data should say something about (mobile learning). Consequently, not only the content of the data but also the ways in which data was delivered and handled......, provided a valuable dimension for investigating mobile use. The data was collected at the same time as design activities took place and the collective data was analysed based on user experience goals and cognitive processes from interaction design and mobile learning. The mobile probe increased the...

  2. Mobility Work

    Bardram, Jakob Eyvind; Bossen, Claus


    coordination necessary in cooperative work, but focuses, we argue, mainly on the temporal aspects of cooperative work. As a supplement, the concept of mobility work focuses on the spatial aspects of cooperative work. Whereas actors seek to diminish the amount of articulation work needed in collaboration by......We posit the concept of Mobility Work to describe efforts of moving about people and things as part of accomplishing tasks. Mobility work can be seen as a spatial parallel to the concept of articulation work proposed by the sociologist Anselm Strauss. Articulation work describes efforts of...... constructing Standard Operation Procedures (SOPs), actors minimise mobility work by constructing Standard Operation Configurations (SOCs). We apply the concept of mobility work to the ethnography of hospital work, and argue that mobility arises because of the need to get access to people, places, knowledge and...

  3. Environmental engineering education in Spain.

    Rodríguez-Roda, I; Castells, F; Flotats, X; Lema, J; Tejero, I


    There is a growing demand for engineers and technologists who show multidisciplinary expertise to deal with environmental issues. As a result of this demand, most countries are adapting their old university programs on environmental engineering education. In Spain an official environmental engineering degree does not yet exist, but the Council of Universities is working to present a proposal, based on Bologna agreement concepts. The paper summarizes not only the future perspectives of environmental engineering education in Spain, but also the evolution of the approach during the last decades, which includes the role of the private initiative, the environmental sciences degree, and the intensification in different traditional engineering degrees. Finally, the paper briefly details and compares the syllabus developed in the only four Spanish universities where environmental engineering is offered as a non-official post-graduate course lasting two years. PMID:15193100

  4. Mobile Semiotics

    Jensen, Ole B.


    This chapter aims to understand the mobile condition of contemporary life with a particular view to the signifying dimension of the environment and its ‘readability’. The chapter explores the potentials of semiotics and its relationship to the new mobilities literature. What takes place is a...... ‘mobile sense making’ where signs and materially situated meanings connect to the moving human body and thus create particular challenges and complexities of making sense of the world. The chapter includes notions of mobility systems and socio-technical networks in order to show how a ‘semiotic layer’ may...

  5. Mobil marketing

    Engelová, Kateřina


    Mobil marketing - reklama a podpora prodeje prostřednictvím mobilních telefonů. Technologické a kulturní předpoklady vzniku tohoto odvětví. Mobil marketing a marketingový mix, možnosti synergie. Nástroje mobil marketingu - reklamní SMS a MMS, lokační služby, soutěže, ankety a hlasování, věrnostní systémy, mobilní obsah. Subjekty mobil marketingu. M-komerce. Využití pro podnikové aplikace.

  6. Mobile Clouds

    Fitzek, Frank; Katz, Marcos

    A mobile cloud is a cooperative arrangement of dynamically connected communication nodes sharing opportunistic resources. In this book, authors provide a comprehensive and motivating overview of this rapidly emerging technology. The book explores how distributed resources can be shared by mobile...... examples of mobile clouds applications, based on both existing commercial initiatives as well as proof-of-concept test-beds. Visions and prospects are also discussed, paving the way for further development. As mobile networks and social networks become more and more reliant on each other, the concept of...

  7. Understanding poverty persistence in Spain

    Aylloón, Sara


    The aim of this paper is to study the mechanisms behind poverty persistence in Spain. We examine the importance of past poverty experiences for explaining current poverty as opposed to observed and unobserved individual heterogeneity. Our results are based on the model proposed by Cappellari and Jenkins (J Appl Econometr 19:593-610, 2004a) that estimates poverty transitions while simultaneously controlling for attrition and initial conditions. We find that about 50% of aggregate state depende...

  8. Mobile Semiotics - signs and mobilities

    Jensen, Ole B.

    This paper is about how to comprehend the mobile condition of contemporary life with a particular view to the signifying dimension of the environment and its ‘readability’. The paper explores the potentials of semiotics and its relationship to the new mobilities literature. The theoretical scope is...... therefore an attempt to mobilize semiotics by drawing on a central body of theory within and adjacent to the discipline. For instance the founding works of C. S. Peirce will be related to the contemporary notions of ‘geosemiotics’ by Scollon & Scollon. The paper’s theoretical claim is that semiotics hold a...... potential for mobilities studies if the awareness of seeing the environment as a semiotic layer and system can be sensitized to the insights of the ‘mobilities turn’. Empirically the paper tentatively explores the usefulness of a mobile semiotics approach to cases such as street signage, airport design, and...

  9. Mobile phones and mobile communication

    Ling, Richard; Donner, Jonathan

    With staggering swiftness, the mobile phone has become a fixture of daily life in almost every society on earth. In 2007, the world had over 3 billion mobile subscriptions. Prosperous nations boast of having more subscriptions than people. In the developing world, hundreds of millions of people who...... could never afford a landline telephone now have a mobile number of their own. With a mobile in our hand many of us feel safer, more productive, and more connected to loved ones, but perhaps also more distracted and less involved with things happening immediately around us. Written by two leading...... researchers in the field, this volume presents an overview of the mobile telephone as a social and cultural phenomenon. Research is summarized and made accessible though detailed descriptions of ten mobile users from around the world. These illustrate popular debates, as well as deeper social forces at work...

  10. Does immigration cause crime? : evidence from Spain

    Alonso-Borrego, César; Garoupa, Nuno; Vázquez, Pablo


    The relationship between crime and immigration has been a matter of controversy in the US and around the world. This paper investigates empirically the case of Spain. From 1999 to 2009, Spain has had a large wave of immigration from different areas of the globe. At the same time, crime rates have increased. However, by comparison with other European countries that have received similar massive immigration waves during the same period, crime rates in Spain have increased less considerably. We ...

  11. Mobile phone

    Almost the entire Norwegian population has cell phone. The usefulness of the cell phone is great, but can use a mobile phone to health or discomfort? How can exposure be reduced? NRPA follows research and provides advice on mobile phone use. (AG)

  12. Nuclear power introduction experiences in Spain

    In terms of its electrical system, Spain is an island weakly linked with its neighboring countries. Spain currently connects to the European market through a line with a capacity of 2000 MW. Moreover, Spain has few natural energy resources of its own and thus imports 82% of its domestic energy needs. This leaves Spain highly vulnerable to movements in market prices as well as to potential supply interruptions triggered by events occurring in the Spanish supplier countries, which are themselves not always stable. As a result, securing supply has become an important issue in the Spanish energy system

  13. Restricted Mobilities

    Nielsen, Mette; Lassen, Claus


    exclusion and stratification mechanisms. In conclusion the article therefore suggests that future urban research and planning also needs a mobile understanding of spaces in the cities and how different mobility systems play an important role to sustain the exclusiveness that often characterises the private......Privatisation of public spaces in the contemporary city has increased during the last decades but only few studies have approached this field from a mobility perspective. Therefore the article seeks to rectify this by exploring two Australian examples of private spaces in the city; gated...... communities and shopping centres through mobility lenses. The article shows how different mobility systems enable and restrict the public access to private-public spaces, and it points out that proprietary communities create an unequal potential for human movement and access in the city. The main argument in...

  14. Mobilities Design

    Jensen, Ole B.; Lanng, Ditte Bendix; Wind, Simon


    In this paper, we identify the nexus between design (architecture, urban design, service design, etc.) and mobilities as a new and emerging research field. In this paper, we apply a “situational mobilities” perspective and take point of departure in the pragmatist question: “What design decisions...... and interventions affords this particular mobile situation?” The paper presents the contours of an emerging research agenda within mobilities research. The advent of “mobilities design” as an emerging research field points towards a critical interest in the material as well as practical consequences...... well as policy-making. The paper proposes that increased understanding of the material affordances facilitated through design provides important insight to planning and policymaking that at times might be in risk of becoming too detached from the everyday life of the mobile subject within contemporary...

  15. Intensive mobilities:

    Vannini, Phillip; Bissell, David; Jensen, Ole B.

    This paper explores the intensities of long distance commuting journeys as a way of exploring how bodily sensibilities are being changed by the mobilities that they undertake. The context of this paper is that many people are travelling further to work than ever before owing to a variety of factors...... which relate to transport, housing and employment. Yet we argue that the experiential dimensions of long distance mobilities have not received the attention that they deserve within geographical research on mobilities. This paper combines ideas from mobilities research and contemporary social theory...... with fieldwork conducted in Canada, Denmark and Australia to develop our understanding of the experiential politics of long distance workers. Rather than focusing on the extensive dimensions of mobilities that are implicated in patterns and trends, our paper turns to the intensive dimensions of this...

  16. Designing Mobilities

    Jensen, Ole B.

    How is the width of the pavement shaping the urban experience? How is the material design of transport infrastructure and mobile technology affording social interaction in everyday life spaces? How do people inhabit these spaces with their bodies and in accordance to social and cultural norms......? These are some of the questions that this book raises in order to explore how the design of mobile sites and situations affect people's everyday life. The book takes point of departure in the author's book 'Staging Mobilities' (Routledge, 2013) in which it is argued that mobility is much more than...... mundane acts of moving in the city. 'Designing Mobilities' is based on more than a decade of academic research by Professor of Urban Theory, Ole B. Jensen and a must-read for students and scholars with an interest in urban studies, urban design, architecture, urban planning, transport planning and...

  17. Going Mobile?

    Tallon, Loic; Froes, Isabel Cristina G.


    If the future is mobile, how is the museum community developing within that future? What are the challenges museums face within it? In which directions should we be seeking to evolve our collective knowledge share? It was to gain observations on questions such as these that the 2011 Museums & Mob...... & Mobile survey was developed: 660 museum professionals responded. In this paper the authors highlight nine survey observations that they believe are important to the museum community’s increased understanding of and continued progress within mobile interpretation....

  18. Mobile museology

    Baggesen, Rikke Haller

    selection of blog posts from the research project blog with three research articles: ‘Museum metamorphosis à la mode’, proposing a fashion perspective on ongoing museum developments; ‘Augmenting the agora: media and civic engagement in museums’, questioning the idea of social media holding a vital potential...... fashionable, the ephemeral, and towards an (ideal) state of change and changeability. This orientation is characterised with the triplet concepts of mobile, mobility, and mobilisation, as related to mobile media and movability; to ‘trans - museal’ mediation; and to the mobilisation of collections, audiences...

  19. Mobile Lexicography

    Køhler Simonsen, Henrik


    Users are already mobile, but the question is to which extent knowledge-based dictionary apps are designed for the mobile user situation. The objective of this article is to analyse the characteristics of the mobile user situation and to look further into the stationary user situation and the...... looked up the same five medical terms while walking around a hospital bed. The data collected during the two tests include external and internal recordings, think-aloud data and interview data. The data were analysed by means of the information scientific star model, cf. (Simonsen 2011:565), and it was...


    Gómez Ortega, Alba; Delgado Jalón, M. Luisa; Rivero Menéndez, José Ángel


    The transport sector in Spain is a branch of economic activity which is already of great importanceaccording to its own invoicing, value added and occupation figures, in addition to its indirect economic effects. It has an additional strategic value for economic policy, since it constitutes a fundamental part ofthe cost of placing products on increasing markets in a competitive manner. The mobility and trans-portation of passengers in cities in turn plays an essential role in the economic and...

  1. Urban aerosol size distributions over the Mediterranean city of Barcelona, NE Spain

    Dall'Osto, M.; Beddows, D.C.S.; J. Pey; Rodriguez, S.; A. Alastuey; R. M. Harrison; X. Querol


    Differential mobility particle sizer (DMPS) aerosol concentrations (N13–800) were collected over a one-year-period (2004) at an urban background site in Barcelona, North-Eastern Spain. Quantitative contributions to particle number concentrations of the nucleation (33–38%), Aitken (39–49%) and accumulation mode (18–22%) were estimated. We examined the source and time variability of atmospheric aerosol particles by using both K-means clus...

  2. Urban aerosol size distributions over the Mediterranean city of Barcelona, NE Spain

    Dall'Osto, M.; Beddows, D.C.S.; J. Pey; Rodriguez, S.; A. Alastuey; Harrison, Roy M; X. Querol


    Differential mobility particle sizer (DMPS) aerosol concentrations (N13-800) were collected over a one-year-period (2004) at an urban background site in Barcelona, North-Eastern Spain. Quantitative contributions to particle number concentrations of the nucleation (33–39%), Aitken (39–49%) and accumulation mode (18–22%) were estimated. We examined the source and time variability of atmospheric aerosol particles by using both K-means clustering and Positive Matrix Factori...

  3. Superconductivity in Spain: ``MIDAS`` program

    Yndurain, F.


    The different activities in the field of applied superconductivity carried out in Spain under the auspices of the ``MIDAS`` program are reported. Applications using both low and high temperature superconductors are considered. In the low temperature superconductors case, the design and construction of a 1 MJ SMES unit as well as the fabrication of voltage and resistance standards is reviewed. Developments involving the design and fabrication of an inductive current fault limiter and mono and multi filamentary wires and tapes using high superconductors are discussed. Finally, the prospects of the applications of the superconductivity technology to electric power systems for the electric utilities is considered. (author). 7 refs., 5 figs.

  4. Acid Deposition Maps in Spain

    Animal and monthly deposition velocity and total sulfur deposition maps have been performed for the peninsular Spain for 1992 by using the inferential method. To do this, updated databases with high space and time resolution, for land uses (CORINE) and meteorological information from analysis modelling for the same year, have been utilized. The final result are deposition maps in a 5x5 Km2 grid which allow to assess the methodology used in Europe to obtain the maps of excedances over the critical loads of pollutants. (Author) 32 refs

  5. Greenhouse gas mitigation in Spain

    Castellví Ballesté, Aleix


    This document would like to be clear information about the present and the future of the CO2 emissions in Spain. First of all greenhouse effect and the greenhouse gases contribution are explained to know what is happening with the atmosphere. Secondly, Spain’s emissions are detailed by sectors and origin. These details are going to show in which sectors there are more work to do and which origins are more important. Evolution is being studied to know the trend and the possible future. F...

