... Risk Factors Is shoulder instability the same as shoulder dislocation? No. The signs of dislocation and instability might ... the same to you--weakness and pain. However, dislocation occurs when your shoulder goes completely out of place. The shoulder ligaments ...
In the shoulder, the advantages of range of motion are traded for the disadvantages of vulnerability to injury and the development of instability. Shoulder instability and the lesion it produces represent one of the main causes of shoulder discomfort and pain. Shoulder instability is defined as a symptomatic abnormal motion of the humeral head relative to the glenoid during active shoulder motion. Glenohumeral instabilities are classified according to their causative factors as the pathogenesis of instability plays an important role with respect to treatment options: instabilities are classified in traumatic and atraumatic instabilities as part of a multidirectional instability syndrome, and in microtraumatic instabilities. Plain radiographs ('trauma series') are performed to document shoulder dislocation and its successful reposition. Direct MR arthrography is the most important imaging modality for delineation the different injury patterns on the labral-ligamentous complex and bony structures. Monocontrast CT-arthrography with use of multidetector CT scanners may be an alternative imaging modality, however, regarding the younger patient age, MR imaging should be preferred in the diagnostic work-up of shoulder instabilities. (orig.)
Smith, Matthew V; Sekiya, Jon K
2010-06-01
Hip instability is becoming a more commonly recognized source of pain and disability in patients. Traumatic causes of hip instability are often clear. Appropriate treatment includes immediate reduction, early surgery for acetabular rim fractures greater than 25% or incarcerated fragments in the joint, and close follow-up to monitor for avascular necrosis. Late surgical intervention may be necessary for residual symptomatic hip instability. Atraumatic causes of hip instability include repetitive external rotation with axial loading, generalized ligamentous laxity, and collagen disorders like Ehlers-Danlos. Symptoms caused by atraumatic hip instability often have an insidious onset. Patients may have a wide array of hip symptoms while demonstrating only subtle findings suggestive of capsular laxity. Traction views of the affected hip can be helpful in diagnosing hip instability. Open and arthroscopic techniques can be used to treat capsular laxity. We describe an arthroscopic anterior hip capsular plication using a suture technique. PMID:20473129
Joly, Laurent; Chassaing, Patrick; Chapin, Vincent; Reinaud, Jean; Micallef, J; Suarez, Juan; Bretonnet, L
2003-01-01
1. Introduction - Illustrative examples from experiments and simulations 2. The baroclinic torque in high Froude number flows, its organization, scale and order of magnitude 3. Stability of the inhomogeneous mixing-layer 4. Transition of the inhomogeneous mixing-layer and the 2D secondary baroclinic instability 5. The strain field of 2D light jets 6. Transition to three-dimensionality in light jets and the question of side-jets 7. Baroclinic instability of heavy vortices and...
Schmitt, R.; Froehner, S.; Coblenz, G.; Christopoulos, G. [Institut fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Herz- und Gefaessklinik GmbH, Bad Neustadt an der Saale (Germany)
2006-10-15
This review addresses the pathoanatomical basics as well as the clinical and radiological presentation of instability patterns of the wrist. Carpal instability mostly follows an injury; however, other diseases, like CPPD arthropathy, can be associated. Instability occurs either if the carpus is unable to sustain physiologic loads (''dyskinetics'') or suffers from abnormal motion of its bones during movement (''dyskinematics''). In the classification of carpal instability, dissociative subcategories (located within proximal carpal row) are differentiated from non-dissociative subcategories (present between the carpal rows) and combined patterns. It is essential to note that the unstable wrist initially does not cause relevant signs in standard radiograms, therefore being ''occult'' for the radiologic assessment. This paper emphasizes the high utility of kinematographic studies, contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and MR arthrography for detecting these predynamic and dynamic instability stages. Later in the natural history of carpal instability, static malalignment of the wrist and osteoarthritis will develop, both being associated with significant morbidity and disability. To prevent individual and socio-economic implications, the handsurgeon or orthopedist, as well as the radiologist, is challenged for early and precise diagnosis. (orig.)
Shoulder instability is a common clinical feature leading to recurrent pain and limitated range of motion within the glenohumeral joint. Instability can be due a single traumatic event, general joint laxity or repeated episodes of microtrauma. Differentiation between traumatic and atraumatic forms of shoulder instability requires careful history and a systemic clinical examination. Shoulder laxity has to be differentiated from true instability followed by the clinical assessment of direction and degree of glenohumeral translation. Conventional radiography and CT are used for the diagnosis of bony lesions. MR imaging and MR arthrography help in the detection of soft tissue affection, especially of the glenoid labrum and the capsuloligamentous complex. The most common lesion involving the labrum is the anterior labral tear, associated with capsuloperiostal stripping (Bankart lesion). A number of variants of the Bankart lesion have been described, such as ALPSA, SLAP or HAGL lesions. The purpose of this review is to highlight different forms of shoulder instability and its associated radiological findings with a focus on MR imaging. (orig.)
Rumolo, G
2014-01-01
When a beam propagates in an accelerator, it interacts with both the external fields and the self-generated electromagnetic fields. If the latter are strong enough, the interplay between them and a perturbation in the beam distribution function can lead to an enhancement of the initial perturbation, resulting in what we call a beam instability. This unstable motion can be controlled with a feedback system, if available, or it grows, causing beam degradation and loss. Beam instabilities in particle accelerators have been studied and analysed in detail since the late 1950s. The subject owes its relevance to the fact that the onset of instabilities usually determines the performance of an accelerator. Understanding and suppressing the underlying sources and mechanisms is therefore the key to overcoming intensity limitations, thereby pushing forward the performance reach of a machine.
Systematics of shoulder instability
Shoulder instability is defined as a symptomatic abnormal motion of the humeral head relative to the glenoid during active shoulder motion. Glenohumeral instabilities are classified according to the causative factors as the pathogenesis of instability plays an important role with respect to treatment options. Instabilities are classified into traumatic and atraumatic instabilities as part of a multidirectional instability syndrome and into microtraumatic instabilities. For diagnostics plain radiographs (''trauma series'') are performed to document shoulder dislocation and its successful repositioning. Direct magnetic resonance (MR) arthrography is the most important imaging modality for delineation of the different injury patterns of the labral-ligamentous complex and bony structures. Monocontrast computed tomography (CT) arthrography with the use of multidetector CT scanners represents an alternative imaging modality; however, MR imaging should be preferred in the work-up of shoulder instabilities due to the mostly younger age of patients. (orig.)
Evaluating shoulder instability treatment
Linde, J. A.
2016-01-01
Shoulder instability common occurs. When treated nonoperatively, the resulting societal costs based on health care utilization and productivity losses are significant. Shoulder function can be evaluated using patient reported outcome measurements (PROMs). For shoulder instability, these include the Western Ontario Shoulder Instability index (WOSI) and the Oxford Shoulder Instability Score (OSIS). When translated and validated for the dutch population, both have good measurment properties. Sco...
Earnings instability and tenure
Cappellari, Lorenzo; Leonardi, Marco
2007-01-01
We study the effect of tenure on earnings instability in Italy using two alternative estimation strategies. First we use a descriptive measure of earnings instability and fixed effects regressions. Second, we develop a formal model of earnings dynamics distinguishing permanent from transitory earnings, and exploit variation of tenure and instability over time and across birth cohorts in estimation. We use the two approaches also to evaluate earnings instability associated with temporary contr...
Shoulder instability; Schulterinstabilitaeten
Kreitner, Karl-Friedrich [Mainiz Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie
2014-06-15
In the shoulder, the advantages of range of motion are traded for the disadvantages of vulnerability to injury and the development of instability. Shoulder instability and the lesion it produces represent one of the main causes of shoulder discomfort and pain. Shoulder instability is defined as a symptomatic abnormal motion of the humeral head relative to the glenoid during active shoulder motion. Glenohumeral instabilities are classified according to their causative factors as the pathogenesis of instability plays an important role with respect to treatment options: instabilities are classified in traumatic and atraumatic instabilities as part of a multidirectional instability syndrome, and in microtraumatic instabilities. Plain radiographs ('trauma series') are performed to document shoulder dislocation and its successful reposition. Direct MR arthrography is the most important imaging modality for delineation the different injury patterns on the labral-ligamentous complex and bony structures. Monocontrast CT-arthrography with use of multidetector CT scanners may be an alternative imaging modality, however, regarding the younger patient age, MR imaging should be preferred in the diagnostic work-up of shoulder instabilities. (orig.)
Joint instability and osteoarthritis.
Blalock, Darryl; Miller, Andrew; Tilley, Michael; Wang, Jinxi
2015-01-01
Joint instability creates a clinical and economic burden in the health care system. Injuries and disorders that directly damage the joint structure or lead to joint instability are highly associated with osteoarthritis (OA). Thus, understanding the physiology of joint stability and the mechanisms of joint instability-induced OA is of clinical significance. The first section of this review discusses the structure and function of major joint tissues, including periarticular muscles, which play a significant role in joint stability. Because the knee, ankle, and shoulder joints demonstrate a high incidence of ligament injury and joint instability, the second section summarizes the mechanisms of ligament injury-associated joint instability of these joints. The final section highlights the recent advances in the understanding of the mechanical and biological mechanisms of joint instability-induced OA. These advances may lead to new opportunities for clinical intervention in the prevention and early treatment of OA. PMID:25741184
Modelling Financial Instability
Franklin Allen
2005-01-01
Financial instability can have large adverse effects on an economy. One major cause of instability is asset price bubbles. This paper starts by considering how such bubbles can arise due to the expansion of money and credit. The ways in which subsequent financial instability occurs are then discussed. Banking crises can arise due to panics or as a result of the business cycle. Contagion and financial fragility can cause small disturbances to have large effects. Finally, policy issues are touc...
Dynamics of explosive instability
It was shown that in general case explosive instability dynamics should be described as four wave interaction. The main difference from three wave interaction is that this dynamics may not contain explosive instability. Besides it may by irregular. If the characteristics of one of the wave is closed to one of the interacting wave and they are connected linearly then explosive instability may be suppressed.
Instability in evolutionary games.
Zimo Yang
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Phenomena of instability are widely observed in many dissimilar systems, with punctuated equilibrium in biological evolution and economic crises being noticeable examples. Recent studies suggested that such instabilities, quantified by the abrupt changes of the composition of individuals, could result within the framework of a collection of individuals interacting through the prisoner's dilemma and incorporating three mechanisms: (i imitation and mutation, (ii preferred selection on successful individuals, and (iii networking effects. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We study the importance of each mechanism using simplified models. The models are studied numerically and analytically via rate equations and mean-field approximation. It is shown that imitation and mutation alone can lead to the instability on the number of cooperators, and preferred selection modifies the instability in an asymmetric way. The co-evolution of network topology and game dynamics is not necessary to the occurrence of instability and the network topology is found to have almost no impact on instability if new links are added in a global manner. The results are valid in both the contexts of the snowdrift game and prisoner's dilemma. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The imitation and mutation mechanism, which gives a heterogeneous rate of change in the system's composition, is the dominating reason of the instability on the number of cooperators. The effects of payoffs and network topology are relatively insignificant. Our work refines the understanding on the driving forces of system instability.
Genomic instability following irradiation
Hacker-Klom, U.B.; Goehde, W. [Inst. fuer Strahlenbiologie, Muenster Univ. (Germany)
2001-07-01
Ionising irradiation may induce genomic instability. The broad spectrum of stress reactions in eukaryontic cells to irradiation complicates the discovery of cellular targets and pathways inducing genomic instability. Irradiation may initiate genomic instability by deletion of genes controlling stability, by induction of genes stimulating instability and/or by activating endogeneous cellular viruses. Alternatively or additionally it is discussed that the initiation of genomic instability may be a consequence of radiation or other agents independently of DNA damage implying non nuclear targets, e.g. signal cascades. As a further mechanism possibly involved our own results may suggest radiation-induced changes in chromatin structure. Once initiated the process of genomic instability probably is perpetuated by endogeneous processes necessary for proliferation. Genomic instability may be a cause or a consequence of the neoplastic phenotype. As a conclusion from the data available up to now a new interpretation of low level radiation effects for radiation protection and in radiotherapy appears useful. The detection of the molecular mechanisms of genomic instability will be important in this context and may contribute to a better understanding of phenomenons occurring at low doses <10 cSv which are not well understood up to now. (orig.)
Genomic instability following irradiation
Ionising irradiation may induce genomic instability. The broad spectrum of stress reactions in eukaryontic cells to irradiation complicates the discovery of cellular targets and pathways inducing genomic instability. Irradiation may initiate genomic instability by deletion of genes controlling stability, by induction of genes stimulating instability and/or by activating endogeneous cellular viruses. Alternatively or additionally it is discussed that the initiation of genomic instability may be a consequence of radiation or other agents independently of DNA damage implying non nuclear targets, e.g. signal cascades. As a further mechanism possibly involved our own results may suggest radiation-induced changes in chromatin structure. Once initiated the process of genomic instability probably is perpetuated by endogeneous processes necessary for proliferation. Genomic instability may be a cause or a consequence of the neoplastic phenotype. As a conclusion from the data available up to now a new interpretation of low level radiation effects for radiation protection and in radiotherapy appears useful. The detection of the molecular mechanisms of genomic instability will be important in this context and may contribute to a better understanding of phenomenons occurring at low doses <10 cSv which are not well understood up to now. (orig.)
The Collisionless Magnetothermal Instability
Islam, Tanim
2013-01-01
It is likely that nearly all central galactic massive and supermassive black holes are nonradiative: their accretion luminosities are orders of magnitude below what can be explained by efficient black hole accretion within their ambient environments. These objects, of which Sagittarius A* is the best-known example, are also dilute (mildly collisional to highly collisionless) and optically thin. In order for accretion to occur, magnetohydrodynamic instabilities must develop that not only transport angular momentum, but also gravitational energy generated through matter infall, outwards. A class of new magnetohydrodynamical fluid instabilities -- the magnetoviscous-thermal instability (MVTI) (Islam12) -- was found to transport angular momentum and energy along magnetic field lines through large (fluid) viscosities and thermal conductivities. This paper describes the collisionless and mildly collisional analogue to the MVTI, the collisional magnetothermal instability (CMTI), that similarly transports energy and ...
... ankle surgeon will ask you about any previous ankle injuries and instability. Then s/he will examine your ankle ... Weak ankles may be a result of previous ankle injuries, but in some cases they are a congenital ( ...
Kuehn, Christian
2015-01-01
High-dimensional computational challenges are frequently explained via the curse of dimensionality, i.e., increasing the number of dimensions leads to exponentially growing computational complexity. In this commentary, we argue that thinking on a different level helps to understand, why we face the curse of dimensionality. We introduce as a guiding principle the curse of instability, which triggers the classical curse of dimensionality. Furthermore, we claim that the curse of instability is a...
Rotor internal friction instability
Bently, D. E.; Muszynska, A.
1985-01-01
Two aspects of internal friction affecting stability of rotating machines are discussed. The first role of internal friction consists of decreasing the level of effective damping during rotor subsynchronous and backward precessional vibrations caused by some other instability mechanisms. The second role of internal frication consists of creating rotor instability, i.e., causing self-excited subsynchronous vibrations. Experimental test results document both of these aspects.
Streaming gravity mode instability
In this paper, we study the stability of a current sheet with a sheared flow in a gravitational field which is perpendicular to the magnetic field and plasma flow. This mixing mode caused by a combined role of the sheared flow and gravity is named the streaming gravity mode instability. The conditions of this mode instability are discussed for an ideal four-layer model in the incompressible limit. (author). 5 refs
The heliopause (HP) separates the tenuous hot heliosheath plasma from the relatively dense cool magnetized plasma of the local interstellar medium (LISM). Fluid acceleration in the HP region can therefore drive Rayleigh-Taylor-like and Kelvin-Helmholtz- like instabilities. Charge exchange coupling of plasma ions and primary interstellar neutral atoms provides an effective gravity, suggesting the possibility of Rayleigh Taylor-like (RT-like) instabilities. Shear flow due to the velocity difference between the heliosheath and the interstellar flows drives Kelvin Helmholtz-like (KH-like) modes on the heliopause. Magnetic fields damp the classical KH instability. However, we show that energetic neutral atoms (ENAs) destabilize KH-modes,even in the presence of interplanetary and interstellar magnetic fields. We consider a model that includes a number of effects that are important in the heliosphere such as resonant change exchange between the primary neutrals and the solar wind plasma, ENAs from the inner heliosheath, plasma flows along the heliopause and magnetic fields in the inner and outer heliosheath. We find that the nose region is unstable to RT-like modes for HP parameters, while the shoulder region is unstable to a new instability that has the characteristics of a mixed RT-KH-like mode. These instabilities are not stabilized by typical values of the magnetic fields in the inner and outer heliosheath close to the nose and shoulder regions. Whereas ENAs have a stabilizing influence on the RT instability in the vicinity of the nose region (due to counter streaming), they have a destabilizing influence on the KH instability in the vicinity of the flanks. We find that even in the presence of interplanetary and interstellar magnetic fields, ENAs can drive a new form of KH-like instability on the flanks. An analysis of the collisional and anomalous magnetic field diffusion time scales shows that ideal MHD is an appropriate model at the HP. The interstellar magnetic
Plasma physics and instabilities
These lectures procide an introduction to the theory of plasmas and their instabilities. Starting from the Bogoliubov, Born, Green, Kirkwood, and Yvon (BBGKY) hierarchy of kinetic equations, the additional concept of self-consistent fields leads to the fundamental Vlasov equation and hence to the warm two-fluid model and the one-fluid MHD, or cold, model. The properties of small-amplitude waves in magnetized (and unmagnetized) plasmas, and the instabilities to which they give rise, are described in some detail, and a complete chapter is devoted to Landau damping. The linear theory of plasma instabilities is illustrated by the current-driven electrostatic kind, with descriptions of the Penrose criterion and the energy principle of ideal MHD. There is a brief account of the application of feedback control. The non-linear theory is represented by three examples: quasi-linear velocity-space instabilities, three-wave instabilities, and the stability of an arbitrarily largeamplitude wave in a plasma. (orig.)
Mackenzie's Demon with instabilities
MacKenzie's Maxwell Demon, consisting of positively biased thin wires, heats plasma electrons without significantly affecting the plasma potential. Experiments were performed on the Maxwell Demon in a multi-dipole confined filament discharge. It is shown that given adequate bias, the Demon reduces a bi-Maxwellian electron distribution function to a single Maxwellian electron distribution function. It is shown that a small planar electrode can perform identical heating as the Demon, provided that the electrode has the area of approximately three times the Demon's conductive surface area. The instability that limits the Demon's operation is investigated. Time-resolved measurements of changes in global electron temperature, plasma density and plasma potential within a cycle of the instability are considered. It is found that the Demon's instability is a repeating pulsed anode spot. Density measurements indicate that the frequency of the instability is dependent on plasma production and loss rates. The neutral pressure dependence of the anode spot instability is measured and modeled for the first time. (paper)
Neutrino beam plasma instability
Vishnu M Bannur
2001-10-01
We derive relativistic ﬂuid set of equations for neutrinos and electrons from relativistic Vlasov equations with Fermi weak interaction force. Using these ﬂuid equations, we obtain a dispersion relation describing neutrino beam plasma instability, which is little different from normal dispersion relation of streaming instability. It contains new, nonelectromagnetic, neutrino-plasma (or electroweak) stable and unstable modes also. The growth of the instability is weak for the highly relativistic neutrino ﬂux, but becomes stronger for weakly relativistic neutrino ﬂux in the case of parameters appropriate to the early universe and supernova explosions. However, this mode is dominant only for the beam velocity greater than 0.25 and in the other limit electroweak unstable mode takes over.
Instabilities in astrophysical jets
Instabilities in astrophysical jets are studied in the nonlinear regime by performing 2D numerical classical gasdynamical calculations. The instabilities which arise from unsteadiness in output from the central engine feeding the jets, and those which arise from a beam in a turbulent surrounding are studied. An extra power output an order of magnitude higher than is normally delivered by the engine over a time equal to (nozzle length)/(sound velocity at centre) causes a nonlinear Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in the jet walls. Constrictions move outwards, but the jet structure is left untouched. A beam in turbulent surroundings produces internal shocks over distances of a few beam widths. If viscosity is present the throughput of material is hampered on time scales of a few beam radius sound travel times. The implications are discussed. (Auth.)
Rincon, F; Cowley, S C
2014-01-01
Slow dynamical changes in magnetic-field strength and invariance of the particles' magnetic moments generate ubiquitous pressure anisotropies in weakly collisional, magnetized astrophysical plasmas. This renders them unstable to fast, small-scale mirror and firehose instabilities, which are capable of exerting feedback on the macroscale dynamics of the system. By way of a new asymptotic theory of the early nonlinear evolution of the mirror instability in a plasma subject to slow shearing or compression, we show that the instability does not saturate quasilinearly at a steady, low-amplitude level. Instead, the trapping of particles in small-scale mirrors leads to nonlinear secular growth of magnetic perturbations, $\\delta B/B \\propto t^{2/3}$. Our theory explains recent collisionless simulation results, provides a prediction of the mirror evolution in weakly collisional plasmas and establishes a foundation for a theory of nonlinear mirror dynamics with trapping, valid up to $\\delta B/B =O(1)$.
Langie, Sabine A S; Koppen, Gudrun; Desaulniers, Daniel;
2015-01-01
Genome instability is a prerequisite for the development of cancer. It occurs when genome maintenance systems fail to safeguard the genome's integrity, whether as a consequence of inherited defects or induced via exposure to environmental agents (chemicals, biological agents and radiation). Thus......, genome instability can be defined as an enhanced tendency for the genome to acquire mutations; ranging from changes to the nucleotide sequence to chromosomal gain, rearrangements or loss. This review raises the hypothesis that in addition to known human carcinogens, exposure to low dose of other...... chemicals present in our modern society could contribute to carcinogenesis by indirectly affecting genome stability. The selected chemicals with their mechanisms of action proposed to indirectly contribute to genome instability are: heavy metals (DNA repair, epigenetic modification, DNA damage signaling...
Photomultiplier time instability
A short-time and slow instability of anode photocurrent in photoelectron multiplier is investigated. The analysis of sorption and desorption processes stimulated by electron excitation allowed to propose an adsorption-desorption mechanism of devices instability. Transient response and drift of photomultiplier anode photocurrent are measured as well as the curves of spent variations of spectral sensitivity of photocathode and individual amplifier cascades of the multiplying system depending on anode current. The results of calculating the proposed model are in good agreement with the experimental data
Ringed accretion disks: instabilities
Pugliese, D
2016-01-01
We analyze the possibility that several instability points may be formed, due to the Paczy\\'nski mechanism of violation of mechanical equilibrium, in the orbiting matter around a supermassive Kerr black hole. We consider recently proposed model of ringed accretion disk, made up by several tori (rings) which can be corotating or counterrotating relative to the Kerr attractor due to the history of the accretion process. Each torus is governed by the general relativistic hydrodynamic Boyer condition of equilibrium configurations of rotating perfect fluids. We prove that the number of the instability points is generally limited and depends on the dimensionless spin of the rotating attractor.
