Full Text Available The bronze bug Thaumastocoris peregrinus (Hemiptera: Thaumastocoridae is an important pest of eucalyptus in several countries and the strategies for the integrated management of this insect in commercial plantations needs to be investigated. The predatory behavior of Atopozelus opsimus (Hemiptera: Reduviidae on T. peregrinus is described. Adults of A. opsimus feed on nymphs and adults of the bronze bug and also present phytophagy. A. opsimus has potential as a natural enemy for the biological control of T. peregrinus.
Jacenir Reis dos Santos-Mallet; Wanderley de Souza
The Brindley's glands of Panstrongylus megistus were studied under the antomic, histologic and ultrastructural point of view. These glands located in the insect's methatorax are paired and have an opening near the third parir of the feet. Beside this aperture, ther are evaporation areas. Shape, sixe and aspect of the gland vary according to the feeding status. The glands are composed by a tubular part corresponding to the duct and a sack-like portion corrsponding to the secretory part. By ele...
Nadir Francisca Sant'Anna Nogueira
Full Text Available In this study we analyzed the microanatomy of the dorsal vessel of the triatomine Panstrongylus megistus. The organ is a tuble anatomically divided into an anterior aorta anad a posterior heart, connected to the body wall through 8 pairs of alary muscles. The heart is divided in 3 chambers by means of 2 pairs of cardiac valves. a pair of ostia can be observed in the lateral wall of each chamber. A bundle of nerve fibers was found outside the organ, running dorsally along its major axis. A group of longitudinal muscular fibers was found in the ventral portion of the vessel. The vessel was found to be lined both internally and externally by pericardial cells covered by a thin laminar membrane. Inseide the vessel the pericardial cells were disposed in layers and on the outside they formed clusters or rows.
Full Text Available In this paper, glandular areas associated with the phallus in Triatoma rubrofasciata are described and illustrated for the first time. The glandular areas lie in the membrane surrounding the articulatory apparatus. In order to unambiguously define the locality of the respective glandular areas, some features of the pygophore-phallus connection are redescribed. A possible functional context of the gland secretions is discussed. A preliminary study of several other Reduviidae implies that the described glandular areas occur in a wider range of taxa in this group.
Alexandre Coletto da Silva
Full Text Available The present work shows the occurrence of an intense predatory activity on adults working Meliponinae bees (Hymenoptera, Apidae, by Apiomerus pilipes (Fabricius, 1787 (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Harpactorinae, Apiomerini at a meliponary in the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA, Manaus, Amazonas State, Brazil.O presente trabalho registra a ocorrência de intensa atividade predatória de Apiomerus pilipes (Fabricius, 1787 (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Harpactorini, Apiomerini sobre operárias adultas de meliponíneos (Hymenoptera, Apidae, no meliponário experimental do Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA, Manaus, Estado do Amazonas, Brasil. O meliponário se encontra num fragmento de vegetação secundária no próprio INPA.
GASPE, M. S.; Schachter-Broide, J.; Gurevitz, J. M.; KITRON, U.; Gürtler, R. E.; Dujardin, J.P.
We investigated the occurrence of spatial structuring in Triatoma infestans (Klug) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) populations 12 yr after the last community-wide insecticide spraying campaign in rural Pampa del Indio, in the Gran Chaco of northeastern Argentina. In total, 172 male and 149 female right wings collected at 16 georeferenced sites with at least 10 individuals of the same sex were analyzed using geometric morphometry. Mean female body length and wing centroid size (CS) were significantly ...
André A. M. Coelho
Full Text Available A transmissão da doença de Chagas ocorre, principalmente, por meio de fezes de hemípteros hematófagos (Triatominae, os quais ingerem o Trypanosoma cruzi ao se alimentarem do sangue de pessoas ou outros mamíferos infectados. Para o controle dos triatomíneos, os piretróides são os principais inseticidas utilizados. Entretanto, algumas populações de insetos demonstraram resistência a determinados piretróides, indicando a necessidade do desenvolvimento de novos inseticidas eficazes no controle desses vetores. Assim, foi avaliada a atividade inseticida de 83 extratos vegetais, pertencentes a 35 espécies diferentes, em ninfas do primeiro estádio de Dipetalogaster maxima (Uhler, 1894 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae, triatomíneo encontrado no México. Para o teste tópico, foram aplicados 50 ìg de cada extrato nos tergitos abdominais de dez ninfas, em duplicata. Como controles, foram utilizados insetos tratados com etanol, acetona ou sem nenhum tipo de tratamento. Os triatomíneos foram observados durante 28 dias. Nenhum extrato apresentou atividade inseticida significativa, entretanto, o extrato hexânico do fruto e o etanólico da casca do caule de Simarouba versicolor (Simaroubaceae inibiram a taxa de ecdise em D. maxima (40% e 25%, respectivamente. Sugere-se que estes extratos sejam quimicamente investigados e monitorados por ensaios biológicos a fim de determinar os componentes, para que estes possam ser utilizados como modelos moleculares ou como compostos biorracionais nos programas de controle de insetos.Chagas disease, also known as American Trypanosomiasis, is chiefly transmitted by faeces of haematophagous bugs (Triatominae that ingested Trypanosoma cruzi from blood of infected people or other mammals. Pyrethroids have been the main insecticides used against these insects. However, some populations of insects have shown significant levels of resistance to several pyrethroids, indicating the need of new insecticides for the control of
Kjos, Sonia A.; Marcet, Paula L.; Yabsley, Michael J.; KITRON, URIEL; Snowden, Karen F.; LOGAN, KATHLEEN S.; Barnes, John C.; Dotson, Ellen M.
The host–vector–parasite interactions in Chagas disease peridomestic transmission cycles in the United States are not yet well understood. Trypanosoma cruzi (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae) infection prevalence and bloodmeal sources were determined for adult and immature triatomine (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) specimens collected from residential settings in central Texas. Sequenced cytochrome b DNA segments obtained from triatomine digestive tract identified nine vertebrate hosts and one invert...
Gustavo Mario Calderon-Fernandez
Full Text Available The cuticular hydrocarbons of the Triatoma sordida subcomplex (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae were ana-lysed by gas chromatography and their structures identified by mass spectrometry. They comprised mostly n-alkanes and methyl-branched alkanes with one-four methyl substitutions. n-alkanes consisted of a homologous series from C21-C33 and represented 33-45% of the hydrocarbon fraction; n-C29 was the major component. Methyl-branched alkanes showed alkyl chains from C24-C43. High molecular weight dimethyl and trimethylalkanes (from C35-C39 represented most of the methyl-branched fraction. A few tetramethylalkanes were also detected, comprising mostly even-numbered chains. Several components such as odd-numbered 3-methylalkanes, dimethylalkanes and trimethylalkanes of C37 and C39 showed patterns of variation that allowed the differentiation of the species and populations studied. Triatoma guasayana and Triatoma patagonica showed the most distinct hydrocarbon patterns within the subcomplex. The T. sordida populations from Brazil and Argentina showed significantly different hydrocarbon profiles that posed concerns regarding the homogeneity of the species. Triatoma garciabesi had a more complex hydrocarbon pattern, but it shared some similarity with T. sordida. The quantitative and qualitative variations in the cuticular hydrocarbons may help to elucidate the relationships between species and populations of this insect group.
Edith Natalia Gómez-Melendro
Full Text Available Introduction. Knowledge of vector insect species, their habitat and geographical distribution is crucial for determining the risk of transmission of the etiologic agents that cause disease in humans, which allows defining strategies for prevention, surveillance and control in line with the characteristics of each area. Objective. To determine the presence and public health importance of vectors of Chagas disease in the indigenous settlements of Marbacella and El Horno of the Wayúu ethnic group in the municipality of Riohacha, La Guajira, Colombia. Materials and methods. From active search, installation and inspection of biosensors and occasional catches, Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatomini were collected intra and in the peridomicile housing of the indigenous settlements of El Horno and Marbacella of the the Wayúu ethnic group. Indices of intra and peridomestic infestation, colonization, density, dispersion and natural infection with Trypanosoma cruzi Chagas, 1909 were calculated. Results. 79.6% (n = 90 of the specimens were collected around the homes and 20.3% (n = 23 inside the homes, all corresponding to Triatoma maculata (Erichson, 1848. The natural infection indices with T. cruzi accounted for 43.5% for Marbacella and 36% for El Horno. Conclusion. This is the first reported capture of individuals of T. maculata, considered a secondary vector of Chagas disease in Colombia, naturally infected with T. cruzi in the municipality of Riohacha expanding the geographical distribution of the species in the department of La Guajira.
Eduardo G. Virla
Full Text Available The corn leafhopper Dalbulus maidis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae, is an important corn pest in most of tropical and subtropical America. This leafhopper has a rich natural enemy complex of which parasitoids and pathogens are the most studied; knowledge on its predators is limited. We noted the presence of the native assassin bug Zelus obscuridorsis (Hemiptera: Reduviidae predating diverse motile insects, including the corn leafhopper, on corn plants cultivated in household vegetable gardens in San Miguel de Tucumán (Argentina; in order to verify its predatory actions, we exposed lab-bred individuals of D. maidis to adults of Z. obscuridorsis. The predators were starved for 24 h before trials in which the corn leafhopper in different developmental stages were exposed. Zelus obscuridorsis is highly skilled in catching specimens in motion, but it was not able to prey on eggs. The predator was capable to catch and prey on nymphs and adults.
Martinez Avandano, Eddy; Chávez Espada, Tamara; Sossa Gil, Dino; Aranda Asturizaga, Roberto; Vargas Mamani, Benigno; Vidaurre Pietro, Pablo
Triatoma bolivianasp. n. (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae) from Sub Andean valleys of La Paz - Bolivia, related to Triatoma nigromaculata Stål, 1859. We present the description of Triatoma boliviana sp. n. based on morphological external characters of 3 males and 3 females following the keys of Lent and Wygodzinsky (1979) and Carcavallo et al. (1997). The new species are very similar to Triatoma nigromaculata and was captured in Sub Andean valleys from Muñecas Province, Department of La Pa...
The duration of intermolt, in nymphs of the fourth instar, of P. megistus, submitted to irradiation with Cobalt 60, 24 hs after the blood meal is studied. The insects were divided in four groups of 40 and were irradiated with doses of 10, 20, 40 and 80 Gray, respectively. (M.A.C.)
Carlos N Ibarra-Cerdeña
Full Text Available The niche conservatism hypothesis states that related species diverge in niche characteristics at lower rates than expected, given their lineage divergence. Here we analyze whether niche conservatism is a common pattern among vector species (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae of Trypanosoma cruzi that inhabit North and Central America, a highly heterogeneous landmass in terms of environmental gradients. Mitochondrial and nuclear loci were used in a multi-locus phylogenetic framework to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships among species and estimate time of divergence of selected clades to draw biogeographic inferences. Then, we estimated similarity between the ecological niche of sister species and tested the niche conservatism hypothesis using our best estimate of phylogeny. Triatoma is not monophyletic. A primary clade with all North and Central American (NCA triatomine species from the genera Triatoma, Dipetalogaster, and Panstrongylus, was consistently recovered. Nearctic species within the NCA clade (T. p. protracta, T. r. rubida diverged during the Pliocene, whereas the Neotropical species (T. phyllosoma, T. longipennis, T. dimidiata complex are estimated to have diverged more recently, during the Pleistocene. The hypothesis of niche conservatism could not be rejected for any of six sister species pairs. Niche similarity between sister species best fits a retention model. While this framework is used here to infer niche evolution, it has a direct impact on spatial vector dynamics driven by human population movements, expansion of transportation networks and climate change scenarios.
Wei Song Hwang
Full Text Available Assassin bugs are one of the most successful clades of predatory animals based on their species numbers (∼6,800 spp. and wide distribution in terrestrial ecosystems. Various novel prey capture strategies and remarkable prey specializations contribute to their appeal as a model to study evolutionary pathways involved in predation. Here, we reconstruct the most comprehensive reduviid phylogeny (178 taxa, 18 subfamilies to date based on molecular data (5 markers. This phylogeny tests current hypotheses on reduviid relationships emphasizing the polyphyletic Reduviinae and the blood-feeding, disease-vectoring Triatominae, and allows us, for the first time in assassin bugs, to reconstruct ancestral states of prey associations and microhabitats. Using a fossil-calibrated molecular tree, we estimated divergence times for key events in the evolutionary history of Reduviidae. Our results indicate that the polyphyletic Reduviinae fall into 11-14 separate clades. Triatominae are paraphyletic with respect to the reduviine genus Opisthacidius in the maximum likelihood analyses; this result is in contrast to prior hypotheses that found Triatominae to be monophyletic or polyphyletic and may be due to the more comprehensive taxon and character sampling in this study. The evolution of blood-feeding may thus have occurred once or twice independently among predatory assassin bugs. All prey specialists evolved from generalist ancestors, with multiple evolutionary origins of termite and ant specializations. A bark-associated life style on tree trunks is ancestral for most of the lineages of Higher Reduviidae; living on foliage has evolved at least six times independently. Reduviidae originated in the Middle Jurassic (178 Ma, but significant lineage diversification only began in the Late Cretaceous (97 Ma. The integration of molecular phylogenetics with fossil and life history data as presented in this paper provides insights into the evolutionary history of
Alzogaray, Raúl A
,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET) is a broad-spectrum insect repellent used by millions of people since the 1950s. Ethyl 3-[acetyl(butyl)amino]propanoate (IR3535) is a repellent developed more recently that is still not used as extensively. This study compares the behavioral and toxicological effects of both substances in fifth-instar nymphs of the blood-sucking bug Rhodnius prolixus Stål (Hemiptera: Reduviidae), one of the main vectors of American trypanosomiasis (Chagas disease). Repellency was quantified using filter paper discs as experimental arenas. Half the discs were treated with solution of repellent in acetone, and the other half with acetone alone. The lowest observed effect level was identical for both substances, 74 µg/cm2. Nymph age (between 1-3 h and 99 d from last ecdysis) had no influence on repellency. Topical application of 750 µg of DEET per nymph produced a mortality rate between 0% (24 h after application) and 40% (7 d later). The same dose of IR3535 produced no mortality during the same period of time. Simultaneous treatment with piperonylbutoxide (a mixed function microsomal oxidase inhibitor) synergized the lethal effect of DEET. Only DEET increased locomotor activity in nymphs exposed to a treated surface. Nymph antennectomy abolished DEET repellency but not its effect on locomotor activity. The concentrations of both these compounds required to produce either behavioral or toxicological effects are too high to have any practical applications in the control of R. prolixus. PMID:26637386
Full Text Available Assassin bugs (Reduviidae are voracious insects that prey on other arthropods. Recent evidences have pointed out that these predators also feed on plant derived substances in rare opportunities. The present study describes the feeding behavior of the reduviid Atopozelus opsimus on extrafloral nectaries of Inga vera (Fabaceae in a Neotropical savanna area. It was investigated if the insects feed more frequently of extrafloral nectar or prey, and if individuals of different stages of development vary according to feeding behavior. Notably, the results suggest that the diet of all instars and adults consist mainly of extrafloral nectar (N = 1013, in detriment of captured prey ingestion (N = 18. Also, there was no variation on feeding behavior and life stage.
Full Text Available Mepraia spinolai is an endemic species in Chile that lives in wild and domestic habitats. It is the only species of the Reduviidae family that shows alate polymorphism; females are always wingless, but males can be found with and without wings. The M. spinolai karyotype consists of 10 pairs of autosomes and a complex sex determination system. Males from the northernmost regions I and II (latitude 18°-26° South are always winged (braquipterous and are X1X2Y, with a large Y chromosome. From region III to the metropolitan region (latitude 26°-33° South, males may be either winged or wingless but appear to be polymorphic for a small neo-Y chromosome, which may have originated by fracture of the large holocentric Y chromosome found in populations from farther north. Experimental crosses suggest that the genes for wings are linked in the Y chromosome and also that there are two cytologically indistinguishable types of neo-Y chromosomes. One form (Y1 bears a gene or genes for wings while the other (Y2 lacks such genes. Males that are X1X2Y1, X1X2Y1Y1 and X1X2Y1Y2 are winged, while the absence of Y1 (X1X2Y2 and X1X2Y2Y2 results in a wingless male. These chromosomes and morphological changes are correlated with a shift of the southern population into more arid habitats of the interior in the metropolitan region and region III.
Forthman, Michael; Weirauch, Christiane
For at least the past 80my, Madagascar, a major biodiversity hotspot, has been isolated from all other landmasses. This long-term isolation, along with geologic and climatic factors within Madagascar and throughout the Indian Ocean, has undoubtedly influenced the evolution of the island's biota. However, few systematic analyses incorporating modern divergence dating and biogeographic analyses have focused on Madagascan insects. The diverse Madagascan millipede assassin bugs (Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Ectrichodiinae) offer an opportunity to contribute to a limited body of insect-related research that explores Madagascar's historical biogeography. A molecular dataset (COI mtDNA and 18S, 28S D2 and D3-D5 rDNAs) for 56 taxa (39 ingroup) and a combined morphological (145 characters) and molecular dataset for 110 taxa (93 ingroup) are analyzed with maximum likelihood (ML) and parsimony approaches. Based on the molecular ML phylogeny, divergence times were estimated using fossil and secondary calibrations and biogeographic analyses performed using DIVA, DEC, and DEC+j models to determine the role and patterns of vicariance and dispersal in the origin of Madagascan Ectrichodiinae. Results indicate that Ectrichodiinae in Madagascar do not form a monophyletic group, different clades are closely related to Afrotropical and Oriental lineages, and have colonized the island via transoceanic dispersal at least twice from the Oriental region and once from the Afrotropical region in the last ∼68my. Additionally, the DEC+j and DIVA models infer a single out-of-Madagascar dispersal event to the Afrotropical region. Oceanic and geologic factors that may have facilitated dispersal between these three regions are discussed. Results of the combined analyses are used to explore character support for Madagascan taxa and inform taxonomic diagnoses. Our results are congruent with the small but growing body of biogeographic research supporting Cenozoic transoceanic dispersal for Madagascan
Fauna Triatominae do Estado de Bahia, Brasil.V - Microtriatoma pratai sp. n. Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae, Bolboderini Triatomidae fauna of the State of Bahia, Brazil. V - Microtriatoma pratai sp. n. - Hemiptera,Reduviidae, Triatominae, Bolderini
Ítalo A. Sherlock; Neide Guitton
Microtriatoma pratai sp. n. de Hemíptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae, Bolboderini, é descrita no presente trabalho com base em um exemplar coletado em domicílio da cidade do Salvador, Estado da Bahia, Brasil. A espécie se distingue facilmente das outras conhecidas do gênero, principalmente por apresentar asas sem manchas e conexivo com largas manchas claras e escuras alternadas.Microtriatoma pratai n. sp. (Hemíptera, reduviidae, Triatominae, Bolboderini) is described from a single specimen colle...
Laura E. Fichera
Full Text Available This study reports the embryogenesis of T. infestans (Hemiptera, Reduviidae. Morphological parameters of growth sequences from oviposition until hatching (12-14 d 28ºC were established. Five periods, as percent of time of development (TD, were characterized from oviposition until hatching. The most important morphological features were: 1 formation of blastoderm within 7% of TD; 2 germ band and gastrulation within 30% of TD; 3 nerve cord, limb budding, thoracic and abdominal segmentation and formation of body cavity within 50% of TD; 4 nervous system and blastokinesis end, and development of embryonic cuticle within 65% of TD; 5 differentiation of the mouth parts, fat body, and Malphigian tubules during final stage and completion of embryo at day 12 to day 14 around hatching. These signals were chosen as appropriate morphological parameters which should enable the evaluation of embryologic modifications due to the action/s of different insecticidesEn este estudio se caracterizó el desarrollo embrionario del T. infestans (Hemiptera Reduviidae. Se establecieron parámetros morfológicos secuenciales de crecimiento desde la oviposición hasta la eclosión, (12-14 d 28ºC. Cinco períodos de crecimiento fueron determinados y expresados como fracciones porcentuales del tiempo total del desarrollo (TD hasta la eclosión. Los eventos morfológicos mas importantes fueron: 1 La formación del blastodermo hasta el 7% del TD; 2 La aparición de la banda germinativa y su gastrulación transcurridos un 30% del TD; 3 El comienzo de la formación del cordón nervioso, de las extremidades, la segmentación torácica y abdominal y la formación del mixocele cuando la embriogénesis alcanzó el 50% del TD; 4 La terminación de la blastoquinesis, el desarrollo completo del sistema nervioso y la aparición de la cutícula embrionaria hasta el 65% del TD; 5 En la etapa final de la embriogenesis se observó la diferenciación del aparato mandibular, el cuerpo graso
Garcia Simone L
Full Text Available Thermal shocks induce changes in the nuclear phenotypes that correspond to survival (heterochromatin decondensation, nuclear fusion or death (apoptosis, necrosis responses in the Malpighian tubules of Panstrongylus megistus. Since thermal tolerance increased survival and molting rate in this species following sequential shocks, we investigated whether changes in nuclear phenotypes accompanied the insect survival response to sequential thermal shocks. Fifth instar nymphs were subjected to a single heat (35 or 40°C, 1 h or cold (5 or 0°C, 1 h shock and then subjected to a second shock for 12 h at 40 or 0°C, respectively, after 8, 18, 24 and 72 h at 28°C (control temperature. As with specimen survival, sequential heat and cold shocks induced changes in frequency of the mentioned nuclear phenotypes although their patterns differed. The heat shock tolerance involved decrease in apoptosis simultaneous to increase in cell survival responses. Sequential cold shocks did not involve cell/nuclear fusion and even elicited increase in necrosis with advancing time after shocks. The temperatures of 40 and 0ºC were more effective than the temperatures of 35 and 5ºC in eliciting the heat and cold shock tolerances, respectively, as shown by cytological analysis of the nuclear phenotypes. It is concluded that different sequential thermal shocks can trigger different mechanisms of cellular protection against stress in P. megistus, favoring the insect to adapt to various ecotopes.
Garcia Simone L; Pacheco Raquel M; Rodrigues Vera LCC; Mello Maria Luiza S.
Thermal shocks induce changes in the nuclear phenotypes that correspond to survival (heterochromatin decondensation, nuclear fusion) or death (apoptosis, necrosis) responses in the Malpighian tubules of Panstrongylus megistus. Since thermal tolerance increased survival and molting rate in this species following sequential shocks, we investigated whether changes in nuclear phenotypes accompanied the insect survival response to sequential thermal shocks. Fifth instar nymphs were subjected to a ...
Fauna Triatominae do Estado de Bahia, Brasil.V - Microtriatoma pratai sp. n. Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae, Bolboderini Triatomidae fauna of the State of Bahia, Brazil. V - Microtriatoma pratai sp. n. - Hemiptera,Reduviidae, Triatominae, Bolderini
Ítalo A. Sherlock
Full Text Available Microtriatoma pratai sp. n. de Hemíptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae, Bolboderini, é descrita no presente trabalho com base em um exemplar coletado em domicílio da cidade do Salvador, Estado da Bahia, Brasil. A espécie se distingue facilmente das outras conhecidas do gênero, principalmente por apresentar asas sem manchas e conexivo com largas manchas claras e escuras alternadas.Microtriatoma pratai n. sp. (Hemíptera, reduviidae, Triatominae, Bolboderini is described from a single specimen collected inside a house in the city of Salvador, State of Bahia, Brazil. This species is easily distinguished from the others belonging to the genus principally by the existence of alternating broad light and dark coloured spots on the connexivum and the absence of spots on the hemelytra.
Scaraffia, P Y; Maldonado, C; Aoki, A; De Burgos, N M
Activities of hexokinase (HK), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), fructose-6-phosphate kinase (F6PK), glutamate dehydrogenase (GlutDH), aspartate aminotransferase (AAT), malate dehydrogenase (MDH) and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) were determined in tissue extracts of testes and ovaries of adult Dipetalogaster maximus (Uhler) and Triatoma infestans (Klug) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae), insect vectors of Chagas disease. The fine structure organization of the same organs were studied by electron microscopy. Results allow the following inferences: in testes from both species, most of the glucose would be utilized through the glycolytic pathway. Amino acid catabolism for energy purposes appears to be unimportant. The number of mitochondria and the development of the rough endoplasmic reticulum in cells of the spermatogenic line indicate the occurrence of active oxidative metabolism and protein synthesis; in ovaries, levels of G6PDH indicate the existence of an active pentose pathway which would supply the NADPH required for fat and ecdysteroid synthesis. Amino acid catabolism appears to be relatively more important in ovary than in testis. Fat and glycogen are stored in follicular cells of D. maximus; oocytes of both species contain numerous fat droplets. Abundant mitocondria are present in follicular cells and oocytes. A well developed rough endoplasmic reticulum and free ribosomes are also conspicuous in these cells. The malate/aspartate H-transfer system seemed to be relatively more important than the glycerophosphate shuttle in ovaries as well in testes. PMID:11759815
Full Text Available Activities of hexokinase (HK, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH, fructose-6-phosphate kinase (F6PK, glutamate dehydrogenase (GlutDH, aspartate aminotransferase (AAT, malate dehydrogenase (MDH and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH were determined in tissue extracts of testes and ovaries of adult Dipetalogaster maximus (Uhler and Triatoma infestans (Klug (Hemiptera: Reduviidae, insect vectors of Chagas disease. The fine structure organization of the same organs were studied by electron microscopy. Results allow the following inferences: in testes from both species, most of the glucose would be utilized through the glycolytic pathway. Amino acid catabolism for energy purposes appears to be unimportant. The number of mitochondria and the development of the rough endoplasmic reticulum in cells of the spermatogenic line indicate the occurrence of active oxidative metabolism and protein synthesis; in ovaries, levels of G6PDH indicate the existence of an active pentose pathway which would supply the NADPH required for fat and ecdysteroid synthesis. Amino acid catabolism appears to be relatively more important in ovary than in testis. Fat and glycogen are stored in follicular cells of D. maximus; oocytes of both species contain numerous fat droplets. Abundant mitocondria are present in follicular cells and oocytes. A well developed rough endoplasmic reticulum and free ribosomes are also conspicuous in these cells. The malate/aspartate H-transfer system seemed to be relatively more important than the glycerophosphate shuttle in ovaries as well in testes.
Miridae, Reduviidae and Lygaeoidea (Hemiptera collected in Colonia Carlos Pellegrini (Iberá watershed, Corrientes, Argentina Reduviidae, Miridae y Lygaeoidea (Hemiptera recolectados en Colonia Carlos Pellegrini (Esteros de Iberá, Corrientes, Argentina
María C. Melo
Full Text Available With the intention of contributing to the knowledge of the biodiversity in the protected areas of Argentina, terrestrial Heteroptera were collected in the Natural Reserve of the Iberá. The sampling site was the locality of Colonia Carlos Pellegrini (28° 32'S 57° 09'W and the following collection methods were used: sweeping, beating, fogging and light-trapping. A list is presented, with 90 species belonging to the superfamilies Reduvioidea (Reduviidae, Mirioidea (Miridae, and Lygaeoidea (Berytidae, Colobathristidae, Cymidae, Lygaeidae, Blissidae, Geocoridae, Pachygrontidae and Rhyparochromidae, 13 of them are new records for the Argentine Republic (Debilia fusciventris, Sindala granuligera, Pnirontis (Centromelus tabida, Cymoninus notabilis, Ochrimnus (Phaeochrimnus limbatipennis, Oncopeltus luctuosus, Ischnodemus gayi, Oedancala nana, Cistalia signoretii, Paracholula picta, Cholula lympha, Cholula maculatus, Pseudopachybrachius vinctus and 36 new records for the province of Corrientes.Con el objeto de contribuir al conocimiento de la biodiversidad en las áreas protegidas de la Argentina, se realizaron recoleccciones de Heteroptera terrestres en la Reserva Natural del Iberá. El sitio de muestreo fue la localidad de Colonia Carlos Pellegrini (28° 32'S 57°09'W y se utilizaron los siguientes métodos de recoleccion: rastreo, golpeteo, fogging y trampa de luz. Se presenta una lista con 90 especies pertenecientes a las superfamilias Reduvioidea (Reduviidae, Mirioidea (Miridae y Lygaeoidea (Berytidae, Colobathristidae, Cymidae, Lygaeidae, Blissidae, Geocoridae, Pachygrontidae y Rhyparochromidae, de las cuales 13 representan primeras citas para la República Argentina (Debilia fusciventris, Sindala granuligera, Pnirontis (Centromelus tabida, Cymoninus notabilis, Ochrimnus (Phaeochrimnus limbatipennis , Oncopeltus luctuosus , Ischnodemus gayi , Oedancala nana , Cistalia signoretii, Paracholula picta, Cholula lympha, Cholula maculatus
Detección de triatominos (Hemiptera: Reduviidae en ambientes domésticos y extradomésticos. Corrientes, Argentina Detection of triatomines (Hemiptera: Reduviidae in domiciliary and extra-domiciliary ecotopes. Corrientes, Argentina
Miryam Pieri Damborsky
Full Text Available Esta investigación tiene como objetivo identificar los triatominos que predominan en ambientes domésticos y extradomésticos de diferentes departamentos de la Provincia de Corrientes mediante muestreos llevados a cabo desde 1985 hasta 1995. En los ecótopos domiciliarios se detectaron Triatoma infestans (Klug, 1834, Triatoma sordida (Stål, 1859, Panstrongylus geniculatus (Latreille, 1811 y Panstrongylus megistus (Burmeister, 1835. T. infestans y T. sordida se hallaron también en ambientes peridomésticos. Triatoma platensis (Neiva, 1913, Psammolestes coreodes (Bergroth, 1911, T. sordida y Triatoma rubrovaria (Blanchard, 1843 se colectaron en biótopos silvestres. En los domicilios, se confirmó el predominio de T. infestans. Esta especie fue la única parasitada por tripanosomas cruziformes. Si bien T. sordida fue más frecuente en los ecótopos extradomésticos, se demostró su tendencia a colonizar los ambientes domésticos.In order to identify intra- and extra-domiciliary triatomines, a study in different counties of Corrientes Province, Argentina, was conducted from 1985 to 1995. Triatoma infestans (Klug, 1834, Triatoma sordida (Stål, 1859, Panstrongylus geniculatus (Latreille, 1811, and Panstrongylus megistus (Burmeister, 1835 were detected in domestic ecotopes. T. infestans and T. sordida were also found in the peridomicile. Triatoma platensis (Neiva, 1913, Psammolestes coreodes (Bergroth, 1911, T. sordida, and Triatoma rubrovaria (Blanchard, 1843 were collected in sylvatic biotopes. T. infestans was confirmed as the predominant species in the domestic environment and was the only species infected with Trypanosoma cruzi-like parasites. T. sordida was most frequent in extra-domiciliary ecotopes, but could be considered capable of colonizing human dwellings.
