... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.212 Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus. Bursal Disease...
Thirteen strains of monoclonal antibodies (McAbs) against infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) were obtained by using hybridoma technique and their characteristics were studied by double immunodiffusion,en- zyme- linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), virus neutralization test (VNT) and Western- blotting assay (WBA). The result showed that nine of the thirteen McAbs belonged to IgG class and four of them belonged to IgM class. No crossreactions were detected betwween the McAbs and Newscastle disease virus (NDV) ,in- fectious bronchitis virus(IBV) and Marek's disease virus(MDV). All of McAbs were positively specific reac- tive with IBDV and five of them can neutralize viral infectivity. Their recognized epitopes of the neutralizing McAbs were all presented on VP2 of the IBDV.
LiYan－Fei; WangWei; 等
Thirteen strains of monoclonal antibodies(McAbs) against infections bursal disease virus(IBDV) were obtained by using hydridoma technique and their characteristics were studied by double immunodiffusion,enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA),virus neutralization test(VNT) and Western-blotting assay (WBA).The result showed that nine of the thirteen McAbs belonged to IgG class and four of them belonged to IgM class.No crossreactions were detected betwween the McAbs and Newscastle disease virus (NDV),infectious bronchitis virus(IBV) and Marek's disease virus(MDV).All of McAbs were positively specific reactive with IBDV and five of them can neutralize viral infectivity.Their recognized epitopes of the neutralizing McAbs were all presented on VP2 of the IBDV.
Dormitorio, T V; Giambrone, J J; Guo, K; Jackwood, D J
Two infectious bursal disease viruses (IBDVs 1174 and V1) were isolated from IBDV-vaccinated broiler flocks in California and Georgia. These flocks had a history of subclinical immunosuppression. These isolates are commonly used in IBDV progeny challenge studies at Auburn, AL, as well as vaccine manufacturer's vaccine efficacy studies, because they come from populated poultry-producing states, and are requested by poultry veterinarians from those states. Nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) generated viral genome products for sequencing. A 491-bp segment from the VP2 gene, covering the hypervariable region, from each isolate was analyzed and compared with previously sequenced isolates. Sequence analysis showed that they were more closely related to the Delaware (Del) E antigenic variant than they are to the Animal Health Plant Inspection Service (APHIS) standard, both at the nucleotide level (96%, 97%) and at the amino acid level (94%, 97%). Both isolates had the glutamine to lysine shift in amino acid 249 which has been reported to be critical in binding the virus neutralizing Mab B69. Phenotypic studies showed that both isolates produced rapid atrophy of the bursae and weight loss, without the edematous bursal phase, in 2-wk-old commercial broilers having antibody against IBDV. A progeny challenge study showed both isolates produced more atrophy of the bursae (less percentage of protection) than the Del E isolate. Molecular and phenotypic data of these important IBDV isolates help in the improved detection and control of this continually changing and important viral pathogen of chickens. PMID:17626491
Christopher J. Kasanga
Full Text Available Nucleotide sequences of the VP2 hypervariable region (VP2-HVR of 10 infectious bursal disease viruses detected in indigenous and exotic chickens in Zambia from 2004 to 2005 were determined. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the viruses diverged into two genotypes and belonged to the African very virulent types (VV1 and VV2. In the phylogenetic tree, strains in one genotype clustered in a distinct group and were closely related to some strains isolated in western Africa (VV1, with nucleotide similarities of 95.7%– 96.5%. Strains in the other genotype were clustered within the eastern African VV type (VV2, with nucleotide similarities of 97.3%– 98.5%. Both genotypes were distributed in the southern parts of Zambia and had a unique conserved amino acid substitution at 300 (E→A in addition to the putative virulence marker at positions 222(A, 242(I, 256(I, 294(I and 299(S. These findings represent the first documentation of the existence of the African VV-IBDV variants in both indigenous and exotic chickens in Zambia.
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bursal Disease Vaccine. 113.331... Virus Vaccines § 113.331 Bursal Disease Vaccine. Bursal Disease Vaccine shall be prepared from virus...-five 1-day-old bursal disease susceptible chickens (vaccinates) shall be injected subcutaneously...
Nielsen, O.L.; Sorensen, P.; Hedemand, J.E.;
Chickens representing two different inbred lines (layer and meat-type) and three different B haplotypes (BW1, B19 and B131) were infected with infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) at 21 days of age. Mortality was recorded, and surviving chickens were killed and examined either 3 or 17 days post...
Senthilkumar, T M A; Priyadharsini, C V; Raja, P; Kumanan, K
Infectious bursal disease virus is an avian pathogen that causes huge morbidity and mortality in the poultry sector all over the world. Here, we report the full-length genome sequence of an Indian strain, MB11/ABT/MVC/2016, isolated from a commercial broiler flock. This is a first report of a complete genome sequence of infectious bursal disease virus from India. PMID:27174268
HABIB Mudasser; HUSSAIN Iftikhar; IRSHAD Hamid; YANG Zong-zhao; SHUAI Jiang-bing; CHEN Ning
Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) was inactivated by two different chemicals-formaldehyde and binary ethylenimine (BEI). Formaldehyde was used at 0.1% and 0.2%, while BEI was used at concentrations of 0.001 and 0.002 mol/L.These four vaccines were tested for their efficiency in generating humoral immune response in different groups of broiler chicks.Both BEI-inactivated vaccines gave relatively higher antibody titers and were almost twice as efficient as formaldehyde-inactivated ones.
Crespo, Rocio; Badcoe, Lyndon M; Williams, Cheryl; Bary, Andrew I
Very virulent infectious bursal disease virus (vvIBDV) was diagnosed in a pullet farm in Washington in 2014. Infectious bursal disease virus is resistant to many environmental stresses and often persists on farms for months. There have been conflicting reports as to whether composting can destroy vvIBDV in the manure. This project investigated the composting of litter from the affected house using an aerated static pile to inactivate the virus. Two weeks before the affected pullet flocks were moved to the layer house, specific-pathogen-free (SPF) birds were placed in the barns. Ten days after they were placed, three SPF birds died and were positive for vvIBDV. Thirty percent of the SPF birds were positive for vvIBDV. After the pullets were moved, at 20 wk of age, the litter in the house was composted using the aerated static pile method. The pile was maintained at above 55 C for 4 wk. After this time, 30 additional SPF birds were placed on the composted material. Two weeks later, the birds were healthy and there was no evidence of vvIBDV. The subsequent pullet flock did not break with vvIBDV. These results demonstrate that this composting method can be used to decontaminate the litter from vvIBDV and help prevent the spread of vvIBDV. PMID:27309296
Morla, Sudhir; Deka, Pankaj; Kumar, Sachin
Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is a highly infectious disease of young chicken that predominantly affects the immune system. In the present study, we are reporting first comprehensive study of IBDV outbreaks from the Northeastern part of India. Northeast India shares a porous border with four different countries; and as a rule any outbreak in the neighboring countries substantially affects the poultry population in the adjoining states. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the VP2 gene of the IBDV isolates from the Northeastern part of India suggested the extreme virulent nature of the virus. The virulent marker amino acids (A222, I242, Q253, I256 and S299) in the hypervariable region of the Northeastern isolates were found identical with the reported very virulent strains of IBDV. A unique insertion of I/L294V was recorded in all the isolates of the Northeastern India. The study will be useful in understanding the circulating pathotypes of IBDV in India. PMID:26854869
Full Text Available [b]Introduction[/b]. The airborne transmission of infectious diseases in livestock production is increasingly receiving research attention. Reliable techniques of air sampling are crucial to underpin the findings of such studies. This study evaluated the physical and biological efficiencies and detection limits of four samplers (Andersen 6-stage impactor, all-glass impinger “AGI-30”, OMNI-3000 and MD8 with gelatin filter for collecting aerosols of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV. [b]Materials and Method[/b]. IBDV aerosols mixed with a physical tracer (uranine were generated in an isolator, and then collected by the bioaerosol samplers. Samplers’ physical and biological efficiencies were derived based on the tracer concentration and the virus/tracer ratio, respectively. Detection limits for the samplers were estimated with the obtained efficiency data. [b]Results.[/b] Physical efficiencies of the AGI-30 (96% and the MD8 (100% were significantly higher than that of the OMNI-3000 (60%. Biological efficiency of the OMNI-3000 (23% was significantly lower than 100% (P < 0.01, indicating inactivation of airborne virus during sampling. The AGI-30, the Andersen impactor and the MD8 did not significantly inactivate virus during sampling. The 2-min detection limits of the samplers on airborne IBDV were 4.1 log[sub]10[/sub] 50% egg infective dose (EID[sub]50[/sub] m [sup]-3[/sup] for the Andersen impactor, 3.3 log[sub]10[/sub] EID50 m [sup]-3[/sup] for the AGI-30, 2.5 log[sub]10[/sub] EID50 m [sup]-3[/sup] for the OMNI-3000, and 2.9 log[sub]10[/sub] EID[sub]50[/sub] m [sup]-3[/sup] for the MD8. The mean half-life of IBDV aerosolized at 20 °C and 70% was 11.9 min. Conclusion. Efficiencies of different samplers vary. Despite its relatively low sampling efficiency, the OMNI-3000 is suitable for use in environments with low viral concentrations because its high flow rate gives a low detection limit. With the 4 samplers investigated, negative air
Infectious bursal disease virus is a causative agent of infectious bursal disease in young chickens causing significant losses to the poultry industry worldwide. In this study the gene encoding the viral capsid protein (VP2, IR01 strain) with self-assembly capability was cloned into a plant expression pTRAkc vector and expressed in tobacco. Recombinant protein levels in tobacco leaves reached to 260 µg/g and 160 µg/g fresh leaf weights (FLW) in apoplastic and cytosolic protein accumulation, r...
Boot, H.J.; Hoekman, A.J.W.; Gielkens, A.L.J.
There is a remarkable difference in virulence of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) strains ranging from sub-clinical infections for serotype 2 and cell culture adapted serotype 1 strains, to 100% mortality for very virulent serotype 1 strains in young SPF chickens. It is known that cell culture
Kusk, M.; Kabell, Susanne; Jørgensen, Poul Henrik;
Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is a major cause of disease problems in the poultry industry and vaccination has therefore been applied intensively to control the infection. The classical methods of detection and characterization of IBDV are by the use of immunodiffusion test and histopath......Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is a major cause of disease problems in the poultry industry and vaccination has therefore been applied intensively to control the infection. The classical methods of detection and characterization of IBDV are by the use of immunodiffusion test and...... histopathology. Since these methods are laborious and have low specificity alternatives are needed. In the present study, we report the development of a strain-specific multiplex RT-PCR technique, which can detect and differentiate between field strains of IBDV and vaccine virus strains including a so-called hot...
Martínez-Torrecuadrada, Jorge L.; Lázaro, Beatriz; Rodriguez, José F; Casal, J. Ignacio
The routine technique for detecting antibodies specific to infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is a serological evaluation by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with preparations of whole virions as the antigens. To avoid using complete virus in the standard technique, we have developed two new antigens through the expression of the VPX and VP3 genes in insect cells. VPX and especially VP3 were expressed at high levels in insect cells and simple to purify. The immunogenicity of both...
Cristina Freitas Nunes; Fabiane Fonseca; Alice Teixeira Meirelles Leite; Rodolfo Pinho da Silva Filho; Paula Fonseca Finger; Clarissa Caetano Castro; Geferson Fischer; Gilberto D'Avila Vargas; Silvia de Oliveira Hübner
To investigate the exposure of the Newcastle disease virus (NDV), infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) and avian poxvirus (APV) in Magellanic penguins found on the beaches in Southern regions of Brazil, the frequency of serum antibodies was estimated in 89 samples taken during 2005 and 2006. All the penguins were negative for the presence of antibodies against NDV by hemagglutination inhibition test and to APV by indirect ELISA. The reactivity was similar to the positives controls using ELI...
Repp, H; Nieper, H; Draheim, H J; Koschinski, A; Müller, H; Dreyer, F
Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is the causative agent of an economically significant poultry disease. IBDV infection leads to apoptosis in chicken embryos and cell cultures. Since changes in cellular ion fluxes during apoptosis have been reported, we investigated the membrane ion currents of chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEFs) inoculated with the Cu-1 strain of IBDV using the patch-clamp recording technique. Incubation of CEFs with IBDV led to marked changes in their K+ outward current properties, with respect to both the kinetics of activation and inactivation and the Ca2+ dependence of the activation. The changes occurred in a time-dependent manner and were complete after 8 h. UV-treated noninfectious virions induced the same K+ current changes as live IBDV. When CEFs were inoculated with IBDV after pretreatment with a neutralizing antibody, about 30% of the cells showed a normal K+ current, whereas the rest exhibited K+ current properties identical to or closely resembling those of IBDV-infected cells. Incubation of CEFs with culture supernatant from IBDV-infected cells from which the virus particles were removed had no influence on the K+ current. Our data strongly suggest that the K+ current changes induced by IBDV are not due to virus replication, but are the result of attachment and/or membrane penetration. Possibly, the altered K+ current may delay the apoptotic process in CEFs after IBDV infection. PMID:9657954
Full Text Available The current study was conducted to evaluate the pathogenicity and immunosuppressive effects of GM-97 strain of infectious bursal disease virus in commercial broiler chickens. A total of 500 broiler chickens were vaccinated with the virus through oral route at 10 and 17 days of age (102-103 EID50/dose. Chickens were also vaccinated with Newcastle disease virus (Hitchner B1 orally at 14 and 21 days old. Chickens were euthanized (at 12, 14, 16, 20, 23, 26 days of age after measuring body weight. Bursa of Fabricius was examined for any gross lesion, weighed and processed for histological investigations. Bursa to body weight ratio and bursal lesion scoring were made to evaluate pathogenicity of the virus. Blood samples were analyzed for antibody response to ND vaccine virus using HI test. Results showed that the GM-97 strain of IBDV induced mild to moderate depletion of lymphoid cells in the center of bursal follicles and non-significant difference in bursa to body weight ratio amongst vaccinated and unvaccinated chickens. Chickens responded well to ND vaccine by mounting high level of serum NDV specific HI antibody titers. It can be concluded from the present study that GM-97 strain of IBDV has mild pathogenicity but is not immunosuppressive.
Dormitorio, T V; Giambrone, J J; Duck, L W
The VP2 gene is part of the genomic segment A of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV). It has been identified as the major host-protective antigen of IBDV and is known to contain conformationally dependent protective epitopes. A 643-base pair segment covering the hypervariable region of this gene from three recent serologic variant IBDV isolates from the southeastern United States, two variants from the Delmarva Peninsula, and three serologic standard viruses were amplified and sequenced using the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and cycle sequencing techniques. This was done to determine the molecular similarity among isolates that differ antigenically and pathologically. Sequence analysis suggested that the Arkansas (Ark) and Mississippi (Miss) isolates evolved closely and separately from the Delmarva variants (GLS and DELE), in contrast to the other southeastern variant Georgia (Ga), which is more closely related (98.32%) to Delaware E (DELE). All variants, except for Miss, underwent a shift in amino acid number 222 from proline to threonine. The sequence of Univax BD virus, a commercially available intermediate vaccine, was markedly different, evolving from a separate lineage than the others. Restriction enzyme sites could differentiate most isolates. Except for Miss, variants do not have EcoRII site at the larger hydrophilic domain. All variants lost their HaeIII, StuI, and StyI cutting sites with a change in base number 856. The TaqI site is in DELE, whereas the SpeI site is absent in the standard vaccine viruses. The SWASASGS heptapeptide is conserved in all virulent viruses, including APHIS, but not in the attenuated (Univax BD and Bursa Vac 3) and published (D78 and PBG98) vaccines. PMID:9087318
Vinay G. Joshi
Full Text Available Aim: This study was designed to develop peptide analogs of Infectious Bursal Disease (IBD virus VP5 protein segment having cell penetrating ability to improve their interaction with cargo molecule (Nucleic acid without affecting the backbone conformation. Materials and Methods: IBDV VP5 protein segment designated as RATH peptide were synthesized using solid phase peptide synthesis and their solution conformation was elucidated using CD spectroscopy in polar (water and apolar (TFE solvents. Cell penetrating ability of RATH-CONH2 was observed using FITC labeled peptide internalization in to HeLa cells under fluorescent microscopy. The efficacy of RATH analog interactions with nucleic acids was evaluated using FITC labeled oligonucleotides by fluorescence spectroscopy and plasmid constructs in gel retardation assay. Results: CD spectra of RATH analogs in water and apolar trifluroethanol (TFE helped to compare their secondary structures which were almost similar with dominant beta conformations suggesting successful induction of positive charge in the analogs without affecting back bone conformation of CPP designed. Cell penetrating ability of RATH CONH2 in HeLa cell was more than 90%. The fluorescence spectroscopy and plasmid constructs in gel retardation assay demonstrated successful interaction of amide analogs with nucleic acid. Conclusion: Intentional changes made in IBDV derived peptide RATH COOH to RATH CONH2 did not showed major changes in backbone conformation and such modifications may help to improve the cationic charge in most CPPs to interact with nucleic acid. [Vet World 2013; 6(6.000: 307-312
SHI Gang; WANG Hong-jun; SUN Hui-ling
It was in flask optimization tests proved that 2% serum, pH 7.0, 5:10 000 inoculation concentration of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) and 108 hours cultivation for IBDV harvest after its inoculation were the optimal conditions when IBDV was propagated on Vero cells. 250 mi self-made spinner bottle and 5 L stirring fermentor tests proved that IBDV could maintain higher titers for a long time and the highest titers of IBDV in a spinner bottle and a fermentor were 8. 875 and 8.58 ( - lgTCID50/0.1 ml) respectively when IBDV was proliferated on Vero cells using 2 g/L microcarriers in a spinner bottle and a fermentor and was cultivated under the optimum conditions obtained from flask tests after Vero cells had developed a confluent monolayer on microcarriers, which were at least one titer higher than the highest titer in the traditional rolling bottle. All these results suggested that this technology could be applied to large scale production for IBDV.
Lin, Hongli; Hou, Shenda; Wang, Song; Wang, Yupeng; LuanI, Yunyan; Hou, Xilin
In order to determine immunogenicity and protective effect in chickens, we used the IBDV (Infectious bursal disease virus)-Vp2/Lactobacillus casei as antigen transfer system. First, the immunized and control chickens were challenged by IBDV/DQ at lethal dose to determine the protective ratio. Second, chickens were orallyand intranasally vaccinated twice with 10(9) CFU/mL pLA-VP2/L. casei, pLA/L. casei and PBS as negativecontrol and commercial vaccine as positive control. The bursa injury and the lesion score wererecorded post challenge. The level of specific IgG and sIgA in pLA-VP2/L. casei and positive control groups was significantly higher than that in negativecontrol groups. The protection efficacy in pLA-VP2/L. casei oral group was higher than that inintranasal group. The SI. of pLA-VP2/L. casei oral group was significant higher than other groups. The lesion score indicated the pLA-VP2/L. casei was safer than commercial vaccine for bursa. Collectively, the pLA-VP2/L. casei could be a vaccine candidate for IBDV. PMID:25985519
Jackwood, Daral J
The very virulent form of infectious bursal disease virus (vvIBDV) causes an immunosuppressive disease that is further characterized by the rapid onset of morbidity and high mortality in susceptible chickens. In 2009, vvIBDV was first reported in California, U. S. A., and since that time only a few cases of acute infectious bursal disease attributed to vvIBDV have been recognized in California. In other countries where vvIBDV has become established, it rapidly spreads to most poultry-producing regions. Two factors that may be involved in limiting the spread or reducing the severity of the clinical disease caused by vvIBDV in the U. S. A. are maternal immunity and competition with endemic variant strains of the virus. In this study, the ability of vvIBDV to infect and cause disease in maternally immune layer chickens was examined at weekly intervals over a 5-wk period during which their neutralizing maternal antibodies waned. Birds inoculated with vvIBDV at 2, 3, and 4 wk of age seemed healthy throughout the duration of the experiment, but macroscopic and microscopic lesions were observed in their bursa tissues. A real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay also confirmed the presence of vvIBDV RNA in their bursa tissues, indicating this virus was infecting the birds even at 2 wk of age when neutralizing maternal antibodies to infectious bursal disease virus were still relatively high (> 2000 geometric mean antibody titer). No mortality was observed in any birds when inoculated at 2, 3, or 4 wk of age; however, inoculation at 5 and 6 wk of age resulted in 10% and 20% mortality, respectively. Three experiments on the competition between vvIBDV and the two variant viruses T1 and FF6 were conducted. In all three experiments, specific-pathogen-free (SPF) birds that were inoculated with only the vvIBDV became acutely moribund, and except for Experiment 1 (62% mortality) all succumbed to the infection within 4 days of being exposed. When the
Oluwayelu, Daniel Oladimeji; Adebiyi, Adebowale Idris; Olaniyan, Ibukunoluwa; Ezewele, Phyllis; Aina, Oluwasanmi
The double-spurred francolin Francolinus bicalcaratus has been identified as a good candidate for future domestication due to the universal acceptability of its meat and its adaptability to anthropogenically altered environments. Therefore, in investigating the diseases to which they are susceptible, serum samples from 56 francolins in a major live-bird market (LBM) in Ibadan, southwestern Nigeria, were screened for antibodies against Newcastle disease (ND) and infectious bursal disease (IBD) viruses. Haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) revealed 25.0% and 35.7% prevalence of ND virus (NDV) antibodies, respectively, while 5.4% and 57.1% prevalence of IBD virus (IBDV) antibodies was detected by agar gel precipitation test (AGPT) and ELISA, respectively. This first report on the occurrence of NDV and IBDV antibodies in apparently healthy, unvaccinated double-spurred francolins from a LBM suggests that they were subclinically infected with either field or vaccine viruses and could thus serve as possible reservoirs of these viruses to domestic poultry. Furthermore, if they are to be domesticated for intensive rearing, a vaccination plan including ND and IBD should be developed and implemented. PMID:26464918
Daniel Oladimeji Oluwayelu
Full Text Available The double-spurred francolin Francolinus bicalcaratus has been identified as a good candidate for future domestication due to the universal acceptability of its meat and its adaptability to anthropogenically altered environments. Therefore, in investigating the diseases to which they are susceptible, serum samples from 56 francolins in a major live-bird market (LBM in Ibadan, southwestern Nigeria, were screened for antibodies against Newcastle disease (ND and infectious bursal disease (IBD viruses. Haemagglutination inhibition (HI test and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA revealed 25.0% and 35.7% prevalence of ND virus (NDV antibodies, respectively, while 5.4% and 57.1% prevalence of IBD virus (IBDV antibodies was detected by agar gel precipitation test (AGPT and ELISA, respectively. This first report on the occurrence of NDV and IBDV antibodies in apparently healthy, unvaccinated double-spurred francolins from a LBM suggests that they were subclinically infected with either field or vaccine viruses and could thus serve as possible reservoirs of these viruses to domestic poultry. Furthermore, if they are to be domesticated for intensive rearing, a vaccination plan including ND and IBD should be developed and implemented.
Two hundred and forty specific pathogen free leghorn chickens were randomly divided into four groups and reared in isolated pens. The tested chickens were negative to infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) at 25 d old. Group 1 was treated with saline, whereas Groups 2, 3, and 4 were inoculated with 0.3 mL IBDV suspension intranasally the next day.Groups 3 and 4 were also administered with Astragalus polysaccharides (APS) intramuscularly twice daily at 5 or 10 mg kg-1 BW, respectively, until 31 d old. The erythrocyte-C3b receptor rosette rate (E-C3bRR) and the erythrocyte-C3b immune complex rosette rate (E-ICRR) were measured at 25, 29, 32, 35, and 38 d old. The results showed that IBDV significantly reduced E-C3bRR and E-ICRR when compared with the control group (P ＜ 0.05), while simultaneous administration of APS with IBDV maintained E-C3bRR at similar levels to the control group (P＞ 0.05) and increased E-ICRR when compared with the control group and the group non-treated with APS (P ＜ 0.05). APS treatment reduced the morbidity and mortality of chickens inoculated with IBDV (P ＜ 0.05). The results suggest that APS may enhance the immune adherence of chickens erythrocytes by affecting the activity and/or the number of complement receptors on the erythrocyte membrane. These findings can be beneficial in providing an understanding of the basic mechanisms required for the rational application of APS in modern medicine.
Nazir Ahmed Lone*, Shafqat Fatima Rehmani1, Taseer Ahmed Khan2 and Shahana Urooj Kazmi3
Full Text Available This study was carried out with the aims to evaluate the efficacy of indigenous live and inactivated Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV vaccines in broilers. Two hundred and fifty (250, a-day-old broiler chicks divided into five groups (A-E were immunized with live and inactivated vaccine at varying ages. Live vaccine was given to group A (at 8 days post hatch, B (at 8, 15 days post hatch, C (at 8, 15 and 23 days post hatch and D (at 8 days post hatch. In addition group D received a booster dose of inactivated vaccine at 21 days of age, while group E served as control. Antibody titers were measured via Agar Gel Precipitation (AGP test and ELISA, while the degree of protection against the virulent strains of IBDV was also recorded. Results showed that vaccine program adopted for group C and D produced significantly (P<0.05 higher antibody titer as compared to other groups. While a significant (P<0.05 difference in antibody titers was observed between group A and B while no considerable antibodies were detected in group E. The response to challenge dose was recorded as the difference of lesions in bursa, pectoral muscles or other visceral organs with the exception of group C and D. The study suggests that broiler chicks may be vaccinated at days 8, 15 and 23 with live attenuated vaccine or live attenuated vaccine followed by inactivated vaccine at days 8 and 21 that could provide an adequate protection against the virulent form of IBDV.
