Sample records for burma

  1. Burma/Myanmar - Where Now?

    Burma's transition to democracy & peace process. Religin, ethnicity, economy, health, development and others subjects. illustrated, maps......Burma's transition to democracy & peace process. Religin, ethnicity, economy, health, development and others subjects. illustrated, maps...

  2. 10 medisinplanter fra Burma


    Sammendrag Hensikten med denne masteroppgaven er å undersøke om tradisjonell bruk av utvalgte medisinplanter fra Burma har vitenskapelig støtte. I tillegg ble interessante studier på biologiske/farmakologiske effekter av plantene tatt med. Litteratursøket ble utført ved hjelp av databasene Medline/Ovid, Medline/Pubmed, Embase/Ovid, Chemical Abstracts/Scifinder, ISI Web of Knowledge, Biological Abstracts, Sciencedirect og Cochrane. Andre nettsider som ble brukt til å finne eventuelle sy...

  3. Internal displacement in Burma.

    Lanjouw, S; Mortimer, G; Bamforth, V


    The internal displacement of populations in Burma is not a new phenomenon. Displacement is caused by numerous factors. Not all of it is due to outright violence, but much is a consequence of misguided social and economic development initiatives. Efforts to consolidate the state by assimilating populations in government-controlled areas by military authorities on the one hand, while brokering cease-fires with non-state actors on the other, has uprooted civilian populations throughout the country. Very few areas in which internally displaced persons (IDPs) are found are not facing social turmoil within a climate of impunity. Humanitarian access to IDP populations remains extremely problematic. While relatively little information has been collected, assistance has been focused on targeting accessible groups. International concern within Burma has couched the problems of displacement within general development modalities, while international attention along its borders has sought to contain displacement. With the exception of several recent initiatives, few approaches have gone beyond assistance and engaged in the prevention or protection of the displaced. PMID:11026156

  4. Dilemmas of Burma in transition

    Kim Jolliffe


    Until a government of Burma is able to accept the role of non-state armed groups as providers for civilian populations and affords them legitimacy within a legal framework, sustained conflict and mass displacement remain inevitable....

  5. Dilemmas of Burma in transition

    Kim Jolliffe


    Full Text Available Until a government of Burma is able to accept the role of non-state armed groups as providers for civilian populations and affords them legitimacy within a legal framework, sustained conflict and mass displacement remain inevitable....

  6. Internal displacement in eastern Burma

    Heather Rae


    Full Text Available The history of post-independent Burma is characterisedby numerous conflicts in this extraordinarily heterogeneous country. Since military rule began in 196 2 Burmahas witnessed gross human rights abuses andmassive displacement.

  7. 10 Medisinplanter fra Burma (Myanmar)

    Soltanpanah, Rounak


    Denne masteroppgaven har som formål å foreta litteratursøk over 10 utvalgte medisinplanter fra Burma (Myanmar) som professor Arnold Nordal samlet inn i perioden 1957-1961. Hensikten med denne oppgaven er å bruke systematisk litteratursøk for å samle opplysninger om tradisjonell bruk av plantene i Burma og i andre land, undersøke hvilke vitenskapelige studier som er utført på disse plantene og om tradisjonelle bruksområder har vitenskapelig støtte. Databaser som ble benyttet for å utføre litte...

  8. Activation Analysis and Nuclear Research in Burma

    Research endeavours in the field of Nuclear Sciences in Burma appear to be concentrated in three main Institutions. These are the Chemistry and Physics Departments of the Rangoon Arts & Science University and the Union of Burma Applied Research Institute (UBARI). In view of possible forthcoming developments an expanded research programme, which is to be implemented on the basis of a five year plan, has been drawn up. Research topics included in this programme are predominantly of practical interest and aimed at a contribution by nuclear methods, in particular activation analysis, to the technological and industrial needs of the country

  9. 10 Medisinplanter fra Burma : En litteraturstudie


    Sammendrag Denne masteroppgaven har som formål å vurdere tilgjengelig vitenskapelig litteratur for 10 medisinplanter hentet fra et herbarium fra Burma, utarbeidet av professor Arnold Nordal i perioden 1957-1961. Det skal undersøkes om de påståtte tradisjonelle bruksområdene for de utvalgte plantene har vitenskapelig støtte, ved å sammenligne bioaktive planteforbindelser, og farmakologiske effekter med tradisjonell bruk. Andre interessante kjemiske, biologiske og toksikologiske studier er ...

  10. 31 CFR 537.204 - Prohibited new investment in Burma.


    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prohibited new investment in Burma... Prohibitions § 537.204 Prohibited new investment in Burma. Except as otherwise authorized, new investment, as... Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 1997 (Public Law...

  11. Results of medical examination of refugees from Burma

    Petersen, H D; Lykke, J; Hougen, H P;


    To describe exposure to human rights violations among refugees from rural Burma; to compare exposure experienced by an ethnic Burmese minority group, the Shans, with that of the rest of the study population; and to compare exposure of those who had fled Burma recently with that of refugees who had...

  12. 31 CFR 537.412 - Investments in entities involved in economic development projects in Burma.


    ... economic development projects in Burma. 537.412 Section 537.412 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... economic development of resources located in Burma is prohibited by § 537.204 where the company's profits are predominantly derived from the company's economic development of resources located in Burma....

  13. 78 FR 6399 - Easing the Ban on Imports From Burma


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Easing the Ban on Imports From Burma SUMMARY: The Deputy Secretary of State has determined, pursuant to... the government to make further progress. The waiver of the import ban responds to the Government...

  14. 31 CFR 103.186 - Special measures against Burma.


    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special measures against Burma. 103.186 Section 103.186 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance FINANCIAL RECORDKEEPING AND REPORTING OF CURRENCY AND FOREIGN TRANSACTIONS Anti-Money Laundering Programs Law...

  15. The role of the Tatmadaw in modern day Burma: an analysis/ Zaiton bte Johari.

    Johari, Zaiton bte.


    The Tatmadaw (Burmese Army) has dominated Burma's politics since the Japanese and British occupation of Burma until today. Its role in Burma has received international attention, especially while other countries in Southeast Asia have seen the decline of military power, the most recent that being Indonesia. The Tatmadaw seems unshaken with all the recent development affecting the military institution in Southeast Asia. This study is significant in that it attempts to understand how the Tatmad...

  16. Constructing the Indian Immigrant to Colonial Burma, 1885-1948

    Mazumder, Rajashree


    The Indian Ocean arena has been a zone of circulation and network for people, capital and commodities since centuries. People from the Indian subcontinent had been traveling to Burma as part of this network as court priests, merchants, pilgrims, travelers and soldiers. During the early twentieth century this figure was transformed in the official discourse and popular imagination to immigrant, or a "bird of passage" that was seen as draining the wealth of an incipient Burmese nation. My disse...

  17. Measurement of mortality from neonatal tetanus in Burma


    Surveys to determine mortality from neonatal tetanus were conducted in March and April 1985 in accessible areas of Burma, where pregnant women had been immunized with tetanus toxoid and, for comparison, also in areas where such immunization had not been given. Neonatal mortality rates were three times greater in areas where tetanus toxoid immunization had only recently or had not yet been introduced by the national expanded programme on immunization. Analysis of the data indicates that the im...

  18. International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) national favourability studies: Burma

    There is no information on production of nuclear raw materials in Burma, although there are some uranium occurrences. Hunting Geophysics Ltd has done some aerial prospecting work in the area of Victoria Point in Southern Burma. All the data collected has been plotted on several maps and issued to various Burmese organizations, with a complete report. The follow-up ground exploration was done by a prospecting party headed by Dr Gjelsvik. The Hunting Geophysics' and Dr Gjelsvik reports are not available in the IAEA. The Raw Materials Division in the Union of Burma Atomic Energy Center commenced operations in 1955. The area of Mogok was selected by U Soo Win, the head of the Division, as most favourable for uranium exploration. The region is mountainous, with heavy forest cover. A ground gamma-ray survey was carried out in Mogok Mineral Belt by two geologists accompanied by two assistants, at a spacing of one km. This work showed monazite in all streams over an area of about 150 sq km and has given a detailed studies led to the discovery of some uraninite and pitchblende in the overburden of an old lode. Based, on these first discoveries the Government of Burma requested assistance from the IAEA and an expert was sent there for a period of one year. His field work was mainly limited in the Mogok Mineral Belt, however some reconnaissance field trips were made in other parts of the country. Dr D L Searle concluded that the Mogok area represents a zone of high temperature mineralization but a lower temperature form of uranium mineralization may have developed along the outer edges of the principal high grade zone. He recommended that the area between the Mogok scarp and the Shweli River be systematically traversed. Uranium bearing minerals in Burma are the following: monazite bearing beach sands near Amherst, Tenasserim; monazite placers from near Momeik, Northern Shan States; uraninte crystals from the gem-gravels around Mogok; a radioactive anomaly in syenite at

  19. 31 CFR 537.302 - Economic development of resources located in Burma.


    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Economic development of resources... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 537.302 Economic development of resources located in Burma. (a) The term economic development of resources located in Burma means activities pursuant to a contract the subject...

  20. 77 FR 47922 - Publication of General Licenses Related to the Burma Sanctions Program


    ... of shelter, and clean water, sanitation, and hygiene assistance; (2) Democracy building and good... Property of Persons Threatening the Peace, Security, or Stability of Burma'' (77 FR 41243, July 13, 2012...) Educational activities in Burma, including, but not limited to, combating illiteracy; increasing access...

  1. 31 CFR 537.413 - Sale of interest in economic development projects in Burma.


    ... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Interpretations § 537.413 Sale of interest in economic development projects in Burma... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sale of interest in economic development projects in Burma. 537.413 Section 537.413 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating...

  2. 31 CFR 537.411 - Purchase of shares in economic development projects in Burma.


    ... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Interpretations § 537.411 Purchase of shares in economic development projects in Burma... Burma of shares of ownership, including an equity interest, in the economic development of resources... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Purchase of shares in...

  3. 31 CFR 537.410 - Contracts and subcontracts regarding economic development of resources in Burma.


    ... economic development of resources in Burma. 537.410 Section 537.410 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... supervision and guarantee of another person's performance of a contract that includes the economic development... royalties, earnings or profits of, the economic development of resources located in Burma....

  4. 76 FR 28881 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Burma


    ... the Congress. (Presidential Sig.) THE WHITE HOUSE, May 16, 2011. [FR Doc. 2011-12401 Filed 5-17-11; 11... With Respect to Burma #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0; #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 76, No... ] Notice of May 16, 2011 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Burma On May 20, 1997,...

  5. 77 FR 29849 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect To Burma


    ... Sig.) THE WHITE HOUSE, May 17, 2012. [FR Doc. 2012-12337 Filed 5-17-12; 2:15 pm] Billing code 3295-F2... Respect To Burma #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0; #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 77, No. 97..., 2012 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect To Burma On May 20, 1997, the President...

  6. 78 FR 26231 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect To Burma


    ... respect to Burma declared in Executive Order 13047. This notice shall be published in the Federal Register and transmitted to the Congress. (Presidential Sig.) THE WHITE HOUSE, May 2, 2013. [FR Doc. 2013-10817... With Respect To Burma On May 20, 1997, the President issued Executive Order 13047, certifying to...

  7. 75 FR 27627 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Burma


    ... the Congress. (Presidential Sig.) THE WHITE HOUSE, May 13, 2010. [FR Doc. 2010-11945 Filed 5-14-10; 11... Notice of May 13, 2010--Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Burma #0; #0; #0... Emergency With Respect to Burma On May 20, 1997, the President issued Executive Order 13047, certifying...

  8. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Burma


    ... authority, inter alia, of the International Emergency Economic Powers Act, 50 U.S.C. 1701 et seq. On July 28... Related Programs Appropriations Act, 1997 (Public Law 104-208), that the Government of Burma has...

  9. The role of civil society in democratizing development : a study of Burma/Myanmar

    Htun, Yee Yee


    This paper presents as a qualitative research to describe and to analyze the role of civil society in democratizing development in a study of Burma. The contextualization approach for understanding my study is the concepts of civil society, democratization and development. The research explores the empirical phenomenon of the challenges of civil society organizations in Burma/Myanmar under the control of the authoritarian regime and how much civil society actors could work for civil rights an...

  10. Contested Regimes, Aid Flows, and Refugee Flows: The Case of Burma Umkämpfte Regime, Hilfsgelder und Flüchtlingsströme: Der Fall Burma

    Susan Banki


    Full Text Available There is a substantial literature that critiques the role that international aid plays in lending support to oppressive and contested regimes. But few investigators have asked the inverse question: what happens when aid is withdrawn? Following government oppression in 1988, international aid to Burma decreased significantly, providing a case study enabling this question to be addressed. Using Burma as an example, this article asks: if the presence of aid has been shown to support oppressive and contested regimes, what is the impact when aid is withdrawn? The article reviews critiques of development and humanitarian aid and identifies three specific regime-reinforcing phenomena. It demonstrates that these have not diminished following the overall decrease of aid to Burma. The paper then addresses the related relationship between aid flows and refugee flows, and concludes with implications of the research. Es gibt mittlerweile eine ganze Reihe von Literatur, in der die Rolle von internationaler Hilfe zur Unterstützung von Unrechtsregimen kritisch diskutiert wird. Es gibt bislang aber nur wenige Untersuchungen, in denen die Frage anders herum gestellt wird. Was passiert, wenn Hilfsgelder zurückgehalten werden? Seit der Unterdrückung im Jahr 1988 ist die internationale Hilfe an Burma/ Myanmar deutlich zurückgegangen. Dieser Artikel fragt für das Fallbeispiel Burma: Welche Wirkungen hat es, wenn Hilfsgelder zurückgehalten werden? Der Artikel beleuchtet die Debatten zur humanitären Hilfe und Entwicklung und identifiziert drei besondere Regime stützende Effekte. Der Artikel zeigt, dass diese im Fall Burma nicht eingetreten sind, als Hilfe zurückgezogen wurde. Der Artikel diskutiert außerdem die Beziehung zwischen Hilfsgeldern und Flüchtlingsströmen und versucht, Folgerungen aus der Forschung zu entwickeln.

  11. 78 FR 21497 - Publication of General Licenses Related to the Burma Sanctions Program


    ... Availability This document and additional information concerning OFAC are available from OFAC's Web site ( www... November 16, 2012, OFAC issued General License No. 18 (``GL 18'') authorizing the importation into the United States of any article that is a product of Burma, subject to certain limitations. GL 18 does...

  12. A Pilot Evaluation of an Art Therapy Program for Refugee Youth from Burma

    Kowitt, Sarah Dorothy; Emmerling, Dane; Gavarkavich, Diane; Mershon, Claire-Helene; Linton, Kristin; Rubesin, Hillary; Agnew-Brune, Christine; Eng, Eugenia


    Art therapy is a promising form of therapy to address mental health concerns for refugee youth. This article describes the development and implementation of a pilot evaluation of an art therapy program for refugee adolescents from Burma currently living in the United States. Evaluation activities were based on the Centers for Disease Control and…

  13. Burma and Cambodia: Human Rights, Social Disruption, and the Spread of HIV/AIDS.



    The debate around the issues raised by HIV/AIDS and human rights has largely focused on the protection from rights violations of individuals or groups affected by the disease. The relationship between political and social conditions where human rights abuses are frequent and the spread of HIV infection has been less studied. Two countries in Southeast Asia, Burma and Cambodia, are currently undergoing serious and uncontrolled epidemics of HIV; both are marked by political cultures of state violence and corruption, chronic civil war and insurgency, and widespread human rights violations. This article attempts to investigate associations between rapid HIV spread and political and social crises, using Burma and Cambodia as case studies. The climate and context of rights abuses are seen as significant factors of national vulnerability to the epidemic spread of HIV/AIDS. PMID:10347369

  14. Sacred Spaces of Karen Refugees and Humanitarian Aid Across the Thailand-Burma Border

    Alexander Horstmann


    Full Text Available In this article, I demonstrate that the Karen National Union (KNU was able to manipulate and politicise humanitarian aid in the Thailand-Burma borderland. I contend that in the context of the civil war in eastern Burma, Protestant Christianity provides a crucial vehicle for political mobilisation. The article shows that refugee camps in the Thai borderland become centres of proselytisation, and that Protestant evangelical and missionary networks open up passages across the Thai-Burmese border. The article thus considers a case where a homeland is constructed in the liminal space between two nations. Illegal emergency aid that doubles as missionary project reinforces the image of a helpless victim being vandalized by evil Burmese army. ----- Dieser Artikel zeigt auf, wie es der Karen National Union (KNU gelungen ist, die humanitäre Hilfe im Grenzgebiet zwischen Thailand und Burma für eigene Ziele zu manipulieren und zu politisieren. Ich argumentiere, dass das protestantische Christentum ein entscheidendes Vehikel zur politischen Mobilisierung im Kontext des Bürgerkriegs in Ost-Burma darstellt. Der Artikel zeigt, dass die Flüchtlingslager im thailändischen Grenzgebiet als Zentren der Missionierung dienen und dass die protestantisch-evangelikalen und missionarischen Netzwerke territoriale Korridore durch die thailändisch-burmesische Grenze öffnen. Wir sehen hier ein Fallbeispiel, wie eine imaginierte Nation in der Grenzerfahrung zweier Nationen konstruiert wird. Soforthilfe, die mit protestantischer Mission doppelt, verstärkt das Bild hilfloser Opfer, die von der burmesischen Armee vandalisiert werden.

  15. Prevalence of Anemia and Its Risk Factors Among Children 6–36 Months Old in Burma

    Zhao, Ai; Zhang, Yumei; Peng, Ying; Li, Jiayin; Yang, Titi; Liu, Zhaoyan; Lv, Yanli; Wang, Peiyu


    Anemia is a common nutritional problem, and it has a remarkably high prevalence rate in Southeast Asia. In this study, children from 6 to 36 months were investigated to determine (1) the prevalence of anemia and (2) risk factors associated with anemia. Convenience sampling was used to select three villages in three different regions in Burma. Hemoglobin and anthropometric indicators were measured for 872 children. Logistic regression analyses were used to determine factors associated with ane...

  16. Key Biodiversity Areas in the Indo-Burma Hotspot: Process, Progress and Future Directions

    A.W. Tordoff


    Full Text Available Key Biodiversity Areas (KBAs provide geographic targets for the expansion of protected area coverage, and identify sites for urgent conservation action. Identification of KBAs in the Indo-Burma Hotspot was undertaken during 2003, for a region of analysis comprising Cambodia, Lao PDR, Myanmar (Burma, Thailand and Vietnam, plus parts of southern China. The starting point was information on 282 Important Bird Areas identified by BirdLife International and collaborators. These data were then overlaid with point locality data on globally threatened mammals, reptiles, amphibians, freshwater fish and plants, with additional KBAs identified as required. Through this process, a total of 438 KBAs were identified, covering 258,085km2 or 11.5 percent of the region of analysis. Only 58 percent of the KBAs are wholly or partly included within protected areas, suggesting that there may be a need for further expansion of protected area networks, particularly in Myanmar and Vietnam. The criteria for KBA identification are triggered by 812 species, of which 23 are believed only to occur at a single KBA globally. The KBAs have proven to be a useful conservation priority setting tool in Indo-Burma, helping to guide investments by various donors and application of environmental safeguard policies by international financial institutions. There are fewer examples of KBAs being used to guide expansion of protected area systems in Indo-Burma. In large part, this is because the period of rapid expansion of protected areas in most hotspot countries predated the KBA identification process, and political support for further significant expansion is currently limited.

  17. The susceptibility of Bandicota bengalensis from Rangoon, Burma to several anticoagulant rodenticides.

    Brooks, J. E.; Htun, P. T.; Naing, H.


    The baseline susceptibility of the lesser bandicoot rat, Bandicota bengalensis, from Rangoon, Burma, to five anticoagulant rodenticides was established with no-choice feeding in the laboratory. The susceptibility of lesser bandicoots to the several poisons (brodifacoum, difenacoum, diphacinone, coumatetralyl, and warfarin) was such that they were offered at a 0.001% concentration. B. bengalensis was most susceptible to brodifacoum, and in descending order, difenacoum, coumatetralyl, diphacino...

  18. [War Relief of Japanese Red Cross Nurses in the Lost Battle of Burma].

    Kawahara, Yukari


    This paper aims to reveal changes in the relief support of the Japanese Red Cross relief units dispatched to Burma during the Second World War, from the beginning of fighting in Burma to the Japanese withdrawal. Japanese Red Cross relief units began their relief support when Japan invaded Burma in February of 1942. Counterattacks by the British, Indian and Chinese armies from December 1942 caused an increase in the number of patients. There were also many cases of malnutrition and malaria due to the extreme shortage of medical supplies as a result of the Battle of Imphal, which began in March of 1944. Bomb raids became even more intense after the battle ended in July 1944, and patients were carried into bomb shelters and caves on a daily basis. Just prior to invasion by enemy troops, they were ordered to evacuate to neighboring Thailand. Nurses from the Wakayama group hid their identity as members of the Red Cross and evacuated, with 15 out of 23 dying or being reported missing in action. PMID:27089734

  19. “Show Us Your God”: Marilla Baker Ingalls and the Power of Religious Objects in Nineteenth-Century Burma

    Alexandra Kaloyanides


    Full Text Available This essay examines the unusual evangelical work of Marilla Baker Ingalls, an American Baptist missionary to Burma from 1851–1902. By the time of her death in Burma at the age of 75, Ingalls was known as one of the most successful Baptist evangelists among Burmese Buddhists. To understand the extraordinary dynamic of Ingalls’ expanding Christian community, this essay focuses on two prominent objects at the Baptist mission: A life-sized dog statue that Ingalls kept chained at the edge of her property and a massive banyan tree covered with biblical illustrations and revered by locals as an abode of divine beings. This essay argues that these objects transformed Ingalls’ American Baptist Christianity into a kind of Burmese religion that revolved around revered objects. Through an examination of the particular shrine practices that pulled people into the Baptist mission, this essay reflects on the larger context of religious encounter, conflict, and representation in modernizing Burma.

  20. Burma/Myanmar: Challenges of a Ceasefire Accord in Karen State Burma/Myanmar: Herausforderungen eines Waffenstillstandsabkommens im Karen-Staat

    Paul Core


    Full Text Available Burma (Myanmar has seen some of the longest-running insurgencies in the world, which have had a devastating effect on local populations and the country as a whole. While the Karen National Union (KNU, which has fought successive Burmese governments since 1949, is in a critical phase of its life, the KNU/KNLA Peace Council (KPC is experiencing life under a ceasefire accord with the Burmese government, the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC. Major challenges have occurred since the ceasefire and future developments are uncertain. Like all ceasefire groups in the country, the KPC has come under immense pressure to follow the government’s “seven-step road map” to democracy, compete in the 2010 elections, and transform its troops into a border guard force under the control of the Burmese military or face disarmament. This article seeks to provide some insights into a ceasefire group, to analyse the failures and successes of the ceasefire accord, and to outline future challenges to the country. Myanmar (Burma ist bis heute Schauplatz von anhaltenden ethnischen Konflikten, welche einen erheblichen Einfluss auf lokale Bevölkerungen und das ganze Land haben. Während die Karen National Union, die seit dem Jahr 1949 gegen die burmesische Regierung kämpft, sich in einer kritischen Phase befindet, hat das KNU/KNLA Peace Council seinen eigenen Frieden mit der Militärregierung geschlossen. Seit dem Waffenstillstand haben sich erhebliche Herausforderungen aufgetan und zukünftige Entwicklungen sind ungewiss. Wie alle Waffenstillstandsgruppen im Land steht die Gruppe unter dem Druck der Regierung, dem „Sieben-Punkte-Fahrplan zur disziplinierten Demokratie“ zu folgen und damit eine politische Partei zu gründen sowie seine Truppen in eine Grenztruppe unter Kontrolle des burmesischen Militärs zu transformieren. Dieser Artikel gibt einen Einblick in eine Waffenstillstandsgruppe, analysiert die Erfolge sowie Misserfolge des

  1. Two Versions of Buddhist Karen History of the Late British Colonial Period in Burma:

    Kazuto Ikeda


    Full Text Available The majority of the Karen people in Burma are in fact Buddhist, in spite of their widespread image as Christian, pro-British, anti-Burman, and separatist. In the last decade of British rule, two Buddhist interpretations of Karen history—virtually the first ethnic self-assertion by the Buddhist Karens—were published along with the first Christian version. Writing in Burmese for Burmese readers, the authors of these Buddhist versions sought to prove that the Karen were a legitimate people (lumyo comparable to the Burman and Mon in the Buddhist world, with dynastic lineages of their own kingship (min reaching back into the remote past, and a group faithful to their religious order (thathana. This linkage of ethnicity=kingship=religion was presented in order to persuade skeptical readers who believed that the Karen, lacking the tradition of Buddhist min, were too primitive to constitute an authentic lumyo of the thathana world. Analysis of these texts will shed light on the social formation of Karen identity among the Buddhists from the 1920s to the 1930s. This will also lead us to consider the historical processes whereby the quasi-ethnic idioms and logic innate to the Burmese-speaking world were transformed in the face of modern and Western notions of race and nation, and consequently the mutation of Burma into an ethnically articulated society.

  2. Forest plunder in Southeast Asia: an environmental security nexus in Burma and Cambodia.

    Talbott, K; Brown, M


    This article discusses the cycle of conversion, consumption, and corruption that undermines the environment and civil society in Cambodia and Burma (Myanmar). In these countries, forests are declining in patterns similar to other Southeast Asian deforestation. Illegal logging, prostitution, and heroin trafficking constitute the bulk of Cambodia's shadow economy. Revenues are used to provide financial support for political causes and build the private wealth of the elite. Major political and guerilla groups and the Cambodian military have been major beneficiaries of logging revenue, supported private sector forestry in many military zones, and facilitated logging and trade. About 40% of land goes to forest concessions granted to Southeast Asian companies, and revenues bypass the regular state budget. In Burma, the cease fire agreements in the early 1990s, led to remote border area forests being opened up to large, nonsustainable commercial timber mining. Land was divided into ethnic and government controlled areas. Timber profits were funneled into a business owned by members of the new ruling force, the SLORC, and used to launder drug exports and profits. Trading partners include Thailand, and most recently, China. It is speculated that deforested areas are replanted with opium poppies, and trade routes carry timber and heroin. The unregulated logging industry and the lack of financial accounting of the timber trade undermine the structures of civil society and good governance. Forest policies appear progressive but are in reality unenforced. Politics and agreements in both countries are closely tied to deforestation issues. PMID:12321720

  3. Women of Burma Speak Out: Workshops to Deconstruct Gender-Based Violence and Build Systems of Peace and Justice

    Norsworthy, Kathryn L.; Khuankaew, Ouyporn


    Refugee and internally displaced women of Burma examined structural and institutional violence against women within their communities within workshop formats. Group members also discussed strategies for transforming systems supporting gender-based violence into structures of peace and gender justice. The authors describe their methodology, based…

  4. Access to essential maternal health interventions and human rights violations among vulnerable communities in eastern Burma.