Full Text Available Geographical Distribution and Alti-latitudinal Dispersion of Some Genera and Species of the Tribe Triatomini Jeannel, 1919 (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae - With the currently known distribution of genera and species of the tribe Triatomini Jeannel, 1919, maps and diagrams were prepared, showing the geographical area occupied by the species and their respective dispersion in grades of latitude and altitude. Two genera are not treated: Panstrongylus Berg, 1879, already published and Triatoma Laporte, 1832, that is being published partially in several articles. Genus Eratyrus Stal, 1859, has two species, while Dipetalogaster Usinger, 1939, Mepraia Mazza, Gajardo & Joerg, 1940, Paratriatoma Barber, 1938 and recently created genus Hermanlentia Jurberg & Galvão, 1997, have only one each. The study of these maps and diagrams permits a better knowledge about some ecological requirements of Chagas' disease vectors and detects gaps in the geographical distribution, where the species were not found but probably they could be prevalent
Full Text Available In the present work, we analysed the male meiosis, the content and distribution of heterochromatin and the number and location of nucleolus organizing regions in Microtomus lunifer (Berg, 1900 by means of standard technique, C- and fluorescent bandings, and fluorescent in situ hybridization with an 18S rDNA probe. This species is the second one cytogenetically analysed within the Hammacerinae. Its male diploid chromosome number is 31 (2n=28+X1X2Y, including a minute pair of m-chromosomes. The diploid autosomal number and the presence of m-chromosomes are similar to those reported in M. conspicillaris (Drury, 1782 (2n=28+XY. However, M. lunifer has a multiple sex chromosome system X1X2Y (male that could have originated by fragmentation of the ancestral X chromosome. Taking into account that M. conspicillaris and M. lunifer are the only two species within Reduviidae that possess m-chromosomes, the presence of this pair could be a synapomorphy for the species of this genus. C- and fluorescent bandings showed that the amount of heterochromatin in M. lunifer was small, and only a small CMA3 bright band was observed in the largest autosomal pair at one terminal region. FISH with the 18S rDNA probe demonstrated that ribosomal genes were terminally placed on the largest autosomal pair. Our present results led us to propose that the location of rDNA genes could be associated with variants of the sex chromosome systems in relation with a kind of the sex chromosome systems within this family. Furthermore, the terminal location of NOR in the largest autosomal pair allowed us to use it as a chromosome marker and, thus, to infer that the kinetic activity of both ends is not a random process, and there is an inversion of this activity.
Hélcio R. Gil-Santana
Full Text Available Uma sinopse da taxonomia dos Chryxinae com chaves para os gêneros e espécies da subfamília são apresentados. Chryxus bahianus sp. nov. e o macho de Wygodzinskyella travassosi (Lent & Wygodzinsky, 1944 são descritos.Synopsis of the Chryxinae with keys to the genera and species of the subfamily are presented. Chryxus bahianus sp. nov. and the male of Wygodzinskyella travassosi (Lent & Wygodzinsky, 1944 are described.
Margherita Anna Barracco
Full Text Available Five hemocyte types were identified in the hemolymph of Panstrongylus megistus by phase contrast and common light microscopy using some histochemical methods. These are: Prohemocytes, small cells presenting a great nucleus/cytoplasm ratio; Plasmatocytes, the most numerous hemocytes, are polymorphic cells mainly characterized by a large amount of lysosomes; Granulocytes, hemocytes very similar to plasmatocytes which contain cytoplasmic granules and are especially rich in polysaccharides; Oenocytoids, cells presenting a small nucleus and a thick cytoplasm; they show many small round vacuoles when observed in Giemsa smears and many cytoplasmic granules under phase microscopy; Adipohemocytes, very large hemocytes, presenting many fat droplet inclusions which could correspond to free fat bodies which entered the hemolymph. Only prohemocytes and plasmatocytes can be clearly classified; all the other hemocyte types have a more ambiguous classification.Cinco tipos de hemócitos foram identificados na hemolinfa de Panstrongylus megistus através da microscopia de constraste de fase e de luz, usando alguns testes histoquímicos: Pró-hemócitos-células pequenas que mostram uma grande relação núcleocitoplasmática; Plasmotócitos-células polimporficas, que se caracterizam principalmente pela sua grande abundância em lisossomos - são os hemócitos mais numerosos; Granulócitos-células muito semelhantes aos plasmatócitos que contêm grânulos citoplasmáticos particularmente ricos em polissacarídeos; Enocitóides-hemócitos que apresentam um núcleo pequeno e cujo citoplasma basofílico revela-se muito denso e homogênio - mostram uma série de pequenos vacúolos esféricos quando observados nos esfregaços corados pelo Giemsa, mas a microscopia de fase revela uma grande quantidade de pequenos grânulo ao invés de vacúolos; Adipo-hemócitos-hemócitos muito grandes que contêm uma grande quantidade de inclusões lípicas - poderiam corresponder a células do corpo gorduroso que, destacando-se, penetram na hemolinfa. Somente os p´r-hemócitos e os plasmatócitos podem ser classificados com precisão; os outros tipos podem gerar ambiguidade de classificação.
Resumo. Mecistogaster é um gênero da Família Pseudostigmatidae, restrito ao Novo Mundo e pobremente estudado devido sua preferência por clareiras e trilhas dentro de matas. No Brasil, apenas uma espécie é conhecida, Mecistogaster amalia (Burmeister. A distribuição de M. amalia se estende do sudeste do Brasil (nos estados do Rio de Janeiro e São Paulo até a Argentina. Aqui, reportamos pela primeira vez M. amalia para o estado do Rio Grande do Sul State, Sul do Brasil. O presente estudo amplia o registro de ocorrência da espécie em 630 km, a partir do registro anterior na Floresta Paranaense, na Província de Missiones, Argentina.
Full Text Available Rhdnius stali n. sp. was described based on specimens deposited in the Herman Lent Collection of Entomological Collection of Oswaldo Cruz Institute, until now identified as Rhodnius pictipes Stal, 1872 and compared with specimens of R. pictipes proceeding from state of Amazonas and Pará, Brazil. R. stali is related to R. pictipes though distinguished by the total length, 15 to 17 mm male and 16,5 to 19 mm female, the anteocular region 2,5 times larger than postocular region and by the shape of phallic strictures known as: phallosoma, struts, gonopore process and endosoma process.
Full Text Available Os autores descreveram as características morfológicas de Triatoma klugi Carcavallo, Jurberg, Lent & Galvão, 2001 pertencente ao grupo de espécies que compõem o "complexo T. oliveirai". Até o presente tem sido difícil separar essas espécies com base nas características ninfais, o que justifica o desenvolvimento deste trabalho. Os espécimes foram coletados em frestas de rochas no morro Malavok na localidade de Linha Brasil, município de Nova Petrópolis, no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. O local de captura dos triatomíneos situa-se entre 700 e 800 m de altitude (29º18'38''S, 51º04'57''W. Juntamente com T. oliveirai (Neiva, Pinto & Lent, 1939, espécie morfologicamente mais próxima, são as únicas do complexo que não foram encontradas, até o momento, no Estado do Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul e Goiás, Brasil. Em condições experimentais, já foi testada e comprovada a sua susceptibilidade à infecção pelo Trypanosoma cruzi (Chagas, 1909 e Trypanosoma rangeli (Tejera, 1920. A análise comparativa das ornamentações do exocório dos ovos e de três estádios ninfais de T. klugi por microscopia óptica e microscopia eletrônica de varredura mostrou algumas particularidades morfológicas, com destaque para: a face ventral da cabeça, o sulco estridulatório e os últimos segmentos abdominais (IX, X - futura genitália e XI - tubo anal. Esses dados contribuem para a ampliação dos parâmetros diferenciais visando à diagnose de T. klugi durante o seu desenvolvimento ninfal.The authors had described the morphologic characteristics of Triatoma klugi Carcavallo, Jurberg, Lent & Galvão, 2001 to the group of species belonging to "T. oliveirai complex". Until the moment it has been difficult to separate on the nymphs characteristics basis these species, what it justifies the development of this work. The specimens had been collected in openings of rocks in the Malavok mount in the locality of Linha Brazil, city of Nova Petrópolis, in the State of Rio Grande do Sul. The local of capture of the Triatominae is placed enters 700 and 800 m of altitud (29º18'38''S, 51º04'57''W. Together with T. oliveirai (Neiva, Pinto & Lent, 1939, its morphologically related species, is the only ones of the complex that had not been found, until the moment, in the State of Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul and Goiás, Brazil. In experimental conditions, already it was tested and proven its susceptibilities to the infection for Trypanosoma cruzi (Chagas, 1909 and Trypanosoma rangeli (Tejera, 1920. The comparative analysis of the ornaments of the exocorium of eggs and of three nymphs of T. klugi by optic microscopy and scanning electron microscopy showed some morphologic particularities, with prominence for: the ventral face of the head, the stridulatory sulcus and the last abdominal segments (IX, X - future genitalia and XI - anal duct. These data contribute for the magnifying of the distinguishing parameters aiming at diagnosis of T. klugi during its nymphal development.
Carolina Magalhães dos Santos
Full Text Available The subfamily Triatominae is actually represented by 137 species distributed among 6 tribes and 19 genera. Within this subfamily, the genus Panstrongylus, Berg 1879, is composed by 13 species widespread in sylvatic, peridomestic, and domestic habitats of Neotropical regions. These species are vectors of Chagas disease and consequently are found associated with its main hosts, such as birds and mammals. Interest in species of this genus has been increasing in the last few years. Reports of several authors indicate these Triatominae to invade and colonize houses, increasing their epidemiological significance. Morphometry was used in this study to investigate correlations among possible closely related species. We measured 224 specimens among 13 species through a set of metric variables of the head. The results indicated that the genus Panstrongylus seems to be homogeneous since 10 of the 14 species were shown to be closely related.
DİK, Bilal; HALAJIAN, Ali; Turner, Martin
The aim of this investigation was the morphological study of Craspedorrhynchus platystomus (Burmeister, 1838) by light microscope as well as by scanning electron microscope. The lice specimens were collected from long-legged buzzards, Buteo rufinus (Cretzschmar) (Accipitridae), in Turkey.
Janine M Ramsey
Full Text Available Chagas disease is one of the most important yet neglected parasitic diseases in Mexico and is transmitted by Triatominae. Nineteen of the 31 Mexican triatomine species have been consistently found to invade human houses and all have been found to be naturally infected with Trypanosoma cruzi. The present paper aims to produce a state-of-knowledge atlas of Mexican triatomines and analyse their geographic associations with T. cruzi, human demographics and landscape modification. Ecological niche models (ENMs were constructed for the 19 species with more than 10 records in North America, as well as for T. cruzi. The 2010 Mexican national census and the 2007 National Forestry Inventory were used to analyse overlap patterns with ENMs. Niche breadth was greatest in species from the semiarid Nearctic Region, whereas species richness was associated with topographic heterogeneity in the Neotropical Region, particularly along the Pacific Coast. Three species, Triatoma longipennis, Triatoma mexicana and Triatoma barberi, overlapped with the greatest numbers of human communities, but these communities had the lowest rural/urban population ratios. Triatomine vectors have urbanised in most regions, demonstrating a high tolerance to human-modified habitats and broadened historical ranges, exposing more than 88% of the Mexican population and leaving few areas in Mexico without the potential for T. cruzi transmission.
Silvana GP Campos
Full Text Available The nuclear phenotypes of Malpighian tubule cells in fifth instar nymphs of Triatoma infestans, one of the most important vectors of Chagas disease, were studied following sequential shocks at 0ºC, separated by intervals of 8 h and 24 h at 30ºC, under conditions of moderate fasting and full nourishment. The insects pertained to colonies reared in the laboratory and originated from domestic specimens collected in the Brazilian states of São Paulo (north and Minas Gerais (south. Since nuclear phenotypes in this species are affected by single cold shocks, it was expected that these phenotypes could also be changed by sequential shocks. Nuclear phenotypes indicative of mechanisms of cell survival (nuclear fusion and heterochromatin decondensation and cell death (apoptosis and necrosis were observed concomitantly in all the conditions tested. Nuclear fusion and heterochromatin decondensation were not found relevant for the presumed acquisition of the cold-hardening response in T. infestans. The decreased frequency of apoptosis and necrosis following sequential cold shocks including under fasting conditions, indicated that tolerance to sequential cold shocks occurred in T. infestans of the mentioned origin.
Campos Silvana GP; Rodrigues Vera Lúcia CC; Mello Maria Luiza S
The nuclear phenotypes of Malpighian tubule cells in fifth instar nymphs of Triatoma infestans, one of the most important vectors of Chagas disease, were studied following sequential shocks at 0ºC, separated by intervals of 8 h and 24 h at 30ºC, under conditions of moderate fasting and full nourishment. The insects pertained to colonies reared in the laboratory and originated from domestic specimens collected in the Brazilian states of São Paulo (north) and Minas Gerais (south). Since nuclear...
Full Text Available Assembling behaviour associated with mating was investigated in Triatoma infestans. The spatial distribution of both sexes was observed by video films, in the presence or absence of a copulating pair. Males aggregated around copulating pairs. Females did not exhibit this behaviour and their mean spatial density remained unaffected. Spontaneous aggregation tendency was observed in males in the absence of a copulating pair, but the temporal course significantly differed from that observed in the presence of a mating pair. Results support the existence of an aggregation signal that is released during mating, affecting the behaviour of males.
Full Text Available Sete espécies da tribo bolboderini, pertencentes aos gêneros Bolbodera, Belminus, Microtriatoma e Parabelminus, duas das quais já encontradas naturalmente infectadas com Trypanosoma cruzi, foram analisadas e comparadas tendo como enfoque oito estruturas da genitália externa dos machos: Processo mediano do pigóforo (PrP, Processo da conjuntiva (PrCj, Extensão mediana da placa basal (EPIb, Processo do endosoma (PrEn, Suporte do falosoma (SPh, Falosoma (Ph, Processo do gonoporo (PrG e a Vesica (V. Microtriatoma trinidadensis (lent, 1951 e M. borbai Lent & Wygodzinsky, 1979 mostraram um plano estrutural morfológico semelhante a Parabelminus yurupucu Lent & Wygodzinsky, 1979 e P. carioca Lent, 1943 e deferindo nitidamente de Belminus peruvianus Herrer, Lent & Wygodzinsky, 1954 e B. herreri Lent & Wygodzinsky, 1979 e de Bolbodera scabrosa, Valdés, 1910, não só pela ausência como pela forma de determinadas estruturas. Estas observações comparativas confirmam as afinidades entre Microtriatoma e Parabelminus e suas relações com belminus e Bolbodera.Seven species of the Bolboderini tribe belonging to the genera bolbodera, Belminus, Microtriatoma and Parabelminus, two of them found naturally infected with Trypanosoma cruzi, were analysed and compared emphasizing eight structures of the male external genitalia: median process of pygophore (PrP, conjunctiva process (PrCj, pedicel (EP1b, endosoma process (PrEn, struts (SPh, phallosoma (Ph, medium bridge (PrG and vesica (V. Microtriatoma trinidadensis (Lent, 1951 and M. borbai Lent & Wygodzinsky, 1979 have shown a structural morphological aspect similar to Parabelminus yurupucu Lent & Wygodzinsky, 1979 and P. carioca Lent, 1943 differing clearly from Belminus peruvianus Herrer, Lent & Wygodzinsky, 1954, B. herreri Lent & Wygodzinsky, 1979 and Bolbodera scabrosa valdés, 1910, not only by the absence but by the shape of some structures. These comparative observations confirm the affinity between Microtriatoma and Parabelminus and their relations with Belminus and Bolbodera.
Maicon Hitoshi Maeda
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Entomological surveillance of Chagas disease in the Federal District of Brazil (DF, has recorded the following triatomine species: Panstrongylus megistus, P. geniculatus, P. diasi, Rhodnius neglectus, Triatoma pseudomaculata, and T. sordida. We aimed to analyze the spatial and temporal occurrence of triatomine species collected in DF, and their indices of natural infection with trypanosomes. METHODS: The Health State Secretariat of DF recorded triatomines between 2002 and 2010 in 20 administrative regions. This retrospective analysis considered the number of adults and nymphs of each species collected and infected in both intradomicile and peridomicile. RESULTS: A total of 754 triatomines were collected in 252 reported domiciles. Panstrongylus megistus was the most frequent species (65%, followed by T. pseudomaculata (14%. Of the 309 examined insects, only 3 (1% specimens of P. megistus were infected with flagellates morphologically similar to Trypanosoma cruzi. The spatial occurrence indicated a higher diversity of triatomines and frequency of T. sordida in rural areas. Moreover, there was a predominance of P. megistus in urban areas. The number of records of P. megistus in the rainy season was two times higher than that during the dry season. The largest number of triatomines was collected in November. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of P. megistus specimens infected with trypanosomes in domiciles, shows the potential risk of human infection in DF. Thus, it is essential to continue entomological surveillance, intensifying it in the rainy season and in regions of greater occurrence.
Full Text Available Se propone para R. prolixus un mecanismo antidiurético, cuya actividad se pone de manifiesto una vez transcurrido el periodo diurético y se mantiene hasta que el insecto es alimentado nuevamente. Presumiblemente este mecanismo actua a nivel del esfinter rectal proximal y es inhibido por la ingesta, distención mecanica del buche y desinhibición central por decapitación. Se sugiere que la actividad antidiurética es mantenida por vía nerviosa y se modifica cuando hay distensión del buche o canudo es interrumpida la senãl nerviosa por decapitación. Se pone de manifiesto que la excreción de orina en R. prolixus no es controlada exclusivamente por la hormona diurética, sino que factores no ligados a la hemolinfa mantienen en estado diurético y no diurético a los insectos.An antidiuretic mechanism is proposed for Rhodnius prolixus, whose activity is manifested when the diuretic phase has terminated and is maintained until the insect has fed again. Presumably this mechanism acts at the level of the proximal rectal sphincter and is inhibited by ingestion, mechanical distension of the gut and central desinhibition by decapitation. It is suggested that the antidiuretic activity is maintained by the nervous system and is modified when there is distention of the gut or when the nervous signal is interrupted by decapitacion. It is demonstrated that the excretion of urine in R. prolixus is not controlled exclusively by the diuretic hormone, but rather that factors not linked to the haemolvmph maintain the insects in a diuretic or nondiuretic state.
Ceballos, L. A.; Piccinali, R. V.; BERKUNSKY, I.; Kitron, U.; Gürtler, R. E.
Triatoma infestans (Klug), the most important vector of Chagas disease in southern South America, is a highly domiciliated species with well-known sylvatic foci only in the Bolivian Andean valleys and in the Bolivian Chaco, where melanic insects designated as “dark morphs” were found. After the tentative identification of two melanic bugs collected from parrot nests in a forest reserve in the Argentine Chaco as T. infestans, we conducted an intensive search there using mouse-baited sticky tra...
Filipe Martins Santos
Full Text Available ABSTRACTINTRODUCTION: The transmission cycle of Trypanosoma cruzi in the Brazilian Pantanal region has been studied during the last decade. Although considerable knowledge is available regarding the mammalian hosts infected by T. cruzi in this wetland, no studies have investigated its vectors in this region. This study aimed to investigate the presence of sylvatic triatomine species in different habitats of the Brazilian Pantanal region and to correlate their presence with the occurrences of vertebrate hosts and T. cruzi infection.METHODS: The fieldwork involved passive search by using light traps and Noireau traps and active search by visual inspection. The light traps were placed at five selected points along forested areas for seven nights during each of the nine excursions. At each point where a light trap was set, eight Noireau traps were placed in palm trees and bromeliads.RESULTS: In all, 88 triatomine bugs were collected: two and one individuals from light traps and Noireau traps, respectively; three from peridomestic areas; 23 in coati nests; and 59 in thornbird nests. In this study, active search in microhabitats showed higher efficiency than passive search, since 95% of the triatomine bugs were caught in nests. Further, triatomine bugs were only found to be infected by T. cruzi in coati nests.CONCLUSIONS: Coati nests might act as a point of convergence and dispersion for triatomine bugs and mammal hosts infected by T. cruzi, thereby playing an important role in the sylvatic cycle of T. cruziin the Pantanal region.
Full Text Available Triatoma infestans (Klug is the main vector of Chagas disease, which is a public health concern in most Latin American countries. The prevention of Chagas disease is based on the chemical control of the vector using pyrethroid insecticides. In the last decade, different levels of deltamethrin resistance have been detected in certain areas of Argentina and Bolivia. Because of this, alternative non-pyrethroid insecticides from different chemical groups were evaluated against two T. infestans populations, NFS and El Malá, with the objective of finding new insecticides to control resistant insect populations. Toxicity to different insecticides was evaluated in a deltamethrin-susceptible and a deltamethrin-resistant population. Topical application of the insecticides fenitrothion and imidacloprid to first nymphs had lethal effects on both populations, producing 50% lethal dose (LD50 values that ranged from 5.2-28 ng/insect. However, amitraz, flubendiamide, ivermectin, indoxacarb and spinosad showed no insecticidal activity in first instars at the applied doses (LD50 > 200 ng/insect. Fenitrothion and imidacloprid were effective against both deltamethrin-susceptible and deltamethrin-resistant populations of T. infestans. Therefore, they may be considered alternative non-pyrethroid insecticides for the control of Chagas disease.
Guillermo Carvajal; Gastón Mougabure-Cueto; Ariel Ceferino Toloza
Triatoma infestans (Klug) is the main vector of Chagas disease, which is a public health concern in most Latin American countries. The prevention of Chagas disease is based on the chemical control of the vector using pyrethroid insecticides. In the last decade, different levels of deltamethrin resistance have been detected in certain areas of Argentina and Bolivia. Because of this, alternative non-pyrethroid insecticides from different chemical groups were evaluated against two T. infestans p...
Grasielle Caldas DÁvila Pessoa
Full Text Available Abstract:INTRODUCTION:Despite the recommendations by interpretation of resistance ratios obtained in laboratory bioassays, little is known about the actual impact of these results in the effectiveness of vector control activities in the field. In this context, our objective was to determine the mean value of different resistance ratios obtained by laboratory bioassays performed as part of the chemical control strategies of Triatoma sordida in the field.METHODS:Field bioassays were developed in Monte Azul and Coração de Jesus (Southeast, Brazil. In each location, samples were formed with three domestic units treated with alpha-cypermethrin 20.0% (Alfatek (r 200 SC. One day after spraying, 10 fifth-instar nymphs remained in contact with the surfaces treated (adobe with plaster, adobe without plaster, or wood with insecticide in plastic cones for 72h. Three cones were exposed inside the intradomicile and the peridomicile. The insects in the control group were exposed to an insecticide-free piece of cardboard. Mortality was measured 72h after removal of the insects from the treated surfaces. The tests were realized in triplicate.RESULTS:Mortality was 100.0% in all locations, except for Monte Azul; Landinho (96.6% and Coração de Jesus; Barriguda (96.6%.CONCLUSIONS:Although the resistant populations in laboratory tests proved to be susceptible in the field, this observation is not sufficient to suggest that the cut-off points used to justify the resistance ratio should be changed. In this sense, we recommend that laboratory and field bioassays are carried out with a greater number of Triatominae populations to allow more in-depth consideration of the subject.
Full Text Available Chagas disease control strategies strongly depend on the triatomine vector species involved in Trypanosoma cruzi transmission within each area. Here we report the results of the identification of specimens belonging to various species of Triatominae captured in Ecuador (15 species from 17 provinces and deposited in the entomological collections of the Catholic University of Ecuador (Quito, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz (Brazil, the Natural History Museum London (UK, the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (UK, the National Institute of Hygiene (Quito, and the Vozandes Hospital (Quito. A critical review of published information and new field records are presented. We analysed these data in relation to the life zones where triatomines occur (11 life zones, excluding those over 2,200 m altitude, and provide biogeographical maps for each species. These records are discussed in terms of epidemiological significance and design of control strategies. Findings relevant to the control of the main vector species are emphasised. Different lines of evidence suggest that Triatoma dimidiata is not native to Ecuador-Peru, and that synanthropic populations of Rhodnius ecuadoriensis in southern Ecuador-northern Peru might be isolated from their sylvatic conspecifics. Local eradication of T. dimidiata and these R. ecuadoriensis populations might therefore be attainable. However, the presence of a wide variety of native species indicates the necessity for a strong longitudinal surveillance system.
Bar María Esther
Full Text Available Several palms species provide an important habitat for triatomines and associate vertebrates in tropical America. The objective of this work is to identify the triatomine species living in the palms of rural areas in the Province of Corrientes, and to estimate the potential epidemiological risk they represent for the residents of nearby houses. The survey was carried out in a palm community in Colonia Laurel, Department San Roque, Province of Corrientes, Argentina. Samplings were performed in October, November and December 1998; January, February and March 1999; May and June 1999. Thirty palms: 27 (90% Butia yatay (Mart. Becc. and 3 Acrocomia aculeata (Jacq. Lodd ex Mart. were dissected. Triatoma sordida Stål 1859 was found in 96.2% of B. yatay and in all the A. aculeata palms. A total of 272 live T. sordida was collected; 36 of them (13.2% were found in bird nests in the frond and the remainder in other locations of the tree. The mean number of triatomines per palm was 9.6 (range 1-60, mode 2. T. sordida was collected during all the sampling months and all stages were present at all seasons. The highest population density was reached in spring and the lowest in autumn. Trypanosoma cruzi was detected in 38.5% in feces of 174 examined insects and identified as such, both by microscopical examination and PCR. This is the first finding of T. sordida populations in B. yatay, an endemic palm of South America distributed in southern Brazil, Uruguay and northeastern Argentina. The high infection prevalence found in this work suggests that T. sordida plays an essential role in the maintenance of the wild T. cruzi transmission cycle in northeastern Argentina.
Chłond, Dominik; Baňař, Petr
Myrmicella verticospinosa gen. et sp. nov., is described, based on four specimens (two males and two females) collected in south-west Madagascar (Zombitse-Vohibasia National Park and Isalo National Park). Three specimens have been collected by sifting the leaf litter, one female was collected using yellow pan traps. Genitalia of both sexes are described and illustrated. PMID:26258241
Lilián E Canavoso
Full Text Available Lipids and glycogen in fat body as well as the modifications in the wet weight of this organ were evaluated in an unfed insect, Dipetalogaster maximus, on day 5 after adult ecdysis (time 0 and during a 30-day period after ingestion of blood meal. Total lipids, high density lipophorin (HDLp, carbohydrates, total proteins and uric acid were determined in the hemolymph during the same period. Fat body wet weight was maximum on day 10 post-feeding and represented on day 30 only 42% of the maximum weight. Lipids stored in the fat body increased up to day 15 reaching 24% of the total weight of tissue. Glycogen was maximum on day 20, representing approximately 3% of the fat body weight. HDLp represented at all times between 17-24% of the total proteins, whose levels ranged between 35 and 47 mg/ml. Uric acid showed at 20, 25 and 30 days similar levels and significantly higher than the ones shown at days 10 and 15. Hemolymphatic lipids fluctuated during starvation between 3-4.4 mg/ml and carbohydrates showed a maximum on day 15 after a blood meal, decreasing up to 0.26 mg/ml on day 25. The above results suggest that during physiological events such as starvation, the availability of nutrients is affected, involving principally the fat body reserves
Parra-Henao, Gabriel; Angulo, Víctor Manuel; Osorio, Lisardo; Jaramillo-O, Nicolás
Triatoma dimidiata Latreille is the second most important vector of Chagas' disease in Colombia and is found in urban and periurban areas. From January 2007 to June 2008, we performed field work in 8 departments, 18 municipalities, and 44 rural villages, covering most of its known distribution and all of its ecological zones in the country. The goal was to determine the geographical distribution, the ecology, and house infestation indices of T. dimidiata over its range and hence the Chagas' disease transmission risk. In Colombia, T. dimidiata occupies a wide variety of ecosystems, from transformed ecosystems in the Andean biome with shrub and xerofitic vegetation to very dense forests in the humid tropical forests in the Sierra Nevada of Santa Marta. According to genetic and ecological criteria, at least two T. dimidiata forms of this species are present: populations from the northwest of the country (Caribbean plains) are restricted to palm tree habitats, and domestic involvement is limited to sporadic visits because of attraction by light; and populations of the east region (Andean mountains) presenting a complex distributional pattern including sylvatic, peridomestic, and domiciliated ecotopes, and occupying a great variety of life zones. The latter population is of epidemiological importance due to the demonstrated migration and genetical flow of individuals among the different habitats. Control, therefore, must take into account its diversity of habitats. PMID:26487247
José Alejandro Martínez-Ibarra
Full Text Available Aspects related to hatching, life time, mortality, feeding behaviour and fecundity for each stage of Triatoma pallidipennis life-cycle were evaluated. The hatching rate observed for 200 eggs was 60% and the average time of hatching was 18 days. Eighty nymphs (N (40% completed the cycle and the average time from NI to adult was 168.7±11.7days. The average span in days for each stage was 18.0 for NI, 18.5 for NII, 30.0 for NIII, 35.7 for NIV and 50.1 for NV. The number of bloodmeals at each nymphal stage varied from 1 to 5. The mortality rate was 9.17 for NI, 5.5 for NII, 6.8 for NIII 4.17 for NIV and 13.04 for NV nymphs. The average number of eggs laid per female in a 9-month period was 498.6. The survival rates of adults were 357±217.9 and 262.53±167.7 for males and females respectively.