Longitudinal microwave instability
A derivation of the relationship between growth rate and impedance is given. The only other instability considered here is the resonance effect produced by excessive tune shift due to space charge. We assume, without discussion, the (Δν)/sub max/ = .25; that is, this resonance growth is avoided (stability) by limiting the ring charge. On the other hand, the longitudinal microwave instability is assumed to be present (cannot be stabilized). Thus, the latter involves a limiting impedance to keep the growth rate low enough. The maximum allowed impedance for a maximum allowed growth rate is listed
Ringed Accretion Disks: Instabilities
Pugliese, D.; Stuchlík, Z.
2016-04-01
We analyze the possibility that several instability points may be formed, due to the Paczyński mechanism of violation of mechanical equilibrium, in the orbiting matter around a supermassive Kerr black hole. We consider a recently proposed model of a ringed accretion disk, made up by several tori (rings) that can be corotating or counter-rotating relative to the Kerr attractor due to the history of the accretion process. Each torus is governed by the general relativistic hydrodynamic Boyer condition of equilibrium configurations of rotating perfect fluids. We prove that the number of the instability points is generally limited and depends on the dimensionless spin of the rotating attractor.
Fluidelastic instability in tube arrays
When an array of tubes is subjected to crossflow, the tubes can experience dynamic instability, generally called fluidelastic instability. Instability initiates when the crossflow velocity exceeds a threshold value above which energy input from the flow exceeds that dissipated by system damping. Catastrophic failures of reactor and process plant equipment have been attributed to fluidelastic instability. As a result, extensive research studies have been conducted in the last 15 years with the objective of understanding the instability mechanisms and developing general design guidelines to avoid instability. Argonne National Laboratory has a continuing research program in this area which includes both mathematical model development and experimentation. This paper describes recent developments and accomplishments
Tracking Code for Microwave Instability
Heifets, S.; /SLAC
2006-09-21
To study microwave instability the tracking code is developed. For bench marking, results are compared with Oide-Yokoya results [1] for broad-band Q = 1 impedance. Results hint to two possible mechanisms determining the threshold of instability.
Shock instability in dissipative gases
Radulescu, Matei I.; Sirmas, Nick
2011-01-01
Previous experiments have revealed that shock waves in thermally relaxing gases, such as ionizing, dissociating and vibrationally excited gases, can become unstable. To date, the mechanism controlling this instability has not been resolved. Previous accounts of the D'yakov-Kontorovich instability, and Bethe-Zel'dovich-Thompson behaviour could not predict the experimentally observed instability. To address the mechanism controlling the instability, we study the propagation of shock waves in a ...
Nonlinear evolution of MHD instabilities
A 3-D nonlinear MHD computer code was used to study the time evolution of internal instabilities. Velocity vortex cells are observed to persist into the nonlinear evolution. Pressure and density profiles convect around these cells for a weak localized instability, or convect into the wall for a strong instability. (U.S.)
Genetic instability in Gynecological Cancer
ZHAO Qing-hua; ZHOU Hong-lin
2003-01-01
Defects of mismatch repair (MMR) genes also have beenidentified in many kinds of tumors. Loss of MMR functionhas been linked to genetic instability especially microsatelliteinstability that results in high mutation rate. In this review, wediscussed the microsatellite instability observed in thegynecological tumors. We also discussed defects in the DNAmismatch repair in these tumors and their correlation to themicrosatellite instability, as well as the gene mutations due tothe microsatellite instability in these tumors. From thesediscussion, we tried to understand the mechanism ofcarcinogenesis in gynecological tumors from the aspect ofgenetic instability due to mismatch repair defects.
The interaction between energetic charged particles and thermal plasma, which forms the basis of diffusive shock acceleration, leads also to interesting dynamical phenomena. For a compressional mode propagating in a system with homoeneous energetic particle pressure it is well known that friction with the energetic particles leads to damping. The linear theory of this effect has been analyzed in detail by Ptuskin. Not so obvious is that a non-uniform energetic particle pressure can in addition amplify compressional disturbances. If the pressure gradient is sufficiently steep this growth can dominate the frictional damping and lead to an instability. It is important to not that this effect results from the collective nature of the interaction between the energetic particles and the gas and is not connected with the Parker instability, nor with the resonant amplification of Alfven waves
Whistler modulational instability.
Brinca, A. L.
1973-01-01
Derivation of the modulational instability characteristics of whistlers in cold and hot plasmas. The cold-plasma analysis considers both ion motion and relativistic effects; the unstable band, with a growth rate proportional to (B/B sub zero)squared, is contiguous to Omega sub e/4 and, depending on the plasma density, lies above or below that frequency (Omega sub e is the electron cyclotron frequency of the static magnetic field; B and B sub zero are the whistler and static magnetic fields). In hot plasmas, stability occurs between Omega sub e/4 and Omega prime (less than Omega sub e), with Omega prime depending mainly on the mean energy and anisotropy of the energetic electron population; the complementary unstable band has a growth rate proportional to (B/B sub zero) to the 1/2 power. The relevance of the instability to whistlers in the magnetosphere is discussed.
Chiodi, Filippo; Andreotti, Bruno; Claudin, Philippe
2012-01-01
The river bar instability is revisited, using a hydrodynamical model based on Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations. The results are contrasted with the standard analysis based on shallow water Saint-Venant equations. We first show that the stability of both transverse modes (ripples) and of small wavelength inclined modes (bars) predicted by the Saint-Venant approach are artefacts of this hydrodynamical approximation. When using a more reliable hydrodynamical model, the dispersion relati...
Hogg, Tad; Huberman, Bernardo A.; Youssefmir, Michael
1995-01-01
Recent developments in the global liberalization of equity and currency markets, coupled to advances in trading technologies, are making markets increasingly interdependent. This increased fluidity raises questions about the stability of the international financial system. In this paper, we show that as couplings between stable markets grow, the likelihood of instabilities is increased, leading to a loss of general equilibrium as the system becomes increasingly large and diverse.
Huberman, B A; Huberman, Bernardo A; Youssefmir, Michael
1995-01-01
Recent developments in the global liberalization of equity and currency markets, coupled to advances in trading technologies, are making markets increasingly interdependent. This increased fluidity raises questions about the stability of the international financial system. In this paper, we show that as couplings between stable markets grow, the likelihood of instabilities is increased, leading to a loss of general equilibrium as the system becomes increasingly large and diverse.
Non-conventional fishbone instabilities
New instabilities of the fishbone type are predicted. The first is a trapped-particle-induced m = n = 1 instability with a mode structure that has nothing in common with the conventional rigid kink displacement. This instability takes place when the magnetic field is weak, so that the precession frequency of the energetic ions is not small as compared to the frequency of the corresponding Alfven continuum at r=0 and the magnetic shear is small inside the q = 1 radius (the case relevant to spherical tori). The second predicted instability is an Energertic Particle Mode fishbone instability driven by circulating particles, and the third is a double-kink-mode instability driven by the circulating energetic ions. In particular, the latter can have two frequencies simultaneously: we refer to it as 'doublet' fishbones. This instability can occur when the radial profile of the energetic ions has an off-axis maximum inside the region of the mode localization. (author)
Shoulder instability; Schultergelenkinstabilitaet
Sailer, J.; Imhof, H. [Abteilung Osteoradiologie, Univ.-Klinik fuer Radiodiagnostik Wien (Austria)
2004-06-01
Shoulder instability is a common clinical feature leading to recurrent pain and limitated range of motion within the glenohumeral joint. Instability can be due a single traumatic event, general joint laxity or repeated episodes of microtrauma. Differentiation between traumatic and atraumatic forms of shoulder instability requires careful history and a systemic clinical examination. Shoulder laxity has to be differentiated from true instability followed by the clinical assessment of direction and degree of glenohumeral translation. Conventional radiography and CT are used for the diagnosis of bony lesions. MR imaging and MR arthrography help in the detection of soft tissue affection, especially of the glenoid labrum and the capsuloligamentous complex. The most common lesion involving the labrum is the anterior labral tear, associated with capsuloperiostal stripping (Bankart lesion). A number of variants of the Bankart lesion have been described, such as ALPSA, SLAP or HAGL lesions. The purpose of this review is to highlight different forms of shoulder instability and its associated radiological findings with a focus on MR imaging. (orig.) [German] Die Schultergelenkinstabilitaet ist haeufig fuer wiederholt auftretende Schmerzen sowie eine eingeschraenkte Beweglichkeit im Glenohumeralgelenk verantwortlich. Sie kann als Folge eines vorangegangenen Traumas, einer generellen Hyperlaxitaet oder infolge wiederholter Mikrotraumen entstehen. Die Differenzierung zwischen traumatischer und atraumatischer Form der Gelenkinstabilitaet erfordert eine sorgfaeltige Anamnese und eine genaue klinische Untersuchung. Die Gelelenklaxitaet als Differenzialdiagnose muss von der echten Instabilitaet unterschieden werden, die Instabilitaet wird dann im Rahmen des klinischen Status nach Grad und Richtung der glenohumeralen Translation unterteilt. Zur Diagnose knoecherner Laesionen werden das konventionelle Roentgen sowie die CT herangezogen. MRT sowie MR-Arthrographie dienen zur Detektion
Vijg, Jan; Suh, Yousin
2013-01-01
Genome instability has long been implicated as the main causal factor in aging. Somatic cells are continuously exposed to various sources of DNA damage, from reactive oxygen species to UV radiation to environmental mutagens. To cope with the tens of thousands of chemical lesions introduced into the genome of a typical cell each day, a complex network of genome maintenance systems acts to remove damage and restore the correct base pair sequence. Occasionally, however, repair is erroneous, and such errors, as well as the occasional failure to correctly replicate the genome during cell division, are the basis for mutations and epimutations. There is now ample evidence that mutations accumulate in various organs and tissues of higher animals, including humans, mice, and flies. What is not known, however, is whether the frequency of these random changes is sufficient to cause the phenotypic effects generally associated with aging. The exception is cancer, an age-related disease caused by the accumulation of mutations and epimutations. Here, we first review current concepts regarding the relationship between DNA damage, repair, and mutation, as well as the data regarding genome alterations as a function of age. We then describe a model for how randomly induced DNA sequence and epigenomic variants in the somatic genomes of animals can result in functional decline and disease in old age. Finally, we discuss the genetics of genome instability in relation to longevity to address the importance of alterations in the somatic genome as a causal factor in aging and to underscore the opportunities provided by genetic approaches to develop interventions that attenuate genome instability, reduce disease risk, and increase life span. PMID:23398157
Non-conventional Fishbone Instabilities
New instabilities of fishbone type are predicted. First, a trapped-particle-induced m = n = 1 instability with the mode structure having nothing to do with the conventional rigid kink displacement. This instability takes place when the magnetic field is weak, so that the precession frequency of the energetic ions is not small as compared to the frequency of the corresponding Alfven continuum at r = 0 and the magnetic shear is small inside the q = 1 radius [the case relevant to spherical tori]. Second, an Energetic Particle Mode fishbone instability driven by circulating particles. Third, a double-kink-mode instability driven by the circulating energetic ions. In particular, the latter can have two frequencies simultaneously: we refer to it as ''doublet'' fishbones. This instability can occur when the radial profile of the energetic ions has an off-axis maximum inside the region of the mode localization
Modulational instability of nematic phase
T Mithun; K Porsezian
2014-02-01
We numerically observe the effect of homogeneous magnetic field on the modulationally stable case of polar phase in = 2 spinor Bose–Einstein condensates (BECs). Also we investigate the modulational instability of uniaxial and biaxial (BN) states of polar phase. Our observations show that the magnetic field triggers the modulational instability and demonstrate that irrespective of the magnetic field effect the uniaxial and biaxial nematic phases show modulational instability.
Summary of longitudinal instabilities workshop
A five-day ISABELLE workshop on longitudinal instabilities was held at BNL, August 9--13, 1976. Heavy emphasis was put on single bunched beam instabilities in the microwave region extending above the cut-off frequency of the ISABELLE vacuum chamber. A discussion is given of the mechanism governing the instability, and calculations as well as measurements of the longitudinal coupling impedances in the ISABELLE rings are described
Instability in Shocked Granular Gases
Sirmas, Nick; Falle, Sam; Radulescu, Matei
2013-01-01
Shocks in granular media, such as vertically oscillated beds, have been shown to develop instabilities. Similar jet formation has been observed in explosively dispersed granular media. Our previous work addressed this instability by performing discrete-particle simulations of inelastic media undergoing shock compression. By allowing finite dissipation within the shock wave, instability manifests itself as distinctive high density non-uniformities and convective rolls within the shock structur...
Instability of enclosed horizons
Kay, Bernard S
2013-01-01
We study the classical massless scalar wave equation on the region of 1+1-dimensional Minkowski space between the two branches of the hyperbola $x^2-t^2=1$ with vanishing boundary conditions on it. We point out that there are initially finite-energy initially, say, right-going waves for which the stress-energy tensor becomes singular on the null-line $t+x=0$. We also construct the quantum theory of this system and show that, while there is a regular Hartle-Hawking-Israel-like state, there are coherent states built on this for which there is a similar singularity in the expectation value of the renormalized stress-energy tensor. We conjecture that in 1+3-dimensional situations with 'enclosed horizons' such as a (maximally extended) Schwarzschild black hole in equilibrium in a stationary box or the (maximally extended) Schwarzschild-AdS spacetime, there will be a similar singularity at the horizon and that would signal an instability when matter perturbations and/or gravity are switched on. Such an instability ...
Libration driven multipolar instabilities
Cébron, David; Herreman, Wietze
2014-01-01
We consider rotating flows in non-axisymmetric enclosures that are driven by libration, i.e. by a small periodic modulation of the rotation rate. Thanks to its simplicity, this model is relevant to various contexts, from industrial containers (with small oscillations of the rotation rate) to fluid layers of terrestial planets (with length-of-day variations). Assuming a multipolar $n$-fold boundary deformation, we first obtain the two-dimensional basic flow. We then perform a short-wavelength local stability analysis of the basic flow, showing that an instability may occur in three dimensions. We christen it the Libration Driven Multipolar Instability (LDMI). The growth rates of the LDMI are computed by a Floquet analysis in a systematic way, and compared to analytical expressions obtained by perturbation methods. We then focus on the simplest geometry allowing the LDMI, a librating deformed cylinder. To take into account viscous and confinement effects, we perform a global stability analysis, which shows that...
Cohabitation and Children's Family Instability
Kelly Raley, R.; Wildsmith, Elizabeth
2004-01-01
This study estimates how much children's family instability is missed when we do not count transitions into and out of cohabitation, and examines early life course trajectories of children to see whether children who experience maternal cohabitation face more family instability than children who do not. Using data from the 1995 National Survey of…
Microsatellite instability in bladder cancer
Gonzalez-Zulueta, M; Ruppert, J M; Tokino, K; Tsai, Y C; Spruck, C H; Miyao, N; Nichols, P W; Hermann, G G; Horn, T; Steven, K
1993-01-01
Somatic instability at microsatellite repeats was detected in 6 of 200 transitional cell carcinomas of the bladder. Instabilities were apparent as changes in (GT)n repeat lengths on human chromosome 9 for four tumors and as alterations in a (CAG)n repeat in the androgen receptor gene on the X chr...
Cinerama sickness and postural instability
Bos, J.E.; Ledegang, W.D.; Lubeck, A.J.A.; Stins, J.F.
2013-01-01
Motion sickness symptoms and increased postural instability induced by motion pictures have been reported in a laboratory, but not in a real cinema. We, therefore, carried out an observational study recording sickness severity and postural instability in 19 subjects before, immediately and 45 min af
Instability of liquid crystal elastomers
An, Ning; Li, Meie; Zhou, Jinxiong
2016-01-01
Nematic liquid crystal elastomers (LCEs) contract in the director direction but expand in other directions, perpendicular to the director, when heated. If the expansion of an LCE is constrained, compressive stress builds up in the LCE, and it wrinkles or buckles to release the stored elastic energy. Although the instability of soft materials is ubiquitous, the mechanism and programmable modulation of LCE instability has not yet been fully explored. We describe a finite element method (FEM) scheme to model the inhomogeneous deformation and instability of LCEs. A constrained LCE beam working as a valve for microfluidic flow, and a piece of LCE laminated with a nanoscale poly(styrene) (PS) film are analyzed in detail. The former uses the buckling of the LCE beam to occlude the microfluidic channel, while the latter utilizes wrinkling or buckling to measure the mechanical properties of hard film or to realize self-folding. Through rigorous instability analysis, we predict the critical conditions for the onset of instability, the wavelength and amplitude evolution of instability, and the instability patterns. The FEM results are found to correlate well with analytical results and reported experiments. These efforts shed light on the understanding and exploitation of the instabilities of LCEs.
Genome instability in Alzheimer disease
Hou, Yujun; Song, Hyundong; Croteau, Deborah L;
2016-01-01
to the development of noninvasive treatment strategies. Further investigations into the molecular mechanisms connecting DNA damage to AD pathology may help to develop novel treatment strategies for this debilitating disease. Here we provide an overview of the role of genome instability and DNA repair deficiency...... in AD pathology and discuss research strategies that include genome instability as a component....
Chiodi, Filippo; Claudin, Philippe
2012-01-01
The river bar instability is revisited, using a hydrodynamical model based on Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations. The results are contrasted with the standard analysis based on shallow water Saint-Venant equations. We first show that the stability of both transverse modes (ripples) and of small wavelength inclined modes (bars) predicted by the Saint-Venant approach are artefacts of this hydrodynamical approximation. When using a more reliable hydrodynamical model, the dispersion relation does not present any maximum of the growth rate when the sediment transport is assumed to be locally saturated. The analysis therefore reveals the fundamental importance of the relaxation of sediment transport towards equilibrium as it it is responsible for the stabilisation of small wavelength modes. This dynamical mechanism is characterised by the saturation number, defined as the ratio of the saturation length to the water depth Lsat/H. This dimensionless number controls the transition from ripples (transverse patte...
Plateau Rayleigh instability simulation.
Mead-Hunter, Ryan; King, Andrew J C; Mullins, Benjamin J
2012-05-01
The well-known phenomena of Plateau-Rayleigh instability has been simulated using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The breakup of a liquid film into an array of droplets on a cylindrical element was simulated using a volume-of-fluid (VOF) solver and compared to experimental observations and existing theory. It is demonstrated that the VOF method can correctly predict the breakup of thins films into an array of either axisymmetric droplets or clam-shell droplets, depending on the surface energy. The existence of unrealistically large films is precluded. Droplet spacing was found to show reasonable agreement with theory. Droplet motion and displacement under fluid flow was also examined and compared to that in previous studies. It was found that the presence of air flow around the droplet does not influence the stable film thickness; however, it reduces the time required for droplet formation. Novel relationships for droplet displacement were derived from the results. PMID:22512475
Patzelt, Felix
2015-01-01
Many complex systems exhibit extreme events far more often than expected for a normal distribution. This work examines how self-similar bursts of activity across several orders of magnitude can emerge from first principles in systems that adapt to information. Surprising connections are found between two apparently unrelated research topics: hand-eye coordination in balancing tasks and speculative trading in financial markets. Seemingly paradoxically, locally minimising fluctuations can increase a dynamical system's sensitivity to unpredictable perturbations and thereby facilitate global catastrophes. This general principle is studied in several domain-specific models and in behavioural experiments. It explains many findings in both fields and resolves an apparent antinomy: the coexistence of stabilising control or market efficiency and perpetual instabilities resembling critical phenomena in physical systems.
From instabilities to multifragmentation
The main purpose of this article is to show that, in many physical situations, the spinodal decomposition of unstable systems can be correctly described by stochastic mean-field approaches. Such theories predict that the occurrence of spinodal instability leading the multifragmentation of an expended nuclear system, can be signed through the observation of time scales for the fragment formation of the order of 100 fm/c and of typical fragment size around A=20. We will finally discuss the fact that these fragments are formed at finite temperature and so can subsequently decay in flight. Finally, we will give some hints about possible experimental signals of such first order phase transitions. (authors). 12 refs., 5 figs
Structural and Material Instability
Cifuentes, Gustavo Cifuentes
This work is a small contribution to the general problem of structural and material instability. In this work, the main subject is the analysis of cracking and failure of structural elements made from quasi-brittle materials like concrete. The analysis is made using the finite element method. Three...... program based on the finite element method for the analysis of cracks in structural elements is presented; in this program the interface and elements with embedded discontinuities are implemented....... use of interface elements) is used successfully to model cases where the path of the discontinuity is known in advance, as is the case of the analysis of pull-out of fibers embedded in a concrete matrix. This method is applied to the case of non-straight fibers and fibers with forces that have...
Internal rotor friction instability
Walton, J.; Artiles, A.; Lund, J.; Dill, J.; Zorzi, E.
1990-01-01
The analytical developments and experimental investigations performed in assessing the effect of internal friction on rotor systems dynamic performance are documented. Analytical component models for axial splines, Curvic splines, and interference fit joints commonly found in modern high speed turbomachinery were developed. Rotor systems operating above a bending critical speed were shown to exhibit unstable subsynchronous vibrations at the first natural frequency. The effect of speed, bearing stiffness, joint stiffness, external damping, torque, and coefficient of friction, was evaluated. Testing included material coefficient of friction evaluations, component joint quantity and form of damping determinations, and rotordynamic stability assessments. Under conditions similar to those in the SSME turbopumps, material interfaces experienced a coefficient of friction of approx. 0.2 for lubricated and 0.8 for unlubricated conditions. The damping observed in the component joints displayed nearly linear behavior with increasing amplitude. Thus, the measured damping, as a function of amplitude, is not represented by either linear or Coulomb friction damper models. Rotordynamic testing of an axial spline joint under 5000 in.-lb of static torque, demonstrated the presence of an extremely severe instability when the rotor was operated above its first flexible natural frequency. The presence of this instability was predicted by nonlinear rotordynamic time-transient analysis using the nonlinear component model developed under this program. Corresponding rotordynamic testing of a shaft with an interference fit joint demonstrated the presence of subsynchronous vibrations at the first natural frequency. While subsynchronous vibrations were observed, they were bounded and significantly lower in amplitude than the synchronous vibrations.
Combustion Instabilities Modeled
Paxson, Daniel E.
1999-01-01
NASA Lewis Research Center's Advanced Controls and Dynamics Technology Branch is investigating active control strategies to mitigate or eliminate the combustion instabilities prevalent in lean-burning, low-emission combustors. These instabilities result from coupling between the heat-release mechanisms of the burning process and the acoustic flow field of the combustor. Control design and implementation require a simulation capability that is both fast and accurate. It must capture the essential physics of the system, yet be as simple as possible. A quasi-one-dimensional, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) based simulation has been developed which may meet these requirements. The Euler equations of mass, momentum, and energy have been used, along with a single reactive species transport equation to simulate coupled thermoacoustic oscillations. A very simple numerical integration scheme was chosen to reduce computing time. Robust boundary condition procedures were incorporated to simulate various flow conditions (e.g., valves, open ends, and choked inflow) as well as to accommodate flow reversals that may arise during large flow-field oscillations. The accompanying figure shows a sample simulation result. A combustor with an open inlet, a choked outlet, and a large constriction approximately two thirds of the way down the length is shown. The middle plot shows normalized, time-averaged distributions of the relevant flow quantities, and the bottom plot illustrates the acoustic mode shape of the resulting thermoacoustic oscillation. For this simulation, the limit cycle peak-to-peak pressure fluctuations were 13 percent of the mean. The simulation used 100 numerical cells. The total normalized simulation time was 50 units (approximately 15 oscillations), which took 26 sec on a Sun Ultra2.