    Luke C Mullany


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Health indicators are poor and human rights violations are widespread in eastern Burma. Reproductive and maternal health indicators have not been measured in this setting but are necessary as part of an evaluation of a multi-ethnic pilot project exploring strategies to increase access to essential maternal health interventions. The goal of this study is to estimate coverage of maternal health services prior to this project and associations between exposure to human rights violations and access to such services. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Selected communities in the Shan, Mon, Karen, and Karenni regions of eastern Burma that were accessible to community-based organizations operating from Thailand were surveyed to estimate coverage of reproductive, maternal, and family planning services, and to assess exposure to household-level human rights violations within the pilot-project target population. Two-stage cluster sampling surveys among ever-married women of reproductive age (15-45 y documented access to essential antenatal care interventions, skilled attendance at birth, postnatal care, and family planning services. Mid-upper arm circumference, hemoglobin by color scale, and Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia by rapid diagnostic dipstick were measured. Exposure to human rights violations in the prior 12 mo was recorded. Between September 2006 and January 2007, 2,914 surveys were conducted. Eighty-eight percent of women reported a home delivery for their last pregnancy (within previous 5 y. Skilled attendance at birth (5.1%, any (39.3% or > or = 4 (16.7% antenatal visits, use of an insecticide-treated bed net (21.6%, and receipt of iron supplements (11.8% were low. At the time of the survey, more than 60% of women had hemoglobin level estimates < or = 11.0 g/dl and 7.2% were Pf positive. Unmet need for contraceptives exceeded 60%. Violations of rights were widely reported: 32.1% of Karenni households reported forced labor and 10% of Karen

  5. Geochemical loading of suspended sediment carried by large monsoonal rivers in Burma

    Robinson, R. A.; Tipper, E.; Bird, M. I.; Oo, N.


    The Irrawaddy and Salween rivers of Burma drain the most rapidly exhuming region in the Himalayas, the eastern syntaxis zone. These monsoonal rivers have catchment areas of 0.413 x 106 km2 and 0.272 x 106 km2, respectively, and approximately 95% of the Irrawaddy catchment lies within Burma, while the catchment of the Salween flows through China, Thailand and Burma. They are long rivers (~2000 and ~2800 km) which have steep and narrow bedrock gorges along much of their length, and different amounts of floodplain in their lower reaches. These rivers have been less studied than other large Asian systems because of political instability in Burma and restricted access. Based on available historical data, and field work in 2005-2008, Robinson et al. (2007) estimated that the Irrawaddy is likely to be the 3rd largest river globally in terms of sediment load and when the Irrawaddy and Salween estimated fluxes are combined, they together contribute 4.6 Mt/yr of particulate organic carbon (POC) and an additional 1.1Mt/yr of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) to the ocean. When estimated yields of total organic carbon are calculated, the Irrawaddy-Salween system ranks alongside the Amazon as one of the largest yields of organic carbon, and is higher than the yield for the Ganges-Brahmaptura (Bird et al., 2008). Here we present preliminary geochemical data for water and sediment from the Irrawaddy and Salween rivers, and demonstrate the variability in elemental concentrations of water between the rivers and the summer and winter monsoon seasons, and differences in suspended sediment geochemistry as a function of water depth. The variability and magnitude of weathering products carried by such significant systems need to be quantified in order to understand their contribution to global element cycling (Tipper et al., 2006) and sedimentary depocentres. Our data highlight that further study of the geochemistry of such large rivers will significantly improve our understanding of the

  6. [The Red Cross System for War Relief during the Second World War and Actual Conditions of Its Efforts in Burma].

    Kawahara, Yukari


    This paper aims to show the system for relief provided by the Japanese Red Cross relief units during the Second World War, as well as the actual activities of sixteen of its relief units dispatched to Burma. The Red Cross wartime relief efforts involved using personnel and funding prepared beforehand to provide aid to those injured in war, regardless of their status as ally or enemy. Thus they were able to receive support from the army in order to ensure safety and provide supplies. Nurses dispatched to Burma took care of many patients who suffered from malnutrition and physical injuries amidst the outbreak of infectious diseases typical of tropical areas, without sufficient replacement members. Base hospitals not meant for the front lines also came under attack, and the nurses' lives were thus in mortal danger. Of the 374 original members, 29 died or went missing in action. PMID:27089733

  7. Modulation of the interannual variation of the India-Burma Trough on the winter moisture supply over Southwest China

    Xiuzhen, Li; Zhou, Wen


    Anomalous moisture circulation associated with the interannual variation of the India-Burma Trough was investigated to examine how the trough affects the moisture supply to Southwest China in winter. When the India-Burma Trough is strong, abnormal moisture is transported to Southwest China mainly via the southern boundary in the 750-650 hPa layer instead of via the western boundary, in contrast to the climatological situation. The abnormal moisture convergence is constrained in a thin layer along the windward side of the Tibetan Plateau. The moisture circulation response to the variation of the India-Burma Trough shows great baroclinicity over the Bay of Bengal (BOB). Northwesterly transport behind and southwesterly transport ahead of the trough appear only between 850 and 650 hPa, with anticyclonic moisture circulation underneath and cyclonic moisture circulation on top. Beyond the BOB, the moisture circulation response can be traced upstream with abnormal anticyclonic/cyclonic moisture circulations over the Mediterranean Sea and Arabian Sea/Red Sea above 850 hPa, and downstream with anticyclonic moisture circulation over the Philippine Sea near the surface. The activity of the India-Burma Trough is not a local phenomenon, but a part of the South Asian jet wave trains, and is modulated by the ENSO via the Philippine Sea anticyclone. Further investigation of the separate role of wind and moisture disturbances shows that the abnormal moisture flux is dominated by the wind disturbance, as is the abnormal moisture divergence in the lower level; while that in the upper level is dominated by both the wind and moisture disturbances.

  8. Antimicrobial endophytic fungal assemblages inhabiting bark of Taxus baccata L. of Indo-Burma mega biodiversity hotspot

    Tayung, K.; Jha, D. K.


    Fungal endophytes were isolated from inner bark of Taxus baccata L., an important source of potent anticancer drug taxol. Bark samples were collected from two locations of Arunachal Pradesh, India, part of the Indo-Burma mega biodiversity hotspot, during two seasons i.e. monsoon and winter. Altogether 77 fungal strains representing 18 genera were isolated from T. baccata bark during the present investigation. The colonizing frequency was recorded as 38.5% and the fungal community comprised of...

  9. Grooming and cultural socialization: a mixed method study of caregiving practices in Burma (Myanmar) and the United States.

    Thein-Lemelson, Seinenu M


    Grooming behaviours are thought to be a crucial aspect of parenting and integral to the sociality of non-human mammals, but there have been few empirical studies on how grooming might be relevant to parenting and socialization processes in humans. Study 1 is a quantitative cross-cultural comparison of grooming practices in two cultural settings: an urban centre in Burma (Myanmar) and an urban centre in the United States. The study uses naturalistic video data of 57 families to analyse grooming behaviours directed at children. A broad range of ages was sampled in each culture to examine the developmental trajectory of grooming behaviours. Results indicate that significant cultural differences exist between Burma and the United States, with Burmese children being groomed by their caregivers more often than U.S. children. Results also indicate that cultural differences in grooming practices begin early and remain constant across age. An unexpected finding was that Burmese families were more variable in their behaviour than U.S. families. Study 2 attempts to explain this variability by using ethnography to describe how sociodemographic changes in Burma are leading to changes in parental values and socialization practices in the schools, but how embodied primary care in the homes appear resistant to change. PMID:25530498

  10. Impacts of Dams and Global Warming on Fish Biodiversity in the Indo-Burma Hotspot.

    Kano, Yuichi; Dudgeon, David; Nam, So; Samejima, Hiromitsu; Watanabe, Katsutoshi; Grudpan, Chaiwut; Grudpan, Jarungjit; Magtoon, Wichan; Musikasinthorn, Prachya; Nguyen, Phuong Thanh; Praxaysonbath, Bounthob; Sato, Tomoyuki; Shibukawa, Koichi; Shimatani, Yukihiro; Suvarnaraksha, Apinun; Tanaka, Wataru; Thach, Phanara; Tran, Dac Dinh; Yamashita, Tomomi; Utsugi, Kenzo


    Both hydropower dams and global warming pose threats to freshwater fish diversity. While the extent of global warming may be reduced by a shift towards energy generation by large dams in order to reduce fossil-fuel use, such dams profoundly modify riverine habitats. Furthermore, the threats posed by dams and global warming will interact: for example, dams constrain range adjustments by fishes that might compensate for warming temperatures. Evaluation of their combined or synergistic effects is thus essential for adequate assessment of the consequences of planned water-resource developments. We made projections of the responses of 363 fish species within the Indo-Burma global biodiversity hotspot to the separate and joint impacts of dams and global warming. The hotspot encompasses the Lower Mekong Basin, which is the world's largest freshwater capture fishery. Projections for 81 dam-building scenarios revealed progressive impacts upon projected species richness, habitable area, and the proportion of threatened species as generating capacity increased. Projections from 126 global-warming scenarios included a rise in species richness, a reduction in habitable area, and an increase in the proportion of threatened species; however, there was substantial variation in the extent of these changes among warming projections. Projections from scenarios that combined the effects of dams and global warming were derived either by simply adding the two threats, or by combining them in a synergistic manner that took account of the likelihood that habitat shifts under global warming would be constrained by river fragmentation. Impacts on fish diversity under the synergistic projections were 10-20% higher than those attributable to additive scenarios, and were exacerbated as generating capacity increased-particularly if CO2 emissions remained high. The impacts of dams, especially those on river mainstreams, are likely to be greater, more predictable and more immediately pressing for

  11. Indo-Burma Range: a belt of accreted microcontinents, ophiolites and Mesozoic-Paleogene flyschoid sediments

    Acharyya, S. K.


    This study provides an insight into the lithotectonic evolution of the N-S trending Indo-Burma Range (IBR), constituting the southern flank of the Himalayan syntaxis. Paleogene flyschoid sediments (Disang-Barail) that represent a shallow marine to deltaic environment mainly comprise the west-central sector of IBR, possibly resting upon a continental base. On the east, these sequences are tectonically flanked by the Eocene olistostromal facies of the Disang, which developed through accretion of trench sediments during the subduction. The shelf and trench facies sequences of the Disang underwent overthrusting from the east, giving rise to two ophiolite suites ( Naga Hills Lower Ophiolite ( NHLO) and Victoria Hills Upper Ophiolite ( VHUO), but with different accretion history. The ophiolite and ophiolite cover rock package were subsequently overthrusted by the Proterozoic metamorphic sequence, originated from the Burmese continent. The NHLO suite of Late Jurassic to Early Eocene age is unconformably overlain by mid-Eocene shallow marine ophiolite-derived clastics. On the south, the VHUO of Mesozoic age is structurally underlain by continental metamorphic rocks. The entire package in Victoria Hills is unconformably overlain by shallow marine Late Albian sediments. Both the ophiolite suites and the sandwiched continental metamorphic rocks are thrust westward over the Paleogene shelf sediments. These dismembered ophiolites and continental metamorphic rocks suggest thin-skinned tectonic detachment processes in IBR, as reflected from the presence of klippe of continental metamorphic rocks over the NHLO and the flyschoid Disang floor sediments and half windows exposing the Disang beneath the NHLO.

  12. The susceptibility of Bandicota bengalensis from Rangoon, Burma to several anticoagulant rodenticides.

    Brooks, J E; Htun, P T; Naing, H


    The baseline susceptibility of the lesser bandicoot rat, Bandicota bengalensis, from Rangoon, Burma, to five anticoagulant rodenticides was established with no-choice feeding in the laboratory. The susceptibility of lesser bandicoots to the several poisons (brodifacoum, difenacoum, diphacinone, coumatetralyl, and warfarin) was such that they were offered at a 0.001% concentration. B. bengalensis was most susceptible to brodifacoum, and in descending order, difenacoum, coumatetralyl, diphacinone and warfarin. In comparison with Rattus norvegicus on warfarin at 0.005%, B. bengalensis proved more susceptible. Feeding tests at 0.005% concentration indicated that a 1-day feeding on brodifacoum and difenacoum would result in complete mortality, whereas coumatetralyl and warfarin would require 4 days feeding to a 100% kill. Brodifacoum and difenacoum are recommended at 0.002-0.005% bait concentrations and coumatetralyl at 0.005--0.01% concentrations for the control of B. bengalensis in the field in Rangoon. The use of any anticoagulant material in rat control should be alternated with acute toxicants to retard the possible development of anticoagulant resistance. PMID:6444311

  13. Paysages de l’hybridité en Birmanie Landscapes of Hybridity in Burma

    François Robinne


    Full Text Available Du fait de la dimension composite, hétérogène, de tout paysage social, une nécessaire cohérence d’ensemble se dessine. À la croisée de populations d’origines diverses produisant une diversité sociale et linguistique aussi complexe qu’instable, la région de Nyaung-Shwé dans l’État Shan de Birmanie est fondamentalement structurée par l’évolution concomitante de la cérémonie processionnelle de cinq images de Bouddha et par le cycle économique de « cinq jours un marché ». L’articulation de ces deux sphères économiques et religieuses non seulement contribue à organiser les déplacements des biens et des personnes de part et d’autre du lac Inlé ; elle génère également une suprématie politique du paysage social au profit de ceux qui contrôlent – au moins symboliquement – leur évolution. Cet exemple pourrait être étendu à d’autres paysages sociaux où le bouddhisme opère comme fédérateur commun (comme dans la région de Thibaw, on le verra, où le christianisme pluriel est indissociable des revendications ethniques, et finalement partout où j’ai été conduit à faire des enquêtes de terrain en Birmanie, dans des régions reculées comme en milieu urbain. Dans tous les cas, la problématique consistant à mettre de côté, au moins dans un premier temps, l’habituel surdéterminant ethnique – voire même interethnique –, c’est-à-dire à centrer l’analyse sur les carrefours transethniques plutôt que sur les frontières culturelles et territoriales, une telle problématique contribuerait à démontrer la dynamique inclusive de tout paysage social et l’intérêt à prendre l’hybridité pour objet d’étude.Despite the composite dimensions of any social landscape, a necesserary social coherence has to be produced. At the crossroad of peoples of multiple origins producing a complex and unstable social and linguistic diversity, the Nyaung Shwe township in the Shan State of Burma

  14. Characterization of the Burma Road Rubble Pit at the Savannah River Site, Aiken, South Carolina

    The Burma Road Rubble Pit (BRRP) is located at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The BRRP unit consists of two unlined earthen pits dug into surficial soil and filled with various waste materials. It was used from 1973--1983 for the disposal of dry inert rubble such as metal, concrete, lumber, poles, light fixtures, and glass. No record of the disposal of hazardous substances at the BRRP has been found. In 1983, the BRRP was closed by covering it with soil. In September 1988, a Ground Penetrating Radar survey detected three disturbed areas of soil near the BRRP, and a detailed and combined RCRA Facility Investigation/Remedial Investigation was conducted from November 1993 to February 1994 to determine whether hazardous substances were present in the subsurface, to evaluate the nature and extent of contamination, and to evaluate the risks posed to the SRS facility due to activities conducted at the BRRP site. Metals, semi-volatile organic compounds, volatile organic compounds, radionuclides and one pesticide (Aldrin) were detected in soil and groundwater samples collected from seventeen BRRP locations. A baseline risk assessment (BRA) was performed quantitatively to evaluate whether chemical and radionuclide concentrations detected in soil and groundwater at the BRRP posed an unacceptable threat to human health and the environment. The exposure scenarios identifiable for the BRRP were for environmental researchers, future residential and occupational land use. The total site noncancer hazard indices were below unity, and cancer risk levels were below 1.0E-06 for the existing and future case environmental researcher scenario. The future case residential and occupational scenarios showed total hazard and risk levels which exceeded US EPA criterion values relative to groundwater scenarios. For the most part, the total carcinogenic risks were within the 1.0E-04 to 1.0E-06 risk range. Only the future adult residential scenario was associated with risks exceeding 1.0E-04

  15. Physical and underway data collected aboard the ROGER REVELLE during cruise KNOX05RR in the Andaman Sea or Burma Sea, Bay of Bengal and Indian Ocean from 2007-05-07 to 2007-06-14 (NCEI Accession 0155654)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0155654 includes physical and underway data collected aboard the ROGER REVELLE during cruise KNOX05RR in the Andaman Sea or Burma Sea, Bay of Bengal...

  16. Human resources for health: task shifting to promote basic health service delivery among internally displaced people in ethnic health program service areas in eastern Burma/Myanmar

    Sharon Low


    Full Text Available Background: Burma/Myanmar was controlled by a military regime for over 50 years. Many basic social and protection services have been neglected, specifically in the ethnic areas. Development in these areas was led by the ethnic non-state actors to ensure care and the availability of health services for the communities living in the border ethnic-controlled areas. Political changes in Burma/Myanmar have been ongoing since the end of 2010. Given the ethnic diversity of Burma/Myanmar, many challenges in ensuring health service coverage among all ethnic groups lie ahead. Methods: A case study method was used to document how existing human resources for health (HRH reach the vulnerable population in the ethnic health organizations’ (EHOs and community-based organizations’ (CBHOs service areas, and their related information on training and services delivered. Mixed methods were used. Survey data on HRH, service provision, and training were collected from clinic-in-charges in 110 clinics in 14 Karen/Kayin townships through a rapid-mapping exercise. We also reviewed 7 organizational and policy documents and conducted 10 interviews and discussions with clinic-in-charges. Findings: Despite the lack of skilled medical professionals, the EHOs and CBHOs have been serving the population along the border through task shifting to less specialized health workers. Clinics and mobile teams work in partnership, focusing on primary care with some aspects of secondary care. The rapid-mapping exercise showed that the aggregate HRH density in Karen/Kayin state is 2.8 per 1,000 population. Every mobile team has 1.8 health workers per 1,000 population, whereas each clinic has between 2.5 and 3.9 health workers per 1,000 population. By reorganizing and training the workforce with a rigorous and up-to-date curriculum, EHOs and CBHOs present a viable solution for improving health service coverage to the underserved population. Conclusion: Despite the chronic conflict in

  17. Notes on Reading Rare Books about the Anti-Japanese War in Yunnan and Burma%滇缅抗战稀见文献知见录



    中国远征军出动对日作战的中缅印战场,既是抗日战争正面战场的重要组成部分,又是世界反法西斯战争亚洲-太平洋战场即东方战线主战场之一。滇缅抗战胜利对世界反法西斯战争取得全面胜利作出了举世瞩目的贡献,是世界反法西斯战争重大战果。中国远征军是滇缅抗战的主力军。笔者就所知所见的稀见滇缅抗战文献单行本逐一概说,共计介绍中美盟国中英文文献十二种和中译日方文献两种,以丰富世界反法西斯战争史和中国抗战史研究史料。%The Chinese Expeditionary Army (CEA) was dispatched from China inland to the west of Yunnan province, Burma, and India for fighting against the Japanese invaders during the Second World War. Not only the battle field which CEA had once experienced and bled was an important component of the frontier battlefields during the period of Anti-Japanese War in China, but also it was one of the oriental main battle fields, the Asia-Pacific, in the International Anti-Fascist War. The victory of the Anti-Japanese War in Yunnan and Burma had made a remarkable contribution towards the finally overall success of the International Anti-Fascism War. CEA was the main force of the Anti-Japanese War in Yunnan and Burma, which had achieved splendid results on the battle field in West Yunnan and North Burma. The essay is written down to introduce the rare books about the Anti-Japanese War in Yunnan and Burma, which is made of twelve volumes written in Chinese or English, and other two volumes in Japanese. Surely it is worthy of studying for the history of the International Anti-Fascism War and the Anti-Japanese War in China.

  18. Investigation on the biotrophic interaction of Ustilago esculenta on Zizania latifolia found in the Indo-Burma biodiversity hotspot.

    Jose, Robinson C; Goyari, Sailendra; Louis, Bengyella; Waikhom, Sayanika D; Handique, Pratap J; Talukdar, Narayan C


    Ustilago esculenta is a uniquely flavored biotrophic smut fungus that forms a smut gall on the top internodal region of Zizania latifolia, a perennial wild rice found in the Indo-Burma biodiversity hotspot. The smut gall is an edible vegetable locally called "kambong" in Manipur, India. The life cycle of the fungus was studied in vitro and its biotrophism was observed during different stages of the plant growth starting from the bud stage to decaying stage using light, fluorescent and electron microscopy. The size of the smut gall and the number of internodes below the apical smut gall varied significantly (P < 0.05). Examination of various parts of infected plants using culture methods, microscopy and polymerase chain reaction revealed that Ustilago esculenta colonized Zizania latifolia in a non-systemic manner. Spores and fragmented hyphae of U. esculenta were present in the rhizome of infected plant throughout the year, but shoot interiors were without any fungal structures from April until September. The smut region of infected plants in early September to December were heavily sporulated with fragmented hyphae, while the nodal regions of infected plants had no spores and fragmented hyphae. Hyphae and spores were also absent in the internodes and membranes aboveground up to smut region of infected plants but were present in the old rhizomes. PMID:27334294

  19. Health and human rights in Chin State, Western Burma: a population-based assessment using multistaged household cluster sampling.

    Richard Sollom

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Chin State of Burma (also known as Myanmar is an isolated ethnic minority area with poor health outcomes and reports of food insecurity and human rights violations. We report on a population-based assessment of health and human rights in Chin State. We sought to quantify reported human rights violations in Chin State and associations between these reported violations and health status at the household level. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Multistaged household cluster sampling was done. Heads of household were interviewed on demographics, access to health care, health status, food insecurity, forced displacement, forced labor, and other human rights violations during the preceding 12 months. Ratios of the prevalence of household hunger comparing exposed and unexposed to each reported violation were estimated using binomial regression, and 95% confidence intervals (CIs were constructed. Multivariate models were done to adjust for possible confounders. Overall, 91.9% of households (95% CI 89.7%-94.1% reported forced labor in the past 12 months. Forty-three percent of households met FANTA-2 (Food and Nutrition Technical Assistance II project definitions for moderate to severe household hunger. Common violations reported were food theft, livestock theft or killing, forced displacement, beatings and torture, detentions, disappearances, and religious and ethnic persecution. Self reporting of multiple rights abuses was independently associated with household hunger. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate widespread self-reports of human rights violations. The nature and extent of these violations may warrant investigation by the United Nations or International Criminal Court. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.

  20. 中缅边境蚊虫调查研究%A survey for mosquito at the border between China and Burma

    张晓龙; 孙肖红; 曹晓梅; 李亚平; 和志宏; 房健慧; 王静


    目的 调查中缅边境3个口岸蚊虫种群数量及构成.方法 灯诱法.结果 在中缅边境3个采样点共采集19种蚊虫,其中三带喙库蚊是优势种群,致倦库蚊、棕头库蚊和中华按蚊数量较多.结论 中缅边境蚊种丰富,优势度较高的三带喙库蚊为流行性乙型脑炎(乙脑)的媒介,联合开展中缅边境蚊虫和蚊传疾病的监测是双方共同控制传染病传入传出的关键.%Objective To investigate mosquitoes species at the border between China and Burma. Methods Lamp trapping was conducted. Results 19 species of mosquito were collected in three ports. Culex tritaeniorhyn-chus was predominant species. Conclusion Culex tritaeniorhynchus is the vector of Japanese encephalitis, so survey for mosquito and mosquito-bome disease is required at the sino-Burma border.

  1. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from underway - surface observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from the KNORR in the Andaman Sea or Burma Sea, Arabian Sea and others from 1994-12-01 to 1996-01-21 (NODC Accession 0115589)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115589 includes chemical, meteorological, physical and underway - surface data collected from KNORR in the Andaman Sea or Burma Sea, Arabian Sea,...

  2. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the KNORR in the Andaman Sea or Burma Sea, Arabian Sea and others from 1994-12-01 to 1996-01-23 (NODC Accession 0115009)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115009 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from KNORR in the Andaman Sea or Burma Sea, Arabian Sea, Bay of...

  3. Information Extraction and Interpretation Analysis of Mineral Potential Targets Based on ETM+ Data and GIS technology: A Case Study of Copper and Gold Mineralization in Burma

    Mineralization-alteration and structure information extraction plays important roles in mineral resource prospecting and assessment using remote sensing data and the Geographical Information System (GIS) technology. Choosing copper and gold mines in Burma as example, the authors adopt band ratio, threshold segmentation and principal component analysis (PCA) to extract the hydroxyl alteration information using ETM+ remote sensing images. Digital elevation model (DEM) (30m spatial resolution) and ETM+ data was used to extract linear and circular faults that are associated with copper and gold mineralization. Combining geological data and the above information, the weights of evidence method and the C-A fractal model was used to integrate and identify the ore-forming favourable zones in this area. Research results show that the high grade potential targets are located with the known copper and gold deposits, and the integrated information can be used to the next exploration for the mineral resource decision-making

  4. Community-based assessment of human rights in a complex humanitarian emergency: the Emergency Assistance Teams-Burma and Cyclone Nargis

    Mahn Mahn


    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Cyclone Nargis hit Burma on May 2, 2008, killing over 138,000 and affecting at least 2.4 million people. The Burmese military junta, the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC, initially blocked international aid to storm victims, forcing community-based organizations such as the Emergency Assistance Teams-Burma (EAT to fill the void, helping with cyclone relief and long-term reconstruction. Recognizing the need for independent monitoring of the human rights situation in cyclone-affected areas, particularly given censorship over storm relief coverage, EAT initiated such documentation efforts. Methods A human rights investigation was conducted to document selected human rights abuses that had initially been reported to volunteers providing relief services in cyclone affected areas. Using participatory research methods and qualitative, semi-structured interviews, EAT volunteers collected 103 testimonies from August 2008 to June 2009; 42 from relief workers and 61 from storm survivors. Results One year after the storm, basic necessities such as food, potable water, and shelter remained insufficient for many, a situation exacerbated by lack of support to help rebuild livelihoods and worsening household debt. This precluded many survivors from being able to access healthcare services, which were inadequate even before Cyclone Nargis. Aid efforts continued to be met with government restrictions and harassment, and relief workers continued to face threats and fear of arrest. Abuses, including land confiscation and misappropriation of aid, were reported during reconstruction, and tight government control over communication and information exchange continued. Conclusions Basic needs of many cyclone survivors in the Irrawaddy Delta remained unmet over a year following Cyclone Nargis. Official impediments to delivery of aid to storm survivors continued, including human rights abrogations experienced by civilians during

  5. An Analysis of the Conflicts between Burman and Karen during Japanese Occupation in Burma%缅甸日据时期“缅克冲突”探析



    During Japanese occupation in Burma,there are many complicated reasons which caused the conflicts between Burman and Karen,including a history full of conflicts between Burman and Karen,the British policy‘Divide and Rule',and Japanese adding fuel to the fire based on their interest. In addition,the two nations took different resolutions when facing conflicts,which also resulted in widely divergent consequences. Karen people usu-ally took violent confrontation and peaceful talking;however,the leaders of Burma were too random and not patient enough to deal with conflicts,which sowed the seeds of the Karen Rebellion in the early years of Burma.%缅甸日据时期,缅族、克伦族发生多次冲突,其原因除缅族、克伦族历史传统因素外,还有历史上英国“分而治之”政策留下的“后遗症”,以及日本侵略者出于自身利益的推波助澜。两族在冲突解决上也截然不一。克伦族对冲突采取“暴力对抗”与“和平谈判”两种不同的解决方式,分别导致了大相径庭的结果。缅族领导对冲突处理不够细致、深入,为建国初期克伦族叛乱埋下了伏笔。

  6. Study of aerosol optical properties at Kunming in southwest China and long-range transport of biomass burning aerosols from North Burma

    Zhu, J.; Xia, X.; Che, H.; Wang, J.; Zhang, J.; Duan, Y.