José Alejandro Martínez-Ibarra
Full Text Available Aspects related to hatching, time-lapse between presenting the blood-meal and beginning of feeding, feeding time, postfeed defecation delay, mortality, and fecundity for each stage of Meccus longipennis life-cycle were evaluated. The bugs were maintained in a dark incubator at 27 ± 1ºC and 80 ± 5% rh, were fed weekly and checked daily for ecdysis or death. The hatching rate observed for 300 eggs was 76.7% and the average time of hatching was 19.8 days. Mean time-lapse between presentation of the blood meal and the beginning of feeding was under 5 min in nymphal stages and postfeed defecation delay was under 10 min in most stages, except in fourth and fifth stages. Mean feeding time was longer than 10 min in most stages, except in fourth stage. One hundred thirty-one nymphs (N (65.5% completed the cycle and the average time from NI to adult was 192.6 ± 34.8 days. The average span in days for each stage was 18.1 for NI, 21.4 for NII, 29.5 for NIII, 45.5 for NIV and 55.9 for NV. The number of bloodmeals at each nymphal stage varied from 1 to 5. The mortality rate was 3.29 for NI, 6.8 for NII, 2.92 for NIII 3.76 for NIV, and 10.16 for NV nymphs. The average number of eggs laid per female in a 9-month period was 615.6. Based on our results, we conclude that M. longipennis has some biological and behavioral characteristics which influence its capacity of becoming infected and transmitting Trypanosoma cruzi to human populations in those areas of Mexico where it is currently present.
Ceballos, L A; Piccinali, R V; Berkunsky, I; Kitron, U; Gürtler, R E
Triatoma infestans (Klug), the most important vector of Chagas disease in southern South America, is a highly domiciliated species with well-known sylvatic foci only in the Bolivian Andean valleys and in the Bolivian Chaco, where melanic insects designated as "dark morphs" were found. After the tentative identification of two melanic bugs collected from parrot nests in a forest reserve in the Argentine Chaco as T. infestans, we conducted an intensive search there using mouse-baited sticky traps in summer 2006 and 2007. Four live T. infestans bugs were collected in trees without parrot nests in 288 trap-nights, whereas no bug was collected from inside trees with active parrot nests in 51 trap-nights. To increase bug captures, hollow tree trunks that recently had had Amazona aestiva (Berlepsch) and Aratinga acuticaudata (Vieillot) parrot nests were treated with insecticide fumigant canisters exhibiting strong knockdown power. Four (22%) of 18 trees were positive for T. infestans with a dark phenotype. A fragment of the mitochondrial gene COI of 8 of the 14 triatomine bugs collected was successfully sequenced and confirmed as T. infestans. Most of the bugs were captured from Aspidosperma quebracho-blanco (Schlechter) hollow tree trunks harboring parrot nests. All of the T. infestans collected from the nearest house located at 10 km from the sylvatic foci displayed normal chromatic characters. The repeated finding of T. infestans in sylvatic habitats, albeit at very low density, shows that this species is capable of maintaining viable sylvatic foci in the absence of human hosts and immigration from domestic populations. These are the first confirmed findings of sylvatic T. infestans colonies in Argentina and of dark morphs in the Argentine Chaco. PMID:19769054
Grasielle Caldas D‘Ávila Pessoa
Full Text Available Triatoma sordida is a species that transmits Trypanosoma cruzi to humans. In Brazil, T. sordida currently deserves special attention because of its wide distribution, tendency to invade domestic environments and vectorial competence. For the planning and execution of control protocols to be effective against Triatominae, they must consider its population structure. In this context, this study aimed to characterise the genetic variability of T. sordida populations collected in areas with persistent infestations from Minas Gerais, Brazil. Levels of genetic variation and population structure were determined in peridomestic T. sordida by sequencing a polymorphic region of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. Low nucleotide and haplotype diversity were observed for all 14 sampled areas; π values ranged from 0.002-0.006. Most obtained haplotypes occurred at low frequencies, and some were exclusive to only one of the studied populations. Interpopulation genetic diversity analysis revealed strong genetic structuring. Furthermore, the genetic variability of Brazilian populations is small compared to that of Argentinean and Bolivian specimens. The possible factors related to the reduced genetic variability and strong genetic structuring obtained for studied populations are discussed in this paper.
Abad-Franch Fernando; Paucar C Aura; Carpio C Carlos; Cuba Cuba César A.; Aguilar V H Marcelo; Miles Michael A
Chagas disease control strategies strongly depend on the triatomine vector species involved in Trypanosoma cruzi transmission within each area. Here we report the results of the identification of specimens belonging to various species of Triatominae captured in Ecuador (15 species from 17 provinces) and deposited in the entomological collections of the Catholic University of Ecuador (Quito), Instituto Oswaldo Cruz (Brazil), the Natural History Museum London (UK), the London School of Hygiene ...
Terriquez, J A; Klotz, S A; Meister, E A; Klotz, J H; Schmidt, J O
The kissing bug, Triatoma rubida (Uhler) is a common hematophagous bug in Tucson, AZ, and is responsible for causing severe allergic reactions in some bitten individuals. DEET, picaridin, tea tree oil, peppermint oil, and citronella oil were tested for repellency to T. rubida and its ability to probe and feed on a small restrained rat. No long range repellency was observed with any of the test materials. The lowest repellent concentrations observed were: 10% DEET, 7% picaridin; 30% tea tree oil, 3.3% peppermint oil, and 0.165% citronella oil. Only citronella oil was able to stop all probing and feeding by T. rubida. Citronella oil appears to be a promising potential repellent to prevent sleeping people from being bitten by kissing bugs. PMID:23802464
Jorge Eduardo Rabinovich
Full Text Available Host use by vectors is important in understanding the transmission of zoonotic diseases, which can affect humans, wildlife and domestic animals. Here, a synthesis of host exploitation patterns by kissing-bugs, vectors of Chagas disease, is presented. For this synthesis, an extensive literature review restricted to feeding sources analysed by precipitin tests was conducted. Modern tools from community ecology and multivariate statistics were used to determine patterns of segregation in host use. Rather than innate preferences for host species, host use by kissing-bugs is influenced by the habitats they colonise. One of the major limitations of studies on kissing-bug foraging has been the exclusive focus on the dominant vector species. We propose that expanding foraging studies to consider the community of vectors will substantially increase the understanding of Chagas disease transmission ecology. Our results indicate that host accessibility is a major factor that shapes the blood-foraging patterns of kissing-bugs. Therefore, from an applied perspective, measures that are directed at disrupting the contact between humans and kissing-bugs, such as housing improvement, are among the most desirable strategies for Chagas disease control.
CEBALLOS, L. A.; PICCINALI, R. V.; BERKUNSKY, I.; KITRON, U.; GÜRTLER, R. E.
Triatoma infestans (Klug), the most important vector of Chagas disease in southern South America, is a highly domiciliated species with well-known sylvatic foci only in the Bolivian Andean valleys and in the Bolivian Chaco, where melanic insects designated as “dark morphs” were found. After the tentative identification of two melanic bugs collected from parrot nests in a forest reserve in the Argentine Chaco as T. infestans, we conducted an intensive search there using mouse-baited sticky traps in summer 2006 and 2007. Four live T. infestans bugs were collected in trees without parrot nests in 288 trap-nights, whereas no bug was collected from inside trees with active parrot nests in 51 trap-nights. To increase bug captures, hollow tree trunks that recently had had Amazona aestiva (Berlepsch) and Aratinga acuticaudata (Vieillot) parrot nests were treated with insecticide fumigant canisters exhibiting strong knockdown power. Four (22%) of 18 trees were positive for T. infestans with a dark phenotype. A fragment of the mitochondrial gene COI of 8 of the 14 triatomine bugs collected was successfully sequenced and confirmed as T. infestans. Most of the bugs were captured from Aspidosperma quebracho-blanco (Schlechter) hollow tree trunks harboring parrot nests. All of the T. infestans collected from the nearest house located at 10 km from the sylvatic foci displayed normal chromatic characters. The repeated finding of T. infestans in sylvatic habitats, albeit at very low density, shows that this species is capable of maintaining viable sylvatic foci in the absence of human hosts and immigration from domestic populations. These are the first confirmed findings of sylvatic T. infestans colonies in Argentina and of dark morphs in the Argentine Chaco. PMID:19769054
Lilián E Canavoso
Full Text Available The metabolism of lipids and carbohydrates related to flight activity in Panstrongylus megistus was investigated. Insects were subjected to different times of flight under laboratory conditions and changes in total lipids, lipophorin density and carbohydrates were followed in the hemolymph. Lipids and glycogen were also assayed in fat body and flight muscle. In resting insects, hemolymph lipids averaged 3.4 mg/ml and significantly increased after 45 min of flight (8.8 mg/ml, P < 0.001. High-density lipophorin was the sole lipoprotein observed in resting animals. A second fraction with lower density corresponding to low-density lipophorin appeared in insects subjected to flight. Particles from both fractions showed significant differences in diacylglycerol content and size. In resting insects, carbohydrate levels averaged 0.52 mg/ml. They sharply declined more than twofold after 15 min of flight, being undetectable in hemolymph of insects flown for 45 min. Lipid and glycogen from fat body and flight muscle decreased significantly after 45 min of flight. Taken together, the results indicate that P. megistus uses carbohydrates during the initiation of the flight after which, switching fuel for flight from carbohydrates to lipids.
Gonçalves, Teresa Cristina Monte; Teves-Neves, Simone Caldas; dos Santos-Mallet, Jacenir Reis; Carbajal-de-la-Fuente, Ana Laura; Lopes, Catarina Macedo
Triatoma jatai sp. nov. is the first new species of triatomine to be described in the state of Tocantins, in the northern region of Brazil. It was caught on rock outcrops in the wild environment and, more recently, invading homes. While T. jatai sp. nov. is morphologically similar to Triatoma costalimai, it is distinguished by its general colouring, differences in the blotches on the connexivum, wing size in females and external structures of the male genitalia. The type series has been deposited in the Entomological Collection and Herman Lent Collection, Oswaldo Cruz Institute-Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. PMID:23828010
Full Text Available Rhodnius barretti , a new triatomine species, is described based on adult specimens collected in rainforest environments within the Napo ecoregion of western Amazonia (Colombia and Ecuador. R. barretti resembles Rhodnius robustus s.l. , but mitochondrial cytochrome b gene sequences reveal that it is a strongly divergent member of the “robustus lineage”, i.e., basal to the clade encompassing Rhodnius nasutus , Rhodnius neglectus , Rhodnius prolixus and five members of the R. robustus species complex. Morphometric analyses also reveal consistent divergence from R. robustus s.l. , including head and, as previously shown, wing shape and the length ratios of some anatomical structures. R. barretti occurs, often at high densities, in Attalea butyracea and Oenocarpus bataua palms. It is strikingly aggressive and adults may invade houses flying from peridomestic palms. R. barretti must therefore be regarded as a potential Trypanosoma cruzi vector in the Napo ecoregion, where Chagas disease is endemic.
Full Text Available Triatoma venosa presents a restricted geographical distribution in America and is considered as a secondary vector of Chagas disease in Colombia and Ecuador. A total of 120 adult insects were collected in domestic and peridomestic habitats in an endemic area of the department of Boyacá, Colombia, in order to determine their genetic structure through morphometric and molecular techniques. The head and wings of each specimen were used for the analyses of size, shape, and sexual dimorphism. A significant sexual dimorphism was found, although no differences in size among the studied groups were detected. Differences were found in the analyzed structures except for male heads. DNA was extracted from the legs in order to carry out the internal transcriber space-2 (ITS-2 amplification and the randon amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD analyses. Length polymorphisms were not detected in the ITS-2. Fst and Nm values were estimated (0.047 and 3.4, respectively. The high genetic flow found among the insects captured in the domicile and peridomiciliary environment does not permit a genetic differentiation, thus establishing the peridomicile as an important place for epidemiological surveillance.
Rodrigo Gurgel-Gonçalves; Maicon H Maeda; Jônatas B.C Ferreira; Aline da F Rosa; César A.C. Cuba
In the present work, we investigated whether it is possible to detect morphometric changes in Rhodnius neglectus Lent, 1954 (a candidate vector of Chagas disease in Central Brazil) populations in the transition from sylvatic to laboratory conditions. We analyzed size and shape variation in wings of sylvatic parents and their laboratory descendents (first, third and fifth generations) using geometric morphometric techniques. Sexual size dimorphism and shape of wings were maintained, but wing s...
Alevi, K C C; Imperador, C H L; Moreira, F F F; Jurberg, J; Azeredo-Oliveira, M T V
Using classic morphometric techniques to examine the head and thorax of Triatoma specimens, researchers identified a possible taxonomic problem involving T. arthurneivai (Lent & Martins) and T. wygodzinskyi (Lent). A recent geometric morphometric study indicated that the insects captured outside the Serra do Cipó region, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, were T. wygodzinskyi. The misidentification of T. arthurneivai as T. wygodzinskyi could result in several problems associated with entoepidemiological lifting, the biological characterization of the species, and phylogenetic reconstruction. For the first time, we describe the use of cytogenetic analysis as a tool for differentiation between T. arthurneivai and T. wygodzinskyi. The results indicated that both species had the same number of chromosomes 2n = 22 (20A + XY). However, analyses of spermatocytes during early prophase indicated that it was possible to differentiate T. arthurneivai and T. wygodzinskyi, because only T. arthurneivai exhibited heteropycnotic blocks distributed in the chromatin. Therefore, we highlight the analysis of spermatocytes as a taxonomic tool for the characterization of T. arthurneivai and T. wygodzinskyi, and suggest that the technique can be used for entoepidemiological lifting in vector control programs. Thus, the results presented here, in conjunction with morphometric analyses, are of utmost taxonomic and epidemiological importance for the identification of T. arthurneivai and T. wygodzinskyi specimens. PMID:27420940
Grasielle Caldas D`avila Pessoa
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Despite years of efforts towards the elimination of Triatoma infestans in Brazil, residual foci still persist in some areas of the States of Bahia and Rio Grande do Sul. The persistence of these T. infestans populations in the country has two different origins of equal concern: operational failures or insecticide resistance. Thus, the objective of this study was to characterize the susceptibility profile of the residual Brazilian populations of T. infestans to deltamethrin. METHODS: The susceptibility reference lineage was derived from Cipein/Argentina. The populations studied were manually collected using a dislodging agent in peridomiciles in the States of Bahia (Novo Horizonte and of Rio Grande do Sul (Santa Rosa and Doutor Maurício Cardoso. Serial dilutions of deltamethrin were prepared and applied at the dorsal abdomen of first instar nymphs. The control group received only pure acetone. Mortality was evaluated after 72h. Qualitative tests assessed the mortality of a diagnostic dose of 1xLD99 (2.76ng a.i./nymph determined for the susceptibility reference lineage. RESULTS: The susceptibility profile characterization of the T. infestans populations revealed an RR50 ranging from 1.73 to 3.26. The mortality percentage in response to a diagnostic dose was 100%. The results obtained in the quantitative and qualitative assays corresponded for all populations. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study indicate that the persistence of residual foci of T. infestans in Bahia and Rio Grande do Sul is not related to insecticide resistance but may be associated with operational failures. In Rio Grande do Sul, we must consider the possibility of continuous reinfestation by Argentinian individuals, which justifies active and efficient epidemiological surveillance.
Full Text Available Triatoma nitida was found in 14 (0.4% out of 3,726 houses located in six departments across Guatemala, which were surveyed from 1994 to 1998 by the man-hour collection method. Compared to previous information, the distribution of T. nitida in Guatemala has increased from five to nine departments; the species is present in mild climates at altitudes from 960 to 1,500 m. Fourteen percent of the intradomestic T. nitida were infected with Trypanosoma cruzi. The species was often found in conjunction with other triatomines (T. dimidiata and Rhodnius prolixus. The domestic and peridomestic presence of T. nitida in Guatemala was rare, but occasionally this species was colonizing human-made constructions. T. nitida appears to have a low importance as Chagas disease vector in Guatemala, as indicated by its scarce presence in the domestic habitats and defecation patterns. However, it clearly has potential to become a Chagas vector so we recommend an on-going study of the intradomestic presence of T. nitida following the control programs in Guatemala. Morphometric analysis of 47 T. nitida males from three localities showed quantitative differences between the populations, which indicates that geographic distance is an important factor in the structuring of T. nitida populations.
Gabriel Manrique; Claudio R Lazzari
Assembling behaviour associated with mating was investigated in Triatoma infestans. The spatial distribution of both sexes was observed by video films, in the presence or absence of a copulating pair. Males aggregated around copulating pairs. Females did not exhibit this behaviour and their mean spatial density remained unaffected. Spontaneous aggregation tendency was observed in males in the absence of a copulating pair, but the temporal course significantly differed from that observed in th...
Full Text Available The scarabaeid Leucothyreus femoratus (Burmeister is described as causing damage to oil palm leaves, marking its first report as a pest in Colombia. The presence of this insect has necessitated determination of its life cycle, biometrics and food consumption as important aspects of its biology. Experiments were conducted under laboratory conditions in the municipality of San Vicente, Santander, Colombia. Mass rearing of L. femoratus was conducted, simulating field conditions and eating habits under laboratory conditions. Its life cycle and description of its developmental stages were determined, taking into account stage-specific survival. The duration of the life cycle of L. femoratus was determined to be 170.4±6.53, with an overall survival rate of 96.7%. Biometrical measurements were taken of the insect’s width, length and weight. Adults are black, and males and females are differentiated by size and by colour of their legs. The width, length and weight of the insect are proportional to the growth stage. Daily food consumption rate was evaluated in adult L. femoratus, and damage to leaves of Elaeis guineensis is described. Adult L. femoratus consumed 13 mm2 of foliage per day, and injury to leaves of E. guineensis was square or rectangular in shape. This insect’s life cycle duration and size are factors that could be considered in determining its feeding habits and pest status. Details of the life cycle, physical description and consumption rate of L. femoratus can help in the development of strategies to manage its populations in oil palm plantations.
Full Text Available Both male and female of a new species of Eriopeltasttes Burmeister & Schaum, 1840, E. (E. ornatus Ricchiardi, sp. n., are described from the mistbelt grassland of KwaZulu-Natal. Sexual dimorphism is extreme in this genus, with females being brachypterous, fossorial and entirely black to dark brown in general body colour. This is only the fifth out of 12 known species in this genus for which the female is known. The species appears to be restricted to areas within or in the immediate vicinities of two marginal nature reserves, Karkloof and Blinkwater, in a grassland habitat that is regarded as one of the most threatened in the Province of KwaZulu-Natal. Despite its acknowledged importance as centre of endemism the area is currently in a precarious state of large-scale degradation.
Full Text Available We provide a synopsis of the Sumatran species in the scarab beetle genus Peltonotus Burmeister (Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae: Cyclocephalini, describe a new species of Peltonotus from Sumatra, and describe the male of P. cybele Jameson & Wada from Sumatra (previously known only by the female holotype. To enable identification, we include a key to the five Sumatran species of Peltonotus, comparative images and diagnoses for all species, and temporal and geographical distributions.
Avaliação de óleos essenciais de plantas aromáticas com atividade inseticida em Triatoma infestans (Klug, 1834 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae Evaluation of essential oils with insecticidal activity in Triatoma infestans (Klug, 1834 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae
Full Text Available A doença de Chagas é um dos maiores problemas de saúde pública na América Latina. Neste trabalho, foi avaliada a ação inseticida de óleos essenciais de Anacardium humile Cymbopogon nardus, Ocimum basilicum e Eucalyptus urograndis em ninfas do 3° e 4° estádios de desenvolvimento de Triatoma infestans por ação tópica e pressão a vapor (fumigação. Para o teste tópico foram realizadas duas repetições cada uma com cinco ninfas de 3° e 4° estádios de desenvolvimento de T. infestans. Foi aplicado 1µL de cada concentração na região dorsal de cada indivíduo. Para o teste de fumigação foram utilizados potes de 2 L com tampa vedante. Os óleos essenciais de O. gratissimum e E. urograndis apresentaram atividade inseticida para T. infestans, e A. humile e C. nardus apresentaram em média 5 e 15% de mortalidade, respectivamente. Para fumigação, somente o óleo de E. urograndis teve efeito, com 100% de mortalidade sobre T. infestans, sendo que para os outros óleos não foi observado efeito de fumigação. Esse trabalho relata pela primeira vez a ação inseticida de E. urograndis em potes fumígenos para o controle de triatomíneos. Os resultados são importantes devido à busca por novos modelos moleculares com ação inseticida em triatomíneos resistentes aos inseticidas sintéticos.Chagas disease is a major public health problem in Latin America. This work aimed to evaluate the insecticide action of essential oils of Anacardium humile, Cymbopogon nardus, Ocimum basilicum and Eucalyptus urograndis on Triatoma infestans nymphs of third and fourth stages of development by topic action and steam pressure (fumigation. Two repetitions were performed at the topic test with five nymphs of third and fourth stages of development of T. infestans. It was applied 1µL of each concentration on the dorsal region of each nymph. Two-liter pots with sealing covers were used at the fumigation test. The essential oils of O. gratissimum and E. urograndis showed insecticidal activity against T. infestans and A. humile and C. nardus showed an average of 5 and 15% mortality, respectively. For the fumigation, only the E. urograndis oil had effect with 100% of mortality on T. infestans and for the other oils it was not observed any effect of the steam pressure. This paper describes for the first time the insecticidal action of E. urograndis in smoke canister to control bugs. The results are important to the search for new molecular models with insecticidal action in bugs which are resistant to synthetic insecticides.
Avaliação de óleos essenciais de plantas aromáticas com atividade inseticida em Triatoma infestans (Klug, 1834 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae = Evaluation of essential oils with insecticidal activity in Triatoma infestans (Klug, 1834 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae
Suellem Petilim Gomes
Full Text Available A doenca de Chagas e um dos maiores problemas de saude publica na America Latina. Neste trabalho, foi avaliada a acao inseticida de oleos essenciais de Anacardium humile Cymbopogon nardus, Ocimum basilicum e Eucalyptus urograndis em ninfas do 3‹ e 4‹ estadios dedesenvolvimento de Triatoma infestans por acao topica e pressao a vapor (fumigacao. Para o teste topico foram realizadas duas repeticoes cada uma com cinco ninfas de 3‹ e 4‹ estadios de desenvolvimento de T. infestans. Foi aplicado 1ƒÊL de cada concentracao na regiao dorsal de cada individuo. Para o teste de fumigacao foram utilizados potes de 2 L com tampa vedante. Os oleos essenciais de O. gratissimum e E. urograndis apresentaram atividadeinseticida para T. infestans, e A. humile e C. nardus apresentaram em media 5 e 15% de mortalidade, respectivamente. Para fumigacao, somente o oleo de E. urograndis teve efeito, com 100% de mortalidade sobre T. infestans , sendo que para os outros oleos nao foiobservado efeito de fumigacao. Esse trabalho relata pela primeira vez a acao inseticida de E. urograndis em potes fumigenos para o controle de triatomineos. Os resultados sao importantes devido a busca por novos modelos moleculares com acao inseticida em triatomineos resistentes aos inseticidas sinteticos.Chagas disease is a major public health problem in Latin America. This work aimed to evaluate the insecticide action of essential oils of Anacardium humile, Cymbopogon nardus, Ocimum basilicum and Eucalyptus urograndis on Triatoma infestans nymphs of third and fourth stages of development by topic action and steam pressure (fumigation. Two repetitions were performed at the topic test with five nymphs of third and fourth stages of development of T. infestans. It was applied 1ƒÊL of each concentration on the dorsal region of each nymph. Two-liter pots with sealing covers were used at the fumigation test. The essential oils of O. gratissimum and E. urograndis showed insecticidal activity against T. infestans and A. humile and C. nardus showed an average of 5 and 15% mortality, respectively. For the fumigation, only the E. urograndis oil had effect with 100% of mortality on T. infestans and for the other oils it was not observed any effect of the steam pressure. This paper describes for the first time the insecticidal action of E. urograndis in smoke canister to control bugs. The results are important to the search for new molecular models with insecticidal action in bugs which are resistant to synthetic insecticides.
Observações sôbre o ciclo evolutivo do Triatoma arthurneivai, em condições de laboratório (Hemiptera, Reduviidae Studies on the evolution cycle of Triatoma arthurneivai under laboratory conditions (Hemiptera, Reduviidae
Full Text Available A partir de ovos de fêmeas de Triatoma arthurneivai capturadas no ecótopo natural observou-se o tempo de evolução, em condições de laboratório mantidas à temperatura de 25°C e 60-70% de umidade relativa do ar. Foram oferecidos repastos sanguíneos em camundongo albino, semanalmente. A taxa de eclosão de ovos foi de 92,8%. Observaram-se diferenças entre o tempo de evolução desde a eclosão do ôvo até a muda para adulto, quando os triatomíneos foram criados isoladamente ou em grupos de 2-9 espécimes. O tempo médio dêstes foi de 228,3 dias e o daqueles, de 314,4 dias. O mesmo tempo, também apresentou diferenças quando se levou em consideração o sexo; os machos tiveram um tempo médio de 205,4 dias enquanto para as fêmeas o tempo foi de 274,3 dias. Algumas hipóteses são apresentadas, porém nenhuma ofereceu possibilidades de confirmação. Conclue-se pela necessidade de novos trabalhos para elucidar as dúvidas e, sugere-se possibilidade de novos conhecimentos a serem utilizados no estudo da tripanossomose americana em seus focos naturais.Data about Triatoma arthurneivai reared in laboratory from eggs laids by sylvatic females are reported. Laboratory conditions were maintaned at 25°C of temperature and 60-70% of relative humidity. Blood meal were furnished weekly from white mice sources. Eggs ecloded at a proportion of 92.8%. Differences were observed between triatomid reared in a individual or in a jointly manner. They were maintened in groups of 2-9 specimens each. The egg to adult times were 314.4 and 228.3 days for these two groups. Males reared more faster spent 205.4 days from egg to adult; females took 274.3 days. Some hypotesis were presented for explaining these differences, but no conclusions were reached. It was concluded that new investigations to explain the phenomena and help to understand better the dynamics of the South American trypanosomiasis in their natural foci should be performed.
Registro de ocorrência de Panstrongylus lignarius (Walker, 1837 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae no Estado de Mato Grosso, Brasil New records of Panstrongylus lignarius (Walker, 1837 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae, in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil
Aécio Moraes de Paula
Full Text Available Neste trabalho, relata-se pela primeira vez a ocorrência de Panstrongylus lignarius no Estado de Mato Grosso. Entre 2001 e 2009, cinco espécimes foram capturados pelos moradores dos municípios de Paranaíta, Alta Floresta, Lucas do Rio Verde, Sorriso e Guarantã do Norte e enviados ao Laboratório de Entomologia da Secretaria de Estado de Saúde de Mato Grosso, onde foram identificados como Panstrongylus lignarius (Walker, 1837. O encontro dessa espécie no estado do Mato Grosso, Brasil, amplia a sua distribuição geográfica.In this paper is reported for the first time the occurrence of Panstrongylus lignarius in the State of Mato Grosso. From 2001 to 2009, five specimens were caught in the municipalities of Paranaíta, Alta Floresta, Lucas do Rio Verde, Sorriso and Guarantã do Norte, and sent to the Laboratório de Entomologia da Secretaria de Estado de Saúde de Mato Grosso where they were identified as Panstrongylus lignarius (Walker, 1837. The presence of this species in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil expands its geographical distribution.
Registro de ocorrência de Panstrongylus lignarius (Walker, 1837) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae) no Estado de Mato Grosso, Brasil New records of Panstrongylus lignarius (Walker, 1837) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae), in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil
Aécio Moraes de Paula; Maria Ignez Castrillon; Giovana Belém Moreira Lima Maciel; Cleber Galvão
Neste trabalho, relata-se pela primeira vez a ocorrência de Panstrongylus lignarius no Estado de Mato Grosso. Entre 2001 e 2009, cinco espécimes foram capturados pelos moradores dos municípios de Paranaíta, Alta Floresta, Lucas do Rio Verde, Sorriso e Guarantã do Norte e enviados ao Laboratório de Entomologia da Secretaria de Estado de Saúde de Mato Grosso, onde foram identificados como Panstrongylus lignarius (Walker, 1837). O encontro dessa espécie no estado do Mato Grosso, Brasil, amplia a...
Triatoma matsunoi Fernandez-Loayza, 1989 com um estudo sobre a genitália externa masculina (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae Triatoma matsunoi Fernandez-Loayza, 1989 with a study on the external male genitalia (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae
Full Text Available The authors complement the description of Triatoma matsunoi Fernandez-Loayza, 1989 and present the morphology of the male external genitalia, characterized by the presence of conjuntiva process (PrCj denticulate, basal plate (Eplb too long and median process pygophore (PrP showing the apex streched and the surface rugose and scaled. The specimens examined (holotype [male symbol] and allotype [female symbol] were deposited in the Collection Herman Lent of Triatomines of the Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, IOC, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
Hallazgo de Panstrongylus rufotuberculatus (Champion, 1899 (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae en ambiente domiciliario en la Región Piura, Perú Intra-domiciliary capture of Panstrongylus rufotuberculatus (Champion, 1899 (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae in Piura, Peru
Full Text Available Panstrongylus rufotuberculatus presenta una amplia distribución en América Central y del Sur con un comportamiento de especie silvestre. En el Perú ha sido registrado en Tumbes, Piura y Cuzco, siendo descrito en casas de localidades de este último departamento. En el presente trabajo se documenta evidencia de domiciliación de P. rufotuberculatus en la localidad de Chirinos-La Pareja, Distrito de Suyo, Provincia de Ayabaca, Región Piura, Perú (4º46'S, 79º93'W. Se capturaron 28 especímenes: 3 ninfas II, 4 ninfas III, 2 ninfas IV, 8 ninfas V, 3 machos y 8 hembras, lo que evidencia la existencia de una colonia intradomiciliar en "cuyeros" (criaderos de Cavia porcellus camas y paredes del dormitorio de la vivienda. Exámenes parasitológicos de heces evacuadas espontáneamente fueron negativos a infección natural por Trypanosoma cruzi. A pesar de que se ha reportado la presencia de P. rufotuberculatus en localidades de Tumbes y Piura, es la primera vez que se documenta su tendencia sinantrópica en la Región. La importancia de esta especie y posteriores investigaciones permitirán evaluar su etología y potencial vectorial de trypanosomiasis americana. Se recomienda una cuidadosa actividad de vigilancia entomo-epidemiológica para esta especie y las otras que coexisten simpátricamente, actualmente en esta región del norte de Perú.Panstrongylus rufotuberculatus is widely distributed in Central and South America. In Peru, it has been found in Tumbes, Piura, and Cuzco. The authors report the presence of P. rufotuberculatus in Chirinos-La Pareja, Suyo district, Ayabaca Province, Piura Region, Peru. Twenty-eight specimens were collected in two of 15 dwellings: three 2nd instar, four 3rd instar, two 4th instar, and eight 5th instar nymphs, three male and eight female, in an intra-domiciliary colony of guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus, raised indoors as a source of diet protein and beds and bedroom walls. None of the fecal samples were naturally infected with Trypanosoma cruzi. This is the first report of synanthropic presence of P. rufotuberculatus in the region. The finding emphasizes the need for careful entomological and epidemiological surveillance of this and other triatomine species in the Region.
