Sample records for bunshi kyokugen sosa

  1. Fiscal 1997 R and D project on industrial science and technology under a consignment from NEDO. R and D of the ultimate manipulation technology of atoms and molecules; 1997 nendo sangyo kagaku gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu jigyo Shin energy Sangyo gijutsu Sogo Kaihatsu Kiko itaku. Genshi bunshi kyokugen sosa gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho (genshi bunshi kyokugen sosa gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu)



    This paper describes R and D of the ultimate manipulation technology of atoms and molecules (atom technology). The R and D aims at establishment of observation/manipulation technology of atoms and molecules as common basic technology in various industrial fields such as new material, electronics, bio-technology and chemistry. The R and D thus aims at establishment of observation/manipulation of solid surfaces and DNA organic molecules, formation of fine structures of atomic surface arrangement, and calculation/ simulation for predicting a reaction theorem of atom and molecule surfaces. In fiscal 1997, research was made on improvement and development of computer simulation environment, and description of an excited state of electrons by Green function. Establishment of a construction method and computation code is under investigation for pseudo- potential dependent on excitation energy. Survey was made on research trends of the atom technology by visiting overseas academic societies and institutions. International Symposium on Atom Technology was also held in Tokyo in Nov. 1997

  2. FY 1998 annual summary report on manipulation of atomic and molecular extremes. Development of technologies for high-efficiency analysis/manipulation of DNA and the like; 1998 nendo genshi bunshi kyokugen sosa gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. DNA nado kokoritsu kaiseki sosa gijutsu kaihatsu



    The objectives are set to establish the techniques for observation/manipulation of atoms and molecules, as the common basic techniques for various industrial areas, e.g., new materials, electronics, biotechnology and chemical. Development of atomic field and scanning tunneling microscopes working under extreme conditions has been pursued, in order to manipulate complex systems, such as living body. For identification of molecular species, laser-excited fluorescence is combined with scanning mechanical probing to further refine the single molecule detection/identification techniques, and the objectives are set to develop a new method for evaluating molecules in a living body using a scanning probe microscope, and also to develop a novel scanning probe microscope for molecules in a living body. The other efforts were directed to R and D of the techniques for observing structures of organic molecules and the like through the measurements of adsorption process of organic molecules and clusters on semiconductor substrates and their surface reactions, and precision measurements of vibrational conditions of adsorbed molecular species reacting in the solid-liquid interfaces by high-sensitivity Raman spectroscopy to elucidate the catalysis mechanisms at the molecular level. (NEDO)

  3. Achievement report for fiscal 1998. Research and development of ultimate atom/molecule manipulating technologies (Development of technology for formation of advanced function materials for use under power generation environment); 1998 nendo genshi bunshi kyokugen sosa gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Hatsuden kankyoyo kokino sozai keisei gijutsu kaihatsu



    The aim is to establish atom/molecule observing and manipulating technologies commonly applicable as basic technologies to industrial fields of new materials, electronics, biotechnology, chemistry, etc. The technologies to be established involve atom level observation and manipulation by mechanically probing into organic molecules such as those of solid surface DNA, microstructure formation with atoms arbitrarily arranged by use of a microfine electron beam and surface chemical properties, simulation by the first principle calculation for the theoretical prediction atom/mole surface application in a process, and new materials to replace semiconductors. The subjects of research and development selected for this fiscal year are the study of silicon nanostructure formation and physical properties, study of nanostructure formation technology based on cluster manipulation, study of nanostructure formation processes using chemical reaction control and local structure analysis, study of new properties of correlation-intensive electron based new materials, study of spin measuring technology, and the study of theoretical analysis of atom/molecule dynamic processes. (NEDO)

  4. Fiscal 1997 R an D project on industrial science and technology under a consignment from NEDO. R and D of the ultimate manipulation technology of atoms and molecules (high-efficiency and analysis and manipulation technology for DNA); 1997 nendo sangyo kagaku gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu jigyo Shin energy Sangyo gijutsu Sogo Kaihatsu Kiko itaku. Genshi bunshi kyokugen sosa gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho (DNA nado kokoritsu kaiseki sosa gijutsu kaihatsu)



    This paper describes R and D of the ultimate manipulation technology of atoms and molecules (atom technology). Through the observation of super spiral DNA fixed on a spermin or spermidine treated mica substrate by AFM (atomic force microscope), fixation of DNA without any deformation in solution was clarified, and visualization of the spiral structure of DNA were successfully achieved. Manipulation of Xe atoms adsorbed on an Si(111) surface was certainly possible by using STM (scanning tunneling microscope)/atom probe equipment. A nucleation mechanism in crystal growth was studied for various organic source-molecules/GaAs(001) surface systems, and formation of high-density nuclei on the GaAs surface was achieved by accelerating the translational energy of Ga material molecules up to 6eV or more. Ziegler- Natta catalysis important for industrial polymerization of olefin molecules was precisely analyzed by first-principle dynamic simulation. A large-scale simulation of zeolite catalyst is also in promotion for methanol to gasoline conversion. 51 refs., 87 figs., 7 tabs.

  5. Sensor Open System Architecture (SOSA)

    Collier, Charles P.; Lipkin, Ilya; Davidson, Steven A.; Dirner, Jason


    The Sensor Open System Architecture (SOSA) is a C4ISR-focused technical and economic collaborative effort between the Air Force, Navy, Army, the Department of Defense (DoD), Industry, and other Governmental agencies to develop (and incorporate) technical Open Systems Architecture standards in order to maximize C4ISR sub-system, system, and platform affordability, re-configurability, overall performance, and hardware/software/firmware re-use. The SOSA effort will effectively create an operational and technical framework for the integration of disparate payloads into C4ISR systems; with a focus on the development of a functional decomposition for common multi-purpose backbone architecture for radar, EO/IR, SIGINT, EW, and communications modalities. SOSA addresses hardware, software, and mechanical/electrical interfaces. The functional decomposition will produce a set of re-useable components, interfaces, and sub-systems that engender re-usable capabilities. This, in effect, creates a realistic and affordable ecosystem enabling mission effectiveness through systematic re-use of all available re-composed hardware, software, and electrical/mechanical base components and interfaces.

  6. Fiscal 1997 R and D project on industrial science and technology under a consignment from NEDO. R and D of the ultimate manipulation technology of atoms and molecules (R and D of the formation of advanced materials for power generation environment); 1997 nendo sangyo kagaku gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu jigyo Shin energy Sangyo Gijutsu Sogo Kaihatsu Kiko itaku. Genshi bunshi kyokugen sosa gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho (hatsuden kankyoyo kokino sozai keisei gijutsu kaihatsu)



    This paper describes R and D of the ultimate manipulation technology of atoms and molecules (atom technology). Ten nanoscale Ge islands were successfully formed in proper positions on an Si substrate surface by using mask technology of nanoscale atomic layers. Growth of less-defect ZnSe films on a GaAs(110) surface was possible under various conditions. The magnetic transfer mechanism of Mn oxide with huge reluctance was clarified. Through study on selective-area deposition of Si on plasma-oxidized ultrathin SiO2 mask layers patterned by direct electron-beam exposure and an idea of SiO2/SiNx bilayer mask, direct use of the ultrathin mask layer as insulating layer in device structure was achieved. The superior property as electron beam resist of methano- fullerene composed of fullerene C60 with side chains including oxygen was clarified. The initial oxidation process of an Si(100) surface was analyzed, and the observation result by SREM was theoretically explained. Development of a high-resolution spin polarization electron microscope was also mentioned. 48 refs., 145 figs., 20 tabs.


    Ignacio Pérez Abril


    Full Text Available El presente trabajo trata la determinación de las variantes de compensación del factor de potencia en la industriaquímica Cloro Sosa de Sagua. Para resolver este problema se emplea la simulación del modelo del sistema paraobtener el comportamiento del sistema de potencia y determinar los beneficios de cada variante. Para este trabajo,se han desarrollado dos programas en Matlab 5.3 para implementar el Flujo de Potencia de Armónicos y el Barridode Frecuencia.  The presented paper deals with the determination of the power factor compensation variants in the chemicalindustry Cloro Sosa of Sagua. To solve the presented problem the simulation of the system model is developed toobtain the power system performance and determine the benefices of each variant. For this work, two Matlab 5.3programs have been developed to implement de Harmonic Power Flow and the Frequency Scan procedures.

  8. Gambaran Kualitas Udara dan Keluhan Gangguan Pernapasan pada Masyarakat yang Tinggal dikawasan Industri Pabrik Kelapa Sawit PTPN IV Kebun Sosa II Kabupaten Padang Lawas Tahun 2013

    Monika, Reni


    Palm oil mill industry is an important industry producing cooking oil, industrial oil, and fuel (biodiesel). Palm oil factory can cause problems for the environment, one of which is the issue of air quality. This research aims to know the air quality and respiratory disturbances on the community live in area of oil palm industry PTPN IV garden of Padang Lawas Regency Sosa II by 2013. Type of this research is a descriptive design proportional stratification (Proportional stratified r...

  9. Procesos de remoción en masa y erosion fluvial en la quebrada del río Los Sosa, provincia de Tucumán

    D. S. Fernández


    Full Text Available Durante las últimas precipitaciones que tuvieron lugar en la quebrada del río Los Sosa en los meses de verano de 2001, se registraron numerosos movimientos de remoción en masa y eventos de erosión fluvial que afectaron severamente a la ruta Provincial 307. El costo de las reparaciones que se tuvieron que realizar en la zona ascendió a US$ 821.598, los que fueron afrontados mediante créditos externos. Los dos parámetros que tienen incidencia directa en esos procesos son: la progresiva acumulación de agua de prolongadas lluvias y la intensidad de las tormentas, a los que se suma la acción antrópica efectuada de manera intencional y/o accidental. En cuanto a los factores condicionantes, la litología y las pendientes cumplen un importante papel en el control del tipo de proceso desarrollado. Los flujos fueron observados en su mayoría en la zona donde afloran las metamorfitas de bajo grado, mientras que los deslizamientos de detritos en materiales previamente alterados por acción meteórica predominaron en la zona donde aflora la tonalita El Indio. En total se inventariaron 36 casos, correspondiendo en su mayoría a los deslizamientos superficiales, mientras que los de mayor magnitud fueron los flujos de detritos. La zona de mayor peligrosidad, que afecta a la ruta provincial 307, se encuentra ubicada entre los kilómetros 23 y 38, donde tienen lugar la mayoría de los movimientos de ladera.

  10. Olhar sobre as metáforas cantadas por Mercedes Sosa e outros cantores durante as ditaduras militares na Argentina e outros países da América Latina

    Elissandro dos Santos Santana


    Esse trabalho é fruto do projeto Elaboração de Material Didático para o ensino de Língua Espanhola e o recorte é a música no ensino de espanhol como língua estrangeira (ELE): uma abordagem interdisciplinar e multicultural. O corpus de investigação, letras e biografias de cantores e cantoras censurados em ditaduras da América Latina, serviu como pano de fundo para a análise de algumas das metáforas presentes nas canções interpretadas por Mercedes Sosa e outros artistas de países latino-america...

  11. La competencia terminológica: causas lingüísticas en el auge del término sosa y el declive de barrilla en los siglos XVIII y XIX

    Sala Caja, Lidia


    Full Text Available From the Middle Ages onwards plant ashes were commonly used throughrout Europe in the elaboration of soap and glass. These ashes were known by different names depending on the vegetables employed and the quality of the product. In Spain sosa (soda and barrilla (barilla were the most widespread.
    Due to the reconceptualization of their primary references, these two words underwent considerable semantic changes during the XVIIIth and the XIXth centuries. The aim of this paper is to survey these changes focusing on their intralinguistic factors.

    Desde la Edad Media las cenizas de las plantas solían emplearse en toda Europa en la elaboración del jabón y del vidrio. Estas cenizas eran conocidas con diferentes términos derivados de los vegetales empleados y la cualidad del producto. En España la sosa y la barrilla eran las más extendidas. Debido a la reconceptualización de sus referencias iniciales, ambas denominaciones sufrieron considerables cambios semánticos durante los siglos XVIII y XIX. El propósito de este artículo es observar estos cambios subrayando los factores intralingüísticos.

  12. Olhar sobre as metáforas cantadas por Mercedes Sosa e outros cantores durante as ditaduras militares na Argentina e outros países da América Latina

    Elissandro dos Santos Santana


    Full Text Available Esse trabalho é fruto do projeto Elaboração de Material Didático para o ensino de Língua Espanhola e o recorte é a música no ensino de espanhol como língua estrangeira (ELE: uma abordagem interdisciplinar e multicultural. O corpus de investigação, letras e biografias de cantores e cantoras censurados em ditaduras da América Latina, serviu como pano de fundo para a análise de algumas das metáforas presentes nas canções interpretadas por Mercedes Sosa e outros artistas de países latino-americanos como Brasil, Chile e Cuba.