Dynamical Instability and Soliton Concept
The problem of dynamical instability and clustering (stable fragments formation) in a breakup of excited nuclear systems are considered from the points of view of the soliton concept. It is noted that the volume (spinodal) instability can be associated with nonlinear terms, and the surface (Rayleigh-Taylor type) instability, with the dispersion terms in the evolution equations. The spinodal instability and the Rayleigh-Taylor instability may compensate each other and lead to stable quasi-soliton type objects. The simple analytical model is presented to illustrate this physical picture. The time evolution of an initially compressed cold nuclear system is analysed in the framework of the inverse mean-field method. It is demonstrated that the nonlinearity and dispersion terms of the evolution equations can lead to clusterization in the final channel. 8 p
Nonlinear evolution of MHD instabilities
The problems of nonlinear theory of MHD instability, some analytical solutions of one-dimensional dynamic and two-dimensional kinematic problems and the problems of helical MHD instability in a plasma cylinder and axially-symmetric MHD instability in a Z-pinch are considered. The initial configuration is assumed to be equilibrium but unstable and its motion is initiated by a small initial disturbance. Instability evolution at a nonlinear stage is investigated by means of computer numerical integrating of the total system of MHD equations of motion. Limiting by two-dimensional motions class allows using the visual apparatus of freezed in functions satisfying in ideal gasodynamics the equation deltaPSIsub(i)/deltat+vector Vgrad PSIsub(i)=0. The investigation of evolution of axially symmetric MHD-instability in Z-pinch systems allows to construct on uncontradictory scheme of physical processes occuring in them from the initial discharge state to cylindrical equilibrium state
Gravitational Instabilities in Circumstellar Disks
Kratter, Kaitlin M
2016-01-01
[Abridged] Star and planet formation are the complex outcomes of gravitational collapse and angular momentum transport mediated by protostellar and protoplanetary disks. In this review we focus on the role of gravitational instability in this process. We begin with a brief overview of the observational evidence for massive disks that might be subject to gravitational instability, and then highlight the diverse ways in which the instability manifests itself in protostellar and protoplanetary disks: the generation of spiral arms, small scale turbulence-like density fluctuations, and fragmentation of the disk itself. We present the analytic theory that describes the linear growth phase of the instability, supplemented with a survey of numerical simulations that aim to capture the non-linear evolution. We emphasize the role of thermodynamics and large scale infall in controlling the outcome of the instability. Despite apparent controversies in the literature, we show a remarkable level of agreement between analyt...
Equilibrium Electro-osmotic Instability
Rubinstein, Isaak
2014-01-01
Since its prediction fifteen years ago, electro-osmotic instability has been attributed to non-equilibrium electro-osmosis related to the extended space charge which develops at the limiting current in the course of concentration polarization at a charge-selective interface. This attribution had a double basis. Firstly, it has been recognized that equilibrium electro-osmosis cannot yield instability for a perfectly charge-selective solid. Secondly, it has been shown that non-equilibrium electro-osmosis can. First theoretical studies in which electro-osmotic instability was predicted and analyzed employed the assumption of perfect charge-selectivity for the sake of simplicity and so did the subsequent numerical studies of various time-dependent and nonlinear features of electro-osmotic instability. In this letter, we show that relaxing the assumption of perfect charge-selectivity (tantamount to fixing the electrochemical potential in the solid) allows for equilibrium electro-osmotic instability. Moreover, we s...
Beam instability Workshop - plenary sessions
The purpose of this workshop was to provide a review of the mechanisms of limiting beam instabilities, their cures, including feedback, and beam measurement for synchrotron radiation light sources. 12 plenary sessions took place whose titles are: 1) challenging brilliance and lifetime issues with increasing currents; 2) limiting instabilities in multibunch; 3) experience from high currents in B factories; 4) longitudinal dynamics in high intensity/bunch; 5) Transverse instabilities for high intensity/bunch; 6) working group introduction from ESRF experience; 7) impedance modelling: simulations, minimization; 8) report on the broadband impedance measurements and modelling workshop; 9) feedback systems for synchrotron light sources; 10) beam instabilities diagnostics; 11) harmonic cavities: the pros and cons; and 12) experimental study of fast beam-ion instabilities at PLS. This document gathers the 12 articles that were presented during these sessions
Instability in Shocked Granular Gases
Sirmas, Nick; Radulescu, Matei
2013-01-01
Shocks in granular media, such as vertically oscillated beds, have been shown to develop instabilities. Similar jet formation has been observed in explosively dispersed granular media. Our previous work addressed this instability by performing discrete-particle simulations of inelastic media undergoing shock compression. By allowing finite dissipation within the shock wave, instability manifests itself as distinctive high density non-uniformities and convective rolls within the shock structure. In the present study we have extended this work to investigate this instability at the continuum level. We modeled the Euler equations for granular gases with a modified cooling rate to include an impact velocity threshold necessary for inelastic collisions. Our results showed a fair agreement between the continuum and discrete-particle models. Discrepancies, such as higher frequency instabilities in our continuum results may be attributed to the absence of higher order effects.
Instability in shocked granular gases
Shocks in granular media, such as vertically oscillated beds, have been shown to develop instabilities. Similar jet formation has been observed in explosively dispersed granular media. Our previous work addressed this instability by performing discrete-particle simulations of inelastic media undergoing shock compression. By allowing finite dissipation within the shock wave, instability manifests itself as distinctive high density non-uniformities and convective rolls within the shock structure. In the present study we have extended this work to investigate this instability at the continuum level. We modeled the Euler equations for granular gases with a modified cooling rate to include an impact velocity threshold necessary for inelastic collisions. Our results showed a fair agreement between the continuum and discrete-particle models. Discrepancies, such as higher frequency instabilities in our continuum results may be attributed to the absence of higher order effects.
Instabilities of advection-dominated accretion flows
Chen, X
1996-01-01
Accretion disk instabilities are briefly reviewed. Some details are given to the short-wavelength thermal instabilities and the convective instabilities. Time-dependent calculations of two-dimensional advection-dominated accretion flows are presented.
Instabilities of Advection-Dominated Accretion Flows
Chen, Xingming
1996-01-01
Accretion disk instabilities are briefly reviewed. Some details are given to the short-wavelength thermal instabilities and the convective instabilities. Time-dependent calculations of two-dimensional advection-dominated accretion flows are presented.
Nonlinear ideal magnetohydrodynamics instabilities
Explosive phenomena such as internal disruptions in toroidal discharges and solar flares are difficult to explain in terms of linear instabilities. A plasma approaching a linear stability limit can, however, become nonlinearly and explosively unstable, with noninfinitesimal perturbations even before the marginal state is reached. For such investigations, a nonlinear extension of the usual MHD (magnetohydrodynamic) energy principle is helpful. (This was obtained by Merkel and Schlueter, Sitzungsberichted. Bayer. Akad. Wiss., Munich, 1976, No. 7, for Cartesian coordinate systems.) A coordinate system independent Eulerian formulation for the Lagrangian allowing for equilibria with flow and with built-in conservation laws for mass, magnetic flux, and entropy is developed in this paper which is similar to Newcomb's Lagrangian method of 1962 [Nucl. Fusion, Suppl., Pt. II, 452 (1962)]. For static equilibria nonlinear stability is completely determined by the potential energy. For a potential energy which contains second- and nth order or some more general contributions only, it is shown in full generality that linearly unstable and marginally stable systems are explosively unstable even for infinitesimal perturbations; linearly absolutely stable systems require finite initial perturbations. For equilibria with Abelian symmetries symmetry breaking initial perturbations are needed, which should be observed in numerical simulations. Nonlinear stability is proved for two simple examples, m=0 perturbations of a Bennet Z-pinch and z-independent perturbations of a θ pinch. The algebra for treating these cases reduces considerably if symmetries are taken into account from the outset, as suggested by M. N. Rosenbluth (private communication, 1992)
WELLBORE INSTABILITY: CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES
Borivoje Pašić
2007-12-01
Full Text Available Wellbore instability is one of the main problems that engineers meet during drilling. The causes of wellbore instability are often classified into either mechanical (for example, failure of the rock around the hole because of high stresses, low rock strength, or inappropriate drilling practice or chemical effects which arise from damaging interaction between the rock, generally shale, and the drilling fluid. Often, field instances of instability are a result of a combination of both chemical and mechanical. This problem might cause serious complication in well and in some case can lead to expensive operational problems. The increasing demand for wellbore stability analyses during the planning stage of a field arise from economic considerations and the increasing use of deviated, extended reach and horizontal wells. This paper presents causes, indicators and diagnosing of wellbore instability as well as the wellbore stresses model.
Size effects on cavitation instabilities
Niordson, Christian Frithiof; Tvergaard, Viggo
2006-01-01
growth is here analyzed for such cases. A finite strain generalization of a higher order strain gradient plasticity theory is applied for a power-law hardening material, and the numerical analyses are carried out for an axisymmetric unit cell containing a spherical void. In the range of high stress......In metal-ceramic systems the constraint on plastic flow leads to so high stress triaxialities that cavitation instabilities may occur. If the void radius is on the order of magnitude of a characteristic length for the metal, the rate of void growth is reduced, and the possibility of unstable cavity...... triaxiality, where cavitation instabilities are predicted by conventional plasticity theory, such instabilities are also found for the nonlocal theory, but the effects of gradient hardening delay the onset of the instability. Furthermore, in some cases the cavitation stress reaches a maximum and then decays...
Summary of longitudinal instabilities workshop
Chasman, R.
1976-01-01
A five-day ISABELLE workshop on longitudinal instabilities was held at Brookhaven, August 9-13, 1976. About a dozen outside accelerator experts, both from Europe and the U.S.A., joined the local staff for discussions of longitudinal instabilities in ISABELLE. An agenda of talks was scheduled for the first day of the workshop. Later during the week, a presentation was given on the subject ''A more rigorous treatment of Landau damping in longitudinal beam instabilities''. A few progress meetings were held in which disagreements regarding calculations of coupling impedances were clarified. A summary session was held on the last day. Heavy emphasis was put on single bunched beam instabilities in the microwave region extending above the cut-off frequency of the ISABELLE vacuum chamber.
Intrinsic Instability of Coronal Streamers
Chen, Y; Song, H Q; Shi, Q Q; Feng, S W; Xia, L D; 10.1088/0004-637X/691/2/1936
2009-01-01
Plasma blobs are observed to be weak density enhancements as radially stretched structures emerging from the cusps of quiescent coronal streamers. In this paper, it is suggested that the formation of blobs is a consequence of an intrinsic instability of coronal streamers occurring at a very localized region around the cusp. The evolutionary process of the instability, as revealed in our calculations, can be described as follows: (1) through the localized cusp region where the field is too weak to sustain the confinement, plasmas expand and stretch the closed field lines radially outward as a result of the freezing-in effect of plasma-magnetic field coupling; the expansion brings a strong velocity gradient into the slow wind regime providing the free energy necessary for the onset of a subsequent magnetohydrodynamic instability; (2) the instability manifests itself mainly as mixed streaming sausage-kink modes, the former results in pinches of elongated magnetic loops to provoke reconnections at one or many loc...
Baryon Instability in SUSY Models
Nath, Pran; Arnowitt, R.
1996-01-01
Comment: 14 pages, latex, 1 fig, to be published in proceedings of the International Workshop on " Future Prospects of Baryon Instability Search in p-Decay and n-nbar Oscillation Experiments", Oak Ridge, Tennessee, March 28-30,1996
Thermal instability of gold nanowires
Karim, Shafqat [Fachbereich Chemie, Marburg University (Germany); Toimil-Molares, Maria E.; Cornelius, Thomas; Neumann, Reinhard [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Darmstadt (Germany); Balogh, Adam; Ensinger, Wolfgang [Institute of Materials Science, Darmstadt University of Technology (Germany)
2007-07-01
The technological implementation of nanostructures in future nano- and opto-electronic devices requires the capability to withstand elevated temperatures often encountered during routine operation. However, due to their reduced size and high surface to volume ratio, nanowires are expected to display structural and morphological instabilities. The Rayleigh instability concept, introduced to describe the instability of liquid jets, is applied to the fragmentation of metal nanowires during heating. Gold nanowires are electrochemically deposited in etched ion track membranes. After dissolving the template, the wires are put on a substrate and heated to temperatures between 300 and 600 C. The wires decay driven by Rayleigh instability, and the process depends on annealing temperature, wire diameter, and crystallinity. Wires of diameter 20 nm already fragment at 300 C being far below the bulk melting temperature of 1064 C.
Waves and instabilities in plasmas
The contents of this book are: Plasma as a Dielectric Medium; Nyquist Technique; Absolute and Convective Instabilities; Landau Damping and Phase Mixing; Particle Trapping and Breakdown of Linear Theory; Solution of Viasov Equation via Guilding-Center Transformation; Kinetic Theory of Magnetohydrodynamic Waves; Geometric Optics; Wave-Kinetic Equation; Cutoff and Resonance; Resonant Absorption; Mode Conversion; Gyrokinetic Equation; Drift Waves; Quasi-Linear Theory; Ponderomotive Force; Parametric Instabilities; Problem Sets for Homework, Midterm and Final Examinations
Midcarpal instability: a radiological perspective
Midcarpal instability (MCI) is the result of complex abnormal carpal motion at the midcarpal joint of the wrist. It is a form of non-dissociative carpal instability (CIND) and can be caused by various combinations of extrinsic ligament injuries that then result in one of several subtypes of MCI. The complex patterns of injury and the kinematics are further complicated by competing theories, terminology and classifications of MCI. Palmar, dorsal, ulna midcarpal instability, and capitolunate or chronic capitolunate instability are all descriptions of types of MCI with often overlapping features. Palmar midcarpal instability (PMCI) is the most commonly reported type of MCI. It has been described as resulting from deficiencies in the ulna limb of the palmar arcuate ligament (triquetrohamate-capitate) or the dorsal radiotriquetral ligaments, or both. Unstable carpal articulations can be treated with limited carpal arthrodesis or the ligamentous defects can be treated with capsulorrhaphy or ligament reconstruction. Conventional radiographic abnormalities are usually limited to volar intercalated segment instability (VISI) patterns of carpal alignment and are not specific. For many years stress view radiographs and videofluoroscopy have been the methods of choice for demonstrating carpal instability and abnormal carpal kinematics respectively. Dynamic US can be also used to demonstrate midcarpal dyskinesia including the characteristic triquetral ''catch-up'' clunk. Tears of the extrinsic ligaments can be demonstrated with MR arthrography, and probably with CT arthrography, but intact yet redundant ligaments are more difficult to identify. The exact role of these investigations in the diagnosis, categorisation and management of midcarpal instability has yet to be determined. (orig.)
Stability and instability in evolution.
Benci, V; Galleni, L
1998-10-21
In this paper we propose a mechanism which tries to explain the presence of periods of stability and instability which occur during the evolution of living forms. According to the Gaia hypothesis there are feedback mechanisms which stabilise the biosphere. Adding the presence of parameters which are out of control of the biosphere and of different time-scales, we propose a model which might explain the periods of instability. PMID:9790828
Photomultiplier short-term instability
The present paper gives a description of the apparatus and method to measure PM gain short-term instability under the condition of pulsed light source simulating the operation at proton synchrotrons. Experimental results are presented for FEU-84, FEU-85, FEU-110, FEU-115 and XP2010 photomultipliers. It is shown that the short-term gain instability can be described by a simple mathematical model. (Auth.)
Equilibrium Electro-osmotic Instability
Rubinstein, Isaak; Zaltzman, Boris
2014-01-01
Since its prediction fifteen years ago, electro-osmotic instability has been attributed to non-equilibrium electro-osmosis related to the extended space charge which develops at the limiting current in the course of concentration polarization at a charge-selective interface. This attribution had a double basis. Firstly, it has been recognized that equilibrium electro-osmosis cannot yield instability for a perfectly charge-selective solid. Secondly, it has been shown that non-equilibrium elect...
Instability of enclosed horizons
Kay, Bernard S.
2015-03-01
We point out that there are solutions to the scalar wave equation on dimensional Minkowski space with finite energy tails which, if they reflect off a uniformly accelerated mirror due to (say) Dirichlet boundary conditions on it, develop an infinite stress-energy tensor on the mirror's Rindler horizon. We also show that, in the presence of an image mirror in the opposite Rindler wedge, suitable compactly supported arbitrarily small initial data on a suitable initial surface will develop an arbitrarily large stress-energy scalar near where the two horizons cross. Also, while there is a regular Hartle-Hawking-Israel-like state for the quantum theory between these two mirrors, there are coherent states built on it for which there are similar singularities in the expectation value of the renormalized stress-energy tensor. We conjecture that in other situations with analogous enclosed horizons such as a (maximally extended) Schwarzschild black hole in equilibrium in a (stationary spherical) box or the (maximally extended) Schwarzschild-AdS spacetime, there will be similar stress-energy singularities and almost-singularities—leading to instability of the horizons when gravity is switched on and matter and gravity perturbations are allowed for. All this suggests it is incorrect to picture a black hole in equilibrium in a box or a Schwarzschild-AdS black hole as extending beyond the past and future horizons of a single Schwarzschild (/Schwarzschild-AdS) wedge. It would thus provide new evidence for 't Hooft's brick wall model while seeming to invalidate the picture in Maldacena's ` Eternal black holes in AdS'. It would thereby also support the validity of the author's matter-gravity entanglement hypothesis and of the paper ` Brick walls and AdS/CFT' by the author and Ortíz.
Elastic instabilities in rubber
Gent, Alan
2009-03-01
Materials that undergo large elastic deformations can exhibit novel instabilities. Several examples are described: development of an aneurysm on inflating a rubber tube; non-uniform stretching on inflating a spherical balloon; formation of internal cracks in rubber blocks at a critical level of triaxial tension or when supersaturated with a dissolved gas; surface wrinkling of a block at a critical amount of compression; debonding or fracture of constrained films on swelling, and formation of ``knots'' on twisting stretched cylindrical rods. These various deformations are analyzed in terms of a simple strain energy function, using Rivlin's theory of large elastic deformations, and the results are compared with experimental measurements of the onset of unstable states. Such comparisons provide new tests of Rivlin's theory and, at least in principle, critical tests of proposed strain energy functions for rubber. Moreover the onset of highly non-uniform deformations has serious implications for the fatigue life and fracture resistance of rubber components. [4pt] References: [0pt] R. S. Rivlin, Philos. Trans. Roy. Soc. Lond. Ser. A241 (1948) 379--397. [0pt] A. Mallock, Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. 49 (1890--1891) 458--463. [0pt] M. A. Biot, ``Mechanics of Incremental Deformations'', Wiley, New York, 1965. [0pt] A. N. Gent and P. B. Lindley, Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. A 249 (1958) 195--205. [0pt] A. N. Gent, W. J. Hung and M. F. Tse, Rubb. Chem. Technol. 74 (2001) 89--99. [0pt] A. N. Gent, Internatl. J. Non-Linear Mech. 40 (2005) 165--175.
Elliptic and magneto-elliptic instabilities
Lyra Wladimir
2013-04-01
Full Text Available Vortices are the fundamental units of turbulent flow. Understanding their stability properties therefore provides fundamental insights on the nature of turbulence itself. In this contribution I briely review the phenomenological aspects of the instability of elliptic streamlines, in the hydro (elliptic instability and hydromagnetic (magneto-elliptic instability regimes. Vortex survival in disks is a balance between vortex destruction by these mechanisms, and vortex production by others, namely, the Rossby wave instability and the baroclinic instability.
Fermi liquids near Pomeranchuk instabilities
Reidy, Kelly Elizabeth
We explore features of a Fermi liquid near generalized Pomeranchuk instabilities (PIs) starting from both ordered and disordered phases. These PIs can be viewed as quantum critical points in parameter space, and thus provide an alternate viewpoint on quantum criticality. We employ the tractable crossing symmetric equation method, which is a non-perturbative diagrammatic many-particle method used to calculate the Fermi liquid interaction functions and scattering amplitudes. We consider both repulsive and attractive underlying interactions of arbitrary strength. Starting from a ferromagnetically ordered ground state, we find that upon approach to an s-wave instability in one critical channel, the system simultaneously approaches instabilities in non-critical channels. We study origins and implications of this "quantum multicriticality". We also find that a nematic (non-s-wave) instability precedes and is driven by Pomeranchuk instabilities in both the s-wave spin and density channels. Finally, we discuss potential applications of our results to physical systems, such as ferromagnetic superconductors.
Radiation-induced chromosomal instability
Ritter, S. [GSI, Biophysics, Darmstadt (Germany)
1999-03-01
Recent studies on radiation-induced chromosomal instability in the progeny of exposed mammalian cells were briefly described as well as other related studies. For the analysis of chromosomal damage in clones, cells were seeded directly after exposure in cell well-dish to form single cell clones and post-irradiation chromosome aberrations were scored. Both exposure to isoeffective doses of X-ray or 270 MeV/u C-ions (13 keV/{mu}m) increased the number of clones with abnormal karyotype and the increase was similar for X-ray and for C-ions. Meanwhile, in the progeny of cells for mass cultures, there was no indication of a delayed expression of chromosomal damage up to 40 population doublings after the exposure. A high number of aberrant cells were only observed directly after exposure to 10.7 MeV/u O-ions, i.e. in the first cycle cells and decreased with subsequent cell divisions. The reason for these differences in the radiation-induced chromosomal instability between clonal isolates and mass culture has not been clarified. Recent studies indicated that genomic instability occurs at a high frequency in the progeny of cells irradiated with both sparsely and densely ionizing radiation. Such genomic instability is thought likely to increase the risk of carcinogenesis, but more data are required for a well understanding of the health risks resulting from radiation-induced delayed instability. (M.N.)