La aerotermia como alternativa para el control de Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera, Reduviidae resistentes a deltametrina Air temperature elevation as an alternative for the control of deltamethrin-resistant Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera, Reduviidae
Alberto G. Gentile
Full Text Available Se exploraron los efectos de la elevación artificial de la temperatura del aire sobre las formas embrionarias, ninfales y adultas de Triatoma infestansresistentes a Deltametrina. En laboratorio, se expuso a temperaturas crecientes del aire la progenie completa de T. infestans, para determinar viabilidad de huevos y supervivencia en ninfas y adultos; sobre el terreno, la experimentación se llevó a cabo en una vivienda tipo rancho previamente evaluada como colonizada. Durante la fase de laboratorio se comprobó la inviabilidad del 100% de los huevos y la mortalidad del 100% de las ninfas y adultos expuestos a temperaturas del aire estanco de entre 45ºC y 55ºC, mientras que en la fase de terreno se logró reproducir el efecto ovicida del calor, como así también la negativización de las evaluaciones entomológicas de la vivienda de experimentación, llevadas a cabo a las 72 horas, a los 30, 60 y 90 días. La elevación artificial de la temperatura del aire estanco en las habitaciones resultó ser un método de control de eficacia aceptable, inocuo y técnicamente sencillo.This study explores the effects of artificial air temperature elevation on the embryonic, nymphal, and adult forms of deltamethrin-resistant Triatoma infestans. In the laboratory, complete offspring of T. infestanswere exposed to increasing air temperatures to determine the viability of eggs and survival of nymphs and adults; in the field, the experiment was conducted in a poor rural dwelling previously identified as infested with the vector. The laboratory phase showed 100% non-viability of eggs and 100% mortality of nymphs and adults exposed to airtight temperatures from 45ºC to 55ºC, while the field phase succeeded in reproducing the heat's ovicidal effect and negative conversion of entomological assays in the experimental dwelling, as conducted over the course of 72 hours at 30, 60, and 90 days from the baseline evaluation. Artificial elevation of airtight temperature on dwellings proved to be an acceptable, harmless, and technically simple control method.
Estadísticos poblacionales de Triatoma sordida Stäl 1859 (Hemiptera : Reduviidae en condiciones experimentales Population statistics of Triatoma sordida Stäl 1859 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae in experimental conditions
Elena B. Oscherov
Full Text Available Se realizó el seguimiento longitudinal de cuatro cohortes de 100 huevos cada una. Los insectos fueron criados a 28°C ± 3°C y 63 % ± 10% de humedad relativa, y alimentados cada siete días sobre gallina (Gallus domesticus, durante 40 min. Las cohortes fueron controladas una vez por semana. Se observó un valor constante de supervivencia en las cuatro cohortes, sin picos importantes. La expectativa de vida de los machos, en promedio, fue de 37,4 semanas y la de las hembras 36,8. El tiempo generacional demandó 61,7 semanas. La tasa reproductiva neta indica que esta población se incrementará 143,3 veces con cada generación. La tasa intrínseca de crecimiento natural fue de 0,082 por semana. El máximo valor reproductivo se verificó, en promedio, a la tercer semana del ingreso al estado adulto. La distribución estable de edades de T. sordida sería de 32% huevos, 26% ninfas de primer estadio, 19% ninfas de segundo estadio, 13% ninfas de tercer estadio, 6% ninfas de cuarto estadio, 3% ninfas de quinto estadio y 1% de adultos. Es la primera cita para Argentina sobre la tabla de vida de T. sordida. El análisis de estos parámetros permite considerar que esta especie se comporta como "K estratega", en condiciones experimentales.Foram estudados diferentes parâmetros populacionais de Triatoma sordida em condições de laboratório. Realizou-se um seguimento longitudinal de quatro coortes de 100 ovos cada uma; os insetos foram criados a 28°C ± 3°C e 63% ± 10% de umidade relativa, e alimentados cada sete dias sobre galinha (Gallus domesticus durante 40'. As coortes foram controladas uma vez por semana. A expectativa de vida média dos machos foi de 37,4 semanas e a das fêmeas de 36,8.O tempo médio de desenvolvimento foi de 61,7 semanas. A taxa reprodutiva líquida indica que esta população aumentará 143,2 vezes durante cada geração. A taxa intrínseca do crecimento natural foi de 0,082 por semana. A média do valor máximo reprodutivo verificou-se na terceira semana no início do estádio adulto.A distribuição estável de idades de T. sordida seria de 32% ovos, 26% ninfas do primeiro estádio, 19% ninfas do segundo estádio, 13% ninfas do terceiro estádio, 6% ninfas do quarto estádio, 3% ninfas do quinto estádio e 1% de adultos. A análise dos parâmetros permite considerar que esta espécie comporta-se como K-estrategista em condições experimentais.Four cohorts of 100 Triatoma sordida eggs were reared under standard laboratory conditions (28ºC, 63% R.H. and fed weekly on hens during 40 minutes. The numbers of dead insects, moults and eggs laid were recorded weekly. A constant survival value was observed without any important peaks in the four cohorts. Life expectancy was 37.4 weeks for males and 36.8 weeks for females. The average generation time was 61.7 weeks. The average net reproduction rate suggests that this population would increase 143.2 times during each generation. The average intrinsic rate of natural increase was 0.082 per individual per week. The highest reproductive value was observed 3 weeks after entering the adult stage. The age structure, assuming stable age distribution, would be 32% eggs, 26% of first instar nymphs, 19% of second instar nymphs, 13% of third instar nymphs, 6% of fourth instar nymphs, 3% of fifth instar nymphs and 1% of adults. Our results suggest that this species behaves as a k-strategist under experimental conditions.
Roca-Acevedo, G; Picollo, M I; Capriotti, N; Sierra, I; Santo-Orihuela, P L
Chagas disease is a zoonosis transmitted to man by blood-sucking triatomine bugs found in the Americas. Triatoma infestans (Klug, 1834) is the main vector of Chagas' disease in Argentina. The control of this illness relies heavily on vector control through the use of insecticide. However, resistance to pyrethroid insecticides associated with ineffective field treatments has been increasingly reported in T. infestans from Argentina and Bolivia. There are few reports on the expression and causes of resistance in eggs of resistant populations, and even fewer studies on insecticide resistance throughout embryonic development. In this study, we explore the biochemical and molecular mechanisms potentially associated with the deltamethrin resistance assessed in the developing eggs of the Argentinean (Campo Largo) and Bolivian (Entre Ríos) T. infestans populations.We found measurable activity of monooxigenases and pyrethroid esterases throughout embryonic development. The pyrethroid esterase activity grew steadily throughout development in all the studied populations and was highest in eggs 12 d old. Mean enzyme activity increased from 13.6 to 16.3 and 22.2 picomol 7-hydroxycoumarin/min (7-OHC) in eggs of 4-, 7-, and 12 d old from the susceptible reference bug colony. Mean activity of resistant populations increased from 16.0 to 25.9 picomol 7-OHC/min in eggs of 4- to 12 d old in Entre Ríos population, and from 15.9 to 28.9 picomol 7-OHC/min in Campo Largo population. Molecular analysis of susceptible and resistant developing eggs detected L1014F mutation in both resistant populations, but no L925I mutation was found in any of the studied populations.Higher esterase activity and L1014F presence justify the resistance to pyrethroid throughout developing eggs of both studied T. infestans populations. The description of resistance profiles including resistance mechanisms involved will allow a rational design of campaigns for the control of Chagas disease transmission. PMID:26336218
Full Text Available The aim of the currrent investigation was to evaluate (a the toxicity of three pyrethroids (deltamethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, and tetramethrin; (b the effect of these insecticides on the locomotor activity; and (c the repellent effect of N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET on two deltamethrin-resistant strains of Triatoma infestans from Argentina (El Chorro and La Toma, and one susceptible strain. The resistance ratios (RRs obtained for the La Toma strain were: > 10,769, 50.7, and > 5.2 for deltamethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, and tetramethrin respectively. The RRs for the El Chorro strain were: > 10,769, 85.8, and > 5.2 for deltamethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, and tetramethrin respectively. The hyperactivity usually caused by the three pyrethroids was in both the deltamethrin-resistant strains compared to the susceptible reference strain. No differences were observed in the repellent effect of DEET between the three groups. These results indicate that the deltamethrin-resistant insects have a cross resistance to lambda-cyhalothrin and tetramethrin, and are also resistant to the first symptom of pyrethroid poisoning (hyperactivity. However, the sensorial process related to DEET repellency does not appear to be altered.
Toby V. Barrett
Full Text Available Adults and nymphs of Cavernicola lenti, new species, from Amazonas state, Brazil, are described and illustrated. Observations on the biology of the new species are presented. Preliminaty findings indicate that C. lenti is a probable vector of bat trypanosomes.Cavernícola lenti, n.sp. é descrita com base em exemplares coletados em uma árvore viva, oca, perto das obras da usina hidrelétrica de Balbina, Estado do Amazonas, Brasil. Incluímos descrições dos adultos e ninfas de primeiro e quinto estádio, e observações sobre a biologia da nova espécie. Salientamos alguns detalhes morfológicos da nova espécie que ampliam os conceitos prévios do gênero e da tribo Cavernicolini. Flagelados encontrados nas fezes de C. lenti foram identificados provisoriamente como parasita de morcegos, Trypanosoma cruzi marinkellei.
Pei Jiang; Hu Li; Fan Song; Yao Cai; Jianyun Wang; Jinpeng Liu; Wanzhi Cai
Most assassin bugs are predators that act as important natural enemies of insect pests. Mitochondrial (mt) genomes of these insects are double-strand circular DNAs that encode 37 genes. In the present study, we explore the duplication and rearrangement of tRNA genes in the mt genome of Reduvius tenebrosus, the first mt genome from the subfamily Reduviinae. The gene order rearranges from CR (control region)-trnI-trnQ-trnM-ND2 to CR-trnQ-trnI2-trnI1-trnM-ND2. We identified 23 tRNA genes, includ...
Full Text Available We examined changes in the array of antennal sensilla of three species of Triatominae (Triatoma infestans, Rhodnius prolixus, and R. pallescens following their establishment for different periods in laboratory culture. In each case, the laboratory colonies were compared with conspecific samples taken directly from the field, by quantitative analysis of the sensilla arrays on the three distal segments of the antenna in terms of the densities of three types of chemoreceptors (basiconics and thick and thin walled trichoids and one type of mechanoreceptor (bristles. Sensilla densities were compared by ANOVA or non-parametric tests, and by multivariate discriminant analysis. Strains of the same species reared in different laboratories showed significant differences in their sensilla arrays, especially when compared to field-collected material from the same geographic origin. A Bolivian strain of T. infestans reared in the laboratory for 15 years and fed at monthly intervals, showed greatest differences from its conspecific wild forms, especially in terms of reductions in the number of chemoreceptors. By contrast, an Argentine strain of T. infestans reared for 25 years in the laboratory and fed weekly, showed a relative increase in the density of mechanoreceptors. A Colombian strain of R. prolixus reared for 20 years and fed weekly or fortnightly, showed only modest differences in the sensilla array when compared to its wild populations from the same area. However, a Colombian strain of R. pallescens reared for 12 years and fed fortnightly, did show highly significant reductions in one form of chemoreceptor compared to its conspecific wild populations. For all populations, multivariate analysis clearly discriminated between laboratory and field collected specimens, suggesting that artificial rearing can lead to modifications in the sensory array. This not only supports the idea of morphological plasticity in these species, but also suggests caution in the use of long-established laboratory material for experimental studies designed to extrapolate the natural behaviour and physiology of these species.
Full Text Available Los flebotominos y los triatominos son insectos hematófagos. Buena parte de los primeros transmiten leishmaniasis y los segundos la enfermedad de Chagas o tripanosomiasis americana. Con técnicas como trampas de luz, cebo humano, red entomológica, y búsqueda en sitios de reposo, se capturaron flebotominos y triatominos en 12 localidades rurales colombianas (de las que se dan las alturas sobre el nivel del mar y sus formaciones ecológicas de los siguientes departamentos: Cauca (municipios: Guapi, Popayán; Risaralda (Guática, La Virginia, Pereira, Pueblo Rico; y Valle del Cauca (Buenaventura, Cali, Calima o Darién. Sólo en Cali las capturas se hicieron en la zona urbana. Se colectaron 21 especies o subespecies de flebotominos y dos de triatominos. Tanto de los unos como de los otros se establecen nuevos registros que amplían la distribución geográfica de estos insectos en Colombia. Se discuten sus relaciones en la transmisión de enfermedades.
Oscherov Elena B.
Full Text Available Se realizó el seguimiento longitudinal de cuatro cohortes de 100 huevos cada una. Los insectos fueron criados a 28°C ± 3°C y 63 % ± 10% de humedad relativa, y alimentados cada siete días sobre gallina (Gallus domesticus, durante 40 min. Las cohortes fueron controladas una vez por semana. Se observó un valor constante de supervivencia en las cuatro cohortes, sin picos importantes. La expectativa de vida de los machos, en promedio, fue de 37,4 semanas y la de las hembras 36,8. El tiempo generacional demandó 61,7 semanas. La tasa reproductiva neta indica que esta población se incrementará 143,3 veces con cada generación. La tasa intrínseca de crecimiento natural fue de 0,082 por semana. El máximo valor reproductivo se verificó, en promedio, a la tercer semana del ingreso al estado adulto. La distribución estable de edades de T. sordida sería de 32% huevos, 26% ninfas de primer estadio, 19% ninfas de segundo estadio, 13% ninfas de tercer estadio, 6% ninfas de cuarto estadio, 3% ninfas de quinto estadio y 1% de adultos. Es la primera cita para Argentina sobre la tabla de vida de T. sordida. El análisis de estos parámetros permite considerar que esta especie se comporta como "K estratega", en condiciones experimentales.
Rodríguez-Planes, L I; Vazquez-Prokopec, G M; Cecere, M C; Canale, D M; Gürtler, R E
The control of nondomiciliated triatomine species adapted to peridomestic habitats represents a challenge because they are connected to sylvatic colonies, and pyrethroid insecticides have limited effects outdoors. The effects of residual insecticide spraying have rarely been assessed on secondary triatomines. Triatoma garciabesi (Carcavallo, Martinez, Cichero, Prosen & Ronderos, 1967) is a nontarget vector that inhabits the dry western Chaco region, and a member of the Triatoma sordida Stål 1859 complex. Little is known on the capacity of T. garciabesi to invade and establish viable domestic or peridomestic colonies, and on its response to residual insecticide sprays directed against Triatoma infestans Klug 1834. The presence and abundance of triatomines were assessed by timed manual collections annually or biannually (spring and fall) during 10 yr after a community-wide insecticide spraying campaign and selective insecticide sprays directed against T. infestans in a rural village of northwestern Argentina. T. garciabesi mainly occupied peridomestic habitats associated with chickens, and was unable to colonize human sleeping quarters. Trees with chickens occurred in nearly all houses and were infested in >25% of the occasions. The abundance of bugs at house-compound level was best explained by a generalized estimating equation model that included selective insecticide sprays during the previous semester (negative effects), chicken abundance (positive effects), seasonality, and their interactions. Our results suggest that insecticide applications targeting T. infestans affected the abundance of T. garciabesi, and reduced the likelihood of future infestation. PMID:26490000
David Eladio Gorla
Full Text Available Goat production is an important economic activity for rural communities in the Gran Chaco of Argentina. Goat corrals are important for the survival of peridomestic populations of Triatoma infestans. This study evaluated the impact of modifying the traditional structure of goat corrals on T. infestans populations and goat productivity in the region of Los Llanos (La Rioja. Thirty-nine experimental corrals were constructed and 57 traditional corrals were used as controls. We evaluated the infestations of the control and experimental corrals for five years following construction of the structures. The results showed that the new structures did not prevent the colonization, although it enhanced the detection of infestation at low densities of T. infestans. No significant difference was found in T. infestans population abundance between control and experimental corrals, probably because of the different detectability in the two types of structures, especially among the small nymphs. Although goat productivity average was higher in experimental than in control corrals, no significant difference was found because of high variability. The new structures can be used as a complement to promote the development of rural communities. Acceptability and adoption of the new corrals by the owners was high, as the enclosures offered better protection for the goats, increased growth of kids and facilitated herd handling.
Megaselia scalaris (Loew) is a cosmopolitan and synanthropic scuttle fly, eclectic in its feeding habits and acts as detritivore, parasite, facultative parasite, and parasitoid. Here we report for the first time M. scalaris infesting laboratory colonies of Triatoma brasiliensis Neiva, the most important Chagas disease vector in semiarid areas of Brazil. M. scalaris larvae were found feeding inside bugs; pupae were found in the esophagus and intestinal regions of T. brasiliensis through dissection. Other relevant information about this finding is also described in this note, including some preventive measures to avoid laboratory colonies infestations. (author)
Costa, Jane; Almeida, Carlos E.; Esperanca, Gleidson M.; Morales, Ninive [Instituto Oswaldo Cruz (FIOCRUZ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept.de Entomologia. Lab. da Colecao Entomologica; Mallet, Jacenir R. dos S.; Goncalves, Teresa C.M. [Instituto Oswaldo Cruz (FIOCRUZ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. Transmissores de Leishmanioses. Nucleo de Ultraestrutura; Prado, Angelo P. do [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia. Dept. de Parasitologia
Megaselia scalaris (Loew) is a cosmopolitan and synanthropic scuttle fly, eclectic in its feeding habits and acts as detritivore, parasite, facultative parasite, and parasitoid. Here we report for the first time M. scalaris infesting laboratory colonies of Triatoma brasiliensis Neiva, the most important Chagas disease vector in semiarid areas of Brazil. M. scalaris larvae were found feeding inside bugs; pupae were found in the esophagus and intestinal regions of T. brasiliensis through dissection. Other relevant information about this finding is also described in this note, including some preventive measures to avoid laboratory colonies infestations. (author)
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Trypanosoma cruzi-infected specimens of Triatoma costalimai have been detected in domiciliary units of Central Brazil, thereby maintaining the potential risk of vectorial transmission of Chagas disease. The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence and natural infection of T. costalimai in different environments (gallery forest, dry forest and peridomicile and climatic seasons (wet and dry, in the municipality of Mambaí, State of Goiás, Brazil. METHODS: Triatomines were captured in October 2010 and in June 2011, employing two different methods (manual capture and mouse-baited adhesive traps. The insects were later separated by sex and nymphal stage, counted and examined parasitologically by abdominal compression and microscopic analysis of feces. RESULTS: Triatoma costalimai was found in three environments and in the two seasons studied. Overall, capture success of 900 traps and 60 blocks of rocks inspected was 5.8% and 11.7%, respectively. The occurrence of T. costalimai was higher among rocks in the peridomicile, where 97% of the 131 specimens were captured. The proportion of nymphs (98% was much higher than that of adults, which were only detected in peridomicile. Most (95% insects were captured during the wet season, with predominance of early-stage nymphs. None of the 43 specimens examined were infected by trypanosomatids. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate a greater occurrence of T. costalimai in peridomiciliary environments and during the wet season in Mambaí, Goiás, highlighting the synanthropic behavior of this triatomine species in one area of the Brazilian savanna and the importance of entomological surveillance.
Juliana Chedid Nogared Rossi
Full Text Available This study estimates the factors of artificial environments (houses and peridomestic areas associated with Triatoma sordida occurrence. Manual searches for triatomines were performed in 136 domiciliary units (DUs in two rural localities of Central-West Brazil. For each DU, 32 structural, 23 biotic and 28 management variables were obtained. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed in order to identify statistically significant variables associated with occurrence of T. sordida in the study areas. A total of 1,057 specimens (99% in peridomiciles, mainly chicken coops of T. sordida were collected from 63 DUs (infestation: 47%; density: ~8 specimens/DU; crowding: ~17 specimens/infested DU; colonisation: 81%. Only six (0.6% out of 945 specimens examined were infected with Trypanosoma cruzi. The final adjusted logistic regression model indicated that the probability of T. sordida occurrence was higher in DU with wooden chicken coops, presence of > 30 animals in wooden corrals, presence of wood piles and presence of food storeroom. The results show the persistence of T. sordida in peridomestic habitats in rural localities of Central-West Brazil. However, the observed low intradomestic colonisation and minimal triatomine infection rates indicate that T. sordida has low potential to sustain high rates of T. cruzi transmission to residents of these localities.
E J Màrquez; C I Saldamando-Benjumea
Habitat change in Rhodnius spp may represent an environmental challenge for the development of the species, particularly when feeding frequency and population density vary in nature. To estimate the effect of these variables in stability on development, the degree of directional asymmetry (DA) and fluctuating asymmetry (FA) in the wing size and shape of R. prolixus and R. robustus–like were measured under laboratory controlled conditions. DA and FA in wing size and shape were significant in both species, but their variation patterns showed both inter-specific and sexual dimorphic differences in FA of wing size and shape induced by nutrition stress. These results suggest different abilities of the genotypes and sexes of two sylvatic and domestic genotypes of Rhodnius to buffer these stress conditions. However, both species showed non-significant differences in the levels of FA between treatments that simulated sylvan vs domestic conditions, indicating that the developmental noise did not explain the variation in wing size and shape found in previous studies. Thus, this result confirm that the variation in wing size and shape in response to treatments constitute a plastic response of these genotypes to population density and feeding frequency.
Full Text Available The reduviid predators Rhynocoris marginatus (Fab. and Catamirus brevipennis (Servile use their venoms to paralyze their preys. We detected the antibacterial activity of R. marginatus and C. brevipennis venoms against seven Gram-negative and four Gram-positive bacteria by using the disc diffusion method. Rhynocoris marginatus venom exhibited antibacterial activity against four Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris, Salmonella typhimurium and one Gram-positive (Streptococcus pyogenes. Catamirus brevipennis venom showed antibacterial activity against six Gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus vulgaris, and Salmonella typhimurium and three Gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus sphaericus bacteria. Both C. brevipennis (90.91% and R. marginatus (45.45% venoms were more effective against Gram-negative bacteria (80% and 70% for R. marginatus and C. brevipennis, respectively. The venoms of both reduviid predators are composed of low molecular weight proteins (7-33 kD.
Full Text Available The aim of the work was to investigate the pattern of chemoreceptor sensilla in adults and fifth stage nymphs of Rhodnius prolixus, R. neglectus, Triatoma infestans and T. sordida in order to study differences and similarities between genera and species. Three types of sensilla were analyzed by light microscopy: thin-walled trichoidea, thick-walled trichoidea and basiconica. The number of sensilla of each three types were counted. The length of the antennal segments were also used as a variable for the analysis. The statistical analysis showed that the number of these antennal chemoreceptors had significant differences between species and between adults and nymphs of each species. Discriminant analysis separates incompletely the fifth stage nymphs of the four species and showed similarity between them. Discriminant analysis performed with 12 variables of the antennae, allowed a complete separation of the adults of the four species.
José Alejandro Martínez-Ibarra
Full Text Available Several biological parameters related to the Triatoma mexicana life-cycle were evaluated in this study. Three cohorts were maintained under different combinations of temperature and relative humidity (RH: 25ºC/50% RH; 25ºC/75% RH; and 30ºC/75% RH. Observed hatching rates varied from 49-57.5% whereas the average time of hatching varied from 19.5-22.7 days. In the three cohorts studied, the mean time-lapse between presentation of the blood meal and the beginning of feeding was less than 5 min in all instars; the mean feeding time was longer than 10 min in all the instars; the post-feed defecation delay was over 10 min in all the instars. Less than 50% of nymphs in each cohort completed the cycle and the average time from 1st instar nymph to adult was more than 255 days for the three cohorts. The number of blood meals before molt at each nymphal instar varied from 1-9. Our results appear to indicate a lack of influence of temperature and RH on the biological parameters of T. mexicana that were studied, which could reflect the adaptation capacity of this species. We also conclude that T. mexicana can not be considered an effective transmitter of Trypanosoma cruzi to human populations in areas where this species is currently present.
Díaz, Sebastián; Triana-Chávez, Omar; Gómez-Palacio, Andrés
Molecular systematics is a remarkable approach for understanding the taxonomic traits and allows the exploration of the inter-population dynamics of several species in the Triatominae subfamily that are involved in Trypanosoma cruzi transmission. Compared to other relevant species that transmit vector-borne diseases, such as some species of the Diptera, there are relatively few nuclear genetic markers available for systematic studies in the Triatominae subfamily. Molecular systematic studies performed on Triatominae are based on mitochondrial gene fragments and, less frequently, on nuclear ribosomal genes or spacers. Due to the fact that these markers can occasionally present problems such as nuclear mitochondrial genes (NUMTs) or intra-genomic variation for high gene copy numbers, it is necessary to use additional nuclear markers to more reliably address the molecular evolution of Triatominae. In this study, we performed phylogenetic analysis using the nuclear elongation factor-1 alpha (EF-1α) gene in individuals from 12 species belonging to the Triatomini and Rhodniini tribes. Genetic diversities and phylogenetic topologies were compared with those obtained for the mitochondrial 16S rRNA and Cytochrome b (cyt b) genes, as well as for the D2 variable region of the ribosomal 28S rRNA gene. These results indicate that the EF-1α marker exhibits an intermediate level of diversity compared to mitochondrial and nuclear ribosomal genes, and that phylogenetic analysis based on EF-1α is highly informative for resolving deep phylogenetic relationships in Triatominae, such as tribe or genera. PMID:27268149
Rolón, Miriam; Vega, María Celeste; Román, Fabiola; Gómez, Ana; Rojas de Arias, Antonieta
In the Gran Chaco region, control of Triatoma infestans has been limited by persistent domestic infestations despite the efforts of the Vector Control Services. In Paraguay, this region is the highest endemic area in the country, showing high levels of indoor and outdoor infestation. Although sylvatic T. infestans have been found in the Bolivian and Argentine Chaco, similar searches for sylvatic populations of this species in Paraguay had been unsuccessful over the last 20 years. Here we present a new approach to detecting sylvatic Triatominae, using a trained dog, which has successfully confirmed sylvatic populations of T. infestans and other triatomine species in Paraguay. A total of 22 specimens corresponding to dark morph forms of T. infestans were collected, and 14 were confirmed as T. infestans by the mitochondrial cytochrome B gene analysis. Through this analysis, one of which were previously reported and a second that was a new haplotype. Triatomines were captured from amongst vegetation such as dry branches and hollows trees of different species such Aspidosperma quebracho-blanco, Bulnesia sarmientoi and Stetsonia coryne. The colonies found have been small and without apparent infection with Trypanosoma cruzi. During the study, Triatoma sordida and Triatoma guasayana have also been found in ecotopes close to those of T. infestans. PMID:21572522
José Alejandro Martínez-Ibarra
Full Text Available The values of biological parameters related to hatching, lifespan, the number of blood meals between moults, mortality, time lapse before the beginning of feeding, feeding time and defecation delay for each instar of three Mexican-American species of Triatominae, Triatoma recurva, Triatoma protracta (former subspecies protracta and Triatoma rubida (former subspecies uhleri, were evaluated and compared. No significant (p > 0.05 differences were recorded among the three species with respect to the average time required to hatch. This time was approximately 19 days. The average egg-to-adult development time was significantly (p < 0.05 shorter for T. rubida. The number of blood meals at each nymphal instar varied from one-five for each species. The mortality rates were higher for the first-instar nymphs of the three species studied. The mean time lapse before the beginning of feeding was between 0.3-3 min for most nymphs of all instars of each species studied. The mean feeding time was the longest for T. recurva, followed by T. protracta. The defecation delay was less than 10 min for T. recurva and T. rubida. Given these results, only T. rubida should be considered an important potential vector of Trypanosoma cruzi transmission to humans in areas of Mexico where these species exist, whereas T. recurva and T. protracta would be of secondary importance.
Fernando Braga Stehling Dias
Full Text Available Introduction For the first time we provide the description of the melanic (dark morphotype of Rhodnius nasutus and determine the pattern of genetic inheritance for this characteristic. Methods Dark morph R. nasutus specimens were crossbred with standard (typically patterned R. nasutus. Results We present the first occurrence of the melanic morphotype in the genus Rhodnius. The crossbreeding results demonstrate that the inheritance pattern of this characteristic follows Mendel's simple laws of segregation and an independent assortment of alleles. Conclusions Phenotypic variation of R. nasutus reinforces the heterogeneity found in the Triatominae. Descriptions of new species in this subfamily require rigorous validation criteria.
Pereira-Lourenço, Ariane S.; Santos-Mallet, Jacenir R.; Freitas, Simone P. C.
The present study focused on spermatophore structure, transfer, and subsequent destination inside bloodfeeding females of the species Triatoma infestans and Rhodnius neglectus. The morphology of the spermatophore differed between the species studied, such that in T. infestans, the shape was ovaloid, whereas in R. neglectus, the shape resembled a rod. Structures' spine-like cuticulars distributed across the inner surface of the vagina of both species were observed; however, the role of these cuticulars is unknown in Triatominae. In both species, there was an opening in the spermatophore exactly where the common oviduct is connected, thereby making it possible to confirm that the process of spermatozoid migration takes place through this opening. The results obtained show that the spermatophores of T. infestans and R. neglectus differ in size, shape, and structure. Therefore, they can be used as taxonomic markers and may provide information regarding physiology and evolution. PMID:23958911
Rodrigo Gurgel-Gonçalves; César Augusto Cuba Cuba
Psammolestes tertius Lent & Jurberg, 1965 is a sylvatic triatomine bug species that occurs in thornbird nests in Brazil. We studied infestation of 527 nests of Phacellodomus rufifrons Wied, 1821 and Phacellodomus ruber Vieillot, 1817 by P. tertius in eight Brazilian states across the Cerrado and Caatinga ecoregions. Psammolestes tertius occurred in 44% of the nests, mainly in those of P. ruber. Overall, 3,261 specimens (52% nymphs) were captured, with an average of 14 bugs per infested nest (...