Annamalai, Arunsaravanakumar; Ramakrishnan, Saravanan; Sachan, Swati; Kumar, B S Anand; Sharma, Bal Krishan; Kumar, Vimal; Palanivelu, Munuswamy; Varghese, Berin P; Kumar, Ajay; Saravanan, B C; Krishnaswamy, Narayanan
The study evaluated the prophylactic potential of resiquimod (R-848), a synthetic TLR7 agonist, against very virulent infectious bursal disease virus (vvIBDV) infection in chicken. Specific pathogen free White Leghorn chicks of three week age were treated with R-848 (50μg/bird, intramuscular) or PBS (n=26/group). Twenty four hour later, half of the birds from each group were challenged with 10(5) ELD50 of vvIBDV and observed for 10days. To understand the effect of R-848, immune response genes such as interferon (IFN)-β, IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-4, iNOS and TLR7 were analyzed at 24 and 48h post-challenge in PBMCs ex vivo by real-time PCR (n=6/group). On day 4 post-challenge, representative birds (n=3/group) were sacrificed to study the bursal damage and IBDV antigen clearance. Immunosuppression was assessed by antibody response against live Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vaccine, which was administered on day 10 post-challenge. R-848 pre-treatment significantly upregulated the transcripts of each immune response gene studied (Pchicken when challenged with vvIBDV, which could be due to the upregulation of immune response genes. PMID:27066705
Wang, Miao; Pan, Qing; Lu, Zhen; Li, Kai; Gao, Honglei; Qi, Xiaole; Gao, Yulong; Wang, Xiaomei
Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) causes immunosuppression in young chickens, leading to increased susceptibility to other diseases and a reduction in the immune response to other vaccines. Thus, IBDV results in great economic losses to the poultry industry. The most effective method of prevention is vaccination. However, medium-virulence vaccines can cause bursal pathological damage and immunosuppression. Here, we describe a safer, self-assembled, subvirus-like particle (sVP) vaccine without a complex purification process. The IBD-VP2 gene was cloned into Pichia pastoris, and the expressed protein self-assembled into T=1 sVPs (∼23nm). Immunization experiments showed that the sVP vaccine elicited high IBDV-neutralizing antibodies in each group, and all birds survived challenge with very virulent IBDV (vvIBDV). Additionally, IBDV RNA was not detected, and sterile immunity was achieved. In conclusion, the IBD-sVP is a suitable candidate for a recombinant subunit vaccine against IBDV. PMID:27164218
Cristina Freitas Nunes
Full Text Available To investigate the exposure of the Newcastle disease virus (NDV, infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV and avian poxvirus (APV in Magellanic penguins found on the beaches in Southern regions of Brazil, the frequency of serum antibodies was estimated in 89 samples taken during 2005 and 2006. All the penguins were negative for the presence of antibodies against NDV by hemagglutination inhibition test and to APV by indirect ELISA. The reactivity was similar to the positives controls using ELISA kit for the IBDV made in the chickens in 50 samples. This reactivity also was demonstrated in 42 samples using agar gel immunodiffusion. No clinical signs related to IBDV infection were observed. The results indicated the absence of infection by NDV and APV but suggested IBDV exposure in the population of penguins studied.
Daniel Oladimeji Oluwayelu; Adebowale Idris Adebiyi; Ibukunoluwa Olaniyan; Phyllis Ezewele; Oluwasanmi Aina
The double-spurred francolin Francolinus bicalcaratus has been identified as a good candidate for future domestication due to the universal acceptability of its meat and its adaptability to anthropogenically altered environments. Therefore, in investigating the diseases to which they are susceptible, serum samples from 56 francolins in a major live-bird market (LBM) in Ibadan, southwestern Nigeria, were screened for antibodies against Newcastle disease (ND) and infectious bursal disease (IBD)...
F. Mushtaq, S. A. Khan, A. Aslam, K. Saeed1, G. Saleem and H. Mushtaq
Full Text Available This project was aimed to evaluate immunostimulatory effects of three therapeutic substances in broilers suffering from infectious bursal disease (IBD. For this purpose, 150 chicks were divided into five equal groups i.e. A, B, C, D and E having 30 birds each. Group A, B, C and D were challenged with infectious bursal disease virus. There were three immunostimulatory treatments i.e. levamisole (group A, vitamin E (group B, and bursinex (group C. Groups D and E were untreated control. Bursa body weight index, histopathology of bursa of Fabricius, plasma cell counting in Harderian gland and estimation of antibody response against infectious bursal disease virus was recorded. Vitamin E played a major role in improving the condition of birds suffering from infectious bursal disease, as it showed increased bursa body weight index (BBIx, less histopathological lesions in bursa of Fabricius, increased number of plasma cells in Harderian gland and high antibody response in infectious bursal disease infected broilers as compared to levamisole and bursinex. Levamisole played a minor role in improving condition of birds, while bursinex did not seem to be much effective against infectious bursal disease virus in this study.
Kabell, Susanne; Igyarto, Botond-Zoltan; Magyar, Attila; Hajdu, Zoltan; Biro, Eva; Bisgaard, Magne; Olah, Imre
The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of the cytostatic drug, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), which causes depletion of heterophil granulocytes, on clinical symptoms and histological lesions during the progress of infectious bursal disease virus ( IBDV) infection in chickens. The aim...... were inoculated with the classical IBDV strain F52/70. Bursae of Fabricius were sampled at fixed intervals, and the progress of the infection was monitored by various histological techniques and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). We found correlation between histological...... observations and RT-PCR results. In the 5-FU pretreated chickens, IBDV caused only mild clinical symptoms, even though histological alterations similar to alterations caused by IBDV were still observed. The 5-FU pretreatment resulted in severe heterophil granulocyte depletion by days 2 and 3 after infection...
Yong-Chang CAO; Quan-Cheng SHI; Jing-Yun MA; Qing-Mei XIE; Ying-Zuo BI
In order to develop a desirable inexpensive, effective and safe vaccine against the very virulent infectious bursal disease virus (vvIBDV), we tried to take advantage of the emerging T4 bacteriophage surface protein display system. The major immunogen protein VP2 from the vvIBDV strain HK46 was fused to the nonessential T4 phage surface capsid protein, a small outer capsid (SOC) protein, resulting in the 49 kDa SOC-VP2 fusion protein, which was verified by sodium dodecylsulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western blot. Immunoelectromicroscopy showed that the recombinant VP2 protein was successfully displayed on the surface of the T4 phage. The recombinant VP2 protein is antigenic and showed reactivities to various monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against IBDV, whereas the wild-type phage T4 could not react to any mAb. In addition, the recombinant VP2 protein is immunogenic and elicited specific antibodies in immunized specific pathogen free (SPF) chickens. More significantly, immunization of SPF chickens with the recombinant T4-VP2 phage protected them from infection by the vvIBDV strain HK46. When challenged with the vvIBDV strain HK46 at a dose of 100 of 50% lethal dose (LD50) per chicken 4 weeks after the booster was given, the group vaccinated with the T4-VP2 recombinant phage showed no clinical signs of disease or death, wh ereas the unvaccinated group and the group vaccinated with the wild-type T4phage exhibited 100% clinical signs of disease and bursal damages, and 30%-40% mortality. Collectively,the data herein showed that the T4-displayed VP2 protein might be an inexpensive, effective and safe vaccine candidate against vvIBDV.
Zierenberg, Kati; Raue, Rüdiger; Nieper, Hermann; Islam, Md Rafiqul; Eterradossi, Nicolas; Toquin, Didier; Müller, Hermann
Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is the causative agent of acute or immunosuppressive disease in chickens. Serotype 1 strains are pathogenic whereas serotype 2 strains neither cause disease nor protect against infection with the serotype 1 strains. The target organ of serotype 1 strains is the bursa Fabricii (BF). The molecular determinants of this tropism, and therefore pathogenicity, are poorly understood. IBDV is a non-enveloped icosahedral virus particle of 60 nm in diameter, which contains two genome segments of double-stranded RNA. Here, the generation of interserotypic reassortants using the reverse genetics approach is reported. The results of in vitro and in vivo investigations show that genome segment A determines the bursa tropism of IBDV, whereas segment B is involved in the efficiency of viral replication; they further indicate the significance of the interaction of the polymerase (segment B) with the structural protein VP3 (segment A) or the viral genome for efficient virus formation and replication. PMID:15325078
Full Text Available The polysaccharide-containing extracellular fractions (EFs of the edible mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus have immunomodulating effects. Being aware of these therapeutic effects of mushroom extracts, we have investigated the synergistic relations between these extracts and BIAVAC and BIAROMVAC vaccines. These vaccines target the stimulation of the immune system in commercial poultry, which are extremely vulnerable in the first days of their lives. By administrating EF with polysaccharides from P. ostreatus to unvaccinated broilers we have noticed slow stimulation of maternal antibodies against infectious bursal disease (IBD starting from four weeks post hatching. For the broilers vaccinated with BIAVAC and BIAROMVAC vaccines a low to almost complete lack of IBD maternal antibodies has been recorded. By adding 5% and 15% EF in the water intake, as compared to the reaction of the immune system in the previous experiment, the level of IBD antibodies was increased. This has led us to believe that by using this combination of BIAVAC and BIAROMVAC vaccine and EF from P. ostreatus we can obtain good results in stimulating the production of IBD antibodies in the period of the chicken first days of life, which are critical to broilers’ survival. This can be rationalized by the newly proposed reactivity biological activity (ReBiAc principles by examining the parabolic relationship between EF administration and recorded biological activity.
VP22 of Marek’s disease virus serotype 1 (MDV-1) could function in protein transduction. In this study, an infectious bursal disease virus VP2 gene was fused to the carboxyl termini of VP22. It showed that the fusion protein did not spread into the bystander cells from the cells transfected with pVP22-VP2, as the VP22 alone could. The VP22 proteins were found to be translocated into all the nuclei in the neighboring COS-1 cells, as analyzed by a fluorescence assay. Although mice were immunized with the recombinant DNAs mixed with polyethylenimine (PEI) at a dose of 1:2, it failed to enhance the antibody response against IBDV VP2, as measured by the indirect ELISA assay, yet the cell mediated immune response was significantly increased. The ratio of CD8+/CD4+ T cells was significantly increased in the immunized group with the fusion genes, compared with the group immunized with VP2 (P<0.05). Our results demonstrated that VP22 indeed enhances the cell-mediated response in the fused VP2 in a mice model system, possibly due to the fact that the IBDV VP2 could be carried into the surrounding cells at a limited level under pressure from MDV VP22.
WANG Xiao-mei; FU Chao-yang; GAO Hong-lei; SONG Xiou-long; ZENG Xiang-wei; ZHANG Man-fu; Wallace B L lim
The very virulent infectious bursal disease virus (vvIBDV) strain Gx was isolated from a poutl-try farm in Guangxi Province, China, during 1996. The mortality in the infected flock was 80% and occurred5 days after immunization with serotype I IBD vaccine. The results of antigen-capture ELISA (AC-ELISA),pathogenicity testing, cloning and sequence analysis of the VP2 gene showed that the deduced amino acid se-quence of strain Gx VP2 was the same as vvIBDV UK661, which is considered as a reference strain for Europe-an vvIBDVs. The antigenicity of the Gx strain was the same as an European vvIBDV strain 849. The EID50 of Gx virus was 10-8. 25/0. 2 ml, and the mortality was 64 % when 4 week-old SPF chickens were challenged atdosage of 2 × 103 EID50. We have demonstrated that the IBDV strain Gx isolated in China is vvlBDV according to European standards.
E. S. Swai
Full Text Available A study of infectious bursal disease (IBD or ‘Gumboro disease’ seroprevalence rates in healthy, non-vaccinated indigenous scavenging chickens in northern Tanzania was conducted in November and December 2009 on 362 chickens raised in a traditional management system. Individual bird and flock-level information was collected using a semi-structured questionnaire, and serum samples were screened for IBD virus (IBDV antibodies using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. The study revealed high rates of IBDV antibodies, yielding an overall seropositive rate of 58.8 % and with at least one positive bird detected in 82.8 % (74/90 of flocks. Univariate logistic regression analysis revealed that seropositivity to IBDV varied significantly (χ2 = 16.1, P < 0.001 between the study sites. The flock seroprevalence was found to vary from 37.5 % to 91 % between districts and from 75%to 90%between regions. The results of this study showed that IBD is an endemic and widely distributed disease in northern Tanzania.
Nieper, H; Müller, H
Pathogenic serotype 1 strains of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) replicate efficiently in lymphoid cells of the bursa of Fabricius of chicken. Lymphoid cells in other organs are not susceptible. Apathogenic serotype 2 strains do not replicate in lymphoid bursa cells or in other lymphoid cells. Chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEF), however, efficiently replicate strains of either serotype. Binding studies showed that strains of both IBDV serotypes bind to lymphoid cells isolated from the bursa, thymus or spleen, indicating that restriction of IBDV replication to lymphoid B cells is not determined by the presence of specific receptor sites. The specificity of binding was demonstrated by saturation and competition experiments. These revealed the presence of different receptors: CEF had receptors common to both serotypes and specific ones for each serotype. Receptor sites common to both serotypes were also present on lymphoid cells; however, additional serotype-specific sites were only demonstrated for the apathogenic serotype 2 strain. Strains of both serotypes specifically bound to proteins with molecular masses of 40 kDa and 46 kDa, exposed on the surface of CEF and lymphoid cells. Competition experiments indicated that these proteins might represent the common receptor sites of IBDV. PMID:8683211
Full-length cDNA of both genome segments of a Bangladeshi strain of very virulent infectious bursal disease virus (BD 3/99) were cloned in plasmid vectors along with the T7 promoter tagged to the 5'-ends. Mutations were introduced in the cloned cDNA to bring about two amino acid exchanges (Q253H and A284T) in the capsid protein VP2. Transfection of primary chicken embryo fibroblast cells with RNA transcribed in vitro from the full-length cDNA resulted in the formation of mutant infectious virus particles that grow in tissue culture. The pathogenicity of this molecularly-cloned, tissue-culture- adapted virus (BD-3tc) was tested in commercial chickens. The parental wild-type strain, BD 3/99, was included for comparison. The subclinical course of the disease and delayed bursal atrophy in BD-3tc-inoculated birds suggested that these amino acid substitutions made BD-3tc partially attenuated. (author)
Kabell, Susanne; Handberg, Kurt; Kusk, Mette;
transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays, including two recently developed strain-specific assays, were employed for detection of ribonucleic acid (RNA) from three different IBDV strains in bursa tissue samples from experimentally infected specific pathogen free chickens. The virus strains......Infectious bursal disease (IBD) is a worldwide distributed immunosuppressive viral disease in young chickens, controlled by vaccination. Emergence of several strains of IBD virus (IBDV) has created a demand for strain-specific diagnostic tools. In the present experiment, five different reverse...... included vaccine strain D78, classical strain Faragher 52/70, and the very virulent Danish strain DK01 The presence of the virus infection was confirmed by histopathologic evaluation of bursa lesions. The largest number of positive samples was obtained with a strain-specific two-step multiplex (MPX) RT...
Cao, Weisheng; Mays, Jody; Kulkarni, Gururaj; Dunn, John; Fulton, Richard M; Fadly, Aly
Breeders of the 2009 generation of Avian Disease and Oncology Laboratory transgenic chicken line ALVA6, known to be resistant to infection with subgroups A and E avian leukosis virus (ALV), were vaccinated at hatch with a trivalent Marek's disease (MD) vaccine containing serotypes 1, 2, and 3 Marek's disease virus (MDV) and were maintained under pathogen-free conditions from the day of hatch until 75 weeks of age. Spontaneous ALV-like bursal lymphomas, also termed lymphoid leukosis (LL)-like lymphomas, were detected in 7% of the ALVA6 breeders. There was no evidence of infection with exogenous and endogenous ALV as determined by virus isolation tests of plasma and tumour tissue homogenates. For the next three generations, serotype 2 MDV was eliminated from the trivalent MD vaccine used. Results show, for the first time, that removal of serotype 2 MDV from MD vaccines eliminated spontaneous LL-like lymphomas within 50 to 72 weeks of age for at least three consecutive generations. Two experiments were also conducted to determine the influence of in ovo vaccination with serotype 2 MD vaccines on enhancement of spontaneous LL-like lymphomas in ALVA6 chickens. Chickens from the 2012 generation were each inoculated in ovo or at hatch with 5000 plaque-forming units of serotype 2 MDV. Results indicate that by 50 weeks of age the incidence of spontaneous LL-like lymphomas in chickens inoculated in ovo with serotype 2 MDV was comparable with that in chickens inoculated with virus at hatch, suggesting that the augmentation effect of serotype 2 MDV is independent of age of vaccination. PMID:25407937
Li, Yiping; Handberg, K.J.; Kabell, Susanne; Kusk, M.; Zhang, M.F.; Jorgensen, P.H.
In present study, different types of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), virulent strain DK01, classic strain F52/70 and vaccine strain D78 were quantified and detected in infected bursa of Fabricius (BF) and cloacal swabs using quantitative real time RT-PCR with SYBR green dye. For selection...... of a suitable internal control gene, real time PCR parameters were evaluated for three candidate genes, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), 28S rRNA and beta-actin to IBDVs. Based on this P-actin was selected as an internal control for quantification of IBDVs in BF. All BF samples with...... primers. The method described here is robust and may sever as a useful tool with high capacity for diagnostics as well as in viral pathogenesis studies....
Cloud, S S; Rosenberger, J K; Lillehoj, H S
To determine the functional impact of alterations in lymphocyte concentrations and ratios following infection with chicken anemia agent (CAA) alone or in combination with infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) on the immune system of young chickens, in vitro lymphoproliferation assays and in vivo responses to vaccination with several common viral agents were assessed at various time intervals post-inoculation (PI). Concanavalin A (Con A), phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and pokeweed mitogen (PWM) stimulation of splenic lymphocytes (SPL) collected from control birds could not be detected until 10-14 days PI. Infection with CAA was characterized by significantly higher PWM stimulation of SPL at 17 days PI and significantly lower PWM stimulation of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) at 14 days PI, compared with uninfected controls. Concanavalin A and PWM stimulation of SPL was significantly increased in birds inoculated with IBDV alone. Lymphocytes harvested from birds inoculated simultaneously with CAA and IBDV had significantly lower responses. Effects on humoral and cell-mediated immunity following CAA and/or IBDV were determined by evaluating vaccination responses to Newcastle disease virus (NDV), fowl pox virus (FPV) and infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) during the acute phase of CAA infection (2 weeks PI). Vaccination of birds 2 weeks following CAA infection at 1 day of age resulted in decreased protection against NDV (85.7%) and ILTV (7.1%) challenge compared with protection rates in control birds (100% and 53.3% respectively). Infectious bursal disease virus infection was associated with decreased protection against NDV (60%) only. Concomitant infection at 1 day of age resulted in a greater reduction in NDV challenge protection (33.3%), slightly decreased FPV protection (87.5%), increased numbers of persistent FPV vaccination lesions and increased protection against ILTV challenge (71.4%). Vaccination of birds 2 weeks following CAA infection at 2 weeks of age
Jungmann, A; Nieper, H; Müller, H
The kinetics of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) replication and induction of apoptosis were investigated in vitro and in vivo. After infection of chicken embryo (CE) cells with IBDV strain Cu-1, the proportion of apoptotic cells increased from 5.8% at 4 h post-infection (p.i.) to 64.5% at 48 h p.i. The proportion of apoptotic cells correlated with IBDV replication. UV-inactivated IBDV particles did not induce apoptosis. Double labelling revealed that, early after infection, the majority of antigen-expressing cells were not apoptotic; double-labelled cells appeared more frequently at later times. Remarkably, apoptotic cells were frequently located in the vicinity of antigen-expressing cells. This indicated that an apoptosis-inducing factor(s) might be released by cells that replicate IBDV. Since interferon (IFN) production has been demonstrated after IBDV infection, IFN was considered to be one of several factors. However, supernatants of infected CE cells in which virus infectivity had been neutralized were not sufficient to induce apoptosis. Similar results were observed in the infected bursae of Fabricius: early after infection, most of the cells either showed virus antigens or were apoptotic. Again, double-labelled cells appeared more frequently late after infection. This suggests that indirect mechanisms might also be involved in the induction of apoptosis in vivo, contributing to the rapid depletion of cells in the IBDV-infected bursa. PMID:11297685
Noor, M; Mahmud, M S; Ghose, P R; Roy, U; Nooruzzaman, M; Chowdhury, E H; Das, P M; Islam, M R; Müller, H
A cell-culture-adapted reverse genetics strain of very virulent infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) of chickens, designated as BD-3tcC, having four amino acid substitutions (Gln253His, Asp279Asn, Ala284Thr and Ser330Arg) in the capsid protein VP2 was tested for its genetic stability during serial passage in chickens and chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF) cell culture. Results of in vitro and in vivo experiments demonstrated that all four introduced mutations in BD-3tcC remained stable during serial passage in CEF cell culture, but during passage in chickens, amino acid residues at position 253 and 284 reverted from histidine to glutamine and threonine to alanine, respectively. In a parallel experiment, the same substitutions also occurred in a conventionally attenuated vaccine strain D-78 on serial passage in chickens. However, no reversion or substitution took place at positions 279 and 330 during in vivo passage of the mutant virus BD-3tcC or vaccine virus D-78. The findings provide conclusive evidence that while IBDV requires histidine and threonine at positions 253 and 284 for cell culture adaptation, glutamine and alanine at these positions are selected preferentially during in vivo replication. PMID:24136723
Tarpey, I; van Loon, A A; de Haas, N; Davis, P J; Orbell, S; Cavanagh, D; Britton, P; Casais, R; Sondermeijer, P; Sundick, R
In ovo vaccination remains an attractive option for the mass application of vaccines to poultry, ensuring a uniform application of vaccine in a cost-effective manner. However, the number of vaccines that can be delivered safely by this method is limited. Several infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) vaccines can be given in ovo though most are delivered post-hatch and there are no currently licensed embryo-safe infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) vaccines. Reduction in the dose of vaccines given in ovo is one possibility to ensure embryo safety though efficacy can be reduced when low doses are used. We have investigated the use of embryo-safe IBDV and IBV vaccines and the effects of co-delivery of a turkey herpesvirus recombinant expressing bioactive chicken IL-2 (IL-2/HVT). Co-delivery of the IL-2/HVT with low doses of the IBDV or IBV vaccines significantly increased the antibody response against these viruses. In addition the protection against challenge with virulent IBDV or IBV was increased significantly. This suggests that the co-delivery of IL-2/HVT with low doses of other vaccines in ovo may be one method to increase the number of vaccines that can be given safely and efficaciously via in ovo vaccination. PMID:17996994
Full Text Available Cyclic diguanylic acid (c-di-GMP is an intra-cellular bacterial signalling molecule previously shown to possess immune-stimulatory activities. However, the effects of this molecule on chicken immune responses have not been investigated. This study evaluated the humoral immune response following oral administration or Intra-Muscular injection (IM of saline, 10 or 100 nmol c-di-GMP in conjunction with the Infectious Bursal Disease Virus (IBDV vaccine S-706 in 96 broiler chickens. The oral vaccine and the test compounds were administrated at age 14 days and the chickens were then monitored until day 35. Blood samples were collected weekly from 8 birds per treatment to determine the antibody titers. Results showed that oral or IM administration of c-di-GMP did not induce any adverse effect in broiler chickens. Significant increases (p<0.05 in the total Immunoglobulin (Ig A concentrations were observed regardless of the treatments as the birds aged. No significant effect was noted for total IgG and IgM concentrations after any of the sampling days immediately following administration of the compounds. However, on day 35, serum of birds orally administered with 10 and 100 nmol of c-di-GMP showed higher serum IgA antibody concentrations when compared to the serum of birds from the saline control (p<0.05 indicating that c-di-GMP stimulated IgA production in serum and confirming the potential of this molecule as a mucosal adjuvant. No significant effect on serum antivirus antibodies (IBDV infectious bronchitis virus, Newcastle disease virus and avian Reovirus was observed for the 10 or 100 nmol c-di-GMP treatments. The results indicate that studies are warranted on the potential beneficial effects of c-di-GMP on broiler immunity.
Full text: Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) causes a highly contagious immunosuppressive as well as fatal disease known as infectious bursal disease (IBD) or Gumboro disease in young chickens. IBDV is a dsRNA virus belonging to the family Birnaviridae having a bisegmented genome. Very virulent (vv) IBDV does not replicate in common tissue culture; adaptation to tissue culture following repeated passages in embryonated eggs results in too much attenuation. It has been reported that only a few amino acids in the VP2 are responsible for tissue culture adaptation. In the present study, full-length cDNA corresponding to the genome segments A and B of a Bangladeshi vvIBDV strain BD-3/99 were synthesised and amplified by reverse transcription - polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in overlapping fragments. The PCR amplicons were used to construct full-length cDNA clones of both segments in plasmid vectors along with the T7 promoter tagged at the 5'-end. Complete nucleotide sequences of both genome segments of BD 3/99 were established (GenBank Accession No. AF352776 and AF36270) and compared with 16 and 17 published sequences of segment A and segment B of IBDV, respectively, using Clustal V method of multiple alignment analysis (MegAlign, Lasergene, DNASTAR Inc., USA). In phylogenetic analysis BD-3/99 clustered with other vvIBDV strains isolated earlier from Europe, Asia and Africa.The reverse genetics technique was optimised for BD-3/99. The plasmids were linearised with appropriate restriction enzymes and cRNA corresponding to both segment A and segment B of BD-3/99 were transcribed in vitro under the control of T7 promoter. Freshly prepared chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF) cell monolayer was then transfected with the transcribed cRNA. Transfection of CEF cells with this wild-type cRNA resulted in the formation of infectious virus particles but the progeny virus could not be passaged any further in fresh CEF cells. However, this molecularly cloned virus (BD-3mc) could
Javier Andrés Jaimes-Olaya
Full Text Available The infectious bursal disease or Gumboro disease is an immunosuppressive pathology of birds, which has great importance in the poultry industry due to large economic losses that it produces not only for its direct effect, but because of the susceptibility to secondary infections, interference with commercial vaccines, reducing the effective use of them. The disease is produced by the infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV, which is an RNA genome birnavirus, with high capacity for mutation, so the agent is continually evolving. The pathology has three types of clinical presentation: a subclinical form, a mild or moderate clinical form and a severe clinical form. However, the type of manifestation is determined mainly by three factors: the age of birds at the time of infection, the type of strain or acting or genetic variability of it, and the immunity degree. In this article, we discuss each of these factors and their importance in the presentation of the disease. These elements are vital in order to establish effective prevention and control programs.
