... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bursal Disease Vaccine. 113.331... Virus Vaccines § 113.331 Bursal Disease Vaccine. Bursal Disease Vaccine shall be prepared from virus...-five 1-day-old bursal disease susceptible chickens (vaccinates) shall be injected subcutaneously...
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.212 Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus. Bursal Disease...
Full Text Available Infectious Bursal Disease (IBD is a chicken disease economically important for the poultry industry in function of the immune depression that it causes. Disease control is made with different vaccines and vaccination programs. In present work, the pathogenicity of 3 intermediate vaccines (I1, I2 and I3, 2 intermediate more pathogenic (IP1 and IP2 and 3 vaccines containing strong virus (F1, F2 and F3 was evaluated. Birds vaccinated with IP1, IP2, F1, F2 and F3 showed significantly lower bursa size in relation to control animals and animals vaccinated with I1, I2 and I3. On the other hand, vaccines I1 and I3 induced antibody titers higher than the control and lower than I2, IP1, IP2, F1, F2 and F3. Histological scores showed that vaccines I1, I2 and I3 induced similar injury degree, although I2 and I3 were not different from the control, whereas I1 was slightly different. Strong vaccines induced more pronounced lesions than the other tested vaccines. These findings suggest that strong vaccines are able to cause severe bursal injuries. However, bursometry and relative weight of the bursa of Fabricius were considered inadequate to evaluate vaccine pathogenicity. Moreover, strong vaccines induced higher antibody titers than the other vaccines, although some intermediate vaccines induced similar titers.
Nazir Ahmed Lone*, Shafqat Fatima Rehmani1, Taseer Ahmed Khan2 and Shahana Urooj Kazmi3
Full Text Available This study was carried out with the aims to evaluate the efficacy of indigenous live and inactivated Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV vaccines in broilers. Two hundred and fifty (250, a-day-old broiler chicks divided into five groups (A-E were immunized with live and inactivated vaccine at varying ages. Live vaccine was given to group A (at 8 days post hatch, B (at 8, 15 days post hatch, C (at 8, 15 and 23 days post hatch and D (at 8 days post hatch. In addition group D received a booster dose of inactivated vaccine at 21 days of age, while group E served as control. Antibody titers were measured via Agar Gel Precipitation (AGP test and ELISA, while the degree of protection against the virulent strains of IBDV was also recorded. Results showed that vaccine program adopted for group C and D produced significantly (P<0.05 higher antibody titer as compared to other groups. While a significant (P<0.05 difference in antibody titers was observed between group A and B while no considerable antibodies were detected in group E. The response to challenge dose was recorded as the difference of lesions in bursa, pectoral muscles or other visceral organs with the exception of group C and D. The study suggests that broiler chicks may be vaccinated at days 8, 15 and 23 with live attenuated vaccine or live attenuated vaccine followed by inactivated vaccine at days 8 and 21 that could provide an adequate protection against the virulent form of IBDV.
Salter, D W; Payne, W; Kung, H J; Robinson, D; Ewert, D; Olson, W; Crittenden, L B; Fadly, A M
A significant incidence of bursal lymphomas with long latencies was noted in transgenic breeders carrying a benign defective subgroup A avian leukosis provirus, ALVA6, in their germline and maintained free of exposure to avian retroviruses. Serotype 2 Marek's disease (MD) vaccine virus, strain SB-1, a component of the bivalent MD vaccine used to vaccinate the breeders, was suspected as a contributory factor in the increased bursal lymphoma incidence. Although these bursal lymphomas had several characteristics similar to retroviral-induced bursal lymphomas, we found no evidence of retroviral influence based on many virological, immunological and molecular tests that were performed on plasma and tumour cells. These tumours were therefore classified as spontaneous bursal lymphomas, similar to those reported for some specific pathogen-free (SPF) chicken lines. Long-term in vivo experiments in plastic isolators and carefully maintained pens with homozygous and hemizygous ALVA6 and ALVA6-free female chickens (line 0) that were either non-vaccinated, serotype 3 (herpesvirus of turkeys [HVT]; monovalent)-vaccinated, or HVT/SB-1 (bivalent) vaccinated, demonstrated that the incidence of spontaneous bursal lymphomas were significantly higher in those chickens that were vaccinated with the bivalent MD vaccine (P ⩽0.05). In addition, this incidence did not depend on the ALVA6 proviral insert since there was no significant difference in spontaneous bursal lymphoma incidence between bivalent vaccinated hemizygous ALVA6 and ALVA6-free line 0 female chickens. Thus, the increased incidence of spontaneous bursal lymphomas is correlated solely with the presence of SB-1 and is not dependent on the presence of ALVA6. PMID:26911501
M. Arshad, M. Siddique, M. Ashraf and H. A. Khan
Full Text Available A total of 200 chicks were raised upto 43 days of age under controlled experimental conditions. The birds were randomly divided into four groups A, B, C and D of 50 birds each at the age of day one. Birds of groups A and B were not supplemented with selenium, while those of groups C and D were given selenium @ 0.06 mg/Kg of feed from day one to day 43. The birds of groups B and D were vaccinated against infectious bursal disease (IBD at the age of day 10 and boosted at the age of day 25. The effect of selenium on humoral immune response was evaluated by recording weekly serum antibody titres against IBD through indirect haemagglutination (IHA test. The cumulative mean titres (CMT recorded in groups A, B, C and D were 15, 53, 16 and 61, respectively (P<0.05. These results indicate that selenium supplementation may help to increase post vaccination humoral immune response against IBD in broiler chicks.
Yong-Chang CAO; Quan-Cheng SHI; Jing-Yun MA; Qing-Mei XIE; Ying-Zuo BI
In order to develop a desirable inexpensive, effective and safe vaccine against the very virulent infectious bursal disease virus (vvIBDV), we tried to take advantage of the emerging T4 bacteriophage surface protein display system. The major immunogen protein VP2 from the vvIBDV strain HK46 was fused to the nonessential T4 phage surface capsid protein, a small outer capsid (SOC) protein, resulting in the 49 kDa SOC-VP2 fusion protein, which was verified by sodium dodecylsulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western blot. Immunoelectromicroscopy showed that the recombinant VP2 protein was successfully displayed on the surface of the T4 phage. The recombinant VP2 protein is antigenic and showed reactivities to various monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against IBDV, whereas the wild-type phage T4 could not react to any mAb. In addition, the recombinant VP2 protein is immunogenic and elicited specific antibodies in immunized specific pathogen free (SPF) chickens. More significantly, immunization of SPF chickens with the recombinant T4-VP2 phage protected them from infection by the vvIBDV strain HK46. When challenged with the vvIBDV strain HK46 at a dose of 100 of 50% lethal dose (LD50) per chicken 4 weeks after the booster was given, the group vaccinated with the T4-VP2 recombinant phage showed no clinical signs of disease or death, wh ereas the unvaccinated group and the group vaccinated with the wild-type T4phage exhibited 100% clinical signs of disease and bursal damages, and 30%-40% mortality. Collectively,the data herein showed that the T4-displayed VP2 protein might be an inexpensive, effective and safe vaccine candidate against vvIBDV.
Infectious bursal disease virus is a causative agent of infectious bursal disease in young chickens causing significant losses to the poultry industry worldwide. In this study the gene encoding the viral capsid protein (VP2, IR01 strain) with self-assembly capability was cloned into a plant expression pTRAkc vector and expressed in tobacco. Recombinant protein levels in tobacco leaves reached to 260 µg/g and 160 µg/g fresh leaf weights (FLW) in apoplastic and cytosolic protein accumulation, r...
Tarpey, I; van Loon, A A; de Haas, N; Davis, P J; Orbell, S; Cavanagh, D; Britton, P; Casais, R; Sondermeijer, P; Sundick, R
In ovo vaccination remains an attractive option for the mass application of vaccines to poultry, ensuring a uniform application of vaccine in a cost-effective manner. However, the number of vaccines that can be delivered safely by this method is limited. Several infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) vaccines can be given in ovo though most are delivered post-hatch and there are no currently licensed embryo-safe infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) vaccines. Reduction in the dose of vaccines given in ovo is one possibility to ensure embryo safety though efficacy can be reduced when low doses are used. We have investigated the use of embryo-safe IBDV and IBV vaccines and the effects of co-delivery of a turkey herpesvirus recombinant expressing bioactive chicken IL-2 (IL-2/HVT). Co-delivery of the IL-2/HVT with low doses of the IBDV or IBV vaccines significantly increased the antibody response against these viruses. In addition the protection against challenge with virulent IBDV or IBV was increased significantly. This suggests that the co-delivery of IL-2/HVT with low doses of other vaccines in ovo may be one method to increase the number of vaccines that can be given safely and efficaciously via in ovo vaccination. PMID:17996994
Sharma, J M; Zhang, Y; Jensen, D; Rautenschlein, Silke; Yeh, H Y
A multivalent in ovo vaccine (MIV) was tested for safety and efficacy in a commercial broiler complex. The MIV comprised five replicating live viruses including serotypes 1, 2, and 3 of Marek's disease virus (MDV), an intermediate infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) and a recombinant fowl poxvirus (FPV) vector vaccine containing HN and F genes of Newcastle disease virus (NDV). The performance of MIV-vaccinated broilers was compared with that of hatchmates that received turkey herpesvirus (HVT) alone (routinely used in ovo vaccine in the broiler complex). The chickens that hatched from the MIV-injected and HVT-injected eggs were raised under commercial conditions in six barns. Barn 1 housed 17,853 MIV-vaccinated chickens and each of the barns 2-6 housed 18,472-22,798 HVT-vaccinated chickens. The HVT-vaccinated chickens were given infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) and NDV vaccines at hatch and at 2 wk of age. The MIV-vaccinated chickens received IBV vaccine at hatch and IBV + NDV at 2 wk of age. The relative values of hatchability of eggs, livability and weight gain of chickens, and condemnation rates at processing were comparable between the MIV and the HVT groups (P > 0.05). Chickens from the MIV- and the HVT-vaccinated groups were challenged with virulent viruses under laboratory conditions. The resistance of vaccinated chickens against Marek's disease could not be assessed because of high natural resistance of unvaccinated commercial broilers to virulent MDV. The relative resistances of the MIV- and the HVT-vaccinated groups, respectively, against other virulent viruses were as follows: IBDV, 100% for both groups; NDV, 81% vs. 19%; FPV, 86% vs. 0%. The successful use of MIV under field conditions expands the usefulness of the in ovo technology for poultry. PMID:12243525
In the present study the comparative efficacy of different vaccines was carried out. These include Gumbokal. Vaccine, IBA-Vac and IBD, Vac. The vaccines were evaluated on the basis of immure response developed by using indirect haemaggtutination (IHA) test in all the birds the presence of material antibodies on day first of their age by IHA. The titre varied from 1:4 to 1:6. All the vaccinated group and control group was examined for their immune response on the 7th and then gradual increase in titre occurred on day 15th and highest values were observed on 30th day post vaccination. All the three vaccines gave identical results as far as their efficacy against IBDV infection was concerned. (author)
VP22 of Marek’s disease virus serotype 1 (MDV-1) could function in protein transduction. In this study, an infectious bursal disease virus VP2 gene was fused to the carboxyl termini of VP22. It showed that the fusion protein did not spread into the bystander cells from the cells transfected with pVP22-VP2, as the VP22 alone could. The VP22 proteins were found to be translocated into all the nuclei in the neighboring COS-1 cells, as analyzed by a fluorescence assay. Although mice were immunized with the recombinant DNAs mixed with polyethylenimine (PEI) at a dose of 1:2, it failed to enhance the antibody response against IBDV VP2, as measured by the indirect ELISA assay, yet the cell mediated immune response was significantly increased. The ratio of CD8+/CD4+ T cells was significantly increased in the immunized group with the fusion genes, compared with the group immunized with VP2 (P<0.05). Our results demonstrated that VP22 indeed enhances the cell-mediated response in the fused VP2 in a mice model system, possibly due to the fact that the IBDV VP2 could be carried into the surrounding cells at a limited level under pressure from MDV VP22.
Full Text Available Cyclic diguanylic acid (c-di-GMP is an intra-cellular bacterial signalling molecule previously shown to possess immune-stimulatory activities. However, the effects of this molecule on chicken immune responses have not been investigated. This study evaluated the humoral immune response following oral administration or Intra-Muscular injection (IM of saline, 10 or 100 nmol c-di-GMP in conjunction with the Infectious Bursal Disease Virus (IBDV vaccine S-706 in 96 broiler chickens. The oral vaccine and the test compounds were administrated at age 14 days and the chickens were then monitored until day 35. Blood samples were collected weekly from 8 birds per treatment to determine the antibody titers. Results showed that oral or IM administration of c-di-GMP did not induce any adverse effect in broiler chickens. Significant increases (p<0.05 in the total Immunoglobulin (Ig A concentrations were observed regardless of the treatments as the birds aged. No significant effect was noted for total IgG and IgM concentrations after any of the sampling days immediately following administration of the compounds. However, on day 35, serum of birds orally administered with 10 and 100 nmol of c-di-GMP showed higher serum IgA antibody concentrations when compared to the serum of birds from the saline control (p<0.05 indicating that c-di-GMP stimulated IgA production in serum and confirming the potential of this molecule as a mucosal adjuvant. No significant effect on serum antivirus antibodies (IBDV infectious bronchitis virus, Newcastle disease virus and avian Reovirus was observed for the 10 or 100 nmol c-di-GMP treatments. The results indicate that studies are warranted on the potential beneficial effects of c-di-GMP on broiler immunity.
Dormitorio, T V; Giambrone, J J; Guo, K; Jackwood, D J
Two infectious bursal disease viruses (IBDVs 1174 and V1) were isolated from IBDV-vaccinated broiler flocks in California and Georgia. These flocks had a history of subclinical immunosuppression. These isolates are commonly used in IBDV progeny challenge studies at Auburn, AL, as well as vaccine manufacturer's vaccine efficacy studies, because they come from populated poultry-producing states, and are requested by poultry veterinarians from those states. Nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) generated viral genome products for sequencing. A 491-bp segment from the VP2 gene, covering the hypervariable region, from each isolate was analyzed and compared with previously sequenced isolates. Sequence analysis showed that they were more closely related to the Delaware (Del) E antigenic variant than they are to the Animal Health Plant Inspection Service (APHIS) standard, both at the nucleotide level (96%, 97%) and at the amino acid level (94%, 97%). Both isolates had the glutamine to lysine shift in amino acid 249 which has been reported to be critical in binding the virus neutralizing Mab B69. Phenotypic studies showed that both isolates produced rapid atrophy of the bursae and weight loss, without the edematous bursal phase, in 2-wk-old commercial broilers having antibody against IBDV. A progeny challenge study showed both isolates produced more atrophy of the bursae (less percentage of protection) than the Del E isolate. Molecular and phenotypic data of these important IBDV isolates help in the improved detection and control of this continually changing and important viral pathogen of chickens. PMID:17626491
Javier Andrés Jaimes-Olaya
Full Text Available The infectious bursal disease or Gumboro disease is an immunosuppressive pathology of birds, which has great importance in the poultry industry due to large economic losses that it produces not only for its direct effect, but because of the susceptibility to secondary infections, interference with commercial vaccines, reducing the effective use of them. The disease is produced by the infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV, which is an RNA genome birnavirus, with high capacity for mutation, so the agent is continually evolving. The pathology has three types of clinical presentation: a subclinical form, a mild or moderate clinical form and a severe clinical form. However, the type of manifestation is determined mainly by three factors: the age of birds at the time of infection, the type of strain or acting or genetic variability of it, and the immunity degree. In this article, we discuss each of these factors and their importance in the presentation of the disease. These elements are vital in order to establish effective prevention and control programs.
F. Mushtaq, S. A. Khan, A. Aslam, K. Saeed1, G. Saleem and H. Mushtaq
Full Text Available This project was aimed to evaluate immunostimulatory effects of three therapeutic substances in broilers suffering from infectious bursal disease (IBD. For this purpose, 150 chicks were divided into five equal groups i.e. A, B, C, D and E having 30 birds each. Group A, B, C and D were challenged with infectious bursal disease virus. There were three immunostimulatory treatments i.e. levamisole (group A, vitamin E (group B, and bursinex (group C. Groups D and E were untreated control. Bursa body weight index, histopathology of bursa of Fabricius, plasma cell counting in Harderian gland and estimation of antibody response against infectious bursal disease virus was recorded. Vitamin E played a major role in improving the condition of birds suffering from infectious bursal disease, as it showed increased bursa body weight index (BBIx, less histopathological lesions in bursa of Fabricius, increased number of plasma cells in Harderian gland and high antibody response in infectious bursal disease infected broilers as compared to levamisole and bursinex. Levamisole played a minor role in improving condition of birds, while bursinex did not seem to be much effective against infectious bursal disease virus in this study.
Hildebrandt, Evin; Dunn, John R; Cheng, Hans H
Marek's disease virus (MDV) is an oncogenic alphaherpesvirus and the causative agent of Marek's disease (MD), characterized by immunosuppression, paralysis, nerve enlargement and induction of T-cell lymphomas in chickens. Despite widespread usage of vaccines since the 1970s to control MD, more virulent field strains of MDV have emerged that overcome vaccinal protection, necessitating the development of new and more protective MD vaccines. The ∆Meq virus, a recombinant Md5 strain MDV lacking the viral oncogene Meq, is one candidate MD vaccine with great potential but unfortunately it also causes bursal-thymic atrophy (BTA) in maternal antibody negative chickens, raising concerns that impede commercial use as a vaccine. Previously, we identified a point mutation within UL5 that reduced in vivo replication in attenuated viruses. We proposed that introduction of the UL5 point mutation into the ∆Meq virus would reduce in vivo replication and eliminate BTA yet potentially retain high protective abilities. In birds, the ∆Meq+UL5 recombinant MDV had reduced replication compared to the original ∆Meq virus, while weights of lymphoid organs indicated that ∆Meq+UL5 did not induce BTA, supporting the hypothesis that reduction of in vivo replication would also abolish BTA. Vaccine trials of the ∆Meq+UL5 virus compared to other ∆Meq-based viruses and commercial vaccines show that, while the ∆Meq+UL5 does provide vaccinal protection, this protection was also reduced compared to the original ∆Meq virus. Therefore, it appears that a very delicate balance is required between levels of replication able to induce high vaccinal protection, yet not so high as to induce BTA. PMID:25968878
Juul-Madsen, Helle; Nielsen, O.L.; Krogh-Maibom, T.; Rontved, C.M.; Dalgaard, T.S.; Bumstead, N.; Jørgensen, Poul Henrik
further contains the BW1 haplotype isolated from a Red jungle Fowl. Line 131 further contains the B131 haplotype isolated from a meat-type chicken, Finally, Line 21 further contains the international B21 haplotype. The chickens were vaccinated with live attenuated commercial IBDV vaccine at 3 wk of age...... weight, relative weights of the bursa and the spleen, percentage and relative number of MHC II molecules on MHC II-positive lymphocytes, percentage and relative number of CD4 molecules on CD4-positive lymphocytes, and the specific antibody response all differed significantly among lines. Line 1, with Red...
HABIB Mudasser; HUSSAIN Iftikhar; IRSHAD Hamid; YANG Zong-zhao; SHUAI Jiang-bing; CHEN Ning
Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) was inactivated by two different chemicals-formaldehyde and binary ethylenimine (BEI). Formaldehyde was used at 0.1% and 0.2%, while BEI was used at concentrations of 0.001 and 0.002 mol/L.These four vaccines were tested for their efficiency in generating humoral immune response in different groups of broiler chicks.Both BEI-inactivated vaccines gave relatively higher antibody titers and were almost twice as efficient as formaldehyde-inactivated ones.
Kusk, M.; Kabell, Susanne; Jørgensen, Poul Henrik;
Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is a major cause of disease problems in the poultry industry and vaccination has therefore been applied intensively to control the infection. The classical methods of detection and characterization of IBDV are by the use of immunodiffusion test and histopath......Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is a major cause of disease problems in the poultry industry and vaccination has therefore been applied intensively to control the infection. The classical methods of detection and characterization of IBDV are by the use of immunodiffusion test and...... histopathology. Since these methods are laborious and have low specificity alternatives are needed. In the present study, we report the development of a strain-specific multiplex RT-PCR technique, which can detect and differentiate between field strains of IBDV and vaccine virus strains including a so-called hot...
Full Text Available The current study was conducted to evaluate the pathogenicity and immunosuppressive effects of GM-97 strain of infectious bursal disease virus in commercial broiler chickens. A total of 500 broiler chickens were vaccinated with the virus through oral route at 10 and 17 days of age (102-103 EID50/dose. Chickens were also vaccinated with Newcastle disease virus (Hitchner B1 orally at 14 and 21 days old. Chickens were euthanized (at 12, 14, 16, 20, 23, 26 days of age after measuring body weight. Bursa of Fabricius was examined for any gross lesion, weighed and processed for histological investigations. Bursa to body weight ratio and bursal lesion scoring were made to evaluate pathogenicity of the virus. Blood samples were analyzed for antibody response to ND vaccine virus using HI test. Results showed that the GM-97 strain of IBDV induced mild to moderate depletion of lymphoid cells in the center of bursal follicles and non-significant difference in bursa to body weight ratio amongst vaccinated and unvaccinated chickens. Chickens responded well to ND vaccine by mounting high level of serum NDV specific HI antibody titers. It can be concluded from the present study that GM-97 strain of IBDV has mild pathogenicity but is not immunosuppressive.
Wang, Miao; Pan, Qing; Lu, Zhen; Li, Kai; Gao, Honglei; Qi, Xiaole; Gao, Yulong; Wang, Xiaomei
Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) causes immunosuppression in young chickens, leading to increased susceptibility to other diseases and a reduction in the immune response to other vaccines. Thus, IBDV results in great economic losses to the poultry industry. The most effective method of prevention is vaccination. However, medium-virulence vaccines can cause bursal pathological damage and immunosuppression. Here, we describe a safer, self-assembled, subvirus-like particle (sVP) vaccine without a complex purification process. The IBD-VP2 gene was cloned into Pichia pastoris, and the expressed protein self-assembled into T=1 sVPs (∼23nm). Immunization experiments showed that the sVP vaccine elicited high IBDV-neutralizing antibodies in each group, and all birds survived challenge with very virulent IBDV (vvIBDV). Additionally, IBDV RNA was not detected, and sterile immunity was achieved. In conclusion, the IBD-sVP is a suitable candidate for a recombinant subunit vaccine against IBDV. PMID:27164218
Thirteen strains of monoclonal antibodies (McAbs) against infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) were obtained by using hybridoma technique and their characteristics were studied by double immunodiffusion,en- zyme- linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), virus neutralization test (VNT) and Western- blotting assay (WBA). The result showed that nine of the thirteen McAbs belonged to IgG class and four of them belonged to IgM class. No crossreactions were detected betwween the McAbs and Newscastle disease virus (NDV) ,in- fectious bronchitis virus(IBV) and Marek's disease virus(MDV). All of McAbs were positively specific reac- tive with IBDV and five of them can neutralize viral infectivity. Their recognized epitopes of the neutralizing McAbs were all presented on VP2 of the IBDV.
LiYan－Fei; WangWei; 等
Thirteen strains of monoclonal antibodies(McAbs) against infections bursal disease virus(IBDV) were obtained by using hydridoma technique and their characteristics were studied by double immunodiffusion,enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA),virus neutralization test(VNT) and Western-blotting assay (WBA).The result showed that nine of the thirteen McAbs belonged to IgG class and four of them belonged to IgM class.No crossreactions were detected betwween the McAbs and Newscastle disease virus (NDV),infectious bronchitis virus(IBV) and Marek's disease virus(MDV).All of McAbs were positively specific reactive with IBDV and five of them can neutralize viral infectivity.Their recognized epitopes of the neutralizing McAbs were all presented on VP2 of the IBDV.
Full Text Available The polysaccharide-containing extracellular fractions (EFs of the edible mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus have immunomodulating effects. Being aware of these therapeutic effects of mushroom extracts, we have investigated the synergistic relations between these extracts and BIAVAC and BIAROMVAC vaccines. These vaccines target the stimulation of the immune system in commercial poultry, which are extremely vulnerable in the first days of their lives. By administrating EF with polysaccharides from P. ostreatus to unvaccinated broilers we have noticed slow stimulation of maternal antibodies against infectious bursal disease (IBD starting from four weeks post hatching. For the broilers vaccinated with BIAVAC and BIAROMVAC vaccines a low to almost complete lack of IBD maternal antibodies has been recorded. By adding 5% and 15% EF in the water intake, as compared to the reaction of the immune system in the previous experiment, the level of IBD antibodies was increased. This has led us to believe that by using this combination of BIAVAC and BIAROMVAC vaccine and EF from P. ostreatus we can obtain good results in stimulating the production of IBD antibodies in the period of the chicken first days of life, which are critical to broilers’ survival. This can be rationalized by the newly proposed reactivity biological activity (ReBiAc principles by examining the parabolic relationship between EF administration and recorded biological activity.
Flensburg, Mimi Folden; Ersbøll, Annette Kjær; Jørgensen, Poul Henrik
The objective of the present study was to investigate risk factors associated with the introduction of acute clinical infectious bursal disease (IBD) among Danish broiler chickens in 1998. Data on 218 flocks were collected from hatcheries, abattoirs, farmers and veterinarians; 49 of the flocks had...... experienced acute clinical IBD (cases), 169 were unexposed (controls). The study was carried out using a case-control design. Cases were defined as the first flock on each premises to experience acute clinical IBD, and these were compared with non-diseased, non-IBD-vaccinated control flocks chosen randomly...
Lin, Hongli; Hou, Shenda; Wang, Song; Wang, Yupeng; LuanI, Yunyan; Hou, Xilin
In order to determine immunogenicity and protective effect in chickens, we used the IBDV (Infectious bursal disease virus)-Vp2/Lactobacillus casei as antigen transfer system. First, the immunized and control chickens were challenged by IBDV/DQ at lethal dose to determine the protective ratio. Second, chickens were orallyand intranasally vaccinated twice with 10(9) CFU/mL pLA-VP2/L. casei, pLA/L. casei and PBS as negativecontrol and commercial vaccine as positive control. The bursa injury and the lesion score wererecorded post challenge. The level of specific IgG and sIgA in pLA-VP2/L. casei and positive control groups was significantly higher than that in negativecontrol groups. The protection efficacy in pLA-VP2/L. casei oral group was higher than that inintranasal group. The SI. of pLA-VP2/L. casei oral group was significant higher than other groups. The lesion score indicated the pLA-VP2/L. casei was safer than commercial vaccine for bursa. Collectively, the pLA-VP2/L. casei could be a vaccine candidate for IBDV. PMID:25985519
Christopher J. Kasanga
Full Text Available Nucleotide sequences of the VP2 hypervariable region (VP2-HVR of 10 infectious bursal disease viruses detected in indigenous and exotic chickens in Zambia from 2004 to 2005 were determined. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the viruses diverged into two genotypes and belonged to the African very virulent types (VV1 and VV2. In the phylogenetic tree, strains in one genotype clustered in a distinct group and were closely related to some strains isolated in western Africa (VV1, with nucleotide similarities of 95.7%– 96.5%. Strains in the other genotype were clustered within the eastern African VV type (VV2, with nucleotide similarities of 97.3%– 98.5%. Both genotypes were distributed in the southern parts of Zambia and had a unique conserved amino acid substitution at 300 (E→A in addition to the putative virulence marker at positions 222(A, 242(I, 256(I, 294(I and 299(S. These findings represent the first documentation of the existence of the African VV-IBDV variants in both indigenous and exotic chickens in Zambia.