Compressive Instability Phenomena During Springback
Springback in sheet metal product makes difficulties in die design because small strain causes large displacement. Especially for the sheet metal product having small geometric constraints, springback displacement may become severe. After first stage of stamping of outer case of washing machine, a large amount of springback is observed. The stamping depth of the outer case is small while stamping area is very large compared to the stamping depth, and therefore, there exists small geometric constraints in the formed part. Also, a compressive instability during the elastic recovery takes place and this instability enlarged the elastic recovery and dimensional error. In this paper, the compressive instability during the elastic recovery is analyzed using bifurcation theory. The final deformed shape after springback is obtained by bifurcating the solution path from primary to secondary. The deformed shapes obtained by the finite element analysis are in good agreement with the experimental data. The bifurcation behavior and the springback displacement for different forming depth are investigated
Kinetic theory of tearing instability
The guiding-center kinetic equation with Fokker-Planck collision term is used to study, in cylindrical geometry, a class of dissipative instabilities of which the classical tearing mode is an archetype. Variational solution of the kinetic equation obviates the use of an approximate Ohm's law or adiabatic assumption, as used in previous studies, and it provides a dispersive relation which is uniformly valid for any ratio of wave frequency to collision frequency. One result of using the rigorous collision operator is the prediction of a new instability. This instability, driven by the electron temperature gradient, is predicted to occur under the long mean-free path conditions of present tokamak experiments, and has significant features in common with the kink-like oscillations observed in such experiments
Interfacial Instability during Granular Erosion
Lefebvre, Gautier; Merceron, Aymeric; Jop, Pierre
2016-02-01
The complex interplay between the topography and the erosion and deposition phenomena is a key feature to model granular flows such as landslides. Here, we investigated the instability that develops during the erosion of a wet granular pile by a dry dense granular flow. The morphology and the propagation of the generated steps are analyzed in relation to the specific erosion mechanism. The selected flowing angle of the confined flow on a dry heap appears to play an important role both in the final state of the experiment, and for the shape of the structures. We show that the development of the instability is governed by the inertia of the flow through the Froude number. We model this instability and predict growth rates that are in agreement with the experiment results.
Longitudinal instability in HIF beams
In contrast to an electron induction accelerator, in which the particle velocity is virtually constant, the resistive and inductive components of accelerating module impedances can cause instability for an intense non-relativistic heavy ion beam accelerated in a similar structure. Since focusing requirements at the fusion pellet imply a momentum spread approx-lt 3 x 10-4 at the end of the accelerator, it is essential to understand and suppress this instability. There is also an economic issue involved for this application; selection of parameters to control the instability must not unduly affect the efficiency and cost of the accelerator. This paper will present the results of analytic and computational work on module impedances, growth rates and feed back (forward) systems. 2 refs., 3 figs
Interfacial instabilities and Kapitsa pendula
Krieger, Madison
2015-11-01
Determining the critera for onset and amplitude growth of instabilities is one of the central problems of fluid mechanics. We develop a parallel between the Kapitsa effect, in which a pendulum subject to high-frequency low-amplitude vibrations becomes stable in the inverted position, and interfaces separating fluids of different density. It has long been known that such interfaces can be stabilized by vibrations, even when the denser fluid is on top. We demonstrate that the stability diagram for these fluid interfaces is identical to the stability diagram for an appopriate Kapitsa pendulum. We expand the robust, ``dictionary''-type relationship between Kapitsa pendula and interfacial instabilities by considering the classical Rayleigh-Taylor, Kelvin-Helmholtz and Plateau instabilities, as well as less-canonical examples ranging in scale from the micron to the width of a galaxy.
Performance through Deformation and Instability
Bertoldi, Katia
2015-03-01
Materials capable of undergoing large deformations like elastomers and gels are ubiquitous in daily life and nature. An exciting field of engineering is emerging that uses these compliant materials to design active devices, such as actuators, adaptive optical systems and self-regulating fluidics. Compliant structures may significantly change their architecture in response to diverse stimuli. When excessive deformation is applied, they may eventually become unstable. Traditionally, mechanical instabilities have been viewed as an inconvenience, with research focusing on how to avoid them. Here, I will demonstrate that these instabilities can be exploited to design materials with novel, switchable functionalities. The abrupt changes introduced into the architecture of soft materials by instabilities will be used to change their shape in a sudden, but controlled manner. Possible and exciting applications include materials with unusual properties such negative Poisson's ratio, phononic crystals with tunable low-frequency acoustic band gaps and reversible encapsulation systems.
Modulational instability of drift waves
The instability of drift waves against zonal flows and streamers is discussed. Unlike in previous treatments, we do not make the assumption that their frequency is resonant with drift wave packets. In this more general treatment we find at least two unstable roots even in the simple case of a monochromatic pump drift wave, and potentially an infinite multitude of roots for a more complicated drift wave spectrum. One of them is the well known modulational instability in resonance with the drift wave packets; the other is a new instability corresponding to the inelastic refraction of drift waves at the streamer. It is nontrivial which of the many roots is the most unstable one
Hydrodynamick instabilities on ICF capsules
This article summarizes our current understanding of hydrodynamic instabilities as relevant to ICF. First we discuss classical, single mode Rayleigh-Taylor instability, and nonlinear effects in the evolution of a single mode. Then we discuss multimode systems, considering: (1) the onset of nonlinearity; (2) a second order mode coupling theory for weakly nonlinear effects, and (3) the fully nonlinear regime. Two stabilization mechanisms relevant to ICF are described next: gradient scale length and convective stabilization. Then we describe a model which is meant to estimate the weakly nonlinear evolution of multi-mode systems as relevant to ICF, given the short-wavelength stabilization. Finally, we discuss the relevant code simulation capability, and experiments. At this time we are quite optimistic about our ability to estimate instability growth on ICF capsules, but further experiments and simulations are needed to verify the modeling. 52 refs
Telomere dysfunction and chromosome instability
Murnane, John P., E-mail: jmurnane@radonc.ucsf.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California San Francisco, 2340 Sutter Street, San Francisco, CA 94143-1331 (United States)
2012-02-01
The ends of chromosomes are composed of a short repeat sequence and associated proteins that together form a cap, called a telomere, that keeps the ends from appearing as double-strand breaks (DSBs) and prevents chromosome fusion. The loss of telomeric repeat sequences or deficiencies in telomeric proteins can result in chromosome fusion and lead to chromosome instability. The similarity between chromosome rearrangements resulting from telomere loss and those found in cancer cells implicates telomere loss as an important mechanism for the chromosome instability contributing to human cancer. Telomere loss in cancer cells can occur through gradual shortening due to insufficient telomerase, the protein that maintains telomeres. However, cancer cells often have a high rate of spontaneous telomere loss despite the expression of telomerase, which has been proposed to result from a combination of oncogene-mediated replication stress and a deficiency in DSB repair in telomeric regions. Chromosome fusion in mammalian cells primarily involves nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ), which is the major form of DSB repair. Chromosome fusion initiates chromosome instability involving breakage-fusion-bridge (B/F/B) cycles, in which dicentric chromosomes form bridges and break as the cell attempts to divide, repeating the process in subsequent cell cycles. Fusion between sister chromatids results in large inverted repeats on the end of the chromosome, which amplify further following additional B/F/B cycles. B/F/B cycles continue until the chromosome acquires a new telomere, most often by translocation of the end of another chromosome. The instability is not confined to a chromosome that loses its telomere, because the instability is transferred to the chromosome donating a translocation. Moreover, the amplified regions are unstable and form extrachromosomal DNA that can reintegrate at new locations. Knowledge concerning the factors promoting telomere loss and its consequences is
Stretching Instability of Helical Springs
Kessler, David A.; Rabin, Yitzhak
2003-01-01
We show that when a gradually increasing tensile force is applied to the ends of a helical spring with sufficiently large ratios of radius to pitch and twist to bending rigidity, the end-to-end distance undergoes a sequence of discontinuous stretching transitions. Subsequent decrease of the force leads to steplike contraction, and hysteresis is observed. For finite helices, the number of these transitions increases with the number of helical turns but only one stretching and one contraction instability survive in the limit of an infinite helix. We calculate the critical line that separates the region of parameters in which the deformation is continuous from that in which stretching instabilities occur.
Hydromagnetic Instabilities in Neutron Stars
Lasky, Paul D; Kokkotas, Kostas D; Glampedakis, Kostas
2011-01-01
We model the non-linear ideal magnetohydrodynamics of poloidal magnetic fields in neutron stars in general relativity assuming a polytropic equation of state. We identify familiar hydromagnetic modes, in particular the 'sausage/varicose' mode and 'kink' instability inherent to poloidal magnetic fields. The evolution is dominated by the kink instability, which causes a cataclysmic reconfiguration of the magnetic field. The system subsequently evolves to new, non-axisymmetric, quasi-equilibrium end-states. The existence of this branch of stable quasi-equilibria may have consequences for magnetar physics, including flare generation mechanisms and interpretations of quasi-periodic oscillations.
Modulational instabilities in discrete lattices
We study analytically and numerically modulational instabilities in discrete nonlinear chains, taking the discrete Klein-Gordon model as an example. We show that discreteness can drastically change the conditions for modulational instability; e.g., at small wave numbers a nonlinear carrier wave is unstable to all possible modulations of its amplitude if the wave amplitude exceeds a certain threshold value. Numerical simulations show the validity of the analytical approach for the initial stage of the time evolution, provided that the harmonics generated by the nonlinear terms are considered. The long-term evolution exhibits chaoticlike states
Mechanical Instabilities of Biological Tubes
Hannezo, Edouard; Prost, Jacques; Joanny, Jean-François
2012-07-01
We study theoretically the morphologies of biological tubes affected by various pathologies. When epithelial cells grow, the negative tension produced by their division provokes a buckling instability. Several shapes are investigated: varicose, dilated, sinuous, or sausagelike. They are all found in pathologies of tracheal, renal tubes, or arteries. The final shape depends crucially on the mechanical parameters of the tissues: Young’s modulus, wall-to-lumen ratio, homeostatic pressure. We argue that since tissues must be in quasistatic mechanical equilibrium, abnormal shapes convey information as to what causes the pathology. We calculate a phase diagram of tubular instabilities which could be a helpful guide for investigating the underlying genetic regulation.
Faraday instability in deformable domains
Hydrodynamical instabilities are usually studied either in bounded regions or free to grow in space. In this article we review the experimental results of an intermediate situation, in which an instability develops in deformable domains. The Faraday instability, which consists in the formation of surface waves on a liquid experiencing a vertical forcing, is triggered in floating liquid lenses playing the role of deformable domains. Faraday waves deform the lenses from the initial circular shape and the mutual adaptation of instability patterns with the lens boundary is observed. Two archetypes of behaviour have been found. In the first archetype a stable elongated shape is reached, the wave vector being parallel to the direction of elongation. In the second archetype the waves exceed the response of the lens border and no equilibrium shape is reached. The lens stretches and eventually breaks into fragments that have a complex dynamics. The difference between the two archetypes is explained by the competition between the radiation pressure the waves exert on the lens border and its response due to surface tension.
Waves and instabilities in plasmas
Chen Liu
1987-01-01
The topics covered in these notes are selective and tend to emphasize more on kinetic-theory approaches to waves and instabilities in both uniform and non-uniform plasmas, students are assumed to have some basic knowledge of plasma dynamics in terms of single-particle and fluid descriptions.
Arthroscopic Management of Scapholunate Instability
Geissler, William B.
2013-01-01
Wrist arthroscopy plays a valuable role in the management of scapholunate instability. A spectrum of injuries can occur to the scapholunate interosseous ligament, which may be difficult to detect with imaging studies. Wrist arthroscopy enables detection and management of injury to the scapholunate ligament under bright light and magnified conditions, in both acute and chronic situations.
GENETIC INSTABILITY IN CERVICAL CARCINOMA
赵旻; 伍欣星; 邱小萍; 李晖; 戴天力; 谭云
2002-01-01
Objective: The role of human papillomavirus (HPV) in the development of cervical carcinoma has been clearly established but other factors could be involved in cervical tumorigenesis such as loss of heterozygosity (LOH) and microsatellite instability (MI). The aim of the present study was to investigate the genetic instability in cervical carcinoma tissues and provide evidence for discoveringnew tumor suppressor genes and screening diagnostic molecular marker of cervical carcinoma. Methods: Fifty primary cervical carcinoma samples from high-incidence area were analyzed by PCR for HPV16 infection, LOH and microsatellite instability. Results: HPV16 was detected in 88% of the cases. Sixty-six percent of total cases showed LOH with no more than 3 different loci per case. The highest frequency of the allelic loss was found in D18S474 (18q21, 40.5%). MI was detected in 4 cases (8%) only. Conclusion: Different percentages of LOH on specific chromosomal regions were found and MI was very infrequent in cervical carcinoma. The putative suppressor gene(s) could be located on specific chromosome regions such as 18q, and genetic instability could be involved in cervical tumorigenesis.
Lending sociodynamics and economic instability
Hawkins, Raymond J.
2011-11-01
We show how the dynamics of economic instability and financial crises articulated by Keynes in the General Theory and developed by Minsky as the Financial Instability Hypothesis can be formalized using Weidlich’s sociodynamics of opinion formation. The model addresses both the lending sentiment of a lender in isolation as well as the impact on that lending sentiment of the behavior of other lenders. The risk associated with lending is incorporated through a stochastic treatment of loan dynamics that treats prepayment and default as competing risks. With this model we are able to generate endogenously the rapid changes in lending opinion that attend slow changes in lending profitability and find these dynamics to be consistent with the rise and collapse of the non-Agency mortgage-backed securities market in 2007/2008. As the parameters of this model correspond to well-known phenomena in cognitive and social psychology, we can both explain why economic instability has proved robust to advances in risk measurement and suggest how policy for reducing economic instability might be formulated in an experimentally sound manner.
Edge instabilities of topological superconductors
Hofmann, Johannes S.; Assaad, Fakher F.; Schnyder, Andreas P.
2016-05-01
Nodal topological superconductors display zero-energy Majorana flat bands at generic edges. The flatness of these edge bands, which is protected by time-reversal and translation symmetry, gives rise to an extensive ground-state degeneracy. Therefore, even arbitrarily weak interactions lead to an instability of the flat-band edge states towards time-reversal and translation-symmetry-broken phases, which lift the ground-state degeneracy. We examine the instabilities of the flat-band edge states of dx y-wave superconductors by performing a mean-field analysis in the Majorana basis of the edge states. The leading instabilities are Majorana mass terms, which correspond to coherent superpositions of particle-particle and particle-hole channels in the fermionic language. We find that attractive interactions induce three different mass terms. One is a coherent superposition of imaginary s -wave pairing and current order, and another combines a charge-density-wave and finite-momentum singlet pairing. Repulsive interactions, on the other hand, lead to ferromagnetism together with spin-triplet pairing at the edge. Our quantum Monte Carlo simulations confirm these findings and demonstrate that these instabilities occur even in the presence of strong quantum fluctuations. We discuss the implications of our results for experiments on cuprate high-temperature superconductors.
Cavitation instabilities in hydraulic machines
Cavitation instabilities in hydraulic machines, hydro turbines and turbopump inducers, are reviewed focusing on the cause of instabilities. One-dimensional model of hydro turbine system shows that the overload surge is caused by the diffuser effect of the draft tube. Experiments show that this effect also causes the surge mode oscillations at part load. One dimensional model of a cavitating turbopump inducer shows that the mass flow gain factor, representing the cavity volume increase caused by the incidence angle increase is the cause of cavitation surge and rotating cavitation. Two dimensional model of a cavitating turbopump inducer shows that various modes of cavitation instabilities start to occur when the cavity length becomes about 65% of the blade spacing. This is caused by the interaction of the local flow near the cavity trailing edge with the leading edge of the next blade. It was shown by a 3D CFD that this is true also for real cases with tip cavitation. In all cases, it was shown that cavitation instabilities are caused by the fundamental characteristics of cavities that the cavity volume increases with the decrease of ambient pressure or the increase of the incidence angle
The Chemistry of Beer Instability
Stewart, Graham G.
2004-01-01
Brewing of beer, one of the oldest biotechnology industries was one of the earliest processes to be undertaken on commercial basis. Biological instability involves contamination of bacteria, yeast, or mycelia fungi and there is always a risk in brewing that beer can become contaminated by micro-organisms.
Singlet and triplet instability theorems
Yamada, Tomonori; Hirata, So, E-mail: sohirata@illinois.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 600 South Mathews Avenue, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency, 4-1-8 Honcho, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan)
2015-09-21
A useful definition of orbital degeneracy—form-degeneracy—is introduced, which is distinct from the usual energy-degeneracy: Two canonical spatial orbitals are form-degenerate when the energy expectation value in the restricted Hartree–Fock (RHF) wave function is unaltered upon a two-electron excitation from one of these orbitals to the other. Form-degenerate orbitals tend to have isomorphic electron densities and occur in the highest-occupied and lowest-unoccupied molecular orbitals (HOMOs and LUMOs) of strongly correlated systems. Here, we present a mathematical proof of the existence of a triplet instability in a real or complex RHF wave function of a finite system in the space of real or complex unrestricted Hartree–Fock wave functions when HOMO and LUMO are energy- or form-degenerate. We also show that a singlet instability always exists in a real RHF wave function of a finite system in the space of complex RHF wave functions, when HOMO and LUMO are form-degenerate, but have nonidentical electron densities, or are energy-degenerate. These theorems provide Hartree–Fock-theory-based explanations of Hund’s rule, a singlet instability in Jahn–Teller systems, biradicaloid electronic structures, and a triplet instability during some covalent bond breaking. They also suggest (but not guarantee) the spontaneous formation of a spin density wave (SDW) in a metallic solid. The stability theory underlying these theorems extended to a continuous orbital-energy spectrum proves the existence of an oscillating (nonspiral) SDW instability in one- and three-dimensional homogeneous electron gases, but only at low densities or for strong interactions.
Singlet and triplet instability theorems
A useful definition of orbital degeneracy—form-degeneracy—is introduced, which is distinct from the usual energy-degeneracy: Two canonical spatial orbitals are form-degenerate when the energy expectation value in the restricted Hartree–Fock (RHF) wave function is unaltered upon a two-electron excitation from one of these orbitals to the other. Form-degenerate orbitals tend to have isomorphic electron densities and occur in the highest-occupied and lowest-unoccupied molecular orbitals (HOMOs and LUMOs) of strongly correlated systems. Here, we present a mathematical proof of the existence of a triplet instability in a real or complex RHF wave function of a finite system in the space of real or complex unrestricted Hartree–Fock wave functions when HOMO and LUMO are energy- or form-degenerate. We also show that a singlet instability always exists in a real RHF wave function of a finite system in the space of complex RHF wave functions, when HOMO and LUMO are form-degenerate, but have nonidentical electron densities, or are energy-degenerate. These theorems provide Hartree–Fock-theory-based explanations of Hund’s rule, a singlet instability in Jahn–Teller systems, biradicaloid electronic structures, and a triplet instability during some covalent bond breaking. They also suggest (but not guarantee) the spontaneous formation of a spin density wave (SDW) in a metallic solid. The stability theory underlying these theorems extended to a continuous orbital-energy spectrum proves the existence of an oscillating (nonspiral) SDW instability in one- and three-dimensional homogeneous electron gases, but only at low densities or for strong interactions
Coupled Bunch Instabilities in the LHC
Angal-Kalinin, Deepa
2002-01-01
In the LHC, the coupled bunch instabilities will be mainly driven by the RF cavities and the resistive wall effect. The growth times of these instabilities have been estimated taking into consideration the undamped and damped higher order modes of these cavities. These estimates show that the rise times of the longitudinal coupled bunch instabilities are under control. The proposed transverse feed-back system allows the same conclusion to be drawn for the transverse resistive wall instability.
Measurements of fast transition instability in RHIC
Ptitsyn, V.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Fischer, W.; Lee, R.; Zhang, S.Y.
2010-05-23
A fast transition instability presents a limiting factor for ion beam intensity in RHIC. Several pieces of evidence show that electron clouds play an important role in establishing the threshold of this instability. In RHIC Runs8 the measurements of the instability, using a button BPM, were done in order to observe details of the instability development on the scale over hundreds and thousands turns. The paper presents and discusses the results of those measurements in time and frequency domains.
Perception of job instability in Europe
Böckerman, Petri
2002-01-01
The perception of job instability is an important measure of subjective well-being of individuals, because most people derive their income from selling their labour services. The study explores the determination of perception of job instability in Europe. The study is based on a large-scale survey from the year 1998. There are evidently large differences in the amount of perceived job instability from country to country. The lowest level of perceived job instability is in Denmark (9%). In con...
Media Freedom and Socio-Political Instability
Pal Sudeshna
2011-01-01
Free media may reduce incidents of socio-political instability. Different types of socio-political instability have been shown to have a negative effect on investment and economic growth. This study examines the effect of free media on various indicators of socio-political instability. Using a panel of 98 countries over 1994-2005, this study shows that media free from government control and interference may decrease different forms of socio-political instability because it puts internal and e...
Surge Instability on a Cavitating Propeller
Duttweiler, Mark E.; Brennen, Christopher E.
2001-01-01
This study details experiments investigating a previously unrecognized surge instability on a cavitating propeller in a water tunnel. The surge instability is furst explored through visual observation of the cavitation on the propeller blades and in the tip vortices. Similarities between the instability and previously documented cavitation phenomena are noted. Measurements of the radiated pressure are then obtained, and the acoustic signature of the instability is identified. The magnitud...
Solitons versus parametric instabilities during ionospheric heating
Nicholson, D. R.; Payne, G. L.; Downie, R. M.; Sheerin, J. P.
1984-01-01
Various effects associated with ionospheric heating are investigated by numerically solving the modified Zakharov (1972) equations. It is shown that, for typical ionospheric parameters, the modulational instability is more important than the parametric decay instability in the spatial region of strongest heater electric field. It is concluded that the modulational instability leads to the formation of solitons, as originally predicted by Petviashvili (1976).
Observation of Parametric Instability in Advanced LIGO
Evans, Matthew; Fritschel, Peter; Miller, John; Barsotti, Lisa; Martynov, Denis; Brooks, Aidan; Coyne, Dennis; Abbott, Rich; Adhikari, Rana; Arai, Koji; Bork, Rolf; Kells, Bill; Rollins, Jameson; Smith-Lefebvre, Nicolas; Vajente, Gabriele; Yamamoto, Hiroaki; Derosa, Ryan; Effler, Anamaria; Kokeyama, Keiko; Betzweiser, Joseph; Frolov, Valera; Mullavey, Adam; O`Reilly, Brian; Dwyer, Sheila; Izumi, Kiwamu; Kawabe, Keita; Landry, Michael; Sigg, Daniel; Ballmer, Stefan; Massinger, Thomas J; Staley, Alexa; Mueller, Chris; Grote, Hartmut; Ward, Robert; King, Eleanor; Blair, David; Ju, Li; Zhao, Chunnong
2015-01-01
Parametric instabilities have long been studied as a potentially limiting effect in high-power interferometric gravitational wave detectors. Until now, however, these instabilities have never been observed in a kilometer-scale interferometer. In this work we describe the first observation of parametric instability in an Advanced LIGO detector, and the means by which it has been removed as a barrier to progress.
Localized Rayleigh Instability in Evaporation Fronts
Diamant, Haim; Agam, Oded
2009-01-01
A qualitatively different manifestation of the Rayleigh instability is demonstrated, where, instead of the usual extended undulations and breakup of the liquid into many droplets, the instability is localized, leading to an isolated narrowing of the liquid filament. The localized instability, caused by a nonuniform curvature of the liquid domain, plays a key role in the evaporation of thin liquid films off solid surfaces.
Mood instability: significance, definition and measurement
Broome, M.R.; Saunders, K.E.A.; Harrison, P. J.; MARWAHA S.
2015-01-01
Mood instability is common, and an important feature of several psychiatric disorders. We discuss the definition and measurement of mood instability, and review its prevalence, characteristics, neurobiological correlates and clinical implications. We suggest that mood instability has underappreciated transdiagnostic potential as an investigational and therapeutic target.