  6. The Dance of Spain: Classical Folkloric Flamenco.

    Gallant, Clifford J.

    A text on the classical and folk dance of Spain includes a pretest, provided in both English and Spanish; text about the dance in general and the dance of Spain, both classical and folkloric; tests on the text, in both English and Spanish; more specific readings about the traditions of flamenco, castanets, and "el jaleo"; a glossary of flamenco…

  7. Light pollution in Spain. An european perspective

    de Miguel, Alejandro Sanchez


    Spain appears in light pollution maps as a country less polluted than their neighbours in the European Union. This seems to be an illusion due to its low population density. The data indicate that Spain is one of the most contaminated countries. To reach these conclusions we compare the Spanish case to those of other European countries.

  8. Inspection of nuclear fuel transport in Spain

    The experience acquired in inspecting nuclear fuel shipments carried out in Spain will serve as a basis for establishing the regulations wich must be adhered to for future transports, as the transport of nuclear fuels in Spain will increase considerably within the next years as a result of the Spanish nuclear program. The experience acquired in nuclear fuel transport inspection is described. (author)

  9. Mobile Commerce

    Maria Cristina Enache


    Mobile commerce, or m-commerce, refers to the use of wireless digital devices to enable transactions on the Web. Described more fully in Chapter 3, m-commerce involves the use of wireless networks to connect cell phones, handheld devices such Blackberries, and personal computers to the Web. Once connected, mobile consumers can conduct transactions, including stock trades, in-store price comparisons, banking, travel reservations, and more.

  10. Spain's marketing sector seeing more changes

    This paper reports that Spain's petroleum marketing sector continues to restructure. Partly state owned Repsol SA and Royal Dutch/Shell Group are discussing supplying each other's retail outlets in the UK and Spain. And Portugal's state owned Petroleos de Portugal (Petrogal), seeking to sharply expand retail operations in Spain, complains of government interference with foreign investment in Spanish marketing. Meantime, Conoco Inc. Has agreed with Saras SpA Raffinerie Sarde, Milan, to set up a network of service stations in northern Spain and Portugal at a cost of 100 billion pesetas (%972 million). The two are considering building an oil terminal at the port city of Gijon in Asturias, Spain, and the Exxon Corp., Total, and Shell are interested in participating in the project

  11. Exposure of women to organochlorine pesticides in Southern Spain

    Organochlorine pesticides are lipophilic compounds that persist in the environment. Because of their lipid solubility and resistance to metabolism, some of these chemicals accumulate in human tissues. The largest area of intensive greenhouse agriculture in Europe is near the Mediterranean coast of Southern Spain, where this type of farming has greatly expanded since the 1960s. We determined and compared the levels of 15 organochlorine pesticides in the adipose tissue and blood of 200 women living in Southern Spain. Aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, lindane, methoxychlor, endosulfans, and DDT and its metabolites were identified. Detectable concentrations of p,p'-DDE were found in 100% of adipose tissue and serum samples. Among the remaining DDTs, p,p'-DDT was the most common, being detected in 39% of adipose tissue and 76.5% of serum samples, followed by endosulfans I and II, which also were found in both adipose tissue and serum samples but at lower concentrations. Endosulfans were followed in frequency by lindane, aldrin, and dieldrin. Endrin and methoxychlor were present at a much lower frequency compared to those of the other organochlorines. Serum concentrations of p,p'-DDE o,p'-DDD, and endosulfan -I, -sulfate, -lactone, and -diol were significantly correlated with their adipose tissue concentrations. No significant relationships were found between the serum and adipose tissue concentrations of the remaining nine compounds determined, raising doubts about the equivalent use of fat/serum samples for the exposure assessment of some pesticides in epidemiological studies. The results suggested that women of reproductive age in Southern Spain have been and are currently exposed to organochlorine pesticides. Because many of these chemicals can mobilize during pregnancy and lactation, further research is warranted to interpret the health consequences for the children of such exposure

  12. Occupational mobility of immigrants in a low skilled economy. The Spanish case

    Simón, Hipólito; Ramos, Raul; Sanromá, Esteban


    This research examines the occupational mobility of immigrants between their countries of origin and Spain, and its main determinants. It is based on microdata from the Encuesta Nacional de Inmigrantes and the use of an international index of occupational status, the International Socio-Economic Index. The empirical evidence shows that immigrants experience, in general, an intense occupational downgrading in Spain with regard to their countries of origin. This is explained largely by the inte...

  13. Traditional ecological knowledge among transhumant pastoralists in Mediterranean Spain

    Elisa Oteros-Rozas


    Full Text Available Mobility is a millenary human strategy to deal with environmental change. An outstanding example of mobility is transhumance, an ancient pastoralist practice consisting of the seasonal migration of livestock between ecological regions following peaks in pasture productivity. The maintenance of transhumance depends partly on the preservation of related traditional ecological knowledge (TEK. We (a identified and characterized social groups that hold transhumance-related TEK, (b analyzed trends in transhumance-related TEK across generations and social groups, (c examined the factors that influence variation in levels of TEK, and (d analyzed elements of transhumance-related TEK as examples of adaptive strategies to cope with global change. We used transhumance on the Conquense Drove Road, a major active transhumant network in Spain, as a case study. Through an indepth literature review, participant observation, semistructured interviews, and a focus group discussion, we developed a survey to examine transhumance-related knowledge, practices, and beliefs. We collected survey data from 150 informants. Although a rich body of TEK persisted among transhumant shepherds, we found a marked loss of TEK among transhumants born after 1975, who scored one-fifth lower on survey items than other generations. The maintenance of transhumance on foot is the most important factor influencing TEK preservation. We conclude that in developed country settings, maintaining conditions for herd mobility can contribute to enhancing the adaptive capacity of agrarian societies to cope with global environmental change.

  14. Invasive Plants in the Coastal Vegetal Communities in Valencia (Spain

    Francisco FERRER MERINO


    Full Text Available A botanical survey has been conducted to determine the influence of invasive species on the main indigenous communities in the Spanish Mediterranean coast and evaluate the current status of these communities in the eastern coast of Spain. The work was done in about 35 km of coastline located in Valencia (Spain. A total of 361 species cataloged are present in the study area, belonging to 79 different families. 49 of them have been inventoried invasive species which currently affect 38 plant communities. For this cause, we have developed a map of location finding out the area occupied by the same at every point and key to indigenous communities it affects. The plant communities characteristic of semi-mobile dunes Centaureo maritimae-Echietum sabulicolae and Medicagini marinae-Ammophiletum australis have turned out to have a greater degree of invasion. Carpobrotus edulis, Agave americana, Arundo donax, Oxalis pes-caprae and Cortaderia sellowiana are invasive species that cause further encroachment, both in area as a number of vegetation communities they affect.

  15. Key Organisational Choices for Financing Regional Governments in Democratic Spain

    Fernando Toboso


    Full Text Available How much power to tax do really enjoy the seventeen new regional governments created in democratic Spain? What other sources of income do they dispose of? Which rules have been implemented for regulating their tax and non-tax sources of income and how are these rules influencing the behaviour of relevant political agents? These are the questions addressed in the present paper. Although no econometric estimation has to my knowledge been provided yet, the arguments and figures provided indicate that the political mobilization and the overspending incentive generated at this level of government must be considered key factors in any explanatory model of the surprising path of growth and development registered in Spain since the mid 1980s. Physical and human capital stocks increased at a spectacular rate so as to substantially narrow the gap, in comparison to European standards, that had been generated over the previous forty years of dictatorship. Public deficits and outstanding public debt remained under control. Spanish per capita real GDP soared from 2,536 Euros in 1980 to 19,456 in 2004.

  16. Influence of sociodemographic characteristics on human mobility

    Lenormand, Maxime; Cantu-Ros, Oliva G; Picornell, Miguel; Herranz, Ricardo; Arias, Juan Murillo; Barthelemy, Marc; Miguel, Maxi San; Ramasco, Jose J


    Human mobility has been traditionally studied using surveys that deliver snapshots of population displacement patterns. The growing accessibility to ICT information obtained from portable digital media has recently opened the possibility of going beyond such fixed pictures, exploring human behavior at high spatio-temporal resolutions. Mobile phone records, geolocated tweets, check-ins from Foursquare or geotagged photos, have contributed to this purpose at different scales from cities to countries and in different areas of the world. Many of these previous works have lacked, however, details on the attributes of the individuals. In this work, we analyze credit-card transaction records as mobility proxies and assess the influence of sociodemographic characteristics on the way people move and spend their money in cities. In particular, we focus on Barcelona and Madrid, the two most populated cities of Spain, and by examining the geolocated credit-card transactions of individuals living in the two provinces, we ...

  17. Designing Mobilities

    Jensen, Ole B.

    practices. Everyday life mobilities take place in complex socio-technical systems where the over-layering of hard infrastructures, with design codes and protocols shapes the ‘mobile biotopes’ of the everyday life. By exploring the very tangible and concrete designs of for example everyday life transit...... spaces, mobilitiy technologies or urban sites of movement we get much closer to understanding the meaning of mobilities to social interaction and culture. The cases are still representing work-in-progress but will be reported in the book ‘Designing Mobilites’ (Jensen 2013b) and will cover the four cases...... of: motorway ecologies, bicycle systems design, urban shopping malls and a train transit hub....

  18. Superconductivity in Spain. Midas program

    The different activities in the field of applied superconductivity carried out in Spain under the auspices of the MIDAS program are reported. Applications using both low- and high-temperature superconductors are considered. In the low temperature superconductors case, the design and construction of a 1 mega joule SMES (Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage) unit, as well as the fabrication of voltage and resistance standards, are reviewed. Developments involving the design and fabrication of an inductive current fault limited and mono- and multi-filamentary wires and tapes using high-temperature superconductors are discussed. Finally, the prospects for the application of superconductivity technology to electric power systems for the electric utilities is considered. (author)

  19. Superconductivity in Spain. Midas program

    Yndurain, F. [Red Electrica de Espana, Alcobendas (Spain). Midas Program


    The different activities in the field of applied superconductivity carried out in Spain under the auspices of the MIDAS program are reported. Applications using both low- and high-temperature superconductors are considered. In the low temperature superconductors case, the design and construction of a 1 mega joule SMES (Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage) unit, as well as the fabrication of voltage and resistance standards, are reviewed. Developments involving the design and fabrication of an inductive current fault limited and mono- and multi-filamentary wires and tapes using high-temperature superconductors are discussed. Finally, the prospects for the application of superconductivity technology to electric power systems for the electric utilities is considered. (author).

  20. Drought Management Strategies in Spain

    Pilar Paneque


    Full Text Available The ongoing debate on water policies in Spain is characterised by a traditional paradigm, dominated by the intervention on hydrological systems through the construction and management of infrastructure, which is progressively being abandoned but is currently still strong while the emergence of new management approaches. Climate change and the Water Framework Directive (WFD are, in addition, the background to increasing challenges to traditional perspectives on drought, and important steps have been taken towards their replacement. This work analyzes the evolution of the normative structure and management models to identify recent shifts. The analysis is based on a fundamental conceptual change that places drought in the framework of risk, rather than that of crisis. I argue for the need to advance new prevention policies that can finally overcome productivist inertia and undertake essential tasks such as reallocating water flows, revising and controlling the water-concession system, and reinforcing and guaranteeing public participation.

  1. Nuclear insurance problems in Spain

    The purpose of this paper is to study the problems raised in Spain by third party liability insurance for nuclear damage. National law in this field is based on the Paris Convention on nuclear third party liability and defines the conditions of liability of operators of nuclear installations. The insurance contract requirements must comply with the regulations on cover for nuclear risks, under the control of the Finance Ministry's competent services. Certain exceptional nuclear risks which cannot be covered entirely by ordinary insurance policies, are taken over by the Consorcio de Compensacion de Seguros which belongs to this Ministry. From the insurance viewpoint, the regulations make a distinction between nuclear and radioactive installations and nuclear transport. (NEA)

  2. Mobile Marketing

    Monika Březinová; Michael Rost


    This article deals with one of the modern trends in marketing communication, which is mobile marketing. Towards the end of 2008, several projects which use mobile phones for target marketing communication were launched. Commercial SMS´s are sent on the base of agreement or registration of the consumers on special websites, for example The benefit for the consumers is the bonus which can have more forms - not only sending money to the account, free SMS´s/MMS´s and minutes but al...

  3. Mobile Applications

    Semerád, David


    The mobile app market is one of the fastest growing in the world. The Apple company has become the most valuated company in the world, mainly due to its App Store. Considering the fact, that nearly all the trends from abroad are soon or later adapted in the Czech Republic, there is quite a big potential value for all the projects on mobile apps including the local market specifics. The subject of this thesis is to consider whether such an app could be successful in such an old school environm...

  4. Mobility Challenges

    Jensen, Ole B.; Lassen, Claus


    This article takes point of departure in the challenges to understand the importance of contemporary mobility. The approach advocated is a cross-disciplinary one drawing on sociology, geography, urban planning and design, and cultural studies. As such the perspective is to be seen as a part of th...

  5. Sustainable Mobility

    Kjærulff, Aslak Aamot

    This paper combines strands of mobilities theory and planning theory, and develops a qualitative approach to look across emerging planning practices. By actively following 8 Danish urban and transport planners, over the course of 2 years, we learn how their practices have changed, inspired by mob...

  6. Mobil nationalisme

    Koefoed, Lasse Martin


    , varer, mennesker og kapital men derimod en integreret del af disse tendenser. Gennem begrebet mobil nationalisme argumenteres der for en analytisk optik, hvor nationalisme forstås som en proces hvorigennem skiftende relationer og bevægelser mellem forskellige socio-rumlige skalaer som kroppen...

  7. Oil sector in Spain: Final adaptation

    This paper analyzes organizational and marketing changes occurring in Spain's oil industry as a result of its conversion from a state run monopoly system to a free market system. The analysis uses statistical data to indicate national oil production, import and consumption trends and compares these with overall trends in the European Communities. An explanation of the way in which oil is marketed in Spain makes reference to data on Spain's refining capacity and pipeline network, deemed to be amongst the most complete and modern in Europe. Comments are also made on the efficacy of Spain's national energy policies which stress energy source diversification to lessen this country's heavy dependence on foreign supplied oil

  8. Description of the Energy System of Spain

    Caldes, N.; Lechon, Y.; Labriet, M.; Cabal, H.; Rua, C. de la; Saez, R.; Varela, M.