    Seasonal variation of aerosol optical properties and dominant aerosol types at Kunming (KM), an urban site in southwest China, is characterized. Substantial influences of the hygroscopic growth and long-range transport of biomass burning (BB) aerosols on aerosol optical properties at KM are revealed. These results are derived from a detailed analysis of (a) aerosol optical properties (e.g. aerosol optical depth (AOD), columnar water vapor (CWV), single scattering albedo (SSA) and size distribution) retrieved from sunphotometer measurements during March 2012-August 2013, (b) satellite AOD and active fire products, (c) the attenuated backscatter profiles from the space-born lidar, and (d) the back-trajectories. The mean AOD440nm and extinction Angstrom exponent (EAE440 - 870) at KM are 0.42 ± 0.32 and 1.25 ± 0.35, respectively. Seasonally, high AOD440nm (0.51 ± 0.34), low EAE440 - 870 (1.06 ± 0.34) and high CWV (4.25 ± 0.97 cm) during the wet season (May - October) contrast with their counterparts 0.17 ± 0.11, 1.40 ± 0.31 and 1.91 ± 0.37 cm during the major dry season (November-February) and 0.53 ± 0.29, 1.39 ± 0.19, and 2.66 ± 0.44 cm in the late dry season (March-April). These contrasts between wet and major dry season, together with the finding that the fine mode radius increases significantly with AOD during the wet season, suggest the importance of the aerosol hygroscopic growth in regulating the seasonal variation of aerosol properties. BB and Urban/Industrial (UI) aerosols are two major aerosol types. Back trajectory analysis shows that airflows on clean days during the major dry season are often from west of KM where the AOD is low. In contrast, air masses on polluted days are from west (in late dry season) and east (in wet season) of KM where the AOD is often large. BB air mass is found mostly originated from North Burma where BB aerosols are lifted upward to 5 km and then subsequently transported to southwest China via prevailing westerly winds.

  7. Mosquito Communities in Boarder Areas between China and Burma%云南中缅边境蚊科昆虫群落的研究

    王刚; 郑重; 董言德; 赵彤言


    The mosquito populations were investigated by trap lamps and larva collection in GaoLi village and virgin forests around the village in boarder areas between China and Burma. The results showed that a total of 3305 mosquitoes belonging to 5 genus and 13 species were collected from the populated area, the 5 genus were Aedes, Culex, Anopheles, Mansonia and Armigeres, among these mosquitoes, Cx. tritaeniorhynchus and An. sinensis were the dominant species; While in the virgin forests, a total of 200 mosquitoes belonging to 5 genus and 21 species were sampled, the 5 genus were Aedes, Culex, Anopheles, Toxorhynchites and Uanotaenia, Ae. albopictus and Cx. mimeticus were the dominant species. The population structure was imbalanced at populated areas, and the diversity index of mosquito communities is lower at forests than that is residential area, which might attribute to environmental changes.%为调查和了解云南省瑞丽市中缅边境蚊虫多样性状况,应用灯诱法和采集幼虫法对瑞丽市中缅边境上高丽村和周边方圆4 km原始森林内的蚊虫的优势种组成、蚊虫群落结构的集中性指数、多样性指数和均匀度指数进行分析.结果显示,在居民区共采获蚊虫3 305只,共5属13种,隶属于蚊科Culicidae中的伊蚊属Aedes、库蚊属Culex、按蚊属Anopheles、曼蚊属Mansonia和阿蚊属Armigeres.其中优势种蚊虫为三带喙库蚊和中华按蚊.在非居民区共采或蚊虫200只,共5属21种,隶属于蚊科Culicidae中的伊蚊属、库蚊属、按蚊属、巨蚊属Toxorhynchites和蓝带蚊属Uanotaenia.其中优势种蚊虫为白纹伊蚊、拟态库蚊.由于自然环境的破坏,居民区优势集中度过高,群落结构不均匀,非居民区多样性较差,群落内物种的均匀度也偏低.

  8. Lights of Democracy, Authority and Liberty-On the History of News Legal System in Burma over the Past 160 Years%开明、威权与自由之光--160年缅甸新闻法制史管窥

    展江; 黄晶晶


    缅甸曾经是亚洲享有最充分的新闻自由的国家,但是到了20世纪中期以后,随着1962年军事政变,缅甸由一个亚洲较富裕国家变成了落后国家,新闻界则经历了长达半个世纪的新闻管制。2011年,缅甸开启民主化政治改革,新闻界也随之开始了改革之路。通过梳理缅甸历史上的新闻自由、二战后军政府对新闻的管制和媒体的抗争以及正在进行的政治新闻变革举措,可以揭示出一个当代威权主义国家刚刚开始的媒体和政治转型之路。%Burma used to be a country which enjoyed the freedom of press in Asia during the 19th century.However, after the military coup in 1962, the press in Burma experienced more than half a century of news blackout, drawing back from a rich country in Asia to a backward one.In 2011, due to the launching of the political and democratic reform, the press in Burma started its reforming process.This paper aims to discuss the history of news development in Burma, including the freedom of press in the past, the news blackout after the 2nd World War by the military government and the struggle of media, and the polit-ical, news reform at the moment.In this way, an authoritative nation with news and political change on its way is to be presen-ted.

  9. Influence of Refugees in Burma Kokang Flooded into the Border Area on China%缅甸果敢难民涌入对中国边境地区的影响

    于海利; 刘静; 胡志丁; 熊理然; 李灿松; 付磊


    The conflict in Burma Kokang Broke Out, and a large number of refugees have poured into China’s Yunnan Province border area to escape the war. The Kokang refugees entered China and live in penury. But with the help of government and the public in our country, their basic need of life was guaranteed. Although people in Kokang and people in China’s border areas, language is interlinked, live in a similar way, people on both sides almost have no estrangement. But we cannot ignore the effects caused by the influx of Kokang refugees in border areas, so as to avoid the refugee problem lead to the scourge. This study analyzes the impact of the conflict on the border areas of China through field trips, questionnaires, and interviews. The result shows that an influx of refugees has damaged border areas of bilateral trade and increased security pressure, and threatened the ecological environment, but also has brought new labor and economic source for the border area. At the same time, the government has promulgated a series of effective measures for the problem of refugees. Overall, the impact of the influx of Kokang refugees in the border area of our country is in the controllable range, and did not cause the unbalance of border area society.%缅甸果敢冲突爆发,大量难民为躲避战争纷纷涌入中国云南省的边境地区。进入中国的果敢难民生活拮据,但在中国政府及民众的帮助下,基本生活得到保障。虽然果敢人民与中国边境地区的人民语言相通,生活方式相似,双方人民间隔阂较小,但大量涌入的果敢难民对边境地区造成的影响依然不可忽视,以免因难民问题酿成祸患。研究通过实地考察、问卷调查、深度访谈等方法分析此次冲突对中国边境地区造成的影响。结果表明,难民的涌入使得边境地区的双方贸易往来受损,治安压力增大,生态环境受到威胁,但也为边境地区带来了新的劳

  10. The “Moving” Frontiers of Burma

    Maxime Boutry


    Full Text Available From the frontiers as an object to the frontiers as a methodAnthropology of borders in its contemporary developments answers to the awareness of the radical changes bring by the drawing of national borders. Before the colonization, territories were seen by their populations differently, subjected to moving and relative relations of power regarding the hegemony of a State, a kingdom or a society. Even if Thailand haven’t been, strictly speaking, colonized, the work of Winichakul (2005 Siam Ma...

  11. Burma: in urgent need of change

    Douglas Alexander


    Last September, world attention focused on Burma’s ‘SaffronRevolution’ and its brutal crackdown by the country’s militaryregime. The protests were sparked by ever-deepening povertyand people’s frustration with years of political repression andeconomic failure.

  12. An Embryonic Border: Racial Discourses and Compulsory Vaccination for Indian Immigrants at Ports in Colonial Burma, 1870-1937 Une frontière embryonnaire : discours raciaux et vaccination obligatoire des immigrants indiens dans les ports de la Birmanie coloniale, 1870-1937

    Noriyuki Osada


    Full Text Available This paper examines how an administrative border emerged between historically and culturally different and geographically separate regions which nevertheless had been integrated into one state under the colonial power. As a result of three Anglo-Burmese wars in the 19th century, Burma was colonized by the British. During the course of its colonization, the country formally became a province of India. Hence no border had existed between Burma and the rest of India until 1937 when the former was separated from the latter. This connection with India brought Burma unrestricted labour supply from India which was necessary for the growth of the economy. But at the same time, such a vast flow of people included undesirable elements like criminals, beggars and people sick of infectious diseases which caused social problems in Burma. While the government of Burma attempted to deter or exclude those undesirable elements in order to maintain social order, these attempts were frustrated by several factors. In spite of these circumstances, the local government started taking more decisive policy for examinations of immigrants after the middle of the 1910s. No border existed yet, but port cities, especially Rangoon, gradually assumed function of checking people who came from “outside” into “inside”. I would like to call this phenomenon, tentatively, the emergence of an embryonic border. As a part of this phenomenon, this paper describes a history of sanitary regulations for Indian immigrant labourers in colonial Burma, by focusing on a case of implementation of compulsory vaccination at ports. And it points out that those regulations wereCet article montre comment une frontière administrative est apparue entre deux régions historiquement et culturellement différentes et géographiquement séparées réunies toutefois en un État par un pouvoir colonial. Après trois guerres anglo-birmanes au xixe siècle, la Birmanie devint une colonie

  13. Shaping of the Yunnan-Burma Frontier by Secret Societies since the End of the 17th Century Comment les sociétés secrètes ont façonné la frontière birmano-yunnanaise

    Ma Jianxiong


    Full Text Available After the 1680s, Big Vehicle Religion gradually developed on the Yunnan-Burma frontier. It was banned by the Qing government and became a sect of Chinese secret societies. The founders of this religion combined various Buddhist and Taoist elements together and claimed this to be the route to their salvation. They also trained many students to be monks. After the Sino-Burma wars these monks established a Five Buddha Districts system among the Lahu and some Wa villages in western Mekong River, until the system was destroyed by the Qing government in the 1880s. The monks became leaders of the Luohei/Lahu through millenarianism and many Han immigrants also became involved in the movements to become the Lahu or the Wa. The monks performed critical roles as social activists in Lahu cultural reconstruction. As a shaping power, their human agency was deeply integrated into secret societies and they formulated regional political centers as well as a network mechanism for the floating indigenous populations. Secret societies clearly shaped a historical framework for local politics and economic flux in the Yunnan-Burma frontier and became a cross-border mechanism for contemporary life after the border between Yunnan, Burma and Thailand was decided. However, it used to be a networking dynamic linked with silver and copper minefields, Sino-Burma wars, and anti-Qing millenarianism. Local people could also use this frontier space for their negotiations with different states before the coming of European colonialism.Après les années 1680, le bouddhisme du grand véhicule se développa sur la frontière birmano-yunnanaise. Le gouvernement des Qing l’interdit mais il devint une secte diffusée par des sociétés secrètes. Les fondateurs de cette religion combinèrent des éléments bouddhistes et taoïstes et prétendirent que c’était la voie du salut. Ils formèrent également des élèves pour en faire des moines. Après les guerres sino-birmanes, ces

  14. The Impact Analysis of Sino - Burma Border Illegal Transnational Marriage on Harmony and Stability of Yunnan Border Minority Areas -- A Case in Xu Jia village of Long Ling of Yunnan%中缅边境非法跨国婚姻对云南边境少数民族地区和谐稳定的影响分析——以云南省龙陵县徐家寨为例

    白志红; 李喜景


    Due to geographical conditions, traditional habits and so on, there are large numbers of illegal transnational marriage in Sino - Burma border Areas of Yunnan. Those marriages not only weaken the authority of Chinese law and give rise to security and stability problems in the border areas but also disturb the residents' self- identity with homeland especially young residents and damage the legitimate rights and interests of women and children in the border areas. There are some suggestions, such as recognize transnational marriages condi- tionally, provide the occupation skill training for the women in Burma and strengthen marriage and family guid- ance work in the border areas. All of these not only can properly solve the above problems, but also contribute to harmony and stability of Yunnan border minority area in the long - term.%由于地缘条件、民族传统习惯等因素的影响,在云南中缅边境地区形成大量非法跨国婚姻。不仅削弱了中国法律在边境地区的权威,给边境地区的安全与稳定带来隐患,而且损害妇女儿童合法权益。有条件认可中缅跨国婚姻,为缅甸女性提供职业技能培训,有助于云南边境地区的长期和谐稳定。

  15. Sacred Networks and Struggles among the Karen Baptists across the Thailand-Burma Border Réseaux sacrés et conflits parmi les Baptistes karen de part et d’autre de la frontière birmano-thaïlandaise

    Alexander Horstmann


    Full Text Available In this article, I provide a case study of a moving border between Thailand and Burma. Emphasizing the agency of people who become refugees, the article is concerned to point out the important role of religious networks in providing humanitarian assistance, shelter and mobility to stateless Karen refugees. I argue that Christian and Buddhist literate networks- realigned in political exile, develop competing visions of a Karen “homeland.” Arguing that membership in the network is crucial for survival, the article follows the social organization and religious practices in Baptist networks. I examine how the Baptist church network in close partnership with the Karen National Union is able or not able to mobilize refugees for proselytization. Karen refugee leaders and KNU-pastors find analogies in the bible to find an explanation to the suffering of the Karen civil population in the war. The article is interested in the nexus and overlap of humanitarian ideology, Christianity and nationalism in the transitional space between Thailand and Burma. Providing case-studies of individual refugees, the article gives ethnographic sketches from the refugee camp, the countryside and humanitarian assistance to the internally displaced.Cet article est une étude de cas d’une frontière mouvante entre la Thaïlande et la Birmanie. Insistant sur l’agency (action de personnes devenues des réfugiés, l’article souligne le rôle important des réseaux religieux qui apportent une assistance humanitaire, des abris et de la mobilité à des réfugiés karen dépourvus d’État. Je soutiens que les réseaux intellectuels chrétiens et bouddhistes, recomposés dans l’exil, développent des visions concurrentes d’une « mère-patrie » karen. Soutenant que la participation au réseau est cruciale pour la survie, l’article développe plus particulièrement l’organisation sociale et les pratiques religieuses en vigueur dans les réseaux baptistes. J

  16. Burma – paving the road to a modern banking system

    True, Linda


    This Asia Focus report provides a historical background of Burmese banking crises, analyzes recent and upcoming regulatory reforms, and evaluates hurdles to the development of a modern banking system.

  17. Death and injury caused by land mines in Burma

    Hougen, H P; Petersen, H D; Lykke, J;


    eight and 68 years, and all except one had been injured between 1986 and 1997. Fifteen of the 23 were civilians, eight were guerilla soldiers who were injured either in battle or while deploying or disarming land mines. Those who had stepped on land mines were all crus or femur amputated and had several...

  18. Pythons in Burma: Short-tailed python (Reptilia: Squamata)

    Zug, George R.; Gotte, Steve W.; Jacobs, Jeremy F.


    Short-tailed pythons, Python curtus species group, occur predominantly in the Malayan Peninsula, Sumatra, and Borneo. The discovery of an adult female in Mon State, Myanmar, led to a review of the distribution of all group members (spot-mapping of all localities of confirmed occurrence) and an examination of morphological variation in P. brongersmai. The resulting maps demonstrate a limited occurrence of these pythons within peninsular Malaya, Sumatra, and Borneo with broad absences in these regions. Our small samples limit the recognition of regional differentiation in the morphology of P. brongersmai populations; however, the presence of unique traits in the Myanmar python and its strong allopatry indicate that it is a unique genetic lineage, and it is described as Python kyaiktiyo new species.

  19. The Indo-Chinese energy competition in Burma

    Myanmar, a major energy power in Southeast Asia, is the theater of a competition between India and people's Republic of China for the securement of the resources and the control of the infrastructures of export. This situation is an un-hoped for occasion to get rid diplomatically and economically of the international pressure which presses on the country because the energy dependence of New Delhi and Peking is such as the one and the other are forced to offer guarantees and major support to Yangon to benefit from its reserves in gas. So, of energy, the Indo-Chinese struggle in Myanmar is to transform into a global competition where each of both great Asian powers give an important status to his neighbour of Southeast Asia in its grand strategy. (author)

  20. The Politics of Refugees in and outside Burma/Myanmar Flüchtlingspolitik innerhalb und außerhalb Burmas/Myanmars

    Marco Bünte


    Full Text Available Editorial of Vol. 28, No. 2 (2009 of the Journal of Current Southeast Asian Affairs. Editorial zu Heft 2, Jahrgang 28 (2009 der Zeitschrift "Journal of Current Southeast Asian Affairs".

  1. 77 FR 41243 - Blocking Property of Persons Threatening the Peace, Security, or Stability of Burma


    ..., joint venture, corporation, group, subgroup, or other organization; and (c) the term ``United States... HOUSE, Washington, July 11, 2012. [FR Doc. 2012-17264 Filed 7-12-12; 8:45 am] Billing code 3295-F2-P ... the peace process with ethnic minorities, military trade with North Korea, and human rights abuses...

  2. Relict faunal testimony for sea-level fluctuations off Myanmar (Burma)

    Panchang, R.; Nigam, R.; Raviprasad, G.V.; Rajagopalan, G.; Ray, D.K.; Hla, U Ko Yi

    in the Indian Ocean, particularly towards its east, with very few studies carried out along the west coast of Myanmar and the Andaman Sea. Thus, the 'India-Myanmar Joint Oceanographic Studies' were initiated by the Ministry of External Affairs, Government... of Myanmar which have been destructed due to sea level rise. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This work has been carried out as a part of a collabora- tive project "India-Myanmar Joint Oceanographic Studies in the Andaman Sea" initiated by the Government of India (Min- istry...

  3. Burma in Diaspora: A Preliminary Research Note on the Politics of Burmese Diasporic Communities in Asia

    Renaud Egreteau


    Full Text Available This research note focuses on the far-flung Burmese overseas communities, situating them into the wider diaspora literature. Drawing on extant scholarship on refugees, migrants and exiled dissidents of Burmese origin, it presents an original cartography of Burmese diasporic groups dispersed throughout Asia. It explores their migration patterns and tentatively maps out their transnational networks. It seeks to comparatively examine the relationships these polymorphous exiled groups have developed with the homeland. Two research questions have been identified and need further exploration in the context of the post-junta opening that has been observed since 2011: First, what comprises the contribution of the Burmese diaspora to political change and homeland democratization? This has been widely debated over the years. Despite a dynamic transnational activism, there is still little evidence that overseas Burmese have influenced recent domestic political developments. Second and subsequently, how can the Burmese diaspora effectively generate social and economic change back home: by “remitting” or by “returning”? This note argues that Burmese migrant social and financial remittances might prove a more viable instrument to foster development and democratization inside Myanmar in the short term than a mere homecoming of exiles and skilled migrants. This is a preliminary analysis that hopes to encourage further research on Burmese diasporic politics and their potential leverage as “agents of change”.

  4. Final RFI/RI Report Burma Road Rubble Pit (231-4F). Volume 1

    Palmer, E. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)


    The Savannah River Site is located in Aiken, Barnwell, and Allendale counties, in South Carolina. Certain activities at the SRS require operating or post closure permits issued in accordance with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

  5. Final RFI/RI Report Burma Road Rubble Pit (231-4F). Volume 1

    The Savannah River Site is located in Aiken, Barnwell, and Allendale counties, in South Carolina. Certain activities at the SRS require operating or post closure permits issued in accordance with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act

  6. The Rohingyas in Myanmar (Burma and the Moros in the Philippines: A Comparative Analysis of Two Liberation Movements

    Syed Serajul lslam


    Full Text Available In recent years, the relative success of the Moros in the Philippines and the tragic failure of the Rohingyas in Myanmar raise important questions: what are the reasons behind the Moros' liberation movement being a success and the Rohingyas movement being a failure? What has led the Moros to achieve at least partial regional autonomy vis-a-vis the failure of the Rohingyas? In the light of Huntington’s theory of revolution, this paper argues that despite the fact that Myanmar and the Philippines have nearly the same percentage of Muslims, the Moros have been successful at least due to three reasons: First, the political conditions have been much more conducive in the Philippines compared to Myanmar for liberation movement. Secondly, the Moros' movement has been led by a strong organization under a capable leadership while the Rohingyas' movement lacks a strong organization and an able leadership. Finally, while the Moros have successfully mobilized mass support both at home and abroad, the Rohingyas have failed to internationalize their movement and, consequently, they have become "stateless" and “political refugees”.

  7. The Five Buddha Districts on the Yunnan-Burma Frontier: A Political System Attached to the State

    Jianxiong Ma


    The Five Buddha Districts system prevailed from the 1790s to the 1880s on the frontier between Yunnan, in Southwest China, and the Burmese Kingdom, in the mountainous areas to the west of the Mekong River. Through more than a century of political mobilization, the Lahu communities in this area became an integrated and militarized society, and their culture was reconstructed in the historical context of ethnic conflicts, competition, and cooperation among the Wa, Dai, and Han Chinese settlers....

  8. Buddhist or Muslim Rulers? Models of Kingship in Arakan (Western Burma) in the Fourteenth to Fifteenth Centuries

    Charney, Michael W.


    I prepared this paper for submission for publication in 2000 when I was at NUS. My move to London was soon forthcoming and I had moved on to other research topics. I may yet submit this in he future if I return to this subject matter.

  9. Improving Outcomes for Refugee Children: A Case Study on the Impact of Montessori Education along the Thai-Burma Border

    Tobin, Tierney; Boulmier, Prairie; Zhu, Wenyi; Hancock, Paul; Muennig, Peter


    There are 25 million displaced children worldwide, and those receiving schooling are often educated in overcrowded classrooms. Montessori is a child-centred educational method that provides an alternative model to traditional educational approaches. In this model, students are able to direct their own learning and develop at their own pace,…

  10. Health and Human Rights in Chin State, Western Burma: A Population-Based Assessment Using Multistaged Household Cluster Sampling

    Sollom, Richard; Richards, Adam K.; Parmar, Parveen; Mullany, Luke C.; Lian, Salai Bawi; Iacopino, Vincent; Beyrer, Chris


    Editors' Summary Background More than 60 years after the adoption of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, thousands of people around the world are still deprived of their basic human rights—life, liberty, and security of person. In many countries, people live in fear of arbitrary arrest and detention, torture, forced labor, religious and ethnic persecution, forced displacement, and murder. In addition, ongoing conflicts and despotic governments deprive them of the ability to grow suffic...

  11. Convergences conceptuelles en Birmanie : la transition du xixe siècle Conceptual Convergences in Burma : the 19th Century Period of Transition

    Aurore Candier


    Full Text Available Les conceptions politiques birmanes ont évolué au fil des siècles, échafaudées sur des interprétations renouvelées d’emprunts conceptuels à l’étranger, afin de rester en phase avec une réalité sociopolitique changeante. Le contact avec l’Occident a été à l’origine de l’une des « greffes » conceptuelles des plus prolifiques. Entre 1820 et 1880, les rois birmans ont subi deux défaites contre les Anglais et ont dû céder plusieurs provinces avant l’annexion définitive de leur pays en 1886. Pendant cette période, les élites politiques et religieuses de la cour birmane ont été confrontées à la pénétration progressive des idées et des valeurs du vainqueur. L’analyse historique et linguistique d’ouvrages contemporains de l’époque révèle l’évolution de leurs représentations sociopolitiques. La pensée politique moderne a nettement influencé les lettrés à partir des années 1830. Ils ont dès lors commencé de rationaliser et d’adapter les concepts, qu’ils soient locaux ou empruntés au pāli, à une représentation du monde en transformation. Ces convergences conceptuelles n’ont véritablement donné corps à un nouveau système de pensée que dans les années 1870. L’idée de roi universel a été délaissée, alors que l’accent a été mis sur l’aspect social de la norme de conduite royale. La conception moderne de la réforme, portant les notions d’amélioration et de progrès, a fait son apparition dans les projets de loi. Les valeurs occidentales de classification raciale, de définition territoriale, de communauté de langue et de culture ont été adoptées. Mais ces emprunts n’ont pas fondamentalement altéré la conception birmane traditionnelle de l’humanité, sous-tendue par les lois du kamma, de l’impermanence et de l’interdépendance entre l’ordre social et cosmique.Burmese political conceptions have varied through centuries, borrowing and adapting certain foreign concepts according to the changing sociopolitical context. In this sense, the contact with the Western political thinking was very productive. Between 1820 and 1880, the Burmese kings lost two wars against the British and had to give away several territories before the final annexation of their country in 1886. During this period, the Burmese political and religious elites were confronted to the progressive penetration of British ideas and values. A historical and linguistic investigation of significant texts shows the gradual changes of their sociopolitical representations. Modern political thinking had a strong influence on the Burmese literati from the 1830’ onwards. They gradually rationalized and adapted concepts, whether local or borrowed from the pāli, to a changing conception of the world. These conceptual convergences gave shape to a new way of thinking in the 1870’. The idea of universal king was neglected, when the literati emphasized the social interpretation of the laws of kinship conduct. The modern conception of the reform, conveying the notion of progress, was used to draft new laws. Western notions of racial classification, territorial definition, linguistic and cultural communities, were adopted. But these borrowings did not dramatically alter the Burmese traditional conception of humanity, based on the laws of kamma and impermanence, and the interdependence between the social and the cosmic order as well.