Nielsen, O.L.; Sorensen, P.; Hedemand, J.E.;
Chickens representing two different inbred lines (layer and meat-type) and three different B haplotypes (BW1, B19 and B131) were infected with infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) at 21 days of age. Mortality was recorded, and surviving chickens were killed and examined either 3 or 17 days post...
Dormitorio, T V; Giambrone, J J; Duck, L W
The VP2 gene is part of the genomic segment A of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV). It has been identified as the major host-protective antigen of IBDV and is known to contain conformationally dependent protective epitopes. A 643-base pair segment covering the hypervariable region of this gene from three recent serologic variant IBDV isolates from the southeastern United States, two variants from the Delmarva Peninsula, and three serologic standard viruses were amplified and sequenced using the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and cycle sequencing techniques. This was done to determine the molecular similarity among isolates that differ antigenically and pathologically. Sequence analysis suggested that the Arkansas (Ark) and Mississippi (Miss) isolates evolved closely and separately from the Delmarva variants (GLS and DELE), in contrast to the other southeastern variant Georgia (Ga), which is more closely related (98.32%) to Delaware E (DELE). All variants, except for Miss, underwent a shift in amino acid number 222 from proline to threonine. The sequence of Univax BD virus, a commercially available intermediate vaccine, was markedly different, evolving from a separate lineage than the others. Restriction enzyme sites could differentiate most isolates. Except for Miss, variants do not have EcoRII site at the larger hydrophilic domain. All variants lost their HaeIII, StuI, and StyI cutting sites with a change in base number 856. The TaqI site is in DELE, whereas the SpeI site is absent in the standard vaccine viruses. The SWASASGS heptapeptide is conserved in all virulent viruses, including APHIS, but not in the attenuated (Univax BD and Bursa Vac 3) and published (D78 and PBG98) vaccines. PMID:9087318
Oluwayelu, Daniel Oladimeji; Adebiyi, Adebowale Idris; Olaniyan, Ibukunoluwa; Ezewele, Phyllis; Aina, Oluwasanmi
The double-spurred francolin Francolinus bicalcaratus has been identified as a good candidate for future domestication due to the universal acceptability of its meat and its adaptability to anthropogenically altered environments. Therefore, in investigating the diseases to which they are susceptible, serum samples from 56 francolins in a major live-bird market (LBM) in Ibadan, southwestern Nigeria, were screened for antibodies against Newcastle disease (ND) and infectious bursal disease (IBD) viruses. Haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) revealed 25.0% and 35.7% prevalence of ND virus (NDV) antibodies, respectively, while 5.4% and 57.1% prevalence of IBD virus (IBDV) antibodies was detected by agar gel precipitation test (AGPT) and ELISA, respectively. This first report on the occurrence of NDV and IBDV antibodies in apparently healthy, unvaccinated double-spurred francolins from a LBM suggests that they were subclinically infected with either field or vaccine viruses and could thus serve as possible reservoirs of these viruses to domestic poultry. Furthermore, if they are to be domesticated for intensive rearing, a vaccination plan including ND and IBD should be developed and implemented. PMID:26464918
Daniel Oladimeji Oluwayelu
Full Text Available The double-spurred francolin Francolinus bicalcaratus has been identified as a good candidate for future domestication due to the universal acceptability of its meat and its adaptability to anthropogenically altered environments. Therefore, in investigating the diseases to which they are susceptible, serum samples from 56 francolins in a major live-bird market (LBM in Ibadan, southwestern Nigeria, were screened for antibodies against Newcastle disease (ND and infectious bursal disease (IBD viruses. Haemagglutination inhibition (HI test and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA revealed 25.0% and 35.7% prevalence of ND virus (NDV antibodies, respectively, while 5.4% and 57.1% prevalence of IBD virus (IBDV antibodies was detected by agar gel precipitation test (AGPT and ELISA, respectively. This first report on the occurrence of NDV and IBDV antibodies in apparently healthy, unvaccinated double-spurred francolins from a LBM suggests that they were subclinically infected with either field or vaccine viruses and could thus serve as possible reservoirs of these viruses to domestic poultry. Furthermore, if they are to be domesticated for intensive rearing, a vaccination plan including ND and IBD should be developed and implemented.
Annamalai, Arunsaravanakumar; Ramakrishnan, Saravanan; Sachan, Swati; Kumar, B S Anand; Sharma, Bal Krishan; Kumar, Vimal; Palanivelu, Munuswamy; Varghese, Berin P; Kumar, Ajay; Saravanan, B C; Krishnaswamy, Narayanan
The study evaluated the prophylactic potential of resiquimod (R-848), a synthetic TLR7 agonist, against very virulent infectious bursal disease virus (vvIBDV) infection in chicken. Specific pathogen free White Leghorn chicks of three week age were treated with R-848 (50μg/bird, intramuscular) or PBS (n=26/group). Twenty four hour later, half of the birds from each group were challenged with 10(5) ELD50 of vvIBDV and observed for 10days. To understand the effect of R-848, immune response genes such as interferon (IFN)-β, IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-4, iNOS and TLR7 were analyzed at 24 and 48h post-challenge in PBMCs ex vivo by real-time PCR (n=6/group). On day 4 post-challenge, representative birds (n=3/group) were sacrificed to study the bursal damage and IBDV antigen clearance. Immunosuppression was assessed by antibody response against live Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vaccine, which was administered on day 10 post-challenge. R-848 pre-treatment significantly upregulated the transcripts of each immune response gene studied (Pchicken when challenged with vvIBDV, which could be due to the upregulation of immune response genes. PMID:27066705
Senthilkumar, T M A; Priyadharsini, C V; Raja, P; Kumanan, K
Infectious bursal disease virus is an avian pathogen that causes huge morbidity and mortality in the poultry sector all over the world. Here, we report the full-length genome sequence of an Indian strain, MB11/ABT/MVC/2016, isolated from a commercial broiler flock. This is a first report of a complete genome sequence of infectious bursal disease virus from India. PMID:27174268
Full Text Available A cross sectional study was conducted in North Gondar and West Gojjam Administrative Zones from November 2009 to June 2010 to determine the seroprevalence of infectious bursal disease by using I-ELISA (Indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay test. A total of 400 chickens raised in the back yard production system, 200 from each study area, were randomly selected and examined for the presence of anti-IBD (anti- infectious bursal disease antibody. Anti-IBD antibody was detected from 294 chickens and this gives an overall seroprevalence of 73.5% (294/400 for the entire study area, where the higher 75% (150/200 and the lower 72% (144/200 was recorded from samples collected in West Gojjam and North Gondar respectively. Even though, place of origin and sex was considered as potential risk factors, the study result shows that variation in place of origin and sex of chickens doesn’t have significant influence on the occurrence of IBD (Infectious bursal disease. Generally, the higher prevalence (73.5% reported in this study indicates that the disease is widely distributed and one of the potential threat for poultry production in the study areas.
Daniel Oladimeji Oluwayelu; Adebowale Idris Adebiyi; Ibukunoluwa Olaniyan; Phyllis Ezewele; Oluwasanmi Aina
The double-spurred francolin Francolinus bicalcaratus has been identified as a good candidate for future domestication due to the universal acceptability of its meat and its adaptability to anthropogenically altered environments. Therefore, in investigating the diseases to which they are susceptible, serum samples from 56 francolins in a major live-bird market (LBM) in Ibadan, southwestern Nigeria, were screened for antibodies against Newcastle disease (ND) and infectious bursal disease (IBD)...
Kabell, Susanne; Handberg, Kurt; Kusk, Mette;
transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays, including two recently developed strain-specific assays, were employed for detection of ribonucleic acid (RNA) from three different IBDV strains in bursa tissue samples from experimentally infected specific pathogen free chickens. The virus strains......Infectious bursal disease (IBD) is a worldwide distributed immunosuppressive viral disease in young chickens, controlled by vaccination. Emergence of several strains of IBD virus (IBDV) has created a demand for strain-specific diagnostic tools. In the present experiment, five different reverse...... included vaccine strain D78, classical strain Faragher 52/70, and the very virulent Danish strain DK01 The presence of the virus infection was confirmed by histopathologic evaluation of bursa lesions. The largest number of positive samples was obtained with a strain-specific two-step multiplex (MPX) RT...
H. B. Aliyu
Full Text Available Clinical and pathological investigations were conducted on outbreaks of infectious bursal disease (IBD in pullets under brooding using the battery cage system in a commercial poultry farm in Kaduna, Nigeria. Two consecutive outbreaks of IBD on the same farm were studied. The onset of the disease and morbidity and mortality rates were recorded. Postmortem examinations were conducted and gross lesions recorded. Tissues were collected and fixed in 10% buffered formalin and processed for histopathological examinations. In the first outbreak, 80 to 100% of the chicks were affected at the age of 4 to 5 weeks and mortality rate was 95.8% and lasted for 9 days. In the second outbreak, the mortality rate was 43.3% and it also lasted for 9 days. At the onset of the disease, the birds were also 4-week-old like in case 1. The disease was diagnosed based on clinical signs, pathology, and agar gel immunodiffusion test (AGID. Clinical signs, gross lesions, and histopathological findings were characteristic of virulent infectious bursal disease. After the first outbreak (case 1 the house was disinfected using polidine® (iodophor compound, V-ox® (inorganic peroxygen compounds, CID20® (quaternary ammonium chloride, aldehydes, and alcohol, terminator III® (phenols, and glutasan® (aldehyde and quaternary ammonium chloride. But they failed to eliminate the IBD virus from the poultry pen.
Crespo, Rocio; Badcoe, Lyndon M; Williams, Cheryl; Bary, Andrew I
Very virulent infectious bursal disease virus (vvIBDV) was diagnosed in a pullet farm in Washington in 2014. Infectious bursal disease virus is resistant to many environmental stresses and often persists on farms for months. There have been conflicting reports as to whether composting can destroy vvIBDV in the manure. This project investigated the composting of litter from the affected house using an aerated static pile to inactivate the virus. Two weeks before the affected pullet flocks were moved to the layer house, specific-pathogen-free (SPF) birds were placed in the barns. Ten days after they were placed, three SPF birds died and were positive for vvIBDV. Thirty percent of the SPF birds were positive for vvIBDV. After the pullets were moved, at 20 wk of age, the litter in the house was composted using the aerated static pile method. The pile was maintained at above 55 C for 4 wk. After this time, 30 additional SPF birds were placed on the composted material. Two weeks later, the birds were healthy and there was no evidence of vvIBDV. The subsequent pullet flock did not break with vvIBDV. These results demonstrate that this composting method can be used to decontaminate the litter from vvIBDV and help prevent the spread of vvIBDV. PMID:27309296
E. S. Swai
Full Text Available A study of infectious bursal disease (IBD or ‘Gumboro disease’ seroprevalence rates in healthy, non-vaccinated indigenous scavenging chickens in northern Tanzania was conducted in November and December 2009 on 362 chickens raised in a traditional management system. Individual bird and flock-level information was collected using a semi-structured questionnaire, and serum samples were screened for IBD virus (IBDV antibodies using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. The study revealed high rates of IBDV antibodies, yielding an overall seropositive rate of 58.8 % and with at least one positive bird detected in 82.8 % (74/90 of flocks. Univariate logistic regression analysis revealed that seropositivity to IBDV varied significantly (χ2 = 16.1, P < 0.001 between the study sites. The flock seroprevalence was found to vary from 37.5 % to 91 % between districts and from 75%to 90%between regions. The results of this study showed that IBD is an endemic and widely distributed disease in northern Tanzania.
Boot, H.J.; Hoekman, A.J.W.; Gielkens, A.L.J.
There is a remarkable difference in virulence of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) strains ranging from sub-clinical infections for serotype 2 and cell culture adapted serotype 1 strains, to 100% mortality for very virulent serotype 1 strains in young SPF chickens. It is known that cell culture
Cloud, S S; Rosenberger, J K; Lillehoj, H S
To determine the functional impact of alterations in lymphocyte concentrations and ratios following infection with chicken anemia agent (CAA) alone or in combination with infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) on the immune system of young chickens, in vitro lymphoproliferation assays and in vivo responses to vaccination with several common viral agents were assessed at various time intervals post-inoculation (PI). Concanavalin A (Con A), phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and pokeweed mitogen (PWM) stimulation of splenic lymphocytes (SPL) collected from control birds could not be detected until 10-14 days PI. Infection with CAA was characterized by significantly higher PWM stimulation of SPL at 17 days PI and significantly lower PWM stimulation of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) at 14 days PI, compared with uninfected controls. Concanavalin A and PWM stimulation of SPL was significantly increased in birds inoculated with IBDV alone. Lymphocytes harvested from birds inoculated simultaneously with CAA and IBDV had significantly lower responses. Effects on humoral and cell-mediated immunity following CAA and/or IBDV were determined by evaluating vaccination responses to Newcastle disease virus (NDV), fowl pox virus (FPV) and infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) during the acute phase of CAA infection (2 weeks PI). Vaccination of birds 2 weeks following CAA infection at 1 day of age resulted in decreased protection against NDV (85.7%) and ILTV (7.1%) challenge compared with protection rates in control birds (100% and 53.3% respectively). Infectious bursal disease virus infection was associated with decreased protection against NDV (60%) only. Concomitant infection at 1 day of age resulted in a greater reduction in NDV challenge protection (33.3%), slightly decreased FPV protection (87.5%), increased numbers of persistent FPV vaccination lesions and increased protection against ILTV challenge (71.4%). Vaccination of birds 2 weeks following CAA infection at 2 weeks of age
Newcastle disease in free-range village chickens was confirmed by retrospective data analysis and epidemiological cross-sectional studies. The combination of serological survey and virus isolation and characterisation established seasonal occurrence of Newcastle disease (ND) in free-range village chickens. The highest sero-prevalence (81.5) and virus isolation frequency (18/27) were found in the period between June and October. The field isolates of Newcastle virus (NDV) were confirmed to be PMV-1 serotype by polyclonal PMV-1 antiserum and monoclonal antibody (mAb) U85. All isolates were not inhibited by mAb 716/161 specific for pigeon panzootic NDV, showing that the current Tanzanian field isolates have antigenic variation and were not involved in the recent pigeon NDV panzootic. Mean death time determination characterised isolates into velogenic, mesogenic and lentogenic pathotypes. Isolation of NDV from apparently healthy ducks revealed the role of ducks in the epidemiology of ND in free-range village chickens in Tanzania. Studies are recommended to determine the similarities of the field isolates from different sources within Tanzania and to panzootic NDV from other countries. Strategic control of ND in free-range village chickens is recommended taking into consideration the presence of different age groups. Infectious bursal disease was histologically diagnosed in free-range village chickens. Therefore, there is a need of carrying out research on the role of other diseases and determine their prevalence and their contribution to the mortalities experienced in the free-range village chickens. (author)
WANG Xiao-mei; FU Chao-yang; GAO Hong-lei; SONG Xiou-long; ZENG Xiang-wei; ZHANG Man-fu; Wallace B L lim
The very virulent infectious bursal disease virus (vvIBDV) strain Gx was isolated from a poutl-try farm in Guangxi Province, China, during 1996. The mortality in the infected flock was 80% and occurred5 days after immunization with serotype I IBD vaccine. The results of antigen-capture ELISA (AC-ELISA),pathogenicity testing, cloning and sequence analysis of the VP2 gene showed that the deduced amino acid se-quence of strain Gx VP2 was the same as vvIBDV UK661, which is considered as a reference strain for Europe-an vvIBDVs. The antigenicity of the Gx strain was the same as an European vvIBDV strain 849. The EID50 of Gx virus was 10-8. 25/0. 2 ml, and the mortality was 64 % when 4 week-old SPF chickens were challenged atdosage of 2 × 103 EID50. We have demonstrated that the IBDV strain Gx isolated in China is vvlBDV according to European standards.
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Morla, Sudhir; Deka, Pankaj; Kumar, Sachin
Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is a highly infectious disease of young chicken that predominantly affects the immune system. In the present study, we are reporting first comprehensive study of IBDV outbreaks from the Northeastern part of India. Northeast India shares a porous border with four different countries; and as a rule any outbreak in the neighboring countries substantially affects the poultry population in the adjoining states. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the VP2 gene of the IBDV isolates from the Northeastern part of India suggested the extreme virulent nature of the virus. The virulent marker amino acids (A222, I242, Q253, I256 and S299) in the hypervariable region of the Northeastern isolates were found identical with the reported very virulent strains of IBDV. A unique insertion of I/L294V was recorded in all the isolates of the Northeastern India. The study will be useful in understanding the circulating pathotypes of IBDV in India. PMID:26854869
Confer, A W; MacWilliams, P S
Several experiments were conducted to study the mechanism of infectious bursal disease virus induced suppression of phytohemagglutinin stimulation of peripheral blood lymphocytes. Infectious bursal disease virus inoculation of one week old chicks resulted in significant suppression of phytohemagglutinin stimulation during the first three days after inoculation as demonstrated by a whole blood assay. Mild thymic necrosis was seen on day 3. Hematological changes during this time consisted of in...
Cao, Weisheng; Mays, Jody; Kulkarni, Gururaj; Dunn, John; Fulton, Richard M; Fadly, Aly
Breeders of the 2009 generation of Avian Disease and Oncology Laboratory transgenic chicken line ALVA6, known to be resistant to infection with subgroups A and E avian leukosis virus (ALV), were vaccinated at hatch with a trivalent Marek's disease (MD) vaccine containing serotypes 1, 2, and 3 Marek's disease virus (MDV) and were maintained under pathogen-free conditions from the day of hatch until 75 weeks of age. Spontaneous ALV-like bursal lymphomas, also termed lymphoid leukosis (LL)-like lymphomas, were detected in 7% of the ALVA6 breeders. There was no evidence of infection with exogenous and endogenous ALV as determined by virus isolation tests of plasma and tumour tissue homogenates. For the next three generations, serotype 2 MDV was eliminated from the trivalent MD vaccine used. Results show, for the first time, that removal of serotype 2 MDV from MD vaccines eliminated spontaneous LL-like lymphomas within 50 to 72 weeks of age for at least three consecutive generations. Two experiments were also conducted to determine the influence of in ovo vaccination with serotype 2 MD vaccines on enhancement of spontaneous LL-like lymphomas in ALVA6 chickens. Chickens from the 2012 generation were each inoculated in ovo or at hatch with 5000 plaque-forming units of serotype 2 MDV. Results indicate that by 50 weeks of age the incidence of spontaneous LL-like lymphomas in chickens inoculated in ovo with serotype 2 MDV was comparable with that in chickens inoculated with virus at hatch, suggesting that the augmentation effect of serotype 2 MDV is independent of age of vaccination. PMID:25407937
Abdel Ameer H. Zahid
Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to compare different diagnostic procedures for the detection of Newcastle disease and Infectious bursal disease in broilers and layers (during the period from March 2011 to February 2012 in the laboratory of the Department of Microbiology and Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University Putra Malaysia (UPM .A total of 187 sick and dead chickens (63 broilers and 124 layers of different ages (1 week to >15 weeks were collected from 12 selective poultry farms (4 broilers and 8 layers. Clinically, 7 (14.89% of 63 affected broiler and 27 (30.68% of 124 affected layer chickens were diagnosed as Newcastle disease (ND whereas, 11 (23.4% of 63 affected broiler and 6 (4.82% of the 124 affected layer birds were diagnosed as IBD on the basis of clinical history, clinical signs and postmortem findings. Virus isolation from field samples was performed by inoculating each suspected sample into 10-day-old chicken embryos. Out of 34 ND suspected field samples, 26 (5 broilers and 21 layers were positive for NDV isolation and 11 (8 broilers and 3 layers of 17 IBD suspected field samples, were positive for IBDV isolation. For confirmatory diagnosis, virus detection was confirmed by serological tests (HI and AGID and RT-PCR assay. Out of 34 clinically diagnosed ND field samples, 20 (5 broiler and 15 layer were positive by RT-PCR assay and 15 (10 broiler and 5 layer of 17 IBD suspected field samples, were positive by both AGIDT and RT-PCR assay. Of the 26 HA positive NDV suspected AF, 19 (4 broilers and 15 layers were positive by both HI and RT-PCR assay whereas, 10 (7 broilers and 3 layers of 11 IBDV isolation positive tissue suspension were positive by both AGIDT and RT-PCR assay in the laboratory. Therefore, it may be concluded that serological (HI and AGIDT and molecular (RT-PCR techniques which allow rapid identification of most of samples are the reliable, sensitive, specific and more accurate methods to detect the
Li, Yiping; Handberg, K.J.; Kabell, Susanne; Kusk, M.; Zhang, M.F.; Jorgensen, P.H.
In present study, different types of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), virulent strain DK01, classic strain F52/70 and vaccine strain D78 were quantified and detected in infected bursa of Fabricius (BF) and cloacal swabs using quantitative real time RT-PCR with SYBR green dye. For selection...... of a suitable internal control gene, real time PCR parameters were evaluated for three candidate genes, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), 28S rRNA and beta-actin to IBDVs. Based on this P-actin was selected as an internal control for quantification of IBDVs in BF. All BF samples with...... primers. The method described here is robust and may sever as a useful tool with high capacity for diagnostics as well as in viral pathogenesis studies....
Day-old local Balady chicks, with maternally derived antibodies to Infectious Bur sal Disease (Ibid) and Newcastle disease (Nd), were reared in separate pens on a commercial farm. At 1 and/or 14 days old, the chicks were vaccinated with commercial live intermediate and/or hot vaccines against Ibid. Also chicks were vaccinated against ND at 7, 19 and 29 days old. Sera samples were collected weekly to monitor the IBD and ND immune responses. At 28, 35 and 42 days old, chicks were transferred to the laboratory and challenged with very virulent IBD virus to evaluate the protection given by the vaccination programs. In all vaccinated groups, IBD maternal antibody interfered with development of active antibody response for the first 3 weeks of life followed by significant elevation of IBD antibodies at 28 days of age. The serological response to ND vaccines was not significantly affected in chicken vaccinated with intermediate or hot IBD vaccines. There was no significant difference in administrating live IBD vaccine either at 1 day old and/or 14 days old. Based on the results of this study, it is recommended to vaccinate day-old local chicks, before delivery to small holders, with live IBD vaccine despite the temporary interference by maternal antibody. (author)
Martínez-Torrecuadrada, Jorge L.; Lázaro, Beatriz; Rodriguez, José F; Casal, J. Ignacio
The routine technique for detecting antibodies specific to infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is a serological evaluation by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with preparations of whole virions as the antigens. To avoid using complete virus in the standard technique, we have developed two new antigens through the expression of the VPX and VP3 genes in insect cells. VPX and especially VP3 were expressed at high levels in insect cells and simple to purify. The immunogenicity of both...
M. M. Uddin*, M. Z. I. Khan1, K. N. Islam, A. S. M. G. Kibria, G. N. Adhikary2, M. N. H. Parvez3, J. Basu, M. B. Uddin4 and M. M. Rahman5
This study was aimed to investigate changes in the number and distribution of lymphocytes in the mucosa associated lymphoid tissues (MALT) of digestive tract (proventriculus, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum and cecal tonsils) and respiratory system (lungs) of chicken infected by Infectious Bursal Disease Virus (IBDV). Samples were divided into two groups; IBDV infected group (21, 24 and 30 days old) and control group (non infected birds; 21 days old). Haematoxylin and eosin stained slides wer...
Repp, H; Nieper, H; Draheim, H J; Koschinski, A; Müller, H; Dreyer, F
Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is the causative agent of an economically significant poultry disease. IBDV infection leads to apoptosis in chicken embryos and cell cultures. Since changes in cellular ion fluxes during apoptosis have been reported, we investigated the membrane ion currents of chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEFs) inoculated with the Cu-1 strain of IBDV using the patch-clamp recording technique. Incubation of CEFs with IBDV led to marked changes in their K+ outward current properties, with respect to both the kinetics of activation and inactivation and the Ca2+ dependence of the activation. The changes occurred in a time-dependent manner and were complete after 8 h. UV-treated noninfectious virions induced the same K+ current changes as live IBDV. When CEFs were inoculated with IBDV after pretreatment with a neutralizing antibody, about 30% of the cells showed a normal K+ current, whereas the rest exhibited K+ current properties identical to or closely resembling those of IBDV-infected cells. Incubation of CEFs with culture supernatant from IBDV-infected cells from which the virus particles were removed had no influence on the K+ current. Our data strongly suggest that the K+ current changes induced by IBDV are not due to virus replication, but are the result of attachment and/or membrane penetration. Possibly, the altered K+ current may delay the apoptotic process in CEFs after IBDV infection. PMID:9657954
Vinay G. Joshi
Full Text Available Aim: This study was designed to develop peptide analogs of Infectious Bursal Disease (IBD virus VP5 protein segment having cell penetrating ability to improve their interaction with cargo molecule (Nucleic acid without affecting the backbone conformation. Materials and Methods: IBDV VP5 protein segment designated as RATH peptide were synthesized using solid phase peptide synthesis and their solution conformation was elucidated using CD spectroscopy in polar (water and apolar (TFE solvents. Cell penetrating ability of RATH-CONH2 was observed using FITC labeled peptide internalization in to HeLa cells under fluorescent microscopy. The efficacy of RATH analog interactions with nucleic acids was evaluated using FITC labeled oligonucleotides by fluorescence spectroscopy and plasmid constructs in gel retardation assay. Results: CD spectra of RATH analogs in water and apolar trifluroethanol (TFE helped to compare their secondary structures which were almost similar with dominant beta conformations suggesting successful induction of positive charge in the analogs without affecting back bone conformation of CPP designed. Cell penetrating ability of RATH CONH2 in HeLa cell was more than 90%. The fluorescence spectroscopy and plasmid constructs in gel retardation assay demonstrated successful interaction of amide analogs with nucleic acid. Conclusion: Intentional changes made in IBDV derived peptide RATH COOH to RATH CONH2 did not showed major changes in backbone conformation and such modifications may help to improve the cationic charge in most CPPs to interact with nucleic acid. [Vet World 2013; 6(6.000: 307-312
SHI Gang; WANG Hong-jun; SUN Hui-ling
It was in flask optimization tests proved that 2% serum, pH 7.0, 5:10 000 inoculation concentration of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) and 108 hours cultivation for IBDV harvest after its inoculation were the optimal conditions when IBDV was propagated on Vero cells. 250 mi self-made spinner bottle and 5 L stirring fermentor tests proved that IBDV could maintain higher titers for a long time and the highest titers of IBDV in a spinner bottle and a fermentor were 8. 875 and 8.58 ( - lgTCID50/0.1 ml) respectively when IBDV was proliferated on Vero cells using 2 g/L microcarriers in a spinner bottle and a fermentor and was cultivated under the optimum conditions obtained from flask tests after Vero cells had developed a confluent monolayer on microcarriers, which were at least one titer higher than the highest titer in the traditional rolling bottle. All these results suggested that this technology could be applied to large scale production for IBDV.