    The objective of this report is to describe the complete Spain energy system, in order to make possible its modelling with the TIMES model within the NEEDS project ( (Author) 56 refs.

  9. Spain in quandry over French synchrotron

    Bosch, X


    The French government has invited Spain to participate in the funding and operation of its proposed synchrotron Soleil. This could result though in the end of Spanish scientists' hopes for their own machine (1 page).

  10. Building a New Water Culture in Spain

    Hernández-Mora Zapata, Nuria; Roca, Francesc


    For over 100 years, water policy and man­ agement in Spain have been instruments of economic and social transformation. Sig­ nificant public and private investments in water supply infrastructures have equipped Spain with over 1,200 major dams, 20 major desalination plants ? with more under construction ? and several inter­basin water transfers. The system has been apparently very successful, with an increase in overall water availability, strong associated eco­ nomic development and few urba...

  11. Transparency and Good Governance in Spain

    Catalina Larach


    Nowadays, transparency and Governance are relevant for Spain. Especially, for the dissatisfied citizenship and the weakness in national and local institutions over the last few years, with results like not trusting, less guarantee on healthcare and education system, the corruption in public administration, politics-economic issues, and so on. Although, in the European Union, Spain has been one of the last countries to regulate this issue, whit Act 19/2013 there are new objectives relating to ...

  12. The evolution of obesity in Spain

    García-Goñi, Manuel; Hernández-Quevedo, Cristina


    Considered the epidemic of the 21st century, obesity is a worldwide problem, affecting 260 million adults and 12 million children in the European Union (EU) alone. In Spain, adult and child obesity rates are increasing, in particular for women. Income-related inequalities in adult obesity in Spain also have increased over time, especially for women aged over 45. Although some regulatory initiatives have been approved to tackle child obesity, an evaluation of the effective...

  13. A new challenge for advertising on mobile devices: Social TV

    Natalia Quintas-Froufe


    Full Text Available Mobile device advertising is a rapidly growing market due to the penetration of mobile devices in Spanish society. Advertising communication in this digital ecosystem continually poses new challenges. One of these - the subject of this proposal - is the link-up between mobile advertising with social TV. It opens up new possibilities for the development of advertising strategies on mobile devices.The aim of this paper is to describe the challenges faced by the Spanish advertising industry with the recent introduction of Social TV. Spain has one of the most developed Social TV sectors in Europe. It will provide a global overview of this new reality and uncover the new possibilities and main challenges for the development of advertising strategies for mobile devices. To this end we propose an examination of the perception of two of Spain’s major broadcasting empires, Atresmedia and Mediaset España, of this phenomenon.

  14. Mobile-to-mobile wireless channels

    Zajic, Alenka


    Present-day mobile communications systems can be classified as fixed-to-mobile because they allow mobility on only one end (e.g. the mobile phone to a fixed mobile operator's cell tower). In answer to the consumer demand for better coverage and quality of service, emerging mobile-to-mobile (M-to-M) communications systems allow mobile users or vehicles to directly communicate with each other. This practical book provides a detailed introduction to state-of-the-art M-to-M wireless propagation. Moreover, the book offers professionals guidance for rapid implementation of these communications syste

  15. Mobile Customer Relationship Management and Mobile Security

    Sanayei, Ali; Mirzaei, Abas

    The purpose of this study is twofold. First, in order to guarantee a coherent discussion about mobile customer relationship management (mCRM), this paper presents a conceptualization of mCRM delineating its unique characteristics because of Among the variety of mobile services, considerable attention has been devoted to mobile marketing and in particular to mobile customer relationship management services. Second, the authors discusses the security risks in mobile computing in different level(user, mobile device, wireless network,...) and finally we focus on enterprise mobile security and it's subgroups with a series of suggestion and solution for improve mobile computing security.

  16. Mobile Usability

    Aryana, Bijan; Clemmensen, Torkil


    In this article, a country specific comparative mobile usability study is presented, using Iran and Turkey as the two chosen emerging/emergent nation exemplars of smartphone usage and adoption. In a focus group study, three mobile applications were selected by first-time users of smartphones....... In both countries, the music player application was tested, wherein common patterns of accessing and sorting songs emerged. Whereas the Iranian users appeared to be more interested in social networking via use of an SMS service, the Turkish users tended to prefer to apply hierarchies to their own daily...... personal contacts. The results and analysis establish the existence of country specific issues and concerns, as well as reveal generic usability issues. The article concludes that the source of these issues is most likely due to a combination of certain contextual features endemic to both Iran and Turkey...

  17. Mobile Misfortune

    Vigh, Henrik Erdman


    termination of the mobility it enables. This article, thus, looks at the motives and manners in which young men in Bissau become caught up in transnational flows of cocaine. It shows how motion is emotively anchored and affectively bound: tied to and directed toward a feeling of worth and realisation of being......, and how migration from the global South often has negative potentiality as an end-point via the ascription of illegality and condition of deportability that shade it....

  18. The African Mobile Story

    This book identifies the factors that has enabled the growth of mobile telephony in Africa. The book covers the regulatory factors, the development and usage of mobile application, mobile security and sustainable power source for mobile networks......This book identifies the factors that has enabled the growth of mobile telephony in Africa. The book covers the regulatory factors, the development and usage of mobile application, mobile security and sustainable power source for mobile networks...

  19. Quality and safety in Spain

    For three decades, and after the entry of Spain into the EU, it has been developed a regulatory, stable but evolving, framework that has allowed to create the conditions and structures to have stringent safety conditions of products and manufacturing facilities, as well as all the activities necessary for their certification and control. This development has been possible, among others, by the work of impulse and coordination of the Ministry of industry, Energy and Tourism, and particularly of the quality and Industrial safety sub directorate. On the other hand it has been developed a quality infrastructure that has, at the State level, with a standardisation (AENOR) entity and an accreditation body (ENAC) with recognized prestige around the world. In this article, in the first part, a list the regulations which apply to products and manufacturing facilities is shown, as well as explain the role played by standards and accreditation system in industrial safety and the factor of competitiveness that this entails for our industrial sector, and, in the second part, the institutional role of the Ministry and, the aforementioned Sub directorate, is described. The aim of the article is to be a descriptive reference of the current regulatory framework as well as the role of the State in this process. (Author)

  20. Doctorate nursing degree in Spain

    López-Montesinos, Mª José; Maciá-Soler, Loreto


    Analytical and descriptive study of the process of change being experienced in the Spanish university system over the last decade (2005-2014). OBJECTIVE: To describe the structural changes occurring in Nursing Education in Spain, reaching access to doctoral studies from the European Convergence Process and the subsequent legislative development. METHODOLOGY: Bibliographical review of royal decrees and reference literature on the subject of study and descriptive analysis of the situation. RESULTS: Carries various changes suffered in the curricula of nursing education in the last decade, the legislation of the European Higher Education sets the guidelines for current studies of Masters and Doctorates. CONCLUSIONS: The implementation of the Master and Doctorate stages after a basic degree, which is now possible with the new legislation. A formal beginning made of scientific nursing in order to generate their own lines of research led by Doctors of nursing who can integrate in research groups under the same condition as other researcher, yet now, from the nursing discipline itself. PMID:26312628

  1. Doctorate nursing degree in Spain

    Mª José López-Montesinos


    Full Text Available Analytical and descriptive study of the process of change being experienced in the Spanish university system over the last decade (2005-2014.OBJECTIVE: To describe the structural changes occurring in Nursing Education in Spain, reaching access to doctoral studies from the European Convergence Process and the subsequent legislative development.METHODOLOGY: Bibliographical review of royal decrees and reference literature on the subject of study and descriptive analysis of the situation.RESULTS: Carries various changes suffered in the curricula of nursing education in the last decade, the legislation of the European Higher Education sets the guidelines for current studies of Masters and Doctorates.CONCLUSIONS: The implementation of the Master and Doctorate stages after a basic degree, which is now possible with the new legislation. A formal beginning made of scientific nursing in order to generate their own lines of research led by Doctors of nursing who can integrate in research groups under the same condition as other researcher, yet now, from the nursing discipline itself.

  2. Climate index for Spain - Methodology

    According to the U.S. Department of Energy, an estimated 25% of the GNP is affected by weather-related events. The variations in temperature - even small ones - can also have long-lasting effects on the operational results of a company. Among other, the Energy supply sector is sensitive to weather risks: a milder or harsher than usual winter leads to a decrease or increase of energy consumption. The price of electricity on power trading facilities like Powernext is especially sensitive to odd changes in temperatures. Powernext and Meteo-France (the French meteorological agency) have joined expertise in order to promote the use of weather indices in term of decision making or underlying of hedging tools to energy actors, end users from any other sector of activity and specialists of the weather risk hedging. The Powernext Weather indices are made from information collected by Meteo-France's main observation network according to the norms of international meteorology, in areas carefully selected. The gross data are submitted to a thorough review allowing the correction of abnormalities and the reconstitution of missing data. Each index is fashioned to take into account the economic activity in the various regions of the country as represented by each region's population. This demographic information represents a fair approximation of the weight of the regional economic activity. This document presents the calculation methodology of average, minimum and maximum weather indexes with the winter and summer regression equations for the different economical regions of Spain. (J.S.)

  3. Uranium mining operations in Spain

    The Empresa Nacional del Uranio, SA (ENUSA) was founded in 1972 to undertake and develop the industrial and procurement activities of the nuclear fuel cycle in Spain. Within the organisation of ENUSA, the Uranium Division is directly responsible for the uranium mining and production operations that have been carried out since 1973 in the area of Ciudad Rodrigo in the province of Salamanca. These activities are based on open pit mining, heap leaching and a hydrometallurgical plant (Elefante) for extracting uranium concentrates from the ore. This plant was shut down in 1993 and a new plant was started up on the same site (Quercus) with a dynamic leaching process. The nominal capacity of the new plant is 950 t U3O8 per year. Because of the historically low uranium prices which have recently prevailed, the plant is currently running at a strategic production rate of 300 t U3O8 per year. From 1981 to 1990, in the area of La Haba (Badajoz province), ENUSA also operated a uranium production site, based on open pit mining, and an experimental extraction plant (Lobo-G). ENUSA is currently decommissioning these installations. This paper describes innovations and improvements that ENUSA has recently introduced in the field of uranium concentrates production with a view to cutting production costs, and to improving the decommissioning and site restoration processes in those sites where production is being shut down or resources have been worked out. (author)

  4. Spain and Cuba: A very Special Relationship?

    Joaquín Roy


    Full Text Available In spite of political changes than include the rise and fall of the Franco regime, the triumph of the Cuban Revolution, and the restoration of democracy in Spain, historical links have had and still have an influence on the continuation of a very specialrelationship between Spain and Cuba since the Spanish Civil War.Spain not only did not brake its diplomatic relation Cuba, but during the harshest periods of international isolation and ideological confrontation Madrid still became the primary economic partner of Havana in the capitalist world. Under the PSOE leadership, Spain's role in the pre-transition in Cuba, via aid and cooperation programs,impressive trade figures, and investment, has produced polemical debates with the opposition including threats of termination of aid in the event of a PP victory in the coming elections of March 1996.Spain's foreign policy toward Latin America has experienced an evolution from a policy of substitution and legitimation, to one of pressure. In the case of Cuba, justification for increased trade, aid, and political agreements seems to based on a more traditionalhistorical obligation, plus the added feature of doing fast business. However, the absence of clear accomplishments in the political arena have created a climate of frustration in Spanish diplomatic circles, which has resulted in leaks to the press and resignations.This added to the frequent verbal confrontations and discussions on the U.S. economic embargo, has converted the Cuban topic from a foreign issue to an "internal matter" of Spain. Finally, in spite of the active pressure that Spanish government has applied in Brussels during the second semester of 1995 as president of the European Union,the project of an agreement with Cuba received a delay when political liberalization did not meet European expectations.Only when the final stage of true political and economic transition takes place in Cuba, will the proper evaluation of Spain's role in

  5. Mobile Payments : Comparison of Mobile Wallet Concepts

    Narayan, Srikant


    Mobile payments are an emerging trend and an alternative to traditional payment methods. Mobile payments involve the usage of the mobile phone to handle credit transfers during purchase of goods and peer to peer money transfers referred to as mobile wallet service, instead of depending on bank cards and cash. In this scenario, while the mobile wallet industry still being in its infancy there exist a few drivers of mobile wallet solutions aiming to create a de-facto standard in the mobile mark...

  6. Mobile Marketing

    Luengo Cascudo, Alberto


    El principal objetivo de este proyecto es explicar y entender la importancia del Mobile Marketing como nueva herramienta de negocio en el Marketing empresarial. Para ello, el primer objetivo es entender los dos factores que para mí son la clave de su importancia: la evolución del entorno tecnológico y el cambio en los hábitos del consumidor. Debido a la novedad de esta nueva forma de Marketing y al hecho de que está en constante definición, es básico exponer de la forma más cla...

  7. Robotique Mobile

    Filliat, David


    1 Introduction I Les bases de la navigation 2 Les différents types de navigation 3 Les sources d'information 4 Matériels courants en robotique mobile II Navigation réactive 5 Navigation vers un but 6 Évitement d'obstacles 7 Apprentissage par renforcement III Navigation utilisant une carte 8 Localisation, Cartographie et Planification 9 Les représentations de l'environne 10 Localisation 11 Cartographie 12 Planification École d'ingénieur

  8. Mobility Impact on Performance of Mobile Grids

    A. S. Nandeppanavar,; M. N. Birje,; S. S. Manvi,; Shridhar


    Wireless mobile grids are one of the emerging grid types, which help to pool the resources of several willing and cooperative mobile devices to resolve a computationally intensive task. The mobile grids exhibit stronger challenges like mobility management of devices, providing transparent access to grid resources, task management and handling of limited resources so that resources are shared efficiently. Task execution on these devices should not be affected by their mobility. The proposed wo...

  9. Optimum Mobility Performance with Mobile IP & SIP

    B. Naresh Kumar; DR. R. V. KRISHNAIAH


    Mobility will place an efficient role in now days in the wireless communications. Mobile IP andSIP provide the mobility service to the handset users. The problems in Mobile IP and SIP s are triangular,handoff, Intra domain problems. These problems create signal lose and improper signalling to the user. Toovercome these we provide add of service to the Mobile IP and SIP with the integration of the two services.This service provides optimum performance of the system.