  12. Differential diagnosis of hepatitis and space occupying lesion of the liver by radioisotope techniques on cases commonly seen in Rangoon General Hospital, Burma

    The aim of undertaking was, to promote in-vitro measuring techniques as well as in-vivo measurements of organs using imaging techniques. Se-75 and In-113 have equal ability to prove the presence of abscesses or cysts. For the detection of tumors their usefulness is doubtful

  13. Social Networking and the School Adjustment of Karen Refugee Youth from Burma: Determining the Effects of Ethnic Identity, Bonding Social Capital, and Facebook Use

    Lewis, Lucy D.


    In 2011 alone, over 56,000 refugees were admitted to the United States and a third of these individuals were under the age of 18 (Martin & Yankay, 2012). Researchers have found that the social capital developed through close and confiding relationships is instrumental in the academic outcomes of refugee youth (Kia-Keating & Ellis, 2007;…

  14. Molecular surveillance for drug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum in clinical and subclinical populations from three border regions of Burma/Myanmar: cross-sectional data and a systematic review of resistance studies

    Brown Tyler


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Confirmation of artemisinin-delayed parasite clearance in Plasmodium falciparum along the Thai-Myanmar border has inspired a global response to contain and monitor drug resistance to avert the disastrous consequences of a potential spread to Africa. However, resistance data from Myanmar are sparse, particularly from high-risk areas where limited health services and decades of displacement create conditions for resistance to spread. Subclinical infections may represent an important reservoir for resistance genes that confer a fitness disadvantage relative to wild-type alleles. This study estimates the prevalence of resistance genotypes in three previously unstudied remote populations in Myanmar and tests the a priori hypothesis that resistance gene prevalence would be higher among isolates collected from subclinical infections than isolates collected from febrile clinical patients. A systematic review of resistance studies is provided for context. Methods Community health workers in Karen and Kachin States and an area spanning the Indo-Myanmar border collected dried blood spots from 988 febrile clinical patients and 4,591 villagers with subclinical infection participating in routine prevalence surveys. Samples positive for P. falciparum 18 s ribosomal RNA by real-time PCR were genotyped for P. falciparum multidrug resistance protein (pfmdr1 copy number and the pfcrt K76T polymorphism using multiplex real-time PCR. Results Pfmdr1 copy number increase and the pfcrt K76 polymorphism were determined for 173 and 269 isolates, respectively. Mean pfmdr1 copy number was 1.2 (range: 0.7 to 3.7. Pfmdr1 copy number increase was present in 17.5%, 9.6% and 11.1% of isolates from Karen and Kachin States and the Indo-Myanmar border, respectively. Pfmdr1 amplification was more prevalent in subclinical isolates (20.3% than clinical isolates (6.4%, odds ratio 3.7, 95% confidence interval 1.1 - 12.5. Pfcrt K76T prevalence ranged from 90-100%. Conclusions Community health workers can contribute to molecular surveillance of drug resistance in remote areas of Myanmar. Marginal and displaced populations under-represented among previous resistance investigations can and should be included in resistance surveillance efforts, particularly once genetic markers of artemisinin-delayed parasite clearance are identified. Subclinical infections may contribute to the epidemiology of drug resistance, but determination of gene amplification from desiccated filter samples requires further validation when DNA concentration is low.

  15. A review of the studies on pteropods from the northern Indian Ocean A review of the studies on pteropods of the northern Indian Ocean region with a report on the pteropods of Irrawaddy continental shelf off Myanmar (Burma)

    Panchang, R.; Nigam, R.; Riedel, F.; Janssen, A.W.; Hla, U Ko Yi

    the Quaternary 18-23 . Broadened perceptions about this group of microfossils have generated quite a few data sets and palaeoclimatic interpretations form the Indian waters too, though lacks widespread awareness. Unlike number of reviews on other groups like...-80) and 4 (81-83) . A first report on the Myanmar (Burmese) pteropods The Ministry of External Affairs, Government of India, initiated �India-Myanmar Joint Oceanographic Studies� with active support from the Department of Ocean Development (DOD...

  16. Shan beauty

    Beato, Felix, fl 1850-1891, photographer


    184 x 246 mm. Showing a Shan girl standing in front of a raised house constructed of woven palm fronds. Her dress proclaims her a woman of the British Tai (Shan) States. The dress is described in J.G. Scott's 'Gazetteer of Upper Burma and the Shan States' (Rangoon: Printed by the Superintendent, Government printing, Burma, 1900). 'The dress is not open at the front as it is with the Burma girl, nor is it tucked up between the legs as it is with the Siamese. It is, however, fastened in th...

  17. Temperature and salinity profile data collected from XBT, CTD, MBT and Bottle casts from multiple platforms by the National Institute of Oceanography (NIO), India, in the Bay of Bengal from August 28, 1976 to January 07, 2009 (NODC Accession 0055418)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical data were collected from Bottle, MBT, XBT, and CTD casts from the Andaman and Burma Seas, Bay of Bengal, Malacca Straits, and the Indian Ocean. Data were...

  18. Mekong sub-region committed to ending trafficking

    Susu Thatun


    Full Text Available In October 2004 six countries - Cambodia, China, Laos, Myanmar/Burma, Thailand and Vietnam – joined hands in the battle against human trafficking in the Greater Mekong Sub-region (GMS.

  19. SwissProt search result: AK099711 [KOME

    Full Text Available methionine-6-N', N'-adenosyl(rRNA) dimethyltransferase) (16S rRNA dimethylase) (High level kasugamycin resistance protein ksgA) (Kasugamycin dimethyltransferase) KSGA_BURMA 5e-22 ...

  20. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the KNORR, MAURICE EWING and others in the Andaman Sea or Burma Sea, Arabian Sea and others from 1983-10-10 to 1998-10-20 (NODC Accession 0115689)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115689 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from KNORR, MAURICE EWING, METEOR, NATHANIEL B. PALMER and THOMAS G....

  1. A Study on the Harmonious and Confl icting Relation between Pluricentric Languages: Taking the Case Study of Sino-Burma Jinghpo Language as an Example%论跨境语言的和谐与冲突 ——以中缅景颇语个案为例




  2. Drug trafficking in and out of the Golden Triangle

    Chouvy, Pierre-Arnaud


    The Golden Triangle is the name given to the area of mainland Southeast Asia where most of the world's illicit opium has originated since the early 1950s and until 1990, before Afghanistan's opium production surpassed that of Burma. It is located in the highlands of the fan-shaped relief of the Indochinese peninsula, where the international borders of Burma, Laos, and Thailand, run. However, if opium poppy cultivation has taken place in the border region shared by the three countries ever sin...

  3. Schistura hypsiura, a new species of loach (Cobitoidea: Nemacheilidae) from South-West Myanmar

    Bohlen, Jörg; Šlechtová, Vendula; Udomritthiruj, K.


    Roč. 62, č. 1 (2014), s. 21-27. ISSN 0217-2445 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/08/0637; GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : Rakhine State * Burma * caudal peduncle Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.024, year: 2014

  4. Academic Adjustment Issues in a Malaysian Research University: The Case of Cambodian, Laotian, Burmese, and Vietnamese Postgraduate Students' Experiences

    Sam, Rany; Zain, Ahmad Nurulazam Md; Bin Jamil, Hazri; Souriyavongsa, Thongma; Quyen, Le To Do


    The Malaysian government aims to help the bottom billion countries, which are its neighbouring countries in the South East Asian region, for their human capital development through providing university postgraduate scholarship projects. Those countries include Cambodia, Laos PDR, Burma or Myanmar, and Vietnam (CLMV), which are favourite countries…

  5. Assessment of the Psychosocial Development of Children Attending Nursery Schools in Karen Refugee Camps in Thailand

    Tanaka, Akiko


    The Karen, an ethnic minority group in Burma, have experienced a prolonged state of exile in refugee camps in neighboring Thailand because of ethnic conflict in their home country. Nursery schools in the three largest Karen refugee camps aim to promote the psychosocial development of young children by providing a child-centered, creative,…

  6. Agency as the Acquisition of Capital: The Role of One-on-One Tutoring and Mentoring in Changing a Refugee Student's Educational Trajectory

    Dumenden, Iris E.


    Current research into the experiences of refugee students in mainstream secondary schools in Australia indicates that for these students, schools are places of social and academic isolation and failure. This article introduces one such student, Lian, who came to Australia as a refugee from Burma, and whom the author tutored and mentored…

  7. Biology, ecology, and control of the Ficus whitefly, Singhiella simplex (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae)

    The Ficus whitefly, Singhiella simplex (Singh) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), is an economic pest of Ficus plant species in India, Burma and China. Severe infestations result in leaf dropping or shedding and defoliation. Since its initial US report in south Florida in 2007, the whitefly has expanded its ...

  8. 48 CFR 752.226-1 - Determination of status as disadvantaged enterprise.


    ... historically black college or university, as designated by the Secretary of Education pursuant to 34 CFR 608.2...), the Northern Mariana Islands, Laos, Kampuchea (Cambodia), Taiwan, Burma, Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia... business under the criteria and size standards in 13 CFR part 121. (6) Small disadvantaged business,...

  9. How Hot Can a Fire Piston Get?

    Scott-Brown, J. A.; Cunningham, O. A.; Goad, B. C.


    The fire piston is just a sealed syringe containing a small amount of tinder. When the plunger is forced downwards, the air inside is compressed and heats up, setting fire to the tinder. It has been used as a convenient and portable way of starting fires "over a wide area from northern Burma and Siam through the Malay Peninsula and the Malayan…

  10. 78 FR 15351 - International Trade Administration


    ... circumstances and learn about developing a robust regulatory and legal framework for safety and liability. On... and services. Target subsectors holding high potential for U.S civil nuclear exporters include: Legal... include, Brunei, Burma, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand,...

  11. Estimates of run off, evaporation and precipitation for the Bay of Bengal on seasonal basis

    Varkey, M.J.; Sastry, J.S.

    Mean seasonal river discharge rates (R) of the major rivers along the east coast of India, Bangla Desh and Burma; evaporation rates (E) computed for 5 degrees lat-long. Squares from data on heat loss and mean yearly precipitation (P) values at 5...

  12. Zahraniční a pohraniční politika

    Holman, Jaroslav

    1.doplněné. Praha : Lidové noviny, 2008, s. 748-769 ISBN 978-80-7106-493-0. - (Dějiny států) Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z90210515 Keywords : India * Afghanistan * Burma * Big Game Subject RIV: AB - History

  13. Radiation effects on human tissues and their use in tissue banking

    The chemical and physical effects of ionising radiation on animal tissues and tissue components are reviewed. Various aspects of the use of radiation sterilization for human tissues intended for tissue banks are discussed. Reference is made to the IAEA initiative to develop a Human Tissue Bank at the Orthopaedic Hospital, Kemmedine, Burma to train local technical staff. (U.K.)

  14. 77 FR 59747 - Repeal of the Final Rule Imposing Special Measures and Withdrawal of the Findings of Primary...


    ... finding that the jurisdiction of Burma is of primary money laundering concern (68 FR 66298). Further... Special Measures and Withdrawal of the Findings of Primary Money Laundering Concern Against Myanmar... Myanmar Mayflower Bank and Asia Wealth Bank as Financial Institutions of Primary Money Laundering...

  15. Education in Thailand: From Old to New. World Education Monograph Series, Number Two.

    Servatamorn, Sirmsree

    The history of educational development in Thailand shows a transition from early concern for religious and moral training toward the present emphasis on the practical development of individuals and society. Thai culture may have originated in Mongolia and has been strongly affected by its present cultural neighbors, Malaya, Cambodia, Laos, Burma,…

  16. Literature of Southeast Asia.

    Echols, John M.

    This paper provides a brief description of the literature of Southeast Asia. This area, which embraces the region south of China and east of India, includes the modern nations of Burma, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, The Philippines, Malaysia and Indonesia. The earliest historical influence came from India around the beginnings of the…

  17. The Non-Western World: An Annotated Bibliography for Elementary and Secondary Schools.

    Probandt, Ruth

    This annotated bibliography on Asia, Africa, and Latin America contains sources primarily for elementary and secondary school students; also included are books for libraries and teachers. The bibliography on Asia is divided into curriculum materials and information books. Some of the countries covered are: Burma; Cambodia; China; India; Japan;…

  18. The existence of an aestuarine fishfauna in South East Asia

    Hardenberg, J.D.F.


    Before the outbreak of the war with Japan the author had the intention to publish an extensive account on the occurrence of an aestuarine fishfauna in and in front of the large aestuarines and river-mouths so often found in India, Burma, Malaya, Thailand and Indo China and in the Greater Sunda Islan

  19. Higher Education and Development in South-East Asia. Volume I, Director's Report.

    Hayden, Howard

    This document reports a study of the role of institutions of higher education in the development of countries in South-East Asia covering Burma, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Viet-Nam. Emphasis is placed on the geographical, historical and social background; patterns of education within the region;…

  20. 78 FR 12132 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Reporting Requirements on Responsible...


    ..., manifested in part through the commission of human rights abuses and pervasive public corruption. In..., human rights abuses particularly in ethnic areas. In response to several political reforms by the.... foreign policy goals of improving human rights protections and facilitating political reform in Burma,...

  1. Displacement and disease: The Shan exodus and infectious disease implications for Thailand

    Suwanvanichkij Voravit


    Full Text Available Abstract Decades of neglect and abuses by the Burmese government have decimated the health of the peoples of Burma, particularly along her eastern frontiers, overwhelmingly populated by ethnic minorities such as the Shan. Vast areas of traditional Shan homelands have been systematically depopulated by the Burmese military regime as part of its counter-insurgency policy, which also employs widespread abuses of civilians by Burmese soldiers, including rape, torture, and extrajudicial executions. These abuses, coupled with Burmese government economic mismanagement which has further entrenched already pervasive poverty in rural Burma, have spawned a humanitarian catastrophe, forcing hundreds of thousands of ethnic Shan villagers to flee their homes for Thailand. In Thailand, they are denied refugee status and its legal protections, living at constant risk for arrest and deportation. Classified as "economic migrants," many are forced to work in exploitative conditions, including in the Thai sex industry, and Shan migrants often lack access to basic health services in Thailand. Available health data on Shan migrants in Thailand already indicates that this population bears a disproportionately high burden of infectious diseases, particularly HIV, tuberculosis, lymphatic filariasis, and some vaccine-preventable illnesses, undermining progress made by Thailand's public health system in controlling such entities. The ongoing failure to address the root political causes of migration and poor health in eastern Burma, coupled with the many barriers to accessing health programs in Thailand by undocumented migrants, particularly the Shan, virtually guarantees Thailand's inability to sustainably control many infectious disease entities, especially along her borders with Burma.

  2. A rights-based approach for risk reduction in the Thai-Burmese border region

    Kotter, Richard


    This paper/presentation reflects on the developing approaches to Disaster Risk Reduction via a case study of the Thai-Burma border region, and concludes that governance is essntial, coupled with both transparancy and cultural awareness and sensitivity. Rights are conceived of as BOTH collective/ communal and individual, and this cannot be traded off against each other, but will create conflicts.

  3. Feminist Interventions for Southeast Asian Women Trauma Survivors: Deconstructing Gender-Based Violence and Developing Structures of Peace.

    Norsworthy, Kathryn L.

    An analysis of structural and institutional violence against women in three cultures in Southeast Asia, Thailand, Cambodia, and among refugees of Burma, was generated by groups of women and men from these countries. Group members also discussed strategies for transforming systems supporting gender-based violence into structures of peace and…

  4. The world heroin market : Can supply be cut?

    Paoli, L.; Greenfield, V.A.; Reuter, P.


    This book proceeds in three parts. The first part sets out basic facts. It reviews the historical development of the world opiate market. The second part explores market conditions in Afghanistan, Burma, India, Columbia and Tajikistan in greater detail. The fourth appendix (D) provides information o

  5. On a collection of birds from the Khwae Noi Valley, Western Siam

    Junge, G.C.A.; Kooiman, J.G.


    The present paper deals with a collection brought together by J. G. Kooiman in 1946. After the defeat of Japan, some Dutch biologists, who during the war had worked as prisoners of war on the notorious Burma railroad, biologically explored the Khwae Noi valley. Kooiman joined this party as an ornith

  6. Timber Entrepreneur, Cukong Kayu

    Eilenberg, Michael


    at once highly particular and general. They include the Muslim Television Preacher in Indonesia, Miss Beer Lao, the Rural DJ in Thailand, the Korean Soap Opera Junkie in Burma, the Filipino Seaman, and the Photo Retoucher in Vietnam. Figures of Southeast Asian Modernity brings together the fieldwork...

  7. 77 FR 70209 - Designation of Seven Entities Pursuant to Executive Order 13448 or Executive Order 13464 and...


    ...; Taungngu (Tungoo) Branch, Karen State, Burma . 2. GOLD OCEAN PTE LTD, 101 Cecil Street 08-08, Tong Eng... Cecil Street 08-08, Tong Eng Building, Singapore, 069533, Singapore . 4. GREEN LUCK TRADING COMPANY (a.k..., Singapore 068805, Singapore; 101 Cecil Street, 08-08 Tong Eng Building, Singapore 069533, Singapore;...

  8. Development of Basic Literacy Learning Materials for Minority Peoples in Asia and the Pacific. Final Report of the Second Sub-Regional Workshop (Chiang Rai, Thailand, February 22-March 5, 1994).

    Ministry of Education, Bangkok (Thailand).

    A report of a regional workshop on development of instructional materials for basic literacy education of minority groups in Asia and the Pacific is presented. Countries represented include: China; Indonesia; Laos; Malaysia; Mongolia; Myanmar (Burma); Philippines; Vietnam; and Thailand. The workshop's objectives were to discuss the need for…

  9. Data to the earthworm fauna of Myanmar with notes on some little known species (Annelida, Oligochaeta

    Szederjesi, T.


    Full Text Available The earthworm fauna of the Republic of the Union of Myanmar (Burma is quite well studied due to the studious works of Gordon E. Gates. However, after the publication of the comprehensive monograph Burmese earthworms (Gates 1972 there has been no new data published from this country. In the last year the last author collected several earthworm samples from Burma, resulting in 7 species records belonging to the families Moniligastridae, Benhamiidae, Octochaetidae and Megascolecidae including some little known species like Tonoscolex depressus (Gates, 1929 and Eutyphoeus constrictus Gates, 1929. Examination of the E. constrictus specimens revealed that they show different states of metandry, they are morphologically very similar to E. hastatus Gates, 1929, and only differ by the functionality of the testes in segment 10, therefore it should be regarded as a synonym of E. constrictus.

  10. [Strongyloidiasis in former prisoners of war and internees in Southeast Asia during World War II].

    Verburg, G P; de Geus, A


    A survey was performed to estimate the prevalence of chronic strongyloidiasis among 145 Dutch ex-prisoners of war who had been working on the Burma-Thailand railway in 1943-1945, and 56 ex-internees in civil camps in the former Dutch East Indies. No infections were found in the latter group while in the Burma group 26 men (17.9%) had S. stercoralis larvae in their stools. Many of them suffered from larva currens, an urticarial skin disorder, cured by treatment. Examination of fresh stool specimens with the Baermann concentration technique gave better results than faecal cultures and microscopy of duodenal aspirate. Mean IgE level and eosinophil count were significantly higher in infected persons but the ranges are too wide to use these tests in diagnosing individual cases. PMID:2270128

  11. Diffusion Models and Global Civil Society

    Helmut K. Anheier; Katz, Hagai; Lam, Marcus


    In its focus on the relationships between civil society activity across the political spectrum, communications and democratic change, Global Civil Society 2007/8 explores how activists and organisations are exploiting the effects of globalisation to create or expand spaces for debate and discussion, often using new forms of communications, even in closed regimes such as Burma, Iran and China. In addition to a focus on the civil society activity in illiberal regimes, this edition of the Yearbo...

  12. Global Civil Society 2007/8 : Communicative Power and Democracy

    Helmut K. Anheier; Albrow, Martin; Glasius, Marlies; Price , Monroe E.; Kaldor, Mary


    In its focus on the relationships between civil society activity across the political spectrum, communications and democratic change, Global Civil Society 2007/8 explores how activists and organisations are exploiting the effects of globalisation to create or expand spaces for debate and discussion, often using new forms of communications, even in closed regimes such as Burma, Iran and China. In addition to a focus on the civil society activity in illiberal regimes, this edition of the Ye...

  13. Tissue banking and clinical research on radiation and ethylene oxide sterilization of tissue grafts

    The research works carried out in Rangoon, Burma under the Agency supported project RC4420/RB have dealt with an elucidation of the radiation interaction(s) with the species of biomolecules such as proteins, lipids, collagens, connective tissues present in the cleaned and freeze-dried non-viable tissue grafts. Radiation as a cool process furthermore effectively helps to destroy the microbial bioburden as the undesirable contaminants which may associate the tissue grafts. Radiation also concomitantly helps to suppress the tissue-specific immunogenicity. All these attributes of radiation induced effects have proved successful towards the development of a sterilization process. A series of non-viable tissue grafts, such as bone, nerve, fascia, dura, cartilage, chorion-amnion (as dressings in burn wounds) and tympanic membrane have been successfully attempted in Burma and many more possibilities seem to still remain unexplored. Radiation sterilization modality has proved as a blessing for the promotion of clinical surgical applications of tissue allografts in the corrective/reconstructive surgery on the disability cases due to diseases which accompany tissue losses. The investigator in Burma has reported on the case histories where freeze dried radiation sterilized tissue allografts have been successfully used in the osteogenic inductions (bone grafts); midear tympanoplasty; partial recovery of nerve sensation throught nerve allografts; rapid healing of high degree burn wounds through the use of amnion dressings. Besides, there have been a widespread surgical use of radiation sterilized dura and fascia as allografts. A national tissue banking facility has been established in Burma surrounding the processing and clinical utilization of tissue allografts which has involved over ten hospital centres throughout the country. Radiation induced effects on the biomolecules of clinical significance in the tissue grafts have been researched to help gain insight into a better

  14. Changes in Language, Communication and Thought

    Muhammad Ala Uddin


    The Chittagong Hill Tracts that situated in the southeastern part of Bangladesh bordering Burma and India has been known as a conflict zone in South Asia. The conflicting situation between the indigenous peoples and Bengalis was worsened due to immigration of Bengalis, displacement of the indigenous peoples, and military intervention in the Hill Tracts. Putting an end of the two- and half-decade-long bloody conflict, an agreement (“peace agreement”) was signed in December 02, 1997; nonetheles...

  15. Report on metric study tour to Republic of South Africa

    Laner, F. J.


    The modernized metric system, known universally as the International System of Units (abbreviated SI under the French name) was renamed in 1960 by the world body on standards. A map shows 98 percent of the world using or moving toward adoption of SI units. Only the countries of Burma, Liberia, Brunei, and Southern Yemen are nonmetric. The author describes a two-week session in Pretoria and Johannesburg on metrication, followed by additional meetings on metrication in Rhodesia. (MCW)

  16. Burmese Attitude toward Chinese: Portrayal of the Chinese in Contemporary Cultural and Media Works

    Min Zin


    This paper argues that since at least the mid 1980s, there has been an observable negative attitude among the people of Burma against the Chinese. Such sentiment is not just transient public opinion, but an attitude. The author measures it by studying contemporary cultural and media works as found in legally published expressions, so as to exclude any material rejected by the regime’s censors. The causes of such sentiment are various: massive Chinese migration and purchases of real estate (es...

  17. Measles among U.S.-bound refugees from Malaysia--California, Maryland, North Carolina, and Wisconsin, August-September 2011.


    On August 26, 2011, California public health officials notified CDC of a suspected measles case in an unvaccinated male refugee aged 15 years from Burma (the index patient), who had lived in an urban area of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, which is experiencing ongoing measles outbreaks. Currently, approximately 92,000 such refugees are living in urban communities in Malaysia. Resettlement programs in the United States and other countries are ongoing. The health and vaccination status of urban refugees are largely unknown. PMID:21937975

  18. The fate of nationalism in the new states: Southeast Asia in comparative historical perspective

    Sidel, John


    In two landmark essays published in 1973, the eminent anthropologist Clifford Geertz offered an early assessment of what he termed "The Fate of Nationalism in the New States," referring to the newly independent nation-states of Asia, Africa, and the Middle East. 1 Ranging with characteristic ease and flair across Burma, India, Indonesia, Lebanon, Malaysia, Morocco, and Nigeria, Geertz argued that an "Integrative Revolution" was under way, but one complicated and compromised by the inherent te...


    Kanojia Anita; Chaudhari Kishor Shivaji; Gothecha Vinod Kumar


    Snakebite is an important cause of morbidity and mortality and is one of the major health problems in India. About 30000 to 40,000 persons die each year from venomous snake bite. Russell’s viper or daboia (Viper russelli) appears to be the commonest cause of fatal snakebite in Southern India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Burma and Thailand. Intravenous administration of anti-snake venom neutralizes the systemic actions, however, antiserum does not provide enough protection against venom i...

  20. Health Perceptions and Practices of Burmese Refugee Families: A Participatory Mixed Method Study

    Kercood, Suneeta; Morita-Mullaney, Trish


    Healthcare providers in the United States often view the lifestyle choices made by refugees from Burma through the lenses of America’s norms for healthy living. Although healthcare providers often recognize the role that language plays in the refugees’ ability to communicate their healthcare needs, they often ignore the role of culture. This lack of understanding of cultural difference contributes to the marginalization of refugees in the healthcare system. Using a transformative mixed method...

  1. Salience of Ethnicity among Burman Muslims: A Study in Identity Formation

    Khin Maung Yin


    Abstract: Muslims, constituting about thirteen percent of the total population of Myanmar or Burma are not a monolithic group and are unable to provide a united front in their struggle to realize their just demands. They are divided into many groups and their relationship with each other is conflictual. As the cases of Indian and Bamar (Burman) Muslims show, they rely upon ethnicity, rather than religion, for identity formation and self-expression.

  2. Salience of Ethnicity among Burman Muslims: A Study in Identity Formation

    Khin Maung Yin


    Full Text Available Abstract: Muslims, constituting about thirteen percent of the total population of Myanmar or Burma are not a monolithic group and are unable to provide a united front in their struggle to realize their just demands. They are divided into many groups and their relationship with each other is conflictual. As the cases of Indian and Bamar (Burman Muslims show, they rely upon ethnicity, rather than religion, for identity formation and self-expression.