  13. Research study on harmonized molecular materials (HMM); Bunshi kyocho zairyo ni kansuru chosa kenkyu



    As functional material to satisfy various needs for environmental harmonization and efficient conversion for information-oriented and aging societies, HMM were surveyed. Living bodies effectively carry out transmission/processing of information, and transport/conversion of substances, and these functions are based on harmonization between organic molecules, and between those and metal or inorganic ones. HMM is a key substance to artificially realize these bio-related functions. Its R & D aims at (1) Making a breakthrough in production process based on innovation of material separation/conversion technology, (2) Contribution to an information-oriented society by high-efficiency devices, and (3) Growth of a functional bio-material industry. HMM is classified into three categories: (1) Assembly materials such as organic ultra-thin films (LB film, self-organizing film), and organic/inorganic hybrid materials for optoelectronics, sensors and devices, (2) Mesophase materials such as functional separation membrane and photo-conductive material, and (3) Microporous materials such as synthetic catalyst using guest/host materials. 571 refs., 88 figs., 21 tabs.

  14. Research on harmonized molecular materials; Bunshi kyocho zairyo ni kansuru chosa kenkyu



    Harmonized molecular materials (HMM) were researched to create functional materials adaptable to needs such as environmental harmony and high-efficient conversion in post-industrial society and aging society. Superior mechanisms function efficiently in organisms for perception, transmission and processing of information, and transport and conversion of substances. These functions are caused by harmonization between organic molecules, or organic molecule and metal or inorganic substance. HMM is a key substance to realize these functions similar to those of organisms artificially. It is the purpose of this research to develop HMMs, reform production process by innovating separation and conversion technologies, and finally realize molecular chemical plants. This research also develops high-efficient devices to contribute to the information society, and progresses the industry of bio-functional materials such as high-sensitive bio-sensor. The functions, applications and creation technologies of three kinds of HMM such as assembly, mesophase and microporous materials were researched in fiscal 1995. 956 refs., 128 figs., 13 tabs.

  15. Organic molecular thin films as next-generation functional materials; Jisedai kinosei sozai to shite no yuki bunshi usumaku

    Harima, H. [Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan)


    Molecular materials as functional materials for the next generation are described. The thin film illuminates when a voltage is applied across two electrodes installed on both sides of a thin film fabricated of fluorescent dye. This phenomenon is called electroluminescence, and such a thin film is now being studied as a new display medium which may replace the CRT and liquid crystal. Molecular materials are under study as information recording materials. Photochromism is a process in which organic molecules reversibly change between two states different from each other in absorption spectrum under different irradiation, and the changes may be recorded as digital information. There is a super-high density recording system now drawing attention, which uses PHB (photochemical hole burning). In this system, laser beams different in wavelength are projected upon a spot in a thin film, which is a polymeric film with organic molecules dispersed therein, for the recording of more than several hundred pieces of information. It is expected that the new system will achieve a density 3 to 4 orders higher than that of the current optical recording system. The porphyrin thin film should also be named, which converts optical energy into electrical energy. 7 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Study on molecular controlled mining system of methane hydrate; Methane hydrate no bunshi seigyo mining ni kansuru kenkyu

    Kuriyagawa, M.; Saito, T.; Kobayashi, H.; Karasawa, H.; Kiyono , F.; Nagaoki, R.; Yamamoto, Y.; Komai, T.; Haneda, H.; Takahashi, Y. [National Institute for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan); Nada, H. [Science and Technology Agency, Tokyo (Japan)


    Basic studies are conducted for the collection of methane from the methane hydrate that exists at levels deeper than 500m in the sea. The relationship between the hydrate generation mechanism and water cluster structure is examined by use of mass spectronomy. It is found that, among the stable liquid phase clusters, the (H2O)21H{sup +} cluster is the most stable. Stable hydrate clusters are in presence in quantities, and participate in the formation of hydrate crystal nuclei. For the elucidation of the nucleus formation mechanism, a kinetic simulation is conducted of molecules in the cohesion system consisting of water and methane molecules. Water molecules that array near methane molecules at the normal pressure is disarrayed under a higher pressure for rearray into a hydrate structure. Hydrate formation and breakdown in the three-phase equilibrium state of H2O, CH4, and CO2 at a low temperature and high pressure are tested, which discloses that supercooling is required for formation, that it is possible to extract CH4 first for replacement by guest molecule CO2 since CO2 is stabler than CH4 at a lower pressure or higher temperature, and that formation is easier to take place when the grain diameter is larger at the formation point since larger grain diameters result in a higher formation temperature. 3 figs.

  17. FY1995 ultra-high performance semiconductor lasers for advanced optical information network; 1995 nendo kodo hikari joho tsushinmo e muketa kyokugen seino handotai laser



    The purpose of this research was to study and develop ultra-high performance semiconductor light source devices that should facilitate construction of advanced optical information networks. The semiconductor devices mentioned above are enhanced and integrated versions of distributed feedback (DFB) lasers based on 'gain coupling', which the group of the research coordinator has been investigating as a pioneer in the world. This research aimed at development of ultra-high performance semiconductor lasers that surpass the first generation conventional DFB lasers in any respect, by strengthening important device characteristics for system applications of the gain-coupled DFB lasers. The achievements of this research are listed below : 1. In-situ characterization of As-P exchange in MOVPE 2. Development of 1.55 {mu}m gain-coupled DFB lasers of absorptive grating type 3. Establishment of measurement technique for gain-coupling coefficients 4. Enlargement of small signal modulation response by the absorptive grating 5. Prediction of lower analog modulation distortion 6. Characterization of reflection-induced noise 7. Proposal and Demonstration of wavelength trimming 8. Proposal and Fabrication of GC DFB laser triode (NEDO)

  18. Effects of cellular telephone manipulation on driver`s performance; Jidosha untenchu no keitai denwa shiyo sosa ni kanrensuru mondai no kenkyu

    Tokunaga, R.; Ozawa, M.; Hagiwara, T. [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan); Takagi, H.; Shimojo, A. [Civil Engineering Research Institute of Hokkaido, Hokkaido (Japan)


    The present evaluates effects of cellular telephone manipulation on driver`s performance. The major independent variables were the reaction time and the mental workload. Hart et al. proposed the concept of the subjective mental workload. Experiments were conduced using a driving simulator without motion. Findings showed that the hands free system may provide less effect than the cellular telephone on the passenger seat on driver`s reaction time and mental workload. 4 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs.

  19. Coal structure construction system with construction knowledge and partial energy evaluation; Kochiku chishiki to bubunteki energy hyoka ni yoru sekitan bunshi kozo kochiku system

    Okawa, T.; Sasai, T.; Komoda, N. [Osaka University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    The computer aided coal structure construction system is proposed, and a computational construction example is presented. The coal structure construction engine of this system fabricates molecular structure by connecting fragments sequentially inputted through a user interface. The best structure candidate is determined using construction knowledge and partial energy evaluation every addition of one fragment, and this process is subsequently repeated. The structure evaluation engine analyzes the 3-D conformation candidate by molecular dynamics, and evaluates the conformation by determining the energy value of an optimum structure. As an example, this system was applied to construction of coal molecular structure based on the actual data of partial structure composed of 26 structures from 2l kinds of aromatic cluster structures, 27 bonds from 2 kinds of bridged bonds, and 16 groups from 2 kinds of terminal substitutional groups. As a result, this system could construct a superior structure according to expert knowledge from the viewpoint of energy. 6 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Control of population of excited nitrogen molecules by mixing hydrogen in low pressure discharge; Chisso jun`antei reiki bunshi mitsudo no quenching ni yoru seigyo no kento

    Uematsu, K.; Yumoto, M.; Sakai, T. [Musashi Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)


    The authors have studied on surface treatment of PTFE by a low pressure discharge. It is deduced that excited nitrogen molecules contribute to introduce polar components on the surface. To confirm the speculation, we tried to change population of metastable nitrogen N2 (A{sup 3}{Sigma}u{sup +}) by quenching precursor N2 (B{sup 3}{pi}g), with hydrogen molecule. The decrease of relaxation time which indicates a change of excited molecule and measured by emission spectroscopy using a time after glow method was obtained. As a result, the relaxation times of N2 (B{sup 3}{pi}g) and N2 (A{sup 3}{Sigma}u{sup +}) decreased to 55% and 20% respectively, when mixing ratio of hydrogen was 3%. It was also deduced that hydrogen atom may take a part in a quenching process of N2 (A{sup 3}{Sigma}u{sup +}). 14 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Analysis of signal transduction in brain cells using molecular signal microscope; Bunshi jiho kenbikyo wo mochiita nousaibou no joho henkan kiko no kaiseki

    Kawato, Suguru [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Biophysics and Life Sciences


    We analyzed the signal transduction in brain neurons by real-time imaging of Ca/NO signals using the Molecular Signal Microscope. We also analyzed synthesis and action of neurosteroids in the hippocampus. We discovered steroid synthesis machinery containing cytochrome P 450 scc in hippocampal neurons. We found that pregnenolone sulfate acutely potentiated NMDA receptor-mediated Ca conductivity in hippocampal neurons. We also found that stress steroid corticosterone acutely prolonged NMDA receptor-mediated Ca{sup 2+} influx, resulting in Ca-induced neuro-toxicity. (author)

  2. Study of the influence of microgravity on the biological cells and molecular level; Seitai saibo bunshi level ni okeru bisho juryoku no eikyo ni kansuru kenkyu



    The shape of osteoblast, gene appearance, gene of rice blast, cellular fusion of plants, gravity acceptance mechanism of unicellular organisms, and physiological and immunity functions of mice were investigated under the microgravity condition. The influence of gravity on the vital reaction and the influence of microgravity on the crystallization of vital substances were also investigated. For the observation of osteoblast, the fluorescence dye reacted with Ca was well taken in the cells. The microgravity affected the stability of rice blast, but hardly affected the protoplast culture of mushroom. The reaction of ciliate against the gravity related to the specific gravity difference between cells and outer liquid. The level of adrenaline in blood of mice increased during the drop. The moving speed of trigger waves of chemical parallel slit formed at the BZ reaction under the microgravity became 60% to 80% of that on the ground. In the case of crystallization at the deposition agent concentration of 1% to 4%, the turbidity showing the degree of crystallization changed complicatedly. Nine processes of crystal growth were recognized. 21 refs., 55 figs., 1 tab.

  3. FY1995 study of evaluating satisfaction of communication devices and brain computer interface for severely disabled people; 1995 nendo judo shogaisha no communication eido sosa shudan to tekisetsusa ni kansuru kenkyu



    Until now, the prescription of communication devices for disabled people has been dependent on the experience of technical experts who are working for them. To improve this situation, the aim of present study is to develop the objective methods for evaluating satisfaction of communication devices. Further aim of this study is to get the basic data for using electroencephalogram for thinking switch of communication devices. 1) Under imaging real communication devices, the menu of two experimental subjects were designed with three tasks which have different difficulty. Five physiological indexes (heart rate, coefficient of variation of R-R intervals, respiration rate, skin temperature and plethysmograph), which are known to closely correlated with mental stress, were studied during three different tasks in each experimental subject. In addition, psychological test were also performed before and after each tasks. In the first subject a significant difference was detected only in psychological test among three tasks. This result may come from the small difference of difficulty in each tasks of the first subject. In the second subject, significant differences were observed in the coefficient of variation of R-R intervals, the respiration rate and psychological test. Other physiological indexces, skin temperature, heart rate and plethysmograph, may be useful. However, the reconsideration will be needed to find the usefulness of these indexes for evaluating mental stress. 2) Biofeedback control of mu rhysm, an electrical brain wave, was investigated for the possibility of thinking switch in three graduate students. In one of three students, changes of amplitude were observed bilaterally although we had expected the unilateral change. Further studies will be needed to clarify the best method of biofeedback experiment. (NEDO)

  4. Study on driving control behavior for lane change maneuver. Analysis of expert driver using neural network system; Shasen henkoji no driver sosa tokusei. Neural network system ni yoru jukuren driver no kaiseki

    Yang, Z.; Okayama, T.; Katayama, T. [Japan Automobile Research Institute Inc., Tsukuba (Japan); Kageyama, I. [Nihon University, Tokyo (Japan)


    In order to study driver steering control behavior for vehicle, a driver model for single-lane change maneuver is constructed by a neural network system concerned with the man-machine-environment system. And, using sensitivity analysis, it is found that the model represent the driver control behavior, and the relation between the driver control behavior and vehicle responses. The sensitivity analysis is also examined by applying to the 2nd order predictive driver model. The validity of the sensitivity analysis is confirmed. 5 refs., 8 figs.