  10. China-Spain Economic and Trade Forum Held in Madrid


    @@ On June 29, Chi na-Spain Eco nomic and Trade Forum, sponsored jointly by CCPIT, Federation of Spanish Entrepreneur Orga nizations and Spanish Trade and Investment Agency, was held in Madrid, capital of Spain.

  11. Mobile Security with Smartcards

    Kilian-Kehr, Roger


    Mobility in conjunction with communication facilities in the form of mobile telephony seems to be one of the major technology trends observed throughout the last decade. Many experts and analysts expect that the arrival of mobile services such as mobile commerce, location-based services, multi-media messaging, and mobile gaming in the third generation of mobile networks will be the next step in this success story. However, protecting service providers from fraud and mobile users from new thre...

  12. Transparency and Good Governance in Spain

    Catalina Larach


    Full Text Available Nowadays, transparency and Governance are relevant for Spain. Especially, for the dissatisfied citizenship and the weakness in national and local institutions over the last few years, with results like not trusting, less guarantee on healthcare and education system, the corruption in public administration, politics-economic issues, and so on. Although, in the European Union, Spain has been one of the last countries to regulate this issue, whit Act 19/2013 there are new objectives relating to open government, citizenship, technology, accountability. Moreover in relation with the structure of administration because the “commission for transparency and good governance” was initiated on last 19th January. In general, its effectiveness in moderating this issue and applying measures in order to get administration systems cleaner in countries like Spain.

  13. University Teacher’s Evaluation in Spain

    Francisco Javier Tejedor Tejedor


    Full Text Available This article intends to make a brief overview about the performance evaluation for university teachers in democratic Spain. It contents: a considerations about teaching evaluation, in order to delimit the authors’ position in this matter, due to the fact that this position obviously conditions any revision; b a brief summary of the history of university teachers evaluation in Spain during the last years, since the Spanish Constitution of 1978 approval; c a typology of the evaluation plans, in order to define a map of the planning lines for evaluations applied in Spain; d the technical guidelines for teachers´ evaluation and presentation of the current model, exampled by its application in the university of Salamanca; and e as a conclusion, some considerations about the consequences of evaluation and its entailment with the professionalization of university teachers.

  14. The Practice of Fiscal Federalism in Spain

    Julio López Laborda; Jorge Martinez-Vazquez; Carlos Monasterio Escudero


    Over the past 25 years when the rapid decentralization was taking place, Spain enjoyed high rates of economic growth and prosperity, spotted with unusually high rates of unemployment associated with rigidities in labour market institutions. In 2005, GDP per capita was $ 25,500. Over the same period of 25 years, Spain underwent a considerable increase in tax effort. In 1975 total tax revenues as a percent of GDP stood at less than 20 percent. By comparison, at that time, the OECD average count...

  15. Creative industries in Spain: a first view

    Rafael Boix; Luciana Lazzeretti


    Creativity is the ability to generate something new, merging data,perceptions and matters in order to produce new and useful things. About 22% ofthe Spanish employees belong to the «creative class» and about 5.7% of the productioncomes from the «creative industries». Despite these data, the general researchfocusing on the creative economy in Spain is poor. The aim of this article is to fillthis space by providing a general view of the creative economy in Spain, focusedon the «creative industr...

  16. Studies of archaeoastronomy in Spain: a review

    Cerdeño, Mª Luisa; Rodríguez-Caderot, Gracia; Moya, Pedro R.; Ibarra, Ana; Herrero, Silvia


    Studies of Arqueoastronomy have a long tradition in Europe and, to a lesser extent, in Spain. This research is mainly done by astronomers. The recognition of this studies is still lacking in archaeology. This paper reviews current research projects in Spain and the main problems raised by Archaeoastronomy.

    Los estudios de Arqueoastronomía tienen una larga trayectoria en algunos países europeos y, en menor medida, en España. Mayoritariamente se llevan a cabo desde el campo d...

  17. Taxation of nuclear waste in Spain

    Rozas Valdés, José Andrés


    Law 15/2012 established in Spain four new environmental taxes and extended the scope objective excise duties on mineral oils to tax the use of natural gas and coal as sources of electricity. One of the newly created taxes falls on all electric power producers, and has as tax base the turnover. The second one tax hydropower production, and the other two fall on the nuclear industry. So, there are two new taxes in Spain on the production of electricity from nuclear sources. The first one is a t...

  18. Analyze Culture Difference between China and Spain from Architectural Style



    With the development of the world, the communication between china and spain become more and more frequently. and the building style between china and spain is very diferent. in this essay, we mainly learn the diferent culture of china and spain from its builing style.

  19. Runoff generation in SE Spain

    Dalen, E. N.; Kirkby, M. J.; Chapman, P. J.; Bracken, L. J.


    We are working to improve a hydrological model for prediction of runoff in medium-scale semi-arid catchments in SE Spain. The aim is to develop and improve understandings of runoff generation in semi-arid areas and to improve modelling of runoff. Objectives are to investigate the influence of geology, landuse and seasonality on infiltration rates and use remonte sensing (RS) and GIS to classify an area into Hydrologically Similar Surfaces (HYSS) categories. The research includes investigating the impact of different landscape elements on runoff within two 150 km2 catchments, the Rambla Nogalte and the Rambla de Torrealvilla. Most storms within these catchments are of short duration. HYSS are defined as areas with similar1-D (vertical) partitioning of net rainfall between infiltration and overland flow. HYSS are identified from field measurements of soils, micro and macro- topography and infiltration rates; then combined with analysis of multi-spectral airborne RS images. HYSS are selected to minimise internal variability in the relationship between rainfall and local runoff generation and are scaled up to cover larger areas. The overall sampling strategy for measurements has been to undertake constant intensity rainfall simulator measurements within provisional HYSS categories, and to augment this with a large number of minidisk infiltrometer measurements. This strategy captures as much of the variability in the landscape as possible. The wide variability within even small areas has led to the final adoption of only a few large classes that can be effectively distinguished. The final part of the research is to link the spatial partitioning of the two catchments into HYSS with the detailed rainfall records for the areas, and combine these two sets of data into a grid-based model for runoff generation across the area. The applied Green-Ampt modelling approach gave 63 possible combinations of surface properties (9 HYSS) and areas in the Rambla Nogalte each represented

  20. Trauma care systems in Spain.

    Queipo de Llano, E; Mantero Ruiz, A; Sanchez Vicioso, P; Bosca Crespo, A; Carpintero Avellaneda, J L; de la Torre Prado, M V


    Trauma care systems in Spain are provided by the Nacional Health Service in a decentralized way by the seventeen autonomous communities whose process of decentralization was completed in January 2002. Its organisation is similar in all of them. Public sector companies of sanitary emergencies look after the health of citizens in relation to medical and trauma emergencies with a wide range of up to date resources both technical and human. In the following piece there is a description of the emergency response teams divided into ground and air that are responsible for the on site care of the patients in coordination with other public services. They also elaborate the prehospital clinical history that is going to be a valuable piece of information for the teams that receive the patient in the Emergency Hospital Unit (EHU). From 1980 to 1996 the mortality rate per 10.000 vehicles and the deaths per 1.000 accidents dropped significantly: in 1980 6.4 and 96.19% and in 1996, 2.8 and 64.06% respectively. In the intrahospital organisation there are two differentiated areas to receive trauma patients the casualty department and the EHU. In the EHU the severe and multiple injured patients are treated by the emergency hospital doctors; first in the triage or resuscitation areas and after when stabilised they are passed too the observation area or to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) and from there the EHU or ICU doctors call the appropriate specialists. There is a close collaboration and coordination between the orthopaedic surgeon the EHU doctors and the other specialists surgeons in order to comply with treatment prioritization protocols. Once the patient has been transferred an entire process of assistance continuity is developed based on interdisciplinary teams formed in the hospital from the services areas involved in trauma assistance and usually coordinated by the ICU doctors. There is also mentioned the assistance registry of trauma patients, the ICU professional training

  1. Research-mobility and job-stability: is there a trade-off?



    This article analyzes the effect of international job-mobility on career success measured by obtaining an open-ended contract or tenure-track position. We use an original database that covers experienced researchers in ten European countries – Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Poland, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the UK. We develop a taxonomy of research-mobility and analyze its impact on the probability of holding a permanent position, controlling for individual and job cha...

  2. Mobile shearography

    Kalms, Michael; Jueptner, Werner


    By reason of their sensitivity, accuracy and non-contact as well as non-destructive characteristics, modern optical methods such as digital speckle shearography have found an increasing interest for NDT applications on the factory floor. With new carbon filter technologies and other lightweight constructions in aircraft and automotive manufacturing, adapted examination designs and especially developed testing methods are necessary. Shearography as a coherent optical method has been widely accepted as an useful NDT tool. It is a robust interferometric method to determine locations with maximum stress on various material structures. However, limitations of this technique can be found in the bulky equipment components, the interpretation of the complex sherographic result images and at the work with non-cooperative surfaces (dark absorber, bright shining reflectors). We report a mobile shearography system that was especially designed for investigations at aircraft and automotive constructions.

  3. Mobile video with mobile IPv6

    Minoli, Daniel


    Increased reliance on mobile devices and streaming of video content are two of the most recent changes that have led those in the video distribution industry to be concerned about the shifting or erosion of traditional advertising revenues. Infrastructure providers also need to position themselves to take advantage of these trends. Mobile Video with Mobile IPv6provides an overview of the current mobile landscape, then delves specifically into the capabilities and operational details of IPv6. The book also addresses 3G and 4G services, the application of Mobile IPv6 to streaming and other mobil

  4. Th/U dating of Strombus bubonius-bearing marine terraces in southeastern Spain

    Hillaire-Marcel, C.; Carro, O.; Causse, C.; Goy, J.; Zazo, C.


    Single dates obtained on mollusk shells by the U-series nuclides method are highly unreliable, primarily because of the mobility of uranium isotopes. However, in several cases, a statistical approach was demonstrated to yield coherent chronologies in both continental and marine environments. The authors report on 34 new Th and U isotope measurements on Strombus Bubonius and Glycymeris glycymeris fossils from raised marine terraces in the Almeria area, southeastern Spain. The results yield a coherent chronology that indicates the presence of the warm water S. bubonius fauna in the Mediterranean basin. Reconsideration of the Tyrrhenian stratigraphy based on the presence of S. bubonius is thus required.

  5. Preliminary Conclusions after the Design and Implementation of Mobile Learning Apps for Professionals

    Castrillo, María Dolores; Bárcena, Elena; Pareja-Lora, Antonio


    According to a recent research carried out by Aruba Networks (2014) in the US, the UK, France, Spain, Germany, Sweden, South Africa, Saudi Arabia and UAE, 86% of all respondents have two or more devices that can connect to the internet, and nearly two thirds (64%) already own three or more mobile devices with this feature; another 39% own four or…

  6. Spain-Phase-out of Methyl Bromide in pepper production in Spain

    Bello Pérez, Antonio; Piedra Buena, A.; Díez-Rojo, M. A.


    Non-chemical alternatives to MB for soil disinfection in pepper crops have been evaluated and are being increasingly adopted in Spain. They show that integrating practices like biofumigation with fresh pepper crop residues, chicken manure and sheep manure, biosolarisation, and grafting on resistant rootstocks, can be as effective as MB for controlling plant parasitic nematodes and fungi. MB consumption in Spain has been reduced by 96% since 1997.9

  7. Feasibility of a Vietnamese café in Spain : Case: Café Hanoi, Barcelona, Spain

    Nguyen, Tra My


    This study covers the feasibility of a business idea – a Vietnamese café in the city of Barcelona, Spain. The study is the preliminary of a business plan. Therefore, it aims to discover the environment surrounding the café in Barcelona, Spain. The study employs descriptive approach, using both quantitative and qualitative methods. The data collection includes both primary and secondary data. The primary data is collected through focus group, interviews and questionnaire. The secondary dat...

  8. Micro Mobility Marketing

    Hosbond, Jens Henrik; Skov, Mikael B.


    Mobile marketing refers to marketing of services or goods using mobile technology and mobile marketing holds potentially great economical opportunities. Traditionally, mobile marketing has been viewed as mobility in the large taking place virtually anywhere, anytime. Further, research shows...... similarities and differences between micro mobility marketing and the traditional mobile marketing in the large. Finally, we suggest areas for further study.Journal of Targeting, Measurement and Analysis for Marketing (2007) 16, 68-77. doi:10.1057/palgrave.jt.5750058; published online 24 December 2007...... considerable number of studies on push-based SMS mobile marketing campaigns. This paper explores a related yet different form of mobile marketing namely micro mobility marketing. Micro mobility marketing denotes mobility in the small, meaning that promotion of goods takes place within a circumscribed location...

  9. Mobile OS Comparative Study

    Joseph, Jyothy; K, Shinto Kurian


    In the fast growing mobile revolutionary era, many operating systems are playing vital role in present market. This study is intending to identify the apt and secure mobile based on mobile operating systems capability and user requirements.

  10. Mobile Inquiry Based Learning

    Specht, Marcus


    Specht, M. (2012, 8 November). Mobile Inquiry Based Learning. Presentation given at the Workshop "Mobile inquiry-based learning" at the Mobile Learning Day 2012 at the Fernuniversität Hagen, Hagen, Germany.

  11. Characterization of radioactive wastes in Spain

    The characterization of radioactive wastes in Spain, is divided in three steps: the approval of parcel type, information review to give a decision on acceptability of particular packages, then their acceptance and the liability transfer at the exit of installation. (N.C.)

  12. Cryoseston in the Sierra Nevada Mountains (Spain)

    Cepák, Vladislav; Lukavský, Jaromír


    Roč. 94, č. 1-2 (2012), s. 163-173. ISSN 0029-5035 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0571 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : cryoseston * Sierra Nevada Mountains * Spain Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.809, year: 2012

  13. The water footprint of tourism in Spain

    Cazcarro, I.; Hoekstra, A.Y.; Sánchez Chóliz, J.