  3. Wang Junyi's Deep Complex for Jade



    Chinese people have apprecriated jade since remote antiquity, Jade represents the lofty spirit of humanity and carries Chinese people's expectation for happy life. In ancient times when tools were primitive, carving a beautiful jade required extraordinary talent and perseverance. Chinese emperors and poets wore beautiful jade wares as symbols for gentlemen. After emerald was introduced from Burma to China, its brilliant colors and crystal-clear quality fit for Chinese people's taste far beauty and has created a new fashion.

  4. Unocal's Asian commitment

    US concern over the Burmese military government's record on human rights abuses is hampering the activities of Unocal, a US company, which is attempting to build a gas pipeline along the Burmese coast, in partnership with the French company Total. Unocal argues that economic engagement, not unilateral sanctions are the best way to effect political change and is keen to progress further ventures with which it aims to promote social and economic development in Burma. (UK)

  5. Unocal`s Asian commitment



    US concern over the Burmese military government`s record on human rights abuses is hampering the activities of Unocal, a US company, which is attempting to build a gas pipeline along the Burmese coast, in partnership with the French company Total. Unocal argues that economic engagement, not unilateral sanctions are the best way to effect political change and is keen to progress further ventures with which it aims to promote social and economic development in Burma. (UK)

  6. Phytochemical and pharmacological potential of Hygrophila spinosa T. anders

    Arjun Patra; Shivesh Jha; P. Narasimha Murthy


    Hygrophila spinosa T. Anders (Acanthaceae) is described in Ayurvedic literature as Ikshura, Ikshugandha and Kokilasha "having eyes like Kokila or Indian cuckoo", common in moist places on the banks of tanks, ditches, paddy fields etc., widely distributed throughout India from Himalayas to Ceylon, Srilanka, Burma, Malaysia and Nepal. Seeds, whole plant, leaves, roots and ash of the plant are predominantly used for the treatment of various ailments. The compounds identified in H. spinosa are ma...

  7. Railroad impacts on wetland habitat: GIS and modeling approach

    Mitra, Subhro; Bezbaruah, Achintya N.


    Deepor Beel is one of the most important wetlands in the Brahmaputra Valley of lower Assam in India and is representative of the wetlands found within the Burma Monsoon Forest biogeography region. Deepor Beel is a Wetland of International Importance under the Ramsar Convention and is contiguous with Rani and Garbhanga reserved forests. These forests house endangered Asiatic elephants (Elephas maximus) in addition to other birds and animals. The elephants depend on the wetland for water and fo...

  8. Antispasmodic and Antidiarrheal Activities of Valeriana hardwickii Wall. Rhizome Are Putatively Mediated through Calcium Channel Blockade

    Anwar H. Gilani; Raafia Memon; Samra Bashir


    Valeriana hardwickii is indigenous to Pakistan, Burma and Ceylon, where it is traditionally being used as an antispasmodic and antidiarrheal, besides its culinary use as spice. The aim of this paper was to provide pharmacological validation to these medicinal uses. The crude aqueous-methanolic extract of Valeriana hardwickii rhizome (Vh.Cr) was studied on isolated rabbit jejunum and castor oil-induced diarrhea in mice for spasmolytic and antidiarrheal properties, respectively. Vh.Cr caused co...

  9. 2008 East Asia Investment Forum Investment Cooperation in East Asia Facing Global Financial Fluctuations


    @@ 2008 East Asia Investment Forum was held from May 10 to May 11 in Beijing with the theme of"Investment Cooperation in East Asia Facing Global Financial Fluctuations".It shed light on investment challenges and opportunities in Vietnam,Lao,Cambodia and Burma which are the four emerging markets in East Asia,and investment hotspots in Vietnam as well as the potential for investment cooperation in East Asia.

  10. Financing Japan’s World War II Occupation of Southeast Asia

    Gregg Huff; Shinobu Majima


    This paper analyzes how Japan financed its World War II occupation of Southeast Asia, the transfer of resources to Japan, and the monetary and inflation consequences of Japanese policies. In Malaya, Burma, Indonesia and the Philippines, the issue of military scrip to pay for resources and occupying armies greatly increased money supply. Despite high inflation ,hyperinflation hardly occurred because of a sustained transactions demand for money, because of Japan’s strong enforcement of monetary...

  11. Financing Japan's World War II Occupation of Southeast Asia

    Gregg Huff


    This paper analyzes how Japan financed its World War II occupation of Southeast Asia, the transfer of resources to Japan, and the monetary and inflation consequences of Japanese policies. In Malaya, Burma, Indonesia and the Philippines, the issue of military scrip to pay for resources and occupying armies greatly increased money supply. Despite high inflation, hyperinflation hardly occurred because of a sustained transactions demand for money, because of Japan’s strong enforcement of moneta...

  12. Burmese Attitude toward Chinese: Portrayal of the Chinese in Contemporary Cultural and Media Works

    Min Zin


    Full Text Available This paper argues that since at least the mid 1980s, there has been an observable negative attitude among the people of Burma against the Chinese. Such sentiment is not just transient public opinion, but an attitude. The author measures it by studying contemporary cultural and media works as found in legally published expressions, so as to exclude any material rejected by the regime’s censors. The causes of such sentiment are various: massive Chinese migration and purchases of real estate (especially in Upper Burma, Chinese money that is inflating the cost of everything, and cultural “intrusion.” The sentiment extends to the military, as well: the article examines a dozen memoirs of former military generals and finds that Burma’s generals do not trust the Chinese, a legacy of China’s interference in Burma’s civil war until the 1980s. The public outcry over the Myitsone dam issue, however, was the most significant expression of such sentiment since 1969, when anti-Chinese riots broke out in Burma. The relaxation of media restrictions under the new government has allowed this expression to gather steam and spread throughout the country, especially in private weekly journals that are becoming more outspoken and daring in pushing the boundaries of the state’s restrictions.

  13. Evolutionary dynamics and biogeography of Musaceae reveal a correlation between the diversification of the banana family and the geological and climatic history of Southeast Asia.

    Janssens, Steven B; Vandelook, Filip; De Langhe, Edmond; Verstraete, Brecht; Smets, Erik; Vandenhouwe, Ines; Swennen, Rony


    Tropical Southeast Asia, which harbors most of the Musaceae biodiversity, is one of the most species-rich regions in the world. Its high degree of endemism is shaped by the region's tectonic and climatic history, with large differences between northern Indo-Burma and the Malayan Archipelago. Here, we aim to find a link between the diversification and biogeography of Musaceae and geological history of the Southeast Asian subcontinent. The Musaceae family (including five Ensete, 45 Musa and one Musella species) was dated using a large phylogenetic framework encompassing 163 species from all Zingiberales families. Evolutionary patterns within Musaceae were inferred using ancestral area reconstruction and diversification rate analyses. All three Musaceae genera - Ensete, Musa and Musella - originated in northern Indo-Burma during the early Eocene. Musa species dispersed from 'northwest to southeast' into Southeast Asia with only few back-dispersals towards northern Indo-Burma. Musaceae colonization events of the Malayan Archipelago subcontinent are clearly linked to the geological and climatic history of the region. Musa species were only able to colonize the region east of Wallace's line after the availability of emergent land from the late Miocene onwards. PMID:26832306

  14. Ganado Cebú: Origen y Adaptación

    Gómez G. Luis Jair


    Full Text Available El ganado Cebú está habilitado extraordinariamente para producción bajo condiciones tropicales de altas temperaturas ambientales, alta humedad, condiciones adversas de pastoreo, parasitismo; en forma tal que resulta insustituible como base genética para cualquier programa de producción de carne bovina en el medio tropical. Existen varias teorías sobre el origen del cebú, hay un considerable cuerpo de evidencias que lo señalan como nativo del área India-Pakistán-Burma-Malaya.

  15. Community Coping Strategies in Response to Hardship and Human Rights Abuses Among Burmese Refugees and Migrants at the Thai-Burmese Border: A Qualitative Approach.

    Cohen, Shawn; Asgary, Ramin


    We conducted 10 focus groups (n = 49) with community members and key informant interviews (n = 28) to explore hardships and community coping strategies for sequelae of abuse among Burmese refugees/migrants in Thailand. Transcripts were coded and analyzed for major themes. In Burma, they universally experienced human rights violations and economic hardship. Hardships continued in Thailand through exploitation and threat of deportation. Coping was achieved through both personal and community-based mechanisms including self-reflection, sharing experiences, spirituality, and serving their community. Western psychosocial counseling, although available, was used infrequently. Effective psychosocial support often originates from the community and should be supported by international organizations. PMID:26882410

  16. Myanmar Dengue Outbreak Associated with Displacement of Serotypes 2, 3, and 4 by Dengue 1

    Thu, Hlaing Myat; Lowry, Kym; Myint, Thein Thein; Shwe, Than Nu; Han, Aye Maung; Khin, Kyu Kyu; Thant, Kyaw Zin; Thein, Soe; Aaskov, John


    In 2001, Myanmar (Burma) had its largest outbreak of dengue—15,361 reported cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome (DHF/DSS), including 192 deaths. That year, 95% of dengue viruses isolated from patients were serotype 1 viruses belonging to two lineages that had diverged from an earlier, now extinct, lineage sometime before 1998. The ratio of DHF to DSS cases in 2001 was not significantly different from that in 2000, when 1,816 cases of DHF/DSS were reported and dengue 1 also...

  17. GPS Analyses of the Sumatra-Andaman Earthquake

    Khan, Shfaqat Abbas; Gudmundsson, Ólafur


    The Sumatra, Indonesia, earthquake on 26 December 2004 was one of the most devastating earthquakes in history. With a magnitude of M w = 9.3 (revised based on normal-mode amplitudes by Stein and Okal,, it is the second largest...... earthquake recorded since 1900. It occurred about 100 km off the west coast of northern Sumatra, where the relatively dense Indo-Australian plate moves beneath the lighter Burma plate, resulting in stress accumulation. The average relative velocity of the two plates is about 6 cm/yr. On 26 December 2004...

  18. Nutritional Problems and Intervention Strategies in India

    Asumadu-Sarkodie, Samuel


    India, officially the Republic of India is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area. it is bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the south-west, and the Bay of Bengal on the south-east, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west; China, Nepal, and Bhutan to the north-east; and Burma and Bangladesh to the east. The major religions are Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, and Sikhism. India has a total population of 1,198,003,000, a gr...

  19. 10 planter fra sørøst-asiatisk folkemedisin : En studie over farmakologisk effekt, terapeutisk potensiale og fytokjemi sett ut fra tradisjonelle indikasjoner


    Denne oppgaven føyer seg inn i rekken av andre oppgaver fra Farmasøytisk institutt, Universitetet i Oslo, som har dreid seg om å finne informasjon om farmakologisk effekt og fytokjemiske bestanddeler i for oss mye ukjente planter fra et plantearkiv stammende fra et feltarbeid i Burma, årene 1957-1963 (Nordal, 1963). Oppgaven har søkt å innhente informasjon om etnomedisinsk bruk, fytokjemi og biologisk aktivitet for 10 medisinplanter fra Nordal-databasen . De 10 artene fra like mange slekter ...


    S. Yadav et al.


    Full Text Available Ventilago calyculata (Rhamnaceae commonly known as Pitti. Ventilago calyculata is present in hotter parts of India, Burma, Siam, China, in forest region. The plant is antimalarial, Antiviral, stomachic, skin disorder. Phytochemical studies had revealed the presence of flavonoids, triterpenoids, tannin, naphthoquinone, anthraquinone. Present study was carried out to determine, the morphological, microscopical and phytochemical profiles. Microscopy show thick unicellular covering trichomes, vein islet no.-3, vein termination no.-6, Anomocytic type stomata, lignifed, xylem, etc. The physical parameter such as moisture content, ash value and extractive value were evaluated.

  1. Mobile computing in the humanitarian assistance setting: an introduction and some first steps.

    Selanikio, Joel D; Kemmer, Teresa M; Bovill, Maria; Geisler, Karen


    We developed a Palm operating system-based handheld computer system for admin istering nutrition questionnaires and used it to gather nutritional information among the Burmese refugees in the Mae La refugee camp on the Thai-Burma border Our experience demonstrated that such technology can be easily adapted for such an austere setting and used to great advantage. Further, the technology showed tremendous potential to reduce both time required and errors commonly encountered when field staff collect information in the humanitarian setting. We also identified several areas needing further development. PMID:11993568

  2. Application of satellite imagery to monitoring human rights abuse of vulnerable communities, with minimal risk to relief staff

    Lavers, C.; Bishop, C.; Hawkins, O.; Grealey, E.; Cox, C.; Thomas, D.; Trimel, S.


    Space imagery offers remote surveillance of ethnic people groups at risk of human rights abuse. We highlight work in alleged violations in Burma and Sudan, using satellite imagery for verification with Amnesty International. We consider how imaging may effectively support small to medium-sized Non Governmental Organisations and charities, e.g. HART, working in dangerous zones on the ground. Satellite based sensing applications are now at a sufficiently mature stage for moderate Governmental funding levels to help prevent human rights abuse, rather than the greater cost of rebuilding communities and healing sectarian divisions after abuse has taken place.

  3. Application of satellite imagery to monitoring human rights abuse of vulnerable communities, with minimal risk to relief staff

    Space imagery offers remote surveillance of ethnic people groups at risk of human rights abuse. We highlight work in alleged violations in Burma and Sudan, using satellite imagery for verification with Amnesty International. We consider how imaging may effectively support small to medium-sized Non Governmental Organisations and charities, e.g. HART, working in dangerous zones on the ground. Satellite based sensing applications are now at a sufficiently mature stage for moderate Governmental funding levels to help prevent human rights abuse, rather than the greater cost of rebuilding communities and healing sectarian divisions after abuse has taken place.

  4. 'I am a Child with Education and Knowledge': Karen Migrant and Refugee Children's Daily life Experiences in Thailand

    Engan, Laila


    This master thesis is based on a field work conducted in Thailand with migrant and refugee children from Burma belonging to the ethnic minority of the Karen people. One urban school for migrant children and one rural refugee camp school served as research sites. The study explores the daily life experiences of children aged 8 – 13, with main focus on their school life. Various methods such as observation, essay writing, drawing and photography were used in order to search for the children’s o...

  5. Exportní možnosti firmy DSP Přerov na vybraných asijských trzích

    Pitnerová, Kristýna


    This thesis deals with DSP Prerov, spol. s r.o. and with proposed strategy to expand its offer to selected Asian markets. The main aim of this work is to present the company, analysis of selected countries, namely Burma and Vietnam, and then to build a suitable export strategy for the company. The first part is focused on the global development of the sector along with the history of metal industry in Prerov, further attention is also paid to the company itself, within which is a SWOT analysi...

  6. Activation Analysis. Proceedings of an Informal Study Group Meeting

    As part of its programme to promote the exchange of information relating to nuclear science and technology, the International Atomic Energy Agency convened in Bangkok, Thailand, from 6-8 July 1970, an informal meeting to discuss the topic of Activation Analysis. The meeting was attended by participants drawn from the following countries: Australia, Burma, Ceylon, Republic of China, India, Indonesia, Prance, Japan, Republic of Korea, New Zealand, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, United States of America and Vietnam. The proceedings consist of the contributions presented at the meeting with minor editorial changes

  7. Celebrities in International Affairs

    Richey, Lisa Ann; Budabin, Alexandra Cosima


    that celebrities are acting as other elite actors in international affairs: investing considerable capital into processes that are highly political. It traces the emergence and practices of the elite politics of celebrities in North-South relations, an evolution made possible by recent changes in aid...... practices, media, and NGOs, then considers exemplary cases of Angelina Jolie in Burma, Ben Affleck in the Democractic Republic of Congo, and Madonna in Malawi. These celebrity practices as diplomats, experts, and humanitarians in international affairs illustrate the diverse and contradictory forms of...

  8. Yuan Longping-An Outstanding Technical Talent in China


    @@Acad. Yuan Longping, Director General of China National Hybrid Rice R & D Center and Honourable President of HAAS, is internationally recognized as the father of hybrid rice. He not only developed three lines for hybrid seed production but also developed the seed production technology. Hybrid rice is now planted on 15 million hectares or so in China, almost 50%of the country's total rice land. It has contributed greatly to the rice production increase in China. Hybrid rice technology is being adopted in other countries such as India , Vietnam,Philippines and Burma.

  9. The 1962 programme of technical assistance

    Experts and equipment are provided by the Agency in response to requests from Member States after the requests have been examined by technical, financial and other relevant criteria. Under the 1962 programme to be financed with the Agency's own resources, assistance in the form of services of experts and equipment will be given to the following countries: Argentina, Brazil, Burma, Ceylon, Chile, Denmark, El Salvador, Ghana, Haiti, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Japan, Korea, Mexico, Pakistan, Paraguay, the Philippines, Portugal, Thailand, Tunisia, Turkey, the United Arab Republic, and Yugoslavia. Some details of the individual projects of assistance to be financed with the Agency's own resources are given

  10. Trace element fingerprinting of jewellery rubies by external beam PIXE

    External beam PIXE analysis allows the non-destructive in situ characterisation of gemstones mounted on jewellery pieces. This technique was used for the determination of the geographical origin of 64 rubies set on a high-valued necklace. The trace element content of these gemstones was measured and compared to that of a set of rubies of known sources. Multivariate statistical processing of the results allowed us to infer the provenance of rubies: one comes from Thailand/Cambodia deposit while the remaining are attributed to Burma. This highlights the complementary capabilities of PIXE and conventional geological observations

  11. The Transference of Gender-based Norms in the Law Reform Process: A Reflection on my Work in Thailand

    Y-Vonne Hutchinson


    In 2008, I spent a year as a Rule of Law specialist in Thailand with the International Rescue Committee (IRC), as part of a fellowship program for human rights lawyers. I was assigned the task of facilitating the development of a comprehensive legal code for the refugee camps along the border between Thailand and /Burma. As part of my work, I also sought to increase gender-based protection under the law through the incorporation of Thai and international human rights norms. This paper is a re...

  12. Trace element fingerprinting of jewellery rubies by external beam PIXE

    Calligaro, T. E-mail:; Poirot, J.-P.; Querre, G


    External beam PIXE analysis allows the non-destructive in situ characterisation of gemstones mounted on jewellery pieces. This technique was used for the determination of the geographical origin of 64 rubies set on a high-valued necklace. The trace element content of these gemstones was measured and compared to that of a set of rubies of known sources. Multivariate statistical processing of the results allowed us to infer the provenance of rubies: one comes from Thailand/Cambodia deposit while the remaining are attributed to Burma. This highlights the complementary capabilities of PIXE and conventional geological observations.

  13. Trace element fingerprinting of jewellery rubies by external beam PIXE

    Calligaro, T.; Poirot, J.-P.; Querré, G.


    External beam PIXE analysis allows the non-destructive in situ characterisation of gemstones mounted on jewellery pieces. This technique was used for the determination of the geographical origin of 64 rubies set on a high-valued necklace. The trace element content of these gemstones was measured and compared to that of a set of rubies of known sources. Multivariate statistical processing of the results allowed us to infer the provenance of rubies : one comes from Thailand/Cambodia deposit while the remaining are attributed to Burma. This highlights the complementary capabilities of PIXE and conventional gemological observations.

  14. PHAMIT: A program on hiv/aids prevention among migrant workers

    Thongphit Pinyosinwat


    Prevention of HIV/AIDS Among Migrant Workers in Thailand – or “PHAMIT,” which in Thai means “friendly skies”.  The program led by the Raks Thai Foundation with seven NGO partners and one government agency focuses on HIV prevention and health services for migrant workers from Burma and Cambodia in the fisheries, seafood and related industries.  The program demonstrates the complexity of working with undocumented migrant workers and the need to address barriers to the access to health services,...

  15. 2003年东南亚政治发展回顾%A Review of the Political Development in Southeast Asia in 2003



    The latest political development in Southeast Asia can be characterized by the following four aspects, which are 1. Campaigns were under way for the general elections in Indonesia and the Philippines. 2. Cambodia and Malaysia were undertaking the change of governments and power transition. 3. Latest developments were made in anti - terrorist campaigns in the area, especially in Indonesia and the Philippines. 4. There occurred domestic military conflicts and violence, namely the military conflict in Indonesia, the military coup d'état in the Philippines and the blood event of May 30 in Burma.

  16. Geopolitical Considerations


    India is contiguous with Southeast Asia, holding borderlines of more than 2000 kilometers with Burma. India's Andaman-Nicobar Islands situate near the outlet of the Malacca Strait, with their southmost point only 128 kilometers from Indonesia's Sumatra. Given its dominant status and power in South Asia, and its special geographic location neighboring Southeast Asia, India is the only power in South Asia that can interact geopolitically with Southeast Asia in the present and foreseeable future. In fact, its geopolitical connection with the latter has long come into existence.

  17. Shan women and girls and the sex industry in Southeast Asia; political causes and human rights implications.

    Beyrer, C


    The human rights abuses which occur during civil conflicts pose special threats to the health and lives of women. These can include rape, sexual violence, increased vulnerability to trafficking into prostitution, and exposure to HIV infection. The long-standing civil conflict in the Shan States of Burma is investigated as a contributing cause to the trafficking of ethnic Shan women and girls into the Southeast Asian sex industry, and to the subsequent high rates of HIV infection found among these women. The context of chronic human rights abuses in the Shan states is explored, as well as the effects of recent forced population transfers on the part of the Burmese Military Regime. Rights abuses specific to trafficked women may further increase their vulnerability to HIV and other STD. The need for a political resolution to the crisis in Burma is discussed, as are approaches aimed at preventing trafficking, empowering women already in the sex industry, and reducing the risks of HIV and other STD among these women and girls. PMID:11459403

  18. Effect of Finger Joint on Flexural Strength of Teak Wood

    Bharatesh A. Danawade


    Full Text Available This paper presents the flexural properties of rectangular Burma teak wood beam without finger joint and with finger joint. Finger joints enable full utilization of wood. Finger jointing technique is also used to eliminate wood defects which weaken the strength of wood. This paper considers finger joint as defined defect and its effect on the flexural strength is determined. Teakwood is hard and heavy, seasons rapidly and has good durability. The specimens were studied under three point bending test. Both edge wise and flat wise tests were carried out. It is observed that Burma teakwood beam without finger joint is stronger than beams with finger joints. Because of finger jointing the flexural strength reduces. It can be concluded that the strength loss can improved upon by selecting suitable geometry of finger joint and a suitable adhesive. It is recognized that further studies are necessary on jointing techniques of wood and type of adhesive so as to equal the flexural strength properties of clear teak wood beams.

  19. The Effect of Water Shortage on Water Quality of Different Resources in Jerash Governorate/Jordan, Based On New Water Quality Index

    Eham Al-Ajlouni


    Full Text Available The individual average of water share In Jerash governorate is only 71 litres per day and that is the lowest allotment in Jordan. The aim of the study is to assess water quality of different resources in Jerash governorate, based on demographic, chemical and biological changes within a period of 11 years. Cluster survey method was applied and samples of drinking water were taken from different resources. Water of municipality and bottled groundwater resources were of acceptable quality; groundwater of tanker trucks and wells were also acceptable except that of high level of nitrate; spring water and harvested rainwater were potentially not safe and susceptible for biological contamination. At level of sub-districts, based on a new developed water quality index, it was chemically found that water in Mastaba sub-district was more complying with standards than Jerash and Burma sub-districts, but in biological respect both Jerash and Burma sub-districts were more compliance with the standards than Mastaba sub-district. In general, drinking water in Jerash governorate was chemically found of medium quality, and biologically of good quality.

  20. Terpenoid composition and botanical affinity of Cretaceous resins from India and Myanmar

    Dutta, Suryendu; Mallick, Monalisa [Department of Earth Sciences, Indian Institute of Technology-Bombay (India); Kumar, Kishor [Wadia Institute of Himalayan Geology, Uttarakhand (India); Mann, Ulrich [Forschungzentrum Juelich (Germany). Institut fuer Chemie und Dynamik der Geosphaere; Greenwood, Paul F. [John De Laeter Mass Spectrometry and WA Biogeochemistry Centres (M090), University of Western Australia, Crawley (Australia)


    Fossil resins from the Cretaceous sediments of Meghalaya, India and Kachin, Myanmar (Burma) were analysed using Curie point pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and thermochemolysis gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to help elucidate their botanical source. The major pyrolysis products and methyl-esterified thermochemolysis products of both the resins were abietane and labdane type diterpenoids with minor amount of sesquiterpenoids. The thermochemolysis products also included methyl-16,17-dinor callitrisate, methyl-16,17-dinor dehydroabietate and methyl-8-pimaren-18-oate - the latter two from just the Myanmarese resin. The exclusive presence of both labdane and abietane diterpenoids and the lack of phenolic terpenoids may suggest that the studied Cretaceous resins were derived from Pinaceae (pine family) conifers. (author)

  1. Isotope studies on rice fertilization

    The aim of the report is to provide practical information on the efficient utilization of nitrogen fertilizers in rice production. Results obtained from field investigations during the years 1970 to 1974 in ten countries (Bangladesh, Burma, Indonesia, Republic of Korea, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam, India, Philippines), using 15N-labelled nitrogen fertilizers (ammonium sulfate, urea) are given. The experiments, which were conducted both during the dry and wet seasons, included comparison of varieties, effect of placement, source and time of nitrogen fertilizer application on the yield and quality of rice. The data from the project is presented in table form. In most of the experiments, the addition of nitrogen increased the rice grain yield. The role of soil nitrogen vs. fertilizer nitrogen is compared, and it is concluded that the physiological growth stage at which fertilizer-derived nitrogen is absorbed is of great importance

  2. AcEST: DK958787 [AcEST

    Full Text Available GKVMPFGAN 239 >sp|Q2SXN7|ASTE_BURTA Succinylglutamate desuccinylase OS=Burkholderia thailandensis (stra...Burkho... 35 3.3 tr|A5TJ35|A5TJ35_BURMA Succinylglutamate desuccinylase OS=Burkho... 35 3.3 tr|Q3YR98|Q3YR98_EHRCJ Putative unchara...48|A2SA48_BURM9 Succinylglutamate desuccinylase OS=Burkholderia mallei (strain NCTC 10229) GN=astE PE=4 SV=1...1V673|A1V673_BURMS Succinylglutamate desuccinylase OS=Burkholderia mallei (strain...2. 5' end sequence. DK958787 - Show DK958787 Clone id TST39A01NGRL0002_O22 Library TST39 Length 671 Definiti




    Full Text Available Anopheles culicifacies is the vector of malaria in southeastern part of Iran, India, West Pakistan and Ceylon. In 1959 the LC50 % DDT in the Panchmahal district of Gujarat state (India had increased. DDT resistant population of A. culicifacies has been reported from West Pakistan, Burma and Iran. After application of DDT in 1959, the density of A. culicifacies decreased sharply. The susceptibility test carried out in 1963 showed that the LC50 was 0.5%.After DDT spraying, followed by Dieldrin, for about 10 years the density of A. culicifacies was so negligible that it was not possible to perform susceptibility tests. By April and May of 1973 the density of A.culicifacies in Saidabad, Khairabad and Hit in Baluchesten province, Southeast of Iran, increased to about 500 per shelter. The susceptibility tests carried out showed that A. culicfacies is resistant to DDT and susceptible to Dieldrin and Malathion.