Noor, M; Mahmud, M S; Ghose, P R; Roy, U; Nooruzzaman, M; Chowdhury, E H; Das, P M; Islam, M R; Müller, H
A cell-culture-adapted reverse genetics strain of very virulent infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) of chickens, designated as BD-3tcC, having four amino acid substitutions (Gln253His, Asp279Asn, Ala284Thr and Ser330Arg) in the capsid protein VP2 was tested for its genetic stability during serial passage in chickens and chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF) cell culture. Results of in vitro and in vivo experiments demonstrated that all four introduced mutations in BD-3tcC remained stable during serial passage in CEF cell culture, but during passage in chickens, amino acid residues at position 253 and 284 reverted from histidine to glutamine and threonine to alanine, respectively. In a parallel experiment, the same substitutions also occurred in a conventionally attenuated vaccine strain D-78 on serial passage in chickens. However, no reversion or substitution took place at positions 279 and 330 during in vivo passage of the mutant virus BD-3tcC or vaccine virus D-78. The findings provide conclusive evidence that while IBDV requires histidine and threonine at positions 253 and 284 for cell culture adaptation, glutamine and alanine at these positions are selected preferentially during in vivo replication. PMID:24136723
Flensburg, Mimi Folden; Ersbøll, Annette Kjær; Jørgensen, Poul Henrik
The objective of the present study was to investigate risk factors associated with the introduction of acute clinical infectious bursal disease (IBD) among Danish broiler chickens in 1998. Data on 218 flocks were collected from hatcheries, abattoirs, farmers and veterinarians; 49 of the flocks had...... from each unaffected farm. The resulting numbers of cases and controls used for statistical analyses were 16 and 61, respectively. Statistically significant associations were seen between the initial 16 Danish cases of acute clinical IBD in 1998 and certain hatcheries, age of parent birds and a certain...
Cristina Freitas Nunes; Fabiane Fonseca; Alice Teixeira Meirelles Leite; Rodolfo Pinho da Silva Filho; Paula Fonseca Finger; Clarissa Caetano Castro; Geferson Fischer; Gilberto D'Avila Vargas; Silvia de Oliveira Hübner
To investigate the exposure of the Newcastle disease virus (NDV), infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) and avian poxvirus (APV) in Magellanic penguins found on the beaches in Southern regions of Brazil, the frequency of serum antibodies was estimated in 89 samples taken during 2005 and 2006. All the penguins were negative for the presence of antibodies against NDV by hemagglutination inhibition test and to APV by indirect ELISA. The reactivity was similar to the positives controls using ELI...
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Two hundred and forty specific pathogen free leghorn chickens were randomly divided into four groups and reared in isolated pens. The tested chickens were negative to infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) at 25 d old. Group 1 was treated with saline, whereas Groups 2, 3, and 4 were inoculated with 0.3 mL IBDV suspension intranasally the next day.Groups 3 and 4 were also administered with Astragalus polysaccharides (APS) intramuscularly twice daily at 5 or 10 mg kg-1 BW, respectively, until 31 d old. The erythrocyte-C3b receptor rosette rate (E-C3bRR) and the erythrocyte-C3b immune complex rosette rate (E-ICRR) were measured at 25, 29, 32, 35, and 38 d old. The results showed that IBDV significantly reduced E-C3bRR and E-ICRR when compared with the control group (P ＜ 0.05), while simultaneous administration of APS with IBDV maintained E-C3bRR at similar levels to the control group (P＞ 0.05) and increased E-ICRR when compared with the control group and the group non-treated with APS (P ＜ 0.05). APS treatment reduced the morbidity and mortality of chickens inoculated with IBDV (P ＜ 0.05). The results suggest that APS may enhance the immune adherence of chickens erythrocytes by affecting the activity and/or the number of complement receptors on the erythrocyte membrane. These findings can be beneficial in providing an understanding of the basic mechanisms required for the rational application of APS in modern medicine.
Jackwood, Daral J
The very virulent form of infectious bursal disease virus (vvIBDV) causes an immunosuppressive disease that is further characterized by the rapid onset of morbidity and high mortality in susceptible chickens. In 2009, vvIBDV was first reported in California, U. S. A., and since that time only a few cases of acute infectious bursal disease attributed to vvIBDV have been recognized in California. In other countries where vvIBDV has become established, it rapidly spreads to most poultry-producing regions. Two factors that may be involved in limiting the spread or reducing the severity of the clinical disease caused by vvIBDV in the U. S. A. are maternal immunity and competition with endemic variant strains of the virus. In this study, the ability of vvIBDV to infect and cause disease in maternally immune layer chickens was examined at weekly intervals over a 5-wk period during which their neutralizing maternal antibodies waned. Birds inoculated with vvIBDV at 2, 3, and 4 wk of age seemed healthy throughout the duration of the experiment, but macroscopic and microscopic lesions were observed in their bursa tissues. A real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay also confirmed the presence of vvIBDV RNA in their bursa tissues, indicating this virus was infecting the birds even at 2 wk of age when neutralizing maternal antibodies to infectious bursal disease virus were still relatively high (> 2000 geometric mean antibody titer). No mortality was observed in any birds when inoculated at 2, 3, or 4 wk of age; however, inoculation at 5 and 6 wk of age resulted in 10% and 20% mortality, respectively. Three experiments on the competition between vvIBDV and the two variant viruses T1 and FF6 were conducted. In all three experiments, specific-pathogen-free (SPF) birds that were inoculated with only the vvIBDV became acutely moribund, and except for Experiment 1 (62% mortality) all succumbed to the infection within 4 days of being exposed. When the
Full Text Available [b]Introduction[/b]. The airborne transmission of infectious diseases in livestock production is increasingly receiving research attention. Reliable techniques of air sampling are crucial to underpin the findings of such studies. This study evaluated the physical and biological efficiencies and detection limits of four samplers (Andersen 6-stage impactor, all-glass impinger “AGI-30”, OMNI-3000 and MD8 with gelatin filter for collecting aerosols of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV. [b]Materials and Method[/b]. IBDV aerosols mixed with a physical tracer (uranine were generated in an isolator, and then collected by the bioaerosol samplers. Samplers’ physical and biological efficiencies were derived based on the tracer concentration and the virus/tracer ratio, respectively. Detection limits for the samplers were estimated with the obtained efficiency data. [b]Results.[/b] Physical efficiencies of the AGI-30 (96% and the MD8 (100% were significantly higher than that of the OMNI-3000 (60%. Biological efficiency of the OMNI-3000 (23% was significantly lower than 100% (P < 0.01, indicating inactivation of airborne virus during sampling. The AGI-30, the Andersen impactor and the MD8 did not significantly inactivate virus during sampling. The 2-min detection limits of the samplers on airborne IBDV were 4.1 log[sub]10[/sub] 50% egg infective dose (EID[sub]50[/sub] m [sup]-3[/sup] for the Andersen impactor, 3.3 log[sub]10[/sub] EID50 m [sup]-3[/sup] for the AGI-30, 2.5 log[sub]10[/sub] EID50 m [sup]-3[/sup] for the OMNI-3000, and 2.9 log[sub]10[/sub] EID[sub]50[/sub] m [sup]-3[/sup] for the MD8. The mean half-life of IBDV aerosolized at 20 °C and 70% was 11.9 min. Conclusion. Efficiencies of different samplers vary. Despite its relatively low sampling efficiency, the OMNI-3000 is suitable for use in environments with low viral concentrations because its high flow rate gives a low detection limit. With the 4 samplers investigated, negative air
Kabell, Susanne; Igyarto, Botond-Zoltan; Magyar, Attila; Hajdu, Zoltan; Biro, Eva; Bisgaard, Magne; Olah, Imre
The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of the cytostatic drug, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), which causes depletion of heterophil granulocytes, on clinical symptoms and histological lesions during the progress of infectious bursal disease virus ( IBDV) infection in chickens. The aim...... were inoculated with the classical IBDV strain F52/70. Bursae of Fabricius were sampled at fixed intervals, and the progress of the infection was monitored by various histological techniques and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). We found correlation between histological...... observations and RT-PCR results. In the 5-FU pretreated chickens, IBDV caused only mild clinical symptoms, even though histological alterations similar to alterations caused by IBDV were still observed. The 5-FU pretreatment resulted in severe heterophil granulocyte depletion by days 2 and 3 after infection...
Full text: Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) causes a highly contagious immunosuppressive as well as fatal disease known as infectious bursal disease (IBD) or Gumboro disease in young chickens. IBDV is a dsRNA virus belonging to the family Birnaviridae having a bisegmented genome. Very virulent (vv) IBDV does not replicate in common tissue culture; adaptation to tissue culture following repeated passages in embryonated eggs results in too much attenuation. It has been reported that only a few amino acids in the VP2 are responsible for tissue culture adaptation. In the present study, full-length cDNA corresponding to the genome segments A and B of a Bangladeshi vvIBDV strain BD-3/99 were synthesised and amplified by reverse transcription - polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in overlapping fragments. The PCR amplicons were used to construct full-length cDNA clones of both segments in plasmid vectors along with the T7 promoter tagged at the 5'-end. Complete nucleotide sequences of both genome segments of BD 3/99 were established (GenBank Accession No. AF352776 and AF36270) and compared with 16 and 17 published sequences of segment A and segment B of IBDV, respectively, using Clustal V method of multiple alignment analysis (MegAlign, Lasergene, DNASTAR Inc., USA). In phylogenetic analysis BD-3/99 clustered with other vvIBDV strains isolated earlier from Europe, Asia and Africa.The reverse genetics technique was optimised for BD-3/99. The plasmids were linearised with appropriate restriction enzymes and cRNA corresponding to both segment A and segment B of BD-3/99 were transcribed in vitro under the control of T7 promoter. Freshly prepared chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF) cell monolayer was then transfected with the transcribed cRNA. Transfection of CEF cells with this wild-type cRNA resulted in the formation of infectious virus particles but the progeny virus could not be passaged any further in fresh CEF cells. However, this molecularly cloned virus (BD-3mc) could
Nieper, H; Müller, H
Pathogenic serotype 1 strains of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) replicate efficiently in lymphoid cells of the bursa of Fabricius of chicken. Lymphoid cells in other organs are not susceptible. Apathogenic serotype 2 strains do not replicate in lymphoid bursa cells or in other lymphoid cells. Chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEF), however, efficiently replicate strains of either serotype. Binding studies showed that strains of both IBDV serotypes bind to lymphoid cells isolated from the bursa, thymus or spleen, indicating that restriction of IBDV replication to lymphoid B cells is not determined by the presence of specific receptor sites. The specificity of binding was demonstrated by saturation and competition experiments. These revealed the presence of different receptors: CEF had receptors common to both serotypes and specific ones for each serotype. Receptor sites common to both serotypes were also present on lymphoid cells; however, additional serotype-specific sites were only demonstrated for the apathogenic serotype 2 strain. Strains of both serotypes specifically bound to proteins with molecular masses of 40 kDa and 46 kDa, exposed on the surface of CEF and lymphoid cells. Competition experiments indicated that these proteins might represent the common receptor sites of IBDV. PMID:8683211
M. M. Uddin*, M. Z. I. Khan1, K. N. Islam, A. S. M. G. Kibria, G. N. Adhikary2, M. N. H. Parvez3, J. Basu, M. B. Uddin4 and M. M. Rahman5
Full Text Available This study was aimed to investigate changes in the number and distribution of lymphocytes in the mucosa associated lymphoid tissues (MALT of digestive tract (proventriculus, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum and cecal tonsils and respiratory system (lungs of chicken infected by Infectious Bursal Disease Virus (IBDV. Samples were divided into two groups; IBDV infected group (21, 24 and 30 days old and control group (non infected birds; 21 days old. Haematoxylin and eosin stained slides were prepared for microscopic studies to observe the distribution and the number of lymphocytes in the mucosa of the digestive tract and respiratory system. Lymphocytes were significantly (P<0.05 lower in proventriculus, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, cecal tonsils and lungs of IBDV infected chickens than the control. Moreover, the reduction in lymphocytes number was maximum in duodenum and cecal tonsils, while minimal in lungs. Depletion of lymphocyte was mainly in the lamina propria and the core of the villi and depletion increased with the advance of age of IBDV infected chicken. These results demonstrate that IBDV destroys the lymphocytes of the MALT and suppresses the immunity.
Full Text Available Herpesvirus of turkey (HVT has been utilised as live vaccine against Marek’s disease in poultry industry world-wide for many years. However, the potency of HVT is not limited on the Marek’s disease only. Along with rapid development of recombinant technique, the potency of HVT can be broaden for other diseases. As naturally apathogenic virus, HVT is a suitable candidate as vector vaccine to express important antigens of viral pathogens. Several researches have been dedicated to design HVT recombinant vaccine by inserting gene of important virus, such as Marek’s disease virus (MDV, immuno bursal disease virus (IBDV, Newcastle disease virus (NDV and Avian Influenza virus (AIV. Therefore, the future recombinant of HVT has been expected to be better in performance along with the improvement of recombinant technique.
Cristina Freitas Nunes
Full Text Available To investigate the exposure of the Newcastle disease virus (NDV, infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV and avian poxvirus (APV in Magellanic penguins found on the beaches in Southern regions of Brazil, the frequency of serum antibodies was estimated in 89 samples taken during 2005 and 2006. All the penguins were negative for the presence of antibodies against NDV by hemagglutination inhibition test and to APV by indirect ELISA. The reactivity was similar to the positives controls using ELISA kit for the IBDV made in the chickens in 50 samples. This reactivity also was demonstrated in 42 samples using agar gel immunodiffusion. No clinical signs related to IBDV infection were observed. The results indicated the absence of infection by NDV and APV but suggested IBDV exposure in the population of penguins studied.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Infectious bursal disease (IBD results in economic loss due to mortality, reduction in production efficiency and increasing the usage of antibiotics. This study was carried out to investigate the modulatory roles of dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA enrichment in immune response and performance of IBD challenged broiler chickens. Methods A total of 300 day old male broiler chicks were assigned to four dietary n-3 PUFA ascending levels as the treatment groups (T1: 0.5; T2: 8.0; T3: 11.5; T4: 16.5 using combinations of tuna oil and sunflower oil. All diets were isocaloric and isonitrogenous. On day 28, all birds were challenged with IBD virus. Antibody titer, cytokine production, bursa lesion pre and post-challenge and lymphoid organ weight were recorded. Results On d 42 the highest body weight was observed in the T2 and T3 and the lowest in T4 chickens. Feed conversion ratio of the T2 broilers was significantly better than the other groups. Although productive parameters were not responded to the dietary n-3 PUFA in a dose-dependent manner, spleen weight, IBD and Newcastle disease antibody titers and IL-2 and IFN-γ concentrations were constantly elevated by n-3 PUFA enrichment. Conclusions Dietary n-3 PUFA enrichment may improve the immune response and IBD resistance, but the optimum performance does not coincide with the optimum immune response. It seems that dietary n-3 PUFA modulates the broiler chicken performance and immune response in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, a moderate level of dietary n-3 PUFA enrichment may help to put together the efficiency of performance and relative immune response enhancement in broiler chickens.
Elham Maroufyan; Azhar Kasim; Goh Yong Meng; Mahdi Ebrahimi; Loh Teck Chwen; Parvaneh Mehrbod; Behnam Kamalidehghan; Abdoreza Soleimani Farjam
This study was carried out to investigate the modulatory effects of dietary methionine and fish oil on immune response, plasma fatty acid profile, and blood parameters of infectious bursal disease (IBD) challenged broiler chickens. A total of 300 one-day-old male broiler chicks were assigned to one of six dietary treatment groups in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement. There were three levels of fish oil (0, 2.5 and 5.5%), and two levels of methionine (NRC recommendation and twice NRC recommendatio...
Li, Yiping; Handberg, K.J.; Juul-Madsen, H.R.;
-host interaction, we measured steady-state levels of transcripts from 28 cellular genes of chicken embryo (CE) cell cultures infected with IBDV vaccine stain Bursine-2 during a 7-day infection course by use of the quantitative real-time RT-PCR SYBR green method. Of the genes tested, 21 genes (IRF-1, IFN 1...... UB) showed a constant expression or only slight alteration. Apparently, the host genes involved in pro-inflammatory response and apoptosis, interferon-regulated proteins, and the cellular immune response were affected by IBDV infection, indicating involvement in the complex signaling pathways of host...
Li, Yi; Hill, Andrew; Beitelshees, Marie; Shao, Shuai; Lovell, Jonathan F; Davidson, Bruce A; Knight, Paul R; Hakansson, Anders P; Pfeifer, Blaine A; Jones, Charles H
Immunization strategies against commensal bacterial pathogens have long focused on eradicating asymptomatic carriage as well as disease, resulting in changes in the colonizing microflora with unknown future consequences. Additionally, current vaccines are not easily adaptable to sequence diversity and immune evasion. Here, we present a "smart" vaccine that leverages our current understanding of disease transition from bacterial carriage to infection with the pneumococcus serving as a model organism. Using conserved surface proteins highly expressed during virulent transition, the vaccine mounts an immune response specifically against disease-causing bacterial populations without affecting carriage. Aided by a delivery technology capable of multivalent surface display, which can be adapted easily to a changing clinical picture, results include complete protection against the development of pneumonia and sepsis during animal challenge experiments with multiple, highly variable, and clinically relevant pneumococcal isolates. The approach thus offers a unique and dynamic treatment option readily adaptable to other commensal pathogens. PMID:27274071
Full-length cDNA of both genome segments of a Bangladeshi strain of very virulent infectious bursal disease virus (BD 3/99) were cloned in plasmid vectors along with the T7 promoter tagged to the 5'-ends. Mutations were introduced in the cloned cDNA to bring about two amino acid exchanges (Q253H and A284T) in the capsid protein VP2. Transfection of primary chicken embryo fibroblast cells with RNA transcribed in vitro from the full-length cDNA resulted in the formation of mutant infectious virus particles that grow in tissue culture. The pathogenicity of this molecularly-cloned, tissue-culture- adapted virus (BD-3tc) was tested in commercial chickens. The parental wild-type strain, BD 3/99, was included for comparison. The subclinical course of the disease and delayed bursal atrophy in BD-3tc-inoculated birds suggested that these amino acid substitutions made BD-3tc partially attenuated. (author)
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Zierenberg, Kati; Raue, Rüdiger; Nieper, Hermann; Islam, Md Rafiqul; Eterradossi, Nicolas; Toquin, Didier; Müller, Hermann
Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is the causative agent of acute or immunosuppressive disease in chickens. Serotype 1 strains are pathogenic whereas serotype 2 strains neither cause disease nor protect against infection with the serotype 1 strains. The target organ of serotype 1 strains is the bursa Fabricii (BF). The molecular determinants of this tropism, and therefore pathogenicity, are poorly understood. IBDV is a non-enveloped icosahedral virus particle of 60 nm in diameter, which contains two genome segments of double-stranded RNA. Here, the generation of interserotypic reassortants using the reverse genetics approach is reported. The results of in vitro and in vivo investigations show that genome segment A determines the bursa tropism of IBDV, whereas segment B is involved in the efficiency of viral replication; they further indicate the significance of the interaction of the polymerase (segment B) with the structural protein VP3 (segment A) or the viral genome for efficient virus formation and replication. PMID:15325078
Woo, Teri Moser
Because some parents are choosing to not vaccinate or only partially vaccinate their children, vaccine-preventable diseases that once were rarely seen in pediatric practice must now be considered part of the differential diagnosis when caring for these children. Measles, mumps, varicella, meningococcal disease, pertussis, and influenza are reviewed. Recommendations for prevention and treatment of these vaccine-preventable diseases are discussed. PMID:26896379
Bacterial kidney disease (BKD) of salmonid fishes, caused by Renibacterium salmoninarum, has presented challenges for development of effective vaccines, despite several decades of research. The only vaccine against BKD that is commercially licensed is an injectable preparation containing live cells ...
Michel, P; Rasoamanana, B; Rasolofonirina, N; Roux, J
Plague has existed in Madagascar since 1896, with epidemic control achieved by GIRARD with an EV vaccine in 1937. Plague persists in Madagascar, however, due to the large animal reservoir. With a predilection for nodal tissues, Yersinia pestis is a virulent bacteria that is potent inducer of antibody synthesis. Immunity mechanisms stimulated by infection were studied: 1. In human by immunoenzymatic methods 2. In mice by seroprotection and vaccinating tests. Induced immunity for people in endemic and endemic-epidemic areas, is significant, affecting approximately 70% of these populations. In non endemic areas, immunity is found in only 33% of the population, perhaps this explains the persistence of epidemic? In all cases, this immunity is a quick onset (6 days), is persistent (> 2 years), and has demonstrable serious recognition of YOP (Yersinia Outer Proteins) by Western Blot method. Human antibodies were shown to be protective for mice. Animals vaccinated by YOP were protected equally well, when compared to animals infected with Yersinia pestis and subsequently treated with antibiotics. Finally, YOP aerosols were also shown to induce antibodies. In conclusion, plague is a vaccinatable bacterial disease and YOP can be used as an animal vaccine to permit plague control in the rat reservoir. PMID:1345094
Anticorpos contra o vírus da Doença Infecciosa Bursal e detecção do genoma viral em criações de frango de corte e galinhas de quintal no polo avícola da Bahia Antibodies anti-Infectious Bursal Disease virus and viral genome detection in broilers and chickens backyard at Bahia's poultry production area
Priscila Sousa da Silva
Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo determinar a frequência de anticorpos e detectar o genoma viral do vírus da Doença Infecciosa Bursal em criações de frangos de corte e em criações de subsistência localizadas em duas regiões do polo avícola da Bahia. Foram coletadas 758 amostras de soro de frangos de corte e 320 amostras de galinhas de quintal para avaliação da frequência de anticorpos utilizando ELISA indireto. Para a detecção e caracterização do vírus foram coletados 6 pools de bursas de Fabrícius em frangos de corte e 3 pools em criações de subsistência, analisados posteriormente com PCR/RFLP. Os resultados revelaram que não há proteção uniforme na criação comercial nas duas regiões estudadas, sugerindo falha na vacinação e desafio com vírus no ambiente. Também observaram-se altos títulos em galinhas de quintal não vacinadas, com variação nos títulos relacionada com desafios de campo. Nos testes moleculares, verificaram-se que três pools de frangos de corte eram positivos, sendo dois para cepa vacinal (G3 e um para cepa variante (G15. Nas criações de subsistência, houve uma amostra positiva para cepa variante (G15. Os resultados demonstram a necessidade de monitoramento em ambas as criações.The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of antibodies anti-Infectious Bursal Disease Virus as well as to detect the virus in broilers and chicken backyard, raised in two different regions at Bahia's poultry production area. A total of 758 serum samples were collected from broilers and 320 from chicken backyard, in order to assess the frequency of antibodies using an indirect ELISA. For virus detection and characterization it was collected 6 bursal pools from broilers and 3 from chicken backyard, which were further analyzed with PCR/RFLP. The results showed that there is no uniform protection in commercial flocks of the two different regions, suggesting that it may be occurring vaccination errors and
Full Text Available La Enfermedad Infecciosa de la Bolsa (EIB sigue afectando la industria avícola por la aparición de variantes patogénicas y antigénicas del virus, originadas en la permanente evolución del virus producto de la presión inmunológica por el uso intensivo de vacunas. La caracterización antigénica de los virus de campo resulta esencial para la aplicación de vacunas más adecuadas en el control de la enfermedad. En este trabajo se determinaron las relaciones antigénicas de aislados cubanos y chilenos, obtenidos de poblaciones de pollos vacunados con el virus de la EIB. Los aislados virales se adaptaron a cultivos celulares y se obtuvieron antisueros monoespecíficos de cada uno de ellos y de una cepa de referencia. Las relaciones se establecieron por virusneu-tralización cruzada utilizando nueve aislados cubanos (BD, BL, 35/95, 29/96, 118/96, BF2, BF8, BF9 y 70/98, tres chilenos (G1, G2 y G4 y una cepa de referencia del serotipo 1 (Lukert. Los aislados cubanos y chilenos se adaptaron eficientemente a cultivos de fibroblastos de embrión de pollo (con excepción de BF3 y G3. Además, los aislados cubanos se adaptaron a células VERO, presentando mayores títulos infectivos en fibroblastos de embrión de pollo que en esta línea celular. Los resultados de la seroneutralización cruzada mostraron entre los aislados cubanos una relación mayor a un 80% y entre éstos y la cepa de referencia mayor de un 70%, de igual modo con los aislados chilenos G1 y G4 (mayor de 77%. El aislado G2 presentó diferencias antigénicas consideradas menores con los aislados cubanos BL, 35/95 y 29/96 ( 69%. Ninguno de los aislados mostró relaciones antigénicas inferiores al 30% con la cepa de referencia del serotipo 1, por lo tanto no corresponden a cepas variantesInfectious Bursal Disease (IBD is still affecting the poultry industry through the appearance of pathogenic and antigenic variations of the virus. This is due to its permanent evolution as a
Kabell, Susanne; Handberg, Kurt; Li, Yiping; Kusk, M.; Bisgaard, M.
The purpose of our experiment was to investigate, if apparently healthy, vaccinated chickens may be involved in maintaining and spreading infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) in poultry environments. We aimed at simultaneous detection and identification of very virulent field strain IBDV (vvIBD...
Bühler, Silja; Hatz, Christoph
The number of individuals with autoimmune diseases treated with immunosuppressive drugs is increasing steadily. The variety of immunosuppressive drugs and in particular biological therapies is also rising. The autoimmune disease itself as well as the immunosuppressive therapy increases the risk of infection in this population. Particularly the risk of vaccine-preventable infections is elevated. Thus, preventing infections by the means of vaccination is of utmost importance. The Division of Infectious Diseases of the Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Prevention Institute, University of Zurich, performed a literature search on the topic of vaccinations in patients with autoimmune diseases upon request by the Swiss Federal Commission for Vaccination Issues. Overall, data are scarce. The following main points were retrieved from the literature: Inactivated vaccines are safe, but their immunogenicity may be reduced under immunosuppressive therapy. In addition to the generally recommended basic vaccinations, specific vaccinations, such as influenza and pneumococcal vaccination are indicated in these patient groups. Live vaccines are generally contraindicated under immunosuppressive therapy due to safety concerns. However, specific exceptions apply. Furthermore, certain time intervals for the administration of live vaccines after pausing or ceasing an immunosuppressive therapy should be respected. PMID:27268452
The disease control strategies of the project are centered around the 'poultry worker' or vaccinator who receives training and a vaccination kit, and earns income from her vaccinations. Vaccinations for chickens are given against three key diseases: infectious bursal disease, Newcastle disease and fowl pox, and ducks are vaccinated against duck plague. It has been necessary to adapt the vaccination programme several times, particularly to control infectious bursal disease. The farmers receive the support of government veterinarians and livestock officers in the diagnosis of diseases. Normal bio security measures are applied to the small parent farms supplying hatching eggs and to the chick rearing units. Vertically transmitted diseases are controlled through monitoring of grandparent stock. A programme of parallel research undertaken by national institutions provides information to support the adaptation of disease control strategies. The practical application of these strategies is discussed, and the importance of them in a project providing credit for family poultry production is emphasised. (author)
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marek's Disease Vaccines. 113.330... Virus Vaccines § 113.330 Marek's Disease Vaccines. Marek's disease vaccine shall be prepared from virus... immunogenic shall be used for preparing the production seed virus for vaccine production. (a) The Master...
Elliott, Diane G.; Wiens, Gregory D.; Hammell, K. Larry; Rhodes, Linda D.
Bacterial kidney disease (BKD) of salmonid fishes, caused by Renibacterium salmoninarum, has been recognized as a serious disease in salmonid fishes since the 1930s. This chapter discusses the occurrence and significance, etiology, and pathogenesis of BKD. It then describes the different vaccination procedures and the effects and side-effects of vaccination. Despite years of research, however, only a single vaccine has been licensed for prevention of BKD, and has demonstrated variable efficacy. Therefore, in addition to a presentation of the current status of BKD vaccination, a discussion of potential future directions for BKD vaccine development is included in the chapter. This discussion is focused on the unique characteristics of R. salmoninarum and its biology, as well as aspects of the salmonid immune system that might be explored specifically to develop more effective vaccines for BKD prevention.