Full Text Available The epithelial cells of Panstrongylus megistus male accessory glands (MAG present ultrastructural characteristics of a secretory cell. Their secretory products are accumulated in the lumen of the four MAG lobes. During the first 8 days of adult life a strong secretion activity occurs, accumulating enough material to produce the first spermatophore. Cerebral neurosecretions as well as juvenile hormone are both involved in MAG secretory activity regulation. Juvenile hormone seems to be the responsible for the stimulation of most protein synthesis in male accessory glands. Cerebral neurosecretion seems to be necessary to stimulate juvenile hormone production and release by the corpus allatum. Furthermore, neurosecretion is required for some polypeptides synthesis by MAG. Although topic application of precocene II to adult males does not reproduce the same effects on MAG as does allatectomy, this compound causes strong reduction on male reproductive capacity.
Grasielle Caldas D'Ávila Pessoa
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Triatoma brasiliensis is the species of greatest epidemiological relevance in the semi-arid region of Brazil. This species is predominantly found in domestic environments, and it has the ability to build large colonies with high levels of natural infection via Trypanosoma cruzi. Thus, T. brasiliensis is one of the most efficient transmitters of Chagas disease (CD to humans. Despite household spraying with residual insecticides, many areas report persistent reinfestations for reasons that remain poorly understood. Therefore, this study sought to characterize the toxicological profile of deltamethrin in T. brasiliensis from areas with persistent reinfestation in State of Ceará, Brazil. METHODS: The susceptibility reference lineage (SRL was derived from Umari. Serial dilutions of deltamethrin were prepared and applied to the dorsal abdomen of first instar nymphs. The control group received only pure acetone. Mortality was evaluated after 72h. Qualitative tests assessed mortality in response to a diagnostic dose of 1xLD99 (0.851 nanograms of active ingredient per treated nymph of the SRL. RESULTS: The susceptibility profile characterization of the T. brasiliensis populations revealed 50% resistance ratios (RR50 that ranged from 0.32 to 1.21. The percentage of mortality in response to the diagnostic dose was 100%. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated that T. brasiliensis was highly susceptible to deltamethrin. The control difficulties found might be related to the recolonization of the triatomines originating from neighboring environments and the possible operational failures related to the process of spraying that enabled specimens less susceptible to deltamethrin to survive.
Ricardo Marroquín M; Silvia Bor A; M.Carlota Monroy E
A population of 216 specimens of Stenocereus eichlamii (Cactaceae,Subfamily Cereoideae) was surveyed for Triatoma ryckmani (vector of Chagas disease)in a one hectare plot of semiarid habitat in Guatemala. Out of 44 plants that had dead and dry sections,24 plants had a total of 103 specimens of T.ryckmani .In comparison with other areas of Guatemala,T.ryckmani is well established in the semiarid ecosystem (Infestation index 54.5,density =2.3 and crowding index 4.3).The insects were mainly foun...
Full Text Available Triatoma brasiliensis is considered one of the most important Chagas disease vectors being a widespread species in semiarid areas of northeastern Brazil. The species displays distinct chromatic patterns of the cuticle in different localities. Four populations were analyzed in this study: 1-Caicó, Rio Grande do Norte, it will be called the brasiliensis population; 2-Espinosa, Minas Gerais, the melanica population; 3-Petrolina, Pernambuco, the macromelasoma population, and 4-Juazeiro, Bahia, the darker one in overall cuticle coloration, the Juazeiro population. In order to differentiate the four populations of T. brasiliensis, a comparative morphological analysis of external genital structures and of eggs were carried out. The analysis of the male genital structures evidenced minor individual structural variations that did not correlate with chromatic differences or the geographical origins, emphasizing the importance of examining sufficiently large and representative samples before using minor genital variations for taxonomic diagnosis. By scanning electron microscopy of the egg exochorion, each chromatic population presented a distinct ornamentation pattern. The melanica population differed mainly from the other populations studied since it had about 40.6%, 69.6% and 76.6% more perforations, on each cell exochorion, than the brasiliensis, the Juazeiro and the macromelasoma populations respectively. In the melanica population the perforation layout is also peculiar, with densely distributed perforations over all the egg surface. Morphometric measures of the eggs showed statistically significant differences: the macromelasoma population presented the longest length (2.43 mm while the shortest was recorded in the brasiliensis population (2.29 mm.
Full Text Available An ecological control method, using environmental management operations, based on biological and behavioral characteristics of Triatoma dimidiata (Latreille, 1811, was implemented as a pilot project in an area of Costa Rica where the bug is prevalent. The sample was represented by 20 houses with peridomestic colonies (two also had indoor infestation, divided in two equivalent groups of 10 each. In one group we intervened the houses, i.e. all objects or materials that were serving as artificial ecotopes for the bugs were removed, and the second group was used as control houses. After a year of periodic follow up, it became evident that in those houses with a modified environment the number of insects had decreased notoriously even after the first visits and this was more evident after a period of 12.5 to 13.5 months in which no insects were detected in eight of the houses. It also became clear that in this group of houses, recolonization by wild bugs from the surrounding areas, became more difficult, probably due to the absence of protection from bug predators. In the control houses, with the exception of three in which the inhabitants decided to intervene on their own, and another house with a peculiar situation, the insect populations remained the same or even showed a tendency to increase, as confirmed at the end of the experiment. We believe that the method is feasible, low costing and non contaminating. It could be used successfully in other places where T. dimidiata is common and also in countries where other species colonize peridomestic areas of homes. Environmental management of this kind should seek the participation of the members of the communities, in order to make it a more permanent control measure.
Oliveira, J; Alevi, K C C; Fonseca, E O L; Souza, O M F; Santos, C G S; Azeredo-Oliveira, M T V; da Rosa, J A
This paper reports on the first occurrence of Psammolestes tertius in the Chapada Diamantina region, located in the city of Seabra, Bahia State, in northeastern Brazil. Following an active search, 24 P. tertius specimens were collected from Phacellodomus rufifrons (rufous-fronted thornbird) nests. The insects did not present any symptoms of infection by Trypanosoma cruzi. P. tertius males were cytogenetically analyzed, and the results were compared with those of other specimens from the Brazilian State of Ceará. Triatomines from both locations presented the same cytogenetic characteristics: 22 chromosomes, little variation in the size of the autosomes, Y chromosomes that were larger than the X chromosomes, a chromocenter formed only by the sex chromosomes during prophase, and autosomes lacking constitutive heterochromatin. However, it is important to note that this species shows intraspecific chromosomal variation. In light of the results obtained, it is recommended that more studies be performed to characterize P. tertius. These studies will be particularly helpful in understanding this species in ecological, biological, biogeographical, and phylogenetic terms. PMID:27420943
Carlos Eduardo Almeida
Full Text Available Data from the Chagas Disease Control Program indicate a growing domiciliary and peridomiciliary invasion of Triatoma rubrovaria in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, where it has become the most frequent triatomine species captured there since the control of T. infestans. Bionomic characteristics that could influence the vectorial capacity of T. rubrovaria as vector of Trypanosoma cruzi were evaluated: patterns of (i feeding, (ii defecation, and (iii resistance to starvation, using insects fed on mice. Fifty three percent of the females showed a defecation pattern conducive to chagasic transmission, defecating either on or near the bite site. The averages of the resistance to starvation varied from 48.1 to 179 days, for the first and fifth nymphal stages, respectively. Our study shows that with respect to the patterns of feeding, defecation and resistance to fasting, T. rubrovaria presented similar rates to the ones observed for other effective vector species, such as T. infestans. Thus, based on our studies we conclude that T. rubrovaria has biological characteristics that can positively influence its capacity to become infected and transmit T. cruzi, and also to keep residual populations after chemical control interventions.
Psyllids (Hemiptera: Pyslloidea) harbor bacterial symbionts in specialized organs called bacteriomes. Bacteriomes may be subject to manipulation to control psyllid pests including Bactericera cockerelli (Sulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae) and Cacopsylla pyricola (Forster) (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) if the bi...
The potato psyllid, Bactericera (= Paratrioza) cockerelli (Šulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae), is a major pest of potato. We examined the role of chemical signals in sex attraction, assessing male and female response to male- and female-produced volatile chemicals. In laboratory olfactometer assays, pot...
Full Text Available Se amplía la distribución de Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae para el Noroeste Argentino.The distribution of Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae is expanded to North West Argentina.
Ruiz, José L.
Full Text Available A species of the genus Tropinota Mulsant, 1842, T. iec sp. n., is described using specimens from northwestern Morocco (region of Tangier-Tetouan. This new species is included in subgenus Epicometis Burmeister, 1842, because it shows the main diagnostic characters of the subgenus: pronotum without smooth areas and 5th interstria not strongly elevated as a keel and not bifurcated at the base. Diagnostic traits of T. iec sp. n. are defined, and differential characters with respect to all other species of Epicometis discussed. Based on morphological traits, the closest species to T. iec sp. n. is Tropinota (Epicometis hirta (Poda von Neuhaus, 1761. Tropinota iec sp. n. differs from T. hirta in tegument shine, density of corporal pilosity, pronotal and elytral punctuation, tarsal length, punctuation of the mesosternal plate, and also in the structure of the aedeagus, with parameri clearly widening along the apical region in T. iec. Main morphological differences between the new species and the other two species of Tropinota inhabiting northern Africa, T. (Tropinota squalida (Scopoli, 1763 and T. (Hemiopta bleusei (Bedel, 1896, are also indicated. Finally, the presence of T. hirta in Morocco, where possibly it has been confused with T. iec sp. n., is also discussed.Se describe una especie nueva del género Tropinota Mulsant, 1842 a partir de ejemplares del noroeste de Marruecos (región de Tánger-Tetuán: T. iec sp. n. Esta nueva especie se adscribe al subgénero Epicometis Burmeister, 1842 por presentar los principales caracteres diagnósticos del mismo: pronoto sin áreas lisas y la 5ª interestría no fuertemente elevada a modo de costilla ni bifurcada en la base. Se definen los rasgos diagnósticos de T. iec sp. n. y se discuten los caracteres diferenciales respecto a las demás especies de Epicometis. La especie morfológicamente más afín a T. iec sp. n. es Tropinota (Epicometis hirta (Poda von Neuhaus, 1761, de la que se segrega
A Metagenomics approach was used to identify unknown organisms which live in association with the glassy-winged sharpshooter, Homalodisca vitripennis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae). Metagenomics combines molecular biology and genetics to identify, and characterize genetic material from unique biological ...
Three new insect-infecting viruses, three endosymbiotic bacteria, a fungus, and a bacterial phage were discovered using a metagenomics approach to identify unknown organisms that live in association with the sharpshooter, Homalodisca vitripennis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae). The genetic composition of ...
Full Text Available A reduviid predator, Rhynocoris marginatus Fab. was reared at four different densities (25, 50, 75 and 100 on Corcyra cephalonica Stainton larvae. Fifty predators per rearing container were the suitable density for small scale laboratory rearing of this predator because this density had shorter nymphal developmental, preoviposition and incubation periods, female biased sex ratios minimum food requirements and maximum fecundity and hatchability. A life table was constructed in relation to the predator density. The net reproductive rate was higher in the 50 predator group and it decreased with an increase in the predator density. R. marginatus population doubling time (14.9 days was found to be higher in the 100 predator category and increased as the predator density decreased. Cost of production of this predator for field release was also lower when compared to insecticide or NPV application.
Full Text Available Triatoma nitida is a wild species occurring in Mexico and Central America. In order to establish the length of its life cycle and transmission potential, the following parameters were observed: the incubation period, the interval between hatching, or moulting, and the first feeding; the number of blood meals and the time of development. The time-lapse before the bite, the length of feeding and the interval between the end of the blood meal and defecation, as well as the site of defecation were also analyzed. Average length of the egg incubation period was 18.2 days. Time interval between the food source offering and the bite was less than 4 min in 60//of the analyzed cases, except in the fifth instar, where only 38//of the insects began feeding in less than 5 min. The blood-sucking period was long and rising until the fifth instar, decreasing in adults, and ranging from 1 min to 2 and a half hours. Only 26//of the blood meals were followed by defecations within 20 min. The average length of the life cycle was 897.5 days.
Abraham G. Cáceres; Lucinda Troyes; Antero Gonzáles-Pérez; Enrique Llontop; Carmen Bonilla; Murias; Nixón Heredia; César Velásquez; Carlos Yáñez
Objetivos: Conocer la diversidad de triatominos presentes en las provincias de San Ignacio y Jaén (Cajamarca) y en Bagua, Condorcanqui y Utcubamba (Amazonas). Materiales y métodos: los triatominos fueron capturados de mayo 1995 a diciembre 2000 en el intra y peridomicilios de las viviendas de las provincias de San Ignacio (5 distritos) y Jaén (10 distritos) del departamento de Cajamarca, y en 5 distritos de Bagua, un distrito de Condorcanqui y en seis de Utcubamba (Amazonas). El muestreo fue ...
Dalva A. Mello
Full Text Available In the present paper the life cycle of Triatoma sordida was studied. The mean length from egg to adult was 213 days. The mean length in days from each stage was: 24.3 (± 1.30 for the first. 32.8 (± 1.45 (2nd, 36.1 (± 1.50 (3rd, 44.6 (± 1.85 (4th and 52.0 (± 1.92 (5th. The mean egg incubation períod was 23.2 (± 1.40. Overall mortality was 18.8% and egg viability was 82.5%.Foi estudado no presente trabalho o ciclo biológico do Triatoma sordida A média da duração do ciclo de ovo a adulto foi 213 dias. A média de duração em dias para cada estágio foi 24,3 (± 1,30 para o primeiro, 32,8 (± 1,45 para o segundo, 36,1 (± 1,50 para o terceiro, 44,6 (± 1,85 para o quarto e 52,0 (± 1,92 para o quinto. A média do período de incubação dos ovos foi 23,2 (± 1,40. A mortalidade em todos ps estágios foi 18,8% e a viabilidade dos ovos foi 82,5%.
Full Text Available The prevention of Chagas disease is based primarily on the chemical control of Triatoma infestans (Klug using pyrethroid insecticides. However, high resistance levels, correlated with control failures, have been detected in Argentina and Bolivia. A previous study at our laboratory found that imidacloprid could serve as an alternative to pyrethroid insecticides. We studied the delayed toxicity of imidacloprid and the influence of the blood feeding condition of the insect on the toxicity of this insecticide; we also studied the effectiveness of various commercial imidacloprid formulations against a pyrethroid-resistant T. infestans population from the Gran Chaco ecoregion. Variations in the toxic effects of imidacloprid were not observed up to 72 h after exposure and were not found to depend on the blood feeding condition of susceptible and resistant individuals. Of the three different studied formulations of imidacloprid on glass and filter paper, only the spot-on formulation was effective. This formulation was applied to pigeons at doses of 1, 5, 20 and 40 mg/bird. The nymphs that fed on pigeons treated with 20 mg or 40 mg of the formulation showed a higher mortality rate than the control group one day and seven days post-treatment (p < 0.01. A spot-on formulation of imidacloprid was effective against pyrethroid-resistant T. infestans populations at the laboratory level.
Guillermo Carvajal; María Inés Picollo; Ariel Ceferino Toloza
The prevention of Chagas disease is based primarily on the chemical control of Triatoma infestans (Klug) using pyrethroid insecticides. However, high resistance levels, correlated with control failures, have been detected in Argentina and Bolivia. A previous study at our laboratory found that imidacloprid could serve as an alternative to pyrethroid insecticides. We studied the delayed toxicity of imidacloprid and the influence of the blood feeding condition of the insect on the toxicity of th...
Claudiney Biral dos Santos
Full Text Available In Brazil, the colonization of human dwellings by triatomines occurs in areas with native vegetation of the caatinga or cerrado types. In areas of Atlantic forest such as in the Brazilian state of Espírito Santo, there are no species adapted to live in human habitations. The few autochthonous cases of Chagas disease encountered in Espírito Santo have been attributed to adult specimens of Triatoma vitticeps that invade houses from forest remnants. In recent years, the entomology unit of the Espírito Santo State Health Secretariat has recorded nymphs infected with flagellates similar to Trypanosoma cruzi in rural localities. Entomological surveys were carried out in the residences and outbuildings in which the insects were found, and serological examinations for Chagas disease performed on the inhabitants. Four colonies were found, all associated with nests of opossums (Didelphis aurita, 111 specimens of T. vitticeps, and 159 eggs being collected. All the triatomines presented flagellates in their frass. Mice inoculated with the faeces presented trypomastigotes in the circulating blood and groups of amastigotes in the cardiac muscle fibres. Serological tests performed on the inhabitants were negative for T. cruzi. Even with the intense devastation of the forest in Espírito Santo, there are no indications of change in the sylvatic habits of T. vitticeps. Colonies of this insect associated with opossum nests would indicate an expansion of the sylvatic environment into the peridomicile.
Carrasco, Hernán J; Torrellas, Annhymariet; García, Carlos; Segovia, Maikell; Feliciangeli, M Dora
The collection of Panstrongylus geniculatus bugs by inhabitants of dwellings in Caracas city (Metropolitan District) and in the neighboring Miranda and Vargas Sates, Venezuela, allowed for the gathering of data on the potential role of this sylvatic triatomine bug as a vector of Chagas disease in this area. The natural infection by Trypanosoma cruzi was recorded by examining fresh and stained faeces of the bugs. Additionally, a random amplification of polymorphic DNA technique for parasite identification and group typing was employed. A dot-ELISA test was used to identify the gut content of the triatomine bugs with the aim of assessing and quantifying the vector-human contact. Sixty-seven specimens (76.1%) were positive to T. cruzi (identified as T. cruzi I) and 60.2% (53/88) gave a positive reaction to the human antiserum. The human blood-positive samples included mixed blood meals with domestic animals (dog, pig and cow) (9.4%) and with mouse (3.8%). The overall Human Blood Index, measured as the percentage of bugs whose gut contents reacted with human antiserum on the total numbers of bugs that reacted with all the antisera tested, was 98.1%. Almost 41% of the bugs that had fed on humans were also positive for T. cruzi. These data show that the feeding of P. geniculatus on humans does not seem to be accidental and that its rate of infection by T. cruzi is high in this area which is not regarded as endemic for Chagas disease by the National Control Programme. This situation is particularly striking because it occurs in and around Caracas, the capital city, where 20% of the whole population of Venezuela live, human migrations from endemic areas are continuous, people in the crowded shantytown as well as people living in high-quality country houses are equally at risk and the epidemiological cycle Didelphis marsupialis/Rattus rattus-P. geniculatus-human does appear to occur successfully. PMID:16019006
Almeida Carlos Eduardo
Full Text Available Triatoma rubrovaria has become the most frequently captured triatomine species after the control of T. infestans in the State of Rio Grande do Sul (RS, Brazil. Isoenzymatic and chromatic studies indicate the existence of, at least, two distinct phenotypic patterns of T. rubrovaria in RS. The geographic variation noted through molecular tools may also result in distinct profiles of vectorial potentiality. In order to enhance our understanding of the bionomic knowledge of T. rubrovaria separate batches of the species were collected from different municipalities of RS distant from 72 to 332 km: Santana do Livramento (natural ecotope, Santana do Livramento (artificial ecotope, Santiago (natural ecotope, Canguçu (peridomicile and Encruzilhada do Sul (natural ecotope. A total of 285 specimens were collected, 85 specimens kept sufficient fecal material in their guts for the precipitin analysis. The results indicated the food eclecticism for this species and the anti-rodent serum showed the highest positivity in most localities. From the total of analyzed samples, only 1.3% of unique positivity for human blood was registered, all of them for Santiago population. This reactivity to human blood may be associated to pastures activities in the field.
Maria Beatriz Araújo Silva
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The present study shows a descriptive analysis of triatomine occurrence and its natural Trypanosoma infection rates in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil, between 2006 and 2007. METHODS: Entomological data for the species, such as specimens captured in both intra and peridomiciles and natural infection index, were obtained via domiciliary capture in 147 municipalities from 11 Regional Managements of Health. The database was obtained from a sample of insects (100% infected and 20% non-infected sent to the Central Laboratory of Pernambuco. RESULTS: A total of 18,029 triatomines were analyzed from 138 municipalities of the state. Triatoma pseudomaculata (35%, Triatoma brasiliensis (34%, and Panstrongylus lutzi (25% were the most captured species. These species also showed a widespread geographical distribution in the state. Panstrongylus megistus, Triatoma petrocchiae, Triatoma melanocephala, Triatoma sordida, Rhodnius nasutus, Rhodnius neglectus, and Triatoma infestans showed more limited geographical distribution and lower relative abundance. The parasitological research showed that 8.8% of the triatomines were naturally infected with flagellates morphologically similar to Trypanosoma cruzi and 91.3% of them were captured inside houses in 113 municipalities. P. lutzi showed the highest rates of natural infection. CONCLUSIONS: After the control of T. infestans, synanthropic species, such as T. brasiliensis, T. pseudomaculata, and P. lutzi, maintain the risk of T. cruzi transmission to humans in the state of Pernambuco. These species are widely distributed, and infected specimens have been found inside houses. Thus, an enhanced surveillance and vector control of Chagas disease is recommended in Pernambuco.
Rita de Cássia Moreira de Souza
Full Text Available Introduction Biological collections are depositories of information on different species and contribute to the knowledge, protection, conservation and maintenance of biodiversity. Methods A list of triatomine species currently included in the Collection of Chagas Disease Vectors (FIOCRUZ-COLVEC was prepared from the database made available by the Reference Center on Environmental Information. Results COLVEC curatorship houses 4,778 specimens of triatomines, of which 811 come from other American countries (Argentina, Bolivia, Colombia, Costa Rica, the United States of America, Guatemala, Mexico, Peru, Uruguay and Venezuela and 3,967 are autochthonous from Brazil. Altogether, 56 species of Chagas disease vectors are represented in the COLVEC: two species of the Tribe Cavernicolini Usinger, 1944; fifteen species of the tribe Rhodniini Pinto, 1926, of which 12 are of the genus Rhodnius and 3 are of the genus Psamolestes; and 39 species of the tribe Triatomini Jeannel, 1919, represented by the genus Dipetalogaster, two species of the genus Eratyrus, two of the genus Meccus, seven of the genus Panstrongylus and 27 of the genus Triatoma. Conclusions This list provides important data on the diversity of triatomines currently included in COLVEC, including the expanded area of Panstrongylus lutzi occurrence in the municipalities Pirapora and Januária, State of Minas Gerais. The maintenance and expansion of the collection ensures the preservation of biodiversity and further studies.
Abstract Background Reduvius iopterus Perty 1834 was first described from the Rio Negro, Brazil. It was then included in Zelus Fabricius 1803 as Z. iopterus (Perty 1834) without critical examination of this action (Stål 1872).The Neotropical genus Aristathlus Bergroth 1913 was described to include two species from the Amazon basin: A. imperatorius Bergroth 1913 and A. regalis Bergroth 1913. New information Based on the original description and illustration of Reduvius iopterus, Aristathlus imperatorius is considered to be its junior synonym, with the resulting new combination: Aristathlus iopterus (Perty 1834). PMID:26175611
Fernando Braga Stehling Dias
Full Text Available The aim of this work is to present aspects related to the ecology of Rhodnius nasutus Stål, 1859 in palms from Chapada do Araripe in Ceará, Brazil. The following five species of palms were investigated: babaçu (Attalea speciosa, buriti (Mauritia flexuosa, carnaúba (Copernicia prunifera, catolé (Syagrus oleracea and macaúba-barriguda (Acrocomia intumescens. Fifth palms were dissected (10 specimens for each species. The overall infestation index was 86%, with a total of 521 triatomines collected. The Trypanosoma cruzi Chagas, 1909 Index was 16.8% and two insects presented mixed infection with Trypanosoma rangeli Tejera, 1920. A precipitin test showed that R. nasutus from palms of Chapada do Araripe are associated with opossum and bird although other possible bloodmeals were observed. Our results showing a high index of infestation of the palms as well as T. cruzi infection, the association of R. nasutus with the most diverse species of palms and proximity of these palms to houses demonstrate the importance of this area for sylvatic T. cruzi transmission and suggest the need for epidemiological surveillance in the region of the Chapada do Araripe.
Anita G Villacís
Full Text Available Rhodnius ecuadoriensis is the second most important vector of Chagas Disease (CD in Ecuador. The objective of this study was to describe (and compare the life cycle, the feeding and defecation patterns under laboratory conditions of two populations of this specie [from the provinces of Manabí (Coastal region and Loja (Andean region]. Egg-to-adult (n = 57 development took an average of 189.9 ± 20 (Manabí and 181.3 ± 6.4 days (Loja. Mortality rates were high among Lojan nymphs. Pre-feeding time (from contact with host to feeding initiation ranged from 4 min 42 s [nymph I (NI] to 8 min 30 s (male; feeding time ranged from 14 min 45 s (NI-28 min 25 s (male (Manabí and from 15 min 25 s (NI-28 min 57 s (nymph V (Loja. The amount of blood ingested increased significantly with instar and was larger for Manabí specimens (p < 0.001. Defecation while feeding was observed in Manabí specimens from stage nymph III and in Lojan bugs from stage nymph IV. There was a gradual, age-related increase in the frequency of this behaviour in both populations. Our results suggest that R. ecuadoriensis has the bionomic traits of an efficient vector of Trypanosoma cruzi. Together with previous data on the capacity of this species to infest rural households, these results indicate that control of synanthropic R. ecuadoriensis populations in the coastal and Andean regions may have a significant impact for CD control in Ecuador and Northern Peru.
Carvajal, Guillermo; Picollo, María Inés; Toloza, Ariel Ceferino
The prevention of Chagas disease is based primarily on the chemical control of Triatoma infestans (Klug) using pyrethroid insecticides. However, high resistance levels, correlated with control failures, have been detected in Argentina and Bolivia. A previous study at our laboratory found that imidacloprid could serve as an alternative to pyrethroid insecticides. We studied the delayed toxicity of imidacloprid and the influence of the blood feeding condition of the insect on the toxicity of this insecticide; we also studied the effectiveness of various commercial imidacloprid formulations against a pyrethroid-resistant T. infestans population from the Gran Chaco ecoregion. Variations in the toxic effects of imidacloprid were not observed up to 72 h after exposure and were not found to depend on the blood feeding condition of susceptible and resistant individuals. Of the three different studied formulations of imidacloprid on glass and filter paper, only the spot-on formulation was effective. This formulation was applied to pigeons at doses of 1, 5, 20 and 40 mg/bird. The nymphs that fed on pigeons treated with 20 mg or 40 mg of the formulation showed a higher mortality rate than the control group one day and seven days post-treatment (p < 0.01). A spot-on formulation of imidacloprid was effective against pyrethroid-resistant T. infestans populations at the laboratory level. PMID:25141281
Marti, Gerardo A; Lastra, Claudia C López; Pelizza, Sebastian A; García, Juan J
A survey for entomopathogenic fungi of the Chagas disease vector Triatoma infestans was conducted in two provinces of Argentina from March-December 2003. Field-collected insects that died in the laboratory were individually maintained in moist chamber and incubated at 22 degrees C. Triatominae adults infected with the fungus Paecilomyces lilacinus were found at El Quebracho (27 degrees 34'S-64 degrees 31'W), Santiago del Estero province, Argentina, in December 2003. Paecilomyces lilacinus was cultured and isolated from infected insects in SDAY, PYG and MEA media. Pathogenicity tests were conducted and positive results were recorded. The median survival time (MST) of T. infestans exposed to a P. lilacinus conidial suspension was 12.8 days, and 100% mortality occurred at 30 days post-treatment. This is the first record of natural infection caused by P. lilacinus in T. infestans in the world. PMID:17123036
Taíza Almeida Batista
Full Text Available Ecological niche modelling was used to predict the potential geographical distribution of Rhodnius nasutus Stål and Rhodnius neglectus Lent, in Brazil and to investigate the niche divergence between these morphologically similar triatomine species. The distribution of R. neglectus covered mainly the cerrado of Central Brazil, but the prediction maps also revealed its occurrence in transitional areas within the caatinga, Pantanal and Amazon biomes. The potential distribution of R. nasutus covered the Northeastern Region of Brazil in the semi-arid caatinga and the Maranhão babaçu forests. Clear ecological niche differences between these species were observed. R. nasutus occurred more in warmer and drier areas than R. neglectus. In the principal component analysis PC1 was correlated with altitude and temperature (mainly temperature in the coldest and driest months and PC2 with vegetation index and precipitation. The prediction maps support potential areas of co-occurrence for these species in the Maranhão babaçu forests and in caatinga/cerrado transitional areas, mainly in state of Piaui. Entomologists engaged in Chagas disease vector surveillance should be aware that R. neglectus and R. nasutus can occur in the same localities of Northeastern Brazil. Thus, the identification of bugs in these areas should be improved by applying morphometrical and/or molecular methods.