  4. Crustal Structure of Yunnan Province, People's Republic of China, from Seismic Refraction Profiles.

    Kan, R J; Hu, H X; Zeng, R S; Mooney, W D; McEvilly, T V


    Seismic refraction, profiles in Yunnan Province, southwestern China, define the crustal structure in an area of active tectonics on the southern end of the Himalaya-Burma arc. The crustal thickness ranges from 38 to 46 kilometers, and the relatively low mean crustal velocity indicates a crustal composition compatible with normal continental crust and consisting mainly of meta-sedimentary and silicic intrusive rocks, with little mafic or ultramafic component. This composition suggests a crustal evolution involving sedimentary processes on the flank of the Yangtze platform rather than the accretion of oceanic island arcs, as has been proposed. An anomalously low upper-mantle velocity observed on one profile but not on another at right angles to it may indicate active tectonic processes in the mantle or seismic anisotropy. PMID:17792016

  5. History of Mosquito Releases for Control and Potential of New Molecular Capabilities

    Ten different field trials, of varying sizes, have been carried out with sterile mosquitoes, the majority being in the 1970's. The major trials were in India, Burma and El Salvador. The major biological problems encountered were the failure of the sterile males to mate with the wild females and density dependent larval survival. There were also several problems associated with the technology, e.g. failures in mass rearing, inappropriate release technologies and immigration into the treatment area. New transgenic developments may offer some improvements but the above constraints will still need to be solved. Systems to genetically sterilize insects in the field are being evaluated in mosquitoes and have been shown to be successful in Drosophila. The genetic constructs used in Drosophila may well function in Anopheles.

  6. A microcosm investigation of fe (iron) removal using macrophytes of ramsar lake: A phytoremediation approach.

    Singh, Mayanglambam Muni; Rai, Prabhat Kumar


    The present study deals with the microcosm study of Fe (Iron) phytoremediation using Eichhornia crassipes, Lemna minor, Pistia stratiotes and Salvinia cucullata species collected from the Loktak Lake, a Ramsar Site which exists in north-eastern India (an Indo-Burma hotspot region). Efficiency of these four macrophytes was compared using different Fe concentrations of 1 mg L(-1), 3 mg L(-1) and 5 mg L(-1) for 4 days, 8 days and 12 days, respectively. E. crassipes was the most efficient macrophyte whereas L. minor was the least efficient. E. crassipes removed the highest percentage of Fe, i.e. 89% from 1 mg L(-1), 81.3% from 3 mg L(-1) and 73.2% from 5 mg L(-1) in 12-day experiment. PMID:27258126


    Bharat Bhushan


    Full Text Available Vetiveria zizanioides is belonging to Poaceae family. It is well known plant from south India and widely distributed in India, Burma, Ceylon, and spread from Southwest Asia to tropical Africa. Vetiveria zizanioides is commonly known as khas - khas, khus, vetiver, Vala in different languages. Root of Vetiveria zizanioides have been suggested in the Indian system of medicine for a number of diseases. These includes as decoction in high fever, inflammation and sexual disorder, as paste in diarrhea, chronic dysentery and in Ayurvedic preparations and as juice in anthelmentic. This plant was screened pharmacologically for antibacterial, antifungal, anticataleptic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory, Rheumatism, anti oxidant and anti arthritic activity. This will be creating helpfulness towards this medicinal plant and for preparation of different Ayurvedic formulation with more therapeutic and economic consideration in treatment of various diseases.

  8. Induced mutations for the improvement of grain legumes in South East Asia (1975)

    The report is divided into seven sections containing papers on the following subjects: regional cooperation for improving grain legume production in South-East Asia and the role of FAO in this connection; national reports on the production and consumption of grain legumes (mainly beans, soybeans, peas, peanuts) in various Asian countries (separate reports for Pakistan, India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Burma, Philippines, Indonesia, Papua New Guinea, Taiwan, and Australia). Specific papers are presented on the following: modifications of field pea; chickpea breeding at ICRISAT; mutation breeding in winged bean; mutation breeding in improving groundnut cultivars; and the consumption of grain legumes in Singapore. Finally, some conclusions and recommendations adopted by the participants of the meeting are presented

  9. Borders of fertility: unplanned pregnancy and unsafe abortion in Burmese women migrating to Thailand.

    Belton, Suzanne


    Burmese women are forced to migrate to find work and security in Thailand due to the social, political, and economic disarray present in Burma. Unplanned pregnancies are common in this area, and one third of pregnancy loss is self-induced. Poverty, lack of employment rights, and domestic violence are important factors in deciding to terminate the pregnancy. Women face multiple barriers in managing their fertility and use traditional techniques often with the help of lay midwives. The research methods include a retrospective review of medical records held in Thai and Burmese-led health facilities, as well as semistructured interviews and group discussions with Burmese women experiencing a pregnancy loss, Burmese traditional and modern health workers, and their husbands and community members. PMID:17454186

  10. The Global Youth Service Team: students applying science and technology in remote, developing region of the world

    Hollinger, Doug


    Eh Kalu, director of the Karen Department of Health and Welfare along the border region between Thailand and Burma said, ``It is very difficult to attend to a medical emergency at night when all you have are candles for light.'' The Global Youth Service Team (GYST) provides high school and college students with the opportunity to apply science that they have learned in the performance of international humanitarian service. Volunteers with the GYST build solar powered electrical systems, ultraviolet water purifiers, provide training and education to people who are most in need due to energy poverty, lack access to resources, natural disasters or human rights violations. GYST volunteers train with photovoltaic materials and equipment to become solar energy technicians. They then travel to remote communities in developing countries where we are able to catalyze improvements in education and health care, promote sustainable energy initiatives and help communities develop the capacity to use their own resources by which to create opportunity.

  11. World Energy Data System (WENDS). Volume I. Country data, AF-CO



    The World Energy Data System contains organized data on those countries and international organizations that may have critical impact on the world energy scene. Volumes 1 through 4 include energy-related information concerning 57 countries. Additional volumes (5 through 11) present review information on international organizations, summaries of energy-related international agreements, and fact sheets on nuclear facilities. Country data on Afghanistan, Algeria, Argentina, Australia, Austria, Bangladesh, Belgium, Bolivia, Brazil, Burma, Canada, China, and Colombia are included in Volume 1. The following topics are covered for most of the countries: economic, demographic, and educational profiles; energy policy; indigenous energy resources and uses; forecasts, demand, exports, imports of energy supplies; environmental considerations; power production facilities; energy industries; commercial applications of energy; research and development activities of energy; and international activities.

  12. Coptotermes gestroi (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) in Brazil: possible origins inferred by mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase II gene sequences.

    Martins, C; Fontes, L R; Bueno, O C; Martins, V G


    The Asian subterranean termite, Coptotermes gestroi, originally from northeast India through Burma, Thailand, Malaysia, and the Indonesian archipelago, is a major termite pest introduced in several countries around the world, including Brazil. We sequenced the mitochondrial COII gene from individuals representing 23 populations. Phylogenetic analysis of COII gene sequences from this and other studies resulted in two main groups: (1) populations of Cleveland (USA) and four populations of Malaysia and (2) populations of Brazil, four populations of Malaysia, and one population from each of Thailand, Puerto Rico, and Key West (USA). Three new localities are reported here, considerably enlarging the distribution of C. gestroi in Brazil: Campo Grande (state of Mato Grosso do Sul), Itajaí (state of Santa Catarina), and Porto Alegre (state of Rio Grande do Sul). PMID:20924414

  13. "The Pain of Exile": What Social Workers Need to Know about Burmese Refugees.

    Fike, D Christopher; Androff, David K


    Refugees from Burma have comprised the largest group of refugees resettling in the United States over the past decade, with nearly 90,000 people, and 19 percent of the total refugee population. However, very little literature exists that describes the cultural context and displacement experiences of this population. This article addresses that gap in the literature by examining historical, social, political, and cultural dimensions relevant to social work practice with Burmese refugees. Practice with Burmese refugees should be informed by knowledge of refugee policy, refugee resettlement, and social services delivery systems; the Burmese historical and political context; the community's specific strengths, needs, and cultural diversity; and human rights and social justice issues. Strong community partnerships between social workers and indigenous community leaders, between resettlement agencies and ethnic community-based organizations, and between different Burmese refugee groups are important to meeting short- and long-term social services needs and fostering successful adaptation and community integration. PMID:27180523

  14. Remembrance of Dutch War Dead in Southeast Asia, 1942-1945

    Fridus Steijlen


    Full Text Available Recognition of the war experience in Southeast Asia in the Netherlands was not easy. The Indisch community, those who had to leave the Netherlands East Indies after decolonization, did not feel that their war experience was accepted. Following the story of one man, a former POW, this article shows how unorthodox ways of protesting were used to command respect and acknowledgement. The arena for these actions was not only the Indisch monument in the Netherlands, but also the War cemetery in Thailand. The former Dutch POW ended up in a dispute with the Australian caretaker of that cemetery over the specific location of a camp. Both men, however, were motivated by the same urge to find the exact locations of camps along the Burma railway. The story of this POW shows how important official recognition is on a personal level.

  15. Provenance study of rubies from a Parthian statuette by PIXE analysis

    Calligaro, T.; Mossmann, A.; Poirot, J.-P.; Querré, G.


    The aim of this work was the characterization of three red inlays of a Parthian statuette (3rd century B.C.) originating from Babylon, Mesopotamia. The external beam setup of AGLAE was used in order to determine the chemical composition of the inlays. PIXE analysis confirmed the expected nature of the cabochons: ruby, and not colored glass as previously reported. According to these results, this archaeological object contains one of the oldest rubies left today. Moreover, quantitative analysis of trace elements allowed us to infer the geographic origin of these gems. PIXE analyses of a batch of 57 rubies from nine well-known sources were carried out in order to establish a geochemical database. The use of multivariate statistical methods enables us to restrict the possible provenance to either Ceylon (Sri Lanka) or more likely Burma (Myanmar).

  16. Geographical Distribution of Biomass Carbon in Tropical Southeast Asian Forests: A Database; TOPICAL

    A database was generated of estimates of geographically referenced carbon densities of forest vegetation in tropical Southeast Asia for 1980. A geographic information system (GIS) was used to incorporate spatial databases of climatic, edaphic, and geomorphological indices and vegetation to estimate potential (i.e., in the absence of human intervention and natural disturbance) carbon densities of forests. The resulting map was then modified to estimate actual 1980 carbon density as a function of population density and climatic zone. The database covers the following 13 countries: Bangladesh, Brunei, Cambodia (Campuchea), India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar (Burma), Nepal, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Vietnam. The data sets within this database are provided in three file formats: ARC/INFO(trademark) exported integer grids, ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) files formatted for raster-based GIS software packages, and generic ASCII files with x, y coordinates for use with non-GIS software packages

  17. Micro-PIXE analysis of trace element concentrations of natural rubies from different locations in Myanmar

    Sanchez, J. L.; Osipowicz, T.; Tang, S. M.; Tay, T. S.; Win, T. T.


    The trace element concentrations found in geological samples can shed light on the formation process. In the case of gemstones, which might be of artificial or natural origin, there is also considerable interest in the development of methods that provide identification of the origin of a sample. For rubies, trace element concentrations present in natural samples were shown previously to be significant indicators of the region of origin [S.M. Tang et al., Appl. Spectr. 42 (1988) 44, and 43 (1989) 219]. Here we report the results of micro-PIXE analyses of trace element (Ti, V, Cr, Fe, Cu and Ga) concentrations of a large set ( n = 130) of natural rough rubies from nine locations in Myanmar (Burma). The resulting concentrations are subjected to statistical analysis. Six of the nine groups form clusters when the data base is evaluated using tree clustering and principal component analysis.

  18. Future of endemic flora of biodiversity hotspots in India.

    Vishwas Sudhir Chitale

    Full Text Available India is one of the 12 mega biodiversity countries of the world, which represents 11% of world's flora in about 2.4% of global land mass. Approximately 28% of the total Indian flora and 33% of angiosperms occurring in India are endemic. Higher human population density in biodiversity hotspots in India puts undue pressure on these sensitive eco-regions. In the present study, we predict the future distribution of 637 endemic plant species from three biodiversity hotspots in India; Himalaya, Western Ghats, Indo-Burma, based on A1B scenario for year 2050 and 2080. We develop individual variable based models as well as mixed models in MaxEnt by combining ten least co-related bioclimatic variables, two disturbance variables and one physiography variable as predictor variables. The projected changes suggest that the endemic flora will be adversely impacted, even under such a moderate climate scenario. The future distribution is predicted to shift in northern and north-eastern direction in Himalaya and Indo-Burma, while in southern and south-western direction in Western Ghats, due to cooler climatic conditions in these regions. In the future distribution of endemic plants, we observe a significant shift and reduction in the distribution range compared to the present distribution. The model predicts a 23.99% range reduction and a 7.70% range expansion in future distribution by 2050, while a 41.34% range reduction and a 24.10% range expansion by 2080. Integration of disturbance and physiography variables along with bioclimatic variables in the models improved the prediction accuracy. Mixed models provide most accurate results for most of the combinations of climatic and non-climatic variables as compared to individual variable based models. We conclude that a regions with cooler climates and higher moisture availability could serve as refugia for endemic plants in future climatic conditions; b mixed models provide more accurate results, compared to single

  19. What caused the recent reduction in heroin supply in Australia?

    Wodak, Alex


    Heroin availability and purity decreased and prices increased in Australia suddenly in early 2001. The heroin market in Australia has still not returned to the status quo ante after more than six years. Benefits of the heroin shortage, including a substantial reduction in drug overdose deaths and property crime, are generally considered to have outweighed adverse effects which included increased use of other drugs, especially stimulants, with a subsequent increase in aggression, violence and mental illness. Some commentators attributed the heroin shortage to a combination of factors, while an influential study highlighted the importance of supply control asserting that increased funding and improved effectiveness of domestic drug law enforcement produced critical heroin seizures which disrupted major syndicates, thereby producing the heroin shortage. Evidence to support a critical role for drug law enforcement in the heroin shortage is weak with some recent evidence contradicting key assertions used to support the supply control hypothesis. Although the most likely interpretation is still a combination of multiple factors, the most important factors appear to have been a substantial recent reduction in source opium cultivation and heroin production in Burma, but probably also increased heroin consumption en route through China and a switch from heroin to amphetamine production in Burma. This interpretation is consistent with the international experience of several recent decades in numerous countries where national heroin shortages have occurred rarely and generally only briefly, notwithstanding vigorous and very well resourced supply control efforts. The recent reduction in heroin supply in Australia, the most severe, longest lasting and best-documented heroin shortage in the world, cannot be confidently attributed, solely or largely, to improved domestic drug law enforcement. At best, domestic law enforcement may have made a small contribution compared to several

  20. Mitochondrial phylogeography and subspecific variation in the red panda (Ailurus fulgens): implications for conservation.

    Li, Ming; Wei, Fuwen; Goossens, Benoît; Feng, Zuojian; Tamate, Hidetoshi B; Bruford, Michael W; Funk, Stephan M


    The red panda (Ailurus fulgens) is an endangered species and its present distribution is restricted to isolated mountain ranges in western China (Sichuan, Yunnan, and Tibet provinces) and the Himalayan Mountains chain of Nepal, India, Bhutan, and Burma. To examine the evolutionary history across its current range, and to assess the genetic divergence among current subspecies and population structure among different geographic locations, we sequenced mitochondrial DNA from the control region (CR) and cytochrome (cyt) b gene for 41 individuals in Sichuan, Yunnan, Tibet of China, and Burma. 25 CR haplotypes (10 for cyt b) were identified from 11 geographic locations. Only three haplotypes were shared among sample localities, including one among current subspecies. Nine haplotypes were shared with the study of Su et al. [Mol. Biol. Evol. 18 (2001) 1070]. CR haplotype diversity was high (0.95+/-0.02) and nucleotide diversity among all haplotypes was relatively low (0.018+/-0.009). Phylogenetic confirmed trees show a shallow pattern with very little structure or statistical robustness. The application of two coalescent-based tests for population growth allowed us to interpret this phylogeny as the result of a recent population expansion. Analysis of molecular variance and nested clade analysis failed to detect significant geographic structure in both data sets. The lack of significant differentiation between subspecies does not indicate the presence of evolutionary significant units. We suggest that the present population structure has resulted from habitat fragmentation and expansion from glacial refugia. Due to its habitat requirements it is likely that the red panda has undergone bottlenecks and population expansions several times in the recent past. The present population may exhibit a pattern reminiscent of a relatively recent population expansion. PMID:15904858

  1. Enhancing Floodplain Management in the Lower Mekong River Basin Using Vegetation and Water Cycle Satellite Observations

    Bolten, J. D.; Spruce, J.; Wilson, R.; Strauch, K.; Doyle, T.; Srinivan, R.; Lakshmi, V.; Gupta, M.


    The Lower Mekong River Basin shared by China, Burma, Laos, Thailand, Cambodia, and Vietnam, is considered the lifeblood of Southeast Asia. The Mekong Basin is subject to large hydrological fluctuations on a seasonal and inter-annual basis. The basin remains prone to severe annual floods that continue to cause widespread damage and endanger food security and the livelihood of the millions who dwell in the region. Also the placement of newly planned dams primarily for hydropower in the Lower Mekong Basin may cause damaging social, agriculture and fisheries impacts to the region where we may now likely be at a critical 'tipping point'. The primary goal of this project is to apply NASA and USGS products, tools, and information for improved flood and water management in the Lower Mekong River Basin to help characterize, understand, and predict future changes on the basin. Specifically, we are providing and helping transfer to the Mekong River Commission (MRC) and the member countries of Thailand, Cambodia, Lao, Vietnam, and Burma the enhanced Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) using remotely sensed surface, ground water, and root zone soil moisture along with improved Land Use and Land Cover (LULC) maps. In order to estimate the flood potential and constrain the SWAT Available Water Capacity model parameter over the region, we are assimilated GRACE Terrestrial Water Storage observations into the Catchment Land Surface Model. In addition, a Graphic Visualization Tool (GVT) as been developed to work in concert with the output of the SWAT model parameterized for the Mekong Basin as an adjunct tool of the MRC Decision Support Framework. The project requires a close coordination of the development and assessment of the enhanced MRC SWAT with the guidance of MRC resource managers and technical advisors. This presentation will evaluate the skill of the enhanced SWAT model using qualitative (i.e., MODIS change detection) and quantitative (e.g., streamflow) metrics over one

  2. Japan’s Development Ambitions for Myanmar: The Problem of “Economics before Politics”

    Donald M. Seekins


    Full Text Available Myanmar and Japan have had an important shared history since the Pacific War, when Japan occupied the British colony of Burma and established the country’s first postcolonial state and army. The period from 1941 to 1945 also witnessed the “militarization” of Myanmar as the country was turned into a battlefield by the Japanese, the Allies and indigenous insurgents. After independence from Britain in 1948, the Union of Burma continued to suffer insurgency and became a deeply conflicted society, especially under the isolationist socialist regime of General Ne Win (1962–1988. However, Japan played a major role in Myanmar’s economic development through its allocation of war reparations and official development assistance (ODA, especially yen loans. During the period of martial law from 1988 to 2011, Tokyo exercised some self-restraint in giving aid due to pressure from its major ally, the United States, with its human rights agenda. However, with the transition from junta rule to constitutional government in 2011 came a dramatic increase in Japanese ODA, as Tokyo forgave large amounts of debt and invested in ambitious new special economic zones (SEZ. Japan will no doubt benefit from Myanmar as close ties are expanded: Not only will Japanese companies profit, but Japan will have access to Myanmar’s raw materials and gain ability to compete more effectively with an economically expansive China. On Myanmar’s side, though, it is unlikely that anyone other than the military and crony capitalist elites will benefit from the flood of new yen loans and infrastructure projects. This paper argues that without a political resolution of Myanmar’s many conflicts, including the establishment of genuinely open political institutions, the aid of Japan (and other countries is likely to make these deep-rooted social and ethnic conflicts even worse.

  3. The impact of Border policy effect on cross-border ethnic areas

    Bie, Q. L.; Zhou, S. Y.; Li, C. S.


    Boundary effect analysis is related to border policy making in the cross-border ethnic area. The border effect literatures show that geographic boundaries have obvious impacts on economic, social and cultural relations in both sides of a nation border. Particularly in cross-border ethnic areas, each ethnic group has strong internal spatial structure relevance, and the boundary effect is more obvious. However, most of China's border areas are cross-border ethnic areas, each of border issues is unique. Under this perspective, we analyze the border effects of various boundaries can provide basis for formulating border management policies. For small scale of cross-border ethnic minority areas, how to formulate the boundary management policy is a good question to explore. This paper is demonstrated by a study of the impact of border management policies in Dehong Dai and Jingpo Autonomous Prefecture in Yunnan Province at the border area to Burma. The comparative method is used to analysis the border management policies in past 50 decades for the border area of Yunnan Province .This research aims to define trends within border policy and its influences to national security. This paper also examines Wendy Brown's liberal theory of border management policy. We found that it is not suitable for Sino-Burma border area. The conclusion is that the changes or instability of international economic and political situation has more influence to this cross-border ethnic area, and only innovative policy will be effective in cross-border ethnic area. So the border management policies should reflect the change of international context.


    Dias Pradadimara


    Full Text Available This paper traces the ways in which rice, as a global commodity, has been produced and sold in various regions in Southeast Asia from the colonial era to the present days. This paper employs a food regime analysis first introduced by Harriet Friedmann (1982 and later developed together with Philip McMichael (1989 to look at the global political economy of rice. In this paper, it will be shown how various colonial and post colonial states in Southeast Asia (including Thailand who was never formally colonized through their policies have practically divided the region where Burma (now Myanmar, Thailand and Vietnam in the mainland have become major rice producer and exporter, while Indonesia, Malaya (now Malaysia, and the Philippines in the archipelagic Southeast Asia have become major rice importers although at the same time producers and exporters of other agro-commodities (coffee, sugar, rubber.Keywords: rice history, food regime, Southeast Asia Artikel ini menelusuri cara di mana padi sebagai komoditas dunia diproduksi dan dijual di beberapa daerah di Asia Tenggara mulai zaman kolonial sampai sekarang. Artikel ini menggunakan analisis “food regime” yang pertama kali diperkenalkan oleh Harrier Friedman (1982 dan kemudian dikembangkan bersama oleh Philip (1989 untuk mengetahui politik ekonomi global dari padi. Dalam artikel ini, akan dilihat mengenai bagaimana negara kolonial dan pasca-kolonial yanb berbeda di Asia Tenggara (termasuk Thailand yang tidak pernah dijajah sebelumnya melalui kebiakannya, yang hampir membagi wilayahnya, di mana Burma (Myanmar, Thailand, dan Vietnam telah menjadi produsen dan eksportir utama terbesar, sedangkan Indonesia dan Malaya (Malaysia dan Filipina di Asia Tenggara telah menjadi produsen dan eksportir komoditas pertanian lain (kopi, gula, karet dalam waktu yang bersamaan.Kata kunci: sejarah beras, food regime, Asia Tenggara. 

  5. Effects of heat treatment on red gemstone spinel: single-crystal X-ray, Raman, and photoluminescence study

    Widmer, Remo; Malsy, Anna-Kathrin; Armbruster, Thomas


    A red spinel, MgAl2O4, from Burma (Myanmar) containing as chromophores ca. 0.5 wt% of each Cr2O3 and V2O3, was sequentially heated for at least 72 h at temperatures ranging from 600 °C to 1,100 °C. The untreated and quenched samples were examined with single-crystal X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy and photoluminescence spectroscopy. XRD results display a linear decrease of the cell parameter a and a continuous shift of the oxygen coordinate u, u, u at 3 m toward lower values with increasing temperature and associated Mg, Al disorder: T(Mg1- x Al x )M(Al2- x Mg x )O4. The natural spinel has x = 0.157(2) and reaches x = 0.286(4) after quenching from 1,100 °C. In its natural state, M-O and T-O distances are 1.9226(2) and 1.9361(4) Å. With increasing inversion of Mg from the tetrahedrally coordinated T to the octahedrally coordinated M site, M-O distances increase at 1,100 °C to 1.9333(4) Å and T-O distances decrease to 1.9130(8) Å. The crossover temperature, at which T-O and M-O distances become equal (i.e., 1.927 Å), is found to be at 650 °C and corresponds to an inversion parameter x = 0.208(3). With increasing heat treatment, Raman spectra of quenched samples become significantly broadened and a peak characteristic for Mg, Al disorder at 721 cm-1 firstly appears for a crystal quenched from 800 °C with x = 0.248(4). At room temperature, photoluminescence spectra are dominated by a strong R line at 684.5 nm accompanied by poorly resolved N lines: N1 (687 nm), N2 (688 nm), and N3 (689 nm). N lines are caused by different Mg, Al environments of Cr3+. With increasing inversion parameter ( x), the R line decreases in intensity and the N lines become prominent leading to strongly broadened peaks with a maximum shifted toward higher wave lengths (687.5 nm at 1,100 °C). Criteria for the detection of heat treatment on gemstone spinel applicable to gemological routine examination are provided. Extrapolation of u, a, and bond lengths from heat

  6. Gondwanaland origin, dispersion, and accretion of East and Southeast Asian continental terranes

    Metcalfe, I.