Full Text Available La Enfermedad Infecciosa de la Bolsa (EIB sigue afectando la industria avícola por la aparición de variantes patogénicas y antigénicas del virus, originadas en la permanente evolución del virus producto de la presión inmunológica por el uso intensivo de vacunas. La caracterización antigénica de los virus de campo resulta esencial para la aplicación de vacunas más adecuadas en el control de la enfermedad. En este trabajo se determinaron las relaciones antigénicas de aislados cubanos y chilenos, obtenidos de poblaciones de pollos vacunados con el virus de la EIB. Los aislados virales se adaptaron a cultivos celulares y se obtuvieron antisueros monoespecíficos de cada uno de ellos y de una cepa de referencia. Las relaciones se establecieron por virusneu-tralización cruzada utilizando nueve aislados cubanos (BD, BL, 35/95, 29/96, 118/96, BF2, BF8, BF9 y 70/98, tres chilenos (G1, G2 y G4 y una cepa de referencia del serotipo 1 (Lukert. Los aislados cubanos y chilenos se adaptaron eficientemente a cultivos de fibroblastos de embrión de pollo (con excepción de BF3 y G3. Además, los aislados cubanos se adaptaron a células VERO, presentando mayores títulos infectivos en fibroblastos de embrión de pollo que en esta línea celular. Los resultados de la seroneutralización cruzada mostraron entre los aislados cubanos una relación mayor a un 80% y entre éstos y la cepa de referencia mayor de un 70%, de igual modo con los aislados chilenos G1 y G4 (mayor de 77%. El aislado G2 presentó diferencias antigénicas consideradas menores con los aislados cubanos BL, 35/95 y 29/96 ( 69%. Ninguno de los aislados mostró relaciones antigénicas inferiores al 30% con la cepa de referencia del serotipo 1, por lo tanto no corresponden a cepas variantesInfectious Bursal Disease (IBD is still affecting the poultry industry through the appearance of pathogenic and antigenic variations of the virus. This is due to its permanent evolution as a
Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), a nonenveloped double-stranded RNA virus of chicken, encodes five proteins. Of these, the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (VP1) is specified by the smaller genome segment, while the large segment directs synthesis of a nonstructural protein (VP5) and a structural protein precursor from which the capsid proteins pVP2 and VP3 as well as the viral protease VP4 are derived. Using the recently redefined processing sites of the precursor, we have reevaluated the homotypic interactions of the viral proteins using the yeast two-hybrid system. Except for VP1, which interacted weakly, all proteins appeared to self-associate strongly. Using a deletion mutagenesis approach, we subsequently mapped the interacting domains in these polypeptides, where possible confirming the observations made in the two-hybrid system by performing coimmunoprecipitation analyses of tagged protein constructs coexpressed in avian culture cells. The results revealed that pVP2 possesses multiple interaction domains, consistent with available structural information about this external capsid protein. VP3-VP3 interactions were mapped to the amino-terminal part of the polypeptide. Interestingly, this domain is distinct from two other interaction domains occurring in this internal capsid protein: while binding to VP1 has been mapped to the carboxy-terminal end of the protein, interaction with the genomic dsRNA segments has been suggested to occur just upstream thereof. No interaction sites could be assigned to the VP4 protein; any deletion applied abolished its self-association. Finally, one interaction domain was detected in the central, most hydrophobic region of VP5, supporting the idea that this virulence determinant may function as a membrane pore-forming protein in infected cells
Hildebrandt, Evin; Dunn, John R; Cheng, Hans H
Marek's disease virus (MDV) is an oncogenic alphaherpesvirus and the causative agent of Marek's disease (MD), characterized by immunosuppression, paralysis, nerve enlargement and induction of T-cell lymphomas in chickens. Despite widespread usage of vaccines since the 1970s to control MD, more virulent field strains of MDV have emerged that overcome vaccinal protection, necessitating the development of new and more protective MD vaccines. The ∆Meq virus, a recombinant Md5 strain MDV lacking the viral oncogene Meq, is one candidate MD vaccine with great potential but unfortunately it also causes bursal-thymic atrophy (BTA) in maternal antibody negative chickens, raising concerns that impede commercial use as a vaccine. Previously, we identified a point mutation within UL5 that reduced in vivo replication in attenuated viruses. We proposed that introduction of the UL5 point mutation into the ∆Meq virus would reduce in vivo replication and eliminate BTA yet potentially retain high protective abilities. In birds, the ∆Meq+UL5 recombinant MDV had reduced replication compared to the original ∆Meq virus, while weights of lymphoid organs indicated that ∆Meq+UL5 did not induce BTA, supporting the hypothesis that reduction of in vivo replication would also abolish BTA. Vaccine trials of the ∆Meq+UL5 virus compared to other ∆Meq-based viruses and commercial vaccines show that, while the ∆Meq+UL5 does provide vaccinal protection, this protection was also reduced compared to the original ∆Meq virus. Therefore, it appears that a very delicate balance is required between levels of replication able to induce high vaccinal protection, yet not so high as to induce BTA. PMID:25968878
Confer, A W; MacWilliams, P S
Several experiments were conducted to study the mechanism of infectious bursal disease virus induced suppression of phytohemagglutinin stimulation of peripheral blood lymphocytes. Infectious bursal disease virus inoculation of one week old chicks resulted in significant suppression of phytohemagglutinin stimulation during the first three days after inoculation as demonstrated by a whole blood assay. Mild thymic necrosis was seen on day 3. Hematological changes during this time consisted of in...
Fynan, E; Block, T M; DuHadaway, J; Olson, W; Ewert, D L
Previous studies have described an augmentation of avian leukosis virus (ALV)-induced lymphoid leukosis in chickens that were coinfected with a serotype 2 Marek's disease virus (MDV) strain, SB-1. As a first step toward understanding the mechanism of this augmentation, we have analyzed the tropism of the MDV for the ALV-transformed B cell. After hatching, chickens were coinfected with ALV and a nonpathogenic strain of MDV, SB-1. Seventy primary and metastatic ALV-induced lymphomas that develo...
J Noda; J ULLOA; C L Perera; G Jara; Cuello, S.; E. Rodríguez
La Enfermedad Infecciosa de la Bolsa (EIB) sigue afectando la industria avícola por la aparición de variantes patogénicas y antigénicas del virus, originadas en la permanente evolución del virus producto de la presión inmunológica por el uso intensivo de vacunas. La caracterización antigénica de los virus de campo resulta esencial para la aplicación de vacunas más adecuadas en el control de la enfermedad. En este trabajo se determinaron las relaciones antigénicas de aislados cubanos y chileno...
Very virulent infectious bursal disease virus（vvIBDV）was isolatedfrom chicken bursa and then the virus double stranded RNA was extracted.After denaturation of dsRNA by heat in the presence of primers，the cDNA was synthesized by use of a reverse transcriptase lacking RNase H activity.The RNA component of RNA-cDNA hybrids was digested by RNase H.By using an optimized PCR，a 3.05kb DNA fragment coding for precursor polyprotein of IBDV was produced in one step，which was inserted into pcDNA3.1（＋） vector.Two recombinant plasmids （pPP1 and pPP2）were screened and identified from eight XL1-blue colonies.Partial sequencing for pPP1 plasmid indicated that the precursor polyprotein gene for IBDV was cloned successfully.The method can simplify greatly the procedure to clone precursor polyprotein gene of IBDV isolates.
M. M. Uddin*, M. Z. I. Khan1, K. N. Islam, A. S. M. G. Kibria, G. N. Adhikary2, M. N. H. Parvez3, J. Basu, M. B. Uddin4 and M. M. Rahman5
This study was aimed to investigate changes in the number and distribution of lymphocytes in the mucosa associated lymphoid tissues (MALT) of digestive tract (proventriculus, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum and cecal tonsils) and respiratory system (lungs) of chicken infected by Infectious Bursal Disease Virus (IBDV). Samples were divided into two groups; IBDV infected group (21, 24 and 30 days old) and control group (non infected birds; 21 days old). Haematoxylin and eosin stained slides wer...
H. B. Aliyu
Full Text Available Clinical and pathological investigations were conducted on outbreaks of infectious bursal disease (IBD in pullets under brooding using the battery cage system in a commercial poultry farm in Kaduna, Nigeria. Two consecutive outbreaks of IBD on the same farm were studied. The onset of the disease and morbidity and mortality rates were recorded. Postmortem examinations were conducted and gross lesions recorded. Tissues were collected and fixed in 10% buffered formalin and processed for histopathological examinations. In the first outbreak, 80 to 100% of the chicks were affected at the age of 4 to 5 weeks and mortality rate was 95.8% and lasted for 9 days. In the second outbreak, the mortality rate was 43.3% and it also lasted for 9 days. At the onset of the disease, the birds were also 4-week-old like in case 1. The disease was diagnosed based on clinical signs, pathology, and agar gel immunodiffusion test (AGID. Clinical signs, gross lesions, and histopathological findings were characteristic of virulent infectious bursal disease. After the first outbreak (case 1 the house was disinfected using polidine® (iodophor compound, V-ox® (inorganic peroxygen compounds, CID20® (quaternary ammonium chloride, aldehydes, and alcohol, terminator III® (phenols, and glutasan® (aldehyde and quaternary ammonium chloride. But they failed to eliminate the IBD virus from the poultry pen.
Full Text Available Infectious Bursal Disease (IBD is a chicken disease economically important for the poultry industry in function of the immune depression that it causes. Disease control is made with different vaccines and vaccination programs. In present work, the pathogenicity of 3 intermediate vaccines (I1, I2 and I3, 2 intermediate more pathogenic (IP1 and IP2 and 3 vaccines containing strong virus (F1, F2 and F3 was evaluated. Birds vaccinated with IP1, IP2, F1, F2 and F3 showed significantly lower bursa size in relation to control animals and animals vaccinated with I1, I2 and I3. On the other hand, vaccines I1 and I3 induced antibody titers higher than the control and lower than I2, IP1, IP2, F1, F2 and F3. Histological scores showed that vaccines I1, I2 and I3 induced similar injury degree, although I2 and I3 were not different from the control, whereas I1 was slightly different. Strong vaccines induced more pronounced lesions than the other tested vaccines. These findings suggest that strong vaccines are able to cause severe bursal injuries. However, bursometry and relative weight of the bursa of Fabricius were considered inadequate to evaluate vaccine pathogenicity. Moreover, strong vaccines induced higher antibody titers than the other vaccines, although some intermediate vaccines induced similar titers.
Salter, D W; Payne, W; Kung, H J; Robinson, D; Ewert, D; Olson, W; Crittenden, L B; Fadly, A M
A significant incidence of bursal lymphomas with long latencies was noted in transgenic breeders carrying a benign defective subgroup A avian leukosis provirus, ALVA6, in their germline and maintained free of exposure to avian retroviruses. Serotype 2 Marek's disease (MD) vaccine virus, strain SB-1, a component of the bivalent MD vaccine used to vaccinate the breeders, was suspected as a contributory factor in the increased bursal lymphoma incidence. Although these bursal lymphomas had several characteristics similar to retroviral-induced bursal lymphomas, we found no evidence of retroviral influence based on many virological, immunological and molecular tests that were performed on plasma and tumour cells. These tumours were therefore classified as spontaneous bursal lymphomas, similar to those reported for some specific pathogen-free (SPF) chicken lines. Long-term in vivo experiments in plastic isolators and carefully maintained pens with homozygous and hemizygous ALVA6 and ALVA6-free female chickens (line 0) that were either non-vaccinated, serotype 3 (herpesvirus of turkeys [HVT]; monovalent)-vaccinated, or HVT/SB-1 (bivalent) vaccinated, demonstrated that the incidence of spontaneous bursal lymphomas were significantly higher in those chickens that were vaccinated with the bivalent MD vaccine (P ⩽0.05). In addition, this incidence did not depend on the ALVA6 proviral insert since there was no significant difference in spontaneous bursal lymphoma incidence between bivalent vaccinated hemizygous ALVA6 and ALVA6-free line 0 female chickens. Thus, the increased incidence of spontaneous bursal lymphomas is correlated solely with the presence of SB-1 and is not dependent on the presence of ALVA6. PMID:26911501
Evaluation of a Phylogenetic Marker Based on Genomic Segment B of Infectious Bursal Disease Virus: Facilitating a Feasible Incorporation of this Segment to the Molecular Epidemiology Studies for this Viral Agent.
Full Text Available Infectious bursal disease (IBD is a highly contagious and acute viral disease, which has caused high mortality rates in birds and considerable economic losses in different parts of the world for more than two decades and it still represents a considerable threat to poultry. The current study was designed to rigorously measure the reliability of a phylogenetic marker included into segment B. This marker can facilitate molecular epidemiology studies, incorporating this segment of the viral genome, to better explain the links between emergence, spreading and maintenance of the very virulent IBD virus (vvIBDV strains worldwide.Sequences of the segment B gene from IBDV strains isolated from diverse geographic locations were obtained from the GenBank Database; Cuban sequences were obtained in the current work. A phylogenetic marker named B-marker was assessed by different phylogenetic principles such as saturation of substitution, phylogenetic noise and high consistency. This last parameter is based on the ability of B-marker to reconstruct the same topology as the complete segment B of the viral genome. From the results obtained from B-marker, demographic history for both main lineages of IBDV regarding segment B was performed by Bayesian skyline plot analysis. Phylogenetic analysis for both segments of IBDV genome was also performed, revealing the presence of a natural reassortant strain with segment A from vvIBDV strains and segment B from non-vvIBDV strains within Cuban IBDV population.This study contributes to a better understanding of the emergence of vvIBDV strains, describing molecular epidemiology of IBDV using the state-of-the-art methodology concerning phylogenetic reconstruction. This study also revealed the presence of a novel natural reassorted strain as possible manifest of change in the genetic structure and stability of the vvIBDV strains. Therefore, it highlights the need to obtain information about both genome segments of IBDV for
Newcastle disease in free-range village chickens was confirmed by retrospective data analysis and epidemiological cross-sectional studies. The combination of serological survey and virus isolation and characterisation established seasonal occurrence of Newcastle disease (ND) in free-range village chickens. The highest sero-prevalence (81.5) and virus isolation frequency (18/27) were found in the period between June and October. The field isolates of Newcastle virus (NDV) were confirmed to be PMV-1 serotype by polyclonal PMV-1 antiserum and monoclonal antibody (mAb) U85. All isolates were not inhibited by mAb 716/161 specific for pigeon panzootic NDV, showing that the current Tanzanian field isolates have antigenic variation and were not involved in the recent pigeon NDV panzootic. Mean death time determination characterised isolates into velogenic, mesogenic and lentogenic pathotypes. Isolation of NDV from apparently healthy ducks revealed the role of ducks in the epidemiology of ND in free-range village chickens in Tanzania. Studies are recommended to determine the similarities of the field isolates from different sources within Tanzania and to panzootic NDV from other countries. Strategic control of ND in free-range village chickens is recommended taking into consideration the presence of different age groups. Infectious bursal disease was histologically diagnosed in free-range village chickens. Therefore, there is a need of carrying out research on the role of other diseases and determine their prevalence and their contribution to the mortalities experienced in the free-range village chickens. (author)
Jackwood, D J; Sreedevi, B; LeFever, L J; Sommer-Wagner, S E
Three classic IBDV strains were previously isolated from commercial layer chicken flocks and shown to be phylogenetically related to vaccine strains but pathogenic in susceptible chickens. In this study, their viral genomes were sequenced and compared to sequences of vaccines being used in those flocks. The vaccine strains examined were sequenced directly from the manufacturer and had identical genome segment B sequences. Compared to these vaccines, the GA-1, H-30 and CS-2-35 isolates each had one silent mutation in the gene that encodes VP1. Compared to the two vaccines used at the time CS-2-35 was isolated, the segment A sequence of CS-2-35 contained numerous nucleotide and amino acid mutations suggesting the CS-2-35 virus was not closely related to these vaccines. This virus however did have amino acid mutations in VP2 that are reported to be necessary for replication in cell culture and lacked two of the three amino acid mutations previously shown to be necessary for virulence. These data suggest that CS-2-35 was a descendant from an attenuated strain of IBDV. When the segment A genomic sequences of the GA-1 and H-30 viruses were compared to the vaccines being used in those flocks they were most closely related to the attenuated D78 vaccine strain. In genome segment A, three nucleotide mutations in GA-1 and four in H-30 were observed compared to the D78 classic vaccine. These nucleotide mutations caused one amino acid (H253N) change in the GA-1 virus and two amino acids (H253Q and G259D) were different in the H-30 virus. In addition, both the GA-1 and H-30 viruses had the amino acid G76 in VP2 that appears to be unique to the vaccine D78. The data suggest that GA-1 and H-30 are genetically related and have a common ancestor even though they were isolated from geographically distant flocks. The evidence also suggests that GA-1, H-30 and CS-2-35 could be reversions from attenuated vaccine viruses or by coincidence genetically resemble classic IBDV vaccines. It
Anticorpos contra o vírus da Doença Infecciosa Bursal e detecção do genoma viral em criações de frango de corte e galinhas de quintal no polo avícola da Bahia Antibodies anti-Infectious Bursal Disease virus and viral genome detection in broilers and chickens backyard at Bahia's poultry production area
Priscila Sousa da Silva
Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo determinar a frequência de anticorpos e detectar o genoma viral do vírus da Doença Infecciosa Bursal em criações de frangos de corte e em criações de subsistência localizadas em duas regiões do polo avícola da Bahia. Foram coletadas 758 amostras de soro de frangos de corte e 320 amostras de galinhas de quintal para avaliação da frequência de anticorpos utilizando ELISA indireto. Para a detecção e caracterização do vírus foram coletados 6 pools de bursas de Fabrícius em frangos de corte e 3 pools em criações de subsistência, analisados posteriormente com PCR/RFLP. Os resultados revelaram que não há proteção uniforme na criação comercial nas duas regiões estudadas, sugerindo falha na vacinação e desafio com vírus no ambiente. Também observaram-se altos títulos em galinhas de quintal não vacinadas, com variação nos títulos relacionada com desafios de campo. Nos testes moleculares, verificaram-se que três pools de frangos de corte eram positivos, sendo dois para cepa vacinal (G3 e um para cepa variante (G15. Nas criações de subsistência, houve uma amostra positiva para cepa variante (G15. Os resultados demonstram a necessidade de monitoramento em ambas as criações.The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of antibodies anti-Infectious Bursal Disease Virus as well as to detect the virus in broilers and chicken backyard, raised in two different regions at Bahia's poultry production area. A total of 758 serum samples were collected from broilers and 320 from chicken backyard, in order to assess the frequency of antibodies using an indirect ELISA. For virus detection and characterization it was collected 6 bursal pools from broilers and 3 from chicken backyard, which were further analyzed with PCR/RFLP. The results showed that there is no uniform protection in commercial flocks of the two different regions, suggesting that it may be occurring vaccination errors and
Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the efficacy, safety and immunogenicity of the attenuated and inactivated Malaysian isolate of vvIBDV (UPM0081 in specific-pathogen-free (SPF chickens. The UPM0081T15 passage 15 and UPM0081T20 passage 20 of vvIBDV attenuated in Vero cells were inactivated using water-Catholyte-Anolyte (ECA. Complete inactivation of UPM0081T15 with titer of 106.7 TCID50/0.1 mL and UPM0081T20 with titer of 107.4 TCID50/0.1mL occurred after 24 hours. The inactivated virus suspension and an equal volume of Freund’s incomplete adjuvant were mixed together water-in-oil emulsion and injected subcutaneously into 42-day-old SPF chickens. Neither clinical signs nor gross lesions were observed in chickens before and after vvIBDV challenged. High and protective level of IBD antibody titer was recorded into 2 groups at 2 weeks post infection and 2 weeks post challenged. The study showed that both the inactivated UPM0081T15 and UPM0081T20 was safe and could provide 100% protection against vvIBDV challenged with titer of 107.8 EID50/ 0.1 mL
Abdel Ameer H. Zahid
Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to compare different diagnostic procedures for the detection of Newcastle disease and Infectious bursal disease in broilers and layers (during the period from March 2011 to February 2012 in the laboratory of the Department of Microbiology and Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University Putra Malaysia (UPM .A total of 187 sick and dead chickens (63 broilers and 124 layers of different ages (1 week to >15 weeks were collected from 12 selective poultry farms (4 broilers and 8 layers. Clinically, 7 (14.89% of 63 affected broiler and 27 (30.68% of 124 affected layer chickens were diagnosed as Newcastle disease (ND whereas, 11 (23.4% of 63 affected broiler and 6 (4.82% of the 124 affected layer birds were diagnosed as IBD on the basis of clinical history, clinical signs and postmortem findings. Virus isolation from field samples was performed by inoculating each suspected sample into 10-day-old chicken embryos. Out of 34 ND suspected field samples, 26 (5 broilers and 21 layers were positive for NDV isolation and 11 (8 broilers and 3 layers of 17 IBD suspected field samples, were positive for IBDV isolation. For confirmatory diagnosis, virus detection was confirmed by serological tests (HI and AGID and RT-PCR assay. Out of 34 clinically diagnosed ND field samples, 20 (5 broiler and 15 layer were positive by RT-PCR assay and 15 (10 broiler and 5 layer of 17 IBD suspected field samples, were positive by both AGIDT and RT-PCR assay. Of the 26 HA positive NDV suspected AF, 19 (4 broilers and 15 layers were positive by both HI and RT-PCR assay whereas, 10 (7 broilers and 3 layers of 11 IBDV isolation positive tissue suspension were positive by both AGIDT and RT-PCR assay in the laboratory. Therefore, it may be concluded that serological (HI and AGIDT and molecular (RT-PCR techniques which allow rapid identification of most of samples are the reliable, sensitive, specific and more accurate methods to detect the
采用RT-PCR技术从滨州分离株中扩增出传染性法氏囊病病毒(infectious bursal disease virus,IBDV)VP4基因,将VP4基因插入到pGEX-4T-1载体上构建pGEX-4T-1-VP4,诱导表达并用谷胱甘肽-S-转移酶(GST)亲和层析柱纯化得到纯化的重组VP4蛋白.以兔抗鸡IgG为胶体金标记物,以重组IBDV VP4蛋白和羊抗兔IgG为硝酸纤维素膜检测线和质控线的包被物,制备一种能检测IBDV VP4蛋白抗体的胶体金试纸条.结果表明,该试纸条检测IBDV强毒(IBDV BC6/85)免疫的血清检测线显红色,为阳性反应；检测IBDV弱毒(IBDV NB)免疫的血清、新城疫病毒(Newcastle disease virus,NDV)标准阳性血清、禽流感H5和H9标准阳性血清、传染性支气管炎标准阳性血清及0.85％生理盐水检测线不显红色,为阴性反应.该试纸条与建立的ELISA方法相比,敏感度低2个滴度；检测320份临床血清,试纸条与ELISA的符合率达99.38％.提示,该试纸条使用方便、操作简单,10 min内可以用肉眼判断结果,可为区分IBDV的强弱毒提供参考数据,具有较大的应用价值.%The VP4 gene was acquired by RT-PCR from Binzhou isolate of infectious bursal disease virus,the VP4 expression plasmid was constructed by inserting the target fragment into pGEX 4T 1 vectors.The expression VP4 proteins were acquired by inducing and purifying.An immunochromatograpic strip was developed for the detection VP4 protein antibody of infectious bursal disease virus.Rabbit anti-chicken IgG was labled with colloidal gold as a detection reagent,and recombinant VP4 protein of IBDV was blotted on the test line while goat anti rabbit IgG was used on the control line of the nitrocellulose membrane.The results of specificity showed that the strip was positive in the detection of reference sera against IBDV BC6/85 virulent and negative to the detection of standard positive serum of Newcastle disease virus,anvian influenza virus H5 and H9 subtypes,infectious bronchitis
Full Text Available A cross sectional study was conducted in North Gondar and West Gojjam Administrative Zones from November 2009 to June 2010 to determine the seroprevalence of infectious bursal disease by using I-ELISA (Indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay test. A total of 400 chickens raised in the back yard production system, 200 from each study area, were randomly selected and examined for the presence of anti-IBD (anti- infectious bursal disease antibody. Anti-IBD antibody was detected from 294 chickens and this gives an overall seroprevalence of 73.5% (294/400 for the entire study area, where the higher 75% (150/200 and the lower 72% (144/200 was recorded from samples collected in West Gojjam and North Gondar respectively. Even though, place of origin and sex was considered as potential risk factors, the study result shows that variation in place of origin and sex of chickens doesn’t have significant influence on the occurrence of IBD (Infectious bursal disease. Generally, the higher prevalence (73.5% reported in this study indicates that the disease is widely distributed and one of the potential threat for poultry production in the study areas.