Costa, Jane; Correia, Nathália Cordeiro; Neiva, Vanessa Lima; Gonçalves, Teresa Cristina Monte; Felix, Márcio
Triatoma brasiliensis macromelasoma is revalidated based on the results of previous multidisciplinary studies on the Triatoma brasiliensis complex, consisting of crossing experiments and morphological, biological, ecological and molecular analyses. These taxonomic tools showed the closest relationship between T. b. macromelasoma and Triatoma brasiliensis brasiliensis. T. b. macromelasoma is redescribed based on specimens collected in the type locality and specimens from a F1 colony. The complex now comprises T. b. brasiliensis, T. b. macromelasoma, Triatoma melanica, Triatoma juazeirensis and Triatoma sherlocki. An identification key for all members of the complex is presented. This detailed comparative study of the morphological features of T. b. macromelasoma and the remaining members of the complex corroborates results from multidisciplinary analyses, suggesting that the subspecific status is applicable. This subspecies can be distinguished by the following combination of features: a pronotum with 1+1 narrow brownish-yellow stripes on the submedian carinae, not attaining its apex, hemelytra with membrane cells darkened on the central portion and legs with an incomplete brownish-yellow ring on the apical half of the femora. Because the T. brasiliensis complex is of distinct epidemiological importance throughout its geographic distribution, a precise identification of its five members is important for monitoring and controlling actions against Chagas disease transmission. PMID:24037202
Abraham G Cáceres
Full Text Available Objetivos: Conocer la diversidad de triatominos presentes en las provincias de San Ignacio y Jaén (Cajamarca y en Bagua, Condorcanqui y Utcubamba (Amazonas. Materiales y métodos: los triatominos fueron capturados de mayo 1995 a diciembre 2000 en el intra y peridomicilios de las viviendas de las provincias de San Ignacio (5 distritos y Jaén (10 distritos del departamento de Cajamarca, y en 5 distritos de Bagua, un distrito de Condorcanqui y en seis de Utcubamba (Amazonas. El muestreo fue de 08:00 a 19:00 horas con alambre de 30 cm de largo, pinzas largas y linterna de mano. Resultados: se capturaron 5567 triatominos pertenecientes a cinco especies. Panstrongylus herreri fue la especie más predominante (94%. 90% del total de triatominos fueron capturados en ambientes intradomiciliarios. Se reporta Rhodnius robustus por primera vez para Amazonas. Ejemplares de R. ecuadoriensis y R. robustus, fueron colectados en intradomicilios en porcentajes mínimos en Sallique, provincia de Jaén (Cajamarca y Nieva, provincia de Condorcanqui (Amazonas. Panstrongylus geniculatus fue colectado en intradomicilios. Se reporta en ciertas localidades de La Coipa, Huarango y Namballe (San Ignacio; así como en Bellavista y Santa Rosa (Jaén y en Aramango, Copallín e Imaza (Bagua; además, en Jamalca, Cajaruro y Bagua Grande (Utcubamba. Panstrongylus chinai, especie silvestre con tendencia a domesticarse, se encontró en Santa Rosa, Bellavista, Chontalí y San José del Alto (Jaén y en Namballe, San Ignacio, La Coipa y Chirinos (San Ignacio. También se encontró en Cajaruro y Bagua Grande (Utcubamba. 90% de P. herreri fueron colectados en el interior de las viviendas. Para Cajamarca se ha colectado en Pomahuaca, Pucará, San José del Alto, Pirias, Bellavista, Santa Rosa, La Coipa y Huarango; mientras que para Amazonas en Aramango, Parco, Bagua Grande, Cajaruro y El Milagro.
Full Text Available A total of 797 specimens of wild adult triatomines, belonging to six species from the entomological collections of the Costa Rican National Biodiversity Institute, was studied from the standpoint of their relative abundance, as reflected by light traps, distribution in the country, seasonal variations and climatic and altitudinal preferences. Triatoma dimidiata was the most abundant species (32.9% of the total specimens, with a very extensive distribution in different ecological zones, being more common between 100 to 400 m above sea level mainly at the end of the dry season. T. dispar was the third in frequency (21.5%, with narrower distribution, more abundant between 600 to 800 m and scarce during the dry season. Panstrongylus geniculatus and P. rufotuberculatus, second and fourth in frequency (22.1% and 15.1%, respectively, were widely distributed on both the Pacific and Caribbean basins, the former being more common between 80 to 270 m all year round and the latter below 800 m mainly during the first semester. Eratyrus cuspidatus which represented only 4.9% of the insects, was also present on both basins mainly below 200 m with a tendency to be scarce during certain months of the year, and was found in all types of ecological zones. Finally, Rhodnius pallescens, the least abundant species (3.6% was restricted to very humid areas below 20 m, on the north side and Caribbean basin. With the exception of R. pallescens, males were more commonly found than females. Some epidemiological implications related to the six species are discussed.
Entomological Indices, Feeding Sources, and Molecular Identification of Triatoma phyllosoma (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) One of the Main Vectors of Chagas Disease in the Istmo de Tehuantepec, Oaxaca, Mexico
Villalobos, Guiehdani; Martínez-Hernández, Fernando; De La Torre, Patricia; Laclette, Juan Pedro; Espinoza, Bertha
The purpose of this study was to conduct an entomological analysis, determination of feeding sources, and molecular identification of triatomines in five communities of the Istmo de Tehuantepec, Oaxaca. The only found species in two of five searched communities (San Mateo del Mar and Tehuantepec City) was Triatoma phyllosoma. Colonization indices were high in both communities. In San Mateo del Mar, the insects were found indoors and in Tehuantepec City in peridomestic areas. The Trypanosoma c...
Entomological indices, feeding sources, and molecular identification of Triatoma phyllosoma (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) one of the main vectors of Chagas disease in the Istmo de Tehuantepec, Oaxaca, Mexico.
Villalobos, Guiehdani; Martínez-Hernández, Fernando; de la Torre, Patricia; Laclette, Juan Pedro; Espinoza, Bertha
The purpose of this study was to conduct an entomological analysis, determination of feeding sources, and molecular identification of triatomines in five communities of the Istmo de Tehuantepec, Oaxaca. The only found species in two of five searched communities (San Mateo del Mar and Tehuantepec City) was Triatoma phyllosoma. Colonization indices were high in both communities. In San Mateo del Mar, the insects were found indoors and in Tehuantepec City in peridomestic areas. The Trypanosoma cruzi infection indices were 2.1% in San Mateo del Mar and 39.4% in Tehuantepec City. This difference could be related to the high numbers of triatomine feeding on hens in the former community. In contrast, in Tehuantepec, dogs were the principal triatomine feeding sources. All nymphs and adults that were genetically analyzed belonged to the species T. phyllosoma. Low levels of genetic variation were found between vectors from both communities. PMID:21896810
Estrutura populacional da Balaenoptera bonaerensis (Burmeister (Cetacea, Balaenopteridae nas áreas de reprodução do Oceano Atlântico Sul Minke whale Balaenoptera bonaerensis (Burmeister (Cetacea, Balaenopteridae population structure in the breeding grounds off South Atlantic Ocean
Full Text Available Um estudo da composição dos grupos de baleias minke, Balaenoptera bonaerensis (Burmeister, 1867, capturadas nas águas de Costinha, Paraíba, Brasil, na época da caça comercial, foi realizado com o objetivo de conhecer a dinâmica dos principais parâmetros biológicos, assim como aspectos do comportamento reprodutivo desta espécie. Foram analisados dados da caça coletados pela Superintendência para o Desenvolvimento da Pesca e Companhia de Pesca Norte do Brasil acerca do tamanho e composição dos grupos, proporções sexuais e grau de maturidade das baleias capturadas entre os anos de 1975 a 1985. Os grupos encontrados nas águas de Costinha foram em geral de pequeno tamanho e compostos de animais de ambos os sexos, com predominância de fêmeas e animais maturos sexualmente. Os filhotes, as fêmeas lactantes e prenhes foram raramente encontrados. Esta população de baleias encontrava-se em maior número na costa da Paraíba entre os meses de setembro e outubro, principal período de concepção para a espécie, devendo ocorrer grande número de fecundações nesta área e período. A ausência de fêmeas prenhes ou lactantes e filhotes nesta população demonstra que os nascimentos não ocorrem nesta área. O encalhe e a avistagem de filhotes da baleia minke na costa leste da América do Sul (entre 25ºS e 40ºS sugere o nascimento dos filhotes em médias latitudes desta região, onde a temperatura da água é inferior à encontrada na costa do nordeste brasileiro. Desta forma há indícios de que existam distintas áreas para o nascimento de filhotes e o acasalamento da baleia minke nas águas do Oceano Atlântico Sul Ocidental. A poligamia é um comportamento reprodutivo apresentado pela baleia minke, tendo sido observado através da proporção sexual das capturas e da composição dos grupos formados apenas por animais maturos sexualmente nesta área de acasalamento.A group composition study of the minke whale, Balaenoptera
Albino M. Sakakibara
Full Text Available The genus Aspona Stål contains now only two species: A. bullata Stål, 1862 (= Aspona gibosa Fonseca & Diringshofen, 1969 syn. nov. = Taunaya gibbosa Remes-Lenicov, 1973 syn. nov. and A. quadrinodosa (Fonseca & Diringshofen, 1969 comb. nov. (formerly in Cyphotes Burmeister.O gênero Aspona Stål passa a ter apenas duas espécies: A. bullata Stål, 1862 (= Aspona gibosa Fonseca & Diringshofen, 1969 syn. nov. = Taunaya gibbosa Remes-Lenicov, 1973 syn. nov. e A. quadrinodosa (Fonseca & Diringshofen, 1969 comb. nov. (antes em Cyphotes Burmeister.
Estudo comparativo da genitália externa masculina de Triatoma neotomae Neiva, 1911 e Triatoma nitida Usinger, 1939 (Hemiptera, Reduviidae A comparative study of the male external genitalia of Triatoma neotomae Neiva, 1911 and Triatoma nitida Usinger, 1939 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae
Full Text Available The morphological comparative study of the phallus organs, of both species, shown five structures wich may be used as taxonomic characters. They are: parameres (Pa, median process pygophore (PrP, basal plate (EPbi, gonopore (PrG and endosoma process (PrEn.
A Triatoma maculata (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae population from Roraima, Amazon region, Brazil, has some bionomic characteristics of a potential Chagas disease vector Uma população de Triatoma maculata (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae proveniente de Roraima, Amazônia, Brasil, possui algumas características bionômicas de vetor potencial de doença de Chagas
José Francisco Luitgards-Moura
Full Text Available Even though Chagas disease is rare in the Brazilian Amazon, the conditions for the establishment of domiciliated cycles prevail in many areas where triatomines are of frequent occurrence. In Roraima, a previous serological and entomological survey in three agricultural settlements showed the existence of all transmission cycle elements, i.e., individuals infected by Trypanosoma cruzi, triatomine species previously found harboring T. cruzi in the broader Amazon region of neighboring countries and, domicile/ peridomicile conditions favorable to triatomine colonization. Triatoma maculata was the most frequent species, found in chicken houses in the peridomicile and sporadically within residences. Aiming to investigate the possibility of T. maculata to possess the potentiality to transmit T. cruzi in the area, bionomic characteristics were studied under laboratory conditions. These were feeding frequency, time for defecation after a blood meal, time elapsed in voluntary fasting pre- and pos-ecdysis, moulting time periods, pre-oviposition and oviposition periods and index of oviposition, incubation period, egg viability, longevity and mortality rate. Results show that the Passarão population of T. maculata should be considered a potential vector of T. cruzi since it shows a capacity to infest artificial ecotopes in the peridomicile, to carry out large number of meals during the nymphal cycle, to have a relatively short developmental cycle capable of producing 2.9 generations/year, to blood source eclecticism, to defecate immediately after the blood meal while still on the host and to the fact that has been previously found naturally infected by T.cruzi.A doença de Chagas é de rara ocorrência na Região Amazônica Brasileira, onde contudo as condições para o estabelecimento de ciclos domésticos existem. Um estudo previamente realizado em áreas de colonização agrícola no Estado de Roraima, mostrou a possibilidade de ciclos autóctones de transmissão virem a ocorrer uma vez que todos os elementos estavam lá presentes, indivíduos infectados por Trypanosoma cruzi, espécies de triatomíneos anteriormente descritas como infectadas por T. cruzi na Região Amazônica de países fronteiriços e, ambientes domiciliares e peri-domiciliares favoráveis à colonização de triatomíneos. Triatoma maculata foi a espécie mais frequentemente encontrada, tendo sido coletada em galinheiros no peridomicílio e esporadicamente nos domicílios. Visando investigar a potencialidade de T. maculata como espécie vetora na área, algumas características bionômicas foram estudadas em condições de laboratório incluindo freqüência de alimentação, tempo de defecação pós-prandial, tempo de jejum voluntário na pré- e na pós-ecdise, período inter-mudas, períodos de pré-oviposição e de oviposição, índice de oviposição, período de incubação, viabilidade dos ovos, índices de longevidade e de mortalidade. Os resultados mostraram que a população de T. maculata da Colônia Agrícola do Passarão deve ser considerada vetora em potencial do T. cruzi uma vez que mostrou capacidade de infestar ecótopos artificiais no peridomicílio, de se alimentar com freqüência durante o período ninfal, de possuir um ciclo de desenvolvimento relativamente curto com 2,9 gerações/ano, de possuir hábitos ecléticos de alimentação, de defecar imediatamente após a hematofagia quando ainda no hospedeiro e devido ao fato de ter sido previamente encontrada infectada por T. cruzi.
A genitália externa dos machos de sete espécies de Triatoma Laporte, 1832 da região Neártica (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae Male external genitalia in seven species of Triatoma Laporte, 1832 from neartic region (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae
Full Text Available Sete espécies da região neártica: Triatoma barberi Usinger, 1939; T. rubida (Uhler, 1894; T. gertaeckeri (Stal, 1859; T. lecticularia (Stal, 1859; T. protracta (Uhler, 1894; T. recurva (Stal, 1868 e T. sanguisuga (Leconte, 1855 foram analisadas comparativamente, tendo como enfoque as estruturas da genitália do macho: falosoma (Ph, suporte do falosoma (SPh, processo do endosoma (PrEn, vesica (V e aparelho articular (Apb. As estruturas fálicas se mostraram capazes de serem usadas como critério morfológico suplementar aos padrões atualmente usados, em taxonomia. Estas espécies silvestres são encontradas nos Estados Unidos e México, naturalmente infectadas pelo T. cruzi; algumas vivem no perdomicílio e outras eventualmente no domicílio, sem contudo colonizá-lo.Seven species from the neartic region, Triatoma barberi Usinger, 1939; T. rubida (Uhler, 1894; T. gerstaeckeri (Stal, 1859; T. lecticularia (Stal, 1859; T. protracta (Uhler, 1894; T. recurva (Stal, 1868 and T. sanguisuga (Leconte, 1855 were comparatively analysed with emphasis on the genital structures of the male bug: the phallosome (Ph, the phallosome struts (SPh, the endosoma process (PrEn, the vesica (V and the articulatory apparatus (Apb. The phallic structures were useful as a supplementary morphological criterion to the present taxonomical standards. These wild species are found naturally infected by Trypanosoma cruzi in the United States and Mexico. Some of them live outside human dwellings while other are occasionally domiciliary, although they do not colonize these homes.
Eficiência de alfacipermetrina e cipermetrina no controle de triatomíneos em Camalaú, no sul da Paraíba (Hemiptera: Reduviidae Efficiency of alphacyspermethrin and cypermethrin in the control of triatomine bugs in Camalaú, south of Paraíba (Hemiptera: Reduviidae
Carlos Brisola Marcondes
Full Text Available We sprayed, in three groups of Domiciliary Units, 10 and 15 g of alphacypermethrin and 31.3 g of cypermethrin per pump of 10 liters, equivaling, if applied on 250 [squared meters, respectiveliy, to 60 and 40 mg of a alphacypermethrin [per squared meter] and 125,2 mg of cypermethrin [per squared meter]. The invasion, colonization and cumulative indices in the houses and the positivity index in shelters near houses were very low and similar in the three groups, in the 15 months of evaluation, indicating that alphacypermethrin can replace cypermethrin. Triatoma infestans predominated in the Domiciliary Units before treatment and T. brasiliensis and T. pseudomaculata predominated after it.
Alterações biomorfogênicas causadas pela aplicação de precoceno II em ninfas de Triatoma infestans (Klug, 1834 (Hemiptera, reduviidae, triatominae Biomorphogenetic changes caused by the application or prococene II in nymphs of Triatoma infestans (klug, 1834 (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae
Full Text Available O precoceno II aplicado topicamente em ninfas de 4ª estádio, nas dosagens de 200, 300 e 400 micron-grama/1 micron-litro de acetona, proporcionou o aparecimento de adultóides, em diferentes percentagens com as seguintes características: tegumento alterado, aparelho bucal deformado, asas braquípteras, tarsos trímeros, ocelos, evidentes e genitália externa com estruturas desenvolvidas e deformadas; genitália interna em estágio intermediário entre ninfas de 4§ e 5§ estádios. Os adultóides apresentaram um período de sobrevivência inversamente proporcional à dosagem aplicada, variando de 3 a 22 dias, não tendo se alimentado devido as alterações.The morphogenetic effect of precocene II on 4th instar nymphs of Triatoma infestans was examined. Topical treatment with precocene II (200, 300 and 400 µg/nymph induced the formation of adultoids with the following characteristics; rudimentary wings, three segmented tarsi, ocelli, deformed genitalia and mouth-parts and testes with intermediary development. Precocene II also increases the duration of the molting cycle. The survival of the adultoid insects was related to the inverse of the applied doses. These data extend our knowledge of the action of precocene II on triatominae species.
The immature stages of Megamelus bellicus Remes Lenicov & Sosa (Hemiptera:Delphacidae) are described, keyed and illustrated. The descritpion of each stage was based on 24-h hatched nymphs from the laboratory colony. The main characters that distinguish the various stages are body size, color, number...
We examined the substrate-borne vibrational signals used in communication between the sexes in Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), a vector of huanglongbing (an economically devastating disease of citrus), in an anechoic chamber and an olfactometer. Males and females both primarily pro...
Full Text Available Tropical plants frequently live in association with ants that protect their foliage from defoliators. Among them, myrmecophytes have evolved mutualisms with a limited number of plant-ants that they shelter and feed, and, in return, benefit from some protection. Hirtella physophora (Chrysobalanaceae, for example, houses Allomerus decemarticulatus (Myrmicinae that build gallery-shaped traps to catch large prey. In French Guiana, we frequently observed the assassin bug Zelus annulosus (Reduviidae, Harpactorinae on the leaves of H. physophora. Here, we studied the distribution of Zelus annulosus among understory plants in the Guianese rainforest and found it only on pubescent plants, including H. Physophora, whether or not it was sheltering an A. decemarticulatus colony, but only rarely on other myrmecophytes. The relationship between Z. annulosus and its host plants is, then, also mutualistic, as the plant trichomes act as an enemy-free space protecting the nymphs from large predatory ants, while the nymphs protect their host-plants from herbivorous insects. Through their relationship with A. decemarticulatus colonies, Z. annulosus individuals are protected from army ants, while furnishing nothing in return. In those cases where H. physophora sheltered both an A. decemarticulatus colony and Z. annulosus nymphs, certain plant individuals repeatedly sheltered nymphs, indicating that female bugs may select not only pubescent plants but also particular H. physophora treelets having characteristics more favourable to the development of their progeny.
Full Text Available The definition of areas of endemism is central to studies of historical biogeography, and their interrelationships are fundamental questions. Consistent hypotheses for the evolution of Pentatomidae in the Neotropical region depend on the accuracy of the units employed in the analyses, which in the case of studies of historical biogeography, may be areas of endemism. In this study, the distribution patterns of 222 species, belonging to 14 Pentatomidae (Hemiptera genera, predominantly neotropical, were studied with the Analysis of Endemicity (NDM to identify possible areas of endemism and to correlate them to previously delimited areas. The search by areas of endemism was carried out using grid-cell units of 2.5° and 5° latitude-longitude. The analysis based on groupings of grid-cells of 2.5° of latitude-longitude allowed the identification of 51 areas of endemism, the consensus of these areas resulted in four clusters of grid-cells. The second analysis, with grid-cells units of 5° latitude-longitude, resulted in 109 areas of endemism. The flexible consensus employed resulted in 17 areas of endemism. The analyses were sensitive to the identification of areas of endemism in different scales in the Atlantic Forest. The Amazonian region was identified as a single area in the area of consensus, and its southeastern portion shares elements with the Chacoan and Paraná subregions. The distribution data of the taxa studied, with different units of analysis, did not allow the identification of individual areas of endemism for the Cerrado and Caatinga. The areas of endemism identified here should be seen as primary biogeographic hypotheses.
Cooper, W. Rodney; Garczynski, Stephen F.; Horton, David R.
Carsonella ruddii (Gamma Proteobacterium) is an obligate bacterial endosymbiont of psyllids that produces essential amino acids that are lacking in the insect’s diet. Accurate estimations of Carsonella populations are important to studies of Carsonella-psyllid interactions and to developing ways to target Carsonella for control of psyllid pests including pear psylla, Cacopsylla pyricola (Förster) (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) and potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Šulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae). ...
Culik, Mark P.; David S Martins; José A. Ventura; Wolff, Vera S.
Twenty-seven species of armored scale insects (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) are newly recorded from Espírito Santo, Brazil, and information on the host plants and geographic distribution of the 31 species of Diaspididae that have been identified in the State is provided. New plant host records are reported for 11 of the diaspidid species studied and results are discussed with respect to development of agriculture in this and similar areas with objectives of modernization and diversification.
The structure of the hind limbs and the kinematics of their movements that propel jumping in planthopper insects (Hemiptera, Auchenorrhyncha, Fulgoroidea, Issidae) were analysed. The propulsion for a jump was delivered by rapid movements of the hind legs that both move in the same plane beneath the body and parallel to its longitudinal axis, as revealed in high-speed sequences of images captured at rates up to 7500 images s(-1). The first and key movement was the depression of both trochantera about their coxae, powered by large depressor muscles in the thorax, accompanied by rapid extension of the tibiae about their femora. The initial movements of the two trochantera of the hind legs were synchronised to within 0.03 ms. The hind legs are only 20% longer than the front and middle legs, represent 65% of the body length, and have a ratio of 1.8 relative to the cube root of the body mass. The two hind coxae have a different structure to those in frog- and leafhoppers. They are fused at the mid-line, covered ventrally by transparent cuticle, and each is fixed laterally to a part of the internal skeleton called the pleural arch that extends to the articulation of a hind wing. A small and pointed, ventral coxal protrusion covered in microtrichia engages with a raised, smooth, white patch on a dorsal femur when a hind leg is levated (cocked) in preparation for a jump. In the best jumps by a male Issus, the body was accelerated in 0.8 ms to a take-off velocity of 5.5 m s(-1), was subjected to a force of 719 g and was displaced a horizontal distance of 1.1 m. This performance required an energy output of 303 microJ, a power output of 388 mW and exerted a force of 141 mN, or more than 700 times its body mass. This performance implies that a catapult mechanism must be used, and that Issus ranks alongside the froghopper Philaenus as one of the best insect jumpers. PMID:19684220
To manage citrus Huanglongbing, understanding factors that affect dispersal behavior of Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae), is required to answer questions related to disease epidemiology and to improve management tactics. Currently, little is known about cues medi...
Rung,Alessandra; Arakelian, Gevork; Gill, Ray; Nisson, Nick
The tipu psyllid, Platycorypha nigrivirga Burckhardt (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Psylloidea), is reported for the first time in North America (USA: California). Diagnostic characters for identification of adults and nymphs, host and damage data, and known distribution are given.
Wang, Yan-hui; Cui, Ying; Rédei, Dávid;
Heteroptera are among the most diverse hemimetabolous insects. Seven infraorders have been recognized within this suborder of Hemiptera. Apart from the well-established sister-group relationship between Cimicomorpha and Pentatomomorpha (= Terheteroptera), the two terminal lineages, the relationsh...
We compared morphology of internal reproductive anatomy and genitalia among 10 species of North American Anthocoris (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Anthocoridae). Reproductive structures of males, including internal reproductive organs (testes, seminal vesicles, ejaculatory bulb, phallus), the left parame...
Hunter, Wayne B.; Reese, Justin; International Psyllid Genome Consortium, The
The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera), is an important pest of citrus because it vectors bacteria responsible for huanglongbing, which is one of the most serious diseases of citrus worldwide. The first genome draft of D. citri (DIACI_1.0) was completed in 2011 (ARS, Ft. Pierce, FL), however, gaps in the assembly prompted additional sequencing using the long run PacBio system at the Los Alamos National Lab, NM. The revised draft genome (DIACI_1.1) was assembled using the new...
Duas EspÃ©cies de Cochonilhas (Hemiptera: Diaspididae Associadas com Soros de Samambaias Resumo. A presente comunicaÃ§Ã£o relata a presenÃ§a de duas espÃ©cies de cochonilhas Hemiberlesia palmae (Cockerell e Pinnaspis strachani (Cooley (Coccoidea, Diaspididae, associadas respectivamente com Asplenium serratum L. (Aspleniaceae e Niphidium crassifolium (L. Lellinger (Polypodiaceae. Ã‰ o primeiro registro de uma samambaia como planta hospedeira de Hemiberlesia palmae. Â Nas duas espÃ©cies de samambaias, os diaspidÃdeos encontravam-se concentrados principalmente ao redor dos soros.
Chordas, Stephen W., III; Chapman, Eric G.; Hudson, Patrick L.; Chriscinske, Margret A.; Stewart, Richard L., Jr.
Recent aquatic Hemiptera collections have yielded 15 new state records distributed among four midwestern States. These records include two species of water boatmen (Palmacorixa gillettei and Sigara mathesoni) new for Indiana, four water boatmen species (Cenocorixa utahensis, Corisella inscripta, Hesperocorixa laevigata, S. decorata), including one genus (Cenocorixa) new for Michigan, four water boatmen species (Corisella edulis, Trichocorixa macroceps, S. decoratella, S. mathesoni) and one backswimmer species (Notonecta indica) new for Ohio, and four water boatmen species (H. kennicotti, H. semilucida, S. compressoidea, S. variabilis) new for Pennsylvania.
Coscarón, María Del Carmen; Basset, Carina; Lopez, Nancy
A checklist of Heteroptera type specimens deposited in the collection of División Entomología, Museo de La Plata. It harbours type material of 1153 species belonging to 37 families (Enicocephalidae, Schizopteridae, Gerridae, Veliidae, Hydrometridae, Naucoridae, Belostomatidae, Nepidae, Corixidae, Notonectidae, Pleidae, Saldidae, Cimicidae, Polyctenidae, Nabidae, Miridae, Tingidae, Vianaididae, Thaumastocoridae, Reduviidae, Aradidae, Alydidae, Coreidae, Rhopalidae, Berytidae, Blissidae, Lygaeidae, Oxycarenidae, Rhyparochromidae, Idiostolidae, Largidae, Pyrrhocoridae, Anthocoridae, Cydnidae, Pentatomidae, Scutelleridae, Thyreocoridae), represented by 207 holotypes, 26 allotypes, 578 paratypes, 1 lectotype, 1 paralectotype and 340 syntypes. For each taxon providing update information on valid names, categories of types, and locality. PMID:26249933
Wu, Yunfei; Dai, Renhuai; Zhan, Hongping; Qu, Ling
The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Drabescoides nuchalis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) was sequenced. It is 15 309 bp in length with 75.62% (A + T) content and comprises 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNAs, two ribosomal RNA genes, and a non-coding region (GenBank accession no. KR349344). Gene order is identical to that of the inferred ancestral insect genome. All PCGs start with an ATN codon and terminate with TAA except ND4, which has an incomplete stop codon (T). The anticodons are identical to those of Drosophila yakuba. The phylogenetic tree confirms D. nuchalis and two Cicadellidae species are clustered into a clade, and Cicadellidae is a monophyletic group and provides support for the sister relationship of leafhopper and treehopper. PMID:26436567
Full Text Available Adults and nymphs of Mapuchea chilensis (Nielson, from the poorly known family Myerslopiidae, were collected from the litter horizon of temperate forests and shrub bogs in southern Chile. The species apparently feeds on roots and creeping stems of angiosperms. Salivary sheaths of captive specimens terminated in vascular bundles. Indirect evidence suggests feeding on phloem sap. Both nymphs and adults are strong jumpers and both actively disperse, as evidenced by their capture in pan traps. The Malpighian tubules of this species produce no brochosomes and, unlike in most previously studied Membracoidea, comprise no specialized secretory segment. Each tubule comprises secretory cells scattered among excretory ones, a condition not previously known among Hemiptera.
Leyria, Jimena; Fruttero, Leonardo L.; Nazar, Magalí; Canavoso, Lilián E.
In this work, we have investigated the involvement of DmCatD, a cathepsin D-like peptidase, and acid phosphatase in the process of follicular atresia of Dipetalogaster maxima, a hematophagous insect vector of Chagas’ disease. For the studies, fat bodies, ovaries and hemolymph were sampled from anautogenous females at representative days of the reproductive cycle: pre-vitellogenesis, vitellogenesis as well as early and late atresia. Real time PCR (qPCR) and western blot assays showed that DmCatD was expressed in fat bodies and ovaries at all reproductive stages, being the expression of its active form significantly higher at the atretic stages. In hemolymph samples, only the immunoreactive band compatible with pro-DmCatD was observed by western blot. Acid phosphatase activity in ovarian tissues significantly increased during follicular atresia in comparison to pre-vitellogenesis and vitellogenesis. A further enzyme characterization with inhibitors showed that the high levels of acid phosphatase activity in atretic ovaries corresponded mainly to a tyrosine phosphatase. Immunofluorescence assays demonstrated that DmCatD and tyrosine phosphatase were associated with yolk bodies in vitellogenic follicles, while in atretic stages they displayed a different cellular distribution. DmCatD and tyrosine phosphatase partially co-localized with vitellin. Moreover, their interaction was supported by FRET analysis. In vitro assays using homogenates of atretic ovaries as the enzyme source and enzyme inhibitors demonstrated that DmCatD, together with a tyrosine phosphatase, were necessary to promote the degradation of vitellin. Taken together, the results strongly suggested that both acid hydrolases play a central role in early vitellin proteolysis during the process of follicular atresia. PMID:26091289
Behavior of triatomines (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) vectors of Chagas' disease: III. Influence of the number of matings on the fecundity and fertility of Panstrongylus megistus (Burm. 1835) in the laboratory
Marli Maria Lima; Pedro Jurberg; Josimar Ribeiro de Almeida
A study of the effect of mating in the fecundity and fertility of females of P. megistus fed on pigeon blood every 14 days, was carried out in the laboratory. Two groups were constituted: I - females which mated only once; II - females which stayed always with the males. Only 56.7% of group I females laid fertile eggs, while as much as 90% of group II females laid fertile eggs. The duration of the fertile oviposition was greater in the females which stayed always with the males. Some females ...