  5. Ab initio MO study on the thermal stability of 1-phenyl-1H-tetrazoles; Hikeikenteki bunshi kidoho ni yoru 1-Ph-1H tetorazoru yudotai no netsu anteisei hyoka ni kansuru kenkyu

    Ono, Yoshio.; Akutsu, Yoshiaki.; Arai, Mitsuru.; Tamura, Masamitsu. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). School of Engineering; Matsunaga, Takehiro. [National Institute of Materials and Chemical Research, Tsukuba (Japan)


    Ab initio MO calculations of 1-phenyl-1H-tetrazoles were carried out, in order to explain a substituent effects on its high thermal stability and to estimate the thermal stability of the other tetrazoles. Similar to 1H-tetrazole, five bonds in the tetrazole ring have intermediate lengths between single and double bond lengths. Phenyl and tetrazole rings are not both on one plane showing no interaction. Three indexes addopted as a measure of thermal stability indicate that the more equal the bond lengths of the ring are and that the bigger the stabilization energy by ring formation is, the more thermally stable they are. It is found out that there is the relationship between the thermal stability and the ring charge. That is, the more negative the ring charge is, the more thrmally stable the tetrazole is. Also, there is a good relationship between the thermal stability and the energy level of orbital of which orbital is an anti bonding type with respect to the N3-N4 bond. The higher the energy level is, the more thermally stable the tetrazole is. (author)

  6. Enhancement of hemolytic and catecholamine releasing activities of mastoparan by the dendrimeric formation; Masutoparan bunshi no jujoka ni yoru sekkekyu yoketsu sayo to katekoru amin hoshutsu sayo no kokasseika

    Kurita, Takashi; Kosemura, Yoshiko; Ito, Hisashi [Aoyama Gakuin University, Tokyo (Japan). Department of Chemistry; Kumakura, Konosuke [Sophia University, Tokyo (Japan). Life Science Institute; Kasai, Hisataka [Tokyo Metropolitan University of Health Sciences, Tokyo (Japan)


    As a trial to enhance activity of bioactive peptide, the dendrimeric formation of mastoparan (MP), a wasp venom toxic peptide, was carried out. We synthesized dendrimeric MPs consisting of 2,4 and 8 MP molecules formed on a branching lysine-core, and examined the hemolytic and catecholamine releasing activities and the circular dichroism. The activities of dendrimeric MPs were higher than that of MP and the {alpha}-helical contents increased with the increase of the number of branches in the dendrimers. The most potent dendrimer in hemolytic activity, approximately 8000 times as active as MP, was octameric MP which took 35 % {alpha}-helical content even in an aqueous buffer. Our results indicated that the dendrimeric formation of an amphipathic peptide should be a useful way to obtain highly active peptide as shown already in immunogenicity. (author)

  7. Quantum analysis in the transition process to excited state of an oxygen molecule induced by electron collisions; Denshi shototsu ni tomonau sanso bunshi ni okeru reiki jotai sen`i no ryoshironteki kaiseki

    Ishimaru, K. [Gifu National College of Technology, Gifu (Japan); Okazaki, K. [Tokyo Inst. of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)


    For understanding of fundamental chemical reactions under a highly non equilibrium condition which is quite often used in plasma processing, the relevant atomic and molecular processes must be clarified. In this study, an analysis of the transition process to the excited state of an oxygen molecule induced by electron collisions in the oxygen plasma has been carried out. First, the electron density distribution in an oxygen molecule has been calculated using the extended Huckel molecular orbital method. Then, the electron potential energy distribution in the transition process to the excited state has been estimated. The electron behavior has been calculated using the estimated unidimensional electron potential energy distribution and unsteady quantum mechanics. As a result, the transition process to the excited state of an oxygen molecule induced by electron collisions and its conditions have been clarified qualitatively. 9 refs., 9 figs.

  8. Wall effect in deactivation of excited molecular oxygen {sup 1}{delta}g; Reiki sanso bunshi {sup 1}{delta}g no shikkatsu ni oyobosu hyomen hanno no eikyo

    Takahashi, S.; Hasegawa, Y.; Yamashita, I. [Mechanical Engineering Laboratory, Tsukuba (Japan)


    This paper discusses effects of surface reaction on deactivation of excited molecular oxygen in {sup 1}{Delta}g condition. Gaseous oxygen containing excited oxygen generated by microwave discharge at a concentration of less than 1% is flown into several kinds of tubes to be measured such as quartz tubes (with an inner diameter of about 10 mm), and the light emitting intensity of the excited oxygen was measured upstream and downstream of the tubes to be measured (with in-tube pressure of 1 Torr or 2 Torr) to derive its concentration change. The surface reaction on the tube wall was regarded as a primary reaction, and the concentration change of the excited oxygen in flows in the round tube (attributable to the surface reaction) was analyzed. With respect to effects of tube wall materials on deactivation of the excited molecular oxygen, the surface deactivation probability in the case of using low-activity materials has decreased in the order of Pyrex, PVC, quartz, PFA and PTFE. The surface deactivation probability in the case of using a metallic material, SUS316L, was about 1000 times larger than that in the quartz. 14 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Comparative study of bioactivity of collagen scaffolds coated with graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide

    Miyaji, Hirofumi


    Izumi Kanayama,1 Hirofumi Miyaji,1 Hiroko Takita,2 Erika Nishida,1 Maiko Tsuji,3 Bunshi Fugetsu,4,5 Ling Sun,4,5 Kana Inoue,1 Asako Ibara,1 Tsukasa Akasaka,6 Tsutomu Sugaya,1 Masamitsu Kawanami1 1Department of Periodontology and Endodontology, 2Support Section for Education and Research, Graduate School of Dental Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan; 3Mitsubishi Gas Chemical Company, Inc., Tokyo, Japan; 4Division of Frontier Research, Research Department, Creative Research Instituti...

  10. FY 1999 report on the industrial science technology R and D theme - university cooperation type. Technology of glycocluster control biomolecule synthesis (Technology of production of high efficiency oil gathering use sugar chain aggregating agent); 1999 nendo sangyo kagaku gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu tema (Daigaku renkei gata). Gurikokurasuta seigyo seitai bunshi gosei gijutsu (Koseino sekiyu saishuyo tousa shugokazai seizo gijutsu) seika hokokusho



    For the purpose of developing the synthesis process of new materials which cause no pollution and make the recycle system possible, 'the R and D of technology of synthesis of glycocluster control biomolecules' were carried out, and the FY 1999 results were reported. In 'the technology development of prediction of the functional sugar chain structure,' the stable complex model was deduced from various approaches, and it was made clear that for the leading R and D of new sugar chain medicines, etc., it was extremely important to systematically conduct the analysis of patterns of the interaction between sugar chain ligands and protein receptors and the stable conformation of sugar chain ligands. In 'the technology development of clustering/combination of sugar chains,' the multilateral study was made of a new methodology for designing/constructing purpose-answering cluster molecules essential in sugar chain's expressing high-grade function. Studies were also started of a method to manufacture new biodegradable fiber from not only one-component sugar chains but two-component polysaccharides and of the synthesis of oligosaccharide cluster molecules showing anti-HIV activity. (NEDO)

  11. Test and survey on a next generation coal liquefying catalyst. Coal molecule scientific test and survey as the base for commercializing the coal liquefying technology; Jisedai sekitan ekika shokubai shiken chosa. Sekitan ekika gijutsu shogyoka kiban to shite no sekitan bunshi kagaku shiken chosa



    The test and survey on a next generation coal liquefying catalyst present a new proposal to raise catalytic activity in coal liquefaction, and perform demonstration experiments in a laboratory scale to search for possibility of developing a new coal liquefying catalyst from various viewpoints. To explain, discussions were given on the catalyst to perform the followings: liquefaction under extremely mild conditions by using ultra strong acids not limited only to metals; ion exchange method and swell carrying method to raise catalyst dispersion very highly, enhance the catalytic activity, and reduce the amount of catalyst to be used; mechanism of producing catalyst activating species to further enhance the activity of iron catalysts; and pursuit of morphological change in the activating species. The coal molecule scientific test and survey as the base for commercializing the coal liquefying technology performed the studies on the following items: pretreatment of coal that can realize reduction of coal liquefaction cost; configuration of the liquefaction reaction, liquefying catalysts, hydrocarbon gas generating mechanism, status of catalysts after liquefaction reaction, and reduction in gas purification cost by using gas separating membranes. Future possibilities were further searched through frank and constructive opinion exchanges among the committee members. (NEDO)

  12. Modificación estructural de la lignina extraída a partir de carbones de bajo rango para la obtención de madera sintética

    Jesús Álvaro Jiménez Montoya; Bibiana Gordillo Díaz; Marco Antonio Vega Atuesta


    The Universidad Distrital Francisco José de Caldas Coal Research Group has been working with lignin extraction from peat and low rank coal and using the obtained extract for synthetic wood industry. Sosa, sulfate and bisulfite methods [1] were applied in the first research step and later they were modified with the lignine extraction process from pine and cedar. Among these, Sosa method showed asthe more efficient method, so, it was used to extract lignine from low rank coal. The extracted li...

  13. Dream Skepticism and the Conditionality Problem

    Ahlström, Kristoffer


    Recently, Ernest Sosa (2007) has proposed two novel solutions to the problem of dream skepticism. In the present paper, I argue that Sosa's first solution falls prey to what I will refer to as the conditionality problem, i.e., the problem of only establishing a conditional---in this case, "if x......, then I am awake," x being a placeholder for a condition incompatible with dreaming---in a context where it also needs to be established that we can know that the antecedent holds, and as such can infer the consequent, i.e., "I am awake." Sosa's second solution in terms of so-called reflective knowledge......, is shown to land him in the dilemma of either facing yet another conditionality problem, or violating an internalist constraint that he explicitly grants the skeptic with respect to what kind of factors can be legitimately invoked in our account of how we may know the relevant antecedent. For these...

  14. Intelectuales, exilio y periodismo en Cuba durante la Revolución Mexicana /

    González Gómez, Claudia sustentante.


     tesis que para obtener el grado de Doctor en Historia, presenta Claudia González Gómez ; asesor Ignacio Sosa Álvarez. 291 páginas : ilustraciones. Doctorado en Historia UNAM, Facultad de Filosofía y Letras, 2009

  15. Megamelus bellicus (Hemiptera: Delphacidae): immature stages and biology

    The immature stages of Megamelus bellicus Remes Lenicov & Sosa (Hemiptera:Delphacidae) are described, keyed and illustrated. The descritpion of each stage was based on 24-h hatched nymphs from the laboratory colony. The main characters that distinguish the various stages are body size, color, number...

  16. Aportación al estudio del comportamiento en rotura de las juntas verticales entre grandes paneles de hormigón

    Catalá Alís, Joaquín; Moragues, Juan J; Miguel Sosa, Pedro


    Catalá Alís, J.; Moragues, JJ.; Miguel Sosa, P. (1985). Aportación al estudio del comportamiento en rotura de las juntas verticales entre grandes paneles de hormigón. Hormigón y acero. (154):191-209.

  17. Modificación estructural de la lignina extraída a partir de carbones de bajo rango para la obtención de madera sintética

    Jesús Álvaro Jiménez Montoya


    Full Text Available The Universidad Distrital Francisco José de Caldas Coal Research Group has been working with lignin extraction from peat and low rank coal and using the obtained extract for synthetic wood industry. Sosa, sulfate and bisulfite methods [1] were applied in the first research step and later they were modified with the lignine extraction process from pine and cedar. Among these, Sosa method showed asthe more efficient method, so, it was used to extract lignine from low rank coal. The extracted lignin was used to prepare lignin-phenol-formaldehide resin and it works as natural fiber binder [2].In the second research step, standarization Sosa method was made [3], were pressure was modified using an pressure reactor (autoclave for a peat sample. Efficiency was improved. The obtained lignine was used to prepare resins such as phenolformaldehide- lignin, resorcinol-formaldehydelignin and polypropilen-lignin. All of them were utilized using sugar cane bagasse as natural fiber. Currently, a third research step is being developed using Sosa method and working with a peat sample.The main purpose, is to modificate the extracted lignin structure by UV radiation (physical methot and with NaOH (Chemical method so the lignin reactivity is improved in the resins production [4] and as result, to get a better quality synthetic wood.

  18. Fiscal 1997 project on the R and D of industrial scientific technology under consignment form NEDO. Report on the results of the R and D of technologies to invent original high-functional materials (technical development of structure control materials / R and D of molecular harmonized materials); 1997 nendo sangyo kagaku gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu jigyo Shin Energy Sangyo Gijutsu Sogo Kaihatsu Kiko itaku. Dokusoteki kokino zairyo sosei gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu (kozo seigyo zairyo gijutsu kaihatsu) bunshi kyocho zairyo no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho



    By establishing microtechnology using molecular-level bottoming-up (molecular harmonization) by imitating the system of living organism, the paper described the R and D of molecular harmonized materials aiming at developing high-functional/high-performance materials such as high-performance catalyst, photo-information functional materials and sensing materials. Under consignment from NEDO, Japan Chemical innovation Institute started the 5-year plan in fiscal 1997. Self-assembled molecular films, in which organic molecules are orderly arranged by self-assembly, aim at developing new memory/optical/sensing materials. Mesophase materials which are such materials as liquid crystal showing the intermediate state between solid and liquid, develop optical/photoconductive materials using precise molecular orientation controllability. Macroporous materials are such substances as zeolite having molecular size micro pores. The paper aims at establishment of synthesis techniques of them and development of high-performance catalyst, etc. using them. In the comprehensive investigational research, conducted was a survey of the trend overseas in addition to a study of subjects in question. Further, the supporting basic study was reconsigned to universities, etc. 57 refs., 62 figs., 17 tabs.

  19. Clinical presentation of anxiety among patients with epilepsy

    Lopez-Gomez, Mario


    M López-Gómez1, M Espinola2, J Ramirez-Bermudez3, I E Martinez-Juarez4, A L Sosa51Departments of Neurology; 2Neuropsychiatry; 3Clinical Research; 4Epilepsy, and 5Cognition and Behavior, National Institute of Neurology and Neurosurgery of Mexico, Delegación Tlalpan, MéxicoAbstract: Different factors have been related with interictal anxiety, reported in 10%–25% of patients with epilepsy. We determined the frequency of interictal anxiety in ...