M. M. Uddin*, M. Z. I. Khan1, K. N. Islam, A. S. M. G. Kibria, G. N. Adhikary2, M. N. H. Parvez3, J. Basu, M. B. Uddin4 and M. M. Rahman5
Full Text Available This study was aimed to investigate changes in the number and distribution of lymphocytes in the mucosa associated lymphoid tissues (MALT of digestive tract (proventriculus, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum and cecal tonsils and respiratory system (lungs of chicken infected by Infectious Bursal Disease Virus (IBDV. Samples were divided into two groups; IBDV infected group (21, 24 and 30 days old and control group (non infected birds; 21 days old. Haematoxylin and eosin stained slides were prepared for microscopic studies to observe the distribution and the number of lymphocytes in the mucosa of the digestive tract and respiratory system. Lymphocytes were significantly (P<0.05 lower in proventriculus, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, cecal tonsils and lungs of IBDV infected chickens than the control. Moreover, the reduction in lymphocytes number was maximum in duodenum and cecal tonsils, while minimal in lungs. Depletion of lymphocyte was mainly in the lamina propria and the core of the villi and depletion increased with the advance of age of IBDV infected chicken. These results demonstrate that IBDV destroys the lymphocytes of the MALT and suppresses the immunity.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Infectious bursal disease (IBD results in economic loss due to mortality, reduction in production efficiency and increasing the usage of antibiotics. This study was carried out to investigate the modulatory roles of dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA enrichment in immune response and performance of IBD challenged broiler chickens. Methods A total of 300 day old male broiler chicks were assigned to four dietary n-3 PUFA ascending levels as the treatment groups (T1: 0.5; T2: 8.0; T3: 11.5; T4: 16.5 using combinations of tuna oil and sunflower oil. All diets were isocaloric and isonitrogenous. On day 28, all birds were challenged with IBD virus. Antibody titer, cytokine production, bursa lesion pre and post-challenge and lymphoid organ weight were recorded. Results On d 42 the highest body weight was observed in the T2 and T3 and the lowest in T4 chickens. Feed conversion ratio of the T2 broilers was significantly better than the other groups. Although productive parameters were not responded to the dietary n-3 PUFA in a dose-dependent manner, spleen weight, IBD and Newcastle disease antibody titers and IL-2 and IFN-γ concentrations were constantly elevated by n-3 PUFA enrichment. Conclusions Dietary n-3 PUFA enrichment may improve the immune response and IBD resistance, but the optimum performance does not coincide with the optimum immune response. It seems that dietary n-3 PUFA modulates the broiler chicken performance and immune response in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, a moderate level of dietary n-3 PUFA enrichment may help to put together the efficiency of performance and relative immune response enhancement in broiler chickens.
M. Arshad, M. Siddique, M. Ashraf and H. A. Khan
Full Text Available A total of 200 chicks were raised upto 43 days of age under controlled experimental conditions. The birds were randomly divided into four groups A, B, C and D of 50 birds each at the age of day one. Birds of groups A and B were not supplemented with selenium, while those of groups C and D were given selenium @ 0.06 mg/Kg of feed from day one to day 43. The birds of groups B and D were vaccinated against infectious bursal disease (IBD at the age of day 10 and boosted at the age of day 25. The effect of selenium on humoral immune response was evaluated by recording weekly serum antibody titres against IBD through indirect haemagglutination (IHA test. The cumulative mean titres (CMT recorded in groups A, B, C and D were 15, 53, 16 and 61, respectively (P<0.05. These results indicate that selenium supplementation may help to increase post vaccination humoral immune response against IBD in broiler chicks.
Flensburg, Mimi Folden; Ersbøll, Annette Kjær; Jørgensen, Poul Henrik
The objective of the present study was to investigate risk factors associated with the introduction of acute clinical infectious bursal disease (IBD) among Danish broiler chickens in 1998. Data on 218 flocks were collected from hatcheries, abattoirs, farmers and veterinarians; 49 of the flocks had...... experienced acute clinical IBD (cases), 169 were unexposed (controls). The study was carried out using a case-control design. Cases were defined as the first flock on each premises to experience acute clinical IBD, and these were compared with non-diseased, non-IBD-vaccinated control flocks chosen randomly...
Flensburg, Mimi Folden; Ersbøll, Annette Kjær; Jørgensen, Poul Henrik
The objective of the present study was to investigate risk factors associated with the introduction of acute clinical infectious bursal disease (IBD) among Danish broiler chickens in 1998. Data on 218 flocks were collected from hatcheries, abattoirs, farmers and veterinarians; 49 of the flocks had...... from each unaffected farm. The resulting numbers of cases and controls used for statistical analyses were 16 and 61, respectively. Statistically significant associations were seen between the initial 16 Danish cases of acute clinical IBD in 1998 and certain hatcheries, age of parent birds and a certain...
Sharma, J M; Zhang, Y; Jensen, D; Rautenschlein, Silke; Yeh, H Y
A multivalent in ovo vaccine (MIV) was tested for safety and efficacy in a commercial broiler complex. The MIV comprised five replicating live viruses including serotypes 1, 2, and 3 of Marek's disease virus (MDV), an intermediate infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) and a recombinant fowl poxvirus (FPV) vector vaccine containing HN and F genes of Newcastle disease virus (NDV). The performance of MIV-vaccinated broilers was compared with that of hatchmates that received turkey herpesvirus (HVT) alone (routinely used in ovo vaccine in the broiler complex). The chickens that hatched from the MIV-injected and HVT-injected eggs were raised under commercial conditions in six barns. Barn 1 housed 17,853 MIV-vaccinated chickens and each of the barns 2-6 housed 18,472-22,798 HVT-vaccinated chickens. The HVT-vaccinated chickens were given infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) and NDV vaccines at hatch and at 2 wk of age. The MIV-vaccinated chickens received IBV vaccine at hatch and IBV + NDV at 2 wk of age. The relative values of hatchability of eggs, livability and weight gain of chickens, and condemnation rates at processing were comparable between the MIV and the HVT groups (P > 0.05). Chickens from the MIV- and the HVT-vaccinated groups were challenged with virulent viruses under laboratory conditions. The resistance of vaccinated chickens against Marek's disease could not be assessed because of high natural resistance of unvaccinated commercial broilers to virulent MDV. The relative resistances of the MIV- and the HVT-vaccinated groups, respectively, against other virulent viruses were as follows: IBDV, 100% for both groups; NDV, 81% vs. 19%; FPV, 86% vs. 0%. The successful use of MIV under field conditions expands the usefulness of the in ovo technology for poultry. PMID:12243525
Day-old local Balady chicks, with maternally derived antibodies to Infectious Bur sal Disease (Ibid) and Newcastle disease (Nd), were reared in separate pens on a commercial farm. At 1 and/or 14 days old, the chicks were vaccinated with commercial live intermediate and/or hot vaccines against Ibid. Also chicks were vaccinated against ND at 7, 19 and 29 days old. Sera samples were collected weekly to monitor the IBD and ND immune responses. At 28, 35 and 42 days old, chicks were transferred to the laboratory and challenged with very virulent IBD virus to evaluate the protection given by the vaccination programs. In all vaccinated groups, IBD maternal antibody interfered with development of active antibody response for the first 3 weeks of life followed by significant elevation of IBD antibodies at 28 days of age. The serological response to ND vaccines was not significantly affected in chicken vaccinated with intermediate or hot IBD vaccines. There was no significant difference in administrating live IBD vaccine either at 1 day old and/or 14 days old. Based on the results of this study, it is recommended to vaccinate day-old local chicks, before delivery to small holders, with live IBD vaccine despite the temporary interference by maternal antibody. (author)
Elham Maroufyan; Azhar Kasim; Goh Yong Meng; Mahdi Ebrahimi; Loh Teck Chwen; Parvaneh Mehrbod; Behnam Kamalidehghan; Abdoreza Soleimani Farjam
This study was carried out to investigate the modulatory effects of dietary methionine and fish oil on immune response, plasma fatty acid profile, and blood parameters of infectious bursal disease (IBD) challenged broiler chickens. A total of 300 one-day-old male broiler chicks were assigned to one of six dietary treatment groups in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement. There were three levels of fish oil (0, 2.5 and 5.5%), and two levels of methionine (NRC recommendation and twice NRC recommendatio...
This podcast provides general information about Ebola virus disease and the outbreak in West Africa. The program contains remarks from CDC Director Dr. Tom Frieden, as well as a brief description of CDCâs response efforts. Created: 8/8/2014 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID). Date Released: 8/8/2014.
The current outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in West Africa is the largest recognized outbreak of this disease to date. It is also the first such outbreak including cases infected outside of Africa. The risk of an introduction of EVD to Germany (defined as an infected person entering Germany and passing the infection to others) is very low. But it cannot be totally excluded that in isolated instances infected persons could enter unrecognizably during the incubation period, potentiall...
SEROLOGIC DYNAMIC OF INFECTIO US BRONCHITIS VIRUS IN A BROILER FLOCK IN CUNDINAMARCA DINÁMICA SEROLÓGICA DEL VIRUS DE BRONQUITIS INFECCIOSA EN UNA GRANJA DE POLLO DE ENGORDE DEL DEPARTAMENTO DE CUNDINAMARCA
Vera Alfonso Victor Julio; Jaime Correa Jairo; Usma Jorge Alberto; Alvarez Espejo Diana Claudia
The infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) causes a highly contagious disease, spread worldwide, leading to serious economic losses. Sometimes the disease is associated with other entities such as infectious bursal disease virus, Newcastle disease virus, Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Escherichia coli. The highly genetic variability of the virus has generated a large number of viral strains with different clinical presentations. The objective was to assess the dynamics of the virus antibodies in bir...
de la Calle-Prieto, Fernando; Arsuaga-Vicente, Marta; Mora-Rillo, Marta; Arnalich-Fernandez, Francisco; Arribas, Jose Ramon
The first known Ebola outbreak occurred in 1976. Since then, 24 limited outbreaks had been reported in Central Africa, but never affecting more than 425 persons. The current outbreak in Western Africa is the largest in history with 28,220 reported cases and 11,291 deaths. The magnitude of the epidemic has caused worldwide alarm. For the first time, evacuated patients were treated outside Africa, and secondary cases have occurred in Spain and the United States. Since the start of the current epidemic, our knowledge about the epidemiology, clinical picture, laboratory findings, and virology of Ebola virus disease has considerably expanded. For the first time, experimental treatment has been tried, and there have been spectacular advances in vaccine development. A review is presented of these advances in the knowledge of Ebola virus disease. PMID:26774254
Identification and molecular characterization of the infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) from an outbreak in a broiler flock in midwestern Brazil Identificação e caracterização molecular do vírus da doença infecciosa da bolsa cloacal de um surto em lotes de frangos no centro-oeste do Brasil
Márcia Beatriz Cardoso de Paula; Jonny Yokosawa; Márcio Danilo Botrel Coutinho; Paulo Lourenço Silva; Rogério Avelar Ferraz; Thelma Fátima de Mattos Oliveira; Divina Aparecida Oliveira Queiróz
In order to identify and characterize the agent of a suggestive clinical case of Gumboro disease (GD) that affected a 34-day-old broiler flock in Buriti Alegre (Goias State, Midwestern Brazil) in the year 2001, we carried out a combination of classic and modern virological methods. Histopathological analysis of the bursa revealed necrosis, presence of depleted follicles, some infiltration of heterophils, edema and formation of cystic cavities that are compatible with lesions observed in GD. I...
Identification and molecular characterization of the infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV from an outbreak in a broiler flock in midwestern Brazil Identificação e caracterização molecular do vírus da doença infecciosa da bolsa cloacal de um surto em lotes de frangos no centro-oeste do Brasil
Márcia Beatriz Cardoso de Paula
Full Text Available In order to identify and characterize the agent of a suggestive clinical case of Gumboro disease (GD that affected a 34-day-old broiler flock in Buriti Alegre (Goias State, Midwestern Brazil in the year 2001, we carried out a combination of classic and modern virological methods. Histopathological analysis of the bursa revealed necrosis, presence of depleted follicles, some infiltration of heterophils, edema and formation of cystic cavities that are compatible with lesions observed in GD. Inoculation of embryonated eggs of specific pathogen-free (SPF chickens with macerated bursa suspension resulted in embryo mortality and lesions which were also compatible with those caused by IBDV. A sample of bursa was submitted to a nested reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR procedure to amplify the hypervariable region of the VP2 gene. The amplicon that was obtained from this sample (BR-GO was digested with the restriction enzymes TaqI, StyI and SspI, but not with SacI, a pattern similar to that observed with very virulent IBDV (vvIBDV strains. Furthermore, nucleotide sequence analysis revealed alanine, isoleucine, and isoleucine at amino acid positions 222, 256, and 294, respectively, which are also found in vvIBDV strains. Finally, phylogenetic analysis grouped BR-GO isolate with other vvIBDV strains.Para identificar e caracterizar o agente causador de um quadro clínico sugestivo de doença de Gumboro (DG que afetou um plantel de frangos de corte com 34 dias de idade, em Buriti Alegre (estado de Goiás, centro-oeste do Brasil, no ano de 2001, procedeu-se uma combinação de métodos virológicos clássicos e modernos. Análises histopatológicas de bursas revelaram necrose, depleção de folículos linfóides, infiltração de heterófilos, edema e formação de cistos, lesões compatíveis com DG. A inoculação em ovos embrionados de galinhas SPF (specific pathogen-free de uma suspensão de macerado de amostras de bursas resultou em
Li, Yiping; Handberg, K.J.; Juul-Madsen, H.R.;
-host interaction, we measured steady-state levels of transcripts from 28 cellular genes of chicken embryo (CE) cell cultures infected with IBDV vaccine stain Bursine-2 during a 7-day infection course by use of the quantitative real-time RT-PCR SYBR green method. Of the genes tested, 21 genes (IRF-1, IFN 1...... UB) showed a constant expression or only slight alteration. Apparently, the host genes involved in pro-inflammatory response and apoptosis, interferon-regulated proteins, and the cellular immune response were affected by IBDV infection, indicating involvement in the complex signaling pathways of host...
Purcell, R H
Viral hepatitis is a disease of antiquity, but evidence for more than one etiologic agent has been recognized only since the 1940s, when two viruses (hepatitis A virus and hepatitis B virus) were thought to account for all disease. In the past 20 years, three additional hepatitis agents (hepatitis C virus, hepatitis D virus, and hepatitis E virus) have been discovered, and there is evidence for at least one additional virus. Each of the five recognized hepatitis viruses belongs to a different...
J Gordon Millichap
Full Text Available Epidemiological features of West Nile Virus (WNV disease among children (<18 years of age reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention from 1999 through 2007 were analyzed and compared with those of adult WNV neuroinvasive disease (WNND, in a study at CDC&P, Fort Collins, CO.
S.Hasan. K. Ahmad, N. Fawad, B. Siddique and H Rehman
Recently, high mortality was recorded in broiler flocks in various areas of Pakistan. The samples from six broiler flocks were studied. The blood samples collected were analyzed for antibodies to Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV), Avian Influenza Virus (AIV), Infectious Bronchitis Virus (IBV), Infectious Bursal Disease Virus (IBDV), mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG), Mycoplasma synoviae (MS) and Salmonella organisms (SPG). It was found that the samples had no antibodies against NDV, AIV, MG, MS and S...
Nielsen, O.L.; Jørgensen, Poul Henrik; Hedemand, J.;
This-paper describes the results of immuno-histochemical staining for chicken mannan-binding lectin (MBL) in formalin-fixed tissue sections from non-infected chickens, and from chickens infected with infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) or infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV). In the non...
... long as their blood contains the virus. Sexual transmission More surveillance data and research are needed on the risks of sexual transmission, and particularly on the prevalence of viable and ...
Kho, C L; Mohd-Azmi, M L; Arshad, S S; Yusoff, K
A sensitive and specific RT-nested PCR coupled with an ELISA detection system for detecting Newcastle disease virus is described. Two nested pairs of primer which were highly specific to all the three different pathotypes of NDV were designed from the consensus fusion gene sequence. No cross-reactions with other avian infectious agents such as infectious bronchitis virus, infectious bursal disease virus, influenza virus, and fowl pox virus were observed. Based on agarose electrophoresis detection, the RT-nested PCR was about 100 times more sensitive compared to that of a non-nested RT-PCR. To facilitate the detection of the PCR product, an ELISA detection method was then developed to detect the amplified PCR products and it was shown to be ten times more sensitive than gel electrophoresis. The efficacy of the nested PCR-ELISA was also compared with the conventional NDV detection method (HA test) and non-nested RT-PCR by testing against a total of 35 tissue specimens collected from ND-symptomatic chickens. The RT-nested PCR ELISA found NDV positive in 21 (60%) tissue specimens, while only eight (22.9%) and two (5.7%) out of 35 tissue specimens were tested NDV positive by both the non-nested RT-PCR and conventional HA test, respectively. Due to its high sensitivity for the detection of NDV from tissue specimens, this PCR-ELISA based diagnostic test may be useful for screening large number of samples. PMID:10713378
Carbone, Kathryn M.
The biology of Borna disease virus (BDV) strongly supports the likelihood of human infection with BDV or a variant of BDV. Thus far, the evidence supporting BDV infection in humans has initiated much controversy among basic and clinical scientists; only time and additional research will support or refute the hypothesis of human BDV infection. Until an assay of acceptable specificity and sensitivity has been developed, validated, and used to document human BDV infection, scientists cannot reas...
Sutiastuti Wahyuwardani; Dewi Ratih Agungpriyono; Lies Parede; Wasmen Manalu
Study of the pathogenicity of gumboro virus (very virulent Infectious Bursal Disease virus, vvIBDV) oflocal isolates was performed in broilers. The chickens were grouped into four: i) infected with vvIBDV; ii)vaccinated with commercial vaccine + challenge with vvIBDV; iii) vaccinated using locally produced vaccine+ challenged with vvIBDV; and iv) control group (unvaccinated animals). Pathogenecity was analyzedbased on the sequence of infection; the distribution and degree of gross pathology a...
Kilgore, Paul E; Grabenstein, John D; Salim, Abdulbaset M; Rybak, Michael
In March 2014, the largest Ebola outbreak in history exploded across West Africa. As of November 14, 2014, the World Health Organization has reported a total of 21,296 Ebola virus disease (EVD) cases, including 13,427 laboratory-confirmed EVD cases reported from the three most affected countries (Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone). As the outbreak of EVD has spread, clinical disease severity and national EVD case-fatality rates have remained high (21.2-60.8%). Prior to 2013, several EVD outbreaks were controlled by using routine public health interventions; however, the widespread nature of the current EVD outbreak as well as cultural practices in the affected countries have challenged even the most active case identification efforts. In addition, although treatment centers provide supportive care, no effective therapeutic agents are available for EVD-endemic countries. The ongoing EVD outbreak has stimulated investigation of several different therapeutic strategies that target specific viral structures and mechanisms of Ebola viruses. Six to eight putative pharmacotherapies or immunologically based treatments have demonstrated promising results in animal studies. In addition, agents composed of small interfering RNAs targeting specific proteins of Ebola viruses, traditional hyperimmune globulin isolated from Ebola animal models, monoclonal antibodies, and morpholino oligomers (small molecules used to block viral gene expression). A number of EVD therapeutic agents are now entering accelerated human trials in EVD-endemic countries. The goal of therapeutic agent development includes postexposure prevention and EVD cure. As knowledge of Ebola virus virology and pathogenesis grows, it is likely that new therapeutic tools will be developed. Deployment of novel Ebola therapies will require unprecedented cooperation as well as investment to ensure that therapeutic tools become available to populations at greatest risk for EVD and its complications. In this article, we
Martin, Robert R; Tzanetakis, Ioannis E
Virus control in berry crops starts with the development of plants free of targeted pathogens, usually viruses, viroids, phytoplasmas, and systemic bacteria, through a combination of testing and therapy. These then become the top-tier plants in certification programs and are the source from which all certified plants are produced, usually after multiple cycles of propagation. In certification schemes, efforts are made to produce plants free of the targeted pathogens to provide plants of high health status to berry growers. This is achieved using a systems approach to manage virus vectors. Once planted in fruit production fields, virus control shifts to disease control where efforts are focused on controlling viruses or virus complexes that result in disease. In fruiting fields, infection with a virus that does not cause disease is of little concern to growers. Virus control is based on the use of resistance and tolerance, vector management, and isolation. PMID:25591882
ZHAO Yan; Kong, Congcong; Cui, Xianlan; Cui, Hongyu; Shi, Xingming; ZHANG, XIAOMIN; Hu, Shunlei; Hao, Lianwei; Wang, Yunfeng
Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is an acute, highly contagious upper-respiratory infectious disease of chickens. In this study, a real-time PCR method was developed for fast and accurate detection and quantitation of ILTV DNA of chickens experimentally infected with ILTV strain LJS09 and naturally infected chickens. The detection lower limit of the assay was 10 copies of DNA. There were no cross reactions with the DNA and RNA of infectious bursal disease virus, chicken anemia virus, reticu...
Garlic virus infection is an important disease which affects garlic production,with the increasing years of planting,harm of virus is serious year by year,which seriously affect yield and quality of garlic.In order to know the garlic virus effectively,the paper reviewed the research situation of several important garlic virus in virus species,origin,distribution,host range,symptom,route of transmission,classification,genome and detection technique and the prevention technology of garlic viruses.At the same ...
Li, Jiandong; Li, Dexin
Zika virus disease is an emerging mosquito-borne acute infectious disease caused by Zika virus, so far there have been no available vaccine or specific treatment. Currently, the outbreaks of Zika virus disease mainly occurs in the Americas, but the regional distribution of the disease is in rapid expansion, 34 countries and territories have reported autochthonous transmission of the virus. The illness is usually mild with very rarely death, but increased reports of birth defects and neurologic disorders in the areas affected by Zika virus has caused extensive concern worldwide. In China, the competent vectors for Zika virus are widely distributed, imported viraemic cases may become a source of local transmission of the virus. However, Zika virus disease is preventable, the spread of virus could be stopped when the effective prevention measures are taken. This paper summarizes the retrieval results from Medline database and the information from the reports of the governments of countries affected or health organizations about the epidemiological characteristics of Zika virus disease. PMID:27005530
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. West Nile virus disease - 2015.In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (â¥1,000 cases reported during the preceding...
Deregt, D; Loewen, K G
Bovine viral diarrhea virus continues to produce significant economic losses for the cattle industry and challenges investigators with the complexity of diseases it produces and the mechanisms by which it causes disease. This paper updates and attempts to clarify information regarding the roles of noncytopathic and cytopathic bovine viral diarrhea viruses in persistent infections and mucosal disease. It also covers, in brief, what is known of the new diseases: thrombocytopenia and hemorrhagic...
Full Text Available Ebola virus disease (EVD is an acute hemorrhagic infectious disease caused by ebola virus, with high infectivity and fatality rate. At present, it mainly occurs in areas of Central Africa and West Africa and no effective vaccine and antiviral drugs are available for the clinical treatment.
Tattevin, Pierre; Durante-Mangoni, Emanuele; Massaquoi, Moses
(beginning of the introduction) Ebola virus is one of the most virulent human pathogens. Since 1976, Ebola virus disease (EVD) has caused more than 20 outbreaks in Africa, with case fatality rates of 30%-90%, in the absence of any approved treatment or vaccination .
Legg, James P; Lava Kumar, P; Makeshkumar, T; Tripathi, Leena; Ferguson, Morag; Kanju, Edward; Ntawuruhunga, Pheneas; Cuellar, Wilmer
Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz.) is the most important vegetatively propagated food staple in Africa and a prominent industrial crop in Latin America and Asia. Its vegetative propagation through stem cuttings has many advantages, but deleteriously it means that pathogens are passed from one generation to the next and can easily accumulate, threatening cassava production. Cassava-growing continents are characterized by specific suites of viruses that affect cassava and pose particular threats. Of major concern, causing large and increasing economic impact in Africa and Asia are the cassava mosaic geminiviruses that cause cassava mosaic disease in Africa and Asia and cassava brown streak viruses causing cassava brown streak disease in Africa. Latin America, the center of origin and domestication of the crop, hosts a diverse set of virus species, of which the most economically important give rise to cassava frog skin disease syndrome. Here, we review current knowledge on the biology, epidemiology, and control of the most economically important groups of viruses in relation to both farming and cultural practices. Components of virus control strategies examined include: diagnostics and surveillance, prevention and control of infection using phytosanitation, and control of disease through the breeding and promotion of varieties that inhibit virus replication and/or movement. We highlight areas that need further research attention and conclude by examining the likely future global outlook for virus disease management in cassava. PMID:25591878
Full Text Available The present article reviews the bibliographie date available on the feeding of tepezcuintle (Agouti paca. It also reports about the reproductive rates and the meat production in captivity and mentions some alternatives to improve this characteristics.