Behavior of triatomines (Hemiptera: Reduviidae vectors of Chagas' disease: III. Influence of the number of matings on the fecundity and fertility of Panstrongylus megistus (Burm. 1835 in the laboratory
Marli Maria Lima
Full Text Available A study of the effect of mating in the fecundity and fertility of females of P. megistus fed on pigeon blood every 14 days, was carried out in the laboratory. Two groups were constituted: I - females which mated only once; II - females which stayed always with the males. Only 56.7% of group I females laid fertile eggs, while as much as 90% of group II females laid fertile eggs. The duration of the fertile oviposition was greater in the females which stayed always with the males. Some females of this group were able to mate up to seven times throughout their life-span. This fact render useless sterile males in the control of these insects. It is suggested that the components of pigeon's blood used for feeding the triatomines could have an influence upon the fecundity and fertility of the female sof the two groups.Estudou-se, em laboratório, a influência do acasalamento na fecundidade e fertilidade de fêmeas de P. megistus, alimentadas a cada 14 dias. Foram formados dois grupos: I - fêmeas que copularam uma única vez; II - fêmeas que permaneceram sempre com os machos. Das fêmeas do grupo I, apenas 56,7% puseram ovos férteis, enquanto que 90% das fêmeas do grupo II tiveram ovos férteis. A duração da ovipostura fértil foi também maior nas fêmeas do grupo II. Destas últimas, algumas foram capazes de copular até sete vezes ao longo de sua vida, o que inviabiliza o uso de machos estéreis no controle desses insetos. Os autores discutem também a influência na fecundidade e fertilidade das fêmeas dos dois grupos e na longevidade dos insetos, de componentes no sangue dos pombos que serviram de repasto aos triatomíneos.
Galvão Cleber; Rocha Dayse da Silva; Jurberg José; Carcavallo Rodolfo U
A distribuição geográfica de Triatoma deaneorum Galvão, Souza & Lima, 1967, nova denominação para Triatoma deanei, é ampliada baseada em um espécime recentemente encontrado no município de Chapada de Guimarães, próximo a Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, Brasil. A nova denominação é baseada no Código Internacional de Nomenclatura Zoológica.
Teresa Cristina Monte Goncalves
Full Text Available Utilizando a microscopia ótica (MO e eletrônica de varredura (MEV procurou-se fornecer dados a taxionomia através da estrutura dos ovos e morfologia das ninfas, destes vetores da doença de Chagas. Os ovos em MO apresentam a superfície exocorial do opérculo e do corpo dividida em áreas poligonais com ornamentação própria; em T. maculata o exocório do corpo tem áreas indefinidas. Em MEV o exocório dos opérculos apresenta áreas poligonais de superfície estofada com pequena sulcos irregulares e perfurações distribuídas aleatoriamente nas duas espécies. O exocório do corpo apresenta: em T. maculata áreas acolchoadas com perfurações mais numerosas nos bordos, visualizando-se a borda corial, goteira espermática, aerópilas e micrópilas; em T. pseudomaculata as áreas são planas com numerosas perfurações. Nas ninfas o sulco estridulatório e o rostro apresentam diferenças significativas. O sulco estridulatórios em MO possibilitou diferenciar ninfas de 1º, 2º e 3º estádios, os 4º e 5º estádios apresentam-se semelhantes. Em MEV a diferenciação é acentuada. O rostro em MO apresenta pilosidade característica a partir do 3º estádio. T. maculata apresenta pêlos curtos e esparsos no 1º e 2º artículos e longos e numerosos no 3º, em T. pseudo-maculata semelhantes, porém mais curtos no 3º artículo.As an aid in the identification of vectors of Chagas' disease we have studied the structure of the eggs and morphology of nymphs by optical microscopy (OM and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The eggs as seen by OM show the exochorion of the body doesn't have defined areas. In SEM the exochorion of the cap appears as upholstered polygonal areas with small irregular grooves and perforations spread at random in both species. The exochorion of the body in T. maculata is upholstered with more numerous perforations on the edge visualizing the rim of the shell, spermatic groove, pseudomicropyles and micropyles; in T. pseudomaculata there are flat areas with numerous perforations. The nymphs show differences cencerning the stridulatory groove and rostrum. The stridulatory groove when seen by OM shows differences in nymphs of 1st, 2nd and 3rd intars, while 4th and 5th are similar; in SEM the differences are clear. In OM the rostrum shows typical pilosity to each species from 3rd instar. In T. maculata the setae are short and scattered on the 1st and 2nd segments and are long and numerous on the 3rd. In T. pseudomaculata the setae are similar but are short on the 3rd segment.
A method was developed to increase efficacy and reduce grower costs when using the biological control fungal agent Paecilomyces fumosoroseus blastospores (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes) to infect adult Asian citrus psyllids, Diaphorina citri (Psyllidae: Hemiptera). We analyzed the efficacy of this ‘...
The primary threat from Halyomorpha halys (Stal) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) originates from populations continuously dispersing from and among wild and cultivated hosts. Many individuals may not come in contact with freshly applied insecticides, but only dried, aged residues. Limited information e...
The ficus whitefly, Singhiella simplex (Singh) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), is a newly-invasive pest of ficus plants in the United States. Very little is known about its biology and life history. Here, we studied development and reproduction at 15, 20, 25, 27, 30 and 35°C. No immatures survived the 35°...
The Ficus whitefly, Singhiella simplex (Singh) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), is an economic pest of Ficus plant species in India, Burma and China. Severe infestations result in leaf dropping or shedding and defoliation. Since its initial US report in south Florida in 2007, the whitefly has expanded its ...
Harrisia cactus mealybug (HCM), Hypogeococcus pungens (Hemiptera: Pseudoccidae) Granara de Willink (1981) is infesting and killing cacti in the southern coast of Puerto Rico, covering an area of about 1,400 km2. The 13 species of cacti occurring in Puerto Rico are threatened by this new pest; three...
We successfully identified a new member of the FK-binding proteins from the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae). FK-binding proteins (FKBP) function in many critical pathways needed for psyllid survival. The full length mRNA transcript provides us a new genetic target for ...
Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae), is a vector transmitting the pathogen of citrus huanglongbing (HLB, also called yellow shoot disease or citrus greening disease). A typical symptom of citrus HLB is leaf yellowing. ACP adults behaved differently on HLB-affe...
Thereza de Almeida Garbelotto
Full Text Available Contributions to the knowledge of Banasa Stål (Hemiptera, Heteroptera, Pentatomidae: Banasa chaca Thomas. The male of Banasa chaca Thomas is described with emphasis on external and internal genitalia and the female internal genitalia is described. Banasa chaca is newly recorded from Buenos Aires Province (Argentina.
A new species of Taosa (Hemiptera: Dictyopharidae) is described. All the stages were collected on the aquatic weed Eichhornia crassipes (Martius) Solms-Laubach (Pontederiaceae) at several localities on the Paraguay River in Argentina, and the upper Amazon River in Perú. Taosa impictifrons Remes Leni...
Potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Šulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae) is a key pest of potato and the vector of "Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum," the pathogen associated with zebra chip disease. Development of potato cultivars with genetic resistance to potato psyllid would enable cost-effecti...
Two papaya (Carica papaya L.) seedlings growing in one planting hole often results in angular or non-vertical growth of the trees. Data on trunk angularity, or leaning, (deviation from the vertical line of reference) and white peach scale, Pseudaulacaspis pentagona Targioni-Tozzetti (Hemiptera: Dias...
Full Text Available A new soft scale insect, Bombacoccus aguacatae Kondo, gen. n. and sp. n. (Hemiptera: Coccidae collected on the branches and twigs of avocado, Persea americana Mill. (Lauraceae in Colombia, is described and illustrated based on the adult female. An updated taxonomic key to closely related genera of the Toumeyella-group is provided.
Yoshizawa, Kazunori; Wagatsuma, Mutsumi
The infraorder Cicadomorpha is a monophyletic group of the order Hemiptera, suborder Auchenorrhyncha, and is composed of three superfamilies: Cercopoidea (spittle bugs), Cicadoidea (cicadas) and Membracoidea (leafhoppers and treehoppers). Phylogenetic relationships among the superfamilies have been highly controversial morphologically and molecularly, but recent molecular phylogenetic analyses provided support for Cercopoidea + Cicadoidea. In this study, we examined morphology of the wing bas...
A new soft scale insect, Bombacoccus aguacatae Kondo, gen. n. and sp. n. (Hemiptera: Coccidae) collected on the branches and twigs of avocado, Persea americana Mill. (Lauraceae) in Colombia, is described and illustrated based on the adult female. An updated taxonomic key to closely related genera of the Toumeyella-group is provided.
Full Text Available The immature stages of Megamelus bellicus Remes Lenicov & Sosa (Hemiptera: Delphacidae are described, keyed and illustrated. The description of each stage was based on 24-h hatched nymphs from the laboratory colony. The main characters that distinguish the various stages are: body size, color, number of tarsomeres, espinulation of the metatibia and number of teeth on the spur; presence of sensoria on antennal pedicel. This insect was reared on pieces of water hyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes (Martius Solms Laubach. Biological data based on lab and field observations show that M. bellicus carries out its biological cycle successfully on Pontederiaceae. One to nine eggs per scar are laid deeply into the aerenquima of the petiole, being most frequent 3-4, less frequent 5, 2 and 6 and rarely 1, 7 and 9. Eulophid wasps Aprostocetus (Ootetrastichus sp, known as eggs parasitoid, was registered and quantified. As M. bellicus occupies the same ecological habitat that M. scutellaris Berg, we highlighted some morphological and biological aspects that allow their differentiation.Se describen e ilustran los estados inmaduros de Megamelus bellicus Remes Lenicov & Sosa (Hemiptera: Delphacidae y se presenta una clave para identificarlos. La descripción de cada estadio se realizó sobre la base de ninfas extraidas 24 horas posteriores a la eclosión, de colonias de laboratorio y criadas sobre trozos de hojas de camalote Eichhornia crassipes (Martius Solms Laubach. Los principales caracteres para distinguir los distintos estadios son: tamaño del cuerpo, color, número de tarsómeros, espinulación de la metatibia y número de dientes del calcar y presencia de sensorios en el pedicelo antenal. Datos biológicos basados en observaciones en el laboratorio y en el campo, muestran que M. bellicus realiza su ciclo biológico exitosamente sobre Pontederiaceae. Los huevos, dispuestos de 1 a 9 por postura, son colocados profundamente en el aerénquima del pecíolo; son m
Montllor-Curley, C.; Brodie, E.L.; Lechner, M.G.; Purcell, A.H.
Homalodisca vitripennis (Germar) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae),glassy-winged sharpshooter, was collected in California and severalstates in the southeastern United States in 2002 and 2003 and analyzedfor endosymbiotic bacteria. Hemolymph, eggs, and bacteriomes wereexamined for the presence of bacteria by polymerase chain reaction. Asubset of hemolymph and egg samples had their 16S rRNA gene ampliconscloned and sequenced or analyzed by restriction digest patterns ofsamples compared with known bacterial DNA. Baumannia cicadellinicola, oneof the primary symbionts of glassy-winged sharpshooter, was found in themajority of hemolymph samples, although it has been considered until nowto reside primarily inside the specialized host bacteriocytes. Wolbachiasp., a common secondary symbiont in many insect taxa investigated todate, was the second most frequently detected bacterium in hemolymphsamples. In addition, we detected bacteria that were most closely related(by 16S rRNA gene sequence) to Pseudomonas, Stenotrophomonas, andAcinetobacter in hemolymph samples of one and/or two glassy-wingedsharpshooters, but their origin is uncertain.
Cooper, Richard; Wang, Changlu; Singh, Narinderpal
Detection of low-level bed bug, Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae), infestations is essential for early intervention, confirming eradication of infestations, and reducing the spread of bed bugs. Despite the importance of detection, few effective tools and methods exist for detecting low numbers of bed bugs. Scent dogs were developed as a tool for detecting bed bugs in recent years. However, there are no data demonstrating the reliability of trained canines under natural field conditions. We evaluated the accuracy of 11 canine detection teams in naturally infested apartments. All handlers believed their dogs could detect infestations at a very high rate (≥95%). In three separate experiments, the mean (min, max) detection rate was 44 (10-100)% and mean false-positive rate was 15 (0-57)%. The false-positive rate was positively correlated with the detection rate. The probability of a bed bug infestation being detected by trained canines was not associated with the level of bed bug infestations. Four canine detection teams evaluated on multiple days were inconsistent in their ability to detect bed bugs and exhibited significant variance in accuracy of detection between inspections on different days. There was no significant relationship between the team's experience or certification status of teams and the detection rates. These data suggest that more research is needed to understand factors affecting the accuracy of canine teams for bed bug detection in naturally infested apartments. PMID:26470083
Alves, Tavvs M; Macrae, Ian V; Koch, Robert L
Soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is the most economically important insect pest of soybean in the north central United States. Scouting-based integrated pest management (IPM) programs could become more efficient and more widely adopted by using plant spectral reflectance to estimate soybean aphid injury. Our objective was to determine whether plant spectral reflectance is affected by soybean aphid feeding. Field trials were conducted in 2013 and 2014 using caged plots. Early-, late-, and noninfested treatments were established to create a gradient of soybean aphid pressure. Whole-plant soybean aphid densities were recorded weekly. Measurements of plant spectral reflectance occurred on two sample dates per year. Simple linear regression models were used to test the effect of cumulative aphid-days (CAD) on plant spectral reflectance at 680 nm (RED) and 800 nm (NIR), normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), and relative chlorophyll content. Data indicated that CAD had no effect on canopy-level RED reflectance, but CAD decreased canopy-level NIR reflectance and NDVI. Canopy- and leaf-level measurements typically indicated similar plant spectral response to increasing CAD. CAD generally had no effect on relative chlorophyll content. The present study provides the first documentation that remote sensing holds potential for detecting changes in plant spectral reflectance induced by soybean aphid. The use of plant spectral reflectance in soybean aphid management may assist future IPM programs to reduce sampling costs and prevent prophylactic insecticide sprays. PMID:26470392
Hottel, B A; Pereira, R M; Gezan, S A; Qing, R; Sigmund, W M; Koehler, P G
Little is known about what factors influence the climbing ability of bed bugs, Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae), in relation to the various surfaces they encounter. We examined how sex, time since last fed, and what surfaces the bed bugs were in contact with affected their climbing performance. The effects of sex and time since fed were tested by counting the number of bed bugs able to climb a 45° slope. The pulling force was recorded using an analytical balance technique that captured the sequential vertical pulling force output of bed bugs attached to various surfaces. Recently fed female bed bugs were found to have the most difficulty in climbing smooth surfaces in comparison with males. This difference can be explained by the larger weight gained from bloodmeals by female bed bugs. A variety of vertical pulling forces were observed on surfaces ranging from sandpaper to talc powder-covered glass. For surfaces not treated with talc powder, bed bugs generated the least amount of vertical pulling force from synthetically created 0.6-µm plastron surfaces. This vast range in the ability of bed bugs to grip onto various surfaces may have implications on limiting bed bugs dispersal and hitchhiking behaviors. PMID:26334801
Ximena Páez-Colasante; Elis Aldana
Resumen. La taxonomía y sistemática de la subfamilia Triatominae (Heteroptera, Reduviidae) se basan principalmente en caracteres biométricos y morfológicos de las formas adultas y, en algunos casos, de las ninfas. La Morfometría Geométrica es capaz de descomponer la forma en sus componentes tamaño isométrico y conformación. En el presente trabajo se utilizó laMorfometría Geométrica como herramienta de análisis de la configuración geométrica que resulta de la unión de los extremos del borde co...
Castro-Huertas, Valentina; Schwertner, Cristiano F; Fernández, Fernando
New records of genera and species of stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) from Colombia are provided. Two genera are new records for South America: Alathetus and Schraderiellus. Fifteen genera are new record for Colombia: Agaclitus, Boea, Ceratozygum, Euthyrhynchus, Eritrachys, Doesburguedessa, Lopadusa, Marmessulus, Paralincus, Patanius, Peromatus, Phalaecus, Phoeacia, Rio, and Tyrannocoris. Forty-nine species from five subfamiles are recorded for the first time in Colombia. Asopinae: Coryzorhaphis carneolus Erichson, Coryzorhaphis superba Breddin, Euthyrhynchus floridanus (Linnaeus), Podisus sagitta Fabricius, Stiretrus anchorago (Fabricius), Stiretrus cinctellus Germar, Tylospilus peruvianus Horvath, Tyrannocoris nigriceps Thomas. Cyrtocorinae: Ceratozygum horridum (Germar). Discocephalinae: Agaclitus dromedarius Stål, Antiteuchus melanoleucus (Westwood), Antiteuchus sepulcralis (Fabricius), Dinocoris gibbosus (Fallou), Dinocoris variolosus (Linnaeus), Discocephalessa terminalis (Walker), Dryptocephala crenata Ruckes, Dryptocephala dentifrons (Latreille), Eurystethus ovalis Ruckes, Paralcippus dimidiatus (Ruckes), Alathetus rufitarsus Dallas, Eritrachys bituberculata Ruckes, Paralincus bimaculatus (Ruckes), Schraderiellus cinctus (Ruckes), Xynocoris recavus (Garbelotto & Campos). Edessinae: Brachystethus cribus (Fabricius), Brachystethus tricolor Bolívar, Doesburguedessa elongatispina Fernandes and Lopadusa fuscopunctata (Distant). Pentatominae: Banasa fulgida Thomas, Banasa paraexpallescens Thomas, Dichelops divisus (Walker), Dichelops nigrum Bergroth, Euschistus carbonerus Rolston, Mormidea bovilla (Distant), Mormidea triangularis (Walker), Murgantia bifasciata Herrich-Schaeffer, Murgantia violascens (Westwood), Oebalus pugnax (Fabricius), Oebalus ypsilon-griseus (DeGeer), Odmalea concolor (Walker), Patanius vittatus Rolston, Proxys albopunctulatus (Palisot), Proxys punctulatus (Palisot), Rhyncholepta grandicallosa Bergroth, Rio insularis Ruckes, Roferta
Pacheco da Silva, Vitor Cezar; Bertin, Aline; Blin, Aurélie; Germain, Jean-Francois; Bernardi, Daniel; Rignol, Guylène; Botton, Marcos
Mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) are pests constraining the international trade of Brazilian table grapes. They damage grapes by transmitting viruses and toxins, causing defoliation, chlorosis, and vigor losses and favoring the development of sooty mold. Difficulties in mealybug identification remain an obstacle to the adequate management of these pests. In this study, our primary aim was to identify the principal mealybug species infesting the major table grape-producing regions in Braz...
Salom, S. M.; L. T. Kok; Lamb, A B; Jubb, C
Coleopteran species are biological control agents of numerous invasive pests. Laricobius nigrinus (Coleoptera: Derodontidae), a predaceous, univoltine species, spends the summer aestivating but is active for the rest of the year. Laricobius nigrinus possesses many essential attributes for effective biological control of the hemlock woolly adelgid (Hemiptera: Adelgidae). The predator must be reared in large numbers for field releases. We describe some of the studies that led to the successful ...
Full Text Available Se registra por primera vez para el Perú la especie Brachycaudus schwartzi (Bórner (Hemiptera: Aphididae, “pulgón pardo del duraznero”. La especie ha sido colectada en el departamento de Tacna. Material de referencia se encuentra depositado en la Colección Referencial de Insectos de la Unidad del Centro de Diagnóstico de Sanidad Vegetal del SENASA, Lima, Perú.
Nicoletta Faraone; N Kirk Hillier; G Christopher Cutler
Plant-derived products can play an important role in pest management programs. Essential oils from Lavandula angustifolia (lavender) and Thymus vulgaris (thyme) and their main constituents, linalool and thymol, respectively, were evaluated for insecticidal activity and synergistic action in combination with insecticides against green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae). The essential oils and their main constituents exerted similar insecticidal activity when aphids wer...
D. Adidharma; Y.D. Ciptadi
The biology of Trissolcus latisulcus Crawford was studied on eggs of Chrysocoris javanus Westw (Hemiptera: Scutelleridae) which is a serious pest of Jatropha curcas L.. The aim of this study was to investigate the biology of Trissolcus latisulcus as a basic knowledge for developing a more suitable biological control programme in controlling the pest C. javanus. The current laboratory study was designed to evaluate developmental duration from egg to adult of C. javanus under room conditi...
Hayat, Mohammad; Mehrnejad, M Reza
This paper deals with three species of Ooencyrtus Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) obtained from eggs of the green stink bug, Brachynema germarii (Kolenati) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) infesting pistachio plants in Iran. Two new species, Ooencyrtus iranicus Hayat & Mehrnejad, sp. nov. and O. pistaciae Hayat & Mehrnejad, sp. nov., are described, and O. telenomicida (Vassiliev) is newly recorded from Iran, redescribed and illustrated. A key to some species considered similar to the species treated here is also given. PMID:27395169
Maurício Ursi Ventura; Antônio Ricardo Panizzi
In 1998, the relative responses of Neomegalotomus parvus (Westwood) (Hemiptera: Alydidae) to colors in traps were assessed in the field. Colors were printed in white alkaline paper and covered with transparent plastic. Printed colors were black, green, yellow, red and blue. Treatments also included white paper and aluminum foil. Green traps captured more bugs than the other traps (except yellow). Yellow traps caught significantly more N. parvus males than blue, black and aluminum traps. White...
Bing, Xiao-Li; Yang, Jiao; Zchori-Fein, Einat; Wang, Xiao-Wei; Liu, Shu-Sheng
Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is a species complex containing >28 cryptic species, some of which are important crop pests worldwide. Like many other sap-sucking insects, whiteflies harbor an obligatory symbiont, “Candidatus Portiera aleyrodidarum,” and a number of secondary symbionts. So far, six genera of secondary symbionts have been identified in B. tabaci. In this study, we report and describe the finding of an additional bacterium in the indigenous B. tabaci cryptic species Chi...
Ogawa, Naoki; Maruyama, Munetoshi; Yoshizawa, Kazunori
The Aetalionidae is a small family belonging to the treehopper superfamily Membracoidea (Hemiptera: Cicadomorpha). Although the wing-base morphology of Cicadomorpha was examined in detail recently, the wing base of this family has not been investigated to date. We examined morphology of the wing-base structure of Aetalionidae. Using the characters selected from the wing base, we inferred the phylogenetic placement of this family and confirmed that it belongs to the superfamily Membracoidea an...
The kinematics and jumping performance of treehoppers (Hemiptera, Auchenorrhyncha, Membracidae) were analysed from high speed images. The eight species analysed had an 11-fold range of body mass (3.8-41 mg) and a 2-fold range of body length (4.1-8.4 mm). Body shape was dominated by a prothoracic helmet that projected dorsally and posteriorly over the body, and in some species forwards to form a protruding horn. Jumping was propelled by rapid depression of the trochantera of the hindlegs. The hindlegs were only 30-60% longer than the front and middle legs, and 47-94% the length of the body in different species. They were slung beneath the body and moved together in the same plane. In preparation for a jump, the hindlegs were initially levated and rotated forwards so that the femora were pressed into indentations of the coxae. The tibiae were flexed about the femora and the tarsi were placed on the ground directly beneath the lateral edges of the abdomen. Movements of the front and middle legs adjusted the angle of the body relative to the ground, but for most treehoppers this angle was small, so that the body was almost parallel to the ground. The rapid depression of the hindlegs accelerated the body to take-off in 1.2 ms in the lighter treehoppers and 3.7 ms in the heavier ones. Take-off velocities of 2.1-2.7 m s(-1) were achieved and were not correlated with body mass. In the best jumps, these performances involved accelerations of 560-2450 m s(-2) (g forces of 47-250), an energy expenditure of 13.5-101 μJ, a power output of 12-32 mW and exerted a force of 9.5-29 mN. The power output per mass of muscle far exceeds the maximum active contractile limit of normal muscle. Such requirements indicate that treehoppers must be using a power amplification mechanism in a catapult-like action. Some jumps were preceded by flapping movements of the wings, but the propulsive movements of the hindlegs were crucial in achieving take-off. PMID:23155084
Ionizing radiation can be considered as a possible alternative for treating agricultural products to overcome quarantine barriers against the Solenopsis mealy bug, Phenacoccus solenopsis (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae). Exposure of ionizing radiation is one of the quarantine treatments which penetrate commodities quickly and most commodities can tolerate irradiation at doses that kill the pest. Evaluation of various bio-characteristics (survival, metamorphosis and reproductive potential) of Phenacoccus solenopsis irradiated in various life stages was attempted to ascertain the lethal doses and sublethal doses having sterilizing potential. A dose of 40Gy administered to the first instar nymph (N1) inhibited formation of adult male, whereas 100Gy checked the transformation of N1 up to adult female. Males exhibited short life span and appeared to have no or limited role in progeny formation. Males were more radio-sensitive than the female mealy bugs. Further, in case of N2 treatment, a dose of 100Gy completely inhibited adult male formation, and 150 Gy could completely inhibit male adult formation. The sexes were discernible only after N2. A dose of 500Gy given to female-N3 totally inhibited adult formation. The developmental period of female N3 was protracted with increase in radiation dosage. The efficacy of radiation at dose range, 5-300Gy, was evaluated on N3 and N4 male nymphs. Irradiation affected metamorphosis and reduced adult formation. For instance, a dose of 300Gy caused 0% male adult development from N4. 400Gy was almost sterilizing dose for 11-12 day old female mealy bug, and this sterilizing dose reduced oviposition by 28.1%; whereas 200Gy was found to induce sterility in 5-6 day old female mealy bug, with about 50% reduction in oviposition. The freshly emerged female adults (0-1 day old) was the most sensitive stage than the adult mealy bugs in their older phase, and it was completely sterilized by 40Gy. The data suggests a definite role of ionizing
Jesse L. Albertson
Full Text Available The treehopper genus Tolania Stål (Hemiptera: Membracidae: Nicomiinae: Nicomiini and 69 valid species (59 new are described and illustrated based on adult morphology. Ten informal species groups are recognized based on a previously published phylogenetic analysis: (1 the dira species group comprising T. calista sp. nov., T. dira sp. nov., T. inca sp. nov., T. macaria sp. nov., T. secoya sp. nov., and T. zaparo sp. nov.; (2 the fasciata species group comprising T. fasciata (Walker, T. gracilis sp. nov., and T. laticlava sp. nov.; (3 the femoralis species group comprising T. femoralis Stål, T. fraterna Stål, and T. roberti sp. nov.; (4 the furcata species group comprising T. furcata sp. nov., T. tryphena sp. nov., and T. venezuelensis sp. nov.; (5 the hispida species group comprising T. alida sp. nov., T. hispida sp. nov., and T. periculosa sp. nov.; (6 the malefica species group comprising T. cactina sp. nov., T. curvata sp. nov., T. grallator sp. nov., T. jocosa sp. nov., T. mackameyi sp. nov., T. malefica sp. nov., T. obliqua (Walker, and T. terencia sp. nov.; (7 the obtusa species group comprising T. obtusa Fowler, T. obunca sp. nov., and T. torosa sp. nov.; (8 the opponens species group comprising T. alvira sp. nov., T. arcuata sp. nov., T. damia sp. nov., T. insolita sp. nov., T. lunata sp. nov., T. lurida sp. nov., T. opponens (Walker, T. oriana sp. nov., T. reflexa sp. nov., T. risa sp. nov., T. sinuata sp. nov., T. trilobata sp. nov., T. tumida sp. nov., T. umbella sp. nov., T. vitocensis sp. nov., T. woodi sp. nov., and T. xantha sp. nov.; (9 the peltacauda species group comprising T. brasiliensis sp. nov., T. iratafelis sp. nov., T. modesta sp. nov., T. peltacauda sp. nov., T. picta sp. nov., and T. thyrea sp. nov.; and (10 the semipellucida species group comprising T. atrata sp. nov., T. fimbriata sp. nov., T. nicia sp. nov., and T. semipellucida Stål. The following new species are not placed in species groups: T. anomala sp. nov
Rung, Alessandra; Halbert, Susan E.; Ziesk, David C.; Gill, Raymond J.
The Ligurian leafhoppter, Eupteryx decemnotata Rey (Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Cicadellidae), is reported for the first time in North America (USA: Florida and California). Diagnostic characters for species identification, summary of hosts and damage, and U.S. known distribution are given.
Homalodisca vitripennis Germar 1821 (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) (Takiya et al. 2006, syn. H. coagulata (Say)) gut and salivary gland EST libraries were used to isolate cDNA fragments of the genes encoding for cathepsin L, asparaginyl endopeptidase, cathepsin B, metalloendopeptidase, cathepsin D, multi...
The kudzu bug, Megacopta cribraria (F.) (Hemiptera: Plataspidae), is a newly-invasive exotic pest of soybean in the southeastern US. In 2013, the exotic egg parasitoid Paratelenomus saccharalis (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) (Dodd) was discovered parasitizing eggs of this pest in kudzu and soybean in...
Full Text Available A genus, Pantilius Curtis (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Miridae: Mirinae, is reported for the first time from the Korean Peninsula, based on finding a species of Pantilius hayashii Miyamoto and Yasunaga, 1989, which was hitherto known only from Honshu, Japan. The morphological information, such as description and diagnosis, is presented with photographs and illustrations of adult habitus and male genitalia.
Ricardo Jiménez-Peydró; Francisco Javier Peris-Felipo
Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore, 1964 is a psyllid (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) pest of Eucalyptus, native toAustralia and first recorded in Europe: Spain in 2008 and more recently (2010) in Italy. The present paper dealswith recent research, carried out in central Italy, with new data on the distribution and biology of this species.
Caleca, V.; LO VERDE, G; Maltese, M.
Psyllaephagus bliteus Riek (Hymenoptera Encyrtidae), parasitoid of the red gum lerp psyllid Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore (Hemiptera Psyllidae), has been recorded for the first time in Italy in September 2011. The arrival of P. bliteus in Sicily is due to an accidental introduction, probably together with its host, as already happened in New Zealand, Brazil, Spain and Morocco.
Methods to improve an assay relating adult feeding to egg maturation by the glassy-winged sharpshooter (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) were evaluated. The assay consisted of confining adult females to cowpea stems in parafilm enclosures and quantifying adult feeding and egg maturation. Adult feeding was...
Full Text Available Tamarixia aguacatensis Yefremova, sp. n. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae: Tetrastichinae is described from Mexico as a parasitoid of the avocado psyllid, Trioza aguacate Hollis & Martin (Hemiptera: Triozidae. Trioza aguacate is a serious pest of avocado, Persea americana Miller. A key to the species of Tamarixia Mercet in Mexico is given.
Leonardo da Silva Oliveira
Full Text Available Em janeiro de 2005, pela primeira vez, foi constatada a ocorrência de Glycaspis brimblecombei (Moore, 1964 (Hemiptera: Psyllidae em espécies de Eucalyptus spp. no estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. A observação ocorreu nos municípios de Butiá, Caçapava do Sul e Santa Maria.