The work done at the Indian Veternary Research Institute, Izatnagar, on the development of a vaccine for lungworm diseases is reported. Research work done includes: (1) studies on the epidemiology and the incidence of the lungworm infections, (ii) studies on the radiation-attenuated lungworm Dictyocaulus filaria vaccine, (iii) studies on other parasites using ionizing radiation, (iv) incidence of lungworm infection in sheep in Jammu and Kashmir State, (v) suitable dose of gamma radiation for attenuation, (vi) laboratory studies with radiation-attenuated D. filaria vaccine, (vii) serology of D. filaria infection, (viii) field trials with the radiation-attenuated vaccine, (ix) immune response of previously exposed lambs to vaccination, (x) comparative susceptibility of sheep and goats to infection with D. filaria, (xi) quantitative studies of D. filaria in lambs and (xii) production and supply of lungworm vaccine. (A.K.)
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Newcastle Disease Vaccine. 113.329... Virus Vaccines § 113.329 Newcastle Disease Vaccine. Newcastle Disease Vaccine shall be prepared from...) Newcastle Disease susceptible chickens, all of the same age and from the same source, shall be used....
Jungmann, A; Nieper, H; Müller, H
The kinetics of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) replication and induction of apoptosis were investigated in vitro and in vivo. After infection of chicken embryo (CE) cells with IBDV strain Cu-1, the proportion of apoptotic cells increased from 5.8% at 4 h post-infection (p.i.) to 64.5% at 48 h p.i. The proportion of apoptotic cells correlated with IBDV replication. UV-inactivated IBDV particles did not induce apoptosis. Double labelling revealed that, early after infection, the majority of antigen-expressing cells were not apoptotic; double-labelled cells appeared more frequently at later times. Remarkably, apoptotic cells were frequently located in the vicinity of antigen-expressing cells. This indicated that an apoptosis-inducing factor(s) might be released by cells that replicate IBDV. Since interferon (IFN) production has been demonstrated after IBDV infection, IFN was considered to be one of several factors. However, supernatants of infected CE cells in which virus infectivity had been neutralized were not sufficient to induce apoptosis. Similar results were observed in the infected bursae of Fabricius: early after infection, most of the cells either showed virus antigens or were apoptotic. Again, double-labelled cells appeared more frequently late after infection. This suggests that indirect mechanisms might also be involved in the induction of apoptosis in vivo, contributing to the rapid depletion of cells in the IBDV-infected bursa. PMID:11297685
Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is a highly infectious and economically devastating disease of livestock. Although vaccines, available since the early 1900s, have been instrumental in eradicating FMD from parts of the world, the disease still affects millions of animals around the globe and remains the...
Full Text Available Tiago Morais, Sara Andrade, Sofia S Pereira, Mariana P MonteiroDepartment of Anatomy, Unit for Multidisciplinary Biomedical Research, Institute for Biomedical Sciences Abel Salazar, University of Porto, Porto, PortugalAbstract: Several metabolic disorders, such as diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and obesity, represent significant risk factors for cardiovascular disease, which is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among adult populations in western societies. Understandably, these chronic disorders have now replaced infectious diseases as the most important public health problem and economic burden to society in most countries. Treatment of metabolic risk factors in order to prevent cardiovascular disease requires an enduring approach with multiple drugs, which can be associated with considerable costs, side effects, and a low rate of therapeutic compliance due to lack of symptoms until later stages of the disease. Since vaccines have proven to be a powerful and effective approach to preventing infectious diseases, attempts to expand the therapeutic use of vaccines into the context of highly prevalent diseases has been attracting increased research interest. Vaccination strategies for chronic diseases in particular are an exciting area of research, with new treatment targets and strategies on the horizon. This review discusses the development of innovative therapeutic agents, focusing on the use of molecular vaccines for the treatment of common and highly prevalent chronic metabolic disorders, ie, diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and obesity.Keywords: vaccines, diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, obesity
Cao, Yimei; Lu, Zengjun; Liu, Zaixin
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) has been a major threat to livestock across the world. The predominant method of controlling this disease in endemic regions is through regular vaccination with inactivated vaccine. However, there are many limitations. For instance, cultivation of virulent FMD virus (FMDV) in the manufacturing units poses a risk of escape from production sites. Vaccines may sometimes contain traces of FMD viral non-structural proteins (NSPs), therefore, interfering with the NSP-based serological differentiation infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA). Moreover, vaccines are unable to eliminate virus from carrier animals. To address the shortcomings of inactivated vaccines, many efforts are currently devoted to develop novel vaccines including attenuated and/or marker inactivated vaccines, recombinant protein vaccines, synthetic peptide vaccines, and empty capsid vaccines. Here, we review the research progress of novel vaccines, problems that remain to be solved, and also raise some suggestions that would help in the development of FMD vaccines. PMID:26760264
Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), a nonenveloped double-stranded RNA virus of chicken, encodes five proteins. Of these, the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (VP1) is specified by the smaller genome segment, while the large segment directs synthesis of a nonstructural protein (VP5) and a structural protein precursor from which the capsid proteins pVP2 and VP3 as well as the viral protease VP4 are derived. Using the recently redefined processing sites of the precursor, we have reevaluated the homotypic interactions of the viral proteins using the yeast two-hybrid system. Except for VP1, which interacted weakly, all proteins appeared to self-associate strongly. Using a deletion mutagenesis approach, we subsequently mapped the interacting domains in these polypeptides, where possible confirming the observations made in the two-hybrid system by performing coimmunoprecipitation analyses of tagged protein constructs coexpressed in avian culture cells. The results revealed that pVP2 possesses multiple interaction domains, consistent with available structural information about this external capsid protein. VP3-VP3 interactions were mapped to the amino-terminal part of the polypeptide. Interestingly, this domain is distinct from two other interaction domains occurring in this internal capsid protein: while binding to VP1 has been mapped to the carboxy-terminal end of the protein, interaction with the genomic dsRNA segments has been suggested to occur just upstream thereof. No interaction sites could be assigned to the VP4 protein; any deletion applied abolished its self-association. Finally, one interaction domain was detected in the central, most hydrophobic region of VP5, supporting the idea that this virulence determinant may function as a membrane pore-forming protein in infected cells
Minimizing the effects of disease is crucial to prevent mortality, morbidity and to promote rapid growth and optimal feed conversion of tilapia cultured in fresh, estuarine and marine waters. Vaccination, a valuable biosecurity safeguard, can protect tilapia against infectious diseases. Vaccinat...
Dengue is a tropical disease affecting 110 countries throughout the world and placing over 3 billion people at risk of infection. According the World Health Organization 70 to 500 million persons are infected every year including 2 million who develop hemorrhagic form and 20,000 who die. Children are at highest risk for death. Due to the absence of specialized laboratories in most endemic regions and to the lack of specifici clinical presentation, the incidence of dengue and its economic costs are certainly underestimated. Dengue iscaused by an arbovirus belonging to the Flavivirus genus of the family Flaviviridae. There are four dengue virus serotypes and no cross protection between them. The disease is transmitted through the bites of mosquitoes belonging to the Aedes genus, mainly Aedes aegypti. However A. albopictus has played an important role in the spread of the disease and other species may be involved in specific locations (e.g., A. polynesiensis in the South Pacific). There is no specific treatment for dengue. Management of severe forms depends on symptomatic treatment of hemorrhagic complications and hypovolemic shock. Prevention requires control of vector mosquitoes that is difficult to implement and maintain. Dengue is a major emerging infectious disease with a heavy impact on public health. The high human and economic costs as well as the absence of specific preventive measures underscore the need to develop a vaccine. However finding and distributing such a vaccine to populations at risk is hampered by numerous obstacles. The most notable challenges standing in the way of development of a candidate vaccine are as follows: absence of an animal model, which has important implications for the preclinical development strategy; need to develop a live attenuated vaccine; existence of 4 antigenically distinct serotypes with the resulting risk of competition between vaccine strains; immunologic risks related to antibody-dependent enhancement that has been
Weiner, Howard L.; Selkoe, Dennis J.
The spectrum of inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system has been steadily expanding from classical autoimmune disorders such as multiple sclerosis to far more diverse diseases. Evidence now suggests that syndromes such as Alzheimer's disease and stroke have important inflammatory and immune components and may be amenable to treatment by anti-inflammatory and immunotherapeutic approaches. The notion of 'vaccinating' individuals against a neurodegenerative disorder such as Alzheimer's disease is a marked departure from classical thinking about mechanism and treatment, and yet therapeutic vaccines for both Alzheimer's disease and multiple sclerosis have been validated in animal models and are in the clinic. Such approaches, however, have the potential to induce unwanted inflammatory responses as well as to provide benefit.
Meningococcal Disease (Bacterial meningitis) Vaccine and Pregnancy In every pregnancy, a woman starts out with a 3-5% chance of having a baby ... advice from your health care provider. What is meningitis? Meningitis is an infection of the lining that ...
Roh, J-H; Kang, M; Wei, B; Yoon, R-H; Seo, H-S; Bahng, J-Y; Kwon, J-T; Cha, S-Y; Jang, H-K
The production performance, efficacy, and safety of two types of vaccines for infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) were compared with in-ovo vaccination of Cobb 500 broiler chickens for gross and microscopic examination of the bursa of Fabricius, bursa/body weight (b/B) ratio, flow cytometry, and serologic response to Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vaccination. One vaccine was a recombinant HVT-IBD vector vaccine (HVT as for herpesvirus of turkeys) and the other was an intermediate plus live IBDV vaccine. A significant difference was detected at 21 d. Eight of 10 chickens that received the IBDV live vaccine had severe bursal lesions and a relatively low b/B ratio of 0.95, and an inhibited NDV vaccine response. On the other hand, the HVT-IBD vector vaccine resulted in mild bursal lesions and a b/B ratio of 1.89. Therefore, the live vaccine had lower safety than that of the HVT-IBD vector vaccine. To determine the protective efficacy, chickens were intraocularly challenged at 24 d. Eight of 10 chickens in the IBDV live vaccination group showed gross and histological lesions characterized by hemorrhage, cyst formation, lymphocytic depletion, and a decreased b/B ratio. In contrast, the HVT-IBD vector vaccinated chickens showed mild gross and histological lesions in three of 10 chickens with a b/B ratio of 1.36, which was similar to that of the unchallenged controls. Vaccinated chickens showed a significant increase in IBDV antibody titers, regardless of the type of vaccine used. In addition, significantly better broiler flock performance was observed with the HVT-IBD vector vaccine compared to that of the live vaccine. Our results revealed that the HVT-IBD vector vaccine could be used as an alternative vaccine to increase efficacy, and to have an improved safety profile compared with the IBDV live vaccine using in-ovo vaccination against the Korean very virulent IBDV in commercial broiler chickens. PMID:26944964
Protection of chicken against very virulent IBDV provided by in ovo priming with DNA vaccine and boosting with killed vaccine and the adjuvant effects of plasmid-encoded chicken interleukin-2 and interferon-γ
Park, Jeong Ho; Sung, Haan Woo; Yoon, Byung Il; Kwon, Hyuk Moo
The aim of this study was to examine the efficacy of in ovo prime-boost vaccination against infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) using a DNA vaccine to prime in ovo followed by a killed-vaccine boost post hatching. In addition, the adjuvant effects of plasmid-encoded chicken interleukin-2 and chicken interferon-γ were tested in conjunction with the vaccine. A plasmid DNA vaccine (pcDNA-VP243) encoding the VP2, VP4, and VP3 proteins of the very virulent IBDV (vvIBDV) SH/92 strain was injecte...
Prevention of virus-related neurological diseases are surveyed. Patients of poliomyelitis has recently been drastically reduced by world-wide administrating live vaccines. In view of rare incidence of paralysis after giving live vaccine, adoption of inactivated vaccine has recently been reconsidered. A live varicella vaccine was developed and has been world-wide used for normal and high-risk children. Incidence of zoster in vaccinated acute leukemic children is several times higher in those who with rash after vaccination as compared with those without rash, and as no or few rash appears after vaccination of normal children, it is expected that vaccination of normal children would lead to reduction of zoster after their aging. Measles encephalitis has rapidly been reduced by world-wide use of live vaccines. Mouse-brain derived vaccine against Japanese encephalitis(JE) has been used in Asian countries. Development of tissue-culture derived JE vaccine is under way. PMID:9103901
Koff, Wayne C.; Dennis R Burton; R.Johnson, Philip; Walker, Bruce D; King, Charles R.; Nabel, Gary J.; Ahmed, Rafi; Bhan, Maharaj Kishan; Plotkin, Stanley A.
Vaccines are among the greatest successes in the history of public health. However, past strategies for vaccine development are unlikely to succeed in the future against major global diseases such as AIDS, TB, and malaria. For such diseases, the correlates of protection are poorly defined and the pathogens evade immune detection and/or exhibit extensive genetic variability. Recent advances have heralded in a new era of vaccine discovery. However, translation of these advances into vaccines re...
The pathogenesis of persistent foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) infection was investigated following simulated-natural virus exposure of 43 cattle that were either naïve or vaccinated using a recombinant, adenovirus-vectored vaccine. Although vaccinated cattle were protected against clinical dise...
Metcalf, C. Jessica E.; Andreasen, Viggo; Bjørnstad, Ottar N.;
Vaccination has been one of the most successful public health measures since the introduction of basic sanitation. Substantial mortality and morbidity reductions have been achieved via vaccination against many infections, and the list of diseases that are potentially controllable by vaccines is...
Oers, van M.M.
The baculovirus¿insect cell expression system is an approved system for the production of viral antigens with vaccine potential for humans and animals and has been used for production of subunit vaccines against parasitic diseases as well. Many candidate subunit vaccines have been expressed in this
Rahier, Jean-Francois; Moutschen, Michel; Van Gompel, Alfons; Van Ranst, Marc; Louis, Edouard; Segaert, Siegfried; Masson, Pierre; De Keyser, Filip
Patients with immune-mediated inflammatory diseases (IMID) such as RA, IBD or psoriasis, are at increased risk of infection, partially because of the disease itself, but mostly because of treatment with immunomodulatory or immunosuppressive drugs. In spite of their elevated risk for vaccine-preventable disease, vaccination coverage in IMID patients is surprisingly low. This review summarizes current literature data on vaccine safety and efficacy in IMID patients treated with immunosuppressive...
Banerjee, Sushmita; Dissanayake, Pathum Vindana; Abeyagunawardena, Asiri Samantha
Renal diseases are often treated with immunosuppressive medications, placing patients at risk of infections, some of which are vaccine-preventable. However, in such patients vaccinations may be delayed or disregarded due to complications of the underlying disease process and challenges in its management. The decision to administer vaccines to immunosuppressed children is a risk-benefit balance as such children may have a qualitatively diminished immunological response or develop diseases caused by the vaccine pathogen. Vaccination may cause a flare-up of disease activity or provocation of graft rejection in renal transplant recipients. Moreover, it cannot be assumed that a given antibody level provides the same protection in immunosupressed children as in healthy ones. We have evaluated the safety and efficacy of licensed vaccines in children on immunosuppressive therapy and in renal transplant recipients. The limited evidence available suggests that vaccines are most effective if given early, ideally before the requirement for immunosuppressive therapy, which may require administration of accelerated vaccine courses. Once treatment with immunosuppressive drugs is started, inactivated vaccines are usually considered to be safe when the disease is quiescent, but supplemental doses may be required. In the majority of cases, live vaccines are to be avoided. All vaccines are generally contraindicated within 3-6 months of a renal transplant. PMID:26450774
Aujeszky's disease is an important disease of swine. Vaccination is widely practised to control this disease. Although most vaccines offer clinical protection against the disease, they only reduce but do not prevent virus excretion or the establishment of latency after infection. Therefore vaccination alone will not lead to eradication of the disease. For this reason several serological test and elimination programmes have been developed. These programmes require either that pigs are not vaccinated or that they are vaccinated with vaccines that evoke an antibody response in serum that can be distinguished from the antibody response after infection. Differentiation between vaccinated and infected pigs is possible with the use of vaccine strains that lack one of the non-essential but highly immunogenic viral glycoproteins in combination with a glycoprotein specific antibody assay. Three such assays have been reported, based respectively on the demonstration of antibodies against the viral glycoproteins gI, gX and gIII. Because all field strains express gI and because most vaccines are gI negative, the presence of antibodies to gI seems the most logical indicator for infection with field virus. Several enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) techniques have been developed to detect antibodies to gI, based either on the principle of a blocking ELISA or on the principle of an indirect ELISA, using affinity purified gI as antigen coated to the wells of microtitre plates. The antibody response against gI after infection of vaccinated and non-vaccinated pigs has been examined in detail. Infected pigs not vaccinated or vaccinated with a gI negative vaccine develop antibodies against gI which appear to persist for more than two years. Even pigs with maternal antibodies deficient in antibodies to gI that become infected with low doses of mildly virulent Aujeszky's disease virus develop antibodies to gI, albeit at low titres. (author). 51 refs, 1 fig
O. G. Mohammadamin
Full Text Available The effect of IMBO was investigated on humoral immune response to Newcastle disease vaccines in broiler chickens. Haemagglutination inhibition test and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were used to assess the immune response. Results showed that although IMBO significantly enhanced humoral immune response to live Newcastle disease vaccine, it did not decrease post virulent NDV challenge mortality.
The need for better Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) vaccines is not new, a report from the Research Commission on FMD, authored by F. Loeffler and P. Frosch in 1897, highlighted the need for developing a vaccine against FMD and qualified this as a devastating disease causing “severe economic damage to ...
... Virus. 113.205 Section 113.205 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.205 Newcastle Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus. Newcastle Disease...
Keeling, M. J.; Woolhouse, M. E. J.; May, R. M.; Davies, G.; Grenfell, B. T.
Vaccination has proved a powerful defence against a range of infectious diseases of humans and animals. However, its potential to control major epidemics of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in livestock is contentious. Using an individual farm-based model, we consider either national prophylactic vaccination campaigns in advance of an outbreak, or combinations of reactive vaccination and culling strategies during an epidemic. Consistent with standard epidemiological theory, mass prophylactic vaccination could reduce greatly the potential for a major epidemic, while the targeting of high-risk farms increases efficiency. Given sufficient resources and preparation, a combination of reactive vaccination and culling might control ongoing epidemics. We also explore a reactive strategy, `predictive' vaccination, which targets key spatial transmission loci and can reduce markedly the long tail that characterizes many FMD epidemics. These analyses have broader implications for the control of human and livestock infectious diseases in heterogeneous spatial landscapes.
Bartsch, Sarah M; Lee, Bruce Y
The considerable burden of infectious disease-caused diarrhea around the world has motivated the continuing development of a number of vaccine candidates over the past several decades with some reaching the market. As with all major public health interventions, understanding the economics and financing of vaccines against diarrheal diseases is essential to their development and implementation. This review focuses on each of the major infectious pathogens that commonly cause diarrhea, the current understanding of their economic burden, the status of vaccine development, and existing economic evaluations of the vaccines. While the literature on the economics and financing of vaccines against diarrhea diseases is growing, there is considerable room for more inquiry. Substantial gaps exist for many pathogens, circumstances, and effects. Economics and financing studies are integral to vaccine development and implementation. PMID:24755623
Andre, F E; Booy, R; Bock, H L; Clemens, J; Datta, S K; John, T J; Lee, B W; Lolekha, S; Peltola, H; Ruff, T A; Santosham, M; Schmitt, H J
In low-income countries, infectious diseases still account for a large proportion of deaths, highlighting health inequities largely caused by economic differences. Vaccination can cut health-care costs and reduce these inequities. Disease control, elimination or eradication can save billions of US dollars for communities and countries. Vaccines have lowered the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma and will control cervical cancer. Travellers can be protected against "exotic" diseases by appropriate vaccination. Vaccines are considered indispensable against bioterrorism. They can combat resistance to antibiotics in some pathogens. Noncommunicable diseases, such as ischaemic heart disease, could also be reduced by influenza vaccination. Immunization programmes have improved the primary care infrastructure in developing countries, lowered mortality in childhood and empowered women to better plan their families, with consequent health, social and economic benefits. Vaccination helps economic growth everywhere, because of lower morbidity and mortality. The annual return on investment in vaccination has been calculated to be between 12% and 18%. Vaccination leads to increased life expectancy. Long healthy lives are now recognized as a prerequisite for wealth, and wealth promotes health. Vaccines are thus efficient tools to reduce disparities in wealth and inequities in health. PMID:18297169
This document is the executive summary and background review for the final report of ''Development of a Vaccine for Bacterial Kidney Disease in Salmon''. A description of the disease is provided, with microbiological characterization of the infective agent. A brief discussion of attempts to eradicate the disease is included. Recent progress in vaccine development and attempts to control the disease through pharmacological means are described, along with potential ways to break the cycle of infection. 80 refs
Banaszkiewicz, Aleksandra; Klincewicz, Beata; Łazowska-Przeorek, Izabella; Grzybowska-Chlebowczyk, Urszula; Kąkol, Paulina; Mytyk, Aleksandra; Kofla, Anna; Radzikowski, Andrzej
The aim of this study was to evaluate the influenza vaccination status among paediatric patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in Poland. This was a questionnaire-based study. 242 patients with IBD and 142 controls were enrolled in the study. Of patients with IBD, 7·8% received an influenza vaccine, compared to 18·3% of controls (P = 0·0013). There were no statistically significant differences in time from IBD diagnosis, disease activity and in drugs, between vaccinated and non-vaccin...
Leibovitch, Emily C; Jacobson, Steven
Vaccines for neuroinfectious diseases are becoming an ever-increasing global health priority, as neurologic manifestations and sequelae from existing and emerging central nervous system infections account for significant worldwide morbidity and mortality. The prevention of neurotropic infections can be achieved through globally coordinated vaccination campaigns, which have successfully eradicated nonzoonotic agents such as the variola viruses and, hopefully soon, poliovirus. This review discusses vaccines that are currently available or under development for zoonotic flaviviruses and alphaviruses, including Japanese and tick-borne encephalitis, yellow fever, West Nile, dengue, Zika, encephalitic equine viruses, and chikungunya. Also discussed are nonzoonotic agents, including measles and human herpesviruses, as well as select bacterial, fungal, and protozoal pathogens. While therapeutic vaccines will be required to treat a multitude of ongoing infections of the nervous system, the ideal vaccination strategy is pre-exposure vaccination, with the ultimate goals of minimizing disease associated with zoonotic viruses and the total eradication of nonzoonotic agents. PMID:27365085
Gagic, M; St Hill, C A; Sharma, J M
We used in ovo technology to protect chickens against multiple diseases by inoculating vaccines containing mixtures of live viral agents. A single in ovo injection of a vaccine containing serotypes 1, 2, and 3 of Marek's disease virus (MDV), a vaccine strain of serotype 1 infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), and recombinant fowl pox vaccine with HN and F genes of Newcastle disease virus (rFP-NDV) induced protection against virulent MDV, IBDV, Newcastle disease virus, and fowl poxvirus. The multiple-agent vaccine induced specific antibodies against the viral agents present in the mixture and did not adversely affect the survival of hatched chickens. Inoculation of a vaccine containing serotypes 1, 2, and 3 of MDV and IBDV did not affect hatchability of eggs, although the addition of rFP-NDV to the mixture reduced hatchability by 23%-26%. In ovo vaccination with a vaccine containing MDV and IBDV vaccine viruses did not exacerbate the inhibitory effect of individual viral agents on humoral and cellular immune competence. PMID:10396643
Protection of chicken against very virulent IBDV provided by in ovo priming with DNA vaccine and boosting with killed vaccine and the adjuvant effects of plasmid-encoded chicken interleukin-2 and interferon-gamma.
Park, Jeong Ho; Sung, Haan Woo; Yoon, Byung Il; Kwon, Hyuk Moo
The aim of this study was to examine the efficacy of in ovo prime-boost vaccination against infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) using a DNA vaccine to prime in ovo followed by a killed-vaccine boost post hatching. In addition, the adjuvant effects of plasmid-encoded chicken interleukin-2 and chicken interferon-gamma were tested in conjunction with the vaccine. A plasmid DNA vaccine (pcDNA-VP243) encoding the VP2, VP4, and VP3 proteins of the very virulent IBDV (vvIBDV) SH/92 strain was injected into the amniotic sac alone or in combination with a plasmid encoding chicken IL-2 (ChIL-2) or chicken IFN-gamma (ChIFN-gamma) at embryonation day 18, followed by an intramuscular injection of a commercial killed IBD vaccine at 1 week of age. The chickens were orally challenged with the vvIBDV SH/92 strain at 3 weeks of age and observed for 10 days. In ovo DNA immunization followed by a killedvaccine boost provided significantly better immunity than the other options. No mortality was observed in this group after a challenge with the vvIBDV. The prime-boost strategy was moderately effective against bursal damage, which was measured by the bursa weight/body weight ratio, the presence of IBDV RNA, and the bursal lesion score. In ovo DNA vaccination with no boost did not provide sufficient immunity, and the addition of ChIL-2 or ChIFN-gamma did not enhance protective immunity. In the ConA-induced lymphocyte proliferation assay of peripheral blood lymphocyte collected 10 days post-challenge, there was greater proliferation responses in the DNA vaccine plus boost and DNA vaccine with ChIL-2 plus boost groups compared to the other groups. These findings suggest that priming with DNA vaccine and boosting with killed vaccine is an effective strategy for protecting chickens against vvIBDV. PMID:19461208
Kuwabara, Norimitsu; Ching, Michael SL
Japan is well known as a country with a strong health record. However its incidence rates of vaccine preventable diseases (VPD) such as hepatitis B, measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella remain higher than other developed countries. This article reviews the factors that contribute to the high rates of VPD in Japan. These include historical and political factors that delayed the introduction of several important vaccines until recently. Access has also been affected by vaccines being divided ...
Vaccine-associated enhanced respiratory disease (VAERD) can occur when pigs are challenged with heterologous virus in the presence of non-neutralizing but cross-reactive antibodies elicited by whole inactivated virus (WIV) vaccine. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of heterologous del...
Andre, FE; Booy, R; Bock, HL; Clemens, J.; Datta, SK; John, TJ; Lee, BW; Lolekha, S; Peltola, H.; Ruff, TA; Santosham, M.; Schmitt, HJ
In low-income countries, infectious diseases still account for a large proportion of deaths, highlighting health inequities largely caused by economic differences. Vaccination can cut health-care costs and reduce these inequities. Disease control, elimination or eradication can save billions of US dollars for communities and countries. Vaccines have lowered the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma and will control cervical cancer. Travellers can be protected against “exotic” diseases by appr...