S. L. Johnston
Full Text Available There is strong epidemiological evidence that respiratory viral infections are associated with 80–85% of asthma exacerbations in children. There is less evidence in adults, but the available data suggest viruses are associated with around two-thirds to three-quarters of exacerbations in adults. These associations include severe exacerbations requiring hospitalisation. The most common viruses detected in these studies were rhinoviruses, accounting for two-thirds of viruses detected. Asthmatics have increased susceptibility to respiratory virus infection and have recently been shown to have profoundly defective interferon-beta responses to virus infection, resulting in increased virus replication. Atypical bacterial infections are also associated with chronic asthma and asthma exacerbations and a recent study indicates antibiotic therapy active against atypical bacteria is effective in treatment of exacerbations. Recent data also indicates asthmatics are at increased risk of invasive pneumococcal disease, suggesting they may also have impaired antibacterial immunity. Research is urgently required to determine whether augmenting anti-infective immunity is beneficial in the treatment/prevention of asthma exacerbations. More recent data also implicates viruses in the majority of exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Studies are also required investigating anti-infective host defence in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
Apoptose e expressão de VP2 e GAPDH na infecção precoce pelo vírus da doença infecciosa da bursa de Fabricius em pintos SPF Apoptosis and expression of VP2 and GADPH in an experimental infectious bursal disease in SPF chicks
Full Text Available Vinte e nove pintos SPF de um dia foram inoculados com o vírus da doença infecciosa da bursa de Fabricius (VDIB para avaliar a ocorrência precoce de apoptose e a expressão da proteína viral 2 (VP2 e da enzima gliceraldeído fosfato dehidrogenase (GAPDH. Os animais foram distribuídos em cinco grupos: 1-controle; e 2 a 5- com 24, 48, 72 e 96 horas pós-inoculação, respectivamente. Fragmentos da bursa de Fabricius foram colhidos para processamento histológico e extração de RNA. Lâminas coradas em HE e TUNEL (marcação in situ da fragmentação do genoma com transferase terminal de deoxinucleotídeo foram utilizadas na morfometria do índice apoptótico. Amostras de mRNA foram testadas para a expressão dos genes VP2 e GAPDH utilizando-se transcrição reversa e RT-PCR. Utilizou-se um kit SYBR GREEN PCR, e a reação foi desenvolvida em ABI Prism 7000 SDS. Os índices apoptóticos cresceram progressivamente indicando uma relação na atrofia bursal causada pelo VDIB. Paralelamente, os resultados da PCR em tempo real demonstraram queda da carga viral nas células linfóides da bursa nos diferentes intervalos de tempo do experimento. Esses resultados sugerem um papel protetor da apoptose na diminuição da replicação viral.Twenty-nine SPF 1-day-old chicks were inoculated with infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV to evaluate early apoptosis and the expression of viral protein 2 (VP2 and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenease (GAPDH. Five groups were formed: G1-control -and G2 to G5, - 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours post inoculation, respectively. Half of each BF was fixed and processed by routine techniques. To quantify apoptosis, 5µm-thick sections were stained with HE and submitted to TUNEL (terminal transferase UDP nick end labeling technique. mRNA was extracted from pooled samples of 3 animals/group and used for the expression of VP2 and GADPH genes using the reverse transcription and real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. A SYBR
Md Rezwanur Rahman
Ebola virus disease (EVD), caused by one of the Ebola virus strains is an acute, serious illness which is often fatal when untreated. EVD, previously known as Ebola hemorrhagic fever, is a rare and deadly disease. It first appeared in 1976 in two simultaneous outbreaks, one in Nzara, Sudan, and the other in Yambuku, Democratic Republic of Congo. The latter occurred in a village near the Ebola River, from which the disease takes its name.1,2 On March 23, 2014, the World Health Organization ...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. West Nile virus disease - 2016. In this Table, provisional* cases of selectedâ notifiable diseases (â¥1,000 cases reported during the preceding...
Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), equine rhinitis A virus (ERAV) and bovine rhinitis B virus (BRBV) comprise the genus Aphthovirus of the Picornaviridae family. Seven genera within this family, Aphthoviruses, Cardioviruses, Erboviruses (ERBV), Kobuviruses, Senecaviruses, Sapeloviruses, and Tescho...
Full Text Available Ebola virus disease is one of the most deadly ailments known to mankind due to its high mortality rate (up to 90% accompanying with the disease. Ebola haemorrhagic fever (EHF is an infectious disease of animal that can be transmitted to both human and non-human primates. The first epidemic of EHF occurred in 1976 in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The incubation period of ebola is less than 21 days. Ebola virus infections are depicted by immune suppression and a systemic inflammatory response that leads to damage of the vascular, coagulation and immune systems, causing multi-organ failure and shock. Five genetically distinct members of the Filoviridae family responsible for EHF are as follows: Zaire ebolavirus, Sudan ebolavirus, Côte d’Ivoire ebolavirus, Bundibugyo ebolavirus and Reston ebolavirus. The ongoing 2014 West Africa ebola epidemic has been considered as the most serious panic in the medical field with respect to both the number of human cases and death toll. The natural host for ebola virus is unknown, thus it is not possible to carry out programs to regulate or abolish virus from transmission to people. The ebola virus infection provides little chance to develop acquired immunity causing rapid progression of the disease. It is pertinent to mention that at present, there is no antiviral therapy or vaccine that is helpful against ebola virus infection in humans. The impediment of EHF necessitates much better understanding of the epidemiology of the disease, particularly the role of wildlife, as well as bats, in the spread of ebola virus to humans.
Harish; Rajak; Deepak; Kumar; Jain; Avineesh; Singh; Ajay; Kumar; Sharma; Anshuman; Dixit
Ebola virus disease is one of the most deadly ailments known to mankind due to its high mortality rate(up to 90%) accompanying with the disease. Ebola haemorrhagic fever(EHF) is an infectious disease of animal that can be transmitted to both human and non-human primates. The first epidemic of EHF occurred in 1976 in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The incubation period of ebola is less than 21 days. Ebola virus infections are depicted by immune suppression and a systemic inflammatory response that leads to damage of the vascular, coagulation and immune systems, causing multi-organ failure and shock. Five genetically distinct members of the Filoviridae family responsible for EHF are as follows: Zaire ebolavirus, Sudan ebolavirus, C?te d’Ivoire ebolavirus, Bundibugyo ebolavirus and Reston ebolavirus. The ongoing 2014 West Africa ebola epidemic has been considered as the most serious panic in the medical field with respect to both the number of human cases and death toll. The natural host for ebola virus is unknown, thus it is not possible to carry out programs to regulate or abolish virus from transmission to people. The ebola virus infection provides little chance to develop acquired immunity causing rapid progression of the disease. It is pertinent to mention that at present, there is no antiviral therapy or vaccine that is helpful against ebola virus infection in humans. The impediment of EHF necessitates much better understanding of the epidemiology of the disease, particularly the role of wildlife, as well as bats, in the spread of ebola virus to humans.
... Virus. 113.205 Section 113.205 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.205 Newcastle Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus. Newcastle Disease...
Bertagnoli, Stéphane; Gelfi, Jacqueline; Le Gall, Ghislaine; Boilletot, Eric; Vautherot, Jean-François; Rasschaert, Denis; Laurent, Sylvie; Petit, Frédérique; Boucraut-Baralon, Corine; Milon, Alain
Two myxoma virus-rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) recombinant viruses were constructed with the SG33 strain of myxoma virus to protect rabbits against myxomatosis and rabbit viral hemorrhagic disease. These recombinant viruses expressed the RHDV capsid protein (VP60). The recombinant protein, which is 60 kDa in size, was antigenic, as revealed by its reaction in immunoprecipitation with antibodies raised against RHDV. Both recombinant viruses induced high levels of RHDV- and myxoma vir...
Full Text Available Gumboro (infectious bursal disease, IBD virus was isolated from darkling beetles (Carrinaps pumilin and their larvae in a commercial pulletchicken farm with repeated outbreaks incidence of Gumboro disease in Tangertng, West Java. In addition, these over populated beetles and their larvae were suspected to be infected and then shed the virus or acted as vectors. Isolation was done by repeated passages of virus using chicken embryo fibroblast cells as prime media, which then showed the evidence of cylop: ihic effecis. The isolation was followed by antigen detection by means of ELISA test.
Flores, Sonia C.; Almodovar, Sharilyn
The following state-of-the-art seminar was delivered as part of the Aspen Lung Conference on Pulmonary Hypertension and Vascular Diseases held in Aspen, Colorado in June 2012. This paper will summarize the lecture and present results from a nonhuman primate model of infection with Simian (Human) Immunodeficiency Virus - nef chimeric virions as well as the idea that polymorphisms in the HIV-1 nef gene may be driving the immune response that results in exuberant inflammation and aberrant endoth...
Full Text Available Vitiligo is a common skin disorder, characterized by depigmented patches due to selective destruction of melanocytes. The etiology of this disease is unknown. A number of hypotheses including viral theory have been proposed to explain the etiology. To determine the prevalence of antibody to hepatitis C virus infection in vitiligo patients, the present study was performed. Third generation ELISA test was used for detection of antibodies to HCV in human sera. All normal controls were anti-HCV negative whereas only one patient was positive for anti-HCV and there was no significant difference in the prevalence of anti-HCV between patients and controls. These results indicate that hepatitis C virus has not a direct causal role in the pathogenesis of vitiligo, however, this does not rul out a "hit and run" virus induced disease.
Hirokazu Kimura; Hiroyuki Tsukagoshi; Akihide Ryo; Yoshiroh Oda; Toshinobu Kawabata; Takashi Majima; Kunihisa Kozawa; Masayuki Shimojima
Ebola virus disease (EVD) is a life-threatening viral disease with a fatality rate ranging from around 30% to 90%. The first EVD outbreak was reported in the 1970s in Zaire (now the Democratic Republic of the Congo). Until 2013, most outbreaks occurred in the Central Africa region, including Zaire, Sudan and Uganda. However, between March and October 2014, over 10 000 cases of EVD have been recorded in West Africa, such as in Guinea, Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Nigeria, and...
Molnar, Janos; Poti, Adam; Pipek, Orsolya; Krzystanek, Marcin; Kanu, Nnennaya; Swanton, Charles; Tusnady, Gabor E.; Szallasi, Zoltan Imre; Csabai, Istvan; Szuets, David
The chicken DT40 cell line is a widely used model system in the study of multiple cellular processes due to the efficiency of homologous gene targeting. The cell line was derived from a bursal lymphoma induced by avian leukosis virus infection. In this study we characterized the genome of the cell...... inactivating the PIK3R1 and ATRX genes likely contributed to the oncogenic transformation. In addition to a known avian leukosis virus integration in the MYC gene, we detected further integration sites that are likely to de-regulate gene expression. The new findings support the hypothesis that DT40 is a...
Purchase, H G
A workshop in which 17 practicing scientists participated was intended to address primarily people who use or could use biotechnology in their work and was confined to five techniques. Endonuclease fingerprinting and mapping involved cleaving nucleic acid with a specific restriction enzyme and separating the nucleic acid fragments by electrophoresis. Field and vaccine isolates of Pasteurella multocida could be distinguished; Salmonella enteritidis could be divided into three groups; chlamydia could be grouped into seven groups; and vaccinia, quail pox, and fowl pox could be clearly distinguished. Preparation of nucleic acid probes involved producing large amounts of labeled oligonucleotides, usually of unknown sequence. Successful probes had been made for infectious bursal disease virus, avian influenza virus, Newcastle disease virus, and infectious bronchitis virus. In Southern, Northern, and dot blotting, either DNA or RNA fragments were placed on or transferred to a solid substrate and probed. The procedure was able to detect infectious bursal disease virus, infectious bronchitis virus, Mycoplasma gallisepticum, and Marek's disease virus. In situ hybridization involved applying a labeled probe to frozen or fixed sections or to intact cells. In Polymerase chain reaction, two primers, some distance apart, were annealed to a denatured target DNA. Repeated cycles of DNA synthesis with a thermostable polymerase, denaturing, and reannealing resulted in great amplification of a rare sequence. After 30 cycles, a rare gene sequence could be amplified more than 10(6) times. It was used successfully to detect minute quantities of influenza virus and infectious bursal disease virus, and the process was used to facilitate DNA sequencing of coccidiosis gene segments. PMID:2559697
Knowles, Nick J.; Wadsworth, Jemma; Reid, Scott M; Swabey, Katherine G.; El-Kholy, Alaa A.; El-Rahman, Adel Omar Abd; Soliman, Hatem M.; Ebert, Katja; Ferris, Nigel P.; Hutchings, Geoffrey H.; Statham, Robert J.; King, Donald P.; Paton, David J.
We describe the characterization of a foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) serotype A virus responsible for recent outbreaks of disease in Egypt. Phylogenetic analysis of VP1 nucleotide sequences demonstrated a close relationship to recent FMD virus isolates from East Africa, rather than to viruses currently circulating in the Middle East.
Simoni Isabela Cristina
Full Text Available The susceptibility of the five cell lines - IB-RS-2, RK-13, Vero, BHK-21, CER - to reovirus S1133 and infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV vaccine GBV-8 strain was studied to better define satisfactory and sensitive cell culture systems. Cultures were compared for presence of CPE, virus titers and detection of viral RNA. CPE and viral RNA were detected in CER and BHK-21 cells after reovirus inoculation and in RK-13 cell line after IBDV inoculation and with high virus titers. Virus replication by production of low virus titers occurred in IB-RS-2 and Vero cells with reovirus and in BHK-21 cell line with IBDV.
Roed, Torsten; Lebech, Anne-Mette; Kjaer, Andreas; Weis, Nina
Several chronic infections have been associated with cardiovascular diseases, including Chlamydia pneumoniae, human immunodeficiency virus and viral hepatitis. This review evaluates the literature on the association between chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and the risk of coronary artery...
Effective, safe, and incapable of reverting to virulence are characteristics desirable for infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) vaccines. Recombinant Newcastle disease virus (NDV) expressing foreign antigens of avian and mammalian pathogens have been demonstrated to elicit protective immunity....
Man, Chaolai; Mu, Weitao; Zhao, Dongxue; Chang, Yang
Recently, avian viral diseases have become one of the main models to study mechanisms of viral infections and pathogenesis. The study of regulatory relationships and mechanisms between viruses and microRNAs has also become the focus. In this review, we briefly summarize the general situations of microRNAs encoded by avian herpesviruses. Also, we analyze the regulatory relationships between tumorigenicity of avian herpesviruses and microRNAs. Additionally, the possible applications for prevention and treatment of viral diseases (such as infectious bursal disease, avian influenza and avian leucosis) using the regulatory mechanisms of microRNAs are also discussed. PMID:26955707
Cui Yu; Zhang Ai-hong; Ren Ai-jun; Miao Hong-qin
There are a total of more than 40 reported maize viral diseases worldwide. Five of them have reportedly occurred in China. They are maize rough dwarf disease, maize dwarf mosaic disease, maize streak dwarf disease, maize crimson leaf disease, maize wallaby ear disease and corn lethal necrosis disease. This paper reviewed their occurrence and distribution as well as virus identification techniques in order to provide a basis for virus identification and diagnosis in corn production.
Hirokazu Kimura; Hiroyuki Tsukagoshi; Akihide Ryo; Yoshiroh Oda; Toshinobu Kawabata; Takashi Majima; Kunihisa Kozawa; Masayuki Shimojima
Ebola virus disease (EVD) is a life-threatening viral disease with a fatality rate ranging from around 30%to 90%. The first EVD outbreak was reported in the 1970s in Zaire (now the Democratic Republic of the Congo). Until 2013, most outbreaks occurred in the Central Africa region, including Zaire, Sudan and Uganda. However, between March and October 2014, over 10 000 cases of EVD have been recorded in West Africa, such as in Guinea, Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Nigeria, and a few hospital or secondary infections of EVD have occurred in Spain and the United States of America. EVD is presently one of the world's most feared diseases. In this literature review, we describe the epidemiology, clinical features, diagnosis, and treatment of EVD.
Full Text Available Ebola virus disease (EVD is a life-threatening viral disease with a fatality rate ranging from around 30% to 90%. The first EVD outbreak was reported in the 1970s in Zaire (now the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Until 2013, most outbreaks occurred in the Central Africa region, including Zaire, Sudan and Uganda. However, between March and October 2014, over 10 000 cases of EVD have been recorded in West Africa, such as in Guinea, Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Nigeria, and a few hospital or secondary infections of EVD have occurred in Spain and the United States of America. EVD is presently one of the world's most feared diseases. In this literature review, we describe the epidemiology, clinical features, diagnosis, and treatment of EVD.
Giraldi, G; Marsella, L T
The current West African Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) outbreak was confirmed in March, 2014, and after months of slow, fragmented responses, the EVD has been recognized as a public health emergency of international concern. The early diagnosis of the disease is difficult without laboratory testing, because its symptoms can be seen in many other infections. In the wake of international agencies advices, the Italian Ministry of Health, on October 1, 2014, released to the Healthcare Professional Workers (HPWs) the Protocol about the management of cases and contacts within the national territory. Due to the increasing number of humanitarian groups and HPWs involved in the field, the probability to have new cases of contamination is higher than ever. Proven specific treatments against EVD are not yet available, however, a variety of compounds have been under testing. The most effective are select monoclonal antibodies that have a high neutralizing potential against epitopes of Ebola Virus. For facing the matter, it is important a comprehensive approach according to the recommendations proposed by the international agencies because no single institution or country has all the capacities to respond to a new and emerging infectious disease. PMID:25748509
Martín Alonso, J M; Casais, R.; Boga, J A; Parra, F
Expression of rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) cDNAs in vitro with rabbit reticulocyte lysates and in Escherichia coli have been used to study the proteolytic processing of RHDV polyprotein encoded by ORF1. An epitope tag was used for monitoring the gene products by a specific antibody. We have identified four gene products with molecular masses of 80, 43, 73, and 60 kDa, from the amino to the carboxy terminus of the polyprotein. The amino-terminal sequences of the 43- and 73-kDa produ...
Weston, Jonathan; Villoing, Stéphane; Brémont, Michel; Castric, Jeanette; Pfeffer, Martin; Jewhurst, Victoria; McLoughlin, Marian; Rødseth, OddMagne; Christie, Karen Elina; Koumans, Joseph; Todd, Daniel
Cell culture isolates of salmon pancreas disease virus (SPDV) of farmed Atlantic salmon and sleeping disease virus (SDV) of rainbow trout were compared. Excluding the poly(A) tracts, the genomic nucleotide sequences of SPDV and SDV RNAs include 11,919 and 11,900 nucleotides, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis places SPDV and SDV between the New World viruses of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus and Eastern equine encephalitis virus and the Old World viruses of Aura virus and Sindbis virus...
Full Text Available The Newcastle disease virus (NDV was isolated from a 3 months-old indigenous chicken (buras or kampung chicken which showed clinical signs of Newcastle disease (ND. For viral isolation a small part of the spleen and lung were inoculated into 10 days-old embryonated chicken eggs. The physical characteristics of the isolate (A/120 were studied. The hemagglutination of chicken red blood cell showed slow elution, thermostability of hemagglutinin at 56°C was 120 minutes. The vims was able to agglutinate horse erythrocytes but not those of sheep. The biological characteristics on mean death time (MDT of embryonated chicken egg and plaque morphology on chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF primary cell cultures were studied. The MDT was 56 hours, the isolate was velogenic NDV. There were three different plaque morphologies on CEF : 2 mm clear plaques, 1 mm clear plaques, and minute clear plaques which were visible only with microscopic examination.
Full Text Available Herpesvirus of turkey (HVT has been utilised as live vaccine against Marek’s disease in poultry industry world-wide for many years. However, the potency of HVT is not limited on the Marek’s disease only. Along with rapid development of recombinant technique, the potency of HVT can be broaden for other diseases. As naturally apathogenic virus, HVT is a suitable candidate as vector vaccine to express important antigens of viral pathogens. Several researches have been dedicated to design HVT recombinant vaccine by inserting gene of important virus, such as Marek’s disease virus (MDV, immuno bursal disease virus (IBDV, Newcastle disease virus (NDV and Avian Influenza virus (AIV. Therefore, the future recombinant of HVT has been expected to be better in performance along with the improvement of recombinant technique.
Md Rezwanur Rahman
Full Text Available Ebola virus disease (EVD, caused by one of the Ebola virus strains is an acute, serious illness which is often fatal when untreated. EVD, previously known as Ebola hemorrhagic fever, is a rare and deadly disease. It first appeared in 1976 in two simultaneous outbreaks, one in Nzara, Sudan, and the other in Yambuku, Democratic Republic of Congo. The latter occurred in a village near the Ebola River, from which the disease takes its name.1,2 On March 23, 2014, the World Health Organization (WHO was notified of an outbreak of EVD in Guinea. On August 8, WHO declared the epidemic to be a ‘Public health emergency of international concern’.3 The current 2014 outbreak in West Africa is the largest and most complex Ebola outbreak.1 It is to be noticed that the most severely affected countries, Guinea, Sierra Leone and Liberia have very weak health systems, lacking human and infrastructural resources and these countries recently emerged from long periods of conflict and instability.1 The virus family Filoviridae includes three genera: Cuevavirus, Marburgvirus, and Ebolavirus. Till date five species have been identified: Zaire, Bundibugyo, Sudan, Reston and Taï Forest. The recent outbreak belongs to the Zaire species which is the most lethal one, with an average case fatality rate of 78%.1,4 Till 6 December 2014, total 17,834 suspected cases and 6,678 deaths had been reported; however, WHO has said that these numbers may be vastly underestimated.5 The natural reservoir for Ebola has yet to be confirmed; however, fruit bats of the Pteropodidae family are considered to be the most likely candidate species.1,2,6 Ebola can be transmitted to human through close contact with the blood, secretions, organs or other bodily fluids of infected animals such as fruit bats, chimpanzees, gorillas, monkeys, etc. Ebola then spreads through human-to-human transmission via direct contact (through broken skin or mucous membranes with the blood, secretions, organs or
Ad de Groof
Full Text Available From 1992 onwards, outbreaks of a previously unknown illness have been reported in Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer kept in maricultures in Southeast Asia. The most striking symptom of this emerging disease is the loss of scales. It was referred to as scale drop syndrome, but the etiology remained enigmatic. By using a next-generation virus discovery technique, VIDISCA-454, sequences of an unknown virus were detected in serum of diseased fish. The near complete genome sequence of the virus was determined, which shows a unique genome organization, and low levels of identity to known members of the Iridoviridae. Based on homology of a series of putatively encoded proteins, the virus is a novel member of the Megalocytivirus genus of the Iridoviridae family. The virus was isolated and propagated in cell culture, where it caused a cytopathogenic effect in infected Asian seabass kidney and brain cells. Electron microscopy revealed icosahedral virions of about 140 nm, characteristic for the Iridoviridae. In vitro cultured virus induced scale drop syndrome in Asian seabass in vivo and the virus could be reisolated from these infected fish. These findings show that the virus is the causative agent for the scale drop syndrome, as each of Koch's postulates is fulfilled. We have named the virus Scale Drop Disease Virus. Vaccines prepared from BEI- and formalin inactivated virus, as well as from E. coli produced major capsid protein provide efficacious protection against scale drop disease.
de Groof, Ad; Guelen, Lars; Deijs, Martin; van der Wal, Yorick; Miyata, Masato; Ng, Kah Sing; van Grinsven, Lotte; Simmelink, Bartjan; Biermann, Yvonne; Grisez, Luc; van Lent, Jan; de Ronde, Anthony; Chang, Siow Foong; Schrier, Carla; van der Hoek, Lia
From 1992 onwards, outbreaks of a previously unknown illness have been reported in Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer) kept in maricultures in Southeast Asia. The most striking symptom of this emerging disease is the loss of scales. It was referred to as scale drop syndrome, but the etiology remained enigmatic. By using a next-generation virus discovery technique, VIDISCA-454, sequences of an unknown virus were detected in serum of diseased fish. The near complete genome sequence of the virus was determined, which shows a unique genome organization, and low levels of identity to known members of the Iridoviridae. Based on homology of a series of putatively encoded proteins, the virus is a novel member of the Megalocytivirus genus of the Iridoviridae family. The virus was isolated and propagated in cell culture, where it caused a cytopathogenic effect in infected Asian seabass kidney and brain cells. Electron microscopy revealed icosahedral virions of about 140 nm, characteristic for the Iridoviridae. In vitro cultured virus induced scale drop syndrome in Asian seabass in vivo and the virus could be reisolated from these infected fish. These findings show that the virus is the causative agent for the scale drop syndrome, as each of Koch's postulates is fulfilled. We have named the virus Scale Drop Disease Virus. Vaccines prepared from BEI- and formalin inactivated virus, as well as from E. coli produced major capsid protein provide efficacious protection against scale drop disease. PMID:26252390
Ad de Groof; Lars Guelen; Martin Deijs; Yorick van der Wal; Masato Miyata; Kah Sing Ng; Lotte van Grinsven; Bartjan Simmelink; Yvonne Biermann; Luc Grisez; Jan van Lent; Anthony de Ronde; Siow Foong Chang; Carla Schrier; Lia van der Hoek
From 1992 onwards, outbreaks of a previously unknown illness have been reported in Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer) kept in maricultures in Southeast Asia. The most striking symptom of this emerging disease is the loss of scales. It was referred to as scale drop syndrome, but the etiology remained enigmatic. By using a next-generation virus discovery technique, VIDISCA-454, sequences of an unknown virus were detected in serum of diseased fish. The near complete genome sequence of the virus wa...
Genomics and Immunogenetics Use of genomics to identify QTL, genes, and proteins associated with resistance to Marek’s disease. Marek’s disease (MD), a lymphoproliferative disease caused by the highly oncogenic herpesvirus Marek's disease virus (MDV), continues to be a major disease concern to the p...
Honkavuori, Kirsi S.; Shivaprasad, H. L.; Williams, Brent L.; Quan, Phenix-Lan; Hornig, Mady; Street, Craig; Palacios, Gustavo; Hutchison, Stephen K.; Franca, Monique; Egholm, Michael; Briese, Thomas; Lipkin, W. Ian
Pyrosequencing of cDNA from brains of parrots with proventricular dilatation disease (PDD), an unexplained fatal inflammatory central, autonomic, and peripheral nervous system disease, showed 2 strains of a novel Borna virus. Real-time PCR confirmed virus presence in brain, proventriculus, and adrenal gland of 3 birds with PDD but not in 4 unaffected birds.
Hubbard, Vanessa M.; Ken Cadwell
The etiology of the intestinal disease Crohn’s disease involves genetic factors as well as ill-defined environmental agents. Several genetic variants linked to this disease are associated with autophagy, a process that is critical for proper responses to viral infections. While a role for viruses in this disease remains speculative, accumulating evidence indicate that this possibility requires serious consideration. In this review, we will examine the three-way relationship between viruses, a...
Genomics and Immunogenetics Marek’s disease (MD), a lymphoproliferative disease caused by the highly oncogenic herpesvirus Marek's disease virus (MDV), continues to be a major disease concern to the poultry industry. The fear of MD is further enhanced by unpredictable vaccine breaks that result in ...
Garg, Ashish; Reddy, Chandrasekhar; Duseja, Ajay; Chawla, Yogesh; Radha K. Dhiman
Celiac disease affects the proximal small intestine and is caused by a local immune response to dietary gluten. Celiac disease usually presents with chronic diarrhea; however, presentations with elevated hepatic transaminase levels in blood or with iron-deficiency anemia have been described. Celiac disease has been reported to be associated with autoimmune liver diseases. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) can also initiate autoimmune disease process. Therefore, HCV infection and celiac disease may occu...