Full Text Available Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore, 1964 is a psyllid (Hemiptera: Psyllidae pest of Eucalyptus, native toAustralia and first recorded in Europe: Spain in 2008 and more recently (2010 in Italy. The present paper dealswith recent research, carried out in central Italy, with new data on the distribution and biology of this species.
The banana spotting bug Amblypelta lutescens lutescens Distant (Hemiptera: Coreidae) is one of the principal pests of tree fruits and nuts across northern and eastern Australia. Apart from damage assessments in orchards, there are currently no other methods for monitoring bug activity to aid manage...
Étienne, Jean; Matile-Ferrero, Danièle; Kondo, Takumasa
The croton scale, Phalacrococcus howertoni Hodges & Hodgson (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Coccidae) is newly reported from the island of Guadeloupe, French West Indies, on several host-plants, including some new host records, i.e., on Spondias cytherea Sonnerat; (Euphorbiaceae), Ocotea membranacea (Sw.) R.A. Howard (Lauraceae), Miconia furfuracea (Vahl) Griseb (Melastomataceae), Ficus citrifolia Mill. (Moraceae) and Piper dilatatum Rich. (Piperaceae).
The carrot psyllid Trioza apicalis Förster (Hemiptera: Triozidae) is a serious insect pest of carrot (Daucus carota L.) in northern Europe, where it can cause up to 100% crop loss. Although it was long believed that T. apicalis causes damage to carrot by injection of toxins into the plant, it was re...
Taosa longula Remes Lenicov (Hemiptera: Dictyopharidae) is a planthopper from the South American tropics that feeds on water hyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms-Laubach (Pontederiaceae). The biology of T. longula was studied in the laboratory and field to evaluate it as a potential biologic...
Native to China, Japan, Korea, and Taiwan, the brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stal) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), was accidently introduced into the United States in the mid-1990s. Since establishing in the United States, this invasive species has caused significant economic losses in...
Yefremova, Zoya; González-Santarosa, Graciela; Lomeli-Flores, J Refugio; Bautista-Martínez, Néstor
Tamarixia aguacatensis Yefremova, sp. n. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae: Tetrastichinae) is described from Mexico as a parasitoid of the avocado psyllid, Trioza aguacate Hollis & Martin (Hemiptera: Triozidae). Trioza aguacate is a serious pest of avocado, Persea americana Miller. A key to the species of Tamarixia Mercet in Mexico is given. PMID:24478580
Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Alyerodidae) is an important pest of many crops on a global scale. The use of biological control organisms such as coccinelid predators can help manage this pest. Delphastus catalinae (Horn) (Coleoptera: Coccinelidae) is an obligate predator of whiteflies, in...
Full Text Available Idiopterus nephrelepidis (Hemiptera: Aphididae is reported for the first time in Bulgaria on ornamental ferns in four greenhouses in Sofia and Varna. Dense colonies of apterous viviparous females and larvae were observed. The established host plants are Nephrolepis exaltata, Asplenium nidus and Pteris cretica. Infested ferns exhibit leaf deformation. The aphids were reared in laboratory conditions for four months. A morphometric study of apterae was carried out. Taking into account the presence of host plants of I. nephrelepidis in Bulgaria which are native to the local flora and the reports of the aphid from the Balkan area, it may spread in the country outdoors.
Johannes H. Giliomee
Full Text Available Neste van die wipstertmier, Crematogaster peringueyi (Hymenoptera: Formicidae, is op verskeie plekke langs die kus van die Wes-Kaap versamel. Die doel was om vas te stel watter dopluisagtiges (Hemiptera: Coccoidea in die neste in assosiasie met hierdie miere leef. Dopluise van drie families, naamlik die Pseudococcidae (witluise, Coccidae (sagtedopluise en Kerriidae (lakdopluise is in die neste gevind, almal bekend daarvoor dat hulle heuningdou afskei. Hierdie mutualistiese verhouding tussen die miere en dopluise, bekend as mirmekofilie, is fakultatief van aard. Die wipstertmier blyk ook nie spesifiek te wees wat betref die plant waarop hulle nes maak nie.
GOMEZ MARCO, FRANCESC
Aphis spiraecola Patch. (Hemiptera: Aphididae) es una de las plagas claves en el cultivo de clementinos de la cuenca Mediterránea. En primavera, este pulgón coloniza las brotaciones tiernas de los clementinos y causa importantes pérdidas económicas todos los años. Actualmente la gestión integrada de A. spiraecola en clementinos está basada en el control químico ya que se desconoce bastante sobre el control biológico de A. spiraecola en cítricos. Los esfuerzos realizados hasta la fecha se han ...
Yuan Wang; Jing Chen; Li-Yun Jiang; Ge-Xia Qiao
The mitogenome of Mindarus keteleerifoliae Zhang (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is a 15,199 bp circular molecule. The gene order and orientation of M. keteleerifoliae is similarly arranged to that of the ancestral insect of other aphid mitogenomes, and, a tRNA isomerism event maybe identified in the mitogenome of M. keteleerifoliae. The tRNA-Trp gene is coded in the J-strand and the same sequence in the N-strand codes for the tRNA-Ser gene. A similar phenomenon was also found in the mitogenome of Eri...
Cooper, W Rodney; Garczynski, Stephen F; Horton, David R
Carsonella ruddii (Gamma Proteobacterium) is an obligate bacterial endosymbiont of psyllids that produces essential amino acids that are lacking in the insect's diet. Accurate estimations of Carsonella populations are important to studies of Carsonella-psyllid interactions and to developing ways to target Carsonella for control of psyllid pests including pear psylla, Cacopsylla pyricola (Förster) (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) and potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Šulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae). We used two methods, namely fluorescence in situ hybridization and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), to estimate relative abundance of Carsonella in bacteriocytes and whole bodies of psyllids, respectively. Using these two methods, we compared Carsonella populations between female and male insects. Estimations using fluorescence in situ hybridization indicated that Carsonella was more abundant in bacteriocytes of female C. pyricola than in those of males, but Carsonella abundance in bacteriocytes did not differ between sexes of B. cockerelli. Analyses by qPCR using whole-body specimens indicated Carsonella was more abundant in females than in males of both psyllids. Neither fluorescence in situ hybridization nor qPCR indicated that Carsonella populations differed in abundance among adults of different ages (0-3 wk after adult eclosion). Using fluorescence in situ hybridization, Carsonella was observed in ovarioles of newly emerged females and formed an aggregation in the posterior end of mature oocytes. Results of our study indicate that female psyllids harbor greater populations of Carsonella than do males and that sex should be controlled for in studies which require estimations of Carsonella populations. PMID:26056318
Bahder, B W; Bollinger, M L; Sudarshana, M R; Zalom, F G
Mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) are economically significant agricultural pests on many different crops. Because of their small size and lack of easily visible characters for identification, determination of their taxonomic status is difficult and requires technical competency to prepare a slide-mounted specimen. The standard mounting technique does not allow for analysis of the genome of the specimen. Conversely, preparatory techniques for genetic analysis of mealybugs cause either loss of the entire individual or physical damage that can make morphology-based identification difficult. This study describes a simple protocol that does not impact physical integrity of the specimen for fixation and microscopic examination yet enables simultaneous DNA extraction for DNA-based identification of four mealybug species. All species prepared yielded high quality slide mounts, identified as Planococcus citri Risso, Pseudococcus viburni Signoret, Rhizoecus kondonis Kuwana, or Rhizoecus californicus Ferris. DNA extracted in this manner had higher purity and yield in the final eluate than in samples extracted using standard methods. DNA extracted was successfully amplified by polymerase chain reaction using primers for the cytochrome oxidase I gene and subsequently sequenced for all specimens. This protocol is likely to be applicable to other Hemiptera taxa that are preserved by slide mounting, allowing for both the preparation of a high-quality voucher specimen for morphological identification and simultaneous analysis of DNA for the same specimen. The methods used are technically less challenging than current standard procedures. PMID:26198869
Zhao, Xing; Liang, Ai-Ping
The first complete DNA sequence of the mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Leptobelus gazelle (Membracoidea: Hemiptera) is determined in this study. The circular molecule is 16,007 bp in its full length, which encodes a set of 37 genes, including 13 proteins, 2 ribosomal RNAs, 22 transfer RNAs, and contains an A + T-rich region (CR). The gene numbers, content, and organization of L. gazelle are similar to other typical metazoan mitogenomes. Twelve of the 13 PCGs are initiated with ATR methionine or ATT isoleucine codons, except the atp8 gene that uses the ATC isoleucine as start signal. Ten of the 13 PCGs have complete termination codons, either TAA (nine genes) or TAG (cytb). The remaining 3 PCGs (cox1, cox2 and nad5) have incomplete termination codons T (AA). All of the 22 tRNAs can be folded in the form of a typical clover-leaf structure. The complete mitogenome sequence data of L. gazelle is useful for the phylogenetic and biogeographic studies of the Membracoidea and Hemiptera. PMID:25714149
Feeding and oviposition preferences of Ctenarytaina spatulata Taylor (Hemiptera, Psyllidae) for Eucalyptus spp. and other Myrtaceae in Brazil Preferência de alimentação e oviposição de Ctenarytaina spatulata Taylor (Hemiptera, Psyllidae) por Eucalyptus spp. e outras Myrtaceae
Dalva Luiz de Queiroz; Keti M. R. Zanol; Edílson B. Oliveira; Norivaldo dos Anjos; Jonathan Majer
Feeding and oviposition preferences of Ctenarytaina spatulata Taylor (Hemiptera, Psyllidae) for Eucalyptus spp. and other Myrtaceae in Brazil. The Australian psyllid, Ctenarytaina spatulata Taylor (Hemiptera, Psyllidae), was first detected in Brazil in 1994, where it was found on drought-affected shoots of Eucalyptus grandis in a plantation located in the northern part of Paraná State. The oviposition and feeding preferences of this psyllid were examined on 19 Eucalyptus species, one Eucalypt...
Desenvolvimento de Dysmicoccus brevipes (Cockerell (Hemiptera:Pseudococcidae em duas cultivares de abacaxi Development of the pineapple mealybug Dysmicoccus brevipes (Cockerell (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae on two pineapple cultivars
Lenira Viana Costa Santa-Cecília
Full Text Available A cochonilha Dysmicoccus brevipes (Cockerell (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae é uma das principais pragas em cultivos de abacaxi e os estudos biológicos desse inseto em diferentes cultivares são uma necessidade. Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar o desenvolvimento dessa cochonilha em duas cultivares de abacaxi, Pérola e Cayenne. O experimento foi conduzido em câmara climatizada a 25 ± 1ºC, 70 ± 10% UR e fotofase de 12 horas. As plantas de abacaxi foram reproduzidas in vitro, transplantadas para vasos (250 mL e aclimatadas em casa-de-vegetação. Ninfas com até um dia de vida foram confinadas em gaiolas de PVC (1 cm de diâmetro, e fixadas em folhas de ambas as cultivares. Não foram detectadas diferenças no desenvolvimento de D. brevipes nos dois substratos alimentares utilizados. O desenvolvimento ninfal de fêmeas e machos de D. brevipes foi 39,9 e 32,0 dias na cv. Pérola e 38,5 e 32,4 dias na cv. Cayenne, respectivamente. A sobrevivência da fase ninfal foi 32,3 e 40,5%; a razão sexual, 0,39 e 0,33; e a longevidade de fêmeas, 20,3 e 26,1 dias nas cvs. Pérola e Cayenne, respectivamente.The pineapple mealybug Dysmicoccus brevipes (Cockerell (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae is the main pest on pineapple crops and biological studies of this insect are necessary on different cultivars. The objective of this work was to evaluate the development time of this mealybug on the pineapple cultivars Pérola and Cayenne. The experiment was performed in climated chambers at 25 ± 1ºC, 70 ± 10% RH and 12 h photophase. Pinneapple plants were reproduced in vitro, transplanted to pots (250 mL and kept in greenhouse. One-day-old nymphs were kept inside a clipcage (1 cm diameter fixed on the plants. No differences in development of D. brevipes among the cultivars were found. Development times of females and males, respectively, were 39.9 and 32 days on cv. Pérola and 38.5 and 32.4 days on cv. Cayenne. Nymphs survivals were 32.3 and 40.5%, sexual rates
Correa, M. C. G.; Zaviezo, T.; Le Maguet, Jean; HERRBACH, Etienne; Malausa, Thibaut
Mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) are important pests for crops worldwide. Different species, cryptic taxa under the same species name or even populations within a species can differ in biological characteristics, such as phenology, resistance to insecticides, virus transmission and susceptibility to natural enemies. Therefore, their management efficacy depends on their accurate identification. Microsatellite genetic markers are efficient in revealing the fine-scale taxonomic status of in...
Full Text Available Portanus dubius sp. nov. é descrita e ilustrada a partir de espécimens que foram coletados com armadilha Malaise durante um levantamento entomológico no Estado do Paraná, Brasil (PROFAUPAR.Portanus Ball: description of a new species (Hemiptera, Cicadellidae, Xestocephalinae. Portanus dubius sp. nov. is described and illustrated. The specimens were collected with Malaise trap during an entomological inventory in Paraná State, Brazil (PROFAUPAR.
Mahmoodi Leila; Valizadegan Oroj; Mahdavi Vahid
Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is one of the most harmful, world-wide known pests of greenhouse crops and ornamental plants. This insect feeds on plant sap, produces honeydew, and transmits plant viruses, while causing quantitative and qualitative damage to plants. For controlling this pest in greenhouses, plant essential oils are used as an alternative to chemical insecticidal. So in this study, fumigant toxicity of Petroselinum crispum L. (Apiaceae) plant oil ...
Lee, Wonhoon; Park, Jongsun; Lee, Gwan-Seok; Lee, Seunghwan; Akimoto, Shin-ichi
Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is one of the most important insect pests in the world. In the present study, the taxonomic status of B. tabaci and the number of species composing the B. tabaci complex were determined based on 1059 COI sequences of B. tabaci and 509 COI sequences of 153 hemipteran species. The genetic divergence within B. tabaci was conspicuously higher (on average, 11.1%) than interspecific genetic divergence within the respective genera of the 153 species (on averag...
Zhen Ye; Gengping Zhu; Jakob Damgaard; Xin Chen; Pingping Chen; Wenjun Bu
Subtropical China is a centre of speciation and well known for its high biological diversity and endemism. To understand the impact of historical, geographical and ecological factors on the intraspecific lineage divergence of invertebrates, we examined these processes in a semiaquatic bug, Microvelia horvathi (Hemiptera: Veliidae). Three hypotheses were developed using ecological niche models (ENM). We tested these hypotheses using mitochondrial (COI + COII) and nuclear data (ITS1 + 5.8S + IT...
Balanza Martínez, Virginia; Mendoza Rivas, José Enrique; Bielza Lino, Pablo
Orius laevigatus (Fieber) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) es un enemigo natural usado ampliamente en el control biológico de plagas, principalmente del trips Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). La instalación y establecimiento de O. laevigatus en los cultivos resulta de vital importancia, pero en ocasiones existen problemas de compatibilidad con algunos tratamientos fitosanitarios. Este problema siempre se ha abordado desde el punto de vista del plaguicid...
Ibrahim Samah Sayed
Full Text Available Recently, the mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae was recorded as a new pest on tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill growing in Egypt. The mealybugs specimens were collected from tomato plants in the Qalyoubia governorate during summer season of 2014. The mealybug was identified as P. solenopsis based on the morphological characters and taxonomic key of this species. This study represents the first record of P. solenopsis as a new insect pest attacking tomato plants in Egypt
Ibrahim Samah Sayed; Moharum Fatma Abdelhalim; Abd El-Ghany Nesreen Mohamed
Recently, the mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) was recorded as a new pest on tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) growing in Egypt. The mealybugs specimens were collected from tomato plants in the Qalyoubia governorate during summer season of 2014. The mealybug was identified as P. solenopsis based on the morphological characters and taxonomic key of this species. This study represents the first record of P. solenopsis as a new insect pest attacking ...
EFSA Panel on Plant Health (PLH
Full Text Available The Panel on Plant Health performed a pest categorisation of Paysandisia archon for the European Union territory. P. archon is a well-defined pest species attacking many palm species. It is currently present in several southern European Member States (Croatia, Cyprus, France, Greece, Italy, Slovenia and Spain. Malta and Portugal are considered to be very important areas for further spread of the pest. The pest is listed in Annex IIAII of Council Directive 2000/29/EC and special requirements for host plants with respect to P. archon are formulated in Annexes IVAI and IVAII of Council Directive 2000/29/EC. This moth is a strong flier, but its main pathway of spread is via ornamental palms traded from outside the European Union and between Member States. Wherever its hosts are present outdoors in southern Europe, P. archon has the potential to establish. Although P. archon can complete its development in protected cultivation and in private/public indoor plant collections, there is no evidence of establishment. The damage produced by the larvae can cause the death of the plant with consequences for cultivated and native palm trees, and therefore on ecosystem services and biodiversity. At the moment no fully effective chemical or biological control methods are available against spread and impact of P. archon, while the use of glues on the stipe of the palm can be effective but affects the ornamental value of the plant. P. archon meets all pest categorisation criteria for both quarantine pests and regulated non-quarantine pests.
Garcia Simone L
Full Text Available The nuclear phenotypes of Malpighian tubule epithelial cells of male nymphs of the blood-sucking insect, Panstrongylus megistus, subjected to short- and long-duration heat shocks at 40ºC were analyzed immediately after the shock and 10 and 30 days later. Normal nuclei with a usual heterochromatic body as well as phenotypes indicative of survival (unravelled heterochromatin, giants and death (apoptosis, necrosis responses were observed in control and treated specimens. However, all nuclear phenotypes, except the normal ones, were more frequent in shocked specimens. Similarly altered phenotypes have also been reported in Triatoma infestans following heat shock, although at different frequencies. The frequency of the various nuclear phenotypes observed in this study suggests that the forms of cell survival observed were not sufficient or efficient enough to protect all of the Malpighian tubule cells from the deleterious effects of stress. In agreement with studies on P. megistus survival following heat shock, only long-duration shock produced strongly deleterious effects.
Jie Li; Xiao-Ping Wang; Man-Qun Wang; Wei-Hua Ma; Hong-Xia Hua
RNA interference(RNAi)suppresses the expression of target genes by posttranscriptional regulation.Because double-stranded RNA(dsRNA)mediated gene silencing is a conserved mechanism in many eukaryotes,RNAi has become a valuable tool for unveiling gene function in many model insects.Recent research has also shown that RNAi can also be effective in the downregulation of target genes in Hemiptera.In this review,we discuss the use of the RNAi technique in gene functional analysis in hemipterans,highlighting the methods of dsRNA uptake by these insects and discuss the knock-down efficiency of these techniques.Although the RNAi technique has disadvantages,our primary goal here is to determine whether it can be exploited further in the discovery of new gene functions,and as a pest control strategy,in some important Hemipteran pests.
Kaydan, Mehmet Bora; Benedicty, Zsuzsanna Konczné; Kiss, Balázs; Szita, Éva
In the last decades, several expeditions were organized in Europe by the researchers of the Hungarian Natural History Museum to collect snails, aquatic insects and soil animals (mites, springtails, nematodes, and earthworms). In this study, scale insect (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha) specimens extracted from Hungarian Natural History Museum soil samples (2970 samples in total), all of which were collected using soil and litter sampling devices, and extracted by Berlese funnel, were examined. From these samples, 43 scale insect species (Acanthococcidae 4, Coccidae 2, Micrococcidae 1, Ortheziidae 7, Pseudococcidae 21, Putoidae 1 and Rhizoecidae 7) were found in 16 European countries. In addition, a new species belonging to the family Pseudococcidae, Brevennia larvalis Kaydan, sp. n. and a new species of Ortheziidae, Ortheziola editae Szita & Konczné Benedicty, sp. n. are described and illustrated based on the adult female stage. Revised keys to the adult females of Brevennia and Ortheziola are presented. PMID:27081335
Michele Aparecida Besten
Full Text Available The volatile components of the galls induced by the insect Baccharopelma dracunculifoliae (Hemiptera: Psyllidae on leaves of Baccharis dracunculifolia (Asteraceae were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS and gas chromatographyflame- ionisation detection (GC-FID, and then comparison with volatile oil samples from healthy leaves collected in the vicinity. The galls produced around 3.5% of the total organic volatiles whereas healthy leaves rendered an average yield of 0.6%. The observed higher proportions of germacrene D, bicyclogermacrene, limonene, and β-pinene in the galls suggest that all these compounds are important targets in the search for natural enemies of this Psyllid. Moreover, higher relative percentages of (E-nerolidol and spathulenol were found in healthy leaves.
Mikó, István; Friedrich, Frank; Yoder, Matthew J; Hines, Heather M; Deitz, Lewis L; Bertone, Matthew A; Seltmann, Katja C; Wallace, Matthew S; Deans, Andrew R
A spectacular hypothesis was published recently, which suggested that the "helmet" (a dorsal thoracic sclerite that obscures most of the body) of treehoppers (Insecta: Hemiptera: Membracidae) is connected to the 1st thoracic segment (T1; prothorax) via a jointed articulation and therefore was a true appendage. Furthermore, the "helmet" was interpreted to share multiple characteristics with wings, which in extant pterygote insects are present only on the 2nd (T2) and 3rd (T3) thoracic segments. In this context, the "helmet" could be considered an evolutionary novelty. Although multiple lines of morphological evidence putatively supported the "helmet"-wing homology, the relationship of the "helmet" to other thoracic sclerites and muscles remained unclear. Our observations of exemplar thoraces of 10 hemipteran families reveal multiple misinterpretations relevant to the "helmet"-wing homology hypothesis as originally conceived: 1) the "helmet" actually represents T1 (excluding the fore legs); 2) the "T1 tergum" is actually the anterior dorsal area of T2; 3) the putative articulation between the "helmet" and T1 is actually the articulation between T1 and T2. We conclude that there is no dorsal, articulated appendage on the membracid T1. Although the posterior, flattened, cuticular evagination (PFE) of the membracid T1 does share structural and genetic attributes with wings, the PFE is actually widely distributed across Hemiptera. Hence, the presence of this structure in Membracidae is not an evolutionary novelty for this clade. We discuss this new interpretation of the membracid T1 and the challenges of interpreting and representing morphological data more broadly. We acknowledge that the lack of data standards for morphology is a contributing factor to misinterpreted results and offer an example for how one can reduce ambiguity in morphology by referencing anatomical concepts in published ontologies. PMID:22272287
Maurício Ursi Ventura
Full Text Available In 1998, the relative responses of Neomegalotomus parvus (Westwood (Hemiptera: Alydidae to colors in traps were assessed in the field. Colors were printed in white alkaline paper and covered with transparent plastic. Printed colors were black, green, yellow, red and blue. Treatments also included white paper and aluminum foil. Green traps captured more bugs than the other traps (except yellow. Yellow traps caught significantly more N. parvus males than blue, black and aluminum traps. White, red and blue traps captured significantly more N. parvus males than black traps. In 1999, the same treatments were used and additionally included the factor presence (X absence of males in cages in the traps. Four males were confined in the cages together with pigeon pea seeds and water. Control traps received only pigeon pea seeds and water. No responses were found for color comparisons. Male-lured traps captured significantly more males than control traps.Em 1998, as respostas relativas de Neomegalotomus parvus (Westwood (Hemiptera: Alydidae a cores em armadilhas foram avaliadas no campo. As cores foram impressas (preto, verde, amarelo, vermelho e azul, em papel alcalino branco e coberto com plástico transparente. Também se incluiu papel branco e folha de alumínio, como tratamentos. Armadilhas verdes capturaram mais insetos que outras armadilhas (exceto amarelo. Armadilhas amarelas capturaram significativamente mais machos de N. parvus do que armadilhas azuis, pretas e alumínio. Armadilhas brancas, vermelhas e azuis capturaram significativamente mais machos de N. parvus do que armadilhas pretas. Em 1999, os mesmos tratamentos foram usados e também se incluiu fator presença (X ausência de machos em gaiolas nas armadilhas. Quatro machos foram confinados nas gaiolas junto com sementes de guandu e água. Testemunhas receberam somente sementes de guandu e água. Não foram obtidas respostas significativas à cores. Armadilhas com machos capturaram
Primera cita de Blastopsylla occidentalis y Glycaspis brimblecombei (Hemiptera: Psyllidae para la República Argentina First record of Blastopsylla occidentalis and Glycaspis brimblecombei (Hemiptera: Psyllidae from Argentina
Juan P. R. Bouvet
Full Text Available Se registran por primera vez para la República Argentina dos especies de "psílidos" (Hemiptera: Psyllidae, plagas provenientes de Australia que atacan a especies del género Eucalyptus L´Hér. Una de ellas, Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore es de gran importancia económica en países vecinos, debido a los daños que produce. De la otra, Blastopsylla occidentalis Taylor, es escasa la información referente a su biología y daños que ocasiona.Two psyllid species are recorded for the first time from Argentina. They are pests originating from Australia that attack species of the genus Eucalyptus L´Hér. One of them, Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore is of great economic importance in neighboring countries for the damage which it is causing on its hosts. Little information on the biology and damage caused is available for the second species, viz Blastopsylla occidentalis Taylor.
Sônia M. F. Broglio
Full Text Available First report and morphological redescription of Teleonemia morio (Stål (Hemiptera, Tingidae in Annona squamosa L. (Annonaceae in Brazil. This is the first report of a severe attack of Teleonemia morio (Stål, 1855 (Hemiptera, Heteroptera, Tingidae on Annona squamosa L. (custard apple, causing up to 80% of losses of infested trees. In order to facilitate the identification of this insect pest, the adult female of T. morio is redescribed based on specimens collected in Palmeira dos Índios, Alagoas, Brazil.
First report and morphological redescription of Teleonemia morio (Stål) (Hemiptera, Tingidae) in Annona squamosa L. (Annonaceae) in Brazil. This is the first report of a severe attack of Teleonemia morio (Stål, 1855) (Hemiptera, Heteroptera, Tingidae) on Annona squamosa L. (custard apple), causing up to 80% of losses of infested trees. In order to facilitate the identification of this insect pest, the adult female of T. morio is redescribed based on specimens collected in Palmeira dos Índios,...
Efeitos da temperatura e do alimento no desenvolvimento de Dysdercus maurus Distant (Hemiptera, Pyrrhocoridae Effects of temperature and food on the development of Dysdercus maurus Distant (Hemiptera, Pyrrhocoridae
Fábio Souto Almeida
Full Text Available Dysdercus maurus Distant, 1901 (Hemiptera, Pyrrhocoridae é uma importante praga de Gossypium spp. (algodoeiro, Citrus Sinensis Osbeck (Rutaceae (laranjeira e Citrus reticulata (Rutaceae (tangerineira, além de sementes de Chorisia speciosa St. Hil. (paineira. Este trabalho objetivou avaliar os efeitos da temperatura e do alimento no desenvolvimento de D. maurus. Foram realizados oito tratamentos, seis em que os percevejos foram alimentados com sementes de paineira e mantidos a 15, 18, 20, 25 e 30 ± 1ºC, UR 80 ± 3% e fotofase de 12 h ou em condições ambientais de laboratório (23,5 ± 2,6ºC, UR 73,3 ± 9,9 %, e dois em que foram alimentados com sementes de algodão variedade IAC-22 e mantidos a 25 e 30ºC. Em todos os tratamentos foram observados cinco estágios imaturos. O aumento da temperatura proporcionou diminuição do tempo de desenvolvimento. A temperatura de 15ºC foi letal para ovos e ninfas de D. maurus. A menor mortalidade de ninfas ocorreu quando os percevejos foram alimentados com sementes de algodão a 25ºC (24,07%. A menor temperatura base (Tb foi obtida para o 1º ínstar (11,54ºC e a maior para o 2º ínstar (15,33ºC. As fêmeas de D. maurus necessitam de maior quantidade de graus-dias (329,93 graus-dias que os machos (300,49 graus-dias para atingir o estádio adulto.Dysdercus maurus Distant, 1901 (Hemiptera, Pyrrhocoridae is an important pest on Gossypium spp. (cotton tree, Citrus sinensis Osbeck (Rutaceae and Citrus reticulata Blanco (Rutaceae crops. This insect also feeds on seeds of Chorisia speciosa St. Hil. (Bombacaceae. This work aimed to evaluate the effects of temperature and food on the development of D. maurus. Eight treatments were carried out, in six of them bugs were fed with seeds of C. speciosa and kept at 15, 18, 20, 25 and 30 ± 1ºC, 80 ± 3% RH and 12h photophase or in laboratory conditions (23.5 ± 2.6ºC, 73.3 ± 9.9 % RH, and in the other two treatments bugs were fed with seeds of cotton variety
Marcos Botton; George Wellington Bastos de Melo; Odoni Loris Pereira de Oliveira; Ismael Onzi
O uso da cobertura vegetal em vinhedos é uma prática empregada paraminimizar a erosão e melhorar as qualidades químicas e físicas do solo. Neste trabalho, foi avaliado o efeito de coberturas vegetais sobre a população da pérola-da-terra Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Hemiptera: Margarodidae) na cultura da videira. No primeiro experimento, o vinhedo foi mantido sem cobertura vegetal por meio da aplicação trimestral do herbicida glifosato comparado com o uso de vegetação espontânea, durante o ano,...
Biologia do psilídeo-de-concha Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore (Hemiptera, Psyllidae) em Eucalyptus spp. Red gum lerp psyllid Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore (Hemiptera, Psylidae) biology in Eucalyptus spp.
Daniela Cristina Firmino-Winckler; Carlos Frederico Wilcken; Nádia Cristina de Oliveira; Carlos Alberto Oliveira de Matos
Biologia do psilídeo-de-concha Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore (Hemiptera, Psyllidae) em Eucalyptus spp.. Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore também conhecido por psilídeo-de-concha, se caracteriza por ser uma espécie específica ao gênero Eucalyptus L'Her. Este trabalho teve por objetivo determinar o ciclo biológico de G. brimblecombei em Eucalyptus spp. O trabalho foi conduzido em câmara climatizada (BOD), sob a temperatura de 26 °C e fotofase de 12 horas. As espécies de Eucalyptus utilizadas para o...