Swayne, D E
Various vaccine technologies have been shown experimentally to be effective for immunization against avian influenza (AI) virus and include conventional inactivated oil-based whole AI virus, vectored virus, subunit protein and DNA vaccines. Vaccine-induced protection is based upon antibodies produced against the surface glycoproteins, principally the haemagglutinin, but also the neuraminidase. This protection is specific only for individual subtypes of haemagglutinin (H1-15) and neuraminidase (N1-9) proteins. AI vaccines protect chickens and turkeys from clinical signs and death, and reduce respiratory and intestinal replication of a challenge virus containing homologous haemagglutinin protein. Many of the vaccines are effective if given as a single injection and provide protection for greater than 20 weeks. Protection has been demonstrated against both low and high doses of challenge virus. Furthermore, subtype H5 AI vaccine has been shown to provide protection against heterologous H5 strains with 89.4% or greater haemagglutinin deduced amino acid sequence similarity and isolated over 38 years. Currently, inactivated whole AI virus vaccines and a fowl pox-vectored vaccine with AI H5 haemagglutinin gene insert are used commercially in various countries of the world. These vaccines have some disadvantages associated with the labour requirements for parenteral administration. However, an experimental recombinant Newcastle disease virus vaccine with an AI haemagglutinin gene insert shows some promise as a low cost, mass administered aerosol vaccine. A critical issue for the use of vaccines in the field is the need to differentiate vaccinated birds from those infected with the field virus. Differentiation is necessary for outbreak surveillance and trade. The use of AI vaccines varies with individual countries and for different AI virus subtypes. PMID:14677690
Rahmat Setya Adji
Full Text Available Anthrax is a bacterial disease caused by Bacillus anthracis attacking both animal and human (zoonosis . The disease is normally associated with domestic livestock such as sheep, goats, and cattle, but humans are also infected due to exposure or comsuming infected animals . The control of anthrax in humans and animals involves developing a diagnostic method for B. anthracis detection and confirmation of anthrax, prevention by vaccines, and disease investigation . Rapid and more accurate diagnosis techniques for anthrax should be developed for improving the conventional method used in Indonesia . Vaccines are effective against anthrax . Current anthrax vaccine used in Indonesia is spores vaccine produced from a non-encapsulated, toxigenic. Sterne strain 34F2 of B. anthracis . The use of this vaccine occasionally causes local pain, necroses at the inoculation site, subcutaneous oedema and occasionally death of the animal . Several vaccines have been developed recently such as sub unit vaccine, anthrax vaccine absorbed (AVA, that contains a protective antigen (PA component of the anthrax toxin as the major protective immunogen and is usually used in humans. In endemic areas of anthrax, outbreaks still routinely occur almost yearly . Monitoring of the epidemiological patterns of the disease has to be carried out by field investigation .
Wraith, David C
Three papers in this issue of the European Journal of Immunology describe the use of cytokine vaccines to prevent autoimmune disease in experimental animals. The vaccines are based on interleukin 17 (IL-17), a cytokine that has recently been shown to play a central role in inflammation.
In this article, we summarize current research on the state of vaccination against Johne’s disease. We promote the use of live attenuated vaccine candidates over subunit approaches, but don’t wholly discount other strategies. We conclude by suggesting new research directions that may make the highes...
Charles Shey Wiysonge
Full Text Available Achieving high and equitable childhood immunisation coverage in Africa will not only protect children from disability and premature death, it will also boost productivity, reduce poverty and support the economic growth of the continent. Thus, Africa needs innovative and sustainable vaccine advocacy initiatives. One such initiative is the African Vaccine-Preventable Diseases Network, formed in 2009. This association of immunisation practitioners, vaccinologists, paediatricians, and infectious disease experts provides a platform to advocate for the introduction of newly available vaccines (e.g. 10-valent and 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate and rotavirus vaccines into the Expanded Programme on Immunisation (EPI as well as increased and equitable coverage for established EPI vaccines.
Jackwood, D J; Sreedevi, B; LeFever, L J; Sommer-Wagner, S E
Three classic IBDV strains were previously isolated from commercial layer chicken flocks and shown to be phylogenetically related to vaccine strains but pathogenic in susceptible chickens. In this study, their viral genomes were sequenced and compared to sequences of vaccines being used in those flocks. The vaccine strains examined were sequenced directly from the manufacturer and had identical genome segment B sequences. Compared to these vaccines, the GA-1, H-30 and CS-2-35 isolates each had one silent mutation in the gene that encodes VP1. Compared to the two vaccines used at the time CS-2-35 was isolated, the segment A sequence of CS-2-35 contained numerous nucleotide and amino acid mutations suggesting the CS-2-35 virus was not closely related to these vaccines. This virus however did have amino acid mutations in VP2 that are reported to be necessary for replication in cell culture and lacked two of the three amino acid mutations previously shown to be necessary for virulence. These data suggest that CS-2-35 was a descendant from an attenuated strain of IBDV. When the segment A genomic sequences of the GA-1 and H-30 viruses were compared to the vaccines being used in those flocks they were most closely related to the attenuated D78 vaccine strain. In genome segment A, three nucleotide mutations in GA-1 and four in H-30 were observed compared to the D78 classic vaccine. These nucleotide mutations caused one amino acid (H253N) change in the GA-1 virus and two amino acids (H253Q and G259D) were different in the H-30 virus. In addition, both the GA-1 and H-30 viruses had the amino acid G76 in VP2 that appears to be unique to the vaccine D78. The data suggest that GA-1 and H-30 are genetically related and have a common ancestor even though they were isolated from geographically distant flocks. The evidence also suggests that GA-1, H-30 and CS-2-35 could be reversions from attenuated vaccine viruses or by coincidence genetically resemble classic IBDV vaccines. It
Heterologous influenza A virus (IAV) challenge following vaccination with an intramuscular (IM) whole inactivated vaccine (WIV) can result in vaccine-associated enhanced respiratory disease (VAERD). The objective of this study was to use an adenovirus (Ad5) vector vaccine platform that expressed IAV...
In order to investigate the incidence of Gumboro disease virus (IBDV) in village poultry in Egypt, 3000 one-day-old Balady chicks were distributed to 60 householders keeping free- ranging chicken (traditional) with an average of 50 chicks/ household. These were put under observed from one-day-old until seventy days of age and visited once a week. On 30 of these household farms the one-day-old chicken were vaccinated before delivery with an intermediate IBDV strain while the chicken on the other 30 farms were not vaccinated. Fifteen of each vaccinated and unvaccinated householder farms had other avian species while the other fifteen of each vaccinated and unvaccinated householders had not. The clinical symptoms, post-mortem and serological results using the Agar Gel Immuno-diffusion test (AGID) revealed that Gumboro disease is one of the most important diseases in rural chicken. Mortality rates were very high (5-32%) and decreasing body weights due to IBDV infection were significant, especially in chicken reared with other avian species. Results from the survey showed the significant efficacy of IBDV classical vaccine in one day old chicken. It showed a decrease in mortality and an increase in body weight gain on vaccinated farms independent whether they were kept with other avian species. Vaccination programs to control Gumboro disease would be an advantage in traditional poultry farms. (author)
MacLennan, Calman A; Martin, Laura B; Micoli, Francesca
Though primarily enteric pathogens, Salmonellae are responsible for a considerable yet under-appreciated global burden of invasive disease. In South and South-East Asia, this manifests as enteric fever caused by serovars Typhi and Paratyphi A. In sub-Saharan Africa, a similar disease burden results from invasive nontyphoidal Salmonellae, principally serovars Typhimurium and Enteritidis. The existing Ty21a live-attenuated and Vi capsular polysaccharide vaccines target S. Typhi and are not effective in young children where the burden of invasive Salmonella disease is highest. After years of lack of investment in new Salmonella vaccines, recent times have seen increased interest in the area led by emerging-market manufacturers, global health vaccine institutes and academic partners. New glycoconjugate vaccines against S. Typhi are becoming available with similar vaccines against other invasive serovars in development. With other new vaccines under investigation, including live-attenuated, protein-based and GMMA vaccines, now is an exciting time for the Salmonella vaccine field. PMID:24804797
Very virulent infectious bursal disease virus（vvIBDV）was isolatedfrom chicken bursa and then the virus double stranded RNA was extracted.After denaturation of dsRNA by heat in the presence of primers，the cDNA was synthesized by use of a reverse transcriptase lacking RNase H activity.The RNA component of RNA-cDNA hybrids was digested by RNase H.By using an optimized PCR，a 3.05kb DNA fragment coding for precursor polyprotein of IBDV was produced in one step，which was inserted into pcDNA3.1（＋） vector.Two recombinant plasmids （pPP1 and pPP2）were screened and identified from eight XL1-blue colonies.Partial sequencing for pPP1 plasmid indicated that the precursor polyprotein gene for IBDV was cloned successfully.The method can simplify greatly the procedure to clone precursor polyprotein gene of IBDV isolates.
Kaaijk, Patricia; Luytjes, Willem
Lyme disease is the most common tick-borne illness in the Northern hemisphere and is caused by spirochetes of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex. A first sign of Borrelia infection is a circular skin rash, erythema migrans, but it can develop to more serious manifestations affecting skin, nervous system, joints, and/or heart. The marked increase in Lyme disease incidence over the past decades, the severity of the disease, and the associated high medical costs of, in particular, the persistent forms of Lyme disease requires adequate measures for control. Vaccination would be the most effective intervention for prevention, but at present no vaccine is available. In the 1990s, 2 vaccines against Lyme disease based on the OspA protein from the predominant Borrelia species of the US showed to be safe and effective in clinical phase III studies. However, failed public acceptance led to the demise of these monovalent OspA-based vaccines. Nowadays, public seem to be more aware of the serious health problems that Lyme disease can cause and seem more ready for the use of a broadly protective vaccine. This article discusses several aspects that should be considered to enable the development and implementation of a vaccine to prevent Lyme disease successfully. PMID:26337648
Effective, safe, and incapable of reverting to virulence are characteristics desirable for infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) vaccines. Recombinant Newcastle disease virus (NDV) expressing foreign antigens of avian and mammalian pathogens have been demonstrated to elicit protective immunity....
In certain parts of the world infectious diseases are still a big problem. Although chemotherapy and the control of the vector, where involved, would be the methods of choice for eradication of the disease, development of resistance to either the antibiotic or the pesticide require that other methods are also applied. Vaccination has been highly successful in controlling some diseases. A potential for such applications exists also in diseases like encephalitis, leprosy, leishmaniasis and malaria which are caused by a virus, a bacterium and parasites respectively. At least three of these diseases are in an epidemic form in North India. There is a tremendous hope that new recombinant DNA and nuclear techniques will not only be of help in an early and swift diagnosis of the disease-causing organism but also in the development of vaccines. This article deals with some of the recent progress made in the diagnosis and vaccine production of these diseases. (author). 12 refs
Arce-Fonseca, Minerva; Rios-Castro, Martha; Carrillo-Sánchez, Silvia del Carmen; Martínez-Cruz, Mariana; Rodríguez-Morales, Olivia
Chagas disease is a zoonosis caused by Trypanosoma cruzi in which the most affected organ is the heart. Conventional chemotherapy has a very low effectiveness; despite recent efforts, there is currently no better or more effective treatment available. DNA vaccines provide a new alternative for both prevention and treatment of a variety of infectious disorders, including Chagas disease. Recombinant DNA technology has allowed some vaccines to be developed using recombinant proteins or virus-lik...
... complications, such as pneumonia or encephalitis, and even death. Children younger than 5 years of age and adults ... rubella in the form of antibodies from their mothers. These antibodies can ... vaccine? Children should receive two doses of MMR vaccineâ€“the ...
Klein, Michel H
Enterovirus A infections are the primary cause of hand, foot and mouth disease in infants and young children. Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 have emerged as neurotropic viruses responsible for severe neurological complications and a serious public health threat across the Asia-Pacific region. Formalin-inactivated EV71 vaccines have elicited protection against EV71 but not against coxsackievirus A16 infections. The development of a bivalent formalin-inactivated EV71/FI coxsackievirus A16 vaccine should be the next step towards that of multivalent hand, foot and mouth disease vaccines which should ultimately include other prevalent pathogenic coxsackieviruses and echovirus 30. This editorial summarizes the major challenges faced by the development of hand, foot and mouth disease vaccines. PMID:25536888
Echániz-Avilés Irma Gabriela
Full Text Available Streptococcus pneumoniae is one of the leading causes of both invasive and noninvasive diseases in the pediatric population and continues to represent a significant public health burden worldwide. The increasing incidence of antibioticresistant strains of the pathogen has complicated treatment and management of the various pneumococcal disease manifestations. Thus, the best management strategy may be the prevention of pneumococcal diseases through vaccination. Although several pneumococcal conjugate vaccines have been clinically studied in infants and children, only a 7-valent conjugate vaccine (PNCRM7; Prevnar®/Prevenar® is currently approved for the prevention of invasive disease. Vaccination with PNCRM7 is safe and effective in infants and young children. Routine vaccination with the conjugate vaccine could improve outcomes by safeguarding against the development of antibiotic-resistant strains of S. pneumoniae, thus simplifying the management of pneumococcal disease. Additionally, the overall costs associated with the treatment of pneumococcal diseases could be substantially reduced, particularly in developing countries. The time has come for fully applying this new advancement against S. pneumoniae, to benefit the children of the world. The Spanish version of this paper is available at: http://www.insp.mx/salud/index.html
Xu, Fei; Cressman, Ross
In this work, we investigate the spread and control of sexually transmitted diseases when a game-theory based vaccination strategy is involved. An individual's decision on vaccination uptake may follow a cost-benefit analysis since the individual obtains immunity against the disease from the vaccination and, at the same time, may have some perceived side effects. Evolutionary game theory is integrated into the epidemic model to reveal the relationship between individuals' voluntary decisions on vaccination uptake and the spread and control of such diseases. We show that decreasing the perceived cost of taking vaccine or increasing the payoff from social obligation is beneficial to controlling the disease. It is also shown how the "degree of rationality" of males and females affects the disease spread through the net payoff of the game. In particular, individual awareness of the consequences of the disease on the infectives also contributes to slowing down the disease spread. By analyzing an asymmetric version of our evolutionary game, it is shown that the disease is better controlled when individuals are more sensitive to fitness differences when net payoff is positive than when it is negative. PMID:26877073
Fleeton, Marina N
This thesis describes the development of recombinant vaccines based on the Semliki Forest virus (SFV) expression system. Immunisation of mice with recombinant virus particles, a layered DNA/RNA plasmid vector, and recombinant self-replicating RNA were carried out and the protective effect of these recombinant vaccines against viral challenge were examined. The construction of a full-length infectious clone formed the basis for the SFV expression system which has previous...
Mohammed Amood AL-Kamarany
Full Text Available The study aims to assess the impact of rotavirus vaccine introduction on diarrheal diseases hospitalization and to identify the rotavirus genotypes most prevalent before and after vaccine introduction among children ≤ 5 years of age. Rotarix™ ® rotavirus vaccine is currently licensed for infants in Yemen and was introduced in 2012. The vaccination course consists of two doses. The first dose is administrated at 6 weeks of age and the second dose is completed by 10 weeks. Based on a longitudinal observational study, we assessed the impact of vaccination on rotavirus hospitalization before and after vaccination among children ≤ 5 years of age at the Yemeni-Swedish Hospital (YSH in Taiz, Yemen. Prevaccination covered January 2009–July 2012 during which 2335 fecal samples were collected from children ≤ 5 years old. Postvaccination covered January 2013–December 2014 during which 1114 fecal samples were collected. Rotavirus was detected by Enzyme Linkage Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA. The incidence of rotavirus hospitalization decreased from 43.79% in 2009 to 10.54% in 2014. Hospitalization due to rotavirus diarrhea was reduced by 75.93%. Vaccine coverage increased from 23% in 2012 to 72% in 2014. Also, the results showed that the most predominant genotypes in prevaccination period were G2P (55.0%, followed by G1P (15.0%, while in postvaccination period G1P (31% was the predominant genotype, followed by G9P (27.5%. In conclusion, rotavirus vaccination in Yemen resulted in sharp reduction in diarrheal hospitalization. A successful rotavirus vaccination program in Yemen will rely upon efficient vaccine delivery systems and sustained vaccine efficacy against diverse and evolving rotavirus strains.
Amood Al-Kamarany, Mohammed; Al-Areqi, Lina; Mujally, Abulatif; Alkarshy, Fawzya; Nasser, Arwa; Jumaan, Aisha O
The study aims to assess the impact of rotavirus vaccine introduction on diarrheal diseases hospitalization and to identify the rotavirus genotypes most prevalent before and after vaccine introduction among children ≤ 5 years of age. Rotarix™ ® rotavirus vaccine is currently licensed for infants in Yemen and was introduced in 2012. The vaccination course consists of two doses. The first dose is administrated at 6 weeks of age and the second dose is completed by 10 weeks. Based on a longitudinal observational study, we assessed the impact of vaccination on rotavirus hospitalization before and after vaccination among children ≤ 5 years of age at the Yemeni-Swedish Hospital (YSH) in Taiz, Yemen. Prevaccination covered January 2009-July 2012 during which 2335 fecal samples were collected from children ≤ 5 years old. Postvaccination covered January 2013-December 2014 during which 1114 fecal samples were collected. Rotavirus was detected by Enzyme Linkage Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). The incidence of rotavirus hospitalization decreased from 43.79% in 2009 to 10.54% in 2014. Hospitalization due to rotavirus diarrhea was reduced by 75.93%. Vaccine coverage increased from 23% in 2012 to 72% in 2014. Also, the results showed that the most predominant genotypes in prevaccination period were G2P (55.0%), followed by G1P (15.0%), while in postvaccination period G1P (31%) was the predominant genotype, followed by G9P (27.5%). In conclusion, rotavirus vaccination in Yemen resulted in sharp reduction in diarrheal hospitalization. A successful rotavirus vaccination program in Yemen will rely upon efficient vaccine delivery systems and sustained vaccine efficacy against diverse and evolving rotavirus strains. PMID:27437161
Esposito, Susanna; Cerutti, Marta; Milani, Donatella; Menni, Francesca; Principi, Nicola
Despite the fact that the achievement of appropriate immunization coverage for routine vaccines is a priority for health authorities worldwide, vaccination delays or missed opportunities for immunization are common in children with chronic diseases. The main aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate immunization coverage and the timeliness of vaccination in children suffering from 3 different rare genetic diseases: Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome (RSTS), Sotos syndrome (SS), and Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS). A total of 57 children with genetic diseases (15 with RSTS, 14 children with SS, and 28 with BWS) and 57 healthy controls with similar characteristics were enrolled. The coverage of all the recommended vaccines in children with genetic syndromes was significantly lower than that observed in healthy controls (p < 0.05 for all the comparisons). However, when vaccinated, all of the patients, independent of the genetic syndrome from which they suffer, were administered the primary series and the booster doses at a similar time to healthy controls. In comparison with parents of healthy controls, parents of children with genetic diseases were found to more frequently have negative attitudes toward vaccination (p < 0.05 for all the comparisons), mainly for fear of the emergence of adverse events or deterioration of the underlying disease. This study shows that vaccination coverage is poor in pediatric patients with RSTS, BWS, and SS and significantly lower than that observed in healthy children. These results highlight the need for educational programs specifically aimed at both parents and pediatricians to increase immunization coverage in children with these rare genetic diseases. PMID:26337545
Cunningham, Rachel M; Boom, Julie A
In this paper, we explore the benefits of storytelling in health communication and, in particular, immunization education. During the mid-20th century polio epidemic, both personal stories and scientific information abounded in the media. However, as rates of vaccine-preventable diseases declined, narratives about the dangers of such diseases faded as did the public fear of them. Meanwhile, anti-vaccine advocates flooded the media and Internet with stories of injured children and tied those injuries, such as autism, to vaccines. Medical experts often counter anti-vaccine concerns with scientific information which can fail to persuade parents. Furthermore, evidence suggests that many people misunderstand quantitative information resulting in a misinterpretation of risk. Compared to scientific information, stories relate life lessons and values. They are effective because they are memorable and relatable. Evidence also suggests that storytelling can effectively improve health knowledge and behaviors. Inspired by In Harm's Way--True Stories of Uninsured Texas Children by the Children's Defense Fund and Faces of Influenza by the American Lung Association, we published Vaccine-Preventable Disease: The Forgotten Story, a collection of photographs and personal stories of families affected by vaccine-preventable diseases. We have found that the stories included in our booklet capture all the benefits of storytelling. Given the many benefits of storytelling, providers should strive to include stories along with medical facts in their daily practice. PMID:23444587
Evaluation of a Phylogenetic Marker Based on Genomic Segment B of Infectious Bursal Disease Virus: Facilitating a Feasible Incorporation of this Segment to the Molecular Epidemiology Studies for this Viral Agent.
Full Text Available Infectious bursal disease (IBD is a highly contagious and acute viral disease, which has caused high mortality rates in birds and considerable economic losses in different parts of the world for more than two decades and it still represents a considerable threat to poultry. The current study was designed to rigorously measure the reliability of a phylogenetic marker included into segment B. This marker can facilitate molecular epidemiology studies, incorporating this segment of the viral genome, to better explain the links between emergence, spreading and maintenance of the very virulent IBD virus (vvIBDV strains worldwide.Sequences of the segment B gene from IBDV strains isolated from diverse geographic locations were obtained from the GenBank Database; Cuban sequences were obtained in the current work. A phylogenetic marker named B-marker was assessed by different phylogenetic principles such as saturation of substitution, phylogenetic noise and high consistency. This last parameter is based on the ability of B-marker to reconstruct the same topology as the complete segment B of the viral genome. From the results obtained from B-marker, demographic history for both main lineages of IBDV regarding segment B was performed by Bayesian skyline plot analysis. Phylogenetic analysis for both segments of IBDV genome was also performed, revealing the presence of a natural reassortant strain with segment A from vvIBDV strains and segment B from non-vvIBDV strains within Cuban IBDV population.This study contributes to a better understanding of the emergence of vvIBDV strains, describing molecular epidemiology of IBDV using the state-of-the-art methodology concerning phylogenetic reconstruction. This study also revealed the presence of a novel natural reassorted strain as possible manifest of change in the genetic structure and stability of the vvIBDV strains. Therefore, it highlights the need to obtain information about both genome segments of IBDV for
Saeed, Ali; Kanwal, Sehrish; Arshad, Memoona; Ali, Muhammad; Shaikh, Rehan Sadiq; Abubakar, Muhammad
Control and prevention of foot and mouth disease (FMD) by vaccination remains unsatisfactory in endemic countries. Indeed, consistent and new FMD epidemics in previously disease-free countries have precipitated the need for a worldwide control strategy. Outbreaks in vaccinated animals require that a new and safe vaccine be developed against foot and mouth virus (FMDV). FMDV can be eradicated worldwide based on previous scientific information about its spread using existing and modern control ...
We replaced the MEQ gene from a bacterial artificial chromosome clone of Marek’s disease virus with gJ and gB genes from infectious laryngotracheitis virus. We will compare the efficacy of these vectored vaccines with commercial vaccines for Marek’s disease and infectious laryngotracheitis....
Rajão, Daniela S; Loving, Crystal L; Gauger, Phillip C; Kitikoon, Pravina; Vincent, Amy L
Vaccine-associated enhanced respiratory disease (VAERD) can occur when pigs are challenged with heterologous virus in the presence of non-neutralizing but cross-reactive antibodies elicited by whole inactivated virus (WIV) vaccine. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of heterologous δ1-H1N2 influenza A virus (IAV) challenge of pigs after vaccination with 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus (H1N1pdm09) recombinant hemagglutinin (HA) subunit vaccine (HA-SV) or temperature-sensitive live attenuated influenza virus (LAIV) vaccine, and to assess the role of immunity to HA in the development of VAERD. Both HA-SV and LAIV vaccines induced high neutralizing antibodies to virus with homologous HA (H1N1pdm09), but not heterologous challenge virus (δ1-H1N2). LAIV partially protected pigs, resulting in reduced virus shedding and faster viral clearance, as no virus was detected in the lungs by 5 days post infection (dpi). HA-SV vaccinated pigs developed more severe lung and tracheal lesions consistent with VAERD following challenge. These results demonstrate that the immune response against the HA protein alone is sufficient to cause VAERD following heterologous challenge. PMID:25077416
Villa Luisa Lina
Full Text Available Squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix is the second cause of cancer-related deaths in women, the higher incidence being observed in developing countries. Infection with oncogenic types of human papillomavirus (HPV is considered the major risk factor for the development of malignancies in the uterine cervix. However, HPV is considered to be a necessary but not sufficient cause for cervical cancer and, therefore, other factors contribute to the carcinogenic process, both present in the environment and from the host. Studies performed in animals, and more recently in humans, indicate that vaccination against the capsid proteins of the virus can prevent efficiently from infection. Furthermore, therapeutic vaccines are under investigation aiming the regression of papillomavirus induced tumors. The scientific basis for the development of papillomavirus vaccines and present status of clinical trials will be addressed in this chapter.
Landman, W.J.M.; Pritz-Verschuren, S.B.E.
SUMMARY. Thirty-one outbreaks of Marek¿s disease (MD) were reported in the Netherlands and retrospectively analyzed. The outbreaks occurred mostly in vaccinated commercial layer and a few breeder flocks of several breeds; however, the cause of the outbreaks could not be stablished. Therefore, in a p
Thompson, Kimberly M; Duintjer Tebbens, Radboud J
Managing the dynamics of vaccine supply and demand represents a significant challenge with very high stakes. Insufficient vaccine supplies can necessitate rationing, lead to preventable adverse health outcomes, delay the achievements of elimination or eradication goals, and/or pose reputation risks for public health authorities and/or manufacturers. This article explores the dynamics of global vaccine supply and demand to consider the opportunities to develop and maintain optimal global vaccine stockpiles for universal vaccines, characterized by large global demand (for which we use measles vaccines as an example), and nonuniversal (including new and niche) vaccines (for which we use oral cholera vaccine as an example). We contrast our approach with other vaccine stockpile optimization frameworks previously developed for the United States pediatric vaccine stockpile to address disruptions in supply and global emergency response vaccine stockpiles to provide on-demand vaccines for use in outbreaks. For measles vaccine, we explore the complexity that arises due to different formulations and presentations of vaccines, consideration of rubella, and the context of regional elimination goals. We conclude that global health policy leaders and stakeholders should procure and maintain appropriate global vaccine rotating stocks for measles and rubella vaccine now to support current regional elimination goals, and should probably also do so for other vaccines to help prevent and control endemic or epidemic diseases. This work suggests the need to better model global vaccine supplies to improve efficiency in the vaccine supply chain, ensure adequate supplies to support elimination and eradication initiatives, and support progress toward the goals of the Global Vaccine Action Plan. PMID:25109229
Kahn, Sarah; Geale, Dorothy W.; Kitching, Paul R.; Bouffard, Alice; Allard, Denis G; Duncan, Robert
Vaccination of susceptible animals against foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a well established strategy for helping to combat the disease. Traditionally, FMD vaccine has been used to control a disease incursion in countries where the disease has been endemic rather than in countries considered free of the disease. In 2001, the use of vaccine was considered but not implemented in the United Kingdom (1), whereas vaccine was used to help to control FMD in The Netherlands (2,3). Canadian contingen...
Zierenberg, K; Nieper, H; van den Berg, T P; Ezeokoli, C D; Voss, M; Müller, H
11 African and two German IBDV strains isolated in the mid '80s from field outbreaks in vaccinated and unvaccinated chicken flocks displayed features of very virulent (vv) IBDV strains. The sequence data of the VP2 variable region and phylogenetic analysis confirm that these strains can be grouped within vv IBDV strains which appeared at the same time on the three continents Africa, Asia, and Europe. Strain Cu-1wt, responsible for severe IBD outbreaks in Germany 13 years earlier, showed some relatedness to these strains, but also significant differences at the genomic level, even though this strain has also features of the vv IBDV strains. PMID:10664410
Three or four general strategies are adopted for the control of infectious diseases. Early diagnosis, vaccination and chemotherapy. In the situations where there is transfer through mosquitoes or ticks from alternate hosts, control of the vector and of the infection in the alternate host are additional measures to be taken. This Chapter looks at the problems of disease control from the perspective of genetics, since molecular genetics now provides powerful tools in the form of radiolabelled DNA probes and clones of selected segments, useful for diagnosis as well as for vaccine design
Rahmat Setya Adji; Lily Natalia
Anthrax is a bacterial disease caused by Bacillus anthracis attacking both animal and human (zoonosis) . The disease is normally associated with domestic livestock such as sheep, goats, and cattle, but humans are also infected due to exposure or comsuming infected animals . The control of anthrax in humans and animals involves developing a diagnostic method for B. anthracis detection and confirmation of anthrax, prevention by vaccines, and disease investigation . Rapid and more accurate diagn...