  20. Improvement of GVSRM with Addressing the Interoperability Issues in Global Village

    Mohammad Reza Mollahoseini Ardakani; Seyyed Mohsen Hashemi


    In today's globally networked environment, enterprises need collaborating using Information Technology (IT) and other tools to succeed in this dynamic and heterogeneous business environment. The Global Village Services Reference Model (GVSRM) is a model based on SOSA (Service Oriented Strategies and Architectures) ontology for global village services realization. In this model, three architectural abstraction layers have been considered for global village: ‘infrastructure for global village s...

  1. Effect of Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Acute Coronary Syndrome.

    Leão, Sílvia; Conde, Bebiana; Fontes, Paulo; Calvo, Teresa; Afonso, Abel; Moreira, Ilídio


    The effect of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) on clinical outcomes after acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is incompletely defined. We sought to determine the prevalence of OSA in patients with ACS and evaluate prognostic impact of OSA and continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy in these patients. This was a prospective longitudinal cohort study of 73 patients admitted on cardiac intensive care unit for ACS. Cardiorespiratory sleep study and/or polysomnography were performed in all patients. CPAP was recommended if Apnea-Hypopnea Index ≥5. The main study outcome was a composite of death for any cause, myocardial infarction, and myocardial revascularization. OSA was diagnosed in 46 patients (63%). Age and cardiovascular risk factors were not significantly different between groups. OSA was classified as mild (m-OSA) in 14 patients (30%) and as moderate-to-severe (s-OSA) in 32 patients (70%). After a median follow-up of 75 months (interquartile range 71 to 79), patients with s-OSA had lower event-free survival rate. After adjustment for gender, patients with s-OSA showed a significantly higher incidence of the composite end point (hazard ratio 3.58, 95% CI 1.09 to 17.73, p = 0.035). Adherence to CPAP occurred in 19 patients (41%), but compliance to CPAP therapy did not reduce the risk of composite end point (hazard ratio 0.87, 95% CI 0.31 to 2.46, p = 0.798). In conclusion, OSA is an underdiagnosed disease with high prevalence in patients with ACS. It is urgent to establish screening protocols because those have high diagnostic yield and allow identifying a group of patients with manifestly unfavorable prognosis. PMID:26857162

  2. Can Risk-taking Preferences be Modified? Some Experimental Evidence

    Booth, Alison L; Nolen, Patrick J.


    We summarise our two sets of controlled experiments designed to see if single-sex classes within coeducational environments modify studentsf risk]taking attitudes. In Booth and Nolen (2012b), subjects are in years 10 and 11, while in Booth, Cardona]Sosa and Nolen (2014), they are first]year university students randomly assigned to single]sex and coed classes. While on average females are significantly less likely than men to make risky choices, on exposure to single]sex environments the...

  3. Pemanfaatan Abu Tandan Kosong Kelapa Sawit Untuk Menurunkan Kandungan Minyak/Lemak BOD Dan COD Dari Limbah Cair Pabrik Kelapa Sawit

    Sari, Riris Duma


    An investigation of the utilization of oil palm empty fruit bunch ash to reduce the content of oil/grease, BOD and COD from oil mill effluent. Samples of palm oil mill effluent from wastewater treatment plant of PT Nusantara IV (Persero) oil processing unit sopsa of Padang Lawas district. Samples taken from the last pond will be discharged into the environment. Empty Fruit of Oil Palm Ash taken from the kitchen burning empty fruit bunches PT Nusantara IVB (Persero) units Sosa of Padang Law...

  4. Comparison of body shape descriptors for biometric recognition using MMW images

    González-Sosa, Ester; Vera-Rodríguez, Rubén; Fiérrez, Julián; Ortega-García, Javier


    Personal use of this material is permitted. Permission from IEEE must be obtained for all other uses, in any current or future media, including reprinting/republishing this material for advertising or promotional purposes, creating new collective works, for resale or redistribution to servers or lists, or reuse of any copyrighted component of this work in other works. E. González-Sosa, R. Vera-Rodríguez, Julián Fiérrez, J. Ortega-García, "Comparison of Body Shape Descriptors for Biometric ...

  5. Body shape-based biometric recognition using millimeter wave images

    González-Sosa, Ester; Vera-Rodríguez, Rubén; Fiérrez, Julián; Ortega-García, Javier


    Personal use of this material is permitted. Permission from IEEE must be obtained for all other uses, in any current or future media, including reprinting/republishing this material for advertising or promotional purposes, creating new collective works, for resale or redistribution to servers or lists, or reuse of any copyrighted component of this work in other works. González-Sosa, E. ; Vera-Rodríguez, R. ; Fierrez, J. ; Ortega-García, J. "Body shape-based biometric recognition using millime...

  6. Un aporte de Carlos Guastavino y Lima Quintana al mundo de la Nueva Canción argentina Carlos Guastavino and Lima Quintana's contribution to the world of the Argentinean New Song

    Silvina Luz Mansilla


    Full Text Available El artículo se refiere a la canción Hermano compuesta por el músico Carlos Guastavino sobre una poesía de Hamlet Lima Quintana. Dedicada al editor Rómulo Lagos, fue grabada por Mercedes Sosa en 1966. Incluida como pista inicial del disco de la cantante tucumana al cual le dio su nombre, la canción constituye una evidencia de la simpatía del compositor con los postulados centrales del Nuevo Cancionero argentino. El trabajo comprende una aproximación a la temática del poema, el análisis musical de la partitura, la puesta en contexto de las circunstancias de composición y difusión y la descripción de la versión grabada por Mercedes Sosa. Aplicando la noción "mundos del arte" de Howard BECKER (1982, se interpreta la red de personas ligadas a la editorial Lagos como un tejido cooperativo que funcionó con eficacia hasta mediados de la década de 1970. Un esbozo del contexto posterior, signado por la censura, permite inferir algunos factores que incidieron en el quiebre de esa red de colaboraciones. Aunque respecto de Guastavino, se habla aquí de vinculación y no de pertenencia.Study about the song Hermano by Argentinean composer Carlos Guastavino written after a poem by Hamlet Lima Quintana. Dedicated to the editor Rómulo Lagos, the song was recorded by the Argentinean singer Mercedes Sosa in 1966. Included as the first track in that record (to which it gave its name, the song constitutes an evidence of the composer's sympathy with the central postulates of the Argentinean New Song. This paper's perspective integrates the poem's subject, the score's musical analysis, the study of the context concerning with the composition and spreading circumstances and the description of the performance recorded by Mercedes Sosa. Applying the notion of "art worlds" by Howard BECKER (1982, we interpret the persons net connected with Lagos publishing, as a co-operative and interwoven fabric that effectively worked until the mid 1970s. A sketch of

  7. Bibliographie


    Aguilar Medina José Iñigo, 1980, El hombre y la urbe, la ciudad de Oaxaca, Mexico, Sep/Inah. Aguilar Urbina Luisa, 1988, « Reconstrucción de vecindades en Tepito », dans, Cisneros Sosa Armando (coord.), Rescate y reconstruccion del centro de la ciudad de México, Mexico, Uam-Iztapalapa, p. 66-95. Aguilera Gomez Manuel, 1988, « politica de vivienda popular : Nuevas experiencias para su reformulación », conférence présentée, Seminario : la modernización de las ciudades en México, Mexico, Unam. A...

  8. Constraints on English middle structures: A Lexical-Constructional analysis

    Francisco J. Cortés-Rodríguez


    Full Text Available This paper provides an analysis of English middle structures within the framework of the Lexical Constructional Model (LCM, which proposes a central module, "the level 1" or "argument module", consisting of elements of syntactically relevant semantic interpretation based on the interaction between lexical and constructional templates. Hence, the first task will be to explain the "constructional template" corresponding to middle sentences in English by means of the metalanguage proposed in the model. Nevertheless, and following some of the more recent—and still programmatic—proposals (cf. Cortés and Sosa, 2008; Mairal and Ruiz de Mendoza, 2008; Cortés, 2009, the Middle Template will also include its corresponding qualia features, following Pustejovsky’s (1995 semantic theory. This extended system of representation will allow us to give a principled account of the semantic (incompatibility between lexical elements (predicates and arguments and the middle construction.

  9. Parallel Factor Analysis as an exploratory tool for wavelet transformed event-related EEG

    Mørup, Morten; Hansen, Lars Kai; Hermann, Cristoph S.; Parnas, Josef; Arnfred, Sidse M.


    In the decomposition of multi-channel EEG signals, principal component analysis (PCA) and independent component analysis (ICA) have widely been used. However, as both methods are based on handling two-way data, i.e. two-dimensional matrices, multi-way methods might improve the interpretation of...... frequency transformed multi-channel EEG of channel x frequency x time data. The multi-way decomposition method Parallel Factor (PARAFAC), also named Canonical Decomposition (CANDECOMP), was recently used to decompose the wavelet transformed ongoing EEG of channel x frequency x time (Miwakeichi, F., Martinez......-Montes, E., Valdes-Sosa, P.A., Nishiyama, N., Mizuhara, H., Yamaguchi, Y., 2004. Decomposing EEG data into space-time-frequency components using parallel factor analysis. Neuroimage 22, 1035-1045). In this article, PARAFAC is used for the first time to decompose wavelet transformed event-related EEG given...

  10. SUVIKULMA : – Lähiliikuntapuisto ikäihmisille Joensuun Niinivaaralle

    Juvonen, Kaisa; Ratilainen, Sini


    Yli 65-vuotiaita ennustetaan vuoteen 2030 mennessä olevan jo neljäsosa Suomen väestöstä. Luontoliikunnalla on todettu olevan lukuisia terveysvaikutuksia ja sen ajatellaan kuuluvaan hy-vään vanhuuteen. Luontoliikunta ja fyysinen aktiivisuus ylläpitävät ikäihmisen toimintakykyä ja tätä kautta tukevat päivittäisistä toiminnoista selviytymistä ja itsenäistä asumista. Ikäihmisen itsenäisen asumisen tukeminen ja laitoshoidon vähentäminen on tärkeää sekä yksilön elämänlaadun että yhteiskunnan näköku...

  11. La creació d'un passiu ambiental a Catalunya. Història de la planta química de Flix al riu Ebre (1897-2013)

    Pujadas i Garriga, Marta


    Esta tesis doctoral contribuye a la comprensión de la historia socio-ambiental de la localidad de Flix en la Ribera d’Ebre (Cataluña), y evalúa los costes ambientales de la Sociedad Electroquímica de Flix (EQF), la indústria química que ha dominado la actividad económica de la población durante más de un siglo. Fundada en el año 1897, fué la primera empresa química española en producir cloro y sosa cáustica por el método electrolítico. A lo largo del siglo ha dado trabajo a una parte impor...

  12. The spatial distribution of injuries in need of surgical intervention in Nepal.

    Gupta, Shailvi; Groen, Thomas A; Stewart, Barclay T; Shrestha, Sunil; Spiegel, David A; Nwomeh, Benedict C; Groen, Reinou S; Kushner, Adam L


    Geographic information system modelling can accurately represent the geospatial distribution of disease burdens to inform health service delivery. Given the dramatic topography of Nepal and a high prevalence of unmet surgical needs, we explored the consequences of topography on the prevalence of surgical conditions. The Nepalese Surgeons OverSeas Assessment of Surgical Need (SOSAS) is a validated, countrywide, cluster randomised survey that assesses surgical need in lowand middle-income countries; it was performed in Nepal in 2014. Data on conditions potentially affected by topography (e.g. fractures, hernias, injuries, burns) were extracted from the database. A national digital elevation model was used to determine altitude, aspect, slope steepness and curvature of the SOSAS survey sites. Forward stepwise linear regression was performed with prevalence of each surgical condition as the response variable and topographic data as explanatory variables. The highest correlation coefficient was for models predicting hernias and fractures, both explaining 21% of the variance. The model fitted to death due to fall would become significant when an outlier was excluded (P<0.001; R2=0.27). Excluding the outlier yielded a better-fitted model to burn injury (stepwise regression) without any explanatory variables. Other models trended towards a correlation, but did not have sufficient power to detect a difference. This study identified slight correlation between elevation and the prevalence of hernias and fall injuries. Further investigation on the effects of topography and geography on surgical conditions is needed to help determine if the data would be useful for directing allocation of surgical resources. PMID:27245791

  13. Comets 169P/NEAT and P/2003 T12 (SOHO): Two possible fragments of a common ancestor?

    Sosa, Andrea; Fernández, Julio Angel


    In a recent work we analyzed the orbit evolution of Jupiter family comets in near-Earth orbits, and found some comets moving on highly stable orbits, like the near-Earth asteroids (Fernández & Sosa 2015). Two of them actually show almost identical orbits; they are the comets 169P/NEAT and P/2003 T12 (SOHO). Comet 169P seems to be a few km-sized, almost inactive body, while P/2003 T12 would be a very small comet, with a sub-km radius nucleus. We performed extended orbital integrations for the past 100,000 yr to further study their dynamical evolution. We found that the orbital parameters remain stable for several thousand years, with a well defined absolute minimum of their relative spatial distance around 2900 yr in the past, coincident with a low value of the relative velocity. This spatial minimum is in a remarkable good agreement with the results obtained by means of other methods to study common origins between pairs of asteroids (Vokrouhlicky & Nesvorny 2008, Southworth & Hawkins 1963), and to test a comet-meteor shower association (Drummond 1981). Our results support the hypothesis of a breakup of a parent body, that ocurred about 2900 yr ago, as the most probable origin for the studied pair of comets. Possible fragmentation mechanisms, like thermal stress, rotational instability, or colisions, are briefly discussed.References:Drumond J.D. 1981. Icarus 45, 545-553.Fernández J.A., & Sosa A. 2015. Submitted to Planetary & Space Science.Southworth R.B., & Hawkins, G.S. 1963. Smithson. Contrib. Astrophys. 7, 261-285Vokrouhlicky D., & Nesvorny D. 2008. Astron. J. 136, 280-290.