Basic instabilities of collisionless gravitating systems.
Polyachenko, V. L.
1995-05-01
The paper presents a short summary of basic instabilities in stellar systems, namely: the Jeans, bar-mode and fire-hose (bending) instabilities. A classification of bar-mode instabilities according to a ratio of the bar pattern angular velocity and the maximal precession speed of nearly-circular stellar orbits is proposed.
Introduction to instabilities in natural circulation systems
This lecture reviews the various natural circulation instabilities and their classification instabilities observed during various stages of natural circulation such as single-phase, boiling inception and fully developed two-phase flow are described. The mechanisms causing the instabilities are also briefly described. (author)
On modulational instability of two coupled waves
The modulational instability of two waves propagating in a cubically nonlinear medium is considered. It is shown that the correct theory in the case of comparatively small instability rates operates with ''renormalized'' equations as for a linear dielectric function, so for an effective third-order medium response. This renormalization is due to so-called interference terms. The appearance of the interference terms is a specific feature of the two-mode modulational instability in comparison with the well-known instability of a single mode. The instability of two pump Langmuir waves is investigated. (orig.)
Placing Marangoni instabilities under arrest
Bhamla, M Saad
2016-01-01
Soap bubbles occupy the rare position of delighting and fascinating both young children and scientific minds alike. Sir Isaac Newton, Joseph Plateau, Carlo Marangoni, and Pierre-Gilles de Gennes, not to mention countless others, have discovered remarkable results in optics, molecular forces and fluid dynamics from investigating this seemingly simple system. We present here a compilation of curiosity-driven experiments that systematically investigate the surface flows on a rising soap bubble. From childhood experience, we are familiar with the vibrant colors and mesmerizing display of chaotic flows on the surface of a soap bubble. These flows arise due to surface tension gradients, also known as Marangoni flows or instabilities. In Figure 1, we show the surprising effect of layering multiple instabilities on top of each other, highlighting that unexpected new phenomena are still waiting to be discovered, even in the simple soap bubble.
Statistical theory of thermal instability
Illarionov, A F
1997-01-01
A new statistical approach is presented to study the thermal instability process of optically thin unmagnetized plasma. In this approach the time evolution of mass distribution function over temperature is calculated. This function characterizes the statistical properties of the multiphase medium of arbitrary spaced three-dimensional structure of arbitrary temperature perturbations. We construct our theory under the isobarical condition (P=const over space), which is satisfied in the short wavelength limit. The developed theory is illustrated in the case of thermal instability of a slowly expanding interstellar cloud. Numerical solutions of equations of the statistical theory are constucted and compared with hydrodynamical solutions. The results of both approaches are identical in the short wavelength range when the isobarity condition is satisfied. Also the limits of applicability of the statistical theory are estimated. The possible evolution of initial spectrum of perturbations is discussed. The proposed t...
Instability of supersymmetric microstate geometries
Eperon, Felicity C; Santos, Jorge E
2016-01-01
We investigate the classical stability of supersymmetric, asymptotically flat, microstate geometries with five non-compact dimensions. Such geometries admit an "evanescent ergosurface": a timelike hypersurface of infinite redshift. On such a surface, there are null geodesics with zero energy relative to infinity. These geodesics are stably trapped in the potential well near the ergosurface. We present a heuristic argument indicating that this feature is likely to lead to a nonlinear instability of these solutions. We argue that the precursor of such an instability can be seen in the behaviour of linear perturbations: nonlinear stability would require that all linear perturbations decay sufficiently rapidly but the stable trapping implies that some linear perturbation decay very slowly. We study this in detail for the most symmetric microstate geometries. By constructing quasinormal modes of these geometries we show that generic linear perturbations decay slower than any inverse power of time.
On dynamical (black hole) instabilities
Coutant, Antonin; Parentani, Renaud
2016-01-01
Black hole dynamical instabilities have been mostly studied in specific models. To display their common features, we study the general properties of the complex frequency modes which are responsible for such instabilities. We show that they are square integrable, have a vanishing conserved norm, and appear in mode doublets or quartets. We also study how they appear in the spectrum and how their complex frequencies subsequently evolve when varying some external parameter. When working on an infinite domain, they appear from the reservoir of quasi-normal modes obeying outgoing boundary conditions. This is illustrated by generalizing, in a non-positive definite Krein space, a solvable model (Friedrichs model) which originally describes the appearance of a resonance when coupling an isolated system to a mode continuum. In a finite spatial domain instead, they arise from the fusion of two real frequency modes with opposite norms, through a process that closely resembles avoided crossing.
Stretching Folding Instability and Nanoemulsions
Chan, Chon U
2009-01-01
Here we show a folding-stretching instability in a microfluidic flow focusing device using silicon oil (100cSt) and water. The fluid dynamics video demonstrates an oscillating thread of oil focused by two co-flowing streams of water. We show several high-speed sequences of these oscillations with 30,000 frames/s. Once the thread is decelerated in a slower moving pool downstream an instability sets in and water-in-oil droplets are formed. We reveal the details of the pinch-off with 500,000 frames/s. The pinch-off is so repeatable that complex droplet patterns emerge. Some of droplets are below the resolution limit, thus smaller than 1 micrometer in diameter.
Mechanical Instabilities of Biological Tubes
Hannezo, Edouard; Prost, Jacques; 10.1103/PhysRevLett.109.018101
2012-01-01
We study theoretically the shapes of biological tubes affected by various pathologies. When epithelial cells grow at an uncontrolled rate, the negative tension produced by their division provokes a buckling instability. Several shapes are investigated : varicose, enlarged, sinusoidal or sausage-like, all of which are found in pathologies of tracheal, renal tubes or arteries. The final shape depends crucially on the mechanical parameters of the tissues : Young modulus, wall-to-lumen ratio, homeostatic pressure. We argue that since tissues must be in quasistatic mechanical equilibrium, abnormal shapes convey information as to what causes the pathology. We calculate a phase diagram of tubular instabilities which could be a helpful guide for investigating the underlying genetic regulation.
Instability investigation for storage mode
The Amsterdam Pulse Stretcher (AmPS) will be used in storage mode for internal target (IT) physics. It demands the beam lifetime at least at the order of half an hour and the stored beam current of 200 mA. Bunched beam instabilities have been observed in many storage rings. The low-Q broadband impedance drives the single-bunch instability. The single bunch treshold and the equilibrium bunch length as the function of energies, RF voltages, and RF frequencies are investigated. The code ZAP has been used for investigating the stability thresholds for AmPS in storage mode. This note presents the simulation results. They gave useful information for choosing the RF parameters of AmPS. (author). 3 refs.. 6 figs.. 3 tabs
Modulational instability of two waves
The stability of a plasma in the presence of two propagating waves (modulation interaction) is considered. It is shown under what circumstances it is necessary to use open-quotes renormalizedclose quotes expressions for both the linear dielectric function and the effective third-order response. The typical behavior of both kinds of interaction are found for the specific case of Langmuir waves in a uniform and isotropic collisionless plasma. Criteria are established under which it is possible to disregard the effect of the interference terms in both the zeroth approximation and in the equations for the modulational perturbations when studying the modulational interaction of two pump waves. The calculated modulational instability growth rates are compared with the growth rates of the modulational instability for a single monochromatic mode. 13 refs
Fluctuations and Instability in Sedimentation
Guazzelli, Élisabeth
2011-01-21
This review concentrates on the fluctuations of the velocities of sedimenting spheres, and on the structural instability of a suspension of settling fibers. For many years, theoretical estimates and numerical simulations predicted the fluctuations of the velocities of spheres to increase with the size of the container, whereas experiments found no such variation. Two ideas have increased our understanding. First, the correlation length of the velocity fluctuations was found experimentally to be 20 interparticle separations. Second, in dilute suspensions, a vertical variation in the concentration due to the spreading of the front with the clear fluid can inhibit the velocity fluctuations. In a very dilute regime, a homogeneous suspension of fibers suffers a spontaneous instability in which fast descending fiber-rich columns are separated by rising fiber-sparse columns. In a semidilute regime, the settling is hindered, more so than for spheres. © 2011 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.
Feedback control of resistive instabilities
Resistive instabilities are responsible for much of the global behavior and the determination of the possible domains of operation of tokamaks. Their successful control could have definite advantages, even making available new regimes of operation. Elimination of sawtoothing might allow operation with higher currents and more peaked current profiles, with q on axis well below unity. In this work different feedback schemes are explored. Simple analytical derivations of the effects of local heating and current drive feedback are presented. Although control of modes with m greater than or equal to 2 is fairly straightforward, the control of the m = 1 mode is more difficult because of its proximity to ideal instability. The most promising scheme utilizes high energy trapped particles. 20 refs., 3 figs
Instability of colliding metastable strings
We investigate the collision dynamics of two metastable strings which can be viewed as tube-like domain walls with winding numbers interpolating a false vacuum and a true vacuum. We find that depending on the relative angle and speed of two strings, instability of strings increases and the false vacuum is filled out by rapid expansion of the strings or of a remnant of the collision.
Interfacial Instability during Granular Erosion
Lefebvre, Gautier; Merceron, Aymeric; Jop, Pierre
2016-01-01
The complex interplay between the topography and the erosion and deposition phenomena is a key feature to model granular flows such as landslides. Here, we investigated the instability that develops during the erosion of a wet granular pile by a dry dense granular flow. The morphology and the propagation of the generated steps are analyzed in relation to the specific erosion mechanism. The selected flowing angle of the confined flow on a dry heap appears to play an important role both in the ...
Single-bunch longitudinal instability
A theoretical analysis is given of the recently observed microwave instability in storage rings. It is shown that one expects a threshold proportional to impedance R/sub S/ in the limit of very large or small resonator bandwidths, with the threshold lower by the bunching factor for the large bandwidth case. For intermediate bandwidths, the threshold should be proportional to the area under the resonance curve, so de-Qing resonators will have little effect in this region
Statistical instability of physical processes
Gorban, I. I.
2011-01-01
New parameters describing destructions of statistical stability in finite observation interval have been proposed. For known and new statistical instability parameters, metric units that open possibility to characterize destructions of statistical stability in terms of quantity have been introduced. It is shown that essential rule in disturbances of statistical stability plays fluctuations of expectation of the process that lead to change expectation of average, and also fluctuations of varia...
Chromosomal instability determines taxane response
Swanton, Charles; Nicke, Barbara; Schuett, Marion; Eklund, Aron C.; Ng, Charlotte; Li, Qiyuan; Hardcastle, Thomas; Lee, Alvin; Roy, Rajat; East, Philip; Kschischo, Maik; Endesfelder, David; Wylie, Paul; Kim, Se Nyun; Chen, Jie-Guang
2009-01-01
Microtubule-stabilizing (MTS) agents, such as taxanes, are important chemotherapeutics with a poorly understood mechanism of action. We identified a set of genes repressed in multiple cell lines in response to MTS agents and observed that these genes are overexpressed in tumors exhibiting chromosomal instability (CIN). Silencing 22/50 of these genes, many of which are involved in DNA repair, caused cancer cell death, suggesting that these genes are involved in the survival of aneuploid cells....
Polygonal instabilities on interfacial vorticities
Labousse, Matthieu
2015-01-01
We report the results of a theoretical investigation of the stability of a toroidal vortex bound by an interface. Two distinct instability mechanisms are identified that rely on, respectively, surface tension and fluid inertia, either of which may prompt the transformation from a circular to a polygonal torus. Our results are discussed in the context of three experiments, a toroidal vortex ring, the hydraulic jump, and the hydraulic bump.
Polygonal instabilities on interfacial vorticities.
Labousse, M; Bush, J W M
2015-10-01
We report the results of a theoretical investigation of the stability of a toroidal vortex bound by an interface. Two distinct instability mechanisms are identified that rely on, respectively, surface tension and fluid inertia, either of which may prompt the transformation from a circular to a polygonal torus. Our results are discussed in the context of three experiments, a toroidal vortex ring, the hydraulic jump, and the hydraulic bump. PMID:26537726
Experiences with Extreme Monetary Instability
Dornbusch, Rudiger
1990-01-01
In early 1990, Argentina, Brazil, Peru, Yugoslavia and Poland were experiencing extreme instability or, at least, the early stages of stabilization. Other countries, like Bolivia, had already run the course and stabilized or, like Mexico, had avoided the extreme experience and opted for stabilization promptly and decisively. The lessons from these case studies, and from the earlier experiences of the 1920s and 1940s, have still to be drawn. Exactly the same themes come up each time. The paper...
Finite temperature instability for compactification
We consider finite temperature effects upon theories with extra dimensions compactified via vacuum stress energy (Casimir) effects. For sufficiently high temperature, a static configuration for the internal space is impossible. At somewhat lower temperatures, there is an instability due to thermal fluctuations of radius of the compact dimensions. For both cases, the Universe can evolve to a de Sitter-like expansion of all dimensions. Stability to late times constrains the initial entropy of the universe. 28 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs
Laser driven hydrodynamic instability experiments
An extensive series of experiments has been conducted on the Nova laser to measure hydrodynamic instabilities in planar foils accelerated by x-ray ablation. Single mode experiments allow a measurement of the fundamental growth rates from the linear well into the nonlinear regime. Two-mode foils allow a first direct observation of mode coupling. Surface-finish experiments allow a measurement of the evolution of a broad spectrum of random initial modes
Bifurcations, instabilities, degradation in geomechanics
Exadaktylos, George
2007-01-01
Leading international researchers and practitioners of bifurcations and instabilities in geomechanics debate the developments and applications which have occurred over the last few decades. The topics covered include modeling of bifurcation, structural failure of geomaterials and geostructures, advanced analytical, numerical and experimental techniques, and application and development of generalised continuum models etc. In addition analytical solutions, numerical methods, experimental techniques, and case histories are presented. Beside fundamental research findings, applications in geotechni
MD 751: Train Instability Threshold
Carver, Lee Robert; Metral, Elias; Salvant, Benoit; Levens, Tom; Nisbet, David; Zobov, M; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department
2016-01-01
The purpose of this MD is to measure the octupole current thresholds for stability for a single bunch, and then make an immediate comparison (with the same operational settings) for a train of 72 bunches separated by 25ns. From theory, the expected thresholds should be similar. Any discrepancy between the two cases will be of great interest as it could indicate the presence of additional mechanisms that contribute to the instability threshold, for example electron cloud.
Pattern Generation by Dissipative Parametric Instability
Perego, A. M.; Tarasov, N.; Churkin, D. V.; Turitsyn, S. K.; Staliunas, K.
2016-01-01
Nonlinear instabilities are responsible for spontaneous pattern formation in a vast number of natural and engineered systems, ranging from biology to galaxy buildup. We propose a new instability mechanism leading to pattern formation in spatially extended nonlinear systems, which is based on a periodic antiphase modulation of spectrally dependent losses arranged in a zigzag way: an effective filtering is imposed at symmetrically located wave numbers k and -k in alternating order. The properties of the dissipative parametric instability differ from the features of both key classical concepts of modulation instabilities, i.e., the Benjamin-Feir instability and the Faraday instabiltyity. We demonstrate how the dissipative parametric instability can lead to the formation of stable patterns in one- and two-dimensional systems. The proposed instability mechanism is generic and can naturally occur or can be implemented in various physical systems.
Modes of storage ring coherent instabilities
Longitudinal impedance in a beam and various modes of longitudinal coherent instabilities are discussed. The coasting beam coherent instability, microwave instability, and single-bunch longitudinal coherent instabilities are considered. The Vlasov equation is formulated, and a method of solving it is developed. The synchrotron modes are treated, which take the possible bunch shape distortion fully into consideration. A method of treating the synchrotron mode coupling in the case of a small bunch is discussed which takes advantage of the fact that only a few of the synchrotron modes can contribute in such a case. The effect of many bunches on the coherent motion of the beam and the longitudinal symmetric coupled bunch modes are discussed. The transverse impedance is then introduced, and the transverse coasting beam instability is discussed. Various bunched beam instabilities are discussed, including both single bunch instabilities and coupled bunch instabilities. The Vlasov equation for transverse as well as longitudinal motion of particles is introduced as well as a method of solving it within a linear approximation. Head-tail modes and short bunch instabilities and strong coupling instabilities in the long bunch case are covered
Material and structural instabilities of single-wall carbon nanotubes
J. Wu; K. C. Hwang; J. Song; Y. Huang
2008-01-01
The nonlinear atomistic interactions usually involve softening behavior. Instability resulting directly from this softening are called the material instability, while those unrelated to this softening are called the structural instability. We use the finite-deformation shell theory based on the interatomic potential to show that the tension instability of single-wall carbon nanotubes is the material instability, while the compression and torsion instabilities are structural instability.
Passive mitigation of mode instabilities
Jauregui, C.; Otto, H.-J.; Stutzki, F.; Jansen, F.; Limpert, J.; Tünnermann, A.
2014-03-01
The phenomenon of mode instabilities has quickly become the most limiting effect for a further scaling of the average power of fiber laser systems. Consequently it is of great importance to find solutions for this problem. In this work we propose two concrete possible passive mitigation strategies: the first one is based on the reduction of the heat load in the fiber, whereas the second one is based on the reduction of the pump absorption. In both cases a significant increase of the threshold is expected.
Carpal instability of the wrist.
Caggiano, Nicholas; Matullo, Kristofer S
2014-01-01
The scaphoid is stabilized by the scapholunate ligament (directly) and lunotriquetral ligament (indirectly). Disruption of either of these ligaments leads to a pattern of instability that, left untreated, leads to altered mechanics of the wrist and ultimately debilitating arthritis and collapse. Although arthroscopy remains the gold standard for diagnosis of these injuries, plain films and advanced imaging are useful adjuncts. In the acute setting, conservative treatment may be attempted, but recalcitrant cases require surgical stabilization. Salvage procedures are also available for those patients who fail initial stabilization or present with late degeneration. PMID:24267214
Instability of ties in compression
Buch-Hansen, Thomas Cornelius
2013-01-01
Masonry cavity walls are loaded by wind pressure and vertical load from upper floors. These loads results in bending moments and compression forces in the ties connecting the outer and the inner wall in a cavity wall. Large cavity walls are furthermore loaded by differential movements from the...... temperature gradient between the outer and the inner wall, which results in critical increase of the bending moments in the ties. Since the ties are loaded by combined compression and moment forces, the loadbearing capacity is derived from instability equilibrium equations. Most of them are iterative, since...
Sheet Beam Klystron Instability Analysis
Bane, K.L.F.; Jensen, A.; Li, Z.; Stupakov, G.; Adolphsen, C.; /SLAC
2009-05-08
Using the principle of energy balance we develop a 2D theory for calculating growth rates of instability in a two-cavity model of a sheet beam klystron. An important ingredient is a TE-like mode in the gap that also gives a longitudinal kick to the beam. When compared with a self-consistent particle-in-cell calculation, with sheet beam klystron-type parameters, agreement is quite good up to half the design current, 65 A; at full current, however, other, current-dependent effects come in and the results deviate significantly.
The instability of Wilton ripples
Trichtchenko, Olga; Wilkening, Jon
2015-01-01
Wilton ripples are a type of periodic traveling wave solution of the full water wave problem incorporating the effects of surface tension. They are characterized by a resonance phenomenon that alters the order at which the resonant harmonic mode enters in a perturbation expansion. We compute such solutions using non-perturbative numerical methods and investigate their stability by examining the spectrum of the water wave problem linearized about the resonant traveling wave. Instabilities are observed that differ from any previously found in the context of the water wave problem.
Fingering Instabilities in Dewetting Nanofluids
Pauliac-Vaujour, E.; Stannard, A.; Martin, C. P.; Blunt, M. O.; Notingher, I.; Moriarty, P. J.; Vancea, I.; Thiele, U.
2008-05-01
The growth of fingering patterns in dewetting nanofluids (colloidal solutions of thiol-passivated gold nanoparticles) has been followed in real time using contrast-enhanced video microscopy. The fingering instability on which we focus here arises from evaporatively driven nucleation and growth in a nanoscopically thin precursor solvent film behind the macroscopic contact line. We find that well-developed isotropic fingering structures only form for a narrow range of experimental parameters. Numerical simulations, based on a modification of the Monte Carlo approach introduced by Rabani et al. [Nature (London)NATUAS0028-0836 426, 271 (2003)10.1038/nature02087], reproduce the patterns we observe experimentally.
Transverse Instabilities in the Fermilab Recycler
Prost, L.R.; Burov, A.; Shemyakin, A.; Bhat, C.M.; Crisp, J.; Eddy, N.; /Fermilab
2011-07-01
Transverse instabilities of the antiproton beam have been observed in the Recycler ring soon after its commissioning. After installation of transverse dampers, the threshold for the instability limit increased significantly but the instability is still found to limit the brightness of the antiprotons extracted from the Recycler for Tevatron shots. In this paper, we describe observations of the instabilities during the extraction process as well as during dedicated studies. The measured instability threshold phase density agrees with the prediction of the rigid beam model within a factor of 2. Also, we conclude that the instability threshold can be significantly lowered for a bunch contained in a narrow and shallow potential well due to effective exclusion of the longitudinal tails from Landau damping.
Transverse Instabilities in the FERMILAB Recycler
Prost, L R; Shemyakin, A; Bhat, C M; Crisp, J; Eddy, N
2012-01-01
Transverse instabilities of the antiproton beam have been observed in the Recycler ring soon after its commissioning. After installation of transverse dampers, the threshold for the instability limit increased significantly but the instability is still found to limit the brightness of the antiprotons extracted from the Recycler for Tevatron shots. In this paper, we describe observations of the instabilities during the extraction process as well as during dedicated studies. The measured instability threshold phase density agrees with the prediction of the rigid beam model within a factor of 2. Also, we conclude that the instability threshold can be significantly lowered for a bunch contained in a narrow and shallow potential well due to effective exclusion of the longitudinal tails from Landau damping.
Radiation induced chromosome instability in human fibroblasts
Evidence has been arising that some biological effects can manifest many cell divisions after irradiation. We have demonstrated that de novo chromosome instability can be detected 10- 15 mean population doubling after heavy ion irradiations. This chromosome instability is characterized by end to end fusions between specific chromosomes. The specificity of the instability may differ from one donor to another but for the same donor, the same instability should be observed after irradiation, during the senescence process and after SV40 transfection (before crisis). In irradiated primary culture fibroblasts, the expression of the delayed chromosomal instability lasts for several cell divisions without inducing cell death. Several rounds of fusions- breakage-fusions can be performed and unbalanced clones emerge (gain or loss of chromosomes with the shorter telomeres would become unstable first.. The difference in the chromosomal instability among donors could be due to a polymorphism in telomere lengths. This could induce large variation in long term response to irradiation among individuals. (author)
Mode-locking via dissipative Faraday instability
Tarasov, Nikita; Perego, Auro M.; Churkin, Dmitry V.; Staliunas, Kestutis; Turitsyn, Sergei K.