Irma Gabriela Echániz Avilés; Fortino Solórzano Santos
Streptococcus pneumoniae is one of the leading causes of both invasive and noninvasive diseases in the pediatric population and continues to represent a significant public health burden worldwide. The increasing incidence of antibioticresistant strains of the pathogen has complicated treatment and management of the various pneumococcal disease manifestations. Thus, the best management strategy may be the prevention of pneumococcal diseases through vaccination. Although several pneumococcal co...
Liu, Ju-Chi; Hsu, Yi-Ping; Kao, Pai-Feng; Hao, Wen-Rui; Liu, Shing-Hwa; Lin, Chao-Feng; Sung, Li-Chin; Wu, Szu-Yuan
Abstract Taiwan has the highest prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) worldwide. CKD, a manifestation of vascular diseases, is associated with a high risk of dementia. Here, we estimated the association between influenza vaccination and dementia risk in patients with CKD. Data from the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan were used in this study. The study cohort included all patients diagnosed with CKD (according to International Classification of Disease, Ninth Revisio...
Mirsaeidi, Mehdi; Ebrahimi, Golnaz; Allen, Mary Beth; Aliberti, Stefano
Chronic pulmonary diseases describe chronic diseases that affect the airways and lung parenchyma. Examples of common chronic pulmonary diseases include asthma, bronchiectasis, chronic obstructive lung disease, lung fibrosis, sarcoidosis, pulmonary hypertension and cor pulmonale. Pulmonary infection is considered a significant cause of mortality in patients with chronic pulmonary diseases. Streptococcus pneumoniae is the leading isolated bacteria from adult patients with community-acquired pne...
Full Text Available Muhamed-Kheir Taha, Ala-Eddine DeghmaneInstitut Pasteur, Unit of Invasive Bacterial Infections and National Reference Center for Meningococci, Paris, FranceAbstract: Meningococcal disease is a life-threatening invasive infection (mainly septicemia and meningitis that occurs as epidemic or sporadic cases. The causative agent, Neisseria meningitidis or meningococcus, is a capsulated Gram-negative bacterium. Current vaccines are prepared from the capsular polysaccharides (that also determine serogroups and are available against strains of serogroups A, C, Y, and W-135 that show variable distribution worldwide. Plain polysaccharide vaccines were first used and subsequently conjugate vaccines with enhanced immunogenicity were introduced. The capsular polysaccharide of meningococcal serogroup B is poorly immunogenic due to similarity to the human neural cells adhesion molecule. Tailor-made, strain-specific vaccines have been developed to control localized and clonal outbreaks due to meningococci of serogroup B but no “universal” vaccine is yet available. This unmet medical need was recently overcome using several subcapsular proteins to allow broad range coverage of strains and to reduce the risk of escape variants due to genetic diversity of the meningococcus. Several vaccines are under development that target major or minor surface proteins. One vaccine (Bexsero®; Novartis, under registration, is a multicomponent recombinant vaccine that showed an acceptable safety profile and covers around 80% of the currently circulating serogroup B isolates. However, its reactogenicity in infants seems to be high and the long term persistence of the immune response needs to be determined. Its activity on carriage, and therefore transmission, is under evaluation. Indirect protection is expected through restricting strain circulation and acquisition. This vaccine covers the circulating strains according to the presence of the targeted antigens in the
The cause of Alzheimer's disease is still unknown, but the disease is distinctively characterized by the accumulation of β-amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in the brain. These features have become the primary focus of much of the research looking for new treatments for the disease, including immunotherapy and vaccines targeting β-amyloid in the brain. Adverse effects observed in a clinical trial based on the β-amyloid protein were attributed to the presence of the target antigen and emphasized the relevance of finding safer antigen candidates for active immunization. For this kind of approach, different vaccine formulations using DNA, peptide, and heterologous prime-boost immunization regimens have been proposed. Promising results are expected from different vaccine candidates encompassing B-cell epitopes of the β-amyloid protein. In addition, recent results indicate that targeting another protein involved in the etiology of the disease has opened new perspectives for the effective prevention of the illness. Collectively, the evidence indicates that the idea of finding an effective vaccine for the control of Alzheimer's disease, although not without challenges, is a possibility
Alves, R.P.S. [Universidade de São Paulo, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas II, Departamento de Microbiologia, Laboratório de Desenvolvimento de Vacinas, São Paulo, SP, Brasil, Laboratório de Desenvolvimento de Vacinas, Departamento de Microbiologia, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas II, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Yang, M.J. [Instituto Butantan, Laboratório de Genética, São Paulo, SP, Brasil, Laboratório de Genética, Instituto Butantan, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Batista, M.T.; Ferreira, L.C.S. [Universidade de São Paulo, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas II, Departamento de Microbiologia, Laboratório de Desenvolvimento de Vacinas, São Paulo, SP, Brasil, Laboratório de Desenvolvimento de Vacinas, Departamento de Microbiologia, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas II, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)
The cause of Alzheimer's disease is still unknown, but the disease is distinctively characterized by the accumulation of β-amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in the brain. These features have become the primary focus of much of the research looking for new treatments for the disease, including immunotherapy and vaccines targeting β-amyloid in the brain. Adverse effects observed in a clinical trial based on the β-amyloid protein were attributed to the presence of the target antigen and emphasized the relevance of finding safer antigen candidates for active immunization. For this kind of approach, different vaccine formulations using DNA, peptide, and heterologous prime-boost immunization regimens have been proposed. Promising results are expected from different vaccine candidates encompassing B-cell epitopes of the β-amyloid protein. In addition, recent results indicate that targeting another protein involved in the etiology of the disease has opened new perspectives for the effective prevention of the illness. Collectively, the evidence indicates that the idea of finding an effective vaccine for the control of Alzheimer's disease, although not without challenges, is a possibility.
Immunization with inactivated autoreactive T cells (T cell vaccination) selected from individual's own T cellrepertoire provides a unique in vivo setting for testing immune regulation that is known to involve interactionsof a variety of related surface molecules (1). It induces regulatory immune responses that closely resemble thein vivo situation where the immune system is challenged by clonal activation and expansion of given T cellpopulations in various autoimmune diseases. T cell vaccination provides a powerful means of eliciting naturalreactions of the immune system in response to clonal expansion of T cells, which can used as a therapeuticapproach to suppress or eliminate specific pathogenic autoreactive T cells in autoimmune conditions. Clinicaltrials using T cell vaccination to deplete autoreactive T cells in human autoimmune conditions have begun toreveal the pathologic relevance of various autoimmune T cell populations in the disease processes, providing aunique opportunity to test the autoimmune theories in a clinical setting. Cellular & Molecular Immunology.2004; 1(5):321-327.
Hotez, Peter J; Beaumier, Coreen M; Gillespie, Portia M; Strych, Ulrich; Hayward, Tara; Bottazzi, Maria Elena
A human hookworm vaccine is under development and in clinical trials in Africa and the Americas. The vaccine contains the Na-APR-1 and Na-GST-1 antigens. It elicits neutralizing antibodies that interfere with establishment of the adult hookworm in the gut and the ability of the parasite to feed on blood. The vaccine target product profile is focused on the immunization of children to prevent hookworm infection and anemia caused by Necator americanus. It is intended for use in low- and middle-income countries where hookworm is highly endemic and responsible for at least three million disability-adjusted life years. So far, the human hookworm vaccine is being developed in the non-profit sector through the Sabin Vaccine Institute Product Development Partnership (PDP), in collaboration with the HOOKVAC consortium of European and African partners. We envision the vaccine to be incorporated into health systems as part of an elimination strategy for hookworm infection and other neglected tropical diseases, and as a means to reduce global poverty and address the Sustainable Development Goals. PMID:27040400
Immunizations belong to the most successful interventions in medicine. Like other drugs, vaccines undergo long periods of pre-clinical development, followed by careful clinical testing through study Phases I, II, and III before they receive licensure. A successful candidate vaccine will move on to be an investigational vaccine to undergo three phases of pre-licensure clinical trials in a stepwise fashion before it can be considered for approval, followed by an optional fourth phase of post-marketing assessment. The overall risk-benefit assessment of a candidate vaccine is very critical in making the licensure decision for regulatory authorities, supported by their scientific committees. It includes analyses of immunogenicity, efficacy, reactogenicity or tolerability, and safety of the vaccine. Public trust in vaccines is a key to the success of immunization programs worldwide. Maintaining this trust requires knowledge of the benefits and scientific understanding of real or perceived risks of immunizations. Under certain circumstances, pre- or post-exposure passive immunization can be achieved by administration of immunoglobulines. In terms of prevention of infectious diseases, disinfection can be applied to reduce the risk of transmission of pathogens from patient to patient, health-care workers to patients, patients to health-care workers, and objects or medical devices to patients. PMID:21882119
Walkiewicz-Jedrzejczak, Dorota; Egberg, Matthew; Nelson, Catherine; Eickoff, Jens
Background: A gap exists in the literature on celiac disease populations and the response to hepatitis B vaccination. Objective: To identify pediatric patients with celiac disease who received the primary hepatitis B vaccination and investigate their response to vaccine. Design/Methods: Patients underwent blood draw for hepatitis B surface antibody titers. Patients with undetectable or non-protective HBsAb titers were contacted. Study outcome measures and patient characteristics variables wer...
<正>The infection causes a rash and painful blisters(水疱),but in some cases results in brain infections which can be fatal.A trial involving 10,000 children,published in the Lancet,showed the vaccine was 90% effective against one virus which causes the disease.
Molecular biological methods have become increasingly applicable to the diagnosis of infectious diseases and vaccine development. To become widely used the methods need to be easy, safe, sensitive, reproducible and eventually automated to facilitate the evaluation of large number of samples. The p...
Ciro de Quadros has led some of the most successful immunization campaigns in the history of public health. He tells Fiona Fleck why, in some ways, it’s harder to eliminate vaccine-preventable diseases today than it was in the past.
Full Text Available Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV causes vesicular disease of cloven-hoofed animals, with severe agricultural and economic losses. Here we present study using a sublingual (SL route with the killed serotype Asia 1 FMDV vaccine. Guinea pigs were vaccinated using a commercially available vaccine formulation at the manufacturer's recommended full, 1/4, and 1/16 antigen doses. Animals were challenged with homologous FMDV Asia1 strain at various times following vaccination. All control guinea pigs exhibited clinical disease, including fever, viremia, and lesions, specifically vesicle formation in feet. Animals vaccinated with the 1/16 and 1/4 doses were protected after challenge at days 7, 28, and 35 post vaccination. These data suggest that effective protection against foot-and-mouth disease can be achieved with 1/16 of the recommended vaccine dose using SL vaccination, indicating that the sublingual route is an attractive alternative for the administration of the FMDV vaccine.
Franco Maria Ruggeri
Full Text Available Rotavirus and poliovirus are paradigmatic viruses for causing major diseases affecting the human population. The impact of poliovirus is remarkably diminished because of vaccination during the last half century. Poliomyelitis due to wild polio currently affects a limited number of countries, and since 2000 sporadic outbreaks have been associated to neurovirulent vaccine-derived polioviruses. Conversely, rotavirus is presently very diffuse, accounting for the largest fraction of severe gastroenteritis among children <5 years-old. Vaccination towards rotavirus is still in its dawn, and zoonotic strains contribute to the emergence and evolution of novel strains pathogenic to man. The environment, particularly surface water, is a possible vehicle for large transmission of both viruses, but environmental surveillance of circulating strains can help promptly monitor entry of new virulent strains into a country, their shedding and spread.
Peng, Xiao-Long; Small, Michael; Fu, Xinchu; Jin, Zhen
In the face of serious infectious diseases, governments endeavour to implement containment measures such as public vaccination at a macroscopic level. Meanwhile, individuals tend to protect themselves by avoiding contacts with infections at a microscopic level. However, a comprehensive understanding of how such combined strategy influences epidemic dynamics is still lacking. We study a susceptible-infected-susceptible epidemic model with imperfect vaccination on dynamic contact networks, where the macroscopic intervention is represented by random vaccination of the population and the microscopic protection is characterised by susceptible individuals rewiring contacts from infective neighbours. In particular, the model is formulated both in populations without and then with demographic effects. Using the pairwise approximation and the probability generating function approach, we investigate both dynamics of the epidemic and the underlying network. For populations without demography, the emerging degree correla...
Klein, Michel; Chong, Pele
Enterovirus A infections are the primary cause of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) in infants and young children. Although enterovirus 71 (EV-A71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16) are the predominant causes of HFMD epidemics worldwide, EV-A71 has emerged as a major neurovirulent virus responsible for severe neurological complications and fatal outcomes. HFMD is a serious health threat and economic burden across the Asia-Pacific region. Inactivated EV-A71 vaccines have elicited protection against EV-A71 but not against CV-A16 infections in large efficacy trials. The current development of a bivalent inactivated EV-A71/CV-A16 vaccine is the next step toward that of multivalent HFMD vaccines. These vaccines should ultimately include other prevalent pathogenic coxsackieviruses A (CV-A6 and CV-A10), coxsackieviruses B (B3 and B5) and echovirus 30 that often co-circulate during HFMD epidemics and can cause severe HFMD, aseptic meningitis and acute viral myocarditis. The prospect and challenges for the development of such multivalent vaccines are discussed. PMID:26009802
Murray E. Hines
Full Text Available Johne’s disease (JD caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP is a major threat to the dairy industry and possibly some cases of Crohn’s disease in humans. A MAP vaccine that reduced of clinical disease and/or reduced fecal shedding would aid in the control of JD. The objectives of this study were 1 to evaluate the efficacy of 5 attenuated strains of MAP as vaccine candidates compared to a commercial control vaccine using the protocol proposed by the Johne’s Disease Integrated Program (JDIP Animal Model Standardization Committee (AMSC, and 2 to validate the AMSC Johne’s disease goat challenge model. Eighty goat kids were vaccinated orally twice at 8 and 10 weeks of age with an experimental vaccine or once subcutaneously at 8 weeks with Silirum® (Zoetis, or a sham control oral vaccine at 8 and 10 weeks. Kids were challenged orally with a total of approximately 1.44 X 10^9 CFU divided in 2 consecutive daily doses using MAP ATCC-700535 (K10-like bovine isolate. All kids were necropsied at 13 months post challenge. Results indicated that the AMSC goat challenge model is a highly efficient and valid model for JD challenge studies. None of the experimental or control vaccines evaluated prevented MAP infection or eliminated fecal shedding, although the 329 vaccine lowered the incidence of infection, fecal shedding, tissue colonization and reduced lesion scores, but less than the control vaccine. Based on our results the relative performance ranking of the experimental live-attenuated vaccines evaluated, the 329 vaccine was the best performer, followed by the 318 vaccine, then 316 vaccine, 315 vaccine and finally the 319 vaccine was the worst performer. The subcutaneously injected control vaccine outperformed the orally-delivered mutant vaccine candidates. Two vaccines (329 and 318 do reduce presence of JD gross and microscopic lesions, slow progression of disease, and one vaccine (329 reduced fecal shedding and tissue
FIORE, A. E.; Levine, O S; Elliott, J A; Facklam, R R; Butler, J.C.
To estimate the effectiveness of pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine, we serotyped isolates submitted to the Pneumococcal Sentinel Surveillance System from 1984 to 1996 from 48 vaccinated and 125 unvaccinated children 2 to 5 years of age. Effectiveness against invasive disease caused by serotypes included in the vaccine was 63%. Effectiveness against serotypes in the polysaccharide vaccine but not in a proposed seven-valent protein conjugate vaccine was 94%.
Fynan, E; Block, T M; DuHadaway, J; Olson, W; Ewert, D L
Previous studies have described an augmentation of avian leukosis virus (ALV)-induced lymphoid leukosis in chickens that were coinfected with a serotype 2 Marek's disease virus (MDV) strain, SB-1. As a first step toward understanding the mechanism of this augmentation, we have analyzed the tropism of the MDV for the ALV-transformed B cell. After hatching, chickens were coinfected with ALV and a nonpathogenic strain of MDV, SB-1. Seventy primary and metastatic ALV-induced lymphomas that develo...
Hao-tai Chen; Yong-sheng Liu
Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) causes vesicular disease of cloven-hoofed animals, with severe agricultural and economic losses. Here we present study using a sublingual (SL) route with the killed serotype Asia 1 FMDV vaccine. Guinea pigs were vaccinated using a commercially available vaccine formulation at the manufacturer's recommended full, 1/4, and 1/16 antigen doses. Animals were challenged with homologous FMDV Asia1 strain at various times following vaccination. All control guinea p...
Chen, Hao-tai; Liu, Yong-sheng
Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) causes vesicular disease of cloven-hoofed animals, with severe agricultural and economic losses. Here we present study using a sublingual (SL) route with the killed serotype Asia 1 FMDV vaccine. Guinea pigs were vaccinated using a commercially available vaccine formulation at the manufacturer’s recommended full, 1/4, and 1/16 antigen doses. Animals were challenged with homologous FMDV Asia1 strain at various times following vaccination. All control guinea p...
Romalde, J L; Ravelo, C; López-Romalde, S; Avendaño-Herrera, R; Magariños, B; Toranzo, A E
In recent years, three serious diseases have emerged in Spanish aquaculture. These are lactococcosis caused by Lactococcus garvieae, which is of economical importance in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss); pseudomonadiasis caused by Pseudomonas anguilliseptica which affects gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) and turbot (Scophthalmus maximus); and flexibacteriosis caused by Tenacibaculum maritimum which became a devastating problem in the emerging culture of sole (Solea spp). To obtain useful information for the design and development of new vaccines, antigenic characterisation of representative strains was performed. In this work we present the strategies adopted for the vaccine formulation (strains included, use of adjuvants) and administration (route, necessity of booster, etc.). The results from laboratory and/or field vaccination trials performed showed that for lactococcosis, protection lasting for five months was obtained with an oil-adjuvanted bacterin formulation. Unadjuvanted bacterin gave only a short duration of protection, which could, however, be prolonged by an antigen boost administered via the feed. A bacterin against Pseudomonas anguilliseptica gave protection for 12 weeks when tested in an experimental challenge trial in turbot. Besides the flexibacteriosis vaccine developed by our group for turbot, and due to the antigenic host-associated variability within T. maritimum, a new bacterin was developed against this bacterium to be used specifically in sole. This new bacterin, administered to sole by intraperitoneal injection, yielded RPS values of 94 % six weeks after immunization. In conclusion, these results suggest that vaccination constitutes a cost-effective method of controlling diseases that have emerged in the most important fish species being cultured in Spain. PMID:15962472
Helminthic diseases in man and in animals are various and widespread, but to date the only successful vaccines to be developed against helminths are those based on the radiation treatment of infective larvae. A panel of experts met in Vienna in December 1963 to consider how the IAEA might support and encourage developments in this field. The present report gathers together some of the important contributions of the Panel members together with the general conclusions and recommendations. 77 refs, 19 figs, 16 tabs
A time-course pathogenesis study was performed to compare and contrast primary foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) infection in vaccinated and non-vaccinated cattle following simulated-natural virus exposure. FMDV genome and infectious virus were detected during the initial phase of infection from b...
Uddowla, Sabena; Hollister, Jason; Pacheco, Juan M.; Rodriguez, Luis L.; Rieder, Elizabeth
Vaccination of domestic animals with chemically inactivated foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is widely practiced to control FMD. Currently, FMD vaccine manufacturing requires the growth of large volumes of virulent FMDV in biocontainment-level facilities. Here, two marker FMDV vaccine candidates (A24LL3DYR and A24LL3BPVKV3DYR) featuring the deletion of the leader coding region (Lpro) and one of the 3B proteins were constructed and evaluated. These vaccine candidates also contain either one...
Hines, Murray E.; Turnquist, Sue E.; Marcia R. S. Ilha; Rajeev, Sreekumari; Jones, Arthur L.; Whittington, Lisa; Bannantine, John P.; Barletta, Raúl G.; Gröhn, Yrjö T.; Katani, Robab; Talaat, Adel M.; Li, Lingling; Kapur, Vivek
Johne's disease (JD) caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) is a major threat to the dairy industry and possibly some cases of Crohn's disease in humans. A MAP vaccine that reduced of clinical disease and/or reduced fecal shedding would aid in the control of JD. The objectives of this study were (1) to evaluate the efficacy of 5 attenuated strains of MAP as vaccine candidates compared to a commercial control vaccine using the protocol proposed by the Johne's Disease I...
YANG Long-sheng; XUE Jia-bin; HU Yuan-liang; WANG Fang; WANG De-yun; XU Wei-zhong
Experiments were conducted to determine the effects of advanced vaccination and Chinese herbal adjuvants (CHA), containing astragalus polysaccharides (APS) and ginsenosides (GS) on the immune response to rabbit hemorrhagic disease (RHD) vaccine in young rabbits. In experiment 1, 5 New Zealand rabbits of each group at 30, 35, 40, or 45 days of age were injected with 2 mL of inactivated RHD vaccine, respectively. The dynamic changes of antibody liters were tested by the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) method. In experiment 2, 30 New Zealand rabbits at 35 days of age were randomly assigned to 5 treatment groups, representing inoculation with 3 mL of non-adjuvant RHD vaccine, CHA-RHD vaccine, CHA-HA vaccine (half dose antigen), aluminium adjuvant-RHD vaccine, and PBS, respectively. The dynamic changes of peripheral lymphocyte proliferation and serum antibody liters were tested by the MTT method and the HI method. The results showed that the titer of maternal HI antibody in the 35-day-old rabbits was lower than the protective level of 3 log2, while on days 7 to 49 after the vaccination, the antibody tilers were higher than 3 log2. The CHA promoted me lymphocyte proliferation and enhanced the serum antibody liter (P<0.05). These findings from the two experiments suggested that advanced vaccination and Chinese herbal adjuvants significantly enhanced the immune response lo vaccine againsl RHD, and effectively protected the young rabbils againsl RHD challenge.
Singh, R P; Bandyopadhyay, S K
Peste des petits ruminants, a viral disease of small ruminants, the control of which is important for poverty alleviation and to ensure livelihood security in Asia, Middle East and Africa. In recognition of these issues, we developed and applied vaccine and diagnostics to demonstrate effective control of PPR during preceding 6 years in a sub-population of small ruminants in India. Two south Indian states, namely Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka, strongly indicated possibility of PPR control with more than 90 % reduction in number of reported outbreaks of PPR, mostly through mass vaccination. Similarly, the situation at the national level also demonstrated a decline of more than 75 % in the number of reported outbreaks. Sharing these experiences may motivate other countries for similar initiatives leading to progressive control of PPR, which is in line with the initiatives of the organizations like FAO/OIE and the recent platforms on global PPR research alliance. PMID:26645031
Prathibha D'Souza V
Results: The mean and standard deviation of post-test knowledge score of mothers in experimental group (27.80 +/- 3.010 was much greater than pre-test value (10.44 +/- 2.323. There is no change in pre and post-test knowledge score in control group (9.74 +/- 1.805. The calculated' value t98=34.54 was greater than the table value 1.68 at 0.05 level of significance. This indicates that the teaching package was effective in improving the level of mothers knowledge. Conclusion: The study findings concluded that the mothers were benefited by teaching package on vaccination and vaccine preventable diseases. Furthermore mass health education programs can be conducted to create awareness among general public. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(3.000: 976-982
Tennant, Sharon M; MacLennan, Calman A; Simon, Raphael; Martin, Laura B; Khan, M Imran
Among more than 2500 nontyphoidal Salmonella enterica (NTS) serovars, S. enterica serovar Typhimurium and S. enterica serovar Enteritidis account for approximately fifty percent of all human isolates of NTS reported globally. The global incidence of NTS gastroenteritis in 2010 was estimated to be 93 million cases, approximately 80 million of which were contracted via food-borne transmission. It is estimated that 155,000 deaths resulted from NTS in 2010. NTS also causes severe, extra-intestinal, invasive bacteremia, referred to as invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella (iNTS) disease. iNTS disease usually presents as a febrile illness, frequently without gastrointestinal symptoms, in both adults and children. Symptoms of iNTS are similar to malaria, often including fever (>90%) and splenomegaly (>40%). The underlying reasons for the high rates of iNTS disease in Africa are still being elucidated. Evidence from animal and human studies supports the feasibility of developing a safe and effective vaccine against iNTS. Both antibodies and complement can kill Salmonella species in vitro. Proof-of-principle studies in animal models have demonstrated efficacy for live attenuated and subunit vaccines that target the O-antigens, flagellin proteins, and other outer membrane proteins of serovars Typhimurium and Enteritidis. More recently, a novel delivery strategy for NTS vaccines has been developed: the Generalized Modules for Membrane Antigens (GMMA) technology which presents surface polysaccharides and outer membrane proteins in their native conformation. GMMA technology is self-adjuvanting, as it delivers multiple pathogen-associated molecular pattern molecules. GMMA may be particularly relevant for low- and middle-income countries as it has the potential for high immunologic potency at a low cost and involves a relatively simple production process without the need for complex conjugation. Several vaccines for the predominant NTS serovars Typhimurium and Enteritidis, are
Heller, D; Soller, M; Peleg, B A; Ron-Kuper, N; Hornstein, K
Immune response to Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vaccine, fowl pox, and E. coli vaccine was compared in the native Bedouin fowl of the Sinai desert, in a commercial Leghorn layer strain, and in the reciprocal crosses between them. Differences were not found in antibody titer levels to attenuated or inactivated NDV vaccines, in the proportion of birds showing post-vaccination immunity to fowl pox, or in the kinetics of postvaccination NDV titer levels. Rate of development of titer to Escherichia coli from day 1 to day 4, however, was significantly more rapid in Bedouin chicks than in the purebred Leghorn or the reciprocal crosses. PMID:6262741
Stone, H; Mitchell, B; Brugh, M
Inactivated oil-emulsion (OE) Newcastle disease (ND) and avian influenza (AI) vaccines were injected into 18-day-old white rock (WR) and white leghorn (WL) chicken embryos to evaluate their immunologic efficacy and their effects on hatchability. Embryonating eggs were inoculated at 1.5 inches depth with various vaccine volumes and antigen concentrations. Serum hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) titers were first detected in chickens at 2 wk posthatch. Protection against morbidity and mortality was demonstrated in all of 10 chickens vaccinated as embryos and challenged with viscerotropic velogenic ND virus at 53 days of age and also in all of eight in ovo- vaccinated chickens challenged with highly pathogenic AI virus at 34 days of age. All of five unvaccinated control chickens for each respective ND- and AI-vaccinated group died. In pooled groups from successive hatches, the hatchability of WR or WL embryos injected with 100 microliters of vaccine was not significantly different (P > 0.05) from unvaccinated hatchmate controls when needle gauges of 22, 20, and 18 were used. Seroconversion rates of chickens vaccinated as embryos ranged from 27% to 100% with ND vaccination and 85% to 100% for AI vaccination. For ND, geometric mean HI titers of chickens per vaccine group ranged from 11 to 733, and in pooled groups, the range was 49 to 531. Titers for AI vaccine groups ranged from 156 to 1178. This study demonstrated that acceptable hatchability, seroconversion rates, and protective immunity can be attained with in ovo inoculation of ND or AI OE vaccines if the vaccines are prepared with sufficient antigen and administered properly. PMID:9454919
Immunization with inactivated autoreactive T cells (T cell vaccination) selected from individual's own T cell repertoire provides a unique in vivo setting for testing immune regulation that is known to involve interactions of a variety of related surface molecules (1). It induces regulatory immune responses that closely resemble the in vivo situation where the immune system is challenged by clonal activation and expansion of given T cell populations in various autoimmune diseases. T cell vaccination provides a powerful means of eliciting natural reactions of the immune system in response to clonal expansion of T cells, which can used as a therapeutic approach to suppress or eliminate specific pathogenic autoreactive T cells in autoimmune conditions. Clinical trials using T cell vaccination to deplete autoreactive T cells in human autoimmune conditions have begun to reveal the pathologic relevance of various autoimmune T cell populations in the disease processes, providing a unique opportunity to test the autoimmune theories in a clinical setting. Cellular & Molecular Immunology.2004;1(5):321-327.