  14. Short-Term Esmolol Improves Coronary Artery Remodeling in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats through Increased Nitric Oxide Bioavailability and Superoxide Dismutase Activity

    Ana Arnalich-Montiel


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the effects of short-term esmolol therapy on coronary artery structure and function and plasma oxidative stress in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR. For this purpose, 14-month-old male SHR were treated for 48 hours with esmolol (SHR-E, 300 μg/kg/min. Age-matched untreated male SHR and Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY were used as hypertensive and normotensive controls, respectively. At the end of intervention we performed a histological study to analyze coronary artery wall width (WW, wall-to-lumen ratio (W/L, and media cross-sectional area (MCSA. Dose-response curves for acetylcholine (ACh and sodium nitroprusside were constructed. We also assessed several plasma oxidative stress biomarkers, namely, superoxide scavenging activity (SOSA, nitrites, and total antioxidant capacity (TAC. We observed a significant reduction in WW (P<0.001, W/L (P<0.05, and MCSA (P<0.01 and improved endothelium-dependent relaxation (AUCSHR-E = 201.2±33 versus AUCSHR = 97.5±21, P<0.05 in SHR-E compared with untreated SHR; no differences were observed for WW, MCSA, and endothelium-dependent relaxation by ACh at higher concentrations (10−6 to 10−4 mol/l for SHR-E with respect to WKY. SOSA (P<0.001 and nitrite (P<0.01 values were significantly higher in SHR-E than in untreated SHR; however, TAC did not increase after treatment with esmolol. Esmolol improves early coronary artery remodeling in SHR.

  15. The spatial distribution of injuries in need of surgical intervention in Nepal

    Shailvi Gupta


    Full Text Available Geographic information system modelling can accurately represent the geospatial distribution of disease burdens to inform health service delivery. Given the dramatic topography of Nepal and a high prevalence of unmet surgical needs, we explored the consequences of topography on the prevalence of surgical conditions. The Nepalese Surgeons OverSeas Assessment of Surgical Need (SOSAS is a validated, countrywide, cluster randomised survey that assesses surgical need in lowand middle-income countries; it was performed in Nepal in 2014. Data on conditions potentially affected by topography (e.g. fractures, hernias, injuries, burns were extracted from the database. A national digital elevation model was used to determine altitude, aspect, slope steepness and curvature of the SOSAS survey sites. Forward stepwise linear regression was performed with prevalence of each surgical condition as the response variable and topographic data as explanatory variables. The highest correlation coefficient was for models predicting hernias and fractures, both explaining 21% of the variance. The model fitted to death due to fall would become significant when an outlier was excluded (P<0.001; R2=0.27. Excluding the outlier yielded a better-fitted model to burn injury (stepwise regression without any explanatory variables. Other models trended towards a correlation, but did not have sufficient power to detect a difference. This study identified slight correlation between elevation and the prevalence of hernias and fall injuries. Further investigation on the effects of topography and geography on surgical conditions is needed to help determine if the data would be useful for directing allocation of surgical resources.

  16. Comparative study of bioactivity of collagen scaffolds coated with graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide

    Kanayama I


    Full Text Available Izumi Kanayama,1 Hirofumi Miyaji,1 Hiroko Takita,2 Erika Nishida,1 Maiko Tsuji,3 Bunshi Fugetsu,4,5 Ling Sun,4,5 Kana Inoue,1 Asako Ibara,1 Tsukasa Akasaka,6 Tsutomu Sugaya,1 Masamitsu Kawanami1 1Department of Periodontology and Endodontology, 2Support Section for Education and Research, Graduate School of Dental Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan; 3Mitsubishi Gas Chemical Company, Inc., Tokyo, Japan; 4Division of Frontier Research, Research Department, Creative Research Institution Sousei, 5Graduate School of Environmental Science, 6Department of Biomedical, Dental Materials and Engineering, Graduate School of Dental Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan Background: Graphene oxide (GO is a single layer carbon sheet with a thickness of less than 1 nm. GO has good dispersibility due to surface modifications with numerous functional groups. Reduced graphene oxide (RGO is produced via the reduction of GO, and has lower dispersibility. We examined the bioactivity of GO and RGO films, and collagen scaffolds coated with GO and RGO. Methods: GO and RGO films were fabricated on a culture dish. Some GO films were chemically reduced using either ascorbic acid or sodium hydrosulfite solution, resulting in preparation of RGO films. The biological properties of each film were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, atomic force microscopy, calcium adsorption tests, and MC3T3-E1 cell seeding. Subsequently, GO- and RGO-coated collagen scaffolds were prepared and characterized by SEM and compression tests. Each scaffold was implanted into subcutaneous tissue on the backs of rats. Measurements of DNA content and cell ingrowth areas of implanted scaffolds were performed 10 days post-surgery.Results: The results show that GO and RGO possess different biological properties. Calcium adsorption and alkaline phosphatase activity were strongly enhanced by RGO, suggesting that RGO is effective for osteogenic differentiation. SEM showed that


    Alfonso García Gonzáles


    Full Text Available RESUMEN: El aprendizaje cooperativo se plantea como una de las principales medicinas de la educación: el estudiante adopta un papel activo en su proceso de aprendizaje. La cuestión metodológica es trascendental dentro de la universidad: el proyecto de construcción del Espacio Europeo de Educación Superior plantea cambios profundos en el paradigma docente, debiendo cambiar los roles del profesor y del alumno, dentro y fuera del aula. Para reforzar este argumento, se procedió a la aplicación del Cuestionario de Aprendizaje Cooperativo de Arellano, Navarro y Sosa (2007 a los 692 estudiantes matriculados en primero de Grado de Educación Primaria en el curso 2010/2011. La muestra coincidió con el universo de los estudiantes de primer año en el Grado de Educación Primaria, constituida por un 87% de mujeres y con una edad media de 19 años, lo cual permitió obtener un índice de consistencia interna de 0.83 para el instrumento. Los resultados recalcaron la importancia de potenciar el aprendizaje cooperativo en las aulas universitarias, teniendo en cuenta que son pocas las ocasiones en las que puede ponerse en juego. ABSTRACT: Cooperative learning is one of the main medicines in education: the student takes an active role in their own learning process. Methodological issues are very important within university, since the development project of the European Higher Education Area proposes very profound changes in the educational paradigm, changes in the role of teachers and students inside and outside the classroom. To give force to this argument, the implementation of Cooperative Learning Questionnaire Arellano, Navarro and Sosa (2007 was taken to 692 students enrolled in first grade of primary education in 2010-2011. The sample coincides with the universe of freshmen in the Bachelor of Primary Education, comprising 87% of women with a mean age of 19 years, which yielded an index of 0.83 for internal consistency of the instrument. The results

  18. Megamelus bellicus (Hemiptera: Delphacidae: immature stages and biology Megamelus bellicus (Hemiptera: Delphacidae: estados inmaduros y biología

    Roxana Mariani


    Full Text Available The immature stages of Megamelus bellicus Remes Lenicov & Sosa (Hemiptera: Delphacidae are described, keyed and illustrated. The description of each stage was based on 24-h hatched nymphs from the laboratory colony. The main characters that distinguish the various stages are: body size, color, number of tarsomeres, espinulation of the metatibia and number of teeth on the spur; presence of sensoria on antennal pedicel. This insect was reared on pieces of water hyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes (Martius Solms Laubach. Biological data based on lab and field observations show that M. bellicus carries out its biological cycle successfully on Pontederiaceae. One to nine eggs per scar are laid deeply into the aerenquima of the petiole, being most frequent 3-4, less frequent 5, 2 and 6 and rarely 1, 7 and 9. Eulophid wasps Aprostocetus (Ootetrastichus sp, known as eggs parasitoid, was registered and quantified. As M. bellicus occupies the same ecological habitat that M. scutellaris Berg, we highlighted some morphological and biological aspects that allow their differentiation.Se describen e ilustran los estados inmaduros de Megamelus bellicus Remes Lenicov & Sosa (Hemiptera: Delphacidae y se presenta una clave para identificarlos. La descripción de cada estadio se realizó sobre la base de ninfas extraidas 24 horas posteriores a la eclosión, de colonias de laboratorio y criadas sobre trozos de hojas de camalote Eichhornia crassipes (Martius Solms Laubach. Los principales caracteres para distinguir los distintos estadios son: tamaño del cuerpo, color, número de tarsómeros, espinulación de la metatibia y número de dientes del calcar y presencia de sensorios en el pedicelo antenal. Datos biológicos basados en observaciones en el laboratorio y en el campo, muestran que M. bellicus realiza su ciclo biológico exitosamente sobre Pontederiaceae. Los huevos, dispuestos de 1 a 9 por postura, son colocados profundamente en el aerénquima del pecíolo; son m

  19. Statistical properties of levels and lines in complex spectra

    Pain, Jean-Christophe


    We review recent developments of the statistical properties of complex atomic spectra, based on the pioneering work of Claire Bauche-Arnoult and Jacques Bauche. We discuss several improvements of the statistical methods (UTA, SOSA) for the modeling of the lines in a transition array: impact of high-order moments, choice of the distribution (Generalized Gaussian, Normal Inverse Gaussian) and corrections at low temperatures. The second part of the paper concerns general properties of transition arrays, such as propensity rule and generalized J-file sum rule (for E1 or E2 lines), emphasizing the particular role of the G1 exchange Slater integral. The statistical modeling introduced by J. Bauche and C. Bauche-Arnoult for the distribution of the M values (projection of total angular momentum J) in an electron configuration, written P(M), was extended in order to account for configurations with a high-l spectator and a new analytical formula for the evaluation of the number of E1 lines with a wider range of applica...

  20. Soil-Vegetation-Atmosphere Radiative Transfer Model in Microwave Region

    JIA Yuanyuan; LI Zhaoliang


    The radiative transfer is one of the significant theories that describe the processes of scattering,emission,and absorption of electromagnetic radiant intensity through scattering medium.It is the basis of the study on the quantitative remote sensing.In this paper,the radiative characteristics of soil,vegetation,and atmosphere were described respectively.The numerical solution of radiative transfer was accomplished by Successive Orders of Scattering (SOS).A radiative transfer model for simulating microwave brightness temperature over land surfaces was constructed,designed,and implemented.Analyzing the database generated from soil-vegetation-atmosphere radiative transfer model under Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) configuration showed that the atmospheric effects on microwave brightness temperature should not be neglected,particularly for higher frequency,and can be parameterized.At the same time,the relationship between the emissivities of the different channels was developed.The study results will promote the development of algorithm to retrieve geophysical parameters from microwave remotely sensed data.

  1. El calendario como método de recolección de datos demográficos

    Doris Sosa Jara


    Full Text Available Los estudios con diseño experimental son una rareza en las ciencias sociales. Ello a pesar de ser el medio idóneo para probar hipótesis o evacuar preguntas científicas de relaciones causa-efecto. La monografía “El calendario como método de recolección de datos demográficos” reimpresa en este número de la revista es un raro ejemplo de estudio experimental para determinar las ventajas y desventajas de este método de recolección de datos retrospectivos e historias de vida. El estudio demuestra la mejora en la calidad de ciertos datos con el uso del calendario, como por ejemplo un aumento de 37% en la proporción de abortos reportados en el calendario en comparación con el cuestionario tradicional. Pero, sobre todo, el estudio subraya la importancia, factibilidad y costo razonable de este tipo de diseños experimentales para poner a prueba métodos alternativos de recolección de información que permitan mejorar la calidad del dato.La monografía fue originalmente impresa por la Asociación Demográfica Costarricense en 1988 y una versión ampliada la publicó en inglés la revista Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 23(6, 1992. El experimento tuvo lugar como parte de la “Encuesta Nacional de Fecundidad y Salud, Costa Rica 1986”, llevada a cabo por dicha asociación en colaboración con los Centros para el Control de Enfermedades, de Atlanta, EEUU. La directora de la encuesta y autora del presente estudio fue Doris Sosa Jara, destacada demógrafa costarricense prematuramente fallecida el 15 de setiembre de 2013. La revista Población y Salud en Mesoamérica eligió para reproducir este documento de entre la variada producción de Doris Sosa, como una muestra de rigor científico en un estudio.En los funerales de Doris en el Auditorio de la Facultad de Ciencias Económicas de la Universidad de Costa Rica, facultad de la que hasta hace poco fue Decana durante 8 años, en medio de los discursos y palabras de aprecio, a uno de sus

  2. Moralność a stronniczość (MORALITY VERSUS PARTIALITY

    Piotr Bołtuć


    Full Text Available Patriotism is not a viable option for the traditional universalistic moral systems, including Kantian rationalism and especially for consequentialism. The author follows Sosa in claiming that not all forms of consequentialism have to lack 'deontic components'. He follows up with a stronger claim, that not all systems, deontic or consequentialist, have to accept strong universalism that precludes non-instrumental special moral concerns. He presents the main alternatives: (a Dancy's moral particularism; (b Nagel's idea of partiality based on the non-reducible difference between personal and impersonal view points; (c Scheffler's concern with non-voluntary special duties; (d a broad range of philosophies, from Aristotle's to the ethics of care that use non-homogenous models. The author closes by claiming that the non-homogenous models result in viable moral theories. Such theories treat ethics not as a source of moral recommendations to the effect of what should happen in a given situation, but rather as rules of a largely competitive game that adjudicate two things: (1 what each agent should do in a given situation; (2 what constraints should be imposed on the manner in which that moral competition is taking place.