2016-08-01
Emergence of coherent structures and patterns at the nonlinear stage of modulation instability of a uniform state is an inherent feature of many biological, physical and engineering systems. There are several well-studied classical modulation instabilities, such as Benjamin-Feir, Turing and Faraday instability, which play a critical role in the self-organization of energy and matter in non-equilibrium physical, chemical and biological systems. Here we experimentally demonstrate the dissipative Faraday instability induced by spatially periodic zig-zag modulation of a dissipative parameter of the system--spectrally dependent losses--achieving generation of temporal patterns and high-harmonic mode-locking in a fibre laser. We demonstrate features of this instability that distinguish it from both the Benjamin-Feir and the purely dispersive Faraday instability. Our results open the possibilities for new designs of mode-locked lasers and can be extended to other fields of physics and engineering.
Instability of SmS under pressure
It is suggested that electron-phonon (EP) interaction is a suitable mechanism to explain the instability of the semiconducting phase in SmS under pressure. The f reversible d and d reversible d scattering processes due to EP interaction avoid the introduction of negative renormalized f-d hybridization assumed by some other models as the source of the first order instability. Moreover this instability is shown as occuring for a non-zero energy gap. (orig.)
Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities with Godunov SPH
Cha, Seung-Hoon; Inutsuka, Shu-Ichiro; Nayakshin, Sergei
2009-01-01
Numerical simulations for the non-linear development of Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in two different density layers have been performed with the particle-based method (Godunov SPH) developed by Inutsuka (2002). The Godunov SPH can describe the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability even with a high density contrast, while the standard SPH shows the absence of the instability across a density gradient (Agertz et al. 2007). The interaction of a dense blob with a hot ambient medium has been performed als...
Cultural diversity, economic development and societal instability
Daniel Nettle; Grace, James B.; Marc Choisy; Howard V Cornell; Jean-François Guégan; Michael E Hochberg
2007-01-01
BACKGROUND: Social scientists have suggested that cultural diversity in a nation leads to societal instability. However, societal instability may be affected not only by within-nation or alpha diversity, but also diversity between a nation and its neighbours or beta diversity. It is also necessary to distinguish different domains of diversity, namely linguistic, ethnic and religious, and to distinguish between the direct effects of diversity on societal instability, and effects that are media...
Instabilities and transition in boundary layers
N Vinod; Rama Govindarajan
2005-03-01
Some recent developments in boundary layer instabilities and transition are reviewed. Background disturbance levels determine the instability mechanism that ultimately leads to turbulence. At low noise levels, the traditional Tollmien–Schlichting route is followed, while at high levels, a `by-pass' route is more likely. Our recent work shows that spot birth is related to the pattern of secondary instability in either route.
Instabilities of flows and transition to turbulence
Sengupta, Tapan K
2012-01-01
Introduction to Instability and TransitionIntroductionWhat Is Instability?Temporal and Spatial InstabilitySome Instability MechanismsComputing Transitional and Turbulent FlowsFluid Dynamical EquationsSome Equilibrium Solutions of the Basic EquationBoundary Layer TheoryControl Volume Analysis of Boundary LayersNumerical Solution of the Thin Shear Layer (TSL) EquationLaminar Mixing LayerPlane Laminar JetIssues of Computing Space-Time Dependent FlowsWave Interaction: Group Velocity and Energy FluxIssues of Space-Time Scale Resolution of FlowsTemporal Scales in Turbulent FlowsComputing Time-Averag
Analysis of fluid structural instability in water
Recent flow testing of stainless steel hardware in a high pressure/high temperature water environment produced an apparent fluid-structural instability. The source of instability was investigated by studying textbook theory and by performing NASTRAN finite element analyses. The modal analyses identified the mode that was being excited, but the flutter instability analysis showed that the design is stable if minimal structural damping is present. Therefore, it was suspected that the test hardware was the root cause of the instability. Further testing confirmed this suspicion
Rayleigh-Taylor instability in compressible fluids
Sturtevant, B. (California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (USA). Graduate Aeronautical Labs.)
1990-11-05
This is a report of the progress during the past year of the shock-tube study of the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability, initiated under the sponsorship of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in September, 1982. The purpose of this research program, as stated in the original proposal, is: to investigate the nonlinear processes initiated by shock wave interaction with gas-gas interfaces. In particular, the nonlinear stage of shock-initiated Rayleigh-Taylor instability, the secondary instabilities (e.g., Kelvin-Helmholtz instability) arising therefrom and the concomitant mixing of the two fluids are of interest.''
Combustion instability modeling and analysis
Santoro, R.J.; Yang, V.; Santavicca, D.A. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)] [and others
1995-10-01
It is well known that the two key elements for achieving low emissions and high performance in a gas turbine combustor are to simultaneously establish (1) a lean combustion zone for maintaining low NO{sub x} emissions and (2) rapid mixing for good ignition and flame stability. However, these requirements, when coupled with the short combustor lengths used to limit the residence time for NO formation typical of advanced gas turbine combustors, can lead to problems regarding unburned hydrocarbons (UHC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions, as well as the occurrence of combustion instabilities. Clearly, the key to successful gas turbine development is based on understanding the effects of geometry and operating conditions on combustion instability, emissions (including UHC, CO and NO{sub x}) and performance. The concurrent development of suitable analytical and numerical models that are validated with experimental studies is important for achieving this objective. A major benefit of the present research will be to provide for the first time an experimentally verified model of emissions and performance of gas turbine combustors.
Instability of a penetrating blade
Bigoni, D.; Bosi, F.; Dal Corso, F.; Misseroni, D.
2014-03-01
Application of a dead compressive load at the free end of an elastic rod (the ‘blade') induces its penetration into a sliding sleeve ending with a linear elastic spring. Bifurcation and stability analysis of this simple elastic system shows a variety of unexpected behaviors: (i) an increase of buckling load at decreasing of elastic stiffness; (ii) a finite number of buckling loads for a system with infinite degrees of freedom (leading to a non-standard Sturm-Liouville problem); (iii) more than one bifurcation load associated to each bifurcation mode; (iv) a restabilization of the straight configuration after the second bifurcation load associated to the first instability mode; (v) the presence of an Eshelby-like (or configurational) force, deeply influencing stability. Only the first of these behaviors was previously known, the second and third ones disprove common beliefs, the fourth highlights a sort of ‘island of instability', and the last one shows surprising phenomena and effects on stability.
Rogue Waves and Modulational Instability
Zakharov, V. E.; Dyachenko, A.
2015-12-01
The most plausible cause of rogue wave formation in a deep ocean is development of modulational instability of quasimonochromatic wave trains. An adequate model for study of this phenomenon is the Euler equation for potential flow of incompressible fluid with free surface in 2-D geometry. Numerical integration of these equations confirms completely the conjecture of rogue wave formation from modulational instability but the procedure is time consuming for determination of rogue wave appearance probability for a given shape of wave energy spectrum. This program can be realized in framework of simpler model using replacement of the exact interaction Hamiltonian by more compact Hamiltonian. There is a family of such models. The popular one is the Nonlinear Schrodinger equation (NLSE). This model is completely integrable and suitable for numerical simulation but we consider that it is oversimplified. It misses such important phenomenon as wave breaking. Recently, we elaborated much more reliable model that describes wave breaking but is as suitable as NLSE from the point of numerical modeling. This model allows to perform massive numerical experiments and study statistics of rogue wave formation in details.
Langmuir turbulence and modulational instability
The authors discuss the turbulent state of an unmagnetized, completed ionized hydrogen plasma for the case when the electron temperature is much higher than the ion temperature so that the main modes to be considered are the Langmuir and ion-sound modes, while the transverse electromagnetic mode can for most purposes be neglected. The authors sketch Zakharov's derivation of the basic equations which in their linear form describe the three modes mentioned earlier and which describe the nonlinear modulational instability (M.I.). The linear analysis of the equations derived is given and it is shown that the decay instability of finite-amplitude Langmuir waves is fully covered by these equations. A brief discussion of various soliton-bearing equations such as the Kortweg-de Vries equation (KdV), the sine-Gordon equation (SG), and the non-linear Schroedinger equation (NLS) is given. It is shown that in three-dimensions soliton-like structures are unstable against adiabatic collapse, and the dynamics of such collapsing 'cavitons' are discussed. Finally, the few relevant experiments performed are discussed, and some ideas for future research are mentioned. (Auth.)
Hydrodynamic instabilities and neutron scattering
The flow pattern in a liquid layer heated from below changes character as the vertical temperature gradient is increased. A review is given for the sequence of instabilities connected with the different flow regimes, with emphasis on their phase-transition aspects. Utilizing the coupling that exists between the molecular orientation and flow in a liquid crystal, we have used neutron scattering to explore these phenomena. The special features of liquid crystals in this respect are pointed out. Experiments near the lowest lying instability, the Rayleigh-Benard transition, verify the mean-field predictions for the change of the threshold gradient with the applied magnetic field, the behaviour of the order parameter (the fluid velocity) versus epsilon (the reduced gradient scale), the time-dependent growth and the critical slowing down of the growth rate of the order parameter. A pre-transitional tail of intensity is analysed within the same formalism and it is suggested that it arises from hydrodynamic fluctuations driven by the microscopic fluctuations of the liquid. Experiments at higher gradients reveal a time-periodic flow regime with frequencies down to cycles per hour. These observations lend support to modern theories for the transition to turbulence. (author)
Interfacial instabilities in vibrated fluids
Porter, Jeff; Laverón-Simavilla, Ana; Tinao Perez-Miravete, Ignacio; Fernandez Fraile, Jose Javier
2016-07-01
Vibrations induce a range of different interfacial phenomena in fluid systems depending on the frequency and orientation of the forcing. With gravity, (large) interfaces are approximately flat and there is a qualitative difference between vertical and horizontal forcing. Sufficient vertical forcing produces subharmonic standing waves (Faraday waves) that extend over the whole interface. Horizontal forcing can excite both localized and extended interfacial phenomena. The vibrating solid boundaries act as wavemakers to excite traveling waves (or sloshing modes at low frequencies) but they also drive evanescent bulk modes whose oscillatory pressure gradient can parametrically excite subharmonic surface waves like cross-waves. Depending on the magnitude of the damping and the aspect ratio of the container, these locally generated surfaces waves may interact in the interior resulting in temporal modulation and other complex dynamics. In the case where the interface separates two fluids of different density in, for example, a rectangular container, the mass transfer due to vertical motion near the endwalls requires a counterflow in the interior region that can lead to a Kelvin-Helmholtz type instability and a ``frozen wave" pattern. In microgravity, the dominance of surface forces favors non-flat equilibrium configurations and the distinction between vertical and horizontal applied forcing can be lost. Hysteresis and multiplicity of solutions are more common, especially in non-wetting systems where disconnected (partial) volumes of fluid can be established. Furthermore, the vibrational field contributes a dynamic pressure term that competes with surface tension to select the (time averaged) shape of the surface. These new (quasi-static) surface configurations, known as vibroequilibria, can differ substantially from the hydrostatic state. There is a tendency for the interface to orient perpendicular to the vibrational axis and, in some cases, a bulge or cavity is induced
Metals near a magnetic instability
The ground state of a number of metals is in close proximity to a magnetic instability. In these metals, often pronounced deviations from Fermi-liquid behavior are observed, which are commonly referred to as non-Fermi-liquid (NFL) behavior. The scenario of incipient magnetic order is exemplified by CeCu6 with a nonmagnetic ground state, and long-range incommensurate antiferromagnetism in CeCu6-xAux for x > xc 0.1. The magnetic instability can be tuned by alloying or applying external pressure. At the quantum critical point (QCP), where the Neel temperature TN vanishes, the specific heat C varies as C/T ∝ ln(T/T0), independent of whether TN is tuned to zero by variation of x or p, and one observes a linear resistivity contribution Δρ ∝ T. These NFL features can be explained by quasi two-dimensional critical fluctuations, as observed for x = 0.1 with inelastic neutron scattering. In addition, unusual dynamic scaling laws are found in the vicinity of the QCP in CeCu6-xAux which are incompatible with simple spin-fluctuation scenarios. Here we compare in detail the QCP tuned by alloying with new data for x = 0.2, inducing a magnetic instability by a magnetic field. The observation that in case the specific heat and the resistivity at the critical field can be described by the three-dimensional spin fluctuation the latter scenario finds its correspondence in Lorentzian quasi-elastic linewidths observed with inelastic neutron scattering. The archetypal weak ferromagnet ZrZn2 has long been considered a candidate for p-wave superconductivity if samples can be made sufficiently pure. We recently found evidence for superconductivity in ZrZn2 single crystals of unpredicted purity. Surprisingly, superconductivity (with Tc ≅ 0.3 K) exists over the entire pressure range where ferromagnetism exists, and vanishes when ferromagnetism is suppressed at sufficiently high pressure
On hydrodynamic instability of the ozone layer
We show that instability may be arisen when the large-scale waves propagate in the ozone layer of Earth's atmosphere. The instability criterion suitable both for the acoustic waves and for the Rossby waves is found. Moreover, the possibility of the spatially located dissipative Rossby vortical structures formation in this layer is established
Electron beam instabilities in gyrotron beam tunnels
Electron beam instabilities occurring in a gyrotron electron beam can induce an energy spread which might significantly deteriorate the gyrotron efficiency. Three types of instabilities are considered to explain the important discrepancy found between the theoretical and experimental efficiency in the case of quasi-optical gyrotrons (QOG): the electron cyclotron maser instability, the Bernstein instability and the Langmuir instability. The low magnetic field gradient in drift tubes of QOG makes that the electron cyclotron maser instability can develop in the drift tube at very low electron beam currents. Experimental measurements show that with a proper choice of absorbing structures in the beam tunnel, this instability can be suppressed. At high beam currents, the electrostatic Bernstein instability can induce a significant energy spread at the entrance of the interaction region. The induced energy spread scales approximately linearly with the electron beam density and for QOG one observes that the beam density is significantly higher than the beam density of an equivalent cylindrical cavity gyrotron. (author) figs., tabs., refs
Travelling-wave-induced instability of structures
The effect of transmission time of propagating disturbances on the dynamic instability of structures is discussed in this paper. Through a parametric study it is shown that for certain values of transmission time and wave frequency parameters, the structure may become dynamically unstable. An example is worked out, and graphical results depicting the regions of instability are presented
Comparison of instability theory with simulation results
The results of a quantitative comparison between linear instability theory and simulation results for a third order charge fluctuation mode in a quadrupole - focused beam are summarized. The theory is found to provide a good account of the initial instability exhibited by the simulation computations
Cultural diversity, economic development and societal instability.
Daniel Nettle
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Social scientists have suggested that cultural diversity in a nation leads to societal instability. However, societal instability may be affected not only by within-nation or alpha diversity, but also diversity between a nation and its neighbours or beta diversity. It is also necessary to distinguish different domains of diversity, namely linguistic, ethnic and religious, and to distinguish between the direct effects of diversity on societal instability, and effects that are mediated by economic conditions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We assembled a large cross-national dataset with information on alpha and beta cultural diversity, economic conditions, and indices of societal instability. Structural equation modeling was used to evaluate the direct and indirect effects of cultural diversity on economics and societal stability. Results show that different types and domains of diversity have interacting effects. As previously documented, linguistic alpha diversity has a negative effect on economic performance, and we show that it is largely through this economic mechanism that it affects societal instability. For beta diversity, the higher the linguistic diversity among nations in a region, the less stable the nation. But, religious beta diversity has the opposite effect, reducing instability, particularly in the presence of high linguistic diversity. CONCLUSIONS: Within-nation linguistic diversity is associated with reduced economic performance, which, in turn, increases societal instability. Nations which differ linguistically from their neighbors are also less stable. However, religious diversity between neighboring nations has the opposite effect, decreasing societal instability.
On the descriptions of beam instabilities
Maillard, Antoine
2016-01-01
We investigate two interesting features of beam instabilities in accelerators : First, we provide the equivalence between two models to describe transverse instabilities, the circulant matrix model (based on a longitudinal phase space discretization) and the Vlasov formalism. Secondly, we show how to derive dispersion integrals for transverse detuning effects in the Vlasov formalism, thus allowing for Landau damping mechanism.
Stability and instability in quantum mechanics
This work is an attempt to describe the problem of stability and instabilities of quantum systems and involving very delicate experiments in molecular physics and solid state physics. A kind of transition to chaos occurs and few theoretical models have been proposed to investigate such a transition but it is better to use the term instabilities waiting for calling such an effect quantum chaos
Plasma instabilities in high electric fields
Morawetz, K.; Jauho, Antti-Pekka
1994-01-01
expression is derived for the nonequilibrium dielectric function epsilon(K, omega). For certain values of momenta K and frequency omega, Imepsilon(K, omega) becomes negative, implying a plasma instability. This new instability exists only for strong electric fields, underlining its nonequilibrium origin....
On viscoelastic instability in polymeric filaments
Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz; Hassager, Ole
The 3D Lagrangian Integral Method is used to simulate the effects of surface tension on the viscoelastic end-plate instability, occuring in the rapid extension of some polymeric filaments between parallel plates. It is shovn that the surface tension delays the onset of the instability. Furthermore...
Cultural diversity, economic development and societal instability
Nettle, D.; Grace, J.B.; Choisy, M.; Cornell, H.V.; Guegan, J.-F.; Hochberg, M.E.
2007-01-01
Background. Social scientists have suggested that cultural diversity in a nation leads to societal instability. However, societal instability may be affected not only by within-nation on ?? diversity, but also diversity between a nation and its neighbours or ?? diversity. It is also necessary to distinguish different domains of diversity, namely linguistic, ethnic and religious, and to distinguish between the direct effects of diversity on societal instability, and effects that are mediated by economic conditions. Methodology/Principal Findings. We assembled a large cross-national dataset with information on ?? and ?? cultural diversity, economic conditions, and indices of societal instability. Structural equation modeling was used to evaluate the direct and indirect effects of cultural diversity on economics and societal stability. Results show that different type and domains of diversity have interacting effects. As previously documented, linguistic ?? diversity has a negative effect on economic performance, and we show that it is largely through this economic mechanism that it affects societal instability. For ?? diversity, the higher the linguistic diversity among nations in a region, the less stable the nation. But, religious ?? diversity has the opposite effect, reducing instability, particularly in the presence of high linguistic diversity. Conclusions. Within-nation linguistic diversity is associated with reduced economic performance, which, in turn, increases societal instability. Nations which differ linguistically from their neighbors are also less stable. However, religious diversity between, neighboring nations has the opposite effect, decreasing societal instability.
The Magnetoviscous-thermal Instability
Islam, Tanim
2011-01-01
Accretion flows onto underluminous black holes, such as Sagittarius A* at the center of our galaxy, are dilute (mildly collisional to highly collisionless), optically thin, and radiatively inefficient. Therefore, the accretion properties of such dilute flows are expected to be modified by their large viscosities and thermal conductivities. Second, turbulence within these systems needs to transport angular momentum as well as thermal energy generated through gravitational infall outwards in order to allow accretion to occur. This is in contrast to classical accretion flows, in which the energy generated through accretion down a gravitational well is locally radiated. In this paper, using an incompressible fluid treatment of an ionized gas, we expand on previous research by considering the stability properties of a magnetized rotating plasma wherein the thermal conductivity and viscosity are not negligible and may be dynamically important. We find a class of MHD instabilities that can transport angular momentum...
Short wavelength magnetic buoyancy instability
Mizerski, K A; Hughes, D W
2013-01-01
Magnetic buoyancy instability plays an important role in the evolution of astrophysical magnetic fields. Here we revisit the problem introduced by \\citet{Gilman_1970} of the short wavelength linear stability of a plane layer of compressible isothermal fluid permeated by a horizontal magnetic field of strength decreasing with height. Dissipation of momentum and magnetic field is neglected. By the use of a Rayleigh-Schr\\"odinger perturbation analysis, we explain in detail the limit in which the transverse horizontal wavenumber of the perturbation, denoted by $k$, is large (i.e.\\ short horizontal wavelength) and show that the fastest growing perturbations become localized in the vertical direction as $k$ is increased. The growth rates are determined by a function of the vertical coordinate $z$ since, in the large $k$ limit, the eigenmodes are strongly localized in the vertical direction. We consider in detail the case of two-dimensional perturbations varying in the directions perpendicular to the magnetic field,...
Instability Threshold “Hysteresis”
Agnes Muszynska
1999-01-01
Full Text Available The transient process which starts at the instability threshold of a rotor rotating in a fluid environment, and ends up in the limit cycle of self-excited vibrations known as fluid whirl or fluid whip, is discussed in this paper. A one-lateral-mode, isotropic, nonlinear model of the rotor with fluid interaction allows for exact particular solutions and an estimation of the transient process. The fluid interacting with the rotor is contained in a small radial clearance area, such as in bearings, seals, or rotor-to-stator clearances, and its effects are represented by fluid film radial stiffness, damping, and fluid inertia rotating at a different angular velocities.
Shear instabilities in granular flows.
Goldfarb, David J; Glasser, Benjamin J; Shinbrot, Troy
2002-01-17
Unstable waves have been long studied in fluid shear layers. These waves affect transport in the atmosphere and oceans, in addition to slipstream stability behind ships, aeroplanes and heat-transfer devices. Corresponding instabilities in granular flows have not been previously documented, despite the importance of these flows in geophysical and industrial systems. Here we report that breaking waves can form at the interface between two streams of identical grains flowing on an inclined plane downstream of a splitter plate. Changes in either the shear rate or the angle of incline cause such waves to appear abruptly. We analyse a granular flow model that agrees qualitatively with our experimental data; the model suggests that the waves result from competition between shear and extensional strains in the flowing granular bed. We propose a dimensionless shear number that governs the transition between steady and wavy flows. PMID:11797003
Evolution of genetic instability in heterogeneous tumors.
Asatryan, Ani D; Komarova, Natalia L
2016-05-01
Genetic instability is an important characteristic of cancer. While most cancers develop genetic instability at some stage of their progression, sometimes a temporary rise of instability is followed by the return to a relatively stable genome. Neither the reasons for these dynamics, nor, more generally, the role of instability in tumor progression, are well understood. In this paper we develop a class of mathematical models to study the evolutionary competition dynamics among different sub-populations in a heterogeneous tumor. We observe that despite the complexity of this multi-component and multi-process system, there is only a small number of scenarios expected in the context of the evolution of instability. If the penalty incurred by unstable cells (the decrease in the growth due to deleterious mutations) is high compared with the gain (the production rate of advantageous mutations), then instability does not evolve. In the opposite case, instability evolves and comes to dominate the system. In the intermediate parameter regime, instability is generated but later gives way to stable clones. Moreover, the model also informs us of the patterns of instability for cancer lineages corresponding to different stages of progression. It is predicted that mutations causing instability are merely "passengers" in tumors that have undergone only a small number of malignant mutations. Further down the path of carcinogenesis, however, unstable cells are more likely to give rise to the winning clonal wave that takes over the tumor and carries the evolution forward, thus conferring a causal role of the instability in such cases. Further, each individual clonal wave (i.e. cells harboring a fixed number of malignant driver mutations) experiences its own evolutionary history. It can fall under one of three types of temporal behavior: stable throughout, unstable to stable, or unstable throughout. Which scenario is realized depends on the subtle (but predictable) interplay among
Parametric instabilities in the LCGT arm cavity
Yamamoto, K.; Uchiyama, T.; Miyoki, S.; Ohashi, M.; Kuroda, K.; Numata, K.