Robinson, L; Knight-Jones, T J D; Charleston, B; Rodriguez, L L; Gay, C G; Sumption, K J; Vosloo, W
This study assessed research knowledge gaps in the field of FMDV (foot-and-mouth disease virus) vaccines. The study took the form of a literature review (2011-15) combined with research updates collected in 2014 from 33 institutes from across the world. Findings were used to identify priority areas for future FMD vaccine research. Vaccines play a vital role in FMD control, used both to limit the spread of the virus during epidemics in FMD-free countries and as the mainstay of disease management in endemic regions, particularly where sanitary controls are difficult to apply. Improvements in the performance or cost-effectiveness of FMD vaccines will allow more widespread and efficient disease control. FMD vaccines have changed little in recent decades, typically produced by inactivation of whole virus, the quantity and stability of the intact viral capsids in the final preparation being key for immunogenicity. However, these are exciting times and several promising novel FMD vaccine candidates have recently been developed. This includes the first FMD vaccine licensed for manufacture and use in the USA; this adenovirus-vectored FMD vaccine causes in vivo expression of viral capsids in vaccinated animals. Another promising vaccine candidate comprises stabilized empty FMDV capsids produced in vitro in a baculovirus expression system. Recombinant technologies are also being developed to improve otherwise conventionally produced inactivated vaccines, for example, by creating a chimeric vaccine virus to increase capsid stability and by inserting sequences into the vaccine virus for desired antigen expression. Other important areas of ongoing research include enhanced adjuvants, vaccine quality control procedures and predicting vaccine protection from immune correlates, thus reducing dependency on animal challenge studies. Globally, the degree of independent vaccine evaluation is highly variable, and this is essential for vaccine quality. Previously neglected, the
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The degree and time frame of indirect effects of vaccination (serotype replacement and herd immunity are key determinants in assessing the net effectiveness of vaccination with pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV in control of pneumococcal disease. Using modelling, we aimed to quantify these effects and their dependence on coverage of vaccination and the vaccine's efficacy against susceptibility to pneumococcal carriage. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We constructed an individual-based simulation model that explores the effects of large-scale PCV programmes and applied it in a developed country setting (Finland. A population structure with transmission of carriage taking place within relevant mixing groups (families, day care groups, schools and neighbourhoods was considered in order to properly assess the dependency of herd immunity on coverage of vaccination and vaccine efficacy against carriage. Issues regarding potential serotype replacement were addressed by employing a novel competition structure between multiple pneumococcal serotypes. Model parameters were calibrated from pre-vaccination data about the age-specific carriage prevalence and serotype distribution. The model predicts that elimination of vaccine-type carriage and disease among those vaccinated and, due to a substantial herd effect, also among the general population takes place within 5-10 years since the onset of a PCV programme with high (90% coverage of vaccination and moderate (50% vaccine efficacy against acquisition of carriage. A near-complete replacement of vaccine-type carriage by non-vaccine-type carriage occurs within the same time frame. CONCLUSIONS: The changed patterns in pneumococcal carriage after PCV vaccination predicted by the model are unequivocal. The overall effect on disease incidence depends crucially on the magnitude of age- and serotype-specific case-to-carrier ratios of the remaining serotypes relative to those of the vaccine types. Thus the
... vaccinated? For many years, a set of annual vaccinations was considered normal and necessary for dogs and ... to protect for a full year. Consequently, one vaccination schedule will not work well for all pets. ...
van de Pol, Eva M; Gisolf, Elizabeth H; Richter, Clemens
Yellow fever (YF) 17D vaccine is one of the most successful vaccines ever developed. Since 2001, 56 cases of yellow fever vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease (YEL-AVD) have been published in the peer-reviewed literature. Here, we report a new case suspected for YEL-AVD in the Netherlands. Further research is needed to determine the true incidence of YEL-AVD and to clarify host and vaccine-associated factors in the pathogenesis of YEL-AVD. Because of the potential adverse events, healthcare providers should carefully consider vaccination only in people who are truly at risk for YF infection, especially in primary vaccine recipients. PMID:24920138
Protection of chicken against very virulent IBDV provided by in ovo priming with DNA vaccine and boosting with killed vaccine and the adjuvant effects of plasmid-encoded chicken interleukin-2 and interferon-γ
Park, Jeong Ho; Sung, Haan Woo; Yoon, Byung Il
The aim of this study was to examine the efficacy of in ovo prime-boost vaccination against infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) using a DNA vaccine to prime in ovo followed by a killed-vaccine boost post hatching. In addition, the adjuvant effects of plasmid-encoded chicken interleukin-2 and chicken interferon-γ were tested in conjunction with the vaccine. A plasmid DNA vaccine (pcDNA-VP243) encoding the VP2, VP4, and VP3 proteins of the very virulent IBDV (vvIBDV) SH/92 strain was injected into the amniotic sac alone or in combination with a plasmid encoding chicken IL-2 (ChIL-2) or chicken IFN-γ (ChIFN-γ) at embryonation day 18, followed by an intramuscular injection of a commercial killed IBD vaccine at 1 week of age. The chickens were orally challenged with the vvIBDV SH/92 strain at 3 weeks of age and observed for 10 days. In ovo DNA immunization followed by a killed-vaccine boost provided significantly better immunity than the other options. No mortality was observed in this group after a challenge with the vvIBDV. The prime-boost strategy was moderately effective against bursal damage, which was measured by the bursa weight/body weight ratio, the presence of IBDV RNA, and the bursal lesion score. In ovo DNA vaccination with no boost did not provide sufficient immunity, and the addition of ChIL-2 or ChIFN-γ did not enhance protective immunity. In the ConA-induced lymphocyte proliferation assay of peripheral blood lymphocyte collected 10 days post-challenge, there was greater proliferation responses in the DNA vaccine plus boost and DNA vaccine with ChIL-2 plus boost groups compared to the other groups. These findings suggest that priming with DNA vaccine and boosting with killed vaccine is an effective strategy for protecting chickens against vvIBDV. PMID:19461208
Bijl, M.; Agmon-Levin, N.; Dayer, J. -M.; Israeli, E.; Gatto, M.; Shoenfeld, Y.
Will vaccination raise the incidence of autoimmune diseases, what is the impact of increasingly crowded vaccination schedules, the vaccination in age groups and the risk of coincidental temporal association? All these issues are still under debate. However, for the time being, to avoid confusion in
Cloete, M.; B. Dungu; L.I. Van Staden; N. Ismail-Cassim; W. Vosloo
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is an economically important disease of cloven-hoofed animals that is primarily controlled by vaccination of susceptible animals and movement restrictions for animals and animal-derived products in South Africa. Vaccination using aluminium hydroxide gel-saponin (AS) adjuvanted vaccines containing the South African Territories (SAT) serotypes has been shown to be effective both in ensuring that disease does not spread from the endemic to the free zone and in ...
Vannier, P; Cariolet, R
A study was undertaken of the protection induced by inactivated and live Aujeszky's disease virus vaccines. The vaccines were administered using a special device which, without the use of a needle, delivered the preparation intradermally. The trials were performed on 88 pigs which were vaccinated at the beginning of the fattening period both in experimental conditions and in pig herds. All the pigs were challenged at the end of the fattening period in isolation units. The results obtained were compared with those obtained using the same vaccines injected intramuscularly. It was shown that vaccination via the intradermal route induced good protection in the vaccinated animals and was similar to that conferred by live virus vaccine injected intramuscularly. The results, with the inactivated virus vaccine, were not so good when it was injected via the intradermal route. Studies with intradermal vaccination showed no local lesion or very small nodules strictly localized to the dermis. The results also confirmed that the effects of challenge exposure depended on the health status of animals prior to infection and show the necessity to use a synthetic value (delta G) to interpret the data and mainly to compare the results objectively. In fattening pigs this vaccination procedure is attractive because (i) less animal constraint is needed than would be for intramuscular injections, (ii) injection can be checked by the presence of a visible papula at the site of inoculation and, (iii) pigs can be vaccinated in the ham while they are feeding. Injection without a needle also contributes to avoiding bacterial contamination under practical farm conditions of vaccination. PMID:2554623
Muhammad Akram Muneer, Haji Ahmad Hashmi, Masood Rabbani, Zahid Munir Chaudhry and Ali M. Bahrami
Full Text Available A total of 160 one-day-old broiler chicks were used to evaluate the immunomodulatory effects of an inactivated Eimeria tenella vaccine and a live polyvalent imported antiococcidial vaccine (Coccivac. This study indicated that both of these vaccines did not adversely affect the development of serum antibody against Newcastle disease virus (NDV and the chicks vaccinated with either of the anticoccidial vaccines resisted the virulent NDV challenge. A study of the lymphoid organs such as bursa of fabricuis: thymus and spleen from the experimental chicks indicated that those organs were comparable with those from the chicks not vaccinated with these coccidial vaccines. The overall findings of this study indicate that anticoccidial vaccines do not have any effects on the immune functions of the vaccinates. In fact these vaccines prevented the occurrence of clinical coccidiosis in the vaccinates.
Grzegorzewska, Alicja E
Context Hepatitis B vaccination of hemodialysis patients is performed all over the world. There are also recommendations from world health organizations to vaccinate patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) prior dialysis commencement, but the implementation of a hepatitis B vaccination program is less common and not well organized. Evidence Acquisition This review article summarizes data indicating why, when and how to vaccinate CKD patients before they start renal replacement therapy. Pub...
Full Text Available Philip Eng,1 Lean Huat Lim,2 Chian Min Loo,3 James Alvin Low,4 Carol Tan,5 Eng Kiat Tan,6 Sin Yew Wong,7 Sajita Setia8 1Philip Eng Respiratory and Medical Clinic, Mount Elizabeth Medical Center, 2Dr Lim Lean Huat and Associates Pte Ltd, 3Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Singapore General Hospital, 4Department of Geriatric Medicine, Khoo Teck Puat Hospital, 5Rophi Clinic, Mount Elizabeth Novena Specialist Centre, Singapore, 6Kevin Tan Clinic for Diabetes, Thyroid, and Hormones, Mount Elizabeth Medical Center, 7Infectious Disease Partners Pte Ltd, Gleneagles Medical Center, 8Medical Affairs Department, Pfizer Pte Ltd, SingaporeAbstract: The burden of disease associated with Streptococcus pneumoniae infection in adults can be considerable but is largely preventable through routine vaccination. Although substantial progress has been made with the recent licensure of the new vaccines for prevention of pneumonia in adults, vaccine uptake rates need to be improved significantly to tackle adult pneumococcal disease effectively. Increased education regarding pneumococcal disease and improved vaccine availability may contribute to a reduction in pneumococcal disease through increased vaccination rates. The increase in the elderly population in Singapore as well as globally makes intervention in reducing pneumococcal disease an important priority. Globally, all adult vaccines remain underused and family physicians give little priority to pneumococcal vaccination for adults in daily practice. Family physicians are specialists in preventive care and can be leaders in ensuring that adult patients get the full benefit of protection against vaccine-preventable diseases. They can play a key role in the immunization delivery of new and routine vaccines by educating the public on the risks and benefits associated with vaccines. Local recommendations by advisory groups on vaccination in adults will also help to tackle vaccine preventable
Higa, Leticia H; Corral, Ricardo S; Morilla, María José; Romero, Eder L; Petray, Patricia B
Archaeosomes (ARC), vesicles made from lipids extracted from Archaea, display strong adjuvant properties. In this study, we evaluated the ability of the highly stable ARC formulated from total polar lipids of a new Halorubrum tebenquichense strain found in Argentinean Patagonia, to act as adjuvant for soluble parasite antigens in developing prophylactic vaccine against the intracellular protozoan T. cruzi, the etiologic agent of Chagas disease. We demonstrated for the first time that C3H/HeN mice subcutaneously immunized with trypanosomal antigens entrapped in these ARC (ARC-TcAg) rapidly developed higher levels of circulating T. cruzi antibodies than those measured in the sera from animals receiving the antigen alone. Enhanced humoral responses elicited by ARC-TcAg presented a dominant IgG2a antibody isotype, usually associated with Th1-type immunity and resistance against T. cruzi. More importantly, ARC-TcAg-vaccinated mice displayed reduced parasitemia during early infection and were protected against an otherwise lethal challenge with the virulent Tulahuén strain of the parasite. Our findings suggest that, as an adjuvant, H. tebenquichense-derived ARC may hold great potential to develop a safe and helpful vaccine against this relevant human pathogen. PMID:23291939
Objective: To understand whether the Newcastle disease virus(NDV) vaccine can successfully vaccinate the rabbits and volunteers of cancer patients by inhalation and to observe the effects of NDV vaccine on nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NRC) patients after radiotherapy. Methods: The live NDV vaccine was vaccinated through nasal cavities of rabbits, NPC patients and other cancer patients who were treated by surgery or chemotherapy with larynx spray. The blood specimens of vein from the tested rabbits and volunteers of patients with cancer were collected before and after vaccination. The anti-NDV-antibody in serum was detected by conventional blood coagulation inhibiting method. The white blood cell (WBC) amount in blood samples was counted. In addition, the NPC patients after radiotherapy were divided into both test group and control group with random match. The both were followed-up by multiple kinds of way in order to understand effects of NDV immunotherapy for NPC. Results: The anti-NDV-antibody level of the rabbits and the patients with NPC rose significantly after vaccination. The WBC amount of cancer patients treated by surgery or chemotherapy also rose significantly after vaccination. The recurrence rate (3.23%) of NRC patients in test group who received immunotherapy of NDV vaccine for 4 to 10 treatment courses within 3 years after end of radiotherapy were significantly lower than that (25.81%) of the control group (P<0.025). Conclusion: The NDV vaccine La Sota strain can vaccinate the rabbits and the cancer patients in success by inhalation. And it has remarkable effect to decrease 3 year recurrence rate of NRC patients after radiotherapy.
Folitse, R; Halvorson, D A; Sivanandan, V
Following the introduction of routine vaccination regimes with different types of Newcastle disease (ND) vaccines, the incidence of velogenic viscerotropic Newcastle disease (VVND) in commercial poultry worldwide has declined dramatically. Unfortunately, these vaccination regimes are not feasible in free-range and backyard systems of poultry production practiced in many developing countries. In this study, we sought to develop a single vaccination regime in chickens with ND vaccines to elicit a long-lasting high level of ND virus (NDV) antibodies adequate to protect chickens against ND. The level of antibody response, as measured by the hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) test, and the degree of protection against the virulent strain of NDV were studied in chickens immunized with different vaccines. The vaccines used were: killed-in-oil emulsion (subcutaneous; s.c.) plus live virus (oculanasal; o.n.), given concurrently; experimental vaccine (s.c.) plus live virus (o.n.), given concurrently; killed-in-oil (s.c.); experimental vaccine prepared by homogenizing commercial live vaccine and oil emulsion (s.c.); and live virus (o.n.). The results obtained in this study indicate that concurrent administration of oil emulsion and live NDV vaccines induced the best antibody response, but there was no significant difference in protection among the vaccinated groups. PMID:9533096
Burton, Jackson; Cummings, Derek A T; Schwartz, Ira B
We consider the interplay of vaccination and migration rates on disease persistence in epidemiological systems. We show that short-term and long-term migration can inhibit disease persistence. As a result, we show how migration changes how vaccination rates should be chosen to maintain herd immunity. In a system of coupled SIR models, we analyze how disease eradication depends explicitly on vaccine distribution and migration connectivity. The analysis suggests potentially novel vaccination policies that underscore the importance of optimal placement of finite resources.
Fogel, Joshua; Kusz, Martin
Objectives: The only human Lyme disease vaccine of LYMErix was voluntarily removed from the market in the United States in 2002 for a number of reasons. A new human Lyme disease vaccine is currently being developed. We would like any future approved human Lyme disease vaccine to be of interest and marketable to consumers. Methods: We surveyed 714 participants to determine variables associated with intentions to receive a Lyme disease vaccine. Predictor variables included demographics, protection motivational theory, Lyme disease knowledge, Lyme disease preventive behaviors, beliefs and perceived health. Results: We found in multivariate linear regression analyses that Asian/Asian American race/ethnicity (p Lyme disease vaccine. Although pharmaceutical companies may benefit by advertising a Lyme disease vaccine to Asian/Asian Americans and South Asians, marketers need to address and use approaches to interest those from other race/ethnicities. Also, marketers need to address the erroneous belief that vaccines are typically not safe in order to interest those with such beliefs to use a Lyme disease vaccine. PMID:27551427
Glass, Elizabeth J; Baxter, Rebecca; Leach, Richard J; Jann, Oliver C
Farm animals remain at risk of endemic, exotic and newly emerging viruses. Vaccination is often promoted as the best possible solution, and yet for many pathogens, either there are no appropriate vaccines or those that are available are far from ideal. A complementary approach to disease control may be to identify genes and chromosomal regions that underlie genetic variation in disease resistance and response to vaccination. However, identification of the causal polymorphisms is not straightf...
Thudi, Kavitha; Yadav, Dhiraj; Sweeney, Kaitlyn; Behari, Jaideep
Background and Goals Hepatitis A (HAV) and hepatitis B (HBV) vaccination in patients with chronic liver disease is an accepted standard of care. We determined HAV and HBV vaccination rates in a tertiary care referral hepatology clinic and the impact of electronic health record (EHR)-based reminders on adherence to vaccination guidelines. Methods We reviewed the records of 705 patients with chronic liver disease referred to our liver clinic in 2008 with at least two follow-up visits during the...
Mohammad S. Khalifeh; Abu-Basha, Ehab A.
This study was performed to evaluate the effects of commercially available aromatic plant essential oil extracts (MixOilTM) on the protection outcome achieved after a Newcastle disease (ND) vaccination. Antibody production, after a MixOil treatment administered along with a vaccination program applying a live attenuated Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vaccine, was assessed under field conditions. The antibody response was evaluated via a Hemagglutination Inhibition test and an Enzyme-Linked Imm...
Black, Antony P.; Vilivong, Keooudomphone; Nouanthong, Phonethipsavanh; Souvannaso, Chanthasone; Hübschen, Judith M.; Muller, Claude P.
Background and Aims Healthcare workers (HCW) have an increased risk of exposure to infectious diseases and are a potential source of infections for their patients. The Lao People’s Democratic Republic (Lao PDR) has no national policy regarding HCW vaccinations and routine vaccination coverage is low within the general population. This cross-sectional serostudy determines the level of exposure and risk of infection in Lao HCW against 6 vaccine preventable diseases and hepatitis C. Methods 1128...
Economic losses due to ticks and tick-borne disease of livestock fall disproportionately on developing countries. Currently, tick control relies mostly on pesticides and parasite-resistant cattle. Release of a commercial recombinant vaccine against Boophilus microplus in Australia in 1994 showed that anti-tick vaccines are a feasible alternative. For vaccines, it is important to understand the efficacy needed for a beneficial outcome. In this, it is relevant that some tick antigens affect multiple tick species; that existing vaccines could be improved by the inclusion of additional tick antigens; and that vaccination against ticks can have an impact on tick-borne disease. Practically, although recombinant vaccine manufacture involves relatively few steps, issues of intellectual property rights (IPR) and requirements for registration of a product may affect economic viability of manufacture. Hence practical vaccines for the developing world will require both successful science and a creative 'business solution' for delivery in a cost-effective way. (author)
Full Text Available Marek’s disease is an economically relevant lymphoid neoplasm of poultry, caused by oncogenic strains of Marek’s disease herpesvirus. The disease has been controlled effectively by vaccination with attenuated or non-pathogenic MDV strains. Different vaccines have been tried out and the underlying principle for immunity is the action of antibodies targeted against membrane specific antigens and cytotoxic effect against tumor cells. Marek’s disease virus is a particularly unwieldy herpesvirus to manipulate molecularly and many of the techniques performed routinely for other herpes viruses are not yet available for the MDV machinery. The postulated mechanisms of immunity against Marek’s disease have been discussed here in detail. Vaccine breaks do occur as field strains continue to evolve towards pathotypes of increased virulence, and this evolution is of course vaccine driven. Experimental solutions to improve protection against the disease, like recombinant vaccines, have been discussed in this paper.
Ali, Asad; Jafri, Rabab Zehra; Messonnier, Nancy; Tevi-Benissan, Carol; Durrheim, David; Eskola, Juhani; Fermon, Florence; Klugman, Keith P; Ramsay, Mary; Sow, Samba; Zhujun, Shao; Bhutta, Zulfiqar; Abramson, Jon
A number of countries now include meningococcal vaccines in their routine immunization programs. This review focuses on different approaches to including meningococcal vaccines in country programs across the world and their effect on the burden of invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) as reflected by pre and post-vaccine incidence rates in the last 20 years. Mass campaigns using conjugated meningococcal vaccines have lead to control of serogroup C meningococcal disease in the UK, Canada, Australia, Spain, Belgium, Ireland, and Iceland. Serogroup B disease, predominant in New Zealand, has been dramatically decreased, partly due to the introduction of an outer membrane vesicle (OMV) vaccine. Polysaccharide vaccines were used in high risk people in Saudi Arabia and Syria and in routine immunization in China and Egypt. The highest incidence region of the meningitis belt initiated vaccination with the serogroup A conjugate vaccine in 2010 and catch-up vaccination is ongoing. Overall results of this vaccine introduction are encouraging especially in countries with a moderate to high level of endemic disease. Continued surveillance is required to monitor effectiveness in countries that recently implemented these programs. PMID:24548156
Atkinson, Bruce; Gandhi, Ashesh; Balmer, Paul
Invasive meningococcal disease caused by Neisseria meningitidis presents a significant public health concern. Meningococcal disease is rare but potentially fatal within 24 hours of onset of illness, and survivors may experience permanent sequelae. This review presents the epidemiology, incidence, and outbreak data for invasive meningococcal disease in the United States since 1970, and it highlights recent changes in vaccine recommendations to prevent meningococcal disease. Relevant publications were obtained by database searches for articles published between January 1970 and July 2015. The incidence of meningococcal disease has decreased in the United States since 1970, but serogroup B meningococcal disease is responsible for an increasing proportion of disease burden in young adults. Recent serogroup B outbreaks on college campuses warrant broader age-based recommendations for meningococcal group B vaccines, similar to the currently recommended quadrivalent vaccine that protects against serogroups A, C, W, and Y. After the recent approval of two serogroup B vaccines, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices first updated its recommendations for routine meningococcal vaccination to cover at-risk populations, including those at risk during serogroup B outbreaks, and later it issued a recommendation for those aged 16-23 years. Meningococcal disease outbreaks remain challenging to predict, making the optimal disease management strategy one of prevention through vaccination rather than containment. How the epidemiology of serogroup B disease and prevention of outbreaks will be affected by the new category B recommendation for serogroup B vaccines remains to be seen. PMID:27332671
采用RT-PCR技术从滨州分离株中扩增出传染性法氏囊病病毒(infectious bursal disease virus,IBDV)VP4基因,将VP4基因插入到pGEX-4T-1载体上构建pGEX-4T-1-VP4,诱导表达并用谷胱甘肽-S-转移酶(GST)亲和层析柱纯化得到纯化的重组VP4蛋白.以兔抗鸡IgG为胶体金标记物,以重组IBDV VP4蛋白和羊抗兔IgG为硝酸纤维素膜检测线和质控线的包被物,制备一种能检测IBDV VP4蛋白抗体的胶体金试纸条.结果表明,该试纸条检测IBDV强毒(IBDV BC6/85)免疫的血清检测线显红色,为阳性反应；检测IBDV弱毒(IBDV NB)免疫的血清、新城疫病毒(Newcastle disease virus,NDV)标准阳性血清、禽流感H5和H9标准阳性血清、传染性支气管炎标准阳性血清及0.85％生理盐水检测线不显红色,为阴性反应.该试纸条与建立的ELISA方法相比,敏感度低2个滴度；检测320份临床血清,试纸条与ELISA的符合率达99.38％.提示,该试纸条使用方便、操作简单,10 min内可以用肉眼判断结果,可为区分IBDV的强弱毒提供参考数据,具有较大的应用价值.%The VP4 gene was acquired by RT-PCR from Binzhou isolate of infectious bursal disease virus,the VP4 expression plasmid was constructed by inserting the target fragment into pGEX 4T 1 vectors.The expression VP4 proteins were acquired by inducing and purifying.An immunochromatograpic strip was developed for the detection VP4 protein antibody of infectious bursal disease virus.Rabbit anti-chicken IgG was labled with colloidal gold as a detection reagent,and recombinant VP4 protein of IBDV was blotted on the test line while goat anti rabbit IgG was used on the control line of the nitrocellulose membrane.The results of specificity showed that the strip was positive in the detection of reference sera against IBDV BC6/85 virulent and negative to the detection of standard positive serum of Newcastle disease virus,anvian influenza virus H5 and H9 subtypes,infectious bronchitis
Miljković Biljana; Rakin Ana; Ašanin Ružica; Dimitrijević Ljiljana; Mićić Mileva
The aim of this study was to investigate histomorphometrical characteristics of the thymus, bursa of Fabricius and spleen in the chickens vaccinated with a vaccine against Marek's disease. For this purpose, we used newly hatched chickens of the light hybrid line, obtained from a local hatchery. The chickens were vaccinated on the 5th day after hatching with a bivalent cell-associated Marek's disease vaccine (PFU-2000 per dose). On day 13 both vaccinated chickens and ...