    East and Southeast Asia is a complex assembly of allochthonous continental terranes, island arcs, accretionary complexes and small ocean basins. The boundaries between continental terranes are marked by major fault zones or by sutures recognized by the presence of ophiolites, mélanges and accretionary complexes. Stratigraphical, sedimentological, paleobiogeographical and paleomagnetic data suggest that all of the East and Southeast Asian continental terranes were derived directly or indirectly from the Iran-Himalaya-Australia margin of Gondwanaland. The evolution of the terranes is one of rifting from Gondwanaland, northwards drift and amalgamation/accretion to form present day East Asia. Three continental silvers were rifted from the northeast margin of Gondwanaland in the Silurian-Early Devonian (North China, South China, Indochina/East Malaya, Qamdo-Simao and Tarim terranes), Early-Middle Permian (Sibumasu, Lhasa and Qiangtang terranes) and Late Jurassic (West Burma terrane, Woyla terranes). The northwards drift of these terranes was effected by the opening and closing of three successive Tethys oceans, the Paleo-Tethys, Meso-Tethys and Ceno-Tethys. Terrane assembly took place between the Late Paleozoic and Cenozoic, but the precise timings of amalgamation and accretion are still contentious. Amalgamation of South China and Indochina/East Malaya occurred during the Early Carboniferous along the Song Ma Suture to form "Cathaysialand". Cathaysialand, together with North China, formed a large continental region within the Paleotethys during the Late Carboniferous and Permian. Paleomagnetic data indicate that this continental region was in equatorial to low northern paleolatitudes which is consistent with the tropical Cathaysian flora developed on these terranes. The Tarim terrane (together with the Kunlun, Qaidam and Ala Shan terranes) accreted to Kazakhstan/Siberia in the Permian. This was followed by the suturing of Sibumasu and Qiangtang to Cathaysialand in the

  7. Mangrove forest distributions and dynamics (19752005) of the tsunami-affected region of Asia

    Giri, C.; Zhu, Z.; Tieszen, L.L.; Singh, A.; Gillette, S.; Kelmelis, J.A.


    Aim: We aimed to estimate the present extent of tsunami-affected mangrove forests and determine the rates and causes of deforestation from 1975 to 2005. Location: Our study region covers the tsunami-affected coastal areas of Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, Burma (Myanmar), Bangladesh, India and Sri Lanka in Asia. Methods: We interpreted time-series Landsat data using a hybrid supervised and unsupervised classification approach. Landsat data were geometrically corrected to an accuracy of plus-or-minus half a pixel, an accuracy necessary for change analysis. Each image was normalized for solar irradiance by converting digital number values to the top-of-the atmosphere reflectance. Ground truth data and existing maps and data bases were used to select training samples and also for iterative labelling. We used a post-classification change detection approach. Results: were validated with the help of local experts and/or high-resolution commercial satellite data. Results The region lost 12% of its mangrove forests from 1975 to 2005, to a present extent of c. 1,670,000 ha. Rates and causes of deforestation varied both spatially and temporally. Annual deforestation was highest in Burma (c. 1%) and lowest in Sri Lanka (0.1%). In contrast, mangrove forests in India and Bangladesh remained unchanged or gained a small percentage. Net deforestation peaked at 137,000 ha during 1990-2000, increasing from 97,000 ha during 1975-90, and declining to 14,000 ha during 2000-05. The major causes of deforestation were agricultural expansion (81%), aquaculture (12%) and urban development (2%). Main conclusions: We assessed and monitored mangrove forests in the tsunami-affected region of Asia using the historical archive of Landsat data. We also measured the rates of change and determined possible causes. The results of our study can be used to better understand the role of mangrove forests in saving lives and property from natural disasters such as the Indian Ocean tsunami, and to identify

  8. Intraplate volcanism and mantle dynamics in East Asia: Big mantle wedge (BMW) model (Invited)

    Zhao, D.


    Asia. Our results also show that the active Tengchong volcano in SW China is related to the deep subduction of the Burma microplate down to the mantle transition zone and a BMW above the Burma slab. References: D. Zhao (2004) Phys. Earth Planet. Inter. 146, 3-34. J. Huang, D. Zhao (2006) J. Geophys. Res. 111, B09305. D. Zhao et al. (2009) Phys. Earth Planet. Inter. 173, 197-206.

  9. Iron Age in Southeast Asia

    Kishor K. Basa


    Full Text Available In this paper, I shall discuss the issue of the Iron Age in Southeast Asia under two headings - mainland Southeast Asia and island Southeast Asia. On the mainland, I shall discuss the evidence from Vietnani, Thailand and Peninsular Malaysia, but exclude Burma, Laos and Kampuchea for lack of relevant data. In the islands, I will discuss Indonesia, Sabah, Sarawak and the Philippines. I would argue that the Iron Age as a separate cultural entity is evident on the mainland, but in the islands there is no identifiable Bronze Age preceding the adoption of iron. By the Iron Age, I mean a period associated with iron artefacts, wet rice farming, brisk internal exchange and external trade and, in the lowland at least, a ranked society. This corresponds roughly to the General Period C of Bayard (1984b, 163, see also Higham and Kijngam 1984, 13-21. But two points should be made about this scheme: This is a heuristic device, so all sites in Southeast Asia can not be easily fitted into it.There is as yet no general agreement among scholars regarding the chronology of various periods.

  10. Occurrence of rhodamine B contamination in capsicum caused by agricultural materials during the vegetation process.

    Gao, Wei; Wu, Naiying; Du, Jingjing; Zhou, Li; Lian, Yunhe; Wang, Lei; Liu, Dengshuai


    This paper reports on the environmental rhodamine B (RhB) contamination in capsicum caused by agricultural materials during the vegetation process. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) was applied to detect 64 capsicum samples from China, Peru, India and Burma. Results demonstrated that RhB was found in all samples at low concentrations (0.11-0.98 μg/kg), indicating RhB contamination in capsicums is probably a ubiquitous phenomenon. In addition, studies into soils, roots, stems and leaves in Handan of Hebei province, China showed that the whole ecologic chain had been contaminated with RhB with the highest levels in leaves. The investigation into the agricultural environment in Handan of Hebei province and Korla of Xinjiang province, China demonstrated that the appearances of RhB contamination in the tested capsicums are mainly due to the agricultural materials contamination. The study verified that environmental contamination should be an important origin for the RhB contamination in capsicum fruits. PMID:27006220

  11. Changes in Language, Communication and Thought

    Muhammad Ala Uddin


    Full Text Available The Chittagong Hill Tracts that situated in the southeastern part of Bangladesh bordering Burma and India has been known as a conflict zone in South Asia. The conflicting situation between the indigenous peoples and Bengalis was worsened due to immigration of Bengalis, displacement of the indigenous peoples, and military intervention in the Hill Tracts. Putting an end of the two- and half-decade-long bloody conflict, an agreement (“peace agreement” was signed in December 02, 1997; nonetheless, still the region is neither a peaceful nor a secured region to its inhabitants. However, in the conflicting situation that began in the 1970s, the indigenous minorities are to adopt with the mainstream society and culture. This paper attempts to explore the ‘cope mechanism’ in which the indigenous peoples are communicating with the mainstream Bengalis, focusing on (the situations of the indigenous languages among other resources of culture. Here ‘cope mechanism’ is not only to manage their fear, and conflict in Chittagong Hill Tracts, but also to negotiate the cultural dimension, in which the Hill culture is schematized both in the Bengalis views toward Hill culture and the indigenous peoples views on their own culture.

  12. Eco-restoration of a high-sulphur coal mine overburden dumping site in northeast India: A case study

    J Dowarah; H P Deka Boruah; J Gogoi; N Pathak; N Saikia; A K Handique


    Eco-restoration of mine overburden (OB)or abandoned mine sites is a major environmental concern.In the present investigation,an integrated approach was used to rejuvenate a high-sulphur mine OB dumping site in the Tirap Collieries,Assam,India,which is situated in the Indo-Burma mega-biodiversity hotspot.A mine OB is devoid of true soil character with poor macro and micronutrient content and contains elevated concentrations of trace and heavy metals.Planting of herbs, shrubs,cover crops and tree species at close proximity leads to primary and secondary sere state succession within a period of 3 to 5 years.A variety of plant species were screened for potential use in restoration:herbs,including Sccharum spontaneum, Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt (citronella), and Cymbopogon flexuosus (lemon grass)cover plants,including Mimosa strigillosa M. striata and M. pigra; shrubs,including Sesbania rostrata (dhaincha)and Cassia streata (cassia);and tree species,including Gmelina arborea (gomari)and Dalbergia sissoo (sissoo).Amendment with unmined soil and bio-organic matter was required for primary establishment of some plant species. Management of these plant species at the site will ensure long term sustainable eco-restoration of the coal mine-degraded land.




    记述贵州省扇山(虫,忽)属2新种,模式标本保存在浙江自然博物馆昆虫标本室.褐带扇山(虫,忽)Rhipidolestes fascia sp.nov图1-7.正模♂,贵州省赤水沙椤自然保护区.18-Ⅴ-2000;配模♀,副模10♂,8♀,采地与采期同正模.李氏扇山(虫,忽)Rhipidolestes lii sp.nov图1-7正模♂,贵州省习水国家级自然保护区,8-Ⅵ-2000;副模2♂,采地与采期同正模.%Rhipidolestes fascia sp. nov (holotype ♂, Ghishui, Guizhou, 18- Ⅴ -2000) and specimens are deposited in the Zhejiang Museum of History, Ha Hangzhou,China.Rhipidolestes is a small genus, extending from Burma,through southern China and Taiawan to Japan, 16 known species, 11 of which are known from China. (Wilson, 2000). Two new species from west-south China are described in this paper.

  14. A morphological review of subspecies of the Asian box turtle, Cuora amboinensis (Testudines, Geomydidae)

    Ernst, Carl H.; Laemmerzahl, Arndt F.; Lovich, Jeffrey E.


    The turtle Cuora amboinensis has an extensive distribution covering most of southern mainland Asia, Indonesia, and extending to the Philippine Islands. Unlike many species, C. amboinensis occurs on both sides of Wallace's Line separating Asian and Australian flora and fauna. Four subspecies are currently recognized; Cuora a. kamaroma (southern continental Asia, Java and the northern Philippines [introduced]), C. a. lineata (Kachin Province, Myanmar [Burma] and adjacent Yunnan Province, China), C. a. couro (Sumatra, Java, Sumbawa, and adjacent smaller Indonesian islands); and C. a. amboinensis (Moluccas, Sulawesi, Philippines). Five pattern and 33 morphological characters were examined for variation in 691 individuals from throughout the species' range. Our analyses suggest that only two presently recognized subspecies are valid: amboinensis andkamaroma. Neither couro nor lineata are supported by our analysis. We recommend that C. a. couroshould be synonymized with the species C. amboinensis and C. a. lineata with the subspecies C. a. kamaroma.

  15. Lineage extinction and replacement in dengue type 1 virus populations are due to stochastic events rather than to natural selection

    Between 1996 and 1998, two clades (B and C; genotype I) of dengue virus type 1 (DENV-1) appeared in Myanmar (Burma) that were new to that location. Between 1998 and 2000, a third clade (A; genotype III) of DENV-1, which had been circulating at that locality for at least 25 years, became extinct. These changes preceded the largest outbreak of dengue recorded in Myanmar, in 2001, in which more than 95% of viruses recovered from patients were DENV-1, but where the incidence of severe disease was much less than in previous years. Phylogenetic analyses of viral genomes indicated that the two new clades of DENV-1 did not arise from the, now extinct, clade A viruses nor was the extinction of this clade due to differences in the fitness of the viral populations. Since the extinction occurred during an inter-epidemic period, we suggest that it was due to a stochastic event attributable to the low rate of virus transmission in this interval

  16. Seroprevalence of varicella-zoster virus in five US-bound refugee populations

    Leung, Jessica; Lopez, Adriana; Mitchell, Tarissa; Weinberg, Michelle; Lee, Deborah; Thieme, Martha; Schmid, D. Scott; Bialek, Stephanie R.


    Background Little is known about varicella-zoster virus (VZV) susceptibility in US-bound refugee populations, although published data suggest that VZV seroprevalence in these refugee populations may be lower than US populations. We describe VZV seroprevalence in 5 U.S.-bound refugee groups: (1) Bhutanese in Nepal, (2) Burmese on the Thailand-Burma (Myanmar) border, (3) Burmese in Malaysia, (4) Iraqi in Jordan, and (5) Somali in Kenya. Methods Sera were tested for presence of VZV IgG antibodies among adults aged 18–45 years. Results Overall VZV seroprevalence was 97% across all refugee groups. VZV seroprevalence was also high across all age groups, with seroprevalence ranging from 92–100% for 18–26 year-olds depending on refugee group and 93–100% for 27–45 year-olds. Discussion VZV seroprevalence was unexpectedly high in these 5 US-bound refugee groups, though may not reflect seroprevalence in other refugee groups. Additional studies are needed to better understand VZV seroprevalence in refugee populations over time and by region. PMID:24271111

  17. Measles outbreak associated with an arriving refugee - Los Angeles County, California, August-September 2011.


    Measles is a highly communicable, acute viral illness with potential for severe complications, including death. Although endemic measles was eliminated in the United States in 2000 as a result of widespread vaccination, sporadic measles outbreaks still occur, largely associated with international travel from measles-endemic countries and pockets of unvaccinated persons. On August 26, 2011, the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health (LACDPH) was notified of suspected measles in a refugee from Burma who had arrived in Los Angeles, California, on August 24, after a flight from Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Passengers on the flight included 31 other refugees who then traveled to seven other states, widening the measles investigation and response activities. In California alone, 50 staff members from LACDPH and the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) interviewed and reinterviewed 298 contacts. Measles was diagnosed in three contacts of the index patient (patient A). The three contacts with measles were two passengers on the same flight as patient A and a customs worker; no secondary cases were identified. Delayed diagnosis of measles in patient A and delayed notification of health officials precluded use of measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine as an outbreak intervention. This outbreak emphasizes the importance of maintaining a high level of vaccination coverage and continued high vigilance for measles in the United States, particularly among incoming international travelers; clinicians should immediately isolate persons with suspected measles and promptly report them to health authorities. PMID:22647743

  18. [Changes in the legislation regulating the legal status of artificial abortion in the world in the past 10 years].

    Vasilev, D


    Current status of abortion legislation in different countries is reviewed. During the period from 1967-1977, a total of 43 countries introduced certain changes in their legislation. Of these 43 countries, 40 liberalized abortion procedures and 3 countries limited the rights of abortion seekers. Liberalization of abortion legislation in France and Italy was associated with women's rights movement and adoption of Human Rights Declaration. Austria, France, East Germany, West Germany, Italy, Sweden, Norway, and Denmark have the most liberal abortion policy, while Rumania, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, and Bulgaria have the most restricted legislation. Liberalization of abortion does not necessarily mean availability on demand. High cost in private clinics and hospitals prevents many women from seeking a legal abortion. In Asia, Singapore, China, and India permit abortions, while in the Philippines, Indonesia, and Burma abortions are banned. In Northern and Latin America, abortions are legalized in the US and Cuba; liberalization of abortion legislation is recorded in Guatemala, El Salvador, Uruguay, Chile, and Colombia. In spite of a general liberalization of legislation, abortion policies are still affected by religious and political groups. Ban on legal abortion increases the frequency of criminal abortion, which in turn leads to increase in maternal mortality. PMID:7030096

  19. Are We Them? Textual and Literary Representations of the Chinese in Twentieth-Century Thailand

    Thak Chaloemtiarana


    Full Text Available King Vajiravudh famously published an essay titled Jews of the Orient in 1914 demonizing the Chinese in Siam as ingrates and parasites. The local Chinese became the “Other Within” in the Thai nation that the king was trying to establish. Whether his reaction to the local Chinese was fueled by ire over the recent strike by the Chinese which paralyzed Bangkok, or a reflection of his English education and exposure to European anti-Semitism, is not the focus of my concern. My interest for this exercise is to study how the Chinese in Siam/Thailand are portrayed in Thai language texts, that is, prose fiction and non-fiction produced in the twentieth century (I will not include related areas such as movies, television drama, music, and cartoons. This study does not involve an exhaustive review of all texts but will focus on a few well-known and popular ones. I would like to know whether King Vajiravudh’s portrayal of the Chinese is reflected in subsequent literary production or muted by other realities that existed in Thai society, and how the production of texts on the local Chinese changed over time. More importantly, I am very curious to know how this issue is played out in neighboring countries, especially the Philippines, Indonesia, Malaysia, Burma, Laos, and Cambodia, countries where the “assimilation” of the Chinese into the majority culture happens in varying degrees.

  20. Footprints, Imprints: Seeing Environmentalist and Buddhist Marie Byles as an Eastern Australian

    Allison Jane Cadzow


    Full Text Available This paper looks at the Australian author, traveller, conservationist and Buddhist Marie Byles (1900-1979 as “eastern” and Australian at once. It investigates the influence of Buddhist spirituality and travel on her approach to the environment and explores some possibilities arising from looking at her work as part of a broader transnational humanitarian and intellectual identification, moving beyond ethnicity based boundaries. Thinking about eastern Australian identities can encourage consideration of Australia in Asia, Australia as Asian, connections across seas, and links and differences within Australia. The paper explores Marie Byles as an eastern Australian by considering her travel in Sydney and the region (in Australia, China, Vietnam, India and Burma from the 1930s to the 1960s, the design and use of her home as a hub for early Buddhist meetings, her publication of texts discussing Eastern philosophy, and her environmental activism. Throughout the discussion Byles’s understanding of power relations, derived from an entwining of feminist and socialist ideas, a pacifist and Buddhist/spiritualist revaluation of environments emerges. From these influences she provided challenges to her fellow walkers, environmentalists, and society at large to rethink relationships with nature and each other, insights that have yet to be adequately explored and recognised.


    Kanojia Anita


    Full Text Available Snakebite is an important cause of morbidity and mortality and is one of the major health problems in India. About 30000 to 40,000 persons die each year from venomous snake bite. Russell’s viper or daboia (Viper russelli appears to be the commonest cause of fatal snakebite in Southern India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Burma and Thailand. Intravenous administration of anti-snake venom neutralizes the systemic actions, however, antiserum does not provide enough protection against venom induced hemorrhage, necrosis, nephrotoxicity and often develops hypersensitivity reactions. India has a rich tradition of the usage of medicinal plants. Many Indian medicinal plants are mentioned in Ayurvedic literature to treat snakebite victims and are used by many ayurvedic practioners as well as in rural areas by traditioners. So much research work has been conducted for anti-snake venom activity of herbal medicine as alternative for Anti Snake Venom. This article presents a review of such herbal drugs which are effectively neutralize the snake venom like vitex nigundo, Emblica officinalis, Hemidesmus indicus etc which were assayed in research laboratories. It is considered as a valuable source of natural products for development of medicines against venomous snake bite.

  2. John Dique: dialysis pioneer and political advocate.

    George, Charles R P


    John Dique (1915-1995) epitomized the internationalism of medicine, the intellectual and manual dexterity of many pioneers of dialysis, and the social concern evinced by many nephrologists. Born in Burma of French, German, British and Indian ancestry; educated in India; an Anglo-Indian who described himself as British without ever having visited Britain; he moved to Australia in 1948 to escape the murderous inter-ethnic conflict that befell multicultural India as it and Pakistan became independent. Settling in Brisbane, he pioneered several novel medical techniques. After inventing some simple equipment to facilitate intravenous therapy, he established a neonatal exchange blood transfusion programme. Then, between 1954 and 1963, he personally constructed and operated two haemodialysis machines with which to treat patients suffering from acute renal failure, the first such treatment performed in Australasia. His patients survival results were, for the era, remarkable. He subsequently helped found the Royal Australasian College of Pathologists and went on to establish a successful private pathology practice. The latter years of his life, however, saw him become a social and political advocate. He fiercely opposed the emerging ideologies of multiculturalism and social liberalism that, he predicted, would seriously damage the national fabric of Western society. Public vilification ensued, his medical achievements disregarded. It does seem likely, however, that in none of the areas that he touched - whether medical, social, or political - has the last word yet been said. PMID:26913881

  3. Saras Cranes in Palwal District in Southern Haryana are Asking for Immediate Attention for Their Last Rescue Effort

    Tirshem Kumar Kaushik


    Full Text Available Saras Cranes Grus antigone are endangered birds of open wetlands with highly worrying depletion trends being witnessed related with disappearance of marshy and shallow perennial, expansive wetlands throughout northern India. Alongside, massive hunting in 18th, 19th and 20th centuries and even today is another serious cause for their worrisome deterioration. Also, destruction of nests, eggs, fledglings and adults by aboriginals indeliberately or deliberately is causing these cranes to perish sooner than latter, completely. Now, Saras Cranes are found in limited number and domain as four populations in the entire world including India, China, Burma, South East Asia and northern Australia. The population of Indian Saras Crane is pitiably restricted to Etawa and Mainpuri districts of Uttar Pradesh. Stray birds of this species are restricted to Kanha National Park in Madhya Pradesh and in some parts of Gujarat and Assam. It is interesting to note that few pairs have been seen in Faridabad and Palwal districts in southern Haryana, India. These need to be protected and conserved.

  4. American Tertiary mollusks of the genus Clementia

    Woodring, W.P.


    Aside from its value as an aid in determining the age of Tertiary beds, the chief interest of the genus Clementia lies in the anomalous features of its present and former distribution. An attempt is made in this paper to trace its geologic history, to point out its paleobiologic significance, and to describe all the known American Tertiary species. The fossils from Colombia used in preparing this report were collected during explorations made under the direction of Dr. 0. B. Hopkins, chief geologist of the Imperial Oil Co. (Ltd.), who kindly donated them to the United States National Museum. Dr. T. Wayland Vaughan, of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, furnished information relating to specimens collected by him in Mexico. Dr. Bruce L. Clark, of the University of California; Dr. G. Dallas Hanna, of the California Academy of Sciences; Dr. H. A. Pilsbry, of the Philadelphia Academy of Natural Sciences; and Dr. W. D. Matthew, of the American Museum of Natural History, generously loaned type specimens and other material. Doctor Clark and Doctor Hanna also gave information concerning the Tertiary species from California. Mr. Ralph B. Stewart, of the University of California, read the manuscript, and I have taken advantage of his suggestions. I am also indebted to Mr. L. R. Cox, of the British Museum, for information relating to the fossil species from Persia, Zanzibar, and Burma, and to Dr. Axel A. Olsson, of the International Petroleum Co., for data concerning undescribed Tertiary species from Peru.

  5. Deep structure and origin of active volcanoes in China

    Dapeng Zhao; Lucy Liu


    We synthesize significant recent results on the deep structure and origin of the active volcanoes in mainland China. Magmatism in the western Pacific arc and back-arc areas is caused by dehydration of the subducting slab and by corner flow in the mantle wedge, whereas the intraplate magmatism in China has different origins. The active volcanoes in Northeast China (such as the Changbai and Wudalianchi) are caused by hot upwelling in the big mantle wedge (BMW) above the stagnant slab in the mantle transition zone and deep slab dehydration as well. The Tengchong volcano in Southwest China is caused by a similar process in the BMW above the subducting Burma microplate (or Indian plate).The Hainan volcano in southernmost China is a hotspot fed by a lower-mantle plume which may be associated with the Pacific and Philippine Sea slabs' deep subduction in the east and the Indian slab's deep subduction in the west down to the lower mantle. The stagnant slab finally collapses down to the bottom of the mantle, which can trigger the upwelling of hot mantle materials from the lower mantle to the shallow mantle beneath the subducting slabs and may cause the slab-plume interactions.

  6. Phytochemical screening and In vitro antioxidant activity of Paracalyx scariosa (Roxb Ali



    Full Text Available Paracalyx scariosa (Roxb. Ali. also called as Paracalyx scariosus and cylista scariosa is a woody twiners belongs to the family Fabaceae is one of the important medicinal plant distributed in Central Provinces, West and South India, and Upper Burma. It is woody twiners with tomentose branches and stems finely downy. Leaves are 3-foliate with rhachis prolonged 6-13mm. between the insertion of the leaflets and stipels of the terminal one. The objective of this study is to explore the phytochemistry and the antioxidant potential of various extracts of Paracalyx scariosa (Roxb. Ali which is considered traditionally as an important medicinal plant. The preliminary phytochemical analysis was done to find out the presence of various bioactive compounds and TLC was performed to identify the no of flavonoids present. In vitro antioxidant analysis of methanol, acetone, benzene extracts and ethyl acetate , aqueous fractions of methanol extract was carried out by DPPH assay and Nitric oxide assay. It is observed from the phytochemical study, carbohydrates, proteins, saponins, triterpenoids, flavonoids and alkaloids are present in all the three extracts and Ethyl acetate fraction, benzene extract were separated in to 5 spots identified by bluish black colour confirming the presence of 5 types of flavonoids and the Acetone extract was not separated. Besides the extracts and fractions also possess strong antioxidant activity

  7. Landslide Hazard in Aizawl, India Revealed from Field and Geodetic Observations and Hillslope Stability Analysis

    Schaeffer, C.; Huang, M. H.; Smedley, A.; Sitar, N.; Dreger, D. S.


    Aizawl, the capital city of Mizoram, India, is highly susceptible to deep-seated landslides. Weak and porous shale and sandstone bedrock, high levels of precipitation during the monsoon season, steep hillslopes, and unregulated development contribute to this problem. M > 7 earthquakes along megathrusts beneath the Burma Fold Belt could trigger over 1,100 landslides and endanger over 300,000 people, increasing the severity of the landslide risk. In this study, we surveyed two slides in the south and east parts of Aizawl and from crack orientations we have inferred ground motion and created vector maps of the two slides. A shallow slope stability analysis (SHALSTAB) for the Aizawl area enabled us to map zones of relative hazard in Aizawl and the vicinity. Our SHALSTAB analysis suggests that 44% of our study area in Aizawl is unconditionally unstable. Similarly, preliminary results from a Newmark Deformation Analysis indicate that nearly 50% of our study area would result in landslide-inducing displacement under seismic loading from a magnitude 7 event. Both results indicate unconditionally unstable conditions in the south and east sides of Aizawl, which agree with our field investigation. We are analyzing Interferometry synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) data collected between 1998 and 2010 that we hope will demonstrate a seasonal time series of slope deformation for the region and determine slide velocities. With data from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) we expect to confirm a correlation between slope movement and landslide occurrence with seasonal and annual precipitation.