    This study complements the water footprint (WF) estimations for Spain, incorporating insights of the process analysis and input–output (IO) analysis. We evaluate the virtual (both blue and green consumed) water trade of agricultural and industrial products, but also of services, especially through t

  14. Chinese migration in Spain. General characteristics

    Amelia Sáiz López


    Full Text Available In this paper the Chinese presence in Spain is analyzed from a chronological perspective along with the ongoing changes in geographic location and economic activity. The growth in numbers of this community has obliged its members to look for new locations, distancing themselves from their ethnic strongholds, with the aim of bringingtheir migratory plans to fruition.

  15. Does Education Affect Happiness? Evidence for Spain

    Cunado, Juncal; de Gracia, Fernando Perez


    In this paper we study the impact of education on happiness in Spain using individual-level data from the European Social Survey, by means of estimating Ordinal Logit Models. We find both direct and indirect effects of education on happiness. First, we find an indirect effect of education on happiness through income and labour status. That is, we…

  16. Foundations of Laic Moral Education in Spain

    Soria, Juan Manuel Fernandez


    This article studies the foundations of laic moral education in Spain. Some aspects of laic moral education can also be found in other nations, including the emergence of the laic man or the need for an educating State; other aspects of laic moral education, however, are peculiar to the Spanish case, such as the influence of Krausoinstitutionism…

  17. Tarasca: ritual monster of Spain.

    Gilmore, David D


    Let us now revisit our original assumptions. First, we note that for the participants in Hacinas Carnival the Tarasca is a figure of fun and joy, but it also exudes a strain of aggressive misogyny that many female residents, not to mention tourists, find somewhat unsettling. In the spirit of feminist currents in Spain, a group of young women protested in 1992 to town officials and, when rebuffed, sought to build their own female monster, which they intended to use to attack boys and men. While their plan was never carried out, and indeed met with stiff opposition from officialdom and, especially, from older women, some of the younger, more modern girls find the Tarasca appalling, and they told me so without compunction. Accordingly, today the festival tends to polarize the sexes as well as the generations. Also, many children are frightened by the gigantic mock-up with its snapping teeth and foul breath, and many of them burst into tears at the roaring of the demons. But despite these negatives--or perhaps because of them--the Tarasca breaks down boundaries between things normally kept separate in the mind: humor and terror, man and beast, order and disorder, old and young, life and death, and so on. In so collapsing opposites, the Tarasca causes people to pause and to think about and question everyday reality in the non-Carnival universe. All these observations of course support the structural arguments of our four theorists above and in particular seem to corroborate Bloch's concept (1992) of the regenerative power of "rebounding violence." However, there are three specific features here that need psychological amplification beyond simply confirming the work of previous theorists. We must first note that like most grotesque fantasies, the Hacinas monster combines disparate organic "realities" into a bizarre and monstrous image that by its very oddness and the resulting "cognitive mismatch" captures people's attention and sparks the imagination, especially that of

  18. Mobile Search and Advertising

    Lovitskii, Vladimir; McCaffery, Colin; Thrasher, Michael; Traynor, David; Wright, Peter


    Mobile advertising is a rapidly growing sector providing brands and marketing agencies the opportunity to connect with consumers beyond traditional and digital media and instead communicate directly on their mobile phones. Mobile advertising will be intrinsically linked with mobile search, which has transported from the internet to the mobile and is identified as an area of potential growth. The result of mobile searching show that as a general rule such search result exceed 1...

  19. Trends in Mobile Marketing

    Chocholová, Petra


    The principal aim of this thesis is to assess the state of the mobile marketing as of the first quarter of 2011 and to discuss various scenarios of the future development. This thesis defines the terms "mobile marketing" and "mobile advertising" and identifies the main players in the industry. It explores the main categories of mobile advertising such as mobile messaging, in-content and mobile internet advertising. Later, it analyzes the latest trends in the industry and describes in detail t...

  20. Mobile Schools for a Mobile World

    Booth, Susan


    Overwhelmingly, independent schools are embracing mobile devices--laptops, iPads or other tablets, and smartphones--to enhance teaching and learning. This article describes the results of the "NAIS 2012 Mobile Learning Survey." Among its findings were that 75 percent of NAIS-member schools currently use mobile learning devices in at…

  1. Policy analysis for energy efficiency in the built environment in Spain

    Energy efficiency is considered one of the most cost effective ways to enhance security of energy supply and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. According to Europe's Energy Efficiency Plan, the biggest energy savings potential in the EU lies in the built environment. However, the many barriers to energy efficiency have prevented the implementation of the existing potential so far. This paper evaluates the existing policy instruments aimed at energy efficiency in buildings in Spain as laid down in the 2nd National Energy Efficiency Action Plan (NEEAP). The results show that the current policy package is insufficient to yield the existing energy savings potential in this sector. As much of the savings potential can be found in existing buildings and realization of this potential very much relies on voluntary action, the renovation sector is in need of an appropriate financial framework that mobilizes sufficient public and private financial resources, and transparent and efficient mechanisms to ensure the return on investment and payments from those who benefit from the renovation. Such financial framework needs to be supported by a regulatory framework that is tuned to existing buildings and an organizational framework that effectively connects the different policy layers in Spain. - Highlights: • We evaluate Spain's policies for efficiency improvement in the built environment. • We show that the policy measures in the 2nd NEEAP are insufficient to realize the savings potential. • Especially, the policy package for existing buildings needs to be strengthened

  2. The necessity of reconceptualizing the migration of unaccompanied minors to the Canary Islands of Spain

    Esther Torrado Martín-Palomino


    Full Text Available The migration of unaccompanied foreign minors (menores extranjeros no acompañados, MENA represents a new model for international mobility in Spain, one with its own particularities compared with other migratory flows. The dual nature of being unaccompanied and unauthorized leads to conflicts in the care and integration of these new migrants. However, this dual nature is one of the main prerequisites for the development of this mobility model (but not the only one and for developing strategies specific to this group. The Canary Islands, because of their position on the southern intercontinental border and their insularity, offer particular models of individual migration flows of primarily highly vulnerable African children and a close relationship with human smuggling and trafficking networks.

  3. Cross platform Mobile Applications Development: Mobile Apps Mobility

    Redda, Yonathan Aklilu


    In recent years, the mobile computing sector has been having quite a revolution.Mobile computing devices have shed loads of weight, gone slim, achieved mass popularityand a great market penetration. But one of the challenges that has been part ofmobile computing is technology and device fragmentation leaving application developersfor mobile phones bewildered. Platform developers, device manufacturers comewith so many features and functionalities that it has been dicult to provide developerswi...

  4. Mobile commerce

    Παπαδανιήλ, Βασίλειος


    Η συνεχής ανάπτυξη των mobile συσκευών και συστημάτων, η εκτεταμένη χρήση του Διαδικτύου, οι ραγδαίες εξελίξεις στις ασύρματες τεχνολογίες, η αυξημένη ζήτηση για υψηλής ταχύτητας διαδραστικές υπηρεσίες πολυμέσων καθώς και η αυξανόμενη ανάγκη για ασφαλή ασύρματη επικοινωνία, οδήγησε στην ανάπτυξη του mobile commerce και στην καθιέρωση του στον επιχειρηματικό κόσμο. Η συνεχής βελτίωση των ασύρματων τεχνολογιών, ιδιαίτερα ως προς την ευελιξία και την ευχρηστία, οδήγησε στην παροχή διαφόρων υπηρε...

  5. Mobile Operating Systems

    Vipin Kamboj


    Full Text Available Mobile phones are used by every people in today’s life. We use mobile phones without knowing the different factors that a mobile used including its technology, operating system, CPU ,RAM etc. Many types of operating system are used by different mobile. Every operating system has their advantage


    Ion Ivan; Alin Zamfiroiu2; Dragoş Palaghiţă3


    Mobile applications and their particularities are analyzed. Mobile application specific characteristics are defined. Types of applications are identified and analyzed. The paper established differences between mobile applications and mobile application categories. For each identified type the specific structures and development model are identified.

  7. Mobile Operating Systems

    Vipin Kamboj; Hitesh Gupta


    Mobile phones are used by every people in today’s life. We use mobile phones without knowing the different factors that a mobile used including its technology, operating system, CPU ,RAM etc. Many types of operating system are used by different mobile. Every operating system has their advantage

  8. Next generation mobile broadcasting

    Gómez-Barquero, David


    Next Generation Mobile Broadcasting provides an overview of the past, present, and future of mobile multimedia broadcasting. The first part of the book-Mobile Broadcasting Worldwide-summarizes next-generation mobile broadcasting technologies currently available. This part covers the evolutions of the Japanese mobile broadcasting standard ISDB-T One-Seg, ISDB-Tmm and ISDB-TSB; the evolution of the South Korean T-DMB mobile broadcasting technology AT-DMB; the American mobile broadcasting standard ATSC-M/H; the Chinese broadcasting technologies DTMB and CMMB; second-generation digital terrestrial

  9. Radiotherapy evolution in Spain (1896-1996)

    We show radiotherapy evolution in Spain, from the introduction of the Roentgenology till the consolidation of the radiation therapy. We analyze the development of the roentgenology and the contribution of the dermatologist in it. We should emphasize the importance of the V International Congress of Electrology and Medical Radiology wich took place in December of 1910 in Barcelona in the development of the deep radiotherapy in the treatment of gynecological neoplasms. The sanitary struggle campaigns cancer influenced a lot the development of Spanish radiotherapy. the development of the Cancer's Pavilion of the ''Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau'' was the most important radiotherapic event in the previous period to the Spanish civil war. After the late introduction of cobaltotherapy in Spain, the birth of the ''Asociacion Espanola de Radioterapia y Oncologia (AERO) helped to consolidate the speciality. (Author) 36 refs

  10. Patents, antibiotics, and autarky in Spain.

    Romero De Pablos, Ana


    Patents on antibiotics were introduced in Spain in 1949. Preliminary research reveals diversification in the types of antibiotics: patents relating to penicillin were followed by those relating to streptomycin, erythromycin and tetracycline. There was also diversification in the firms that applied for patents: while Merck & Co. Incorporated and Schenley Industries Inc. were the main partners with Spanish antibiotics manufacturers in the late 1940s, this industrial space also included many others, such as Eli Lilly & Company, Abbott Laboratories, Chas. Pfizer & Co. Incorporated, and American Cyanamid Company in the mid-1970s. The introduction of these drugs in Spain adds new elements to a re-evaluation of the autarkic politics of the early years of the Franco dictatorship. PMID:26054209

  11. Studies of archaeoastronomy in Spain: a review

    Cerdeño, Mª Luisa


    Full Text Available Studies of Arqueoastronomy have a long tradition in Europe and, to a lesser extent, in Spain. This research is mainly done by astronomers. The recognition of this studies is still lacking in archaeology. This paper reviews current research projects in Spain and the main problems raised by Archaeoastronomy.

    Los estudios de Arqueoastronomía tienen una larga trayectoria en algunos países europeos y, en menor medida, en España. Mayoritariamente se llevan a cabo desde el campo de los astrónomos y todavía no han alcanzado un definitivo reconocimiento en el ámbito arqueológico. En este trabajo se revisan las líneas de trabajo existentes en España, con la inevitable referencia al marco europeo, y se analizan los principales problemas que tiene planteados esta disciplina académica.

  12. Social risk perception: recent findings in Spain

    The purpose of this paper is to present our main results from a survey carried out in Spain in the context of social risk perception. This survey is included in a broad project (PRISP) sponsored by the UE and the national Civil Protection Service, and carried out simultaneously in three countries: Spain, Italy and UK. The project combined qualitative and quantitative assessment methods, although only survey results are presented here. A random sample of 600 subjects from two different Spanish communities close to a COMAH chemical site was selected for the research. Main findings regarding, differential perception between both community populations, sex differences, and 'bias perception' of risks among others have been achieved. Main dimensions were obtained by multidimensional scaling and Factor Analysis. Dimensions reported here are similar to the usual findings from the psychometric paradigm. (authors)

  13. Mobile platform security

    Asokan, N; Dmitrienko, Alexandra


    Recently, mobile security has garnered considerable interest in both the research community and industry due to the popularity of smartphones. The current smartphone platforms are open systems that allow application development, also for malicious parties. To protect the mobile device, its user, and other mobile ecosystem stakeholders such as network operators, application execution is controlled by a platform security architecture. This book explores how such mobile platform security architectures work. We present a generic model for mobile platform security architectures: the model illustrat

  14. Tenured Public Servant Mobility

    Aline Pauron


    The mobility of tenured public servants is studied from three points of view: geographic mobility (defined by a change of regional study and planning area (ZEAT) or department within a ZEAT), socio-economic mobility (change of socio-economic group) and structural mobility (change of ministry or service within a ministry). Geographic mobility is the most frequent, concerning an average 4.2% of staff every year. Not including upgrading (from grade D to grade C and from primary school teacher to...


    Namiot, Dmitry


    With the advances in mobile computing technologies and the growth of the Net, mobile mesh networks are going through a set of important evolutionary steps. In this paper, we survey architectural aspects of mobile mesh networks and their use cases and deployment models. Also, we survey challenging areas of mobile mesh networks and describe our vision of promising mobile services. This paper presents a basic introductory material for Masters of Open Information Technologies Lab, interested in m...


    CĂTOIU, Iacob; GÂRDAN, Daniel Adrian; GÂRDAN, Doru Lucian


    The present article proposes an introspection into the field of a new marketing specialization – mobile marketing. The concept mainly refers to all marketing activities related to the new communication channel – Short Message Service, Multimedia Messaging Service, and internet access from mobile phone. The article provides, at the same time, a marketing perspective about future trends of mobile marketing and mobile media, and also a technical perspective related to the future mobile communica...

  17. Factors affecting blind mobility

    Clark-Carter, David


    This thesis contains a survey of the mobility problems of blind people, experimental analysis and evaluation of these problems and suggestions for ways in which the evaluation of mobility performance and the design of mobility aids may be improved. The survey revealed a low level of mobility among blind people, with no significant improvement since a comparable survey in 1967. A group of self taught cane users were identified and their mobility was shown to be poor or potentially dangero...

  18. Sociological Profile of Astronomers in Spain

    Iglesias de Ussel, Julio; Trinidad, Antonio; Ruiz, Diego; Battaner, Eduardo; Delgado, Antonio J.; Rodriguez-Espinosa, José M.; Salvador-Solé, Eduard; Torrelles, José M.