Wolf, Elizabeth R; Rowhani-Rahbar, Ali; Opel, Douglas J
Conventional wisdom suggests that if there is a vaccine that is effective in preventing a disease, vaccine uptake will increase when the disease risk is high. Recent evidence, however, suggests that this may not always be the case. In a study we conducted in Washington State, we found no population-level increase in pertussis vaccination of infants during a pertussis epidemic. In this paper, we aim to review what is known about the history of vaccine uptake during epidemics of vaccine-preventable disease, the challenges facing public health campaigns responding to these epidemics, and how the effect of a vaccine-preventable disease epidemic on vaccine uptake can be studied. PMID:25872609
Cloete, M; Dungu, B; Van Staden, L I; Ismail-Cassim, N; Vosloo, W
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is an economically important disease of cloven-hoofed animals that is primarily controlled by vaccination of susceptible animals and movement restrictions for animals and animal-derived products in South Africa. Vaccination using aluminium hydroxide gel-saponin (AS) adjuvanted vaccines containing the South African Territories (SAT) serotypes has been shown to be effective both in ensuring that disease does not spread from the endemic to the free zone and in controlling outbreaks in the free zone. Various vaccine formulations containing antigens derived from the SAT serotypes were tested in cattle that were challenged 1 year later. Both the AS and ISA 206B vaccines adjuvanted with saponin protected cattle against virulent virus challenge. The oil-based ISA 206B-adjuvanted vaccine with and without stimulators was evaluated in a field trial and both elicited antibody responses that lasted for 1 year. Furthermore, the ISA 206 adjuvanted FMD vaccine protected groups of cattle against homologous virus challenge at very low payloads, while pigs vaccinated with an emergency ISA 206B-based FMD vaccine containing the SAT 1 vaccine strains were protected against the heterologous SAT 1 outbreak strain. PMID:18575060
Full Text Available Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD is an economically important disease of cloven-hoofed animals that is primarily controlled by vaccination of susceptible animals and movement restrictions for animals and animal-derived products in South Africa. Vaccination using aluminium hydroxide gel-saponin (AS adjuvanted vaccines containing the South African Territories (SAT serotypes has been shown to be effective both in ensuring that disease does not spread from the endemic to the free zone and in controlling outbreaks in the free zone. Various vaccine formulations containing antigens derived from the SAT serotypes were tested in cattle that were challenged 1 year later. Both the AS and ISA 206B vaccines adjuvanted with saponin protected cattle against virulent virus challenge. The oilbased ISA 206B-adjuvanted vaccine with and without stimulators was evaluated in a field trial and both elicited antibody responses that lasted for 1 year. Furthermore, the ISA 206 adjuvanted FMD vaccine protected groups of cattle against homologous virus challenge at very low payloads, while pigs vaccinated with an emergency ISA 206B-based FMD vaccine containing the SAT 1 vaccine strains were protected against the heterologous SAT 1 outbreak strain.
Spibey, N; McCabe, V J; Greenwood, N M; Jack, S C; Sutton, D; van der Waart, L
A novel, recombinant myxoma virus-rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) vaccine has been developed for the prevention of myxomatosis and rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD). A number of laboratory studies are described illustrating the safety and efficacy of the vaccine following subcutaneous administration in laboratory rabbits from four weeks of age onwards. In these studies, both vaccinated and unvaccinated control rabbits were challenged using pathogenic strains of RHD and myxoma viruses, and 100 per cent of the vaccinated rabbits were protected against both myxomatosis and RHD. PMID:22266680
Lee, Lucy F; Kreager, K S; Arango, J; Paraguassu, A; Beckman, B; Zhang, Huanmin; Fadly, Aly; Lupiani, B; Reddy, S M
Marek's disease virus (MDV) oncogene meq has been identified as the gene involved in tumorigenesis in chickens. We have recently developed a Meq-null virus, rMd5 Delta Meq, in which the oncogene meq was deleted. Vaccine efficacy experiments conducted in Avian Disease and Oncology Laboratory (ADOL) 15I(5) x 7(1) chickens vaccinated with rMd5 Delta Meq virus or an ADOL preparation of CVI988/Rispens indicated that rMd5 Delta Meq provided superior protection than CVI988/Rispens when challenged with the very virulent plus MDV 648A strain. In the present study we set to investigate the vaccine efficacy of rMd5 Delta Meq in the field compared to several commercial preparations of CVI988/Rispens. Three large-scale field experiments, in which seeder chickens were inoculated with a very virulent plus strain of 686, vv+ MDV, were conducted in a model developed by Hy-Line International. In addition, comparisons were made with bivalent vaccine (HVT+SB-1), HVT alone and several serotype 3 HVT-vectored vaccines individually or in combination with CVI988/Rispens. Experimental results showed that addition of HVT to either of the two commercial CVI988/Rispens preparations tested (A or B) did not enhance protection conferred by CVI988/Rispens alone and that rMd5 Delta Meq was a better or equal vaccine compared to any of the CVI988/Rispens vaccines tested under the conditions of the field trials presented herein. Our results also emphasized the complexity of factors affecting vaccine efficacy and the importance of challenge dose in protection. PMID:19941987
Saini, S S; Sodhi, S S; Maiti, N K; Sharma, S N
The humoral immune response and immunity conferred in chicks were compared following separate and combined oral vaccination with F strain of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and HP1 strain of fowl pox virus. The haemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibody titre against NDV and passive haemagglutination (PHA) antibody titre against fowl pox virus were comparable in two respective groups. The serum IgG concentration increased significantly after the second vaccination in all the groups. The NDV vaccine induced significantly higher IgG production as compared to fowl pox virus vaccine. There was no significant difference in serum IgG concentration produced by combined vaccine and separate F strain vaccine. The protection afforded by combined and separate vaccinations did not vary significantly against challenge with virulent strains of NDV and fowl pox virus at different stages. PMID:2157575
Full Text Available Newcastle disease (ND and Avian Influenza (AI are among the important viral diseases of poultry with very high economic implications. ND is enzootic in most parts of the world while Highly Pathogenic AI (HPAI is an emerging zoonosis in Nigeria. This study was carried out to assess the perception and attitude of poultry farmers in the selected Local Government Areas in Ibadan towards vaccination of birds against these diseases, and to find out the types of vaccines that were available for the control of the two diseases. A total of 84 respondents out of 100 (84% completed and returned the questionnaires administered. The results indicated that all farmers vaccinated their birds against ND. The regime for ND vaccination was not the same across the local government areas. Some 32 (38.1% farmers operated vaccination schedules provided by hatchery technicians, while 43 (51.2% farmers vaccinated their birds at about 4-6 weeks interval. Nine (10.7% farmers combined hatchery and laboratory evaluation to determine schedule. Thirty nine farmers (46.4% indicated that they were aware of national policy of non-vaccination against AI. However, 14 out of 84 farmers (16.7% vaccinated their birds against HPAI. There is a need to continue the national policy of slaughter of HPAI infected poultry birds and compensation of farmers, albeit allowing strategic use of vaccine to effectively control HPAI outbreaks in south-western part of Nigeria.
Gay, C G; Salt, J; Balaski, C
Veterinary pharmaceutical products generated 14.5 billion U.S. Dollars (USD) in worldwide sales in 2000, with biological products contributing 16.2 percent or 2.3 billion USD. The leading biological products were foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) vaccines, with 284 million USD in sales, representing 26.4 percent of the entire livestock biological business. Despite the potential opportunities for the biologicals industry, non-vaccination policies and undefined control and eradication strategies have deterred the private sector from significant investments in the research and development of vaccines against List A diseases. The primary research focus remains vaccines for infectious diseases that have an impact on current domestic herd health management systems. Changing the vaccine paradigm, investing in new technologies, and creating the future by integrating into key alliances with producers and regulatory authorities will be paramount in protecting our poultry and livestock industries against highly infectious diseases and potential acts of bioterrorism. PMID:14677694
Full Text Available There is little doubt evolution has played a major role in preventing the control of infectious disease through antibiotic and insecticide resistance, but recent theory suggests disease interventions such as vaccination may lead to evolution of more harmful parasites. A new study published in PLOS Biology by Andrew Read and colleagues shows empirically that vaccination against Marek's disease has favored higher virulence; without intervention, the birds die too quickly for any transmission to occur, but vaccinated hosts can both stay alive longer and shed the virus. This is an elegant empirical demonstration of how evolutionary theory can predict potentially dangerous responses of infectious disease to human interventions.
Among the practical applications of radiobiological techniques that may be of considerable interest for human medicine and public health is the use of ionizing radiation and radioactive isotopes in the preparation of vaccines. Since 1966, the International Atomic Energy Agency, in collaboration with the Food and Agricultural Organization of the UN, has had a co-ordinated research programme on the application of nuclear techniques to veterinary parasitology. It soon became obvious that the similarity of certain parasitic infections in man and animals as well as the existence of cross-infections would make it extremely difficult to keep any strict and unnatural species barriers. The apparent similarity, for instance, between human and animal trematodes like Trypanosoma and Plasmodium clearly suggests the extension of these studies to human parasitic diseases
Zhang, Wenbao; Ross, Allen G; McManus, Donald P
The Echinococcus organisms, the cause of echinococcosis (hydatid disease), are parasitic helminths with life cycles involving a carnivorous definitive host (usually dog or fox) and an intermediate host (human, ungulate, or rodent). They are complex multicellular pathogens that, despite being under constant barrage by the immune system, are able to modulate antiparasite immune responses and persist and flourish in their mammalian hosts. Understanding how the immune system deals with these parasites is a major challenge. Recent application of modern molecular and immunological approaches has revealed insights on the nature of immune responses generated during the course of hydatid infection, although many aspects of the Echinococcus-host interplay remain unexplored. This review summarizes current understanding of the immunology of echinococcosis, indicates areas where information is lacking, and shows how knowledge of host protective immunity has been translated into the design and development of anti-Echinococcus vaccines for application in intermediate hosts. PMID:18981082
Yong, Jing; Lacan, Goran; Dang, Hoa; Hsieh, Terry; Middleton, Blake; Wasserfall, Clive; Tian, Jide; Melega, William P; Kaufman, Daniel L
There is a growing interest in using vaccination with CNS antigens to induce autoreactive T cell responses that home to damaged areas in the CNS and ameliorate neurodegenerative disease. Neuroprotective vaccine studies have focused on administering oligodendrocyte antigens or Copaxone® in complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA). Theoretical considerations, however, suggest that vaccination with a neuronal antigen may induce more robust neuroprotective immune responses. We assessed the neuroprotective potential of vaccines containing tyrosine hydroxylase (a neuronal protein involved in dopamine synthesis) or Copaxone® in CFA in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) mouse model of Parkinson's disease. Surprisingly, we observed that the main beneficial factor in these vaccines was the CFA. Since the major immunogenic component in CFA is Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which closely related to the bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) that is used in human vaccines, we tested BCG vaccination in the MPTP mouse model. We observed that BCG vaccination partially preserved markers of striatal dopamine system integrity and prevented an increase in activated microglia in the substantia nigra of MPTP-treated mice. These results support a new neuroprotective vaccine paradigm in which general (nonself-reactive) immune stimulation in the periphery can limit potentially deleterious microglial responses to a neuronal insult and exert a neurorestorative effect in the CNS. Accordingly, BCG vaccination may provide a new strategy to augment current treatments for a wide range of neuropathological conditions. PMID:21304945
Villumsen, Kasper Rømer; Neumann, Lukas; Ohtani, Maki; Strøm, Helene Kragelund; Raida, Martin Kristian
The effect of oral vaccines against bacterial fish diseases has been a topic for debate for decades. Recently both M-like cells and dendritic cells have been discovered in the intestine of rainbow trout. It is therefore likely that antigens reaching the intestine can be taken up and thereby induce immunity in orally vaccinated fish. The objective of this project was to investigate whether oral and anal vaccination of rainbow trout induces protection against an experimental waterborne infectio...
Angulo, Elena; Bárcena, Juan
Currently available vaccines against myxomatosis and rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) are not suited to immunise wild rabbit populations, as vaccines need to be delivered individually by conventional veterinary practices. As an alternative approach, research in Spain has focused on the development of a transmissible vaccine. A recombinant virus has been constructed based on a naturally attenuated myxoma virus (MV) field strain, expressing the RHDV capsid protein (VP60). Following inocu...
Sacks, David L.
Live and live-attenuated whole organism vaccines against Plasmodium falciparum malaria and cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania major remain the most uniformly effective vaccines against human parasitic diseases. These vaccines are discussed in terms of the nature of the T cell populations that mediate the strong and durable localized immunity to these infections, and the requirement for persisting antigen to generate and maintain the protective response. The difficulties in developing s...
Lynch, Joyce M.; Briles, David E.; Metzger, Dennis W.
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a common cause of respiratory tract infections, its main entry route being the nasal mucosa. The recent development of pneumococcal polysaccharide conjugate vaccines has led to a dramatic improvement in protection against invasive disease in infants and children, but these vaccines have been found to be only 50 to 60% protective against bacterial carriage. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of intranasal (i.n.) conjugate vaccine delivery using interleukin-...
Olsson, Sven-Eric; Kjaer, Susanne K; Sigurdsson, Kristján;
Objective: In the quadrivalent (types 6/11/16/18) HPV vaccine (GARDASIL((R))/SILGARD((R))) clinical program, 73% of women aged 16-26 were naïve to all vaccine HPV types. In these women, prophylactic administration of the vaccine was highly effective in preventing HPV 6/11/16/18-related cervical...... disease. Of the remaining women, 15% of had evidence of past infection with one or more vaccine HPV types (seropositive and DNA negative) at the time of enrollment. Here we present an analysis in this group of women to determine the efficacy of the HPV 6/11/16/18 vaccine against new cervical and external...... anogenital disease related to the same vaccine HPV type which had previously been cleared. Vaccine tolerability in this previously infected population was also assessed. Results: Subjects were followed for an average of 40 months. Seven subjects in the placebo group developed cervical disease, and eight...
Hanaa Mostafa El-Karaksy; Manal Ismail El-Hawary; Nehal Mohammad El-Koofy; Rokaya El-Sayed; Mona Al-Saeed El-Raziky; Samah Asaad Mansour; Gamal Mohammad Taha; Fatma El-Mougy
AIM: To study the safety and efficacy of hepatitis A vaccine (HAV) in children with chronic liver disease of various etiologies.METHODS: Eleven children with chronic liver disease and thirteen age- and sex-matched controls negative for HAV antibodies were vaccinated against hepatitis A after they gave their informed consent. Children with uncontrolled coagulopathy or signs of hepatic decompensation were excluded. The vaccine (Havrix:720 ELISA units in 0.5 mL, from GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals) was given intramuscularly in the deltoid in 2 doses 6 mo apart. Children were tested for HAV antibodies one and six months after the 1st dose and one month after the 2nd dose. Total serum bilirubin, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were determined immediately before and after one month of the 1st dose of the vaccine.RESULTS: Only 7 out of the 11 patients were positive for HAV antibodies after the 1st dose of the vaccine,as compared to 100% of the controls. One month after the 2nd dose, all patients tested were positive for HAV antibodies. No deterioration in liver functions of patients was noted after vaccination. No adverse events,immediate or late, were reported by the mothers after each dose of the vaccine.CONCLUSION: Hepatitis A vaccine is both safe and effective in this small studied group of children with chronic liver disease. Given the high seroconversion rate, post-vaccination testing for HAV antibodies is not needed.
DİŞİBEYAZ, Selçuk; TÜRKMEN, Aygül; Parlak, Erkan; SAYDAM, Gül; ÜLKER, Aysel
Background and aim: Inflammatory bowel disease patients are at high risk for hepatitis- B Virus infection due to the frequent need for hospitalisation, blood transfusion and endoscopic examination. The aim of this study was to evaluate the responsiveness of inflammatory bowel disease patients to hepatitis- B Virus vaccination. Material and methods: A total of 41 patients (24 ulcerative colitis and 17 Crohn's disease) and 28 healthy controls were vaccinated with a recombinant hepatitis- ...
Vagnozzi, Ariel; García, Maricarmen; Riblet, Sylva M; Zavala, Guillermo
Two types of live attenuated vaccines have been used worldwide for the control of infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV): 1) chicken embryo origin (CEO) vaccines; and 2) tissue culture origin vaccines (TCO). However, the disease persists in spite of extensive use of vaccination, particularly in areas of intense broiler production. Among the factors that may influence the efficiency of ILTV live attenuated vaccines is a possible interference of Newcastle Disease virus (NDV) and infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) vaccines with the protection induced by ILTV vaccines. The protection induced by CEO and TCO vaccines was evaluated when administered at 14 days of age alone or in combination with the B1 type strain of NDV (B1) and/or the Arkansas (ARK) and Massachusetts (MASS) serotypes of IBV vaccines. Two weeks after vaccination (28 days of age), the chickens were challenged with a virulent ILTV field strain (63140 isolate, group V genotype). Protection was evaluated at 5 and 7 days postchallenge by scoring clinical signs and quantifying the challenge virus load in the trachea using real-time PCR (qPCR). In addition, the viral load of the vaccine viruses (ILTV, NDV, and IBV) was quantified 3 and 5 days postvaccination also using qPCR. The results of this study indicate that the NDV (B1) and IBV (ARK) vaccines and a multivalent vaccine constituted by NDV (B1) and IBV (ARK and MASS) did not interfere with the protection induced by the CEO ILTV vaccine. However, the NDV (BI) and the multivalent (B1/MASS/ARK) vaccines interfered with the protection induced by the TCO vaccine (P vaccines decreased the tracheal replication of the TCO vaccine and the protection induced by this vaccine, since the ILTV-vaccinated and -challenged chickens displayed significantly more severe clinical signs and ILTV load (P vaccinated with the TCO vaccine alone. Although NDV and IBV challenges were not performed, the antibody responses elicited by NDV and/or the IBV vaccinations were significantly
Full Text Available Newcastle disease (ND is one of the most important diseases of poultry and other avian species. The usual mean to control ND is specific immunoprophylaxis. Although chickens are routinely vaccinated against ND, vaccination of ostriches is less well understood. We investigated the effect of vaccination against Newcastle disease via different routes on specific antibody titer in 24 adult ostriches, divided into three experimental and one control group. The vaccine was administered in drinking water to the first, by spraying to the second, and oculo-nasally to the third group. The results have indicated antibody production with titers sufficient for humoral immunity in all experimental groups. The strongest immune response was determined in the group vaccinated by spraying. .
Leung, Wai Shing; Chan, Man Chun; Chik, Shiu Hong; Tsang, Tak Yin
Yellow fever is an important and potentially fatal infection in tropical regions of Africa, South America, eastern Panama in Central America and Trinidad in the Caribbean. Yellow fever vaccination is not only crucial to reduce the disease risk and mortality in individuals travelling to these areas, but also an important public health measure to prevent the spread of the disease. Despite generally considered as a safe vaccine, yellow fever vaccine can rarely be associated with severe adverse reactions including yellow fever vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease (YEL-AVD). Here, we report the first case of YEL-AVD in Hong Kong. Clinicians should alert to the possibility of YEL-AVD in vaccinees presenting with compatible symptoms after yellow fever vaccination, particularly in people at higher risk of adverse events. PMID:27087559
Kasper Rømer Villumsen
Full Text Available The effect of oral vaccines against bacterial fish diseases has been a topic for debate for decades. Recently both M-like cells and dendritic cells have been discovered in the intestine of rainbow trout. It is therefore likely that antigens reaching the intestine can be taken up and thereby induce immunity in orally vaccinated fish. The objective of this project was to investigate whether oral and anal vaccination of rainbow trout induces protection against an experimental waterborne infection with the pathogenic enterobacteria Yersinia ruckeri O1 biotype 1 the causative agent of enteric redmouth disease (ERM. Rainbow trout were orally vaccinated with AquaVac ERM Oral (MERCK Animal Health or an experimental vaccine bacterin of Y. ruckeri O1. Both vaccines were tested with and without a booster vaccination four months post the primary vaccination. Furthermore, two groups of positive controls were included, one group receiving the experimental oral vaccine in a 50 times higher dose, and the other group receiving a single dose administered anally in order to bypass the stomach. Each group was bath challenged with 6.3 × 10(8 CFU/ml Y. ruckeri, six months post the primary vaccination. The challenge induced significant mortality in all the infected groups except for the groups vaccinated anally with a single dose or orally with the high dose of bacterin. Both of these groups had 100% survival. These results show that a low dose of Y. ruckeri bacterin induces full protection when the bacterin is administered anally. Oral vaccination also induces full protection, however, at a dose 50 times higher than if the fish were to be vaccinated anally. This indicates that much of the orally fed antigen is digested in the stomach before it reaches the second segment of the intestine where it can be taken up as immunogenic antigens and presented to lymphocytes.
Anggriani, N.; Wicaksono, B. C.; Supriatna, A. K.
Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the deadliest infectious disease in the world which caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The disease is spread through the air via the droplets from the infectious persons when they are coughing. The World Health Organization (WHO) has paid a special attention to the TB by providing some solution, for example by providing BCG vaccine that prevent an infected person from becoming an active infectious TB. In this paper we develop a mathematical model of the spread of the TB which assumes endogeneous reactivation and exogeneous reinfection factors. We also assume that some of the susceptible population are vaccinated. Furthermore we investigate the optimal vaccination level for the disease.
Knol, Mirjam J.; Wagenvoort, Gertjan H.J.; Sanders, Elisabeth A. M.; Elberse, Karin; Vlaminckx, Bart J.; Hester E. de Melker; van der Ende, Arie
Three years after a 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine was replaced by a 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in the Netherlands, we observed a decrease in incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes 1, 5, and 7F. Our data do not support or exclude cross-protection against serotype 19A.
Francesca Fortunato; Domenico Martinelli; Maria Giovanna Cappelli; Vanessa Cozza; Rosa Prato
In Italy, the effectiveness of pneumococcal universal vaccination in preventing vaccine-type invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in the PCV7/PCV13 shifting period was estimated to be 84.3% (95% CI: 84.0–84.6%) in children
The adjuvant activity of chitosan and calcium phosphate-particles (CAP) was studied following intranasal coadministration of commercial chickens with inactivated Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vaccine. After three vaccinations with inactivated NDV in combination with chitosan or CAP an increase in an...
Villumsen, Anne Marie; Jess, Tine; Sørup, Signe; Ravn, Henrik; Sturegård, Erik; Benn, Christine Stabell; Aaby, Peter; Roth, Adam Anders Edvin
Childhood immunology has been suggested to play a role in development of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) based on the studies of childhood vaccinations, infections, and treatment with antibiotics. Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) and smallpox vaccinations were gradually phased-out in Denmark for...
The complete DNA sequence of the Marek’s disease virus serotype 1 vaccine strain CVI988 was determined and consists of 178,311 bp with an overall gene organization identical to that of the oncogenic strains. In examining open reading frames (ORFs), nine ORFs differ between vaccine and oncogenic stra...
More effective vaccines are needed to control avian diseases. The use of chicken interferon gamma (chIFN') during vaccination is a potentially important but controversial approach that may improve the immune response to antigens. In the present study, three different systems to co-deliver chIFN' wit...
Full Text Available Abstract Background HPV is related to a number of cancer types, causing a considerable burden in both genders in Europe. Female vaccination programs can substantially reduce the incidence of HPV-related diseases in women and, to some extent, men through herd immunity. The objective was to estimate the incremental benefit of vaccinating boys and girls using the quadrivalent HPV vaccine in Europe versus girls-only vaccination. Incremental benefits in terms of reduction in the incidence of HPV 6, 11, 16 and 18-related diseases (including cervical, vaginal, vulvar, anal, penile, and head and neck carcinomas and genital warts were assessed. Methods The analysis was performed using a model constructed in Microsoft®Excel, based on a previously-published dynamic transmission model of HPV vaccination and published European epidemiological data on incidence of HPV-related diseases. The incremental benefits of vaccinating 12-year old girls and boys versus girls-only vaccination was assessed (70% vaccine coverage were assumed for both. Sensitivity analyses around vaccine coverage and duration of protection were performed. Results Compared with screening alone, girls-only vaccination led to 84% reduction in HPV 16/18-related carcinomas in females and a 61% reduction in males. Vaccination of girls and boys led to a 90% reduction in HPV 16/18-related carcinomas in females and 86% reduction in males versus screening alone. Relative to a girls-only program, vaccination of girls and boys led to a reduction in female and male HPV-related carcinomas of 40% and 65%, respectively and a reduction in the incidence of HPV 6/11-related genital warts of 58% for females and 71% for males versus girls-only vaccination. Conclusions In Europe, the vaccination of 12-year old boys and girls against HPV 6, 11, 16 and 18 would be associated with substantial additional clinical benefits in terms of reduced incidence of HPV-related genital warts and carcinomas versus girls
HPV is related to a number of cancer types, causing a considerable burden in both genders in Europe. Female vaccination programs can substantially reduce the incidence of HPV-related diseases in women and, to some extent, men through herd immunity. The objective was to estimate the incremental benefit of vaccinating boys and girls using the quadrivalent HPV vaccine in Europe versus girls-only vaccination. Incremental benefits in terms of reduction in the incidence of HPV 6, 11, 16 and 18-related diseases (including cervical, vaginal, vulvar, anal, penile, and head and neck carcinomas and genital warts) were assessed. The analysis was performed using a model constructed in Microsoft®Excel, based on a previously-published dynamic transmission model of HPV vaccination and published European epidemiological data on incidence of HPV-related diseases. The incremental benefits of vaccinating 12-year old girls and boys versus girls-only vaccination was assessed (70% vaccine coverage were assumed for both). Sensitivity analyses around vaccine coverage and duration of protection were performed. Compared with screening alone, girls-only vaccination led to 84% reduction in HPV 16/18-related carcinomas in females and a 61% reduction in males. Vaccination of girls and boys led to a 90% reduction in HPV 16/18-related carcinomas in females and 86% reduction in males versus screening alone. Relative to a girls-only program, vaccination of girls and boys led to a reduction in female and male HPV-related carcinomas of 40% and 65%, respectively and a reduction in the incidence of HPV 6/11-related genital warts of 58% for females and 71% for males versus girls-only vaccination. In Europe, the vaccination of 12-year old boys and girls against HPV 6, 11, 16 and 18 would be associated with substantial additional clinical benefits in terms of reduced incidence of HPV-related genital warts and carcinomas versus girls-only vaccination. The incremental benefits of adding boys vaccination are
Olsson, Sven-Eric; Kjaer, Susanne K; Sigurdsson, Kristján;
In the quadrivalent (types 6/11/16/18) HPV vaccine (GARDASIL/SILGARD) clinical program, 73% of women aged 16-26 were naïve to all vaccine HPV types. In these women, prophylactic administration of the vaccine was highly effective in preventing HPV 6/11/16/18-related cervical disease....... Of the remaining women, 15% of had evidence of past infection with one or more vaccine HPV types (seropositive and DNA negative) at the time of enrollment. Here we present an analysis in this group of women to determine the efficacy of the HPV 6/11/16/18 vaccine against new cervical and external anogenital disease...... related to the same vaccine HPV type which had previously been cleared. Vaccine tolerability in this previously infected population was also assessed....
McCavit, Timothy L.; Quinn, Charles T.; Techasaensiri, Chonnamet; Rogers, Zora R.
Invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in children with sickle cell disease (SCD) has decreased with prophylactic penicillin, pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine, and pneumococcal protein-conjugate vaccine (PCV7) usage. We report 10 IPD cases since PCV7 licensure, including a recent surge of non-vaccine serotypes. IPD continues to be a serious risk in SCD.
Mao, Qun-Ying; Wang, Yiping; Bian, Lianlian; Xu, Miao; Liang, Zhenglun
On December 3rd 2015, the China Food and Drug Administration (CFDA) approved the first inactivated Enterovirus 71 (EV71) whole virus vaccine for preventing severe hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). As one of the few preventive vaccines for children's infectious diseases generated by the developing countries in recent years, EV71 vaccine is a blessing to children's health in China and worldwide. However, there are still a few challenges facing the worldwide use of EV71 vaccine, including the applicability against various EV71 pandemic strains in other countries, international requirements on vaccine production and quality control, standardization and harmonization on different pathogen monitoring and detecting methods, etc. In addition, the affordability of EV71 vaccine in other countries is a factor to be considered in HFMD prevention. Therefore, with EV71 vaccine commercially available, there is still a long way to go before reaching effective protection against severe HFMD after EV71 vaccines enter the market. In this paper, the bottlenecks and prospects for the wide use of EV71 vaccine after its approval are evaluated. PMID:26732723