2008-07-01
We evaluated the parametric instabilities of LCGT (Japanese interferometric gravitational wave detector project) arm cavity. The number of unstable modes of LCGT is 10-times smaller than that of Advanced LIGO (USA). Since the strength of the instabilities of LCGT depends on the mirror curvature more weakly than that of Advanced LIGO, the requirement of the mirror curvature accuracy is easier to be achieved. The difference in the parametric instabilities between LCGT and Advanced LIGO is because of the thermal noise reduction methods (LCGT, cooling sapphire mirrors; Advanced LIGO, fused silica mirrors with larger laser beams), which are the main strategies of the projects. Elastic Q reduction by the barrel surface (0.2 mm thickness Ta2O5) coating is effective to suppress instabilities in the LCGT arm cavity. Therefore, the cryogenic interferometer is a smart solution for the parametric instabilities in addition to thermal noise and thermal lensing.
Parametric instabilities in the LCGT arm cavity
Yamamoto, K; Miyoki, S; Ohashi, M; Kuroda, K; Numata, K
2008-01-01
We evaluated the parametric instabilities of LCGT (Japanese interferometric gravitational wave detector project) arm cavity. The number of unstable modes of LCGT is 10-times smaller than that of Advanced LIGO (U.S.A.). Since the strength of the instabilities of LCGT depends on the mirror curvature more weakly than that of Advanced LIGO, the requirement of the mirror curvature accuracy is easier to be achieved. The difference in the parametric instabilities between LCGT and Advanced LIGO is because of the thermal noise reduction methods (LCGT, cooling sapphire mirrors; Advanced LIGO, fused silica mirrors with larger laser beams), which are the main strategies of the projects. Elastic Q reduction by the barrel surface (0.2 mm thickness Ta$_2$O$_5$) coating is effective to suppress instabilities in the LCGT arm cavity. Therefore, the cryogenic interferometer is a smart solution for the parametric instabilities in addition to thermal noise and thermal lensing.
Aeroelastic instability problems for wind turbines
Hansen, M. E. [Wind Energy Department, Riso National Laboratory, Technical University of Denmark, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde, (Denmark)
2007-09-05
This paper deals with the aeroelastic instabilities that have occurred and may still occur for modern commercial wind turbines: stall-induced vibrations for stall-turbines, and classical flutter for pitch-regulated turbines. A review of previous works is combined with derivations of analytical stability limits for typical blade sections that show the fundamental mechanisms of these instabilities. The risk of stall-induced vibrations is mainly related to blade airfoil characteristics, effective direction of blade vibrations and structural damping; whereas the blade tip speed, torsional blade stiffness and chordwise position of the center of gravity along the blades are the main parameters for flutter. These instability characteristics are exemplified by aeroelastic stability analyses of different wind turbines. The review of each aeroelastic instability ends with a list of current research issues that represent unsolved aeroelastic instability problems for wind turbines. (Author).
Control of interfacial instabilities using flow geometry
Al-Housseiny, Talal T.; Tsai, Peichun A.; Stone, Howard A.
2012-10-01
The displacement of one fluid by another is one of the most common processes involving interfacial instabilities. It is universally accepted that, in a uniform medium, flow displacement is unstable when a low-viscosity fluid invades a fluid of higher viscosity: the classical viscous fingering instability. Consequently, once fluid properties are specified, opportunities for control become very limited. However, real systems where displacement instabilities occur, such as porous structures, lung airways and printing devices, are rarely uniform. We find that the simplest heterogeneity--a gradient in the flow passage--can lead to fundamentally different displacement behaviours. We use this finding to either inhibit or trigger an instability and, hence, to devise a strategy to manipulate instabilities in fluid-fluid systems. The control setting we identify has a wide spectrum of applications ranging from small-scale technologies such as microfluidics to large-scale operations such as enhanced oil recovery.
Taming contact line instability for pattern formation
Deblais, A.; Harich, R.; Colin, A.; Kellay, H.
2016-08-01
Coating surfaces with different fluids is prone to instability producing inhomogeneous films and patterns. The contact line between the coating fluid and the surface to be coated is host to different instabilities, limiting the use of a variety of coating techniques. Here we take advantage of the instability of a receding contact line towards cusp and droplet formation to produce linear patterns of variable spacings. We stabilize the instability of the cusps towards droplet formation by using polymer solutions that inhibit this secondary instability and give rise to long slender cylindrical filaments. We vary the speed of deposition to change the spacing between these filaments. The combination of the two gives rise to linear patterns into which different colloidal particles can be embedded, long DNA molecules can be stretched and particles filtered by size. The technique is therefore suitable to prepare anisotropic structures with variable properties.
Treatment of the subject of tearing instability
A simple approach is taken to the mechanics of potential instability associated with the steady tearing portion of J-Integral R-curves. The analysis is developed from simple examples of structural component (or test specimen) configurations with cracks, examining their instability possibilities individually, in order to draw more general conclusions about elastic-plastic cracking instability as contrasted to linear-elastic behavior. Finally, an attempt is made to model a more local cleavage-like instability for material in the fracture process zone just ahead of a crack tip. Results are then presented of a testing program which clearly demonstrates the appropriateness of the tearing instability analysis and which illustrates its broad potential for future application, as well as presenting guidelines for its further development. The material selected for analysis was Ni-Cr-Mo-V rotor steel
Surface instabilities during straining of anisotropic materials
Legarth, Brian Nyvang; Richelsen, Ann Bettina
2006-01-01
The development of instabilities in traction-free surfaces is investigated numerically using a unit cell model. Full finite strain analyses are conducted using isotropic as well as anisotropic yield criteria and both plane strain tension and compression are considered. In the load range of tension...... investigated, it is found that isotropic plasticity can only predict surface instabilities if non-associated plastic flow is accounted for. However, for anisotropic plasticity a surface instability is observed for associated plastic flow if the principal axes of anisotropy coincide with the directions...... of principal overall strain. For other orientations surface instabilities are seen when non-associated plastic flow is taken into account. Compared to tension, smaller compressive deformations are needed in order to initiate a surface instability....
The modulational instability of colinear waves
A brief review is given of the modulational instability of a single wave. Some aspects of the modulational instability of two colinear waves are then studied. In general, the waves are modulationally unstable with a maximal growth rate which is larger than the modulational growth rate of either wave alone. Moreover, waves which are modulationally stable by themselves are often unstable in the other's presence. This is true for both copropagating and counterpropagating waves. An important property of an instability is whether it is absolute of convective in nature. The modulational instability of two equal-amplitude copropagating waves is usually, but not always, convective. The modulational instability of two equal-amplitude counter-propagating waves is always absolute. Some applications of current interest are discussed. (orig.)
On modulational instability of turbulent spectra
The character of the modulational instability of a Langmuir wave packet is usually assumed to be similar to that of the instability of a monochromatic pump Langmuir wave if the width of the packet is small when compared to the rate of the instability. This assumption has been confirmed only for the case corresponding to the ''hydrodynamical'' development of the modulational instability, i.e., for the case when the phase velocity of the modulational perturbations exceeds the ion thermal velocity. Here we consider the opposite case (when the phase velocity of the modulational perturbations is less than the ion thermal velocity) which corresponds to the ''static'' development of the instability. We demonstrate that the above assumption is valid for the situation considered. (orig.)
Rayleigh-Taylor instability in elastic solids.
Piriz, A R; Cela, J J López; Cortázar, O D; Tahir, N A; Hoffmann, D H H
2005-11-01
We present an analytical model for the Rayleigh-Taylor instability that allows for an approximate but still very accurate and appealing description of the instability physics in the linear regime. The model is based on the second law of Newton and it has been developed with the aim of dealing with the instability of accelerated elastic solids. It yields the asymptotic instability growth rate but also describes the initial transient phase determined by the initial conditions. We have applied the model to solid/solid and solid/fluid interfaces with arbitrary Atwood numbers. The results are in excellent agreement with previous models that yield exact solutions but which are of more limited validity. Our model allows for including more complex physics. In particular, the present approach is expected to lead to a more general theory of the instability that would allow for describing the transition to the plastic regime. PMID:16383751
Flowtran assessment for predicting flow instability
FLOWTRAN is a thermal-hydraulic assembly code for simulating Savannah River Site (SRS) reactor assemblies and predicting flow instability. Reactor power and flow transient modelling is critical in determining safe operating limits at which a reactor could be shut down without damage to the fuel assemblies. FLOWTRAN models an individual assembly's thermal-hydraulic behavior and can determine the operating power limit to avoid flow instability when the flow regime through the assembly is single-phase. Tests were conducted at Columbia University in 1988--89 with downward flow through single tubes to examine fluid flow instability. FLOWTRAN cannot predict actual flow instability because it cannot model two-phase flow. FLOWTRAN modelled the heated tubes to predict Onset of Significant Voiding (OSV) using the Saha-Zuber's correlation modified for SRS reactors; data analyses for the Columbia tests showed that the modified correlation OSV is a conservative predictor for downward flow instability
Experimental study on low pressure flow instability
The experiment was performed on the test loop (HRTL-5), which simulates the geometry and system design of the 5 MW reactor. The flow behavior for a wide range of inlet subcooling, in which the flow undergoes from single phase to two phase, is described in a natural circulation system at low pressure (p = 0.1, 0.24 MPa). Several kinds of flow instability, e.g. subcooled boiling instability, subcooled boiling induced flashing instability, pure flashing instability as well as flashing coupled density wave instability and high frequency flow oscillation, are investigated. The mechanism of flashing and flashing concerned flow instability, which has never been studied well in this field, is especially interpreted. The experimental results show that, firstly, for a low pressure natural circulation system the two phase flow is unstable in most of inlet subcooling conditions, the two phase stable flow can only be reached at very low inlet subcooling; secondly, at high inlet subcooling the flow instability is dominated by subcooled boiling in the heated section, and at middle inlet subcooling is dominated by void flashing in the adiabatic long riser; thirdly, in two phase stable flow region the condition for boiling out of the core, namely, single phase flow in the heated section, two phase flow in the riser due to vapor flashing, can be realized. The experimental results are very important for the design and accident analysis of the vessel and swimming pool type natural circulation nuclear heating reactor. (7 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.)
Instability of refrigeration system - A review
It is essential to ensure the stability for the normal operation of refrigeration systems. This paper reviews the researches on the theory and solutions of the instability of refrigeration systems. The instability of refrigeration systems includes two aspects: the two-phase flow instability in refrigeration system, the instability on refrigeration system control characteristics. As an inherent characteristic of two-phase evaporating flow, several separate explanations for the formation of oscillation of mixture-vapor transition point in the evaporation process by different scholars had been given but there is no general explanation till now. The investigation of instability on refrigeration system control characteristics focused on both static and dynamic researches. The minimum stable signal line theory, as a very important finding for the static instability of the evaporator and thermal expansion valve control loop, presented the different result to other researches. Dynamic researches on simulation and frequency-domain analysis provided various means for forecast and validation with considerable precision while their application range was still confined. With the development of variable capacity compressor and electronic expansion valve, further researches should be carried out to analyze the instability of the variable capacity refrigeration system with considering the influence of parameter coupling and control algorithm.
Instabilities of black strings and branes
Harmark, Troels [The Niels Bohr Institute, Blegdamsvej 17, 2100 Copenhagen Oe (Denmark); Niarchos, Vasilis [Centre de Physique Theorique, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau (France); Obers, Niels A [The Niels Bohr Institute, Blegdamsvej 17, 2100 Copenhagen Oe (Denmark)
2007-04-21
We review recent progress on the instabilities of black strings and branes both for pure Einstein gravity as well as supergravity theories which are relevant for string theory. We focus mainly on Gregory-Laflamme instabilities. In the first part of the review, we provide a detailed discussion of the classical gravitational instability of the neutral uniform black string in higher-dimensional gravity. The uniform black string is part of a larger phase diagram of Kaluza-Klein black holes which will be discussed thoroughly. This phase diagram exhibits many interesting features including new phases, non-uniqueness and horizon-topology changing transitions. In the second part, we turn to charged black branes in supergravity and show how the Gregory-Laflamme instability of the neutral black string implies via a boost/U-duality map similar instabilities for non- and near-extremal smeared branes in string theory. We also comment on instabilities of D-brane bound states. The connection between classical and thermodynamic stability, known as the correlated stability conjecture, is also reviewed and illustrated with examples. Finally, we examine the holographic implications of the Gregory-Laflamme instability for a number of non-gravitational theories including Yang-Mills theories and little string theory. (topical review)
Instabilities of black strings and branes
We review recent progress on the instabilities of black strings and branes both for pure Einstein gravity as well as supergravity theories which are relevant for string theory. We focus mainly on Gregory-Laflamme instabilities. In the first part of the review, we provide a detailed discussion of the classical gravitational instability of the neutral uniform black string in higher-dimensional gravity. The uniform black string is part of a larger phase diagram of Kaluza-Klein black holes which will be discussed thoroughly. This phase diagram exhibits many interesting features including new phases, non-uniqueness and horizon-topology changing transitions. In the second part, we turn to charged black branes in supergravity and show how the Gregory-Laflamme instability of the neutral black string implies via a boost/U-duality map similar instabilities for non- and near-extremal smeared branes in string theory. We also comment on instabilities of D-brane bound states. The connection between classical and thermodynamic stability, known as the correlated stability conjecture, is also reviewed and illustrated with examples. Finally, we examine the holographic implications of the Gregory-Laflamme instability for a number of non-gravitational theories including Yang-Mills theories and little string theory. (topical review)
Radiative heat transport instability in ICF plasmas
Rozmus, W.; Bychenkov, V. Yu.
2015-11-01
A laser produced high-Z plasma in which an energy balance is achieved due to radiation losses and radiative heat transfer supports ion acoustic wave instability. A linear dispersion relation is derived and instability is compared to the radiation cooling instability. This instability develops in the wide range of angles and wavenumbers with the typical growth rate on the order of cs/LT (cs is the sound speed, LT is the temperature scale length). In addition to radiation dominated systems, a similar thermal transport driven ion acoustic instability was found before in plasmas where the thermal transport coefficient depends on electron density. However, under conditions of indirect drive ICF experiments the driving term for the instability is the radiative heat flux and in particular, the density dependence of the radiative heat conductivity. A specific example of thermal Bremsstrahlung radiation source has been considered corresponding to a thermal conductivity coefficient that is inversely proportional to the square of local particle density. In the nonlinear regime this instability may lead to plasma jet formation and anisotropic x-ray generation.
Study of sausage instability in semiconductor plasma
As a perturbation of the adiabatically compressed linear pinch, a theory of the sausage instability is developed on the basis of the magnetohydrodynamic equations of motion and the particle conservation combined with Maxwell's equations. A dispersion relation of the instability and the explicit dependence of wave parameters on the fields are obtained by linearizing the equations for axially symmetrical harmonic perturbation. The critical field between a convective and an absolute instability is numerically obtained, and spatial growth rates associated with the instability are also derived in its convectively unstable region. The excitation of the sausage instability is made in an impact ionized plasma of n-InSb. The linear pinch effect of the samples is confirmed through the magnetic field dependence of current-voltage characteristics, and sinusoidal coherent oscillations are observed after a complete confinement of a pinch without an external magnetic field. Oscillation frequencies and currents on the threshold of excitations are obtained for various samples as a function of the applied electric field. The stabilization of instability by an axial magnetic field is also investigated theoretically and experimentally. The possibility of the stabilization is discussed through an evaluation of the magnetic Reynolds number in an impact ionized plasma pinch, and the critical magnetic field is derived from the hydromagnetic energy principle of the stabilization. Waveforms of the excited instability are observed under various axial magnetic fields in order to find the critical magnetic field for stabilization. The developed theories of the sausage instability on the dispersion relation and on the stabilization by axial magnetic fields are in good qualitative and quantitative agreements with the experiments. It is found that the sausage instability is excited in an impact ionized plasma of n-InSb and is explained well by the developed theory. (J.P.N.)
Understanding carpal instability: a radiographic perspective.
Kani, Kimia Khalatbari; Mulcahy, Hyojeong; Chew, Felix S
2016-08-01
The wrist is disposed to a variety of instability patterns owing to its complex anatomical and biomechanical properties. Various classification schemes have been proposed to describe the different patterns of carpal instability, of which the Mayo classification is the most commonly used. Understanding the concepts and pertinent terminology of this classification scheme is important for the correct interpretation of images and optimal communication with referring physicians. Standard wrist radiographs are the first line of imaging in carpal instability. Additional information may be obtained with the use of stress radiographs and other imaging modalities. PMID:27085694
Two stream instabilities in degenerate quantum plasmas
Son, S
2013-01-01
The quantum mechanical effect on the plasma two-stream instability is studied based on the dielectric function approach. The analysis suggests that the degenerate plasma relevant to the inertial confinement fusion behaves differently from classical plasmas when the electron drift velocity is comparable to the Fermi velocity. For high wave vector comparable to the Fermi wave vector, the degenerate quantum plasma has larger regime of the two-stream instabilities than the classical plasma. A regime, where the plasma waves with the frequency larger than 1.5 times of the Langmuir wave frequency become unstable to the two-stream instabilities, is identified.
Analyses of cavitation instabilities in ductile metals
Tvergaard, Viggo
Cavitation instabilities have been predicted for a single void in a ductile metal stressed under high triaxiality conditions. In experiments for a ceramic reinforced by metal particles a single dominant void has been observed on the fracture surface of some of the metal particles bridging a crack...... for the influence of such size-effects on cavitation instabilities are presented. When a metal contains a distribution of micro voids, and the void spacing compared to void size is not extremely large, the surrounding voids may affect the occurrence of a cavitation instability at one of the voids...
Nonlinear stage of the modulational instability
The modulational instability of a broad spectrum of plasma waves with random phases is studied. Equations describing the inital stage of the instability are derived. Conditions for suppressing the instability are determined from these equations. The stabilizing effect is the scattering of plasmons by growing density perturbations. This scattering leads to an ergodic spectrum and weakens the stability condition. The possibility of a statistical description of Langmuir turbulence is discussed for the case of large amplitude and an arbitrary characteristic dimension for the modulational perturbations
Taylor Instability of Incompressible Liquids
Fermi, E.; von Neumann, J.
1955-11-01
A discussion is presented in simplified form of the problem of the growth of an initial ripple on the surface of an incompressible liquid in the presence of an acceleration, g, directed from the outside into the liquid. The model is that of a heavy liquid occupying at t = 0 the half space above the plane z = 0, and a rectangular wave profile is assumed. The theory is found to represent correctly one feature of experimental results, namely the fact that the half wave of the heavy liquid into the vacuum becomes rapidly narrower while the half wave pushing into the heavy liquid becomes more and more blunt. The theory fails to account for the experimental results according to which the front of the wave pushing into the heavy liquid moves with constant velocity. The case of instability at the boundary of 2 fluids of different densities is also explored. Similar results are obtained except that the acceleration of the heavy liquid into the light liquid is reduced.
Chromosomal instability determines taxane response.
Swanton, Charles; Nicke, Barbara; Schuett, Marion; Eklund, Aron C; Ng, Charlotte; Li, Qiyuan; Hardcastle, Thomas; Lee, Alvin; Roy, Rajat; East, Philip; Kschischo, Maik; Endesfelder, David; Wylie, Paul; Kim, Se Nyun; Chen, Jie-Guang; Howell, Michael; Ried, Thomas; Habermann, Jens K; Auer, Gert; Brenton, James D; Szallasi, Zoltan; Downward, Julian
2009-05-26
Microtubule-stabilizing (MTS) agents, such as taxanes, are important chemotherapeutics with a poorly understood mechanism of action. We identified a set of genes repressed in multiple cell lines in response to MTS agents and observed that these genes are overexpressed in tumors exhibiting chromosomal instability (CIN). Silencing 22/50 of these genes, many of which are involved in DNA repair, caused cancer cell death, suggesting that these genes are involved in the survival of aneuploid cells. Overexpression of these "CIN-survival" genes is associated with poor outcome in estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer and occurs frequently in basal-like and Her2-positive cases. In diploid cells, but not in chromosomally unstable cells, paclitaxel causes repression of CIN-survival genes, followed by cell death. In the OV01 ovarian cancer clinical trial, a high level of CIN was associated with taxane resistance but carboplatin sensitivity, indicating that CIN may determine MTS response in vivo. Thus, pretherapeutic assessment of CIN may optimize treatment stratification and clinical trial design using these agents. PMID:19458043
Linear theory of drift instability
Drift wave instability was studied theoretically. Low frequency waves are influenced by plasma inhomogeneity when the phase velocity of the waves perpendicular to magnetic field is comparable to the drift velocity. The low-ν plasma in a homogeneous magnetic field B parallel to z-axis was considered for the analysis, and it was assumed that the plasma density varies along X-axis. Electrostatic fluctuations were assumed. The dispersion relation of drift waves was derived from the continuity equation of ions. If Coulomb collisions or resonant particles prevent electrons from following the Boltzmann distribution, various free energy sources make the drift waves unstable. The effects of resonant particles and finite Larmor radii were examined with the Vlasov equation. The stability analysis of the drift mode in a sheared magnetic field has been one of the important objects of thermonuclear fusion researches. A model magnetic field was considered and analyzed. The stability of the drift mode in toroidal systems was studied. (Kato, T.)
Valence instabilities in cerium intermetallics
The primary purpose of this investigation was to study the magnetic behaviour of cerium in intermetallic compounds, that show an IV behaviour, e.g. CeSn3. In the progress of the investigations, it became of interest to study the effect of changes in the lattice of the IV compound by substituting La or Y for Ce, thus constituting the Cesub(1-x)Lasub(x)Sn3 and Cesub(1-x)Ysub(x)Sn3 quasibinary systems. A second purpose was to examine the possibility of introducing instabilities in the valency of a trivalent intermetallic cerium compound: CeIn3, also by La and Y-substitutions in the lattice. Measurements on the resulting Cesub(1-x)Lasub(x)In3 and Cesub(1-x)Ysub(x)In3 quasibinaries are described. A third purpose was to study the (gradual) transition from a trivalent cerium compound into an IV cerium compound. This was done by examining the magnetic properties of the CeInsub(x)Snsub(3-x) and CePbsub(x)Snsub(3-x) systems. Finally a new possibility was investigated: that of the occurrence of IV behaviour in CeSi2, CeSi, and in CeGa2. (Auth.)
Careers in conditions of instability
Hohlova Valentina Vasil'evna
2016-04-01
Full Text Available The purpose of this work is the research of the social-economic phenomenon of a career as a result of conscious human position and behaviour in the field of employment, which is connected with job and professional growth, as a chain of events which are components of life, the sequence of professional activities and other biographical roles, which all together express the commitment of a person’s activity according to his generalized model of self-development. On the basis of the theoretical analysis the dependence of making a career in the condition of instability and indefiniteness on job market flexibility, erosion and even the destruction of the usual way of life and labor relations. The career concepts under the conditions of flexible capitalism and of career policy as the typology of empiric differences of job biographic models are considered. The peculiarity of the proposed career policy concept is that its individual alternatives of career making oppose to organization management and personal demands: the difference between a professional’s wishes and a specific strategy of the development phases are quite noticeable. According to the results of empiric research carried out through the methods of interview, polling, expert assessment, the analysis of the received results, the mathematical data processing the basic types of the career policy and its connection with the organization’s personal development are revealed.