Nabel, G J
In many ways, Ebola virus infection provides a model for understanding the toxicity of viruses and their causal role in human disease. The highly aggressive course of Ebola virus infection provides a model for understanding the molecular mechanisms of viral cytotoxicity. In addition, the use of animal models and definition of immune correlates, which lead to protection, may provide lessons that are applicable to other viral infections. Perhaps the greatest challenge facing biomedical science ...
Moonen, P.; Schrijver, R.
This review describes current knowledge about persistent foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) infections, the available methods to detect carrier animals, the properties of persisting virus, the immunological mechanisms, and the risk of transmission. In particular, knowledge about the carrier state,
Lee, Byung Hoo; Um, Wook Hyun; Jeon, Seong Ran; Kim, Hyun Gun; Lee, Tae Hee; Kim, Wan Jung; Kim, Jin-Oh; Jin, So Young
Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is a recognized cause of gastrointestinal infection in immunodeficient patients. Although a few cases of HSV gastritis and colitis in immunocompromised patients have been reported, there are no reports of HSV duodenitis in patients with Crohn's disease (CD). A 74-year-old female was admitted with general weakness and refractory epigastric pain. She had been diagnosed with CD three years ago. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) revealed diffuse edematous and whitish mucosa with multiple erosions in the duodenum. Considering the possibility of viral co-infection, cytomegalovirus (CMV) immunohistochemical staining, PCR, and cultures of duodenal biopsies were performed, all of which were negative with the exception of the isolation of HSV in culture. After administration of intravenous acyclovir for 1 week, follow-up EGD showed almost complete resolution of the lesions and the patient's symptoms improved. In CD patients with refractory gastro-intestinal symptoms, HSV, as well as CMV, should be considered as a possible cause of infection, so that the diagnosis of viral infection is not delayed and the appropriate antiviral treatment can be initiated. PMID:24262595
I Slivac; V Gaurina Srček; K Radošević; I Kmetič; Z Kniewald
A novel, disposable-bag bioreactor system that uses wave action for mixing and transferring oxygen was evaluated for BHK 21 C13 cell line growth and Aujeszky’s disease virus (ADV) production. Growth kinetics of BHK 21 C13 cells in the wave bioreactor during 3-day period were determined. At the end of the 3-day culture period and cell density of 1.82 × 106 cells ml–1, the reactor was inoculated with 9 ml of gE- Bartha K-61 strain ADV suspension (105.9 TCID50) with multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 0.01. After a 144 h incubation period, 400 ml of ADV harvest was obtained with titre of 107.0 TCID50 ml–1, which corresponds to 40,000 doses of vaccine against AD. In conclusion, the results obtained with the wave bioreactor using BHK 21 C13 cells showed that this system can be considered as suitable for ADV or BHK 21 C13 cell biomass production.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Varicella to West Nile virus disease - 2014. In this Table, all conditions with a 5-year average annual national total of more than or equals...
Peripheral blood and bone marrow changes are commonly seen in disease associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). This annotation aims to summarise these changes and to suggest possible factors entailed in their occurrence.
Leligdowicz, Aleksandra; Fischer, William A; Uyeki, Timothy M; Fletcher, Thomas E; Adhikari, Neill K J; Portella, Gina; Lamontagne, Francois; Clement, Christophe; Jacob, Shevin T; Rubinson, Lewis; Vanderschuren, Abel; Hajek, Jan; Murthy, Srinivas; Ferri, Mauricio; Crozier, Ian; Ibrahima, Elhadj; Lamah, Marie-Claire; Schieffelin, John S; Brett-Major, David; Bausch, Daniel G; Shindo, Nikki; Chan, Adrienne K; O'Dempsey, Tim; Mishra, Sharmistha; Jacobs, Michael; Dickson, Stuart; Lyon, G Marshall; Fowler, Robert A
As of 20 May 2016 there have been 28,646 cases and 11,323 deaths resulting from the West African Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak reported to the World Health Organization. There continue to be sporadic flare-ups of EVD cases in West Africa.EVD presentation is nonspecific and characterized initially by onset of fatigue, myalgias, arthralgias, headache, and fever; this is followed several days later by anorexia, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain. Anorexia and gastrointestinal losses lead to dehydration, electrolyte abnormalities, and metabolic acidosis, and, in some patients, acute kidney injury. Hypoxia and ventilation failure occurs most often with severe illness and may be exacerbated by substantial fluid requirements for intravascular volume repletion and some degree of systemic capillary leak. Although minor bleeding manifestations are common, hypovolemic and septic shock complicated by multisystem organ dysfunction appear the most frequent causes of death.Males and females have been equally affected, with children (0-14 years of age) accounting for 19 %, young adults (15-44 years) 58 %, and older adults (≥45 years) 23 % of reported cases. While the current case fatality proportion in West Africa is approximately 40 %, it has varied substantially over time (highest near the outbreak onset) according to available resources (40-90 % mortality in West Africa compared to under 20 % in Western Europe and the USA), by age (near universal among neonates and high among older adults), and by Ebola viral load at admission.While there is no Ebola virus-specific therapy proven to be effective in clinical trials, mortality has been dramatically lower among EVD patients managed with supportive intensive care in highly resourced settings, allowing for the avoidance of hypovolemia, correction of electrolyte and metabolic abnormalities, and the provision of oxygen, ventilation, vasopressors, and dialysis when indicated. This experience emphasizes that
Sun, Peng; Cui, Ning; Su, Shuai; Chen, Zimeng; Li, Yanpeng; Ding, Jiabo; Cui, Zhizhong
GX0101 was the first reported field strain of recombinant Marek's disease virus (MDV) that contained a long terminal repeat (LTR) from the reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV). It is a very virulent MDV strain, with relatively high horizontal transmission ability. The REV LTR in GX0101 genome was proved to decrease the pathogenicity but increase the potential for horizontal transmission of the virus. Here we constructed a recombinant MDV GX0101-ALV-LTR to study stability of avian leukosis virus (ALV) LTR at the REV LTR insertion site in GX0101 genome and its influence on biological activities of the recombinant virus. The results showed that GX0101-ALV-LTR was able to replicate stably both in vitro and in vivo. ALV LTR remained stable in chickens infected either by inoculation with the recombinant virus GX0101-ALV-LTR or by horizontal transmission, as well as in cell culture. The pathogenic properties of GX0101-ALV-LTR virus were evaluated in infected specific-pathogen-free chickens. The present study demonstrated that the GX0101-ALV-LTR virus had a weaker inhibitory effect on the growth rates of the infected chickens and induced weaker immunosuppressive effects. Horizontal transmission ability of the GX0101-ALV-LTR virus appeared to be similar with its parental virus GX0101. In short, ALV LTR was stable in GX0101 after replacing REV LTR, and the recombinant virus showed similar horizontal transmission ability but decreased pathogenicity. PMID:26274570
Herrington, C S; Coates, P J; Duprex, W P
Viruses cause a wide range of human diseases, ranging from acute self-resolving conditions to acute fatal diseases. Effects that arise long after the primary infection can also increase the propensity for chronic conditions or lead to the development of cancer. Recent advances in the fields of virology and pathology have been fundamental in improving our understanding of viral pathogenesis, in providing improved vaccination strategies and in developing newer, more effective treatments for patients worldwide. The reviews assembled here focus on the interface between virology and pathology and encompass aspects of both the clinical pathology of viral disease and the underlying disease mechanisms. Articles on emerging diseases caused by Ebola virus, Marburg virus, coronaviruses such as SARS and MERS, Nipah virus and noroviruses are followed by reviews of enteroviruses, HIV infection, measles, mumps, human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), influenza, cytomegalovirus (CMV) and varicella zoster virus (VZV). The issue concludes with a series of articles reviewing the relationship between viruses and cancer, including the role played by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in the pathogenesis of lymphoma and carcinoma; how human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are involved in the development of skin cancer; the involvement of hepatitis B virus infection in hepatocellular carcinoma; and the mechanisms by which Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) leads to Kaposi's sarcoma. We hope that this collection of articles will be of interest to a wide range of scientists and clinicians at a time when there is a renaissance in the appreciation of the power of pathology as virologists dissect the processes of disease. PMID:25366544
Zhang, Shuo; Li, Dexin
Since Zika virus (ZIKV) has firstly been isolated in 1947, Uganda, outbreaks of Zika fever have been reported in many areas such as in Africa, Southeast Asia and America. Imported cases in China also have been reported. Zika virus belongs to the family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, and include Africa subtype and Asia subtype. It is a mosquito-borne virus primarily transmitted by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Sexual transmission, Blood transmission and mother-to-fetus transmission were also reported. Zika virus can go though blood-brain barrier and infect central nervous system. Symptoms are generally mild and self-limited, but recent evidence suggests a possible association between maternal Zika virus infection and adverse fetal outcomes, such as congenital microcephaly, as well as a possible association with Guillain-Barré syndrome. Laboratorial Diagnosis includes nucleic acid detection, Serological test, and isolation of virus. Currently, no vaccine or medication exists to prevent or treat Zika virus infection. Preventive measures against Zika virus infection should be taken through prevention of mosquito bites and surveillance in epidemic area. PMID:27295893
Borchardt, Roy A
Zika virus is a flavivirus transmitted to humans via the bite of infected mosquitoes. A recent outbreak in Brazil has spread to several surrounding countries, and the virus also has been reported in the United States. The virus is associated with microcephaly among newborns whose mothers were infected. Because no vaccine or treatment is available, efforts have focused on preventing mosquito bites and advising pregnant women and women trying to get pregnant to avoid active areas of Zika virus transmission. Clinicians should understand the infection, its diagnosis and testing, and monitor pregnant women for travel history to outbreak regions and for the presence of clinical symptoms. Patient education on preventive measures offers the best option to avoid Zika virus infection. PMID:26953673
Proschan, Michael A; Dodd, Lori E; Price, Dionne
The 2014 West African outbreak of Ebola virus ravaged Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Guinea, causing hemorrhagic fever and death. The need to identify effective therapeutics was acute. The usual drug development paradigm of phase I, followed by phase II, and then phase III trials would take too long. These and other factors led to the design of a clinical trial of Ebola virus disease therapeutics that differs from more conventional clinical trial designs. This article describes the Ebola virus disease medical countermeasures trial design and the thinking behind it. PMID:26768567
WANG An-ping; SUN Huai-chang; WANG Jian-ye; WANG Yong-juan; YUAN Wei-feng
To compare the helper activities of different avian viruses for propagation of recombinant avian adeno-associated virus (rAAAV), AAV-293 cells were cotransfected with the AAAV vector pAITR-GFP containing green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene, the AAAV helper vector pcDNA-ARC expressing the rep and cap genes, and the adenovirus helper vector pHelper expressing Ad5 E2A, E4, and VA-RNA genes. Chicken embryonic fibroblast (CEF) or chicken embryonic liver (CEL) cells were cotransfected with the AAAV vector and the AAAV helper vector, followed by infection with Marek's disease virus (MDV), avian adenovirus, chicken embryo lethal orphan (CELO) virus or infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV). Infectious rAAAV particles generated by the two strategies were harvested and titrated on CEF and CEL cells. A significantly higher viral titer was obtained with the helper activity provided by the pHelper vector than by MDV or CELO virus. Further experiments showed that rAAAV-mediated green fluorescent protein (gfp) expression was overtly enhanced by MDV or CELO virus super infection or treatment with sodium butyric acid, but not by IBDV super infection. These data demonstrated that MDV and CELO viruses could provide weak helper activity for propagation of rAAAV, and rAAAV-mediated transgene expression could be enhanced by super infection with the helper viruses.
We replaced the MEQ gene from a bacterial artificial chromosome clone of Marek’s disease virus with gJ and gB genes from infectious laryngotracheitis virus. We will compare the efficacy of these vectored vaccines with commercial vaccines for Marek’s disease and infectious laryngotracheitis....
CERN Medical Service
Transmitted by the bite of a certain species of mosquitoes (Aedes), the Zika virus is spreading quickly in tropical areas of Central America, the Caribbean and South America. Although no specific treatment nor vaccine is currently available, the most effective preventive measures are those focused on avoiding mosquito bites. There are no travel restrictions in place at present. However it is recommended that pregnant women defer travel plans to countries affected by the Zika virus. For further information on symptoms and prevention measures, please click on the Zika virus link or contact the Medical Service.
Zierenberg, K; Nieper, H; van den Berg, T P; Ezeokoli, C D; Voss, M; Müller, H
11 African and two German IBDV strains isolated in the mid '80s from field outbreaks in vaccinated and unvaccinated chicken flocks displayed features of very virulent (vv) IBDV strains. The sequence data of the VP2 variable region and phylogenetic analysis confirm that these strains can be grouped within vv IBDV strains which appeared at the same time on the three continents Africa, Asia, and Europe. Strain Cu-1wt, responsible for severe IBD outbreaks in Germany 13 years earlier, showed some relatedness to these strains, but also significant differences at the genomic level, even though this strain has also features of the vv IBDV strains. PMID:10664410
M.H. Mohammed; Hair-Bejo, M; Omar, A. R.; Aini, I.; Mauida F. Hasoon
This study aimed to investigate the efficacy, safety and immunogenicity of the attenuated and inactivated Malaysian isolate of vvIBDV (UPM0081) in specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chickens. The UPM0081T15 passage 15 and UPM0081T20 passage 20 of vvIBDV attenuated in Vero cells were inactivated using water-Catholyte-Anolyte (ECA). Complete inactivation of UPM0081T15 with titer of 106.7 TCID50/0.1 mL and UPM0081T20 with titer of 107.4 TCID50/0.1mL occurred after 24 hours. The inactiva...
Juul-Madsen, Helle; Nielsen, O.L.; Krogh-Maibom, T.; Rontved, C.M.; Dalgaard, T.S.; Bumstead, N.; Jørgensen, Poul Henrik
further contains the BW1 haplotype isolated from a Red jungle Fowl. Line 131 further contains the B131 haplotype isolated from a meat-type chicken, Finally, Line 21 further contains the international B21 haplotype. The chickens were vaccinated with live attenuated commercial IBDV vaccine at 3 wk of age...... weight, relative weights of the bursa and the spleen, percentage and relative number of MHC II molecules on MHC II-positive lymphocytes, percentage and relative number of CD4 molecules on CD4-positive lymphocytes, and the specific antibody response all differed significantly among lines. Line 1, with Red...
Liu, Jinliang; Dai, Shiyu; Wang, Manli; Hu, Zhihong; Wang, Hualin; Deng, Fei
Emerging infectious diseases are major threats to human health. Most severe viral disease outbreaks occur in developing regions where health conditions are poor. With increased international travel and business, the possibility of eventually transmitting infectious viruses between different countries is increasing. The most effective approach in preventing viral diseases is vaccination. However, vaccines are not currently available for numerous viral diseases. Virus-like particles (VLPs) are engineered vaccine candidates that have been studied for decades. VLPs are constructed by viral protein expression in various expression systems that promote the selfassembly of proteins into structures resembling virus particles. VLPs have antigenicity similar to that of the native virus, but are non-infectious as they lack key viral genetic material. VLP vaccines have attracted considerable research interest because they offer several advantages over traditional vaccines. Studies have shown that VLP vaccines can stimulate both humoral and cellular immune responses, which may offer effective antiviral protection. Here we review recent developments with VLP-based vaccines for several highly virulent emerging or re-emerging infectious diseases. The infectious agents discussed include RNA viruses from different virus families, such as the Arenaviridae, Bunyaviridae, Caliciviridae, Coronaviridae, Filoviridae, Flaviviridae, Orthomyxoviridae, Paramyxoviridae, and Togaviridae families. PMID:27405928
Larson, Robert L
Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDv) is associated with bovine respiratory disease complex and other diseases of feedlot cattle. Although occasionally a primary pathogen, BVDv's impact on cattle health is through the immunosuppressive effects of the virus and its synergism with other pathogens. The simple presence or absence of BVDv does not result in consistent health outcomes because BVDv is only one of many risk factors that contribute to disease syndromes. Current interventions have limitations and the optimum strategy for their uses to limit the health, production, and economic costs associated with BVDv have to be carefully considered for optimum cost-effectiveness. PMID:26210765
R.A. Bem; J.B. Domachowske; H.F. Rosenberg
Infection with the human pneumovirus pathogen, respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV), causes a wide spectrum of respiratory disease, notably among infants and the elderly. Laboratory animal studies permit detailed experimental modeling of hRSV disease and are therefore indispensable in the search for n
Since the first report of a polyneuritis in chickens by Joseph Marek in 1907 (24), the clinical nature of the disease has changed. Over the last five decades, the pathogenicity of the Marek's disease virus (MDV) has continued to evolve from the relatively mild strains (mMDV) observed in the 1960s to...
Blackberry yellow vein disease, with symptoms of vein clearing, yellow mottling, ringspots and plant decline has been observed in blackberry in the southeastern United States since about 2000. At least six viruses have been identified by cloning and sequencing of double-stranded RNA from diseased p...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Complete resection seemed to be curative in patients with Castleman disease of any location but the disease is likely to be reactive in its pathogenesis. The relation between Epstein-Barr virus and Castleman disease has not been elucidated. We tried to define the role of Epstein-Barr virus in the pathogenesis of Castleman disease. Methods 20 cases of Castleman disease were retrospectively reviewed from 1993 to 2006. At least 2 to 4 representative sections of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded specimens from each patient were obtained to examine the presence of EBV and its localization by hematoxylin-eosin stain, immunohistochemistry, polymerase chain reaction and In-situ hybridization Results Hyaline-vascular type was diagnosed in 18 cases, plasma cell type in 1 and mixed type in 1 case. All of them were positive for Epstein-Barr virus confirmed by PCR. For tumors that EBER(Epstein-Barr early region signals mainly localized in the germinal centers have increased vascularity than cases with EBER detected in inter-follicular areas. Conclusion There is a strong association between Castleman disease and Epstein-Barr virus. EBV may have a potential role in angiogenesis of Castleman disease. For smaller lesion with high activity of angiogenesis but not amenable for curative resection, anti-angiogenesis medications may have a potential role to control the disease.
This paper presents descriptions of several diseases of animals caused by viruses, the effects upon the animals by the disease, and the losses suffered in infected herds. The importance of the control of these viral diseases in international commerce by quarantine regulations on items, such as meat, milk, blood, hides, hair, wool, bone, animal feeds and packaging materials, is pointed out. Such information is followed by a detailed description of the experiments carried out to inactivate the Foot and Mouth Disease virus by heat and by irradiation, in both the liquid and dry states. It is indicated that the inactivation by irradiation requires 3 Mrad in the liquid state bu that 4 Mrad are required if in the dry state. There is a short discussion on the need for similar researches with the other types of animal viruses and on some of the difficulties encountered in carrying out this type of work. (author). 40 refs, 4 figs, 2 tabs
Yun, Bingling; Li, Delong; Zhu, Haibo; Liu, Wen; Qin, Liting; Liu, Zaisi; Wu, Guan; Wang, Yongqiang; Qi, Xiaole; Gao, Honglei; Wang, Xiaomei; Gao, Yulong
An antigen-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (AC-ELISA) employing monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies against p27 was developed for the detection of the avian leukosis virus (ALV). The specificity of the optimized AC-ELISA was evaluated using avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J), avian leukosis virus subgroup A (ALV-A), avian leukosis virus subgroup B (ALV-B), avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), Marek's disease virus (MDV), avian infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV), Fowlpox virus (FPV), infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), Newcastle disease virus (NDV), avian reovirus (ARV), reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV), avian influenza virus (AIV) and Escherichia coli. The only specimens that yielded a strong signal were ALV-J, ALV-A and ALV-B, indicating that this assay is suitable for the detection of ALV. The limit of detection of this assay was 1.25 ng/ml of rp27 protein and 10(1.79)TCID(50) units of HLJ09MDJ-1 (ALV-J). Moreover, this AC-ELISA can detect ALV in cloacal swabs of chickens experimentally infected as early as 12 days post-infection. The AC-ELISA detected the virus in the albumin and cloacal swabs of naturally infected chickens, and the results were confirmed by PCR, indicating that the AC-ELISA was a suitable method for the detection of ALV. This test is rapid and sensitive and could be convenient for epidemiological studies and eradication programs. PMID:23201286
Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), the causative agent of foot-and-mouth disease, is an Apthovirus within the Picornaviridae family. During infection with FMDV, several host cell membrane rearrangements occur to form sites of viral replication. The largest viral protein in the replication complex,...
Tyrrell, D. A. J.
Viruses of various biological types are known to cause a wide range of acute respiratory infections, ranging from mild colds and catarrh to severe bronchiolitis and pneumonia. Bacteria also cause respiratory diseases including serious conditions such as otitis media and pneumonia. The whole situation is complex and to understand the epidemiology we also need to consider nutrition, environment, climate, and chronic diseases. Acute respiratory viral diseases are very common in all areas of the ...
Kaliman, A V; Boldogköi, Z; Fodor, I
A gene construct of the Aujeszky's disease virus (ADV) genome was prepared and the DNA fragment encoding the ribonucleotide reductase was structurally characterized. We determined the entire DNA sequence of two adjacent open reading frames of the ribonucleotide reductase genes with the intergenic sequence of nine base pairs. From the sequence analysis we predict that Aujeszky's disease virus encodes a ribonucleotide reductase which comprises two polypeptides--large and small subunits, with sizes of 835 and 303 amino acids, respectively. Nucleotide and amino acid sequences of the large and small subunits of the Aujeszky's disease virus ribonucleotide reductase have been compared with that of other herpesviruses, and structural features of both proteins have been characterized. PMID:7810419
I. V. Shestakova
Full Text Available For the first time in the domestic medical literature presents a deep review about epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory knowledge of Zika virus disease, based mainly on the publications of foreign authors and leading international organizations from 1947 to March 2016. Analyzed the essence of the problem, treatment of patients with Zika virus disease and infected pregnant women, indicated the unresolved question. For the first time were systematic sources of contemporary information about Zika virus disease for professionals and patients.
Li, G; Hong, Q; Ren, Y; Lillehoj, H S; He, C; Ren, X
The FPV140 gene encodes an envelope protein of fowlpox virus (FPV). In this study, the FPV140 gene of FPV Chinese isolate HH2008 was cloned and the comparison of its sequence with other FPV isolates showed it to be highly conserved across all FPV isolates. A recombinant plasmid pET-FPV140 carrying FPV140 gene was constructed and transformed into Escherichia coli. The optimal expression condition for the FPV140 gene was developed and purified FPV140 recombinant protein was used to produce rabbit polyclonal antibody. An indirect ELISA using this anti-FPV140 polyclonal antibody was capable of distinguishing avian FPV isolates from other common avian pathogens such as mycoplasma gallisepticum, infectious laryngotracheitis virus, avian influenza virus, infectious bursal disease virus, and avian infectious bronchitis virus. This ELISA will serve as a useful diagnostic tool for the detection of FPV in clinical samples. PMID:22991535
Sheng, Xiuzhen; Zhan, Wenbin; Xu, Songjuan; Cheng, Shunfeng
Lymphocystis nodules occurring in the cultured sting fish Sebastes schlegeli were observed under light and electron microscope. Lymphocystis disease virus (LCDV) in the tissues of diseased fish was detected with indirect immunofluorescence test (IFAT). Results showed that lymphocystis cells had overly irregular nuclei, basophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies with virions budding from the surface, and hyaline capsules outside the cell membrane. Numerous virus particles about 200 nm in diameter scattered in the cytoplasm, electron-dense particles 70 80 nm in diameter filled in perinuclear cisterna, and membrane-enveloped particles with electron-dense core of 70 80 nm appeared around cellular nucleus. IFAT using monoclonal antibody against LCDV from Paralichthys olivaceus revealed that specific green fluorescence was present in the cytoplasm of lymphocystis cells, epithelium of stomach, gill lamellae, and muscular fibers under epidermis of S. schlegeli, just as that in the cytoplasm of lymphocystis cells of P. olivaceus, suggesting the presence of LCDV in these tissues.
Lymphocystis nodules occurring in the cultured sting fish Sebastes schlegeli were observed under light and electron microscope. Lymphocystis disease virus (LCDV) in the tissues of diseased fish was detected with indirect immunofluorescence test (IFAT). Results showed that lymphocystis cells had overly irregular nuclei, basophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies with virions budding from the surface, and hyaline capsules outside the cell membrane. Numerous virus particles about 200 nm in diameter scattered in the cytoplasm, electron-dense particles 70-80nm in diameter filled in perinuclear cisterna, and membrane-enveloped particles with electron-dense core of 70-80 nm appeared around cellular nucleus. IFAT using monoclonal antibody against LCDV from Paralichthys olivaceus revealed that specific green fluorescence was present in the cytoplasm of lymphocystis cells, epithelium of stomach, gill lamellae, and muscular fibers under epidermis of S. schlegeli, just as that in the cytoplasm of lymphocystis cells of P. olivaceus, suggesting the presence of LCDV in these tissues.
Bong Choon Lee; Sang-Yun Cho; Young-Nam Yoon; In Jeong Kang; Jong Hee Lee; Do Yeon Kwak; Dong Bum Shin; Hang-Won Kang
We surveyed the occurrence of Rice stripe virus (RSV) disease in 672 fields from 29 rice representative area inJuly 2012 as nationwide survey for RSV occurrence since 2008. We confirmed occurrence of virus disease in18 areas, in west coast region including Secheon, Taean, Buwan and Cheorwon. RSV incidence rates of plantin Sacheon and Buan were less than 0.01% and 0.15%, respectively, showing similar rate with the nationwidesurvey carried out in 2008, whereas incidence rate of field declined f...