    In this paper the main findings are presented of a recent study made by a team of sociologists from the University of Granada on the professional astronomers currently working in Spain. Despite the peculiarities of this group - its youth, twentyfold increase in size over the last 20 years, and extremely high rate of specialization abroad - in comparison with other Spanish professionals, this is the first time that the sociological characteristics of the group have been studied discretely. The most significant results of the study are presented in the following sections. Section 1 gives a brief historical background of the development of Astronomy in Spain. Section 2 analyzes the socio-demographic profile of Spanish Astronomy professionals (sex, age, marital status, etc.). Sections 3-5 are devoted to the college education and study programs followed by Spanish astronomers, focusing on the features and evaluations of the training received, and pre- and postdoctoral study trips made to research centers abroad. The results for the latter clearly show the importance that Spanish astronomers place on having experience abroad. Special attention is paid to scientific papers published as a result of joint research projects carried out with colleagues from centers abroad as a result of these study trips. Section 6 describes the situation of Astronomy professionals within the Spanish job market, the different positions available and the time taken to find a job after graduation. Section 7 examines Astronomy as a discipline in Spain, including the astronomers' own opinions of the social status of the discipline within Spanish society. Particular attention is paid to how Spanish astronomers view the status of Astronomy in Spain in comparison with that of other European countries.

  19. Description of industrial pollution in Spain

    Aragonés Nuria; Pérez-Gómez Beatriz; Pollán Marina; Ramis Rebeca; Boldo Elena; García-Pérez Javier; López-Abente Gonzalo


    Abstract Background Toxic substances released into the environment (to both air and water) by many types of industries might be related with the occurrence of some malignant tumours and other diseases. The publication of the EPER (European Pollutant Emission Register) Spanish data allows to investigate the presence of geographical mortality patterns related to industrial pollution. The aim of this paper is to describe industrial air and water pollution in Spain in 2001, broken down by activit...

  20. The environmental radiation monitoring system in Spain

    Rosario Salas Collantes; Carmen Rey del Castillo


    The system of environmental radiation monitoring established in Spain is composed of several networks with different objectives, a monitoring network in the vicinity of the facilities and several national networks financed and managed by public agencies. The operators of the facilities are responsible for the conduct of its Environmental Radiological Surveillance Program as directed by the CSN. Moreover, the Directorate General of Civil Defense and Emergencies has a Radioactivity Warning Ne...

  1. Phenolic Profile of Asturian (Spain) Natural Cider

    Rodríguez, Roberto; Picinelli, A.M. (Anna); Suárez, Belén


    The polyphenolic composition of natural ciders from the Asturian community (Spain), during 2 consecutive years, was analyzed by RP-HPLC and the photodiode-array detection system, without previous extraction (direct injection). A total of 16 phenolic compounds (catechol, tyrosol, protocatechuic acid, hydrocaffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, hydrocoumaric acid, ferulic acid, (-)-epicatechin, (+)-catechin, procyanidins B2 and B5, phloretin-2¢-xyloglucoside, phloridzin, hyperin, aviculari...

  2. Pecora consectari: transhumance in Roman Spain

    Gómez-Pantoja, Joaquín


    Although ancient authorities mainly described Spain as a herdsmen's country and often praised the number and quality of her livestock, there are no reliable proofs of transhumance before the Visighotic period. Nevertheless, indirect evidence suggests that herds were mov- ing between seasonal grazing areas even during the time of the Roman conquest. Later on, several legal documents are better explained invok- ing the interest of cities and individuals in controlling al...

  3. Community nutrition in Spain: advances and drawbacks

    Aranceta, Javier; Lobo, Félix; Viedma, Pilar; Salvador-Castell, Gemma; Martínez de Victoria, Emilio; Ortega, Rosa M.; Bello, Luis; Tur-Marí, Josep A


    Scientific evidence has placed community nutrition among the front-line strategies in health promotion. Community nutrition in different regions of Spain has developed at an unequal pace. Early initiatives in the mid 1980s provided good-quality population data and established a basis for nutrition surveillance including individual body measurements, dietary intake data, information on physical activity, and biomarkers. The Nutrition and Physical Activity for Obesity Preventi...

  4. Generational Differences at Work in Spain

    Lasierra, Jose Manuel; Molina, Jose Alberto; Ortega, Raquel


    The purpose of this paper is to explore differentials in the job satisfaction and the organizational commitment of Baby Boomers and Generation X. In light of multiple age segments in the workforce, and the ageing population, human resource management strategies aimed at attracting, engaging, and retaining employees of all ages are of strategic importance. Through the use of the large-scale Quality of Life at Work, 2006-2010 survey (Spain), we have carried out an empirical approach that points...

  5. Immigration and Housing Booms: Evidence from Spain

    Gonz??lez Luna, Libertad; Ortega, Francesc


    We estimate empirically the effect of immigration on house prices and residential construction activity in Spain over the period 1998-2008. This decade is characterized by both a spectacular housing market boom and a stunning immigration wave. We exploit the variation in immigration across Spanish provinces and construct an instrument based on the historical location patterns of immigrants by country of origin. The evidence points to a sizeable causal effect of immigration on b...

  6. Future reference evapotranspiration in Duero Valley (Spain)

    Moratiel Yugueros, Ruben; Duran Altisent, Jose Maria; Snyder, Richard L.; Tarquis Alfonso, Ana Maria


    The impact of climate change and its relation with evapotranspiration was evaluated in the Duero River Basin (Spain). The study shows the possible future situations 50 years from now from the reference evapotranspiration (ETo). The maximum temperature (Tmax), minimum temperature (Tmin), dew point (Td), wind speed (U) and net radiation (Rn) trends during the 1980-2009 period were obtained and extrapolated with the FAO-56 Penman- Montheith equation to estimate ETo. Changes in stomatal resistanc...

  7. Occupational segregation of immigrant women in Spain

    Coral del Río; Olga Alonso-Villar


    The aim of this paper is to analyze occupational segregation in the Spanish labor market from a gender and an immigration perspective. In doing so, several local and overall segregation measures are used. Our results suggest that immigrant women in Spain suffer a double segregation since segregation affects them to a greater extent than it does either native women or immigrant men. There are, however, remarkable discrepancies among the segregation of immigrant women depending on their region ...

  8. Aids in Spain and Immigration: Epidemiological Analysis

    ualberto Buela-Casal****; Ángel Castro; María Paz-Bermúdez**


    The aim of this work was to analyze the current HIV/AIDS situation in Spain according to Spanish regions. Epidemiological HIV and AIDS Spanish data are analyzed and adjusted by population rates. Prevalence indexes and distribution by gender, age and way of transmission in the Spanish regions are compared. In addition, it is paid special attention to immigrant population as people who can take HIV/AIDS risk behaviors. Results revealed that the Spanish regions with the highest prevalence rates ...

  9. Wage Assimilation of Immigrants in Spain

    Zenón Jiménez-Ridruejo; Carlos Borondo Arribas


    In this study we quantify the effect of the years of residence in Spain on the earnings of immigrants. We take sex, origin, education and age into account. The results are clearly positive, the longer the length of residence the more earnings, confirming the hypothesis of wage assimilation of immigrants as their human capital is adapted to the Spanish labor market. The information used comes from the Social Security’s Continuous Sample of Working Lives 2007. Additionally, we merge the earning...

  10. Radiotracking a Translocated Otter in Spain

    Ruiz-Olmo, J.


    Full Text Available A subadult male otter, injured in a road traffic accident, was found in central Spain. After treatment, it was considered suitable for return to the wild. The opportunity was taken to radio track the released otter, using a subcutaneous transmitter implanted under the shoulder skin. This was very successful, and considered to be an improvement on harnesses and intraperitoneal implants. A new study in now taking place using two adult otters.

  11. Seismic hazard in Andalucia region (Southern Spain)

    Benito Oterino, Belen; Navarro Bernal, Manuel; Gaspar Escribano, Jorge M.; Vidal Sánchez, Francisco; Góngora, Ana; García Rodríguez, María José; Martínez Solares, José Manuel


    The global objective of the SISMOSAN Project has been to provide a general seismic risk assessment of Andalusian region (Southern Spain) associated with the ground motions expected for a return period of 475 years. The project was financed by Civil Defence of Andalusia and its results will be applied to the definition of regional emergency plans. We present here the study and main results of the first phase of the project, aimed at evaluating seismic hazard. In contrast to most of the previou...

  12. Poverty and Gender Wage Discrimination in Spain

    Coral del Río; Carlos Gradín; Olga Cantó


    Using data from the European Community Household Panel Survey (ECHP), the authors analyze the effects of gender wage gap on household income distribution in Spain. The empirical approach consists of three steps. First, the individual wage gap is estimated for each female worker. Second, a counterfactual household income distribution is generated by adding to household income the hypothetical non-discriminatory wage of working females. Finally, poverty and inequality levels of observed and cou...

  13. Unemployment in Galician autonomous community (Spain)

    Seoane, Maria Jesus Freire; Cristal, Venancio Salcines; Freire, Maria Jesus Bilbao


    An aspect of unquestionable transcendency is the impact of the unemployment in the current society. Most part of the countries in the European continent present as from the decade of the 70's very significant rates of unemployment. The persistence of this characteristic in the occupational market constitutes the most important fact of concern for citizens and governments. The problem of the unemployment becomes much more serious in the case of Spain, and the Galician Autonomous Community is n...

  14. Income satisfaction and deprivation in Spain

    Labeaga, José María; Molina, José Alberto; Navarro, María


    The first objective of our paper is to identify the determinants of income satisfaction in Spain, with one of these being relative deprivation, and the second is to measure this relative deprivation, in both monetary and satisfaction terms. To that end, we use data from the eight waves of the Spanish section of the European Community Household Panel (1994-2001). With respect to the first objective, we estimate models for categorical variables in order to test whether subjective satisfaction m...

  15. A population density grid for Spain

    Cantarino Martí, Isidro; Goerlich, Francisco J.


    This is an author's accepted manuscript of an article published in "International Journal of Geographical Information Science"; Volume 27, Issue 12, 2013; copyright Taylor & Francis; available online at: This article describes a high-resolution land cover data set for Spain and its application to dasymetric population mapping (at census tract level). Eventually, this vector layer is transformed into a grid format. The wo...

  16. Legislating tolerance: Spain's national public smoking law.

    Muggli, Monique E; Lockhart, Nikki J; Ebbert, Jon O; Jiménez-Ruiz, Carlos A; Riesco Miranda, Juan Antonio; Hurt, Richard D


    While Spain's national tobacco control legislation prohibits smoking in many indoor public places, the law provides for an exception to the prohibition of smoking by allowing separate seating sections and ventilation options in certain public places such as bars and restaurants, hotels and airports. Accordingly, Spain's law is not aligned with Article 8 Guidelines of the World Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, which requires parties to ensure universal protection against secondhand smoke exposure in all enclosed public places, workplaces and on all means of public transport. Spain's law is currently being promoted by the tobacco companies in other countries as a model for smoke-free legislation. In order to prevent weakening of smoke-free laws in other countries through industry-supported exceptions, we investigated the tactics used by the tobacco companies before the implementation of the new law and assessed the consequences of these actions in the hospitality sector. Internal tobacco industry documents made public through US litigation settlements dating back to the 1980s were searched in 2008-9. Documents show that tobacco companies sought to protect hospitality venues from smoking restrictions by promoting separate seating for smokers and ineffective ventilation technologies, supporting an unenforceable voluntary agreement between the Madrid local government and the hospitality industry, influencing ventilation standards setting and manipulating Spanish media. The Spanish National Assembly should adopt comprehensive smoke-free legislation that does not accommodate the interests of the tobacco industry. In doing so, Spain's smoke-free public places law would be better aligned with the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. PMID:19850551

  17. Media and Informational Literacy Policies in Spain

    Grandío, María del Mar; Vicente, Miguel; Matilla, Agustín; Guitierrez Martín, Alfonso; Marta Lazo, Carmen


    Media education in Spain has never received a public acknowledgment according to its importance within our time’s society. While the presence of media education in the curricula of European countries was growing during the 1970’s, Spanish scholars refused to grant this topic a priority attention. Alternatively, they let the task of raising awareness about the need to develop a critical and creative media education system in hands of other professional groups, like journalists or teachers.

  18. Technological spillovers and industrial location in Spain

    Quevedo, Jose G.


    While different studies have supported the existence of knowledge spillovers and shown their importance for economic growth, very few have focused on analysing their relation with the propensity for industrial activity to cluster spatially. The main purpose of this paper is to examine the geographic concentration of industrial activity in Spain, specially of innovative activity, and to link it with the existence of knowledge externalities. This analysis will be based in the marshallian concep...

  19. Mobile services in the Rector Gabriel Ferraté Library - Technical University of Catalonia

    Codina Vila, Miquel; Pérez Gálvez, Andrés; Clavero Campos, Javier


    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to compile and explain the mobile services developed by the Rector Gabriel Ferraté Library (BRGF) of the Technical University of Catalonia (UPC), in Barcelona, Spain. From a larger amount of technological features that distinguish the BRGF, only those with a main mobile component are grouped here. Design/methodology/approach – A case study perspective is used to give a detailed picture of the mobile services and features offered by the library in bot...

  20. Water Markets in Spain: Performance and Challenges

    Sara Palomo-Hierro


    Full Text Available Law 46/1999 incorporated formal water markets into the Spanish legal and regulatory framework, allowing spot water markets and the creation of water banks. The implementation of water markets in Spain aimed at improving the efficiency of water use by reallocating water towards uses with higher added value. However, the performance of water markets in Spain has been rather disappointing, since they have been operative only during drought periods, and even under these extreme scarcity situations, trading activity counted for less than 5.0% of total water use. The narrowness of the market suggests that there are some barriers hampering their effective functioning. This paper examines the evolution and performance of water markets in Spain, relying on a transaction costs analysis framework. This analysis allows the identification of the main factors impeding water markets from operating effectively as a water reallocation tool. This analysis also provides some guidelines on how to overcome these obstacles and, thus, how to improve the efficiency of water use.

  1. Mobile Notes: Mobile Devices in Creative Discussions

    Bollen, Lars; Juarez, Guillermo; Hoppe, Ulrich


    The trendy notion of "mobile learning" has different connotations: On the one hand, it can be understood as "learning on the move" - often referred to as "learning any time anywhere". Of course this interpretation relies on specific kinds of technological enabling, but the definition aims at the general setting of learning activities. Particularly, it includes informal learning settings (cf. [1]). A second interpretation sees mobile learning somewhat more pragmatically as learning with mobile...