  8. An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used by ethnic people in West and South district of Tripura, India

    Saikat Sen; Raja Chakraborty; Biplab De; N Devanna


    An ethno-medicinal investigation was conducted to highlights the traditional knowledge of medicinal plants being used by the tribe in West and South district of Tripura. This paper provides information about the different uses of plants used in their primary health care system. Tripura is a small north-eastern state of India and also a part of both Himalayan and Indo-Burma biodiversity region. It is a goldmine of me- dicinal plants and use of different plants in tribal traditional heath care systems has long history. Nineteen different tribes in Tripura, depend on natural resources at a great extent. This paper documented 113 medicinal plant species from 56 families along with their botanical name, local name, family name, habit, medicinal parts used, and traditional usage of application. The dominant families are Euphorbiaceae (7 species), Apo- cynaceae (6 species), Fabaceae and Rubiaceae (5 species each), Caes- alpiniaceae, Asteraceae, Liliaceae and Verbenaceae (4 species each), Combretaceae, Labiatae, Malvaceae, Rutaceae and Zingiberaceae (3 species each). Tribes of Tripura have rich traditional knowledge on plant based medicine. Different parts of the plants in crude form/plant ex- tracts/decoctions/infusion or pastes are employed in diverse veterinary and human diseases by the tribe's of Tripura in daily life.

  9. Orchid conservation in the biodiversity hotspot of southwestern China.

    Liu, Qiang; Chen, Jin; Corlett, Richard T; Fan, XuLi; Yu, DongLi; Yang, HongPei; Gao, JiangYun


    Xishuangbanna is on the northern margins of tropical Asia in southwestern China and has the largest area of tropical forest remaining in the country. It is in the Indo-Burma hotspot and contains 16% of China's vascular flora in medicinal or ornamental value) was significantly related to endangerment. Expansion of rubber tree plantations was less of a threat to orchids than to other taxa because only 75 orchid species (17.6%) occurred below the 1000-m-elevation ceiling for rubber cultivation, and most of these (46) occurred in nature reserves. However, climate change is projected to lift this ceiling to around 1300 m by 2050, and the limited area at higher elevations reduces the potential for upslope range expansion. The Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden is committed to achieving zero plant extinctions in Xishuangbanna, and orchids are a high priority. Appropriate in and ex situ conservation strategies, including new protected areas and seed banking, have been developed for every threatened orchid species and are being implemented. PMID:26372504

  10. As I see it

    Teak, known all over the world as ''Burma Teak'' has enjoyed royal protection during the period when the country was under the rule of kings. When the country (Myanmar) attained its independence, teak became state monopoly one again. There are also lesser known species whose economic importance remains to be appreciated. In comparison to most of the countries in the region, Myanmar's forest and wildlife have suffered far less damage from human exploitation. The State Law and Order Restoration Council enacted the forest law of 1992. With FAO assistance through its Technical Cooperation Programme (TCP), the proven Sloping Agriculture Land Technology (SALT) was introduced in the hilly regions of the country (Myanmar). Every year in the month of July, millions of trees are also planted throughout the country. By removing only mature trees, sunlight is able to penetrate the forest floor inducing growth of new trees. A well-managed forest is an insurance to a better world climate than a forest left along to choke to a slow death


    George Pararas-Carayannis


    Full Text Available Myanmar, formerly Burma, is vulnerable to several natural hazards, such as earthquakes, cyclones, floods, tsunamis and landslides. The present study focuses on geomorphologic and geologic investigations of the south-western region of the country, based on satellite data (Shuttle Radar Topography Mission-SRTM, MODIS and LANDSAT. The main objective is to detect areas vulnerable to inundation by tsunami waves and cyclone surges. Since the region is also vulnerable to earthquake hazards, it is also important to identify seismotectonic patterns, the location of major active faults, and local site conditions that may enhance ground motions and earthquake intensities. As illustrated by this study, linear, topographic features related to subsurface tectonic features become clearly visible on SRTM-derived morphometric maps and on LANDSAT imagery. The GIS integrated evaluation of LANDSAT and SRTM data helps identify areas most susceptible to flooding and inundation by tsunamis and storm surges. Additionally, land elevation maps help identify sites greater than 10 m in elevation height, that would be suitable for the building of protective tsunami/cyclone shelters.

  12. Book reviews

    Redactie KITLV


    Full Text Available Chie Ikeya, Refiguring women, colonialism, and modernity in Burma (Henk Schulte Nordholt Thomas J. Conners, Mason C. Hoadley, Frank Dhont, Kevin Ko (eds, Pancasila’s contemporary appeal: Relegitimizing Indonesia’s founding ethos (R.E. Elson I Nyoman Darma Putra, A literary mirror: Balinese reflections on modernity and identity in the twentieth century (Dick van der Meij Margaret Jolly. Serge Tcherkézoff and Darrell Tryon (eds, Oceanic encounters: Exchange, desire, violence (H.J.M. Claessen Rudolf Mrázek, A certain age: Colonial Jakarta through the memories of its intellectuals (Lutgard Mutsaers Jan Ovesen and Ing-Britt Trankell, Cambodians and their doctors: A medical anthropology of colonial and post-colonial Cambodia (Vivek Neelakantan Daromir Rudnyckyj, Spiritual economies: Islam, globalization and the afterlife of development (Gabrial Facal Claudine Salmon, Sastra Indonesia awal: Kontribusi orang Tionghoa (Melani Budianta Renate Sternagel, Der Humboldt von Java: Leben und Werk des Naturforschers Franz Wilhelm Junghuhn 1809-1864 (Andreas Weber Wynn Wilcox (ed., Vietnam and the West: New approaches (Hans Hägerdal Zheng Yangwen and Charles J.H Macdonald (eds, Personal names in Asia: History, culture and identity (Rosemary Gianno

  13. A review of Lower and Middle Palaeozoic biostratigraphy in west peninsular Malaysia and southern Thailand in its context within the Sibumasu Terrane

    Cocks, L. R. M.; Fortey, R. A.; Lee, C. P.


    Fossils from the Cambrian to Devonian rocks of southern Thailand, the Langkawi Islands, mainland Kedah, Perlis, north Perak and central West Peninsular Malaysia are listed and reviewed, and their stratigraphy and correlation reassessed. The hitherto anomalous record of the trilobite Dalmanitina from Malaysia is reviewed and found to be of latest Ordovician (Hirnantian) age, rather than Lower Silurian age as previously reported, and is considered a probable synonym of the widespread Mucronaspis mucronata. A new stratigraphical nomenclature is erected for part of the Langkawi, mainland Kedah and Perlis area successions, in which the term Setul Limestone (which stretched from the Ordovician to the Devonian) is abandoned and replaced by the Middle Ordovician Kaki Bukit Limestone, the late Ordovician and early Silurian Tanjong Dendang Formation, the Silurian Mempelam Limestone, and the early Devonian Timah Tasoh Formation, all underlying the paraconformity with the late Devonian Langgun Red Beds. There was a single depositional basin in the generally shallow-water and cratonic areas of southern Thailand, Langkawi, and mainland Kedah and Perlis, in contrast to the deeper-water basin of north Perak. Only Silurian rocks are dated with certainty within another basin in central West Malaysia, near Kuala Lumpur, which were also cratonic and shallow-water, although to the east in west Pahang there are basal Devonian deeper-water sediments with graptolites. The area is reviewed in its position within the Sibumasu Terrane, which, in the Palaeozoic, also included central and northern Thailand, Burma (Myanmar) and southwest China (part of Yunnan Province).

  14. Interview: Robert Anderson

    Robert Anderson


    Full Text Available Interviewer’s note: while a visiting fellow at Cambridge University in2004-2005, and working towards a study of the biographical originsof Political Systems of Highland Burma, I spoke with a number ofpeople about their memories of Edmund Leach. This led to anapproach to Frederick Barth, asking his agreement to allow me tovideo a conversation with him, to be part of the series onanthropological ancestors coordinated by Alan Macfarlane atCambridge. Using an inexpensive direct flight to Oslo from an airportnear Cambridge, I finally mounted the tram which winds up the sideof the mountains overlooking Oslo, and, on a brilliant sunny morning,entered the house he has lived in since 1961. Professor Barth, thenaged 77, had just returned from examining a dissertation at theUniversity of Bergen. The trees and gardens around it resembled ourown in Vancouver, and the tram continued higher toward the famousHolmenkollen ski jump. The house is decorated with carpets andobjects collected by Professor Barth, skilfully combined with beautifuland useful Norwegian things. We sat in a room which overlooks asheer drop 300 meters to a lake below, all within the boundary of the city. Afterwards he courteously carried me down to the city in his car, on his errand, showing that he was as much a skier as a driver.We had, therefore, conversations which do not appear in this transcript here. I record my gratitude to him for his generosity of spirit toward an absolute outsider.

  15. The Praxis of Social Enterprise and Human Security: An Applied Research Agenda

    Malcolm David Brown


    Full Text Available The growth of social enterprise within development NGO work might lead one to suspect it has been irredeemably corrupted by neo-liberal capitalism. However, using the tools of capitalism is not the same as subscribing to the values of capitalism. This paper is situated at the intersection of five fields: human security, international development, social enterprise, social franchising, and left-wing anti-capitalist thought. It examines the relevance of social en­terprise to human security and to development, the relationship between social enterprise and the anti-capitalist values of the left, and it then focuses on social franchising—a subset of social enterprise that highlights the importance of cooperation—suggesting that it may be a useful methodology for NGOs carrying out educational work in parts of the developing world. It syn­thesises and extends ideas that I have presented elsewhere [1-3], it draws on ethnographic fieldwork on the Thai-Burma border, and it puts forward an agenda for further applied research that is rooted in a sociological analysis of civil society and contributes to the human security paradigm.

  16. First identification of novel NDM carbapenemase, NDM-7, in Escherichia coli in France.

    Gaelle Cuzon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The NDM-1 carbapenemase has been identified in 2008 in Enterobacteriaceae. Since then, several reports have emphasized its rapid dissemination throughout the world. The spread of NDM carbapenemases involve several bla NDM gene variants associated with various plasmids among several Gram negative species. METHODOLOGY: A multidrug-resistant E. coli isolate recovered from urine of a patient who had travelled to Burma has been characterized genetically and biochemically. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: E. coli COU was resistant to all antibiotics tested except amikacin, tigecycline, fosfomycin, and chloramphenicol. Analysis of the antibiotic resistance traits identified a metallo-ß-lactamase, a novel NDM variant, NDM-7. It differs from NDM-4 by a single amino acid substitution sharing an identical extended spectrum profile towards carbapenems. The bla NDM-7 gene was located on an untypeable conjugative plasmid and associated with a close genetic background similar to those described among the bla NDM-1 genes. The isolate also harbours bla CTXM-15 and bla OXA-1 genes and belonged to ST167. SIGNIFICANCE: This study highlights that spread of NDM producers correspond to spread of multiple bla NDM genes and clones and therefore will be difficult to control.

  17. Predicting Tropical Cyclogenesis with a Global Mesoscale Model: Hierarchical Multiscale Interactions During the Formation of Tropical Cyclone Nargis(2008)

    Shen, B.-W.; Tao, W.-K.; Lau, W. K.; Atlas, R.


    Very severe cyclonic storm Nargis devastated Burma (Myanmar) in May 2008, caused tremendous damage and numerous fatalities, and became one of the 10 deadliest tropical cyclones (TCs) of all time. To increase the warning time in order to save lives and reduce economic damage, it is important to extend the lead time in the prediction of TCs like Nargis. As recent advances in high-resolution global models and supercomputing technology have shown the potential for improving TC track and intensity forecasts, the ability of a global mesoscale model to predict TC genesis in the Indian Ocean is examined in this study with the aim of improving simulations of TC climate. High-resolution global simulations with real data show that the initial formation and intensity variations of TC Nargis can be realistically predicted up to 5 days in advance. Preliminary analysis suggests that improved representations of the following environmental conditions and their hierarchical multiscale interactions were the key to achieving this lead time: (1) a westerly wind burst and equatorial trough, (2) an enhanced monsoon circulation with a zero wind shear line, (3) good upper-level outflow with anti-cyclonic wind shear between 200 and 850 hPa, and (4) low-level moisture convergence.

  18. Survey in South-East Asia

    In early 1959 an IAEA mission visited Burma, Ceylon, Indonesia and Thailand. In each of the four countries, the mission held detailed discussions with scientists and officials, collected information and exchanged ideas. Besides general discussion, consultations were held in small working groups on specific topics and problems. The members of the mission also visited atomic energy centres, other scientific and technical organizations, educational institutions as well as sites of actual or possible projects. The reports of the mission contain, a general description of the atomic energy programmes of the four countries, covering both current and planned activities, the mission's comments and recommendations and lists of specific requests for Agency assistance made by these countries after discussions with the mission. Atomic energy work in Burma is primarily the responsibility of the Union of Burma Atomic Energy Centre (UBAEC). Set up in 1955, the Centre is a part of the Union of Burma Applied Research Institute (UBARI). The programme of UBAEC includes a broad training scheme, the setting up of a Nuclear Radiation Laboratory by 1960-61, a study of the possibilities of installing a research reactor by 1962-63 and the possible erection of other reactors at a later date. The mission discussed with the Burmese authorities their tentative plans for atomic energy legislation and the advice given might help in the early establishment of an independent atomic energy commission. Ceylon too is embarking on several atomic energy activities and long-range plans are being developed. The emphasis, it is expected, will be mainly on education, raw material prospecting, isotopes and nuclear power development. A Committee on Atomic Energy was created in 1958 by Ceylon's National Planning Council, and the Committee is now working towards the early formation of a central atomic energy authority. The IAEA mission advised the officials of the Committee on the framing of such legislation as

  19. On Being a Marxist Muslim: Reading Hasan Raid's Autobiography

    Ihsan Ali-Fauzi


    Full Text Available In his recently published book, Clive Christie argues that Socialism, Marxism and Communism played a crucial role as weapons for Southeast Asian leaders in their fight against colonialism and as frameworks for them to run the newly independent nations. He also realizes that other ideologies such as those based on religion, which were older in terms of their coming into the region than the above-mentioned Western-originated ideologies, especially Islam in the Malay world and Confucianism and Buddhism in the Indo-China and Burma, also played a similarly important role. However, he provides only a dim analysis of the extremely intricate relationship between these types of ideology, especially between Marxism and Islam in the thought of leaders of movements such as the Islamic Union (Sarekat Islam or SI in the then Dutch East Indies. Most probably for reasons of space, he makes only a slight, insignificant reference to SI.Copyright (c 2014 by SDI. All right reserved.DOI: 10.15408/sdi.v9i1.675

  20. Serum bleomycin-detectable iron in patients with thalassemia major with normal range of serum iron.

    Han,Khin Ei


    Full Text Available "Free" iron, a potentially radical-generating low mass iron, and not found in normal human blood, was increased in the serum of blood-transfused thalassemia major patients seen in the Yangon General Hospital, Yangon, Myanmar (Burma. The low mass iron was detected by the bleomycin assay. Fifty-one blood samples were analyzed (from 28 males and 23 females. High "free" iron was detected in 47 sera samples from thalassemia patients. Serum ferritin, which reflects the body store iron, was higher than the normal range (10-200 ng/ml in 49 patients. On the other hand, serum iron of 39 sera samples fell within the normal range (50-150 micrograms/dl. Four were less than 50 micrograms/dl and eight were more than 150 micrograms/dl. Almost all the patients' sera of normal or higher serum iron level contained "free" iron. Thus, almost all the sera from thalassemic patients from Myanmar contain bleomycin-detectable iron, even when serum iron is within the normal range. In developing countries where undernutrition is prevalent (serum albumin in these patients was 3.6 +/- 0.4 g/dl, P < 0.0001 vs. control value of 4.0 - 4.8 g/dl, normal serum iron does not preclude the presence of free iron in the serum.

  1. Probabilistic seismic hazard estimation of Manipur, India

    This paper deals with the estimation of spectral acceleration for Manipur based on probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA). The 500 km region surrounding Manipur is divided into seven tectonic zones and major faults located in these zones are used to estimate seismic hazard. The earthquake recurrence relations for the seven zones have been estimated from past seismicity data. Ground motion prediction equations proposed by Boore and Atkinson (2008 Earthq. Spectra 24 99–138) for shallow active regions and Atkinson and Boore (2003 Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am. 93 1703–29) for the Indo-Burma subduction zone are used for estimating ground motion. The uniform hazard response spectra for all the nine constituent districts of Manipur (Senapati, Tamenglong, Churachandpur, Chandel, Imphal east, Imphal west, Ukhrul, Thoubal and Bishnupur) at 100-, 500- and 2500-year return periods have been computed from PSHA. A contour map of peak ground acceleration over Manipur is also presented for 100-, 500-, and 2500-year return periods with variations of 0.075–0.225, 0.18–0.63 and 0.3–0.1.15 g, respectively, throughout the state. These results may be of use to planners and engineers for site selection, designing earthquake resistant structures and, further, may help the state administration in seismic hazard mitigation. (paper)

  2. Transnational pipelines: Chances and risks of the energy co-operation in East Asian; Transnationale Pipelines: Chancen und Grenzen der Energiekooperation in Ostasien

    Ebert, D. [Cologne Business School, Koeln (Germany)


    The dispute of the energy security in the countries China, Japan and Korea is not only determined by the rivalry on energy resources, but also by the factors access, transport, distribution and price of energy resources. These factors determine the desire for an international co-operation and development of strategic relations. Under this aspect, the author of the contribution under consideration reports on the question whether trans-national pipelines are a chance or risk in the co-operation in East Asia. The main topics of this contribution are: (a) Increasing energy demand in East Asia: Imperative for a supra-national energy co-operation?; (b) Russian projects of gas pipeline toward East Asia: many options, few attempts of co-operation; (c) The trans-siberian oil pipeline project: Japan and China in competition with the Russian supply of crude oil; (d) Central Asia, Iran, India and Burma: China's plans for the construction of an own trans-national pipeline shows initial achievements. All pipeline projects described in this contribution show that there does not exist a real energy-political co-operation between the governments of China, Japan and the Republic of Korea on the one side and Central Asia on the other side regarding to the supply of fossil energy sources via trans-national pipelines from Russia. Concrete agreements with respect to co-operation between these governments with the common construction and operation of such pipelines do not exist in the near future.

  3. Indochina becoming prime target for foreign investment in E and D

    This paper reports that Indochina is emerging as a prime target for investment in oil and gas exploration and development. The Southeast Asian subcontinent offers sharp contrasts: the booming, market oriented economy of Thailand with its friendly climate for foreign investment, compared with the flagging socialist economies of Myanmar (formerly Burma), Cambodia, Laos, and Viet Nam. The contrast extends to the Thai energy sector as well. Aggressive development of Thailand's gas reserves with foreign assistance and capital underpins the buoyant Thai economy and has helped it reduce its dependence on imports to 40% of total energy demand. That contrast may also give impetus to a window of opportunity for oil and gas companies to participate in little tested or rank exploration plays elsewhere in the region. Except for Thailand, the region has seen little exploration and almost none by private companies since the early 1970s. The other countries are just beginning to emerge from years of international isolation caused by war or civil strife, and some are seeking foreign private investment in oil and natural gas for the first time in more than a decade. The need for hard currency capital is keen. Accordingly, industry officials point to nations such as Cambodia offering among the most attractive terms for oil and gas investment in the world

  4. Charles Bachman Moore (1920-2010)

    Winn, William; Krehbiel, Paul


    Charles B. Moore passed away 2 March 2010 at the age of 89, following a long and varied scientific career in meteorology and the atmospheric sciences. He will be remembered best for his substantial contributions in the field of atmospheric electricity and for the students and faculty he guided as chairman of Langmuir Laboratory for Atmospheric Research and professor of physics at the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology. He possessed a unique sense of humor and an excellent memory that served as a reservoir of scientific and historical knowledge. Like many of his generation, Charlie's career was profoundly influenced by the Second World War. Following Pearl Harbor, he interrupted his undergraduate studies in chemical engineering at Georgia Institute of Technology to enlist in the Army Air Corps, where he became the chief weather equipment officer in the 10th Weather Squadron, setting up and operating remote meteorological stations behind enemy lines in the China-Burma-India theater. He served with distinction alongside Athelstan Spilhaus Sr., who had been one of Charlie's instructors in the Army meteorology program.

  5. A Common Elements Treatment Approach for Adult Mental Health Problems in Low- and Middle-Income Countries

    Murray, Laura K.; Dorsey, Shannon; Haroz, Emily; Lee, Catherine; Alsiary, Maytham M.; Haydary, Amir; Weiss, William M.; Bolton, Paul


    This paper describes the Common Elements Treatment Approach (CETA) for adults presenting with mood or anxiety problems developed specifically for use with lay counselors in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). Details of the intervention development, training, supervision, and decision-making process are presented. Case vignettes are used as examples throughout. Preliminary findings are presented on counselor/supervisor performance and client outcomes from practice cases completed prior to randomized controlled trials (RCT) conducted at two sites for adult survivors of torture and/or systematic violence in (a) southern Iraq and (b) Thailand-Burma border. Data suggest that local supervisors and lay counselors with little prior mental health training or experience maintained fidelity to the model. The majority of pilot clients were retained in treatment, suggesting acceptability. Using the Reliable Change Index (RCI) for each individual we examined the number of clients above a minimal threshold (z > 1.96) for each outcome. In Iraq 100% of clients had RCIs above the threshold for depression and posttraumatic stress, and 81.8% for impaired function. In Thailand, 81.3% of clients had RCIs above minimum threshold for depression, 68.8% for posttraumatic stress, and 37.5% for impaired function. Implementation of CETA is discussed in relation to cultural issues within LMIC. These findings, combined with US-based evidence, suggest that a common elements approach warrants further development and testing as a means for addressing the treatment gap for mental health problems in LMIC. PMID:25620867

  6. Seroprevalence of varicella-zoster virus in five US-bound refugee populations.

    Leung, Jessica; Lopez, Adriana; Mitchell, Tarissa; Weinberg, Michelle; Lee, Deborah; Thieme, Martha; Schmid, D Scott; Bialek, Stephanie R


    Little is known about varicella-zoster virus (VZV) susceptibility in US-bound refugee populations, although published data suggest that VZV seroprevalence in these refugee populations may be lower than US populations. We describe VZV seroprevalence in five US-bound refugee groups: (1) Bhutanese in Nepal, (2) Burmese on the Thailand-Burma (Myanmar) border, (3) Burmese in Malaysia, (4) Iraqi in Jordan, and (5) Somali in Kenya. Sera were tested for presence of VZV IgG antibodies among adults aged 18-45 years. Overall VZV seroprevalence was 97% across all refugee groups. VZV seroprevalence was also high across all age groups, with seroprevalence ranging from 92-100% for 18-26 year-olds depending on refugee group and 93-100% for 27-45 year-olds. VZV seroprevalence was unexpectedly high in these five US-bound refugee groups, though may not reflect seroprevalence in other refugee groups. Additional studies are needed to better understand VZV seroprevalence in refugee populations over time and by region. PMID:24271111

  7. Charting the early history of Penang trading networks and its connections with the new ASEAN growth triangle (Malaysia-Indonesia-Thailand

    Nordin Hussin


    Full Text Available This paper charts the early history of Penang trading networks and its connections with northern Indonesia and southern Thailand .The discussion points out that the current IMT (Indonesia- Malaysia-Thailand growth triangle is not a new phenomenon for this region and for Penang in particular. For much of the eighteenth century, Penang’s identity and commercial viability were seen to depend on its role as a hub for surrounding sub-regional economies. The main inter-state corridor had a long history as a route of trade and suppression that placed Penang’s fortunes in ever closer proximity to those of Southern Siam, Kedah, Perak, Aceh, Burma and the Coromandel Coast of India. The discussion further illustrates the importance of Penang as the main source of accumulated capital and Chinese labour which played different roles in the process of mining development. Finally, a point is made about the importance of Penang as a key contributor towards the acceleration of the economic growth and social transformation of southern Thailand, as well as for the northern region of Sumatra.

  8. Asia needs political commitment to fight AIDS.


    Delegates from China, Cambodia, Indonesia, Malaysia, Burma, Thailand, and Vietnam to a Joint UN Program on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) workshop in Bangkok urged their governments to give priority to the prevention of HIV and AIDS. There are already approximately 3 million people infected with HIV in Asia. Their numbers should increase by 1-2 million by the year 2000. However, devoid of any prevention measures, 2-5 million more people could instead become infected over the same period. Thailand, where many people have adopted condom use and the patronage of brothels and prostitutes has declined, was noted as a success story at the workshop in preventing the further spread of HIV. The level of risky sexual behavior in Thailand has declined to such an extent that HIV case projections made in 1991 for the year 2000 have been revised to a lower number. An estimated more than 100,000 people are infected with HIV in Indonesia, a country in which the epidemic may grow to 2.5 million cases by 2000 unless successful prevention programs are implemented. PMID:12347936

  9. The identification of sites of biodiversity conservation significance: progress with the application of a global standard

    M.N. Foster


    Full Text Available As a global community, we have a responsibility to ensure the long-term future of our natural heritage. As part of this, it is incumbent upon us to do all that we can to reverse the current trend of biodiversity loss, using all available tools at our disposal. One effective mean is safeguarding of those sites that are highest global priority for the conservation of biodiversity, whether through formal protected areas, community managed reserves, multiple-use areas, or other means. This special issue of the Journal of Threatened Taxa examines the application of the Key Biodiversity Area (KBA approach to identifying such sites. Given the global mandate expressed through policy instruments such as the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD, the KBA approach can help countries meet obligations in an efficient and transparent manner. KBA methodology follows the well-established general principles of vulnerability and irreplaceability, and while it aims to be a globally standardized approach, it recognizes the fundamental need for the process to be led at local and national levels. In this series of papers the application of the KBA approach is explored in seven countries or regions: the Caribbean, Indo-Burma, Japan, Macedonia, Mediterranean Algeria, the Philippines and the Upper Guinea region of West Africa. This introductory article synthesizes some of the common main findings and provides a comparison of key summary statistics.

  10. Integrating habitat status, human population pressure, and protection status into biodiversity conservation priority setting

    Shi, H.; Singh, A.; Kant, S.; Zhu, Z.; Waller, E.


    Priority setting is an essential component of biodiversity conservation. Existing methods to identify priority areas for conservation have focused almost entirely on biological factors. We suggest a new relative ranking method for identifying priority conservation areas that integrates both biological and social aspects. It is based on the following criteria: the habitat's status, human population pressure, human efforts to protect habitat, and number of endemic plant and vertebrate species. We used this method to rank 25 hotspots, 17 megadiverse countries, and the hotspots within each megadiverse country. We used consistent, comprehensive, georeferenced, and multiband data sets and analytical remote sensing and geographic information system tools to quantify habitat status, human population pressure, and protection status. The ranking suggests that the Philippines, Atlantic Forest, Mediterranean Basin, Caribbean Islands, Caucasus, and Indo-Burma are the hottest hotspots and that China, the Philippines, and India are the hottest megadiverse countries. The great variation in terms of habitat, protected areas, and population pressure among the hotspots, the megadiverse countries, and the hotspots within the same country suggests the need for hotspot- and country-specific conservation policies. ??2005 Society for Conservation Biology.