Instability of viscoelastic compound jets
Ye, Han-Yu; Yang, Li-Jun; Fu, Qing-Fei
2016-04-01
This paper investigates the axisymmetric instability of a viscoelastic compound jet, for which the constitutive relation is described by the Oldroyd B model. It is found that a viscoelastic compound jet is more unstable than a Newtonian compound jet, regardless of whether the viscoelastic compound jet is inner-Newtonian-outer-viscoelastic, inner-viscoelastic-outer-Newtonian, or fully viscoelastic. It is also found that an increase in the stress relaxation time of the inner or outer fluid renders the jet more unstable, while an increase in the time constant ratio makes the jet less unstable. An analysis of the energy budget of the destabilization process is performed, in which a formulation using the relative rate of change of energy is adopted. The formulation is observed to provide a quantitative analysis of the contribution of each physical factor (e.g., release of surface energy and viscous dissipation) to the temporal growth rate. The energy analysis reveals the mechanisms of various trends in the temporal growth rate, including not only how the growth rate changes with the parameters, but also how the growth rate changes with the wavenumber. The phenomenon of the dispersion relation presenting two local maxima, which occurred in previous research, is explained by the present energy analysis.
Pulsational-Pair Instability Supernovae
Woosley, S E
2016-01-01
The final evolution of stars in the mass range 60 - 150 solar masses is explored. Depending upon their mass loss and rotation rates, many of these stars will end their lives as pulsational pair-instability supernovae. Even a non-rotating 70 solar mass star is pulsationally unstable during oxygen shell burning and can power a sub-luminous supernova. Rotation decreases the limit further. For more massive stars, the pulsations are less frequent, span a longer time, and are more powerful. Violent pulsations eject not only any residual low density envelope, but also that fraction of the helium core mass outside about 35 - 50 solar masses. The remaining core of helium and heavy elements continues to evolve, ultimately forming an iron core of about 2.5 solar masses that probably collapses to a black hole. A variety of observational transients result with total durations ranging from days to 10,000 years, and luminosities from 10$^{41}$ to 10$^{44}$ erg s$^{-1}$. Many transients resemble ordinary Type IIp supernovae,...
Condition for convective instability of dark solitons
Simple derivation of the condition for the transition point from absolute instability of plane dark solitons to their convective instability is suggested. It is shown that unstable wave packet expands with velocity equal to the minimal group velocity of the disturbance waves propagating along a dark soliton. The growth rate of the length of dark solitons generated by the flow of Bose-Einstein condensate past an obstacle is estimated. Analytical theory is confirmed by the results of numerical simulations. -- Highlights: → Conditions for absolute or convective instability of dark solitons are derived. → Velocity of expansion of instability front equals to the minimal group velocity. → Growth rate of length of dark solitons generated by the flow is estimated.
E region instabilities in the polar ionosphere
Some typical examples of electron-density profiles are presented and discussed. The instabilities observed in different cases of horizontal and vertical gradients of density, are analysed and an attempt of explanation is made
Aeroelastic instability problems for wind turbines
Hansen, Morten Hartvig
2007-01-01
stiffness and chordwise position of the center of gravity along the blades are the main parameters for flutter. These instability characteristics are exemplified by aeroelastic stability analyses of different wind turbines. The review of each aeroelastic instability ends with a list of current research......This paper deals with the aeroelostic instabilities that have occurred and may still occur for modem commercial wind turbines: stall-induced vibrations for stall-turbines, and classical flutter for pitch-regulated turbines. A review of previous works is combined with derivations of analytical...... stability limits for typical blade sections that show the fundamental mechanisms of these instabilities. The risk of stall-induced vibrations is mainly related to blade airfoil characteristics, effective direction of blade vibrations and structural damping, whereas the blade tip speed, torsional blade...
Interfacial fluid instabilities and Kapitsa pendula
Krieger, Madison Ski
2015-01-01
The onset and development of instabilities is one of the central problems in fluid mechanics. Here we develop a connection between instabilities of free fluid interfaces and inverted pendula. When acted upon solely by the gravitational force, the inverted pendulum is unstable. This position can be stabilised by the Kapitsa phenomenon, in which high-frequency low-amplitude vertical vibrations of the base creates a fictitious force which opposes the gravitational force. By transforming the dynamical equations governing a fluid interface into an appropriate pendulum, we demonstrate how stability can be induced in fluid systems by properly tuned vibrations. We construct a "dictionary"-type relationship between various pendula and the classical Rayleigh-Taylor, Kelvin-Helmholtz, Rayleigh-Plateau and the self-gravitational instabilities. This makes several results in control theory and dynamical systems directly applicable to the study of "tunable" fluid instabilities, where the critical wavelength depends on the e...
Axial instability of rotating relativistic stars
Friedman, J L; Friedman, John L.; Morsink, Sharon M.
1998-01-01
Perturbations of rotating relativistic stars can be classified by their behavior under parity. For axial perturbations (r-modes), initial data with negative canonical energy is found with angular dependence $e^{im\\phi}$ for all values of $m\\geq 2$ and for arbitrarily slow rotation. This implies instability (or marginal stability) of such perturbations for rotating perfect fluids. This low $m$-instability is strikingly different from the instability to polar perturbations, which sets in first for large values of $m$. The timescale for the axial instability appears, for small angular velocity $\\Omega$, to be proportional to a high power of $\\Omega$. As in the case of polar modes, viscosity will again presumably enforce stability except for hot, rapidly rotating neutron stars. This work complements Andersson's numerical investigation of axial modes in slowly rotating stars.
Plasma equilibrium and instabilities in tokamaks
A phenomenological introduction of some of the main theoretical and experimental features on equilibrium and instabilities in tokamaks is presented. In general only macroscopic effects are considered, being the plasma described as a fluid. (L.C.)
Shear instabilities in shallow-water magnetohydrodynamics
Mak, Julian; Hughes, D W
2016-01-01
Within the framework of shallow-water magnetohydrodynamics, we investigate the linear instability of horizontal shear flows, influenced by an aligned magnetic field and stratification. Various classical instability results, such as H{\\o}iland's growth rate bound and Howard's semi-circle theorem, are extended to this shallow-water system for quite general profiles. Two specific piecewise-constant velocity profiles, the vortex sheet and the rectangular jet, are studied analytically and asymptotically; it is found that the magnetic field and stratification (as measured by the Froude number) are generally both stabilising, but weak instabilities can be found at arbitrarily large Froude number. Numerical solutions are computed for corresponding smooth velocity profiles, the hyperbolic-tangent shear layer and the Bickley jet, for a uniform background field. A generalisation of the long-wave asymptotic analysis of Drazin & Howard (1962) is employed in order to understand the instability characteristics for both ...
Cancer chromosomal instability: therapeutic and diagnostic challenges
McGranahan, Nicholas; Burrell, Rebecca A.; Endesfelder, David; Novelli, Marco R; Swanton, Charles
2012-01-01
This review provides a much-needed translational perspective into the issue of aneuploidy and chromosomal instability, discussing the prognostic value of CIN assessment in human tumours, methods to analyze it and how it could be therapeutically targeted.
Size-effects on cavitation instabilities
Niordson, Christian Frithiof; Tvergaard, Viggo
2005-01-01
growth is here analyzed for such cases. A finite strain generalization of a higher order strain gradient plasticity theory is applied for a power-law hardening material, and the numerical analyses are carried out for an axisymmetric unit cell containing a spherical void. In the range of high stress......In metal-ceramic systems the constraint on plastic flow leads to so high stress triaxialities that cavitation instabilities may occur. If the void radius is on the order of magnitude of a characteristic length for the metal, the rate of void growth is reduced, and the possibility of unstable cavity...... triaxiality, where cavitation instabilities are predicted by conventional plasticity theory, such instabilities are also found for the nonlocal theory, but the effects of gradient hardening delay the onset of the instability. Furthermore, in some cases the cavitation stress reaches a maximum and then decays...
On nonlinear development of beam instability
Radiation-resonance interactions are taken into account in the problem of dynamics of an electron beam inb plasma. The beam characteristics to be taken into account are determined. Stabilization conditions for beam instability are established
The universal instability in general geometry
Helander, P.; Plunk, G. G. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Wendelsteinstr. 1, 17491 Greifswald (Germany)
2015-09-15
The “universal” instability has recently been revived by Landreman et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 095003 (2015)], who showed that it indeed exists in plasma geometries with straight (but sheared) magnetic field lines. Here, it is demonstrated analytically that this instability can be presented in more general sheared and toroidal geometries. In a torus, the universal instability is shown to be closely related to the trapped-electron mode, although the trapped-electron drive is usually dominant. However, this drive can be weakened or eliminated, as in the case in stellarators with the maximum-J property, leaving the parallel Landau resonance to drive a residual mode, which is identified as the universal instability.
The universal instability in general geometry
The “universal” instability has recently been revived by Landreman et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 095003 (2015)], who showed that it indeed exists in plasma geometries with straight (but sheared) magnetic field lines. Here, it is demonstrated analytically that this instability can be presented in more general sheared and toroidal geometries. In a torus, the universal instability is shown to be closely related to the trapped-electron mode, although the trapped-electron drive is usually dominant. However, this drive can be weakened or eliminated, as in the case in stellarators with the maximum-J property, leaving the parallel Landau resonance to drive a residual mode, which is identified as the universal instability
An hydrodynamic shear instability in stratified disks
Dubrulle, B; Normand, C; Richard, D; Hersant, F; Zahn, J P; Normand, Ch.
2004-01-01
We discuss the possibility that astrophysical accretion disks are dynamically unstable to non-axisymmetric disturbances with characteristic scales much smaller than the vertical scale height. The instability is studied using three methods: one based on the energy integral, which allows the determination of a sufficient condition of stability, one using a WKB approach, which allows the determination of the necessary and sufficient condition for instability and a last one by numerical solution. This linear instability occurs in any inviscid stably stratified differential rotating fluid for rigid, stress-free or periodic boundary conditions, provided the angular velocity $\\Omega$ decreases outwards with radius $r$. At not too small stratification, its growth rate is a fraction of $\\Omega$. The influence of viscous dissipation and thermal diffusivity on the instability is studied numerically, with emphasis on the case when $d \\ln \\Omega / d \\ln r =-3/2$ (Keplerian case). Strong stratification and large diffusivit...
Hydrodynamic instability in eccentric astrophysical discs
Barker, Adrian J
2014-01-01
Eccentric Keplerian discs are believed to be unstable to three-dimensional hydrodynamical instabilities driven by the time-dependence of fluid properties around an orbit. These instabilities could lead to small-scale turbulence, and ultimately modify the global disc properties. We use a local model of an eccentric disc, derived in a companion paper, to compute the nonlinear vertical ("breathing mode") oscillations of the disc. We then analyse their linear stability to locally axisymmetric disturbances for any disc eccentricity and eccentricity gradient using a numerical Floquet method. In the limit of small departures from a circular reference orbit, the instability of an isothermal disc is explained analytically. We also study analytically the small-scale instability of an eccentric neutrally stratified polytropic disc with any polytropic index using a WKB approximation. We find that eccentric discs are generically unstable to the parametric excitation of small-scale inertial waves. The nonlinear evolution o...
Instability in hydraulic machines demonstration rig
Muszynska, A.; Braun, M. J.
1985-01-01
In fluid flow machines, the working fluid involved in rotative motion due to shaft rotation significantly modifies the rotor synchronous response. This can result in the rotor maintaining the high vibration amplitude that occurs at resonance over an extended rotative speed range. The phase changes in this range are typically very small. The fluid may also create rotor instability, i.e., subsynchronous self-excited vibrations, when the rotative speed is sufficiently high. This rotor instability is often related and increases with higher rotor unbalance (Opposite to other types of instability such as oil whirl/whip, internal friction, etc.). The rotor rig demonstrates typical dynamic behavior of hydraulic machines. At lower speeds the effect of amplitude/phase mentioned above is noticeable; at higher speeds the subsynchronous instability occurs.
Magnetorotational decay instability in Keplerian disks.
Shtemler, Yuri; Liverts, Edward; Mond, Michael
2013-12-01
The saturation of the magnetorotational instability (MRI) in thin Keplerian disks through three-wave resonant interactions is introduced and discussed. That mechanism is a natural generalization of the fundamental decay instability discovered five decades ago for infinite, homogeneous, and immovable plasmas. The decay instability relies on the energy transfer from the MRI to stable slow Alfvén-Coriolis as well as magnetosonic waves. A second-order forced Duffing amplitude equation for the initially unstable MRI as well as two first-order equations for the other two waves are derived. The solutions of those equations exhibit bounded bursty nonlinear oscillations for the MRI as well as unbounded growth for the linearly stable slow Alfvén-Coriolis and magnetosonic perturbations, thus giving rise to the magnetorotational decay instability. PMID:24476249
Elliptical instability in terrestrial planets and moons
Cébron, David; Moutou, Claire; Gal, Patrice Le; 10.1051/0004-6361/201117741
2012-01-01
The presence of celestial companions means that any planet may be subject to three kinds of harmonic mechanical forcing: tides, precession/nutation, and libration. These forcings can generate flows in internal fluid layers, such as fluid cores and subsurface oceans, whose dynamics then significantly differ from solid body rotation. In particular, tides in non-synchronized bodies and libration in synchronized ones are known to be capable of exciting the so-called elliptical instability, i.e. a generic instability corresponding to the destabilization of two-dimensional flows with elliptical streamlines, leading to three-dimensional turbulence. We aim here at confirming the relevance of such an elliptical instability in terrestrial bodies by determining its growth rate, as well as its consequences on energy dissipation, on magnetic field induction, and on heat flux fluctuations on planetary scales. Previous studies and theoretical results for the elliptical instability are re-evaluated and extended to cope with ...
Bankart Repair to Correct Shoulder Instability
Full Text Available ... instability, or the shoulder dislocating again with other activities. Nonetheless, we always approach these patients first with physical therapy and rehab. So, Joe, maybe if you ...
Bankart Repair to Correct Shoulder Instability
Full Text Available ... Hospital. Over the next hour you'll see a Bankart repair to correct shoulder instability. Bankart lesions ... three small incisions. You'll also hear from a patient who has undergone the surgery, and meet ...
Magnetorotational Explosive Instability in Keplerian Disks
Shtemler, Yuri; Mond, Michael
2015-01-01
In this paper it is shown that deferentially rotating disks that are in the presence of weak axial magnetic field are prone to a new nonlinear explosive instability. The latter occurs due to the near-resonance three-wave interactions of a magnetorotational instability with stable Alfven-Coriolis and magnetosonic modes. The dynamical equations that govern the temporal evolution of the amplitudes of the three interacting modes are derived. Numerical solutions of the dynamical equations indicate that small frequency mismatch gives rise to two types of behavior: 1. explosive instability which leads to infinite values of the three amplitudes within a finite time, and 2. bounded irregular oscillations of all three amplitudes. Asymptotic solutions of the dynamical equations are obtained for the explosive instability regimes and are shown to match the numerical solutions near the explosion time.
Can dust coagulation trigger streaming instability?
Drazkowska, Joanna
2014-01-01
Streaming instability can be a very efficient way of overcoming growth and drift barriers to planetesimal formation. However, it was shown that strong clumping, which leads to planetesimal formation, requires a considerable number of large grains. State-of-the-art streaming instability models do not take into account realistic size distributions resulting from the collisional evolution of dust. We investigate whether a sufficient quantity of large aggregates can be produced by sticking and what the interplay of dust coagulation and planetesimal formation is. We develop a semi-analytical prescription of planetesimal formation by streaming instability and implement it in our dust coagulation code based on the Monte Carlo algorithm with the representative particles approach. We find that planetesimal formation by streaming instability may preferentially work outside the snow line, where sticky icy aggregates are present. The efficiency of the process depends strongly on local dust abundance and radial pressure g...
Early Prevention Method for Power Systems Instability
Dmitrova, Evgenia
a given operational conditions and predicts the resulting stability margins for the new steady state, while avoiding time consuming time domain simulations. The method has been validated on the Western Danish power system model, containing 464 buses. The case study of aperiodic small signal angular......In the scope of this work, a method capable of fast identification of the proper countermeasure, that prevents emerging instability, has been developed. The focus is placed on the prevention of aperiodic small signal angular instability by means of manipulations applied to load nodes (nodes...... instability was created. Utilizing synthetic PMU data, the early prevention method proposed a location and an amount of the countermeasure which will prevent instability; the prediction of the resulting stability margins corresponding to application of the suggested countermeasure was carried out. The...
Bankart Repair to Correct Shoulder Instability
Full Text Available BANKART REPAIR TO CORRECT SHOULDER INSTABILITY AKRON CHILDREN'S HOSPITAL AKRON, OHIO February 21, 2008 00:00:11 NARRATOR: Welcome to Akron Children's Hospital. Over the next hour you'll see a ...
Double contrast CT diagnosis of shoulder instability
Purpose: To study clinical importance of double contrast CT arthrography in the diagnosis of shoulder instability. Materials and methods: Eight patients were diagnosed as having shoulder instability with double contrast CT. The technique involved injection of 4 ml, 76% urografin and 10 ml of room air through an anterior shoulder puncture. The CT images were obtained with the patients supine and prone position. Results: The results of the CT arthrography were confirmed during the surgical operation afterward. The characteristics of abnormal double contrast CT arthrograms. They included anterior labral tear: the rounded anterior glenoid labrum, detached anterior labrum and anterior labral fragment; anterior capsular stripping off the anterior scapular glenoid neck; and enlargement of anterior and posterior capsular stripping off the anterior scapular glenoid neck; and enlargement of anterior and posterior capsular cavity. Conclusion: The current CT arthrography provides important X-ray information for both diagnosis of shoulder instability and anatomical repair of shoulder instability
Model of surface instabilities induced by stress
Mueller, Judith; Grant, Martin
1998-01-01
We propose a model based on a Ginzburg-Landau approach to study a strain relief mechanism at a free interface of a non-hydrostatically stressed solid, commonly observed in thin-film growth. The evolving instability, known as the Grinfeld instability, is studied numerically in two and three dimensions. Inherent in the description is the proper treatment of nonlinearities. We find these nonlinearities can lead to competitive coarsening of interfacial structures, corresponding to different waven...
Electromechanical instability in suspended carbon nanotubes
Jonsson, L. M.; Gorelik, L. Y.; Shekhter, R. I.; Jonson, M.
2005-01-01
We have theoretically investigated electromechanical properties of freely suspended carbon nanotubes when a current is injected into the tubes using a scanning tunneling microscope. We show that a shuttle-like electromechanical instability can occur if the bias voltage exceeds a dissipation-dependent threshold value. An instability results in large amplitude vibrations of the carbon nanotube bending mode, which modify the current-voltage characteristics of the system.
Convective Instabilities in Two Liquid Layers
McFadden, G. B.; Coriell, S. R.; Gurski, K. F.; Cotrell, D. L.
2007-01-01
We perform linear stability calculations for horizontal fluid bilayers, taking into account both buoyancy effects and thermocapillary effects in the presence of a vertical temperature gradient. To help understand the mechanisms driving the instability, we have performed both long-wavelength and short-wavelength analyses. The mechanism for the large wavelength instability is complicated, and the detailed form of the expansion is found to depend on the Crispation and Bond numbers. The system al...
Dispersion Instability in Strongly Interacting Electron Liquids
Zhang, Ying; Yakovenko, V. M.; Sarma, S. Das
2004-01-01
We show that the low-density strongly interacting electron liquid, interacting via the long-range Coulomb interaction, could develop a dispersion instability at a critical density associated with the approximate flattening of the quasiparticle energy dispersion. At the critical density the quasiparticle effective mass diverges at the Fermi surface, but the signature of this Fermi surface instability manifests itself away from the Fermi momentum at higher densities. For densities below the cri...
Energetic particle instabilities in fusion plasmas
Sharapov, S E; Berk, H L; Borba, D N; Breizman, B N; Challis, C D; Classen, I G J; Edlund, E M; Eriksson, J; Fasoli, A; Fredrickson, E D; Fu, G Y; Garcia-Munoz, M; Gassner, T; Ghantous, K; Goloborodko, V; Gorelenkov, N N; Gryaznevich, M P; Hacquin, S; Heidbrink, W W; Hellesen, C; Kiptily, V G; Kramer, G J; Lauber, P; Lilley, M K; Lisak, M; Nabais, F; Nazikian, R; Nyqvist, R; Osakabe, M; von Thun, C Perez; Pinches, S D; Podesta, M; Porkolab, M; Shinohara, K; Schoepf, K; Todo, Y; Toi, K; Van Zeeland, M A; Voitsekhovich, I; White, R B; Yavorskij, V; TG, ITPA EP; Contributors, JET-EFDA
2013-01-01
Remarkable progress has been made in diagnosing energetic particle instabilities on present-day machines and in establishing a theoretical framework for describing them. This overview describes the much improved diagnostics of Alfven instabilities and modelling tools developed world-wide, and discusses progress in interpreting the observed phenomena. A multi-machine comparison is presented giving information on the performance of both diagnostics and modelling tools for different plasma conditions outlining expectations for ITER based on our present knowledge.
Studies of elastic-plastic instabilities
Tvergaard, Viggo
1999-01-01
Analyses of plastic instabilities are reviewed, with focus on results in structural mechanics as well as continuum mechanics. First the basic theories for bifurcation and post-bifurcation behavior are briefly presented. Then, localization of plastic flow is discussed, including shear band formation...... in solids, localized necking in biaxially stretched metal sheets, and the analogous phenomenon of buckling localization in structures. Also some recent results for cavitation instabilities in elastic-plastic solids are reviewed....
Global Financial Instability: Framework, Events, Issues
Mishkin, Frederic S.
1999-01-01
Two of the key questions facing policymakers today are how to reduce the risk of global financial instability and how to cope with it when it occurs. This paper starts by defining financial instability and then showing how it harms economic activity. It then uses this framework to describe what happened during the recent financial crises in Mexico and East Asia. The paper ends by raising several key policy issues; not coincidentally, these issues are addressed in the remaining papers in the s...
Two stream instabilities in degenerate quantum plasmas
Son, S.
2013-01-01
The quantum mechanical effect on the plasma two-stream instability is studied based on the dielectric function approach. The analysis suggests that the degenerate plasma relevant to the inertial confinement fusion behaves differently from classical plasmas when the electron drift velocity is comparable to the Fermi velocity. For high wave vector comparable to the Fermi wave vector, the degenerate quantum plasma has larger regime of the two-stream instabilities than the classical plasma. A reg...
Delayed chromosomal instability induced by DNA damage.
Marder, B A; Morgan, W. F.
1993-01-01
DNA damage induced by ionizing radiation can result in gene mutation, gene amplification, chromosome rearrangements, cellular transformation, and cell death. Although many of these changes may be induced directly by the radiation, there is accumulating evidence for delayed genomic instability following X-ray exposure. We have investigated this phenomenon by studying delayed chromosomal instability in a hamster-human hybrid cell line by means of fluorescence in situ hybridization. We examined ...