  3. Identificación de sustancias sólidas y su contribución al Patrimonio del Museo Farmacéutico de Matanzas. Identification of solids and their contribution to the Heritage Museum Matanzas Pharmacist.

    Lilian Delia Curiel Lorenzo


    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se identifican los contenidos de dos frascos presentes en la Sala Almacén 2 del Museo Farmacéutico de Matanzas, los cuales presentan sus etiquetas ilegibles, constituyendo además una tarea del Proyecto Comunitario “Identificación de Sustancias Sólidas y su contribución a la formación integral de los estudiantes de Primer Año de Ingeniería Química de la Universidad de Matanzas Camilo Cienfuegos”.  La determinación se realiza por métodos cualitativos a partir de muestras  que se toman de dos depósitos con material sólido y las mismas características que las contenidas en los frascos antes mencionados. Teniendo como punto de partida la posibilidad de que estas dos sustancias sean el borato de sosa y el azufre, dada por sus propiedades organolépticas y por referencias de trabajadores con antigüedad en el museo.Se realiza la valoración económica de los ensayos realizados, los cuales representan un ahorro para el Museo de  $674,51 USD y $64,58 CUP de haberse solicitado el servicio a un laboratorio especializado.

  4. SOSA与ROCA评价体系在银行监管中应用的思考

    叶瑛; 胡海龙


    SOSA(Strength of Support Assessment)与ROCA(Risk Management、Operational Control、Compliance、Assets Quality)评价体系是美国监管当局评估境内外国银行分行的两大工具.SOSA体系从总行对分行的支持力度角度进行评估,ROCA体系注重对分行自身风险管理和内部控制的评估.两者的结合使用,构成了美国监管当局对外国银行分行实施分类监管的主要依据.本文介绍了两项评价体系的主要内容以及在国外监管实践中的运用,提出将此两项评价体系应用于我国商业银行分行的监管的思路.

  5. Program of energy efficiency of Mexichem Derivados Coatzacoalcos; Programas de eficiencia energetica de Mexichem Derivados Coatzacoalcos

    Bulbarela Croda, Ruperto; Arce Vargas, Mauricio [Mexichem Derivados Coatzacoalcos (Mexico)


    Mexichem Derivados Coatzacoalcos is a producing company of chlorine, soda, sodium hypochlorite and salt. With the purpose of maintaining and consolidating its competitiveness in the international market and to contribute to the preservation of the environment, in 2004 initiated the Program of energy efficiency whose objectives are: to identify the opportunity areas to diminish the present power indexes, to use efficiently the energy sources of the productive activity of the plant and to promote the saving of energy in the companies of Mexichem. [Spanish] Mexichem Derivados Coatzacoalcos es una empresa productora de cloro, sosa, hipoclorito de sodio y sal. Con el fin de mantener y consolidar su competitividad en el mercado internacional y contribuir a la preservacion del medio ambiente, en 2004 inicio con el Programa de eficiencia energetica cuyos objetivos son: identificar las areas de oportunidad para disminuir los indices energeticos actuales, utilizar eficientemente los energeticos de la actividad productiva de la planta y promover el ahorro de energia en las empresas de Mexichem.

  6. Analysis of fine structure of X-ray spectra from laser-irradiated gold dot

    The X-ray emission spectra from highly stripped plasma of gold has been observed by focusing a Nd-glass frequency tripled laser beam onto the surface of the gold dot at the XINGGUANG II laser facilities. The spectra of gold ions in the range of 0.0003 nm-0.0004 nm was recorded using the plate PET (2d = 0.8742 nm) crystal spectrometer. The code of average energy of relativistic sub-arrays was built on the basis of the code MCDF (Multi-Configuration-Dirac-Fock). Using the spin-orbit-split-arrays (SOSA) formalism, mean wavelengths and full widths at half height of isolated peaks of sub-arrays of lower charged gold ions, isoelectronic with Cu, Zn, Ga and Ge, was calculated. Twenty-six lines are interpreted, they pertain mainly to transitions of 3d-nf (n = 5,6,7) of gold ions from Ni-like to As-like. These results of experiment and calculation have important application in plasma diagnostics and examination of high Z elemental atomic structure calculation

  7. Searching for face-specific long latency ERPs: a topographic study of effects associated with mismatching features.

    Olivares, E I; Iglesias, J; Antonieta Bobes, M


    In a previous study [E. Olivares, M.A. Bobes, E. Aubert, M. Valdés-Sosa, Associative ERPs effects with memories of artificial faces, Cogn. Brain Res. 2 (1994) 39-48] we reported the presence of a negativity associated with mismatching features when subjects carried out a face-feature matching task whilst their evoked potentials were recorded. Since the stimuli used were learned faces (realistic drawings), for which the subjects possessed no semantic information or associated verbal labels, the mismatch negativity obtained was considered a face-specific N400. In this work we present a new experiment to study the topographic distribution of these mismatch effects. As in the above-mentioned study, in each trial the subjects observed previously an incomplete (without the eyes/eyebrows fragment) familiar face, which served as a structural context for the face recognition. The face was then completed by grafting either matching (learned) features or mismatching features (from another face). In line with neuropsychological studies on prosopagnosia and electrophysiological findings in humans and non-human primates, we found as one of the most relevant items of data that the most-posterior (principally, left occipital) cortices appear to be a region in which are located the possible neural generators of the negativity associated with the detection of incongruencies in the structure of familiar faces. We also reported a late positivity, distributed in more anterior regions, which follows the mismatch negativity. This complex N-P is interpreted as reflecting a dual process of retrieval and integration of information in memory. PMID:9838186

  8. Observations of advanced lines (M8) of Vicia (Vicia faba L.) attained with gamma radiation

    Since 1977, the Facultad de Ciencias Agricolas from Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico (FCA-UAEM) in cooperation with Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ) has been developing the research related with the use of physical mutagens in plant breeding of Vicia faba L. Starting from 1985, the Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico (UAEM) is financing this research project and the Facultad de Ciencias Agricolas supplies the research personnel, the greenhouses and the experimental fields. Alternatives in plant breeding for vegetable species can be reach using the natural accumulated genetic endowment, or else by means of the production of new mutants through the application of mutagens. At the present time, mutagens can be considered as an additional element from men in its fight for the procurement of more and better food. All seems to point to the past, as well as to the future, that plant breeding task has been, is and will be to take advantage of the genetic variability already present in nature, or else to modify this variability with the more feasible technology, to fix in the population those genes which expression satisfy in a way every time more accurate, the demands of human being before the exploitation of product derived from vegetable species (A. Gustaffson 1964, mentioned by Escutia 1982). At the present, in some vegetable species as are bean, wheat, oats, maize, sesame, potatoes between others, technique of mutagenic induction by physical or chemical agents is used. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) establishes 300 varieties of asexual reproductions and 200 varieties of sexual reproduction, obtained by radiations methodology (Sosa 1983). (Author) 6 refs, 6 tabs

  9. Triarylmethanes, a new class of Cx50 inhibitors



    Full Text Available The paucity of specific pharmacological agents has been a major impediment for delineating the roles of gap junction channels formed by connexin proteins in physiology and pathophysiology. Here, we used the selective optimization of side activities (SOSA approach, which has led to the design of high affinity inhibitors of other ion channels, to identify a specific inhibitor for channels formed by Cx50, a connexin subtype that is expressed in the lens. We initially screened a library of common ion channel modulating pharmacophores for their inhibitory effects on Cx50 gap junction channels, and identified four new classes of compounds. The triarlymethane (TRAM clotrimazole was the most potent Cx50 inhibitor and we therefore used it as a template to explore the structure activity relationship (SAR of the TRAMs for Cx50 inhibition. We here describe the design of T122 (N-[(2-methoxyphenyldiphenylmethyl]-1,3-thiazol-2-amine and T136 (N-[(2-iodophenyldiphenylmethyl]-1,3-thiazol-2-amine, which inhibit Cx50 with IC50s of 1.2 µM and 2.4 µM. Both exhibit at least 10-fold selectivity over other connexins as well as major neuronal and cardiac voltage-gated K+ and Na+ channels. The SAR studies also indicated that the TRAM pharmacophore required for connexin inhibition is significantly different from the pharmacophore required for blocking the calcium-activated KCa3.1 channel. Both T122 and T136 selectively inhibited Cx50 gap junction channels in lens epithelial cells, suggesting that they could be used to further explore the role of Cx50 in the lens. In addition, our results indicate that a similar approach may be used to find specific inhibitors of other connexin subtypes.

  10. Axitinib: The evidence of its potential in the treatment of advanced thyroid cancer

    Hari A Deshpande, Scott Gettinger


    Full Text Available Hari A Deshpande1, Scott Gettinger1, Julie Ann Sosa21Yale Cancer Center, Department of Medical Oncology, 2Division of Endocrine Surgery, Department of Surgery, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USAIntroduction: Thyroid cancer is a rare disease with an incidence of around 37,000 cases per year. However, its incidence is rising faster than many other cancers and for men this disease ranks highest overall in the rate of increase (2.4% annual increase in cancer deaths. As the number of radioactive iodine-resistant thyroid cancers increases, the need for newer treatments has become more important. Axitinib is one of many new small molecule inhibitors of growth factor receptors that have shown promise in the treatment of many cancers. It targets the vascular endothelial growth factor receptors 1, 2 and 3.Aims: The goal of this article is to review the published evidence for the use of axitinib in the treatment of thyroid cancer and define its therapeutic potential. Evidence review: The major evidence of axitinib activity has appeared in meeting report abstracts. One phase II study has been published. This included patients with any histological type of thyroid cancer that was not amenable to treatment with radioactive iodine. Clinical potential: To date, in phase II clinical studies axitinib has demonstrated antitumor activity in advanced refractory thyroid cancer. As a monotherapy it resulted in a 30% response rate with another 38% of patients having stable disease. Axitinib appears to have a good tolerability profile, with hypertension being the most common grade 3 or greater side effect. Keywords: axitinib, thyroid cancer, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor

  11. A photometric search for activity among asteroids and Centaurs

    Sosa Oyarzabal, A.; Mammana, L.; Fernández, J. A.


    We present the first results of a long-term observational campaign focused on the detection of activity in selected asteroids and centaurs. Our observational targets are near-Earth asteroids in cometary orbits (cf. [2]), the so called ''main-belt comets'' or ''active asteroids'' (well-known objects as well as potential candidates), and bright centaurs with good orbits, all close to their perihelion passages. In those objects with a former detection of activity, our aim is to contribute to a better physical knowledge of them, and determine, for instance, if the observed activity is transient or permanent. To achieve our goals, we analyzed CCD-filtered images of each observable target acquired with the 2.15-m telescope ''Jorge Sahade'' at CASLEO (San Juan, Argentina), during two runs of three consecutive nights each (during August 2013 and January 2014, respectively). Our study will be completed by future runs with the same instrumentation already assigned to our campaign. As preliminary results, we observed activity in the main-belt comets P/2013 P5 (PANSTARRS) and 133P/(7968) Elst-Pizarro. We also observed the main-belt comet (596) Scheila, which showed an unequivocally stellar appearance. We observed the main-belt comet candidate (3646) Aduatiques (cf. [1]), and noticed in this object a curious feature whose connection to some kind of activity is not well determined yet. We also observed the near-Earth asteroid in cometary orbit 2006 XL_5 (cf. [3]), and the centaurs (281371) 2008 FC_{76}, (332685) 2009 HH_{36}), (382004) 2010 RM_{64}, 2010 XZ_{78}, and 2011 UR_{402}. We have not detected activity in these objects, but an improved analysis is still in progress. %Corresponding author: Andrea Sosa (

  12. Oxidation of SO2 by stabilized Criegee intermediate (sCI radicals as a crucial source for atmospheric sulfuric acid concentrations

    M. Boy


    Full Text Available The effect of increased reaction rates of stabilized Criegee intermediates (sCIs with SO2 to produce sulfuric acid is investigated using data from two different locations, SMEAR II, Hyytiälä, Finland, and Hohenpeissenberg, Germany. Results from MALTE, a zero-dimensional model, show that using previous values for the rate coefficients of sCI + SO2, the model underestimates gas phase H2SO4 by up to a factor of two when compared to measurements. Using the rate coefficients recently calculated by Mauldin et al. (2012 increases sulfuric acid by 30–40%. Increasing the rate coefficient for formaldehyde oxide (CH2OO with SO2 according to the values recommended by Welz et al. (2012 increases the H2SO4 yield by 3–6%. Taken together, these increases lead to the conclusion that, depending on their concentrations, the reaction of stabilized Criegee intermediates with SO2 could contribute as much as 33–46% to atmospheric sulfuric acid gas phase concentrations at ground level. Using the SMEAR II data, results from SOSA, a one-dimensional model, show that the contribution from sCI reactions to sulfuric acid production is most important in the canopy, where the concentrations of organic compounds are the highest, but can have significant effects on sulfuric acid concentrations up to 100 m. The recent findings that the reaction of sCI + SO2 is much faster than previously thought together with these results show that the inclusion of this new oxidation mechanism could be crucial in regional as well as global models.