Ebola virus disease (EVD) is a zoonotic disease that causes severe haemorrhagic fever, with high fatality rates of up to 90% in humans. Today, there is no effective treatment available. Person-to-person transmission occurs through exposure to blood or body fluids, which can threaten other household members and first-line healthcare workers. The first cases of EVD in Guinea were identified on 22 March 2014. It was initially believed that this like previous outbreaks would be self-limiting. However, lack of public health infrastructure, delays in virus detection and late implementation of control interventions contributed to widespread transmission of EVD in a region inexperienced in dealing with the disease. Socio-cultural and economic factors probably also played a key role in the spread of the disease, resulting in the current large-scale outbreak. Some promising candidate treatments for this disease are now being developed. PMID:26147380
Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is a highly infectious and economically devastating disease of livestock. Although vaccines, available since the early 1900s, have been instrumental in eradicating FMD from parts of the world, the disease still affects millions of animals around the globe and remains the...
Rouby, Sherin; Aboulsoud, Emad
The current study describes the clinical, histopathological, molecular and serological diagnosis of lumpy skin disease (LSD) in a premature 1-day old calf that has been delivered from a cow that exhibited signs of LSD during the seventh month of pregnancy. The calf showed generalized skin lesions accompanied with signs of immaturity and died 36 h after birth. Postmortem and histopathological examinations revealed the involvement of multiple tissues. The presence of Neethling virus DNA in tissues was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and gene sequencing. Results of ELISA and serum neutralization test (SNT) confirmed that the calf had developed precolostral serum antibodies to LSD virus indicating in utero virus transmission. All tested sera collected from animals located in the same area were serologically positive, indicating exposure to LSD virus. PMID:26831170
ML Arvinda Swamy
Full Text Available Currently various countries in Africa, including Liberia, Sierra Leone, Guinea, Nigeria, are facing disaster due to Ebola Virus Disease (EVD, which is primarily caused by Ebola virus. 2014 outbreak of Ebola associated viral haemorrhagic fever has 55-60% fatality rate. The incubation period of Ebola is below 21 days; once the appearance of symptoms starts the person will be infective. As there is no specific vaccine, antiviral or drugs for treating Ebola resulting in large number of deaths. Most of the recent outbreaks occurred in remote areas of West Africa. Poverty, lack of awareness, access to health centres, human habitats taking its toll in spreading the disease in large scale. Few nucleotide analogues, protease inhibitors, receptor binding, monoclonal antibodies and anticoagulant therapies are exhibiting promising role in inhibiting the Ebola virus in various (in vitro and in vivo models.
Abrantes Joana; van der Loo Wessel; Le Pendu Jacques; Esteves Pedro J
Abstract Rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) is a calicivirus of the genus Lagovirus that causes rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD) in adult European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). First described in China in 1984, the virus rapidly spread worldwide and is nowadays considered as endemic in several countries. In Australia and New Zealand where rabbits are pests, RHDV was purposely introduced for rabbit biocontrol. Factors that may have precipitated RHD emergence remain unclear, but non-p...
Lymphocytosis disease (LCD) in fishes is caused by the agent called lymphocytosis disease virus (LCDV). LCDV is a chronic and benign virus. The disease affects 96 species of marine and fresh water fishes ranged among 34 families in the world. Affected fish with LCD has a typical external symptom with clusters consisted of enormously hypertrophied dermal cells on the skin and fins. The hypertrophied cells, generally named lymphocytosis cells, have a thick hyaline capsule, an enlarged nucleus and prominent basophilic cytoplasmic inclusions. Among the four species of fishes, olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus, and rockfish Sebastes schlegeli were marine cultured fish, and gourami Trichogaster leeri and painted glass fish Channa baculis were freshwater ornamental fish. Although LCD causes low mortality, the disfigurement of infected fish can make them unsellable. Thus LCD has resulted in an important economic loss in the aquaculture industry. This study of histopathology may be adequate for a presumptive diagnosis of lymphocytosis diseases both in marine and freshwater fish species. (author)
We report the results of a simple pairwise scanning analysis designed to identify inter-serotype recombination events applied to genome data from 144 isolates of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) representing all seven serotypes. We identify large numbers of candidate recombinant fragments from a...
Jensen, Trine Hammer; Chriél, Mariann; Hansen, Mette Sif
Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) is found world-wide and has a major impact on mink health and welfare by decreasing reproduction and fur quality. In the majority of mink, the infection is subclinical and the diagnosis must be confirmed by serology or polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Increased ...
An interesting aspect of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is the ability to selectively replicate in tumor cells. Recently, using reverse genetics technology to enhance the oncolytic properties and therapeutic potential of NDV for tumor therapy has become popular in immunocompetent carcinoma tumor mod...
Wedemeyer, H; Duberg, A S; Buti, M;
The number of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections is projected to decline while those with advanced liver disease will increase. A modeling approach was used to forecast two treatment scenarios: (i) the impact of increased treatment efficacy while keeping the number of treated patients constant and...
Dortmans, J.C.F.M.; Koch, G.; Rottier, P.J.M.; Peeters, B.P.H.
In the last decade many studies have been performed on the virulence of Newcastle disease virus (NDV). This is mainly due to the development of reverse genetics systems which made it possible to genetically modify NDV and to investigate the contribution of individual genes and genome regions to its
Survival of Aujeszky's disease virus in pig slurry was investigated during anaerobic storage at 5, 20, 35, 40, 45, 50 and 55°C using 100-ml laboratory models simulating the conditions in slurry tanks during winter and summer seasons and during anaerobic digestion in batch reactors. The inactivation...
Martin N. Adokiya; John K. Awoonor-Williams
Background: The recent Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak has been described as unprecedented in terms of morbidity, mortality, and geographical extension. It also revealed many weaknesses and inadequacies for disease surveillance and response systems in Africa due to underqualified staff, cultural beliefs, and lack of trust for the formal health care sector. In 2014, Ghana had high risk of importation of EVD cases.Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the EVD surveillance and ...
Tathiana Ferreira Sá Antunes
Full Text Available Papaya sticky disease, or "meleira", is one of the major diseases of papaya in Brazil and Mexico, capable of causing complete crop loss. The causal agent of sticky disease was identified as an isometric virus with a double stranded RNA (dsRNA genome, named papaya meleira virus (PMeV. In the present study, PMeV dsRNA and a second RNA band of approximately 4.5 kb, both isolated from latex of papaya plants with severe symptoms of sticky disease, were deep-sequenced. The nearly complete sequence obtained for PMeV dsRNA is 8,814 nucleotides long and contains two putative ORFs; the predicted ORF1 and ORF2 display similarity to capsid proteins and RdRp's, respectively, from mycoviruses tentatively classified in the family Totiviridae. The sequence obtained for the second RNA is 4,515 nucleotides long and contains two putative ORFs. The predicted ORFs 1 and 2 display 48% and 73% sequence identity, respectively, with the corresponding proteins of papaya virus Q, an umbravirus recently described infecting papaya in Ecuador. Viral purification in a sucrose gradient allowed separation of particles containing each RNA. Mass spectrometry analysis indicated that both PMeV and the second RNA virus (named papaya meleira virus 2, PMeV2 were encapsidated in particles formed by the protein encoded by PMeV ORF1. The presence of both PMeV and PMeV2 was confirmed in field plants showing typical symptoms of sticky disease. Interestingly, PMeV was detected alone in asymptomatic plants. Together, our results indicate that sticky disease is associated with double infection by PMeV and PMeV2.
Sá Antunes, Tathiana Ferreira; Amaral, Raquel J Vionette; Ventura, José Aires; Godinho, Marcio Tadeu; Amaral, Josiane G; Souza, Flávia O; Zerbini, Poliane Alfenas; Zerbini, Francisco Murilo; Fernandes, Patricia Machado Bueno
Papaya sticky disease, or "meleira", is one of the major diseases of papaya in Brazil and Mexico, capable of causing complete crop loss. The causal agent of sticky disease was identified as an isometric virus with a double stranded RNA (dsRNA) genome, named papaya meleira virus (PMeV). In the present study, PMeV dsRNA and a second RNA band of approximately 4.5 kb, both isolated from latex of papaya plants with severe symptoms of sticky disease, were deep-sequenced. The nearly complete sequence obtained for PMeV dsRNA is 8,814 nucleotides long and contains two putative ORFs; the predicted ORF1 and ORF2 display similarity to capsid proteins and RdRp's, respectively, from mycoviruses tentatively classified in the family Totiviridae. The sequence obtained for the second RNA is 4,515 nucleotides long and contains two putative ORFs. The predicted ORFs 1 and 2 display 48% and 73% sequence identity, respectively, with the corresponding proteins of papaya virus Q, an umbravirus recently described infecting papaya in Ecuador. Viral purification in a sucrose gradient allowed separation of particles containing each RNA. Mass spectrometry analysis indicated that both PMeV and the second RNA virus (named papaya meleira virus 2, PMeV2) were encapsidated in particles formed by the protein encoded by PMeV ORF1. The presence of both PMeV and PMeV2 was confirmed in field plants showing typical symptoms of sticky disease. Interestingly, PMeV was detected alone in asymptomatic plants. Together, our results indicate that sticky disease is associated with double infection by PMeV and PMeV2. PMID:27166626
Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) is the leading cause of economic loss in the U.S. cattle industry. BRDC likely results from simultaneous or sequential infections with multiple pathogens including both viruses and bacteria. Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and bovine corona virus (BoCV...
The continuing emergence of novel subtypes and genetic variants of swine influenza viruses (SIV) causing swine flu challenges our ability to effectively manage this high morbidity disease among swine. New strategic approaches for vaccine development must be considered to keep up with the ever-evolv...
Pastula, Daniel M; Smith, Daniel E; Beckham, J David; Tyler, Kenneth L
Arthropod-borne viruses, or arboviruses, are viruses that are transmitted through the bites of mosquitoes, ticks, or sandflies. There are numerous arboviruses throughout the world capable of causing human disease spanning different viral families and genera. Recently, Jamestown Canyon, Powassan, chikungunya, and Zika viruses have emerged as increasingly important arboviruses that can cause human disease in North America. Unfortunately, there are currently no proven disease-modifying therapies for these arboviral diseases, so treatment is largely supportive. Given there are also no commercially available vaccines for these four arboviral infections, prevention is the key. To prevent mosquito or tick bites that might result in one of these arboviral diseases, people should wear long-sleeved shirts and pants while outside if feasible, apply insect repellant when going outdoors, using window screens or air conditioning to keep mosquitoes outside, and perform tick checks after being in wooded or brushy outdoor areas. PMID:26903031
Titilola T. Obilade
Globally, persons with diseases like leprosy, tuberculosis, H1N1, SARS or HIV/AIDS have been stigmatized. The ongoing Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in West Africa has been the longest outbreak in the history of the disease and the first outbreak to ever occur in West Africa. The strain of Ebolavirus in West Africa is one of the most virulent strains of the Filoviridae family and case fatalities can be as high as 90%. Treatment of EVD is mainly supportive and societal at...
Mª Teófila Vicente-Herrero
Full Text Available Ebola Virus infection is at present times a growing worldwide concern, although its history goes back to 1967, with subsequent outbreaks in 1979, 1980 and 1987, all of them by contact in workers in affected areas. The concern of the scientific community about this issue is partially reflected in publications included in MEDLINE (PUBMED database and in which, taking as a keyword in the search box “Ebola virus”, 2.151 publications are found, belonging 984 of them to the last 5 years (45.7% and 527 of these publications (53.5% to the years 2014-2015. The earliest publication dates back to 1977, attaching no listed authors either reference abstract, and the most recent to January of current year 2015. This means Ebola infection is a global problem and that concern the international scientific community. A review of some of the studies published in this matter, considered of interest and discussed by the authors, is performed in this work.
Full Text Available The 5´-untranslated region of Pestivirus strains isolated from domestic and wild animals were analysed to determine their taxonomic status according to nucleotide changes in the secondary genomic structure using the palindromic nucleotide substitutions (PNS method. A total of 131 isolates out of 536 Pestivirus strains evaluated, were clustered as Border disease virus (BDV species. The BDV strains were further divided into at least 8 genotypes or subspecies. Thirty-two isolates from small ruminants suffering from clinical symptoms of Border disease were clustered into bovine viral diarrhoea virus 1 (BVDV-1, BVDV-2 and classical swine fever (hog cholera virus species and also into the tentative BDV-2 species. Since the definition of an infectious disease is based primarily on a specific causative pathogen and taking into account the heterogeneity of the genus Pestivirus, clinical cases should be named according to the laboratory results. The PNS procedure could be useful for laboratory diagnosis of Border disease in domestic and wild ruminants.
Ruibal, Paula; Oestereich, Lisa; Lüdtke, Anja; Becker-Ziaja, Beate; Wozniak, David M; Kerber, Romy; Korva, Miša; Cabeza-Cabrerizo, Mar; Bore, Joseph A; Koundouno, Fara Raymond; Duraffour, Sophie; Weller, Romy; Thorenz, Anja; Cimini, Eleonora; Viola, Domenico; Agrati, Chiara; Repits, Johanna; Afrough, Babak; Cowley, Lauren A; Ngabo, Didier; Hinzmann, Julia; Mertens, Marc; Vitoriano, Inês; Logue, Christopher H; Boettcher, Jan Peter; Pallasch, Elisa; Sachse, Andreas; Bah, Amadou; Nitzsche, Katja; Kuisma, Eeva; Michel, Janine; Holm, Tobias; Zekeng, Elsa-Gayle; García-Dorival, Isabel; Wölfel, Roman; Stoecker, Kilian; Fleischmann, Erna; Strecker, Thomas; Di Caro, Antonino; Avšič-Županc, Tatjana; Kurth, Andreas; Meschi, Silvia; Mély, Stephane; Newman, Edmund; Bocquin, Anne; Kis, Zoltan; Kelterbaum, Anne; Molkenthin, Peter; Carletti, Fabrizio; Portmann, Jasmine; Wolff, Svenja; Castilletti, Concetta; Schudt, Gordian; Fizet, Alexandra; Ottowell, Lisa J; Herker, Eva; Jacobs, Thomas; Kretschmer, Birte; Severi, Ettore; Ouedraogo, Nobila; Lago, Mar; Negredo, Anabel; Franco, Leticia; Anda, Pedro; Schmiedel, Stefan; Kreuels, Benno; Wichmann, Dominic; Addo, Marylyn M; Lohse, Ansgar W; De Clerck, Hilde; Nanclares, Carolina; Jonckheere, Sylvie; Van Herp, Michel; Sprecher, Armand; Xiaojiang, Gao; Carrington, Mary; Miranda, Osvaldo; Castro, Carlos M; Gabriel, Martin; Drury, Patrick; Formenty, Pierre; Diallo, Boubacar; Koivogui, Lamine; Magassouba, N'Faly; Carroll, Miles W; Günther, Stephan; Muñoz-Fontela, César
Despite the magnitude of the Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in West Africa, there is still a fundamental lack of knowledge about the pathophysiology of EVD. In particular, very little is known about human immune responses to Ebola virus. Here we evaluate the physiology of the human T cell immune response in EVD patients at the time of admission to the Ebola Treatment Center in Guinea, and longitudinally until discharge or death. Through the use of multiparametric flow cytometry established by the European Mobile Laboratory in the field, we identify an immune signature that is unique in EVD fatalities. Fatal EVD was characterized by a high percentage of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells expressing the inhibitory molecules CTLA-4 and PD-1, which correlated with elevated inflammatory markers and high virus load. Conversely, surviving individuals showed significantly lower expression of CTLA-4 and PD-1 as well as lower inflammation, despite comparable overall T cell activation. Concomitant with virus clearance, survivors mounted a robust Ebola-virus-specific T cell response. Our findings suggest that dysregulation of the T cell response is a key component of EVD pathophysiology. PMID:27147028
Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), the causative agent of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), is an Apthovirus within the Picornaviridae family. Replication of the virus occurs in association with replication complexes that are formed by host cell membrane rearrangements. The largest viral protein in th...
S. Vasantha; LAL, SM; Antony, A
Foot-and-mouth disease is an acute and highly contagious febrile disease affecting cloven-footed animals. Identification of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), the causative agent of the disease, posed problems because of the occurrence of many types and subtypes of the virus. A molecular approach based on oligonucleotide mapping of FMDV RNA has been used for the identification and characterization of virus isolates obtained in a disease outbreak (King et al., 1981). One-dimensiona...
Kristi L. Koenig
Full Text Available Ebola Virus Disease (EVD has become a public health emergency of international concern. The World Health Organization and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have developed guidance to educate and inform healthcare workers and travelers worldwide. Symptoms of EVD include abrupt onset of fever, myalgias, and headache in the early phase, followed by vomiting, diarrhea and possible progression to hemorrhagic rash, life-threatening bleeding, and multi-organ failure in the later phase. The disease is not transmitted via airborne spread like influenza, but rather from person-to-person, or animal to person, via direct contact with bodily fluids or blood. It is crucial that emergency physicians be educated on disease presentation and how to generate a timely and accurate differential diagnosis that includes exotic diseases in the appropriate patient population. A patient should be evaluated for EVD when both suggestive symptoms, including unexplained hemorrhage, AND risk factors within 3 weeks prior, such as travel to an endemic area, direct handling of animals from outbreak areas, or ingestion of fruit or other uncooked foods contaminated with bat feces containing the virus are present. There are experimental therapies for treatment of EVD virus; however the mainstay of therapy is supportive care. Emergency department personnel on the frontlines must be prepared to rapidly identify and isolate febrile travelers if indicated. All healthcare workers involved in care of EVD patients should wear personal protective equipment. Despite the intense media focus on EVD rather than other threats, emergency physicians must master and follow essential public health principles for management of all infectious diseases. This includes not only identification and treatment of individuals, but also protection of healthcare workers and prevention of spread, keeping in mind the possibility of other more common disease processes. [West J Emerg Med. 2014;15(7:–0.
Radiation induced modifications to the biological activities and morphology of viruses are very dependent upon the techniques used in irradiation. Inactivation of foot-and-mouth disease virus and vesicular stomatitis virus by the effects of X-irradiation in dilute aqueous solutions has been studied and the post-irradiation effects and virus sensitization effects are described. Comparisons are made between X-radiation and hydrogen peroxide as virus inactivating agents. Survival curves resulting from these modes of inactivation give information on the reaction kinetics and on the function of the virus protein. Virus morphology, as detected in electron micrographs, is more readily changed by irradiation in solution (indirect effect) than by irradiation of the virus in the frozen state (direct effect). In each case the observed physical changes are related to loss of infectivity and the results are shown to be consistent with the inactivation processes previously inferred. (author)
Bøtner, Anette; Belsham, Graham
outbreak of disease before it has been recognized. The survival of foot-and-mouth disease virus, classical swine fever virus, bovine viral diarrhoea virus and swine influenza virus, which belong to three different RNA virus families plus porcine parvovirus (a DNA virus) was examined under controlled...... conditions. For each RNA virus, the virus survival in farm slurry under anaerobic conditions was short (generally ≤1h) when heated (to 55°C) but each of these viruses could retain infectivity at cool temperatures (5°C) for many weeks. The porcine parvovirus survived considerably longer than each of the RNA...
Md. Abul Kalam Azad; Latifah Amin; Nik Marzuki Sidik
Papaya (Carica papaya) is severely damaged by the papaya ringspot virus (PRSV). This review focuses on the development of PRSV resistant transgenic papaya through gene technology. The genetic diversity of PRSV depends upon geographical distribution and the influence of PRSV disease management on a sequence of PRSV isolates. The concept of pathogen-derived resistance has been employed for the development of transgenic papaya, using a coat protein-mediated, RNA-silencing mechanism and replicase...
Egbetade, Adeniyi Olugbenga; Sonibare, Adekayode Olanrewaju; Meseko, Clement Adebajo; Jayeola, Omotola Abiola; Otesile, Ebenezer Babatunde
The recent Ebola Virus Disease outbreak in some West African countries spanning from late 2013 and currently on as of 13th March, 2015 is the most widespread and fatal with human mortality that has surpassed all previous outbreaks. The outbreak has had its toll on conservation of endangered species. This portends danger for the wild fauna of the country if proactive measures are not taken to prepare grounds for evidence- based assertions concerning the involvement of wild species. To this end...
Kazanova, A S; Lavrov, V F; Zverev, V V
Systemized data on epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical manifestation, diagnostics and therapy of VZV-vasculopathy--a disease, occurring due to damage of arteries of the central nervous system by Varicella Zoster virus, are presented in the review. A special attention in the paper is given to the effect of vaccine prophylaxis of chicken pox and herpes zoster on the frequency of development and course of VZV-vasculopathy. PMID:26259280
Maganga, G. D.; Kapetshi, J.; Berthet, N; Ilunga, B. K.; Kabange, F.; Kingebeni, P. M.; Mondonge, V; Muyembe, J. J. T.; Bertherat, E; Briand, S.; Cabore, J; Epelboin, A.; Formenty, P.; Kobinger, G; Gonzalez-Angulo, L.
BACKGROUND The seventh reported outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in the equatorial African country of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) began on July 26, 2014, as another large EVD epidemic continued to spread in West Africa. Simultaneous reports of EVD in equatorial and West Africa raised the question of whether the two outbreaks were linked. METHODS We obtained data from patients in the DRC, using the standard World Health Organization clinical-investigation form for viral hemorrh...
Foot-and-mouth disease virion RNA is translated efficiently and completely in a rabbit reticulocyte lysate cell-free system. Treatment of cell-free lysates with monospecific serum prepared against the individual viral structural proteins or with monoclonal antibodies prepared against the inactivated virus or against a viral structural protein precipitated all of the structural proteins, suggesting that structural protein complexes were formed in vitro. Sucrose gradient analysis of the cell-fr...
Brett-Major, David M.; Shevin T. Jacob; Jacquerioz, Frederique A; Risi, George F.; Fischer, William A.; Kato, Yasuyuki; Houlihan, Catherine F.; Crozier, Ian; Bosa, Henry Kyobe; Lawler, James V; Adachi, Takuya; Hurley, Sara K.; Berry, Louise E.; CARLSON, JOHN C.; Button, Thomas. C.
As the outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in West Africa continues, clinical preparedness is needed in countries at risk for EVD (e.g., United States) and more fully equipped and supported clinical teams in those countries with epidemic spread of EVD in Africa. Clinical staff must approach the patient with a very deliberate focus on providing effective care while assuring personal safety. To do this, both individual health care providers and health systems must improve EVD care. Although f...
Newcastle disease (ND) is one of the most important diseases of poultry, negatively affecting trade and poultry production worldwide. The disease is caused by Newcastle disease virus (NDV) or avian paramyxovirus type-1 (APMV-1), a negative sense single-stranded RNA virus of the genus Avulavirus, fam...
Revolutionary theoretical concepts derived from experimental evolution have reached the realm of plant viruses, and their empirical demonstration is opening new avenues for disease management. From a populational standpoint, plant viruses and viroids constitute dynamic spectra of variants. The frequ...
I. V. Shestakova
For the first time in the domestic medical literature presents a deep review about epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory knowledge of Zika virus disease, based mainly on the publications of foreign authors and leading international organizations from 1947 to March 2016. Analyzed the essence of the problem, treatment of patients with Zika virus disease and infected pregnant women, indicated the unresolved question. For the first time were systematic sources of contemporary information abou...
Tate, M.D.; Pickett, D L; Rooijen, van, J.; Brooks, A G; Reading, P C
Airway macrophages provide a first line of host defense against a range of airborne pathogens, including influenza virus. In this study, we show that influenza viruses differ markedly in their abilities to infect murine macrophages in vitro and that infection of macrophages is nonproductive and no infectious virus is released. Virus strain BJx109 (H3N2) infected macrophages with high efficiency and was associated with mild disease following intranasal infection of mice. In contrast, virus str...
Bárcena, Juan; Morales, Mónica; Vázquez, Belén; Boga, José A.; Parra, Francisco; Lucientes, Javier; Pagès-Manté, Albert; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, José M.; Blasco, Rafael; Torres, Juan M.
We have developed a new strategy for immunization of wild rabbit populations against myxomatosis and rabbit hemorrhagic disease (RHD) that uses recombinant viruses based on a naturally attenuated field strain of myxoma virus (MV). The recombinant viruses expressed the RHDV major capsid protein (VP60) including a linear epitope tag from the transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) nucleoprotein. Following inoculation, the recombinant viruses induced specific antibody responses against MV, RH...
Reefhuis, Jennita; Gilboa, Suzanne M.; Johansson, Michael A.; Valencia, Diana; Simeone, Regina M.; Hills, Susan L.; Polen, Kara; Jamieson, Denise J.; Petersen, Lyle R.; Honein, Margaret A.
The marked increase in infants born with microcephaly in Brazil after a 2015 outbreak of Zika virus (Zika virus) disease suggests an association between maternal Zika virus infection and congenital microcephaly. To project the timing of delivery of infants born to mothers infected during early pregnancy in 1 city in Bahia State, Brazil, we incorporated data on reported Zika virus disease cases and microcephaly cases into a graphical schematic of weekly birth cohorts. We projected that these b...
Hause, Ben M.; Collin, Emily A.; Anderson, Joe; Hesse, Richard A.; Anderson, Gary
Bovine rhinitis viruses (BRV) are established etiological agents of bovine respiratory disease complex however little research into their epidemiology and ecology has been published for several decades. In the U.S., only bovine rhinitis A virus 1 (BRAV1) has been identified while bovine rhinitis A virus 2 (BRAV2) and bovine rhinitis B virus (BRBV) were previously only identified in England and Japan, respectively. Metagenomic sequencing of a nasal swab from a bovine respiratory disease (BRD) ...