    Gheorghe Meghisan; Georgeta-Madalina Meghisan


    The purpose of this research paper is to identify the potential of mobile health devices with a positive impact on the public health care system from Romania. More people monitoring their health situation with the help of mobile health applications could lead to less money spent by the public health sector with treating more advanced diseases. Approach/ methodology. The analysis of the Romanian mobile telecommunications market and health situation of the population from Romania was based on s...

  3. Abrechnung mobiler Dienste im Mobile-Payment-Referenzmodell

    Pousttchi, Key; Wiedemann, Dietmar Georg


    The purpose of the paper is to analyze mobile payments in the mobile commerce scenario. Therefore, we first classify the mobile payment in the mobile commerce scenario by explaining general offer models, charging concepts, and intermediaries. Second, we describe the mobile payment reference model, especially, the mobile payment reference organization model and different mobile payment standard types. Finally, we conclude our findings.

  4. Transsexualism in Spain: a Cultural and Legal Perspective

    Patrícia Soley-Beltran


    In this paper I will present an overview of the current legal, social and political situation of transsexual and transgendered people in Spain. The study is based on qualitative data gathered from in-depth interviews with transsexual people, transgendered activists and legal experts in Spain, including some aspects of a cross-cultural comparison between Spain and the UK. The empirical study accounts for the development of social policies related to sex-reassignment and their evolution in the ...

  5. Quaternary fauna of bats in Spain: Paleoecologic and biogeographic interest

    Sevilla, Paloma


    The study of fossil bat material collected in Quaternary localities in Spain has yielded interesting information on the characteristics of this fauna during the Pleistocene and Holocene in Spain. Out of the 25 species of Chiroptera actually living in Spain, 15 have been detected from the Middle Pleistocene onwards: Rhinolophus ferrumequinum, R. euryale, R. mehelyi, R. hipposideros, Myotis myotis, M. bechsteini, M. nattereri, M. emarginatus, Plecotus austriacus, Eptesicus ser...

  6. The Impact of Climate Change on Tourism in Spain

    Hein, Lars


    The tourism sector will be particularly affected by climate change, but there have been few studies specifying the impacts of climate change on tourism for a certain country. This paper considers the impacts of climate change on tourism in Spain. Tourism is a key economic sector in Spain, and it is strongly weather dependent. The paper analyses how the suitability of the Spanish climate for tourism will change, and how this will affect tourism flows to Spain. The suitability of the climate fo...

  7. Description of industrial pollution in Spain

    Aragonés Nuria


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Toxic substances released into the environment (to both air and water by many types of industries might be related with the occurrence of some malignant tumours and other diseases. The publication of the EPER (European Pollutant Emission Register Spanish data allows to investigate the presence of geographical mortality patterns related to industrial pollution. The aim of this paper is to describe industrial air and water pollution in Spain in 2001, broken down by activity group and specific pollutant, and to plot maps depicting emissions of carcinogenic substances. Methods All information on industrial pollution discharge in 2001 was drawn from EPER-Spain public records provided by the European Commission server. We described the distribution of the number of industries and amounts discharged for each pollutant, as well as emission by pollutant group and the industrial activities associated with each pollutant. Maps of Spain were drawn up, with UTM coordinates being used to plot pollutant foci, and circles with an area proportional to the emission to depict pollution emission values. Results The EPER-Spain contained information on 1,437 industrial installations. The industrial plants that discharge pollutant substances into air and water above the pollutant-specific EPER threshold were mainly situated in the Autonomous Regions of Aragon, Andalusia and Catalonia and in Catalonia, the Basque Country and Andalusia respectively. Pollution released in 2001 into air approached 158 million Mt. Emissions into water were over 8 million Mt. Conclusion A few single industrial plants are responsible for the highest percentage of emissions, thus rendering monitoring of their possible health impact on the surrounding population that much simpler. Among European countries Spain is the leading polluter in almost one third of all EPER-registered pollutant substances released into the air and ranks among the top three leading polluters in two

  8. Mobile Scientific Calculator

    Mohammed Abdulrahim Hamdi


    Full Text Available The mobile and wireless industry is entering an exciting time. Demand for mobile technology is growing at a tremendous rate. Corporations are deploying mobile applications that provide substantial business benefits, and consumers are readily adopting mobile data applications. We present scientific application for mobile phone in steps of software engineering project starting from data gathering, data analysis, designing, coding, packaging, testing and deploying, Mobile Scientific Calculator (MSC enable user to compute any mathematical operation by using this application in mobile phone without needing to use the calculator. Scientific calculator offers three keys the four mathematic operations, the four systems of digits and offering many of functions such as angles functions, power, factorial and other functions. Scientific calculator is suitable for many mobile phones which don t have scientific calculator in its applications, it provide simple design for dealing with its functions for all users. It operated on more than one mobile phone model.

  9. Mobile Portal Implementation Strategy

    Gao, Ping; Damsgaard, Jan


    Mobile portal plays an important role in mobile commerce market. Current literature focuses on static analysis on the value chain of mobile portals. This article provides a dynamic perspective on mobile portal strategy. Drawing upon network economics, we describe mobile portal implementation...... as a fourphase process. In different phase, a portal provider has various challenges to overcome and adopt diverse strategies, and correspondingly the regulator has different foci. The conceptual framework proposed in this article offers a basis for further analyses on the market dynamics of mobile commerce...

  10. Head First Mobile Web

    Gardner, Lyza; Grigsby, Jason


    Despite the huge number of mobile devices and apps in use today, your business still needs a website. You just need it to be mobile. Head First Mobile Web walks you through the process of making a conventional website work on a variety smartphones and tablets. Put your JavaScript, CSS media query, and HTML5 skills to work-then optimize your site to perform its best in the demanding mobile market. Along the way, you'll discover how to adapt your business strategy to target specific devices. Navigate the increasingly complex mobile landscapeTake both technical and strategic approaches to mobile

  11. Mobile Router Technology Development

    Ivancic, William D.; Stewart, David H.; Bell, Terry L.; Kachmar, Brian A.; Shell, Dan; Leung, Kent


    Cisco Systems and NASA have been performing joint research on mobile routing technology under a NASA Space Act Agreement. Cisco developed mobile router technology and provided that technology to NASA for applications to aeronautic and space-based missions. NASA has performed stringent performance testing of the mobile router, including the interaction of routing and transport-level protocols. This paper describes mobile routing, the mobile router, and some key configuration parameters. In addition, the paper describes the mobile routing test network and test results documenting the performance of transport protocols in dynamic routing environments.

  12. Exploring the Mobility of Mobile Phone Users

    Csáji, Balázs Cs; Traag, V A; Delvenne, Jean-Charles; Huens, Etienne; Van Dooren, Paul; Smoreda, Zbigniew; Blondel, Vincent D


    Mobile phone datasets allow for the analysis of human behavior on an unprecedented scale. The social network, temporal dynamics and mobile behavior of mobile phone users have often been analyzed independently from each other using mobile phone datasets. In this article, we explore the connections between various features of human behavior extracted from a large mobile phone dataset. Our observations are based on the analysis of communication data of 100000 anonymized and randomly chosen individuals in a dataset of communications in Portugal. We show that clustering and principal component analysis allow for a significant dimension reduction with limited loss of information. The most important features are related to geographical location. In particular, we observe that most people spend most of their time at only a few locations. With the help of clustering methods, we then robustly identify home and office locations and compare the results with official census data. Finally, we analyze the geographic spread ...

  13. Mobile Phones on Campus



    After entering the 21st century, more and more people have mobile phones in China. At the end of 2002, there were 20 million mobile phone users. By the year 2005 the number has reached up to 30 million.

  14. Tandem mobile robot system

    Buttz, James H.; Shirey, David L.; Hayward, David R.


    A robotic vehicle system for terrain navigation mobility provides a way to climb stairs, cross crevices, and navigate across difficult terrain by coupling two or more mobile robots with a coupling device and controlling the robots cooperatively in tandem.

  15. Ion mobility sensor system

    Xu, Jun; Watson, David B.; Whitten, William B.


    An ion mobility sensor system including an ion mobility spectrometer and a differential mobility spectrometer coupled to the ion mobility spectrometer. The ion mobility spectrometer has a first chamber having first end and a second end extending along a first direction, and a first electrode system that generates a constant electric field parallel to the first direction. The differential mobility spectrometer includes a second chamber having a third end and a fourth end configured such that a fluid may flow in a second direction from the third end to the fourth end, and a second electrode system that generates an asymmetric electric field within an interior of the second chamber. Additionally, the ion mobility spectrometer and the differential mobility spectrometer form an interface region. Also, the first end and the third end are positioned facing one another so that the constant electric field enters the third end and overlaps the fluid flowing in the second direction.

  16. Mobile Multilayer IPsec protocol



    Full Text Available A mobile user moves around and switches between wireless cells, subnets and domains, it needs to maintain the session continuity. At the same time security of signaling and transport media should not be compromised. A multi-layer security framework involving user authentication, packet based encryption and access control mechanism can provide the desired level of security to the mobile users. Supporting streaming traffic in a mobile wireless Internet is faced with several challenges due to continuous handoff experienced by a mobile user. These challenges include dynamic binding, location management, quality of service and end-to-end security for signaling and transport. Mobile users will use heterogeneous radio access networking technologies. Mobile multilayer IPsec protocol (MML IPSec extends ML-IPSec to deal with mobility and make it suitable for wireless networks. MML-IPSec is integration of ML-IPSec and mobile IP.

  17. Mobile Informal Learning

    Glahn, Christian; Börner, Dirk


    Glahn, C., & Börner, D. (2009). Mobile Informal Learning. Presented at Mobile Learning in Context Symposium at the Open University of the Netherlands. September, 11, 2009, Heerlen, The Netherlands: Open University of the Netherlands.

  18. Test for mobility

    Li Kheng


    Mobile application testing is a process by which application software developed for mobile devices is tested, in aspects as functionality, usability and consistency. These applications can be pre-installed or installed from distribution platforms for mobile software. Due mobile devices have witnessed of a phenomenal growth in recent years (a study by Yankee Group predicted to generate $ 4.2 billion in revenue for 2013 through 7000 million downloads of applications the U.S.), it is necesary te...

  19. PSiS Mobile

    Anacleto, Ricardo; Luz, Nuno; Figueiredo, Lino


    In this paper, we present a state of the art on applications of mobile devices to support decision of a tourist running on a trip. We focus on two types of applications, tourism recommendation and tourism guide, making a brief description of the main characteristics of each one of them. We also refer the main problems encountered on the development of applications for mobile devices, and present PSiS (Personalized Sightseeing Tours Recommendation System) Mobile, our proposal to a mobile recom...

  20. Mobile internet protocol analysis

    Brachfeld, Lawrence J.


    Mobile Internet Protocol (IP) is a proposed standard that builds on the current Internet Protocol by making the fact that a user is mobile transparent to applications and higher level protocols such as Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and User Datagram Protocol (UDP). Mobile IP allows mobile computers to send and receive packets addressed with their home network IP address, regardless of the IP address of their current point of attachment on the Internet while maintaining any current conne...

  1. Fixed mobile convergence handbook

    Ahson, Syed A


    From basic concepts to future directions, this handbook provides technical information on all aspects of fixed-mobile convergence (FMC). The book examines such topics as integrated management architecture, business trends and strategic implications for service providers, personal area networks, mobile controlled handover methods, SIP-based session mobility, and supervisory and notification aggregator service. Case studies are used to illustrate technical and systematic implementation of unified and rationalized internet access by fixed-mobile network convergence. The text examines the technolo

  2. Mobile social gaming

    Coulton, Paul; Čopič Pucihar, Klen; Bamford, William


    After ten years of game design practices routed within traditional PC and console development aimed at hardcore gamers, the mobile games industry has embraced the realization that these have limited value for mobile, and new approaches need to be considered. In particular the greater utilization of social factors within games would embrace the social practices in which mobile phones often engage. Whilst this has led some to propose MMOGs for mobile, the behavior of players of these games sugg...

  3. Mobile connections : curator's statement.

    Hemment, Drew


    The Mobile Connections exhibition at the Futuresonic 2004 festival explored how mobile and locative media reconfigure social, cultural and information space. It looked beyond computing in its current form, towards the social and cultural possibilities opened by a new generation of networked, location-aware media. It sought an art of mobile communications: asking, are there any forms of expression that are intrinsic or unique to mobile and locative media?

  4. Focus on personal mobility

    Lucas Harms, Peter Jorritsma, Nelly Kalfs


    Focus on personal mobilityVarious important societal trends, including aging, immigration, individualization and re-urbanization, influence the mobility of Dutch people. In future, these trends will lead to further (yet slowing) growth in car use, to public transport being used less in rural regions and more in urban areas, and to bicycle use claiming a smaller share of total mobility. In 'Focus on personal mobility', the Kim Netherlands Institute for Transport Policy Analysis focuses on the ...

  5. Mobile Marketing in Japan

    Noah H. N. Lynn; Paul D. Berger


    In this paper we describe the state of mobile marketing in Japan. We consider the various aspects of mobile marketing in Japan and what has led to the overwhelming adoption by Japanese youth, and to a degree Japanese society as a whole, of social media and associated activities. This growth of mobile marketing has dramatic, positive implications for marketing, in general, as well as for the sale of selected product classes. We also consider markers for suggesting what the future of mobile mar...

  6. Mobile Services Adoption Model

    Abu Ghannam, Bashar


    This research presents an explanatory model for consumers' adoption of mobile services. This model uses the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology presented by Venkatesh in 2003 as a baseline and integrates the Perceived Enjoyment, Mobile Affinity, Perceived Price of Service and the Frequency of Mobile Usage as to investigate the Attitude and the Intention to Use mobile services. The proposed model was empirically tested using data collected from a field survey where 1095 responde...