  13. Review of the safety, efficacy and patient acceptability of the combined dienogest/estradiol valerate contraceptive pill

    Maurizio Guida


    Full Text Available Maurizio Guida, Giuseppe Bifulco, Attilio Di Spiezio Sardo, Mariamaddalena Scala, Loredana Maria Sosa Fernandez, Carmine NappiDipartimento di Scienze Ostetriche Ginecologiche Urologiche e Medicina della Riproduzione Umana, Università degli Studi “Federico II”, Napoli, Italia Abstract: The aim of this review is to define the role of the combined dienogest (DNG/­estradiol valerate (E2V contraceptive pill, in terms of biochemistry, metabolic and ­pharmacological effects and clinical application as well. E2V is the esterified form of 17β-estradiol (E2, while dienogest is a fourth-generation progestin with a partial antiandrogenic effect. The cycle stability is achieved with 2 to 3 mg DNG, supporting contraceptive efficacy. In this new oral contraceptive, E2V is combined with DNG in a four-phasic dose regimen (the first two tablets contain 3 mg E2V; the next five tablets include 2 mg E2V + 2 mg DNG, followed by 17 tablets with 2 mg E2V + 3 mg DNG; followed by two tablets with 1 mg E2V only, and finally two placebo tablets. Duration and intensity of scheduled withdrawal bleeding are lower with this ­contraceptive pill, whereas the incidence and the intensity of intra-cyclic bleeding are similar to the other oral contraceptive. With this new pill the levels of high density lipoprotein increased, while the levels of prothrombin fragment 1 + 2 and D-dimer remained relatively unchanged; the levels of sex hormone binding globulin, cortisol binding globulin, thyroxine binding globulin increased. The most frequently reported adverse events are: breast pain, headache, acne, alopecia, migraine, increase of ­bodyweight. The satisfaction rate is about 79.4%.Keywords: estradiol valerate, dienogest, combined oral contraceptive, four-phasic regimen, contraceptive safety

  14. Critical appraisal of rituximab in the maintenance treatment of advanced follicular lymphoma

    Aguiar-Bujanda D


    Full Text Available David Aguiar-Bujanda, María Jesús Blanco-Sánchez, María Hernández-Sosa, Saray Galván-Ruíz, Samuel Hernández-Sarmiento Department of Medical Oncology, Hospital Universitario de Gran Canaria Doctor Negrín, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain Abstract: Rituximab is an IgG1, chimeric monoclonal antibody specifically designed to recognize the CD20 antigen expressed on the surface of normal and malignant B-lymphocytes, from the B-cell precursor to the mature B-cells of the germinal center, and by most neoplasms derived from B-cells. After 2 decades of use, rituximab is firmly positioned in the treatment of follicular lymphoma (FL, both in the front line and in the relapsing disease, improving previous results by including it in classical chemotherapy regimens. However, the pharmacology of rituximab continues to generate controversial issues especially regarding the mechanisms of action in vivo. The contribution of rituximab as a maintenance treatment in FL has been significant progress in the management of this disease without an increase in side effects or a decrease in the quality of life of patients. With the widespread use of rituximab, there are new security alerts and side effects not previously detected in the pivotal trials that clinicians should learn to recognize and manage. In this article, we will review the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of rituximab, the management issues in the treatment of advanced FL focusing on maintenance rituximab, its long-term efficacy and safety profile, and its effect on the quality of life. Keywords: follicular lymphoma, long-term efficacy, maintenance, rituximab, toxicity

  15. Formalization of the engineering science discipline - knowledge engineering

    Peng, Xiao

    Knowledge is the most precious ingredient facilitating aerospace engineering research and product development activities. Currently, the most common knowledge retention methods are paper-based documents, such as reports, books and journals. However, those media have innate weaknesses. For example, four generations of flying wing aircraft (Horten, Northrop XB-35/YB-49, Boeing BWB and many others) were mostly developed in isolation. The subsequent engineers were not aware of the previous developments, because these projects were documented such which prevented the next generation of engineers to benefit from the previous lessons learned. In this manner, inefficient knowledge retention methods have become a primary obstacle for knowledge transfer from the experienced to the next generation of engineers. In addition, the quality of knowledge itself is a vital criterion; thus, an accurate measure of the quality of 'knowledge' is required. Although qualitative knowledge evaluation criteria have been researched in other disciplines, such as the AAA criterion by Ernest Sosa stemming from the field of philosophy, a quantitative knowledge evaluation criterion needs to be developed which is capable to numerically determine the qualities of knowledge for aerospace engineering research and product development activities. To provide engineers with a high-quality knowledge management tool, the engineering science discipline Knowledge Engineering has been formalized to systematically address knowledge retention issues. This research undertaking formalizes Knowledge Engineering as follows: 1. Categorize knowledge according to its formats and representations for the first time, which serves as the foundation for the subsequent knowledge management function development. 2. Develop an efficiency evaluation criterion for knowledge management by analyzing the characteristics of both knowledge and the parties involved in the knowledge management processes. 3. Propose and develop an

  16. 夏季温室螺(节)旋藻光合及呼吸速率日动态变化规律%Daily variation of photosynthetic rate and respiratory rate of Spirulina(Arthrospira)in greenhouse in summer

    巩东辉; 张少英; 乔辰; 刘华


    对夏季温室培养的鄂尔多斯高原碱湖的钝顶螺(节)旋藻(代号S1)和两个引进螺旋藻种(非洲乍得湖钝顶螺(节)旋藻(代号S3)、墨西哥Sosa Texcoco湖的极大螺(节)旋藻(代号S4)的光合速率、呼吸速率日动态变化规律进行了比较研究.结果表明:(1)在夏季晴天,温室中螺旋藻的光合速率日变化由于出现光抑制而呈双峰曲线,峰值分别出现在10:00时和12:00时;在夏季的多云和阴天状态下,温室中螺旋藻的光合速率日变化规律为单峰曲线.在不同天气状态下螺旋藻呼吸速率的日变化幅度较小.(2)3个螺旋藻样品的光合作用和环境因子分析显示,光强与螺旋藻光合速率之间在"午睡"情况下,呈显著负相关,在"非午睡"情况下,二者呈显著正相关(P<0.05);螺旋藻的呼吸速率随藻液温度的升降而升降,呼吸速率值S4S3S1.(3)3个样品光合产物的日积累量为晴天多云阴天.

  17. Utilization of flavonoid compounds from bark and wood: a review.

    Yazaki, Yoshikazu


    Flavonoid compounds, which are extracted from bark and wood and used commercially, are flavan 3-ols as monomers and their polymers, which are called "condensed tannins". Reactions of the condensed tannins with formaldehyde are the basis for wood adhesives. In the late 1940s, tannin research for wood adhesives was begun and the world-first commercial use of wattle tannin from black wattle (Acacia mearnsii) bark as wood adhesives occurred in Australia in the 1960s. In addition, wattle tannin-based adhesives were further developed in South Africa and the uses of these adhesives have been continuing to date. The success of wattle tannin in wood adhesives is demonstrated by the collaboration of the ACIAR with the CAF in the early 1990s. Although radiata pine bark (Pinus radiata) could be a useful resource for the production of wood adhesives, three problems prevented its use in this application: low extractive yields from the bark, variable quality of the tannin extracts and excessive viscosity of the formulated tannin adhesives. In order to overcome these problems, various extraction methods have been proposed. Studies on tannin adhesives from bark of other pine species are also described. Furthermore, the use of the tannin in the bark without extraction is described as "bark adhesives" from radiata pine and black wattle. The use of radiata tannin without formaldehyde for moulded wood products is also described. Owing to the strong antioxidant activity of flavonoid compounds, bark extracts from French maritime pine (Pinus pinaster, synonym P. maritima) and radiata pine have been commercialized as nutritional supplements: Pycnogenol and Enzogenol, respectively. The background and the development of Pycnogenol and the basic difference in the preparation processes between Pycnogenol and Enzogenol are described. On the basis of the discovery that the SOSA value for wattle tannin is approximately 10 times that of extracts from pine bark supplements (Pycnogenol and Enzogenol

  18. Homenaje a Julieta Quilodrán

    Viridiana Sosa


    Full Text Available El Centro de Estudios Demográficos, Urbanos y Ambientales de El Colegio de México realizó un reconocimiento a la trayectoria de la profesora investigadora Julieta Quilodrán 1 por su destacada labor en la docencia e investigación demográficas durante más de cuatro décadas. Durante el homenaje se hizo un recuento de su sobresaliente desempeño como pro - fesora investigadora en análisis demográfico; se enfatizó que Julieta Quilodrán es pio - nera en la investigación sobre familia y nupcialidad, que ha dedicado cuarenta años a investigar las transformaciones del matrimonio, la familia y la fecundidad en México y América Latina, y que es una referencia en la investigación en la demografía mundial. Además ha formado a un gran número de generaciones de demógrafos, a quienes ha inculcado el rigor en el uso de todas las metodologías del análisis demográfico. También se presentó el libro Parejas conyugales en transformación –del cual Julieta Quilodrán es compiladora–, 2 en el que se documentan desde el punto de vista demográfico los cambios ocurridos en el ámbito de la vida conyugal y familiar a partir de varios enfoques metodológicos cuantitativos, cualitativos y jurídicos. El reconocimiento y la presentación del libro se llevaron a cabo el 23 de abril de 2012 en El Colegio de México. En la ceremonia participaron Teresa Castro, Robert McCaa, Beatriz Figueroa, Viridiana Sosa, Manuel Ordorica y Silvia Giorguli. Por úl - timo, Julieta Quilodrán emitió un breve mensaje de agradecimiento. A continuación presentamos las palabras de quienes intervinieron en el acto, precedidas por una intro - ducción elaborada por Silvia Giorguli, directora del Centro de Estudios Demográficos, Urbanos y Ambientales de El Colegio de México.

  19. Difusión de sodio en aceitunas verdes durante el tratamiento alcalino. I: Efecto de la concentración de la lejía

    Rey, Enrique


    Full Text Available The diffusion of sodium in green olives, variety Arauco/Criolla was quantitatively measured during the debittering process with lye of 1,50; 2,25 y 3,00%, at 20 ºC. With lye of 1,50%, the diffusion is apparently controlled by skin resistance resulting in smaller sodium concentrations and a more uniform debittering. With lye of 3,00%, the diffusion is more affected by flesh resistance, resulting in greater sodium concentrations and less uniform debittering. With lye of 2,25%, the diffusion of sodium is controlled by skin resistance at first and by flesh resistance thereafter. From this study, a final average concentration of 0,20 meq-Na/g-olive could be inferred as an appropriate treatment value. The experimental data were correlated with the equation: C=Ci+A*t-B (t=diffusion time, then A and B were correlated with sodium penetration distances.Se cuantificó la difusión de sodio en aceitunas verdes variedad Arauco (Criolla durante el tratamiento alcalino con lejías al 1,50; 2,25 y 3,00%, a 20 ºC. Con lejía de 1,50%, la difusión estaría controlada por la resistencia de la epidermis, resultando en menores concentraciones de sodio en la pulpa y en un tratamiento alcalino más uniforme. Con sosa al 3,00%, la difusión estaría más afectada por la resistencia de la pulpa, resultando en mayores concentraciones de sodio en la pulpa y menor uniformidad de tratamiento. Con lejía de 2,25%, la difusión estaría dominada al principio por la resistencia de la epidermis y luego por la resistencia de la pulpa. Este estudio permite inferir un valor final promedio de tratamiento de 0,20 meq-Na/g-aceituna como apropiado. Los datos experimentales se correlacionaron con la ecuación: C=Ci+A*t-B (t=tiempo de penetración, luego A y B se correlacionaron con la distancia de penetración.