Richer, Lisette; Marois, Paul; Lamontagne, Lucie
We investigated eleven outbreaks of naturally occurring bovine respiratory diseases in calves and adult animals in the St-Hyacinthe area of Quebec. Specific antibodies to bovine herpesvirus-1, bovine viral diarrhea virus, respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza type 3 virus, reovirus type 3, and serotypes 1 to 7 of bovine adenovirus were found in paired sera from diseased animals. Several bovine viruses with respiratory tropism were involved concomitantly in herds during an outbreak of bov...
Yongxiu Yao; Venugopal Nair
With total dependence on the host cell, several viruses have adopted strategies to modulate the host cellular environment, including the modulation of microRNA (miRNA) pathway through virus-encoded miRNAs. Several avian viruses, mostly herpesviruses, have been shown to encode a number of novel miRNAs. These include the highly oncogenic Marek’s disease virus-1 (26 miRNAs), avirulent Marek’s disease virus-2 (36 miRNAs), herpesvirus of turkeys (28 miRNAs), infectious laryngotracheitis virus (10 ...
Rafiei, Solmaz; Rezatofighi, Seyedeh Elham; Roayaei Ardakani, Mohammad; Rastegarzadeh, Saadat
In this study, we evaluated the antiviral activity of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) against the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), that causes a contagious disease in cloven-hoofed animals. The anti-FMDV activity of AuNPs was assessed using plaque reduction assay. MTT assay was used for quantitatively measuring the cytopathic effect caused by the viral infection. The 50% cytotoxicity concentration of nanoparticles was measured and found to be 10.4 μg/ml. The virus yield reduction assay showed that AuNP have an approximately 4-fold virus titer reduction compared with controls. Plaque reduction assay showed that at non-cytotoxic concentrations, AuNPs do not show extracellular virucidal activity and inhibition of FMDV growth at the early stages of infection including attachment and penetration. Time-of-addition experiments revealed that AuNPs inhibited post-entry stages of viral replication concomitant with the onset of intracellular viral RNA synthesis; however, the mechanism of AuNPs against FMDV was unclear. PMID:26685261
Adi-Kusumo, F.; Aini, A. N.; Ridwan, M.
Dengue fever (DF) and dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) are the disease caused by the dengue virus which is transmitted to the human by infected female mosquitoes. The disease is endemic in more than 100 countries over the world. Dengue virus has four distinct serotypes which are closely related to each other antigenically. A person who infected by the dengue virus will never be infected again by the same serotype, but he looses immunity from the three other serotypes. Infection with one serotype does not provide cross-protective immunity against to others. Here we assume that there are two serotypes exist in the population. Someone who has recovered from one serotype become susceptible to the other serotype and can be reinfected. In this paper we analyze the model of dengue fever with two infections from the different serotype by linear analysis. Then we study the effect of vaccination to the model. In numerical simulation, we use Runge-Kutta order 4 to integrate the solution of the system.
Broadhurst, M Jana; Brooks, Tim J G; Pollock, Nira R
Laboratory diagnosis of Ebola virus disease plays a critical role in outbreak response efforts; however, establishing safe and expeditious testing strategies for this high-biosafety-level pathogen in resource-poor environments remains extremely challenging. Since the discovery of Ebola virus in 1976 via traditional viral culture techniques and electron microscopy, diagnostic methodologies have trended toward faster, more accurate molecular assays. Importantly, technological advances have been paired with increasing efforts to support decentralized diagnostic testing capacity that can be deployed at or near the point of patient care. The unprecedented scope of the 2014-2015 West Africa Ebola epidemic spurred tremendous innovation in this arena, and a variety of new diagnostic platforms that have the potential both to immediately improve ongoing surveillance efforts in West Africa and to transform future outbreak responses have reached the field. In this review, we describe the evolution of Ebola virus disease diagnostic testing and efforts to deploy field diagnostic laboratories in prior outbreaks. We then explore the diagnostic challenges pervading the 2014-2015 epidemic and provide a comprehensive examination of novel diagnostic tests that are likely to address some of these challenges moving forward. PMID:27413095
Cassiano Diniz Carvalho
Full Text Available ABSTRACTA painful shoulder is a very common complaint among athletes, especially in the case of those in sports involving throwing. Partial lesions of the rotator cuff may be very painful and cause significant functional limitation to athletes' sports practice. The incidence of partial lesions of the cuff is variable (13-37%. It is difficult to make the clinical and radiological diagnosis, and this condition should be borne in mind in the cases of all athletes who present symptoms of rotator cuff syndrome, including in patients who are diagnosed only with tendinopathy. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the epidemiological behavior of partial lesions of the rotator cuff in both amateur and professional athletes in different types of sports. METHODS: We evaluated 720 medical files on athletes attended at the shoulder service of the Discipline of Sports Medicine at the Sports Traumatology Center, Federal University of São Paulo. The majority of them were men (65%. Among all the patients, 83 of them were diagnosed with partial lesions of the rotator cuff, by means of ultrasonography or magnetic resonance, or in some cases using both. We applied the binomial test to compare the proportions found. RESULT: It was observed that intra-articular lesions predominated (67.6% and that these occurred more frequently in athletes in sports involving throwing (66%. Bursal lesions occurred in 32.4% of the athletes, predominantly in those who did muscle building (75%. CONCLUSION: Intra-articular lesions are more frequent than bursal lesions and they occur predominantly in athletes in sports involving throwing, while bursal lesions were more prevalent in athletes who did muscle building.
Pigott, David M; Golding, Nick; Mylne, Adrian; Huang, Zhi; Henry, Andrew J; Weiss, Daniel J; Brady, Oliver J; Kraemer, Moritz U G; Smith, David L; Moyes, Catherine L; Bhatt, Samir; Gething, Peter W; Horby, Peter W; Bogoch, Isaac I; Brownstein, John S; Mekaru, Sumiko R; Tatem, Andrew J; Khan, Kamran; Hay, Simon I
Ebola virus disease (EVD) is a complex zoonosis that is highly virulent in humans. The largest recorded outbreak of EVD is ongoing in West Africa, outside of its previously reported and predicted niche. We assembled location data on all recorded zoonotic transmission to humans and Ebola virus infection in bats and primates (1976-2014). Using species distribution models, these occurrence data were paired with environmental covariates to predict a zoonotic transmission niche covering 22 countries across Central and West Africa. Vegetation, elevation, temperature, evapotranspiration, and suspected reservoir bat distributions define this relationship. At-risk areas are inhabited by 22 million people; however, the rarity of human outbreaks emphasises the very low probability of transmission to humans. Increasing population sizes and international connectivity by air since the first detection of EVD in 1976 suggest that the dynamics of human-to-human secondary transmission in contemporary outbreaks will be very different to those of the past. PMID:25201877
Lundgren, J D; Orholm, Marianne; Lundgren, B;
Pulmonary disease is the most important cause of morbidity and mortality in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). All parts of the hospital system are expected to be involved in the diagnosis and treatment of HIV infected patients in the coming years. Many different processes...... cause pulmonary disease alone or in combination. Bilateral interstitial infiltrates are the most frequent chest x-ray abnormality and are most frequently caused by infection with Pneumocystis carinii. Cytomegalovirus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, nonspecific interstitial pneumonitis and pulmonary Kaposi......'s sarcoma are the most important parts of the differential diagnosis. An aggressive approach to the diagnosis of pulmonary disease in this patient population is indicated in order to provide optimal care and assess new therapies....
Barakat, Michael G; Arora, Rohit R
The development of efficient combined antiretroviral therapies has lengthened the mean life span of the population affected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transforming this terminal infection to a chronic yet manageable disease. Nonetheless, patients with HIV--treatment naive or not--exhibit larger risks for coronary artery disease than the noninfected population. Moreover, coronary atherosclerosis/arteriosclerosis may be the most prevalent condition in the HIV-infected population that is being accentuated by the effects of viral agents and the antiretroviral drugs, especially protease inhibitors. Nonetheless, generalized metabolic dysfunctions and premature senescence are often attributed to the viremia caused by the HIV infection directly and primarily. Therefore, a multifactorial approach is to be considered when attempting to explain the strong correlation between HIV and coronary artery disease, including co-opportunistic viremias and vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency. PMID:23797758
Bovine rhinitis viruses (BRV) cause mild respiratory disease of cattle. In this study, a near full length genome sequence of a virus named RS3X (formerly classified as bovine rhinovirus type 1) isolated from infected cattle from the United Kingdom in the 1960s, was obtained and analyzed. Phylogeneti...
Bovine rhinitis viruses (BRV) cause mild respiratory disease of cattle. In this study, a near full length genome sequence of a virus named RS3X, formerly classified as bovine rhinovirus type 1, isolated from infected cattle from the United Kingdom in the 1960s, was obtained and analyzed. Phylogeneti...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV, as the pathogeny of Rabbit haemorrhagic disease, can cause a highly infectious and often fatal disease only affecting wild and domestic rabbits. Recent researches revealed that it, as one number of the Caliciviridae, has some specialties in its genome, its reproduction and so on. Results In this report, we firstly analyzed its genome and two open reading frameworks (ORFs from this aspect of codon usage bias. Our researches indicated that mutation pressure rather than natural is the most important determinant in RHDV with high codon bias, and the codon usage bias is nearly contrary between ORF1 and ORF2, which is maybe one of factors regulating the expression of VP60 (encoding by ORF1 and VP10 (encoding by ORF2. Furthermore, negative selective constraints on the RHDV whole genome implied that VP10 played an important role in RHDV lifecycle. Conclusions We conjectured that VP10 might be beneficial for the replication, release or both of virus by inducing infected cell apoptosis initiate by RHDV. According to the results of the principal component analysis for ORF2 of RSCU, we firstly separated 30 RHDV into two genotypes, and the ENC values indicated ORF1 and ORF2 were independent among the evolution of RHDV.
Trinh, Dai Quang; Ogawa, Haruko; Bui, Vuong Nghia; Nguyen, Tham Thi Hong; Gronsang, Dulyatad; Baatartsogt, Tugsbaatar; Kizito, Mugimba Kahoza; AboElkhair, Mohammed; Yamaguchi, Shigeo; Nguyen, Viet Khong; Imai, Kunitoshi
A blocking latex agglutination test (b-LAT) developed in this study was evaluated for the detection of antibodies against chicken anemia virus (CAV) in chickens. Polystyrene latex beads were coupled with a neutralizing monoclonal antibody (mAb) to CAV (mAb-beads). When mAb-beads were mixed with antigens prepared from the lysate of MDCC-MSB1 cells infected with CAV, agglutination occurred. A short pre-incubation of CAV antigens with CAV-specific antiserum inhibited the agglutination of mAb-beads. The test results were obtained within 5min. The specificity of b-LAT was evaluated using sera from specific pathogen-free chickens and sera containing antibodies to avian influenza virus, Newcastle disease virus, infectious bursal disease virus, and Marek's disease virus; nonspecific agglutination and cross-reactivity with antibodies to unrelated viruses were not observed. The examination of 94 serum samples collected from commercial breeder chickens of various ages (17-63 weeks) revealed good agreement (93.6%, Kappa value=0.82) between b-LAT and a virus neutralization test, known to be most sensitive and specific in the detection of antibodies to CAV. These results indicate that b-LAT, a simple and rapid test, is a useful and reliable tool in CAV serology. PMID:25952731
Burroughs, J. N.; Sangar, D V; Clarke, B E; Rowlands, D J; Billiau, A; Collen, D
Translation of foot-and-mouth disease virus RNA in a rabbit reticulocyte lysate for short time intervals resulted in the production of the peptides P20a , P16, and P88 (Lab, Lb, and P1) (R. R. Rueckert , Recommendations of the 3rd European Study Group on Molecular Biology of Picornavirus, Urbino , Italy, 1983). If further translation was prevented, the structural protein precursor P88 was not cleaved, even after prolonged incubation. This result indicates that the mechanism of the cleavage be...
Madariaga, Miguel G
Ebola virus caused an epidemic of unprecedented extension in West Africa. There was concern that the outbreak would not be controlled for a prolonged period of time. Two cases of infected returning travelers have been reported in the US. One of the cases has been associated with secondary transmission and other infected subjects have been repatriated for treatment. This article reviews the etiology, pathogenesis, transmission, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of the disease with emphasis on the identification and management in the US. PMID:25731139
Arash Khaki; Zhinous Bayatmakoo
Ebola virus (family Filoviridae, genus Ebolavirus, type species Zaire ebolavirus), Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF) or Ebola is a disease of human and other primates, caused by an Ebola virüs(1-5). These agents cause a severe, unrelenting viral hemorrhagic fever with high mortality(1). EVD was first recognized in 1976, when two unrelated epidemics occurred in northern Zaire and southern Sudan(1-5). The largest outbreaks to date are the ongoing 2014 west African. Ebola outbreaks, which is affecti...
Yang, Qian; Zhang, Jian; Song, Zhanyun; Zheng, Yan; Wang, Xianghui; Sui, Jiachen; Wang, Zhenguo; Mou, Jun
In nature, honeybees are the most important pollinators. They play a vital role in both protecting the diversity of natural ecosystems, and maintaining the yield-improving effects of agroecosystems. But in recent years, epidemic disease in bees has caused huge losses. Black Queen Cell Virus (BQCV) is a bee pathogen that was first reported in 1955. It mainly infects bee larvae and pupae, making their bodies turn dark and black, and causing a massive decrease in the bee population. More specifically, the virus makes the exterior of the cell walls in the larvae and pupae turn black. BQCV is a seasonal epidemic, spread by means horizontal and vertical transmission, and is often unapparent. BQCV not only infects a variety of bee species, but also spiders, centipedes and other arthropods. It can also be coinfected with other honeybee viruses. In recent years, research has shown that the Nosema intestinal parasite plays an important role in BQCV transmission and bees carrying Nosema that become infected with BQCV have increased mortality. Here we summarize current research on the incidence, prevalence, geographical distribution and transmission of BQCV. PMID:26470541
Arima, Yuzo; Shimada, Tomoe
After Guinea reported an outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in March 2014, EVD spread to neighboring Sierra Leone and Liberia in West Africa. Since then, the EVD outbreak spread over a wide geographic area among these three countries, and became the largest EVD epidemic ever with unprecedented numbers of confirmed cases and fatalities. As of April 2015, one year past the start of the outbreak, transmission is still ongoing. And, while six other countries, including those outside of the African continent (the United Kingdom, Spain, and the United States), have reported EVD cases, the source of the infection all originated from Guinea, Sierra Leone, or Liberia. As for the pathogen, Ebola virus, the route of transmission and associated prevention measures are well known, and change in the virulence or transmissibility of the virus has not been confirmed. However, there are specific factors that likely contributed to the unprecedented magnitude of the current EVD outbreak. In addition to the limited and poor medical and public health infrastructure in the affected countries, implementing appropriate responses rapidly was challenging for these countries, whose medical community, the general public, and governments had never experienced EVD before. PMID:26923957
The intracellular distribution of swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV) proteins and the induced reorganization of endomembranes in IBRS-2 cells were analyzed. Fluorescence to new SVDV capsids appeared first upon infection, concentrated in perinuclear circular structures and colocalized to dsRNA. As in foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV)-infected cells, a vesicular pattern was predominantly found in later stages of SVDV capsid morphogenesis that colocalized with those of non-structural proteins 2C, 2BC and 3A. These results suggest that assembly of capsid proteins is associated to the replication complex. Confocal microscopy showed a decreased fluorescence to ER markers (calreticulin and protein disulfide isomerase), and disorganization of cis-Golgi gp74 and trans-Golgi caveolin-1 markers in SVDV- and FMDV-, but not in vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)-infected cells. Electron microscopy of SVDV-infected cells at an early stage of infection revealed fragmented ER cisternae with expanded lumen and accumulation of large Golgi vesicles, suggesting alterations of vesicle traffic through Golgi compartments. At this early stage, FMDV induced different patterns of ER fragmentation and Golgi alterations. At later stages of SVDV cytopathology, cells showed a completely vacuolated cytoplasm containing vesicles of different sizes. Cell treatment with brefeldin A, which disrupts the Golgi complex, reduced SVDV (∼ 5 log) and VSV (∼ 4 log) titers, but did not affect FMDV growth. Thus, three viruses, which share target tissues and clinical signs in natural hosts, induce different intracellular effects in cultured cells
Full Text Available Ebola virus (family Filoviridae, genus Ebolavirus, type species Zaire ebolavirus, Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF or Ebola is a disease of human and other primates, caused by an Ebola virüs(1-5. These agents cause a severe, unrelenting viral hemorrhagic fever with high mortality(1. EVD was first recognized in 1976, when two unrelated epidemics occurred in northern Zaire and southern Sudan(1-5. The largest outbreaks to date are the ongoing 2014 west African. Ebola outbreaks, which is affecting Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia and Nigeria(2-5. Transmission Ebola virus may be acquired upon contact with blood or bodily fluids of an infected animal. Spreading the air has not been documented in the natural environment. Fruit bats are believed to be a carrier and may spread the virus without being affected(1-2. Once human infection occurs, the disease may spread between people as well(2. Symptoms Clinical appearance is starts in 2 days to 3 weeks after contacting the virus, with fever, sore throat, muscle pain and headaches(1-5. Treatment A number of experimental treatment are being studied. The FDA has allowed two drugs, Zmapp and TKM-Ebola(2. Treatment is primarily supportive in natüre(1-5. The disease has a high risk of death, killing between 50% and 90% of those infected with the virüs(1-5, in conclusion No specific treatment for the disease is yet available. Prevention Includes decreasing the spread of disease from infected animals to humans(2. Prevention of epidemics rates on early recognition and initial cases and promp institution of barrier nursing. At the community level, properly sterilized injection equipment, protection from body fluid and skin during preparation of the dead, and routine barrier nursing precaution are probably adequate in most care(1-2. During the EHF epidemic in Kikwit, Democratic Republic of Congo the number of infected women was slightly higher than the man(6-7. Sex protection Saliva, breast milk, and semen, austerity from
Adriano de Oliveira Torres Carrasco
Full Text Available Abstract This study was designed with the goal of adding as much information as possible about the role of pigeons (Columba livia and chickens (Gallus gallus in Newcastle disease virus epidemiology. These species were submitted to direct experimental infection with Newcastle disease virus to evaluate interspecies transmission and virus-host relationships. The results obtained in four experimental models were analyzed by hemagglutination inhibition and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for detection of virus shedding. These techniques revealed that both avian species, when previously immunized with a low pathogenic Newcastle disease virus strain (LaSota, developed high antibody titers that significantly reduced virus shedding after infection with a highly pathogenic Newcastle disease virus strain (São Joao do Meriti and that, in chickens, prevent clinical signs. Infected pigeons shed the pathogenic strain, which was not detected in sentinel chickens or control birds. When the presence of Newcastle disease virus was analyzed in tissue samples by RT-PCR, in both species, the virus was most frequently found in the spleen. The vaccination regimen can prevent clinical disease in chickens and reduce viral shedding by chickens or pigeons. Biosecurity measures associated with vaccination programs are crucial to maintain a virulent Newcastle disease virus-free status in industrial poultry in Brazil.
Carrasco, Adriano de Oliveira Torres; Seki, Meire Christina; Benevenute, Jyan Lucas; Ikeda, Priscila; Pinto, Aramis Augusto
This study was designed with the goal of adding as much information as possible about the role of pigeons (Columba livia) and chickens (Gallus gallus) in Newcastle disease virus epidemiology. These species were submitted to direct experimental infection with Newcastle disease virus to evaluate interspecies transmission and virus-host relationships. The results obtained in four experimental models were analyzed by hemagglutination inhibition and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for detection of virus shedding. These techniques revealed that both avian species, when previously immunized with a low pathogenic Newcastle disease virus strain (LaSota), developed high antibody titers that significantly reduced virus shedding after infection with a highly pathogenic Newcastle disease virus strain (São Joao do Meriti) and that, in chickens, prevent clinical signs. Infected pigeons shed the pathogenic strain, which was not detected in sentinel chickens or control birds. When the presence of Newcastle disease virus was analyzed in tissue samples by RT-PCR, in both species, the virus was most frequently found in the spleen. The vaccination regimen can prevent clinical disease in chickens and reduce viral shedding by chickens or pigeons. Biosecurity measures associated with vaccination programs are crucial to maintain a virulent Newcastle disease virus-free status in industrial poultry in Brazil. PMID:26887250
Nagendrakumar, Singanallur Balasubramanian; Reddy, Guddeti Srinivas; Chandran, Dev; Thiagarajan, Dorairajan; Rangarajan, Pundi Narasimha; Srinivasan, Villuppanoor Alwar
Comparison of nucleotide sequences of the partial 1D region of foot-and-mouth disease type C viruses of Indian origin with those of European, South American, and Southeast Asian viruses revealed that the Indian viruses form a distinct genotype. The vaccine strain C IND/51/79 belongs to this genotype and may be a prototype strain of this genotype.
Foot-and-Mouth Disease virus (FMDV) has a characteristic tropism in terms of primary, secondary, and persistent infection and vesicular lesion sites. The virus targets specific tissues for primary replication. From these tissues, the virus spreads via the blood stream to a few preferred secondary in...
Villamor, D V; Druffel, K L; Eastwell, K C
Cherry rusty mottle is a disease of sweet cherries first described in 1940 in western North America. Because of the graft-transmissible nature of the disease, a viral nature of the disease was assumed. Here, the complete genomic nucleotide sequences of virus isolates from two trees expressing cherry rusty mottle disease symptoms are characterized; the virus is designated cherry rusty mottle associated virus (CRMaV). The biological and molecular characteristics of this virus in comparison to those of cherry necrotic rusty mottle virus (CNRMV) and cherry green ring mottle virus (CGRMV) are described. CRMaV was subsequently detected in additional sweet cherry trees expressing symptoms of cherry rusty mottle disease. PMID:23525699
ZHENG Haixue; FENG Xia; YIN Shuanghui; GUO Jianhong; CONG Guozheng; LIU Zaixin; CHANG Huiyun; MA Junwu; XIE Qingge; LIU Xiangtao; SHANG Youjun; WU Jinyan; BAI Xingwen; JIN Ye; SUN Shiqi; GUO Huichen; TIAN Hong
The full-length cDNA clone of swine vesicular disease virus HK/70 strain named pSVOK12 was constructed in order to study the antigenicity, replication, maturation and pathogenicity of swine vesicular disease virus. In vitro transcription RNA from pSVOK12 transfected IBRS-2 cells and the recovered virus RNA were isolated and sequenced, then indirect hemagglutination test, indirect immunofluorescence assays, eleectron microscope test, 50% tissue culture infecting dose (TCID50) assays and mouse virulence studies were performed to study the antigenicity and virulence of the recovered virus. The result showed that the infectious clones we obtained and the virus derived from pSVOK12 had the same biological properties as the parental strain HK/70. The full-length infectious cDNA clone, pSVOK12, will be very useful in studies of the antigenicity, virulence, pathogenesis, maturation and replication of SVDV.
Martin, D; Howard, J; Agarwal, B; Rajalingam, Y; Athan, B; Bhagani, S; Cropley, I; Hopkins, S; Mepham, S; Rodger, A; Warren, S; Jacobs, M
The recent outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) has required the treatment of affected patients in the NHS system within the UK. Managing patients with a confirmed viral haemorrhagic fever requires a thorough understanding of treatment options within the confines of an effective biocontainment setting. The Royal Free Hospital High Level Isolation Unit (HLIU) in London, is a purpose built facility that allows healthcare workers to safely treat patients with highly contagious diseases. This HLIU uses Trexler isolator tents to prevent the spread of infection from patients to healthcare workers. Provision of invasive organ support can be provided in this environment, if considered appropriate, and is achievable without posing additional risk to staff. We report our recent experiences of managing patients with EVD, with particular focus on those aspects of care pertinent to anaesthesia and critical care medicine. PMID:27106962
Végh, Mihály; Roth, Hans-Walter; Hári-Kovács, András; Facskó, Andrea
Ocular signs and symptoms of Ebola infection initially suggest banal conjunctivitis, but in advanced cases severe haemorrhagic conjunctivitis appears and, in the final stage of the disease, retinal and chorioidal haemorrhages may occur which can cause even blindness. Although the viral infection accompanied by ocular symptoms of a non-specific conjunctivitis, the high fever present from the onset of the disease should raise the suspicion of Ebola infection. There is no causal therapy know so far, and the only adjunctive treatment may be delivered by an ophthalmologist. Because the virus can be detected in the tear, it can theoretically be the mediator of the infection and, therefore, ophthalmological examinations should be carried out with the highest caution. In case of suspected Ebola infection the nearest competent healthcare authority should be immediately alerted in order to take further actions. PMID:25749536
Brett-Major, David M; Jacob, Shevin T; Jacquerioz, Frederique A; Risi, George F; Fischer, William A; Kato, Yasuyuki; Houlihan, Catherine F; Crozier, Ian; Bosa, Henry Kyobe; Lawler, James V; Adachi, Takuya; Hurley, Sara K; Berry, Louise E; Carlson, John C; Button, Thomas C; McLellan, Susan L; Shea, Barbara J; Kuniyoshi, Gary G; Ferri, Mauricio; Murthy, Srinivas G; Petrosillo, Nicola; Lamontagne, Francois; Porembka, David T; Schieffelin, John S; Rubinson, Lewis; O'Dempsey, Tim; Donovan, Suzanne M; Bausch, Daniel G; Fowler, Robert A; Fletcher, Thomas E
As the outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in West Africa continues, clinical preparedness is needed in countries at risk for EVD (e.g., United States) and more fully equipped and supported clinical teams in those countries with epidemic spread of EVD in Africa. Clinical staff must approach the patient with a very deliberate focus on providing effective care while assuring personal safety. To do this, both individual health care providers and health systems must improve EVD care. Although formal guidance toward these goals exists from the World Health Organization, Medecin Sans Frontières, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and other groups, some of the most critical lessons come from personal experience. In this narrative, clinicians deployed by the World Health Organization into a wide range of clinical settings in West Africa distill key, practical considerations for working safely and effectively with patients with EVD. PMID:25510724