  7. Ion mobility spectrometry

    Eiceman, GA


    Key Developments for Faster, More Precise Detection Capabilities Driven by the demand for the rapid and advanced detection of explosives, chemical and biological warfare agents, and narcotics, ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) undergone significant refinements in technology, computational capabilities, and understanding of the principles of gas phase ion chemistry and mobility. Beginning with a thorough discussion of the fundamental theories and physics of ion mobility, Ion Mobility Spectrometry, Second Edition describes the recent advances in instrumentation and newly

  8. Status of the nuclear sector in Spain

    Antonio González Jiménez


    Full Text Available Spain began to show interest in nuclear energy in the late 1940’s. In 1964 the Nuclear Energy Law was approved, and in 1972 the Nuclear and Radioactive Sites Regulation was developed. Safety and regulation activities were entrusted to the Nuclear Safety Council (Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear created in 1980, and the research and management of radioactive waste to the National Radioactive Waste Company (Empresa Nacional de Residuos Radiactivos, created in 1985. The structure of Spain’s nuclear industry began to be created in the 1960’s, as a consequence of the decision to build the nuclear power plants of José Cabrera, Santa María de Garoña and Vandellós I. In the next stage, during the 1970’s, the Almaraz, Ascó and Cofrentes Nuclear Power Plants were built. During the third stage, in the 1980’s, the Vandellós II and Trillo I Nuclear Power Plants were built. Nowadays, the expert and efficient Spanish nuclear industry is a guarantee that nuclear technology is maintained in Spain, and not only to support the operating plants but also a reactivated international nuclear market. Spain has the necessary infrastructure, the technical capacity, the financial resources and the companies’ willpower in a common effort to provide Spaniards with reliable, cheap and sustainable electric energy that respects the environment and guarantees security for citizens. Nuclear energy is, definitively, a key component today and in the future.

  9. Physicochemical characterization and mercury speciation of particle-size soil fractions from an abandoned mining area in Mieres, Asturias (Spain)

    Soils from old cinnabar mining areas usually exhibit high Hg contents, whose mobility depends on soil parameters and environmental conditions. This paper presents the study of the Hg speciation in soil samples from an abandoned Hg mine and metallurgical plant in Mieres (Asturias, Spain), in relation to their mineralogical and chemical composition and their particle-size distribution. A characterization of samples was made by X-Ray Diffraction Spectrometry, Scanning Electron Microscopy and Atomic Absorption and Emission Spectroscopy analyses. A sequential extraction method was applied to establish Hg mobility in the samples and their grain-size subsamples. The highest Hg mobility was found in well-developed soils, as a consequence of the adsorption processes by iron and manganese oxides, whereas in those more contaminated soils, a higher proportion of Hg was leached in the non-mobile fraction. A higher Hg mobility was found in the finest grain-size subsamples, probably due to the accumulation of clay minerals and oxides in these ranges. - Factors affecting mercury mobility in soils influenced by abandoned mining

  10. Romantic beliefs and myths in Spain.

    Barrón López de Roda, A; Martínez-Iñigo, D; de Paúl, P; Yela, C


    Data from a representative sample of the Spanish population (1,949 participants between ages 18 and 65) were analyzed to examine the strength of the principal romantic myths and the link between sex, love, and marriage in Spain. A survey was made up and was administered by interviewers. The results show the strength of these myths and the relationship between the three above-mentioned variables. Women, people with fewer years of formal education, and older people were more likely to believe in the myths and the relation between sex, love, and marriage was stronger in these groups. The findings are discussed in terms of different psychosocial theories. PMID:11757262

  11. Food-related life style in Spain

    Bredahl, Lone; Brunsø, Karen; Grunert, Klaus G.;


    Executive summary 1. This report contains the main results of a survey of food-related lifestyle in Spain, based on a representative sample of 1000 Spanish households. 2. Generally speaking, Spanish food consumers are very interested in shopping for food and cooking. Compared with other European...... small extent be described by means of demographic characteristics. 4. The adventurous food consumers constitute 20% of the population. These are involved food consumers who like both shopping for food and cooking, and who are constantly on the lookout for new products and recipes. They attach a lot of...

  12. Criminality among Romanian Emigrants in Spain

    Cristina Ilie


    The current community of Romanians in Spain is a very active and integrated one at all levels in the host society. There is a mass media developed by Romanians, a large number of churches and associations of our countrymen and, also, there are a high number of cultural and artistic events in the community. Unfortunately, the Spanish public perception on Romanian immigrants is not very good one, as they are seen as the most disagreeable group of emigrants. This is due to the high degree of ant...

  13. [Imported dengue: an emerging arbovirosis in Spain].

    Ramos Geldres, T T; García López-Hortelano, M; Baquero-Artigao, F; Montero Vega, D; López Quintana, B; Mellado Peña, M J


    Dengue is caused by one of 4 serotypes of dengue virus. Only imported cases have been reported in Spain. The main clinical findings are fever and exanthema, although there may be severe forms, particularly in secondary infections. Five children with a primary, non severe dengue infection are presented. The diagnosis was based on clinical suspicion and epidemiological history, and confirmed by immunochromatography and ELISA tests. The outcome was favourable in all cases. It is important to consider this diagnosis in international travellers that present with fever within the 14 days of returning from an endemic area, in order to get an early diagnosis, adequate treatment and a good prognosis. PMID:24880817

  14. Involuntary outpatient treatment (IOT) in Spain.

    Hernández-Viadel, M; Cañete-Nicolás, C; Bellido-Rodriguez, C; Asensio-Pascual, P; Lera-Calatayud, G; Calabuig-Crespo, R; Leal-Cercós, C


    In recent decades there have been significant legislative changes in Spain. Society develops faster than laws, however, and new challenges have emerged. In 2004, the Spanish Association of Relatives of the Mentally Ill (FEAFES) proposed amending the existing legislation to allow for the implementation of involuntary outpatient treatment (IOT) for patients with severe mental illness. Currently, and after having made several attempts at change, there is no specific legislation governing the application of this measure. Although IOT may be implemented in local programmes, we consider legal regulation to be needed in this matter. PMID:25896809

  15. Saint Benedict of Palermo in Spain

    Vincent, Bernard


    Among the devotions to the black Saints, the one of which Benedict of Palermo was the object in Spain in the 17th and 18th centuries was the most remarkable. Born near Palermo to African slaves, this lay brother of a Sicilian franciscan convent, died in the odor of sanctity in 1589. His immediate popularity, encouraged both by the Church and by the Hispanic monarchy, was considerable within the communities of slaves and free blacks. Benedict was beatified in 1743, event which was followed by ...

  16. Sixth Meeting of China-Spain Forum


    <正>The sixth meeting of the China- Spain Forum (CSF) was held in the World Trade Center in Barcelona from July 5 to 6, 2011. Uyunqimg, Vice Chairperson of the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress and Chairperson of the CSF Chinese Committee, headed the Chinese delegation; Trinidad Jimenez, Spanish Minister of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation; Miguel Sebastian Gascon, Spanish Minister of Industry, Trade and Tourism; and Pedro Solbes, Chairman of the CSF Spanish Committee, were among the 350 participants.

  17. Import of fruits from Spain to Finland

    Hall, Hardi


    The research is made for company named Karamelo Citrus S.L.L. It has already business links to many countries and they are working on the link to Finland when my help was needed to finish this project. As the project is huge it was divided in two parts. My part is registering company and start import fruits/vegetables to Finland. This is part number two and it will show how to import fruits/vegetables from Spain to Finland and what techniques are needed to provide fruits for the Finnish ma...

  18. Evaporation and reference evapotranspiration trends in Spain

    Sanchez-Lorenzo, Arturo; Vicente-Serrano, Sergio M.; Wild, Martin; Azorin-Molina, Cesar; Calbó, Josep; Revuelto, Jesús; López-Moreno, Juan I.; Moran-Tejeda, Enrique; Martín-Hernández, Natalia; Peñuelas, Josep


    Interest is growing in the trends of atmospheric evaporation demand, increasing the need for long-term time series. In this study, we first describe the development of a dataset on evaporation in Spain based on long-term series of Piché and pan measurement records. Piché measurements have been reported for >50 stations since the 1960s. Measurements of pan evaporation, which is a much more widely studied variable in the literature, are also available, but only since 1984 for 21 stations. Particular emphasis was placed on the homogenization of this dataset (for more details, we refer to Sanchez-Lorenzo et al., 2014, Clim Res, 61: 269-280). Both the mean annual Piché and pan series over Spain showed evaporative increases during the common study period (1985-2011). Furthermore, using the annual Piché records since the 1960s, an evaporation decline was detected from the 1960s to the mid-1980s, which resulted in a non-significant trend over the entire 1961-2011 period. Our results indicate agreement between the decadal variability of reference evapotranspiration (Vicente-Serrano et al., 2014, Glob Planet Chang, 121: 26-40) and surface solar radiation (Sanchez-Lorenzo et al., 2013, Glob Planet Chang, 100: 343-352) and the evaporation from Piché and pan measurements since the mid-1980s, especially during summer. Nevertheless, this agreement needs attention, as Piché evaporimeters are inside meteorological screens and not directly exposed to radiation. Thus, as Piché readings are mainly affected by the aerodynamic term in Penman's evaporation equation and pan records are affected by both the heat balance and aerodynamic terms, the results suggest that both terms must be highly and positively correlated in Spain. In order to check this hypothesis, the radiative and aerodynamic components were estimated using the Penman's equation. The results show that the relationship with the radiative components is weaker than that with the aerodynamic component for both pan and

  19. Wage determinants in Spain (1980-2000

    José Aixalá


    Full Text Available This paper provides evidence about the nominal wage determinants in Spain during the period 1980-2000. We estimate a wage equation, using time series analysis applying an error correction mechanism. Our aim is to analyse the extent to which the evolution of wages is influenced by the unemployment, prices and productivity. The results reveal that the unemployment rate has no effect on the evolution of nominal wages. The variable that explains the evolution of nominal wages in the long term is prices, showing slightly inflationary behaviour. In the short term, wages are explained by their past values, reflecting a nominal inertia.

  20. Mobile Student Information System

    Asif, Muhammad; Krogstie, John


    Purpose: A mobile student information system (MSIS) based on mobile computing and context-aware application concepts can provide more user-centric information services to students. The purpose of this paper is to describe a system for providing relevant information to students on a mobile platform. Design/methodology/approach: The research…

  1. Mobile Collocated Interactions

    Lucero, Andrés; Clawson, James; Lyons, Kent;


    Mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets were originally conceived and have traditionally been utilized for individual use. Research on mobile collocated interactions has been looking at situations in which collocated users engage in collaborative activities using their mobile devices, thus...

  2. Autochthonous Nocardia cerradoensis Infection in Humans, Spain, 2011 and 2014.

    Ercibengoa, Maria; Pérez-Trallero, Emilio; Marimón, José Maria


    Nocardia cerradoensis was first isolated in 2003 in the El Cerrado region of Brazil; since then, only 2 human infections, in France and Spain, have been reported. We describe 3 autochthonous cases in residents of Spain during 2011 and 2014. Together these cases support the idea of an emerging global pathogenic microorganism. PMID:26691545

  3. The History of the Democratic Adult Education Movement in Spain

    Oliver, Esther; Tellado, Itxaso; Yuste, Montserrat; Larena-Fernández, Rosa


    Background/Context: Traditional adult education in Spain treated the learner as a mere object that could be shaped by the educator. Although current practices of the democratic adult education movement in Spain reveals a completely opposite standpoint on adult education, there has been little analysis of the several influences converging and…

  4. Teaching Digital Libraries in Spain: Context and Experiences

    Garcia-Marco, Francisco-Javier


    The situation of digital libraries teaching and learning in Spain up to 2008 is examined. A detailed analysis of the different curricula and subjects is provided both at undergraduate and postgraduate level. Digital libraries have been mostly a postgraduate topic in Spain, but they should become mainstream, with special subjects devoted to them,…

  5. Deregulation and restructuring of the electricity sector in Spain

    This economic analysis of the Electric Power industry and market in Spain shows how the electricity deregulation and liberalization in Spain have given rise to an electricity industry which not only complies in spirit and letter with the E.U. Directive on the internal energy market, but which in fact goes much further. (A.L.B.)

  6. Sex Education in Spain: Teachers' Views of Obstacles

    Martinez, Jose L.; Carcedo, Rodrigo J.; Fuertes, Antonio; Vicario-Molina, Isabel; Fernandez-Fuertes, Andres A.; Orgaz, Begona


    This paper offers an overview of the current state, difficulties, limitations and future possibilities for sex education in Spain. On the basis of a study involving 3760 teachers from all provinces in Spain, a detailed analysis of the obstacles at legislative, school and teacher levels was developed. Significant weaknesses were found at each of…

  7. 78 FR 6222 - Importation of Avocados From Continental Spain


    ... described in a notice we published on May 10, 2006, in the Federal Register (71 FR 27221-27224, Docket No... of Avocados From Continental Spain AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION... importation of avocados from continental Spain (excluding the Balaeric Islands and Canary Islands) into...

  8. China-Spain Investment & Trade Seminar Held in Barcelona


    @@ On April 24,the China-Spain Investment & Trade Seminar was jointly held in Barcelona,Spain.As the first event of the Chinese Products Promotion Week (Europe),the seminar aims to help the Chinese export enterprises and local governments learn about relevant laws and regulations and product quality standards of the EU.


    Ahmed Aloui


    Full Text Available Users today want the opportunity to make (or manage a businesses in anytime and anywhere via their mobile devices. This paper proposes the architecture with mobile agent for the mobile businesses (m-business. M-business appeared as the promising approach to drive the vague following one of electronic business (e-business. Most of the e-busines [9] applications uses the traditional model client/server in which a commercial operation requires generally a link of stable communication being established between the customer and the server, and the traditional approach client/server [8] constitutes an obstacle to the development of application of m-business. The proposed architecture introduces several advantages: in the first place, allow the consumers to manage their commercial business driven by types of mobile devices (phones, PDAs, etc. .... at any time and wherever. Secondly, minimize the waiting time of the customer, and the quantity of transferring information. Third, this architecture addresses the problem of time limited and expensive connection for mobile users. The Mobile agents will be used on a single level: research agent. Every research mobile agent will be used to visit the target server site of the application to collect the information’s for his client, which allows it to interact locally with a server, and so to reduce the traffic on the network by transmitting only the useful data.

  10. Distributed mobility management - framework & analysis

    Liebsch, M.; Seite, P.; Karagiannis, G.


    Mobile operators consider the distribution of mobility anchors to enable offloading some traffic from their core network. The Distributed Mobility Management (DMM) Working Group is investigating the impact of decentralized mobility management to existing protocol solutions, while taking into account