  20. Optimización del Proceso de Remoción de Metales Pesados de Agua Residual de la Industria Galvánica por Precipitación Química Optimization of the Removal Processs of Heavy Metals from Raw Water of Galvanic Industry by Chemical Precipitation

    Eduardo Soto


    Full Text Available Se han estudiado las condiciones óptimas requeridas para remover metales pesados del agua residual de una industria galvánica, que contiene cromo (435 mg/L, zinc (720 mg/L, hierro (168 mg/L y níquel (24 mg/L. Se usó agua preparada en el laboratorio (agua sintética y agua de la industria misma (agua cruda. El tratamiento se hizo mediante precipitación química, usando sosa para ajustar el pH y cloruro férrico como aditivo coagulante en un equipo de prueba de jarras. Las condiciones óptimas encontradas usando el agua sintética fueron: 7 minutos para el tiempo de floculación, 18 rpm para la velocidad de agitación y 11.8 mL para la dosis de coagulante. Para el agua cruda fueron: 9.5 minutos para el tiempo de floculación, 30 rpm para la velocidad de agitación y 5.2 mL para la dosis de coagulante. Las condiciones de tratamiento fueron diferentes para el agua residual cruda, ya que el agua residual cruda contiene otros contaminantes, los cuales sobrecargan la superficie coloidal, esto afecta el proceso de floculaciónThe aim of this research was to obtain the optimum conditions to remove heavy metals from wastewaters of the galvanic industry, which contain chromium (435 mg/L, zinc (720 mg/L, iron (168 mg/L and nickel (24 mg/L. The treatment was made by chemical precipitation using caustic soda to set pH and ferric chloride like coagulant aid in jar test. The responses to optimize are: flocculation time, stirring speed and coagulant dose. The optimum conditions to remove heavy metals from synthetic wastewater was, flocculation time: 7 minutes, stirring speed: 18 rpm, coagulant dose: 11.8 mL and flocculation time: 9.5 minutes,stirring speed: 30 rpm, coagulant dose: 5.2 mL for raw wastewater. The treatment conditions were different for the raw wastewater because the raw wastewater contains other pollutants which over charge the colloidal surface and affects the flocculation processes

  1. Ablation and optical third-order nonlinearities in Ag nanoparticles

    Carlos Torres-Torres


    Full Text Available Carlos Torres-Torres1, Néstor Peréa-López2, Jorge Alejandro Reyes-Esqueda3, Luis Rodríguez-Fernández3, Alejandro Crespo-Sosa3, Juan Carlos Cheang-Wong3, Alicia Oliver31Section of Graduate Studies and Research, School of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, National Polytechnic Institute, Zacatenco, Distrito Federal, Mexico; 2Laboratory for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Research and Advanced Materials Department, IPICYT, Camino a la Presa San Jose, San Luis Potosi, Mexico; 3Instituto de Física, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, A.P. 20-364, México, D.F. 01000, MéxicoAbstract: The optical damage associated with high intensity laser excitation of silver nanoparticles (NPs was studied. In order to investigate the mechanisms of optical nonlinearity of a nanocomposite and their relation with its ablation threshold, a high-purity silica sample implanted with Ag ions was exposed to different nanosecond and picosecond laser irradiations. The magnitude and sign of picosecond refractive and absorptive nonlinearities were measured near and far from the surface plasmon resonance (SPR of the Ag NPs with a self-diffraction technique. Saturable optical absorption and electronic polarization related to self-focusing were identified. Linear absorption is the main process involved in nanosecond laser ablation, but nonlinearities are important for ultrashort picosecond pulses when the absorptive process become significantly dependent on the irradiance. We estimated that near the resonance, picosecond intraband transitions allow an expanded distribution of energy among the NPs, in comparison to the energy distribution resulting in a case of far from resonance, when the most important absorption takes place in silica. We measured important differences in the ablation threshold and we estimated that the high selectiveness of the SPR of Ag NPs as well as their corresponding optical nonlinearities can be strongly significant for laser

  2. Estudio Químico, Micrográfico y Morfológico del Ricinus communis L., y su Aplicación en Pulpa Blanqueable

    Teófilo Escoto García


    Full Text Available México posee una gran gama de especies vegetales no maderables o arbustivos, de los cuales se sabe muy poco, y para el caso del Ricinus communis L., existen trabajos sobre el uso de la semilla en biocombustibles y en la obtención de celulosa a partir del tallo. Con estos antecedentes se recolectó un espécimen de Ricinus communis , se descortezó y astilló para llevar a cabo los análisis de composición química, micrográfico y morfológico del tejido leñoso; aplicando además un proceso químico a la sosa para la obtención de celulosa blanqueable mediante secuencia OD/OP/D, evaluando las propiedades de resistencia fisicomecánica y viscosidad, así como blancura y opacidad. La composición química indica que el contenido en holocelulosa (85.0 % y alfa celulosa (66.3 % se encuentra dentro de los parámetros para papel. El análisis micrográfico reportó la relación de Runkel con un grado II y el análisis morfológico reportó que las fibras tienen una longitud promedio de 1.057 mm y pared de 4.4 m de espesor; con gran posibilidad de producir papel de buena calidad. Las condiciones para la obtención de pulpa se dan en 25 % reactivo, 160 °C, 120 minutos de cocción y 26 minutos de refinación. El tratamiento de blanqueo reportó un grado de blancura de 86.8 % y una viscosidad de 10.7 cp. Concluyendo que de acuerdo a sus componentes químicos, características micrográficas y morfológicas el Ricinus communis L ., técnicamente es viable para su aplicación en pulpa blanqueable.

  3. Characterization of drought patterns through remote sensing over The Chihuahua Desert, Mexico"

    Madrigal, J. M.; Lopez, A.; Garatuza, J.


    Drought is a phenomenon that has intensified during the last few decades in the arid and semi-arid zones of northern Mexico. In the Chihuahua desert, across Chihuahua, Durango and Coahuila states has caused loss of food sustainability (agriculture, livestock), an increase in human health problems, and detriment of ecosystem services as well as important economic losses. In order to understand this phenomenon, it is necessary to create tools that allow monitoring the territory's spatial heterogeneity and multi-temporality. With this purpose we propose the implementation of a drought model which includes the traditional indexes of climatic drought, such as the Palmer Drought Severity Index PDSI, the Standardized Index of Rainfall SPI, data from meteorological stations and biophysical variations obtained from the MODIS sensors product MOD13 NDVI from 2001 to 2010, as well as biophysical variables characteristic of the environment, such as land use and vegetation coverage, Eco-regions, soil moisture, digital elevation model and irrigate agriculture districts. With the MODIS images, a spatially coherent time series was created analyzing the study area's phenology (TIMESAT) created the Seasonal Greenness (SG) and Start of Season Anomaly (SOSA) for the mentioned nine years. Through this, the annual cycles were established. With a decision tree model, all the previously mentioned proposed variables were integrated. The proposed model produces a general map which characterizes the vegetation condition (extreme drought, severe drought, moderate drought, near normal). Even though different techniques have been proposed on the monitoring of droughts, most of them generate drought indexes with a spatial resolution of 1km (Wardlow, B. et. al 2008; Levent T. et al. 2013). One of the main concerns of researchers on the matter is on improving the spatial information content and on having a better representation of the phenomenon. We use the normalized difference vegetation index

  4. Editorial

    Carolina Santamaría Ulloa


    ón para el monitoreo de los derechos de los adultos mayores de Argentina y Uruguay, basado en el enfoque de los derechos humanos.El quinto artículo científico realiza una evaluación de la energía y los macronutrientes de la alimentación servida a niños y niñas menores de seis años en centros de cuido y hogares comunitarios de la Gran Área Metropolitana de Costa Rica; en él, Zúñiga y Fernández concluyen que la mayoría de los platos servidos a esta población de estudio no cumplen con el aporte de energía recomendado, mientras que el aporte de carbohidratos superó las recomendaciones en todos los centros estudiados.El sexto artículo nos traslada a México; en él, Reyes y Álvarez evalúan los programas de formación de promotores para la prevención y el control de la tuberculosis en la región fronteriza de Chiapas. Las autoras elaboran sus conclusiones en torno a la importancia de la participación comunitaria para definir el problema de la tuberculosis y reflexionar sobre los posibles caminos a seguir. Se demuestra la eficacia de la capacitación de promotores y su utilidad en el proceso de tratamiento de la tuberculosis a nivel comunitario.Nuestra sección de documentos históricos es un homenaje póstumo a la Dra. Doris Sosa Jara, quien fue decana de la Facultad de Ciencias Económicas de la Universidad de Costa Rica por espacio de ocho años, además de activa colaboradora de esta revista. Luis Rosero hace una caracterización del aporte académico de la Dra. Sosa, y nos recuerda su carrera profesional y las cualidades humanas que siempre la caracterizaron.De parte del Comité Editorial de Población y Salud en Mesoamérica, les extendemos las más sinceras gracias a todos los autores por elegirnos como portal electrónico para la publicación de sus estudios académicos e investigaciones, y a los lectores, quienes son los que nos alientan a continuar trabajando para mejorar la calidad de nuestras publicaciones.

  5. VB studies on bonding features of HNCHCN

    LIAO; Xinli(


    University Press, 1960, 64-107.[13]Sosa, C., Noga, J., Purvis, G. D. et al., An application of the full CCSDT coupled-cluster method to potential-energy curves-- the CH4→CH3+H dissociation, Chem. Phys. Lett., 1998, 153(2-3): 139-146.[14]Wu, W., Song, L. C., Mo, Y. R. et al., XIAMEN--An ab initio Spin-Free Valence Bond Program, Xiamen: Xiamen University, 1999.[15]Li, Q. M., Fu, X. Y., The topological characteristics of the structures in the vicinity of the transition state of HCN-HNC isomerization, Acta Phys. Chem. Sinica (in Chinese), 1992, 8(6): 724-727.[16]Pau, C. F., Hehre, W. J., Heat of formation of hydrogen isocyanide by ion-cyclotron double-resonance spectroscopy, J. Phys. Chem., 1982, 86(3): 321-322.

  6. Energy saving using solar filters with iron base in windows; Ahorro de energia usando filtros solares con base en hierro en ventanas

    Chavez Galan, Jesus


    termico generado al interior de las edificaciones por las inadecuadas propiedades de los materiales de construccion, se desarrollaron en este trabajo filtros solares con base en hierro por medio de los cuales se logra un control selectivo de la radiacion solar que se transmite a traves de las ventanas. Estos filtros solares consisten en peliculas delgadas de FeO depositadas sobre sustratos de vidrio cal-sosa (el mas usado en nuestro pais para las edificaciones) de 600x300x3 mm, por medio de la tecnica de sputtering asistida con radiofrecuencia y magnetrones planos, partiendo de un blanco de hierro puro de 127x254 mm y usando un plasma de argon. Para obtener el grado de oxidacion deseado en el hierro, pequenas muestras (45 x 22 mm) fueron sometidas a un proceso de calentamiento en una atmosfera reductora constituida de 50% H{sub 2} + 50% N{sub 2}, durante un periodo de tiempo de 10 minutos a una temperatura de 400 C. Los filtros solares con base en FeO presentan una transmisividad de 30.2% para el intervalo visible del espectro electromagnetico (radiacion con longitud de onda de 380-780 nm), y de 39.9% para el infrarrojo cercano (radiacion con longitud de onda de 780-2500 nm); mientras que su reflectividad es de 17.5 y 19%, para los intervalos visibles e infrarrojo cercano del espectro electromagnetico respectivamente. Se realizo una simulacion, a traves del software Energy 10, del comportamiento energetico de una casa-habitacion cuando utilizan en las ventanas vidrios simples (una lamina) tipo cal-sosa, asi como tambien cuando esta misma edificacion usa en las ventanas los filtros solares con base en FeO desarrollados. Ambos casos se comparan obteniendose asi los posibles ahorros de energia por el uso de dichos filtros solares en las ventanas. Las simulaciones fueron llevadas a cabo para diferentes localidades del pais, obteniendose que los filtros solares con base en FeO desarrollados, permiten ahorros de energia principalmente por concepto de acondicionamiento de aire

  7. Hyperthyroidism and Other Causes of Thyrotoxicosis: Management Guidelines of the American Thyroid Association and American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists

    V V Fadeyev


    Full Text Available В конце весны 2011 г. вышли новые рекомендации Американской тиреоидной ассоциации и Американской ассоциации клинических эндокринологов по диагностике и лечению тиреотоксикоза. Они озаглавлены “Гипертиреоз и другие причины тиреотоксикоза”. Bahn R.S., Burch H.B., Cooper D.S., Garber J.R., Greenlee M.C., Klein I., Laurberg P., McDougall I.R., Montori V.M., Rivkees S.A., Ross D.S., Sosa J.A., Stan M.N. Hyperthyroidism and Other Causes of Thyrotoxicosis: Management Guidelines of the American Thyroid Association and American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists. Thyroid. 2011:21. Рекомендации представляют собой достаточно большой документ, изданный на 54 журнальных страницах. Важно отметить, что в его создании участвовали не только американские, но и европейские эксперты, т.е. представленные рекомендации не узкоспецифичны для США, где, как известно, есть свои особенности организации медицинской помощи. В документе сформулировано собственно 100 пунктов рекомендаций, каждому из которых представлен уровень силы рекомендации и уровень доказательности. Большая же часть объема документа представлена обсуждением и аргументацией,на основании которой были сформулированы 100 рекомендаций. В этой статье хотелось бы